Building in Timber
Room Modules Wolfgang Huß Matthias Kaufmann Konrad Merz
Authors Wolfgang Huß Matthias Kaufmann Konrad Merz Advice on special questions: on “Background Vorarlberg”, “Architecture”: Johannes Kaufmann, Johannes Kaufmann GmbH, Dornbirn / Vienna (AT) on “Background Switzerland”, “Room modules as frame structures”, “Digitisation /Automisation”: Patrick Suter, Erne AG Holzbau, Laufenburg (CH) on “Questions of transport”: Reinhard Hämmerle, Hämmerle Spezialtransporte GmbH, Hard am Bodensee (AT) on “Development in Germany”: Claus Holtmann, Holtmann Messebau GmbH & Co. KG, Langenhagen (DE)
Publisher Editing: Steffi Lenzen (Project management); Claudia Fuchs, Eva Schönbrunner Editorial team: Michaela Linder, Lena Stiller, Heike Werner; Carola Jacob-Ritz Cover design following a concept by Kai Meyer, Munich Drawings: Ralph Donhauser, Marion Griese, Barbara Kissinger, Irini Nomikou, Eva Schönbrunner, Nursah Tanritanir Translation into English: Julian Jain, Berlin Copy-editing (English edition): Stefan Widdess, Berlin Proofreading (English edition): Meriel Clemett, Bromborough, UK © 2019 DETAIL Business Information GmbH, Munich An Edition DETAIL book ISBN 978-3-95553-494-3 (Print) ISBN 978-3-95553-495-0 (E-book) Printed on acid-free paper made from cellulose bleached without the use of chlorine. This work is copyright-protected. The rights arising from this copyright are reserved, especially the rights of translation, reprinting, presentation, extraction of illustrations and tables, b roadcasting, microfilming or reproduction by any other means, and storage in data-processing systems, in whole or part. Reproduction of this work, or of parts thereof, even on an individual basis, is permitted only under the provisions of the copyright law in its current version. It is categorically liable for payment. Infringements are subject to the legal sanctions of the copyright law. This reference book takes into consideration the terms valid at the time of the editorial d eadline and the state of the art at this point in time. Legal claims cannot be derived from the content of this book. Typesetting & production: Simone Soesters Printed by: Grafisches Centrum Cuno GmbH & Co. KG, Calbe 1st edition, 2019 This book is also available in a German-language edition (ISBN 978-3-95553-436-3). Bibliographical information of the German National Library The German National Library lists this publication in the German National Bibliography; d etailed bibliographical data is available on the internet under http://dnb.d-nb.de. DETAIL Business Information GmbH Messerschmittstr. 4, 80992 Munich, Germany Tel: +49 89 381620-0 detail-online.com
6 8 16 26 36 50 62
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Project Examples Hotel Ammerwald near Reutte Residential and Care Home with a Nursery in Fieberbrunn Hotel Katharinenhof in Dornbirn Student Hostel in Heidelberg Treet Residential Tower in Bergen Woodie Student Hostel in Hamburg Senior Citizens’ Home in Hallein Puukuokka Residential Complex in Jyväskylä Residential Complex in Toulouse “Wohnen 500” Residential Complex in Mäder Refugee Accommodation in Hanover Modular Schools in Zurich Office Building in Wabern European School in Frankfurt am Main
Fundamentals Development Design and Typology Constructing with Timber Layers, Shell and Technology Process Decision Aid: Pros and Cons of Room Module Construction
Appendix 107 Authors 108 Literature 108 Picture Credits 110 Subject Index
Why use timber room modules for building?
Multi-storey construction using room modules made of timber has more strongly come to the fore in construction processes in the last two decades, thanks to both outstanding examples as well as its potential. The reasons for this development are multilayered: Timber construction has been witnessing a continuous boom for years, especially due to its ecological qualities. The techno logical options offered by prefabricated timber construction are constantly being extended, and the hitherto patchy digital chain comprising design, construction planning and fabrication is being completed. At the same time, the global trend of urbanisation is continuing, connected to the demand for preferably swiftly available housing space as well as the desire for low-emission and “fast” construction projects, completed as quickly as possible in the cities. The scarce supply of urban housing is exacerbated by high migration dynamics and expected changes in demographic profiles in future, as well as the growing demand for residential space due to changing comfort requirements. These have been steadily rising in Europe since the mid-20th century, simultaneously increasing calls for cost-efficient building. Greater industrialisation and modularisation is generally seen as embodying a large potential for cost reductions in the building industry. Timber room modules offer interesting approaches for all these topics.
esidential complex in Jyväskylä (FI) 2016, R OOPEAA
Flexibility represents the main advantage of timber room modules compared to modular constructions made of other materials: The low weight of timber as a material permits transportation of relatively large units. The largely automated framing of the timber and the type of joinery enable economical fabrication even of smaller quantities and, to a cer-
tain extent, the constructional variation of the individual modules. In contrast to building with room modules made of reinforced concrete, there are no restrictions due to transport weight. Moreover, the effort required for the construction of formwork, which only becomes econom ical at relatively high repetition factors, can be dispensed with. The inbuilt double shells of the wall and ceiling constructions at best do not represent an unnecessary additional outlay but an efficient strategy for ensuring high soundproofing. Moreover, the timber construction sector is traditionally geared towards prefabricated building. Timber construction companies today can obtain indi vidually prefabricated building components from manufacturers, keeping the investment requirement for commencing fabrication of room modules comparatively low. For architects, timber has great architectural potential, offering the possibility of designing both the building shell and the furnishings in a matching materiality with a high haptic and atmospheric quality. Scope and definitions This book restricts itself to the examin ation of multistorey room module-based buildings using timber and hybrid construction with a high architectural quality. In all examples presented, the construction method was selected on a project-specific basis because architects and specialist planners viewed room modules employing timber or hybrid construction as being the best solution for the specific building task. Not included are buildings that are directly offered to end clients as finished products by system manufacturers. Due to lacking customisation and regard for specific conditions, these finished products are, in fact, to be viewed critically.
Similarly, “architecture” made of converted standard containers is not considered in the book. The term “room module construction” is to be preferred to its counterpart “modular construction”, which, though often used in practice, can be misleading, for the latter term may also be employed for the application of planar building components, since the Latin term “modulus”, in its original meaning, merely denotes the dimensional unit, from which – as in this case – a building is formed. The often used term “cubicle” is broadly equivalent to “room module”, however, it hardly conveys the openness and vari ability of the design strategies and constructions. About the book The present book aims to document the constructional quality and artistic possibilities of building with room modules made of timber on the basis of outstanding built examples. It describes the currently common typologies and, moreover, provides an impetus for further developments. The structural and constructional principles have been systematically treated, demonstrating that the entire range of modern timber components is available for building with room modules. A separate chapter is dedicated to the process: from the commissioning of the planning team to the prefabrication in the workshop – representing an intermediate area between industry and craftsmanship – to the assembly of the room modules on site. This publication is the result of the collaboration between an architect, a timber construction engineer and a timber building contractor, the main protagonists for a successful construction project, and represents an attempt to perceive this topic in a holistic and an integrative manner.
15 15 H otel with a timber room module structure, Garching (DE) 2015, Johannes Kaufmann Architektur 16 Overview of the chronological development of room module construction
right up to the interior furnishings of the rooms, was already very high in these projects. These early multistorey room module structures prove that the fast and efficient modular construction method has great potential, especially for hotel conversions in the Alpine region: a conversion with a longer downtime of hotel operations causes very high revenue losses; moreover, the frost-susceptible winter period is long and the risk of weather damages in existing buildings during the construction phase is accordingly high. Hence, interestingly enough, in Vorarlberg, multistorey construction using room modules began with the extension of existing buildings and the addition of floors. Further development subsequently took place primarily in the field of new buildings and in the following years, smaller projects were initially completed. In 1999, Johannes Kaufmann and Oskar Leo Kaufmann developed SUSI, an individual module for an approximately 50 m2 residential unit,
General development of room modules
which is still being created in many variations today. It was only about ten years later that another impetus in the development of the room module construction method was observed, initiated by the construction of the Alpenhotel Ammerwald near Reutte in 2009 (see p. 66ff.). Located close to Lake Plansee in Tyrol, the project was conceived by experts from Vorarlberg in an integral collaboration. The project has been widely publicised and has attracted a great deal of attention, since – besides its height with a total of five floors – the scale is new: 96 modules were mounted within ten days on the twostorey reinforced concrete base. The modules are made of cross-laminated timber, the predominant material in room module construction in Vorarlberg since its certification, constituting all the surfaces in the hotel rooms. The floor of the modules, too, consists of cross-laminated timber and dispenses with additional
Development of timber room modules Single-storey modules, Europe / USA
First room module of reinforced concrete, France
Room module construction as an alternative to precast concrete slab buildings, USSR
High-rise buildings of reinforced concrete room modules, US
High-rise buildings of steel room modules, Japan From the 1970s onwards: single-storey room module structures
layers or coverings, making it both the shell construction and the walkable surface at the same time. In the following years, a series of multistorey, high-volume projects were developed. Room m odules produced in Vorarlberg were increasingly exported to Germany and Switzerland, as is demonstrated by the Hotel Soulmade in Garching near Munich by Johannes Kaufmann, which opened in 2016 and consists of 171 modules (Fig. 15). The cooperation between Vorarlberg-based timber construction and structural engineering firms and German architects resulted in numerous projects, such as the European School in Frankfurt am Main (2015) by NKBAK, employing prefabricated room module staircases for the first time (see p. 102ff.); the refugee accommodation in Hanover, completed in 2016 and planned by MOSAIK architekten (see p. 94ff.); or the Woodie student hostel in Hamburg (2017) by Sauerbruch Hutton (see p. 80ff.).
Temporary structure in Neuchâtel (CH)
Addition of floor(s), Hotel Fetz (AT)
Addition of floor(s), Hotel Post (AT)
The current influx of refugees, alongside the already high demand for affordable housing in Vorarlberg itself, has also become an engine for room module constructions. The architect Johannes Kaufmann has already developed an entire range of systems for flats of various standards. A trendsetting realisation is the “Wohnen 500” complex in Mäder (see p. 92f.), completed in 2016. This project combines cost-efficient construction with high ecological and aesthetic demands. The goal is to repeatedly implement the building concept; two further complexes in Feldkirch in Vorarlberg and in Höchst near Frankfurt have already been completed. 2018: Status quo
uncommon anymore. This construction method has also been developing in height: in the Puukuokka residential building in Finland (2015) by OOPEAA, seven to eight floors are stacked utilising only modular construction (see p. 86ff.); the Hotel Jakarta in Amsterdam (2018) by SeARCH even has nine floors consisting of timber room modules. By employing a composite construction comprising a primary timber skeleton and room modules inserted on a base level made of reinforced concrete, the Treet in Bergen reaches fourteen floors (see p. 77ff., 2015). The constructive collaboration between committed architects, specialist planners and innovative timber construction firms has led to a series of outstanding architectural projects.
Timber room module construction has proven itself as an approach of its own for multifamily housing, hostels, hotels, schools and office buildings, and con tinues to break new ground: projects of the order of 200 to 300 modules are not
Notes:  Wachsmann, Konrad: Holzhausbau. Technik und Gestaltung. Berlin 1930  Wachsmann, Konrad: Wendepunkte im Bauen. Wiesbaden 1959  Das Werk. Architektur und Kunst 04/1966, p. 132
Office building in Ebikon (CH)
From the 1990s onwards: multistorey room module structures
Impulszentrum Graz (AT)
Hotel Ammerwald (AT)
Residential complex in Jyväskylä (FI)
Residential tower in Bergen (NO)
Student hostel in Hamburg (DE)
From the 2010s onwards: room module structures at / above the high-rise limit
Design and Typology
5 6 7 8 Two joined, open modules, such as for an office space
Module for a complete flat
Module includes wet cell
Several joined modules, such as for a classroom
Module = Room 5
ypology of the relationship between space T and module Group office comprising two joined room modules, Impulszentrum Graz (AT) 2004, Hubert Rieß Classroom comprising three joined room modules, European School, Frankfurt am Main (DE) 2015, NKBAK Flats comprising room modules, Johannes Kaufmann Architektur a A flat comprising two room modules, “Wohnen 400” b A flat comprising three room modules, “Wohnen 500” Room module as special type, stackable minimal housing, Ofis Arhitekti a Combination possibilities b Use as public library, Ljubljana (SI) 2017
In a great many room module buildings, the room modules also transfer the loads from planar elements. This is often the case in central corridortype access areas. However, the constructional principle is not necessarily limited to this application; a multitude of combinations comprising planar and three-dimensional elements is conceivable. These considerations could conceivably lead to new types of modular structures. In the Schindler office building in Ebikon, this principle has been implemented in the spacious central zones in an exemplary manner (see Fig. 8 a, p. 11). Relationship between space and module
The original type of room module is the direct formation of a – usually repet itive – space in a module. In a first extension, a bathroom unit is incorporated in the module. This already describes the most commonly used type of room module, which – in slightly different variants – is employed in hotels, residential and nursing homes or hospitals.
Today, however, room modules are being used in considerably more diverse ways. For example, entire flats can be accommodated in large, front-to-back room modules. In this case, the utilisation unit corresponds to the module boundary – a highly effective typology for reasons of sound insulation and fire safety (see “Layer structure”, p. 36ff.). Several joined modules make up larger flats. This allows for an almost limitless variety of flat types (Fig. 5). The modules are often divided perpendicularly to the facade, like in cross-wall housing construction (Fig. 8; see also the “Wohnen 500” residential complex in Mäder, p. 92f.).
Design and Typology
In the Puukuokka residential complex in Jyväskylä, Finland, on the other hand, and in reversal of this principle, the flats consist of two room modules lying in parallel to the facade. The internal, ancillary module houses all installations, which can be serviced from the central aisle, while the external one accommodates the habitable spaces (see p. 86ff.). In case parts of flats extending over two modules are linked only by door openings or passages, these can usually be prefabricated including the floor construction, while only the frames of the openings are closed on site.
In office buildings as well as in schools and day-care centres, the strategy of composing large spaces such as classrooms or group offices out of several modules has established itself (Figs. 6 and 7). In this case, it is necessary to implement the floor construction later so that the joints between the modules are not visible in the floor covering. Apart from the purely orthogonal stacking of cubes, special and free-form types of room modules are also possible. In terms of their construction and production, such types strongly differ from the rather systematised standard solutions. They require highly individual production planning and thus represent more of an exception. In this context, it is also worth mentioning the vertically and horizontally stackable minimal dwellings of the Sloven ian firm Ofis Arhitekti (Fig. 9). Access typology
In room module construction, access is also of vital importance, as it significantly shapes the quality and form of a building: with a suitable access system, even a very stringently structured modular building can develop spatial complexity and quality.
Constructing with Timber
What does a module consist of?
As a rule, room modules are cuboids, with rectangular floor plans and six boundary surfaces, of which two each have the same size. In constructional terms, one distinguishes between longitudinal walls, transverse walls, the ceiling / roof, and the floor. From a constructional as well as a production-related and logistic perspective, all six sides are ideally closed. However, this is only the case when one utilisation unit coincides with the dimensions of one room module, as in applications such as hotel rooms, small flats or student residence complexes. Individual surfaces of the six sides of a cuboid can, of course, be removed depending on the design, permitting generous spatial links, combinations of several modules to form one space, or large window surfaces (Figs. 2 and 3). 1
eiling constructions in opened room modules C a Transverse-span ceiling, load-bearing longitu dinal walls b Longitudinal-span ceiling, load-bearing transverse walls, alternatively transverse-span beams and column c Longitudinal-span joists and transverse-span ceiling elements, load-bearing transverse walls, alternatively columns Example of a central module for a group room in a nursery with provisional reinforcement for transport Degrees of opening in room modules a Closed room module with door and window opening in the transverse walls. Application in a residential home room, for example b Single-side open room module, self-supporting. Application as an edge module for a classroom, for example c Two-side open room module, which must be temporarily reinforced on one side for transport and mounting. Application as a central module for a classroom, for example d Three-side open room module, which must be temporarily reinforced on two sides for transport and mounting. Application as an open-plan office, for example e Room module with openings in the floor and ceiling. Application as stairwell, for example The floor and the ceiling are positioned between the longitudinal walls. Mounting of modules for an open-plan office. Temporary reinforcement in two directions is provided by three-layer slabs. 2
However, after omitting more than one lateral surface, the cuboid becomes stat ically unstable. At least for transportation purposes, the cubicle must in any case be temporarily reinforced and provisionally closed, to prevent weather effects on the interior construction. The number of open sides on the room module usually also determines the span direction of the floor and ceiling. Normally, i.e. in the case of closed modules, the vertical load transfer takes place via the longitudinal walls (Fig. 1 a). The primary reason for this is the shorter span. Moreover, the transverse walls are at least partially open due to doors, windows and installation conduits, if they are oriented towards the corridor and facade, as is usually the case. The ceiling and floor respectively support independent and, moreover, different
Constructing with Timber
loads: the floor supports the live load and the floor construction, while the ceiling supports only itself. The top module, depending on the construction, additionally carries the loads from the roof. In cases where modules with one or more open sides lack at least one longitudinal wall, the rule above does not apply and the vertical load transfer must be solved differently. In doing so, two options are available: the first consists of transferring the loads via the transverse walls, and spanning the ceiling or the floor longitudinally to the module (Fig. 1 b); the second involves the use of joists instead of the missing walls (Fig. 9, p. 30). Load transfer from the joists takes place in a pointbased manner via columns at the module corners. In this case, the ceiling again spans transversely to the module and the above-lying, transversely spanning floor also rests on the joist of the lower module (Fig. 1 c).
In rare cases, especially in stairwells, room modules lack a floor and a ceiling (Fig. 10, p. 30). Here too, stability during transportation and assembly must be ensured by temporary measures (Fig. 5) or an appropriate design of the staircase structure. What timber construction methods are used?
Frame construction, board stacks, crosslaminated timber, hybrid constructions: in general, the entire range of systems and system combinations commonly used in timber construction today is available for use in room module construction (Fig. 6, p. 28). There are no universally valid rules as to when which system is to be applied. The decision is highly dependent on the basic conditions of a specific project. The following section provides a decision
accrued wheel loads; likewise, a crane and scaffolding should be available and ready to use. The following steps describe the typical procedure of room module mounting: 1. Preparation of the mounting ground: guidance bars, aligned to horizontal and vertical positions, are placed onto the foundation or the solid ceiling of the ground floor, and are lined with swelling mortar. 2. Mounting of modules: the modules are lifted to their destination point using a crane and statically required fixing measures, such as tensile anchors, etc., are mounted. Possibly present planar corridor elements, which are mounted in between the modules, can likewise be mounted from floor to floor. Using a crane, it is as a rule possible to mount 10 –20 room modules a day, so that mounting for common project sizes can be completed within one to a maximum of two weeks. 3. Providing provisional facade sealing: the horizontal and vertical joints of wind and driving rain sealant are closed as quickly as possible in parallel to the mounting of the modules. As a rule, the room modules arrive at the construction site with overlapping strips, which are then stuck together on site. 4. Providing provisional roof sealing: the ceilings of the modules are likewise covered in a wind- and driving rain-proof film for transport, which is removed during the course of mounting. As soon as all modules are in position, the vapour barrier level is applied, which also functions as an emergency roof. In the case of a flat roof, temporary drainage is usually provided by the emergency outlets in the attic. This ensures sufficient weather protection for the building during the mounting phase.
11 H otel, Nördlingen (DE) 2018, Johannes Kaufmann with Kaufmann Zimmerei und Tischlerei a Loading of the room modules onto the articulated truck in the manufacturing hall b Transport of the room modules 12 Mounting of room modules, Hotel in Nördlingen
5. Completion of the building: in conclusion, completion of building services, the fit-out of the corridor zones and – if applicable – the base level, as well as mounting of the missing layers of the roof and facade structure are carried out in parallel. This fit-out phase depends on the construction and the share of conventional building areas, and is usually considerably more timeconsuming than the mounting of the modules themselves. Lifting of room modules is usually carried out by mobile cranes. The maximum distance between the delivery point of the semi-trailer truck and the final module position determines the crane’s radius, while the interplay of room module weight and required hook height determines the dimensioning of the crane. In the case of changing crane locations and delivery points in particu-
lar, it should be ensured that the ground is able to absorb the wheel loads and the loads due to the crane. The use of pressure distribution panels may possibly be necessary. Provided the room modules have sufficient rigidity, they can be directly mounted on the crane hook on four points using steel cables. In the case of less rigid modules, an additional lifting structure may be required – usually in the form of a strong steel frame that provides further attachment points. This especially applies to very large modules or room modules consisting of timber frame elements, which tend to be less rigid than those made of cross-laminated timber. If the facade has a high degree of prefabrication and hence correspondingly less work needs to be done from the outside, mobile platforms can be used as work areas. In northern Europe, in particular, these mobile means or mast climbing platforms
are also used to a significantly greater extent. In Central Europe, by contrast, fixed scaffolds are more often used, which are – as far as possible – set up prior to the mounting of the modules. This ensures that the required fall protection is already provided during the mounting of the modules and attachment or completion of the facade cladding is possible without difficulty. In buildings with more than two storeys, either relatively complex and expansive self-supporting scaffolds are employed or the scaffold must be set up in sections that follow the progress of module mounting. In this case, the scaffold can be accordingly back-anchored on the module structure. Note:  Kaufmann, Hermann et al.: leanWOOD – Optimierte Planungsprozesse für Gebäude in vorgefertigter Holzbauweise. Technische Uni versität München 2017. www.holz.ar.tum.de/ fileadmin/w00bne/www/leanWood/leanWOOD- Broschuere.pdf
Hotel Katharinenhof in Dornbirn (AT)
Johannes Kaufmann Archi tektur, Dornbirn / Vienna Contributors: Michael Wehinger (project management), Iris Priewasser, Christos Hantzaras (construction management) Structural engineers: merz kley partner, Dornbirn Timber construction Kaufmann Zimmerei und company: Tischlerei, Reuthe Completion: 2017
The building, centrally located in Dornbirn, is an extension of an existing hotel. The prescribed, extremely short construction period resulted in the use of room module construction. The basement of reinforced concrete houses an underground car park. The ground floor, likewise constructed in reinforced concrete, accommodates the reception, lobby, kitchen, breakfast room and the access to the existing building. The three upper floors house 39 hotel rooms in a four-star cetegory, for which three different module types (single room, standard double room, superior double room) were developed. The stairwell and lift shaft were also prefabricated as room modules in timber. The urbanlooking building does not reveal its timber construction at first sight: at the request of the client, the construction of cross-laminated timber was clad in plasterboard on the inside. This layer improves sound insulation and represents a fire safety-related encasement of the load-bearing structure. Ventilation ducts and outlets are integrated into the ceilings of the extensively equipped modules. A homogeneous metal facade covers the reinforced concrete base and the room modules, thus underlining the rigour of the building structure. A deep incision of the volume emphasises the entrance. The sloping, recessed glazed facades of the hotel rooms create niches for small balconies. Their load-bearing structure, a slender cross-laminated timber panel, is equipped with sealing and covered by a grid. The balconies were already prefabricated along with the modules. Only the facade skin was added on site. Prefabrication of the modules took four weeks. The modules were mounted on the base within three days. The total construction period, including for the basement, was only six months. 72
Elevation • Floor plans Scale 1:400
Hotel Katharinenhof in Dornbirn
10 Vertical sections Scale 1:20 1 Roof structure: Gravel, 50 mm Sealing, bituminous sheeting, two layers Thermal insulation, PUR insulating panels, 60 mm Thermal insulation, EPS, 60 mm Gradient insulation, EPS, 20 –140 mm Vapour barrier Cross-laminated timber, five layers, 120 mm Plasterboard, 15 mm 2 Aluminium panels, smoothed, strip-anodised, 3 mm, glued to substructure Z-profile / rear ventilation, 38 mm, windproof membrane 3 Battens, vertical, 60/120 mm, and horizontal, 60/120 mm, thermal insulation in between, mineral wool, 240 mm Wall structure of module: Cross-laminated timber, three layers, 80 mm Plasterboard, 2≈ 15 mm 4 Floor structure of module, 2nd floor: Vinyl, 12 mm Chipboard, 2≈ 19 mm Vapour barrier Impact sound insulation, 30 mm Layer of chippings, 40 mm, trickle protection fleece Cross-laminated timber, five layers, 120 mm Thermal insulation, 60 mm 5 Ceiling structure of module: Plasterboard, 15 mm Cross-laminated timber, three layers, 70 mm 6 Suspended ceiling, acoustic panel, MDF, painted on substructure, 62 mm Reinforced concrete, 380 mm 7 Floor structure, ground floor: Tiles, 10 mm Screed, 70 mm Impact sound insulation, 30 mm Thermal insulation, 140 mm Fill, 35 mm Reinforced concrete, 350 mm 8 Facade, ground floor: Aluminium panels, smoothed, strip-anodised, 3 mm, glued to substructure Z-profile / rear ventilation, 38 mm, windproof membrane Substructure battens, vertical, 60/120 mm, and horizontal, 60/80 mm, thermal insulation in between, mineral wool, 200 mm Reinforced concrete, 200 mm Plaster, 2 mm 9 Sun protection, textile screen 10 Wood-aluminium window with triple insulating glazing 11 Grating, metal, 30 mm, on wooden substructure Rubber granulate Sealing, bituminous sheeting, two layers Plywood panel, 50 mm Solid construction timber, 50/160 mm Aluminium panels, smoothed, strip-anodised, 3 mm Glued on substructure Z-profile 12 Steel profile, L 40/40/3 mm 13 Fall protection: Upper flange, flat steel, 60/30mm, bb Steel rod, powder-coated, Ø 10 mm
Residential Complex in Toulouse
Axonometric drawings of modular concept: a Buildable space on the plot b Shifting and turning of modules c Stacking of modules and recessing of modules for the entrance area Vertical section Horizontal section Scale 1:20
Corrugated sheet, aluminium, 0.8 mm Battens, horizontal, 25/38 mm Windproof membrane, diffusible Thermal insulation, mineral wool, 140 mm Vapour barrier Cross-laminated timber, three layers, 80 mm Plasterboard, painted, 12.5 mm Sealing, bituminous sheeting, two layers Thermal insulation, mineral wool, 260 mm Vapour barrier Cross-laminated timber, three layers, varnished, 60 mm, partly with gradient PVC tiles, glued, 6 mm Concrete screed, 40 mm Cross-laminated timber, five layers, 120 mm Thermal insulation, mineral wool, 30 mm Cross-laminated timber, three layers, varnished, 60 mm Connecting element, flat steel, 10 mm, with alignment pins, steel, Ø 30 mm, welded
Residential Complex in Toulouse
6 13 14
5 Support steel profile, HEA 180 6 PVC tiles, glued, 6 mm Cross-laminated timber, three layers, 80 mm 7 Suspended ceiling: Aluminium panels, perforated, acoustically dampened 8 Steel tube, ¡ 80/60 mm, with reinforcement bracing, flat steel, welded, 8 mm 9 Corrugated sheet, aluminium, 0.8 mm 10 Glazed door, aluminium frame with insulating glazing 11 Sliding panel, aluminium sheet, grey, coated, 1.5 mm, screwed on substructure, steel tube | 20/20 mm 12 Fall protection: steel frame with PMMA, tinted, 8 mm 13 Frame of squared timber, profiled, 120/320 mm 14 Aluminium composite panel, 5 mm
Absatzförderungsfonds der deutschen Holzund Forstwirtschaft (ed.): Energieeffiziente Bürogebäude. holzbau handbuch, Series 1, Section 2, Part 4, June 2009 Arbeitsgemeinschaft Holz e. V. et al. (ed.): Industrie- und Gewerbebauten. holzbau handbuch, Series 1, Section 8, Part 3, December 2001 Bereuter, Martin; Robert Fabach et al.: Holzmodulbau, booklet accompanying the exhbition in the Werkraum Bregenzerwald. Andelsbuch 2016 Dworschak, Gunda; Wenke, Alfred: Der neue Systembau. Düsseldorf 1999 Huth, Steffen: Bauen mit Raumzellen. Analyse einer Baumethode. Wiesbaden / Berlin 1975 Janser, Andres: Raumzellen für Modul-Holzbausystem. In: Schweizer Ingenieur und Architekt, 13/1996, p. 9 –12 Junghanns, Kurt: Das Haus für alle. Zur Geschichte der Vorfertigung in Deutschland. Berlin 1994 Kapfinger, Ott; Wieler, Ulrich (ed.): Riess Wood³ Modulare Holzbausysteme. Vienna 2007 Luchsinger, Christoph: Raumzellen. Über bauung Hurdacker, Dübendorf 1996 –1997. Architects: Werner Egli, Hans Rohr, Baden. In: Werk, Bauen + Wohnen 04/1998 p. 36 – 41 Noel, Matthias: Des Architekten liebstes Spiel. Baukunst aus dem Baukasten. In: Figurationen 01/2004 p. 23 – 40 Pracht, Klaus: Holzbausysteme. CologneBraunsfeld 1981 Raumzellen aus Kunststoffen für ein- und mehrgeschossige Bauwerke. Architekten Ralf Schüler und Ursulina Witte, Berlin 1967. In: Das Werk. Architektur und Kunst. Architektur und Kunst 06/1968, p. 358 – 359 Schärli-Graf, Otto: Eine Methode des industrialisierten Bauens: Raumzellen. In: Wohnen 01/1969, p. 10 –12 Staib, Gerald; Dörrhöfer, Andreas; Rosenthal, Markus: Elemente + Systeme. Modulares Bauen. Entwurf, Konstruktion, neue Techno logien. Munich and others 2008 Stucky, Fritz; Meuli, Rudolf: Mehrfamilienhaus nach System Elcon. Das Werk. Architektur und Kunst 04/1966 Technische Universität Berlin, Lehrstuhl für Entwerfen, Prof. Oswald Mathias Ungers: Wohnungssysteme in Raumzellen.
Brochure for the seminar. Headed by Joachim Schlandt. Berlin 1969 Tulamo, Tomi-Samuel (ed.) et al.: smartTES. Innovation in timber construction for the modernisation of the building envelope. Munich 2014 Wachsmann, Konrad: Holzhausbau – Technik und Gestaltung. Berlin 1930 Wachsmann, Konrad: Wendepunkt im Bauen. Wiesbaden 1959
The authors and the publisher sincerely thank everyone who has contributed to the pub lication of this book by providing illustrations and artwork, granting permission to reproduce their documents, or providing other information. All the drawings were specially produced for this publication, those in the project examples section on the basis of architectural drawings. Non-documented photos were taken from the archive of the architects or the archive of the journal Detail. Despite intensive endeavours, we were unable to establish copyright ownership for some photos and illustrations; however, copyright is assured. Please notify us accordingly in such instances. Title
Woodie Student Hostel in Hamburg (DE) 2017, Sauerbruch & Hutton Photo: Thomas Ebert Introductory images of sections
Page 8: Integrated comprehensive school, Frankfurt-Riedberg (DE) 2016, NKBAK Photo: Thomas Mayer Page 64: Woodie Student Hostel in Hamburg (DE) 2017, Sauerbruch Hutton Photo: Jan Bitter Page 106: Transport of a room module for a hotel in Nördlingen (DE) 2018, Kaufmann Zimmerei und Tischlerei Photo: Siegfried Mäser Preface
1 from: Pawley, Martin: Theorie und Gestaltung im zweiten Maschinenzeitalter. Braunschweig 1998. p. 108 2 Huth, Steffen: Bauen mit Raumzellen. Analyse einer Baumethode. Wiesbaden / Berlin 1975, p. 165 3 from: Detail 1–2 /1970, p. 58 4 from: Raumzellen aus Kunststoffen für einund mehrgeschossige Bauwerke: 1967 Architekten Ralf Schüler und Ursulina Witte, Berlin. In: werk 6/1968, p. 358 5 from: Janser, Andres: Raumzellen für Modul-Holzbausystem. In: Schweizer Ingenieur und Architekt, 13/1996, p. 9 6 Tomio Ohashi 7 from: Pracht, Klaus: Holzbausysteme. Cologne-Braunsfeld 1981, p. 143 8 b ERNE AG Holzbau, Laufenburg
9 11 12 13 14 15
merz kley partner Architekturhaus Wiener Strasse, Graz Architekturhaus Wiener Strasse, Graz Berghof Fetz Ignazio Martinez Eva Schönbrunner
2 b Stefan Müller-Naumann 3 Kampa GmbH 4 ARTEC 5 from: Kaufmann, Hermann; Krötsch, Stefan; Winter, Stefan: Atlas Mehrgeschossiger Holzbau. Munich 2017, p. 146 6 Architekturhaus Wiener Strasse, Graz 7 Thomas Mayer 9 b Janez Martincic 17 Tulamo, Tomi-Samuel (ed.) et al.: smartTES. Innovation in timber construction for the modernisation of the building envelope. Munich 2014, p. 6 19 a ERNE AG Holzbau, Laufenburg / Photo: Marcel Kultscher 19 b ERNE AG Holzbau, Laufenburg / Photo: Marcel Kultscher 20 Jan Bitter
1 Siegfried Mäser 4 a Erne AG Holzbau, Laufenburg / Photo: Gataric Fotografie 4 b Erne AG Holzbau 5 Erne AG Holzbau 6 b Siegfried Mäser 7 a Siegfried Mäser 7 b Siegfried Mäser 7 c Siegfried Mäser 7 d Siegfried Mäser 7 e Siegfried Mäser 7 f Siegfried Mäser 7 g Siegfried Mäser 7 h Siegfried Mäser 7 i Siegfried Mäser 7 j Siegfried Mäser 8 according to: proHolz Austria (ed.): Zuschnitt 09/2017, p. 6 and Kaufmann, Hermann; Krötsch, Stefan; Winter, Stefan: Atlas Mehrgeschossiger Holzbau. Munich 2017, p. 145 9 Hämmerle Spezialtransporte GmbH 10 Hämmerle Spezialtransporte GmbH 11 a Siegfried Mäser 11 b Siegfried Mäser
Design and Typology
2 Kaufmann Bausysteme 4 merz kley partner 5 merz kley partner 7 according to: Kaufmann, Hermann; Krötsch, Stefan; Winter, Stefan: Atlas Mehrgeschossiger Holzbau. Munich 2017, p. 39 8 merz kley partner 9 Kaufmann Bausysteme 10 Kaufmann Bausysteme 18 Kaufmann Bausysteme 19 Kaufmann Bausysteme 20 Kaufmann Bausysteme Layers, Shell and Technology
7 a 7 b 7 c 7 d 8 11 12 15 b 15 c 15 d 17 18 19
Rasmus Norlander Architekturhaus Wiener Strasse, Graz Götz Wrage Mikko Auerniitty RADON photography / Norman Radon Alexander Gempeler RADON photography / Norman Radon Philippe Ruault RADON photography / Norman Radon Thomas Mayer Siegfried Mäser Siegfried Mäser Siegfried Mäser
p. 64 Jan Bitter p. 66 Adolf Bereuter p. 67 above Adolf Bereuter p. 67 centre Adolf Bereuter p. 67 below Kaufmann Zimmerei und Tischlerei; Adolf Bereuter / BMW Group p. 68 centre Kaufmann Zimmerei und Tischlerei; Adolf Bereuter / BMW Group p. 68 below Kaufmann Zimmerei und Tischlerei; Adolf Bereuter / BMW Group p. 69 sitka.kaserer.architekten zt-gmbh (DI Norbert Haiden) p. 70 sitka.kaserer.architekten zt-gmbh (DI Norbert Haiden) p. 71 left sitka.kaserer.architekten zt-gmbh (DI Norbert Haiden) p. 72 below RADON photography / Norman Radon p. 73 above RADON photography / Norman Radon p. 74 Sascha Kletzsch p. 75 Sascha Kletzsch
p. 76 Sascha Kletzsch p. 77 ARTEC p. 78 above left Morten Pedersen, Inviso p. 78 above right Morten Pedersen, Inviso p. 78 below left ARTEC p. 78 below right ARTEC p. 79 ARTEC p. 80 Jan Bitter p. 81 Jan Bitter p. 82 Jan Bitter p. 83 Jan Bitter p. 84 above Archipicture, Dietmar Tollerian p. 84 below left Andrew Phelps p. 84 below right Andrew Phelps p. 85 Andrew Phelps p. 86 Mikko Auerniitty p. 87 Mikko Auerniitty p. 88 above Mikko Auerniitty p. 88 below Mikko Auerniitty p. 89 Philippe Ruault p. 90 Philippe Ruault p. 91 above Philippe Ruault p. 91 centre Philippe Ruault p. 91 below Philippe Ruault p. 92 RADON photography / Norman Radon p. 93 RADON photography / Norman Radon p. 94 Olaf Mahlstedt p. 95 above Olaf Mahlstedt p. 95 centre above Olaf Mahlstedt p. 95 centre below Olaf Mahlstedt p. 95 below Olaf Mahlstedt p. 97 above Rasmus Norlander p. 97 Mitte Bauart p. 97 below Bauart p. 98 above Rasmus Norlander p. 98 Mitte Rasmus Norlander p. 100 above Nadja Frey p. 100 below centre Erne AG Holzbau p. 100 below right Erne AG Holzbau p. 102 Thomas Mayer / thomasmayerarchive.de p. 103 above Thomas Mayer / thomasmayerarchive.de p. 103 centre RADON photography / Norman Radon p. 103 below RADON photography / Norman Radon p. 104 centre Thomas Mayer / thomasmayerarchive.de p. 104 below Thomas Mayer / thomasmayerarchive.de
Room Modules - More information: https://bit.ly/2GSslV6