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TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER

3-4/2018 Volume 1 Issue 3-4 2018 textile-leather.com ISSN 2623-6257 (Print) ISSN 2623-6281 (Online)


TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER Editor-in-Chief

Srećko Sertić, Seniko studio Ltd., Croatia

Editorial Board

Davor Jokić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Dragana Kopitar, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Ivana Schwarz, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Editorial Advisory Board

Emriye Perrin Akçakoca Kumbasar, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Tuba Bedez Üte, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Mirela Blaga, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Andrej Demšar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Krste Dimitrovski, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Ante Gavranović, Economic Analyst, Croatia Ana Marija Grancarić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Huseyin Kadoglu, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Fatma Kalaoglu, Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Textile Technologies and Design, Turkey Hüseyin Ata Karavana, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Ilda Kazani, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Department of Textile and Fashion, Albania Stana Kovačević, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Aura Mihai, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Abhijit Mujumdar, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India Monika Rom, University of Bielsko-Biala, Institute of Textile Engineering and Polymer Materials, Poland Pavla Těšinová, Technical university of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Czech Republic Savvas Vassiliadis, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Department of Electronics Engineering, Greece

Language Editor

Ivana Lukica, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Technical Editor / Layout Marina Sertić

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Textile & Leather Review ‒ ISSN 2623-6257 (Print), ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) UDC 677+675 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR Frequency: 4 Times/Year The annual subscription (4 issues). Printed in 300 copies Published by Seniko studio d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia Full-text available in open access at www.textile-leather.com


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TEXTILE & LEATHER REVIEW ISSN 2623-6257 (Print)

ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) CROATIA

VOLUME 1

ISSUE 3-4* 2018

p. 85-140

CONTENT ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE 90-98

Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol from Hydrolysis of Oleuropein in Olive Leaf Extract Oguz Bayraktar

100-113 Research and Investigation of Women’s Dress Pattern Đurđica Kocijančić

PRELIMINARY COMMUNICATION 114-119 Fabrication of Woven Honeycomb Structures for Advanced Composites Güldemet Başal Bayraktar, Ata Kianoosh, Derya Bilen

PROFESSIONAL REVIEW 120-128 A Contribution to Understanding the Textile Terminology in the Dalmatian Area between 2 century BC and 9 century AD Katarina Nina Simončič

NOTICE 129-130 Balkan Society of Textile Engineers Ilda Kazani

131-134 K4Footwear – Knowledge4Innovation Ana-Marija Grancarić, Irena Topić

* Due to the Journal launch in June 2018 and quarterly publishing, We introduce the special 3-4 issue. Upcoming issues will be published four times a year in March, June, September and December.


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BAYRAKTAR O, Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 90-98.

Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol from Hydrolysis of Oleuropein in Olive Leaf Extract Oguz BAYRAKTAR Ege University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Bornova, Ä°zmir, Turkey oguz.bayraktar@ege.edu.tr Original scientific article UDC 677.071.5 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2018.vol1.iss3-4.p90-98.a9 Received 24 October 2018; Accepted 28 November 2018

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to prepare antimicrobial silk fibroin nanofibers from the aqueous formic acid solutions of silk fibroin and hydroxytyrosol with the in situ hydrolysis of oleouropein present in olive leaf extract using electrospinning method. With the use of aqueous formic acid solution of olive leaf extract and silk fibroin resulted in more uniform and beadless nanofibers. Morphological properties of electrospun nanofibers were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The diameter of electrospun nanofibers ranged between 70 nm to 150 nm. The nanofiber diameter did not changed much with increasing concentration of olive leaf extract added into silk fibroin solution to be used in electrospinning process. The increase in olive leaf extract concentration resulted in beadless and uniform nanofiber structures. The average diameter of the nanofibers prepared with fibroin solution having 10 % olive leaf extract was determined as 85 Âą 10 nm. Results revealing the formation of smoother and uniform nanofibers was attributed to the crosslinking effect of oleuropein and polyphenols present in olive leaf extract with certain functional groups in silk fibroin structure. Antibacterial properties of hydroxytyrosol loaded nanofibers against Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram +) and Escherichia coli (Gram -) were confirmed with the clear inhibition zones observed in disc diffusion tests. Silk Fibroin nanofibers loaded with hydroxytyrosol may offer a new alternative biomaterial to be used in wound dressing or medical textile applications. KEYWORDS Nanofibers, Silk fibroin, Electrospinning, Olive leaf extract, Antimicrobial

INTRODUCTION Nanofibers can be produced by various techniques such as drawing, template synthesis, phase separation, self-assembly and electrospinning. Among them, electrospinning is the most efficient and multifunctional method in order to produce nanofibers from polymer solutions. It allows us to prepare continuous fibres from both synthetic and natural polymers with a diameter ranging from micrometers to a few nanometers. By tuning the process parameters including applied voltage, hydrostatic pressure in the capillary, electric potential of the tip, the distance between the tip and the collection screen and feeding rate; solution properties including viscosity, conductivity, and surface tension; and ambient parameters including temperature, humidity, and air velocity in the electrospinning chamber, different conformation of nanofibers can be obtained [1, 2]. 90 www.textile-leather.com


BAYRAKTAR O, Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 90-98.

The electrospinning method can be used to prepare nanofibers with a wide varieties of biopolymers including collagen, chitin, chitosan, cellulose, silk fibroin, hyaluronic acid, and zein [3]. Besides, with the addition of some additives or natural compounds into the structure of nanofiber mats, unique and tailor made properties can be acquired [4]. In this manner, completely biodegradable, biocompatible and non-toxic functional nanofibers can be produced. The functional nanofibers can be used in many applications such as drug delivery, wound dressing, tissue engineering, sensor technology, filtration, energy storage, and reinforcement of composites [1]. Antimicrobial nanofibers can be obtained by adding some antimicrobial agents. There is an intense concern about antibacterial natural compounds. Especially, plant-derived components are commonly used for many industries. The olive tree is one of oldest cultivated trees. The leaves of this tree are used for centuries as a therapeutic agent and many researchers emphasize that there are a great deal of useful phenolic compounds in olive leaf [5]. Also, extract which is obtained from olive leaf destroys microorganism and free radicals that cause diseases and adverse effect on human health [5]. It was reported that main phenolic compounds present in olive leaves are oleuropein, hydroxytyrosols, rutin, verbaskosit, apigenin-7-glucoside, luteolin-7glucoside, tyrosol, vanilic acid, diosmetin-7-glucoside, caffeic acid, luteolin, diosmetin, vanillin, and catechins [6, 7]. Although, oleuropein is the main phenolic component in olive leaf extract, the antioxidant capacity of pure oleuropein is limited. Olive leave extract having oleuropein as main constituent has enhanced antioxidant and antimicrobial activities after oleuropein is hydrolyzed into highly bioactive hydroxytrosols [8-10]. Silk is a polyamino acid based protein which is produced by silkworms in order to protect themselves during their metamorphosis. For centuries, humans have harvested silk cocoons so as to produce textile manufacturing. Silk has a great deal of characteristic properties like luster, moisture absorbance and strength [11]. Silk fibroin is a good candidate in many biotechnological applications, for instance; medical textile, drug delivery and tissue scaffolding [11]. The characterization of biomaterials made from silk fibroin nanofibers have been the focus of many studies in the literature [12-14]. In the literature, the adsorption/desorption behaviour of oleuropein on different types of silk fibroin matrices including silk fibroin microfibers, regenerated silk fibroin, and silk fibroin nanofibers were also investigated [15]. There are only a few studies about the incorporation of natural compounds into silk fibroin nanofibers in the literature [16, 17]. In several studies, nanofibers loaded with natural compounds have been prepared by electrospinning polymer blend solutions including natural compounds [18, 19]. To the best of our knowledge, there is no article about the preparation of antimicrobial electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers from the aqueous formic acid solutions of silk fibroin and hydroxytyrosol as a result the in situ hydrolysis of oleouropein present in olive leaf extract. In this study, first the aqueous formic acid solutions of silk fibroin and olive leaf extract containing oleuropein were prepared. During the preparation of these solutions in situ acid hydrolysis of oleuropein resulted in the formation of hydroxytyrosol with relatively higher antimicrobial property. Then silk fibroin nanofibers having antimicrobial properties were obtained by electrospinning of these prepared solutions [20].

EXPERIMENTAL Materials and Methods The olive leaf extracts were obtained using the olive leaves (Olea europaea) collected from the olive trees in Urla-Ä°zmir. Analytical grade ethanol purchased from Merck, Germany was used in all extraction experiments. Raw silk fibroin fibres (SF) were obtained from Bursa Institute for silkworm Research (Bursa, Turkey). www.textile-leather.com 91


BAYRAKTAR O, Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 90-98.

For the removal of sericin, sodium carbonate (Aldrich, Germany) was used. Calcium chloride-2-hydrate (Riedel-de Haën, Germany) was used for the preparation of aqueous silk fibroin solution. Dialysis tubing (MW Cut-off: 12-14 kDa, Sigma, USA) was used to prepare purified aqueous silk fibroin solutions. Formic acid (98+ % purity) was purchased from Merck (Germany). HPLC grade acetonitrile (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) and HPLC grade acetic acid (Merck, Germany) were used for the mobile phase of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses. Ultra-pure water was used for all experiments. Preparation of crude olive leaf extracts The collected olive leaves were first washed and then dried at 35 °C in an oven (Memmert UFP 800TS) for 3 days. The dried olive leaves were ground to prepare powder to be used for extraction experiments. Extraction was performed in 70 % aqueous ethanol solution with solid-liquid ratio of 1:20, at 180 rpm at room temperature in a bench top orbital shaker (Thermo MaxQ-4000) for 5 hours. Aqueous ethanolic extract was first filtered and then subjected to evaporation using rotary evaporator (Heidolph laborata 4001) to remove the ethanol under vacuum at 35 °C. Remaining aqueous phase of extract was centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 5 min to remove solid residues. The liquid aqueous extracts were first frozen and then lyophilized using Telstar cryodos-50 freeze drier for 3 days. After lyophilization, dry crude extracts were obtained. The crude olive leaf extracts were stored in glass bottles in a dark, cool, dry place for further use in experiments [15, 20]. HPLC analysis of prepared olive leaf extract HPLC analyses were performed using the method described earlier in the literature [21]. The HPLC Equipment (Hewlett-Packard Series HP 1100) installed with LiChrospher® RP-18 analytical column (250 mm × 4 mm i.e.; with a particle size of 5 mm) thermostated at 30 °C was used. A diode array detector was used to monitor the absorbance changes at 280 nm chosen as stationary phase. The mobile phase flow rate for chromatographic analysis was 1 ml min-1. Briefly, the mobile phases were: (A) acetic acid/water (2.5:97.5) and (B) acetonitrile. A linear gradient was run from 95 % (A) and 5 % (B) to 75 % (A) and 25 % (B) during 20 min; it changed to 50 % (A) and (B) in 20 min (40 min, total time); in 10 min it changed to 20 % (A) and 80 % (B) (50 min, total time), after re-equilibration in 10 min (60 min, total time) to initial composition. Followed by HPLC analysis, concentration and abundance of oleuropein in samples were determined based on calibration curve of oleuropein standard (purity ≥ 90 %, Extrasynthese, Genay Cedex, France) [15, 20]. Preparation of silk fibroin aqueous solution and regenerated silk fibroin (foam) For the degumming (removal of sericin) the raw silk was boiled in aqueous solution of 0.05 % sodium carbonate (50 times v/w) for 30 min. This boiling process was repeated three times. The degummed silk was washed with distilled water and dried at ambient conditions. In order to prepare aqueous silk fibroin solution 1.2 g degummed silk was dissolved in 20 (v/w) CaCl2/distilled water/ethanol (molar ratio 1:8:2) by stirring at 78 °C for 2 hours and then dialyzed at 4-8 °C for three days to remove neutral salts [22]. Aqueous silk fibroin solution obtained as the dialysate was filtered and then freeze dried for 5 days in order to obtain completely dried material in the form of foam as described in Figure 1 [15, 20]. Electrospinning of solutions including silk fibroin and olive leave extract Electrospinning setup (Figure 2) consist of High Voltage Power Supply, iseg T1CP 300 and Syringe pump, Newera NE1000. The Syringes and needles used during fabrication of nanofibers were purchased from medical suppliers. Regenerated silk fibroin foams were dissolved in formic acid along with olive leaf extract [15, 20]. 92 www.textile-leather.com


days to remove neutral salts [22]. Aqueous silk fibroin solution obtained as the dialysate was filtered and then freeze dried for BAYRAKTAR O, Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol... LEATH REV (3-4) 2018 5 days in order to obtain completely dried material in the form of foam TEXT as described in1Figure 1. 90-98.

extract was added into this solution. Phenolic compounds present in the solution of olive leaf extract Figure 1. Process of preparation silk fibroin nanofibers from aqueous formic acid solution in formic acid were analysed with HPLCsilk (Agilent 1100series). of regenerated fibroinTechnologies (foam) and olive leave extract

Figure 1. Process of preparation silk fibroin nanofibers from aqueous formic acid solution of regenerated silk fibroin (foam) and olive leave extract.

Electrospinning was performed with a nozzle having a diameter of 0.8 mm. The nozzle tip The SF maintained solution with aaconcentrati on potential 80 was prepared and olive leaf 20] extract this was high including electric for electrospinning and mounted in was the added parallelinto plate Electrospinning ofat solutions silkmg/ml fibroin and olive leave extract [15, solution. Phenolic compounds present in the solution of olive leaf extract in formic acid were analysed with geometry. A constant volume flow rate was maintained using a syringe pump. The voltage was kept Electrospinning (Figure 2) consist of High Voltage Power Supply, iseg T1CP 300 and HPLC (Agilent Technologiessetup 1100series). at 20 kV and the distance between the syringe needle and the grounded collection plate 10 cm. Electrospinning performed with nozzle having a diameter 0.8 mm. The nozzle p waswas maintained Syringe pump,was Newera NE1000. Thea Syringes and needles usedofduring fabrication of tinanofibers were atThe a high electric potenti al forwith electrospinning mounted in the parallel plate on geometry. A constant electrospun nanofibers and withoutand olive leaf extract were collected a collection plate purchased from medical suppliers. Regenerated silk fibroin foams were dissolved in formic acid along volume flow rate was maintained using a syringe pump. The voltage was keptinvestigated at 20 kV and the Phillips distance covered with aluminium foil. Morphological properties of nanofibers were using with olive leaf extract. The SF solution with a concentration 80 mg/ml was prepared and olive between the syringe needle and the grounded collection plate was 10 cm. The electrospun nanofibersleaf with XL-30S FEG Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The samples were coated by gold sputtering in an and without olive leaf extract were collected on a collection plate covered with aluminium foil. Morphoargonproperti atmosphere before SEM analysis. The Image measurement andScanning visualization software was logical es of nanofi bers were investigated using Phillips XL-30S FEG Electron Microscope (SEM). samples were by diameter gold sputtering in anbased argonon atmosphere before SEM analysis. Thefrom Image usedThe to determine thecoated average of fibres the randomly chosen nanofibers measurement SEM images.and visualization software was used to determine the average diameter of fibres based on the randomly chosen nanofibers from SEM images.

Figure 2. The photo of electrospinning experimental set-up used to prepare silk fibroin nanofibers from aqueous formic acid solution of regenerated silk fibroin (foam) and olive leave extract

Figure 2. The photo of electrospinning experimental set-up used to prepare silk fibroin nanofibers from aqueous formic acid solution of regenerated silk fibroin (foam) and olive leave extract.

Anti bacterial tests Antibacterial tests [15] Sterile cultures were prepared daily in 8 ml broth by transferring one loop of stock bacteria (Staphylococcus Sterile were prepared daily in-)8which ml broth by transferring one loop of stock bacteriafor epidermidis (Gramcultures +) and Escherichia coli (Gram are kept in - 80 °C. These cultures incubated

(Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram +) and Escherichia coli (Gram -) which are kept in - 80 °C. These www.texti cultures incubated for 18 hours and subcultures were obtained by transferring 80le-leather.com μl from this 1893

hour-incubated cultures to fresh broth (8 ml). Experiments were performed with this daily prepared


BAYRAKTAR O, Silk FibroinO, Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 BAYRAKTAR Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol… TEXT LEATH REV90-98. 1 (1) 2018 1-11.

18 hours and subcultures were obtained by transferring 80 μl from this 18 hour-incubated cultures to fresh Inoculated culture was dispersed by streaking the sterile swab over the entire sterile agar surface by broth (8 ml). Experiments were performed with this daily prepared subcultures which are standardized plate 60° each time to ensuretothe inoculum uniformly spread. The inoculated forrotating inoculatithe on on agar surface corresponding certain numbers of CFU/ml. Log phases of growthplates curves were allowed to sit forto5-10 to let inoculati the broth into Silk fibroin nanofiber were taken into account reachminutes approximate on absorb numbers alsoagar. the standardized inoculumsdiscs were confi rmed by measuring values. In this study, six(VA), hoursGentamicin subcultures(CN) wereand taken in all experiments so as were placed on these OD petri dishes. Vancomycin Penicillin (P) discs were to use the same number of bacteria (6x107 CFU/ml). 100 μl of bacteria culture (from 6 hours subculture) used as a (+) control antibiotics. Plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. After 24 hours the were inoculated onto agar surface. Inoculated culture was dispersed by streaking the sterile swab over the inhibition observed. enti re sterilezones agar were surface by rotating the plate 60° each time to ensure the inoculum uniformly spread. The inoculated plates were allowed to sit for 5-10 minutes to let the broth absorb into agar. Silk fibroin nanofi ber discs placed on these petri dishes. Vancomycin (VA), Gentamicin (CN) and Penicillin (P) discs RESULTS ANDwere DISCUSSIONS were used as a (+) control antibiotics. Plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37 °C. After 24 hours the inhibition zones were observed [15]. Content of olive leaf extract treated with formic acid

RESULTS TheAND HPLCDISCUSSION chromatogram of olive leaf extract dissolved in aqueous solution having no formic acid can be seen in Figure 3. As from Content of olive leaf extract treated withseen formic acidthe chromatogram, in the twenty-second minute The HPLC chromatogram of olive leaf extract dissolvedamong in aqueous on having no formic acid canitsbe oleuropein was detected as the major compound othersoluti phenolics. Hydroxytyrosol and seen in Figure along 3. As seen thephenolic chromatogram, in the twenty-second minute was detected derivatives withfrom other acids are detected between 0-12 oleuropein minutes interval in theas the major compound among other phenolics. Hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives along with other phenolic chromatogram. acids are detected between 0-12 minutes interval in the chromatogram.

Figure 3. HPLC chromatogram ofofolive disolvedininaqueous aqueous solution having no formic Figure 3. HPLC chromatogram oliveleaf leafextract extract disolved solution having no formic acid. acid

HPLC chromatograms of olive leaf extracts dissolved in aqueous solutions having different amounts of HPLC chromatograms of olive leaf extracts dissolved in aqueous solutions having different formic acid (0 %, 25 %, 50 % and 100 %) are also given in Figure 4. As seen from the chromatograms the amounts of formic acid (0 %, 25 %, 50 % and 100 %) are also given in Figure 4. As seen from the amount of oleuropein decreased with increasing formic acid content of the solutions. This indicated either chromatograms ofofoleuropein formic acid content of the degradati on or the the acid amount hydrolysis oleuropeindecreased and formatiwith on ofincreasing hydroxytyrosol/tyrosol derivatives. With increasing acid content, solution became acidic as expected. This acidic environment solutions.formic This indicated eitherthe degradation or the more acid hydrolysis of oleuropein and formation of caused the hydrolysis of the oleuropein into hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives. The higher the acidity of hydroxytyrosol/tyrosol derivatives. With increasing formic acid content, the solution became more the solution with increasing formic acid content, the higher amounts of hydroxytyrosol were formed with acidic as expected. This acidic environment caused the hydrolysis of the oleuropein into the hydrolysis of oleuropein. hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives. The higher the acidity of the solution with increasing formic acid

content, the higher amounts of hydroxytyrosol were formed with the hydrolysis of oleuropein. 94 www.textile-leather.com


BAYRAKTAR O, Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 90-98.

Figure 4. HPLC chromatograms of olive leaf extracts dissolved in aqueous solutions having different amounts Figure 4. HPLC chromatograms of olive leaf extracts dissolved in aqueous solutions having different amounts of formic of formic acid (increasing formic acid content: 0 %, 25 %,50 % and 100 % formic acid) acid (increasing formic acid content: 0 %, 25 %,50 % and 100 % formic acid).

Our results are in accordance with the results of studies reporting the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of Our results are in accordance the results studies reporting the acidinto andhydroxytrosol enzymatic oleuropein to form hydroxytyrosol in thewith literature [9, 10].of The hydrolysis of oleuropein and its derivati ves helped to theform enhancement of theinanti thehydrolysis olive leaveofextract having hydrolysis of oleuropein hydroxytyrosol thebacterial literatureacti [9,vity 10].ofThe oleuropein oleuropein as main consti Antimicrobial actithe vity enhancement of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol also reported into hydroxytrosol and tuent. its derivatives helped of the antibacterialwere activity of the in the literature [23, 24]. Hydroxytyrosol has higher antimicrobial activity compared with that of oleuropein. olive leave extract having oleuropein as main constituent. Antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and Since nanofibers was fabricated via electrospinning of solutions including silk fibroin and olive leaf extract also reported in the literature [23, 24].the Hydroxytyrosol has higher antimicrobial inhydroxytyrosol formic acid, thewere prepared silk fibroin nanofi bers contained highly antimicrobial hydroxytyrosol due toactivity the in situ hydrolysis of that oleuropein during electrospinning process. compared with of oleuropein. Since nanofibers was fabricated via electrospinning of

solutions including silk fibroin and olive leaf extract in formic acid, the prepared silk fibroin Electrospinning of solutions including silk fibroin and olive leave extract nanofibers contained the highly antimicrobial hydroxytyrosol due to the in situ hydrolysis of The diameter of electrospun nanofibers ranged between 70 nm to 150 nm. The nanofiber diameter did not oleuropein during process. changed much with electrospinning increasing concentrati on of olive leaf extract added into silk fibroin solution to be used in electrospinning process. The increase in olive leaf extract concentration resulted in beadless and uniform Electrospinning of solutions silk fibroin and leavebers extract nanofi ber structures (Figure 5).including The average diameter ofolive the nanofi prepared with fibroin solution having 10 % oliveThe leafdiameter extract was determinednanofibers as 85 ± 10 ranged nm. Results revealing thetoformati on of and of electrospun between 70 nm 150 nm. Thesmoother nanofiber uniform nanofibers could be attributed to the crosslinking effect of oleuropein and polyphenols present in diameter did not changed much with increasing concentration of olive leaf extract added into silk olive leaf extract with certain functional groups in silk fibroin structure. solutionoftoβ-glucosidase be used in electrospinning process. TheIridoid increase in olive are leafresponsible extract concentration Infibroin the presence aglycones produced from glycosides for the denaturati on of in proteins andand being a crosslinking agent. Poly α, β (Figure - unsaturated aldehyde resulted beadless uniform nanofiber structures 5). The averageis produced diameter by of degluthe cosidati on and oxidati on of oleuropein. Oleuropein was also used as crosslinking agent in collagenic films nanofibers prepared with fibroin solution having 10 % olive leaf extract was determined as 85 ± 10 [25]. In another study, oleuropein in OLE has been introduced as a natural, non-toxic cross linker for elecnm. Results revealing the formation of smoother and uniform nanofibers could be attributed to the trospun zein fibres. Homogeneous fibre morphology detected with alterations in bond structure in FTIR crosslinking oleuropein and polyphenols in olive was attributedeffect to theofeff ects of crosslinking effect ofpresent oleuropein [3]. leaf extract with certain functional Togroups the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to present OLE as a crosslinking agent in zein fibres which in silk fibroin structure. are commonly used in tissue engineering applications. In the light of these findings it can be proposed that In the presence of β‐glucosidase aglycones produced from Iridoid glycosides are responsible for OLE has a potential to be used as a cross linker in zein fibres as well as providing functionality attributed to the denaturation of proteins and being a crosslinking agent. Poly α, β - unsaturated aldehyde is its high antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial property. produced by deglucosidation and oxidation of oleuropein. Oleuropein was also used as crosslinking

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zein fibres which are commonly used in tissue engineering applications. In the light of these findings providing functionality attributed to its high antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial property. it can be proposed that OLE has a potential to be used as a cross linker in zein fibres as well as BAYRAKTAR O,functionality Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded Hydroxytyrosol... TEXT LEATH 1 (3-4) 2018property. 90-98. providing attributed to itswith high antioxidant capacity and REV antimicrobial

Figure 5. SEM images of prepared silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers without and with different olive leaf extract (OLE) by weight %; Left: 0 % OLE; Middle: 5 % OLE; Right: 10 % OLE. Magnification for all images: 10000x. Figure 5. SEM images of prepared silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers without and with different olive leaf extract (OLE) by weight %; Figure 5. SEM images of prepared silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers without and with different olive leaf extract (OLE) by weight %; Left: 0 % OLE; Middle: 5 % OLE; Right: 10 % OLE. Magnification for all images: 10000x Antibacterial tests Left: 0 % OLE; Middle: 5 % OLE; Right: 10 % OLE. Magnification for all images: 10000x.

In Figure 6tests positive (+) and negative (-) controls are presented. The inhibition zones are seen belong AntiAntibacterial bacterial tests to Gentamicin G), ve Vancomycin as V) and Penicillin (labelled respectively. In Figure 6 positive(labelled (+) and as negati (-) controls(labelled are presented. The inhibition zones as areV), seen belong to In Figure 6 positive (+) and negative (-) controls are presented. The inhibition zones are seen Gentamicin (labelled as G), Vancomycin as V)olive and Penicillin (labelled as V), vely. Silkbelong fibroin Silk fibroin nanofiber discs (labelled (labelled as C) without leaf extract was used asrespecti the control. to Gentamicin (labelled G), Vancomycin as V)used andas Penicillin (labelled as V), respectively. nanofi ber discs (labelled as as C) without olive leaf(labelled extract was the control. Silk fibroin nanofiber discs (labelled as C) without olive leaf extract was used as the control.

Figure 6. The pictures of inhibition zones observed in antibacterial disc diffusion tests for antibiotics, Gentamicin (labelled as G), Vancomycin (labelled as V) and Penicillin (labelled as P) against E.coli (petri dish (labelled Vancomycin (labelled andright). Penicillin as P) against E.coli (petri dish on without the left); olive S. on the left);as S.G), Epidermidis (petri dish as onV)the Silk (labelled fibroin nanofiber discs (labelled as C) leaf extract.zones Arrows showinthe observed disc cleardiffusion inhibition zones Figure 6. The pictures of inhibition observed antibacterial tests for antibiotics, Gentamicin Figure 6. The pictures of inhibition zones observed in antibacterial disc diffusion tests for antibiotics, Gentamicin

(labelled as G), Vancomycin (labelled as V) and Penicillin (labelled as P) against E.coli (petri dish on the left); S.

As shown with arrows in Figure 6 significant inhibition zones were observed for all antibiotics. However, no inhibition zones were observed for the silk fibroin nanofiber discs (labelled as C) without olive leaf extract. The picture given on the left in Figure 6 shows the results of disc diffusion tests for silk fibroin discs with OLE against E.coli. The picture given on the right in Figure 7 shows the results of disc diffusion tests for silk fibroin discs with OLE against S. Epidermidis. In Figure 7 discs labelled as A and C are silk fibroin nanofiber mats prepared with solutions having 40 mg/ml and 80 mg/ml olive leaf extract, respectively. The inhibition zones shown with arrows are clearly observed around the nanofiber discs. These inhibition zones indicated the antibacterial properties as a result of the hydroxytyrosol formed by the hydrolysis of oleuropein present in olive leaf extract in acidic environment.

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arrows are clearly observed around the nanofiber discs. These inhibition zones indicated the antibacterial properties as a result of the hydroxytyrosol formed by the hydrolysis of oleuropein O,extract Silk Fibroin Nanofibers Loaded with Hydroxytyrosol... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 90-98. presentBAYRAKTAR in olive leaf in acidic environment.

Figure 7. Results of antibacterial disc diffusion tests of nanofiber discs prepared from silk fibroin and olive leaf Figure 7. Results of antibacterial disc diffusion tests of nanofiber discs prepared from silk fibroin and olive leaf extract in extract in formic acid: Left: E.coli; Right: S. Epidermidis. Arrows show the observed inhibition zones formic acid: Left: E.coli; Right: S. Epidermidis. Arrows show the observed inhibition zones.

CONCLUSION CONCLUSIONS In this study,Inaqueous formic acid formic solutions silk fibroin andfibroin olive leaf oleuropein this study, aqueous acidofsolutions of silk and extract olive leafcontaining extract containing were oleuropein successfullywere prepared. In these solutions acidic environment caused the hydrolysis of oleuropein in successfully prepared. In these solutions acidic environment caused the hydrolysis to hydroxytyrosol having relatively higher antimicrobial property. Hydrolysis was confirmed with help of of oleuropein in to hydroxytyrosol having relatively higher antimicrobial property. Hydrolysis was chromatograms obtained from HPLC analyses. Silk fibroin nanofibers having antimicrobial properties were confirmed with help of chromatograms obtained from HPLC Silk fibroin nanofibers successfully obtained by electrospinning of these prepared solutianalyses. ons having hydroxytyrosol. Antihaving microbial antimicrobial were by rmed electrospinning of these prepared properti es of theseproperties elecrospun silk successfully fibroin discsobtained were confi with the results from disc diffsolutions usion tests against E.colihydroxytyrosol. and S. Epidermidis. having Antimicrobial properties of these elecrospun silk fibroin discs were confirmed Silk Fibroin nanofi bers loaded with Hydroxytyrosol from the hydrolysis of oleuropein in OLE may offer a new with the results from disc diffusion tests against E.coli and S. Epidermidis. alternative biomaterial to be used in wound dressing or medical textile applications.

REFERENCES [1]

Greiner A, Wendorff JH. Electrospinning: a fascinating method for the preparation of ultrathin fibers. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 2007;46(30):5670-5703.

[2] Zong X, Kim K, Fang D, Ran S, Hsiao BS, Chu B. Structure and process relationship of electrospun bio-absorbable nanofiber membranes. Polymer. 2002;43(16):4403-4412. [3] Erdogan I, Demir M, Bayraktar O. Olive leaf extract as a crosslinking agent for the preparation of electrospun zein fibers. Journal of the Applied Polymer Science. 2015;132(4):41338(1-9). [4] An J, Zhang H, Zhang J, Zhao Y, Yuan X. Preparation and antibacterial activity of electrospun chitosan/ poly(ethylene oxide) membranes containing silver nanoparticles. Colloid and Polymer Science. 2009;287(12):1425-1434. [5] Benavente-Garcia O, Castillo J, Lorente J, Ortuno A, Del Rio JA. Antioxidant activity of phenolics extracted from Olea europaea L. Leaves. Food Chemistry. 2000;68(4):457-462. [6] Sudjana AN, et al. Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 2009;33(5):461-463. [7] Altıok E, Bayçın D, Bayraktar O, Ülkü S. Isolation of polyphenols from the extracts of olive leaves (Olea europaea L.) by adsorption on silk fibroin. Separation and Purification Technology. 2008;62(2):342-348.

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[8] Pereira AP, et al. Phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa) leaves. Molecules. 2007;12(15):1153-1162. [9] Gikas A, Papadopoulos N, Tsarbopoulos A. Kinetic Study of the Acidic Hydrolysis of Oleuropein, the Major Bioactive Metabolite of Olive Oil. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. 2006;29(4):497-508. [10] Yuan JJ, Wang CZ, Ye JZ, Tao R, Zhang YS. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Oleuropein from Olea europea (Olive) Leaf Extract and Antioxidant Activities. Molecules. 2015;20(2):2903-2921. [11] Hardy JG, Römer LM, Scheibel TR. Polymeric materials based on silk proteins. Polymer. 2008;49(20): 4309-4327. [12] Chen C, Chuanbao C, Xilan M, Yin T, Hesun Z. Preparation of non-woven mats from all-aqueous silk fibroin solution with electrospinning method. Polymer. 2006;47(18):6322-6327. [13] Kim KH, et al. Biological efficacy of silk fibroin nanofiber membranes for guided bone regeneration. Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;120(3):327-339. [14] Li S, et al. Preparation of electrospun PLGA-silk fibroin nanofibers-based nerve conduits and evaluation in vivo. Artificial Cells Blood Substitutes and Biotechnology. 2012;40(1-2):171-178. [15] Bayraktar O, Ali Bora Balta AB, Bayraktar GB. Adsorption/desorption and biofunctional properties of oleuropein loaded on different types of silk fibroin matrices. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. 2017;36(1):153-165. [16] Wang Q, Xiong J, Zhang H, Li N, Xie J, Liu G. Preparation and properties of PBS-SF core-shell composite ultrafine fibrous membranes by coaxial electrospinning. Acta Materiea Compositae Sinica. 2011;28: 88-93. [17] Hang Y, Zhang Y, Jin Y, Shao H, Hu X. Preparation of regenerated silk fibroin/silk sericin fibers by coaxial electrospinning. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2012;51(5):980–986. [18] Shao S, Li L, Yang G, Li J, Luo C, Gong T, Zhou S. Controlled green tea polyphenols release from electrospun PCL/MWCNTs composite nanofibers. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 2011;421(2):310-320. [19] Jin G, Prabhakaran MP, Kai D, Annamalai SK, Arunachalam KD, Ramakrishna S. Tissue engineered plant extracts as nanofibrous wound dressing. Biomaterials. 2013;34(3):724-734. [20] Balta AB. Development of natural compound-loaded nanofıbers by electrospinning [master thesis]. İzmir: Izmir Institute of Technology; 2010. [21] Baycin D, Altiok E, Ulku S, Bayraktar O. Adsorption of olive leaf (olea europaea l.) antioxidants on silk fibroin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2007;55(4):1127-1236. [22] Malay Ö, Bayraktar O, Batıgün A. Complex coacervation of silk fibroin and hyaluronic acid. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2007;40(4):387-393. [23] Bisignano G, Tomaino A, Lo Cascio R, Crisafi G, Uccella N, Saija A. On the in vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 1999;51(8):971–974. [24] Dogan G, Basal G, Bayraktar O, Ozyildiz F, Uzel A, Erdogan I. Bioactive sheath/core nanofibers containing olive leaf extract. Microscopy Research Technique. 2016;79(1):38–49. [25] Antunes APM, Attenburrow G, Covington AD, Ding JJ. Utilisation of oleuropein as crosslinking agent in collagenic films. Journal of Leather Science. 2008;2(2):17-23.

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KOCIJANČIĆ Đ, Research and Investigation of Women’s Dress Pattern TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 100-113.

Research and Investigation of Women’s Dress Pattern Đurđica KOCIJANČIĆ University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Textile and Clothing Design, Croatia djurdjica.kocijancic@ttf.hr Original scientific paper UDC 687.01 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2018.vol1.iss3-4.p100-113.a10 Received 22 October 2018; Accepted 3 December 2018

ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to research and investigate the women’s dress pattern by using conventional women’s dress constructions, more specifically by comparing three different ways of constructing women’s dress patterns. Women’s dress construction methods of B. Knez, J. Slaviček and „Rundschau” are compared and respective women’s dress prototypes are made from calico. Based on the best features and visible results obtained from the three pattern constructions, as well as the appropriate body-related adaptability, a new women’s dress pattern is produced featuring different pattern parts in natural size. The new women’s dress pattern is investigated and used in the education of next generation fashion and costume designers in view of practical application. KEYWORDS Dress construction, women’s clothes, modelling, cutting, garment construction

INTRODUCTION Clothes make the man, and the aesthetic appearance of clothing and related clothing items derives therefrom. The aesthetic appearance of a clothing item has to satisfy the consumer in relation to its appearance and harmonious connection of all components, such as pattern, shape and dimensions. When designing a clothing item, functionality requirements have to follow its purpose and type. The purpose should be taken into account during its construction, since every piece of clothing has its specific wearing-comfort characteristics. The clothing item must fit the dimensions and specific features of the human body. Every piece of clothing is sewn together from several pieces of fabric, which then give it its specific shape. The pattern allows customization to the body. For that purpose, a women’s dress has been created as a product of need and protection. As a practical product, a women’s dress is very comfortable and plays an important role in everyday clothing (Figure 1).

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Figure 1. Fashion project involving women’s dress: a) front; b) back

Clothing comfort results from a good pattern, which adapts to changes following the natural laws of body movement, and therefore implements the knowledge of human anatomy. The basic pattern of any clothing item is the starting point for creating a model pattern. Therefore, based on a good basic woman’s dress pattern, other similar clothing items and models can be modelled. The basic pattern is set according to certain measurements. In its basic shape, the pattern can not be used in tailoring, but it should be altered according to the design requirements of the model. The prototypes of characteristic models are made to verify patterns, which then in turn represent individual groups of patterns. Subsequent examination is thereby carried out, and the correctness of the previously made basic model pattern is established [2]. The idea of designing and producing the new basic woman’s dress pattern was imposed due to inadequate woman’s dress constructions adaptable to the female body, and not enough constructions are actually adapted to today’s female body in practical application. The aim of this research and investigation of the woman’s dress pattern is to propose a new basic woman’s dress pattern as opposed to the previously existing basic woman’s dress patterns.

EXPERIMENTAL Materials and Methods Construction of women’s dresses Before constructing any type of clothing, which includes a woman’s dress, the following are determined: main body measures, calculated body measures, calculated construction measures and additional measures, as found in literature [7]. Based on the calculated measures, the basic pattern is constructed and subsequently modelled into the desired pattern shape. This chapter describes three methods of constructing a woman’s dress: according to B. Knez, J. Slaviček and „Rundschau” [2, 5, 8]. Each construction method differs from the previous one in the method of calculating constructional and additional measures, as well as in the method of constructing the woman’s dress itself. On the other hand, they share the same main body measures and the clothing size 38. The description of women’s dress pattern construction according to B. Knez, J. Slaviček and „Rundschau” may be found in literature [7]. The basic pattern constructions are shown in Figures 2.a-2.c. In the clothing industry, sleeve design has always represented a special challenge. Issues usually occur in attaching the sleeve to the armhole. It can be very difficult to find the proper relation between the armhole www.textile-leather.com 101


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Figure 2. Woman’s dress pattern construction according to: a) B. Knez; b) J. Slaviček; c) „Rundschau”

and the sleeve curve. It is important that the armhole is constructed properly, and with proper fit allowance, because that is the key element for the successful attachment of the sleeve model. When constructing a sleeve pattern, multiple precise measurements are necessary, since the cause of a poorly constructed armhole is wrong measurement data [5]. The measures and description of the basic sleeve pattern with a normally placed seam are provided according to B. Knez [2, 7], according to J. Slaviček [5, 7] and according to „Rundschau” [7, 8]. Construction of the basic narrow sleeve pattern with a normally placed seam is shown in Figure 3. a,b,c.

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Figure 3. Construction of the basic sleeve pattern of a woman’s dress according to: a) B. Knez [2]; b) J. Slaviček [5]; c) „Rundschau” [8]

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Modelling of basic woman’s dress pattern, clothing size 38 Modelling consists of performing corrections on the basic pattern: moving darts and seams, determining new dividing seams, adding folds, adding allowance for the bell-shaped form, adding allowance to garment length, and other [9,10]. After woman’s dress construction, each part needs to be modelled separately. If a dress is constructed from a single back part, it is necessary to model the basic pattern of the front part. The back part should be modelled only if the dress has no seam in the central front part, or the dress model has a more accentuated waist [5]. Modelling methods differ from one author to another. This chapter demonstrates dress modelling according to the abovementioned authors. This part of modelling is divided into three parts: modelling of woman’s dress front, modelling of woman’s dress back, and modelling of woman’s dress sleeve. Figure 4 demonstrates the procedure of modelling the woman’s dress front in phases (Figures 4.1-4.4), and the description may be found in literature [7]. Figure 5 shows the modelling of woman’s dress back without shoulder dart, with shoulder dart and of the narrow sleeve with seam allowances (Figures 5.a-c).

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Figure 4. Modelling of woman’s dress front according to B. Knez in four modelling phases 1, 2, 3, 4

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Figure 5. Modelling of woman’s dress back according to B. Knez: a) without shoulder dart; b) with shoulder dart; c) sleeve with seam allowances

Modelling of the basic woman’s dress pattern according to J. Slaviček is shown in Figures 6-8. Figure 6 demonstrates the modelling procedure for the woman’s dress front in phases (Figures 6.1-6.4). The modelling procedure for the woman’s dress back without the shoulder dart is depicted in Figures 7.1-7.4. Figure 8 shows the modelling of the narrow sleeve pattern with a normally placed seam and seam allowances.

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Figure 6. Modelling of basic woman’s dress front according to J. Slaviček in four modelling phases 1, 2, 3, 4

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Figure 7. Modelling of woman’s dress back pattern according to J. Slaviček in four modelling phases 1, 2, 3, 4

Figure 8. Modelling of narrow basic sleeve pattern with normally placed seam, according to J. Slaviček

Modelling of the basic woman’s dress pattern according to „Rundschau” is demonstrated in Figures 9–11. More specifically, Figures 9.1-9.4 depict the 4 modelling phases of dress front. Figures 10.1-10.4 show the three modelling phases of dress back. Lastly, Figure 11 demonstrates the modelling of the narrow sleeve with a normally placed seam with seam allowances.

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Figure 9. Modelling of basic woman’s dress pattern front according to „Rundschau” in four modelling phases 1, 2, 3, 4

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Figure 10. Modelling of woman’s dress pattern back according to „Rundschau” in three modelling phases 1, 2, 3

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Pattern investigation

Figure 11. Modelling of narrow basic sleeve pattern with normally placed seam, according to „Rundschau”

Based on modelling, the woman’s dress pattern of the abovementioned authors was enlarged to natural size. The calico fabric was used for pattern investigation because of its naturally adaptable features and characteristic to show all mistakes, just like paper. Firstly, red thread was used to sew together the following parts of all three woman’s dresses for clear recognition: centre front, bustline, waistline, hipline and centre back. Secondly, darts were sewn in and other dress parts were sewn together along with one sleeve, the right sleeve. After all dresses were joined together, they were tested on the mannequin. After that, a model was wearing the dresses and the investigation was made, so as to observe the differences between the dresses and possible mistakes. The observed differences between the woman’s dress prototypes and certain mistakes are explained in Table 1. Furthermore, based on detected deficiencies, a new woman’s dress pattern was created.

Table 1. Remarks and explanations relating to woman’s dress patterns of: a) B. Knez; b) J. Slaviček; c) „Rundschau” a

b

c

- The bust girth is a good - it follows the body line - The waistline is good - it follows the body line - The hipline is good - it follows the body line - The sleeve cap depth is good – the ease of the sleeve is detected - The front neckline is not good –it is very high and it suffocates (correction is needed here) - The sleeve is too large in the upper sleeve curve area (armhole girth) - The back neckline - a bit too high but that is an error on the mannequin - Sleeve width - a bit narrow, the sleeve should be slightly wider

- The bustline is good - it follows the body line - The waistline is too high, too wide it should be lowered and narrowed because in that part the dress is too loose fitted- it doesn’t follow the body line - The hipsline is not good - it doesn’t follow the body line because the hips are very wide at the side seam area - The front neckline is not good - it is very high and it suffocates - The back neckline is good - The sleeve in the sleeve curve area is good – it matches the armhole on the dress, it is not wide - The sleeve length is slightly shorter (it should be extended) - The shoulders are narrow - The sleeve cap depth is good - The sleeve in the elbow area is narrow and tightens when bending - The centre front is good - The area from the neckline to the bustline is too loose fitted - it doesn’t follow the body - The breast width in the bust area is slightly wider, and the area from the bustline to the waistline on the side seam is wide - The sleeve cap depth is too small - it reaches too far into the armpit and it tightens - The darts following the body line in the hips area are wide - 2 cm is the total excess

- The bustline is good - it follows the body line - The waistline is good - it follows the body line - The hipline is good - it follows the body line - The front neckline is not good - it is very high and it suffocates - The back neckline is too high, it is not good and it suffocates - From the neckline to the bustline – there is a clean line, nicely following the body without any errors, there is no pulling of the material or excessive fullness, and in the back area the line is clean - The shoulder position is very good and fits beautifully - From the hipline to the bustline, there is a clean line on both the front and back. However, the side seam does not follow the body line and deviates – it is slightly wide - In the hips area, the line is clean, the darts hang nicely as well as in waist area facing upwards. However, in the side seam area it is very wide – there is a deviation of about 3 cm - The sleeve is not good because the armhole girth is too small and the sleeve tightens a lot. It does not hang well, but hangs forward and creates a dent on the back side of the sleeve – the sleeve width in the underarm sleeve length area is good - The sleeve cap depth is too small, it reaches too high, the sleeve in the curve does not hang well, the back has a lot of excess fabric - it is overstretched in the armhole - The sleeve tightens in the elbow area

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CONCLUSION: This dress follows the line of the body and is very good.

This dress is for persons with narrow shoulders and wide hips.

The measures for this dress are not adjusted to our measures from our standard, and therefore the construction is not adequate.

Conclusion: The new woman’s dress should be constructed according to B. Knez [2, 7], specifically following method b. However, it should be combined with the sleeve construction of J. Slaviček [5] with a normally placed seam (Figure 3.b), and respective measurement taking. According to the previous investigation the construction of such a sleeve should correspond to the abovementioned dress (Figures 1.a, 1.b). Sleeve correction The sleeve should be constructed by using the measures from B. Knez’s construction, yet according to J. Slaviček’s construction. This construction is shown in Figure 12. The sleeve pattern construction with a normally placed seam The measurements required to construct the sleeve are taken from the construction drawn in Figure 2. The same Figure is used to measure the armhole height and the armhole girth [5, 7]. The armhole height is measured by placing the measuring tape at the armhole peak at point R7, and guiding it diagonally downwards to point Šo placed at the dress front. The front part amounts to 17.6 cm. Regarding the back part, the measuring tape is placed at point R2 and guided vertically downwards to the Og line. The back part amounts to 17.2 cm. The armhole height of the front and the back part amounts to 34.8 cm. The armhole girth is measured by placing the measuring tape vertically at point R7, and guiding it along the armhole line to point P and onwards along the back armhole to point R2. This measure amounts to 42 cm [7]. The description of the sleeve with a normally placed seam may be found in the following paragraph. Moreover, the description of this sleeve has already been provided in [5, 7], only with different measures (armhole height and armhole girth). Correction 1*** - with a normally placed seam according to measures from the construction of B. Knez and according to J. Slaviček, (Figure 12).

Figure 12. Construction of a narrow sleeve pattern with Correction 1***

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Figure 13. Sleeve modelling with Correction 1*** including seam allowance for pattern investigation


KOCIJANČIĆ Đ, Research and Investigation of Women’s Dress Pattern TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 100-113.

Figure 13 shows sleeve modelling with Correction 1*** and the seam allowance for the test sleeve. Based on this sleeve, there was a remark that the sleeve was pulling while lifting the arm. This problem should be solved by modelling. Sleeve modelling with Correction 1*** Figure 14 shows four ways of sleeve modelling with Correction 1***. The 1st method is shown in Figure 14.1. On this sleeve, the dart is closed in the underarm sleeve length and is transferred to the sleeve seam. Point K is marked on the elbow line perpendicular to the notch on the peak of the sleeve cap. A marking is placed 3 cm downward from the sleeve cap depth line on the left and right side, and these points are connected with a straight line. The drawn lines are markings for pattern cutting. The sleeve is lifted upwards by 0.6 cm in the elbow area, and the upper part of the sleeve is moved by 3 cm to the left and to the right. This is how the straight dart is closed downwards. On the extended section, the dart it is shifted 3 cm, and extended in the side seam of the sleeve. After that, modelling is performed in the sleeve seam on both sides, and a bit on the sleeve cap. Seam allowances of 2 cm are added at the seams, 1 cm at the sleeve cap, and there are no allowances on the sleeve length. This sleeve didn’t prove to be good because we got an extension of the sleeve and the modelling was not performed accurately. The 2nd method of sleeve modelling with the correction 1*** is shown in Figure 14.2. A cut of 1 cm is made perpendicular to the elbow height to point K in the seam area. The pattern is moved by 0.5 cm upwards in the elbow area and the slit sleeve part is moved by 1 cm to the left and to the right at the marked position. An overlapping of the sleeve occurred on the top of the slit parts, the hatched area. The 3rd method is depicted in Figure 14.3. This sleeve is made the following way: it is also cut perpendicular to the elbow line with a straight line to point K in the middle of the sleeve. The sleeve is moved upwards by 0.5 cm, and on the slit parts it is moved by 2 cm to the left and right side. The upper part of the slit sleeve is folded to the extent necessary to make the sleeve adhere to the flat surface, hatched area in the Figure. The dart peak is shortened by 2 cm, see the arrow shown in the Figure. The 4th method of sleeve modelling is shown in Figure 14.4. This sleeve is made according to the system in Figures 14.2 and 14.3, i.e. by joining both methods from the Figure. This sleeve is made as follows: A cut is made of 1 cm under the top of sleeve cap depth and in the sleeve cap, and along the middle of the sleeve to point K. It is moved by 0.5 cm upwards from the elbow line, and by 1.5 cm on the left and right side.

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Figure 14. Four methods of modelling a narrow sleeve with Correction 1***

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The slit sleeve pattern parts are moved so that each piece is folded by 0.7 cm, so that the sleeve pattern adheres to a flat surface (the hatched area in the Figure). Conclusion: Based on the above-modelled sleeves, the decision was made that the 2nd modelling method proved to be very good. This sleeve created the least amount of excess fabric on the back part of the sleeve and least tension in the elbow area. This modelling method leads to aimed results, meaning that the sleeve does not pull while lifting the arm. In 3rd method, the armhole width was too small and it needed to be extended for persons with wider arms. The 4th method is good for wider arms and there is no pulling while lifting the arm. Furthermore, a 36-sized woman’s dress pattern was created for the needs of fashion models. Based on woman’s dress construction of clothing size 38, clothing size 36 is made according to literature [7], by using appropriate measures. When constructing a woman’s dress another way of sleeve construction was applied according to the pictures and the explanation, which was appeared to be an appropriate sleeve for a new basic dress pattern. The sleeve I have above mentioned is a sleeve with a forward moved seam, but it is constructed according to a normally placed seam with some modifications. In the clothing industry, it is common to place the seam of a narrow sleeve where it is attached to a side dress seam. A long narrow sleeve with a normally placed seam on the side seam often pulls in the elbow area, and it is uncomfortable when wearing. To avoid this unpleasant occurrence, it is recommended to move the seam forward onto the front part of the sleeve. By moving the seam forward, the sleeve becomes more comfortable and does not tighten during arm movement. This sleeve should be designed very close to the arm, especially for formal clothing. For models, it is not necessary to change the shoulder cap shape, although such sleeves are very narrow at the elbow height and the wrist.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Corrections of all 38-sized woman’s dress pattern parts Correction 2*** - Sleeve with the seam moved forward is performed according to construction measurements of B. Knez, and according to the basic pattern construction of J. Slaviček (Figure 15). Correction 3*** - It is performed by creating a point 0.5 cm from point B1 towards the line connecting B1 and L3, and then shaping a new line in the back part, according to Figures 15 and 17. Correction 4*** - The woman’s dress front and back feature changes which occurred during pattern investigation according to construction measures of B. Knez and the construction of J. Slaviček. The changes are marked with a full line in Figure 16. The procedure is as follows: a new armhole back is formed by shifting the F-F1 line 0.5 cm to the right, and the centre front is shifted by 1.5 cm to form the neckline. Correction 5*** - The woman’s dress front and back feature changes which occurred during pattern investigation according to construction measures of B. Knez and the construction of J. Slaviček. The changes are marked with a dashed line in Figure 16. Correction 6*** - The sleeve length features changes which are marked on the modelled narrow sleeve. The procedure is as follows: The back neckline centre is lowered by 1 cm, and the shoulder by 0.5 cm. A new neckline is modelled according to the neckline front centre, which is lowered by 1.5 cm (Figure 18).

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Figure 15. Construction of a narrow sleeve with Correction 2***

Figure 16. Basic woman’s dress pattern parts with Correction 4*** according to B. Knez

Construction of a narrow sleeve with a correction 3*** performed on correction 2*** clothing size 38 is shown in Figure 17.

Figure 17. Construction of a narrow sleeve with Correction 3*** performed on Correction 2***

Figure 18. Modelling of a narrow sleeve with Correction 3*** performed on Correction 2*** and Correction 6***

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Figure 18 depicts the new basic sleeve pattern of a woman’s dress. Based thereon, the new basic women’s dress pattern parts with seam allowances were generated, which were later used in fashion projects in natural size. Based on the investigation, research and conclusions, we have obtained new basic pattern parts. The new basic pattern parts obtained after Corrections 2*** to 6*** are shown in Figures 19. a, b, c, d.

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Figure 19. New basic dress pattern parts with seam: a) sleeve; b) front part; c) back part without shoulder dart; d) back part with shoulder dart

CONCLUSION Researching, investigating and modelling dress constructions produced a new pattern of woman’s dress. Pattern adjustment was performed according to the contemporary female anatomy. As a result, the new dress pattern was proposed for the purpose of easier realization of future models in view of practical application. The new pattern presented in this paper was derived from the comparison of three different conventional women’s dress constructions. Pattern parts were developed in natural size for clothing sizes 36, 38, 44 and 54. As such, they have been applied in the work and personal use of generations of fashion and costume designers. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Prof. Maja Vinković for the women’s dress fashion project and for her contribution in the long-term realization process of this work.

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REFERENCES [1] Garcia N. Mala crna haljina stila. Zagreb: Algoritam; 2009. [2] Knez B. Konstrukcijska priprema u odjevnoj industriji. Zagreb: Sveučilišna naklada d.o.o.; 1990. [3] Malalan A. Super krojenje. Zagreb: Mozaik knjiga; 2012. [4] Thomass C, Örmen C. Povijest donjeg rublja. Zagreb: ALFA; 2011. [5] Slaviček J. Konstrukcija odjeće za haljine, bluze, suknje, žensko i muško rublje. Zagreb: 1977. [6] Jennifer Lynne Matthews-Fairbanks. Pattern Design: Fundamentals: Construction and Pattern Making for Fashion Design [Volume 1.]. Fairbanks Publishing, LLC: 2018. [7] Kocijančić Đ. Ispitivanje i gradiranje kroja ženske haljine [Master thesis]. Zagreb: 1996. [8] Schneiderei Schnittmuster, Konstruktion Rundschau Damen. Rundschau. 1992 Jan; 18 [9] Schnittkonstruktionen für Kleider und Bluse. Rundschau-Verlag Otto G. Königer; 2014. [10] Ujević D, Rogale D, Hrastinski M. Tehnike konstruiranja i modeliranja odjeće. Zagreb: Tekstilno-tehnološki fakultet; 2000.

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BAŞAL BAYRAKTAR G et al. Fabrication of Woven Honeycomb Structures... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 114-119.

Fabrication of Woven Honeycomb Structures for Advanced Composites Güldemet BAŞAL BAYRAKTAR*, Ata KIANOOSH, Derya BILEN Ege University, Department of Textile Engineering, İzmir 35100, Turkey *guldemet.basal@ege.edu.tr Preliminary communication UDC 677.074.1 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2018.vol1.iss3-4.p114-119.a11 Received 24 October 2018; Accepted 27 November 2018

ABSTRACT A honeycomb woven fabric was designed and produced on a sampling loom. After weaving cells in the fabric were opened by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sticks and an epoxy resin was applied to fabric. For comparison half of the fabric sample was impregnated with resin without opening the cells. Resulting fabric samples were subjected to low-velocity impact test by using drop weight impact testing machine, CEAST Fractovis Plus – 7526.000. To evaluate the impact behaviour of the samples the contact force, contact time, deflection, and absorbed energy values were recorded by data acquisition system (DAS). The energy absorbed by honeycomb structure was around 7 Joule. The energy absorbed by flat sample, on the other hand, was too low and out of the detection range of the testing equipment. KEYWORDS Honeycomb fabric, Reinforcement, Composite, Energy absorption

INTRODUCTION Fibrous structures have been used extensively as preforms since they meet successfully the various requirements of composite reinforcements. In general, unidirectional and two dimensional (2D) laminated woven structures are the main forms of reinforcement. Even though these 2D laminated woven structures have been used with success for over 60 years, their use in many structural applications is limited due to their high price as a result of labour intense manual lay-up process, their poor impact damage resistance, and their delamination cracking under impact loading [1,2]. In order to overcome these limitations the development of advanced 3D textile structures has gained great attention over the past 40 years. Advanced 3D textile structures offer structural integrity and fibre continuity by providing multiaxial in-plane and out-ofplane fibre orientation [3, 4]. One of the advance d 3D textile structures is 3D honeycomb structure. This structure has the geometry of a honeycomb to allow the minimization of the material used to reach minimal weight and maximum strength. Thus the composites reinforced with honeycomb structure are light weight, energy absorbent, and strong [5, 6]. Chen et al. [7, 8] studied honeycomb fabrics and defined them based on the number of fabric layers involved and the lengths of the free and bonded cell walls. A free cell wall is created by one layer of fabric. A bonded cell wall is created by combining two adjacent fabric layers. By arranging the length of the free and bonded cell walls the size of the cells can be adjusted. In another study, the mathematical modelling of 114 www.textile-leather.com


using the multilayer principle [9]. The 300 denier (335F96T) polyester filament yarn was used after plied with a twist of 140 turns / meter. The fabric had four layers and the adjacent layers were BAĹžAL BAYRAKTAR G et al.atFabrication Woven Honeycomb Structures... TEXT LEATH REV 1is(3-4) 2018 114-119. combined and separated arranged of intervals (Figure 1). The peg plan of the weave given in Figure

2. The vertical lines indicate the heald shafts, and the horizontal lines indicate the wefts. Grey honeycomb structurethat wasthe studied anwill algorithm was created theinsertion. computerized manusquares represent healdand shaft be lifted during the for weft Open design spaces and between facture of this type of fabrics [6]. layers allowed to obtain a 3D structure with honeycomb shaped cells in the cross-section with the In this study a honeycomb woven fabric was designed and produced and the impact resistance of the non-flat top and bottom surfaces. composite structure reinforced by this fabric was determined.

Figure 1. Cell openings in honeycomb fabric design Figure 1. Cell openings in honeycomb fabric design

EXPERIMENTAL Production of Honeycomb Fabric A honeycomb woven fabric was designed and produced on a CCI Evergreen S8900 sample loom using the multilayer principle [9]. The 300 denier (335F96T) polyester filament yarn was used after plied with a twist of 140 turns / meter. The fabric had four layers and the adjacent layers were combined and separated at arranged intervals (Figure 1). The peg plan of the weave is given in Figure 2. The vertical lines indicate the heald shafts, and the horizontal lines indicate the wefts. Grey squares represent that the heald shaft will be lifted during the weft insertion. Open spaces between layers allowed to obtain a 3D structure with honeycomb shaped cells in the cross-section with the non-flat top and bottom surfaces.

Production of Composite The honeycomb fabrics are in a flat form with close cells when they leave the loom due to the nature of weaving. In order to turn fabric into a 3D honeycomb structure polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sticks

2. Peg plan Figure 2. Figure Peg plan

Production of Composite

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The honeycomb fabrics are in a flat form with close cells when they leave the loom due to the nature of weaving. In order to turn fabric into a 3D honeycomb structure polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) sticks were inserted into the top and bottom rows of the tunnels before impregnation (Figure


BAŞAL BAYRAKTAR G et al. Fabrication of Woven Honeycomb Structures... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 114-119. GRUM GRUM U, etal. U, etal. Influence Influence ofWeaveandDensities… ofWeaveandDensities… TEXTTEXT LEATH LEATH REV 1REV (1)12018 (1) 2018 1-11.1-11.

were inserted into the top and bottom rows of the tunnels before impregnation (Figure 3). Then, an epoxy 0 C for Cmix 90 for(FiberMak minutes. 90 minutes. For For comparison comparison some fabric fabric were impregnated impregnated with with resin resin in flattened flattened form resin Composites F-1564some Epoxy Resin andwere F-3486 Hardener) was applied toinboth sides ofform the 0 fabric using aplacing paintbrush. Curing was carried out in an autoclave at 100 C for 90 minutes. For comparison without without placing the sticks. the sticks. some fabric were impregnated with resin in flattened form without placing the sticks.

0

Figure 3A.Honeycomb fabric

FigureFigure 3A.Honeycomb 3A.Honeycomb fabricfabric

3B. Fabric reinforced with PTFE sticks

3B. Fabric 3B. Fabric reinforced reinforced with with PTFE PTFE stickssticks

Drop Weight Impact Test Drop Drop Weight Weight Impact Impact Test Test The samples were subjected tosubjected low-velocity impactimpact testimpact bytest using weight impact testi ngtesting machine, The The samples samples werewere subjected to low-velocity to low-velocity test by drop using by using dropdrop weight weight impact impact testing CEAST Fractovis Plus – 7526.000. The impact tests were performed by using hemispherical steel impactor machine, machine, CEAST CEAST Fractovis Fractovis PlusPlus – 7526.000. – 7526.000. The The impact impact teststests werewere performed performed by using by using hemispherical hemispherical tup of 12.7 mm diameter with a total mass of 5.02 kg. The maximum loading capacity of the impactor was steel steel impactor impactor tup of tup of 12.7 mm diameter diameter withwith a total a total massmass of were 5.02 kg. of 5.02 kg. The The maximum maximum loading loading capacity capacity 22.4 kN. According to12.7 mm ASTM D3763, the clamped specimens impacted with impact energy level of of the of the impactor was was 22.4 kN. 22.4 kN. According to ASTM to ASTM D3763, D3763, the clamped the clamped specimens specimens were impacted impacted with 10 J at impactor room temperature. TheAccording test velocity was 1.99 m/s. In order to evaluate thewere impact behavior ofwith the samples, parameters force, contact time, defl ecti on,was and1.99 m/s. absorbed energy values were impact impact energy energy levellevel ofsuch 10 J of as 10 J atthe room atcontact room temperature. temperature. The The test test velocity velocity was 1.99 m/s. In order In order to evaluate to evaluate recorded by data acquisition system (DAS) during the impact test. the impact the impact behavior behavior of the of samples, the samples, parameters parameters suchsuch as the as contact the contact force, force, contact contact time,time, deflection, deflection,

and and absorbed absorbed energy energy values values werewere recorded recorded by data by data acquisition acquisition system system (DAS) (DAS) during during the impact the impact test.test. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In this study a honeycomb woven fabric was produced using four layers. The resulting fabric cell has a height RESULTS RESULTS ANDAND DISCUSSIONS DISCUSSIONS of 6mm, free wall length of 5 mm, bonded wall length of 5 mm and an opening angle of 530 (Figure 4).

In this In this study study a honeycomb a honeycomb woven woven fabric fabric was was produced produced usingusing fourfour layers. layers. The The resulting resulting fabric fabric cell has cell ahas height a height of 6mm, of 6mm, free free wallwall length length of 5 of mm, 5 mm, bonded bonded wallwall length length of 5 of mm 5 mm and and an opening an opening angle angle 4 ). 4 ). of 53of0 (Figure 530 (Figure

Figure 4 Cell size Figure 4 Cell size

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BAŞAL BAYRAKTAR G et al. Fabrication of Woven Honeycomb Structures... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 114-119. Figure 4 Cell size

Figure 5. Honeycomb fabric Figure 5. Honeycomb fabric

The fabric turned into a honeycomb composite by applying an epoxy resin mix (Figure 5). Before resin appliThe infabric turned into a honeycomb composite epoxy (Figure 5).for cation cells the fabric were opened using PTFE sticks. Halfbyofapplying the fabricanwas left inresin the flmix attened form comparison. the fabrics subjected to low velocity impact In aHalf honeycomb composite strucBefore resinThen, application cellswere in the fabric were opened using PTFEtest. sticks. of the fabric was left in ture, the impact energy is absorbed not only by the elastic and plastic deformation of the fabric structure the flattened form for comparison. Then, the fabrics were subjected to low velocity impact test. In a but also the collapse of the cells. If the honeycomb structure cannot absorb the whole energy the force is honeycomb composite structure, the impact energy is absorbed not only by the elastic and plastic transmitted to structure underneath the composite and cause damage. Thus the energy absorbed by the deformation of cant. the fabric but the collapse of the cells. If the structure structure is signifi Figurestructure 6(a) shows thealso composite structure made from the honeycomb designed fabric without opening cells.the Aswhole seen from thethe figure the could not resist the force and cannot the absorb energy force is composite transmittedstructure to structure underneath the impact composite and was broken apart. The test result was out of the detection range of the impact tester. Figure 6(b) shows cause damage. Thus the energy absorbed by the structure is significant. Figure 6 (a) shows the the composite structure made from the designed fabric with the open cells. The damage was restricted to GRUM GRUM U, etal. etal. Influence ofWeaveandDensities… ofWeaveandDensities… TEXT LEATH TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) REV2018 1 (1)1-11. 2018 1-11. composite structure made theU,Influence designed without a small area. Clearly, open cellfrom structure absorbed fabric some of impactopening energy. the cells. As seen from the figure the composite structure could not resist the impact force and was broken apart. The test result

was out of the detection range of the impact tester. Figure 6(b) shows the composite structure made from the designed fabric with the open cells. The damage was restricted to a small area. Clearly, open cell structure absorbed some of impact energy.

a) Sample with closed cells

a)sample a)sample with closed with cells closed cells

b) Sample with open cells

b) Sample b) Sample with open withcells open cells

Figure 6. Fabric samples after impact test

Figure 6. Figure Fabric6.samples Fabric samples after impact after impact test test

Figure 7 shows the contact load–displacement plots of honeycomb composite structure with open cells at 10Figure J impact energy. Thecontact load–displacement curves plots show of anhoneycomb increase of the load up structure to a maximum Figure 7 shows 7 shows the the contact load–displacement load–displacement plots of honeycomb composite composite structure with load with termed peak followed byenergy. aThe drop afterload–displacement the peak load. Thecurves peak load was 805ofN.the The area under open cells open atcells 10load, Jatimpact 10 J impact energy. load–displacement The curves show an show increase an increase of load the up load to up a the to a curve gives the energy absorption. Calculated energy was 7,043 Joule. Unfortunately, close cell structure maximum maximum load termed load termed peak load, peak followed load, followed by a drop by a after drop the after peak the load. peak The load.peak The load peakwas load805 wasN.805 N. did not produce any results since the values measured were too low for the test equipment. The area The under area under the curve the curve gives gives the energy the energy absorption. absorption. Calculated Calculated energyenergy was 7,043 was 7,043 Joule. Joule.

Unfortunately, Unfortunately, close cell closestructure cell structure did not didproduce not produce any results any results since the sincevalues the values measured measured were too were117 too www.texti le-leather.com low forlow thefor test theequipment. test equipment.


The area under the curve gives the energy absorption. Calculated energy was 7,043 Joule. Unfortunately, close cell structure did not produce any results since the values measured were too BAŞAL BAYRAKTAR G et al. Fabrication of Woven Honeycomb Structures... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 114-119. low for the test equipment.

Figure 7. Load–displacement curve for low-velocity impact test Figure 7. Load–displacement curve for low-velocity impact test

CONCLUSION This is a preliminary work to investigate the potential of honeycomb structures in advanced composites. In this study we designed and produced a four layer honeycomb fabric as reinforcement material and investigate the impact resistance of the composite structure made from this preform with and without opening the cells. The composite structure with closed cells did not resist the impact force and was broken apart. The test equipment could not detect any signal. The hollow structure created by opening the cells, on the other hand, resisted to impact force and absorbed an energy of 7,043 Joule. The test conducted in this study was limited due to the time constrains. The further experiments and statistical analysis will be carried out to found out the effect of impact site on results. We believe that honeycomb structures have great the potential in advanced composites. Their properties should be further explored. It is not difficult to weave this type of structure by a regular loom but opening up cells is time consuming job. A simplified method would increase their usage. Acknowledgements The authors greatly appreciate the financial support provided by Ege University Research Foundation (Project No: 17-MUH-056).

REFERENCES [1]

Mouritz AP, Bannister MK, Falzon PJ, Leong KH. Review of applications for advanced three-dimensional fibre textile composites. Composites Part A: applied science and manufacturing. 1999 Dec;30(12): 1445-1461.

[2] Hu JL. 3-D fibrous assemblies: properties, applications and modeling of three-dimensional textile structures. Cambridge (UK): Woodhead Pub. Ltd. in association with the Textile Institute; 2008. 7-8 p. [3]

Cherif C. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies - methods - materials – properties. Berlin: Springer; 2016. 188-189 p.

[4] Behera BK, Hari PK. Woven Textile Structure. Cambridge (UK): Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles; 2010. 3-8 p.

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[5] Chen X. Advances in 3D Textiles, Cambridge (UK): Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles; 2015. 104-130 p. [6] Chen X, Ma Y, Zhang H. CAD/CAM for cellular woven structures. The Journal of the Textile Institute. 2004 Jul;95(1-6):229–241. [7] Chen X, Sun Y, Gong X. Design, manufacture, and experimental analysis of 3D honeycomb textile composites, part I: design and manufacture. Textile Research Journal. 2008 Sep;78(9):771–781. [8] Chen X, Sun Y and Gong X. Design, manufacture, and experimental analysis of 3D honeycomb textile composites, part II: experimental analysis. Textile Research Journal. 2008 Nov;78(11):1011–1021. [9] Takenaka K, Eiji S. Patent No. US5021283 - Woven fabric having multilayer structure and composite material comprising the woven fabric. 1988. The paper presents a preliminary work on honeycomb woven structures for advanced composites, first presented at the 8th International Textile Conference, Tirana, Albania, on October 18-19, 2018. Experimental part of the study offered limited information. The paper presents a preliminary communication. Future research will produce more results on top of which an original scientific paper will be published.

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SIMONČIČ KN, A Contribution to Understanding the Textile Terminology ... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 120-128.

A Contribution to Understanding the Textile Terminology in the Dalmatian Area between 2 century BC and 9 century AD Katarina Nina SIMONČIČ University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Fashion Design, Croatia katarina.nina.simoncic@ttf.hr Professional review UDC 687.02(091) DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2018.vol1.iss3-4.p120-128.a12 Received 29 June 2018; Accepted 4 December 2018

ABSTRACT The study will focus on the terminology associated with textile production and weaving in Dalmatia between the 2 century BC and the 9 century AD. Terminology originating from different cultures, such as that of the Roman, proto-Slavic or Slavic territories exercised influence on the Dalmatian culture of that period. Rare artefacts will be used to show a timeline for how these elements have been assimilated in Dalmatia. With the arrival of South Slavs who migrated from the Carpathian Mountains in the 5 and 6 century, the tradition of weaving in Dalmatia takes on the most important characteristics. However it will also face a different fate in the following centuries due to its geographic position where elements of Western and Eastern cultures met and coexisted. Some elements continued to exist while others transformed and adjusted according to new influences during the middle Ages. The study will describe the heritage of different cultures in the textile culture of Dalmatia, with focus on terminology used for the threads, the old textile techniques and the textile tools for weaving. Thanks to the treasured traditional culture of handiwork in Dalmatia, this is a part of heritage that remains preserved even today. KEYWORDS Textile, weaving, textile tools, Dalmatia, terminology

INTRODUCTION The area that will be introduced in this study is Dalmatia (Province of Croatia), on the Adriatic Sea, its coastal areas in particular, as well as parts of the hinterland. It was a place where the wild plant Spanish broom or weaver’s broom (Spartium junceum L. Genista Lam juncea) grew well; wool was also cultivated. This study will focus on terminological aspects of weaving in Dalmatia between the 2 century BC and the 9 century AD. Textile artefacts from this period are very rare. Therefore, the sources are based on archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic and very early historical sources. Particular source category consists of stone monuments: a sculpture in space, reliefs on sarcophagi and steles, as well as fragments of public monuments. However, in this point it is necessary to emphasize the contribution of researcher from different field of science. Through their analysis, the textile culture was not primarily the subject of research but only fragmentary

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SIMONČIČ KN, A Contribution to Understanding the Textile Terminology ... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 120-128.

concerned. The traditional culture kept or better frozen the very important information about ornaments, technology and specific terminology through centuries. Due to ethnologists and their contributions, some of the assumptions, created as results of lack of material artifact from earlier periods, creating a potential for their confirmation. The contributions of this article are in the analyses of different approaches with goal to represent brief history of textile terminology and clothing forms in the Dalmatia Area between 2 century BC and 9 century AD. The territorial range of Dalmatia underwent extensive changes over the course of history. In certain historical periods, it even encompassed the neighbouring countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Albania; however, since the classical antiquity, the toponym has been preserved only on the present-day territory of Croatia. It was first mentioned in 8 BC when it was founded by the Roman emperor Augustus and given the name Dalmatia for the territory between the rivers Promina and Cetina, inhabited by the Illyrian tribe Delmatae, i.e. as a synonym for this part of the Illyricum, the Roman name for a larger territory settled by various Illyrian tribes. A unique culture was formed at the intersection of numerous migrations and trade routes, and it can be observed through three major periods: • The period from around 4 century BC to 2 century (the major contribution of Delmatae) • The period from around 1 century BC to 4 century AD (contribution of the Roman period) • The period from around 5 century AD to 9 century AD (contribution of southern Slavs)

THE PERIOD FROM AROUND 4 CENTURY BC TO 2 CENTURY AD The handicraft of textile in this part of the world can be traced back to early prehistoric periods. Wool and linen were the first raw materials that people in this region could use for producing textiles. At first they were used as they were found in nature. The fleece was plucked from the sheep before the invention of shears. By pressing and pounding, it was matted into felt that could be used from some items of clothing [1]. In the 2 century BC, Dalmatia was officially a part of the Roman Empire, in addition to the strong influence of the Roman culture already present in this area. There was also a highly developed tribal community of Delmatae, who had a strong anchorage since the mid of the 2 century BC in central Dalmatia - Salona. They appear from the 4 century BC and they consider themselves Illyrians in a broader sense. According to them, it is called the Roman province Dalmatia. The name of the Delmatae community contains the Illyrian basis Delme - which means for the sheep [2]. They were herders and they bred sheep for wool. The demonym for the community of Delmatae was the basis for the term dalmatica, a name for a tunic with long sleeves (tunica manicata) for both genders, bell cut, without belt with ribbons. The Illyrians also wore it. Delmatae, the indigenous population of Dalmatia, separated themselves from the Roman population in urban cities of Salona and Narona, which accepted dalmatica only from the third century [2]. The tribal community of Delmatae was located in the wider area of ​​Salona, on the western Herzegovina, between the Krka River and the Neretva River. They were familiar with a vertical flat, as evidenced by the finding of stone and clay weights from the 4 century BC onwards. A particularly nice example of fabric from this culture is now exposed in the Archaeological Museum in Livno (Picture 1) [1]. Found in the funerary tumulus in Kupreško polje at the beginning of the 1980s, the fabric was used as the wrap for a dead body in a contracted position. The body was placed on a wooden sled. The finding of the unique wool fabric was woven from undyed woollen fibres, probably from domesticated Balkan mouflon (Ovis orientalis orientalis group), a subspecies group of the wild sheep (Ovis orientalis). This is one of the earliest finds in Europe dating from the Late Neolithic. Different weaving techniques were identified on the shroud, forming the

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main part of the fabric a wide border, and a narrower selvage, along with a decorative interlace. The fabric was of good quality, suggesting that at this early date the wool was already being combed to isolate the best fibres, from which yarn was produced. A large portable wooden frame loom with crossbeams was then used to weave the textiles. It was made of pure, high quality sheep′s wool, which was probably plucked and not shorn. It is woven in a thick, cross weave, plain weave, with a thicker selvedge along the edge, woven with two threads in the weft. The dimensions are 300 X 170 cm.

Picture 1. Wool fabric found in the funerary tumulus in Kupreško polje, from the late Neolithic period, Archaeological Museum in Livno (photo K.N. Simončič)

The found fabric is approximately 3500 years old [1]. It was made on a type of an upright loom in the shape of the frame with a warp held tight by clay or stone weights [4]. Reconstruction of this loom from Bronze Age was first presented in the exhibition “The Wonder of Weaving” in Zagreb in 1988, while the last reconstructed example of loom was made for permanent exhibition in the Franciscan Museum and Gallery Gorica Livno [3]. Trampuž Orel explained that the warp in this period is till quite short, but is has already been divided into two layers [4]. However, recent studies of experts in the field of technology give us an important new insight about loom. According to them, wool fabric found in the funerary tumulus in Kupreško polje was made on the upright loom without stone weights. Perhaps we could consider this shroud a proto-form for the straight woollen cloak that was called struka, still an essential part of the wardrobe in the Dinaric area (a part of Dalmatia) for both men and women, especially as dress for shepherds [1, 5, 6, 7]. The similarity lies in the raw material of dark, undyed wool, similar shape, and partially in the similarity of the fabric structure. This remarkable archaeological find is the earliest textile item apparel preserved over the centuries from the life of sheepherding and livestock care typical to that region.

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Delmatae and Illyrian tribes of this area in general were the carriers of weaving techniques that could not be labelled as elementary (canvas weaving), but as slantwise cross (kober) weave by Gavazzi. It was especially present in aprons with rhombus patterned cross in the upper part. This typical weaving technique (as well as samples) belongs to the Hallstatt era [8]. Therefore, the other elementary piece of clothing in the Dalmatian area that could be made in the simplest loom was a woollen apron. Differently coloured threads were drawn through the taut threads of the warp by finger or with wooden shuttle creating a colourful weft. This kind of weaving is called klječano, iverano na prste (ground, tapestry of finger weaving) [1] and was kept through centuries due to nurturing traditional culture. For the Delmatae and Illyrians in general, there was also a typical conical headgear, mentioned by Srđana Schönauer in her study (2000), together with its display on the stele named “Gurdunska tropeja” today preserved in Archaeological Museum of Split [9]. According to the Croatian archaeologist Nenad Cambi, an imprisoned Delmata is portrayed wearing a conical fur cap, i.e. an ushanka with earflaps, which represents an indigenous garment for the Delmatae, as well as the Illyrians (Picture 2) [10].

Picture 2. Gurdunska tropeja, around 1th century AD, Archaeological Museum of Split

Therefore, we can assume the Delmatae were communities that had a developed culture of weaving, and their accommodation in the area of Salona – the capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia – led to the subsequent development of the city in the direction of textile production.

THE PERIOD FROM AROUND 1 CENTURY BC TO 4 CENTURY AD In Salona and its surroundings, there were imperial workshops for purple dye, workshops for colouring textile raw materials and finished textiles baphium, weaving workshop gynaecium and cloth-weaving workshop officinae fullonum [11, 1]. Along with Salona as a Dalmatian metropolis and one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire, Narona is also considered one of the most important ancient cities on the east coast of the www.textile-leather.com 123


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Adriatic. It was granted the status of a Roman colony. Life in Narona as well as the other provincial territories of Dalmatia ceased in the course of the 7 century1. Weaving was also a household practice, so there were common displays of weaving supplies on steles from the 1 to 3 century AD, like the stele with a frieze of women’s accessories in Salona from the 1 century AD (Picture 3), also noted in Srđana Schönauer’s study and today preserved in Archaeological Museum of Split [9].

Picture 3. Stela with a frieze of women’s accessories, Salona from 1st century AD, Archaeological Museum of Split

The frieze consists of 13 items, interesting to us because of baskets for handwork for raw wool, spindle fusus, for winding twisted wool with weight vertivillus or turbo, which tightened at the bottom and accelerated rotation. In Dalmatia, this form has remained unchanged until today [9]. Another stele from Salona, named “Mala stela Elije Aleksandrije” (The Little Stele of Eglia Alexandria) (Picture 4) from the turn of the 2 to the 3 century testifies to the presence of dalmatica.

1

The notion of antique Dalmatia was common until the 7 century. The emperor Theodosius I, also known as Theodosius the Great, divided the Roman Empire into western and eastern part in 395 AD. Dalmatia remained in the western half of the Empire, which would later have far-reaching consequences in channelling the development of this province towards western civilization. Liburnia with its centre in Zadar would always bear significant importance in Dalmatia; its name would still be mentioned in the later periods during the reign of Croatian national leaders from the beginning of the 9 century AD.

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Picture 4. The Little Stele of Eglia Alexandria from the end of 2nd and beginning of 3th century AD, Archaeological Museum of Split

Schouenauer considers the female character in the picture to be wearing simple linen or woollen dalmatica without the clavi ornaments, whereas segmenta ornaments are possibly present on the lower part of the garment which is not displayed. According to Schoenauer, dalmatica was commonly worn across the Roman Empire, with records of manufactures for its production in Laodicea, Tarsa and Byblos Scitopolui Alexandria. From the Diocletian’s Edict on Prices dated 301 AD, we learn of the different versions of the dalmatica: made of linen, wool, half silk, silk, with or without clavi and segmenta ornaments [12, 13]. In the chapter XVII of this the Edict, there are records of both men’s and women’s dalmaticas, classified by quality and the dimensions of the fabric, with their prices ranging significantly from the most expensive woollen ones to the cheapest and simplest women’s garments made of linen. From another document titled Notitia Dignatum, dated c. 100 years later, we learn that the northern part of Diocletian’s Palace, i.e. present-day Split, was converted into workshops where women wove wool cloth for military supplies [1, 13]. The wool used to manufacture these clothes was obviously obtained from the provincial territory. The Romans were familiar with the upright loom with the warp, described in detail by Ovid in the story of Arachne and it was introduced in the area of ​​Dalmatia during the first century [14]. Radauš Ribarić discovered the reflection of the Roman period in woven blankets such as are still used as ceremonial bed cover in the villages of northeastern Pannonia. The artistic component on them reflects many features of Roman mosaic, and could also be recognized in the traditional production of woolen blankets in the beginning of the 20th century in the Dalmatian hinterland [15]. We can trace textile production during Roman period through certain terms. www.textile-leather.com 125


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The term rakno for woollen cloth comes from the Latin word rachana, and stomanja, a word for shirt in Dalmatia comes from the Latin word stamina, which means both the warp itself, and fine woollen fabric [16, 17]. The wool used for the manufacture of garments in the coastal Dalmatia was mainly purchased from domestic tribes inhabiting the hinterland, although the coastal population also owned sheep flocks shepherded by slaves. The wool obtained from these flocks was used to manufacture woolen clothes such as stomanje, which rivaled with somewhat coarser wool from Gaul.

THE PERIOD FROM AROUND 5 CENTURY AD TO 9 CENTURY AD But the most important wave that marked this area and the culture of weaving happened at 5 and 6 century AD with arrival of the Slavs. Culture heritage, which southern Slavs brought with them from their original homeland in the north, probably somewhere beyond the Carpathian Mountains, here in southeast Europe has experienced a different fate2. Some words from the common Slavic language treasures are found only in one part of the South Slav area, while elsewhere they do not exist. Old Slavic terminology can serve as the most convincing evidence of the suppression of old customs of indigenous people. Weaver’s art was so extraordinarily developed and maintained thanks to the socio-economic formations of South Slavic farms – zadruga (old parents living with married sons and their children, to up to four generations: a common economy, the male elders, conclusions were adopted by the family council which consisted of older men) [8]. The Slavs in Dalmatia were familiar with the technics of cultivating flax and hemp. Pulling out of the soil, the separation of seeds and roots of these plants, soaking in rettery, drying, friction in pillar or mallet with boon, cleaning and carding, bending cleaned yarn in hank (povjesmo), still spinning, or rewinding threads, beaming and weaving, tool for winding spun thread with the spindle - the motovilo, term blizna – label for error in weaving3, distaff (preslica) in the form of a cone. The nouns for loom (stan, stativa, krosna), were used by the Slavs in the original proto-Slavic community and they existed also in the Dalmatian area. The immediate predecessor of the horizontal loom was the weaving grid, dašćica (board), also called the brdo, a wooden contrivance quipped with grooves and holes [18]. The odd and even threads were guided through them, and held horizontally strung when working. By raising and lowering the contrivance, a shed was created through which the shuttle could be moved. The length of the piece of sloth could be extended by winding the finished fabric on two cylinders, which means that this contrivance indeed had the basic contours of a horizontal loom [19]. Then there was a simple loom in the form of a wooden grid (tkanje na dašticu [19]) for weaving narrow straps or a similar loom used for weaving ribbons or belts with the help of a series of small rectangular wooden plates with four holes on the angles. The preserved names for garments include the term opleće (woman’s blouse), and a garb-rug named struke [5]. Specific Slavic terms and nomenclature that was used were accepted in spinning and weaving. In Dalmatia, čiznica or čismenica is the smallest unit of three threads (from čitati, to read, means to count). Pasmo – In Dalmatia, it consists of ten čismenica (30 threads). This measure is used to measure the warp (especially in

There are only few contemporary sources in the immigration of Croats. In his work De administrando imperio (On the Governance of the Empire), the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus noted that the Croats were moved to Galicia in the 7 century at the order of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius, to serve as a protection from the Avars. In the era of the medieval Kingdom of Croatia, the following peoples were settled in Dalmatia: the indigenous Romanized population (the Illyrians), Slavic immigrants, Croats and the ruling class (dynasty) of the Croatian kingdom. 3 In case of a broken thread in the warp, the weaver does not mend it, but leaves the error in the fabric – common practice with the Ukrainians, Belarusians, South Slavs, also familiar on the Dalmatian territory as concluded Gavazzi [4]. 2

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the process of beaming) [20]. These examples prove that this way of counting has come down to us from proto-Slavic community, and it reflects remnants of the Babylonian sexagesimal system4, combined with the proto-Indo-European decimal system [5]. Firstly canvas – cloth (platno) was produced as a means of payment, and then as a common technique of weaving fabrics. The fact that the Slavic term platno (cloth) had purchasing power, like furs among Dalmatians as an exchange in the later form of goods for goods trade, with an accepted value, is confirmed by the term platiti which means “to pay” [8].

CONCLUSION Based on a brief historical overview of textile terminology and production on Dalmatian territory, we can assume that weaving skills and the manufacture of specific garments had reached a significant level in the transitional period from the Neolithic Era to the Bronze Age. Analyses from different field of science, where textile culture was not primarily the subject of research, contributed to knowledge of textile terminology and clothing forms. The data on the intensive manufacture within the Diocletian Palace in the period of the Late Roman Empire, as presented by Bulić and Karaman, indicate the existence of not only household weaving practices for personal purposes but also of organised weaving activities in urban centres as a specific form of a female semi-professional work on Dalmatian territory of that time. Analyses of traditional Slavic ornament and Roman mosaics made by Radauš Ribarić support the theory of important impact of Roman Era in Dalmatian artistic textile heritage. By the mid 3 century, the Roman Empire had already started facing ever-growing tribulations, weakened by internal distress and incessant threats to its borders by the barbarian tribes. The strength of the empire would continue to decline over the following three centuries. By that time, the onset of the 6 century, the Slavs would already be present on the territory of Dalmatia, having mastered the weaving skills. The indigenous inhabitants of Dalmatia were widely Slavenized, whereas the cultural heritage of the indigenous and the new immigrant population would begin to overlap and become intertwined.

Sexagesimal number system of counting threads with units of three threads.

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REFERENCES [1] Radauš Ribarić J. O tekstilnom rukotvorstvu na tlu Jugoslavije kroz vjekove. In: Radauš Ribarić J, Rihtman Auguštin D, editors, Čarolija niti, Vještina narodnog tkanina u Jugoslaviji. Zagreb: MGC; 1988. p. 13-25. [2] Gušić B. Čovjek i kras, Krš Jugoslavije. Zagreb: 1957. [3] Marić Baković M, Car G. Konzervatorski – restauratorski radovi i rezultati najnovijih analiza na tekstilnom plaštu iz prapovijesnoga zemljeanog tumula br. 16, Pustopolje, Kupres. In: Gelo J, editor, Cleuna - Časopis Franjevačkoga muzeja i galerije Gorica — Livno. Livno: Franjevački muzej i galerija Gorica; 2014. p. 30-47. [4] M Trampuž–Orel N. Bronasta doba na Slovenskom. Ljubljana: Narodni muzej; 1987. [5] Gavazzi M. Sudbina stareslavenske baštine kod Južnih Slavena. Zagreb: Bibliotek EDJ; 1959. [6] Tomić P. Struka kao deo narodne nošnje. In: Zbornik Etnografskog muzeja u Beogradu. Beograd: 1953. p. 1901-1951. [7] Čremošnik I. Nošnja na rimskim spomenicima u BiH. In: Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja u Sarajevu (Arheologija) 18. Sarajevo: 1963. p. 103-125. [8] Gavazzi M. Kulturno nasljeđe Južnih Slavena u svjetlu etnologije. In: Vrela i sudbine narodnih tradicija. Zagreb: 1978. p. 57-75. [9] Schönauer S. Odjeća, obuća i nakit u antičkoj Dalmaciji na spomenicima iz Arheološkog muzeja u Splitu. In: Vjesnik za arheologiju i historiju dalmatinsku 93. Split: 2000. p. 223-515. [10] Cambi N. Gardunski tropej. In: Cetinska krajina od prethistorije do dolaska Turaka. Split: 1984. p. 77-92. [11] MacGeorge P. Late Roman Warloads. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2002. [12] Cambi N, Belamarić J, Marasović T. Dioklecijan, Tetrahija i Dioklecijanova palače. Split: Književni krug; 2009. [13] Bulić F, Karaman Lj. Palača cara Dioklecijana u Splitu. Lepzig: 1927. [14] Rostovtzeff M. Gesellschaft und Wirtschaft im Römischen Kaiserreich. Zagreb: Matica hrvatska; 1929. [15] Radauš Ribarić J. Likovni elementi likovnih pokrivača panonskog područja i antikni mozak. In: Petrić M, editor. Etnološka istraživanja, 1. Zagreb: Etnografski muzej; 1981. p. 14-35. [16] Petrović Đ. Prilog proučavanju kulturnog kontinuiteta u materijalnoj kulturi jadranskog područja. In: Prilozi povijest umjetnosti u Dalmaciji. Fiskovićev zbornik I. Split: 1980. [17] Ribarić J. Stomanja – košulja u istarskoj narodnoj nošnji. Zagreb: 1962. [18] Eckhel N. Uzgoj i obrada tekstilnih sirovina i proizvodnja tekstila. In: Radauš Ribarić J, Rihtman Auguštin D, editors, Čarolija niti, Vještina narodnog tkanina u Jugoslaviji. Zagreb: MGC; 1988. p. 13-25. In: Jelka Radauš Ribarić, Dunja Rihtman Auguštin (ed.), Čarolija niti, Vještina narodnog tkanina u Jugoslaviji, 25-40. MGC. Zagreb. 1988 [19] Gavazzi M. Praslavenski tkalački stan I tkalačka daštica. In: Zbornik za narodni život i običaje južnish Slavena 26. Zagreb: Jugoslavenska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti; 1928. p. 1-31. [20] Gavazzi M. Slavenske mjere prema seksagezimalnom sitemu. In: “Slavia”, časopis za slavensku filologiju. Prag; 1925. p. 655-672.

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KAZANI I, Balkan Society of Textile Engineers TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 129-130.

Balkan Society of Textile Engineers Ilda KAZANI Polytechnic University of Tirana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Textile & Fashion, Albania ikazani@fim.edu.al Notice

In the summer of 2018, the Balkan Society of Textile Engineers (known as BASTE) has been established. It reflects the will of the communities of the textile engineers in the Balkan countries to strengthen and enhance their cooperation. In the last decades, the Tempus, and more recently, the Erasmus+ programmes have greatly supported the mobility of the academic personnel. In our discipline, it brought together textile researchers and allowed them to start cooperation and common activities. The result of this approach is the establishment of BASTE. BASTE is a scientific organization aiming to promote textile and clothing engineering and support and foster communication, collaboration, cooperation, and networking between its members. BASTE obtains its objectives through the organization of events such as conferences, congresses, workshops, courses, etc. In addition, BASTE supports the publication of journals, books, etc., for the dissemination of scientific knowledge and the communication between its members. BASTE encourages scientific cooperation and the organization of joint research projects between its members. BASTE operates on a volunteer basis and it has a decentralised structure: a local group exists under the coordination of the Local Secretary in every Balkan country. The current Local Secretary is the founding member of BASTE acting as the contact person. The contact persons in each Balkan country are as follows: Country

Founding member

Email

Albania

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ilda Kazani

ikazani@fim.edu.al

Bosnia & Herzegovina

Prof. Dr. Isak Karabegović

isak1910@hotmail.com

Bulgaria

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zlatina Kazlacheva

z_kazlacheva@abv.bg

Croatia

Prof. Dr. Ana Maria Grancaric

ana.marija.grancaric@ttf.hr

Greece

Prof. Dr. Savvas Vassiliadis

svas@uniwa.gr

Macedonia (FYR)

Prof. Dr. Kiril Lisichkov

klisickov@yahoo.com

Montenegro

To be defined

Romania

Prof. Dr. Mirela Blaga

mblaga@tex.tuiasi.ro

Serbia

Prof. Dr. Dragan Jocic

drjoc@tmf.bg.ac.rs

Slovenia

Prof. Dr. Andrej Demsar

andrej.demsar@ntf.uni-lj.si

Turkey

Prof. Dr. Arzu Marmarali

arzu.marmarali@ege.edu.tr

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Any person involved in the textile research field with at least three Scopus indexed publications is encouraged to contact the Local Secretary and to apply for BASTE membership. No fees or any other financial obligations are stipulated in BASTE statutes. After successful application, the name of the new member appears in the lists of BASTE. More information can be found on BASTE website: https://sites.google.com/view/baste/home

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GRANCARIĆ A, TOPIĆ I, K4Footwear – Knowledge4Innovation TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 131-134.

K4Footwear – Knowledge4Innovation Ana-Marija GRANCARIĆ*, Irena TOPIĆ University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia *ana.marija.grancaric@ttf.hr Notice

K4Footwear was in the high education group of projects (HE) under the general name Knowledge4Innovation and label KA2-Strategical partnership for high education (AGREEMENT NO. 2015-1-RO01-KA203-015198). The project lasted from 2015 until 2018. The aim of the project was to combine training and education for design, product development, engineering and management by connecting the three areas of the knowledge triangle: education, research, and business. The general contribution of the project is innovation in the footwear production by transferring knowledge between three European universities as well as the promotion of European excellence and high quality in higher education. The Romanian National Agency for the EU ranked the K4F project among the top three “good-practice” projects “ in the ERASMUS + project group over the past 30 years. The project manager in charge of entire project was Professor Aura Mihai (TU Iasi, RO), the Croatian project manager was Professor Ana Marija Grancarić (TTF, Zagreb, HR), the Greek project manager was Professor Nikolaos Bilalis (PUES, Chania, GR). The Project partners were: TUIASI – Universitatea Tehnica Gheorghe Asachi Din Iasi (Romania), CEC – European Confederation Of The Footwear Industry (Belgium), Virtual Campus Lda (Portugal), Inescop – Instituto Tecnologico Del Calzado Y Conexas (Spain), CTCP- Centro Tecnologico De Calcado De Portugal (Portugal), University of Zagreb – Faculty Of Textile Technology (TTF, Croatia), The Research Committee of The Technical University Of Crete (Greece), INCDTP – Institutul National De Cercetare-Dezvoltare Pentru Textile Si Pielarie (Romania), CRE.THI.DEV- Creative Thinking Development (Greece). www.textile-leather.com 131


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The project introduced innovative tools for the adaptation and updating of higher education curricula for managers, designers, and engineers. The goal of the project was the achievement of greater creativity, innovation, and high performance in the European footwear manufacturing and related sectors. The specific objectives of the project were: development of active collaboration among universities, business communities and research centres to assess the skills needed for innovation and technological transfer; to design, test, and implement a common curriculum for virtual internships and the related e-learning content which incorporates a creative thinking and problem-solving approach; to set up a Knowledge Platform that facilitates the transfer of innovation in footwear manufacturing by simulating the development stages of the research projects. The target groups were students enrolled in higher education and top and middle management in footwear companies (managers, designers, engineers and technicians). Ann online platform was developed in the first phase of the project containing modules with lectures made by researchers, professors and professionals from partner institutions. The online platform operated as area where students could follow online courses with the possibility of contacting lecturers at any time, and could exchange information and knowledge with other students involved. The platform was launched in 2017. In the first phase of the training program, in November 2017, 60 students from TUI Iasi (RO), TTF (HR), and PUAS (GR) enrolled in two on-line training modules: Creativity and Innovation for Research in the Footwear Industry and Technological Transfer in Footwear Production. After completing the modules, students took online tests on the platform. Based on the online test results, some students were chosen for the second phase of training and 10 multinational teams were formed (from Romania, Croatia and Greece). In the second phase, from January until March 2018, ten international student teams participated in on-line training in project design for research and innovation in footwear production. Each team elaborated and submitted a project proposal for research and innovation needs in small and medium-sized businesses from partner countries (RO, GR, ES, PT and HR) based on topics selected by footwear manufacturers. Each project proposal was evaluated by experts and 5 teams were given awards. On selected projects: 1. Redesigning high-heels for 3D printing: midsoles and materials Team leader: Evi Sovatzidi Members: Eleni Kokkinaki, Barbara Radenica, Loufardaki Ammarilis The idea is to add a 3D printed TPU materials midsoles (thermoplastic polyurethane) customized to ease the pressure or evenly distribute the load on soft part of the feet avoiding the use of customizable and detachable soles that had already been tested. 2.

ALL-IN-ONE-shoes with changeable upper and sole Team leader: Zrinka Tomašić Members: Danica Habulan, Laura Elena Cojocaru, Florin Ciocoiu The idea is to design footwear that can be upgraded, e.g. if it is sunny and suddenly starts raining, simply remove the sandals’ upper and put on a shoe or an ankle boot upper to protect the feet from rain, moisture, etc. The customer decides what kind of shoes he wants and can change the upper, the sole, the colour, the design, and the material.

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Figure 1. K4Footwear students from TU (Iasi, RO), PAUS (Chania, GR) and UNIZG TTF (Zagreb, HR), in Athens, May 2018

3.

Multifunctional insole to prolong active and healthy life for pregnant woman Team leader: Mia Makšan Members: Maria Antoniou, Anna Maria Ciulei, Matej Šišić In shoe 1, there are two layers of magnets that create a magnetic field which reduces vibrations in walking and make it as comfortable as possible. In shoe 2, a high-quality foam layer and a layer of “climatic” condition are used. The latter helps the feet to breathe and can be modified by the user. This footwear should be made of natural leather which would allow flexibility when the foot spreads.

4.

Modular shoes with adjustable size Team leader: Theodoros Marionpoulos Members: Ida Leskošek, Yolanda Blazquez Lopez Designed for children whose feet are growing. Variable size footwear would solve the problem of constantly searching and purchasing appropriate footwear and thus help the parents. Variable size footwear is modular.

5.

Applying bio-inspiration and bio-mimetic design to the development of the footwear concept Team leader: Alexandra Vlad Members: Palmada Christina, Dora Hranilović, Paula-Elena Prutan, George Beladakis, Andreea Croitoru Footwear that changes colour and image with a LED display on one part of the shoe while the other is made of pineapple leather. The LED screen changes using the smart phone app. The goal is to make a novelty in footwear to eliminate the no need for buying more shoes. In addition, such footwear should be comfortable and aesthetically attractive as well as interesting and unique with the help of new technologies.

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Rewarded teams had the opportunity to participate in the Intensive training program organised by P1Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi (TUIAISI) and P9 Creative Thinking Development (CRETHIDEV) in Athens, Greece. The programme aimed to provide participants with conceptual frames (lectures) and practical tools (workshops) in order to equip the trainees with entrepreneurial, team work, and creative thinking skills. 16 students/trainees from three different countries (Romania, Croatia and Greece) participated in the Intensive training program for higher education learners held in Athens form 22 until 28 April 2018. They participated in lectures and workshops held by 15 lecturers (11 teachers and trainers and 4 representatives of footwear companies). The intensive training program was an opportunity for the students to gain new knowledge during lectures and workshops and to present their project in an international environment, initially communicating on the platform with colleagues speaking different languages, exchanging ideas and knowledge; and afterwards meeting in person for the first time and immediately presenting their work in front of experts. While presenting at lectures and practical workshops, the students faced various situations and scenarios as they would in a real business environment. The five days of training in Athens included visiting footwear factories as well. The outcome of the intensive program for the students is gaining knowledge and skills to transform innovative ideas into start-up businesses in the footwear sector. The projects had 5 outputs or results (detailed on the project website: http://knowledge4foot.eu) Output 1: Mapping the knowledge triangle for research and innovation transfer in footwear manufacturing; Output 2: Training programme and e-learning content for research and innovation transfer; Output 3: Multimedia handbook for project-based training and virtual placement of HE students and trainees from SMEs; Output 4: Knowledge4Foot Platform for Transferring Research and Innovation in Footwear Manufacturing; Output 5: Entrepreneurial thinking in footwear manufacturing – Book of lectures of the Intensive Summer Training Course. The final conference of the Knowledge4Foot project had the aim of presenting the project results and outputs, as well the experiences and good practice of implementing this project. This event took place on July 11, in Bucharest and was organised by INCDTP – Institutul National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare pentruTextile si Pielarie. It targeted professionals in the footwear industry, students, and experts in higher education and professional training.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 135-138.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS EDITING YOUR MANUSCRIPT Please use our template to edit your article before submitting for review. • Volume of a manuscript should not exceed 10.000 words, without Tables, Figures and Images. • Title of a manuscript should not exceed 15 words. • Full names and surnames of the authors, as well as full names of the author’s affiliation – university, institute, company, department, town and country should be clearly given. Corresponding author should be indicated, and their e-mail address provided. • Abstract of a manuscript should be no longer than 250 words. • Keywords should contain 3-7 items. • SI units should be used throughout. • Abbreviations should be used according to IUPAC and ISO standards and defined when first used. • Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, they should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and appended at the end of the manuscript. • References should be cited using Arabic numbers in square brackets,  according to the Vancouver referencing style. Please use our Quick Reference Guide (or look at the next page) • Figures and illustrations with a title and legend should be numbered consecutively (with Arabic numerals) and must be referred in the text. Images should be numbered as Figures. Additionally, Figures should be supplied as a separate file saved as jpg or tif at 300 dpi minimum. Type size in the description of axes should be proportional to the size of the Figure. • Tables with a title and optional legend should be numbered consecutively and must be referred in the text. • Acknowledgements may be included and should be placed after Conclusions and before References.

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Conference paper is the work presented at a professional conference organized on local, regional or state level. It will be published if it has not been published in full in Proceedings, as a report, a study etc. Professional paper deals with the issues in the profession. It gives professional instructions and suggestions for how to solve the issue (technique, technology, methodology). Professional review is a complete review of a professional issue (technique, technology, methodology) based on already published work indicating the best ways for solving the issue. The papers that are not categorized include: Presentation and communication from practical experience deals with solving the problem of particular laboratory, institution or industry and serve to inform interested parties of the solution applied. Position paper is an essay that presents an arguable opinion about an issue. Commentary is paper connected with actual news and condition in science and textile/clothing industry.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 135-138.

In-text citation examples The in-text citation is placed immediately after the text which refers to the source being cited: ...and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1] Including page numbers with in-text citations: Page numbers are not usually included with the citation number. However should you wish to specify the page number of the source the page/s should be included in the following format: …and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1 p23] Hearle [1 p16-18] has argued that... Citing more than one reference at a time: The preferred method is to list each reference number separated by a comma, or by a dash for a sequence of consecutive numbers. There should be no spaces between commas or dashes For example: [1,5,6-8] Reference List • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper • Begin your reference list on a new page and title it References • The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text • Use Arabic numerals [1], [2], [3], … • Full journal titles are prefered • Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source when you cite it Scholarly journal articles • Enter author’s surname followed by no more than 2 initials (full stop) • If more than 1 author: give all authors’ names and separate each by a comma and a space • For articles with 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. For articles with more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors then add ‘et al.’ • Only the first word of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalized. • Use Full journal titles • Follow the date with a semi-colon; • Abbreviate months to their first 3 letters (no full stop) • Give the volume number (no space) followed by issue number in brackets • If the journal has continuous page numbering through its volumes, omit month/issue number. • Page numbers, eg: 123-129. Digital Object Identification (DOI) and URLs The digital object identifier (DOI) should be provided in the reference where it is available. Use the form as it appears in your source. Print journal article – Ferri L de, Lorenzi A, Carcano E, Draghi L. Silk fabrics modification by sol-gel method. Textile Research Journal. 2018 Jan;88(1):99-107. ▪ Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of article. Title of journal. Date of publication YYYY Mon DD;volume number(issue number):page numbers.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (3-4) 2018 135-138.

Electronic journal article – Niculescu O, Deselnicu DC, Georgescu M, Nituica M. Finishing product for improving antifugal properties of leather. Leather and Footwear Journal [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Apr 22];17(1):31-38. Available from: http://revistapielarieincaltaminte.ro/revistapielarieincaltaminteresurse/en/ fisiere/full/vol17 -nr1/article4_vol17_issue1.pdf ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Title of Journal [Internet]. Date of publication YYYY MM [cited YYYY Mon DD];volume number(issue number):page numbers. Available from: URL Book – Hu J. Structure and mechanics of woven fabrics. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2004. 61 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of book. # edition [if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination. Edited book - Sun G, editor. Antimicrobial Textiles. Duxford: Woodhead Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier; 2016. 99 p. ▪ Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. # edition[if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year. Pagination. Chapter in a book - Luximon A, editor. Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2013. Chapter 5, Foot problems and their implications for footwear design; p. [90-114]. ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; p. [page numbers of chapter]. Electronic book – Strasser J. Bangladesh’s Leather Industry: Local Production Networks in the Global Economy [Internet]. s.l.: Springer International Publishing; 2015 [cited 2017 Feb 07]. 96 p. Available from: https://link. springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-22548-7 ▪ Author AA. Title of web page [Internet]. Place of Publication: Sponsor of Website/Publisher; Year published [cited YYYY Mon DD]. Number of pages. Available from: URL DOI: (if available) Conference paper – Ferreira NG, Nobrega LCO, Held MSB. The need of Fashion Accessories. In: Mijović B. editor. Innovative textile for high future demands. Proceedings 12th World Textile Conference AUTEX; 13-15 June 2012; Zadar, Croatia. Zagreb: Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb; 2012. p. 1253-1257. ▪ Author AA. Title of paper. In: Editor AA, editor. Title of book. Proceedings of the Title of the Conference; Date of conference; Place of Conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of Publication. p. page numbers. Thesis/dissertation – Sujeevini J. Studies on the hydro-thermal and viscoelastic properties of leather [dissertation]. Leicester: University of Leicester; 2004. 144 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Number of pages Electronic thesis/dissertation – Covington AD. Studies in leather science [dissertation on the internet]. Northampton: University of Northampton; 2010. [cited 2017 Jan 09]. Available from: http://ethos.bl.uk/ OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.579666 ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [cited YYYY abb. month DD]. Available from: URL This quick reference guide is based on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). Please consult this source directly for additional information or examples.

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Textile leather rewiev 3-4 2018  

Textile leather rewiev 3-4 2018  

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