Page 1

jan cremers (ED.)

Edition ∂

Building Openings


jan cremers (ED.)

Building Openings


Authors Prof. Dr.-Ing. Jan Cremers (Editor) Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Research and illustration assistants: Melanie Monecke, Nansi Palla, Lukas Hüfner Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Markus Binder Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences CAPE climate architecture physics energy Dr.-Ing. Peter Bonfig Dipl.-Ing. Joost Hartwig ina Planungsgesellschaft mbH, Darmstadt

Hermann Klos Holzmanufaktur Rottweil Prof. Ulrich Sieberath, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Wolfgang Jehl, Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Ingo Leuschner, ift Rosenheim, Institute for Windows and Facades, Doors and Gates, Glass and Building Material, Rosenheim Prof. Dr.-Ing. Elke Sohn Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Prof. Dr.-Ing. Thomas Stark University of Applied Sciences Konstanz ee concept GmbH, Darmstadt

Editorial services Editing, copy-editing: Steffi Lenzen (Project Manager), Eva Schönbrunner Editorial assistants: Samay Claro, Marion Dondelinger, Carola Jacob-Ritz, Sophie Karst, Andrea Kohl-Kastner, Jana Rackwitz Drawings: Ralph Donhauser, Marion Griese, Simon Kramer, Gina Pawlowski, Kwami Tendar Translation into English: Christina McKenna and Michael Keith for keiki communication, Berlin Copy Editor (English edition): Matthew Griffion for keiki communication, Berlin Proofreading (English edition): Stefan Widdess, Berlin Production & layout: Simone Soesters Reproduction: ludwig:media, Zell am See Printing and binding: Grafisches Centrum Cuno GmbH & Co. KG, Calbe Publisher: Institut für internationale Architektur-Dokumentation GmbH & Co. KG, Munich © 2016 English translation of the 1st German edition 4

ISBN: 978-3-95553-298-7 (Print) ISBN: 978-3-95553-299-4 (E-Book) ISBN: 978-3-95553-300-7 (Bundle) Bibliographic information published by the German National Library. The German National Library lists this publication in the Deutsche ­Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at This work is subject to copyright. All rights reserved, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, recitation, reuse of illustrations and tables, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in other ways and storage in data processing systems. Reproduction of any part of this work in individual cases, too, is only permitted within the limits of the provisions of the valid edition of the copyright law. A charge will be levied. Infringements will be subject to the penalty clauses of the copyright law. This textbook uses terms applicable at the time of writing and is based on the current state of art, to the best of the author’s and ­editor’s knowledge and belief. All drawings in this book were made specifically by the publisher. No legal claims can be derived from the contents of this book. This book is also available in a German language edition (ISBN 978-3-95553-229-1)


Imprint4 Part A


1 Openings in buildings Jan Cremers 2  The historic development of the window  – from its origins through to the early modern era Hermann Klos 3 Designing facade openings Jan Cremers 4 Windows and doors in art and culture Elke Sohn 5 Solution principles for adjustable ­openings Peter Bonfig

8 12 24 32 36

Part B Fundamentals I 1 Requirements and protective functions – building physics fundamentals Jan Cremers with ift Rosenheim 2 Materials, components, types of construction Jan Cremers 3 Building connection and structural context Jan Cremers with ift Rosenheim 4  Working with historic windows in existing buildings and architectural monuments Hermann Klos

50 86 120 148

Part C Fundamentals II 1 Passive solar energy use Jan Cremers, Markus Binder 2 Active solar energy use Thomas Stark 3 Technical building components in and around windows Markus Binder 4 Life-cycle assessments for windows and exterior doors Joost Hartwig

170 190 198 208

Part D Built examples in detail Project examples 1 to 30 Part E



Authors278 Acknowledgments; Ordinances, guidelines and standards 279 Literature281 Image credits 283 Index286


Part A  Introduction

1  Openings in buildings


2 The historic development of the window – from its origins through to the early modern era 12 Construction’s earliest origins 12 A brief, yet unsustainable flourishing 13 The Middle Ages and early modern era 13 14 Before glass there was wood Paintings as sources 16 Materials 17 The “gold of the Middle Ages” 18 Glass production – the “arcane knowledge” of a powerful few  18 Breaking out of darkness 20 Local discoveries  20 3 Designing facade openings 24 The relationship between a building’s ­openings and its envelope 24 25 The proportion of opening to space Designing openings and the surrounding envelope 27 Opening as symbol, opening and ornament 29 Openings, transparency and reflection 30 4 Windows and doors in art and culture Windows and doors – loci of special design and significance Doors as transitional space The window as picture frame – the effects of media The window as boundary A new culture of transition 5 Solution principles for adjustable ­openings The functions of adjustable openings Integrating openings in the building ­envelope Permeability and its modification Kinematics: principles and solutions Structures for planar structural elements in the building envelope

32 32 32 33 34 35 36 36 39 41 42 44

Fig. A  Palazzo in Venice (I)


Openings in buildings Jan Cremers

A 1.1

A building envelope is a boundary between inside and out; it has protective and regulatory functions and allows for the exchange of energy (solar radiation, heat), light and air. This occurs mainly through openings as they regulate other interface functions such as access. Building openings, windows and doors, let people inside see out and people outside see in, thereby becoming “backdrops” for human coexistence where inside and out­ side intersect. In this sense, they are of great social significance. They both separate and connect the private and the public. Building openings define the transition from introverted to exposed, from warm to cold, from artificial to natural, from dark to light, from enclosed to open space. Having a direct connection with the outdoors is important to a building’s users. Numerous studies have shown that users’ satisfaction with buildings is closely connected with the possibility of opening a window for fresh air [1]. Since most people now spend the best part of their day inside – in Central Europe about 80 – 90 % of it – building openings are becom­ ing increasingly significant. People need to be able to establish a link with the outside, with our original living space, with nature, even though for a growing number of people the outdoors is now an urban space, a largely artificial envir­ onment. [2] Combining various functions can greatly increase the useful capacity of building ­openings and allow them to meet several requirements at the same time: controlling the penetration of light and exchange of air, functioning as emergency escape routes, providing access for emergency responders in emergencies and ensuring a controlled release of heat, smoke and gases in case of fire. Most openings offer more than just two states (“open” or “closed”) but allow for differentiated control of permeability. “Open” implies a com­ plete opening (i.e. permeability), overcoming the physical boundary between inside and out. In contrast to fixed panes, through which light and energy can permeate, the function of venti­ lation is added here. 8

It is precisely these multifunctional structural elements and components in and around building openings that are addressed in this book. It is not about openings that let light in but cannot be opened (i.e. all types of closed glass facades). Only elements in the building envelope that can be opened (“opened up”) are relevant for the ­purposes of this book. This also includes opaque elem­ ents that can be used to ventilate areas of the building. Traditional windows in all their local and ­historic variants, as well as opaque folding ­elements, doors and louvre windows, are all adjustable openings. All buildings, old and new, have such openings, so these structural components have a comparatively high mar­ ket volume. In 2013, 13.1 million new window units for conventional windows (for new and existing buildings) were manufactured in Ger­ many. The total number of windows in Germany is approximately 595 million units, represent­ ing a total window area of around 1 billion square metres. [3] Building openings are often supplemented by additional moveable components in­ stalled in front of, behind or within the open­ ing (e.g. shutters, curtains, blinds, louvres, ­curtains etc.). These can be unchanging, such as wooden shutters, or changeable (e.g. adjustable sun protection blinds), and at several successive levels. A vast number of historic and contemporary forms and com­ binable complementary elements are now available. [4] Few other structural components reveal the enormous transformation process in building technology as clearly as building openings do. An old, single-paned, wood-framed win­ dow of the type made for centuries in a range of different local forms has little in common with today’s industrially manufactured prod­ ucts in terms of the resulting product, manu­ facturing process, function and range of ­features. These developments are a conse­ quence of growing worldwide standardisation and unification, which are often perceived locally as a disadvantage and loss of quality. Seen from a design point of view, today’s

Openings in buildings

A 1.1 Folding windows at the Embassy Court apartment house, Brighton (GB) 1935, Welles Coates A 1.2 Stone sliding shutter as a closable opening, house in Stein, Kraichgau (D) 1524 A 1.3 Window with vertically and horizontally folding shutters, house in Geimen near Blatten, Valais (CH) A 1.4 Curving glass wall with no visible frame and a marble-clad sliding door into the garden, Villa in Ede (NL) 2007, Powerhouse Company

standard windows rarely have aesthetic and functional qualities like those of historic win­ dows. While openings were traditionally kept fairly small mainly for structural and energy conservation reasons, very large openings are now possible, e.g. multistorey windows or facade-high doors. No other part of a building reveals the con­ stantly growing demands on the building envelope and resulting conflicts like its ­openings do, because the different require­ ments do sometimes conflict with each other. How can a building be made more ­airtight while also ensuring a minimum hygienic exchange of air? How can effective

A 1.2

sun protection, as well as a sufficient supply of daylight and passive solar energy use, be provided for? Some reasons for this rising complexity lie at the global level, in the growing scarcity of energy and material resources and con­ stantly increasing volumes of waste, while ­others are of local origin, such as the cumula­ tive regulation of building products and pro­ cesses due to the Europeanisation of stand­ ards and approvals processes. At the same time, the disciplines involved in planning and construction are becoming more specialised, contractual regulation is becoming more important and various building certification

A 1.3

s­ ystems may have to be taken into account, so the planning and construction process is not getting any easier. This book regards openings as an essen­ tial architectural design element in the over­ all design and construction process and gives planners the specialist information they need to manage today’s complex re­­ quirements in planning for new and existing buildings. Changing usage, which can be expected in any new building, means that building openings often have to be redesigned, reduced, extended, closed up or created completely anew.

A 1.4


Solution principles for ­adjustable openings Peter Bonfig

Building envelopes form a boundary between exterior and interior space and have a protec­ tive function and permeable surfaces that allow for the exchange of light, thermal radi­ ation and air, for views in and out, for lighting and ventilation of the interior and for the transit of energy (Fig. B 1.3, p. 51). Various strategies and solutions, which are constantly expanding due to new perspectives, discoveries and technologies, are available for adapting the envelope’s permeability to changing outside conditions and/or user’s wishes. An adaptive building envelope uses self-regulating processes to dynamically change its permeability [1]. It no longer relies on move­ able parts that have to be operated, such as window sashes or blinds. The word “adaptive” in its broader sense can be used to cover all strategies that respond intelligently to changing conditions, even if they are not self-regulating. This book focuses on structural components through which the protective envelope opens or can be opened. This section deals with strategies for influencing the permeability of these openings, beyond traditional notions of windows and doors, and systematically describes their functions, geometric aspects, solution principles and diverse manifestations and interpretations. All these openings have one thing in common: They are part of the ther­ mally insulating building envelope, and their primary purpose is to offer partial to extensive opening to dispense with the separation between inside and out for certain periods. The functions of adjustable openings Building openings fulfil many functions that make partly contradictory demands (Fig. 5.3) and whose hierarchy can vary greatly. Open­

ings’ characteristics can differ and change in response to the demands of low-energy, passive and plus-energy houses. Primary functions

Based on the perspective adopted herein, some of the primary functions of adjustable openings in building envelopes are: •  Ingress and egress •  Direct contact with the outdoors •  Extensive “opening” •  The bringing in and out of objects •  Ventilation of the interior Enabling people to enter a building and leave it again through moveable structural compo­ nents is a fundamental requirement of a build­ ing envelope. This interface between public and private can also reflect overarching and spiritual aspects that can be expressed by an element’s orientation, size, materials chosen, symbolic elements etc. We use most entrances and exits regularly, but sometimes openings, not just doors, serve very specific purposes, such as enabling escape from a building in case of fire (second­ ary necessary emergency escape) or access to a maintenance platform. As mentioned in the chapter on “Openings in buildings” (p. 8ff.), building users some­ times feel a need to directly experience the outdoors and outside air through the pro­ tective envelope, regardless of its functional ­practicality. One specific example in this context are large openings that break up the building envelope and blend inside and outside into a single space with no barriers in pleasant weather when the protective functions are not required. Interiors can become loggias, roof areas or airy

A 5.1


Solution principles for adjustable openings

terraces (Fig. A 5.2). This creates a spatial continuum between the interior and exterior and offers new possibilities for usage and experiences. In temperate climates with very different seasons, use of such openings is usually restricted to the summer months. Another elementary functional requirement is enabling the bringing in of objects of all kinds. In this case, the frequency of such deliveries (e.g. of a grand piano or a large piece of tech­ nical building equipment) will largely determine the type of opening. If a building is designed to provide natural (free) ventilation through its envelope, air must be supplied through appropriate adjustable openings (see “Natural ventilation”, p. 200f.). The goal here is good interior air quality, which is determined by the composition of the air intake (outside air) and the proportion of gases and compounds resulting from usage and the space itself [2]. In the context of hygienic comfort [3], an exchange of air is important for the following reasons: •  Supply of oxygen •  Discharge of stale air containing a high pro­ portion of carbon dioxide •  Discharge of organic odorants •  Discharge of vapours from construction materials (e.g. formaldehyde) •  Discharge of combustion gases (from heat­ ing, cooking, manufacturing processes etc.) •  Discharge of moisture •  Discharge of other compounds resulting from production processes As well as various gases, solids (e.g. particles) are also brought inside with outside air, and it is becoming increasingly important to limit or check their passage. These particles may include soot particles and dust from industry and transport as well as organic particles or microorganisms such as pollen, fungal spores etc. The undesired ingress of various small ­animals and insects through openings into buildings must also be prevented or at least restricted. Natural ventilation requires the movement of air, although air does not necessarily have to be moved mechanically (Fig. A 5.4). This movement of air (streams of gas molecules) requires a difference in pressure between inside and outside air as a result of wind and / or thermal updraughts [4]. Ventilation is usually classified into two main types: •  Intermittent ventilation (brief periods of venti­ lation through large openings), and •  Constant ventilation (continuous ventilation through relatively small openings). An exchange of air for hygienic reasons is essential if differences in temperature between inside and outside air are connected with an exchange of energy, which can also be a goal of natural ventilation, using air to ­specifically supply or release heat. Given air’s low heat capacity, the use of energy

exchange for the free cooling of spaces is ­limited. Continuous ventilation is problematic in ­buildings exposed to a large range of exterior and interior temperatures for the following ­reasons: •  Continuous discharge of (mainly valuable) heat from the interior •  Excessive continuous supply of heat •  Draughts due to large differences in tem­ perature Natural intermittent ventilation at night requires active mechanical systems with controls and servomotors. Alternatively, decentralised mechanical ventilators integrated into the building envelope combined with heat exchangers or heat recovery can be used with continuous ventilation. The position and form of adjustable openings in the building envelope are important in assuring an efficient exchange of air. It can be useful to provide ­different openings for incoming and outgoing air. As well as prevailing wind directions, ­aerodynamic aspects and phenomena in the building’s environs and openings must be taken into account. For economic reasons it may be advisable to combine as many as possible of the primary functions mentioned in a single system.

A 5.2 Primary functions

Different cases Regular use

Ingress /egress

Extensive opening

Special cases, temporary With access to exterior surfaces Without access to exterior surfaces Regular use

Bringing objects in and out

Special cases, temporary Natural ventilation With mechanical support

Ventilation Additional functions

An opening element can (but does not have to) fulfil other functions, such as, •  Natural lighting (use of daylight) and regula­ tion of it •  Possibility for visual contact between inside and out •  Passive and active energy generation, con­ version or storage Combining daylight and ventilation functions in single openings in a way traditionally achieved with windows is not essential and is becoming increasingly irrelevant with the advent of other more effective and energy-efficient building concepts (Fig. A 5.1). A 5.1 SOKA-Bau, Wiesbaden (D) 2004, Herzog+Partner, innovative facade concept with the following ­features: •  Conceptually significant proportion of building technology in the facade (decentralised) •  Glare-free lighting provided with the help of light-deflecting elements that also provide shade •  Wooden elements for opening the envelope and regulating individual natural ventilation •  Consistent separation of the functions of open­ ing / ventilation (wooden element) and lighting / visual contact (window glazing) A 5.2 Large opening in a sloping roof with glazed ­sliding elements. When the elements are open, the space gains the quality of an outdoor area. A 5.3 Classification of the functions of building open­ ings. The required regulation or control is central or decentralised. A 5.4 Different cases illustrating strategies for the nat­ ural ventilation of buildings

Mechanical, with heat recovery Additional functions For mainly diffuse sunlight

Use of daylight

For mainly direct sunlight Daytime measures

Visual contact

Nighttime measures

Generation / conversion / storage of energy

Passive systems Active systems A 5.3

h 5× h

2– 3× h


Thermal layers

Thermal layers

Thermal layers (+ wind) A 5.4


Solution principles for adjustable openings


Screen against views

Protection against break-ins

Continuous ventilation

Brief, intense ventilation

















































Outdoor temperature

Light deflection

No sunlight

Anti-glare screen


Mainly direct



Mainly dif­ fuse, intense

Solar energy yields


Diffuse, weak


Angle of incidence


Facade’s exposure

Different case

Sunlight environment

Exterior conditions

Cool Warm ¥ Not necessarily required or advisable

‡ Optional

‡ Required

A 5.5

Opening elements should meet the entire range of requirements of the building enve­ lope, with its protective functions, such as ­thermal insulation, sun screening, sound ­insulation and protection from both damp and fire, at a reasonable or equivalent standard, even when closed. This applies to planar ­components and especially to interfaces and joints. Openable elements in the envelope ­represent – usually in their closed state – a ­disruption or weak point. The higher the demands on the envelope are, the more costly and complex it is to form the opening so that this kind of conflict does not result in major ­disadvantages.

The time factor of usage Whether or not certain protective functions (e.g. from driving rain) are still ensured when elements are opened (as a control function), depends on the duration of aperture and options for controlling the opening. Brief open­ ing (e.g. for access or brief ventilation) is less problematic than opening for a long time. Elements that can be opened for cleaning ­purposes or to let smoke out do not usually require protective functions when they are open. Openings for continuous ventilation in contrast, especially those for cooling at night, require extra protection from the weather (driving rain or wind), break-ins and insects, and, in a noisy environment, additional sound insulation.



Ventilation (thermal)

Lower zone (parapet)

Lighting (through light deflection / diffusion)

Ventilation opening

Lighting Screen against views Screen against sun and glare Views out from inside

Neutral zone

Screen against sun and views (Views out from inside)

Ventilation opening

Middle zone (visual field)

Upper zone (borrowed light)

Optional solar yields

Demands on an opening element

A 5.6


Openings used for ingress and egress also require protection from rain and wind. The usual solutions are additional structures such as porches and canopies. Measures to prevent unauthorised entry into a build­ ing may also determine the formation of ­openings. Temporary thermal insulation Compared with closed, highly insulated wall surfaces, translucent opening elements usu­ ally represent thermal weak points, even with current technology. Temporary elements (e.g. shutters, roller blinds) can be used at night when exterior temperatures are low to reduce transmission heat loss. The structural elements themselves and the cushions of air they enclose together create this effect. If the element is transparent or translucent, it can also be used during the day. Cleaning and maintenance Transparent glazing in particular requires regu­ lar cleaning on both sides. Wooden structural elements require maintenance and the renewal of protective coatings. This means that struc­ tural components have to open inwards where cleaning and maintenance is not possible from the outside or where it would be too complex and costly. Meeting this requirement can also offer an opportunity to combine openings with ventilation functions. Performance profiles

All the demands on a building envelope and its openings can be summarised in a perform­ ance profile. Since the demands vary greatly with fluctuating daily and seasonal external conditions and are sometimes contradictory, a clear, preferably graphic representation of specific cases can help in the planning pro­ cess (Fig. A 5.5). Various strategies can be used to implement a performance profile and are outlined below. As well as protective, supply and control func­ tions, further demands arise out of the build­ ing’s technical context, such as the structural protection of wood and adaptability to changes in the volume of structural elements resulting

A 5.7

Solution principles for adjustable openings

from differences in temperature, moisture absorption or release and exterior forces ­(dilatation) or installation aspects. Integrating openings in the building envelope A planner’s decisions on where, to what extent and in what form openings in the building envelope are reasonable and necessary will depend primarily on access and the building’s ventilation concept. The issue of whether venti­ lation functions (hygienic comfort) should be combined with those of lighting and views ­(visual comfort) must be determined because a range of other requirements can result from such combinations. To understand the many possible solutions available it can be advisable to consider the envelope separately (Fig. A 5.8): in and perpendicular to the surface area (Fig. A 5.9). Planning in the envelope (surface area)

Specific planar structural components in the envelope have various functions. Architect Mike Davis’ idea of the “polyvalent wall” envis­ aged a wall made up of highly specialised ­layers in the smallest possible space fulfilling all the necessary functions (lighting, ventilation, energy generation etc.) [5]. Usually however, more or less specialised structural components (e.g. ventilation elements, sunscreens etc.) have specific roles in an envelope’s perform­ ance profile. It can be worth combining func­ tions to increase efficiency. Adjustable open­ ings with moveable parts are indispensable for natural or mechanical ventilation through a building envelope. The distribution and arrangement of planar structural components and their joints plays a crucial role in planning and detailing, with operability another essential aspect. Planning perpendicular to the envelope (surface area)

Planning elements perpendicular to a build­ ing’s envelope involves dealing with the ­envelope’s structure and individual structural components and determines which specific

functions and related active principles are implemented by means of certain structures such as layers or shells [6]. Not all the struc­ tures must be in the envelope; they can also be separated from each other by stationary or rear-ventilated layers of air. Individual elements or the entire structure must be moveable to allow for ventilation. Vertical zoning in multistorey buildings

In multistorey buildings, floor-to-ceiling facade openings can be divided into three different vertical zones per storey in terms of their essential functional aspects (Fig. A 5.6) [7]. The incidence of radiation energy is the same in all zones and directly proportional to the opening surface or glazed area, but the impact of surfaces on a space’s natural lighting increases the further they are from the ground. The parapet area is of secondary importance for incident daylight, while the upper zone is crucial for providing light into the depths of spaces [8]. The light from this zone is usually referred to as “borrowed light”. Efficient shading to prevent rooms from over­ heating should move up from below, which is not generally the case with typical sunscreen systems. For people sitting and standing, the middle area (also referred to as the field of vision) is of crucial importance for visual contact with the outside. It is also important for light­ ing and of great relevance as concerns glare. In an environment with multistorey ­buildings, parapet and borrowed light zones should be taken into account in the context of views and screens. Higher storey users often want glazed parapets to provide visual support in the form of a structural element or printing on panes of glass. Floor-to-ceiling glazing conveys spaciousness in our per­ ception of a space and usually has an advan­ tageous effect on the facade’s impact and design. Temporary thermal insulation (e.g. roller blinds) that reduces heat loss through trans­ mission and radiant heat loss in the cool hours of the night has an equally positive effect in all three areas.








A 5.8

A 5.9

Exhaust air

Neutral zone


Fresh air

Thermal layer

Effective free / natural ventilation Space depth = max. 3x space height A 5.10

In keeping with temperature layering, open­ ings for incoming or exhaust air should be near the floor or ceiling so as to make use of thermal forces for efficient natural ventilation (if interior air temperature > outside tempera­ ture) (Fig. A 5.10). The most important aspects of all three zones can be summarised as follows: 1. Lower zone (parapets): •  Of secondary importance for incident ­daylight •  Solar power yields as required •  Shade to deflect high levels of solar radiation (before all other zones) •  Openings for fresh air 2. Middle zone (field of vision): •  Visual contact with the outside •  Natural lighting •  Individually adjustable anti-glare screens •  Shade to deflect high levels of solar radiation 3. Upper zone (borrowed light): •  The most important zone for lighting spaces with daylight; ideally light deflec­ tion or diffusion into the depths of the space to avoid very steep falls in levels of incident daylight

A 5.5  Table showing a qualitative record of typical ­exterior conditions as different cases and ­resulting demands (performance profile) on ­permeable envelopes in Central Europe. ­Demands for protection from the sun and glare often conflict with demands for the use of daylight, views and natural ventilation. ­Continuous ventilation requires that openings be effectively protected against undesired ­influences from outside. A 5.6  Schematic representation of zoning and classi­ fication of functions and their influence on ­permeability to radiation and air in buildings A 5.7   Pieter Janssens Elinga, Woman reading, 1670, Munich, Alte Pinakothek. The reader wants to protect herself from the gaze of those out­ side or not be distracted by views. She uses the window’s most effective upper zone to let daylight light the room. A shutter closes the ­middle zone. A 5.8  Issues in the envelope •  Type of surface (even, curved etc.) •  Allocation of performance profiles •  Fixed or moveable or openable •  Opaque, translucent or transparent a A single structure fulfils all functions b Various planar structural components take on different functions c As for “b”, but with moveable structural ­components A 5.9  Issues with elements perpendicular to the ­envelope •  Implementation of the performance profile •  Selection and interaction of structures •  Position and order of structures •  Modifiability of structures •  Moveability of structures a Structures determine the envelope’s perme­ ability and modifiability b As for “a”, but with structures that are not ­parallel to the envelope c As for “a”, but with some moveable struc­ tures or as a structural element that moves as whole A 5.10 Sketch for natural ventilation based on ther­ mal pressure differences (exterior temperature < interior temperature)


Fundamentals I

1 Requirements and protective functions – building physics fundamentals 50 Thermal insulation 51 Humidity protection, sealing, ­ 59 driving rain resistance Permeability to air, joint permeability and minimum air exchange rates 61 Protection against cold and damp – summary remarks 65 Sound insulation 66 Fire protection 70 Electromagnetic damping 73 Mechanical requirements 73 Barrier-free openings 78 Lighting and views 79 Criteria used in evaluating and assessing glazing 80 Dimensions and tolerances 80 Durability and service life 82 2 Materials, components, types of construction Glass as a filling material Other filling materials Types of windows, frame profiles and joining techniques Windows in roof areas Fire-resistant glazing Opening elements as natural smoke and heat exhaust ventilators Electronic components

86 86 96 99 113 116 117 118

3 Building connection and structural context120 3-layer model 121 Mounting and load transfer 122 Sealing of structural connection joints 129 Trades and scheduling 136 Installation elements and modifications in the opening area 136 Exterior doors 139 Facade types – concepts and systems 144

Horizontal folding shutters of perforated copper sheet, conservatoire Claude Debussy, Paris (F) 2013, Basalt ­Architecture

4 Working with historic windows in existing buildings and architectural monuments148 Construction principles of various windows149 Functions 153 Window materials 157 Strengthening: range of situations 161 Summary 167 49

Materials, components, types of construction Jan Cremers

B 2.1

Windows and other opening structural elem­ ents in building envelopes consist of a range of individual elements, which will be explained below, moving from inside to out, beginning with the materials used to cover and close up openings such as glass, translucent or opaque panels etc., continuing with the frames made of various materials that usually hold these ­planar structural components and concluding with fittings and materials for joining compo­ nents. The next section opens with an over­ view of typical window structures, followed by descriptions of solutions (again at the compo­ nent level) that can be used to create particular properties, including soundproofing and fire protection. The chapter concludes with other added or integrated elements such as motors, sensors and the like. Glass as a filling material From the earliest period of the history of con­ struction, people have looked for ways to close openings in building envelopes while retaining their most important properties, letting in light and providing views (even when the opening is closed) as well as controlling the exchange of air through the opening and offering a certain degree of thermal insulation (see “The historic development of the window – from its origins through to the early modern era”, p. 12ff.).

Mechanical properties

B 2.1 Fibreglass plastic window profiles as semi-­ finished product B 2.2 Properties of soda-lime glass in float glass, ­annealed glass, toughened safety glass and ­multi-pane insulating glass (MIG), values for 2014 B 2.3  Manufacture of glass products for openings B 2.4 From basic to functional glass: possibilities for ­further processing flat glass


2.5 g/cm3 Density Scratch hardness on the Mohs scale 5 – 6 Tensile strength 30 – 90 N/mm2 Compressive strength 700–900 N/mm2 Bending tensile strength – float glass 45 N/mm2 Bending tensile strength – annealed glass 70 N/mm2 Bending tensile strength – toughened ­ 120 N/mm2   safety glass E-module 70,000 N/mm2 Under tension, linear expansion to breaking point Optical properties Light transmission float glass 4 mm Solar transmission float glass 4 mm Surface emissivity ε Refractive index Thermal properties Thermal conductivity Specific thermal capacity

approx. 87 % approx. 80 % approx. 89 % approx. 1.5 0.80 W/mK 720 – 800 J/kgK

Wood (in lattice structures or as closed sur­ faces such as shutters), grass, straw and reeds, specially worked natural stone (includ­ ing translucent ones such as alabaster), ceramic materials (e.g. fired clay), metals (as sheeting, rods and grilles), textiles, leather, parchment or even paper and more recently plastics have all been used as filling materials. Glass is still of paramount importance as a material for closing building openings and has been used for this purpose at least since the Roman period (see “A brief, yet unsustainable flourishing”, p. 13). To make the soda-lime glass now generally used in construction, a mixture of 72 % of a glass-forming substance (quartz sand / ­silica), 14 % flux agent (soda), 10 % stabiliser (lime) and certain oxides (magnesium or ­aluminium oxide) to improve its physical ­properties is heated to approx. 1,550 °C and melted. This inorganic molten material does not crystallise when cooled quickly, so glass continues to behave like a liquid when it hard­ ens. Glass’s unordered molecular structure is the physical prerequisite for its central prop­ erty – transparency. During the manufacturing process, glass can also be dyed, although this changes its optical qualities such as its light transmission level. Glass’s inherent pale green colour can be reduced or almost eliminated by the careful

Resistance to temperature differences  40 K   across the pane (float glass) 150 K Resistance to temperature differences   across the pane (toughened safety glass) Thermal expansion 0.009 mm /mK Softening temperature approx. 560 °C Ug value, single pane 4 mm 5.8 W/m2K Other properties Sound insulation, float glass 3 mm approx. 22 – 24 dB electrical conductivity (dry)  Isolator up to ­approx. 600 °C gas-tight Gas density (incl. H2O) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, Standard glass thicknesses, 12, 15, 19 mm   flat glass 3,210 ≈ 6,000 mm Standard float glass – panel 3,210 mm ≈ Maximum float glass format approx. 16 m   (incl. coated) 3,210 mm ≈ 15 m Max. format for toughened /   annealed glass Max. format for MIG 3,210 mm ≈ 15 m (double) B 2.2

Materials, components, types of construction

Glass products for facades Cast glass ­(rolling process)

Pressed glass

Cross section profiling

Surface profiling

1st level (Primary shaping)

Sheet glass (drawn glass)

Float glass

Metal inlay 2nd level (Reshaping as part of the ­manufacturing process)

Prestressed Lamination

Adhered with spacers Hollow glass bricks, concrete glass

Profiled glass

Cast glass, o­rnamental glass

Wired glass

Single glass

Single-pane ­toughened safety glass /annealed glass panes

Laminated safety glass panes

Insulating glass

3rd level (Refining, finishing) B 2.3

selection of raw materials, e.g. by using a lower proportion of iron oxide (Fe2O3), which is referred to as low-iron or extra-white glass and costs about 30 % more than ordinary glass. Using glass of this quality, especially in thick glass structures or where there are ­several panes together with a high total thick­ ness, will increase transparency significantly (Fig. B 3.76 a, p. 147). Since it is a purely mineral material, glass is not flammable and has no predefined melting point. It becomes malleable above its soften­ ing temperature (approx. 560 °C). Increasing its temperature further reduces its viscosity. Glass is very resistant to alkaline solutions and acids (apart from hydrofluoric acid). It has a fairly hard surface, so it is more durable and robust than alternative transparent materials, including plastics such as polycarbonate (PC), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) or ethylene tetrafluorethylene (ETFE). Like metal, glass of and above a certain thickness is absolutely gas-tight. Fig. B 2.2 illustrates some of glass’s other properties. Wired glass

Wired glass is a special cast glass with an embedded wire netting. If it breaks, shards stick to its wire netting. Since it does not have the greater mechanical strength of tough­ ened safety glass or any safety features as defined in the DIN 18 361 standard, it is not ­formally regarded as safety glass. It is often used as ornamental glass with a profiled ­surface, which limits the view through it. Wired glass is often used for its appearance, as ­fire-resistant glazing (fire resistance class G30), as shatterproof glazing in roofs with a maximum span of < 100 cm or in vertical glazing 180 – 200 cm above the floor away from traffic areas. Like polished wired glass (DIN EN 572-3), which was formerly known as wired mirror glass, the optical quality of wired glass is not as good as that of float glass because it is not as flat and even. The maximum size of a pane of wired glass is typically 3,820 mm long and 1,980 mm wide with a nominal thickness ranging from 6 to 10 mm.

Flat glass

Flat glass for construction is manufactured using three main primary shaping processes (Fig. B 2.3): a rolling process (cast glass), the Fourcault process (sheet, plate or drawn glass) developed in 1904, and the float method (float glass) invented in 1958. I­ndustry has been using the latter since the 1960s, and it is now used to produce 95 % of all flat glass. The float method involves ­pouring molten glass onto a bed of liquid tin and cooling it until the glass can be removed in solid form. The result is very plane-parallel, distortion-free flat glass. The glass’s thick­ ness (approx. 0.5 –25 mm) depends on the speed at which the solid glass is drawn out of the semi-liquid mass. As float glass is the source material used for making many other glass products with particular func­ tional properties, it is also called ‘basic glass’ (Fig. B 2.4). Further processing of float glass

Float glass is almost always processed further to improve its functional or design properties. Often several methods are used to process panes of glass before different panes are joined or combined to form functional units.

Annealed, tempered and toughened glass Tempered or toughened glass as defined in DIN EN 12 150-1 is float glass that is heated to about 600 – 650 °C then cooled abruptly with cold air. This cools its surface quickly, but the pane’s core initially remains viscous and only contracts later during further cooling. This ­special thermal treatment creates tensile stress on the inside and compressive stress on the surface that toughen the glass, making it more impact-resistant, elastic and less sensitive to changes in temperature than normal float glass. If it breaks, the energy stored in the ten­ sion is released and the glass shatters sud­ denly into small, harmless blunt pieces that present little risk of injury (Fig. B 2.6, p. 88). If toughened glass is installed in areas in which it is exposed to large temperature fluctuations (e.g. rear-ventilated exterior wall cladding), DIN 18 516-4 stipulates that it must undergo a heat-soak test before installation to minimise the risk of the pane shattering without any apparent exterior action. Panes can spontan­ eously shatter when nickel-sulphide inclusions in the glass matrix are warmed by the sun and expand. If the pane passes the test in con­ trolled conditions without damage, it is unlikely to subsequently shatter spontaneously.

Thermal pre-stressing

Safety glass

Adhesion of surfaces

Sound insulating glass


Fire protection glass



Multi-pane glazing Optically variable / translucent glass



Glass that protects against sun and heat B 2.4


Materials, components, types of construction







9 9


17 1 Fixed sash frame 2 Frame 3 Dibble (mullion) 4 Transom (cross bar) 5 Tilting sash 6 Glazing 7 Windowsill (window ledge) 8 Sash frame 9 Window fittings

4 10




11 14

15 16

10 Turning sash 11 Vertical frame wood 12 Wooden top bar of the sash frame 13 Wooden top bar of the frame 14 Vertical sash frame 15 Bottom bar of the frame 16 Wooden bottom bar of the sash frame 17 Secondary sash

B 2.37

Multiple windows 1. Coupled window: •  Two separate sashes combined (formerly main and ‘cleaning’ pane), one fixed right behind the other on one frame •  ‘Cleaning pane’ can also be directly fixed to the main pane •  Fixed pane is moved to open the window 2. Double-hung window: •  Two separate single windows (frames / sashes), not structurally connected, no surrounding lining (no casement) 3. Casement window: •  Two separate single windows (frames / sashes), structurally connected by a ­surrounding lining (casement) •  Frame and sashes form a casement •  Each single window can be opened ­separately •  Larger space between the panes improves sound insulation •  Space between the panes in the casement can also be used (e.g. for installing sun­ screen systems)



Combinations of various sashes and glaz­ ing can improve both sound and thermal ­insulation in all types of multiple windows. The space between the sashes or glazing is not built to be gastight, so there is a risk of condensation forming, which can be ­minimised by ventilation to expel air. The ­geometric structure of double-hung and ­casement windows must allow the individual sashes to move appropriately (Fig. B 2.40 and Fig. B 2.42). Coupled windows are currently undergoing a renaissance as a highly integrated product, typically as a combination of a single-glazed outside opening sash and a double or tripleglazed inner sash. A moveable sunscreen can be integrated into the space between the panes (Fig. B 2.41), which, compared with exterior sunscreens on standard windows, does not impact the insulation in and around the lintel. Such windows can also be used as escape and emergency exit doors or windows in emergencies. Casing solutions consist of a case and spe­ cially adapted windows (Fig. B 2.39 g). These





two components make it possible for different kinds of tradesmen to easily install windows without additional subsequent work. After installation is completed, the casing remains visible. Window casing frames a window on four sides, while door casing forms a frame on three sides of a door (top, left, right). Casing solutions are important elements in a building’s structural connections and are described in more detail in the section on “Casings and encased windows” (p. 126f.). A subframe (Fig. B 3.11 d, p. 124) for win­ dows and doors is a frame structure installed in the building shell that is no longer visible when the window is installed. Subframes were once always made of wood but are now made of metal or plastic and can offer ­certain advantages depending on the struc­ tural situation: •  Protects the window during construction •  Makes it easier to replace windows sub­ sequently •  Simplifies installation in the insulation layer in front of masonry (with a plastic subframe as an alternative to mounting brackets).

B 2.40 c






e B 2.38


B 2.39



B 2.41

Materials, components, types of construction

Frames used in openings are usually made of wood, metal, plastic or a composite of these materials. In 2013, the percentages of the various materials used for frames in Germany were as follows: 57.6 % of 13.1 million window units were made of ­plastic, 18.4 % of aluminium, 15.7 % of wood and 8.3 % of a wood-aluminium combination [11]. Developments are currently moving away from single materials towards mater­ ial combinations because of higher user demands (especially better thermal insulation), the greater design options and lower costs that composite materials offer, and the increas­ ing availability of more complex manufacturing processes. Frames are usually not formally classified as load-bearing structural elements but must be able to meet all the demands made on them (see “Mechanical requirements”, p. 73ff.). Some have specific properties due to their materials, but they also share many structural features (Fig. B 2.43). Fig. B 2.44 (p. 102) ­provides an overview of the main frame ­materials whose qualities and manufacturing processes may be relevant to planners. The effect of some qualities of frames depends largely on their material. Dark surfaces, for example, absorb more thermal radiation, so they always have higher temperatures and rates of inherent thermal expansion, which must be taken into account in structures because it can greatly accelerate the ageing of some materials. Wooden frames

Wood was the only material used for frames for centuries, allowing a wealth of experience in working with this material to been gained and resulting in very diverse and different

local structures. Not all types of wood are ­suitable for building windows, particularly ­windows subject to special demands. Timber used in window frames must be evenly grown, long and straight with few knots. It must be durable, weatherproof, age only slowly, have sufficient mechanical strength, not shrink, crack or warp, and be resistant to fungus and insects. Wood used to have to be locally available and easy to work, but the former requirement is now no longer so important since many kinds of timber from a wide range of countries (Fig. B 2.45) meet most of the ­criteria listed above. DIN EN 13 556 “Round and sawn timber – Nomenclature of timbers used in Europe” ­contains the standard international trade names of and abbreviations for timbers. Wood tends to have positive emotional asso­ ciations and is a renewable raw material. The kinds of timber normally used are readily available, inexpensive and easy to work. As well as being aesthetically pleasing, wood has good physical and structural properties and a favourable environmental balance because timber products and materials nat­ urally store CO2. One cubic metre of wood weighing 500 kg captures approximately 1.83 times as much CO2 through photosynthe­ sis. The amount of CO2 that wood uses during its growth can be used to generate energy by burning it at the end of its life cycle. A young, growing tree captures more CO2 than an old tree, so sustainable forestry makes an import­ ant contribution to climate protection. Using wood as a building material increases carbon sequestration and reduces the greenhouse effect. Shortening transport routes and using wooden products’ good thermal insulating

B 2.37  Wooden-frame window structures B 2.38 Varieties of window profile stops (especially those made of wood) and rebates a Simple butt rebate b Double rebate c Gueule de loup d Clamp rebate e Variation of Gueule de loup B 2.39  Types of window structures a Window with single glazing b Window with multi-pane insulating glazing MIG (double) c Window with multi-pane insulating glazing MIG (double, greater profile depth) d Window with multi-pane insulating glazing MIG (triple) e Composite window (two single panes) f Composite window (single plus double pane) g Cased window h Casement window (single plus double pane) B 2.40 Opening options for casement windows depend­ ing on their geometry B 2.41 Composite window with mobile sun protection ­installed in the space between the two panes; can be used in any wind conditions a Uw value 0.68 – 0.99 W/m2K b Uw value up to 0.64 W/m2K B 2.42  Example of a complex casement window B 2.43 Names of different parts of a window, taking a plastic pivot/tilt frame profile as the example

 1 Glazing   2 Sealing profile   3 Glass retaining strip  4 Blocking   5 Fitting groove, strike plate or glass retaining strip   6 Stop sealing   7 Inner prechamber   8 Inner reveal   9 Profile depth 10 Outer reveal 11 Outer prechamber

12 Frame facing 13 Frame reveal 14 Frame facing depth 15 Facing depth 16 Glass stop 17 Glass seal 18 Rebate dimension 19 Axial dimension 20 Rebate air 21 Sash reveal 22 Sash facing depth 23 Facing depth

Depth 1 17


2 3 4



14 Height

Frame materials

13 12



20 21




23 7



9 B 2.42

B 2.43


Materials, components, types of construction

B 2.56

Special highly insulating frames combining various materials with solid core insulation are also composite frames. The following material combinations are ­currently available: •  Plastic-aluminium (with a growing market share) •  Wood-bronze •  Wood-GRP (Fig. B 2.58) Ventilation components integrated into frames

Ventilation openings can be integrated into or around windows to more efficiently use natural ventilation or be combined with mechanical ventilation (e.g. in exhaust air systems). They have either a certain permanent ventilation cross-section or can be regulated or self-regu­ lating using integrated flaps (see “Technical building components in and around windows”, p. 198ff.). Connection between glass and frame

The structural connection between a window’s glass and frame takes on a range of functions during the service life of opening ­elements: •  Mechanical securing of the window in posi­ tion and fixing •  Seals against wind and rain •  Absorbs movement and deformation •  Protects the pane’s edge bond •  Enables the pane to be replaced The following paragraphs will deal with current common ways of ensuring these in detail. Blocking glazing units Whatever the frame’s material, properly stor­ ing glass panes is essential in glazing work [19]. Setting blocks ensure that frame and glazing do not directly touch at any point by providing clearly defined support points. Blocks are set after the rebate is prepared and before glazing is sealed, with the aim of distributing the pane’s weight and transferring it into the frame to prevent additional loads being imposed on the pane, e.g. due to changes in temperature or movement of the sash. To a certain extent, blocks can also be used to ensure the frames are aligned at a right angle (“upright blocks”). 108

B 2.57

The pane itself should not be load-bearing unless that is a certified feature of the product, e.g. glued glass and frame elements. Wood or plastic blocks must be secured against ­slipping. They are available in various thick­ nesses ranging from 1 to 6 mm and are uni­ formly identified by means of specific colours. They range from 60 to 100 mm in length and are typically 2 mm wider than glazing. Various types of blocks can be differentiated according to their function. •  Bearing blocks have a load-bearing ­function. •  Spacer blocks ensure a minimum distance between the rebate base and pane, e.g. in case elements slip or to absorb particular loads in certain types of openings. Spacer blocks may be elastic in such cases. •  The bridge form of glazing bridge packers in a smooth rebate base ensures a continuous spatial join so that pressure can be equalised all along the frame and any water can drain away. This is especially important in woodframe windows. The distance between a block and the edge of the pane should be one block length, so at 60 –100 mm, at least 20 mm and at most 250 mm for very wide panes. Openings for pressure equalisation must be kept free. To reliably prevent “droplet bridges” the glass rebate base and glazing should be at least 5 mm apart. Special arrangements of spacer blocks and bearing blocks designed to absorb various loads must be used for ­different kinds of sashes. Blocks that can be adjusted during the window’s service life are sometimes set into wooden-framed windows, and the spaces for these must remain more or less easily accessible. Bearing and spacer blocks are also used in attaching frames to buildings and to differen­ tiate them may be referred to as supporting blocks (see “Load transfer”, p. 124f.). Glazing rebates, rebate drainage and pressure equalisation A glazing rebate is a usually grooved space, including blocks and sealing, that holds a pane in a frame. It is designed to protect the pane’s

B 2.58

edge bond from UV radiation by covering it and to securely and durably hold the pane in place while meeting all the various other requirements (e.g. ensuring that the rebate is ventilated and airtight) as well as reducing ­thermal bridges around edge bonds. The height of a glazing rebate depends on the longest edge of the pane (0.5 – 3.5 m / > 3.5 m). DIN 18 545-1 specifies 18 or 20 mm for multi-pane insulating glass (for a pane edge of < 0.5 m, at least 14 mm). The glass inset is typically about 2/3 the height of the glazing rebate. Voids in frames, such as sealant-free glazing rebates, in which moisture from condensation or infiltrating water can collect must remain permanently open towards the outside without allowing more water to permeate. Moisture ­collecting in such voids can directly damage wooden frames, but whatever the frame mater­ ial, water vapour pressure can impair the edge bonds of insulating glazing. Openings that prevent this are referred to as vapour pressure equalisation openings. They must be open towards the outside and be installed in front of the middle seal or in rebate gasket systems (Fig. B 2.59). Typical openings are round holes with a diam­ eter of 8 mm or slits 8 ≈ 20 mm [20]. There must be at least three in the lower horizontal rebate and at least one in the upper corner (Fig. B 2.60). Glass sealing

High loads caused by direct exposure to weather and variations in thermal expansion make permanently sealing joints between panes and frame materials a major tech­ nical challenge. [21] Malleable window putty has been used as a sealant in this area for ­centuries. Permanently elastic sealants and sealing profiles have only become available fairly recently. Windows sealed with sealants are described as ‘wet-glazed’ in contrast to dry glazing, which uses sealing profiles. DIN 18 545 defines various groups of loads on glazing, and information on various aspects of these are shown in Fig. B 2.61 (p. 110). Glazing with a filled rebate (Va) is now only used in special cases in single-pane windows.

Materials, components, types of construction

•  Downwards in front of the windowsill •  For some type of joints sideways through the frame corner joint a

•  With thicker frames, down­ wards and upwards through the frame corner joint •  With thin frames, downwards through slits and holes b

Glazing with a sealant-free rebate (Vf) is ­currently standard in insulating window units. Vapour pressure equalisation is essential to these. Glazing tape is often used as a spacer between the rebate and pane and to even out small irregularities (Fig. B 2.62, p. 111), while its thickness and installation depth ensure that the joint has the correct dimensions (at least 3 ≈ 5 mm). [22] Sealants The main malleable sealant still in use today, especially in renovating old windows, is ­window putty, which is a mixture of 85 % ­whiting (calcium carbonate) and 15 % boiled linseed oil. Unlike synthetic sealants like sili­ cone, linseed oil putty can be painted over with special linseed oil paint a week after instal­ lation. It should be left to harden for four to six weeks before being painted over with synthetic resin paints. The cleaned rebate of a wooden window frame should be primed with a semi-oil under­ coat (and left to dry for one day) to prevent the dry frame wood drawing oil out of the linseed oil putty. Metal-frame windows should be painted with linseed oil anti-rust (iron oxide) paint before glazing and then with linseed oil paint in the desired colour. The durability of window putty as a sealing material depends mainly on the putty’s moist oil content, which keeps it smooth and flexible. If putty is too dry, it will crack and no longer function. After application, putty residues on the frame and on the glass should be removed promptly with chalk powder. As well as classic window putty, a wide range of sealing materials with different properties is now available (Fig. B 2.63). They are made of one or two components and are relatively resilient. UV radiation resistance and compati­ bility with paints, the edge bonds of insulating windowpanes and other adjoining materials are their most important features. Glass rebates must be dry, clean and free of grease and oil before sealants are applied. To seal woodenframe windows, it is necessary to prime the glass rebate and glazing strips and give them an intermediate coat of paint before installing the glass. The manufacturer’s specifications

•  Through the frame corner joint into adjoining areas and from there outwards •  If there is recessed wind proofing, also sideways through the frame corner joint c

•  Through the joint with the frame into adjoining areas and from there out­ wards d B 2.59

should be observed (e.g. sealing should not be done at sub-zero temperatures; air bubbles and moisture will cause it to leak). Vapour pres­ sure equalisation must always function in a sealant-free rebate. The right joint dimensions are also essential to the durability of glass sealing because joints that are too small can easily rupture. Glazing tape is often used to line joints on the inside (Fig. B 2.62, see also “Sealing tapes”, p. 133). Sealing should be trowelled flat on the side exposed to weather so that ­rainwater can run off easily and corners should be rounded. Some sealants require an extra surface coating to durably protect them from weather. Sealing systems and profiles When choosing a sealing system for an ­insulating glass unit it should be ensured that the system is compatible with the unit’s edge bonds and that the unit has a dry glass rebate and an opening to the outside (for vapour pressure equalisation). Various sealing systems and combinations of systems are currently in use. While double-sided sealants have typically been used in wooden frames, complete ­sealing profiles are typically employed in plas­ tic and metal frames and are now available for some wooden-frame windows. These ­prefabricated and permanently elastic pro­ files elastically join frames and glass, and seal them against water and air. If the rebate is sealant-free, a minimal air exchange rate and water penetration is acceptable as long as moisture can drain away (vapour pressure equalisation). Their resilience is essential because it ensures even contact pressure and that they will function even in cases of movement or varying thickness ­tolerances. Sealing profiles with different ­geometries are available, some with voids in the profile, and are made of various materials depending on the application (Fig. B 2.64). They must ensure a seal along their length, including in corners, so a butt joint on the mitre is excluded. Depending on the mater­ ials involved, the following joining techniques can be used:

B 2.56 Aluminium-wooden window with flush sashes and angled interior view B 2.57 Aluminium-wooden window as composite ­window B 2.58 Very slender thermal insulating window profile made of glass fibre reinforced plastic (GRP) B 2.59 Vapour pressure equalisation openings and their function (using the example of a woodenframed window) a Fixed glazing b Sash c Bar d Sash bars B 2.60 Openings for rebate drainage and ventilation in window sashes a Positioning and spacing of holes and slits in window sashes (schematic) b Wooden sash frame with a rebate groove and hole c Wooden sash frame with bridging block and slits

≤ 10 1 2 3

≤ 10

≤ 10 ≤ 60 ≤ 60

≤ 10 b

a 4 1 2 3 4 5

Pane block Rebate groove Hole max. 8 mm Bridging block Slit approx. 5/20 mm



B 2.60


Working with historic windows in existing buildings and architectural monuments




On the one hand, composite window constructions avoided a big drawback of the already tried and tested shell glazing, described in more detail in the next section, whose pane cavity could not be opened for cleaning. On the other, condensation that formed in the ­cavity not only obscured the view, but also damaged the construction, paint coat and ­glazing, chipping away at users’ acceptance. Insulating glass was developed to address these problems. The composite window was a technological progression of the single-glazed window, and until insulating glass reached the market in Germany in the 1970s, it remained the most energy-efficient, user-friendly and cost-saving window (Fig. B 4.1, p. 148 and B 4.12). Shell glazing

Various designs and constructions evolved in the course of development and energetic improvement of windows in the early 20th ­century. Shell-glazed windows are a significant variation appearing along the way to ­insulating glass windows that dominate today’s market. It is a genius reworking of a ­single-glazed window with characteristics of the composite window and insulating glass. Shell windows are special glazings, where an additional glass rebate is milled into the inner side of a regular profiled or chamfered shadow line of the single-glazed window leaf to hold

B 4.14





B 4.12

a second pane of glass. This results in double glazing with a continuously sealed cavity between the two panes (Fig. B 4.14). Structurally and appearance-wise in terms of visible width, profiles and cross section, the shell ­window is related to the single-glazed window of the early 20th century (Fig. B 4.15 and B 4.16). However, all efforts to protect the ­cavity formed between glass panes from dust accumulation and condensation and the glass itself from becoming opaque have been futile (Fig. B 4.19), and for this reason, shell windows never caught on, displaced by the composite window. For trade and industrial buildings, improved thermal window properties were not an issue at the end of the 19th century. Only in the 1920s and 1930s, in the context of architectural rationalisation, did shell windows get a chance. Functional windows that could be manufactured quickly, saved material and man-hours and optimised light efficiency were in demand. In addition, common, cheap ma­­ terials (steel and iron) and manufacturing technologies required for shell windows were also available everywhere, both with and without industrial prefabrication. Windows were primarily manufactured from pinewood. Oak was used only for heavier-duty frames and leaf crossbars such as rain guards. Pull-glass panes with slight ripples, streaks and veins were set into the glass rebate using linseed oil.


B 4.15

B 4.13

The windows featured fish hinges (Fig. B 4.20) with a rounded end, as well as espagnolettes with period window turns and sash locks (Fig. B 4.21). Wood surfaces were painted with lead white paint for protection [3]. Extensive use of shell windows in industrial and trade buildings is closely connected to the architecture of Philipp Jakob Manz, who at the beginning of the 20th century was one of the most important and influential European industrial architects. His office realised between 80 –100 projects a year and was one of the most productive in Europe. Manz can be credited with rigorous rationalisation of all construction sectors. Manz’s motto was ­progressive production, optimisation and checking all work processes for savings. For this reason, shell windows, a single-glazing ­element that was significantly improved with minimal cost, were a perfect fit for Manz’s building philosophy. Insulating glass windows

Multi-pane insulating glass (MIG) is the product of further development of constructions like box-type, shell and composite windows and their variations, but without their disadvantages such as high material and manufacture expenditure, complicated handling and ­doubled cleaning and maintenance efforts or structural-physical problems due to condensa-

B 4.16

Working with historic windows in existing buildings and architectural monuments

B 4.17

B 4.18

tion. Frame and leaf constructions of insulating glass windows are hardly different from other window constructions. In 1865, Thomas D. Stetson, an American, ­registered a patent for an idea: glass panels glued together on all edges with an air buffer between. However, it took 100 years until ­insulated glass, with special coatings and gas fillings, managed to improve the energy standard of windows and take over the market (Fig. B 4.22, p. 154). Industrial manufacturing and implementation of insulated glass began in the interwar period. Starting from the 1980s, insulating glass dominated the market. Multiplated insulation glass has experienced a whirlwind development, fuelled by the energy debate and price increases in the last 20 years. Three insulation glass types are differentiated by edge compound types: •  Welded-edge insulating glass: extremely complicated industrial manufacture achieved in the USA and Germany. •  Brazed insulating glass: Brazed insulation glass was developed in the USA, but is also manufactured and distributed in Europe (Fig. B 4.23, p. 154). Technical advancement of these early glazings filled with regular air enabled today’s glazing, with various specifications such as thermal and noise protection, security, UV filtration and more. •  Glued insulating glass: brazed and weldededge insulating glass have lost all signifi-

cance in recent years. Glued insulating glass has established itself through a simpler manufacturing process and lack of patents preventing production. Experiences gathered from safety glass implementation in vehicle construction contributed to the successful development of insulating glass in Germany. The first example of industrially produced MIG with glued edge was the so-called Kunzendorfer double glass.

B 4.19

A glued edge bond consisting of a profile (spacer) and glue is standard to this day. Depending on requirements, glued double and triple-insulating glass windows are also manufactured as compound constructions (see also “Multi-pane insulating glazing” and Fig. B 2.15, p. 91).

Rotating leaf, tilt and hinge windows

The modern standard window in Central Europe is a rotating/tilting window opening inward. For reasons of design, functionality and specific use, lower frames are also alternatively fitted with tilting leafs and symmetrical hinge leafs. In the course of history, only side, lower or upper hinged leafs were manufactured. Only with the development of an outlying special fitting did the turn-and-tilt function appear in the 1960s. This technical improvement is the currently commonplace single-hand turn-and-tilt hinge. Outward opening windows

Rigid window closings (see “The historic development of the window – from its origins to the early modern era”, p. 12ff.) were first to be created, and many construction and functional principles for them were developed in the course of history. As buildings became increasingly climatically controlled, the window was needed less and less for ventilation, with rigid glazing often defining an entire facade today.

B 4.12 Original composite window, Robert Bosch house, Stuttgart (D) 1910, Jakob Früh, Carl Heim a View b  Vertical section c  Horizontal section B 4.13  Robert Bosch house, Stuttgart (D) B 4.14  System drawing of a shell window B 4.15 Original shell window, administrative building, Kreuzlingen (D) 1911 a View b  Vertical section B 4.16  Administrative building, Kreuzlingen (D) 1911 B 4.17 Sash window crank, Robert Bosch house, ­Stuttgart (D) 1910 B 4.18 Original aluminium window handle, Villa Wagner, Friedrichshafen (D) 1965 B 4.19 Contaminated shell window cavity caused by paint chipping, etc. B 4.20  Profiled hinge B 4.21  Decorated mechanical window turn

B 4.20

B 4.21

Functions Fixed glazing


Part C  Fundamentals II

1 Passive solar energy use Solar energy – location and structural ­orientation Solar and thermal radiation – visible light Insulating glazing – technical factors ­involving solar radiation Moveable elements in and around building openings Size and layout of openings Use of daylight


2  Active solar energy use Principles of active solar energy conversion Solar structural element technologies and their design potential Efficiency and profitability Active solar technology combined with ­opening elements


3 Technical building components in and around windows Ventilation and air conditioning Heating Lighting 4 Life-cycle assessments for windows and exterior doors Life-cycle assessments Life-cycle assessment data in planning Usage – the service life and life-cycle ­assessments of buildings The influence of doors and windows on a building's life-cycle assessment Environmental impact and window size

171 172 177 180 182 186

191 191 194 196 198 198 204 206 208 208 212 214 215 216

Fig. C Double facade with motorised opening panels for natural ventilation, KfW-Westarkade, Frankfurt (D) 2010, Sauerbruch Hutton


Active solar energy use

A wide variety of these technologies is avail­ able, ranging in form from two systems installed one above the other through to specially manufactured standard products (Fig. C 2.12). The structural and design conditions they require are similar to those for individual photovoltaic and solar thermal components. Bioreactor elements

C 2.10

The bioreactor facade is still a very recent development and has been created for the first time on a large scale in a pilot project in Hamburg (Fig. C 2.13). This facade’s energy convertors are the first prototype bioreactors for integration into a building and consist of an aluminium frame that holds two panes of glass separated by a spacer profile. The element, 2.60 ≈ 0.70 metres in size, is only 20 mm thick and has a volume of about 24 l. The space between the panes is filled with a fluid medium rich in nutrient salts in which algae grow. An inlet pipe and drainpipe connect the modules to a circulating system. Compressed air keeps the medium in constant movement, which in the current prototypes can cause audible noise. Integrating such a system into a building envelope would involve costly and complex installation. On the other hand, bioreactor ­elements could be made in a very wide range of sizes and formats. The potential of their structural and design possibilities has not been conclusively investigated so far.

C 2.11

Efficiency and profitability

C 2.12

The efficiency of solar systems integrated into buildings depends on a number of factors. Based on the solar constant in the universe, the effective annual level of solar radiation on a specific building envelope depends on its location, orientation and shade situation. This represents the solar system’s maximal utilisable potential. How much solar radiation a building envelope can convert into energy depends on the efficiency of the technology used. This is in turn product-specific, not constant, and can depend on other factors, such as system temperatures. The maximum specific collector yield per square metre ranges from less than Balance sheet item

300 to over 600 kWh a year for thermal systems, while it is less than 50 to over 150 kWh for photovoltaic plants. It must be noted that these systems work with different forms of energy: heat and power. A heat pump, for example, can generate up to 4 kWh of heat from 1 kWh of power. In identifying levels of actual utilisable energy, it is important to establish how well energy needs correspond with solar gains over the course of the day and year, because energy that is not directly used requires some form of storage, which results in further losses. It is not unusual for up to half the energy generated by collectors in thermal systems to be unavailable for operating a building due to storage losses. The possibility of feeding electricity into the public power grid means that all the energy photo­ voltaic plants generate can usually be used, if not in the building itself. As well as optimising the demand structure, the directly used proportion of power can be increased by distributed power storage. Since using the power you generate yourself is usually financially more attractive than feeding power into a public grid, this can have a very positive effect, although the efficiency of storage and additional costs must be taken into account. The profitability of a solar system integrated into a building involves complex issues that need to be differentiated. Profitability is the ratio of cost to benefit (Fig. C 2.14) and, in this case, the cost is mainly the investment in a solar system, whose operating costs will be very low. Collectors and photovoltaic modules are generally the largest items on the system costs balance sheet. Solutions integrated into the building envelope reduce the costs of an alternative roof or facade structure, although higher costs for auxiliary energy and servicing and maintaining the solar system are incurred. The system’s main benefit is the energy generated: directly usable energy, which saves heating or power costs, as well as a possible energy surplus. Depending on the concept, this power can be sold and fed into a power or local heat network for external use and remunerated as such. Alternatively, it can be stored locally, although here a comparison of the costs and benefits of storage

Economic evaluation

Investment costs

Added costs compared with alternative building envelope solution

Operating costs

Costs for auxiliary energy, servicing and maintenance Added costs compared with alternative building envelope solution


Directly usable energy

Saving of energy procurement costs

Benefit Energy surplus C 2.13


Local storage: expense and efficiency of storage solution Feed-in: revenue from the sale of energy C 2.14

Active solar energy use



Direct use




Revenues /costs

Open a­bsorber


Heating Cooling

Heating water to low temperatures, used in heating pools or as energy source for heat pumps or cooling element for radiation cooling

Integrated into buildings usually as metal roof or facade ­elements with a heat exchan­ ger on the back; mainly ordin­ ary structural elements with an extra solar-active function, hydraulic connection with ­supply and return pipes

Look like conventional surfaces; can be any colour and structure; ­efficiency depends on surface ­coating; dark surfaces are more ­absorbent

Typical efficiency 40 %, typical top operating temperature 40 °C. Structural elements cost up to 100% more than comparable ­passive elements, plus installation costs



For heating air; used for heating in ventilation systems or as energy source for heat pump

Most use ordinary rear-ventilated metal facade elements with slight modification for air intake and outlet areas



Heating of water to high temperatures, used for domestic water supply heating, heating, or ­driving heat for cooling processes

Front glass can be clear or trans­ lucent; absorber usually dark blue to black with adaptation possible; ­individually adaptable dimensions; can be completely integrated into the building envelope



For heating air, used for heating in ventilation systems or as energy source for heat pumps

Standard boxy element with a flat glass front and insulation integrated into the back. Typ­ ical size; width 100 –140 cm, height 140 – 220 cm, depth 6 –10 cm, hydraulic connection with supply and return pipes

Evacuatedtube ­collector



Heating of water to high temperatures; used for heating domestic water supply, heating, or driving heat for cooling processes

Typical for standard ­ lement: 10 – 20 pipes, e width 140 – 220 cm, length 140 – 200 cm, pipe diameter 50 –100 mm, pipe spacing 50 mm, distribution line ­attached on one side. Usually installed on metal frames, ­hydraulic connection with supply and return pipes

Glass tubes with visible, usually dark blue absorber elements; pipes available in lengths 100 – 300 cm, with a reflector element on the back or some partially transparent

Typical efficiency 80 %, typical top operating temperature 90 °C. Standard structural elements cost approx. €200 – 350 /m2, plus installation costs

Crystalline PV module

Electrical connection


Solar cells generate power and can be used in the building or the ­energy fed in to the public power grid

Typical standard element: width 80 –120 cm, length 140 –180 cm, thickness 4 – 8 mm, with metal frame 40 – 50 mm. Usually installed on metal frames or clamp ­systems like laminated glass, electrical connection

Glass surface, can have an anti-­ reflection coating or structuring, ­appearance depends on cell type, size, colour, position and rear side; all features variable, incl. size, format, transparency and rear coating structure (e.g. insulating glazing)

Typical efficiency 15 – 20 %. Standard structural elements cost approx. €100 –150 /m2, plus installation costs. Customising may entail high extra costs

Thin-film PV module

Electrical connection


Solar cells generate power that can be used in the building or fed into the public power grid

Typical standard element: width 60 cm, length 120 cm, thickness 8 –10 mm, usually mounted with a clamp system like laminated glass, electrical connection

Glass surface, anti-reflection coating or structuring possible; homogeneous cell surface determines appearance, cell colour depends on cell material; size, format, transparency and rear coating structure variable (e.g. insulating glazing)

Typical efficiency 5 –12 %. ­Standard structural elements cost approx. €70 –100 /m2, plus added installation costs. ­Customising may entail high extra costs

PVT ­ collector

Power Electrical connection, heat ­cooling fluid

Simultaneous production of power and ­heating of water; usage, see above

Typical standard element: width 80 –120 cm, length 140 –180 cm, thickness 40 – 80 mm. Usually mounted on metal frames or clamp ­systems like laminated glass, electrical and hydraulic connections

Glass surface, anti-reflection coating or structuring possible; appearance depends on cell type, size, colour, position and rear side. All features variable incl. size and format. Back side open or insulated.

Typical efficiency 15 – 20 % ­ lectrical and 60 – 80% thermal. e Standard structural elements cost approx. €400 – 600/m2, plus installation costs. Customising may entail high extra costs

Bioreactor element


Production of heat and algae by a circulating nutrient salt solution; can be further processed into biogas and biooil

Prototype: Glass-glass elem­ ent with aluminium frame: width 70 cm, height 260 cm, thickness 2 cm

Prototype: translucent, greenish fluid

Prototype status, no specific ­values available

Flat-plate collector

Heat, biomass, biogas, biooil

C 2.10 Transparent glass facade modules with integrated louvre system in the space between the panes for solar climate control in rooms, electricity generation from solar cells and light refracted into the depths of the room. The element achieves a U-value of < 0.05 W/m2K and electrical output

Typical efficiency 40 %, typical top operating temperature 40 °C. Structural elements cost slightly more than similar passive elem­ ents, plus installation costs

Typical efficiency 70 %, typical top operating temperature 70 °C. Structural elements for standard products cost approx. €150 – 250 /m2, plus installation costs. Customising may entail high extra costs Typical efficiency 60 %, typical top operating temperature 50 °C. Standard structural elements cost approx. €250 – 350 /m2, plus installation costs. Customising may entail high extra costs

of 86 Wp/m2, Stuttgart (D) 2015, Solsixy, Odilo Reutter C 2.11 Photovoltaic module with highly transparent ­organic solar cells integrated into laminated glass (visualisation) C 2.12 Structure of a hybrid collector

C 2.15 C 2.13 BIQ – Passive house with a bioreactor facade, ­Hamburg (D) 2013, SPLITTERWERK, Arup Deutschland, Bollinger + Grohmann Ingenieure, ­Immosolar, Strategic Science Consult C 2.14 Profitability of solar systems integrated into buildings C 2.15  Overview of the main planning aspects


Technical building ­components in and around windows Markus Binder

C 3.1

As well as supplying interiors with light and fresh air, one of the primary functions of win­ dows and facade openings is to let moisture and pollutants out. As construction methods become more technologically advanced, building services are increasingly supporting or even completely fulfilling these functions to more specifically achieve the desired interior conditions and save energy. From a functional perspective, various elements of building ser­ vices do not necessarily have to be directly connected with windows, but such combin­ ations are often advantageous. Combining ­functions can significantly minimise the need to create openings in a facade, which are always costly and complex to construct. Appro­ priately arranged heating elements and proper ventilation can compensate for comfort prob­ lems resulting from the typically lower levels of thermal insulation offered by windows and glazing compared with opaque facade elem­ ents. Lights integrated into facades can sup­ plement the daylight entering through win­ dows if required, while window-integrated sen­ sors and actuators can help optimise building operations by linking them with building auto­ mation systems. Ventilation and air conditioning A minimum exchange of air is required to ensure healthy, hygienic conditions in build­ ings and is traditionally provided actively by the opening of windows and passively through leaks in the building envelope (see “Perme­ ability to air, joint permeability and minimum air exchange rates”, p. 61ff.). The driving forces behind air exchange are differences in temper­ ature between the interior and exterior and wind pressure on facade surfaces. Since these ­factors depend on weather conditions, users have only a very limited influence over the exchange of air. High rates of air exchange can occur through joints in older, leaky build­ ings and cause heat losses and uncomfort­ able draughts in winter. For these reasons, buildings are now built to be airtight, so the necessary exchange of air must be ensured in other ways. 198

Required supply of fresh air

The volume flow required to supply a space with fresh outside air and release moisture, noxious and malodorous substances depends mainly on the number of people present and their activities. If physical activity levels are low, a supply of fresh air per person of 20 to 30 m3/h can be assumed. Much larger amounts of air may be required to prevent overheating if heat is also released through ventilation. Conversely, a reduced air exchange rate is sufficient outside of utilisation periods if only substances released by structural elem­ ents and equipment must be discharged. DIN 1946-6 prescribes air exchange rates for housing (see “Permeability to air, joint ­permeability and minimum air exchange rates”, p. 61ff.). As well as natural ventilation through win­ dow openings, which depends entirely on users, integrating ventilation components into windows is another way of ensuring a ­continuous supply of fresh air that meets users’ needs. Passive air vents are openings deliberately made in new buildings in and around win­ dows, through which air can flow in or out and contribute to the required exchange of air. Built-in ventilators in active, window­ integrated ventilation devices manage volume flows and can also heat or cool incoming air. The options available depend on where ventilators are installed. Figure C 3.2 provides an overview. Guidelines LU-01/1 and LU-02/1 published by the ift Rosenheim specify the properties of and ­recommendations for air vents in and around windows.

C 3.1 Facade with integrated ventilation elements, ­Children’s and Cardiological Centre at the Uni­ versity of ­Innsbruck (A) 2008, Nickl & Partner C 3.2 Classification of air vents C 3.3 Soundproofed air vent for installation on a window frame, exterior view C 3.4  Integration of exterior air vents C 3.5 Self-regulating damper, correlation between wind pressure and volume flow C 3.6 Filter classes for ventilation technology in accord­ ance with EN 779

Technical building components in and around windows

Passive air vent

Unregulated / manually adjustable

Active air vent

Pressure-­ controlled

Moisture-­ controlled

Without heat recovery

Without s­ econdary heating /cooling

With heat recovery

With conditioning (two-pipe)

With conditioning (four-pipe)

C 3.2

C 3.3 Passive air vents

Window rebate

Glass rebate

Blind frame

Lintel / reveal Roller blind housing

Blind cover


Volume flow [m3/h/m]

C 3.4



Not self-regulating

350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0

Self-regulating damper








80 90 100 Air pressure [Pa] C 3.5

Particle size

Coarse dust 100 – 2,000 μm

Pollen 10 –100 μm

Smoke, soot

Tobacco smoke 0.01–1 μm






















‡  Effective

‡  Somewhat effective

¥ Ineffective

C 3.6

Purely passive opening elements regulate air­ flows mainly by mechanical means depending on the difference in pressure caused by the wind or exhaust air systems or on the humidity in the space. Many manufacturers produce air vents that can be integrated into windows in various ways. The least conspicuous solutions are rebate vents, which are installed between the win­ dow frame and sash frame. Air vents can be installed in the window’s glass rebate and frame, and solutions are also available for installing them in the window reveal or ­parapet, in roller shutter boxes or behind blind housings. It is easier to inconspicu­ ously integrate air vents into a facade by ­incorporating them into a window structure (Figs. C 3.3 and C 3.4) rather than position­ ing them in openings in walls, which is also often done. Most air vents have simple flaps that close in a strong wind. This prevents airflows that are too high, for example through leaky joints, and the resulting heat losses (Fig. C 3.5). Many air vents can be manually regulated and closed completely if no exchange of air is desired. Some models can be equipped with filters to keep out dust, pollen or other contaminants (Fig. C 3.6). Coarse filters in classes G2 – G4 as specified in DIN EN 779 are commonly used. Finer filters in classes M5 – F7 greatly reduce air throughput, so they are mainly used in air vents integrated into walls, because they have larger openings than vents built directly into windows. Air vents, like all openings in exterior walls, are acoustic weak points, but that should not mean that the wall fails to meet the sound insulation requirements against exterior noise as prescribed in the DIN 4109 series of stand­ ards. The sound reduction index R'W, res of the entire exterior facade, including windows and air vents, is decisive in this context. To improve sound insulation, some air vents are clad with mineral fibre or acoustic foam insulation. Since the insulation takes up space, improving sound insulation usually also involves increasing the size of the vent’s 199

Part D  Built examples in detail

Image D Stairwell with perforated bronze-coloured ­aluminium cladding, Student residences, ­Hertfordshire (GB) 2011, Hawkins\Brown

01  Níall McLaughlin Architects, Student accommodation in Oxford (GB)


02  Bucher-Beholz Architekten, Terrace house in Munich (D) 


03  Miller & Maranta, Hotel in the Altes Hospiz on St. Gotthard Pass (CH)


04  Unterlandstättner Architekten, Detached house in Krailing (D)


05  DSDHA, School in Guildford (GB)


06  Winfried Brenne Architekten, Renovation of the Bauhaus Dessau (D)


07  Augustin und Frank Architekten, Home and workshop in Berlin (D)


08  TreStykker 2011, Exhibition pavilion in Trondheim (N)


09  Nickel und Wachter Architekten, Shop renovation in Bamberg (D)


10  Kaestle Ocker Roeder Architekten, House and jeweller's studio in Wißgoldingen (D)


11  Enno Schneider Architekten, District police department in Mettmann (D)


12  TYIN tegnestue Architects, Training centre in Sungai Penuh (RI)


13 Odilo Reutter, Extension to the Landesdenkmalamt (State office for monument preservation) in Esslingen (D)


14  Bernardo Bader, Islamic cemetery in Altach (A)


15  Pereda Pérez Architectos, Detached house in Villarcayo (E)


16  Hermann Kaufmann, Illwerke Centre Montafon in Vandans (A)


17  Sou Fujimoto Architects, Residence in Tokyo (J)


18  Baumschlager Eberle, Office building in Lustenau (A)


19 Bernd Liebmann, Renovation of the former workers' canteen at the Pulverfabrik Rottweil (D)


20 Hubacher + Peier Architekten und Haerle Hubacher Architekten, Renovation of the Botanical Garden hothouses in Zurich (CH)


21 Guggenbichler+Wagenstaller, Extension and improvements to the energy efficiency of the ift Rosenheim building (D)


22  WOHA Architects, High-rise building in Singapore (SG)


23  Valerio Olgiati, House in Wollerau (CH)


24 Francis Goetschmann Architecte, Office building conversion and extension in Geneva (CH)


25  TYIN tegnestue Architects, Boathouse near Aure (N)


26  UID Architects, House in Hiroshima (J)


27  Bakker & Blanc Architectes, Pavilion in Geneva (CH)


28 bbp: architekten bda, Renovation and conversion of a high-rise government authority building in Kiel (D)


29  Hawkins\Brown, Student residences in Hertfordshire (GB)


30  Arkitema Architects, Office building in Ballerup (DK)

276 219

Example 03

Hotel in the Altes Hospiz St. Gotthard Pass, CH 2010 Architects: Miller & Maranta, Basel Quintus Miller, Paola Maranta, Jean-Luc von Aarburg Assistants: Nils-Holger Haury (Project manager), Mirjam Imgrüth, Sabine Pöschk Structural engineer: Conzett Bronzini Gartmann, Chur

Since the 13th century, travellers, pilgrims and traders have found shelter in the Altes Hospiz hostel at the St. Gotthard Pass, situated at an altitude of over 2,000 metres. Repeatedly destroyed by war, fire and avalanches, the originally heterogeneous building has now been extended with an additional storey under a new lead roof with several dormers cut into it to light the renovated hotel rooms. The architects kept the facades and chapel adjoining it to the north in their original forms, removing only a recent addition, while almost completely renewing the Hospiz’s interior structure. Solid interior walls and ceilings were built on the lower two storeys. A timber frame structure above them inside the old quarried stone facade provides adequate insulation and supports the new timber raftered ceiling and roof structure. Between the wooden studs are horizontal planks – a traditional form of construction in the Uri Canton. A concrete band set on the first floor masonry secures the coping and absorbs the thrust from the new roof structure. Areas of new and old plastering merge seamlessly in the facade, while the new casement windows in the added storeys cite the restored elements below.




11 7








11 8

11 9



11 6












3 2 3 a







4 a


11 1


Ground floor

5 4 11



4th floor


Hotel in the Altes Hospiz





Site plan Scale 1:3,000 Sectional view • Floor plan Scale 1:400 Vertical section • Horizontal section Scale 1:20  1 Entrance   2 Plant room  3 Storeroom  4 Cloakroom  5 Sacristy  6 Chapel   7 Guest rooms


b 10

  8 Lead sheeting 2.5 mm Sealing Timber frame 30 mm Battens 40/55 mm Sealing Timber frame 30 mm Thermal insulation, wood wool 320 mm Vapour barrier Battens 40/55 mm Framework, spruce 30 mm   9 Spruce planks 25 mm Thermal insulation, wood fibre 2≈ 30 mm Cement slab 50 mm Impact sound insulation fleece 5 mm Solid spruce timber floor 100 mm Solid spruce beam 240/360 mm 10 Insulating glazing Ug = 1.1 W/m2K Spruce timber frame, painted, with extruded aluminium profile



Example 29


Student residences Hertfordshire, GB 2011

1 1

Architects: Hawkins\Brown, London Assistants: Roger Hawkins, Oliver Milton, Julia Roberts (Project manager), Chloe Sharpe Structural engineers: Elliot Wood Partnership, London

1 3

d d a


Just a 40-minute drive from London is a new student residence complex with 205 apartments on the rural campus of Hatfield Royal Veterinary College in Hertfordshire. Nine structurally identical point blocks containing student apartments are grouped in pairs around green courtyards and squares. The three and four-storey blocks, all with an eastwest orientation, are linked with each other by an open-design access core. An elongated building completes the complex with a restaurant and conference and shared spaces. The six rooms on each storey are equipped with prefabricated bathrooms and a shared kitchen. Every room has a bay window, whose slanting installation prevents direct views into the interior. Each window has an openable anodised aluminium ventilation grille on one side. A mixed structure consisting of prefabricated concrete slabs, load-bearing brick walls and a steel frame in the attic storey forms the core of the residences. Their projecting bay windows were built with the help of steel frames anchored to prefabricated concrete elements. The stairwell core’s load-bearing structure is made of steel beams and concrete slabs. In the plinth area, the facades of the clearly defined building cubes are built with brick facing masonry, while the upper storeys are timber-clad. This hybrid building envelope is a design element and also relieves the monolithic building’s bulk. The use of red cedar and Bronsgroen brick is a nod to the location’s history. While the original campus building was built completely in brick, the newer buildings are made mainly of timber. Its planners worked together with an artist to create the perforated bronze-coloured aluminium cladding of the prefabricated stairwells, which coloured light transforms into oversized lanterns at night.

Ground floor






10 1

















4 6





Student residences

c 5





7 8



7 8



1 1


4 c


bb 10 10 11 11


12 12

2 2

3 3 2 13 13

4 4

10 14 14


3 12


b b

15 15

b b 6 6 13




Sectional view • Floor plan Scale 1:500 Horizontal section • Vertical section Scale 1:20   1 Western red cedar cladding 19/75 mm and 19/150 mm Counter battens 50/50 mm Support battens 84/50 mm, with rear ventilation   2 Steel sheeting, sealing Thermal insulation 120 mm, vapour barrier Concrete topping layer 75 mm Prefabricated concrete slab 200 mm   3 Aluminium sheeting cladding 2 mm, angled Sealing, thermal insulation 100 mm   4 Fixed glazing, 6 mm toughened safety glass + 16 mm space between the panes + 11.5 mm ­laminated safety glass   5 Vapour-permeable sealing Thermal insulation 100 mm, vapour barrier Masonry 200 mm Plasterboard 2≈ 15 mm, plaster 3 mm   6 Carpet 8 mm Acoustic fleece 4.5 mm Concrete topping layer 75 mm Prefabricated concrete element 150 mm Plasterboard suspended ceiling   7 Insulated metal stud wall 100 mm   8 Aluminium stud wall 48 mm Plasterboard 2≈ 15 mm   9 Ventilation grille, perforated aluminium sheeting 2 mm Anodised aluminium sandwich panel 28 mm 10 Two-ply sealing Plywood cover 20 mm Corrugated sheeting 60 mm, with concrete topping layer 140 mm 11 Perforated aluminium sheeting 2 mm, angled 12 Steel profile frame structure Å 200 mm 13 Tubular steel parapet ¡ 150/50/5 mm 14 Profile sheeting 50 mm with concrete topping layer 60 – 85 mm 15 Concrete floor slab 240 mm, poured on site


4 4 15

4 cc



Authors Jan Cremers (Editor) Born 1971 Studied architecture at the Universität Karlsruhe (TH) and Westminster University London 1999 – 2002 Worked as an architect, incl. at Koch+Partner, Munich 2002 – 2006 Research assistant to the Chair of Building Technology, Prof. Thomas Herzog, Technical University of Munich 2006 Awarded a doctorate at the Technical University of Munich 2006 – 2008 Worked at SolarNext AG, Rimsting, including periods on the Board of Management From 2008 Director of Technology at Hightex GmbH, Rimsting From 2008 Professor of building technology and inte­ grated architecture at Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences From 2011 First Studiendekan (head of courses) of the new Bachelor’s “KlimaEngineering” course at Hoch­ schule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied ­Sciences Markus Binder Born 1970 Studied architecture at the University of Stuttgart, ­building physics at the Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences 1998 – 2011 Collaboration and project management for various architecture firms in the Stuttgart area 2007– 2011 Academic member at Stuttgart Univer­ sity of Applied Sciences, Department of Building ­Physics 2009 – 2011 Lectureship in building physics at the ­Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Stuttgart (State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart) 2011 Visiting professor for building construction and design, in particular, climate-friendly architecture at the Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Since 2012 Professor for integrated building technology at the Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Since 2013 Partner at CAPE climate architecture physics energy Peter Bonfig Born 1960 1980 –1986 Studied architecture at Technische Univer­ sität Braunschweig (Braunschweig University of Tech­ nology), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETH Zurich) and Technical University of Munich (master’s degree) 1988 –1993 Collaboration with the architecture firm of Herzog + Partner in Munich Since 1991 Own projects and activities as a freelance architect, including professional architectural photog­ raphy 1995 –1998 Research fellow at the University of Stuttgart, Institute for Design and Engineering 2001– 2007 Research assistant at Technical University of Munich for the Chair of Building Technology and the Chair of Industrial Design 2007 PhD at Technical University of Munich 2008 – 2009 BlighVollerNield Architecture in Melbourne, Australia 2009 – 2010 Lectureship at Technical University of Munich Teaching activity abroad: Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, University of Texas at Austin, Kyoto Institute of Technology Since 2012 Development of research projects with the Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences, among others


Joost Hartwig Born 1980 Studied architecture at Technical University of Darmstadt 2007– 2012 Research fellow for design and energy-­ efficient construction under Professor Manfred Hegger at Technical University of Darmstadt, with a research focus on life cycle analysis and sustainability assess­ ment of buildings 2007– 2013 Worked at HHS Planer + Architekten AG, Kassel Since 2008 Auditor for the sustainability certification ­system of the German Sustainable Building Council (DGNB), engaged as a member of the “life-cycle assessment” expert group, among others Winter semester 2009/2010 Lectureship at the Erfurt ­University of Applied Sciences 2010 – 2013 Lectures at the Umeå School of Architecture, Sweden 2013 Lectureship at the Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences 2014 – 2016 Visiting professor for life-cycle assessment, sustainability assessment and energy efficiency for buildings at the Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences Since 2011 Managing Director of ina Planungsgesell­ schaft mbH Since July 2013 Board member at AktivPlus e. V. Hermann Klos Born 1954 After completing high school with Abitur, trained as a ­carpenter and joiner before working for 26 years as a master joiner and Managing Director of Holzmanufaktur Rottweil GmbH, which currently has around 80 employ­ ees working mainly in the area of historic building ­conservation in southern Germany and ­Switzerland. Provides expert reports and project planning for con­ struction work and has lectured and taught on historic building conservation issues. Member of various associations working in the areas of historic buildings conservation, architectural cultural heritage (“Baukultur”) and building preservation Member of Ulrich Sieberath Born 1957 Diplom (engineering degree) in Wood Technology at Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences From 1982 worked at the ift Rosenheim, becoming head of the Türentechnik und Einbruchsicherheit (door ­technologies and break-in security) department From 1995 head of the ift Rosenheim certification body for Quality Management Systems and Products From 2000 Coordinator of business sectors at the ift Rosenheim From 2002 Assistant Director of the Institute From February 2004 Director of the ift Rosenheim From October 2012 honorary professor at the Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences Other professional functions and activities: •  Lecturer at the Rosenheim University of Applied S ­ ciences •  Participation in and chairman of many standardisation committees /sector groups: Chair of the NA 005-09-01 mirror (standards) committee on TC33, Chair of CEN TC33 WG1 (window and door) standards committee Chair of the SG06 (windows, doors, gates) and SG 06 D standards committees; member of the mirror commit­ tee of the Advisory Group of Notified Bodies •  Member of the IHK Examinations Commission for sworn technical experts •  Expert technical consultant for accreditation bodies: DAkkS Berlin and the Federal Institute of Metrology (Eidgenössisches Amt für Messwesen) (Switzerland) Main areas of expertise: Structural components testing windows / doors /facades, Materials testing wood / derived timber products /glass, break-in security for windows / roller shutters / doors / facades /glass /fittings

Wolfgang Jehl Born 1963 1986 –1991 Diplom (engineering degree) in Wood Tech­ nology at Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences, followed by work as a metal worker, carpenter, joiner and in prefabricated house construction From 1991 worked at the ift Rosenheim in the areas of •  1991– 2002 Expert reports, Property Surveillance •  2000 – 2002 Head of the Expert Reports department •  2003 – 2010 Assistant Director of the testing body of the ift Zentrum Fenster und Fassaden (Window and facade centre) •  Since 07/2010 Product engineer and Assistant Director of the testing body in the Construction Materials & Semi-finished Products Division in the areas of lamin­ ated glazing, external connections and structural ­connections Other professional activities: •  Chair of the NA 005-02-17 AA standards committee on “Non-metallic foam strapping” •  Member of the NA 005-02 FBR steering committee on “Sealing and moisture proofing” •  Lecturer at the Rosenheim University of Applied ­Sciences as part of EDPRO Ingo Leuschner Born 1972 1991–1997 Diplom (engineering degree) in Wood Tech­ nology at the Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences Since 1997 he has worked at the ift Rosenheim in the roles of •  Technical Assistant to the Institute Director •  Sachverständigenzentrum (Expert opinion centre) •  Head of various research projects (on wooden facades, fittings technologies, composite structures and surfaces technologies) •  2005 – 2010 Assistant Director of R&D •  2010 – 2013 Responsible for enterprise development and innovation management •  since 2014 Director of the ift Sachverständigenzentrum (Expert opinion centre) Other professional activities: •  Speaking and lecturing Elke Sohn Born 1966 Architectural historian and theoretician Studied architecture and urban development with ­subsequent PhD in 2005 at the Hamburg University of Fine Arts 2007 – 2012 Research fellow at HafenCity University ­Hamburg and University of Technology Kaiserslautern 2006 – 2009 Deputy professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Saarbrucken Since 2012 Professor for building history and archi­ tectural theory at the Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Research and publication focus: history and theory of modern architecture Thomas Stark Born 1970 Banker at Deutsche Bank AG Studied architecture with subsequent PhD at the Univer­ sity of Stuttgart 2003 – 2005 Research fellow Institute of Building Tech­ nology, Construction and Design, Prof. Stefan Behling, University of Stuttgart 2005 – 2008 Research fellow for design and energy-­ efficient construction under Professor Manfred Hegger at Technical University of Darmstadt 2003 Founder ee-plan, Stuttgart Since 2008 Professor for energy-efficient construction at HTWG Konstanz, Faculty of Architecture and Design Since 2009 Managing partner at ee concept GmbH, Darmstadt / Tübingen


Ordinances, guidelines and standards

Jan Cremers would like to thank his family for the patience and time they contributed to this extensive book project and his father Stefan Cremers for making him aware of this topic while he was still a child, for their many fruitful discussions and for the superb treasury of images. He would further like to thank his dedicated co-authors and colleagues at the Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart (University of Applied Sciences) for their expert support and advice, in particular Peter Krebs, Andreas Drechsler and Heinz-Martin Fischer.

The EU has issued guidelines on a number of products to ensure the safety and health of users. These guidelines must be incorporated into binding laws and ordinances in member states. These guidelines do not contain any technical details, only binding basic requirements. The technical specifica­ tions for them are set out in the relevant technical rules and in harmonised standards applicable across Europe (EN standards). General technical rules are practical guides and tools for use in everyday work. They are not legal regulations but can be used to help make decisions, are guidelines for faultless technical performance, and /or put the content of ordinances in more concrete terms. Anyone is free to use technical rules. Only when they are incorporated into laws, ordinances or regulations (e. g. in construction law) or if binding individual standards between parties to a contract are agreed on in that contract do they become legally binding. Technical rules include DIN standards, VDI guidelines and other works referred to as “generally accepted technical rules and standards” (e. g. the technical rules for danger­ ous goods (Technische Regeln für Gefahrstoffe – TRGS). Standards are divided into product, application and test standards. They often refer only to a specific group of materials or products. These standards are based on testing and research methods relevant to the respective materials. The newest version of a standard, which should represent state-of-the-art technology, is always the valid one. New or revised standards are made available to the public for discussion in the form of a draft standard, then subsequently adopted as standards. A standard's origins and scope of application are indicated in its title. DIN plus a number (e. g. DIN 4108) designates a standard of mainly national significance (draft standards are prefixed with an 'E' and pre-standards with a “V”). DIN EN plus a number (e. g. DIN EN 335) refers to a ­German version of a European standard that has been adopted by CEN, the European standards organisation, unchanged. DIN EN ISO (e. g. DIN EN ISO 13 786) indi­ cates national, European and worldwide scope of applica­ tion. European standards are developed on the basis of International Standards Organisation (ISO) standards and adopted as DIN standards. DIN ISO (e. g. DIN ISO 2424) standards are ISO standards that have been adopted unchanged as national standards. The list below is a selection of ordinances, guidelines and standards representing current state-of-the-art tech­ nology (November 2014). Only standards specification sheets with the most recent issue date from the DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V.) are binding.

Certain passages from the entry “The historic develop­ ment of the window – from its origins through to the early modern era” (see p. 12ff.) by Hermann Klos have already appeared in: “Huckfeldt, Tobias; Wenk, Hans-Joachim (eds.): Holzfenster – Konstruktion, Schäden, Sanierung, Wartung. Cologne 2009, p. 13 – 32”. Hermann Klos and the publisher would like to cordially thank the Rudolf Müller Verlag for their kind permission to reproduce this work here and for the good cooperative relationship. The authors and publishers would also like to thank the following people and companies for providing informa­ tion, images and /or drawings for this book. AEREX HaustechnikSysteme GmbH, Villingen-­ Schwenningen (D) Aereco GmbH, Hofheim-Wallau (D) Andreas Wagner, Karlsruhe (D) Aumüller Aumatic GmbH, Thierhaupten (D) Daniel Westenberger, Munich (D) EControl-Glas GmbH & Co. KG, Plauen (D) ERCO GmbH, Lüdenscheid (D) Fiberline Composites A/S, Middelfart (DK) Flachglas Wernberg GmbH, Wernberg-Köblitz
(D) Gerd Gassmann, Karlsruhe (D) Glas Trösch AG Isolierglas, Bützberg (CH) GlassX AG, Zurich (CH) Gretsch-Unitas GmbH, Ditzingen (D) Hautau GmbH, Helpsen (D) Hofman Dujardin Architecten, Amsterdam (NL) Innoperform GmbH, Preititz (D) Internorm International GmbH, Traun (A) Interpane, Lauenförde (D) I-S-T AG, Prutting (D) KNEER-SÜDFENSTER, Westerheim (D) LTG Aktiengesellschaft, Stuttgart (D) LUNOS Lüftungstechnik GmbH für Raumluftsysteme, Berlin (D) Okalux GmbH, Marktheidenfeld (D) Otto Fuchs KG, Meinerzhagen Raico, Pfaffenhausen (D) Renson Ventilation, Waregem (B) Roto Frank Bauelemente GmbH, Bad Mergentheim (D) Saint-Gobain Glass Deutschland GmbH, Aachen (D) Schüco International KG, Bielefeld (D) Sebastian Fiedler, Frankfurt (D) Stabalux GmbH, Bonn (D) Steffen Jäger, Braunschweig (D) Uniglas GmbH & Co. KG, Montabaur (D) VELUX Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg (D) WAREMA Renkhoff SE, Marktheidenfeld (D) Werner Lang, Munich (D) Wicona, Ulm (D) ZAE Bayern e. V., Würzburg (D)

Merkblätter (technical data sheets) of the Verband der Fenster- und Fassadenhersteller (VFF) Merkblatt (technical data sheet): Gebäudeeingänge mit großem Publikumsverkehr (Building entrances with heavy traffic), Züricher Energieberatung / Bundesamt für Energie 1998 Richtlinie zur Beurteilung der visuellen Qualität von Glas für das Bauwesen (Guideline for evaluating the visual quality of glass in buildings), drawn up by the Technical Advisory Board of the Institut des Glaserhandwerks für Verglasungstechnik und Fensterbau (Institute of Glaziers), Hadamar and by the Technical Committee of the Bundesverband Flachglas e. V. (Federal German Flat Glass Industry Association), Troisdorf, as of 5-2009. Richtlinien der RAL-Gütergemeinschaft Fenster und Haustüren (Guidelines of the RAL Window and Resi­ dential Door Quality Assurance Association) Richtlinien des Bundesinnungsverbands des Glaser­ handwerks (Guidelines of the Federal Association of Glazing Trades) Richtlinien des Bundesverband Flachglas (Guidelines of the Federal German Flat Glass Industry Association) Richtlinien des Bundesverband Holz und Kunststoff (Guidelines of the German Wood and Plastics Industry Association) Richtlinien Technische Richtlinien des Glaserhandwerks

(Technical guidelines of the Association of Glazing Trades) Technische Regeln für die Bemessung und die Aus­ führung punktförmig gelagerter Verglasungen – TRPV (Technical rules for measuring and building point-­ supported glazing), DIBt, 8-2006 Technische Regeln für die Verwendung von absturz­ sichernden Verglasungen –TRAV (Technical rules for the use of safety barrier glazing), Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik (DIBt) (German Institute for Civil Engi­ neering), 1-2003, now replaced by the new Glass in Building standard, DIN 18 008-4 Technische Regeln für die Verwendung von linienförmig gelagerten Verglasungen – TRLV (Technical rules for the use of linear-supported glass), Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik (DIBt) (German Institute for Civil Engin­ eering), 8-2006, now replaced by the new Glass in Building standard, DIN 18 008-2 Verordnung über energiesparenden Wärmeschutz und energiesparende Anlagentechnik bei Gebäuden (Ordinance on energy saving thermal insulation and energy saving systems technology for buildings) (Energy Saving Ordinance - Energieeinsparverordnung – EnEV) Second Amendment to the Energy Saving Ordinance of 18 November 2013. (EnEV 2014) Overarching standards and regulations DIN 1946-6 Ventilation and air conditioning – Part 6: Ven­ tilation for residential buildings – General requirements, requirements for measuring, performance and labelling, delivery /acceptance (certification) and maintenance. 2009-05 DIN 18 055 Criteria for the use of exterior windows and doors in accordance with DIN EN 14 351-1. 2014-11 DIN EN 14 351-1 Windows and doors – Product standard, performance characteristics – Part 1: Windows and external pedestrian doors without fire protection and /or smoke-proof characteristics. 2010-08 DIN EN 14 351-2 Draft standard. Windows and doors – Product standard, performance characteristics – Part 2: Interior doors without fire protection and/or smoke-proof characteristics. 2014-06 DIN 1960 German construction contract procedures (VOB) – Part A: General provisions relating to the award of construction contracts. 2012-09 DIN 1961 German construction contract procedures (VOB) – Part B: Conditions of contract relating to the execution of construction work. 2012-09 DIN 18 299 German construction contract procedures (VOB) – Part C: General technical specifications in ­construction contracts (ATV) – General rules for con­ struction work of any kind. 2012-09 DIN 58 125 School buildings – technical construction requirements to prevent accidents. 2002-07 DIN 18 040-1 Construction of accessible buildings – Design principles – Part 1: Publicly accessible ­buildings. 2010-10 DIN 18 040-2 Construction of accessible buildings – Design principles – Part 2: Dwellings. 2011-09 DIN EN 1991-1-1 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-1: General actions – Densities, self-weight, imposed loads on wooden structures. 2010-12 DIN EN 12 216 Shutters and blinds – Terminology, ­designations and definitions. 2002-11 DIN EN 12 519 Windows and doors – Terminology. 2004-06 Materials DIN 18 008-1 Glass in building – Design and construction rules – Part 1: Terminology and general fundamentals. 2010-12 DIN 18 008-2 Glass in building – Design and construction rules – Part 2: Glazing systems with linear support. 2010-12 DIN 18 008-2 Corrigendum 1 to Glass in building – Design and construction rules – Part 2: Glazing systems with linear support, Corrigendum to DIN 18 008-2:2010-12. 2011-04 DIN 18 008-3 Glass in building – Design and construction rules – Part 3: Point-fixed glazing. 2013-07 DIN 18 008-4 Glass in building – Design and construction rules – Part 4: Additional requirements for safety barrier glazing. 2013-07


DIN 18 008-5 Glass in building – Design and construction rules – Part 5: Additional requirements for walk-on glaz­ ing. 2013-07 DIN EN 356 Glass in building – Security glazing – Testing and classification of resistance against manual. 2000-02 DIN EN 357 Glass in building – Fire-resistant glazed ­elements with transparent or translucent glass – Classi­ fication of fire resistance. 2005-02 DIN EN 572-1 Glass in building – Basic lime soda silicate glass products – Part 1: Definitions and general physical and mechanical characteristics. 2012-11 DIN EN 572-2 Glass in building – Basic lime soda silicate glass products – Part 2: Float glass. 2012-11 DIN EN 673 Glass in building – Definition of thermal trans­ mittance (U value) – Calculation method. 2011-04 DIN EN 1096-4 Glass in building – Coated glass – Part 4: Evaluation of conformity /Product standard. 2005-01 DIN EN 1279-1 Glass in building – Insulating glass units – Part 1: Generalities, system description, rules for substi­ tution, tolerances and visual quality. 2004-08 DIN EN 1279-2 Glass in building – Insulating glass units – Part 2: Long-term test method and requirements for moisture penetration. 2003-06 DIN EN 1279-3 Glass in building – Insulating glass units – Part 3: Long-term test method and requirements for gas leakage rate and gas concentration tolerances. 2003-05 DIN EN 13 022-1 Glass in building – Laminated glass – Part 1: Glass products for Structural Sealant Glazing (SSG) Glass structures for single and multiple-pane units, with or without dead weight load bearing. 2014-08 DIN EN 13 022-2 Glass in building – Laminated glass – Part 2: Regulations for Structural Sealant Glazing (SSG) Glass structures. 2014-08 DIN EN 14 449 Glass in building – Laminated glass and laminated safety glass – conformity evaluation /product standard. 2005-07 DIN EN ISO 12 543-2 Glass in building – Laminated glass and laminated safety glass – Part 2: Laminated safety glass (ISO 12 543-2:2011). 2011-12 DIN EN ISO 12 543-3 Glass in building – Laminated glass and laminated safety glass – Part 3: Laminated glass (ISO 12 543-3:2011). 2011-12 DIN EN ISO 12 543-4 Glass in building – Laminated glass and laminated safety glass – Part 4: Test methods for durability (ISO 12 543-4:2011). 2011-12 DIN EN ISO 12 543-5 Glass in building – Laminated glass and laminated safety glass – Part 5: Dimensions and edge finishing (ISO 12 543-5:2011). 2011-12 DIN EN ISO 12 543-6 Glass in building – Laminated glass and laminated safety glass – Part 6: Appearance (ISO 12 543-6:2011 + Cor. 1:2012). 2012-09 EN 14 024 2004-10 Metal profiles with thermal barriers– Mechanical performance Building physics: requirements and characteristics DIN 4108 Supplementary sheet 2 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings – Thermal bridges – Examples of planning and performance. 2006-03 DIN 4108-2 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings – Part 2: Minimum requirements for thermal insulation. 2013-02 DIN 4108-3 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings – Part 3: Protection against moisture, subject to climate conditions, Requirements and directions for design and construction. 2001-07 DIN 4108-3 Draft standard, Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings – Part 3: Protection against mois­ ture, subject to climate conditions, Requirements and directions for design and construction. 2012-01 DIN 4108-4 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings – Part 4: Hygrothermal design values. 2013-02 DIN 4108-7 Thermal insulation and energy economy in buildings – Part 7: Air-tightness of buildings – Require­ ments, recommendations and examples of planning an performance. 2011-01 DIN 4109 Sound insulation in buildings; Requirements and certification. 1989-11 DIN 4109 Supplementary sheet 1, Sound insulation in buildings; Construction examples and calculation methods. 1989-11


DIN 4109 Supplementary sheet 1/A1 Sound insulation in buildings – Construction examples and calculation methods; Amendment A1. 2003-09 DIN 4109 Supplementary sheet 1/A2 Sound insulation in buildings – Supplementary sheet 1: Construction examples and calculation methods; Amendment A2. 2010-02 DIN 4109 Supplementary sheet 2 Sound insulation in buildings; Guidelines for planning and execution; Pro­ posals for increased sound insulation; Recommenda­ tions for sound insulation in personal living and working areas. 1989-11 DIN 4109 Supplementary sheet 3, Sound insulation in buildings – Calculation of R'w, R for the verification of suitability as per DIN 4109 on the basis of the sound reduction index Rw determined in a laboratory testing. 1996-06 DIN EN 12 207 Windows and doors – Air-tightness – ­Classification. 2000-06 DIN EN 12 208 Windows and doors – Resistance to ­driving rain – Classification. 2000-06 DIN EN ISO 10 077-1 Thermal insulation behaviour of ­windows, doors and shutters – Calculation of thermal transmittance – Part 1: Generalities (ISO 10 077-1:2006 + Cor. 1:2009). 2010-05 DIN EN ISO 10 077-2 Thermal insulation behaviour of win­ dows, doors, shutter and blinds – Calculation of thermal transmittance – Part 2: Numerical method for frames (ISO 10 077-2:2012). 2012-06 Protection from fire and smoke: requirements and characteristics DIN EN 12 101-2 Draft standard, Smoke and heat control systems – Part 2: Specifications for natural smoke and heat exhaust ventilators. 2014-09 DIN EN 13 501-1 Fire classification of construction prod­ ucts and building elements – Part 1: Classification using data from reaction to fire tests. 2010-01 DIN EN 13 501-5 Fire classification of construction prod­ ucts and building elements – Part 5: Classification using data from external fire exposure to roof tests. 2010-02 DIN EN 14 600 Doorsets and openable windows with fire resisting and /or smoke control characteristics – Requirements and classifications. 2006-03 DIN EN 16 034 Draft standard, Pedestrian doorsets, industrial, commercial garage doors and openable win­ dows – Product standard, performance characteristics – Fire resistance and /or smoke control characteristics. 2014-03 Due to be withdrawn and replaced by 2014-12 by DIN EN 16 034, 2014-12 issue Mechanical properties: requirements and charac­ teristics DIN 18 257 Building hardware – Security plates – Defin­ itions, measurements, requirements, marking. 2003-03 DIN 18 267 Window handles – Clickable and lockable window handles. 2005-01 DIN 18 267 Corrigendum 1, 2005-10 Window handles – Clickable and lockable window handles – Corrigendum to DIN 18 267:2005-01 DIN EN 179 Building hardware – Emergency exit devices operated by a lever, handle or push pad for doors in escape routes – Requirements and test methods. 2008-04 DIN EN 1125 Building hardware – Panic exit devices operated by a horizontal bar for doors on escape routes – Requirements and test methods. 2008-04 DIN EN 1627 Pedestrian doorsets, windows, curtain ­walling, grilles and shutters – Burglar resistance – Requirements and classification. 2011-09 DIN EN 1628 Pedestrian doorsets, windows, curtain ­walling, grilles and shutters – Burglar resistance – Method for testing the determination of resistance under static loading. 2011-09 DIN EN 1629 2011-09 Pedestrian doorsets, windows, ­curtain walling, grilles and shutters – Burglar resistance – Method for testing the determination of resistance under static loading under dynamic loading. DIN EN 1630 Pedestrian doorsets, windows, curtain wall­ ing, grilles and shutters – Burglar resistance – Method for testing the determination of resistance to attempted manual break-ins. 2011-09

DIN EN 12 210 Windows and doors – Resistance to wind loads – Classification (includes Corrigendum AC: 2002). 2003-08 DIN EN 12 400 Windows and doors – Mechanical durabil­ ity – Requirements and classification. Building hardware 2003-08 EN 13 126-1 Building hardware for windows and doorheight windows – Requirements and test methods – Part 1: Requirements common to all types of hardware. 2012-02 Installation DIN 18 195-4 Waterproofing of buildings – Part 4: Water­ proofing against ground moisture (capillary water, retained water) and non-accumulating seepage water on floor slabs and walls, design and execution. 2011-12 DIN 18 195-5 Waterproofing of buildings – Part 5: Water­ proofing against non-pressing water on floors and in wet areas, design and execution. 2011-12 DIN 18 195-6 Waterproofing of buildings – Part 6: Water­ proofing gegen von außen drückendes Wasser und auf­ stauendes Sickerwasser, design and execution. 2011-12 DIN 18 195-9 Waterproofing of buildings – Part 9: Pene­ trations, transitions, connections and endings. 2010-05 DIN 18 195 Supplementary sheet 1, Waterproofing of buildings – Examples of sealing configuration. 2011-03 DIN 18 202 Tolerances in building construction – Build­ ings. 2013-04 DIN 18 203-1 Tolerances in building construction – Part 1: Prefabricated concrete, steel reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete components. 1997-04 DIN 18 203-3 Tolerances in building construction – Part 3: Building components of wood and derived ­timber products. 2008-08 DIN 18 540 Sealing of exterior wall joints in building ­construction using joint sealants. 2006-12 DIN 18 542 Sealing of exterior wall joints in building con­ struction using impregnated plastic foam joint sealing strips– Impregnated joint sealing strips – Requirements and testing. 2009-07 DIN EN ISO 13 788 Hygrothermal performance of building components and building elements – Internal surface temperature to avoid critical surface humidity and inter­ stitial condensation – Calculation methods. 2013-05 DIN EN 13 829 Thermal performance of buildings – Deter­ mination of air permeability of buildings – Fan pressur­ ization method (ISO 9972:1996, modified). 2001-02 DIN EN 15 651-1 Sealants for non-structural use in build­ ings and pedestrian walkways – Part 1: Sealants for facade elements. 2012-12 DIN EN 15 651-2 Sealants for non-structural use in build­ ings and pedestrian walkways – Part 2: Sealants for glazing. 2012-12 Shutters, blinds and awnings (for sun protection etc.) DIN EN 13 120 Internal blinds – Performance require­ ments including safety. 2014-09 DIN EN 13 659 Draft standard, Shutters and external Venetian blinds – Performance requirements including safety. 2014-10 DIN V 18 073 Pre-standard, Roller shutters, awnings, roll­ ing doors and other blinds and shutters in buildings – Terms and requirements. 2008-05 DIN EN 12 216 Shutters external and internal blinds – ­Terminology, glossary and definitions. 2002-11 DIN EN 13 363-1 Solar protection devices in combination with glazing – Calculation of solar and light transmit­ tance – Part 1: Simplified method. 2007-09 DIN EN 13 363-2 Solar protection devices in combination with glazing – Calculation of solar and light transmit­ tance – Part 2: Detailed calculation method. 2005-06 DIN EN 13 363-2 Corrigendum, 1 Solar protection devices in combination with glazing – Calculation of solar and light transmittance – Part 2: Detailed calculation method. 2007-04 DIN EN 13 561 External blinds and awnings – Perform­ ance requirements including safety. 2009-01 DIN EN 13 659 Shutters and external Venetian blinds – Performance requirements including safety. 2009-01 DIN EN 14 501 Blinds and shutters – Thermal and visual comfort – Performance characteristics and classifica­ tion. 2006-02

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Klos, Hermann: Zustand und Restaurierung der Fenster des Justizgebäudes. In: Festschrift 100 Jahre Justizge­ bäude. 100 Jahre Justiz im Gebäude. Kerth, Johannes; Falk, Theo (eds.). Landau i. d. Pfalz, 2003 Kluckert, Ehrenfried: Vom heiligen Hain zur Postmoderne. Stuttgart, 1997 Knippers, Jan et al.: Atlas Kunststoffe + Membranen. Munich, 2010 Köhle-Hetzinger, Christel; Könekamp, Jörg; Ewald, Rainer: Architektur und Alltag in Esslingen seit dem 14. Jh. Hafenmarkt 8 und 10. Stuttgart, 1991 König, Holger et al.: Lebenszyklusanalyse in der Gebäu­ deplanung. Munich, 2009 Könner, Klaus (ed.); Wagenblast, Joachim (ed.): Steh fest mein Haus im Weltgebraus. Stuttgart, 2001 Krauth, Theodor (ed.): Die gesamte Bauschreinerei, ­Leipzig 1899, new edition Hanover, 1981 Krauth, Theodor: Die Kunst- und Bauschlosserei. Leipzig, 1897 Krippner, Roland; Musso, Florian: Basics Fassaden­ öffnungen. Basel / Boston / Berlin, 2008 Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen (pub.): Fresh ­Window – The Window in Art since Matisse and Duchamp. Exhibiton catalogue. Düsseldorf, 2012 Künzel, Helmut (ed.): Fensterlüftung und Raumklima. Stuttgart, 2006 Laeis, Werner: Einführung in die Werkstoffkunde der Kunststoffe. Munich, 1972 Lang, Werner: Typologische Klassifikation von Doppel­ fassaden und experimentelle Untersuchung von dort eingebauten Lamellensystemen aus Holz zur Steuerung des Energiehaushaltes hoher Häuser unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Nutzung von Solarenergie, Dis­ sertation with Prof. Thomas Herzog at the TUM Univer­ sity, 2000 Lerner, Franz: Geschichte des Deutschen Glaserhand­ werks. Schorndorf, 1981 Lindgren, Uta (ed.): Europäische Technik im Mittelalter. Berlin, 1996 LVR-Amt für Denkmalpflege im Rheinland: Informations­ blatt 5. Historische Fenster und ihre Sicherung und Erhaltung im Bestand. Pulheim, 2010 Maas, Anton; Kempkes, Christoph; Schlitzberger, ­Stephan: Sommerlicher Wärmeschutz – Neufassung der DIN 4108-2. In: Bauphysik 3/2013, p. 155 –161 Mahler, B.; Himmler, R.; Silberberger, C.: DeAL. Evalu­ ierung dezentraler außenwand-integrierter Lüftungs­ systeme. Abschlussbericht. Förderkennzeichen 0327386B. Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebäude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (pub.). Aug. 2008. Martens, Hans: Recyclingtechnik. Fachbuch für Lehre und Praxis. Heidelberg, 2011. Meier, Claus: Bauphysik des historischen Fensters. Praxis-Ratgeber zur Denkmalpflege Nr. 9. Informa­ tionsschrift der Deutschen Burgenvereinigung e. V. Braubach, 2001 Menck, Hans; Seifert, Erich: Neue Fenster für alte ­Fassaden. Cologne, 1986 Michaeli, Walter u. a.: Technologie der Kunststoffe. Lern- und Arbeitsbuch. Munich, 2008 Mink, Hans-Paul: Brandschutz im Detail – Türen, Tore, Fenster; Planung, Montage, Abnahme, Wartung. ­Colgne, 2010 Moro, José Luis u. a.: Baukonstruktion – vom Prinzip zum Detail. Band 1: Grundlagen. Band 2: Konzeption, Band 3: Umsetzung, Band 4: Ausführungsbeispiele (planned). Vor allem Teil XII-9 Öffnungen. Berlin / ­Heidelberg, 2009 Müllner, Ingeborg; Dieter, Müllner: Kärntner Stadelfenster – Ziegel statt Glas, Teil 2. Klagenfurt, 2007 MUSIT – Museum für Stadt- und Industriegeschichte in Troisdorf; Verein Kunststoff-Museum Troisdorf (Muse­ umsverein) e. V.; Homepage of the Museumverein:; many text documents and images of the history of the development of plastic pro­ files and windows can be viewed in the digital “library”. Nägele, Hermann: Die Restaurierung der Weißenhof­ siedlung 1981–1987. Stuttgart, 1992 Neumann, Hans-Rudolf: Fenster im Bestand – Grund­ lagen der Sanierung in Theorie und Praxis. Renningen, 2003


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Schneck, Adolf: Fenster aus Holz und Metall. Stuttgart, 1953/1963 Schock-Werner, Barbara; Bingenheimer, Klaus: Fenster und Türen in historischen Wehr und Wohnbauten. ­Stuttgart, 1995 Schrader, Mila: Fenster, Glas und Beschläge als histori­ sches Baumaterial, ein Materialleitfaden und Ratgeber. Suderburg-Hösseringen, 2001 Schumacher, Michael; Schaeffer, Oliver; Vogt, MichaelMarcus: move – Architektur in Bewegung – Dynamische Komponenten und Bauteile. Basel, 2010 Selbmann, Rolf: Eine Kulturgeschichte des Fensters: Von der Antike bis zur Moderne. Berlin, 2010 Selle, Gert: Öffnen und Schließen. Über alte und neue Bezüge zum Raum. In Wolkenkuckucksheim, 01/2004 Sieberath, Ulrich; Niemöller, Christian (eds.): Kommentar zur DIN EN 14 351-1, Fenster und Türen – Produktnorm, Leistungseigenschaften – Teil 1: Fenster und Außen­ türen ohne Eigenschaften bezüglich Feuerschutz und / oder Rauchdichtheit, mit Ergänzung (Amendment) A1:2010. Rosenheim / Stuttgart, 2010 Sigwart, R.: Luftdurchlässigkeit von Holz- und Stahl­ fenstern. Munich, 1932 Steuer, Heiko: Freiburg und das Bild der Städte um 1100 im Spiegel der Archäologie. In: Freiburg 1091–1120. Neue Forschungen zu den Anfängen der Stadt. Ed. by Schadek, Hans; Zotz, Thomas. Freiburg 1995, p. 79 –124 Tanner, Erika: Die Bauernhäuser des Kanton Thurgau. Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Volkskunde. Basel, 1998 Tsukamoto, Yoshiharu et al.: WindowScape – Window Behaviourology. Tokyo Institute of Technology. Singa­ pore, 2012 Uhlig, Günther; Kohler, Niklaus; Schneider, Lothar (eds.): Fenster. Architektur und Technologie im Dialog. Braunschweig, 1994 Veith, Jürgen; Lerch, Patrick: Gesundheit und Umwelt­ schutz bei Bauprodukten. Die europäische Normung zur Bauprodukten-Richtlinie. Fraunhofer IRB Verlag. Stuttgart, 2008 Verband Fenster+Fassade und Bundesverband Flach­ glas e. V.: Mehr Energie sparen mit neuen Fenstern. Update of March 2014 of the study “Im neuen Licht: Energetische Modernisierung von alten Fenstern”. Frankfurt am Main /Troisdorf, 03/2014 Vereinigung der Landesdenkmalpfleger in der Bun­ desrepublik Deutschland: Arbeitsblatt 8. Hinweise für die Behandlung historischer Fenster bei Bau­ denkmälern. Wiesbaden, 1991 Voss, Karsten: Energieoptimiertes Bauen: Dezentrale ­Lüftung in Bürogebäuden – Mikroklimatische und ­baukonstruktive Einflüsse. Schlussbericht. Förderkenn­ zeichen 0327386A. University of Wuppertal, December 2010 Wagner, Andreas et al.: Energieeffiziente Fenster und Verglasungen. Fraunhofer IRB-Verlag /BINE. Stuttgart, 2013 Weber, Marga: Antike Badekultur. Munich, 1999 Weizenhöfer, Günther: Leitfaden Türplanung. Leitfaden Türplanung – Anforderungen, Türtechnik und Darstel­ lung in Türlisten. Berlin, 2015 Wendehorst, Reinhard: Baustoffkunde. Hanover, 2004 Westenberger, Daniel: Untersuchungen zu Vertikal­ schiebefenstern. Dissertation with Prof. Thomas Herzog at the Technical University of Munich, 2005 Westenberger, Daniel: Vertikale Schiebefenster. Beitrag in zwei Teilen. In: Fassade /Facade 2+3/2002 Wickop, Walther: Fenster, Türen, Tore aus Holz und Eisen. Berlin, 1955. Wicona Planungshandbuch Fenster Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH: Res­ sourcensicherheit und Ressourceneffizienz – Wege aus der Rohstoffkrise. Policy Paper zu Arbeitspaket 7 des Projekts “Materialeffizienz und Ressourcenschonung” (MaRess). Wuppertal, 2009. Ziegler, Peter: Kulturraum Zürichsee. Stäfa, 1998 Zimmermann, Markus: Fenster im Fenster. In DETAIL 4/1996, p. 484 – 489 Zöllner, Andreas: Experimentelle und theoretische ­Untersuchungen des kombinierten Wärmetransports in Doppelfassaden, Dissertation, Munich 2001

Image credits The authors and publishers would like to cordially thank everyone who contributed to the creation of this book by offering us images, allowing us to reproduce them, and providing information. All the drawings in this work were produced specifically for it. Photos that are not credited come from the authors’ and architects’ archives, are works photos, or come from the DETAIL magazine ­archive. Despite our best efforts, we have not been able to identify some owners of photos and images but their copyrights remain unaffected. Please contact us if you have any ­information on this subject. The figures shown refer to image numbers.

Part A A Christian Schittich, Munich Openings in buildings A 1.1 Schneck, Adolf: Fenster aus Holz und Metall. Stuttgart 1953, p. VI A 1.2 Stefan Cremers, Karlsruhe A 1.3 Jan Cremers, Munich A 1.4 Jeroen Musch, Amsterdam A 1.5 Martin Kunze / IBA Hamburg GmbH A 1.6 Pedro Pegenaute, Pamplona A 1.7 Werner Huthmacher, Berlin A 1.8 Marion Lafogler, Bolzano A 1.9 Naquib Hossain, Dakar A 1.10 Roger Frei, Zurich A 1.11 Jan Cremers, Munich The historic development of the window – from its origins through to the early modern era A 2.1 AP Photo / Manchester University / Alan Sorrell, HO A 2.2 from: Dalarun, Jacques (Ed.): Das leuchtende Mittelalter. Darmstadt 2011, p. 57 A 2.3 from: Gutschler, Daniel: Karolingische Holz­ bauten im Norden der Fraumünsterabtei. 1984, p. 216 A 2.4 from: Baatz, Dietwulf: Fensterglastypen, ­Glasfenster und Architektur. Mainz 1991 A 2.5 from: Kirchberger 1995, p. 79 A 2.6 Denkmalpflege in Hessen 1/1990, p. 34 A 2.7 from: Descoeudres, Georges; Keck, Gabriele; Wadsack, Franz: Das Haus Nideröst in Schwyz, Archäologische Untersuchung 1998 – 2001 ­Published in: Mitteilungen des historischen Vereins des Kantons Schwyz. Booklet 94/2002, p. 243 A 2.8 Holzmanufaktur Rottweil, Hermann Klos, Neckartal 159, 78628 Rottweil A 2.9 Ulrike Gollnick, Moudon A 2.10, 11 from: Ewald, Rainer; Köhle-Hezinger, Christel; Könekamp, Jörg (Ed.): Stadthaus-Architektur und Alltag in Esslingen seit dem 14. Jahrhun­ dert: Hafenmarkt 8 und 10. Weissenhorn 1992, p. 45 A 2.13 from: Das große Lexikon der Malerei. Braun­ schweig 1982 A 2.15, 16 Robert Campin, Verkündigung: Brüssel ­Musées Royaux A 2.17 from: Dalarun, Jacques (Ed.): Das leuchtende Mittelalter. Darmstadt 2011, p. 154 as for A 2.8 A 2.18 A 2.19 from: Schock-Werner, Barbara; Bingen­ heimer, Klaus: Fenster und Türen in his­ torischen Wehr und Wohnbauten. Stuttgart 1995, p. 122 A 2.20 Stockholm: National Museum A 2.21 Musée de l’Œuvre Notre-Dame A 2.23 as for A 2.8 A 2.26 – 29 as for A 2.8

Designing facade openings A 3.1 Christian Schittich, Munich A 3.2 A 3.3 Thomas Dix / A 3.4 Matthias Frey A 3.5 Jörg Dietrich ( A 3.6 Helmut Kuzina, Wismar A 3.9 David Zidlicky A 3.10­ venturi13349714604561.png A 3.11 Siegfried Schrotz, Reilingen A 3.12 Zairon / Commons Wikimedia A 3.14 Mahargh Shah / Commons Wikimedia A 3.15 from Domus 548 /7-1975 A 3.17 Stefan Müller A 3.18 Gerd Gassmann, Karlsruhe A 3.19 Hiroyuki Hirai A 3.20 from Ronner, Heinz: Öffnungen. Baukonstruk­ tion im Kontext des architektonischen Ent­ werfens. Basel / Boston / Berlin 1991, p. 89 A 3.21 © FLC /VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2009 A 3.23 Stefan Cremers, Karlsruhe A 3.24 Realities:united – Studio for art and architec­ ture (Berlin) A 3.25 Jan Cremers, Munich A 3.26 Stefan Cremers, Karlsruhe A 3.27 Marco Introini, 2011 © FAI – Fondo Ambiente Italiano Windows and doors in art and culture A 4.1 from Dürer, Albrecht: Underweysung der Messung mit dem Zirckel und Richtscheyt in Linien, Ebnen und gantzen Corporen. Nurnberg 1538 A 4.2 Courtesy of Tim Long – Frank Lloyd Wright Preservation Trust A 4.3 Photo: Katherine S. Dreier Bequest © Artist Right Society (ARS), New York /ADAGP, Paris / Estate of Marcel Duchamp A 4.4 Sabine Hornig and VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2015 A 4.5 © Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid /Scala, Florence A 4.6 Courtesy of Diller Scofidio + Renfro A 4.7 TM, ® & Copyright © 2013 by Paramount ­Pictures. All rights reserved. A 4.8 Friends of American Art Collection, 1942.51, The Art Institute of Chicago A 4.9 from: Gion A. Caminada: Vom Nutzen der ­Architektur. Zurich 2003 A 4.10 bpk / Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz / May Voigt © The Munch Museum / The Munch Ellington Group, VG Bild Kunst A 4.11 bpk / Nationalgalerie, SMB /Jörg P. Anders Solution principles for adjustable openings A 5.1 Peter Bonfig, Munich A 5.2 Roto Dach- und Solartechnologie GmbH A 5.5 Bonfig, Peter: Wirkungsmöglichkeiten von ­beweglichen Fassadenteilen aus nachwach­ senden Rohstoffen. Dissertation TUM Univer­ sity 2007, p. 21 A 5.7 Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, ­Munich. Photo: Joachim Blauel, Artothek A 5.10 from Herzog, Thomas; Krippner, Roland; Lang, Werner: Facade Construction Manual. Basel 2004, p. 41 A 5.13, 14 Peter Bonfig, Munich A 5.15 Paul Sindram A 5.17 Peter Bonfig, Munich A 5.18 – 20 as for A 5.5, p. 26 – 28 A 5.21 from: as for A 5.10, p. 44 and Westen­ berger, Daniel: Untersuchungen zu Vertikal­ schiebefenstern als Komponenten im Bereich von Fassadenöffnungen. Dissertation at the Department of Building Technology at TUM University 2005, p. 25 – 27 as for A 5.5, p. 38 A 5.22 A 5.23 Knippers Helbig, Stuttgart A 5.24 ICD University of Stuttgart A 5.25 as for A 5.5, p. 37 A 5.26 – 28 Peter Bonfig, Munich Jörg Hohberg, Munich A 5.29 A 5.30 as for A 5.5, p. 43

Part B B Christian Schittich, Munich Requirements and protective functions – building ­physics fundamentals B 1.1 Stefan Cremers, Karlsruhe B 1.2 – 6 Jan Cremers, Munich B 1.7, 8 Jan Cremers, Munich (various data sources) B 1.9 Markus Binder, Stuttgart B 1.10 Interpane Beratungscenter (IBC), Plattling Markus Binder, Stuttgart B 1.11 B 1.12 Drawn from Schittich, Christian et al.: Glasbau Atlas. Munich, 2006 B 1.13 Jan Cremers, Munich, drawing on Wagner, Andreas et al.: Energieeffiziente Fenster und Verglasungen. Stuttgart 2013, p. 26 B 1.14 as for B 1.13, p. 312 B 1.15 from DIN EN ISO 6946, Para. 5.2, Table 1 B 1.16 Günther Hanke (www.energieberater-­ Jan Cremers, Munich B 1.17 B 1.18 from Hegger, Manfred et al.: Energie Atlas. Munich, 2007, p. 58f. (B1.62 and B1.63) B 1.19, 20 Markus Binder, Stuttgart from DIN EN ISO 7730, Image 4 B 1.21 Interpane Glas Industrie AG, Lauenförde B 1.22 B 1.23 Markus Binder, calculations acc. to Bruno Keller, Pinpoint Bauphysik B 1.24 Markus Binder, Stuttgart B 1.25 from Baus, Ursula; Siegele, Klaus: Öffnungen. Vom Entwurf bis zur Ausführung. Munich, 2006, p. 24 B 1.26 from Willems, Wolfgang M.; Dinter, Simone; Schild, Kai: Vieweg Handbuch Bauphysik Teil 1: Wärme- und Feuchteschutz, Behag­ lichkeit, Lüftung. Wiesbaden 2006 B 1.27 Jan Cremers, Munich (various data sources) B 1.28 from Jehl, Wolfgang: Montageleitfaden, incl. Montagetaschenbuch; Leitfaden zur Planung und Ausführung der Montage von Fenstern und Haustüren für Neubau und Renovierung. Publisher: RAL-Gütegemeinschaft Fenster und Haustüren e. V. Compiled by the RALGütegemeinschaft Fenster und Haustüren e. V. and ift Rosenheim, 3-2014, p. 53f. B 1.29, 30 as for B 1.28, p. 80 B 1.31 from DIN EN 12 208 B 1.32 as for B 1.14, p. 280 B 1.33 Markus Binder, according to figures from DIN 1946-6 B 1.34 as for B 1.13, p. 30 B 1.35 from Pech, Anton (ed.): Fenster, Band 11 aus Baukonstruktionen. Vienna / New York 2005, Figs. 110-3.05 B 1.36 ift Rosenheim B 1.37 from DIN EN 12 207 B 1.38 as for B 1.28, p. 58 B 1.39 Jan Cremers, Munich B 1.40 from Härterich, Manfred et al.: Installationsund Heizungstechnik. Haan-Gruiten 2011, p. 637 as for B 1.28, p. 63 B 1.41 B 1.42 Markus Binder, HFT Stuttgart B 1.43 from DIN 4109:1989, Tables 8, 9, 10 B 1.44 from VDI guideline 2719 B 1.45 as for B 1.13, p. 36 B 1.46 as for B 1.28, p. 89 B 1.47 as for B 1.28, Table 4.11, p. 85 B 1.48, 49 as for B 1.28, p. 86 B 1.50 from, Optimale Schall­ daemmung.pdf (page 5) B 1.51 from DIN 4109 Supplementary Sheet A1 B 1.52 from DIN EN 13 501-1:2002-6 B 1.55 ift Rosenheim, from EN 13 501-2 and EN 1364-1 B 1.56 Jan Cremers, Munich B 1.57– 59 ift Rosenheim B 1.60 as for B 1.28, Fig. 5.18, p. 133 B 1.61 Jan Cremers, Munich


B 1.62 as for B 1.14, p. 211 B 1.63 from DIN 18 008-2 or formerly Technical rules for the use of linear-supported glazing ­(Technische Regeln für die Verwendung von linienförmig gelagerten Verglasungen – TRLV) B 1.64 Jan Cremers and ift Rosenheim, drawing on materials from standards (specified in Fig.) and as for B 1.14, p. 49 B 1.65 ift Rosenheim B 1.66 left from VELFAC, Horsens B 1.66 right  Eva Schönbrunner, Munich B 1.67, 68 Richtlinie zur Beurteilung der visuellen Quali­ tät von Glas für das Bauwesen (Guideline for assessing the visual quality of glass for construction) 5/2009 B 1.69 from DIN EN 12 519:2004 B 1.70, 71 from DIN 18 202 B 1.72 Jan Cremers, Munich (various data sources) B 1.73 as for B 1.28, p. 144 B 1.74 Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung (pub.): Leitfaden Nach­ haltiges Bauen. Berlin 2001, Anlage 6 from ISO 15 686 B 1.75 Materials, components, types of construction B 2.1 Fiberline Composites A /S, Middelfart B 2.2 Jan Cremers, Munich (various data sources) B 2.3 as for A 5.10, p. 185 B 2.4 Markus Binder, Stuttgart B 2.5, 6 from Neroth, Günter; Vollenschaar, Dieter: Wendehorst Baustoffkunde: Grundlagen – Baustoffe – Oberflächenschutz. Wiesbaden, 2011 B 2.7, 8 from Schittich, Christian et al.: Glasbau Atlas. Munich, 2006, p. 68 B 2.9 Glas Trösch Beratungs-GmbH, Ulm-Donautal B 2.10 from DIN EN 1096-2 B 2.11 Interpane Glas Industrie AG, Lauenförde B 2.12 according to information provided by the ­Interpane Beratungs-center (IBC), Plattling B 2.13 based on File:Image-Metal-reflectance.png B 2.14 Flachglas Wernberg GmbH, Wernberg-­ Köblitz B 2.15 Jan Cremers, Munich B 2.16 based on B 2.17 Jan Cremers, Munich, based on information provided by the manufacturer B 2.18 Uniglas GmbH & Co. KG, Montabaur B 2.19 from Glas Trösch Beratungs-GmbH, Ulm-Donautal B 2.20 Jan Cremers, Munich B 2.21 Jan Cremers, Munich, based on DIN EN 14 351-1 and DIN 4108-4 B 2.22 Jan Cremers, Munich B 2.23, 24 based on information provided by the ­Interpane company, Lauenförde B 2.25 a Jan Cremers, Munich B 2.25 b, c ZAE-Bayern e. V. B 2.26 a, b based on an original by Steffen Jäger, ­Braunschweig B 2.27 Jan Cremers, based on information provided by various manufacturers: SmartGlass, Flach­ glas Wernberg, Interpane and Econtrol B 2.28 from EControl-Glas GmbH & Co. KG, Plauen B 2.29 Jan Cremers, information provided by ­EControl-Glas GmbH & Co. KG, Plauen B 2.30 EControl-Glas GmbH & Co. KG, Plauen B 2.31 Marc Detiffe B 2.32 – 34 Jan Cremers, Munich B 2.35 I-S-T AG, Prutting B 2.36 a Gaston Wicky, Zurich B 2.36 b, c according to information provided by GlassX AG, Zurich B 2.37 as for B 1.14, S. 33 (with additions by Jan Cremers) B 2.38 from Hochberg, Anette; Hafke, Jan-Hendrik;


Raab, Joachim: Öffnen und Schließen – ­Fenster, Türen, Tore, Loggien, Filter. ScaleReihe. Basel / Boston / Berlin 2009, p. 54 B 2.39 as for B 2.38, p. 45 B 2.40 as for B 1.35, Figs. 110.2-04 Internorm International GmbH, Traun B 2.41 B 2.42 Jan Cremers, Munich B 2.43 as for B 1.14, p. 33 B 2.44 Jan Cremers, Munich, pictogram from the ift Rosenheim (apart from steel) B 2.45 Jan Cremers, Munich (various data sources) B 2.46 Huber & Sohn, Bachmehring as for B 1.14, p. 67 B 2.47 B 2.48 from DIN 68 121-1 as for B 1.25, p. 27 B 2.49 B 2.50 Jansen AG, Oberriet B 2.51 Otto Fuchs KG, Meinerzhagen B 2.52 – 54 Schüco International KG, Bielefeld B 2.55 Schneider Fensterbau GmbH Kneer GmbH, Westerheim B 2.56 B 2.57 Rauh SR Fensterbau GmbH B 2.58 Fiberline Composites A /S, Middelfart as for B 1.14, p. 81 B 2.59 B 2.60 Jan Cremers, Munich, based on DIERKS-­ Baukonstruktion Fig. I.13.2 B 2.61 as for B 1.14, p. 318 – 320, from DIN 18 545 and information provided by the ift Rosenheim B 2.62, 63 as for B 1.14, p. 77 B 2.64 as for B 1.14, p. 74 B 2.65 as for B 1.14, p. 75 B 2.66 Christian Walch – walchfenster04 B 2.67 from B 2.68 as for B 1.14, p. 56 B 2.69 Bloomframe B. V. B 2.70 Christian Schittich, Munich B 2.71 from Schumacher, Michael; Schaeffer, Oliver; Vogt, Michael-Marcus: move, Architektur in Bewegung – Dynamische Komponenten und Bauteile. Basel 2010, p. 66f., p. 69 B 2.72 Aumüller Aumatic GmbH, Thierhaupten (D) B 2.73 from VELUX Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg B 2.74 VELUX Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg B 2.75 Roto Dach- und Solartechnologie GmbH, Bad Mergentheim B 2.76 –79 VELUX Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg B 2.80 from VELUX Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg B 2.81 Glas Trösch Beratungs-GmbH, Ulm-Donautal / Fiberline Composites A /S, Middelfart B 2.82 from DIN 4102-13 B 2.83 Jan Cremers, Munich B 2.84 nach DIN EN 1364-1 B 2.85 VELUX Deutschland GmbH, Hamburg Building connection and structural context B 3.1 Eva Schönbrunner, Munich B 3.2 Jan Cremers, Munich, from Ronner, Heinz: Öffnungen. Baukonstruktion im Kontext des architektonischen Entwerfens. Basel / Boston / Berlin 1991, p. 93 B 3.3 as for B 1.28, p. 12 B 3.4 Jan Cremers, Munich, as for B 2.38, p. 40 B 3.5 as for B 1.28, p. 99 B 3.6 as for B 1.28, p. 103 and 105 B 3.7 as for B 1.14, p. 83 B 3.8, 9 as for B 1.28, p. 100, 101 B 3.10, 11 Jan Cremers, Munich B 3.12 Finstral AG, Unterinn / Ritten B 3.13 as for B 1.28, p. 64 B 3.14 as for B 1.28, p. 129 B 3.15 as for B 1.28, p. 126f., fig. B 3.15 e with ­additions by Jan Cremers B 3.16 ift Rosenheim B 3.17 as for B 1.13, p. 99 B 3.18 as for B 1.14, p. 42 B 3.19 from Technische Systeminfo 6 – Wärmedämm­ verbundsysteme zum Thema Brandschutz, Fachverband Wärmedämm-Verbundsysteme e. V., Baden-Baden B 3.20 as for B 1.28, p. 149 B 3.21 ift Rosenheim B 3.22 as for B 1.28, p. 128

B 3.23 as for B 1.28, p. 129 B 3.24 as for B 1.28, p. 135 B 3.25 as for B 1.28, p. 137 B 3.26, 27 as for B 1.28, p. 138 B 3.28 as for B 1.28, p. 142 B 3.29 b Jan Cremers, Munich B 3.29 as for B 1.28, p. 143 B 3.30, 31 as for B 1.28, p. 140 as for B 1.14, p. 91 B 3.32 B 3.33 as for B 1.28, p. 148 B 3.34 based on diagrams from and B 3.35 – 44 as for B 1.28, p. 153 –163 as for B 1.28, p. 21 B 3.45 B 3.46 ift Rosenheim as for B 1.28, p. 50 B 3.47 B 3.48 Philipp Walker B 3.49a from Clauss Markisen, Architektenmappe_ 2012_01.pdf, p. 373 B 3.49b as for A 5.10, p. 284 B 3.50 from Otto Lueger, Lexikon der gesamten Technik (1904) B 3.51 Stefan Cremers, Karlsruhe Christian Schittich, Munich B 3.52 B 3.53 from Bundesinnungsverband des Glaser­ handwerks, Bundesverband Holz und ­Kunststoff, Verband der Fenster- und Fas­ sadenhersteller e. V., RAL-Gütegemeinschaft Fenster und Haustüren e. V.: Leitfaden zur Montage von Fenstern und Haustüren mit ­Anwendungsbeispielen. Compiled by the ift Rosenheim. Düsseldorf 2010, p. 193 and 212 B 3.54 from Clauss Markisen, Architektenmappe_ 2012_01.pdf, p. 45 B 3.55 from Futagawa, Yukio (ed.); Bauchet, ­Bermard; Vellay, Marc: Maison de Verre, Pierre Chareau. Tokyo 1988, p. 152 B 3.56 Florian Holzherr, Munich B 3.57 Archimage, Meike Hansen B 3.58 Jan Cremers, Munich B 3.59 Rasmus Norlander, Zurich B 3.60 Schüco International KG, Bielefeld B 3.61 as for B 1.14, p. 122 B 3.62 as for B 1.14, p. 123 B 3.63 as for B 1.14, p. 126 B 3.64 from Technical Rules for Workplaces ­(Technische Regeln für Arbeitsstätten – ASR) A 2.3 B 3.65 as for B 1.14, p. 125 B 3.66 as for B 1.28, p. 34 B 3.67 as for B 1.28, p. 35 B 3.68 as for B 1.28, p. 39 B 3.69 as for B 1.28, p. 36f. B 3.70 Messe Düsseldorf B 3.71 as for B 1.14, p. 221f. B 3.72 Jan Cremers, Munich B 3.73 Werner Lang, Munich B 3.74 a Nansi Palla, Stuttgart B 3.75 b from Schüco International KG, Bielefeld B 3.75 Jan Bitter, Berlin B 3.76 a Burckhardt+Partner AG /Foto Daniel Spehr, Basel B 3.76 b Frank Kaltenbach, Munich Working with historic windows in existing buildings and architectural monuments B 4.1– 3 as for A 2.8 B 4.5 –10 as for A 2.8 B 4.11 Achim Bednorz, Cologne B 4.12 – 24 as for A 2.8 B 4.25 from Belhoste /Leproux, 1997, p. 18 B 4.27– 33 as for A 2.8 B 4.34 from Sammlung Göschen Fenster, Türen, Tore. p. 77 B 4.35 – 28 as for A 2.8 B 4.39 as for B 4.34 B 4.40, 41 as for A 2.8 B 4.42 Christian Schittich, Munich B 4.43 – 45 as for A 2.8 B 4.48 as for A 2.8 B 4.50 –71 as for A 2.8

Part C C Frank Kaltenbach, Munich Passive solar energy use C 1.1 from: Daniels, Klaus: Low Tech – Light Tech – High Tech. Bauen in der Informationsgesells­ chaft. Basel / Berlin / Boston 1998, p. 46, 59 C 1.2 from: Gut, Paul; Ackerknecht, Dieter: Climate Responsive Building. St. Gallen 1993, p. 27 C 1.3, 4 Federal Ministry for Regional Planning Build­ ing and Urban Development (Ed.): Guide Passive Nutzung der Sonnenenergie. Booklet 04.097. 1984 C 1.5 from DIN 4710 C 1.6, 7 Federal Ministry for Regional Planning Build­ ing and Urban Development (Ed.): Guide Passive Nutzung der Sonnenenergie. Booklet 04.097. 1984 C 1.8, 9 as for A 5.10, p. 20 and 25 Markus Binder, Stuttgart C 1.10 C 1.11, 12 Jan Cremers, Munich C 1.13 Jan Cremers, Munich, using as for B 1.13, p. 48 C 1.14 as for B 1.14, p. 98 C 1.15 as for B 1.13, p. 24, therein: Roos et al., Solar Energy 69 (2000), p. 15 – 26 from DIN 4108 C 1.16 C 1.17 as for B 2.7, p. 121 C 1.18 Markus Binder, Stuttgart, according to manu­ facturer data C 1.20 as for B 1.14, p. 101 C 1.21 as for C 1.18 C 1.22, Prof. Dr P. Oelhafen C 1.23 German Federal Environmental Foundation (DBU) C 1.24 as for A 5.10, p. 261 C 1.25 from: Gut, Ackerknecht. Climate responsive Building. St. Gallen: SKAT 1993 C 1.26 company statements (including I-S-T, DS Plan, Gartner, Infacon) and Hausladen, Gerhard among others: ClimaSkin. Munich 2007, p. 136 Markus Binder, Stuttgart C 1.27 C 1.28 Markus Binder, Stuttgart, calculated accord­ ing to DIN V 18 599-2. 2011-12 C 1.29, 30 as for B 1.13, p. 111 C 1.31 as for B 1.13, p. 112 C 1.32 Markus Binder, Stuttgart C 1.33 as for B 1.13, p. 114 C 1.34 as for B 1.13, p. 118 C 1.35 – 38 Lukas Blattmann / Daniela Weisbarth, HFT Stuttgart C 1.39 Melanie Monecke / Nicole Schmidt, HFT Stuttgart C 1.40 from: Lahme, Andreas: Beispiele und Ver­ gleiche – Zum einfachen Berechnungsver­ fahren der Tageslichtautonomie und des Strombedarfs für die künstliche Beleuchtung von Räumen speziell für die frühe Gebäude­ planungsphase. Braunschweig 2002, p. 7 C 1.41, 42 Arne Abromeit, Karlsruhe C 1.43 from: D. Haas-Arndt, Hanover; I. Schädlich, Siegen C 1.44 from: Neufert, Ernst: Design lesson. ­Wiesbaden 2012, p. 175 C 1.45, 46 from: Sebastian Fiedler, Frankfurt / M., using material from the Institut für Licht und Bautechnik (ILB), Cologne Active solar energy use C 2.1 SSC GmbH C 2.2, 4 Thomas Stark, Constance C 2.5 from: Otto Wulff Bauunternehmung GmbH / schönknecht : kommunikation gmbh C 2.6 Thomas Stark, Constance C 2.7 a Solarbayer GmbH, Pollenfeld-Preith C 2.7 b Viessmann Werke GmbH & Co. KG, Allendorf (Eder) C 2.8, 9 Michael Bender, Darmstadt C 2.10 iStockphoto / Saifudeen Dag C 2.11 Heliatek GmbH, Dresden

C 2.12­ voltaic-thermal-pvt.php C 2.14 –16 Thomas Stark, Constance C 2.17 SMA Solar FG+SG fotografia de arquitectura C 2.18 C 2.20 Roto Dach- und Solartechnologie GmbH C 2.21 Jan Cremers, Munich Grégoire Kalt, Paris C 2.23 C 2.24 Reto Miloni, Wettingen Technical building components in and around ­windows C 3.1 Stefan Müller-Naumann / Colt International GmbH C 3.2 Markus Binder, Stuttgart C 3.3 from: Renson Ventilation, Waregem: from the brochure: Intelligente natürliche Lüftung für Wohngebäude (as of 05/2013) C 3.4 Markus Binder, Stuttgart as for C 3.3 C 3.5 C 3.6 Markus Binder, Stuttgart, according to data from HS-Luftfilter GmbH, Kiel: Brochure: Grundlagen der Filtertechnik (as of 05/2012) C 3.7 Markus Binder, Stuttgart, calculated based on product documents from Innoperform GmbH, Preititz; Aereco GmbH, Hofheim-­ Wallau; Renson Ventilation, Waregem C 3.8 from: Gretsch Unitas GmbH, D – Ditzingen: Brochure: Bedarfsgeführte Wohnungslüftung – Optimale Raumluftqualität und Energieeffi­ zienz (as of 04/2013) C 3.9 Aereco GmbH, Hofheim-Wallau C 3.10 Renson Ventilation, Waregem C 3.11 from: HAUTAU GmbH, Helpsen: Product ­documents “Fensterlüfter Ventra” C 3.12 LUNOS Lüftungstechnik GmbH für Raumluft­ systeme, Berlin C 3.13 XtravaganT / Fotolia / Peer Neumann C 3.14 –18 Markus Binder, Stuttgart C 3.19 from: Lüdemann, Bruno (Imtech Deutschland GmbH & Co. KG, Hamburg): Kühlen ohne Kältemaschine, PCM-Techniken für die Raum­ kühlung, session notes. October 2008 C 3.20 David Matthiessen, Stuttgart C 3.21 Markus Binder, Stuttgart C 3.22 Profine / C 3.23 WindowMaster, Vedbæk C 3.24 RELAG AG für Luftschleieranlagen, Illnau C 3.25 Teddington, from: index.php/technik/einbauarten C 3.26 from: Züricher Energieberatung/Swiss Federal Office of Energy (Ed.): Data sheet: Gebäude­ eingänge mit grossem Publikumsverkehr, 1998 C 3.27 from: Pistohl: Handbuch der Gebäudetechnik, Volume 2, p. H186. Cologne 2009 C 3.28 from: esco Metallbausysteme GmbH, Ditzin­ gen, from: Schulz, Harald: Die “Evolution der beheizten Fassade”, Facade 1/2005 Kampmann GmbH, Lingen (Ems) C 3.29 C 3.30 from: Pohl, Wilfried et al./ Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (Ed.): LichtAusFassade. Optimierte Tagesund Kunstlichtversorgung über Fassaden – Beurteilung der Energiebilanz und der visuel­ len Qualität. Berichte aus Energie- und Um­ weltforschung 26/2012. Aldrans, Dec. 2012 C 3.31 from: Köster Lichtplanung, from http://­ projekts_01.html C 3.32 Oliver Schuster, Stuttgart C 3.33, 34 Schüco International KG, Bielefeld

C 4.8, 9 Joost Hartwig, Darmstadt C 4.10 from Mötzl, Hildegund. 2007 Greiner Extrusion GmbH, Nussbach C 4.11 C 4.12 from: Martens, Hans: Recyclingtechnik. Fach­ buch für Lehre und Praxis. Heidelberg 2011, p. 177 C 4.13 Joost Hartwig, Darmstadt, based on ­REWINDO GmbH 2012

Part D D Tim Crocker, London p. 220, 221  Nick Kane, Kingston p. 222, 223  Florian Holzherr, Munich p. 224 – 226  Ruedi Walti, Basel p. 227  Michael Heinrich, Munich p. 228 top  Hélène Binet, London p. 228 bottom  Christian Schittich, Munich p. 229  Hélène Binet, London p. 230  Ward Snijders, Naarden / MHB p. 231  Brenne Architekten p. 232, 233  Ward Snijders, Naarden / MHB p. 234, 235  Werner Huthmacher, Berlin p. 236  Marius Waagaard p. 237  Gerhard Hagen, Bamberg p. 238, 239  Brigida González, Stuttgart p. 240, 241 top  Jochen Stüber, Hamburg p. 242, 243  Pasi Aalto, Trondheim p. 244, 245  Ali Moshiri, Zierenberg p. 246 – 247 top /bottom  Adolf Bereuter, Dornbirn p. 247 centre  Andreas Gabriel, Munich p. 248, 249  Pedro Pegenaute, Pamplona p. 250  Bruno Klomfar, Vienna p. 251 top  Norman Müller, Ingolstadt p. 251 bottom  Bruno Klomfar, Vienna p. 252, 253  Iwan Baan, Amsterdam p. 254, 255  Eduard Hueber, Ines Leong, New York p. 256, 257  Holzmanufaktur Rottweil, Hermann Klos p. 258, 259  Roger Frei, Zurich p. 260  ift Rosenheim p. 261 top  Patrick Bingham-Hall, Sydney p. 261 bottom  Tim Griffith, Melbourne p. 262, 263  archive Olgiati p. 264, 265  Didier Jordan, Geneva p. 268, 269  Hiroshi Ueda, Kanagawa p. 272, 273  Bernd Perlbach, Preetz p. 274, 275  Tim Crocker, London p. 276, 277  Velux / Stamers Kontor. Copenhagen

Life-cycle assessments for windows and exterior doors C 4.1 Christian Schittich, Munich C 4.2 from DIN EN ISO 14 040 C 4.3 from DIN EN 15 804 C 4.4, C 4.5 based on EPDs from ift Rosenheim and IBU C 4.6 from ARCHmatic (2013) C 4.7 Bundesverband ProHolzfenster (


Index 13° isotherm  ∫ 125 3-layer model  ∫ 121 A absorption  ∫ 172 accordion doors  ∫ 142 Acidification potential  ∫ 210 active technology  ∫ 42 actuators  ∫ 42, 114 adjustable openings  ∫ 36 Air conditioning  ∫ 198, 203 Air curtain systems  ∫ 140, 203 air density /airtightness  ∫ 61, 138 Air permeability  ∫ 61, 75 Air vents, active /passive  ∫ 199, 201 airborne sound  ∫ 66 airtight layer  ∫ 122 Alarm glass  ∫ 93 aluminium windows  ∫ 105, 158, 213 angle of incidence  ∫ 184 Anisotropy  ∫ 80 Annealed glass  ∫ 87, 88 Anti-reflective coatings  ∫ 89 anti-glare screen /glare protection   ∫ 39, 176, 187 application windows  ∫ 128 approvals in individual cases  ∫ 72 artificial light / lighting  ∫ 170, 176 atmosphere  ∫ 172 attachment  ∫ 122 Automatic doors  ∫ 141 B b factor  ∫ 175 ball impact  ∫ 78 Bands of diamond panes  ∫ 17 Barrier-free openings  ∫ 78, 143 base blocks  ∫ 124 bending and folding mechanisms  ∫ 44 Bible windows  ∫ 18 Bionics  ∫ 44 blind frame profile  ∫ 99 Blind frame window  ∫ 18, 124 Block frame window  ∫ 124 Blocking  ∫ 108 blower door test  ∫ 61, 64 Blunt rebate  ∫ 124 Bonded edge /edge bonds  ∫ 92, 214 Borosilicate glass  ∫ 214 box fold  ∫ 158 Box-type window  ∫ 13, 100, 149, 164 Braun windows  ∫ 151 building automation controls  ∫ 10 Building connection  ∫ 120 building materials classes  ∫ 70 building operations  ∫ 212 building physics fundamentals  ∫ 50 bullseye panes  ∫ 14, 17, 19 burglar resistance classes  ∫ 76 Burglary prevention  ∫ 76 C Carousel doors  ∫ 141 casement  ∫ 143 casement frame profile  ∫ 100 Casement window   ∫ 13, 100, 149, 164 Casings and encased windows   ∫ 100, 126 cast glass  ∫ 18, 87 Cast-iron windows  ∫ 158 Cathode sputtering (soft coating)  ∫ 89 CE labelling  ∫ 72, 84 Chemically strengthened glass  ∫ 88 child-proofing  ∫ 79 clamp rebate  ∫ 99 climate loads  ∫ 73 Closed-cavity facades (CCF)  ∫ 144 coatings  ∫ 89


Coefficient of thermal expansion  ∫ 83 Cold air downdraughts  ∫ 58 cold facades  ∫ 144 Cold-warm facade  ∫ 144 Colour rendering  ∫ 79, 177 colour rendering index  ∫ 80 Combinations of materials  ∫ 98 comfort criteria  ∫ 57 components  ∫ 86, 118 Composite frames / hybrids  ∫ 107 composite leaf  ∫ 163 Composite window  ∫ 100, 150,   158, 164 Compound Parabolic Concentrators   (CPC)  ∫ 44, 47 compression capacity  ∫ 133 condensation  ∫ 59, 152, 164 conditions  ∫ 170 Connection between glass and frame   ∫ 108 Connection joints  ∫ 120, 130 Construction joints  ∫ 63 Constant ventilation  ∫ 37 Construction principles  ∫ 149 construction products  ∫ 212 Construction Products Regulation  ∫ 83 control function  ∫ 38 convection  ∫ 41 Convectors / Convector heaters  ∫ 205 cooling energy requirements  ∫ 170 cooling load calculations  ∫ 175 Coupled window  ∫ 100, 150, 158, 164 coupling joints  ∫ 130 Cradle-to-grave assessment  ∫ 208 Criteria used in evaluating and assessing  glazing ∫ 80 Cross ventilation  ∫ 63 crossbar windows  ∫ 17 crown glass pane  ∫ 19 cultural and developmental history of   the window  ∫ 12 curtain wall  ∫ 120 cylinder blowing process  ∫ 19 D Data sources on life-cycle assessment  data ∫ 212 daylight  ∫ 170, 176, 186 Daylight autonomy  ∫ 186, 187 Decorative facades  ∫ 27 Deformation  ∫ 81 desiccants  ∫ 91 design of facade openings  ∫ 24 Designer coatings  ∫ 90 dew point temperature  ∫ 64 diamond-pane glazing  ∫ 16, 17, 20 diamond-shaped panes  ∫ 16, 17 differential pressure test  ∫ 61, 64 Dimensions and tolerances  ∫ 80 disposal  ∫ 216 Double windows / Double-hung   window  ∫ 149, 100 double-glazed facade  ∫ 150 double-skin facades  ∫ 149 double-shell glazing  ∫ 144 Draughts  ∫ 37 drawn glass  ∫ 87 drip edge  ∫ 137 dry glazing  ∫ 108 Durability  ∫ 82 dynamic selectivity  ∫ 94 E edge bonds / Bonded edge  ∫ 92, 214 Edgings  ∫ 28 Electrochromic glazing  ∫ 95 Electromagnetic damping  ∫ 73 electromagnetic radiation  ∫ 172 element facades  ∫ 144 Elements, moveable  ∫ 180 emissivity  ∫ 52, 172, 176 End of life: recycling  ∫ 215

energy balance  ∫ 182 energy improvements  ∫ 148 environmental effects / impact  ∫ 210,   212, 217 Environmental labelling  ∫ 210 Environmental Product Declaration   EPD)  ∫ 208, 212 escape and panic locks  ∫ 142 EU’s revised construction products  regulation (EU-Bauproduktenverord­ nung (BauPVO)  ∫ 208 Euro rebate / Euro groove  ∫ 113 Eutrophication Potential (EP)  ∫ 210 exchange of air  ∫ 37 Exhaust air  ∫ 39 Exhaust ventilator  ∫ 200 Extension capacity  ∫ 133 Exterior doors  ∫ 139 Exterior rebate  ∫ 125 F facade order  ∫ 24 Facade types  ∫ 144 Facade-integrated ventilation  ∫ 203 Facades, heated  ∫ 205 false facades  ∫ 27 Fastening systems and elements  ∫ 128 Federal state building regulations   (Landesbauordnungen (LBO))  ∫ 70 fenêtre en longueur  ∫ 29 Fillings  ∫ 214 finger protection  ∫ 79 Fire barriers, fire blocks  ∫ 128 Fire behaviour  ∫ 70 Fire protection  ∫ 70 Fire resistance classes  ∫ 71 Fire-resistant glazing  ∫ 72, 116 fittings  ∫ 111 Fixed glazing  ∫ 153 Flat glass  ∫ 87 Float glass  ∫ 87 Flush box-type window  ∫ 150 Folding doors  ∫ 142 folding shutters  ∫ 15 folding shutters hung from above  ∫ 17 folding sliding shutters  ∫ 45 Folding windows  ∫ 157 forest glass  ∫ 17 Frame materials  ∫ 101, 213 frame profiles  ∫ 99, 101 frames of reference  ∫ 30 front shutters  ∫ 138 functional coatings  ∫ 174, 177, 214 functional glazing  ∫ 177 Functional joints  ∫ 63 Functional zone  ∫ 122 G Gas filling in the space between panes  ∫ 92 German Construction Contract   Procedures (VOB)  ∫ 136 German Energy Saving Ordinance   (Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV))  ∫ 55, 56, 61, 63, 65, 66, 215 Glaser method  ∫ 59 Glass production  ∫ 18 Glass sealing  ∫ 108 Glazing  ∫ 73, 96, 214 Glazing rebates  ∫ 108 Glazing tape  ∫ 109 global solar radiation  ∫ 170 Global warming potential  ∫ 209 Greenhouse effect  ∫ 170, 173 GRP frames  ∫ 107 gueule de loup  ∫ 99, 158 H h,x diagram or Mollier diagram  ∫ 64 heads /cross bar  ∫ 99, 100 Heat conductivity  ∫ 53 Heat-insulating glazing  ∫ 178

Heat recovery  ∫ 201 heat transfer coefficient  ∫ 53, 54 Heat transport  ∫ 51 Heated facades  ∫ 205 heating energy requirements  ∫ 182 hinge windows  ∫ 153 historical windows  ∫ 148 Historical windows  ∫ 161 historically protected windows  ∫ 148 holographic-optical elements (HOE)   ∫ 44, 89 honeycomb-shaped panes  ∫ 18, 20 Horizontal glazing  ∫ 76 Horizontal loading capacity  ∫ 75 Horizontal slide windows  ∫ 154 Horizontal wind loads  ∫ 74 Humidity protection  ∫ 59 Hybrid ventilation  ∫101 I Illuminance  ∫ 176 Impact categories of a life-cycle  assessment ∫ 209 incidence of radiation energy  ∫ 39 incident daylight  ∫ 39 incoming air  ∫ 37, 62, 201, 203 indicator function  ∫ 57 Inflexible systems  ∫ 170 Inner rebate  ∫ 124 inner windowsills  ∫ 137 Insect protection  ∫ 78, 97 insertion frames  ∫ 125 Installation level  ∫ 61 installation site  ∫ 75 installation situation  ∫ 215 Insulating glass windows  ∫ 152, 164 Insulating glazing  ∫ 94, 153, 177, 216 insulation level  ∫ 126 Intensive ventilation  ∫ 62 interior air quality  ∫ 37 Intermittent ventilation  ∫ 37/ International Commission on Illumination  (CIE) ∫ 186 IR radiation  ∫ 172 Isotherm diagram  ∫ 55 J jambs /pillars / mullions  ∫ 99 joining techniques  ∫ 99 Joint construction  ∫ 131 Joint insulation  ∫ 128 joint permeability  ∫ 61 joint seal  ∫ 133 joint sealants  ∫ 133 joints  ∫ 59, 60 K Kinematics  ∫ 41, 42 L Laminated glass  ∫ 89 Laminated safety glass  ∫ 88 lap fold  ∫ 156 large openings /windows  ∫ 154, 155 layers  ∫ 40, 46, 120 leaf fitted with special hinges  ∫ 163 Life-cycle assessments (LCA)   ∫ 208, 214 light deflection  ∫ 38, 172, 189 light diffusion  ∫ 39, 189 Lighting  ∫ 79, 206 lime-soda glass  ∫ 214 Linear expansion  ∫ 82 linear heat transfer coefficient (Psi value)   ∫ 54 lintel box  ∫ 138 lintels  ∫ 120 load groups  ∫ 110 load transfer  ∫ 122 location  ∫ 171 long-wave thermal radiation  ∫ 172 Louvre structures  ∫ 45

low-e coatings  ∫ 42, 52, 178 luminance contrasts  ∫ 78 Luminous intensity / luminance   ∫ 176, 188 M M glass  ∫ 178 Maintenance  ∫ 215 Maintenance and sustainability  ∫ 160 mass-spring-mass principle  ∫ 67 materials  ∫ 86 Mechanical requirements  ∫ 73 media facades  ∫ 30 Metal windows  ∫ 157, 165 middle-hung leafs  ∫ 156 middle-hung windows  ∫ 155 minimum air exchange rates  ∫ 61 minimum degrees of illuminance  ∫ 176 Minimum insulation  ∫ 65 Model Building Regulation (Musterbau  ordnung (MBO))  ∫ 70 Modular skylight  ∫ 117 motorised drive unit  ∫ 115 mould formation  ∫ 64 Moveable elements  ∫ 180 movement areas  ∫ 78 movement joints  ∫ 130 Movement-compensating potential   ∫ 81 mullions  ∫ 55 mullion-transom facades  ∫ 144 multifunctional layers  ∫ 179 Multifunction strips  ∫ 134 multi-pane insulating glazing units   ∫ 53, 91, 153 Multiple windows  ∫ 100 N national general test certificate  (allgemeines bauaufsichtliches Prüfzeugnis (abP))  ∫ 72 national technical approval (allgemeine  bauaufsichtliche Zulassung, (abZ))  ∫ 72 Natural ventilation  ∫ 62, 203 need for heating energy  ∫ 170 night ventilation  ∫ 203 noble or inert gases (argon, krypton and   xenon)  ∫ 53, 216 Noise level zone  ∫ 66 O Old windows and doors  ∫ 215 opening  ∫ 15 opening element’s position in the reveal    ∫ 25 opening elements  ∫ 24, 29, 37 ,40 Opening elements (NSHEV)  ∫ 115,   116, 117, 118 opening limiters  ∫ 79 operating principle  ∫ 42 Optical requirements  ∫ 80 optimum proportion of opening surfaces   ∫ 186 ordering principle  ∫ 24 orientation  ∫ 171, 182 Original plastic windows in protected  buildings ∫ 160 Ornament  ∫ 29 Outer rebate  ∫ 126 Outer windowsills  ∫ 135, 137 Overlapping insulation of frame profiles   ∫ 127 Ozone depletion potential  ∫ 210 P Panels  ∫ 97 Panorama windows  ∫ 156 parapet element  ∫ 75 parts of openings  ∫ 28 passive solar energy use  ∫ 170 Perforated surfaces  ∫ 45

R Rack and pinion drives  ∫ 114 radar reflection damping  ∫ 73 Radiation  ∫ 44 Radiation asymmetry  ∫ 57 Radiation input  ∫ 41 range of humidity  ∫ 57 raw materials  ∫ 212 Rebate clearance  ∫ 61 rebate drainage  ∫ 108 rebate principle  ∫ 99 Rebate types  ∫ 124 rebate vents  ∫ 199 recessed windows  ∫ 27 Recycling quota  ∫ 216 Recycling systems  ∫ 215 Recycling window components  ∫ 215 reflection  ∫ 30, 172 reflection capacity  ∫ 172 regulation or control  ∫ 37 regulation technologies  ∫ 42 regulatory process  ∫ 42 Rekord windows  ∫ 151 relative humidity  ∫ 59, 64 relief arches  ∫ 120 Resistance to driving rain  ∫ 75 Restoration  ∫ 149, 161 ribbon facade  ∫ 144 ribbon windows  ∫ 21, 120, 152, 156 Roller shutter boxes  ∫ 138 roof windows  ∫ 115 Rotating leaf / pivoting ventilation sashes    ∫ 18, 166 Rotating leaf window  ∫ 153 Rotating window  ∫ 43 Rotation  ∫ 43

Sensors  ∫ 63, 93, 115, 118, 200, 206 Service life issues / Life-cycle   assessments  ∫ 83, 208 service potential  ∫ 171 shade concept  ∫ 186 shading coefficient (FC value)  ∫ 176 Shading Coefficient (SC)  ∫ 175 Shaft ventilation  ∫ 63, 201 Sheet glass  ∫ 87 Shell glazing  ∫ 152, 164 shells  ∫ 40, 46, 120, 144 simulation programmes  ∫ 187 Single glazings / Single-glazed   windows  ∫ 149, 163 Single window  ∫ 99 Sink window  ∫ 157 Size and layout of openings  ∫ 182 skylight dome  ∫ 113 Sliding doors  ∫ 142 sliding shutters  ∫ 17 sliding ventilation sashes  ∫ 18 Smart materials  ∫ 41 smoke and heat extractors  ∫ 70, 116 sol-gel process  ∫ 89 solar radiation  ∫ 170, 173 solar energy  ∫ 170 solar spectrum  ∫ 172 solar thermal radiation  ∫ 172 sound insulation of joints  ∫ 67 Sound proofing / Sound insulation   ∫ 40, 66, 69, 126, 200 Soundproof windows  ∫ 69, 93 space between panes  ∫ 53, 69, 73,   153, 214 spacer systems  ∫ 92 spacers  ∫ 54, 92 spacers, punctiform  ∫ 94 spacing blocks  ∫ 124 spatial dimension  ∫ 26 special fittings  ∫ 114 Special safety glazing  ∫ 77 Special windows  ∫ 166 spectral range  ∫ 172 Spindle drives  ∫ 113 stained glass windows  ∫ 166 Steel window frames  ∫ 104 Stepped insulating glass  ∫ 93 stepped-edge rebate  ∫ 99 Structural Glazing  ∫ 111 structural integrity  ∫ 120 structure-borne sound  ∫ 66 structures  ∫ 25, 40, 46 subframe  ∫ 126 Summer heat insulation  ∫ 183 Sun-screening glazing  ∫ 178 sun’s angle of incidence  ∫ 184 sunscreen systems  ∫ 39, 176 sunscreens /solar protection   ∫ 170, 175, 180, 182 support blocks / bearing blocks   ∫ 108, 124 sustainability certification  ∫ 82 swing doors  ∫ 78

S safety barrier  ∫ 75 sash bars  ∫ 93, 99, 149 sash locks  ∫ 112 Sash windows  ∫ 157 scheduling  ∫ 143 sealant groups  ∫ 110 sealing  ∫ 59 Sealing films  ∫ 134 Sealing layers  ∫ 130 Sealing of structural connection joints   ∫ 129 sealing profiles /sealant  ∫ 109, 111 Sealing systems  ∫ 132 Sealing tapes  ∫ 68, 133 Selective systems  ∫ 42 Selectivity  ∫ 172, 176 Self-cleaning glass  ∫ 90

T Technical Building Rule (eingeführte  Technische Baubestimmung – ETB)  ∫ 72 Temperature factor  ∫ 65 temperature of the air in the room  ∫ 57 Tempered or toughened glass  ∫ 87 Temporary insulation  ∫ 38, 58 Thermal bridges  ∫ 55, 65 Thermal comfort  ∫ 57 Thermal conduction  ∫ 51 Thermal convection  ∫ 51 thermal radiation  ∫ 172 Thermal resistance  ∫ 53, 54 thermal separation  ∫ 106 Thermograph  ∫ 55 Three-edge adhesion  ∫ 133 Threshold  ∫ 99, 142

Performance profiles  ∫ 38 Permanent ventilation  ∫ 62 Permeability  ∫ 41 Phase-Change-Materials (PCM)   ∫ 41, 99, 203 Photochemical ozone creation potential   ∫ 210 pivoting shutters  ∫ 15 plaster seal strips  ∫ 131, 136 Plastic  ∫ 107, 159, 213, 216 Plastics and membranes  ∫ 96 porte-fenêtre  ∫ 28 potential use for solar power  ∫ 188 pressure equalisation  ∫ 109 Pressure glazing  ∫ 111 Primary energy requirement  ∫ 210 printing  ∫ 90 Profile drainage  ∫ 128 Proof of suitability and official approval   ∫ 72 proportion of window surface   ∫ 183, 187 Proportion systems  ∫ 24 Protection for openings  ∫ 40 protective functions  ∫ 36, 50 Pyrolytic coating  ∫ 89

tilt and turn leafs  ∫ 166 tilt and turn windows  ∫ 43, 153 top-mount roll shutters  ∫ 138 total energy requirements  ∫ 186 Total energy transmittance coefficient  (g value) ∫ 173 Translation  ∫ 43 Transmission / transmittance  ∫ 30, 41,   170, 172 transmission heat loss  ∫ 56 transoms  ∫ 99 transparency  ∫ 30 triangular joints  ∫ 133 turn window  ∫ 155 type of opening  ∫ 40 type of window  ∫ 149 types of construction  ∫ 86 types of glass  ∫ 214 Types of movement  ∫ 26, 43, 74, 179 Types of windows  ∫ 99 U users’ satisfaction  ∫ 8 Utilisation factor  ∫ 183, 188 UV radiation  ∫ 172 V Vacuum glazing  ∫ 94 vacuum insulation glass  ∫ 163 vacuum insulation panels  ∫ 98 ventilated curtain facades  (VHF)   ∫ 144 ventilation  ∫ 36, 62, 198, 200, 201, 203 ventilation components  ∫ 63, 108 Ventilation concept  ∫ 183 ventilation elements  ∫ 39 ventilation window  ∫ 40 Verification process  ∫ 184 Vertical slide windows  ∫ 154, 166 views  ∫ 79 visible light  ∫ 172 W Wagner window  ∫ 151 warm edge  ∫ 92 Water vapour  ∫ 59 Water vapour diffusion in sealing systems   ∫ 135 Watertightness / impermeability to driving   rain  ∫ 59, 60 Weatherproofing  ∫ 122 wet-glazed glazing  ∫ 108 Wind deflectors  ∫ 118 Wind load zones  ∫ 75 Wind pressure  ∫ 74 window glass (blown)  ∫ 13 Window gratings /grilles  ∫ 77, 139 Window manufacture  ∫ 212 Window materials  ∫ 157 window preservation  ∫ 148 window putty  ∫ 109 window researchers  ∫ 16 window unit  ∫ 8, 101, 148, 159 windows  ∫ 14 Windows in flat roofs  ∫ 115 Windows with a smoke extraction  function ∫ 118 windows, stained glass  ∫ 166 wind-tight  ∫ 18 winter windows  ∫ 149, 162 Wired glass  ∫ 87 wooden shutters  ∫ 14, 16 wooden window  ∫ 17, 103, 157, 213 Ψ-Wert  ∫ 92


The authors and publishers would like to thank the following sponsor for the assistance with this publication

SchĂźco International KG Bielefeld (D)


Building Openings Construction Manual  

The Building Openings Construction Manual opens with historic developments, provides solid facts on standards and safety features. It covers...

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