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1/2019 Volume 2 Issue 1 2019 textile-leather.com ISSN 2623-6257 (Print) ISSN 2623-6281 (Online)
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Textile & Leather Review ‒ ISSN 2623-6257 (Print), ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) UDC 677+675 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR Frequency: 4 Times/Year The annual subscription (4 issues). Printed in 300 copies Published by Seniko studio d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia Full-text available in open access at www.textile-leather.com
TEXTILE & LEATHER REVIEW ISSN 2623-6257 (Print)
ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) CROATIA
ISSUE 1 2019
CONTENT ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE 6-14
Analysis of 3-D body measurements to determine trousers sizes of military combat clothing Ada Traumann, Teele Peets, Inga Dabolina, Eva Lapkovska
Resistivity behavior of leather after electro-conductive treatment Aulon Shabani, Majlinda Hylli, Ilda Kazani, Pellumb Berberi
Customizations of women bullet-proof jacket through 3D design process Mulat Alubel Abtew, Pascal Bruniaux, François Boussu
SCIENTIFIC REVIEW 32-45
Overview and perspective of nonwoven agrotextile Paula Marasovic, Dragana Kopitar
PROFESSIONAL REVIEW 46-52
Alternative methods for Salt free / Less salt short term preservation of hides and skins in leather making for sustainable development – A review Venkatasubramanian Sivakumar, Resmi Mohan, Chellappa Muralidharan
NOTICE 53-54 55
12th International Conference TZG 2019 - Textile Science and Economy 2019 FrenchCroatian Forum The Autumn-Winter Collection 2019/2020 of footwear, accessories and related products
S H O E . C O M G M B H & C O . K G · F E R E N C V A S A D I · P H O N E : + 3 6 ( 0 ) 3 0 9 4 6 9 12 3 · F E R E N C . V A S A D I @ S O L I V E R - S H O E S . C O M
TRAUMANN A et al. Analysis of 3-D body measurements to determine trousers ... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 6-14.
Analysis of 3-D body measurements to determine trousers sizes of military combat clothing Ada TRAUMANN1*, Teele PEETS1, Inga DABOLINA2, Eva LAPKOVSKA2 TTK University of Applied Sciences, Tallinn, Estonia *firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia 1
Original scientific article UDC 687.021+687.152 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.2 Received 23 October 2018; Accepted 15 January 2019; Published Online 15 January 2019; Published 8 March 2019
ABSTRACT The aim of this paper was to analyse several measurements of soldiers to provide a reference for trousers sizes of military combat clothing. For sizing and fitting of military clothing, information on the body measurements of the user population is a precondition. More than 400 soldiers in the Estonian and Latvian Defence Forces as well as the military personnel were measured using Human Solution 3-D scanner. It focused on collating basic human body measurement data for the revision of size charts by STANAG 2335. Fit and comfort of trousers mainly relate to the following measurements: waist girth, leg inseam, leg length, and waistband. Present parameters play a significant role in the quality of trousers to ensure the wearerâ€™s mobility in all situations particularly concerning the activities of soldiers. Correlating measurements and existing sizing systems are made to offer recommendations for manufacturers. In addition, this paper helps to provide sizing and fitting criteria of military combat clothing to STANREC document compiled by NATO RTO HFM-266 Group. KEYWORDS 3-D body measurements, waist girth, leg inseam, leg length, military combat clothing
INTRODUCTION In the present study, a three-dimensional (3-D) scanner was used to capture the body contour of male military personnel and soldiers to provide different inputs. For example, for logistical purposes such as inventory management, for production purpose such as producing the required volume, and for ergonomic design. Body scans enable a wide variety of measurement possibilities with more precision than those taken with a tape measure. They are quicker and less intrusive and thus more reliable. Body scanning technology enables the collection of approximately 300.000 data points as xyz coordinates that can be used to calculate circumferences, cross-sectional slice areas, surface areas, and volumes. Compared to one-dimensional measurements, a more complete set of indicators are available to quantitatively address problems of garment fit . According to previous studies, the satisfaction with the fit of special clothing is very important. However, it has not been achieved. People need to perform different actions and body positions during daily activities such as lying or kneeling, climbing, crouching, etc. Thisis why it is important that clothing does not block any necessary movements or activities.
TRAUMANN A et al. Analysis of 3-D body measurements to determine trousers ... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 6-14.
Under extreme circumstances, garments can become critically important determinants of the safety and performance of the design. For example, loose industrial clothing can be caught in machinery and cause accidents . A previous study on firefighters’ clothing outlines the problems of both the trousers and the coat. The satisfaction with the fit of trousers among female and male firefighters was studied. Female firefighters scored significantly lower in satisfaction with the crotch while walking and in case of extreme limb movements . More than 10% of participants of the survey reported that the crotch is too low and bulky which causes impaired mobility in lower body for many job-related tasks such as ladder operations, walking, and climbing. The NATO work group HFM-RTG-266 is working on the project „3D Scanning for Clothing Fit and Logistics” drawing up the STANREC document for the sizing and fitting of military combat clothing. It states that a good fit is the result of a good match between body shape and size and product shape and size. Movement restrictions may occur when the fit is too tight and snagging hazards may occur when the fit is too loose. Inadequate fit is not only related to discomfort but may also affect the effectiveness of military operations. Furthermore, inadequate fit will also affect the safety of military personnel and soldiers. The aim of this study was to provide a stepwise approach to the design and evaluation of military combat clothing, particularly trousers design. The importance of wearing the right size of trousers is very high. The person’s height has to be measured and standard measurements such as natural waist, trouser waist, inside leg, body rise and seat have to be taken for a regular sizing of men’s trousers . It is important that measurements are taken carefully to ensure the best fit. According to the European and British standards, size charts are determined by two factors: type of garment and market. For example, trousers require a different size chart which is based on waist size. According to international standards, anthropometric measurements have been provided in ISO 7250 part 1 which can be used for technological design as a basis for comparison of population groups . For clothing design, especially trousers design, the following measurements can be found: body height, crotch height, and waist circumference, taken from a standing subject. Measurements taken when the subject is sitting such as body rise, are not included in this standard. For establishing anthropometric databases analysing the design of men’s trousers, British standard is taken as the basis defining the positions and methods for taking body measurements required for clothing . According to the previously mentioned British document, the standard measurements for trousers are as follows: seat, natural waist, trouser waist (4 cm lower from natural waist), inside leg, body rise and trouser bottom measurement is taken as an extra. This paper focuses on the analysis of previously reported measurements taken from Estonian and Latvian military personnel and soldiers. The use of (3-D) body measurements made by Human Solution scanner has made certain terms more professional in the field of clothing. For example, trouser waist is called a waistband, inside leg is called an inseam, and seat is called buttock girth. The body rise measurement is not measured because all the measurements are taken while the subject stands. Instead, leg length or side seam at waist are measured. By subtracting leg length and inseam leg measurement we can calculate the body rise. For work or special clothing, it is necessary to provide an approach to the design and equipment sizing systems in such a way that most of the wearers have a well-fitting product combined with a minimum number of product sizes. Currently, a document is being drafted by the NATO workgroup HFM-RTG-266 STANREC to provide a stepwise approach to the design and evaluation of military clothing. It is intended for NATO staff responsible for clothing and equipment procurement or issuing. This document does not
TRAUMANN A et al. Analysis of 3-D body measurements to determine trousers ... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 6-14.
provide, an in-depth analysis but intended as a guide for clothing and equipment sizing. The more military population have been studied in different countries, the more specific recommendations can be incorporated into the above mentioned document. The analysis in this paper seeks to find the best solution to the sizing system of menâ€™s trousers for military staff. As stated above, it would be ideal to have a minimum number of product sizes corresponding to the majority of the studied military staff. The size designation for military garments is stated in STANAG 2335 . Over time, manufacturers have developed their own measurement tables in different countries based on the development of clothing. The size of waist and chest circumference are the primary measurements for determining the size of jacket and trousers. In the past, the third decisive measurement for determining the size of trousers was body height. However, after measuring with the 3-D scanner and analysing the results, the length of inseam is the third most important measurement for trousers. The first step in this study was to identify whether the length of the inseam corresponds to the size chart by STANAG 2335 based on height of the subject and waist circumference. More than 400 young soldiers from Estonia and Latvia were examined with a 3-D scanner. After analysing the results, it was necessary to compare them with the existing sizing systems of the Estonian and Latvian military trousers. It is important to develop the existing sizing system continuously as it does not always perform as expected. One reason may be that the population changed.
EXPERIMENTAL Materials and Methods This study involved the development of an infrastructure for measurement where soldiers in the Estonian and Latvian Defence Forces and the military personnel were measured using a (3-D) body scanner. It focused on collating basic human body measurement data for the revision of size charts by STANAG 2335. For sizing and fitting of military clothing, information on the body dimensions of the user population is a prerequisite. In this study, all subjects were measured in standing position A where the head is in the Frankfurt plane position, the feet parallel to one another and 200 mm apart, and the hands raised at a 20â ° angle from the sides of the torso . Basic knowledge and specific know-how skills are required to validate (3-D) measurements. As (3-D) scanning can be used to collect measurements such as lengths and circumferences, it is important that the measurement extracted from a (3-D) image corresponds to the traditional measurement and a skilled person is required to minimise the errors made by the measurer. The measurement data of 300 male subjects from Estonia (mean age 28) and 150 male subjects from Latvia was imported into the XFit analysis program and MS Excel and were statistically analysed according to the NATO interchangeability combat clothing sizes. Key dimensions of trousers in basis size such as inseam, waist girth, and body height are presented in Table 1. Both the Estonian and Latvian clothing suppliers take the inseam as the basis for the primary measure. Before this study, the size of the trousers in Latvia was predetermined on the basis of waist circumference and body height. The size interval of inseam according to body height is 5 cm. It is important to note that size designation varies from one NATO country to another . Estonia uses the same designation as GBR where chest girth is also presented for trousers, and Latvia uses the same designation as the USA.
Table 1. Size designation of Estonian and Latvian military trousers for the basis size Inseam by size chart*
Waist girth, cm
Chest girth, cm
Body height, cm
Estonia (EST) Interval (EST)
80 77.5 – 82.5
83 80.5 – 85.5
88 86 – 90
104 102 – 106
175 - 185 10
80/ 88/ 104 -
Latvia (LV) Interval (LV)
80 77.5 – 82.5
REG 81 – 84
M 78 – 86
REG 179 – 185
M/ REG -
*STANAG 2335 
The (3-D) body scanner from Human Solution (Vitus Smart XXL) is based on laser technology using the Anthroscan 2016 (3.4.0) software. Visualized (3-D) scans can be delivered by the VITUS whole body scanner using the 8 sensor heads, an optical triangulation process and specific software. It provides about 140 body measurements in 3D with an accuracy of 1 mm in 12 seconds. Data can be exported in BSF, BTR, OBJ, ASCII, DXF, STL (ASCII), STL (Binary), JPG, PNG or AVI formats. Depending on the license, the scanner includes a remote control integrated into the Anthroscan screen interface with various Scan Wizards. One possibility of analysis is given in Fig 1 to show the frontal view of selected body images (n=6) and comparing the waistband with the inseam of the right leg.
Figure 1. Frontal view of body images comparing inseam of the right leg
The position of the subject in the scanning volume is important for obtaining reliable data that can be used in an anthropometric database. It is also important that the subject holds the posture during the entire scanning process. For all postures, normal breathing should be adopted. Shoulders should be straight without being stiff and muscles should not be tense.  The measurements obtained using this technology are more precise and reproducible than those obtained through the traditional physical measurement process . If the subject is included the corresponding data bases, then the measurement data can be renewed or revised at any time. For the logistics purpose, the current situation and continuous measurements are important for the majority or all military personnel.
majority or all military personnel. TRAUMANN A et al. Analysis of 3-D body measurements to determine trousers ... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 6-14.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The statistical analysis was based on a comparison of the actual dimensions of subjects with
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
INTERVAL OF INSEAM, CM
the size chart. As previously mentioned, one of the most important measure for trousers fit is the The statistical analysis was based comparison of military the actual dimensions of subjects the size inside leg length. The mean inseamonofthe measured Estonia population (n=300) was 81.0with cm and chart. As previously mentioned, one of the most important measure for trousers fit is the inside leg length. 79.1 cm of Latvian military population (n=150). Data of both countries were compared according to The mean inseam of measured Estonian military population (n=300) was 81.0 cm and 79.1 cm for Latvian the inseam by size (n=150). chart given STANAG 2335,countries as shownwere in Tab 2. The interval inseamgiven was in taken military population Theindata for both compared to the of inseam STANAG ±2.5 cm. On figures 2 and 3, the correspondence of measured subjects is shown with the interval of 2335, as shown in Tab 2. The interval of inseam was taken ±2.5 cm. In figures 2 and 3, the correspondence ofinseam measured subjects is shown with the interval of inseam length. length.
MEASURED BODIES OF ESTONIA BY INSEAM, QTY
Figure 2. Correspondence of measured bodies of Estonia by inseam length Figure 2. Correspondence of measured bodies of Estonia by inseam length
It shows that 25% (n=74) of all measured bodies correspond to the inseam of basis size 80 cm, see in Table It shows that mostly 25% (n=74) of all measured bodies are corresponding to the inseam of 1. The interval is set to ±2.5 cm as we can see quantities of measured bodies through the total scale per basis size 80 cm, seeare in Table 1. The of interval is set cm as of Ifmeasured inseam, where there five lengths inseam: 70 to cm,±2.5 75 cm, 80we cm,can 85see cmquantities and 90 cm. the basis size ofbodies inseamthrough in range – 85.5 to where the Estonian sizefive chart is taken into consideration, then the80.5 total scale according per inseam, there are lengths of inseam: 70 cm, 75 cm, 80 59% (n=177) all and measured correspond to this range. cm, 85ofcm 90 cm.bodies Take in consideration that the basis size of inseam is in range 80.5 – 85.5
INTERVAL OF INSEAM, CM
according to the Estonian size chart then 59% (n=177) of all measured bodies are corresponding to
MESURED BODIES OF LATVIA BY INSEAM, QTY
Figure 3. Correspondence of measured bodies of Latvia by inseam length Figure 3. Correspondence of measured bodies of Latvia by inseam length
If the basis size of inseam in range 81.0 – 84.0 according to the Latvian size chart is taken into consideraTake in consideration that the basis size of inseam is in range 81.0 – 84.0 according to the tion, then 25% (n=37) of all measured bodies correspond to this range. Latvian of size chart then 25%measurements (n=37) of all measured areof corresponding to this range. Analysis both countries’ show thatbodies inseams basis size according to STANAG 2335 (in range 77.5 – 82.5) moremeasurements precisely to theare bigger amount measured bodies. Analysis of correspond both country’s showing thatofinseam of basis size according to
STANAG 2335 (in range 77.5 – 82.5) are more correct corresponding to the bigger amount of bodies. 10measured www.textile-leather.com As it was mentioned below, it would be ideal to have a minimum number of product sizes
As previously mentioned, it would be ideal to have a minimum number of product sizes corresponding to the majority of the measured military population. For a long period of time, the clothing industry in both countries has developed the main size chart that is in general use. For example, in Estonia, there are 31 different sizes for military trousers, as shown in Tab 2, in light grey boxes. Table 2. Size chart of Estonian military trousers
Inseam by size chart*
*STANAG 2335 
Figure 4 presents the analysis by Anthroscan (3.4.0) software, where the inseam and waist girth of the scanned Estonian military population have been compared with the most commonly used sizes. The blue dots show the measured data and the red dots 31 sizes in use. Analysing the data cloud in Fig 4, a lot of blue measurement dots are noticed in the area of inseam length below 75 cm and in the area of waist girth between 96 and 102 cm, without corresponding sizes marked by red dots. Following this, changes can be made to the size chart such as two smaller sizes 73/72/88, 73/76/92, and two bigger sizes: 78/96/112 and 78/100/116. It would be advisable to put these into use as shown in Tab 2, dark grey boxes and in Fig 4, green boxes. In the area of longest inseam length, range 85 - 90 cm, and biggest sizes of waist girth, 108 cm and more, there are few measurement dots, but manufacturing sizes exist as shown Fig 4, red boxes. According to the measurement data it is advisable to take down the following sizes from the production list: sizes 88/108/124, 88/112/128, 93/104/120, 93/108/124 and 93/112/128 as shown diagonally in Tab 2.
Figure 4. Data cloud of measured bodies in Estonia compared mainly to the sizes used in production
The same measurements were taken for the analysis of the measured Latvian bodies. Figure 5 presents the analysis by 3-D scanner software, where the inseam and waist girth of scanned Latvian military population have been compared with sizes used in production. Based on the results of the 150 Latvian soldiersâ€™ measurements, sizes necessary for the production according to the inseam and waist girth range are specified in Tab 3. As previously mentioned, Latvia uses a similar size designation as the United States. Tab 3 shows the full-size chart, marked in light grey boxes, used in the production of military trousers. The base size is marked in bold in Tab 3. Table 3. Size chart of Latvian military trousers
XS 62- 70 XS/3XSH
S 70- 78 S/3XSH
M 78- 86 M/3XSH
L 86- 94 L/3XSH
XL 94- 102 XL/3XSH
XXL 102- 110 XXL/3XSH
3XL 110- 118 3XL/3XSH
4XL 118- 126 4XL/3XSH
Waist / Inseam 3XSH
A lot of blue measurement dots are visible in the area of inseam length below 72 cm and in the area of waist girth, range 78 - 94 cm, in Fig 5 but no red dots. It is important to point out that in 3% (n= 5) of the measured bodies in Latvia there was inseam length in the range of 69 - 72 cm in sizes M and L, as shown in Fig 5. This measure of inseam was not available in the Latvian size chart, but the data shows these sizes shoould be included, as shown in Tab 3, dark grey boxes and in Fig 5, green box. In addition, sizes XXL/2XSH and 3XL/2XSH should be eliminated from the production list to minimize the number of product sizes, as shown diagonally in Tab 2 and in Fig 5 in red.
Figure 5. Data cloud of measured bodies in Latvia compared mainly to the sizes used in production
As the number of measured bodies (n=150) was too small, measurements should be repeated to recommend the reduction of sizes in the production.
CONCLUSION The purpose of the current study was to investigate 3-D scanning methodology according to internationally compatible anthropometric databases and size charts of NATO countries based on Estonian and Latvian example. It focused on one segment of the male military personnel and soldiers aged 21 – 35 in both countries. In the study, the basic parameters, inseam and waist girth, were investigated which play a significant role in the quality of trousers, in order to ensure the wearer’s mobility in all situations in particular the activities of soldiers. Based on the studied groups, the above measurements were compared with the data obtained from the size chart of NATO countries. The inseam length in range 70- 90 according to STANAG 2335 is taken as the basis for the assessment. When analysing the Latvian size chart, the measured bodies were divided into 35 sizes. However, as 3 % of the measured bodies could not be set to the correct size because the table did not have the corresponding inseam, the chart should be supplemented. The Estonian size chart is more reliable than Latvia’s if the inseam length is in 70 - 90 range. The following changes are suggested for Estonian and Latvian size chart: 1) it is necessary to add two shortest inseam lengths according to STANAG 2335, 70/72/88 and 70/76/92 to Estonian size chart 2) to add two sizes for inseam length by 75 cm as 75/96/112 and 75/100/116 according the size designation to the Estonian size chart 3) it is necessary to remove 5 sizes from the Estonian size chart which are not in use according to the current study: 85/108/124, 85/112/128, 90/104/120, 90/108/124 and 90/112/128 4) it is necessary to add sizes to the Latvian size chart for the shortest inseam length of M/3XSH and L/3XSH 5) it is necessary to remove sizes XXL/2XSH and 3XL/2XSH from the production list. One possibility for Latvia is to change the interval of inseam ± 5 cm to produce 5 different ranges according to STANAG 2335. However, it is necessary to review how many sizes of the trousers need to be produced as there are still 35 different sizes after suggested corrections. Furthermore, additional measurements are necessary as the number of measured bodies was too small in both Latvia and Estonia. Ideally, all military personnel should be measured prior to issuing clothes. Using the 3-D scanner is an important advantage. The right size and correct fitting for each population can be determined based on the taken measurements. There is another important factor in measurements, the logistical needs can be determined on the basis of the measurement data: which size is actually needs to be produced according to the figure of today’s male military population. Acknowledgements The present research work was financed by the European Union’s European Regional Development Fund, through the program INTERREG BSR, which awarded a grant to the SWW project (#R006). The authors acknowledge the received financial support. The authors are grateful to participate in the NATO RTO HFM-266 Group where it is possible to collect and analyse various data for the military population. In addition, authors are thankful to TTK University of Applied Sciences for the possibility to use Vitus Smart XXL (Human Solutions GmbH, Germany) scanner.
REFERENCES  Loker S, Ashdown S, Schoenfelder K. Size-specific Analysis of Body Scan Data to Improve Apparel Fit. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management. 2005 4(3):1-15.  Gupta D. Anthropometry, apparel Sizing and Design. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2014. Anthropometry and the design and production of apparel: an overview; p. 34-66  Park H, Hahn KHY. Perception of firefightersâ€™ turnout ensemble and level of satisfaction by body movement. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education. 2014 7(2):85-95.  BSI, 2001. BS EN 13402-1:2001, Size Designation of Clothes - Part 1: Terms, definitions and body measurement procedure, London, UK: British Standards Institute.  EVS-EN ISO 7250-1:2010 Basic human body measurements for technological design- Part 1: Body measurement definitions and landmarks [Internet]. 1999 [revised 2017]. Available from: https://www. evs.ee/products/evs-en-iso-7250-1-2010  STANAG 2335 Interchangeability combat clothing sizes. Ed. 3. Brussels: NATO; 2012.  International Organization for Standardization. EVS-EN ISO 20685:2010 - 3-D scanning methodologies for internationally compatible anthropometric databases [Internet]. 2005 [revised 2018]. Available from: https://www.iso.org/standard/54909.html  Apeagyei PR. Application of 3D body scanning technology to human measurement for clothing Fit. International Journal of Digital Content Technology and its Applications. 2010 4(7):58-68.
SHABANI A et al. Resistivity behavior of leather after electro-conductive... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 15-22.
Resistivity behavior of leather after electro-conductive treatment Aulon SHABANI1*, Majlinda HYLLI2, Ilda KAZANI2, Pellumb BERBERI3 Department of Electrotechnics, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania *email@example.com 2 Department of Textile and Fashion, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania 3 Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering Mathematics and Engineering Physics, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania 1
Original scientific article UDC 675.017 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.15 Received 23 October 2018; Accepted 27 January 2019; Published Online 29 January 2019; Published 8 March 2019
ABSTRACT Measurement of electrical resistance of textile materials, fiber and fabrics included, remains always an engaging task due to sensitivities to interference of multiple factors. Difficulty stands on both finding a method of measurements that fits the requirements of samples to be tested and the most appropriate indicator describing this property. Numerous methods and indicators are used for different sample content and shape (fibers, roving, yarn or fabric, etc.), even when the material tested is the same. Different methods usually use indicators that produce results difficult to compare or to interpret, or do not express intrinsic qualities of their constituent materials. The situation is the same for leather materials. In this paper, we propose a new method, multiple steps method, and a new indicator, electrical resistivity, which takes into consideration compressional properties of leather sample and produce results independent from the amount and form of the sample. Electrical resistivity of conductive leather, as defined below, is shown to be an inherent indicator of bulk conductivity of leather assembly and is not influenced by sample form or the way it is placed within the measuring cell. The method is used for the first time to evaluate changes in electrical resistivity of leather after various chemical processes to make it electro-conductive. The data provide important information about the evolution of electro-conductive properties of leather at different stages of processing, as well as the influence of environmental conditions. KEYWORDS Conductive leather, electrical resistivity, multiple step method
INTRODUCTION A touch screen display is a primary input device of a smart phone, a tablet computer, etc. While there are many tough technologies in existence, resistive and capacitive technologies are dominant and leading the touch-screen panel industry. Moreover, a capacitive touch screen panel widely used in smart phones is coated with a material that stores electrical charges. In the cold climate or other specific conditions when the use of gloves is necessary, gloves with electro-conducting leather are a tool to operate a touch panel screen. Therefore, electrically conductive materials can be applied to the surface of leather to be used as a touching operator for capacitive touch screen panel. Consequently, the treated leather samples show electrical conductivity and reasonable working performance. [1-3]. www.textile-leather.com 15
SHABANI A et al. Resistivity behavior of leather after electro-conductive... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 15-22.
Investigation of conductivity of textile materials and leather is a very challenging field because of its complexity. Difficulties arise from a multitude of shapes (fibers, roving, yarn, fabric, sheet, foil, etc.), structures, fiber content, etc., of textile assembly and leather. Various methods and standards have been devised to measure the electrical resistance of different kinds and forms of textile assemblies, leading to a situation where indicators used for evaluation of the conductivity of a specimen, even where composed by the same material, are unmatchable and not easy to compare. Moreover, measuring surface resistance of flat shape textile samples is difficult because of current flowing into the shape cannot be isolated only in the surface, but a part of it can penetrate through the volume. Numerous methods and standards can be found in literature [4-20]. For example, two and four probe electrical resistance measurement methods, where the most accurate and widely used methods are four probe placements. Initially proposed by van der Pauw , surface resistance of any arbitrary shape was determined by the ratio of applied voltage over two electrodes to the current flowing on the two other opposite electrodes placed around sample circumference. Likewise, Tokarska [15-16] has used Van der Pauw method for surface resistance measurement and anisotropy evaluation of conductive textile samples. Another approach for measuring surface resistance is applied by Yang and Wang , where they develop a novel circular probe. The abovementioned methods crucially focus on measurement of textile samples resistance by considering them thin films, but taking into account their drawbacks, we have proposed a new method for measuring the electrical resistivity of textile assemblies [9-10] that tends to eliminate many of the problems associated with current methods. It is a multiple-step method based on a new definition of electrical resistivity of textile assemblies and takes into consideration their compressional properties. The new parameter seems to be an inherent property of fiber composition not influenced by the form of the sample and the geometry of the measuring set-up. This method was successfully used, for the first time, to check the effect of the spinning process on the electrical resistivity of fiber assemblies and to use the result for different practical evaluations of the process itself. In this paper, we are trying to expand the use of this method in testing electrical resistance of conductive leather.
Materials and Methods The leather used is white sheep crust leather of Albanian origin, 8 x 8 cm in size and 0.97 Âą 0.2 mm thick. The leather is chrome tanned and dried but not dyed. The chemicals used were pyrrole, ferric chloride, anthraquinone -2- sulfonic acid sodium salt monohydrate of laboratory grade and high purity . The leather has good tensile and tear strength characteristics. These good characteristics make leather a unique and desirable product to be used in daily life. Moreover, it has good heat insulation which makes itr very useful for winter season products. When considering the electrical resistance of a textile material, the situation complicates due to the influence of shape and compression parameters on the I-V (current-voltage) characteristics. All existing methods for measurement of the DC resistance of textile are based on data obtained from a single test which excludes the possibility of acquiring any information about compressional behavior of the fiber assembly. In order to take compressional behavior into consideration, we have proposed a multiple step method which is described in literature in details [9-10]. This method consists of measuring the electrical resistance of the sample compressed to different volume â€“ fractions within measuring cell. The dependence of the electrical
SHABANI A et al. Resistivity behavior of leather after electro-conductive... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 15-22.
resistances of textile material on its volume-fraction (Vf) within the measuring cell is then approximated by a reciprocal power function R = C • Vf b (1) - where C and b are constants to be defined experimentally, while Vf is the volume fraction of textile material within the measuring cell. Volume-fraction of textile material is defined as the ratio between the volume of textile sample V= m/d and apparent volume of the cell V0: Vf = V/V0 - where m is the mass of textile sample and d is the density of textile material. Assuming this relationship holds over the entire range of volume fractions, we can obtain presumed resistance Ro of textile material compressed until it is transformed into a compact homogenous mass by: Ro = (R) = C
- the resistivity, ρ in the case of a parallelepiped cell is calculated by: p = Ro m 2 d·a
- where a is the length of the sample, i.e., the distance between electrodes of the cell. Equation 1 equation 3 can be transformed into a more convenient form for calculations: (4) p = R * m 2 * Vf ‒b d·a
The main objective of the current study is to find out if the above testing method can be applied to testing conductivity of conductive leather. White sheep crust leathers were treated chemically in order to make them conductive. Two different coating methods were used: single in-situ polymerization of pyrrole and double in-situ polymerization of pyrrole. Single in-situ polymerization method was used for increasing conductivity of white sheep crust leather . Leather samples were treated with single in-situ polymerization of pyrrole. For single in-situ polymerization, leather (8 x 8 cm) was first treated with a pyrrole/AQSA mixed solution for 1 hour, at room temperature, rotating manually at 10 rpm. Then ferric chloride solution, which plays the role of the oxidant, was added to the mixture to initiate the polymerization which lasted 2 hours, at 5°C, rotating manually at 10 rpm. Finally, the polypyrrole coated leather samples were washed with distilled water and dried at 35 °C. The concentration of monomer (pyrrole), AQSA as a dopant, and FeCl3 as oxidant were varied and optimized in order to provide the maximum conductivity of leather. For double in-situ polymerization, the leather was initially treated as in the first method, in single in-situ polymerization method containing half of the concentration of reactants. The sample was then treated again in a second bath containing half of the concentrations of reactants following the same procedure to obtain double in-situ polypyrrole coated leather. Finally, the coated leather was washed 4 times with distilled water and dried at 35°C. It was observed that the color of the sheep leather samples treated with two methods changed into black at the end of the experiments. The treated leather samples were cut in square shapes. The electrical resistance of the compressed sample was measured with a Tektronix DMM4050 Multimeter and the voltage used was 10 volts DC. The test procedure involved measuring the electrical resistance of samples for at least ten different volume-fractions within the cell (Figure 1). The mass of samples varied between 2.8 to 6 grams according to their dimensions, and thickness was measured for each sample. The density of the leather was 0.86 g/cm3. Each sample was first tested in its initial square sheet shape and then cut into thin
threads, after which it was again tested for electrical resistance (Figure 2). This procedure eliminates any influence of sample differences on measurement results. In each case, samples were randomly placed within the measuring cell.
Figure 1. Measuring setup. 1-Multimeter, 2-Measuring cell
Figure 2. View of two shapes of samples: 1-Square shape [8cm x 8cm], 2-Thin stripes shape
EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE METHOD In this section, experimental data is presented to show how the new parameter, the electrical resistivity of a leather sample as defined above, is influenced by the shape of samples (sheet and stripe), as well as by observation of environmental effects on resistance. Initially, the taken volume fractions varied from 0.16 to 0.46 with a step of 0.01. The data received were used to define the power function in equation (1). Figure 3 shows a typical dependence of results of measured resistance of the sample on volume fraction and its corresponding curve of approximation. The correlation coefficients of approximations vary from 0.9 to as high as 0.99. This is an indicator of suitability of chosen function of approximation. Table 1, shows three typical results of experiments carried out with leather samples made conductive by using both methods of chemical treatments:
Figure 3.T ypical dependence of results of measured resistance of the sample on its volume fraction and its corresponding curve of approximation
method 1, single in-situ polymerization of pyrrole, and method 2, double in-situ polymerization of pyrrole coating. The following conclusions can be drawn from the data: Table 1. Three typical results of experiments carried out with leather samples made conductive by using both methods of chemical treatment Sample
Resistivity of different shapes of leather samples Ω·m Sheet
a. Within experimental error, the change in sample type from sheet to thread does not affect the calculated resistivity of conductive leather samples. b. Power index b of power functions used for approximation varies with sample type, sample composition, and placement of the sample within the cell. The range and magnitude of the variation of power indexes is quite wide, from 1.4 to 3.8, but within the margins of standard deviation, this does not affect the results of calculated resistivity. c. Standard deviations in case of leather samples treated with the first method are very high, varying from 19 to 46 %, while in the case of samples treated with second method it varies from 16 to 19 %. These are indicators of unevenness of effect of treatment on samples conductivity. It has to be noted that samples treated with method 1 show a distinct deference between resistivity of two sides of samples, while samples treated with method 2 show no such difference In general, electrical properties of textile materials change with air humidity. In this paper, we decided to apply the above mentioned method for studying the influence of air humidity on the electrical resistivity of conductive leather. To minimize the distribution of data due to unevenness of chemical treatment, as tested above, we decided to test a sample treated by the second polymerization method (double in-situ polymerization) using leather threads as sample shape. The sample was conditioned for 24 hours in different air humidity and almost the same air temperature (Table 2). Table 2. Measured electrical values in different environmental conditions Ta °C
Mostly interested in effects of humidity, we observed experimentally that the electrical resistivity of conductive leather changes linearly with air humidity. As the humidity increases, leather electrical resistance decreases as shown in Figure.4.
Figure 4. Relation between electrical resistivity and air humidity
CONCLUSION Compressional properties of conductive leather play a crucial role in the measurement of their electrical resistance. The use of a multiple-step method for measuring electrical resistance of conductive leather, together with a new definition of electrical resistivity, takes into consideration the compressional properties of leather. Electrical resistivity of conductive leather, as defined above, unlike the methods and standards used nowadays for measuring surface resistance, is shown to be an inherent indicator of bulk conductivity of leather assembly and is not influenced by sample form or the way it is placed within the measuring cell. Electrical resistivity of conductive leather is a property, which strongly depends on environmental conditions, especially air humidity. This method is used for the first time to evaluate changes in electrical resistivity of the leather after different chemical processing to make it electro-conductive. The data provide important information about evolution of electro-conductive properties of leather at different stages of processing and how it is influenced by environmental conditions.
REFERENCES  Hylli M, Kazani I, Shabani A, Komici D, Guxho G, Drushku S. Transforming leather properties from nonconductive to conductive. In: 1st International Conference: â€œEngineering and Entrepreneurshipâ€?ICEE-2017; 17-18 November 2017; Tirana, Albania.  Hong KH. Preparation of Conductive Leather Gloves for Operating Capacitive Touch Screen Displays. Fashion & Textile Research Journal [Internet]. 2012;14(6):1018-1023. Available from: http://www.koreascience. or.kr/article/JAKO201205759628105.page doi: https://doi.org/10.5805/KSCI.2012.14.6.1018  Barrett G, Omote R. Projected-capacitive touch technology. Information Display [Internet]. 2010;26(3):1621. Available from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=2a hUKEwjmrOjN0pXgAhWC8eAKHQ2VCJYQFjAAegQICRAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Flarge.stanford.edu%2F courses%2F2012%2Fph250%2Flee2%2Fdocs%2Fart6.pdf&usg=AOvVaw3ohwVW0terTuiGpmCt3FT9 20 www.textile-leather.com
 BSI. BS 6524:1984 - Method for Determination of Surface Resistivity of a Textile Fabric [Internet]. 1984 [01 May 2017]. Available from: https://shop.bsigroup.com/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000000133357  ASTM. D4238-90 - Standard Test Method for Electrostatic Propensity of Textiles [Internet]. 1990 Available from: https://standards.globalspec.com/std/514019/astm-d4238  JSA. JIS L 1094-1980 Methods for Assessment of Electrostatic Behavior  GOST 6433.2-71 Measurement of Electrical Resistance of Textile Materials, Textile Assemblies, Proceedings of the 27 Annual Meeting of ESA, 1999.  ISO. ISO 10965:2011 - Textile floor coverings -- Determination of electrical resistance [Internet]. 2011 Available from: https://www.iso.org/standard/46257.html  Berberi PG. Effect of processing on electrical resistivity of textile fibers Journal of Electrostatics [Internet]. 2001;51â€“52:538-544. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/ pii/S0304388601001127 doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3886(01)00112-7  Berberi P. A Unified Method for Measurement of Electrical Resistivity of Textile Assemblies. In: Proceedings 27th Conference of ESA; 1999.  ASTM. F150-06 - Standard Test Method for Electrical Resistance of Conductive and Static Dissipative Resilient Flooring [Internet]. 2018 Available from: https://www.astm.org/Standards/F150.htm  ISO. ISO 2878:2011 - Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic Antistatic and conductive products Determination of electrical resistance [Internet]. 2011 [revision 06 2017]. Available from: https:// www.iso.org/standard/72778.html  JSA. JIS L 1094:2014 - Testing Methods for Electrostatic Propensity of Woven And Knitted Fabrics [Internet]. Available from: https://infostore.saiglobal.com/en-gb/standards/jis-l-1094-2014-625339_ SAIG_JSA_JSA_1435926/  GOST 6433.2-71 - Solid electrical insulating materials. Methods for evaluation of electrical resistance at d. c. voltages  Tokarska M. Measuring resistance of textile materials based on Van der Pauw method. Indian Journal of Fiber & Textile Research [Internet]. 2013;38:198-201. Available from: https://www.google.com/ url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&ved=2ahUKEwjE5On82ZXgAhWzAGMBHTflD9kQFjA CegQIBBAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fnopr.niscair.res.in%2Fbitstream%2F123456789%2F19252%2F1%2F IJFTR%252038(2)%2520198-201.pdf&usg=AOvVaw1uJI3W_osnxa3JPiYhORfP  Tokarska M, Frydrysiak M, Zieba J. Electrical properties of flat textile material as inhomogeneous and anisotropic structure. Journal of Material Science: Materials in Electronics [Internet]. 2013;24:5061â€“ 5068. Available from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved= 2ahUKEwj7pPfQ2pXgAhVpDWMBHWxhAwMQFjAAegQIBhAC&url=https%3A%2F%2Fcore.ac.uk%2Fd ownload%2Fpdf%2F81916387.pdf&usg=AOvVaw2HEd-8UKxXhl4BBoV-TLpL doi: 10.1007/s10854-0131524-4  DIN 54345-1 - Testing of textiles; electrostatic behaviour; determination of electrical resistance [Internet]. 1992 Available from: https://global.ihs.com/doc_detail.cfm?document_name=DIN%20 54345-1&item_s_key=00226558  DIN 54345-6 - Testing of textiles; electrostatic behaviour; determination of the electrical resistance of textile floor coverings [Internet]. 1992 Available from: https://www.techstreet.com/standards/ din-54345-6?product_id=1052708  BSI. BS-6654 - Method for determination of the electrical resistivity of textile floor coverings [Internet]. 1985 Available from: https://shop.bsigroup.com/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000000150591
 BSI. BS-6524 - Method for determination of the surface resistivity of a textile fabric [Internet]. 1984 Available from: https://shop.bsigroup.com/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000000133357  Pauw L van der. A method of measuring the resistivity and Hall coefficient on lamellae of arbitrary shape. Philips Technical Review [Internet]. 1958;20(8):220-224.  Yang Z, Wang Q. A simple approach to measure the surface resistivity of insulating materials. In: IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society [Internet]; 2011 Nov 7-10; Melbourne (AU). New Jersey (US): Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; 2011. Available from: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6119630  Hylli M, Shabani A, Kazani I, Beqiraj E, Drushku S, Guxho G. Application of Double In-Situ Polimerization for Changing the Leather Properties. In: 8th International Textile Conference; 2018 Oct 18-19; Tirana, Albania.
ABTEW MA et al, Customizations of women bullet-proof jacket through 3D... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 23-31.
Customizations of women bullet-proof jacket through 3D design process Mulat Alubel ABTEW1,2,3,4*, Pascal BRUNIAUX1,2, François BOUSSU1,2 University of Lille North of France, France ENSAIT, GEMTEX, France 3 ‘‘Gheorghe Asachi’’ Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles - Leather Engineering and Industrial Management, Romania 4 Soochow University, Department of Apparel Design and Engineering, China *firstname.lastname@example.org 1 2
Original scientific article UDC 687.175 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.20 Received 28 December 2018; Accepted 13 February 2019; Published Online 13 February 2019; Published 8 March 2019
ABSTRACT In today’s scenario many personnels including police officers, security guards, field journalist etc. made it mandatory to wear ballistic protection garments while on duty. In order to give the required protection, most of the ballistic protecting garment (vests) were developed with higher number of fabic layers.The development of such garment using higher number of layers would also result higher weight and discomfort to the wearer while wearing in every condition throughout the day. However, the ballistic protection garment should be designed considering not only ballistic resistance toward projectile penetration but also reasonably light in weight and flexible to provide comforts. The current study brings a new techniques through 3D design process to develope the women bullet proof jackets on the women adaptive mannequin. The jacket can be worn along with the ballistic vest or can be removed to attain the different protection level at the different duty situations. The jacket can removed in order to increase the comfort and reduce the weight of the protection garment while the personnel is not in very dangerious duty areas. However, the designed jacket can also be wear along with the ballistic vest to give the required protection for the personnel at the very dangerous situations. KEYWORDS 3D design process, adaptive mannequin, bullet proof jackets, customizations, parametrizations.
INTRODUCTION Protection of the human body from different kinds of threats such as sharp object and combat projectile dates back to the history of mankind by wearing cloths made of different kinds of materials including animal skin (leather), wood, stones, copper, steel etc. Various textiles and laminates made of traditional fibres such as linen, cotton, silk and nylon have been also used not only for clothing but also as protecting materials against different threats including ballistic applications [1-3]. Nowadays, various police office authorities, private security personnel, disaster relief personnel, and other civilians in hostile situations (e.g. Journalists) wear various forms of clothing especially bullet-proof vest to protect themselves from deliberate threats against various types of hazards. The current flexible bullet-proof vest with front and back ballistic panel are made up of flexible material (textile) from a very strong fiber in order to absorb the impact energy of the bullet. www.textile-leather.com 23
ABTEW MA et al, Customizations of women bullet-proof jacket through 3D... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 23-31.
This helps the personnels to protect themselves from various fatal injuries during criminal conflicts, physical assaults, traffic accidents, battlefield confrontation and so on . Besides, other than men, the number of women who are involved in the law enforcement, security personnel and other similar fields has been also significantly increasing across the world [5-6]. Considering such women involvement in the filed and thier unique body shapes, various researcher and body armour designer have been woking on the design and developments of women bullet proof vest considering not only the ballistic protection but also breathability, cost, fitness and comforts to the wearer . Today, considering thier unique body shapes, there is various designing approach used in developing bullet proof vest for women personnel [8-9]. For example, cut-andsew, fabric folding and stretch-molding are the common designing approaches. The cut-and-sew technique could develope the bust-shape using dart system to accommodate bust area  and fabric folding could also create domes in the bullet proof vest. However, such design also affects the comfort and personnel mobility due to much allowance for bullet proof vest deformation that lead to the panel thicker specially in the armpit region. Applying higher number of protective layers in the bullet proof panels may offer greater protection against projectiles, but it can also add undesirable weight and inflexibility of the vests [11-12]. The bullet proof vest with good ballistic resistance, lightweight and comfortable is extremely important for the women personnels working for long hours in various threat level. Based on this, many researchers has tried to develope various women bullet proof vest based on proper material selection, designing techniques and final finishing methods [13-16]. Even, further studies were carried out at large by researchers to enhance the overall performances of the women bullet proof vest not only in ballistic protection but also for reducing weight for better comfort. For example, tailor-made bullet-proof vest were developed on virtual body by optimizing the different protection zones for better comfort and protections . Another researchers also proposed new design techniques through introducing different personal parameters. The technique applied on the real 3D measurement of the body to optimize the assembly process and projection zone which later leads for reduction of weight and waste quantity during the cutting operation. Moreover, various researcher has also worked on developments of a three dimensional seamless women bullet proof by combining unique designing technique along with specific production systems [18-21]. However, eventhough researchers have been engaged and used different techniques and materials for the developments of women bullet proof vest, it was found difficulty and still needs further research to achieve both good ballistic protection with a reasonable reduced weight. In order to reduce the weight of the bullet proof vest, it is mandatory to use either a very light weight material with good protection or minimise the panel layers. The minimization of layer in the vest would be possible, if the personel could wear different protective garments (vest and over coat) depending on the different threat conditions. For example, the minimum number of layers (20 layers for National Institute of Justic (NIJ) level-II that gives protection with maximum blunt trauma could be used to develop the bullet proof vest, whereas the additional layers (10 layers) for maximum protection with minimum trauma could be used in the jacket. The bullet proof vest could be used in the field, if it is considered the situation as minimum threat condition (including the personnels are inside the vehicle). Whereas if the situation in a very high risk, the jacket can be wear over the bullet proof vest to increase the number of layer for better protection level. The aim of the current research is to introduced a new 3D design process to generate pattern for the developments of bullet resisting caots for women personnels. While developing, different antropometric circumferenceial lines on the 3D virtual adaptive bust mannequin were developed for reference. With thickness of the panel layer and cooresponding ease, various comfort lines were developed on the points of the circumferenceial lines. The circumferential line on this point helps to define the designs of the panel surfaces. 24 www.textile-leather.com
ABTEW MA et al, Customizations of women bullet-proof jacket through 3D... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 23-31.
The protective layers were defined by the same technique as the bullet proof vest. Based on the surface of the jacket as a medium of creation, now it is possible to develop the different layers of protection. This new jacket panel pattern development system greatly helps to generate 2D pattern block for developing bullet proof jacket for better protection and comfort which can be wear along with the bullet proof vest depending on the level of threat situations. As the result it could not only give higher degrees of ballistic protection during risky conditions but also reduce the panel weight for the wearer at the low risk situations.
3D DESIGN PROCESSES FOR WOMENâ€™S BULLET PROOF JACKET Digitalization and women body modeling For the design process, an adaptive women body mannequin which was previously designed using Design Concept software with the relevant data has been used. The women mannequin was attained using a 3D scanner and the software scanWorx from the Human Solutions Company. After attaining the scanned body shape, its data was imported to software, called Rapidform. This software helps us to edit and correct the defects of the imported 3D meshed object. Finally, using the 3D Design Concept software, the 3D surface of the women body shape as shown in Figure 1 can be modeled. The operation of 3D scanning permits one to directly obtain the 3D body shape, on which the process used for analyses and modify the body shape.
Figure 1. The sanned body model and customised 3D women body model
Developments of anthropometric and interpolation measurement on the manikin In order to customize the partially bullet-resisting jacket, we have applied a designing technique which is similar a technique for normal bulletproof vest. As shown in Figure 2(a) different cross section curves on the body model (White color) based on the different basic and detailed morphological contours of the body curves were constructed on the 3D virtual body to develop the base of a bodice. Here, the structure was created on a 3D surface representing the basic bodice very close to the morphology of the front and back of the women body. Later, the braces (which are the distance between the 3D virtual manikin and the intended final product surface) were first positioned on the anthropometric lines of the 3D virtual manikin. This was done by using various set of featured points which was aligned on the anthropometric lines. Subse-
quent, another different line which could follow and passes through those various particular anthropometric points has been defined. This surface will lead and responsible to create the surface of the final products.
Figure 2. Development of anthropometric and interpolation curves on the develope 3D female body model
Later, as shown in Figure 2 (b), after determining the distance, the interpolation curve that is an anthropometric curve of the manikin were constructed at the end of each points of the waterline. Thus, it is now possible to create the new curve which is marked with yellow line on the curves of interpolation. This would help us to separate the front of the back and to increase the network of curves in the direction of the fall to improve the design of the future surface.
Patchwork surface creation and protective layer design In the 3D design processes of the intended jackets, creating the patchwork on the network mesh gives a clear shape and garment surface contour. Figure 3 shows the creation of patch work type surface on the developed mesh surfaces. Those patchwork surfaces are a surface having different sections depending on the cut lines and help to manage the different shapes and sizes independently.
Figure 3. Surface creation (a) ‘’Patchwork’’ type surface creation and, (b) Developing the different protective layer
Such development of a â€œpatchworkâ€? type surface has created a surface fitted to the body based on the previous network of curves (yellow color). Later on the created surface, it has been created the various cut lines of the intended jacket to extract the different useful surface of the jacket. This process also helps to create the 3D patterns on the 3D virtual mannequins. Moreover, as shown in Figure 3(b), the different protective layers were defined by the same technique as of the ballistic vest design. However, during development of the jacket, the surface of the jacket was used as a medium of creation. However, while constructing the protective layers, it is not advised to completely cover the body with protective layers. This is due to the hardness and less flexibility of the material will hinder the expected comfort and flexibility to the wearer.
Application of dart for bust-shape creation The major designing techniques used for ballistic protective garment are still based on cut-and-sew of the conventional fabrics with its drawbacks. Even though it could damage the continuity of fibers in the fabric which will reduces the level of protection, the cut-and-sew technique can form easily the dome shape to accommodate bust area . In this paper, after developing the different protection layers on the surface, in order to give the wearer adequate protection, we have used a technique similar to the bulletproof vest (dart making system) for better shape and fitness. The cut-and-sew dart making system helps to attain the required shape on the bust areas as shown in Figure 4. While developing, the end of each protective layer was adjusted with a well-defined garment position and angle. This will give a better alignment of one layer against the next protective layers. While developing the protective layers, after the development of each creation of a layer, it offset from the previous by a distance of 5 mm.
Figure 4. Bust-Shape creation on different protecting layer with dart
Flattening of bullet-proof jacket pattern In general, generating bullet proof garment pattern design directly on the specific 3D virtual adaptive mannequin could give a very good result not only good ballistic protection but also better fitness and comfort. The developed mesh for the ballistic protecting jacket, its lining and layers of protection for both frontal and back panel block surface could be then under go to the flattening operation in order to generate the corresponding 2D basic block pattern. This pattern helps to fit the body form or a person with comfort ease. The generation of flattened 2D basic block pattern also strictly follows the principle of the classical 2D pattern design knowledge. The different successive flattened block patterns for the panel are shown in Figure 5.
Moreover, the patterns were also compared to the patterns of the jacket with those obtained by the traditional techniques of flat pattern design.
Figure 5. Flattening of the developed pattern
Finalizing the protective jacket In order to observe whether the developed garment has been sewn correctly or not, the different protective layer within the garment were mounted layer by layer on the manikin. First, the different patterns were transferred in Modaris software as shown in Figure 6(a). The next step in Modaris is to assemble all the lines that need to be sewn, to define the garmentâ€™s threading points as shown in Figure 6(b).
Figure 6. (a) Flattened pattern in Modaris
Figure 6. (b) Assembling of lines with threading points
The final protective jacket with different protective layer, lining and final fabric is shown in Figure 7. This help to correct the different parameters directly in Modaris mounting errors. While mounting, first the lining in the base were mounted for better comfort. Later, the different protective layers (second layer (first layer of protection), third layer (second layer of protection), and so on were added until it reaches the required number of layers for the given protections.
Figure 7. Finalizing the ballistic protective jacket
CONCLUSION On this paper, a systematic 3D design process was used to develop the ballistic protective jacket on the conceived 3D virtual adaptive female mannequin. The different pattern for consecutive layers of multi-layer female jacket panels was generated. The different layers were performed based on the base layer position (lining), ballistic vest and the thickness of the layer (fabrics). The different patterns for each protection layer developed on the 3D virtual adaptive mannequin were flattened. The developed ballistic protecting jacket helps to wear along with the ballistic vest or can be removed to attain the different protection level at the different duty situations. The jacket can be removed in order to increase the comfort and reduce the weight of the protection garment while the personnel is not in very dangerous duty areas. However, the designed jacket can also be wear along with the ballistic vest to give the required protection for the personnel at the very dangerous situations. However, beyond design and development, future works is very necessary to develop the jacket and experimental testing of the product for comfort, fitness and ballistic performances. www.textile-leather.com 29
Acknowledgements This work has been done as part of Erasmus Mundus Joint Doctorate Programme SMDTex-sustainable Management and Design for Textile project, which is financially supported by the European Erasmus Mundus Program. Special thanks to LECTRA for supporting different software.
REFERENCES  Chen X, Chaudhry I. Ballistic protection. In: Scott R, editor. Textiles for Protection. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2005. p. 529–556.  Saxtorph M. Warriors and Weapons of Early Times. New York: Macmillan Co.; 1972.  Sun D. Ballistic performance evaluation of woven fabrics based on experimental and numerical approaches In: Chen X, editor. Advanced Fibrous Composite materials for Ballistic Protection. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing; 2016. p. 409–435.  Xiaogang C, Dan Y. Use of 3D Angle-Interlock Woven Fabric for Seamless Female Body Armour: Part I: Ballistic Evaluation. Textile Research Journal. 2010 Mar;80(15):1581–1588.  Brantner Smith B. Policeone.com [Internet]. Police History: The evolution of women in American law enforcement. Available from: https://www.policeone.com/police-history/articles/8634189-PoliceHistory-The-evolution-of-women-in-American-law-enforcement/  Monrique M. Place des Femmes dans la Professionnalisation des Armees [Internet]. Republique Francaise, Conseil Economique et Social; 2004. 124 p. NOR : C.E.S. X000030420. Available from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=2ahUKEwiwzeDXs rvgAhWwMewKHYvND3AQFjAAegQICRAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ladocumentationfrancaise. fr%2Fvar%2Fstorage%2Frapports-publics%2F054000647.pdf&usg=AOvVaw3S5FaAbGPPXSdEE9ZF4urD  Barker J, Black C. Ballistic vests for police officers : using clothing comfort theory to analyse personal protective clothing. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and education. 2009 Nov;2 (2-3):59–69.  Zufle TT. Body Armor For Women. US4578821A, 1984.  Carlson RA. Female armor system. US20120174275 A1, 2007.  Chen X, Yang D. Use of Three-dimensional Angle-interlock Woven Fabric for Seamless Female Body Armor: Part II: Mathematical Modeling. Textile Research Journal. 2010 Mar;80(15):1589–1601.  Carlson RA. Pleated ballistic package for soft body armor. US20100313321A1, 2009.  Elmessiry M, El-Tarfawy SY. Performance of Weave Structure Multi-Layer Bulletproof Flexible Armor. In: The 3rd conference of the National Campaign for Textile Industries, NRC Cairo, “Recent Manufacturing Technologies and Human and Administrative Development”; 2015; Cairo, p. 218–225.  McQueer PS. Woman’s bullet resistant undergarment. US20110277202A1, 2011.  Mellian SA. Body Armor for Women. US4183097A, 1978.  Hussein M, Parker G. Ballistic protective wear for female torso. US6281149B1, 2000.  Abtew MA, Bruniaux P, Boussu F. Development of adaptive bust for female soft body armour using three dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics: Three dimensional (3D) design process. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering [Internet]. 2017;254:052001. Available from: https://iopscience.iop. org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/254/5/052001 doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/254/5/052001  Boussu F, Bruniaux P. Customization of a lightweight ballistic vest for the female form. In: Sparks E, editor. Advances in military textiles and personal equipment. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing; 2012. p. 167–195. 30 www.textile-leather.com
 Mahbub R, Wang L, Arnold L. Design of knitted three-dimensional seamless female body armour vests. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education. 2014;7(3): 198–207.  Abtew MA, Bruniaux P, Boussu F, Loghin C, Cristian I, Chen Y et al. Female seamless soft body armor pattern design system with innovative reverse engineering approaches. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology [Internet]. 2018;98(9-12):2271–2285. Available from: https://link. springer.com/article/10.1007/s00170-018-2386-y doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-2386-y  Abtew MA, Bruniaux P, Boussu F, Loghin C, Cristian I, Chen Y. Development of comfortable and wellfitted bra pattern for customized female soft body armor through 3D design process of adaptive bust on virtual mannequin. Computers in Industry. 2018;100:7–20.  Abtew MA, Bruniaux P, Boussu F, Loghin C, Cristian I, Chen Y et al. A systematic pattern generation system for manufacturing customized seamless multi-layer female soft body armour through domeformation (moulding) techniques using 3D warp interlock fabrics. Journal of Manufacturing Systems. 2018;49:61–74.
MARASOVIC P, KOPITAR D, Overview and perspective of nonwoven agrotextile TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 32-45.
Overview and perspective of nonwoven agrotextile Paula MARASOVIC1, Dragana KOPITAR2* PhD student, University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia *email@example.com
Scientific review UDC 677.076.4 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.23 Received 21 December 2018; Accepted 12 February 2019; Published Online 12 February 2019; Published 8 March 2019
ABSTRACT Agrotextile belongs to one of the twelve sectors of technical textiles covering textile products with application in agriculture, horticulture, cattle breeding and aquaculture as well in agro engineering. The significance of agrotextiles can be stated substantial all over the world since it has been proven to be very versatile and cost effective materials. Nonwoven agrotextiles are innovative products with special structural performances designed for agricultural applications and practices such as weed control, wind protection, frost cover fabric that is used for adjustment of weather conditions from the sudden changing of temperature and seasonal changes. Furthermore, common application of nonwoven agrotextiles are for reducing the sun radiation as well as thermal protection of plants as shade cloth, furthermore for preventing insect and other pests on crops, preventing soil drainage and sediment creation. All over the world, applications of nonwoven agrotextiles products in agriculture have shown great positive impacts on growth, production and protection of various crops and vegetables. Many studies have been proving that nonwoven agrotextile covers accelerate the growth and development of seedlings as well as their nutritive values. By preventing weed growth and insect protection, the use of herbicides and pesticides are reduced. Agrotextiles made of natural fibres can be considered as a potential candidate for replacing some of todayâ€™s popular synthetic agrotextiles which are becoming ecologically less acceptable nowadays. Usage of agrotextiles is one of the growing alternatives in todayâ€™s context with respect to the increase in global population thus food quantity and food quality and in the same time growing environmental concern. Sustainable socio-economic development considers natural fibre usage in agrotextile production in all possible areas covered by agrotextile application. The main purpose of the review is to give an overview and importance of nonwoven agrotextiles with indication of nonwoven agrotextile perspective in future. KEYWORDS Nonwoven agrotextiles, frost protection, pest control, yield, dry matter, chemical composition
INTRODUCTION Food is one of the main human needs that is constantly increasing, depending on the increasing world population. In many developed countries, agricultural activities, as well as the amount of cultivable land and workers are declining while the food security has become one of the major concerns of the governments as result of increasing population, declining agricultural activities, and climate changes . Over the past 40 years, food production productivity is growing due to development of genetic resources, increased use 32 www.textile-leather.com
MARASOVIC P, KOPITAR D, Overview and perspective of nonwoven agrotextile TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 32-45.
of pesticides and mineral nutrients as well agricultural mechanization development, which resulted with increased fossil fuels consummation. Although food production productivity increased, stated above has a negative impact on the environment and represents a serious threat to the environment and future food production. Reducing the impact of the food system on the environment is becoming more significantly. The potential for food production in the future will be affected by the growing competition in land, water and energy exploitation and the demand for reducing the impact of the food system on the environment. The relationship between supply and demand for food production in the world is unbalanced. Thus, over the last five decades, grain production has more than doubled as a result of world population growth, while the global land size for cultivated agriculture has increased only by 9% . Agriculture should innovate and increase competitiveness and supply by giving the benefits of more cost-effective public goods on the market. In order to feed the growing world population, the only option is to intensify environmentally friendly and sustainable agriculture. The concept of ‘‘sustainable agriculture’’ has come into existence due to the gradual decrease in natural resources and the steady increase in the world’s population. The goal of sustainable agriculture is to meet society’s food and textile needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs . Until 2015, more than 800 million people remain food insecure, and the outlook of food is more and more in doubt. For example, to meet expected demand, cereal production will have to boost by nearly 50% from 2000 to 2030. The increase in food demand and need is the result of the mutual effects of world inhabitants’ expected growth to over nine billion by 2050, rising incomes, and dietary changes towards higher meat intake. Innovations can be simple, such as changes in crop production, or more complex, such as developing a new business model with different manufacturing technologies to meet different needs (e.g. higher productivity, better quality of food in terms of better taste, smell or colour) [4-8]. The use of textile fabrics (agrotextiles) in agriculture gives significant benefits to the environment which is explained by carbon footprint, i.e. the reduction of total greenhouse gas emissions. Beside reduction of total greenhouse gas emissions, application of agrotextiles also reduces usage of herbicides and pesticides and improves crop plants quality . Textile fabrics, so called agrotextiles, have a long history of use in agriculture. In their simplest form, textiles have been used in agronomy for thousands of years to protect plants, as well as animals, against extreme conditions [1, 2]. By agriculture developing, development of agrotextile production and its application is expanding as well. The agrotextiles improves plant and crops growth. Used mainly in planted areas, provides weed suppression and ground moisture conservation, whilst allowing roots to breathe and water, air and nutrients to permeate through. This reduces upkeep, maintains higher soil temperatures and promotes more rapid and even plant growth. Today, besides the protection of seeds and crops, agrotextiles are also used for weed control and for shades to provide thermal protection, or reduce the intensity of light and heat [10, 11]. Generally, the use of agrotextiles leads to products with enhanced quality, higher yields, and less damage. Agrotextiles are increasingly being used in horticulture and farming due to several agricultural purposes, such as protection from hail, rain, wind, weeds, and insects. Hail protection textile fabrics are lightweight nettings that are tough, rip-resistant, and highly stable to exposure to ultraviolet radiations used to protect crops from damage such as defoliation. The wind-control fabrics can improve the quality of the plant by minimizing bruising and shoot-tip scorching. Textile fabrics made of polypropylene monofilament strands, in both woven and knitted forms, are used to serve as sunshades for plantation of flowers, ornamental plants and fruits. Thermal screens, on the other hand, are generally used to maintain the temperature inside the greenhouse whereas the use of insect screen restrict the damages caused by the insects or pests to the plants inside the greenhouse. Every plant has its own individual optimum requirements. By providing the right balance with the correct choice of covering www.textile-leather.com 33
MARASOVIC P, KOPITAR D, Overview and perspective of nonwoven agrotextile TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 32-45.
Figure 1. Agrotextiles [12-14]
material or its combination, therefore, the optimum climatic conditions are created inside the greenhouses under which the plant’s productivity is maximized. Agrotextiles reduce usage of weed killers and pesticides, reducing various hazards and environmental pollution . It is favoured by landscape architects for its unrivalled performance, quality and price. Due to wide range of agrotextiles, it is easy to select suitable covering materials to use it in greenhouse applications, agriculture, horticulture, industries, homes and many other areas [15, 16]. The term “agrotextiles” is used to categorize the woven, nonwoven and knitted fabrics, mesh or foil used for growing, harvesting, and storage of either crops or animals, livestock protection, shading, weed and insect control, and extension of the growing season . Agrotextiles can be divided according to the production process, application area and product categorization. In the application field, agrotextile is divided into agri34 www.textile-leather.com
culture applications (crop farming), horticulture, floristry and forestry, agrotextiles for cattle breeding and aquaculture. To produce agrotextiles, several production processes are used, where each of the processes provides specific structures and functions required for intended application [1, 17]. For agrotextile production natural and man-made fibres can be used. Among man-made fibres, polyolefin fibres are extensively used apart from small quantities of polyamide and polyester fibres. The jute, wool, coir, sisal, flax and hemp fibres are the representative of natural fibres. Man-made fibres are widely used for agrotextiles production due to their high strength, durability and other suitable properties. On the other hand natural fibre based agrotextiles not only serve the specific purpose but also after some year degrade and act as natural fertilizers. Though man-made fibres are preferred for agrotextiles than the natural fibres, mainly due to their favourable price performance ratio, light weight with high strength and long service life, but natural fibres can be used in agrotextiles in some specific arena where characteristics like high moisture retention, wet strength and biodegradability are effectively exploited. Regarding the types of agrotextiles available on the market, agrotextiles are divided into: woven, nonwoven, knit, mesh, foil and knotted . Woven and nonwoven structures are generally used for ground covers, mulch mats, shades, while braided and woven structures are used for sapling bags. The warp knitted structures are used for screens, nets and packaging materials, while knotting technique is used for manufacturing fishing nets. Warp knitted protective nets are produced on raschel machines and widely used in different sectors. Woven agrotextiles are used for ground cover, sunscreen fabrics, and other horticulture applications. A recently developed weaving machine called the â€˜Power Leno Techniqueâ€™ is used to produce stable, open mesh, lightweight woven construction with high productivity. Tailor-made agrotextiles can be manufactured by using suitable fibres type and method of production . It is up to us to design products to improve agronomic, ecological and economic aspects with respect to their use. The perspectives of nonwoven agrotextiles used in agriculture are most favourable because of low production prices, versatility of possible designed properties as well as usage of both, natural and manmade fibres . For mentioned reason, in paper special emphasis is put on nonwoven agrotextiles used in agriculture.
Nonwoven agrotextile With the development and improvements made in the production technologies, nonwoven agrotextiles are gaining more and more advantage towards traditional agrotextiles . Nonwoven agrotextiles are used effectively for optimizing the productivity of crops, gardens, and greenhouses. Some examples where nonwovens are used are as crop covers, plant protection, seed blankets, weed control fabrics, green house shading, root control bags, biodegradable plant pots, capillary matting, landscape fabric, lawn coverings, bio based and compostable nonwovens for multi season mulching and other short-term and long-term agricultural applications . Nonwoven fabrics presents many advantages over conventional fabrics with one main clearest benefit, cost savings. Properties of nonwoven agrotextiles depend on the fibres made of and on the type and conditions of production.
Nonwoven agrotextile fibres Nonwoven agrotextile can be made from natural or man-made fibres, and their blends. As a natural fibre, jute is mostly used, while polypropylene is the most common choice for nonwoven agrotextile made from man-made fibres.
Figure 2. Nonwoven agrotextiles [20-22]
Biodegradable products created from raw materials which grow in nature and are renewable have an inherent advantage over products that need to be initially synthesized and later either incinerated or throw in landfills at the end of their life cycle. Environmentally friendly goods - starting from the generation of a raw material, manufacture and use through to the distribution and disposal of the products are non-toxic and of low environmental impact . Jute-based agrotextiles, their properties and some important case studies have been showcased for sustainable eco-friendly agricultural applications after prolonged use. The natural degradation of the jute-based material with soil enriches fertility of the soil apart from its unique behaviour during its service life. Hence, this sustainability of soil health using jute-based agrotextiles is another important aspect apart from its conventional plastic material application in agriculture . Jutenonwovens are used nowadays as agricultural textile due to its superior mechanical and functional properties, ease of availability, ease of processability, environmental compatibility, recyclability, and biodegradability . The use of jute nonwoven agrotextile have a lot of advantages and benefits, which is proved by many studies. Blending of polypropylene with jute makes the nonwoven fabrics bulkier, stronger, tougher and more flexible. Agrotextile mainly used for covering seeds and to protect crops from cold and frost are commonly produced from polypropylene fibres. It is the easiest and the cheapest agrotextile form which can be laid directly over vegetable crops (row cover), used for the growth of seedlings and the cultivation of vegetables in all seasons. Polyester nonwoven agrotextiles provide better physical characteristics than most polypropylene products. Polyester has higher resistance to the UV lights and due to its physical properties, it is preferred for long-term uses. 36 www.textile-leather.com
Nonwoven agrotextile production Nonwoven fabrics can be manufactured by various techniques such as needle punching, spun bonding, thermal bonding, spunlacing, etc. Needle punching and spun bonding techniques are widely used to produce nonwoven agrotextiles [26, 27]. Needle punched nonwoven is used in wide range of applications areas. The physical structure of needle punched nonwoven is very complex and therefore engineering the nonwoven according the required properties is difficult. The basic mathematical modelling of nonwoven fabric is not very successful for predicting various important fabric properties. The tensile and air permeability property of needle punched nonwoven fabric can be predicted from two different methodologiesâ€“ empirical and ANN models . The empirical relationships with the process parameters have been developed, namely, needling density and needle gauge, in order to predict the properties of needle punched nonwovens. Studies shows that an increase in needling density is influencing the fabric weight more than an increase in needle gauge. For the same needle gauge, an increase in needling density leads to a decrease in fabric weight, where needling density and needle gauge have opposite effects on fabric thickness. The higher the needling density, the smaller is the fabric thickness due to the higher number of vertical arrangements of fibres. As the thickness decreases, the thermal conductivity increases, resulting in lower thermal insulation [28, 29]. With the increase in punch density and depth of needle penetration, the mechanical properties improve initially and the after attaining optimum value, deteriorate. The ANN model for prediction of tensile properties of needle punched nonwoven is much more accurate compared to the empirical model. Prediction of tensile properties by ANN model shows considerably lower error than empirical model . Another study show significant influence of needling parameters on water absorbent capacity. The higher of depth needle penetration and needle board frequency, the higher is the compactness of fabric. A less porous structure has lower water absorptive capacity. ANOVA model allows the identification of optimal action parameters in a shorter time and with less material expenses . Jute nonwoven agrotextiles have superior mechanical properties and functional properties for various diversified applications. The needle punching process is mostly used for manufacturing nonwoven fabrics from jute fibre, where besides needle punched nonwoven technology different techniques such as stitchbonding, thermal bonding, needle punching, adhesive bonding, hydro entanglement, etc. can be manufactured. The research of influence of jute content in polypropylene/jute nonwoven fabric blend and needle density showed that water absorbency decreases with the increase in fabric weight and needling density. The water absorbency initially increases, reaching to a maximum value with the increase in jute content, and then with further increase of jute content (55%), the absorbency decreases. Highest water absorbency (720%) of the fabric can be obtained at 60% jute content level with lower needling density and lower fabric weight. Maximum fabric density can be obtained at higher fabric weight (450 g m-2), higher jute content (60%) and higher needling density (350 punches /cm2) levels . Spun bonded nonwoven fabrics are composed of continuous filaments produced by an integrated fiber spinning, web formation and bonding process. Spun bond webs offer product characteristics ranging from very lightweight and flexible structures to heavy and stiff structures. The spun bonded fabric has high and constant tensile strength in all directions and good tearing strength. Spun bonded nonwoven fabrics produced by random-lied webs exhibited better tensile and properties in the machine direction compared to cross-laid webs . The polypropylene nonwovens provide excellent resistance to tearing and stretching in both production directions.
Agrotextiles require suitable tensile strength and good permeability characteristics with no significant deterioration under the influence of weather changes and UV radiation. The research showed that the properties of polypropylene spun bonded row cover change when radiated with UV light. After being subject to UV light, tensile, tearing and bursting properties worsen while air permeability and water vapour show little increase . The changes in the properties are a consequence of changes in fibres, molecular and supramolecular structure, which is exhibited in changed fibres and consequently also nonwoven properties.
Effects of nonwoven agrotextile Effect of nonwoven agrotextiles on seeds germination and growth, development and yield of plants The impact of nonwoven agrotextile 10 g m-2 mass per unit area on carrot germination had no effect on total germination and germination time. The weight of leaves and foliage during early development increased but did not affect weight gain . The research can the nonwoven agrotextiles of 10 g m-2 and 17 g m-2 mass per unit area protect the radish seeds from low temperatures, spit germination has been conducted. Both covers increased temperature throughout the day with respect to the uncovered control field, increased total germination by 19% and decreased germination time by 1.3 days . The application of nonwoven polypropylene covers accelerated potato plant emergence by 2-8 days, and the growth and development of plants in the later period, and consequently, resulted in an earlier new potato harvest by up to 2-3 weeks. The study conducted to evaluate the effects of cover type (control, agro-textile or perforated plastic film) and harvest date (60 or 75 days after planting and at full physiological maturity) on the yield, of early harvest of potato showed that proportion of tuber fractions with a diameter between 4.6 and 5.5 cm and above in the total yield was found to be strongly dependent on cover type. The proportion of these fractions was significantly lower under plastic film than under nonwoven agrotextile. Over the 3 years cycle, high gross margins were achieved on the 60th and 75th days after planting with perforated film and nonwoven agrotextile . Covering with polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile provided significantly higher early and marketable yield of kohlrabi and sweet pepper in comparison to the non-covered control field [37, 38]. Furthermore, seed of cucumber covered with polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile of 17 g m-2 improved the growth and development of plants from seeds . Author Cerne states that the early yield of cucumber for acidification was 10% to 25% higher and a total yield were of 8% to 15% higher under nonwoven agrotextiles regarding the uncovered control field . Using polypropylene agrotextile resulted in an increase in total yield of zucchini for 26.7% to 44% with respect to non-covered field . Also, highest yield of garlic was obtained using nonwoven agrotextile in the second and third years of its growth . Covering by nonwoven agrotextiles have a positive effect on the yield in lettuce. The highest weight of the lettuce was obtained by covering with the polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile related to the control field that was not covered . Furthermore, the yield of three lettuce cultivars (Tainá, Babá de Verão and Verônica) covered direct-on-the plant and with nonwoven polypropylene tunnel with height of 0.5 m showed that the best yield performance and higher productivity was observed when the lettuce cultivars were grown in low tunnel, regardless of the cultivar . Covering the red lettuce by nonwoven agrotextile with mass per unit area of 10 g m-2 and 17 g m-2 with respect to the uncovered lettuce showed that covered plants had grown faster and reached maturity earlier. The lettuce covered with nonwoven agrotextile mass per unit area of 17 g m-2 were 1.4 times harder than those covered with nonwoven agrotextile with mass per unit area of 10 g m-2 . 38 www.textile-leather.com
Tomatoes grown under slitted clear polyethylene or polypropylene nonwoven fabric row covers were compared to those with no protection for the effect on yield. Both covers significantly increased early yield in terms of fruit numbers and weight, but no differences were observed in total yields. The results from this study indicate that early tomato yield may be enhanced with the use of row covers . The influence of agrotextiles on the growth and yield of sweet corn was studied. By covering sweet corn plants with polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile of mass per unit area of 17 g m-2 significantly reduced harvest time in warmer years (for 8 days) and slightly less in colder years (5 days). It has also been observed that corn seedlings covered with nonwoven agrotextiles grew better in colder years. Agrotextile covering significantly increased the yield and a larger number of corn pips per plant . Effect of nonwoven agrotextiles on plants frost protection, pest and weed control The use of nonwoven agrotextiles can help to extend the growing season by maintaining enough soil humidity and increasing the soil temperature, which is especially important in early spring in temperate climates. Nonwoven agrotextiles protect seeds and plants against storm, cold spells and hail damage which could lead to the complete crops loss as well as preventing from infestation. In addition, use of nonwoven agrotextiles helps in avoiding damages at plants as well as seeds from insects and birds since it works as a physical protection media . Weeds present serious problem in vegetable crops because of chemical fertilizers and frequent irrigations that help the weeds to grow vigorously . Many researches and developments has been conducted on enhancing the characteristics of nonwoven agrotextiles to protect vegetable crops in meaning of reduced need for pesticides. Numerous studies have been carried out and proved the various benefits of the nonwoven agrotextile use on different crops and in different climate areas, especially in the protection against early frost and parasites. The seed of cucumber covered with polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile of 17 g m-2 was completely protected from frost . Related to protection of three lettuce cultivar (Tainá, Babá de Verão and Verônica) against high temperatures and intensity of radiation, with three types of protection (non-protected, directon-the-plant polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile and polypropylene nonwoven tunnel with height of 0.5 m) showed that best performance were obtained by polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile in the form of low tunnel . Influence of agrotextiles on soil related to weed control and thus influence on broccoli growth and yield were study in few researches. A field experiment of different thicknesses of nonwoven jute agrotextile mulches along with other mulches on soil health, growth and productivity of broccoli was conducted. In experiment, no mulching as a control reference, 300 g m-2 to 400 g m-2 jute nonwovens mulches, rice straw and black polythene mulch were used. The results show that mulching is beneficial over no mulching, where mulching with jute nonwovens over rice straw and black polythene increase moisture content, organic C, available N, P and K contents and microbial population of soil, reducing weed population and thereby enhancing the growth and yield of broccoli. The jute nonwoven mulch of 350 g m-2 provided the most favourable soil condition compared to other mulches . The effects of various jute agrotextiles strength on yield and yield components of broccoli as well the changes of physical and chemical soil properties and soil moisture content, have been investigated with five different agrotextile masses per unit area. Moisture use efficiency (avg. 38.15% over control) of soil was significantly higher under increasing strength of jute agrotextiles. All the jute agrotextiles found to be much effective in increasing number of fruit/plants, size, weight thus yield of the crop over control along with the sharp improvement of soil structure, porosity, water holding capacity, fertility status as well as the
organic matter content of soil. The agrotextiles improved the moisture use efficiency of the broccoli . The protection of organic white cabbage by various technique were investigated in the early, summer and autumn seasons. Techniques of protection include treatment with neem plant extract (Azadirachta indica), potassium soap, poison bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki, parasitic or Trichogramma evanescens and covering with nonwoven agrotextiles. Obtained results were compared with conventional pesticide protection agents. The best protection of early harvest were obtained using nonwoven textiles mass per unit area of 17g m-2, summer crops were best protected using nonwoven agrotextile, neemah extract and one application of parasitic or Trichogramma evanescens, while the best autumn protection was obtained by using plant extracts neema (Azadirachta indica) . Protecting the red lettuce by covering with nonwoven agrotextile with mass per unit area of 10 g m-2 and 17 g m-2 with respect to the uncovered plants against the plant bugs and aphids was complete. By removing nonwoven agrotextile, plants were attacked by parasites, but the damage was 5.5 times lower than that of uncovered plants . The impact of nonwoven agrotextile on carrot protection against the parasite Listronotus oregonensis showed that damage to pest infestation decreased from 65% to 75%, and in years with small to mediumsized pest infestation, it could eliminate the use of insecticides in protection purpose against parasites . The radish has a short season for sowing directly to the ground and research has been conducted to investigate how the 10 g m-2 and 17 g m-2 polypropylene nonwoven agrotextiles can protect crops from insects . The study showed that nonwoven agrotextiles completely excluded the cabbage worms Delia radicum L. and significantly reduced the beetles of Phyllotreta spp. by 60% with respect to the uncovered control field . Effect of nonwoven agrotextiles on dry matter and chemical composition of plants Many studies have been proving that agrotextile covers accelerate nutritive values of vegetables. In addition to all the benefits of using agrotextiles, like frost protection, parasites protection, yield and germination enhancements, some conducted research shown beneficial impact of improving dry matter and chemical composition of plants by using nonwoven agrotextile . Covering by nonwoven agrotextiles have a positive effect on the amount of vitamin C in lettuce. The smallest amount of vitamin C was obtained in lettuce covered with polyethylene foil while the largest amount of vitamin C was measured using combination of black polyethylene foil and nonwoven agrotextile . Furthermore, fresh and dry mass of the aerial part of three lettuce cultivars (Tainá, Babá de Verão and Verônica) with three types of plant covering (non-covered, covered direct-on-the-plant with nonwoven polypropylene agrotextile and covered by nonwoven polypropylene agrotextile tunnel with height of 0.5 m) were investigated. The use of nonwoven polypropylene agrotextile in the form of low tunnel, regardless of the cultivar, provided higher content of fresh and dry matter . Different types of agrotextiles for covering, namely black polyethylene foil, white polyethylene foil, black polyethylene foil in combination with polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile and white polyethylene foil with polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile, also have a total positive impact on the nutrient content in lettuce. The highest proportion of K, Mg, Mn and Fe was recorded in lettuce covered with white polyethylene foil. The highest proportion of P was recorded by covering with black polyethylene foil and polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile. The content of Zn in lettuce covered only with polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile or black polyethylene foil were even [45, 46]. Covering kohlrabi with polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile resulted in less dry matter, reducing total sugars with little effect on the vitamin C level .
The effects of cover type (control, nonwoven agrotextile or perforated plastic film) and harvest date (60 or 75 days after planting and at full physiological maturity) on the quality of early harvest potato cultivation were investigated. The cultivated potato under nonwoven agrotextile tubers were found to contain higher amounts of dry matter and starch than those which were not covered . Growing potato under tubers covered by nonwoven agrotextile increase in dry matter, potassium and phosphorus content and a decreased nitrate concentration . Determination of the agrotextile covering effect on the dry matter content and organic compounds in sweet pepper fruit during three years of experiment showed that sweet pepper fruit in the control field had the highest average dry matter content. The fruit of sweet pepper plants grown without protective cover contained greater amounts of L-ascorbic acid. Polypropylene nonwoven covers had no effect on the concentrations of total and reducing sugars .
DISCUSSION Nonwoven agrotextile can be produced from natural or man-made fibres and their blends. Nonwoven can be manufactured by various techniques, where needle punching and spun bonding processes are mostly used. As a natural fibre, jute is mostly used, while polypropylene is the most common choice for nonwoven agrotextiles made from man-made fibres. Nowadays, agrotextile made of jute and other biodegradable fibres are developing due to superior mechanical and functional properties, availability and processability, environmental compatibility, recyclability and biodegradability. Natural degradation of the natural-based material enriches health and fertility of the soil. Usage of biodegradable materials for agrotextile production gives benefits to environment since they are environmentally friendly, non-toxic and has low impact on environment. Agrotextile used for seeds and crops protection from cold and frost, are commonly produced from polypropylene fibres. It is the cheapest agrotextile form which can be laid directly over vegetable crops or be in a tunnel form, mainly used for the growth of seedlings and the cultivation of vegetables in all seasons. Nonwoven agrotextiles can be used to accelerate seed germination and growth of plants, giving earlier harvest and higher yield. In the spring time, when seeds are sown or plants planted, the temperature is not reached the optimum for seed germination or plant grow, therefore, covering seeds and/or plants with nonwoven agrotextile helps to increase the air and soil temperature to optimum which leads to faster seeds germination and plants grow. Impact of different nonwoven agrotextile on total seed germination and time of seed germination (carrot, radish) as well as acceleration of potato plant development showed no or little impact, i.e. it increased total radish seeds germination by 19% and time by 1.3 days. Since there are not too many studies about different seed germination acceleration, it should probably investigate more. Many studies show increase of early harvest and yield of different vegetables (potato, kohlrabi, sweet pepper, cucumber, zucchini, lettuce, tomato, sweet corn) showed that covering plants with any type of agrotextiles positively effect of early harvest, yield and vegetables development. The total yield of vegetables is influenced by higher and more even temperature (regarding to the lower temperature during the nights and higher temperature during the days) under the nonwoven agrotextiles. Low temperatures in growing period slowing down photosynthesis which resulting in poor growth and lower yields. Covering with nonwoven agrotextiles in growing period (for most of the plants in May and June) the temperatures under agrotextiles are higher, giving higher yield of vegetables. These advantages decreased as the season progressed since agrotextile cover increasing temperatures over the optimum (even over 30Â°C). Type of agrotextiles and method of covering (direct-on-the plant or low tunnel) on different cultivars early harvest and yield should be explore, more since there are contradictory studies which are not mutually comparable.
The use of nonwoven agrotextiles help in extending the growing season by maintaining enough soil humidity and increasing the soil temperature, protecting seeds and plants against storm, cold spells and hail damage. Usage of agrotextiles preventing plants from infestation, helping in avoiding damages at plants and seeds from insects and birds since. In that meaning, usage of pesticides is reduced. In order to protect plants from climate influence and to control pest and weed different technique were studied. Even covering with cheapest form of agrotextile, polypropylene nonwoven agrotextile of 17 g m-2, can protect plants from frost, parasites, worms, plant bugs and aphids completely. Few studies have been dealing with influence of covering with agrotextile on dry matter and chemical composition of plants. It was found that covering with nonwoven agrotextile accelerate dry mass of the aerial part, amount of vitamin C and, depending on type of agrotextile, it increase proportion of K, Mg, Mn, Fe, P and Zn. Also, covering potato with agrotextile tubers, increase amounts of dry matter, starch, potassium and phosphorus content and a decreased nitrate concentration. Contradictory study of covering kohlrabi and sweet pepper with nonwoven agrotextile resulted in less dry matter, reducing total sugars with little effect on the vitamin C level in kohlrabi and organic compounds in sweet pepper. The general conclusion drawn from the reports of several researcher is that too high temperatures decelerate chemical composition of plants and under certain conditions inhibit photosynthesis. It is obvious that influence of plant covering with agrotextiles on dry matter and chemical composition must be explore more, combining right time (regard to temperatures), type of agrotextiles and type of covering (direct-onthe plant or low tunnel).
CONCLUSION Vegetables covered with nonwoven agrotextiles germinate and grew faster, each earlier maturity than uncovered plants. The total yields and plant heights are higher as well as leaf areas and number of leaves are greater when plants are grown under nonwoven agrotextiles compared to non-covered plants. Nonwoven agrotextiles can reduce insect pests and birds damage on vegetables and protect vegetables against low temperature, wind and frost. Nonwoven agrotextiles have many positive effects on the growth of vegetables, but still according to several researchers it has some negative effects on dry matter and chemical composition of vegetables. The influence of plant covering with agrotextiles on dry matter and chemical composition must be explore more, combining right time (regard to temperatures), type of agrotextiles and type of covering (direct-on-the plant or low tunnel).
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SIVAKUMAR V et al, Alternative methods for Salt free / Less salt short term... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 46-52.
Alternative methods for Salt free / Less salt short term preservation of hides and skins in leather making for sustainable development – A review Venkatasubramanian SIVAKUMAR1*, Resmi MOHAN1, Chellappa MURALIDHARAN2 CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Chemical Engineering Department, Adyar, Chennai, India *firstname.lastname@example.org 2 CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Tannery Division, CLRI, Adyar, Chennai, India 1
Professional review UDC 675.02 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.19 Received 04 February 2019; Accepted 04 March 2019; Published 08 March 2019
ABSTRACT During the leather processing, large quantities of the salt as sodium chloride, about 30-50 % (% w/w on raw weight) is applied for short term preservation of hides and skins, which subsequently leaches out from the skins/hides and end up in waste streams. This raises a serious environmental concern as well as total dissolved solids (TDS) problem in the wastewater, for which there is no viable treatment method available. Remediation measures such as Reverse Osmosis (RO) or Ultra Filtration (UF) could only separate salt from these waste streams and end up as salt sludge, which necessitates Secured Land Fill (SLF) for disposal option. There are some concerns for SLF as it requires Land area as well as possible leaching due to highly soluble nature of Sodium chloride. Therefore, there is a pressing need for developing an alternative methods for Salt free / Less salt short term preservation of hides and skins. In this regard, Research and Development work is being carried out worldwide and several reports are available. Therefore, it would be beneficial to review and analyze the salt free alternative preservation methods. Even though, some reviews on this topic has been reported earlier, they have not taken into account the patent literature available on this subject. The present paper reviews various alternative methods for Salt free / Less salt short term preservation of hides and skins, taking into account both patent and other publications on this subject. KEY WORDS Alternative methods, salt free, less salt, short term preservation, hides, skins, leather processing, total dissolved solids (TDS), environment, salt pollution, eco-benign
INTRODUCTION The objective of leather processing is to convert putrescible raw skin/hide into useful material called leather by the process called ‘tanning’. There is a need for short term preservation of raw hide/ skins called as curing, essentially required during transport or temporary storage of raw stock prior to tanning process. The objective of curing is to preserve the raw skin/hide temporarily against the microbial attack. The application of common salt in curing process works on the principle of dehydration. Generally, the principle of dehydration of skin/hide is employed to bring the water content from 60% to 25% to control the bacterial action, as their activities are known to be retarded in lower moisture content. Conventionally, about 30-50
SIVAKUMAR V et al, Alternative methods for Salt free / Less salt short term... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 46-52.
% (% w/w on raw weight) of sodium chloride is applied on the flesh side of the skin/hide as a curing method which can bring down the moisture content to the required level by osmotic process . During the leather processing, large quantities of the salt that has been used for short term preservation are leached out from the skins/hides. This raises serious environmental concerns as well as total dissolved solids (TDS) problem in the wastewater, for which there is no viable treatment method available. Remediation measures such as Reverse Osmosis (RO) or Ultra Filtration (UF) could only separate salt from these waste streams and end up as salt sludge, which necessitates Secured Land Fill (SLF) for disposal option. There are some concerns for SLF as it requires land area as well as possible leaching due to highly soluble nature of Sodium chloride. Eco-benign alternatives attempted so far, for salt-free based preservation methods have not provided successful commercial viability. Even though some reviews on this topic have been reported , they have not taken in to account of patent literature available on this subject. The present paper reviews various alternative methods for Salt free / Less salt short term preservation of hides and skins, taking into account both patent and other publications. The limitations and drawbacks associated with each alternative method have been analyzed.
Approaches towards the development of alternative salt free preservation There are several approaches towards development of alternative salt free preservation listed below: a. Alternative non-toxic chemicals to salt b. Use of Eco-benign materials c. Use of Natural materials d. Application of Electromagnetic waves e. Use of Drying methods Hence, available literature on alternative salt free preservation methods mostly fall in any one of the above listed methods. Mechanism of short-term preservation of hides and skins Mechanism for short-term preservation of hides and skins shall be broadly classified as follows, a. Bacteriostatic action: due to dehydration of water present in hides and skins from 60% to 25%. b. Antimicrobial Effect: due to Interaction of preservative agents with Bacteria or Enzymes present in hides and skins.
Patent Literature on the Salt free and Less salt short term preservation Brosse et al.  have provided the use of superabsorbent polymers for treating raw skins, corresponding compositions, methods and resulting treated skins. The drawbacks are the product of polymer and nonbiodegradable, which pose environmental problems. Rother et al.  have studied the use of combinations of active compounds composed of phenolic or heterocyclic active compounds and azole compounds for the preservation of animal hides and leather. The drawbacks are toxic product, which may also pose environmental problem. Bonjour et al.  filed a patent, wherein a fungicidal composition the form of an aqueous emulsion is formed from 3-iodo-2-propynyl-N-butylcarbamate (IPBC), 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB), polyoxyethylene triglyceride, polyalkylene glycol ether, xanthan gum and dipropylene glycol. The drawbacks are the invention related to the product, which has fungicides and may not be suitable for action against bacteria for preservation of skins/hides.
SIVAKUMAR V et al, Alternative methods for Salt free / Less salt short term... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 46-52.
Rother et al.  patent discusses the composition of a mixture of a phenolic compound and an azole or morpholine compound to protect animal hides and leather against microbes. The drawbacks are the toxic product, which may pose environmental problem. Bonjour et al.  a patent, whit stable aqueous fungicidal emulsion of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) and 3-iodo-2-propynyl-n-butylcarbamate (IPBC). The drawbacks are the invention related to the fungicide product, which is not suitable for action against bacteria for preservation of skins/hides. Rother, Â et al. , produced the method of using a mixture of a phenolic compound and an azole or morpholine compound to protect animal hides and leather against microbes. The drawbacks are the invention related to the toxic patent, which poses environmental problem. Relates only to the method of application of patented. Rother et al.  a patent, studied a preservation process that is environmentally safe and that prevents bacterial or enzymatic decomposition of the hides, the hides are treated with CO2 immediately after being pulled off. The drawbacks are - the invention related to the process involves operation difficulties such as sotrag, delivery and handling gas. CO2 application also affects eco-system. Munch et al.  patent, wherein the process for the short-term preservation of rawhides and skins with an alkali metal chlorite solution additionally contains compound with hydrogen or C-alkyl, hydrogen or an alkali metal atom. Because of their hydrotropic action, the addition of these compounds improves uniform penetration of the preservation solution into the hide. The drawbacks are the product containing alkali metal chlorite that could pose environmental problems. The patent by Procedes Escaiech Soc D Expl , whereinÂ processes for the dressing, partial discolouring and preservation of the natural qualities of skins, leathers, hairs and furs by treatment in an acid aqueous solution of metal salts (other than alkali and alkaline earth salts) and an alkali nitrite, aromatic phenols and amines being also present in the bath. Hydrogen peroxide or like oxidizing agent may be employed for supplementary treatment. The drawbacks are the invention related to the product utilization of toxic chemicals and liberating ammonia, which could pose environmental problems. The patent by Guenzburg Ury De , produces an improved method of preserving and tawing Skins; Tawing hides and skins, raw or tawed, and treating furs. It relates to a process of preservation or tawing of skins with or without the hair, wool, or feathers. The method serves also for bleaching the skins, wool, etc. Also to render them very suitable for dyeing. The soaked and fleshed skins, if to be depilated, are treated with nascent sulphohydrate of calcium sulphide. The hair and adhering flesh then being removed by hand or mechanically. The skins may then be tawed, and immersed in a solution of bisulphite of alumina, to which a small quantity of hydrochloric acid may be added to facilitate the liberation of hyposulphurous and sulphurous acids. The skins are drained and immersed in an ammoniac bath, which produces a white gelatinous precipitate. Neutral chromate of soda may be added to this bath. The skins are now dressed in fulling-mills with a firm paste consisting of wheaten flour, glycerine, and the residues of precipitation of the ammonia bath. The skins may subsequently be dyed and finished as desired. The drawbacks are the invention related to the process utilizing toxic chemicals such as calcium sulphide, which pose environmental problems. Sant Prasad Gautam  a device patent, wherein an apparatus and method of preservation of animal skins/ hides Â which provides an apparatus for curing of raw animal skins and hides for preservation for transportation to tannery industries comprising a lyophilizer having a drying chamber, suction pipe or pipes disposed within said chamber and connected to condenser for trapping water vapours formed in the drying chamber and a vacuum pump a frame disposed within said chamber and having means for hanging the skins and hides. The drawbacks are the patent relates to apparatus not the process/product, which involves operation difficulties. 48 www.textile-leather.com
Sivakumar et al., have filed a patent on the synergistic composition of natural products with less salt 10% for short-term preservation of hide/skins . This could minimize the use of salt to great extent.
Literature on the Salt free and Less salt short term preservation Bailey et al. studied the preservation of cattle hides with Potassium . However, the drawback is associated with its cost factor and contribution to TDS problem. The publication by Kannan et al.,  wherein salt free preservation of skins has been carried out using Poly ethylene glycol employed as the active agent. The drawbacks are the report related to the non-natural product, which could pose environmental problems. The publication by Kanth et al.,  wherein salt free preservation of skins has been carried out using Sesuvium portulacastrum (S. portulacastrum) and halophyte employment as the active agent. The drawbacks are the report related to the product itself containing salt. Since the plant material is grown only on coastal areas, the removal could lead to disturbance of eco-balance in coastal areas.Â The publication by Didato et al.,  wherein salt free preservation of skins has been carried out using Collagenase inhibitors incorporated as preservatives and employed as the active agent. The drawbacks are the report related to the product that is a chemical not based on natural product also potentially expensive. The publication by Stockman et al.,  wherein salt free preservation of skins has been carried out using antibiotics such as Doxycycline HCl and employed as the active agent. The drawbacks are the report related to the product that could pose environmental problems, health hazards and could be expensive. The publication by Bailey et al.,  wherein electron beam irradiation for preservation of cattle hides in a commercial-scale demonstration was reported. The drawbacks are the report related to the process involving the operation difficulties and health hazards due to radiation effects. The publication by Kanagaraj et al.,  wherein less salt preservation of skins has been carried out using a combination of silica gel - environmental friendlier and easy-to-treat powerful dehydrating agent and 5% salt with or without 0.1% of p-chloro meta cresol (PCMC). The drawbacks are the report related to the chemical and not a natural product. Also not eco-friendly due to chlorinated product. The publication by Kanagaraj et al.,  also discussed the approach to less-salt preservation of raw skin/hide using Silica gel. The publication by Baily  wherein salt free preservation of skins has been carried out using gamma irradiation. The drawbacks are the report related to the process involving the operation difficulties and health hazards due to radiation effects. The publication by Buechler et al.,  wherein salt free preservation of skins has been carried out using solvent. The drawbacks are the report related to the process posing health hazards due to organic solvents. The publication by Hopkins  wherein the salt free preservation of skins has been carried out using SO2. The drawbacks are the report related to the process posing health hazards due to SO2 gas. The publication by Hopkins  and Bailey & Hopkins  wherein preservation of skins has been carried out using Acid-Sulfite. The drawbacks are the report related to the not eco-friendly process, which contributes to TDS. The publication by Money  wherein report on preservation of skins with Use of Zinc Chloride or Calcium Hypochlorite as alternatives to Sodium Chlorite was made. The drawbacks are the report related to the not eco-friendly process, which contributes to TDS. The publication by Valeika et al.,  wherein report on preservation using 1% Sodium hexafluorosilicate and 5% Sodium Chloride was made. The drawbacks are the report related to the not eco-friendly process, which contributes to TDS.
Sivakumar et al.,  have studied the se of Ozone for anti-bacterial activity on raw skins and attempted as a short-term preservation method. However, the drawback is ozone that is considered as toxic chemical. Therefore, usage of natural materials with antimicrobial activity could be useful in preservation of leather as a potential viable option.
Use of Natural Materials for short-term preservation As such, there is no viable low salt (10%) alternative based on natural products. The use of natural ecobenign materials, with antimicrobial property such as Myrobalan in combination with common salt as low salt preservation as novel approach has been studied .
CONCLUSION During leather processing, large quantities of the salt employed for short-term preservation of hides and skins, pose serious environmental concerns as well as total dissolved solids (TDS) problem in the wastewater, for which there is no viable treatment method available. Remediation measures based on separation principle end up in salt sludge, which necessitates Secured Land Fill (SLF) for disposal option, which has some concerns due to highly soluble nature of Sodium chloride. Therefore, there is a pressing need for developing alternative methods for Salt free / Less salt short term preservation of hides and skins. In this regard, it would be beneficial to review and analyze the Research and Development work on salt free alternative preservation methods as reported in literature. This review paper reviews and analyzes various alternative methods for the Salt free / Less salt short term preservation, taking in to account of both patent as well as other publications. The limitations and drawbacks associated with each alternative method have been analyzed. From the review analysis, it has been found that the use of natural eco-benign materials, with antimicrobial property could be a potential viable option for the short-term preservation of hides and skins as novel approach for sustainable development.
REFERENCES  Wilson JA. Modern practice in Leather Manufacture. Madison: Rainhold Publishing Corporation; 1941. 177 p.  Kanagaraj J, Babu NK, Sadulla S, Rajkumar GS, Visalshi V, Chandrakumar N. A new approach to less-salt preservation of raw skin/hide. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association. 2000 95(10):360368.Â Â  Brosse J, Sabatier B. Use of superabsorbent polymers for treating raw skins corresponding compositions and methods and resulting treated skins. United States patent. 2005 Nov. 15. Patent No. US6964745B1.  Rother HJ, Kugler M, Rehbein H. Combination of active substances. United States patent. 2002 Apr. 23. Patent No. US6375861B1.  Bonjour A, Blanco GD, Canoura CH, Graham SD. Method of preparing fungicidal composition emulsions. United States patent. 2000 Nov. 21. Patent No. 6149930.  Rother HJ, Kugler M, Rehbein H. Composition of a mixture of a phenolic compound and an azole or morpholine compound to protect animal hides and leather against microbes. United States patent. 2000 Jul. 4. Patent No. 6083414.
 Bonjour A, Blanco GD, Canoura CH, Graham SD, Smith RE. Stable aqueous fungicidal emulsion of 2(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole and 3-iodo-2 propynyl-n-butylcarbamate. United States patent. 1999 Jun.15. Patent No. 5912004.  Rother HJ, Kugler M, Rehbein H. Method of using a mixture of a phenolic compound and an azole or morpholine compound to protect animal hides and leather against microbes. United States patent. 1999 Mar.30. Patent No. 5888415.  Endlweber H. Preserving animal hides. United States patent. 1991 Jan 15. Patent No. US Patent – 4985039.  Miinch N, Fuchs K. Process for short-term preservation or rawhides and skins. United States Patent. 1990 jun.19; Patent Number: 493503.  The European patent Procedes Escaiech Soc D Expl. Processes for the dressing, partial discolouring and preservation of the natural qualities of skins, leathers, hairs and furs. 1935. GB429252 (A).  The European patent Guenzburg Ury De. An improved method of preserving and tawing skins. 1898. [Fr] GB189806638.  Gautam SP. An apparatus and method of preservation of animal skins/hides. The European patent. 2011. WO2011067780 (A1).  Sivakumar V, Rangasamy T, Muralidharan C. A synergistic composition for short-term preservation of raw hides/skins for application in leather industry and a process for the preparation thereof. Indian Patent, Ref. No. 0086NF2014, 04.07.2014.  Bailey DG. Preservation of cattle hides with Potassium chloride. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association. 1995 90(1):13.  Kannan KC, Kumar MP, Rao JR, Nair BU. A novel approach towards preservation of skins. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association. 2010 105:360-368.  Kanth S, Keerthi S, Selvi A, Saravanan P, Rao J, Nair B. Studies on the use of Sesuvium Portulacastrum. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association. 2009 104(1):25-32.  Didato DT, Steele SR, Stockman GB, Bailey DG. Recent developments in the short-term preservation of cattle hides. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association. 2008 103:383–392.  Stockman G, Didato D, Hurlow E. Antibiotics in Hide Preservation and Bacteria Control. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association.2007 102(2):62-67.  Bailey DG, DiMaio GL, Gehring AG, Ross GD. Electron beam irradiation preservation of cattle hides in a commercial-scale demonstration. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association. 2001 95(10):368.  Kanagaraj J, Babu NK, Sayeed, Sadulla, Rajkumar GS, Visalakshi V et al. New approach to less-salt preservation of raw skin/hide. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association. 2000 95:368-374.  Baily DG. Gamma radiation preservation on cattle hides. A new twist on an old story. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association. 1999 94(7):259.  Buechler PR, Fisher JS, Matthew PD, Hannigan MV. Solvent preservation of pigskins. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association. 1987 82(7):200.  Hopkins WJ. Hides preserved with low levels of sulfur dioxide. The effect of reduced temperatures and added salts on extending preservation. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association. 1983 78(12):356.  Hopkins WJ, Diefendory E, Bailey DG, Feairheller SH. A preliminary evaluation of the acid-sulfite preservation of pigskin. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association. 1983 78(5):120.
 Bailey DG, Hopkins WJ. Cattle hide preservation with sodium sulfite and acetic acid. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association. 1977 72(9):334-339.  Money CA. Short-term preservation of hides. The use of zinc chloride or calcium hypochlorite as alternatives to sodium chlorite. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association 1974 69:112-120.  Valeika V, Beleska K, Mikulyte S, Valeikiene V. Short-term preservation of hide/skin as an approach to greener process. In: Proceedings of ISER International Conference; 3rd-4th Sep 2017; Buenos Aires, Argentina. 2017. P. 10-13.  Sivakumar V, Balakrishnan PA, Muralidharan C, Swaminathan G. Use of Ozone as A Disinfectant for Raw Animal Skins—Application as Short-Term Preservation in Leather Making, Ozone: Science & Engineering. 2010 32(6):449-455.  Sivakumar V, Mohan R, Rangasamy T, Muralidharan C. Antimicrobial activity of Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retz.) nuts: Application in raw skin preservation for leather making. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 2016 7(1):65-68.
12th International Conference TZG 2019 - Textile Science and Economy… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 53-54.
12th International Conference TZG 2019 - Textile Science and Economy 2019 French-Croatian Forum Editorial Notice
12th International Conference TZG 2019 - Textile Science and Economy 2019 French-Croatian Forum was held on January 23rd and 24th 2019 in organization of Faculty of Textile Technology University of Zagreb. This year’s conference co-organizers were the Zagreb Innovation Centre (ZICER), the Embassy of France in Zagreb (Ambassade de France en Croatie, Ministère del’Europe et des affaires étrangères) and Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles (ENSAIT) in partnership with Suvremena.hr and Croatian Employers’ Association. The conference was also in the official program of marking 350 years of founding of University of Zagreb. The participants of the conference were scientists and businesspersons not only from France, but also from many Francophone countries, including Canada, Belgium, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Romania and neighbouring Italy, Slovenia and Macedonia. The sponsors of the conference were the President of the Republic of Croatia, the Croatian Chamber of Commerce, the Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts, the Ministry of Science and Education, the Ministry of Economy, Entrepreneurship and Crafts, the Ministry of Labour and Pension System, the Croatian Employers’ Association, the Croatian Academy of Engineering, Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts, the Croatian Office for Sports, Croatian Network of Croatian Professionals in Paris (CPP), the Textile & Leather Review, Bernarda Ltd, Splendor Tekstil Ltd, Odjela Ltd, Belina Ltd, Regeneracija Zabok Ltd, Varteks Ltd, Tvim-Tonkovic Ltd, Citroen Hrvatska, Kap-ko Ltd, Zito Ltd - Good brand, Coca-Cola HBC Croatia, Kras Ltd. The conference was opened by Frane Sesnic, director of ZICER, Prof. Vladan Koncar from the University of
12th International Conference TZG 2019 - Textile Science and Economy… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 53-54.
ENSAIT (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles), Roubaix, France, dean of the University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology, Prof. Gordana Pavlovic, deputy head of the City Office for Economy, Energy and Environmental Protection Toni Bilus, Rector of the University of Zagreb Prof. Damir Boras and his Excellency Philippe Meunier, Ambassador of France in Zagreb. Two plenary lectures were held. The first plenary lecture was held by Prof. Vladan Koncar from the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industries Textiles (ENSAIT) France, and second Prof. Dominique Charles Gaston Adolphe of the University of Haute-Alsace (UHA) and the Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Ingénieurs Sud Alsace (ENSISA), France. The invited lectures were held by the President and Chief Executive Officer of the CTT Group from Canada, Phd. Jacek Mlynarek and Damir Tomicic and Maja Relic from Kelteks d.o.o. Lectures were also held by Alan Durek from Regeneracija Ltd., Davor Domijan presented by the Society of Croatian Professionals in Paris (CPP), Antoine Salatovic of Sara Couture Paris, Matej Celega in front of Start-up Factory Zagreb, Executive Director of Strategic Development and Project Implementation at Sestan-Busch Ltd. Goran Basarac, MBA, Executive Director of Strategic Development and Project Implementation and Tomislav Fuckar from Belina Ltd. Boras, Grancaric and Koncar As part of a rich program, the Science and Economy Fair was held, featuring projects, business subjects, patents, innovations, business ideas and student projects. The organizer’s intent was to bring together as many scientific and research institutions as possible and economic entities and organizations within their field of activity covering any area of textile science and technology. The aim of the conference was to strengthen the textile community by bringing together and networking scientists and businessmen through presenting trends, research, technology and innovation, with the aim of promoting, exchanging information, mutual cooperation, and thus their own development and economic progress. Furthermore, the scientific and economic sectors have emphasized the need for synergies between science and economics through the concretization of cooperation, through the implementation of scientific activity in the economy. The textile sector possesses an incredibly wide range of application and implementation of textile products through almost all segments and areas of research and economic activity, emphasizing exceptional multidisciplinarity. Therefore, a message that marked the entire conference and highlighted both the scientists and the representatives of economic subjects through their presentations, is the openness and mutual cooperation of the scientific and economic sectors, and the necessity of linking more and different areas of research and action to achieve a common goal. Such an approach is the only way to carry out top science with realistic application in the economic sector. 54 www.textile-leather.com
The Autumn-Winter Collection 2019/2020 of Footwear, Accessories and Related... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 55.
The Autumn-Winter Collection 2019/2020 of Footwear, Accessories and Related Products Editorial Notice
The Autumn-Winter Collection 2019/2020 of Footwear, Accessories and Related Products, February 26th and 27th 2019, Hotel Antunovic, Zagreb The arrangement of Autumn-Winter Collection 2019/2020 of Footwear, Accessories and Related Products was successfully held on February 26th and 27th 2019 at Hotel Antunovic in Zagreb in organization of Mr. Ivan Pihler. This year’s manufacturers and wholesalers were: Company
ESTERA TRŽIČ - TAMARIS
VASADI FERENC - S.OLIVER
AMSTEP KRANJ - TOZZI
FLORIDA 1994 d.o.o.
HERGERT CIPO Bt.
ROS-RELAX ORTHO SHOES
Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 56-59.
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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 56-59.
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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 56-59.
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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV TEXT LEATH REV 2 (1) 2019 56-59.
Electronic journal article – Niculescu O, Deselnicu DC, Georgescu M, Nituica M. Finishing product for improving antifugal properties of leather. Leather and Footwear Journal [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Apr 22];17(1):31-38. Available from: http://revistapielarieincaltaminte.ro/revistapielarieincaltaminteresurse/en/ fisiere/full/vol17 -nr1/article4_vol17_issue1.pdf ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Title of Journal [Internet]. Date of publication YYYY MM [cited YYYY Mon DD];volume number(issue number):page numbers. Available from: URL Book – Hu J. Structure and mechanics of woven fabrics. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2004. 61 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of book. # edition [if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination. Edited book - Sun G, editor. Antimicrobial Textiles. Duxford: Woodhead Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier; 2016. 99 p. ▪ Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. # edition[if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year. Pagination. Chapter in a book - Luximon A, editor. Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2013. Chapter 5, Foot problems and their implications for footwear design; p. [90-114]. ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; p. [page numbers of chapter]. Electronic book – Strasser J. Bangladesh’s Leather Industry: Local Production Networks in the Global Economy [Internet]. s.l.: Springer International Publishing; 2015 [cited 2017 Feb 07]. 96 p. Available from: https://link. springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-22548-7 ▪ Author AA. Title of web page [Internet]. Place of Publication: Sponsor of Website/Publisher; Year published [cited YYYY Mon DD]. Number of pages. Available from: URL DOI: (if available) Conference paper – Ferreira NG, Nobrega LCO, Held MSB. The need of Fashion Accessories. In: Mijović B. editor. Innovative textile for high future demands. Proceedings 12th World Textile Conference AUTEX; 13-15 June 2012; Zadar, Croatia. Zagreb: Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb; 2012. p. 1253-1257. ▪ Author AA. Title of paper. In: Editor AA, editor. Title of book. Proceedings of the Title of the Conference; Date of conference; Place of Conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of Publication. p. page numbers. Thesis/dissertation – Sujeevini J. Studies on the hydro-thermal and viscoelastic properties of leather [dissertation]. Leicester: University of Leicester; 2004. 144 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Number of pages Electronic thesis/dissertation – Covington AD. Studies in leather science [dissertation on the internet]. Northampton: University of Northampton; 2010. [cited 2017 Jan 09]. Available from: http://ethos.bl.uk/ OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.579666 ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [cited YYYY abb. month DD]. Available from: URL This quick reference guide is based on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). Please consult this source directly for additional information or examples.
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