T h e i n t e r n at i o n a l m ag a z i n e f or Pa s ta P r o d u c e r s
Tariffe R.O.C. Poste Italiane - Spedizione in abbonamento postale - D.L. 353/2003 (cov.in L. 27/02/04 nÂ°46) Art. 1 comma 1 DCB Bologna
New global assets mean new markets
Soon celiac patients could eat wheat pasta Gluten Friendly
New technology to obtain the full potential of raw materials
N. 2 April/June 2017
Chairman Claudio Vercellone
Pasta Year XXII - N. 2 April/June 2017
Editor in Chief
Claudio Vercellone Technical director Gianni Mondelli Scientific and technical committee Gianni Mondelli Technical production Maurizio Monti Wheat and flours technician Roberto Tuberosa Agricultural Genetics Editing Coordinator Delia Maria Sebelin email@example.com Advertising Massimo Carpanelli firstname.lastname@example.org
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New global assets mean new markets by Dario Casati
Pasta and bread… Gluten Friendly
by Carmen Lamacchia and Loretta Landriscina
Pasta? It’s not just tasty but also healthy by Delia Maria Sebelin
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Quando nel 1990 abbiamo progettato e realizzato Cartrapen/500, il primo gruppo di taglio con testa girevole non pensavamo soltanto ad un sistema di taglio automatico con coltello, ventilatore ed illuminazione. Abbiamo anche pensato come rendere più agevole e sicuro il lavoro degli operatori durante le quotidiane operazioni di cambio trafila, cambio coni di taglio, pulizia e controllo di qualità.
IL SISTE M A
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tutta la flessibilità che stavate aspettando Dagli ideatori dell’innovativo sistema con testa girevole, subito il più imitato, oggi nasce la nuova famiglia PRESSTRAPEN, i rivoluzionari gruppi di taglio automatici che sfruttano la struttura portante della pressa evitando ingombri a terra, per una flessibilità, facilità di pulizia ed un’efficienza di impianto mai viste prima.
La flessibilità arriva ad un punto di svolta. Dall’esperienza che ha reso la famiglia CARTRAPEN il gruppo di taglio più apprezzato dai pastifici nasce PRESSTRAPEN, il nuovo sistema che si integra con la linea di produzione, per avere tutti i vantaggi della tecnologia Niccolai Trafile con il minimo ingombro e lavorare ancora più velocemente.
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Y O U R
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by Dario Casati Agricultural economist, Full Professor of economics at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Milan (Italy)
New global assets mean new markets T
he climate of uncertainty which affects the global economic scene in the early 2017 is further accentuated. The first wake-up call was the Brexit vote in June 2016. Despite many declarations of support for the “Remain” campaign and despite election polls putting Remain ahead of Leave, right up to the last minute, Vote Leave won, taking virtually everyone by surprise, both British people and the whole world. A few months down the line, no negotiation started in March. Brexit negotiation shall lead to a separation agreement that will be harder than one may think, especially because of its unpredictable aftermath. The second wake-up call was Trump’s election to the White House. Clear favourite Clinton lost and outsider Trump won, reproducing the trend of Republican party presidential primaries. The signals of a potential forecast reversal were clear. In the US, the result had been predicted by a certain number of observers and election polls, whereas in Europe nobody was expecting it. The European blunder was eased by the fact that Obama’s policy, and supposedly Clinton’s policy as well, was very much “European” rather than American, in terms of methods and contents. Two facts with a few points in common: a long global crisis, a weak and uncertain economic recovery, a strong decrease in employment and its failed upturn, the price of the crisis paid by middle classes and the obscure fear of immigration - all these factors had an impact on both sides of the Atlantic. In Europe, electoral uncertainties are growing - Presidential elections in France, general elections in the Netherlands and elections in Germany next September, while it is not clear yet whether and when elections are supposed to take place in Italy. While Europe is waiting for Brexit negotiation, a domino effect triggered by the British vote and the rise of anti-Eu movements is greatly feared. In recent months, Great Britain, still in the Eu, has been subject to all Eu regulations and there is no realistic understanding of Brexit impact so far. Gdp growth rate or employment dynamics do not depend on Brexit impact, while this might be the case for the British pound devaluation. Great Britain is getting ready for a divorce and shall untie its multiple bonds with mainland Europe that have lasted for about 40 years, despite the opt-out clause from the European Monetary Union and the Schengen Treaty. Mrs. May has undertaken contacts with non-Eu countries and intends to turn her country into the core of a large trade system which shall revive Commonwealth on the one hand and resume relations with its former Eu partners on the other, thus maintaining a market that would be positive for our producers.
In the US, Trump’s policy is strongly oriented towards isolationism on four aspects: immigration restrictions, a step back in trade treaties, incentives for the US industry and reinforcement of the military machine. It is too soon to thoroughly understand the developments of Trump’s policy; however, the non-ratification of the Ttp, antiMexico stop to Nafta and the criticism of Eu clearly reflect a change as well as restrictions on globalization. Yet, they also reflect views that potentially diverge from those of Great Britain that needs strengthening its trade channels while leaving the Eu.
Theresa May, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, and the President of the United States, Donald Trump
A return of protectionism is not unpredictable, also because the election year in Eu will be focused on Euroscepticism, an easy weapon to use against Eu as a faceless enemy. However, after the elections, there will be time for a new world order with large-scale alliances to be built - It is only when the crisis is over that the real game will be played. Despite its strategic role, international trade in agricultural and food products accounts for a limited share, both in Eu/Great Britain relations and those among large trade areas. For instance, agricultural trade under Ttip between Eu and Us only accounts for 6% of world total with Gdp reaching 45%. The cereals sector is stable - the world production of the three main cereals is growing and might reach new record levels. Wheat production is expected to reach 753 million tons, with an increase in trade and consumption that will not affect stocks.
Focus on quality and innovation to get out of the crisis
In Italy, the situation is different; production is virtually stable if not decreasing, which is also due to smaller surfaces and slightly better yields. International trade shows negative values both for soft and durum wheat. Yet, the active profit balance of this sector is increasing thank to pasta exports, thus proving the sector’s capacity to promote processed products, even when they are obtained from imported raw materials. The trend is towards diversification in sources of supply where Eu-origin products are decreasing. Pasta exports reach Eu, Asia, North and South America and a large number of countries that are highly trade-oriented, where Italian pasta is highly competitive, but risks are significant and further accentuated by the problem of buying large amounts of durum wheat. The supply chain is operating under uncertain conditions. Difficulties result from the need of getting out of the crisis as well as from protectionist pressures, as is always the case in times of crisis. That is how Brexit and Trump, as well as sovereignty and anti-Eu movements in Europe are easily explained, but they will not last long. If Italy leaves the Eurozone, its currency would immediately be devalued, which would give boost to exports at first, but it would subsequently increase costs of imported raw materials, even for the production of exported food. Competitiveness due to devaluation would not last long. Therefore, the solution is another one: diversification of productions and import and export marketplaces, focus on innovation and quality - a game that this sector can successfully play. Dario Casati
FACTS & NEWS United Arab Emirates: ok to the Ge food products import
with imports falling to 100,000 Mt given large levels of beginning stocks. In My 2017/18, wheat production will increase to 15,000 MT with imports reaching 2.1 million Mt.
A makeover for Modern Table
Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates (Gcc-4), covered by Office of Agricultural Affairs in Dubai, permit the importation of genetically engineered (Ge) food products of plant origin. Additionally, Gcc-4 countries have established several technical regulations that require labelling for both raw and further processed food and feed that may contain Ge plant products. These regulations have yet to be enforced. Finally, genetic engineering in animals and related products are not permitted for production or importation in the Gcc-4.
Colombia’s grain annual
In 2016, Us corn dominated the Colombian market supplying 99.6% of imports due to trade preferences in the Us-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (Ctpa). The 2.68 million metric tons (Mt) quota for 2017 under the Ctpa will likely fill before the first half of the year. Corn production will remain stagnant at 1.7 million Mt in marketing year (My) 2017/18, while imports surge to 5.0 million Mt. Rough rice production in My 2017/18 is expected increase to 2.6 million Mt
Modern Table Meals has undergone a major makeover, including reformulating its product portfolio of plant protein-based pastas and meal kits. Modern Table’s newly reformulated rotini, penne and elbows pastas all offer 20 grams of protein per serving and feature improved pasta texture, the company said. Along with its reformulated products, Modern Table is launching a new line of macaroni and cheese, like Classic Cheddar Mac and Cheese features elbows and cheddar cheese sauce; Jalapeno Cheddar Mac and Cheese features elbows and jalapeno cheddar cheese sauce; and Three Cheese Mac and Cheese features penne and a cheese sauce made of cheddar, Monterey jack and Romano cheeses. Modern Table’s new and reformulated products will be available starting this summer.
Innovation boosts profit at Ebro Foods
Fiscal 2016 was an important year for Ebro Foods as the Madrid-based company said it spent time and money «investing in product launches Professional
and reinforcing our brands». Net profit in the year ended December 31, 2016, was € 169,724,000, up 17% from € 144,846,000 in fiscal 2015. Sales slipped to € 2,459,246,000 from € 2,461,916,000. Ebro described 2016 as a «highly productive year» for launches, with the company debuting more than 82 new products. «We leveraged our brands to tap into new grains (quinoa, chia, etc.) and pulses, and we continue to develop new products with a view to combining healthy eating and convenience», the company said.
Scientists analyse Mediterranean durum genetics
A team of Spanish scientists has completed the first genetic, phenotypic and geographic adaptation study of durum wheat grown in 21 Mediterranean countries, including both local varieties and modern cultivars. Among the study’s goals was to establish a statistical relationship between certain genetic variables and the phenotypic characteristics they determine. The phenotypic traits under study included the different varieties of durum wheat’s flowering time, drought resistance, protein. The study divided durum wheat into five genetic subpopulations - one composed only of modern cultivars and another four closely related to their geographic origins in the eastern Mediterranean, eastern Balkans and Turkey, Western Balkans and Egypt and the Western Mediterranean. April/June 2017
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pa sta’s friends Good opportunities for the Us in Dominican Republic
Driven by a dynamic tourism industry and solid domestic consumer demand, excellent opportunities exist for Us exporters in the Dominican Republic’s food service sector. Leading Us products for distribution in hotels and restaurants include premium red meat cuts, poultry parts, cheeses, wine, frozen potatoes and vegetables, fresh fruit and seafood. Us exporters must be willing to supply to a constantly evolving, creative, and innovative sector. A strong preference for Us products exists in the sector.
Oilseeds annual production in Canada
Trump to nominate new leader for Cftc President Donald J. Trump on March 14 announced his intent to nominate J. Christopher Giancarlo as chairman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (Cftc). Mr. Giancarlo was confirmed to be a commissioner at the Cftc by unanimous consent of the Us Senate on June 3, 2014, and was designated as acting chairman of the Cftc on Jan. 20, 2017, following the resignation of Timothy Massad. J. Christopher Giancarlo has been acting chairman since Jan. 20
Before entering public service, Mr. Giancarlo was executive vice president of Gfi Group, a financial services firm. Prior to joining Gfi, he was executive vice president and Us legal counsel of Fenics Software and was a corporate partner in the New York law firm of Brown Raysman Millstein Felder & Steiner.
Ardent Mills launches North American-grown quinoa program
Canada’s oilseed production (canola, soybeans and sunflowers) for 2017/ 2018 is forecast to rise modestly to 25.3 million metric tons (Mmt), up 1% from 2016/2017, driven by a small increase in canola production and expected yields. Total crush is forecast to drop by 4% to 10.5 Mmt from the 2016/2017 anticipated crush levels of 11 Mmt. The canola crush forecast is down 377 thousand metric tons (Tmt) in 2017/2018 with no increase in production expected.
Ardent Mills is launching Great Plains Quinoa, which features a quinoa growing network in North America and will offer up to a two-year price guarantee. The program will bring the transparency, scale and consistent quality needed to support mainstream growth of quinoa with consumers, food manufacturers, bakeries, retailers Professional
and restaurants in the United States and Canada, according to Denver-based Ardent Mills. «The quinoa market is often affected by South American supply challenges and spikes in pricing», said Mike Veal, vice president of marketing for Ardent Mills. «With all the unique aspects and certainty of this program, we are introducing locally grown quinoa under our new Ardent Mills Great Plains Quinoa brand. This will help clearly define our quinoa as grown in North America along with all the assurances that are available from Ardent Mills. We are also committed to price predictability and can offer up to a twoyear price guarantee».
Global industrial use of grains continues uptrend in 2016-17
Global industrial use of grains, mainly for making ethanol, is expected to increase 3.3% in 2016-17, continuing an upward trend that began early this century. The International Grains Council, in estimating industrial use by both grains and country, placed prospective use this crop year at 339.9 million tonnes, compared with 329.1 million in the prior season. In 2014-15, global industrial grain use reached 325.5 million. It was in 2012-13 that use first exceeded 300 million tonnes. Ethanol manufacture again was the major driving force in industrial use of grains. It was forecast to account for 181.9 million in 2016-17, against 175.9 million in the preceding year and 173.9 in 2014-15. Biofuels as a part of ethanol use continued to be a powerful factor with a total in 2016-17 at 164.3 million tonnes. April/June 2017
Pasta and breadâ€Ś Gluten Friendly
New perspectives on gluten intolerance by Carmen Lamacchia and Loretta Landriscina SAFE Department, University of Foggia, Italy
luten Friendly™ (GF) technology opens up new perspectives on gluten intolerance. Nutritional barriers that today isolate celiac patients could be overcome by this technology. To date, the only treatment for celiac disease patients is the lifelong complete exclusion of the most common foods, such as bread, pasta, cookies, pizza and beer from the diet, but also the exclusion of small amounts of gluten from plates and containers. Alternatively, the gluten-free diet is, to date, the only efficacious treatment for celiac patients. Except for the economic, social and psychological difficulties experienced by celiac patients, the absence of gluten in gluten-free commercial products adversely affects the mechanical, nutritional and organoleptic properties, with the result that products are different from the traditional ones, for flavor, aroma, nutritional content and physical characteristics. The rational behind the Gluten Friendly™ technology is not to subtract gluten, but to induce a conformational change in the toxic component, by a chemical-physical process at low cost, zero environmental impact and easily industrialized, without compromising cereal properties. The Gluten Friendly™ technology has garnered investment from one of the most important industrial Groups in the milling sector at an international level: Casillo April/June 2017
Group, headquartered in Corato, Italy. Casillo Group has provided our project with significant financial support and a plethora of experience in milling. The Gluten Friendly™ technology is also at the core of an innovative company called, New Gluten World. This startup is a collaboration among me, Professor Carmen Lamacchia, the inventor of the Gluten Friendly™ technology; the University of Foggia, where I conducted her early research; and Casillo Group, which will transform this patented technology into food products for the global market. The aim of New Gluten World is to industrialize the detoxification process of gluten proteins in cereals, while capitalizing on the patented technology, and the related know-how. The impact of this new method would be disruptive in terms of benefit for celiac patients and for people with predisposition in gluten intolerance. Gluten Friendly™ technology is a candidate to replace the current gluten free market since there are no products on the market with organoleptic characteristics similar to traditional products and with comparable industrial cost.
The research This paper addresses the effect of Gluten Friendly™ technology on wheat endosperm morphology and gluten protein structure in seeds, by SEM (Scanning electron microscopy), light and
fluorescence microscopy. Microscopy techniques combined with immunostaining experiments with specific antibodies for gliadins, γ-gliadins and LMW (Low molecular weight) subunits were carried out to gain a better understanding of the technology at a molecular level. This work shows how
This method does not subtract gluten but it induces a change in the toxic component
GF technology induces a rearrangement of secondary and tertiary structure of gluten proteins and therefore a different spatial conformation of the toxic sequences, in order to reduce significantly gluten’s antigenicity.
Aims of the study Gluten Friendly™ technology is a new and innovative detoxification method of gluten proteins from cereal grains (Italian patented method n. 0001414717, also filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, application n. PCT/IB2013/000797) (Lamacchia et al., 2015a; Lamacchia et al., 2013), aiming to combine the nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for coeliac patients. Gluten Friendly™ technology relies on
the application of microwave energy for a few seconds to hydrated wheat kernels before milling to reach a high temperature for a short amount of time and induce a structural change in the secondary and tertiary structure of gluten proteins (Lamacchia et al., 2016). This innovation relies in a wise combination of different parameters such as: temperatures, moisturizing, evaporation, resting time, that does not cause proteins to be denatured but a change in their conformation. This modification abolishes the antigenic capacity of gluten (Lamacchia et al., 2016) and reduces the immunogenicity in vitro of the most common epitopes involved in coeliac disease (Lamacchia, Di Luccia, & Gianfrani, 2015b), without compromising the nutritional or the technological properties necessary to process semolina in pasta and flours in bread and other baked goods (Lamacchia et al., 2016). Gluten Friendly™ technology is based on recent studies in which Lamacchia et al. (2010) showed, for the first time, that the application of high temperature to wheat grains generates protein polymerization different from that reported in a gluten model system (Schofield et al., 1983;. Singh e MacRitchie, 2004) or in bread or dried pasta. The explanation for this phenomenon, described in Lamacchia et al., 2010, was that, in the kernel, gluten is not formed and gluten proteins are deposited in different protein bodies (Rubin, Levanony, & Galili, 1992). In this work for the first time, the effect of Gluten Friendly™ technology on wheat endosperm morphology and gluten protein structure in seeds, by SEM, light and fluorescence microscopy was detected. Microscopy experiments combined with immunostaining experiments with specific antibodies for gliadins, γ-gliadins and LMW subunits were carried out to gain a better April/June 2017
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understanding of the technology at a molecular level and the mechanism by which it abolishes the antigenic capacity of gluten.
Effect on wheat kernel endosperm morphology Gluten Friendly™ technology on wheat kernel endosperm structure was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) before and after GF treatment to better understand the effect of this technology. Several samples of CG (control grains) and GFG (glutenfriendly grains) were cleaved transversally into two halves and prepared for freeze-fracturing analysis, and SEManalysed at a high voltage of 20.0 kV (Landriscina et al., 2017).
The results showed a different protein matrix deposition pattern in GFG compared to CG samples. Indeed, micrographs of GFG (Figure 1) clearly
Figure 1 - SEM of transversally-cleaved freeze-fractured Control Grain (CG) and Gluten Friendly Grain (GFG) samples; (a) CG subaleurone cells rich in protein matrix (1500x); (b) GFG subaleurone cells completely embedded into a confluent protein matrix (1500x). Bars in grain samples correspond to 50.0 µm. Images edited in Landriscina et al., 2017
Figure 2 - Micrographs of Control Grain (CG) and Gluten Friendly Grain (GFG) semi-thin slices immu-
nolabelled with 0610 and γ-gliadin monoclonal antibody in immunofluorescence experiments. (a) CG subaleurone immunolabelled with IFRN 0610 antibody; (b) GFG subaleurone immunolabelled with IFRN 0610 antibody; (c) CG subaleurone immunolabelled with c-gliadin antibody; (d) GFG subaleurone immunolabelled with c-gliadin antibody; (e) CG starchy endosperm immunolabelled with IFRN 0610 antibody; (f) GFG starchy endosperm immunolabelled with IFRN 0610 antibody. Images edited in Landriscina et al., 2017
demonstrate the presence of a thick, confluent protein matrix in prismatic endosperm cells, with complete embedding of the starch granules compared to CG samples.
Effect on gluten protein structure The effects of Gluten Friendly™ technology on gluten protein structure was evaluated by SEM-Immunogold and Immunofluorescence experiments with two monoclonal antibodies specific for repeated sequences common to gliadin and LMW fractions. In particular, the IFRN 0610 monoclonal antibody, that recognizes epitopes QQSF and QQSY which are common to many gliadins and LMW-GS, but not HMW-GS, and the mouse γ-gliadin monoclonal antibody, that recognizes the repetitive domain PEQPFPQGC present in the γ-gliadin fraction, were used in this study. The protocol is described in detail in Landriscina et al., (2017). Figure 2 shows the results from immunofluorescence experiments. In GFG samples, a strong and significant decrease in signal intensity was observed after labelling with antibody 0610 and the antibody specific for γ-gliadin compared to the CG samples, in agreement with the SEM results (data not showed). Labelling was measured by quantifying the light signal and correlating it to a greyscale, through the ImageJ April/June 2017
software. Data reported expressed as MGVs (mean grey values) summarize this reduction: 91.71% (p<0.001) and 90.61% (p<0.001) for 0610 and Îł-gliadin antibodies, respectively in GFG samples compared to CG samples (Landriscina et al., 2017). These results confirm that Gluten Friendlyâ„˘ technology induces significant changes in gluten proteins, thus reducing cross reactivity with antibodies that recognize almost the entire range of gluten proteins through the sequences QQSF, QQSY and PEQPFPQGC.
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The merging of protein bodies Enlargement of part of the micrographs (Figure 3) highlighted another interesting feature, i.e. a strong merging of protein bodies in the CG and GFG samples. Indeed, micrographs of the samples revealed that the coalescence of protein bodies in mature wheat grains was complete and resulted in a continuous proteinaceous matrix surrounding the starch granules. Nevertheless, it was possible to still distinguish protein bodies and highlight differences in the merging level of protein bodies in GFG with respect to CG samples. In the GFG samples, protein
Figure 3 - Enlargement of part of micrographs of Control Grain (CG) and Gluten-Friendly Grain (GFG) semi-thin slices immunolabelled with 0610 and c-gliadin monoclonal antibody in immunofluorescence experiments showing a strong merge of protein bodies in CG and GFG samples, respectively. (a, b) Protein bodies type 1 (PB-type1) from CG samples; (c, d) Protein bodies type 2 (PB- type2) from GFG samples - Images edited in Landriscina et al., 2017
bodies (PB-type2) were completely merged in the protein matrix, which appeared more homogeneous and confluent, showing a higher level of aggregation when compared to CG samples (PB-type1), (Landriscina et al., 2017). These results suggest that aggregation may be the primary cause for the
reduced cross-reactivity of proteins, rather than a change in secondary and/ or tertiary structure. In any event, these findings are in accordance with analyses performed with SEM using freezefracturing techniques and with the fact that gluten proteins are susceptible to heat treatment and polymerize during heating (Schofield, Bottomley, Timms, & Booth, 1983). Gluten protein behaviour when subjected to relatively high temperatures has been studied by a number of workers and indeed the incorporation of gliadin monomers into the glutenin network through covalent bonds has been highlighted (Redl, Morel, Bonicel, Vergnes, & Guilbert, 1999; Singh & MacRitchie, 2004). However, Lamacchia, Baiano, Lamparelli, La
It induces a rearrangement of the structure of gluten proteins 20
New technology to obtain the
full potential of raw materials
This technology relies on the application of microwave energy to hydrated wheat kernels before milling
Notte, and Di Luccia (2010) showed, for the first time, that the application of high temperature to wheat grains generates protein polymerization in which gliadins do not cross-link with glutenins. The explanation given for this phenomenon was that, within the kernel, the gluten protein network has not yet formed and gluten proteins are deposited in different protein bodies. Furthermore, Lamacchia et al. (2016) confirmed these results, showing that the application of a short burst of high temperature to mature hydrated wheat kernels using microwave energy leads to protein polymerization between proteins of the same class (i.e. gliadin-gliadin, glutenin-glutenin, albumin-albumin) and only through disulphide bonds (evidenced by the SE-HPLC chart and SDS-PAGE analysis). However, this does not seem to be in accordance with the findings from the SEM and immunofluorescent experiments where images show a strong aggregation among all wheat kernel proteins. One explanation for this could be that the strong aggregation between different classes of proteins in seeds is due to ionic and/or hydrophobic interactions, caused by a rearrangement of the secondary and/or tertiary structure of the gluten protein molecules during heating. Such aggregation was not
visible through SE-HPLC and SDSPAGE (Lamacchia et al., 2016) because of the use of sodium dodecyl sulphatedenaturing conditions in the extraction buffer.
Effect on gluten protein antigenicity The short sequence of amino acids that binds with the antibody to elicit immune reaction is called the antigenic epitope. The most common antigenic epitopes of gluten proteins are HLA DQ2 (Human Leukocyte Antigen), characterized by multiple proline (Pro) and Gln residues (Kim, Quarsten, Bergseng, Khosla, & Sollid, 2004). The effect of Gluten Friendlyâ„˘ technology on gluten protein antigenicity was evaluated by Light Microscopy Cg
using the R5 monoclonal antibody which recognizes the most repetitive potential coeliac-toxic pentapeptide epitope, glutamine-glutamine-prolinephenylalanine-proline (QQPFP) in gluten proteins and the epitopes LQPFP, QLPYP and PQPFP in the sequence of the recently-described potent inducer of gut-derived human T-cell lines in coeliac patients, the A gliadin 33-mer peptide of residues 57-89 (LQ LQPFPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQLPYPQPQPFP). The results (edited in Landriscina et al., 2017) are shown in figure 4, where it was possible to detect a decrease in the signal emitted in GFG samples, compared to CG. The colour intensity was then measured through the ImageJ software, expressed as mean grey values as described in Landriscina et al., (2017). The reduced gluten antigenicity in GFG samples observed with the R5 colorimetric assay was in accordance with the SEM-Immunogold and immunofluorescence experiments and with the work of Lamacchia et al. (2016) that showed a drastic reduction (99%) in the levels of detectable proteins, treated with Gluten Friendlyâ„˘ technology and tested for their ability to bind the specific monoclonal antibody R5 in a sandwich Elisa test. R5-Elisa includes an extraction procedure allowing aggregates of gliadins generated by the heat process to be GFG
Figure 4 - Micrographs of Control Grain (CG) and Gluten Friendly Grain (GFG) semi-thin slices immu-
nolabelled with R5 monoclonal antibody. (a) CG subaleurone layer; (b) GFG subaleurone layer; Bars in cross-sections correspond to 100 Âľm - Images edited in Landriscina et al., 2017
solubilized (Valdés, García, Llorente, & Méndez, 2003). On this basis, a rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structure in gluten proteins, with a different spatial conformation of the toxic sequences, as induced by Gluten Friendly™ technology, and not a strong aggregation among proteins, could
explain the significant reduction in antigenicity in GFG samples and therefore a significant reduction in cross-reactivity of gluten proteins with their own antibodies. This is well supported by the fact that the availability of antigenic fragments in gluten depends on the secondary and tertiary structure of the protein as well as on the SS bonds that stabilize particular conformations of epitopes to bind with the antibody (Waga, 2004).
Conclusions The present study allows a better understanding of the Gluten Friendly™ technology at a molecular level and the mechanism by which it abolishes the antigenic capacity of gluten. Different microscopy techniques used in this study show that Gluten Friendly™ technology induces significant aggregation of proteins in seeds and deep changes to the gluten protein structure.
Protein bodies were completely merged in the protein matrix, which appeared more homogeneous and confluent when compared with control samples. The cross-reactivity of gluten proteins with antibodies that recognize almost the entire range of gluten proteins as well as antigenic epitopes was significantly reduced. Data collected in this study suggest that chemical changes and reduced cross-reactivity of gluten proteins with their specific antibodies are caused by a rearrangement of the secondary and tertiary structure, involving a different spatial conformation of the sequences, including the socalled antigenic ones. These changes may allow a new kind of aggregation among different classes of wheat endosperm proteins, only through hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions. Carmen Lamacchia, Loretta Landriscina
Acknowledgements This work was performed with the financial support of the Casillo Group Spa (Corato, Italy) and the technical support of Dr. Paola Tosi (University of Reading, Uk). This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement n. 732640. Disclaimer: This publication reflects only the author’s view and the Agency is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains. Antibodies used in this study were provided by Rothamsted BBSRC research center (Uk) and INRA (Nantes, France). • Lamacchia, C., Baiano, A., Lamparelli, S., La Notte, E. e Di Luccia, A. (2010). Changes in durum wheat kernel and pasta proteins induced by toasting and drying processes. Food Chemistry, 118,191-198. • Lamacchia C, Di Luccia A, e Gianfrani C. (2013). Method for the detoxification of gluten proteins from grains of cereals. Patent Cooperation Treaty PCT/IB2013/000797. • Lamacchia C, Di Luccia A, e Gianfrani C. (2015a). Metodo per la detossificazione delle proteine del glutine dalle granaglie dei cereali. Italian patent 0001414717. April 26th 2015. • Lamacchia C, Di Luccia A, e Gianfrani C. (2015b). Method for the detoxification of gluten proteins from grains of cereals. BioVariaCongress,
References Europe’s top technologies, Munich, Germany, https://www.biovaria.org/ past-event/technologies. • Lamacchia C, Landriscina L, ande D’Agnello P. (2016). Changes in wheat kernels proteins induced by microwave treatment. Food Chemistry, 197, 634-640. • Landriscina L., D’Agnello P., Bevilacqua A., Corbo M.R., Sinigaglia M., e Lamacchia C. (2017). Impact of Gluten-Friendly ™ technology on wheat kernel endosperm and gluten protein structure in seeds by light and electron microscopy. Food Chemistry, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j. foodchem.2016.11.031. • Redl, A., Morel, M. H., Bonicel, J., Vergnes, B., e Guilbert, S. (1999). Extrusion of wheat gluten plasticized with glycerol: Influence of process
conditions on flow behaviour, rheological properties, and molecular size distribution. Cereal Chemistry, 76, 361-370. • Singh, H., e MacRitchie, F. (2004). Changes in proteins induced by heating gluten dispersions at high temperature. Journal of Cereal Science, 39, 297-301. • Valdés, I., García, E., Llorente, M., e Méndez, E. (2003). Innovative approach to low-level gluten determination in foods using a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocol. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 15, 465-474. • Waga J. (2004). Structure and allergenicity of wheat gluten proteins - a review. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 13/54, 327-338.
nu tri t ion
Pasta is not just tasty but also healthy Studies from all over the world prove how it is good for us
by Delia Maria Sebelin
nu tri t ion
t’s easy to forget you’re eating healthy when you dive your fork into a vibrant, flavor-filled pasta meal. Pasta is such a scrumptious partner for tender vegetables, rich olive oil, and fragrant herbs, that, with pasta on your plate, meeting your nutrition goals becomes a gastronomic experience. Scientific studies have found that people who eat more pasta, noodles, and cooked grains tend to eat more fiber, and also score higher on the Healthy Eating Index, a measure of diet quality.
From Faseb Journal The Faseb Journal is among the world’s most cited biology journals. It is published by the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. It has published the abstract “Association of consumption of different pasta food categories with diet quality and select nutrient intakes in adults (19+ years) from Nhanes, 2009-2012” by Victor L. Fulgoni III (from Nutrition Impact, Battle Creek, Us) and Regan Bailey (from Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Us). This abstract is from the Experimental Biology 2016 Meeting. April/June 2017
nu tri t ion
Here, in short, what the authors discovered about pasta intake. «Pasta represents a complex group of foods almost ubiquitously consumed in the American diet in both healthy and less healthy ways. The purpose of our analysis was to examine pasta consumption relative to overall diet quality [as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI)] as well as nutrients
of public health concern (dietary fiber, calcium, potassium, and vitamin D) among adults using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Nhanes), 2009-2012 (n=10,697). Usda food categories were utilized to separate pasta consumers from nonconsumers from dietary data reported through a 24-hour dietary recall:
Consumers of pasta and noodles have a higher Healthy Eating Index than non-consumers
(excluding non-pasta grains) (PN); b) pasta mixed dishes, excludes macaroni and cheese (PMD); c) macaroni and cheese (MC).
a) pasta, noodles and cooked grains
Regression models employed the survey design features and sampling weights and were adjusted for relevant
covariates (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio, physical activity level, current smoking status, alcohol, and energy intake, when appropriate. When pasta consumers as a group were compared to non-consumers, no differences in overall diet quality were observed; however among females, pasta consumers had significantly lower HEI scores. When the pasta groups were examined separately, consumers of PN had a higher total HEI score than non-consumers; no gender differences were observed. When genders were combined, no overall differences in HEI were observed by PMD, but a small but significant reduction in females was observed. Consumers of MC had a significantly lower HEI driven primarily by differences in females. Dietary fiber was higher among all pasta consumers than non-consumers. Similarly, PN and PMD consumers had higher fiber intakes than nonconsumers of these groups, respectively. Relatively few differences in intakes of calcium, potassium, and vitamin D were observed for overall pasta consumption. Potassium intake was significantly higher and intake of vitamin D was significantly lower when PN consumers were compared to nonconsumers. In conclusion, better diet quality was only associated with consumption of “Pasta, noodles and cooked grains (with a few exclusions for cooked grains)”; most of the changes in HEI scores resulted from associated lower consumption of solid fats, added sugars, and alcohol calories. Fiber intakes of pasta consumers, regardless of food groupings, were significantly higher. Given that daily fiber intakes in US adults are consistently below recommendations, strategies to increase fiber intake are warranted. Strategies to increase consumption of pasta with vegetables might help to further maximize fiber intakes, improve micronutrient intake, as well as diet quality in the Us». April/June 2017
Dal 1978 produce macchine professionali per la pasta, interamente made in Italy, ad uso di laboratori e industrie del settore. Progetti esclusivi, studiati e sviluppati internamente per realizzare pasta di ogni tipo nel nome della facilità d'utilizzo, della qualità e della genuinità del prodotto finale. P2 PLEASURE is much more than a combined machine and it can be described as a complete workshop for pasta professionals,“tailor-made" for meeting all the production needs. P2 PLEASURE, in its basic version includes: single vat, automatic sheeter and ravioli unìt. It can also be supplied with double vat , as well as with double vat with extruder suitable to produce all kinds of short and long shapes of extruded pasta, by simply changing the extruding die. The ravioli unit equipped with ìnterchangeable moulds carries out the production of different shapes and dimensions of pre-cut ravioli.
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nu tri t ion A nutritious choice But pasta is not just a courier for other healthy foods - it is actually a nutritious choice in its own right. According to the International Pasta Organisation (Ipo), «Pasta is a complex carbohydrate that provides the body with a steady source of energy, rather than sending your blood sugar on a roller coaster ride. Additionally, with all of the different whole grain pastas available, it is easier than ever to get your recommended servings of whole grains. Whole grain pasta cooks much more quickly than other whole grains, like brown rice. And with the wide variety of pasta shapes and pasta flavors on the market, every meal is a new experience. From classic durum wheat spaghetti, to farro fusilli or spelt penne, pasta is the perfect way to introduce rich flavor, and a robust array of nutrients».
Around the world Other nutrition research supports a more balanced approach to healthy eating,
Higher consumption of pasta with vegetables might help to maximize fiber intakes with fruits, vegetables, grains, and pulses at the center of your plate. Scientists from across the globe agree that «All these three macronutrients - carbohydrates, protein, and fat - in balance, are
essential for designing a healthy, individualized diet anyone can follow for their whole life. Moreover, very low carbohydrate diets may not be safe, especially in the long term». Research shows that people who eat pasta tend to have a better quality diet, with more fiber, iron, and folate and less saturated fat and added sugar. Instead of cutting out entire food groups, like carbohydrates, experts recommend a well-balanced diet, such as the Mediterranean diet. This approach benefits not only adults, but children too.
About children In a study of 120 children, researchers in Spain found that children most closely following
Very low carbohydrate diets may not be safe 32
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nu tri t ion
a Mediterranean diet, including eating pasta or rice almost every day, were significantly less likely to have attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder. The study was published by the American Academy of Pediatrics is “The mediterranean diet and adhd in children and adolescents”. You can find the abstract online. The authors are Ríos-Hernández A, Alda JA, Farran-Codina A, FerreiraGarcía E, Izquierdo-Pulido M. They write: «Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Adhd) has been related to nutrient deficiencies and “unhealthy” diets, to date there are no studies that examined the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and Adhd. We hypothesized that a low adherence to a Mediterranean diet would be positively associated with an increase in Adhd diagnosis». A total of 120 children and adolescents (60 with newly diagnosed Adhd and 60
y lds i u b
controls) were studied in a sex and age matched case-control study. Adhd diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Energy, dietary intake, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, and familial background were measured. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between the adherence to a Mediterranean diet and Adhd. Here the results: «Lower adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with Adhd diagnosis. Both remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Lower frequency of consuming fruit, vegetables, pasta, and rice and higher frequency of skipping breakfast and eating at fast-food restaurants were associated with Adhd diagnosis. High consumption of sugar, candy, cola beverages, and non cola soft drinks and low consumption of fatty fish were also associated with
a higher prevalence of Adhd diagnosis». Here there are their conclusions: «Although these cross-sectional associations do not establish causality, they raise the question of whether low adherence to a Mediterranean diet might play a role in Adhd development. Our data support the notion that not only “specific nutrients” but also the “whole diet” should be considered in Adhd».
A teriffic food At the 2015 World Pasta Congress, Dr. Kantha Shelke explained that «from a historical point of view, pasta is a teriffic food because it’s simple; it’s pure». According to her, «to adhere to a Mediterranean diet, whether you are a connoisseur or a novice, pasta is a perfect food». Delia Maria Sebelin Acknowledgements International Pasta Organisation
s... m a e r dr
Una tradizione di famiglia
Fava, 80 years of success by Fava
ava, among the world’s leading companies for the production of pasta equipment, was founded in 1937 by Augusto Fava, who designed and patented the first machines capable of drying the product in continuous, uninterrupted process, making way for the introduction and subsequent promotion of automation in the pastamaking industry. Research and innovation, which have always represented the spirit of the company, led to the development of high temperature technology in 1972 under the guidance of Augusto’s son Enrico, the new head of the Company. These ideals continue even now to play a fundamental role in the company’s strategy for satisfying its customers’
demands in a constantly evolving market. Today the Italian company is at its third generation and it is still run by Enrico Fava, Chairman, and Luigi Fava, Ceo. Nowadays it celebrates its 80 year anniversary with great enthusiasm and
Long goods pasta line
satisfaction because it is reaping the rewards and acknowledgments for the achievements it has accomplished over the years. «Our company introduced automation to the dry pasta field in 1937 thanks to my father Augusto’s idea, founder of the company - remembers Mr. Enrico Fava - and by 1952, an entire range of patented pasta lines was available to the worldwide clientele, capable of meeting the various production expectations. At that time, the maximum production capacity was 450 kg/h which gradually rose to 1.000 kg/h in the 60’s». In the “world of pasta” the major breakthrough came in 1972 when Fava launched on the market the ATR long goods pasta line. It was a revolutionary method for treating the pasta, resolving the stickiness issue which had tormented pasta producers for years. Another important milestone which characterized the company’s most qualifying efforts was its successful research in increasing pasta line production capacities in order to maximize energy and space inside pasta factories. «This is why the market found the answers they were looking for in Fava in terms of quality and quantity», Mr. Fava says. April/June 2017
«Therefore, year by year, more and more advanced and reliable lines were built in our workshop in Cento (close to Ferrara, Italy): the outcome of a combination of research and experience, which to date, remain the strong points of our business». In 1996 the company developed another original innovation: the PREMIX. It is applied to new generation FAST presses with a capacity ranging from 1.000-4.000 kg/h. The PREMIX applies a new hydration method for treating each specific grain of semolina with optimal uniformity providing considerable advantages to end product quality. «A few years later - explains Mr. Fava - thanks to this new application, a new dough system is introduced i.e. a stabilization belt mixer is applied to the initial dough phase instead of the traditional mixer, providing significant advantages. The belt mixer improves the colour of the pasta considerably, eliminates the energy power required to drive the shafts of a traditional mixer and simplifies cleaning and maintenance procedures». In 1997 the company decides to add its own selection of couscous production lines to its range of equipment with capacities varying from 1.200-3.000 kg/h. «This natural food which is tied to Mediterranean alimentary traditions is extremely captivating», says Mr. Fava. «This is why the company transfers all its technical and manufacturing know-how acquired in the dry pasta production field to the couscous production field and was highly appreciated right from the start by couscous producers». In 2010, a further technical and technological innovation allows Fava to experiment new production lines, sustained by an original patented drive mechanism April/June 2017
Short goods pasta line
capable of reducing long goods drying times to approx. 3 hours and short goods drying times to less than 2 hours. «The quality of the product in terms of cooking resistance, appearance, robustness is superior when compared to the best products available on the market», Mr. Fava affirms. This new From an original idea of the founder, Augusto Fava, the first continuous short goods dryer was created in 1937 : the trabatto
technology was launched at the latest edition of the Ipack-Ima exhibition «acquiring widespread consensus». Also, the production outputs and product quality for specialty products, such as nests and lasagna, have reached remarkable levels - 1.200 kg/h and 600 kg/h respectively. In the meantime, studies and research have enabled the company to produce the world’s highest capacity pasta lines i.e. up to 6.000/ 6.500 kg/h for long-cut pasta and 12.000 kg/h for short-cut pasta. The pasta-making and drying technologies applied assure the best quality of the finished product, whatever raw materials are used. «Technology that fully meets the expectations of the world’s leading pasta producers, as well as those of new entrepreneurs who wish to start-up a pasta plant with a reliable partner. This is a brief summary of the company Fava’s top historic moments over the past 80 years: a history we are very proud of», Mr. Fava asserts.
Bühler invests and grow by Bühler
ühler showed a healthy performance in 2016. While continuing its policy of reinvesting profits to secure future development, the company has continued its growth path. Order intake in 2016 was up 3% to Chf 2.54 billion, compared to a decline of 4% in 2015. Turnover rose by 2% to Chf 2.45 billion, and profitability remained stable at 7.1% (Ebit margin). R&D investments were significantly increased. «For a company based in Switzerland, 2016 marked a real proof point considering the Euro/ Swiss franc shift a year ago», says Ceo Stefan Scheiber. «In this context, we can be satisfied with these results». Both businesses of Bühler, Grains & Food and Advanced Materials, contributed to the success of the Group in 2016. The strategy of two businesses that are both based on leading process technologies and services, has proven successful. The Group’s performance was strongly supported by its customer service business. Customers appreciate the local network of 92 service stations worldwide. Consequently, the service business showed higher growth and recorded a turnover of Chf 578 million, which is 7% higher than last year. The service share of turnover now accounts for 24% (previous year: 22%). On a regional level, growth in North and South America, Europe, and China overcompensated the downturns in the Middle East & Africa and South East Asia. Overall, Bühler holds a very balanced position with its global presence: Europe reported a
turnover share of 30%, Asia 25%, Middle East & Africa 15%, North America 17%, South America 6%, and South Asia 6%.
Strengthened financial position Net profit remained stable at Chf 143 million. Despite ongoing high investments of Chf 71 million into the worldwide asset base, net liquidity grew significantly by 18% to Chf 462 million. With an equity ratio of 47% (previous year 46%), the Group is free from all bank liabilities. The return on net operating assets (Ronoa) stayed on a high level of 19% (previous year: 22%). «With this strong financial position, Bühler is well equipped to continue investing into its own future», says Ceo Scheiber.
Sustainability further enhanced We are fully committed to sustainability with the ambition of contributing to From the left: Bühler Ceo, Stefan Scheiber, with Bühler Chairman, Calvin Grieder
a safe and secure global nutrition system as well as a responsible usage of natural resources to limit the effects of climate change. The key lever to support these efforts is innovation: With new technologies and solutions, Bühler transforms global challenges and trends into new business opportunities. With around 40 new products and technologies, Bühler proved to be a true innovation accelerator in 2016 and maintained its position as the leading technology and solution provider in its industries. R&D investments were increased significantly by Chf 7 million to Chf 109 million, corresponding to a share of turnover of 4.4%. Bühler signed a partnership with Bosch to develop future IoT (Internet of Things) solutions. The company engaged with the start-up accelerator MassChallenge and won the prestigious Nestlé Research Award. With its Networking Days held in August 2016, Bühler brought together 750 leaders of the global grain and feed industry to discuss and develop sustainable solutions that address global challenges such as malnutrition and energy efficiency.
Strong investment in new technologies In line with its strategy of operating “in the region for the region”, Bühler also invested substantial sums in 2016 to enter new markets, develop decentralized applications centers, and further expand and update its global manufacturing network. Eight new service stations were added to the Professional
Bühler’s Bakery Innovation Center
global network for a total of 92 locations with 60 workshops. This move further increases Bühler’s proximity to customers. In Vietnam, a new factory for rice equipment was opened. New regional applications centers were established, for example, in North America, and the buildup of a new production site in China is ongoing. In Switzerland, the company launched a modernization program. In the fields of battery manufacturing and insect processing, Bühler is set to capture the massive growth potential.
Orer intake (in CHF billion)
equity ratio (in %)
turnover (in CHF billion)
net liquidity (in million CHF)
Positive outlook for 2017 Regardless of day-to-day variations, Bühler is excellently positioned in global growth markets - the processing of basic foods & feeds and advanced materials. With a global setup, Bühler has achieved real customer proximity and truly lives up to the motto of being “locally relevant and globally leveraged”. Today’s megatrends such as the growing global population, increasing urbanization, or enhanced environmental awareness further benefit the strategic setup of the Group and unlock additional growth potential. April/June 2017
«With the accomplishments of 2016, and a strong order backlog, Bühler has a positive outlook for 2017», says Ceo Scheiber. The dynamic nature of market and technology trends, regional developments, and political conditions make predicting potential business outcomes increasingly challenging. Bühler has Professional
adjusted to new developments with flexibility, a collaborative innovation model, and strong partnerships with customers, the science community, and technology and industry. Based on its leading technologies and solutions, Bühler aims to further increase its growth rate and profitability in 2017.
Storciâ€™s solutions to manage dough level and extrusion pressure by Storci
torci takes good care of its customers and is always attentive to the realization of cuttingedge technological solutions although respectful of the pasta traditions. To obtain a better product, the Company in Collecchio makes its machinery perform at its best: now, thanks to the installation of specific software processes, there is now a simpler and more accurate management of the dough level and extrusion pressure. Beyond the tested and flawless system of raw materials mixing and dosing, they have succeeded, thanks to this innovation, to keep constant the dough level and the water dosing (or possible other liquids: e.g. egg) inside the under vacuum basin. This way pasta will get a homogeneous colour and a better texture. This result is also possible thanks to the control of thermostat temperature of cylinder and head (jumps in temperature are reduced to a few tenth of grade), that enables a steady extrusion temperature. The above mentioned system monitors also the consistency of the dough and, during the extrusion, the product shape. For more information: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pavan presents FoodTechMaster 2017 by Pavan
avan Group is once again offering training for 2017, with two courses aimed at plant managers, production managers, R&D managers, Quality Control managers and production technicians, from all over the world. Registration is now open. The next edition of the FoodTechMaster on dry pasta processing technology will benefit of the recently agreed cooperation with ICC (International Association for Cereal Science and Technology): a further proof of authoritativeness of the courses offered by Pavan Group. The conference room at Pavanâ€™s head offices in Galliera Veneta (Padua, Italy) is the venue chosen for the FoodTechMaster training courses, which were designed with the aim of sharing and applying the latest technological skills to food production, and to spread expertise and know-how. Pavan proposes a unique training experience that combines theory with practice, in order to deal with the topics proposed in an in-depth and comprehensive manner.
The theoretical lessons are held by speakers and experts from academia and Pavanâ€™s own process engineers, and will be alternated with practical tests using pilot plants, and organoleptic and sensory evaluation tests. This integration is important as it allows students to actually touch the products and apply the theoretical
FoodTechMaster 2016 in Bangkok
know-how they have learned in the classroom.
From snack to dry pasta The course dedicated to the production of Snack Pellets will be held from 5-8 June, and will include a training session at the Valin plant where snack pellets are produced using Pavan technology. The course dedicated to the production of dry pasta will take place from 9-13 October. The ability to really involve students is one of the strengths of Food Tech Masters, which represent a hub through which it is possible to establish contacts and create a network of links that goes beyond the learning experience, and may be useful in the future career path of each participant. For further details and registration, please visit the web site www.foodtechmaster.com April/June 2017
IGC Grains Conference 2017
What prospects for the future?
ttracting a unique mix of traders and policymakers from across the globe, the Igc Grains Conference is firmly established as the must-attend event in the industry. Now in its 26th year, the 2017 conference returns to the prestigious QEII Centre in the heart of London’s Westminster. Not only a forum for the sharing of invaluable agri-commodity market insight, the event provides an ideal platform for like-minded professionals to forge new connections and deepen business relationships. In a series of interactive sessions, 6 June, panels of expert speakers will review the supply and demand outlook, with a particular focus on recent changes to the global trading environment. Amid broad-based shifts in the political and economic backdrop, panellists will also assess the main opportunities and
threats faced by the world’s grain and milling industry. Topics to be discussed include: • How will global trading patterns develop in the medium term? • Bumper harvests have boosted grains and oilseeds supplies to record highs, but what are the risks moving forward?
Amid sustained food security challenges, what plans do the world’s key buyers have to meet future needs? • How are producers, exporters and importers responding to the evolving trading environment? For more information: www.igc.int/en/conference/confhome. aspx •
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