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SINCE 1988

MAY • JUNE 2019

The competitive edge R40,00

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No 189

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34 Nr 189


ISSN 1015-85 37

37 Cover The citrus industry has enjoyed two record crops in succession for the export market. Last year’s crop yielded a revenue of nearly R19 billion.

NEWS 4 Reliable satelite imagery 4 Rooibos booms in Japan 5 R20 000 for Scouts 5 Witte Wijnappel back in company’s garden 6 Kynoch neem Sidi Parani en Profert oor 7 Agri’s got talent 2019 compares apples and oranges 7 Wine harvest 2019 may be smaller

EDITORIAL Willie Louw (Group editor)

CITRUS 8 10 11 14 17 18

The competitive edge Record year for citrus exports Looking after people and the planet People first Plaagbeheer voor sitrus-oes moet reg benader word Drip irrigation in citrus

Carien Daffue (Editor) 018 293 0622 info@mediakom.co.za PO BOX 20250, Noordbrug, 2522


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Packaging - it’s a myth Bly ingelig en volg ons op Facebook. Keep up to date and follow us on Facebook. - SA Groente en Vrugte/SA Vegetables and Fruit - www.facebook.com/SAGroenteenVrugte/



Ayoba kan opgeberg word Carvora kan enige tyd van die jaar geplant word BASF-oplossings in kernvrugte


GENERAL 25 27 28 31 33 34 36 37

This beetle is hiding in pecan trees and killing them from the inside Bereik volle potensiaal met aartappels Its Maluma time Ontwikkeling van groentesaad kry hupstoot op nuwe proefplaas PMA Fresh Connections 2019 Amorentia Sweet Dragon fruit interest ‘grows’ Presisieboerdery in groente is ‘n wenner Consumers demand quality avocados everywhere and all year round INSECT COLUMN


False codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)


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Reliable satellite imagery Airbus Defence and Space and The Climate Corporation (Climate), a subsidiary of Bayer, have announced a new global agreement to deliver frequently updated satellite imagery from Airbus to farmers through Climate FieldView™, an industry-leading platform of digital agriculture.


S A RESULT, FARMERS who use this platform can access high-resolution data of their fields throughout the growing season. This will give customers the ability to more precise monitor crop health and performances, helping them take action in the field before yield is impacted at the end of the season. They will also be able to visualise this satellite imagery alongside other data layers in their FieldView account, including planting and yield data, to unlock new insights about crop health. “We are very pleased to be working with The Climate Corporation to enhance FieldView by providing them with access to updated, cloud-free images within the time frame required to efficiently monitor crops at each key growth stage,” said François Lombard, Head of Intelligence Business at Airbus Defence and Space.

Farmers who use this platform can access high-resolution data of their fields throughout the growing season.

Rooibos booms in Japan Rooibos is becoming a big deal in Japan, one of the largest tea-drinking nations in the world, with exports of our indigenous tea hitting record highs in 2018.


ORE THAN 2 000 tons were shipped to its shores last year, the largest consignment since Rooibos was first introduced to the Japanese in the 1980s. Martin Bergh, Chairperson of the SA Rooibos Council (SARC), says it hasn’t been easy breaking into the Japanese market, but that Rooibos is starting to make some serious inroads. “The Japanese are spoilt for choice. They have more than 26 different types of tea to choose from, which range from

Popular restaurant chains, like Ippudo, have also done a lot to promote Rooibos in Japan. Instead of serving water with their pork bone broth, which is a traditional favourite, they switched to Rooibos tea instead as they felt its clean taste complemented the dish better.


their traditional green tea varieties to jasmine and barley tea or ‘mugicha’ as it is known among the locals, so Rooibos has been up against stiff competition. “Over the years, Rooibos has carved a niche for itself as a refreshing health tea, which has resonated with the ultra-health-conscious Japanese market. Today, it counts among the leading teas in Japan’s ‘Healthy Tea’ segment. “While the Western world has known about the risks associated with drinking too much caffeine for years, the Japanese have only recently taken notice of it. This has helped to increase Rooibos’ appeal since it is low in tannins and completely caffeine-free. The general trend toward natural health and wellness products continue to exert a growing influence on purchasing patterns in the region and as more of Rooibos’ health benefits become known in the East, we anticipate the demand for the product to grow,” says Bergh. Exports to Japan more than tripled in the last five years as Rooibos’ presence increased in mainstream supermarkets with many launching their own private label products. Even though Rooibos only makes up a tiny slice of the 200 000 tons of tea consumed in Japan per year, it is faring well above the annual 2,3% growth rate for the tea industry, clocking up a 7% increase in sales last year. And with a market as big as Japan’s 126 million-strong tea-loving population, always eager to experiment with new products, Rooibos offers endless possibilities.



R20 000 for Scouts HL Hall & Sons recently handed over its next Lula Sandla award of R20 000 to Scouts South Africa. Nominated by Mr Craig Lewis, the Commercial Director of Halls South Africa, the Scouts were presented with the award based on the good work they do for the young boys and girls in the community of Mpumalanga.


HIS AWARD IS AIMED at helping those employees who are actively helping in their communities. The Scouts were seen as a worthy cause to receive the award this round to help them with their endeavours. “I am proud to be associated with the Scouts organisation, specifically in Mataffin. Thank you for everything you are doing for the youth under Scouts, it is an incredible organisation that equips young people with life skills”, says Lewis. Lucy Magagula, Regional Commissioner of Scouts MP thanked HL Hall & Sons for the award. “This means so much to us and it will make a huge difference to the organisation because most of the kids who are Scouts come from disadvantaged areas and with this award we will be able to buy equipment for the kids when they go on camp”. Lewis acknowledged HL Hall & Sons for the Lula Sandla awards initiative. “I am very grateful to work for an organisation that supports its employees and is actively engaged in the communities that surround it.” The ceremony ended off with the Scouts acknowledging Mr Lewis for the support he has shown to the Scouts organisation by handing over the SA Mpumalanga Regional Badge to him.

Bheki Sithole (RTC Adult Support), Musa Nkosi (First Mataffin ATS), Lucky Sebiya (First Mataffin ATS), Khonzaphi Mdaka (Deputy Chief Scout SA), Craig Lewis (Commercial Director of Halls South Africa), Nicolaus Phiri (District Commissioner East), Lucy Magagula (SSA MP Regional Commissioner), Sharon Mkhonto (SSA MP Regional Office Manager), Sifiso Malinga ( First Mataffin Pack Scouter), Christopher Sigauke (First Mataffin Rover).

Witte Wijnappel back in company’s garden HORTGRO


HE RETURN OF THE first apple tree planted in the iconic Company’s Garden in the late 1650s is a remarkable story, made possible through a partnership between Tru-Cape, Hortgro and the Cape Heritage Fund. More than a decade ago, Tru-Cape Quality Assurance Manager, Henk Griessel, and his colleague, Buks Nel who is the company’s New Variety Expert, started researching the history of apples which culminated in a book entitled ‘Apples in the Early Days at The Cape’. According to historical records, the Witte Wijnappel was the first apple picked in the Company’s Garden on 17 April 1662. What happened to the tree between 1662 and today? After a period of exhaustive research, the duo tracked down the Witte Wijnappel tree in the Netherlands. “This is a remarkable story and the city

is honoured to be a part of it. It reminds us once more of the rich heritage of the Company’s Garden, but also the importance of the fruit industry. The Witte Wijnappel tree will take its place among other heritage varieties at the axis of the irrigation channel in the Company’s Garden,” said Councillor Zahid Badroodien, Mayoral Committee Member for Community Services and Health. The tree-planting ceremony is not coincidental, as Tru-Cape notes and celebrates 17 April as the official birth of the apple industry. “The replanting of the Witte Wijnappel is a historic moment in the South African fruit industry and so it is fitting that it happened on this particular day. It would not have been possible without the extensive efforts of Henk Griessel and Buks Nel, who are passionate about what they do and veterans in the


Photographed at the planting of the Witte Wijnappel tree are Brandon Golding, Zahid Badroodien, Buks Nel, Henk Griessel, Frederik Voigt and Nicholas Dicey.

industry. We are extremely proud of their work,” said Tru-Cape Fruit Marketing Managing Director, Roelf Pienaar.



Kynoch neem Sidi Parani en Profert oor Kynoch Kunsmis het sy belange uitgebrei deur die oorname van twee kunsmismaatskappye, Sidi Parani en Profert Kunsmis.


YNOCH, ‘N AFDELING VAN Farmisco (Edms.) Bpk, het voorheen ‘n belang in Sidi Parani gehad en is met die toestemming van die Mededingingskommissie nou ‘n 100% aandeelhouer in Sidi Parani. Sidi Parani was dertig jaar in die kunsmisbedryf en is veral bekend as verskaffer van vloeibare kunsmis met spesialisering in plantvoeding. Die maatskappy was veral in die Noord-Kaap, Noordwes en Wes-Vrystaat aktief. Profert is in 1999 gestig en het in korrel- en vloeibare kunsmis gespesialiseer. Die groep het mengaanlegte in al

Suid-Afrika se groot provinsies. Die aankoop-ooreenkoms gee Kynoch toegang tot bykomende produksiekapasiteit. Kynoch het in die afgelope 100 jaar as ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse maatskappy gegroei tot ‘n toonaangewende invoerder, menger en verkoper van korrel-, vloeibare en spesialiteitskunsmis. Die maatskappy is deel van die Export Trading Group, een van die vinnigste groeiende landboukonglomerate wêreldwyd. Volgens Bruce Shuker, Kynoch se kommersiële bestuurder, is die Kynoch-span opgewonde oor die toekoms en sien hulle daarna uit om ‘n uitstekende diens te lewer en deur vindingrykheid ‘n verskil in landbou te maak. Vir meer inligting oor Kynoch Kunsmis, kontak Bruce Shuker by bruce.shuker@kynoch.co.za of besoek die maatskappy se webtuiste by www.kynoch.co.za.


Contact us on: +27 (0)11 692 1658 www.knittex.co.za clientliaison@knittex.co.za



Agri’s got talent 2019

Wine harvest 2019 may be smaller

At Agri’s Got Talent (AGT) they are going to compare apples and oranges … or rather agri-workers in the pome and citrus industries.

With close to two thirds of the 2019 wine grape harvest already in cellars, the most recent estimate indicates that the harvest may be somewhat smaller than last year.


T IS THE SIXTH year that this popular competition is rocking farmyards. Songs can be performed in any genre, so whether participants are into pop, RnB, acoustic, rap or classical, Agri’s Got Talent wants to hear it all. Finalists undergo a training week in Paarl where they receive singing and stage training, as well as life skills coaching. The gala evening will take place on 2 August 2019 at the Lord Charles Hotel in Somerset West. To enter, send a WhatsApp a sound clip of no longer than three minutes to 082 372 1557 or e-mail: agrisgottalent@ gmail.com Include the following: • Name and surname • Date of birth • Own cell number • Name of farm / cellar / pack house • Job description • How long you have been working on the farm, in the pack house or cellar • Nearest town Please contact Carmé Naudé at carme@hortgro.co.za or 021 870 2900 for more information.


CCORDING TO THE LATEST survey that wine industry body SA Wine Industry Information & Systems (SAWIS) performed among producer cellars and Vinpro viticulturists, the 2019 wine grape harvest might at this stage be smaller than in 2018 – a year in which the Western Cape was affected most severely by a three year drought. “The berries and bunches are smaller, lighter and less dense than usual,” explains Francois Viljoen, manager of Vinpro’s viticulture consultation service. “This trend can be attributed to unfavourable weather conditions during flowering and set in October and November 2018, as well as above average winds experienced at the start of summer.” Many vineyards, especially dryland vineyards, have not yet fully recovered from the effect of the three year drought and the drought even continued in the Klein Karoo region during 2018. According to Viljoen the rainfall that occurred in March 2019 in certain areas of the Western Cape, necessitated greater inputs to control disease, while rot will also contribute to losses in certain wine grape areas and farms. The Northern Cape’s weather conditions have been moderate thus far, with normal yields being expected in this region.



AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE AGENTS COUNCIL www.apacweb.org.za | 011 894 3680


THE FARMER Act 12 of 1992 regulates the process Fresh Produce Agents must follow, from receiving the fresh produce to the selling of the produce. Want to know more? Contact us today 011 – 894 3680


San Miguel is planning to export just over 70 000 or 4,5 million 15 kg cartons in 2019.

The competitive edge San Miguel farms’ origins date back to the early twentieth century, when large immigrant groups arrived in Argentina from Europe.


ANY TOWNS IN Southern Spain were affected by a number of factors that hit their economy, giving rise to the migration of thousands of people. These included the Mata and Mena families, who settled in the province of Tucumán, in the Argentine Northeast. For both families, this was a new start, in a land and a climate similar to those of their motherland, and with an attribute that, decades later, would change their destiny for ever: great quality citrus. Many years later they expanded their business abroad. The company’s turnover reached more than USD 200 million in 2007, a history record for the company. Continuing with its international expansion plan, it started doing business in South Africa, the top fresh citrus fruit exporter of the Southern Hemisphere, where it made investments in one of the three most fertile areas of the country, with premium quality fruit and a wide range of varieties. In 2010, the first commercial structure was set up in Port Elizabeth, and the River Bend farm, with 400 hectares planted with citrus, was acquired in 2011. This growth in South Africa allowed strengthening San Miguel’s position as the leading counter-seasonal citrus supplier from the Southern Hemisphere, with volume, quality and varieties that responded better to the global market requirements. In 2012, forming a joint venture with important citrus producers of South Africa, San Miguel acquired Valor, which changed its name to Venco, with an industrial plant that allows the company to continue enlarging its high-quality processed sweet citrus portfolio (juice and oils) for the international market. Andries du Preez is the country manager for San Miguel in South Africa. He has been with the company since 2011as

Beautiful smiles at the new pack house in the Sundays River Valley to cater for the growth, with new trees coming into production.

Chief Financial Officer. He says that San Miguel has a consumer orientated business model. They are present in four countries and have nearly 10 000 hectares of citrus in production. In South Africa they have 1 052 hectares of citrus planted. The company have two complementary business divisions focussing on both fresh fruit exports as well as processed foods. Lemons represent 40% of the group’s total fresh fruit export, and represent 71% of the total processing volumes. In South Africa the farms have a balanced split of varieties with soft citrus representing 25%; lemons 29% and oranges 46%. The farms in South Africa are located in the Sundays River Valley in the Eastern Cape. They also procure fruit from other producers in the Sundays River Valley as well from the Groblersdal, Hoedspruit and Letsitele areas. They are TO PAGE 10




The competitive edge FROM PAGE 8

Oranges being harvested.

planning to export just over 70 000 or 4,5 million 15 kg cartons in 2019. When asked what some of the recent highlights are, Andries said that they have recently acquired an interest in a new pack house in the Sundays River Valley to cater for the growth, with new trees coming into production. They launched an empowerment initiative where shares in an integrated citrus company were donated to 120 black employees, the total asset value of R200 million. This year San Miguel has the Kaizer Chiefs soccer project running. There are eight companies involved and they are focussing on the youth and developing soccer skills. One employee was transferred to Argentina and signed for a club there. Apart from the soccer project they are also running different corporate social responsibility projects in their communities, focussing on healthcare and youth development. When looking at the challenges of a day to day running, Andries said that one of the biggest challenges is managing

a dynamic production unit with so many different variables having an influence, such as climatic events. Over the last year they have installed 20 hectares of nets as a trial and are now installing an additional 45 hectares. According to Andries they are very excited by the potential of producing under nets. We asked Andries what in his opinion was the secret to successful citrus production in South Africa. He said that South Africa has the best quality citrus in the world and it is in high demand across the world. South Africans should continue to focus on providing quality products to consumers. There should also be a commitment to transformation in the agricultural industry, this should include ploughing back into the community and that is the key to a sustainable business model going forward. Andries concludes by saying that San Miguel’s competitive edge is people. Their passion, commitment and talent set the company apart.

In South Africa the farms have a balanced split of varieties with soft citrus representing 25%, lemons 29% and oranges 46%.

Record year for citrus exports The citrus growers from Southern Africa will export a record crop of close to 137 million boxes of citrus fruit to more than 100 countries this year.


HE RISE IN EXPORTS should translate into job opportunities, more foreign exchange revenue and a growing economy. This provisional export estimate was presented to the Citrus Marketing Forum – a body representing citrus growers and exporters. The higher export crop represents an increase of 0,7% year-on-year. “The citrus industry has enjoyed two record crops for the export market in succession. Last year’s crop yielded a revenue of nearly R19 billion,” said Justin Chadwick, CEO of the Citrus Growers’ Association. The interim results were announced at the Citrus Summit held in Port Elizabeth over two days. Some 600 delegates, including citrus growers, economists and business people,


attended this year’s event. The main drivers of growth are in the soft citrus and lemon categories. However, the net growth in these categories is somewhat muted due to a 3% decline in Valencia oranges. Valencia oranges make up the biggest portion of the citrus export market at 39%, followed by navel oranges (20%), lemons (16%), soft citrus (13%) and grapefruit (12%). Chadwick ascribed the increase to the resilience of the citrus industry and its ability to adapt to technological changes and overcome challenges. “Our local citrus industry is one of the country’s most important fruit groups by value and volume. It yields revenue of over R20 billion per year of which 92% comes from exports, and provides jobs to more than 100 000 people,” he said.



Endulini have invested heavily into new farms, which have created and will create work for more than 600 seasonal and 200 permanent employees.

Looking after people and the planet Eastern Cape citrus producer and exporter, Endulini Fruit’s CEO, Pietie Ferreira, is a third generation farmer heading one of the biggest farming units within the Gamtoos Valley. His father started farming in 1930 with tabacco and potatoes.


HE FERREIRAS STARTED citrus farming in 1953 with land Pietie inherited from his dad. In 1994, when the industry was de-regulated, they decided to leave the co-operative and opted to pack and export themselves. He and his younger brother formalised the company as it stands today. Unfortunately his brother, Eppie Ferreira, passed away in 2013. Pietie subsequently bought more land, making Endulini one of the biggest farming units within the Gamtoos Valley. Pietie says that his responsibilities included the day to day running of the operations with a very capable team assisting him. He is also responsible for the strategic direction of the company. Endulini’s beliefs are to operate the whole supply chain in order to make sure the quality of their fruit could be guaranteed. The business is horizontal and vertical integrated with companies that help in the supply chain processes and other companies that have nothing to do with fruit or farming at all. Fruit farming and packing is their main business and they strive to be pioneers in this industry. According to Pietie, operations are built around their people, the planet and making profit. A business needs to be sustainable. One of their main operation values is making sure that their people are happy, this also include the communities

Currently producing more than 48 000 000 kg of citrus fruit annually.

that the company operate in. this helps with efficiency and productivity. All operations on the Endulini farms need to make sure that the above mentioned principles are alive and well in the day to day running. Pietie says that he believe in the perfect mix of technology and well-trained employees to create the perfect TO PAGE 12




Looking after people and the planet FROM PAGE 11

working environment. They invest greatly in training and technology to ensure that the quality of their product succeeds the other products that are available on the markets. He firmly belief in relationships and the Endulini model is built around it, valuing customers and suppliers. Endulini’s production units are spread over the Gamtoos River Valley and the Sundays River Valley. The reason for this is to minimise risks in weather patterns and water supply. They belief in servicing customers with the whole citrus basket and therefore have made sure they can supply them with enough soft citrus, hard citrus and lemon varieties. The company has its own research and development department, making sure they stay on the forefront of new varieties and constantly testing the markets to make sure they stay relevant. In the last two years Endulini have started erecting hundreds of hectares of netting, covering their citrus orchids, to improve the quality of the fruit they supply. Because they are passionate about their people, Pietie and his late brother Eppie started farming together with their workers in the early 2000s. More than R7 million have been distributed, helping to better the lives of employees that helped make these farms success stories. In the last four years, Endulini have invested heavily into new farms, which have created and will create work for more than 600 seasonal and 200 permanent employees. Currently only approximately 52% is in production, producing more than 48 000 000 kg of citrus fruit annually. When asked what one of the biggest challenges they face is, Pietie says that finding employees that want to farm and have the skill to farm. There is also the interference of politics by creating the wrong perception of farmers, uncertainty, droughts and the managing of scares resources. When looking at soil conditions, fertilisation and irrigation systems, he says that they prefer micro irrigation. “It works for us and if used together with water monitoring and scheduling software, I believe you can manage your water better. By implementing this software and better training we have managed to decrease the water usage on all our farms. Annually we take soil and leaf samples and according to the need of the tree we apply fertiliser. We narrow it down only to supply the needs of the tree and the fruit it supplies.” So what is the secret to their success? Pietie says that they look after their employees, and strive to look after their planet by farming in a sustainable manner. It is important to look after their product to correctly add value to the correct niche markets in order to make sure the product satisfy the perceived value of the customer.


SP Ferreira and Pietie Ferreira.

One of their main operation values is making sure that their people are happy.



People first From humble beginnings way back in 1924, Sundays River Citrus Company (SRCC) has grown into one of the largest grower, packer and exporters of South African citrus. All their citrus is exclusively grown in the Sundays River Valley. SRCC is owned by about 100 farms, all based in the Sundays River Valley. It is a packer-exporter to global markets.


ANNES DE WAAL IS the Managing Director for SRCC and Vegetables & Fruit caught up with him to talk about operations. He joined the company as marketing director and became MD three years later. With his team they manage four pack houses where they pack, export and sell about 10 million cartons. They also assist their farmers with a team of highly qualified agronomists. SRCC focuses on very long term sustainability. Firstly, the sustainability of the producers is the most critical ingredient to how they manage their business. Secondly, they remain sustainable by adjusting the business to the needs of their producers and ensuring that they have market access. However, they see agricultural business as complete dependent on the communities around them. Therefore they regard a flourishing business environment as only being sustainable when communities are also flourishing. It is an enormous challenge in their context, especially as social and infrastructural spending deteriorated rapidly over the last two decades. But

SRCC Agronomy Field technician providing farming services to SRCC.

they continue this quest with strong support from their producers and the wider community. The focus of their foundation is on supporting education. The challenges faced are bigger than what the public is aware of and though the programmes are ambitious, they make a small difference.

Eldon Whittle (SRCC Production Manager) and Nokwanele Mzamo (Luthando Farms General Manager) inspecting the trees.


According to Hannes they need loyal partners in their bigger challenges as agribusinesses. The question he has is if agriculture invest more into education maybe education can become a partner and supporter of agriculture. He goes on to say that their producers are remarkable people. They have allowed them to become a leader in transformation with six successful projects and the exciting Ikamva Lethu project. SRCC’s producers manage about 100 farms. They vary in size. Some are extremely dynamic, growing rapidly in global terms and there Hannes mentions mega farmer Hannes Joubert, the Venter family and also Hermanus Potgieter. They also have Navel varieties, Valencia varieties and they invested in Nadorcott, Valley Gold Orre and Novas. The success achieved with those cultivars ensured that medium and smaller producers are equally well positioned. In the 2018 season the total number of export citrus from South Africa totalled 130 million cartons. From this total, 21,2 million came out of the Sundays River Valley and SRCC’s export cartons in the



SRCC producers, Malan Dunn, Nokwanele Mazamo, Johan-Malan Dunn.

2018 season totalled 7,7 million. With the numerous young lemon and mandarin orchards planted in the last few years and coming into production, the SRV volume is expected to grow to around 35 million cartons in the near future. The various citrus varieties can all be produced in the SRV; however the Sunday’s River Valley is probably the best area to produce lemons in the country, if not the world. One of their challenges is to get the Navels and Valencias to bear more tons per hectare and deliver good tonnage year on year. Achieving this is easier said than done with the constant rise of production costs per hectare each year. The agronomy department programme recommendations to producers are based on IPM practices aimed at sustainability. This enables SRCC to keep costs as low as possible and production and quality as high as possible. They are adamant that their labour component plays a major role in their business and labour availability is a struggle sometimes. Constantly measuring labour’s productivity helps them to stay above minimum wage rates. Labour remains one of the most important and highest costs in the citrus industry. At SRCC they constantly aim to maintain and increase the market access with everything that they do on farm, in packing and in the marketing process. Complying with market requirements in terms of chemical residues, phytosanitary issues and product quality are also becoming more difficult every year. In the Sundays River Valley, they

support local accredited nurseries for replanting and new programmes. Virtually all the trees planted in the SRV came from these nurseries. When asked what he sees as their biggest challenges on a day to day basis, Hannes says the without a doubt the biggest recent challenge has been the climate. There had been some nasty surprises during this dry cycle, with navels especially and poor fruit set in general. However, when looking at the past years he focuses on a few highlights for instance positioning themselves as a strong player globally. They took control of their own supply chain and streamlined it by doing some of it in-house. This helped them to create a strong logistics and marketing division. They continued by implementing a

rather ambitious programme of capital investing to ensure that the facilities are world class, and deploying people who understand modern technological challenges, be it with machinery or information technology. They also combatted the “often unfair” black spot and now false codling moth regimes, whilst growing their access to the EU markets and aim to position themselves as a leader in the low minimum residue markets. Soil conditions vary from sandy to fairly high clay soils, but the high pH level in the soils pose the biggest challenge. Both micro and drip irrigation systems are currently being used. The majority of the producers would foliar feed their orchards and fertigate through their micro or drip irrigation systems. So what would be the secret to successful citrus farming in South Africa? “I want to say water, water and water … but really successful producers know when to enter, manage and exit the variety cycle or part of it. They are normally strong drivers blessed with vision of success. Management will become more important as volumes are growing and the market development cycle is stagnating a bit. Then you just need an area with a good climate so that yields and quality of fruit will help to position yourself competitively. But mostly this is a game of passion for fruit and people and those who can combine that with a dose of leadership will be successful,” concludes Hannes.

Ikamva Lethu Chairman Charl Tibshraeny with beneficiary.




DIE GROEISIKLUS VAN SITRUS IN AG? Dit is alombekend dat behoorlike gewasbeskerming, drie maande voor oes, noodsaaklik is. In hierdie periode verskuif die fokus na vrugtevlieg- en valskodlingmotbeheer, en siektes soos bruinvrot.

U KAN VOORKOMEND OPTREE OM ‘N SUKSESVOLLE OES TE VERSEKER DEUR: Boorde gereeld te monitor en dienooreenkomstig te reageer

Boordsanitasie ten minste een keer per week toe te pas

Akkurate toediening van geregistreerde plaagbeheer middels

Ons NexusAG Croplife-geakkrediteerde gewas adviseurs bied maatpas gewasbestuursprogramme aan, wat u unieke omgewing en spesifieke omstandighede in ag neem, om volhoubare oplossings te bied.




Plaagbeheer voor sitrus-oes moet reg benader word Plaagbeheer vorm ’n integrale deel van die jaarlikse groeisiklus en sitrus het drie maande voor oestyd behoorlike gewasbeskerming nodig. Met insekte skuif die fokus van die gewasbeskermingsprogram gedurende hierdie tyd meer na beheer van vrugtevlieg- en valskodlingmot (VKM). Siektes soos bruinvrot kan kop uitsteek.


M VRUGTEVLIEG EN VKM te beheer, moet boorde gereeld gemonitor word, boordsanitasie moet minstens een keer per week toegepas word en geregistreerde plaagbeheermiddels moet gebruik word. Altwee peste het ’n larwale stadium in die vrug, wat daartoe lei dat die sitrus aan die boom verkleur en die vrugte afval. Dit vergemaklik die identifisering en verwydering van besmette vrugte uit die boord. Enige verwyderde vrugte moet 30 cm diep begrawe óf buite die boord vernietig word. Boordsanitasie vorm die grondslag van vrugtevlieg- en VKM-beheer en indien dit nie korrek toegepas word nie, sal die res van die plaagbeheerprogram minder doeltreffend wees. Vir vrugtevlieg- en VKM-monitering moet lokvalle en vrugbesmetting weekliks nagegaan word. Verskeie lokmiddels en lokvalle is vir hierdie doel geregistreer. Vrugbesmetting word weekliks by voorafbepaalde databome gemeet. Vrugtevlieg-beheermaatreëls is meestal op proteïen lok-envrek-metodes gegrond. Hierdie metodes is baie doeltreffend en het min gevolge vir voordelige insekte, mits dit volgens die voorskrifte op die etiket toegedien word. Die tussenposes en herhaling van toediening hang van die gekose produk, besmettingsvlakke én lokvalvangste af. VKM-beheer word die afgelope twee jaar deur ‘n bestuurstelsel van die Sitruskwekersvereniging gelei. Dit is ‘n doeltreffende stelsel wat wetenskaplik ontwikkel en deur die Citrus Research International saamgestel is. Vir uitvoer is produsente verplig om aan die voorskrifte te voldoen. Die stelsel vorm die basis vir monitering, drumpelwaardes en beheermaatreëls. VKM-beheer word verder ondersteun deur ’n lang lys geregistreerde en doeltreffende paringsontwrigting, biologiese en konvensionele plaagbeheermiddels. Bruinvrot word deur die oomyseet, Phytophthora nicotianae en P. citrophthora, veroorsaak. Hierdie patogene kom in die grond voor en veroorsaak bruinvrot op sitrusvrugte.


P. nicotianae veroorsaak ook wortel- en kraagvrot op die boom se wortels en stam. Die plant se wortels is veral tydens nat grondtoestande vatbaar. Dit is daarom voordelig om die wortels tydens reënseisoene te beskerm. Oorbesproeiing moet vermy word, goeie dreinering is nodig en minder vatbare onderstamme kan oorweeg word. Indien konvensionele siektebeheermiddels oorweeg word, is daar geregistreerde plaagbeheerprodukte beskikbaar. Fosfonate is een groep van hierdie produkte en is baie doeltreffend indien dit as ’n blaarbespuiting toegedien word vir die beheer van bruin- en wortelvrot. Fosfonate is hoogs sistemiese produkte en benodig minder water. Die sistemiese beskerming is egter nie dadelik deur die hele plant teenwoordig nie. Dit neem gewoonlik 2 tot 3 weke ná blaartoediening om in werking te tree. Fosfonate kan tot fitotoksisiteit lei indien dit in uiterste temperature en versuiptoestande toegedien word. Fosfonate kan ook lei tot fitotoksisiteit op sekere mandaryn-kultivars soos Nadorcotts, veral ná kleurbreek. Bruinvrot op vrugte kan verder vermy word deur bome te snoei, sodat die vrugte nie nader as 30 cm van die grond hang nie. Enige vrugte wat op die grond lê of tekens van grond bevat, moenie geoes word nie. Boordsanitasie van besmette en laaghangende vrugte is belangrik vir die vermindering van die innokulum. Verwys altyd eers na voor-oesintervalle van die aktiewe bestanddele vir die spesifieke mark van die vrugte en hou sorgvuldig by die etiket-voorskrifte vir die hantering en toediening. ’n NexusAG Croplife-gesertifiseerde gewasadviseur bied maatpas gewasbestuursprogramme wat elke produsent se eiesoortige omgewing en spesifieke omstandighede in ag neem, om volhoubare oplossings te bied. Vir meer inligting oor geïntegreerde gewasbestuursprogramme, skakel NexusAG by 021 860 8040 of besoek ook www.nexusag.net.



Drip irrigation in citrus Due to on-going water shortage and the need for improved production, the use of drip irrigation in orchards is increasing at a rapid pace. Citrus crops can withstand drought stress better than other subtropical trees and thus have lower water requirements. That said, it is important to choose the correct irrigation system for a specific crop.


ITRUS CROPS REQUIRE AN approach which includes the application of fertilisers through the irrigation system, and the controlling of water and mineral availability. With drip irrigation there is quite a variety of dripper pipe choices available, and is it important to keep certain factors in mind, such as climate (water requirements), soil type, topography (flat or steep) and the water source. Drip irrigation needs a high level of management with well-trained employees. Micro sprinklers or drip? According to Agriplas one of their clients farm in the Swartland district between Malmesbury and Moorreesburg against the slopes of the mountains. They’ve done a couple of trials, including micro sprinklers and drip irrigation and found that drip is a better fit. When using micro sprinklers they had a huge problem with water running away and the roots not receiving sufficient water to enable optimal growth. After making the decision, they started off with a heavy-duty

compensating dripper which is ideal for the steep uphill environment. According to Technical Advisor Johan Kemp, the use of Vered 2,3 litre per hour dripper with a spacing of 0,75 m would be the best in this instance, using only one line on the ground next to the young trees. In the second year another line was added on the other side of the trees to ensure sufficient water. Something that is important is depending on the water source. There is always a chance of emitter clogging and therefore the irrigation system needs a good filtration system. In the example above, the client decided to use a Filtomat M100 automatic hydraulic filter with a self-cleaning mechanism and a 130 micron screen which is sufficient for their filtration needs. They made use of water coming from the mountain, borehole water and water from the Berg River. When making use of drip irrigation, careful attention to filtration is very important and if done correctly, the irrigation system will require less maintenance.


Perfekte oplossings in besproeiingsbestuur

Doen navraag by jou naaste besproeiings handelaar oor Agriplas Produkte

www.agriplas.co.za KAAPSTAD - Hoofkantoor Posbus 696, Brackenfell 7561 Tel: +27 21 917 7177 Faks: +27 21 917 7200


Postnet Suite 57, Private Bag x3, The Reeds, 0061 Tel: +27 12 6610340 Faks: +27 12 6610097

sales@agriplas.co.za MPUMALANGA

Suite 63, Postnet X 11326, Nelspruit 1200 Tel: +27 13 755 3510 Faks: +27 13 755 3505


Packaging - it’s a myth PLASTICS SA

From the pipes and tubes that deliver irrigation water to the pots seedlings are grown in, to the nets we use in the fields and the packaging we deliver to the end-user, plastic products are stitched into almost every agricultural activity.


LASTIC HAS MANY useful functions for farmers, but how can the material’s vast environmental impact be mitigated? Really good numbers on the amount of plastic used in agriculture are hard to come by, but experts in the field, estimate that U.S. agriculture alone uses about a billion pounds annually. This includes films — used for mulch, greenhouse covers, and to wrap bales, tubing and pipes. It also includes nursery containers, pesticide containers, silage bags, storage covers, twine and more. Whilst South Africa accounts for less than 0.5% of global plastics production, this still amounts to 1.5 million tonnes of plastics consumed in South Africa annually (Plastics SA, 2016b). In South Africa agriculture accounts for 9% of the plastic usage while packaging that is closely tied in with the industry accounts for a whopping 53%. But what are some of the myths associated with plastic packaging? According to Plastics SA there are ten main myths that are associated with packaging. Myth 1: Packaging is wasteful and a threat to the environment. Packaging is an essential part of modern life allowing people to consume fresh, uncontaminated food and beverages wherever they want in the quantities needed. Modern living has driven the desire for convenience foods in ready to prepareand single serve formats. This pre-preparation ultimately reduces the possible amount of solid food waste generated by households. Just pause to consider how a modern large retailer would look like without packaging. Packaging allows the contents to be preserved and has resulted in the emergence of everyday products that could not exist without packa- ging. Consider for example carbonated soft

The average family has a throw-away mind-set.

drinks, long life milk, ready meals and household chemicals. And without a good packaging system, consumers could not be confident that delicate electronic products such as a computer or televisions will work as soon as they are out of the box. The packaging sector is constantly improving its environmental profile firstly for economic reasons, packaging has been progressively light weighted and down gauged as technology has allowed, and innovations to use resources more efficiently also reduce depletion of resources and pollution as well as lowering costs. Closed-loop industrial systems have been introduced to reduce material throughput and eliminate waste – this is already happening through recycling and reuse systems where appropriate. Some of these involve business-to-business packaging systems which the consumer does not see. Myth 2: packaging is the biggest contributor to the solid waste stream. In developed countries, packaging

accounts for around 3% of waste to landfill as measured by either weight or volume. Our national waste statistics in South Africa are not as good, but we estimate that packaging in SA accounts for a maximum of 6% of waste to landfill. Myth 3: packaging is big an issue as as consumers, the media and politicians seem to think. With food supply, security and cost at the forefront of most consumers’ minds, packaging in this country is playing a vital role in minimising waste and maximising availability, choice and value. Most consumers look at used packaging with little thought for the role that it’s played in getting goods safely from producer to point of usage and the role it continues to play in protecting and preserving products until they are used. Arguably, the biggest area of criticism is fruit, vegetable and meat packaging in supermarkets (mostly in plastics). Andyet this represents just 1% of all packaging used. What consumers don’t see is all the packaging used to get goods into store which are then sold loose. TO PAGE 20




Packaging - it’s a myth FROM PAGE 19

store which are then sold loose. survey by one retailer showed that more energy was used in ‘loose’ apples than those pre-packed in fours. Clearly, the supply chain needs to do much more to educate consumers about the real role and benefits of packaging so that they can make informed choices when urged to shun packaged goods. Myth 4: the packaging industry in SA is doing nothing in the area of extended producer responsibility dealing with the waste stream. Sectors of the packaging industry have done some excellent work in dealing with the downstream waste. We detail below some of these initiatives. The combination of all the activities listed below in 2016 diverted from landfill 76% of all packaging and paper used in SA. Reduce Technology has enabled the packaging industry to reduce mass without com-

promising the basic functions. We estimate this saves 120 000 tons annually. Re-use Managed reuse and refill systems continue to operate in certain product sectors, including glass beverage containers, plastic crates in the food and beverage industry and plastic and metal drums in the chemicals and other sectors. These systems avoided the consumption of 2,89 million tons of packaging in 2016, which means that a higher tonnage was diverted from landfill through reuse than through recycling. Recycle Overall South Africa collected for recycling 2,22 million tons of paper and packaging in 2016 – 58% of all paper and packaging consumed in South Africa. Recover Plastic has a calorific value up to 40%

Packaging allows the contents to be preserved and has resulted in the emergence of everyday products that could not exist without packaging.

better than coal and the plastics industry has completed a study on the possibility of using waste for energy. As it is beingused extensively in Europe you can ex-pect to hear more of this in the future which would be aimed at paper and plastic waste which has less value than uncontaminated clean waste. This has to happen under very controlled circumstances at incredibly high temperatures to ensure that we do not pollute the atmosphere.


uppe marketing A17694/GV

Fertasa – gesertifiseerde geloofwaardigheid.

Fertasa is verbind tot die bevordering van volhoubare grondvrugbaarheid en verbeterde plantvoeding.









Fertasa – beskerm die volhoubare gebruik van kunsmis. Fertilizer Association of Southern Africa Reg. No. 1971/000012/08 • VAT Reg. No. 4830104164 • Tel: +27 (0)12 349 1450 • Faks: +27 (0)12 349 1463 E-pos: general@fertasa.co.za • Webtuiste: www.fertasa.co.za



Fertasa-lede is verbind tot: • ’n Gedragskode. • Standaarde deur ’n onafhanklike nakomingsbestuursliggaam geouditeer. • Gehalte produkte. • Toepaslike wetenskaplik-gebaseerde aanbevelings. • Voortgesette onderrig en verbetering. • Die nakoming van wetlike vereistes.

Code of Con

ant C ertified

VERPAKKING Myth 5: the solution to packaging waste is simple – apply a deposit or levy on all packaging. Some people suggest a deposit on all non-returnable packaging would encourage people to use returnable packaging. This is based on the flawed argument that all products could use returnable packaging. Malt beer in South Africa is an excellent example of a product where around 80% of malt beer sold here is in returnable packaging. This is a very fine example but one must consider the environmental downsides – additional transport and solvents used to wash the bottles before reuse. Returnable packaging works for some industries, but not all of them. A significant move away from one way packaging would result in a large number of job losses, not only in the industries supplying one way packaging but also in the recycling sector which uses one way packaging as a raw material. Myth 6: product taxes imposed by the treasury such as supermarket checkout bags is the way to go. There is no plan to introduce a compulsory deposit-return system for recyclable but non-refillable containers. A voluntary deposit system of this type already operates in some product sectors for refillable bottles, and this reduces the number of non-refillable containers that could potentially be handled through such a system. Furthermore, collection by the informal sector is likely to be far cheaper than the introduction of a new deposit system, which requires sophisticated data and refund systems, not least to prevent fraud. Myth 7: save our trees and avoid

climate change – don’t use paper. All paper in SA is sourced from plantation grown trees, recycled materials and bagasse (sugar cane waste).No indigenous forests are used. Over 80% of the plantation forests in SA are FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) certified. This is the highest level of international certification in the world. Myth 8: the consumer is an innocent bystander. Hazardous waste originates primarily from two sources, industry and households. The reality is that the average family has a throw-away mind-set. The average household contains an arsenal of ‘dangerous’ chemicals ranging from oven to drain cleaners, paint thinners to dry cell batteries, hairsprays to insecticides, granular chlorine to ammonia. All these items are essential to our modern lifestyle and hygiene standards, and yet these contain substances which are corrosive, flammable, explosive or toxic – when their containers and contents are depleted they get thrown into the garbage bag and occasionally down the drain. The family unit is a key player in environmental hygiene of the future. Myth 9: there is widespread understanding of the term ‘environmentally friendly packaging’. Research conducted by Michael Peters and Partners, a UK based market research company, showed that comprehension of the well-used term was poor and varied from manufacturers to converters, and from consumer to packaging designers. The organisation set about defining what they felt was meant by ‘environmentally friendly packaging’. They maintained that to qualify three criteria must apply: 1. The packaging minimises energy and

raw material use in its construction and manufacture. 2. It minimises impact on the waste stream. 3. It does not cause environmental damage. The ideal packaging is that which achieves the above whilst at the same time preserving and protecting the contents. Myth 10: reuse of (pet) plastic water and soft drink bottles will poison you. There are regular queries regarding the safety of washing and reusing PET mineral water bottles. These result from e-mails circulating on the internet claiming that washing of PET bottles results in the formation of carcinogenic compounds such as the chemical, DEHA. Re-using any food or drinks container without washing can result in the spread of germs. However it is safe to reuse PET bottles without risk of degradation or contamination, providing that normal good hygiene practices are observed. The plastic material PET (polyethylene terephthalate), used for mineral water and other beverage bottles, has been thoroughly tested and approved as safe for food contact use by international health authorities. Although most water and beverage bottles are lightweight and designed for single use, refillable, reusable PET bottles are also quite widely used, with appropriate hygienic washing procedures. This also has full approval of the health authorities. All plastics food packaging in SA is 100% BPA free (source Plastics SA December 2011) Information sourced from Common Myths/Misconceptions about Packaging, Plastics SA.



Ayoba kan opgeberg word Uie is een van die wêreld se belangrikste en gewildste groentegewasse wat die meeste gebruik word. Die gewas kan in die groen stadium, volwasse stadium of as gedehidreerde skyfies bemark word. Een van die redes waarom uie so ‘n groot rol speel is sommige variëteite se opberging van maande lank.


IE IS EEN VAN die wêreld se belangrikste en gewildste groentegewasse wat die meeste gebruik word. Die gewas kan in die groen stadium, volwasse stadium of as gedehidreerde skyfies bemark word. Een van die redes waarom uie so ‘n groot rol speel is sommige variëteite se opberging van maande lank. Ayoba is ‘n vroeë intermediêre dag-ui wat baie groeikragtig is en oor ‘n sterk, goed-ontwikkelde wortelstelsel beskik.

Die variëteit het ook goeie weerstand teen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae en is dus wyd aanpasbaar. Bykans twee derdes van uibolle wat opgeberg word, word deur verrotting, die uitloop van bolle en swartvrot beïnvloed. Die grootste voordeel van Ayoba is dat die bol baie ferm is en oor ‘n uitstekende skutblaar beskik, wat dit uitsonderlike opbergingsvermoë gee. Besoek gerus Sakata se webtuiste by www.sakata.co.za vir meer inligting oor Ayoba, asook Sakata se volledige produkreeks. AFWYSENDE KLOUSULE: Hierdie inligting is op maatskappywaarnemings en/of inligting van ander bronne gebaseer. Aangesien gewasprestasie afhang van die interaksie tussen die saad se genetiese potensiaal, die fisiologiese eienskappe daarvan en die omgewing, insluitend bestuurspraktyke, gee die maatskappy geen waarborg, uitdruklik of deur implikasie, vir die prestasie van gewasse volgens die gegewe inligting. Die maatskappy aanvaar ook nie enige aanspreeklikheid vir enige verlies, direk of as gevolg daarvan, wat weens enige oorsaak mag ontstaan nie. Lees eers Sakata Seed Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd se verkoopsvoorwaardes voordat saad bestel word.

In spesifieke gebiede van die Noord-Kaap kan uie op die lande in spesiale houers gedroog word.


Ayoba word gekenmerk deur uiters ferm bolle en aantreklike goudbruin skutblare.

Ayoba beskik oor ‘n baie sterk, goed-ontwikkelde wortelstelsel wat tot die variëteit se groeikragtigheid en eenvormige bolvorming bydra.

Ayoba-uie op die land, gereed om geoes te word.



Carvora kan enige tyd van die jaar geplant word Suid-Afrika se wortelproduksies het oor die afgelope 12 jaar sterk toegeneem. Dit het wortelteelprogramme gedwing om hulle hooffokus na opbrengs en kwaliteit te skuif.


ARVORA IS ‘N gunsteling onder baie wortelprodusente, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van die variëteit se hoë opbrengspotensiaal en uitstekende uitpakpersentasies. Dit is ‘n wortel wat vroeg bekwaam is met uitstaande interne en eksterne eienskappe. Weens Carvora se sterk blaarhegting is dit ideaal om meganies geoes te woed. Die variëteit het ‘n aantreklike silindriese vorm en goed afgeronde wortels wat geskik is vir die bossiemark, verwerking en voorafverpakking. Carvora kan regdeur die jaar geplant word omdat dit ‘n hoë saadskiettoleransie en baie goeie veldhouvermoë het. Besoek gerus Sakata se webtuiste by www.sakata.co.za vir meer inligting.

Die variëteit het ‘n aantreklike silindriese vorm en goed afgeronde wortels wat vir verskeie gebruike geskik is.

AFWYSENDE KLOUSULE: Hierdie inligting is op maatskappywaarnemings en/of inligting van ander bronne gebaseer. Aangesien gewasprestasie afhang van die interaksie tussen die saad se genetiese potensiaal, die fisiologiese eienskappe daarvan en die omgewing, insluitend bestuurspraktyke, gee die maatskappy geen waarborg, uitdruklik of deur implikasie, vir die prestasie van gewasse volgens die gegewe inligting. Die maatskappy aanvaar ook nie enige aanspreeklikheid vir enige verlies, direk of as gevolg daarvan, wat weens enige oorsaak mag ontstaan nie. Lees eers Sakata Seed Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd se verkoopsvoorwaardes voordat saad bestel word.



AYOBA Vroeë intermediêre dag bruin ui Aantreklike, ferm bolle met goudbruin skudblare Uitstekende stoorvermoë Wyd aanpasbaar met fleksie saaiperiodes Groeikragtige plante

Tel: 011 548 2800 www.sakata.co.za e-pos: info.saf@sakata.eu


Bereik volle potensiaal met aartappels Kry gemoedsrus met betroubare beskerming teen insekte en siektes op aartappels. BASF: Nou gaan ons boer! PROMOSIE


UNTER® 24 SC: As produsent kan jy nie bekostig dat aartappelmotlarwes jou aartappels beskadig nie. Daarom het jy ‘n voorkomende blaarinsekdoder soos Hunter® 24 SC nodig. Hunter® 24 SC beheer aartappelmotlarwes hoogs-effektief deur inname. Geen kruisweerstand teenoor ander insekdoders is bekend nie, wat die produk ideaal maak vir gebruik in ‘n insekweerstandbestuurprogram. Hunter® 24 SC toon ook buitengewone nawerking in die beheer van aartappelmot larwes vir gemoedsrus. Die uitstekende reënvastheid een uur na toediening verseker vinnige opname in die blaar met translaminêre beweging sodat aartappelmot larwes wat nie direk aan die bepuiting blootgestel is nie ook beheer word. Fastac® SC is nog ‘n betroubare oplossing vir die beheer van aartappelmot en klein komandowurm op aartappels. Die kragtige formulasie word nie deur sonlig of temperatuur benadeel nie. Fastac® SC is bekend vir ‘n hoë uitklop-aksie wat vinnige beskerming teen vreetskade bied. Fastac® SC is ook mengbaar met ander behandelings vir gerief en kostebesparing. Bellis® se kenmerkende dubbele wyse van werking met vinnige opname en verspreiding in die blare, bied effektiewe beskerming teen vroeë roes wat die opbrengs en kwaliteit van jou oes verseker. Die kombinasie van boscalid en F500® dra by tot betroubare siektebeheer. Vinnige opname en translaminêre vervoer van die aktiewes in die blare verseker volledige beskerming van die blare wat opbrengs en kwaliteit van aartappels bevorder. Gerieflike lug- en grondtoediening maak Bellis® die ideale keuse in ‘n vroeë roes spuitprogram. Die uitstekende formulasie van Bellis® het ook geen


addisionele bymiddels nodig nie. Indien Bellis® teen die hoër dosis reeds by knolinisiasie toegedien word mag ‘n beduidende opbrengs verhoging ondervind word. Orvego® kombineer die innoverende swamdoder Initium®, wat aan ‘n nuwe klas chemie behoort met dimethomorf, nog ‘n beproefde swamdoder van BASF vir uitstekende laatroes beheer. Die unieke formulasie is gerieflik om te gebruik deur vinnig in water te meng en bly in suspensie sonder om uit te sak. Hierdie eienskappe bring mee dat die produk vinnig aan die die waslagie op die blare heg sodat buitengewone reënvastheid bewerkstellig word. Die aktiewes word geleidelik vrygestel en tydens vogtige toestande (soos dou) vergroot die beskermde area om sodoende effektiewe voorkomende beheer van laatroes op aartapples te verseker. Beproefde produkte van BASF wat opbrengs en kwaliteit van aartappels bevorder. BASF Suid-Afrika (Edms) Bpk. Sestiendestraat 852, Midrand 1685 Posbus 2801, Halfway House 1685. Tel: +27 11 203 2400. Faks: +27 11 203 2461. E-pos: agcelence-za@basf.com Bellis® Reg. Nr L7817 Wet Nr 36 van 1947. Aktiewe bestanddele: F500® 128 g/kg. Boscalied 252 g/kg Versigtig. F500® - Piraklostrobien. Hunter® 24 SC Reg. Nr L8307 Wet Nr 36 van 1947. Aktiewe bestanddeel: Chloorfenapir 240 g/ℓ. Skadelik. Fastac® SC Reg. Nr L4992 Wet Nr 36 van 1947. Aktiewe bestanddeel: Alfa-sipermetrien 100 g/ℓ. Skadelik. Orvego® Reg. Nr L9185 Wet Nr 36 van 1947. Aktiewe bestanddele: Initium® 300 g/ℓ. Dimethomorf 225 g/ℓ. Versigtig. Initium® - Ametoktradien. Verwys asseblief na produketikette vir volledige gebruiksaanwysings. Bellis® , F500®, Hunter® 24 SC, Fastac® , Orvego® en Initium® is geregistreerde handelsmerke van BASF.



This beetle is hiding in pecan trees and killing them from the inside Devin Osborne HEAD OF AGRONOMY, AEROBOTICS

Drone technology and data have traditionally been associated with beautiful aerial imagery and videos and are used by a wide breadth of industries for various reasons.


AW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES around the world use drones to capture live feeds of sensitive situations that are too dangerous for humans to get the same vantage point. Hollywood have been using drones for years to record high definition footage of action sequences for costs far below what they used to be. And, until the last couple years, farmers have used drones only to get a broad picture of their farm to spot any issues that are visually apparent to the naked eye. Today, though, innovations in agriculture technology, such as those made by Aerobotics, are enabling farmers and agriculture partners to see more than a bird’s eye view of the farm. They use multispectral cameras mounted to drones to capture images and data at scale that is sometimes not even apparent to someone standing right in front of a tree. Multispectral cameras have several bands of detection – from red, green and blue colours to near-infrared. These bands, coupled with Aerobotics proprietary artificial intelligence technology and software, have enabled farmers to take actions and make decisions on their farm with information they would not have through traditional human scouting. One such application for this type of imagery and the analytics is the Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB). This beetle is an invasive, tiny-flying beetle that is rapidly killing trees throughout the United States and regions of the Middle East. Recently, the beetle has been discovered in South Africa. The beetle originates from Vietnam, where trees are resistant and natural predators are able to control its spread. Around ten years ago, the beetle was discovered in the United States as well as in Israel, where it has since made its infectious presence by killing thousands of trees in urban forests and orchards. PSHB is an ambrosia beetle, which means they live in nutritional symbiosis with ambrosia fungi. Rather than feeding on the wood of trees like normal beetles, PSHB feeds on a fungus called Fusarium Euwallaceae aka Fusarium Dieback. The weird thing is, they also grow this fungus themselves. PSHB have special “dents” or “pits” in their bodies, which allows them to carry spores of the fungi that they feed on. When the female beetle finds a suitable tree, she tunnels her way through the sapwood and secretes the fungi as she digs. During this process, the fungus grows on the trees wood.

Drone technology and data have traditionally been associated with beautiful aerial imagery.

This beetle-fungus relationship is symbiotic as they depend on one another for survival. The fungus provides the source of food for the beetle, and the beetle provides an easy to a new tree for the fungus. The beetles form large colonies within the tree, killing it from the inside. Usually, ambrosia beetles only target trees that are sick or dead. However, when they are transferred to a new environment, they will begin attacking the healthier trees. This is the case with PSHB. Once the borer has infested a tree, it lives its life deep inside the wood, where unfortunately, no pesticides treatments are able to reach. The initial symptoms of the PSHB can be very difficult to spot at an early stage and also varies a lot between different types TO PAGE 26




This beetle is hiding in pecan trees and killing them from the inside FROM PAGE 25

When using Aerobotics software to locate stressed trees at an early stage, any detection of stress should be ground-truthed by the farmer to determine the cause of the stress.

of trees. Usually, sawdust is found around tiny entry and exit holes or on the ground beneath the tiny holes. These tiny holes may also present a bleeding appearance as a result from the liquid oozing from the bark of the tree. The branches that are affected by the fungus start to die off and eventually kill new tree for the fungus. The beetles form large colonies within the tree, killing it from the inside. Usually, ambrosia beetles only target trees that are sick or dead. However, when they are transferred to a new environment, they will begin attacking the healthier trees. This is the case with PSHB. Once the borer has infested a tree, it lives its life deep inside the wood, where unfortunately, no pesticides treatments are able to reach. The initial symptoms of the PSHB can be very difficult to spot at an early stage and also varies a lot between different types of trees. Usually, sawdust is found around tiny entry and exit holes or on the ground beneath the tiny holes. These tiny holes may also present a bleeding appearance as a result from the liquid oozing from the bark of the tree. The branches that are affected by the fungus start to die off and eventually kill the whole tree as it spreads. During this process, leaves begin to thin on the ends of branches and turn brown. Eventually the branch will die, followed by the whole tree. As of yet, there are no control measures for the disease. Early detection of the infestation could be the only way to mitigate damage from the spread of this beetle.


When using Aerobotics software to locate stressed trees at an early stage, any detection of stress should be groundtruthed by the farmer to determine the cause of the stress. If the ground-truthing confirms the presence of PSHB, the issue should be dealt with immediately by removing infested branches, which will help reduce the vector beetle numbers and reduce the spread of the disease. Farmers should take caution when handling or transporting plants and trees. If trees show any signs of the beetle, it is advised to immediately remove infected parts and destroy them by burning the infected wood. Because of this pest’s silent early destruction and the fast pace at which it spreads, farmers have been playing catch-up. Thankfully, with the use of Aerobotics technology and multispectral imagery of trees obtained by drone flights, many pecan nut trees with PSHB could be saved. Aerobotics can detect whether or not an individual tree on a farm is experiencing stress and at what level. This stress can be cause by a pest, disease, irrigation issue, soil deficiency or any other factor that can harm a tree. Aerobotics detects stress by measuring the level of chlorophyll emitted from the tree’s leaves relative to the individual tree’s size and volume. By alerting pecan nut farmers to stressed trees on their farm early on and using the Aeroview app to guide farmers to the individual trees experiencing stress, countless stress, money and yield can be saved by addressing the problem early and often.

When using Aerobotics software to locate stressed trees at an early stage, any detection of stress should be ground-truthed by the farmer to determine the cause of the stress.



BASF-oplossings in kernvrugte BASF bied betroubare, effektiewe en volhoubare oplossings om sodoende jou gemoedsrus te verseker. Nou gaan ons boer! PROMOSIE


ASF BIED VERSKEIE innoverende oplossings aan die mark in die vorm van swamdoders en plantgroeireguleerders. Die nuutste innovasie, Sercadis® bied effektiewe beheer teen appelskurf (Venturia inaequalis), poeieragtige meeldou (Podosphaera Leucotricha) en peerskurf (Venturia pirina). Sercadis® se aktiewe bestanddeel is Xemium®, ‘n nuwe generasie van SDHI swamdoders. Die aktiewe bestanddeel, Xemium® in Sercadis® toon sterk, blywende werking teen skurfsiekte sowel as poeieragtige meeldou in kernvrugte. ‘n Unieke eienskap van Xemium® is die vermoë om baie sterk aan die plantoppervlak te heg sodat ‘n reënvaste neerslag gevorm word. Hierdie neerslag versprei die gevorderde chemie oor die blaaroppervlak oor tyd wat deurgaans effektiewe beskerming teen die teiken-siektes bied. Die hoë vlakke van Xemium® se mobiliteit en verspreiding stel die produk in staat om uitstekende oppervlakbedekking te bewerkstellig en die intense herverspreiding sorg vir besonder doeltreffende beskerming. Die kenmerkende beweeglikheid van Xemium® stel dit in staat om die teikenswam vinniger en doeltreffend te bereik en sodoende uitstekende beskerming te bied. Die kombinasie van Sercadis® en Delan® bevorder weerstandsbestuur en verseker dus ‘n volhoubare oplossing vir die toekoms. Sercadis® is nie temperatuurgevoelig nie en het uitstekende resultate in sowel koue as nat toestande getoon. Sercadis® is geskik om in GPB- (Geïntegreerde Plaagbestuur) stelsels gebruik te word en toon geen nadelige effek op voordelige insekte wat belangrik is in GPB-stelsels nie.

Maccani® Maccani® is ‘n uiters doeltreffende kombinasie-swamdoder van piraklostrobien en ditianoon vir die doeltreffende beheer van skurfsiekte by appels en pere, sowel as witroes op appels. Die kombinasie aktiewe bestanddele in Maccani® bied effektiewe weerstandsbestuur in ‘n voorkomende siektebeheerprogram en kan met sukses in ‘n geïntegreerde beskermingsprogram ingesluit word. Maccani® is besonder reënvas na toediening omdat die piraklostrobien aan die buitenste waslaag van die plantoppervlakke bind, en word dan voortdurend vrygestel oor ’n lang tydperk en versprei eweredig


binne die blare vir doeltreffende beskerming. Maccani® is die ideale pasmaat in ‘n program met Sercadis® Delan®. Regalis® Regalis® met die aktiewe bestanddeel proheksadioon-kalsium is deur BASF geformuleer om oormatige lootgroei effektief te verminder. Dit het tot gevolg dat bome se energie nou gebruik kan word vir vrugproduksie. Verkorting van 30% - 80% in lootlengte verlaag die intensiteit van somer- en wintersnoei merkbaar en gevolglik spaar dit arbeidskostes. Regalis® veroorsaak verkorting van internodes sonder die verlies van blare, sodat die fotosinterende oppervlak van die boom behoue bly. Die binneste gedeeltes van die boom word minder afgeskerm sodat die toediening van plaag- en swamdoders meer effektief kan geskied. Met gerigte bespuitings kan die boom se vorm gemanipuleer word om oormatige lootgroei in spesifieke gedeeltes te teiken. Kleiner boomvolume bevorder vinnige afdroging na reën, effektiewe ligpenetrasie om kleur op vrugte te bevorder, beter vrugset en opbrengs. Minder vegetatiewe groei stel meer kalsium beskikbaar vir ontwikkelende vrugte wat die risiko vir bitterpit, brandvlek en ander vrugsiektes verlaag. Minder probleme met afwisselende drag kan ook voorkom. Regalis® behoort aan die AgCelence®-groep produkte van BASF as gevolg van die uitstekende prestasie in die opbrengs van appels. BASF Suid-Afrika (Edms) Bpk • Sestiendestraat 852, Midrand 1685 Posbus 2801, Halfway House 1685 • Tel: +27 11 203 2400 • Faks: +27 11 203 2461 • E-pos: agcelence-za@basf.com Regalis® Reg. Nr L7549 Wet Nr 36 van 1947. Aktiewe bestanddeel: Proheksadioon-kalsium 100 g/kg. Sercadis® Reg. Nr L9800 Wet Nr 36 van 1947. Aktiewe bestanddeel: Xemium® 300 g/ℓ. Skadelik. Xemium® = Fluksapiroksad (pirasoolkarboksamied). Delan® Reg. Nr L5440, Wet Nr. 36 van 1947. Aktiewe bestanddeel: Ditianoon 500 g/ℓ. Skadelik. Maccani® Reg. Nr L8198 Wet Nr 36 van 1947. Aktiewe bestanddele: F500® 40 g/kg. Ditianoon 120 g/kg. Versigtig. F500® - Piraklostrobien. Verwys asseblief na produketikette vir volledige gebruiksaanwysings. AgCelence®, Regalis® , Sercadis® , Delan® , Maccani® en Xemium® is geregistreerde handelsmerke van BASF.



Its Maluma time Improved farming practises and solutions that can be implemented to not only improve Maluma orchards but avocado farms as a whole was on offer at the recent Maluma symposium held in Tzaneen. The day was packed full of interesting presentations, displays of the industry players and networking.


OOS BADENHORST FROM BKT Auditors talked about small changes that can make a huge difference in the production and profitability of fruit in the Western Cape. He emphasized the fact that it is crucial not to become a “dodo”. What does he mean with “Dodo”? You have to adapt or die. Producers have to find new ways of doing things, use technology and be the first to improve. Changing with the ever-changing environment and taking the lead in the change. Paul van den Berg from Bekmar, contributed to the efficiency parameters and measurements on irrigation. Assumptions are that avocado’s in Tzaneen use about 85 liters of irrigation water per kilogram of fruit to be produced. This seems high but in comparison with other crops this is still a reasonable amount. The question then becomes how can producers adapt to this figure and how can this improve their ability to produce more fruit.


Netafim was een van die hoofborge van die dag.


Zander Ernst, André Ernst en Edrean Ernst van Allesbeste.

findings to that of Hass. Maluma has a significantly different bearing pattern, and differentiates its shoots more effectively which helps combat alternate bearing. Rodrigo also highlighted that he has no doubt that trellising Maluma is changing the way avocados produce and definitely to the benefit of long term production due to even higher differentiation of the branches. In ground breaking work Allesbeste is leading high density trellising on avocados with the first successful commercial orchards already achieving improvements on production of as high as 300% that of conventional orchards. Zander Ernst also reported that by the end of July 2019 Allesbeste will already have approximately eighteen hectares of commercial trellis. At the moment the Tatura system provides better production, however many factors can still affect profitability in the long run. Different wire spacing’s and tree heights are also being evaluated. Allesbeste will also during 2019 be establishing its first 2 500 trees/ ha orchard on tatura trellises to aim to further improve production by a possible 600%. Edrean Ernst from Allesbeste further did break-even and return on investment studies on these commercial trellis orchards. For the first time they are seeing positive returns with breakeven already being achieved by the 2nd crop.

Speaker of the day included, Paul van der Berg from Bekmar, Willem Botha from Netafim, André Ernst from Allesbeste, Koos Badehorst from BDK Auditors, Mark Buhl from Data Harvest, Oren Wallach from Maluma Israel, Zander Ernst, Rodrigo Iturrieta Espinoza from the University of California and Edrean Ernst.

Rodrigo Iturrieta Espinoza from the University of California, Riverside stunned the audience explaining how he wrote the avocado language. He presented his studies on evaluating trees to determine which exact shoots on an avocado tree will bear fruit and what this pattern is within the tree. The aim is to better forecast production and prevent alternate bearing. During 2018 he evaluated Maluma and compared his


Koos Badenhorst from BDK Auditors.



in die kol teen swartvlek

Geformuleer as ’n suspensie konsentraat met ’n waterbasis wat gewasveilig is en

nie brandskade op vrugte veroorsaak nie

Geregistreer saam met koper as alternatief tot mankoseb

Beskerm nuwe groei

ORTIVA® word sistemies in die xileem vervoer. Met kontakmiddels is daar ’n risiko dat infeksie op die onbeskermde dele van vrugte kan voorkom omdat hul oppervlak so vinnig vergroot.

Kort onthoudingsperiode

op suurlemoene om te kompenseer vir onegalige blom

LEES DIE ETIKET VIR VOLLEDIGE BESONDERHEDE. ORTIVA® bevat asoksistrobien 250 g/L (Reg Nr. L5968, Wet Nr 36 van 1947) VERSIGTIG. ORTIVA® is ’n geregistreerde handelsmerk van ’n Syngenta Groepmaatskappy. Syngenta Suid-Afrika (Edms) Beperk, Privaatsak X60, Halfway House, 1685. Tel. (011) 541 4000. www.syngenta.co.za © Syngenta Ag, 2000. Kopiereg op hierdie dokument word voorbehou. Alle ongemagtigde reproduksie word verbied.



Ontwikkeling van groentesaad kry hupstoot op nuwe proefplaas InteliSeed het twee opedae by hulle nuwe proefplaas buite Brits gehou om aan hulle vennote, plaaslike produsente, kwekers en klante die maatskappy se groentevariëteite te wys.


IE GELEENTHEID IS IN samewerking met Syngenta gehou en internasionale besoekers was onder die gaste. Die twee maatskappye beplan om hulle samewerking uit te brei deur die insluiting van potensiële nuwe variëteite van onder meer broccoli, wortels, blomkool, kool, suikermielies en sonneblom. Tydens die opedae het InteliSeed se saadspesialiste die besoekers deur die proefblokke begelei en verskillende praktyke en ervarings gedeel. Onder die besoekers was leerders in landbou van die Hoërskool Erasmus op Bronkhorstspruit. InteliSeed glo suksesvolle landboupraktyke vir die toekoms begin deur die jeug met kennis toe te rus vir moontlike loopbane in landbou. Senior personeel van Syngenta Suid-Afrika en van die buiteland het die geleentheid bygewoon. Sommige van hulle het as adviseurs vir InteliSeed opgetree en ondersteun die ontwikkeling van die nuwe proefplaas.

InteliSeed se saadspesialiste het besoekers deur die proewe begelei en kenmerke van nuwe variëteite gewys en verduidelik.

InteliSeed het hulle eerste opedag by die maatskappy se nuwe proefplaas naby Brits gehou. Op die plaas, Rothmann Farms, word proefnemings met groentesaad uitgevoer om produkte met hoë opbrengs en goeie kwaliteit te kan lewer. Die plaas word met die samewerking van Syngenta bedryf.

Jurgens Bester met een van InteliSeed se suikermielies, Shinerock. Dit word vir verwerking gekweek, neem sowat 85 dae om ryp te word en het 18 pitrye en ‘n dun stronk. Die koppe weeg gemiddeld 350 g en die mielies het weerstand teen algemene blaar- en roessiektes.





Ontwikkeling van groentesaad... VANAF BLADSY 31

Syngenta & InteliSeed

Hennie Janse van Rensburg (regs) van Damman Boerdery en Kwekery by Brits het InteliSeed se opedag bygewoon. Hier is hy saam met Pieter Lindeque en René van Zyl van InteliSeed.

A strong committed alliance combining the best in genetics and expertise

Barry Erasmus, (regs agter), besturende direkteur van InteliSeed, was nie net gasheer vir plaaslike produsente, verskaffers en vennote nie, maar ook vir bestuurslede van Syngenta Suid-Afrika en internasionaal. Saam met hom is (agter) Veruschka Olivier van Hekpoort en voor is Harold Stallard van Stallard Farms en John van Brussel van Syngenta, Holland, wat vir die maatskappy se groentesake in Suid-Afrika verantwoordelik is.

Syngenta South Africa (Pty) Limited Private Bag X60, Halfway House, 1685. Tel. (011) 541 4000. www.syngenta.co.za. © Syngenta Ag, 2000. Copyright of this document is reserved. All unauthorized copying is prohibited.

InteliSeed Office Contact Details Tel: +27 11 660 7481 | Fax: +27 11 660 7559 | www.intelichem.co.za

Die toptien-leerders in Landboubestuur van Hoërskool Erasmus op Bronkhorstspruit het die opedag saam met hulle onderwyser Hennie van Staden (heel regs) bygewoon.




PMA Fresh Connections 2019 Meeting the ever-changing demands and expectations of consumers has a huge impact on how growers and businesses in the fresh produce supply chain conduct their business.


ONSUMERS EXPECT FRUIT and vegetables to be fresh, tasty, available, safe and of high-quality. Next to that, there is an increasing demand for more sustainable products with less environmental impact. “With a focus on artificial intelligence, technology and market oriented thinking, PMA Fresh Connections provides a platform for the industry to connect, grow and ultimately reach its consumers,” says Lindie Stroebel, General Manager of PMA Southern Africa. The 9th annual PMA Fresh Connections: Southern Africa Conference and Trade Show, will be hosted in Cape Town at the Century City Conference Centre from 30-31 July 2019. This premier two-day event is the only of its kind in southern Africa that brings together the entire fresh produce supply chain - from growers to traders, service and input providers, as well as retailers - to connect and to gain first-hand insights into global trends and business opportunities. The programme will include plenary sessions with key-

notes, panel discussions, sponsored sessions, new connections roundtable and ample time to network with up to 600 decision-makers, build relationships and do business. Attendees will be able to visit the trade show where exhibitors will be showcasing the latest innovations in the fresh produce industry The Centre for Growing Talent by PMA (CGT) – with a mission to attract, develop and retain industry talent – will be hosting three programmes, focusing on career insights and growing professional networks: - Women’s Fresh Perspectives session - Young Professionals Breakfast and - Career Pathways programme, which brings university students to explore careers in fresh produce. The 2019 PMA Fresh Connections: Southern Africa Conference and Trade Show are open to all stakeholders in the fresh produce and agribusiness industry to attend.



Southern Africa Conference and Trade Show 30-31 July 2019 Century City Conference Centre | Cape Town, South Africa

This is the only event in Southern Africa hosted annually for the entire fresh produce supply chain. Attendees will be exposed to innovative ideas, global industry trends, new markets and relevant technology. Don't miss the opportunity to learn from and get to know top local and international speakers, thought leaders, leading industry experts and international buyers.

Who should attend

Anyone who is involved in the fresh produce supply chain, such as fresh produce growers, exporters, market agents, supermarkets, as well as input and service providers.


| www.pma.com/FCSouthernAfrica


The Sweet Dragon Fruit flower.

Amorentia Sweet Dragon Fruit

Amorentia Sweet Dragon fruit interest ‘grows’ Amorentia Estate and Nursery is the home of the Sweet Dragon Fruit in South Africa. They named, trademarked and released eight selections of Dragon Fruit plants, which have all tested between 15 and 19 Brix (a sugar measuring system), making them wonderfully sweet, under the branding of Amorentia Sweet Dragon Fruit.



MORENTIA, LOCATED NEAR Tzaneen in Limpopo, hosted the 2019 season’s first official Sweet Dragon Fruit tasting recently. Attendees, who travelled from far and wide, had the opportunity to taste many of the eight selections. Zander Ernst from Allesbeste and Maluma, also attended the day and confirmed via Instagram that the fruit was sweet tasting. Amorentia’s second big tasting rolled out at the 2019 Maluma Day, which resulted in the fruit receiving local and international attention. The sweet varieties come in a range of colours from white, to light and dark pink, deep red and cerise. They are naturally pollinated by bees, bats and moths which takes place in the late evening, at night and early morning. The selections have extraordinary health benefits, due to the fact that Dragon Fruit was nominated as a super-food back in 2013. According to Lauren Strever, the General Ma-

nager, it is often said that avocados and Dragon Fruit are super-food partners: healthy, ripe-and-ready and complimentaymaking Amorentia Sweet Dragon Fruit the perfect addition to South Africa’s subtropical fruit industry. During this year’s growing season, the team at Amorentia welcomed numerous visitors to taste the fruit from the mother-block and the feedback has been good. According to Strever, some of the comments included phrases such as “very sweet”, “delicious”, “unbelievable”, “full of flavour”, “wow” and “I can’t pick a favourite, they are all so good.” One of the Amorentia Sweet Dragon Fruit growers, Al3 Boerdery, harvested their first commercial crop this year, with very positive feedback from the market. Al3 Boerdery and Amorentia Sweet Dragon Fruit are working closely togetherto ensure the success of the brand. Dragon Fruit plants produce from November through to May and could be processed on any of the avocado, mango or citrus packing lines and be stored in the same cold storage facilities. Dragon Fruit plants flower three to four times during their summer growing months, which means that fruit will be available on-going during the season. The plants produce well in the hot, dry areas of the country. The Amorentia Sweet Dragon Fruit team is fired-up for the future of the industry in South Africa and promise to keep consumers on the edge of their seats with exciting marketing campaigns and astonishingly sweet fruit. For more information, check their website: www.amorentia.co.za, or contact admin@amorentia.co.za.

Kry meer as net gewasbeskerming



insekbeheer aangedryf deur

aktiewe bestanddeel

STAATMAKER VALSKODLINGMOTBEHEER WAT SO SLIM SOOS JY WERK. Vir die boer kom elke seisoen met ’n lys van uitdagings. Gewasbeskerming moet egter nie een van die bekommernisse wees nie. Dit is hoekom ons Coragen® insekbeheer ontwikkel het; een van die mees gevorderde produkte vir insekbeheer in die wêreld. Om slim te werk het nou baie makliker geword danksy die vinnige en lang nawerkende Valskodlingmotbeheer in sitrus. Coragen® insekbeheer bied ’n unieke metode van werking met ’n uitstekende toksikologiese- en omgewingsprofiel. Die nuwe wapen in die geïntegreerde beheer arsenaal teen Valskodlingmot en beter vrugkwaliteit verlaag die risiko van afkeurings vir uitvoervrugte na die meeste uitvoermarkte. Beter gewasbeskerming en bewaring van voordelige insekte – dit is mos wat elke sitrusboer wil hê. Kontak jou naaste FMC-handelaar om meer uit te vind oor Coragen® insekbeheer. Coragen® bevat chlorantraniliprool (antraniliese diamied) (Rynaxypyr®) Reg. Nr. L8529 Wet Nr. 36 van 1947, versigtig. FMC Chemicals (Edms) Bpk, Posbus 44, Postnet Menlyn, Waterkloof Glen, 0081, Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Tel: +27 12 003 2938. Coragen® en Rynaxypyr® is handelsmerke van FMC Corporation of sy affiliate. Datum: 05/2019. TD 19/081



Presisieboerdery in groente is ‘n wenner Jan Greyling MEDEWERKER

Groente is ‘n ononderhandelbare deel van ‘n gesonde, gabalanseerde dieet. Dit is dus belangrik dat die natuur se voedingswaarde optimaal in elke vars produk deur die eindverbruiker geniet kan word. Hoe kan produsente – kostedoeltreffend – meer voedingstowwe in groente verseker?


OLGENS CARL VAN HEERDEN, hooflandboukundige: groente van Agri Technovation, word die vraag na meer voedingsdigte groente toenemend groter. “Met die bevolkingsgroei en met grond wat nie meer word nie, sal daar net meer doeltreffend geboer moet word,” het Carl tydens 2019 se Seilsafari van Laeveld Agrochem op die MSC Musica aan boere gesê. Hy meen presisie-ontledings kan in kleiner agterplaas-groentetuine en op groot kommersiële eenhede besparing meebring. “Presisie-ontledings van plantaktiwiteit en grondsamestelling is ‘n nuttige bestuurshulpmiddel. Om te weet wat in jou grond aangaan, beteken dat jy ook sal weet wat die tekortkominge is en waarheen jy daarmee op pad is.” Agri Technovation bied ook spesialisdienste vir onmiddelike grond- en verbouingsprobleme. “Elke stukkie grond is uniek en ‘n nuwe geval wat sy eie behandeling verg. Ons verkoop nie produkte nie, maar ons dienste kom saam met presisie-aanbevelings,” sê Carl. “Met ontledings kan ons bestuurspraktyke aanpas en nie net die grondchemie balanseer met bemesting vir die plant self nie, maar in wese die tafel dek vir sukses met ‘n grondbemestingsprogram en ‘n goeie kans op opbrengsverhoging en selfs langer raklewe weens verbeterde gehalte.” Carl sê Suid-Afrikaanse en internasionale verbruikers raak toenemend gesondheidsbewus en wil weet waar en hoe elke varsproduk verbou is. “Naspeurbaarheid is regdeur die waardeketting ‘n belangrike vereiste. Jy kan dit duidelik op die rakke van vooraanstaande kettinggroepe sien. Die produkte word al beter.”


Carl het ‘n gevallestudie van Groenplaas by Tarlton in Gauteng met boere op die skip gedeel. Hy het sedert 2012 reeds die bemesting van die betrokke produsent se gewasse hanteer. Wortels, slaai, kool en koring word op die plaas verbou. Die presisie-ontledings en toepassing van aanbevelings is egter oor drie seisoene in 2016, 2017 en 2018 gedoen. Altesaam 237 grondmonsters is deurlopend periodiek op die plaas getrek. Die ITESTSOIL-ontledings van die My Farm-program wat gebruik word het die pH van elke monster gemeet, wat die aktiwiteit van mikro- en makro-elemente in die grond en voedingsbeskikbaarheid bepaal. Ideaal gesproke moet dit tussen 5.8 en 6.8 wees vir groenteverbouiing. Te lae pH kan die aalwurmbevolking verhoog en hoë aluminium en mangaanvlakke tot gevolg hê. Metings is gedoen van die invloed van kalium (K+) op plante se: • vervoer van water in die grond; • selvergroting, • sluit van huidmondjies tydens stremmings, en die grond se: • kaliumvlakke – hoë vlakke kan die grond laat dispergeer, soos wat natrium doen, wat aggrigaatstabiliteit verlaag. Die kalsiumvlakke (Ca++) is ook ontleed vir die impak van Ca++ op plante se: • selwand-integriteit; • seldeling; • beskerming van plantselle teen ander elemente, en die • verbetering van grondstruktuur; en • die doeltreffendheid van kalsiumop name deur die haarwortels se punte.

Hierna is bekalkings- en gipskoste ontleed om te sien wat die besparing op die plaas kan wees, saam met ‘n toename in opbrengs en gehalte. “Soos Japie Grobler eenkeer vir my gesê het: ‘So what?’ Ons wou weet wat die impak is dáár waar die tekkie die teer tref,” sê Carel. “Om die werklikheid te sien het Agri Technovation gaan kyk wat die produsent se kalk en gips hom gekos het, wat dit hom ná die presisie-aanpassings kos en of sy opbrengs verbeter het. Voor 2016 was die gemiddelde kalkaanvulling per seisoen 515 000 ton (R92 700) en die gemiddelde gipsaanvulling 116 650 ton (R18 664) op die plaas se 14 landerye waar groente verbou word. Ná die presisiegrondontleding-aanpassings het die syfers oor die drie seisoene tussen 2016 en 2018 verminder na gemiddeld 288 659 ton kalk (R51 958.62) en gemiddeld 88 464 ton gips (R14 154.24). Dit kom neer op ‘n totale gemiddelde kalk- en gips-uitgawe van R111 364 oor drie seisoene vóór die presisie-ontledings teenoor gemiddeld R66 112.86 oor drie seisoene ná toepassing van die presisie-ontleding se aanbevelings. Die verskil van R44 251.14 is ‘n besparing van R195.85/ha. Carl het spesifiek kool en wortels in die gevallestudie ingesluit. Op die koollande is 2,5% minder kalium toegedien vir ‘n besparing van R185.71/ha in die toedieningskoste. Bevindings het gewys dat die wortelgrond se kalium met 6,3% verlaag moes word, wat die produsent R495.25/ha bespaar het. Boere was dit eens dat presisieontledings in groenteproduksie ook tot meer wins en groter besparing kan lei.


Avocado can be enjoyed as is.

Avocado ice-cream makes for a delicious healthy treat.

An easy to prepare on the go treat.

Consumers demand quality avocados everywhere and all year round Plant-based, dairy-free ice-creams, meat-free days and months like Veganuary, heightened convenience that doesn’t compromise on goodness; these are among the top 2018 consumer food trends. Unsurprisingly, these reflect the trends predicted for the retail and hospitality sectors this year too. Few foods measure up to all these criteria as avocados does.


RUIT LOGISTICA’S 2019 trend forecast says consumers want more healthy, convenient fresh foods, while Hospitality News’ 2019 restaurant predictions say the buzzwords “clean eating” and “environmental sustainability” are fast influencing global menus, favouring fresh, plant-based meals. Boasting high amounts of heart-healthy monounsaturated fat, avocados make nutritious, convenient meals and serve as an excellent base for plant-based dishes. Combined these are also among the reasons that demand for avocados has steadily increased. To sustain this demand, both locally and internationally, the South African Avocado Growers’ Association (SAAGA) says the country currently boasts 17 500 hectares of commercial avocado orchards. This area is expected to be expanded at a rate of 1 000 to 1 500 hectares per annum. In addition, many South African growers have begun planting in new areas so the fruit can be harvested earlier, at the beginning of the season or later, at the end of the season, to supply the local market year round and reduce reliance on imports from November to January. Ensuring a constant supply of avocados is essential as they have become an integral part of the South African diet and an ‘emotional purchase’ for shoppers, who actively seek out good quality avocados. These findings emerged in SAAGA’s 2019 qualitative and quantitative research survey, conducted in January and February to gauge consumers’ perceptions of avocados at key retail outlets. The results showed the majority of respondents were not


loyal to their regular retailers when buying avocados, favouring quality over loyalty, and although some would decrease avocado purchases out of season, they were prepared to pay more for the fruit when they did buy them. Poor avocado quality was also enough to dissuade consumers from shopping at specific retailers altogether, with a huge percentage of respondents stating that stores with consistently poor quality avos, avos that went bad too quickly after purchase, and stores where bad avos weren’t removed from display, would lose their support. SAAGA will be working with retailers to assist them with improving the quality of avos in-store, and to better educate fresh produce buyers, merchandisers and consumers. “Avocados are a potential drawcard for retailers to attract consumers into their stores,” says Derek Donkin, Subtrop CEO. “Most respondents claimed to shop specifically for avocados every week or second week, and subsequently bought other products while in the store. It follows that activities drawing consumers into stores to buy avos would have a positive knock-on effect on overall sales. While it’s difficult to tell if this would be the case for restaurants too, anecdotal evidence and dining forecasts suggest eateries will be increasingly supported in 2019 based on the availability of plant-based, whole food dishes, including those with avocados.” It’s safe to say that no matter what the trend, avos are a must on any self-respecting store shelf or restaurant menu. For further information visit www.avocado.co.za.


+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ INSECT COLUMN

False codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

The false codling moth has forever been the bane of citrus exporters’ existence. This endemic pest is found throughout Africa but has not yet crossed the Atlantic to the USA, nor has it gained entry into Europe. These regions would like to keep it this way at all cost … for good reason. Since 2018, FCM has been declared a regulated pest by EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation). But how well do we really know this persona non grata? Andri Visser IPM PROGRAM, NORTH-WEST UNIVERSITY, POTCHEFSTROOM

e-mail: visseran3@gmail.com

False codling moth classification: Class: Insecta Order: Lepidoptera Family: Tortricidae Genus: Thaumatotibia Species: Thaumatotibia leucotreta

False codling moth larvae.


HE FALSE CODLING MOTH, often referred to simply as FCM, is a polyphagous pest with an impressive host range that include hosts as diverse as stone fruit, avocados, pomegranates, macadamias, peppers, beans and even grapes. It is known to attack approximately 24 cultivated plant species, as well as numerous wild host plants. In South Africa, however, it is best known as the major pest in citrus orchards and is prevalent in all the citrus production areas in the country. FCM female moths lay their eggs singly or in small groups on or nearby fruit and can produce over 500 eggs during her lifespan. The small eggs (about 1 mm in diameter) are initially translucent but darken first to a pink and then to black shortly before hatching. Shortly after this, the eggs hatch and the neonate larvae find suitable places to penetrate the fruit. Discolouration and a sunken appearance on the surface of the fruit usually follow larval penetration, as the damaged tissue starts to decay. Larvae develop through all five of its instar stages within the fruit. The neonate larvae (about 1 mm in length) have a creamy colour and dark brown head, and sometimes appear spotted. As the larvae mature, they develop a reddish-pink colour, and by the final instar the larvae will have attained a length of 15 mm. On reaching maturity, the larvae exit the fruit and drop to the ground on a silken thread, where they spin off-white coloured cocoons in the top layer of soil,

False codling moth.


Damage done by the larvae.

often incorporating plant debris for camouflage. The pupae themselves are dark brown and about 10 mm in length. When the moths emerge from the cocoons, they remain relatively close (usually within 100 m) to the area of their emergence, where they mate and produce the next generation. The wings of FCM moths have a grey and brown mottled appearance, and have a span of 15 to 20 mm. When folded in, the wings have a conspicuous plume of grey scales on the dorsal side of the body. Males can be easily distinguished from females by the presence of an anal tuft in the former. Approximately 6 overlapping generations occur within a year, which can be as high as 10 generations in ideal weather conditions. FCM is not known to diapause, and development is continuous with adults present year-round. This species is much more sensitive to cold than the closely related codling moth. Temperatures below 10°C impede development and reduce survival rates. Below 1°C, all stages of the life cycle are terminated resulting in death. Therefore, depending on the time of year and the prevailing weather conditions, a life cycle can take anything from five weeks to three months to be completed. Due to their highly polyphagous nature and the fact that larvae feed almost exclusively inside fruit, the use of chemical control is difficult and have variable efficacy. Control of FCM in South Africa is mainly achieved through a combination of chemical control, biochemical control, mating disruption, attract and kill, natural enemies, and in certain areas, the use of sterile insect technique (SIT).


Profile for Carien Daffue

Vegetables & Fruit May/June 2019  

is our pleasure to present the May/June 2019 Issue of Vegetables & Fruit. Vegetables & Fruit is one of a few publications targeting the fres...

Vegetables & Fruit May/June 2019  

is our pleasure to present the May/June 2019 Issue of Vegetables & Fruit. Vegetables & Fruit is one of a few publications targeting the fres...