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TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER

1/2018 Volume 1 Issue 1 2018 textile-leather.com ISSN 2623-6257 (Print) ISSN 2623-6281 (Online)


Invitation Arranging the collection for spring and summer of

2019.

W

e invite all manufactures and wholesalers to arrange collection of footwear, accessories and related products for spring and summer 2019.

The arrangement will be held in Zagreb on 4th and 5th of September (Tuesday and Wednesday) 2018 at the Hotel Antunović in Zagreb, Zagrebačka avenija 100a, Croatia. We also offer the possibility of presenting this year’s collection for autumn and winter if there is any interest. This collection must be clearly marked as this year’s. Models are presented on the tables of approximate size of 1.50 m2. Table price for domestic exhibitors is 600,00 HRK + VAT. Table price for foreign exhibitors is 80,00 €. License fee is 15,00 €.

on 4 and 5 of September 2018 th

th

(Tuesday and Wednesday)

at the Hotel Antunović Zagreb

The application must be submitted by 17th August 2018 to the email address: pihler@infonik.hr Payment of the total amount is to IBAN: HR7823600001101300785 no later than 17th August 2018 Contact person – Ivan Pihler, +385 98 219 641 Organizer Ivan Pihler

For Infonik Ltd. Vladimir Dubović


FASHLETICS

BY TA M A R I S

Wo r t m a n n G r o u p , D e t m o l d · + 49. 52 31. 6 0 5 .14 4 · s a l e s @ wo r t m a n n .co m · wo r t m a n n .co m Estera d.o.o. ·   Polona Meglič ·   Loka 30 ·   SI-4290 Tržič ·   +386 41.72.15.64 ·   polona.meglic@wortmann.com


TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER Editor-in-Chief

Srećko Sertić, Seniko studio Ltd., Croatia

Editorial Board

Davor Jokić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Dragana Kopitar, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Ivana Schwarz, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Editorial Advisory Board

Tuba Bedez Üte, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Mirela Blaga, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Andrej Demšar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Krste Dimitrovski, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Ante Gavranović, Economic Analyst, Croatia Huseyin Kadoglu, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Hüseyin Ata Karavana, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Stana Kovačević, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Aura Mihai, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Abhijit Mujumdar, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India Monika Rom, University of Bielsko-Biala, Institute of Textile Engineering and Polymer Materials, Poland Pavla Těšinová, Technical university of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Czech Republic Savvas Vassiliadis, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Department of Electronics Engineering, Greece

Language Editor

Ivana Lukica, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Technical Editor/Layout Marina Sertić

Editorial Office / Publisher - Textile & Leather Review Seniko studio Ltd., Nove Rašljice 2, 10090 Zagreb, Croatia Tel: +385 1 3499 034 Fax: +385 1 3499 034 E-mail: editorial@textile-leather.com URL: www.textile-leather.com

Textile & Leather Review ‒ ISSN 2623-6257 (Print), ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) UDC 677+675 Frequency: 4 Times/Year The annual subscription (4 issues). Published by Seniko studio Ltd., Zagreb, Croatia Printed by Tiskara Zelina Ltd., Zelina, Croatia Printed in 150 copies Full-text available free of charge at www.textile-leather.com

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TEXTILE & LEATHER REVIEW ISSN 2623-6257 (Print)

ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) CROATIA

VOLUME 1

ISSUE 1 2018

p. 1-40

CONTENTS ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE 8-17 Influence of Weave and Densities on Visual Appearance of Woven Fabrics Made From Two Colored Yarns Krste Dimitrovski, Urša Grum, Klara Kostajnšek

18-28 Protective Properties of Health Care Materials Influenced by the Application Conditions Beti Rogina-Car, Dragana Kopitar, Ivana Schwarz POSITION PAPER 29-33 How to deal with new challenges? Economic, technological and social aspects of the textile and clothing industry Ante Gavranović

INDUSTRY NEWS 34-35 Galko - 25 years of tradition in leather accessories

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Letter from the Editor TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 6.

Dear Readers Introducing the first issue of Textile & Leather Review, I will take the opportunity to explain the purpose of launching. Lacking international orientation and overall willingness to keep up with current global scientific publishing trends Croatian academic publishing in the fields of textile and leather fell into disrepair. Despite that, there is still a need for new research to be carried out and published in high-quality academic journals. This existing need rests on young scientists and their fresh ideas. My main goal, as publisher, was to create a diverse community of professionals interested in textile and leather research, as well as a space for debate in the form of international peer-review journal. In order to launch the new journal I gathered young group of ambitious and skilled professionals to achieve the set goal. Also, invitation was sent to many esteemed researchers who have welcomed the idea by becoming members of Editorial Advisory Board. Textile & Leather Review will be a quarterly international peer-reviewed journal. Its primary aim will be establishment of scientific and professional communication within textile and leather related disciplines. Published articles will present original research and advances across different disciplines. Namely, materials, technology, economics and design pertaining to the textile, leather, clothing and footwear industry. Journal topics will include research of different textile materials such as fibers, yarns, textile fabrics, leather, as well as composites and other fiber-based materials for various applications. Furthermore, the focus will be on the technology and processing of textile, leather and accessories, finishing and dyeing. In addition, the Journal will welcome articles on diverse aspects such as environment, innovation, management and marketing, quality, fashion industry, textile design process and more. Textile & Leather Review will publish research and review articles providing current information with the purpose of stimulating the dissemination of research results in these fields. The variety of perspectives will provide a holistic view of the science behind textile and leather. I am pleased to present the inaugural issue of Textile & Leather Review. Sincerely yours Srećko Sertić

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SHOE.COM GMBH & CO. KG . MEMBER OF WORTMANN-GROUP F E R E NC VA S A DI / + 36 (0) 3 0 9 4 6 9 123 / F E R E NC.VA S A DI@S OL I V E R-SHOE S.C OM / S OL I V E R-SHOE S.C OM


DIMITROVSKI K, et al. Influence of Weave and Densities… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 8-17.

Influence of Weave and Densities on Visual Appearance of Woven Fabrics Made From Two Colored Yarns Krste DIMITROVSKI1*, Urša GRUM2, Klara KOSTAJNŠEK1 University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Graphic Arts and Design, Slovenia 2 Student * krste.dimitrovski@gmail.com 1

Original scientific article UDC 677.024 Received 10 April 2018; Accepted 6 June 2018

ABSTRACT The paper examines the effect of different factors, i.e. weft density, weave type and consequently agglomeration of the interlacing points of the same type, on the colour impression of a woven fabric. The experimental part is based on 60 weaved samples which differ in weave type (we used 10 different weave types in which the technical face and technical back are the same), colour of the warp (we used white and black warp) and weft density (we used yarns with densities 15, 20 and 25 yarns / cm). We measured the colour values of the woven samples. We arranged the measurements in different ways and tried to visually evaluate the effect of density, effect of weave type, also the effect of the size and shape of agglomerated interlacing points of the same type, on the colour impression of the woven fabric. The results of the colour measurements were sorted into tables and presented in graphs, which were used to find the samples within the observed groups of characteristics that showed the biggest colour differences, to calculate these colour differences and observe and explain the effect of the observed factors on the colour impression. KEYWORDS Colour impression of woven fabrics, weave type, agglomeration, colour values

INTRODUCTION One of the most important property of woven fabrics is their appearance which is affected mostly by their colour impression. Colour impression depends on different elements. Multicoloured fabrics can be made through printing processes or through weaving processes with use of differently coloured yarns. In the second case visual colour impression depends on many factors as are: the thickness of yarns, their colours, the colour sequences of warp and weft yarns, the densities of warp and weft yarns and the weave, which interact and made combination of interlacing coloured yarns on the woven fabric surface [1-7]. The paper will focus on influence of densities and weave on visual impression of woven fabrics made from one coloured warp yarns and differently coloured weft yarns. In mentioned case, the mixture of used colour on the fabric surface, was obtained. Since the appearance depends on the size and shape of areas coloured with one colour, which consisted of agglomerated interlacing points of the same colour, depending of used weaves, it was tried to researched how the weave and different weft densities influence the visual impression. For that, a colour measurements and expressed the colour differences according to colour metrics using CIE L*a*b* colour space, was used. CIE L*a*b* is the most completed and most used system for colour evalua8 www.textile-leather.com


researched how the weave and different weft densities influence the visual impression. For that, a evaluation. Presents mathematical combination of Cartesian and Cylindrical coordinate systems. evaluation. Presents mathematical combination Cartesian and Cylindrical coordinate colour measurements and expressed the colourofdifferences according to colour metricssystems. using CIE Colour is determined by the next parameters: Colour is determined by was the next DIMITROVSKI et al. Influence of Weave and Densities‌ TEXT LEATH REV 1 for (1) 2018 8-17. L*a*b* colour space, used.parameters: CIE K, L*a*b* is the most completed and most used system colour evaluation. Presents mathematical combination of Cartesian and Cylindrical coordinate systems. tion. Presents mathematical of Cartesian and Cylindrical coordinate systems. Colour is deterColour is determined by thecombination next parameters: mined by the next parameters:

Figure 1. Graphical presentation of CIE L*a*b* colour space where: L* - lightness of the colour and takes the values from 0 Figure 1. Graphical presentation of CIE L*a*b* colour space where: L* - lightness of the colour and takes the values from 0 (absolute black) to 100 (absolute white) and lays in the plain normal to axes a* and b*; a* - determine the position of colour (absolute black) to 100 (absolute white) and lays in the plain normal to axes a* and b*; a* - determine the position of colour on green- red axe taking the values from - 80 (absolute green) to + 80 (absolute red); b* determine the position of colour on on green- red axe taking the values from - 80 (absolute green) to + 80 (absolute red); b* determine the position of colour on blue – yellow axeoftaking the values ofspace - 80space (absolute + 80of(absolute yellow). Figure presentation of L*a*b* colour where: L*to- lightness the colour and the values Figure 1. 1. Graphical Graphical presentation CIECIE L*a*b* colour where: L*blue) - lightness the of colour and takes thetakes values from 0 blue – yellow axe taking the values of 80 (absolute blue) to + 80 (absolute yellow). from 0 (absolute black) to 100 (absolute white) and lays in the plain normal to axis a* and b*; a* - determine the (absolute black) to 100 (absolute white) and lays in the plain normal to axes a* and b*; a* - determine the position of colour

position of colour on green- red axe taking the values from - 80 (absolute green) to + 80 (absolute red); b* determine on the greenred axeparameters theon values from 80 (absolute green) to +the 80 of (absolute red); b* determine position ofyellow). colour on Allposition three have in -CIE L*a*b* system physical meaning. Beside that graphical oftaking colour blue – yellow axis taking the values - 80 (absolute blue) to + the 80 (absolute

All three parameters have in CIEtheL*a*b* the physical blue – yellow axe taking values ofsystem 80 (absolute blue) to + meaning. 80 (absoluteBeside yellow). that graphical component of Cartesian coordinate system there- are also two component of Cylindrical coordinate component of Cartesian coordinate system there are also two component of Cylindrical coordinate All three parameters in CIE L*a*b* physical meaning. that graphical component of system which are: thehave saturation C* andsystem hue h,the values of which can Beside be calculated from presented system which are: the saturation C* and hue h, values of which can be calculated from presented All three parameters have in CIE L*a*b* system the physical meaning. Beside that graphical Cartesian(1) coordinate system twob*. component of Cylindrical coordinate system which are: the equation and (2) from the there valuesare of also a* and equation (1)C* and (2) from values of system a* and saturation and hue h, the values of which can b*. be calculated (1) andcoordinate (2) from the component of Cartesian coordinate there are alsofrom two presented componentequation of Cylindrical values of which a* andare: b*. the saturation C* and hue h, values of which can be calculated from presented system đ??śđ??ś ∗ = √(đ?‘Žđ?‘Žâˆ— )2 + (đ?‘?đ?‘? ∗ )2 (1) equation (1) and (2) from the values of a* b*. ∗ )2 + (đ?‘?đ?‘? ∗ )2 đ??śđ??ś ∗and = √(đ?‘Žđ?‘Ž (1) (1) â„Ž = đ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Ž(đ?‘Žđ?‘Žâˆ— /đ?‘?đ?‘? ∗ ) ∗ ∗) ∗ 2 â„Ž= ) đ??śđ??ś ∗đ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Ž(đ?‘Žđ?‘Ž = √(đ?‘Žđ?‘Žâˆ— )2 /đ?‘?đ?‘? + (đ?‘?đ?‘?

(2) (2) (2)(1)

where: C*- chroma (saturation) represent the potion of pure colour component in some colour and mathwhere: C*- croma (saturation) represent the potion of pure colour component in some colour ematically is the of colour from the third (black - white) axis; h - represent the kind of colour math∗ pure where: C*- distance croma (saturation) represent potion of â„Ž =the đ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Žđ?‘Ž(đ?‘Žđ?‘Ž /đ?‘?đ?‘? ∗ ) colour component in some colour(2) and mathematically the of colour the in third (black direction - white) axe; h - represent ematically describedisas andistance angle from green from -red axis opposite of watch scale. the kind and mathematically is the distance of colour from the third (black - white) axe; h - represent the kind of colour mathematically described as an angle from green -red axe in opposite direction of watch ofEXPERIMENTAL colourwhere: mathematically as represent an angle from green of -red axecolour in opposite direction of watch C*- cromadescribed (saturation) the potion pure component in some colour scale. scale. and mathematically is the distance of colour from the third (black - white) axe; h - represent the kind Materials

of colour mathematically described as an angle from green -red axe in opposite direction of watch The purpose of research was to find how big is the colour difference within different weaves with the same scale. of differently coloured interlacing points on their surface and how big is the change with the changes number of weft density. The next is to find, are there any differences among plain, and plain like weaves and twill weaves, as well as how significant those differences could be? For this research, 60 different two coloured woven fabrics which differed in weave, density of weft and colour of warp, was weaved. 10 different weaves was chosen, in three different densities of weft and two different colours of warp. The chosen weaves are both sided weaves, which means that the number of warp and weft interlacing points on the surface and back side are equal. The samples were weaved on laboratory weaving loom equipped with electronic jacquard.

www.textile-leather.com 9


weft and two different colours of warp. The choosen weaves are both sided weaves, which means that the number of warp and weft interlacing points on the surface and back side are equal. The DIMITROVSKI K, et al. Influence of Weave and Densities… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 8-17.

samples were weaved on laboratory weaving loom equipped with electronic jacquard.

As warp, black and white coloured yarns of the same fineness (8x2 tex) was used and for weft As warp, black and white coloured yarns of the same fineness (8x2 tex) was used and for weft red coloured red coloured yarns of the same fineness was used. The set density of warp on the loom was 20 yarns of the same fineness was used. The set density of warp on the loom was 20 ends/cm and the density ends/cm and the density of weft was 25, 20 and 15 picks/cm. of weft was 25, 20 and 15 picks/cm. 1 is showes tenweaves, used weaves, made on Arach Weave computer program for simulation of Table 1 Table is showes ten used made on ArahWeave computer program for simulation of woven fabrics [8]. woven fabrics [8]. Table 1. Graphical presentation of used weaves Table 1. Graphical presentation of used weaves

Sample 1

Plain Sample 6

T

1 2 Z 1 2

Sample 2

Broken T

2

Sample 7

T

Sample 3

2

1 1 2 Z 1 1 2

2

Pa

Sample 4

Sample 8

T

2

2

3

Pa

2

Sample 5

Sample 9

Z

T

3

3

4

Pa

3

4

Sample 10

Z

T

4

4

Z

The weaves were chosen very carefully. The upper part weaves are giving checkered visual impression with increasing of floating points from 1 (in plain weave) to 4 (in eight-ends panama weave). In the lower part are the twill weaves, also with increasing of floating from combination of 1 and 2 (in six-end twill weave) to 4 (in eight-end twill weave).

METHODS The measurements of CIE L*a*b* values of samples were made on spectrophotometer Data Color Spectra Flash SF 600Plus-CT according to standard EN ISO 105-JO1 (General principles for measurements of surface colour) [9]. Measurements were taken on the 5 different places of samples under the next condition: - Angle of measurements 10˚, - Geometry of measurements d/8˚, - Standard type of illumination D65, - Mirror reflection - ON, - Measured values: L*, a*, b* and C* and h. All measurements were made on the circular open area 9 mm. It was processed by measurements taking ΔE (CIE L*, a*, b* unit for assessment of color difference) to validate color differences among samples using equations: 10 www.textile-leather.com


measurements taking ΔE (CIE L*,equations: a*, b* unit for assessment of color difference) to validate color differences among samples using All measurements were made on the circular open area 9 mm. It was processed by ∆đ?‘Źđ?‘Źâˆ— = √∆đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? + ∆đ?’‚đ?’‚∗đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? + ∆đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ—đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? differences among samples using equations: measurements taking ΔE (CIE L*, a*,đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’‚ unit for assessment of color difference) to validate color ∗ b* ∗đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? of Weave ∗đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? and ∗đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? DIMITROVSKI∆đ?‘Źđ?‘Ź K, et al. Influence Densities‌ TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 8-17. (3) đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’‚ = √∆đ?‘łđ?‘ł + ∆đ?’‚đ?’‚ + ∆đ?’ƒđ?’ƒ ∗ differences among samples using equations: ∗đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? ∗đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? ∗đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? ∆đ?‘Źđ?‘Ź (3) đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’‚ = √∆đ?‘łđ?‘ł + ∆đ?’‚đ?’‚ + ∆đ?’ƒđ?’ƒ where: (3) (3) ∆đ?‘Źđ?‘Źâˆ—đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’‚ = √∆đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? + ∆đ?’‚đ?’‚∗đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? + ∆đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ—đ?&#x;?đ?&#x;? where: ∆đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ— = đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” (3) where: where: ∆đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ— = đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” (4) (4) where: ∆đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ— = đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” (4) ∗ ∗ ∗ ∆đ?’‚đ?’‚ = đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” (4) − đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” ∆đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—∗ = đ?‘łđ?‘łâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” ∗ (5) = đ?’‚đ?’‚ − đ?’‚đ?’‚∗đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” ∆đ?’‚đ?’‚ đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” (5) ∗ ∗ ∗ (4) = đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?’‚đ?’‚đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” ∆đ?’‚đ?’‚ (5) (6) ∆đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ— = đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” (5) ∗ = đ?’‚đ?’‚∗ ∗ ∆đ?’‚đ?’‚ ∗đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?’‚đ?’‚∗đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” ∗ ∆đ?’ƒđ?’ƒ = đ?’ƒđ?’ƒđ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?’ƒđ?’ƒđ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” (6) (5) ∗ = đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” ∆đ?’ƒđ?’ƒ (6) RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS (6) ∆đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ— = đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” − đ?’ƒđ?’ƒâˆ—đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’”đ?’” AND DISCUSSIONS ForRESULTS summarizing the results, Figures 4 and 5 were used, which graphically represent the measured results. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS (6)group of samples with the same density was calculated and than The average color difference for every For summarizing the results, Figures 4 and 5 were used, which graphically represent the RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS compered the color differences of sample with white and black warp. For summarizing the results, Figures 4 for andevery 5 were used, which with graphically represent the measured results. The average color difference group of samples the same density was To assess the colour differences among samples in the same constructional group of samples, as standard RESULTS DISCUSSIONS ForAND summarizing the results, Figures 4 for andevery 5 were used, which with graphically represent the measured results. The average color difference group of samples the same density was calculated and than the color differences of of sample with white value it was chosen thecompered sample with the highest number interlacing pointsand – inblack both warp. cases with black or measured results. The average the color difference for every groupwith of samples with the same density was calculated and compered color differences of and warp. For itsummarizing the the results, Figures 4 20 andends/cm 5 sample wereand used, which graphically represent the white warp, wasthan sample with warp density of wetwhite density 25black picks/cm (Table 2). Than, calculated and than was compered the color differences of sample with white and warp. measured differences evaluated. Table 2 are measured values ofblack L*, a*same and b*, calculated measured results. The average colorIndifference forshowen every group of samples with the density was values of h and C* and ΔE*ab compared to standard sample with white color warp. In Table 3 are presented calculated and than compered the color differences of sample with white and black warp. the same values regarding samples with black color warp. Table 2. Measured values of L*, a* and b*, calculated values of h and C* and ΔE*ab compared to standard sample with white warp color Density (yarns/cm)

L*

a*

b*

C*

h°

ΔE*ab

Plain

15

60.52

24.98

-0.40

24.98

359.07

10.066

2

Broken twill 2/2

15

60.78

25.22

-0.36

25.22

359.17

10.079

3

Panama 4/4

15

62.22

24.45

-1.23

24.49

357.13

11.885

4

Panama 6/6

15

61.35

24.60

-0.62

24.61

358.56

10.953

5

Panama 8/8

15

63.21

22.81

-1.51

22.86

356.22

13.681

6

Twill 1/1/2/2

15

61.25

24.49

-0.80

24.51

358.14

11.020

7

Twill 1/1/1/1/2/2

15

60.36

25.47

-0.44

25.47

359.02

9.665

8

Twill 2/2

15

61.54

24.24

-0.70

24.25

358.35

11.339

9

Twill 3/3

15

61.35

24.18

-0.93

24.20

357.80

11.333

10

Twill 4/4

15

61.70

23.64

-0.68

23.65

358.36

11.828

1

Plain

20

56.51

28.21

1.48

28.25

3.00

4.625

2

Broken twill 2/2

20

55.43

29.39

2.08

29.47

4.04

2.923

3

Panama 4/4

20

57.34

27.62

1.24

27.65

2.58

5.634

4

Panama 6/6

20

58.25

26.54

0.48

26.54

1.03

7.229

5

Panama 8/8

20

57.06

27.32

0.56

27.32

1.17

5.960

6

Twill 1/1/2/2

20

55.90

29.20

1.79

29.25

3.51

3.460

7

Twill 1/1/1/1/2/2

20

54.91

29.98

2.44

30.08

4.65

2.058

8

Twill 2/2

20

56.28

28.60

1.65

28.64

3.30

4.150

Sample

Weave

1

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DIMITROVSKI K, et al. Influence of Weave and Densities… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 8-17.

9

Twill 3/3

20

56.07

28.90

1.75

28.95

3.47

3.778

10

Twill 4/4

20

55.56

29.04

2.07

29.11

4.08

3.249

1

Plain

25

53.75

31.41

3.36

31.59

6.11

0 / standard

2

Broken twill 2/2

25

52.11

33.12

4.26

33.39

7.34

2.535

3

Panama 4/4

25

54.00

31.18

3.59

31.39

6.58

0.410

4

Panama 6/6

25

55.06

29.54

2.56

29.65

4.96

2.419

5

Panama 8/8

25

54.37

30.20

2.55

30.31

4.83

1.583

6

Twill 1/1/2/2

25

52.88

32.13

3.66

32.34

6.49

1.169

7

Twill 1/1/1/1/2/2

25

52.45

32.65

4.04

32.89

7.06

1.921

8

Twill 2/2

25

53.13

31.95

3.70

32.16

6.60

0.890

9

Twill 3/3

25

53.30

31.35

3.34

31.53

6.07

0.454

10

Twill 4/4

25

53.37

31.41

3.22

31.58

5.84

0.405

Table 3. Measured values of L*, a* and b*, calculated values of h and C* and ΔE*ab compared to standard sample with white black color Sample

Density (yarns/cm)

L*

a*

b*

C*

ΔE*ab

1

Plain

15

26.29

23.47

4.95

23.99

11.90

9.816

2

Broken twill 2/2

15

26.73

25.23

5.65

25.86

12.62

7.961

3

Panama 4/4

15

27.14

25.72

6.01

26.42

13.15

7.247

4

Panama 6/6

15

26.59

25.06

5.72

25.70

12.86

8.150

5

Panama 8/8

15

28.17

28.00

7.00

28.86

14.03

4.625

6

Twill 1/1/2/2

15

26.24

23.94

5.21

24.50

12.27

9.379

7

Twill 1/1/1/1/2/2

15

26.39

24.32

5.30

24.89

12.29

8.969

8

Twill 2/2

15

25.89

23.43

4.97

23.95

11.98

10.041

9

Twill 3/3

15

26.53

24.36

5.39

24.94

12.47

8.838

10

Twill 4/4

15

26.23

24.85

5.63

25.48

12.77

8.539

1

Plain

20

29.02

29.20

7.30

30.10

14.03

3.130

2

Broken twill 2/2

20

28.40

27.38

6.42

28.12

13.20

5.142

3

Panama 4/4

20

29.54

30.48

8.02

31.52

14.74

1.780

4

Panama 6/6

20

29.78

30.61

8.19

31.69

14.98

1.509

5

Panama 8/8

20

29.74

30.60

8.05

31.64

14.74

1.546

6

Twill 1/1/2/2

20

28.59

28.70

7.09

29.56

13.88

3.822

7

Twill 1/1/1/1/2/2

20

28.98

28.92

7.20

29.80

13.98

3.389

8

Twill 2/2

20

28.31

27.79

6.69

28.58

13.53

4.785

9

Twill 3/3

20

28.28

28.57

7.13

29.44

14.02

4.106

10

Twill 4/4

20

28.23

28.95

7.31

29.86

14.18

3.841

1

Plain

25

31.01

31.48

8.10

32.50

14.44

0 / standard

2

Broken twill 2/2

25

31.49

33.17

9.00

34.37

15.18

1.974

3

Panama 4/4

25

31.40

33.36

9.28

34.62

15.54

2.254

4

Panama 6/6

25

31.50

33.93

9.57

35.26

15.76

2.899

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DIMITROVSKI K, et al. Influence of Weave and Densities‌ TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 8-17.

5

Panama 8/8

25

31.72

34.84

10.03

36.25

16.06

3.939

6

Twill 1/1/2/2

25

30.74

31.86

8.34

32.93

14.67

0.524

7

Twill 1/1/1/1/2/2

25

31.22

32.49

8.61

33.61

14.85

1.151

8

Twill 2/2

25

31.15

32.40

8.67

33.54

14.98

1.091

9

Twill 3/3

25

30.49

32.19

8.67

33.34

15.07

1.049

10

Twill 4/4

25

30.88

32.80

9.04

34.03

15.41

1.626

The results presented 2 and 3 arein also showen2 in Figures 2 andbe 3. easily It can be easily The results presented in Tables 2 andin3 Tables are also shown Figures and 3. It can visualized how the visualized how the changes of densities and weaves affect color impression. changes of densities and weaves affect color impression.

Sample 1

Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 2

Sample 3

Sample 3

Sample 4

Sample 4

Sample 5

Sample 5

Sample 6

Sample 6

Sample 7

Sample 7

Sample 8

Sample 8

Sample 9

Sample 9

Sample Sample 1010

a)

a)

b)

b)

c) c)

a)a)

b) b)

c)c)

Figure Figure 2. Left: Simulation of all 10 weaves (from 1 to 10) with white color warp, in densities of weft: 2. Left: Simulation of all 10 weaves (from 1 to 10) with white color warp, in densities of weft: a) 15 picks/cm; b) 20 a) 15 picks/cm; b) 20 picks/cm and c) 25 picks/cm. picks/cm and c) 25 picks/cm. Right: measured values of colour impressions from the woven fabrics in the same order Right: measured values of colour impressions from the woven fabrics in the same order

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GRUM U, et al. Influence of Weave and Densities… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 1-11.

DIMITROVSKI K, et al. Influence of Weave and Densities… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 8-17.

Sample 1

Sample 1

Sample 2

Sample 2

Sample 3

Sample 3

Sample 4

Sample 4

Sample 5

Sample 5

Sample 6

Sample 6

Sample 7

Sample 7

Sample 8

Sample 8

Sample 9

Sample 9

Sample Sample 1010

a) a)

b) b)

c) c)

a)a)

b)b)

c)c)

Figure Figure 3. Left: Simulation of all 10 weaves (from 1 to 10) with black color warp, in densities of weft: 3. Left: Simulation of all 10 weaves (from 1 to 10) with black color warp, in densities of weft: a) 15 picks/cm; b) 20 a) 15 picks/cm; b) 20 picks/cm and c) 25 picks/cm. picks/cm and c) 25 picks/cm. Right: measured values of colour impressions from the woven fabrics in the same order Right: measured values of colour impressions from the woven fabrics in the same order

For samples with white color warp yarns the average values of the most dense fabrics (25 yarns/cm) is about 1.0 ΔE*ab over the standard (which is the same construction in plain weave), the fabrics with weft density 20 yarns/cm has average values for about 4.5 ΔE*ab and the fabrics with weft density of 15 yarns/cm has average values of about 11 ΔE*ab. It proves that average changing of color difference for about 3.5 ΔE*ab is caused by changing (diminishing) of weft density for 5 picks/cm and for 10 ΔE*ab with changing of next 5 picks/cm. This means that if the color tone of the finished fabric, woven from the defined thread colors and certain fabric structural parameters, is not satisfactory, this can be influenced by changing the thread density, which will result in the achievement of a desired color tone.

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DIMITROVSKI K, et al. Influence of Weave and Densities… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 8-17.

ΔE*ab (25)

ΔE*ab (20)

ΔE*ab (15)

ΔE*ab - av.(25)

ΔE*ab - av.(20)

ΔE*ab-av. (15)

14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Sample

7

8

9

10

Figure 4. Comparison of color differences among different weaves and densities for woven fabrics from white color warp yarns

Figure 4. Comparation of color differences among different weaves and densities for woven fabrics from white color warp yarns

It was expected to be seen the similar trend of curves no meter of different densities of samples at list the For samples with white color warp yarns the average values of the most dence fabrics (25 same weave to be under and over the average values. From Figure 2 it can not be seen. The reason for that the standard (which isofthe same construction in plain weave), the is of about ΔE*ab over is yarns/cm) the increase area1.0 between the yarns with diminishing weft densities. fabrics density yarns/cm has average values for about ΔE*ab and theinfabrics with From the with Tableweft 2 and Figure20 4 can be seen that the color differences are4.5 generally lower twill weaves comparing to color in plain like weaves. reason for this can be found in the structure itself, weft density of 15differences yarns/cm has average values ofThe about 11 ΔE* ab. It proves that average changing of i.e. the characteristics of the certain group of weaves. Plain like weaves are characterized by sudden and color difference for about 3.5 ΔE*ab is caused by changing (diminishing) of weft density for 5 picks/cm sharp changes of warp and weft interlacement points, and thus the visible threads color on the face of the and for 10 ΔE* of nextin5twill picks/cm. This that if changes the colorand tone the finished fabric. There are ab nowith suchchanging sharp changes weaves, butmeans the gradual theofgradual change offabric, color are emphasized. Therefore, overall colorand differences the density change areis generwoven from the defined the thread colors certain caused fabric by structural parameters, not ally lower in twill weaves. satisfactory, this can be influenced by changing the thread density, which will result in the The group differences are almost negligent in the construction with the lowest weft density – twill weaves achievement of a desired color tone. in average 11.04 ΔE*ab and plain like weaves in average 11.33 ΔE*ab with quotient 0.97 and much bigger in was expected to be20seen thepicks/cm similar trend of curveslower no meter of different densities of group ofItfabrics with densities and 25 with quotients than 0.7. Figure 3 shows with Figure values color differences. start, the average samples at listsimilarity the same weave to 2, beexcept underinand overofthe average values.For From Figure 2 it can values not beof . The differences the yarns other two are much the densest is higher andisis the overincrease 1,5 ΔE*abof seen. Thegroup reason for that area betweenofthe withgroup diminishing ofsmaller. weft Average in group of 20 weft pics/cm is 3,5 ΔEab*and in group with 25 weft picks/cm a little over 8 ΔE*ab. densities. Opposite of samples with white warp in groups 20 and 25 picks/cm plain like weaves shows lower than Table 2 and 4 can be seencolor that differences the color differences averageFrom color the differences and Figure twill weaves higher (Figure 5).are generally lower in twill

weaves comparing to color differences in plain like weaves. The reason for this can be found in the structure itself, i.e. the characteristics of the certain group of weaves. Plain like weaves are characterized by sudden and sharp changes of warp and weft interlacement points, and thus the visible threads color on the face of the fabric. There are no such sharp changes in twill weaves, but

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– twill weaves in average 11.04 ΔE*ab and plain like weaves in average 11.33 ΔE*ab with quotient 0.97 DIMITROVSKI K, et Influence of Weave Densities… LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 8-17. and much bigger inal. group of fabrics withand densities 20 TEXT and 25 picks/cm with quotients lower than 0.7.

ΔE*ab (25)

ΔE*ab (20)

ΔE*ab (15)

ΔE*ab - av.(25)

ΔE*ab - av.(20)

ΔE*ab-av. (15)

12 10 8 6 4 2 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Sample

7

8

9

10

Figure 5. Comparation of color differences among different and from black color Figure 5. Comparation of color differences among different weaves and densities forweaves woven fabrics densities for woven fabrics from black color warp yarns warp yarns

CONCLUSIONS Figure 3 showes similarity with Figure 2, except in values of color differences. For start, the As a general conclusion can begroup statedisthat samples white have bigger differences average values of the densest higher and with is over 1,5 color ΔE*abwarp . The yarns differences of thecolor other two compared to samples with black color warp, regard changing of weft densities. In most cases twill weaves group are much smaller. Average in group of 20 weft pics/cm is 3,5 ΔEab*and in group with 25 weft showed smaller color differences than plain like weaves. With diminishing of weft density samples with picks/cm a little over 8 ΔE*ab. Opposite of samples with white warp in groups 20 and 25 picks/cm white color warp are getting lighter and opposite fabrics with black color warp darker. However, presented plain likeare weaves shows lower thanfabrics average color and twill higher color findings valid only for the woven mixed withdifferences white and black color weaves which technically are „not colors” since their 5). position is at the opposite ends of lightness scale of CIE L*a*b* color space. For further differences (Figure investigation will be necessary to make research on mixing of two-real colors, where will be very interesting mixing of complementary colors (for example blue and yellow). CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES As a general concussion can be stated that samples with white color warp yarns have bigger color to samples with black warp, Društvo regard changing weft densities. In [1] differences Dimitrovski compared K. Interdiscipliniranost barve. Del color 2. Maribor: koloristovofSlovenije; 2003. Barvno oblikovanje pestrihshowed tkanin; smaller p.[455-475]. most cases twill weaves color differences than plain like weaves. With diminishing of [2] density Kočevarsamples TN. Interdiscipliniranost barve.are Delgetting 2. Maribor: koloristov Slovenije; 2003.color Optično weft with white color warp lighterDruštvo and opposite fabrics with black mešanje barv na površini tkanine; p.[195-210]. [3] Dimitrovski K, Gabrijelčič Tomc H. Napovedovanje barvnih vrednosti žakarskih tkanin. Tekstilec. 2002;45(7-8):179-194. [4] Gabrijelčič Tomc H, Dimitrovski K. Influence of weave on colour values of woven fabrics. In: Katalinic B, editor. Annals of DAAAM for 2002 and Proceeding of 13th International DAAAM Symposium, Intelligent Manufacturing & Automation: Learning from Nature; 23-26th October 2002; Vienna, Austria. Vienna: DAAAM International; 2002.

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DIMITROVSKI K, et al. Influence of Weave and Densities… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 8-17.

[5] Mathur K, Seyam AFM. Advances in Modern Woven Fabrics Technology. IntechOpen; 2011. Color and weave relationship in woven fabrics; p.[129-131]. [6] Kostajnšek K. Vpliv barve in strukture na prepustnostne lastnosti tkanin [masters thesis]. Ljubljana; 2010. [7] Golob V. Barvna metrika. Maribor: Fakulteta za strojništvo, 2001. [8] ArahWeave 8 User’s Manual [online]. [cited 2018 May 13]. Available from: URLhttp://www.arahne.eu/ pdf/aweave-EN.pdf [9] International Organization for Standardization. EN ISO 105-JO1 - General principles for measurements of surface colour [Internet]. 1997-12 [cited 2018 May 8]. Available from: https://www.iso.org/ standard/3862.html [10] Gabrijelčič H. Barva in optični pojavi na tkanini. Tekstilec. 2007;50(4/6):93-132.

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ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28.

Protective Properties of Health Care Materials Influenced by the Application Conditions Beti ROGINA-CAR1*, Dragana KOPITAR2, Ivana SCHWARZ2 University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Clothing Technology, Croatia University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Textile Design and Management, Croatia * beti.rogina-car@ttf.hr 1 2

Original scientific article UDC 677:61 Received 16 April 2018; Accepted 8 June 2018

ABSTRACT The aim of the paper is to investigate protective function changes of reusuable fabrics used for standard (operations where these risks for penetration by liquids are lower) and high performance clothes (for operations with a high risk for penetration by liquids) after a certain number of washing and sterilisation cycles. The absorbency test method and test method of obtaining penetration, absorption and repellency indexes of fabrics, were used to create an impression about the protective function of health care fabrics after 10, 20, 30 and 50 cycles. Protective properties of fabrics used in hospitals for standard perfomance after real application (washing ans sterilization) have changed and it could affect the protection of medical workers. Therefore, it should take into consideration a period of use of fabrics intended for standard performance. The most important property for surgical gowns is repellency index, which for Laminate PES/PU/PES fabric, used for surgical gowns, is maximum and remains unchanged even after 50 washing and sterilization cycles, providing complete protection of medical workers. KEYWORDS Medical fabrics, washing and sterilization cycles, absorbency test, absorption, penetration and repellency index

INTRODUCTION According to the Textile Institute, medical textiles are defined as “textile structure which has been designed and produced for use in any of a variety of medical applications, including implantable applications”. Healthcare textiles can be defined as textile structures designed and produced for use in the various healthcare sectors. Although there are differences between medicine and healthcare practices, medical and healthcare textiles are often used together or synonymously. Healthcare and medical textiles are continuously expanding and growing fields in technical textiles [1]. Based on end users, technical textile market is categorized into packtech, protech, agrotech, meditech, clothtech, hometech, buildtech, sportech, indutech, mobiltech, and others, which includes geotech and oekotech. Population growth, rise of an aging population, increased birth‐rate and better awareness about hygiene among women in developing countries stimulates medical textile market. Also healthcare facilities and medical tourism development will boost the growth rate of medical market in the future (Figure 1) [3].

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healthcare facilities and medical tourism development will boost the growth rate of medical market B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28. in the future (Figure ROGINA-CAR 1) [3].

Figure 1. Global Technical textile market share in percentage categorized according to end users in 2011 [2] Figure 1. Global Technical textile market share in percentage categorized according to end users in 2011 [2]

In same time, medical textile industry improves existing and creats new products using novel materials In same time, medical textile industry improves existing and creats new products using novel and innovative designs, increasing market share of medical, surgical and sanitary products in total share of materialstexti andleinnovative increasing of medical, andtheir sanitary products technical [4]. Due todesigns, overall progress in market textile fishare led, such as novelsurgical fibers and modifi cation for in total share of technical textile [4]. Due to overall progress in textile filed, such as novel fibers and better properties and performance (including biocompatible and biodegradable polymers), development oftheir producti on processesfor andbetter fibrous materials nonwoven fabrics and electrospinning technology modification propertiesknown and asperformance (including biocompatible and development (that allows production of ultrafine fibers), are now available for advanced products develbiodegradable polymers), development of production processes and fibrous materials known as opment design for many technical textile fields, including healthcare and medical applications. Generally, electrospinning technology (that production of ultrafine finonwoven bers can befabrics made and of natural or manmade polymers,development as well organic or allows inorganic compounds, which can fibers), arerange now of available advanced productsProperti development design forhighly manyhydrophilic technical (wool) textile to give a wide propertifor es and performance. es can vary from zero absorbent (polypropylene), excepti onally elastiGenerally, c (spandex)fibers to very stibe ff (carbon). material fields, including healthcare andfrom medical applications. can made ofThe natural or is characterised by the ability of the fibres to absorb water and humidity into its nanostructure, making it manmade polymers, as well organic or inorganic compounds, which can give a wide range of less prone to the development of microorganism. While cotton, which is most often used for underwear, properties and canis vary from suscepti highly hydrophilic (wool) to zero absorbent keeps most of theperformance. water at fibreProperties surface, and thus more ble to develop microorganisms, Tencel® fromincreasingly exceptionally elastic (spandex) to very vestiff (carbon). The material is on is(polypropylene), different and is being used in medicine and postoperati situati ons on the expense of cott and other materials. let off cleswater (textiand le dust) as opposed cotton, which ismaking prone to characterised by theTencel® ability does of thenot fibres to parti absorb humidity into itstonanostructure, such shedding and is for this reason being removed from medical applications [5]. it less prone to the development of microorganism. While cotton, which is most often used for The Figure 2 shown structures used in medical sector, respectively conventional textiles and materials underwear, keeps most of thefabrics). water at fibre surface, is thus more susceptible to develop other then texti les (e.g. laminate Conventi onal textiand les like woven fabrics can be stable in dimension and low in elasti city, while knitted fabrics have high elasticityused and elasti c recovery. fabrics microorganisms, Tencel® is different and is being increasingly in medicine andNonwoven postoperative are produced shorter processes comparing to woven andTencel® knitted fabrics, which results in lower costs. situations onby the expense of cotton and other materials. does not let off particles (textile Textiles generally are versatile, where combinations of textile materials and structures can give end proddust) as opposed to cotton, which is prone to such shedding and is for this reason being removed ucts with special properties and performances. For example, laminated fabrics can be designed to be waterfrom for medical applications [5]. but breathable and thus comfort to use it for surgical gowns [6]. Laminated proof body fl uid or bacteria, fabrics The are composed of at least one layer of fabric and component like polymeric film or foam. Layers Figure 2 shown structures used in medical sector, respectively conventional textiles andcan be bonded other by adhesive substances with onefabrics). laminated fabric layertextiles which has properti es.be materials then textiles (e.g.or laminate Conventional likeadhesive woven fabrics can

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least one layer of fabric and component like polymeric film or foam. Layers can be bonded by ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective of Healthfabric Care…layer TEXTwhich LEATHhas REVadhesive 1 (1) 2018properties. 18-28. adhesive substances or withProperties one laminated

Figure 2. Materials and structures andmedical medical textile products Figure 2. Materials and structuresused used for for healthcare healthcare and textile products [6] [6]

The health products not directly used in medical buttreatment they are used applicati ons for such Thecare health care are products are not directly usedtreatment in medical but for they are used as surgical clothing, surgical covers, beddings, clothing garments/uniforms and clothes/wipes. applications such as surgical clothing, surgical covers, beddings, clothing garments/uniforms and The aim of the paper is to investigate protective function changes of reusuable fabrics used for standard clothes/wipes. and high performance clothes after washing and sterilisation cycles. The absorbency test method and test aim of the paper on, is toabsorpti investigate protective function ofwere reusuable fabrics for method The of obtaining penetrati on and repellency indexeschanges of fabrics, used to createused an image about the protecti ve functi on of health care fabrics after 10,and 20, 30 and 50 cycles of washing and sterilizati on. standard and high performance clothes after washing sterilisation cycles. The absorbency test

method and test method of obtaining penetration, absorption and repellency indexes of fabrics,

EXPERIMENTAL

were used to create an image about the protective function of health care fabrics after 10, 20, 30 and

Materials and Methods

50 cycles of washing and sterilization. Two woven fabrics used in hospitals for standard perfomance (operations where these risks for penetration by liquids are lower) and laminate for high performance (for operations with a high risk for penetration EXPERIMENTAL by liquids) are tested. Reusable hospital textiles PET/cotton and Tencel® are intended for manufacturing healthcare professionals’ uniforms were three-layer textile laminate PET/PU/PET is used for surgical drapes. Materials and Methods Investigated fabrics are used at the Clinical Hospital Center - Rebro Zagreb as medical uniforms at the clinical departments andfabrics surgical gowns in the operati ng rooms. Two woven used in hospitals for standard perfomance (operations where these risks for Two specific test method test method of obtaining penetrati on,a absorpti penetration bymethods, liquids areabsorbency lower) andtest laminate forand high performance (for operations with high riskon and repellency indexes of fabrics, have been used. The purpose of using these methods was to create a image about the protective function of fabrics based on the ability of fabrics to penetrate, absorb and repel fluid from its surface. The combination of absorbency methods and method for determination penetration, absorption and repellency index can be used to specify the protective role of the fabrics for medical use in a hospitals. By using the AATCC test methof for absorbency, time needed to fabric absorb the liquid is obtained [7]. The result itself does not specify fabric ability to let the fluid pass from the face to the reverse side, respectively the protective role of fabric considering a surgeon [6]. Using the test method for protective clothing ISO 6530: 2005, three obtained indexes describes the ability of a fabric to allow fluid to penetrate into, ability of a fabric to absorb liquids and ability of fabric to repel liquid from the fabric surface [8]. In above mentioned test methods, water as testing medium is used, since it is considered to be a satisfactory indicator. The liquids in real applications (water, blood, serum, urine and similar body fluids) that medical stuff and surgeon meet, has higher viscosity than water.

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ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28.

The constructional parameters of fabrics were tested according to ISO 2060 (yarn count), ISO 7211-2 (fabric density) and ISO 3801 (fabric mass) [9-11]. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE SEM, Mira II LMU, Tescan, Brno, Czech Republic) was used for sample analysis. The samples were coated with a conductive Ag/Pt layer and scanned under the condiROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 1-14. tions of high voltage (HV 10.00 kV). Images of tested samples are shown on Figure 3.

a)a)

b)b) PET knitted fabric

PU membrane

c)c)

d)d)

Figure microscopyimages images a) face of PET/cotton sample, face of Tencel® Figure3.3.Scanning Scanning electron electron microscopy of:of: a) face sideside of PET/cotton sample, b) faceb)side of side Tencel® sample, sample, c) face c) face side of Laminate PET/PU/PET sample, d) cross section of Laminate PET/PU/PET sample side of Laminate PET/PU/PET sample, d) cross section of Laminate PET/PU/PET sample

AATCC test method defines of a material, take in and retain a liquid (usually water) in the AATCC test 79 method 79absorbency defines absorbency of a to material, to take in and retain a liquid (usually pores and interstices of the material. A drop of water is allowed to fall from a fixed height (approx. 1.0 cm) water) in the pores and interstices of the material. A drop of water is allowed to fall from a fixed onto the surface of the fabric which is firmly fixed in an embroidery hoop. The number of seconds required height (approx. 1.0 cm) onto the surface of the fabric which is firmly fixed in an embroidery hoop.

The number of seconds required for the drop to be completely absorbed by le-leather.com fabric is noted.21 www.texti Absorbency is easily judged visually by the loss of specular reflection of the water droplet (Figure 4)


ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care‌ TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28.

for the drop to be completely absorbedB,by fabric is noted. Absorbency is easily judged by the loss ROGINA-CAR et al. Protective Properties of Health Care‌ TEXT LEATH visually REV 1 (1) 2018 1-14. ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care‌ TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 1-14. of specular reection of the water droplet (Figure 4) [7]. 0s 0s

5s 5s

00ss

18 s 18 s

0s

19 s 19 s

10 s 10 s

55 ss 5s

17 s 17 s

10 ss 10 10 s 19,5 s 19,5 s

20 s 20 s

17ss 17 17 s

Figure 4. Display of absorption time of PET/Cotton fabric after 10 cycles of washing and sterilization according to Figure 4. Display of absorption time of PET/Cotton fabric after 10 cycles of washing and sterilization according to Absorbency test (AATCC test method 79) recorded by Dino-Lite 25X Absorbency test (AATCC test method 79) recorded by Dino-Lite 25X

The standard ISO 6530:2005 was used to examine penetration, absorption and repellency of The standard ISO 6530:2005 was19used to examine penetration, of 18 s s 19,5 s absorption and repellency 20 s 18 s 19 s 19,5 s 20 s materials used18for and uniforms for small and surgery. Penetration a s clothes 19in s hospitals 19,5 major s 20 s is materials used for clothes and uniforms in hospitals for small and major surgery. Penetration is a Figure 4. Display of absorption time of PET/Cotton fabric after 10 cycles of washing and sterilization according Figure 4.liquid Display of absorption of PET/Cotton fabric after 10 of washing sterilization according tois process where pass throughtime pores, holes or openings of cycles a fabrics or theand garment. Absorption Figure 4.liquid Display of of PET/Cotton fabric after 79) 10 of washing sterilization according tois process where pass throughtime pores, holes or of cycles arecorded fabrics or theand garment. toabsorption Absorbency test (AATCC testopenings method by Dino-Lite 25X Absorption Absorbency test (AATCC test method 79) recorded by Dino-Lite 25X a process where liquid moves through the material the molecular level, sorption, Absorbency test (AATCC test methodat recorded by Dino-Lite 25Xincluding a process where liquid moves through the material at79)the molecular level, including sorption, diffusion and desorption processes. Repellency is the ability to repel fluids from the material surface used The standard ISO 6530:2005 was used to examine penetration, absorption and repellency of materials diffusion and desorption processes. Repellency is the ability to repel fluids from the material surface The standard ISO 6530:2005 was used to examine penetration, absorption and repellency of [1].for clothesThe 6530:2005 examine penetration, absorption and repellency of andstandard uniformsISO in hospitals forwas smallused and to major surgery. Penetration is a process where liquid pass [1]. materials used for clothes and uniforms in hospitals for small and major surgery. Penetration is a through holes openings of a fabrics the garment. Absorption isofa360 process liquid Thepores, tests samples wereand prepared in the direction, dimension mm where long and 235moves materials used for or clothes uniforms inorwarp hospitals for small and major surgery. Penetration is a The tests samples were prepared in the warp direction, dimension of 360 mm long and 235 through material atpass the molecular level, holes including sorption,ofdiffusion desorption processes. Repelprocessthe where liquid through pores, or openings a fabricsand or the garment. Absorption is mm process wide. Samples are weighted, following by transparent resistant to test liquid and is where liquid pass through pores, holes or openingsPVC of a foil fabrics or the garment. Absorption mm wide. Samples are weighted, following by transparent PVC foil resistant to test liquid and lency is the ability to repel fluids from the material surface [1]. a process where liquid moves through the material at the molecular level, including sorption, a tests process where liquid moves through the material at The theorder molecular including sorption, absorbent paper Whatman No. 1 which are weighed together. of laying in the half The samples were prepared in the warp direction, dimension 360 mm longlevel, and 235 mmcylinder wide. Samples absorbent paper Whatman No. 1 which are weighed together. Theoforder of laying in the half cylinder diffusion and desorption processes. Repellency is the ability to repel fluids from the material surface groove is transparent foil, by absorbent paper The sample isfrom placed onmaterial theWhatman topsurface of No. diffusion andfollowing desorption processes. Repellency istest thesample. ability repel fluids the are weighted, transparent PVCand foilthe resistant to testto liquid and absorbent paper groove is transparent foil, absorbent paper and the test sample. The sample is placed on the top of [1]. 1 which together. The order layingisinsprayed the half cylinder groovefabric is transparent foil, absorbent pile whereare 10 weighed cm3 of the test liquid in 10 of second on the tested surface. The test [1]. pile where 10 cm3 of the test liquid in 10 second is sprayed on the tested fabric 3surface. The test paper andThe thetests test sample. sample is placed the direction, top of piledimension where 10 of cm360 of mm the test in 10 samplesThe were prepared in theon warp longliquid and 235 period is 60 The s, followed by re-weighing the absorbent paper, the transparent foil,ofthe laboratory tests samples were prepared in the warp direction, dimension 360 mm longglass and 235 period is 60 s, followed by re-weighing the absorbent paper, the transparent foil, the laboratory glass second is sprayed on the tested fabric surface. The test period is 60 s, followed by re-weighing the absormm wide. Samples are weighted, following by transparent PVC foil resistant to test liquid and and thepaper, test sample [8]. are weighted, mm wide. Samples followingglass by transparent foil[8]. resistant to test liquid and bent the transparent foil, the laboratory and the test PVC sample and the test sample [8]. absorbent paper Whatman No. 1 which are weighed together. The order of laying in the half ), penetration (I ) and index (IThe according to cylinder the equaAbsorption index (IAWhatman Absorption (IA), penetration index (Iprepellency ) and repellency index (Icalculated ) are calculated absorbent paperindex No. 1index which weighed together. order of laying in theaccording half cylinder pare R) are Absorption index (IA), penetration index (Ip) and repellency index (IRR) are calculated according groove is transparent foil, absorbent paper and the test sample. The sample is placed on the top of (1) tois (3). groove transparent to tions the equations (1) to (3). foil, absorbent paper and the test sample. The sample is placed on the top of to the equations (1) to3(3). pile where 10 cm3 of the test liquid in 10 second is sprayed on the tested fabric surface. The test đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Žđ?‘Ž pile where 10 cm of the test liquid in 10 second is sprayed ďż˝đ?‘€đ?‘€ (%) on the tested fabric surface. The (1) test(1) đ?‘Žđ?‘Ž ďż˝ ∙ 100 đ??źđ??źđ??źđ??źđ??´đ??´đ??´đ??´ = đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą ďż˝ ∙ 100 = ďż˝ (%) (1)glass period is 60 s, followed by re-weighing the absorbent paper, the transparent foil, the laboratory đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą period is 60 s, followed by re-weighing the absorbent paper, the transparent foil, the laboratory glass đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘?đ?‘? and the test sample [8]. (%) (2) đ??źđ??źđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒ = ďż˝đ?‘€đ?‘€ đ?‘?đ?‘? ďż˝ ∙ 100 and the test sample [8]. (%) (2) (2) đ??źđ??źđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒ = ďż˝ đ?‘€đ?‘€ đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą ďż˝ ∙ 100 đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą Absorption index (IA), penetration index (Ip) and repellency index (IR) are calculated according Absorption index (IA), penetration index (Ip) and repellency index (IR) are calculated according đ?‘€đ?‘€ to the equations (1) to (3). đ??źđ??ź = ďż˝đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x; ďż˝ ∙ 100 (%) (3) (3) to the equations (1) to (3). đ??źđ??źđ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘…đ?‘… = ďż˝ đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x;đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą ďż˝ ∙ 100 (%) (3) đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Žđ?‘Ž đ?‘€đ?‘€ (1) đ??źđ??źđ??´đ??´ = ďż˝ đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Žđ?‘Žďż˝ ∙ 100 (%) (%) (1) đ??źđ??źđ??´đ??´ = đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą ďż˝ ∙ 100 onďż˝the where: Ma (g) - mass of the absorbed test liquid đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą tested material; Mp (g) - mass of the collected test liquid on absorbing paper/foil; Mr (g) - mass of the test đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘?đ?‘?liquid collected in the laboratory glass; Mt (g) - mass (%) (2) đ??źđ??źđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒ = ďż˝đ?‘€đ?‘€ đ?‘?đ?‘? ďż˝ ∙ 100 (%) (2) đ??źđ??źđ?‘ƒđ?‘ƒ = ďż˝ đ?‘€đ?‘€ đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą ďż˝ ∙ 100 of the test liquid discharged on the test sample. đ?‘€đ?‘€ 22 www.textile-leather.com

��

đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą

đ??źđ??źđ?‘…đ?‘… = ďż˝đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x; ďż˝ ∙ 100 đ??źđ??źđ?‘…đ?‘… = ďż˝ đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą ďż˝ ∙ 100 đ?‘€đ?‘€đ?‘Ąđ?‘Ą

(%) (%)

(3) (3)


ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28.

Washing and sterilization were performed in hospital laundry services under strict and controlled conditions. The samples were washed in a continuous assembly Jensen washing machine (Jensen-Group Belgium). After washing samples were dried in a drum dryer. The sterilization of samples was performed in a Selectomat PL MMM steam sterilizer (Münchener Medizin Mechanik, Deutschland) for five minutes at 134°C.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Basic structural parameters of tested materials as surface mass, thickness, yarn count and density are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Structural parameters of tested materials Sample

m (g/m2)

t (mm)

178.6

SD

Tencel®

Laminate PET/PU/PET

d (threads/cm)

Warp

Weft

Warp

Weft

0.3

28.6

42.3

34.0

25.0

2.1

0

0.4

0.7

0

0

CV (%)

1.2

1.4

1.3

1.6

0

0

Mean

193.7

0.3

22.8

31.3

50.0

27.0

SD

1.5

0

0.5

0.4

0.4

0

CV (%)

0.8

2.4

2.3

1.4

0.9

0

Mean

216.0

0.7

0.4

0

0

0.5

Mean PET/cotton

Tt (tex)

SD CV (%)

where: m (g/m2) – fabric surface mass, t (mm) – fabric thickness, Tt (tex) - yarn count, d (threads/cm) – fabric density

In order to investigate absorbency properties of tested fabrics, the samples were first subjected to AATCC absorbency test. Time until the water droplet is absorbed completely is recorded and the results are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Results of absorbency properties by the water drop test Sample

PET/cotton

Tencel®

Laminate PET/PU/PET

t (s)

Number of washing and sterilizing cycles 0

10

20

30

50

Mean

77.6

20.1

5.8

4.6

3.8

SD

11.4

6.6

0.6

0.7

0.6

CV (%)

14.7

32.8

10.9

15.2

16.6

Mean

34.0

3.6

3.0

2.8

2.1

SD

6.7

0.5

0

0.4

0.3

CV (%)

19.7

14.3

0

15.1

15.1

Mean

13.9

5.0

3.4

2.6

2.1

SD

2.0

1.2

0.8

0.7

0.3

CV (%)

14.2

23.1

24.8

26.9

15.1

where: t (s) - time of completely water drop absorption

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ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28.

The time required for complete absorption of water drop is the longest in initial (unwashed and unsterilized samples (0)), preferably in the PET/cotton fabric (Table 2). The reduction of water droplet absorption time by increasing the number of washing and sterilizing cycles is evident in all samples. Figure 5 shows increase of absorption rate i.e. decrease of time absorption between cycles (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50 cycles). The greatest change, or the largest increase in absorption rate, was observed in the range of 0-10 cycles in all samples, mostly in Tencel® sample which increases the absorption rate for almost 90 %. This indicates the greatest change of this material in terms of absorption properties after 10 cycles. This change can be explained by well-known fact that Tencel® absorb water through fibre, while cotton fibre absorb water only on surface [5]. By further subjecting fabrics to washing and sterilization cycles, there is no significant difference in the absorption rate, with total increase after 50 cycles compared to the initial (0 cycle) sample of only 4 % (total 94 %). After a sudden increase in absorption rate after 10 cycles (for 74 %), PET/cotton sample further increases the absorption rate between 10-20 cycles (for over 71%), after which (from 20-30 cycles) the increase rate considerably decreases (to 20 %). This means that the PET/cotton sample experiences the highest degradation up to 20 cycles, after which degradation in the capacity of increasing absorption rate slows. The total amount of absorption rate increase, from 0-50 cycle’s amount 95 %. For Laminate PET/PU/PET sample, the rate of absorption between the cycles gradually decreases, although ROGINA-CAR et al. Protective Properties of 50 Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 the highest increase is recorded after 10B,cycles (64 %), while after cycles the total absorption rate1-14. is 85 % higher.

∆ t (%) % 100

PET/cotton

Tencel®

Laminate PET/PU/PET

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

0-10

10-20 20-30 Range in cycles

30-50

Figure 5. Percentage increase of absorption rate (decrease of time absorption) between cycles Figure 5. Percentage increase of absorption rate (decrease of time absorption) between cycles

In Table 3, test results of absorption, penetration and repellence indexes of all three samples after various In Table 3, test results of absorption, penetration and repellence indexes of all three samples numbers of washing and sterilizing cycles, are shown. Generally, by increasing the number of washing and after various numbers of washing and cycles, are shown. increasing the and the penetration index (IPGenerally, ) increase, by while the repellence sterilization cycles, the absorption index (IA)sterilizing number of washing and sterilization cycles, the absorption index (IA) and the penetration index (IP) index (IR) decreases. Among the initial (0 cycles), the(Ihighest absorption index (IA) was observed in the Laminate PET/PU/ increase, whilesamples the repellence index R) decreases. PET sample, which also has a remarkable property of non-penetration (IP=0%), which is retained through Among the initial samples (0 cycles), the highest absorption index (IA) was observed in the all cycles. It is also important to note that this sample, after 50 cycles of washing and sterilizing, retains the Laminate PET/PU/PET sample, which also has a remarkable property of non-penetration (IP=0%), best repellence properties compared to other materials. which is retained through all cycles. It is also important to note that this sample, after 50 cycles of and sterilizing, retains the best repellence properties compared to other materials. 24 washing www.textile-leather.com The lowest IA of the initial samples was recorded with sample PET/cotton (15 %), which at the


ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28.

The lowest IA of the initial samples was recorded with sample PET/cotton (15 %), which at the same time has the highest IR=76 %, but after subjecting to washing and sterilizing cycles, it decreased to 7.5 %. For Tencel® sample IA through the cycle’s increases in relatively similar proportions as IP, while the IR gradually decreases and after 50 cycle’s amounts 0 %. Table 3. Results of absorption, penetration and repellence measurements Properties

Number of washing and sterilizing cycles

Sample PET/cotton

IA (%)

Tencel®

0

10

20

30

50

15.0

38.4

58.4

59.0

59.5

24.5 41.0 of Health Care… 49.0 TEXT LEATH52.6 ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties REV 1 (1) 201858.8 1-14.

Laminate PET/PU/PET

52.0

61.0

PET/cotton 9.0 9.4 Laminate PET/PU/PET 0 0 Tencel® 19.9 39.0 IP (%) PET/cotton 76.0 52.2 Laminate PET/PU/PET 0 0 IR (%) Tencel® 55.6 20.0 PET/cotton 76.0 52.2 Laminate PET/PU/PET 48.0 39.0 IR (%) Tencel® 55.6 20.0 where: IA (%) - absorption index, IP (%) - penetration index, IR (%) - repellence index Laminate PET/PU/PET 48.0 39.0

63.0 29.4

65.0 32.0

67.0

40.0 12.2 0 11.0 12.2 37.0 11.0

40.6 9.0 0 6.8 9.0 35.0 6.8

33.0 0 41.2 7.5 0 0 7.5 33.0 0

37.0

35.0

33.0

0

0

where: IA (%) - absorption index, IP (%) - penetration index, IR (%) - repellence index

Figure 6 shows the percentage increase of absorption index (IA) through cycles of washing and

sterilizing. The highest increase after 10 cycles shows PET/cotton sample (even 156 %), followed by Figure 6 shows the percentage increase of absorption index (IA) through cycles of washing and sterilizing. increase of 52after % between cycles 10-20. Interestingly, further of cycle’s A 52 Thean highest increase 10 cycles shows PET/cotton sampleby (even 156 increase %), followed by an number, increase Iof unchanged % between cycles 10-20. Interestingly, by further increase of cycle’s number, IA stays stays almost unchanged (1 %). For Tencel® sample, the most significant increase of almost IA, is also after 10 (1 %). For Tencel® sample, of Iwithin after 10 cycles (67 %. %),The while by further A , is also cycles (67 %), while the by most furthersignificant increase,increase it remains the range of 10-20 Laminate increase, it remains within the range of 10-20 %. The Laminate PET/PU/PET sample retains the best absorpPET/PU/PET sample retains the best absorption properties, where after 10 cycles IA increases for only tion properties, where after 10 cycles IA increases for only 17 %, while subjecting it to further washing and 17 %, while subjecting to increase further washing sterilizing cycling’s, retainsitan of 3 %. and sterilizing cycling’s, retains an increase of 3 %.

∆ IA (%) % 160

PET/cotton

Tencel®

Laminate PET/PU/PET

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

0-10

10-20 20-30 Range in cycles

30-50

Figure 6. Percentage increase of absorption index (IA) through cycles Figure 6. Percentage increase of absorption index (IA) through cycles

www.textile-leather.com 25 By observing penetration index (IP) (Figure 7) it is interesting to note a significant increase in the PET/cotton sample that occurs after 20 cycles and amount even 212 %, compared to the


ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 1-14.

ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28.

∆ IP (%) By observing penetration indexPET/cotton (IP) (Figure 7) it isTencel® interesting to note a significant Laminate PET/PU/PETincrease in the PET/cotton % 240 after 20 cycles and amount even 212 %, compared to the minimum increase of 4 % after sample that occurs 10 cycles, confirming the above-mentioned degradation of this material after 20 cycles of washing and steri200 lizing. Furthermore, Tencel® sample shows a significant increase of IP after 10 cycles, while further submission of washing160 and sterilization does not affect the changes of this property. Decrease of repellence index (IR) through cycles increase, indicates a decline of the material properties 120 ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 1-14. (Figure 8), which is strongly emphasized in the Tencel® sample, in which, after 10 cycles IR decreases by 64 % 80

∆ IP (%)

40 % 0 240

PET/cotton 0-10

200 160

Tencel®

Laminate PET/PU/PET

10-20 20-30 Range in cycles

30-50

Figure 7. Percentage increase of penetration index (IP) through cycles

120

Decrease of repellence index (IR) through cycles increase, indicates a decline of the material 80 properties (Figure 8), which is strongly emphasized in the Tencel® sample, in which, after 10 cycles IR

decreases by4064 % and further between 10-20 cycles by 45 %, while after 50 cycles this decrease is 100 % or IR=0 %. The PET/cotton sample gradually loses the property of the repellence, where the 0

most pronounced decrease obtained after20-30 the 20 cycles. Conversely, for Laminate 0-10 of IR has been 10-20 30-50 in is cycles PET/PU/PET fabric decrease of IR between 0-10Range cycles only 19 %, while further reduction is minimal 7. Percentage increase of penetration index after (IP) through cycles (about 5 %), and it Figure is important to point out that total IR decrease 50 cycles cycles is only 31 %. Figure 7. Percentage increase of penetration index (I ) through P

Decrease of repellence index (IR) through ∆ Icycles R (%) increase, indicates a decline of the material properties (Figure 8), whichPET/cotton is strongly emphasized in which, after 10 cycles IR Tencel®in the Tencel® Laminatesample, PET/PU/PET % 12064 % and further between 10-20 cycles by 45 %, while after 50 cycles this decrease is decreases by

100 % or IR100 =0 %. The PET/cotton sample gradually loses the property of the repellence, where the most pronounced decrease of IR has been obtained after the 20 cycles. Conversely, for Laminate 80

PET/PU/PET fabric decrease of IR between 0-10 cycles is only 19 %, while further reduction is minimal (about 5 %), 60 and it is important to point out that total IR decrease after 50 cycles is only 31 %. 40

∆ IR (%)

20 % 0 120

PET/cotton 0-10

100 80

Laminate PET/PU/PET

10-20 20-30 Range in cycles

30-50

Figure 8. Percentage decrease of repellence index (IR) through cycles

60 40

26 www.textile-leather.com 20 0

Tencel®


ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28.

and further between 10-20 cycles by 45 %, while after 50 cycles this decrease is 100 % or IR=0 %. The PET/ cotton sample gradually loses the property of the repellence, where the most pronounced decrease of IR has been obtained after the 20 cycles. Conversely, for Laminate PET/PU/PET fabric decrease of IR between 0-10 cycles is only 19 %, while further reduction is minimal (about 5 %), and it is important to point out that total IR decrease after 50 cycles is only 31 %.

CONCLUSIONS According to obtained results it can be concluded that time required for complete water drop absorption is the longest for unwashed and unsterilized fabrics. Absorption increase i.e. decrease of water droplet absorption time is highest, for PET/cotton fabric, followed by Tencel® and Laminate PET/PU/PET fabrics. PET/cotton fabric absorption properties significantly decrease already up to 10 cycles and additionally decrease up to 20 cycles, after which doesn’t change significantly. Tencel® and Laminate PET/PU/PET fabrics up to 10 cycle lose a significant part of the absorption property, which by further subjecting to additional washing and sterilization cycles does not considerably change. Absorption index for unwashed and unsterilized Laminate PET/PU/PET fabric is the highest and by subjecting to washing and sterilization cycles changes only for 29 %. For woven fabrics used for standard performance absorption indexes are considerably lower, but with real application conditions (washing and sterilization) remarkably change its properties (in sense of fabrics degradation), where after 50 cycles increase is even 140 % for Tencel® and 300 % for PET/Cotton. These changes are most evident after 10, i.e. 20 cycles of washing and sterilization. Penetration index is higher for Tencel® comparing to PET/Cotton fabric, but remarkably differences between fabrics are visible through washing and sterilization cycles. For Tencel® fabric, the largest penetration index change is visible up to 10 cycles, after which penetration index remains almost the same. Contrary to Tencel® fabric, the largest penetration index change for PET/Cotton fabric is noticeable after 20 washing and sterilization cycles, after which values almost does not change. Laminate PET/PU/PET fabric is distinguished by the exceptional properties of impermeability, where after 50 washing and sterilization cycles penetration index remain at 0 %. Repellence index is the highest for unwashed and unsterilized PET/Cotton fabric, which significantly decreases already after the 20 cycles, to reduce after the 50 cycles by as much as 90%. For Tencel® fabric trend is similar; by increasing number of cycles, repellence index significantly decrease, where after 50 cycles is 0 %. Contrary to that, Laminate PET/PU/PET fabric retains its repellence index even after 50 washing and sterilization cycles. Based on the above, it can be concluded that protective properties of two woven fabrics used in hospitals for standard perfomance (operations where these risks for penetration by liquids are lower) after real application (washing ans sterilization) are changed and it may affect the protection of medical workers. Therefore, it should take into consideration a period of use of fabrics intended for standard performance. The most important property for surgical gowns is repellency index, which for Laminate PES/PU/PES fabric, used for surgical gowns, is maximum and remains unchanged even after 50 washing and sterilization cycles, providing complete protection of medical workers.

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ROGINA-CAR B, et al. Protective Properties of Health Care… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 18-28.

REFERENCES [1] Denton MJ. Textile terms and definitions. 11th ed. Manchester, UK: Textile Institute; 2002. [2] Find Market Research [Internet]. Technical Textiles Market to Reach US$ 160.38 Billion 2018; 2017 Sep 14 [cited 2018 May 14]. Available from: https://www.findmarketresearch.org/2017/09/technicaltextiles-market-to-reach-us160-38-billion-2018/ [3] Specialty Fabrics Review [Internet]. Roseville: Industrial Fabrics Association International; 2018. Highperformance textiles and nonwovens are targeted for growth; 2011 Mar 1 [cited 2018 Jun 2]. Available from: https://specialtyfabricsreview.com/2011/03/01/strong-market-potential-in-asia/ [4] Textile World [Internet]. Textile Industries Media Group, LLC; 2017. Textiles 2015: More Improvement Ahead; 2015 Feb 2 [cited 2018 May 17]. Available from: http://www.textileworld.com/textile-world/ features/2015/02/textiles-2015-more-improvement-ahead/ [5] Schuster KC, Suchomel F, Manner J, Abu-Rous M, Firgo H. Functional and comfort properties of textiles from Tencel® fibres resulting from the fibres water-absorbing nanostructure: A review. Macromolecular Symposia [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2018 May 11];244:149-165. DOI: 10.1002/masy.200651214 [6] Burchill Brassil E. An Introduction to Health Care and Medical Textiles, by Wen Zhong. Medical Reference Services Quarterly [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2018 May 6];32(3):381-382. Available from: https://doi.org/ 10.1080/02763869.2013.807091 [7] AATCC ASTM Compass. Test Method 79 - Absorbency of Textiles [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2018 May 14]. Available from: http://www.manufacturingsolutionscenter.org/absorbency-testing.html [8] International Organization for Standardization. ISO 6530:2005 - Protective clothing--Protection against liquid chemicals--Test method for resistance of materials to penetration by liquids [Internet]. 2005 [cited 2018 May 12]. Available from: https://www.iso.org/standard/38303.html [9] International Organization for Standardization. ISO 2060:2008 –Textiles--Yarn from packages-Determination of linear density (mass per unit length) by the skein method [Internet]. 1994-11 [cited 2018 May 9]. Available from: https://www.iso.org/standard/6837.html [10] Croatian Standards Institute. HRN EN 1049-2:2003 – Textiles--Woven fabrics—Construction--Methods of analysis--Part 2: Determination of number of threads per unit length (ISO 7211-2:1984 modified; EN 1049-2:1993) [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2018 May 11]. Available from: http://31.45.242.218/HZN/Todb. nsf/wFrameset2?OpenFrameSet&Frame=Down&Src=%2FHZN%2FTodb.nsf%2Fcd07510acb630f47c12 56d2c006ec863%2Fd60ef99a63cb484fc1256d9e00267e3d%3FOpenDocument%26AutoFramed [11] Croatian Standards Institute. HRN EN ISO 3801:2003 – Textil--Woven fabrics--Determination of mass per unit length and mass per unit area (ISO 3801:1977) [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2018 May 8]. Available from: 31.45.242.218/HZN/Todb.nsf/cd07510acb630f47c1256d2c006ec863/d60ef99a63cb484fc1256 d9e00267e3d?OpenDocument

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GAVRANOVIC A. How to deal with new challengies?… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 29-33.

How to deal with new challenges? Economic, technological and social aspects of the textile and clothing industry Ante GAVRANOVIĆ Economic Analyst Position paper UDC 677:338.1 Received 12 April 2018

ABSTRACT Economic, financial and political development has strongly influenced on the textile industry, which accelerated the pace of change. In order to catch the pace it is necessary to take certain steps now or in the near future. The Far East countries record high economic growth, while other, mostly developed industrial countries growth has considerably declined. Consumer behaviour tends to restrain from purchasing of clothing products, raw material prices are growing and lack of raw materials on the market is noticeable. These trends are causing a certain amount of restlessness in the textile industry. The textile and clothing industry have their distinctive features visible in a manufacturing sector which dominantly depends on brand name firms that spread their business all over the world. Production mainly takes place in developing and fast growing countries, since their production destinations, working conditions and wages are most affordable. For example, about 90 % of clothing items sold in northern countries are produced in Eastern Europe or at the Far East. At the same time, in the northern countries, where most of clothing products are sold, manufacturing facilities of the clothing industry almost doesn’t exist. KEYWORDS Globalization, market liberalization, production relocation, working conditions, business environment, consumer behaviour

INTRODUCTION The OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) signify globalization as an enhanced development of strategic international co-operation of companies, where activities spread throughout the world due to total liberalization. When it comes to the clothing industry, especially clothing industry in Europe, a globalization approach was almost fatal causing work cessation of many manufacturers, drastically reducing number of employees and cutting production prices to the ultimate limits. Regarding to phenomenon of production relocation, in Germany nine of ten garments come from abroad. Unfortunately, the similar situation is in Croatia, where the strength and impact of the domestic textile industry are declining. Economic, financial and political development has strongly influenced on the world of fashion and the textile industry. Those events accelerated the pace of change, where in order to catch the pace of change

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GAVRANOVIC A. How to deal with new challengies?‌ TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 29-33.

it is necessary to take certain steps. While the Far East countries record a boom in economic growth, developed industrial parts of the world record decline in economic growth. Consumer behaviour tends to restrain from purchasing of clothing products, lack of raw materials on the market is noticeable, while raw material prices are constantly growing. These trends are causing a certain amount of restlessness in the textile industry. The textile and clothing industry have their distinctive features visible in a manufacturing sector which dominantly depends on brand-name firms that spread business all over the world. Production mainly takes place in developing and fast growing countries where working conditions and wages are most affordable. About 90% of clothing items sold in northern countries are produced in Eastern Europe or the Far East. At the same time manufacturing facilities of the clothing industry in northern countries almost doesn’t exist and the textile industry (especially clothing industry) belongs to the most globalized manufacturing sectors. Most of the production takes place in developing countries or transition countries where production factors like location, pay and working conditions are more favourable. In the 1970s, millions of working places were moved from industrial countries to less industrial developed countries. In many of those less developed countries, free industrial and customs zones have been created with great benefits in terms of building adequate infrastructure, electricity and water costs subventions, tax benefits and free profit transfer guarantee. These benefits attracted many producers who have abandoned traditional production in their domicile countries and joined the global market trends. This was done under the assumption that free zones will help in development of structurally weak regions, reduce unemployment, stimulate the development of the domestic industry and provide education to the new work force. Economic analysts claim that the expectations of establishing free zones have yielded results only in China. The global companies speeding up globalization and fast change of fashion trends creates strong competitiveness among renowned manufacturers. Large companies with famous brands distribute work through their license agreements with their sub-licensors. Sub-licensors then arrange a production contest in order to get the best offer. The most important benchmarks for companies are low wages, quality and accuracy in delivery. It is evident in the clothing industry, especially in the fashion sector, that production time and reaction to trends are drastically shortened. What appears in the Paris or Rome as a new trend, can be found only two weeks later as a cheaper copy on the H&M or C&A shelves. In the meantime, fashion products come closer to nutritional products by their perishability. It should be pointed out that pressure on time and price creation in the clothing industry is largely transferred to workers. Namely, in the textile and clothing industry around the world, 80% of workers are women. Along with that, there are more and more reports about inhuman work conditions. This is not just the trend in clothing industry. Under similar conditions most of present world fashion industry takes place. It should be pointed that the price of raw materials for the textile and clothing industry has recently dramatically increased. In textile professional circles, this imposes to be one of the biggest problem for future of the industry. Beside the raw material prices increase, it is estimated that even three million tons of cotton in the world markets is lacking. Similarly, big difficulties are caused by increase of the chemical fibres prices, such as polyester and polyamide fibres. Also, prices of chemicals, necessary for chemical fibres production, increase when purchasing of chemicals occur. Practice has shown that raw material markets change which leads to final product price increase. Unfortunately, manufacturers have the less benefits of price increase, respectively manufacturers are due to the variety of circumstances almost at the last gasp.

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GAVRANOVIC A. How to deal with new challengies?‌ TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 29-33.

WHAT IS THE SITUATION WITHIN THE EU? Textile and clothing industries within the European Union have experienced strong structural changes in line with global trends. Structural changes have been forced by several factors. Namely, reducing production in domicile countries, relocation of production abroad and sharp competition. The industries searched a way out of the this situation with new production paradigm, such as production of high-tech and technically demanding textiles, by focusing on innovations and brands thereby closing the circle of new consumers. We can see mentioned trend on the example of leading textile and clothing industry within EU. In the Germany, the strongest economic force of Europe, the second largest consumer goods industry is the textile industry (predominantly made up of small and medium-sized enterprises) right after the food industry. Based on international comparisons, Germany takes third place by textile products export, after China and Italy. German imports takes second place, right behind the USA, who is the world’s largest importer. The total textile industry share in the total exports of the German manufacturing industry is approximately 2.5%. Mainly, it is the result of the technical textiles export (where Germany is the leading country) and less export of garments. This is warning to the German textile and clothing industry, which needs to fully focus on further strengthening their competitiveness and exploiting their technical and technological advantages. Enlarged European Union certainly provides additional opportunities for clothing industry to set up manufacture and transport of goods differently. This is primarily related to production destinations, geographical proximity, short delivery times and traditional co-operation between suppliers and users in the European economic area. It turned out that only the low prices achieved in the Far East countries cannot compensate all necessary factors needed for the survival of textile and clothing industry.

THE CLOTHING INDUSTRY IS MOST DAMAGED Structural changes can be expressed in numbers. Overall production between years 1991 and 2010, fell down by about 70% in terms of value. The clothing industry even declined by 85%, while the remaining textile industry suffered losses of about 50%. The unfavourable trend continued in the years that followed. In these relations, number of production factories and the number of employees decreased. The most significant decline is visible in the clothing industry. In the European Union there is still active a large number of textile, clothing and footwear companies. More than 3 million people are employed, mostly women, who participate in European Union GDP growth by about 2,3%. Painful fact is, that there is only 1,1% of added value in the real economy sector, where the highest added value was achieved in Italy, followed by Germany, France, Spain and the United Kingdom. Added value in other countries significantly lags behind. From the economic and social point of view, it is important to note that small and medium enterprises are predominantly present. The enterprises count about 74,5% of total added value and employ 75,3% of total number of workers. Productivity measured by earnings per employee, however, makes only half of the income earned by workers within the EU manufacturing activities. One thing needs to be pointed, textile production in the EU is kept only where labour costs are between 20-30% of total costs, where production is set up in four shifts and workers control and serve production process (such as spinning, weaving and knitting), or where the finished product can bear higher costs like technical textiles and textile production for automotive industry (like upholstery).

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GAVRANOVIC A. How to deal with new challengies?… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 29-33.

INFLUENCE OF TECHNICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS In the highly developed countries, Cut the cost catchword rules in all areas, especially in the area of labour costs. According to that, technical and technological actions take places in two forms: • Replacing manual operation through mechanization and automation • Production innovations for speeding up production. Both forms are more stressed in textile than in the clothing industry. In the last two decades, extensive production innovations have been introduced, particularly related with spinning and weaving machinery. Those innovations, however, didn’t lead to new restructuring of production destinations, but they contributed to a significant increase of productivity but also lead to noticeably reduction of jobs and employment. Contrary to that, clothing industry had noticeably less process innovations. In clothing industry, 80% of the labour cost are still related with sewing and manual assembly of garments, without automation or robots that would significantly contribute to increased productivity. The most important innovations in the clothing industry are related to the production flexibility with speeding up goods trade and invested capital. Good example is Benetton Group S.r.l., where from the centre of this group (the northern part of the Italy) a direct on-line connection to all Benetton branches around the world is ensured by computers. The EPOS (electronic point of sale system) monitors demand trends and provides a just in time purchasing system. The savings are great, and represent good example of management process in terms of business globalization and internationalization. Nevertheless, new changes will come and shake the textile market again. Textile production in China has become considerably more expensive in recent years. The annual textile worker earnings in 2005 amounted around 16,000 yuan, in 2011 amounted to 37,000 yuan with a tendency of further increase. At the same time, domestic demand for clothing and footwear products is rapidly growing, primarily due to the rapid growth of so-called middle-class.

EARTHQUAKES ON CLOTHING INDUSTRY SCENE Declining of garment sale is highlighted trend that is hard to stop. Selling spots are therefore trying to attract buyers with the attractiveness of interior design. Also the most famous brands do the same, since their sale decreased too. Frank Werres from P&C, international chain of retail clothing stores, says “We found new spaces inside sales facilities to make a consumer more emotional”. The famous retail clothing stores does it for a reason, they claim the point is in the fashion messages “Always overwhelm, always inspire the customer...” In short, retail clothing stores are simply forced to bring new ideas to stimulate consumption. “At the moment, so-called Aha-effect is the new way of provoke customer from the moment customer enters a store”, says Daniel Balke, manager of men’s clothing at Robert Ley retailer from Euskirchen. As a result, the main components of new sales policy are reduced to new elements: enhanced emphasis on fashion messages, accurate focusing attention, visualization of products and constructive communication. Fast change of assortments should be added, since every 4 to 6 weeks new products are coming into stores. The main principle is that the assortments should prosper, but the flexibility of the offer must be increased. The consumers must be engaged through various events, social media activities and on-line management. The sales effects in the last months of 2017 clearly shown that the companies which were only and entirely focused on market demand, mostly experienced losses.

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GAVRANOVIC A. How to deal with new challengies?‌ TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 29-33.

Orders for the fall of 2018, therefore, seek a new balance between sales and fashion impulses. What could cause Aha-effect? What fashion messages we need to send? What price policies, products, placement strategies open potential for development?

CONCLUSION It is hard to predict the future trends in the world textile market. It is certain that European producers, especially those in eastern and south-eastern countries, will have even more hard times. As well it is certain that the textile industry, especially the clothing industry, will not follow the labour and social trends from the Far East countries. Textile and clothing industry, due to their specialty, still are an important factor in the industrial production of many European countries, but theys are increasingly struggling with an almost impossible mission - to follow the competitive conditions of countries from the Far East. Some other elements affect business in Europe, and thus in Croatia. Textile production, especially garments production, is strictly seasonal. Between the two seasons (spring/summer and autumn/winter), year after year, the gap is widened and leads to idle in production. The delivery deadlines are shortened, while simultaneously a start of the new season is extending. The required product quantities are ordered later, which leads to the problem of purchasing the required fabrics. The mentioned employment problems show how great economic challenge is to sustain and strengthen the textile and clothing industry. At the same time it shows how considerable social danger possible future trends hold in the uncertain future of the textile and clothing industry.

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Industry news TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 34-35.

Galko - 25 years of tradition in leather accessories Editorial Industry news

Galko, a recognizable Croatian top quality brand, was founded in 1993. From family business to leading manufacturer of handbags and leather accessories, from two to more than 70 employees, Galko started into the shoemaker workshop of Ledinko family. There, the director, Božidar Ledinko, worked side by side with two colleagues, trying to develop and make a bag which will meet the market needs. A bag that will with its quality justify its price and with its design attract glance. Back then, Galko had no collections, but only one product – a bag, designed and handmade. Production of one bag took at least 20% more time than today. After less than a year of being in business and after employing more craftsman, relocation to a bigger place was a logical step. Increased working space and production needs resulted in the first Galko catalogue created in 1995. First collection of eight fashion bags and small accessories was introduced in 1998. Although with small production facility, growth of Galko was evident. Three years later the company has been upgraded again. In 2001, the first branch office was opened. In 2002, Galko expanded its assortment with the introduction of hunter’s leather equipment, like rifle leather case, backpacks, bags, cases, etc. The expansion of production capacity in 2005, resulted in a further company upgrade. The same year, the Post collection was introduced, containing bags, binders and baskets that apply to postal worker vehicle. The opportunities and the increase of business activities volume, enable in 2008, the establishment of the representative office in Zagreb, where it is still today. The same year, Galko received two significant awards: the Zlatna Kuna award for outstanding business results and contribution to the Croatian economy and the award for the most successful medium-sized entrepreneur, both awarded by the Croatian Chamber of Commerce. In order to remain market competitiveness, in 2010, Galko introduced the Gastro collection and two years later a special dedicated Police, Army and Security collections, that included high-quality accessories for the safe police, military and security services operations. This was the seventh collection in a rich assortment of products. Factory inside 34 www.textile-leather.com


Industry news TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 34-35.

Aside from the domestic market, the company was also recognized abroad. Galko participated in various fairs, which were of a purposeful nature, in order to bring the product closer to the market (from Germany, France, and Romania, to Russia, America and the United Arab Emirates). Galko quality has been recognized thanks to its top quality leather and handmade production. Therefore, the company has been awarded several more times with the Golden Handbag Award in the International Week of Leather, Footwear and Clothing. For 25 years Galko successfully puts on the market two fashion collections per year: autumn/winter and spring/summer collections, complementing them with the business collection and specialized, dedicated Božidar Ledinko, director and owner of Galko factory collections. In line with leading world brands, collecwith Tomislav Radoš, Vice President of HGK for Industry and IT, Energy and Environmental Protection tions are generated one year earlier and presented in many international fairs. Regardless of the brand recognition, the overall activities from the last 25 years are focused on continuous progress, monitoring trends and market needs. “The universal recipe for success and survival on the market does not exist. It takes a lot of love for the job you are doing and for which you are struggling and fighting with new market competition on a daily basis, but you still manage to maintain high quality products. Of course, you need an excellent team of associates who will work in cohesion to achieve success. The human factor is definitely the most important, and when you incorporate it into everything listed, you will get a partial recipe for the success.” - emphasizes the director of Galko, Božidar Ledinko. Galko is an example of successful entrepreneurship, behind which stands a lot of passion, love and commitment. Behind each bag, wallet, belt committed and worthy people stand. Galko celebrated its 25th anniversary with the presentation of all current collections: the current spring/ summer 2018 collection, the upcoming autumn/winter 2018/2019 collection and dedicated collections for hunting, post, police, army and protection as well as medical collection. With the presentation of Galko’s entire opus, the emphasis is on the diversity, inventiveness and quality. These were the main features of the brand throughout all these years, but also a sure course of success in the future.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 36-39.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS EDITING YOUR MANUSCRIPT Please use our template to edit your article before submitting for review. • Volume of a manuscript should not exceed 10.000 words, without Tables, Figures and Images. • Title of a manuscript should not exceed 15 words. • Full names and surnames of the authors, as well as full names of the author’s affiliation – university, institute, company, department, town and country should be clearly given. Corresponding author should be indicated, and their e-mail address provided. • Abstract of a manuscript should be no longer than 250 words. • Keywords should contain 3-7 items. • SI units should be used throughout. • Abbreviations should be used according to IUPAC and ISO standards and defined when first used. • Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, they should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and appended at the end of the manuscript. • References should be cited using Arabic numbers in square brackets,  according to the Vancouver referencing style. Please use our Quick Reference Guide (or look at the next page) • Figures and illustrations with a title and legend should be numbered consecutively (with Arabic numerals) and must be referred in the text. Images should be numbered as Figures. Additionally, Figures should be supplied as a separate file saved as jpg or tif at 300 dpi minimum. Type size in the description of axes should be proportional to the size of the Figure. • Tables with a title and optional legend should be numbered consecutively and must be referred in the text. • Acknowledgements may be included and should be placed after Conclusions and before References.

CATEGORIZATION OF ARTICLES Distinguishing scientific from professional articles The importance of usefulness of a article is not determined by whether it is scientific or professional. The difference between a scientific and a professional work is the originality of the results of research, debate and conclusions obtained by verified scientific methods. A professional paper can be more important for spreading knowledge and profession and economically more useful in application, but this does not mean it is a new contribution to the increase of scientific knowledge. The received manuscripts are categorized into: Original scientific papers means it is the first publication of original research. It must be presented so that the research can be repeated giving results with equal precision within the limits of the trial error, which means that the correctness of analyses and conclusions can be checked. Scientific review is a complete review of a issue or a field of research based on already published work but contains original analyses synthesis or suggestions for further research. It has a more comprehensive introduction than the original scientific paper. Preliminary communication includes new scientific results demanding urgent publication while the research is underway. This kind of article does not have to ensure the repetition and checking the presented results. It is published only with the author’s obligation to publish the original scientific paper when the research is completed.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 36-39.

Conference paper is the work presented at a professional conference organized on local, regional or state level. It will be published if it has not been published in full in Proceedings, as a report, a study etc. Professional paper deals with the issues in the profession. It gives professional instructions and suggestions for how to solve the issue (technique, technology, methodology). Professional review is a complete review of a professional issue (technique, technology, methodology) based on already published work indicating the best ways for solving the issue. The papers that are not categorized include: Presentation and communication from practical experience deals with solving the problem of particular laboratory, institution or industry and serve to inform interested parties of the solution applied. Position paper is an essay that presents an arguable opinion about an issue. Commentary is paper connected with actual news and condition in science and textile/clothing industry.

QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE Vancouver referencing style consists of: • citations to someone else’s work in the text, indicated by the use of a number, • a sequentially numbered reference list at the end of the document providing full details of the corresponding in-text reference. In-text citations • Insert an in-text citation: o when your work has been influenced by someone else’s work, for example: ▪ when you directly quote someone else’s work ▪ when you paraphrase someone else’s work • General rules of in-text citation: o A number is allocated to a source in the order in which it is cited in the text. If the source is referred to again, the same number is used o Use Arabic numerals in square brackets [1], [2], [3], … o Superscripts can also be used rather than brackets o Reference numbers should be inserted to the left or inside of colons and semi-colons o Reference numbers are placed outside or after full stops and commas Multiple works by the same author: Each individual work by the same author, even if it is published in the same year, has its own reference number. Citing secondary sources: A secondary source, or indirect citation, occurs when the ideas on one author are published in another author’s work, and you have not accessed or read the original piece of work. Cite the author of the work you have read and also include this source in your reference list.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 36-39.

In-text citation examples The in-text citation is placed immediately after the text which refers to the source being cited: ...and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1] Including page numbers with in-text citations: Page numbers are not usually included with the citation number. However should you wish to specify the page number of the source the page/s should be included in the following format: …and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1 p23] Hearle [1 p16-18] has argued that... Citing more than one reference at a time: The preferred method is to list each reference number separated by a comma, or by a dash for a sequence of consecutive numbers. There should be no spaces between commas or dashes For example: [1,5,6-8] Reference List • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper • Begin your reference list on a new page and title it References • The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text • Use Arabic numerals [1], [2], [3], … • Full journal titles are prefered • Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source when you cite it Scholarly journal articles • Enter author’s surname followed by no more than 2 initials (full stop) • If more than 1 author: give all authors’ names and separate each by a comma and a space • For articles with 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. For articles with more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors then add ‘et al.’ • Only the first word of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalized. • Use Full journal titles • Follow the date with a semi-colon; • Abbreviate months to their first 3 letters (no full stop) • Give the volume number (no space) followed by issue number in brackets • If the journal has continuous page numbering through its volumes, omit month/issue number. • Page numbers, eg: 123-129. Digital Object Identification (DOI) and URLs The digital object identifier (DOI) should be provided in the reference where it is available. Use the form as it appears in your source. Print journal article – Ferri L de, Lorenzi A, Carcano E, Draghi L. Silk fabrics modification by sol-gel method. Textile Research Journal. 2018 Jan;88(1):99-107. ▪ Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of article. Title of journal. Date of publication YYYY Mon DD;volume number(issue number):page numbers.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (1) 2018 36-39.

Electronic journal article – Niculescu O, Deselnicu DC, Georgescu M, Nituica M. Finishing product for improving antifugal properties of leather. Leather and Footwear Journal [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Apr 22];17(1):31-38. Available from: http://revistapielarieincaltaminte.ro/revistapielarieincaltaminteresurse/en/ fisiere/full/vol17 -nr1/article4_vol17_issue1.pdf ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Title of Journal [Internet]. Date of publication YYYY MM [cited YYYY Mon DD];volume number(issue number):page numbers. Available from: URL Book – Hu J. Structure and mechanics of woven fabrics. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2004. 61 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of book. # edition [if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination. Edited book - Sun G, editor. Antimicrobial Textiles. Duxford: Woodhead Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier; 2016. 99 p. ▪ Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. # edition[if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year. Pagination. Chapter in a book - Luximon A, editor. Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2013. Chapter 5, Foot problems and their implications for footwear design; p. [90-114]. ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; p. [page numbers of chapter]. Electronic book – Strasser J. Bangladesh’s Leather Industry: Local Production Networks in the Global Economy [Internet]. s.l.: Springer International Publishing; 2015 [cited 2017 Feb 07]. 96 p. Available from: https://link. springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-22548-7 ▪ Author AA. Title of web page [Internet]. Place of Publication: Sponsor of Website/Publisher; Year published [cited YYYY Mon DD]. Number of pages. Available from: URL DOI: (if available) Conference paper – Ferreira NG, Nobrega LCO, Held MSB. The need of Fashion Accessories. In: Mijović B. editor. Innovative textile for high future demands. Proceedings 12th World Textile Conference AUTEX; 13-15 June 2012; Zadar, Croatia. Zagreb: Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb; 2012. p. 1253-1257. ▪ Author AA. Title of paper. In: Editor AA, editor. Title of book. Proceedings of the Title of the Conference; Date of conference; Place of Conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of Publication. p. page numbers. Thesis/dissertation – Sujeevini J. Studies on the hydro-thermal and viscoelastic properties of leather [dissertation]. Leicester: University of Leicester; 2004. 144 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Number of pages Electronic thesis/dissertation – Covington AD. Studies in leather science [dissertation on the internet]. Northampton: University of Northampton; 2010. [cited 2017 Jan 09]. Available from: http://ethos.bl.uk/ OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.579666 ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [cited YYYY abb. month DD]. Available from: URL This quick reference guide is based on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). Please consult this source directly for additional information or examples.

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Textile leather rewiev 1 2018  

Colour impression of woven fabrics, weave type, agglomeration, colour values, Medical fabrics, washing and sterilization cycles, absorbency...

Textile leather rewiev 1 2018  

Colour impression of woven fabrics, weave type, agglomeration, colour values, Medical fabrics, washing and sterilization cycles, absorbency...

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