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Year I  No 4, 2013  price 7 KM www.nacionalnarevija.com

Truths and Lights

IN THE HUNDRED YEARS WORLD WAR


ПРИНЦИП ПРИНЦИП ПРЕС ПРЕС

“Golden Apple” TV EDITION OF “NATIONAL REVIEW”! Half an hour long collage TV program about Serbia, its landscapes and people, towns and customs, cultural-historic heritage and economic and tourist potentials. Travel reporting, portraits, legends, melodies. The best from Serbia, with knowledge and love! > RTV Republika Srpska (RTRS), every Saturday at 11:24


P R O L O G U E

SRPSKA

TRAINS ARE PASSING BY, THEY WILL NOT WAIT

NATIONAL REVIEW

Publisher “Princip Pres” Cetinjska 6, 11000 Belgrade Tel.: +381 (11) 322 70 34, 322 16 92 www.nacionalnarevija.com princip.press@gmail.com Director and Editor-in-Chief Mišo Vujović Editor Branislav Matić Technical Editor Aleksandar Ćosić Photography Editor Dragan Bosnić Header and Cover Design Jovan Željko Rajačić Associates Milovan Vitezović, jerej Jovan Plamenac, Nebojša Jevrić, Dragan Lakićević, Bojan Mandić, Jovo Bajić, Dejan Bulajić, Dejan Đorić, Đorđe Srbulović, Mihail Kulačić, Zoran Pejašinović, Slobodan Krstić, Sandra Kljajić, Boris Čikić, Senka Trivić, Sandra Josović, Vanja Tepić, Ljubiša Trivić, Dajana Korolija, Radmila Đević, Vesna Kapor, Aleksandra Rajković Marketing Mirko Vujović, Irena Stolić Secretariat and Distribution Jelena Jović, Dragana Dimitrijević, Milenko Vasilić Print “Portal”, Belgrade Office for the Republic of Srpska “Princip Pres RS” Aleja Svetog Save 7, 78000 Banjaluka Tel/Fax: +387 (51) 304 360 srpska@nacionalnarevija.com Dijana Petković, Director

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Year One

oon it will be the first anniversary of National Review in Srpska. The point in which the circle is closed and we remain in it. Long time ago, it was a period in which both the editorial boards and the readers were suffering from childhood diseases together. Now, in speed and with different rules of the game, we skip many important things in life, that one included. Cautious people kept silent at first and were just watching us. Then they said: “It looks like these guys are serious.” Some of them called later. “It all looks so simple, beautiful and necessary. It is incredible that nobody has started it earlier.” Foreigners are another story, especially the good intentioned ones. They always take us more serious than we take ourselves. Praises with no hesitation, they ask how they can reach some of the places they read about here. Enemies are nervous, they are trying the forty send wedge they would put into our little wheels. (We tell them quietly not to lose spirit and give them ideas of everything else they must certainly try.) On some small stops along the way, a few of them who had embarked this train by mistake were left behind. It all cleared out. This is now a team with which you can go both to a wedding and to a war. When we reached the first anniversary of National Review in Serbia, they scared us that we would “keep crawling for another few months” and then simply exhaust all the beautiful topics. We would have to, they said, to start them all over again, and in that case nobody would read it any more. The magazine in Serbia is now entering eight year of existence, and some sections are waiting in line to be published for as long as two years. The story in Srpska will be no different. We don’t have to teach ourselves cleanliness and beauty, it is sufficient to remember. It is more difficult to get used to a dump site, and even more difficult to force the beast once released back into the cage. We keep going. Stay with us. 

Sponsor of the Publication:

Office for Australia “Princip Press Australia PTY LTD”, 12/24 Loch Street, 3182 St Kilda West, VIC Jelena Janković, Director

PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA

Partners of the Publication:

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RTV VOJVODINA PUBLIC SERVICE НА

RTV SRPSKA

ДРИ

НИ

CIP - Каталогизација у публикацији Народна библиотека Србије, Београд 008(497.6 Република Српска) ISSN 2334-850X, COBISS.SR-ID 199401228

RTS - PUBLIC SERVICE OF SERBIA

ХЕ

Cover page: Marija Šestić, pianist (Photo: Drago Vejnović)

ВИШЕГРАД

MH PUTS

HPP “VIŠEGRAD”

“HPP ON THE VRBAS”

ZP “ELEKTRO DOBOJ”


CONTENTS Panorama 04 PROLOGUE 06 CHRONICLE

Road Sign 10 ALBUM: LOVE THE HOMELAND WITH YOUR EYES 16 DESTINATION: JAHORINA 24 TRACES: AMBARINES IN DERVENTA 30 MAGIC: ZIMZOGRAD IN BANJALUKA 36 PILGRIMAGES: GOMIONICA MONASTERY 42 RECOMMENDATION: LAKTAŠI

People 46 WORLDS: KOSTA HAKMAN, PAINTER 66 LOOKOUTS: MILIVOJE UNKOVIĆ 74 MORE THAN A GAME: ALEKSANDAR GATALICA 82 EXPERIENCES: MARIJA ŠESTIĆ, PIANIST 92 TALENTS: BILJANA CVIJANOVIĆ, ATHLETE

Culture 52 TREASURIES: MUSEUM OF OLD HERZEGOVINA, FOČA 58 SCENE: “THE FOURTEENTH” 62 CHANG: CHOIR “BANJALUČANKE” 88 MEDIA: DUBRAVKA GAJIĆ, RTRS

Introducing 98 PILLARS: “THE POWER UTILITY OF RS” 104 POWER: TPP “UGLJEVIK” 107 PROJECTS: REPARATION AT HE “VIŠEGRAD” 112 ENERGY: “HYDRO POWER PLANTS ON THE VRBAS” 115 DISTRIBUTION: “ELEKTROKRAJINA” SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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NE WS S T RE AM >> Writers’ Association of Srpska celebrated its 20th anniversary in a literary evenings where, in addition to domestic participants, guests from the Association of Writers of Serbia, Serbian Literary Society and the Association of Writers of Vojvodina also participated, and appropriate acknowledgments were handed out. >> F  olk Spelling Book is the working title of the book that is being prepared by the Museum of the Republic of Srpska, with an intention to bring the youngest readers closer to the history, traditions and culture of the Serbian people, presenting them somewhat forgotten old Serbian expressions and giving clarifications through proverbs and parts of the heroic poems. >> National and University Library of the Republic Srpska enabled its customers and all interested parties direct access to the Russian digital library “Лань” which contains a large number of books and magazines available in Russian language. >> The Ministry of Trade and Tourism of Srpska announced the launching of magazine The Best from Srpska, in which the best local companies will be presented.

Prayer Book from Detlak A facsimile edition of manuscript Detlački Evhologion, which is assumed to have been created in Donji Detlak Monastery in the 16th and 17th century, after Belgrade and Novi Sad was recently presented in Derventa. “This work is a confirmation that in the place where it was created there used to be an organized life. Donji Detlak and Derventa are in this way marked as places in which books are being written”, said on this occasion His Grace Bishop of Zvornik and Tuzla, Hrizostom. The manuscript from Detlak, based on its structure, is not an ordinary church document, and hides many more secret, concluded Archpriest-Stavrophor Vladimir Vukašinović, PhD, professor at the Faculty of Theology in Belgrade.

Foundations of All-Slavic Heritage 1,150 years of arrival of Cyril and Methodius in the area of Great Moravia is the title of the exhibition opened recently in the gallery of Cultural Centre in Bijeljina. Eleven exhibits were the courtesy of Museum of Slovakia in Bratislava.

>> Youth Theatre in Zvornik, which next year celebrates 10 years of existence, premiered in the local Youth Centre the production Poor Little Hamsters, its second premiere (after the production Retromorphoses). >> First International Exhibition of Photography “Doboj Salon 2013” opened at the Art Gallery of the Cultural Center in Doboj, where 21 authors from the country and abroad were presented, and their photographs bear witness to

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These two missionaries of Slavic literacy first created a language of liturgy for Old Slavs, and created the foundation for today’s All-Slavic heritage, said the ambassador of Slovakia in B&H Jan Pšenica, at the opening of the exhibition in Bijeljina.


Classics and Romanticism for the End In mid December, at the Cultural Centre “Banski Dvor”, Banjaluka Philharmonic had their last local concert in 2013. Under the baton of Vanesa Kremenović, they performed a program of compositions from Classicism and Romanticism, including the famous Mendelssohn’s overture The Hebrides and Mozart’s Symphony No. 40.

children and adults, natural beauty, buildings, events and experiences from 24 countries. >> “Laktaši Winter” is the name of the event during which exhibition and commercial stands will be mounted on the central square of the city and a rich cultural and entertainment program presented, with participation of local cultural institutions and choirs. >> Central Library in East New Sarajevo organized for the second time event “Days of Vladimir Nastić”, as a memorial to the writer and his works. >> Writer and translator Kolja Mićević is the recipient of “Kočić’s Book” award in 2013, awarded by the Banjaluka-Belgrade Foundation “Petar Kočić”, and “Kočić’s Quill” award went to Aleksandar Gatalica for his book Huge Microcosms.

As a part of celebration of the Days of Srpska, on January 11, 2014 Banjaluka Philharmonic will also have a concert in Belgrade, announced its director Ivan Otašević.

Listening to Novels Special library for the blind and visually impaired persons in the Republic of Srpska is planning in 2014 a series of activities dedicated to the celebration of the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War. Among others, several books on this subject will be published, in the forms suitable for the library users (in Braille and in audio format). As the first step in this direction, in the recording studio of the Library they recorded novel Corfu by Borivoje Adašević, who won scholarship of “Borislav Pekić” Foundation for this manuscript in 2007.

>> Production Tom Thumb, directed by Belgrade director Živomir Joković, premiered in mid-December on the big stage of the Children’s Theatre of the Republic of Srpska. >> In May of 2014, the Museum of Kozara will celebrate its 60th anniversary with a large exhibition on the development of the museum, , a review of ethnological and historical films, as well as an exhibition of Vlado Njaradi, a participant in last year’s Art Colony “Sreten Stojanović”. >> Handball club “Borac m:tel” promoted its calendar for 2014, illustrated with photographs of former and current players, and on that occasion the club’s mascot named Borko was officially presented.

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NE WS S T RE AM >> With premiere of production Twelve Little Stars, which brought to life the story of the deaths of twelve babies from Banjaluka in 1991, the 37th season of Banjaluka Student Theatre was officially closed. >> Milanko Mučibabić, a master of judo, won the title of world champion for veterans at the championship in Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), which is the second gold medal for this PhD in sports sciences employed in the Ministry of Family, Youth and Sports of the Republic of Srpska. >> S  erbian Orthodox Church Singing Society “Vila” from Prijedor, this year’s winner of the first place at the prestigious festival “The Days of Mokranjac” in Negotin, recently appeared within the “Days of Serbian Culture” in Timisoara, and is now preparing for the festival in Ohrid and performance in Zagreb. >> Publication Life and Work of Banjaluka Women by Draga Gajić was presented recently in the council hall of Cultural Centre “Banski Dvor” in Banjaluka. >> As of next year, the tournament of futures series for women tennis players will be held in Banjaluka, the construction of the National Tennis Center could begin in 2014, said the president of the Serbian Tennis Federation Draško Milinović. >> Slobodan Karalić, former goalkeeper of Football Club “Borac” from Banjaluka, a member of the trophy winning generation that in 1988 won the Yugoslav Cup, died recently at the age of 57, after a long illness. >> Winter tourist season 2013/2014 on Jahorina was officially opened in midDecember, and this was another occa-

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Winter “Garden of Delight” Exhibition “Garden of Delight” by Mladen Miljanović, which represented Srpska and B&H bile at this year’s Biennale in Venice, was formally opened on December 26, in the Museum of Contemporary Art in Banjaluka. Crowned with numerous praises and positive reviews at the world exhibition in Venice, after Banjaluka the exhibition will be moved to the Art Gallery of B&H in Sarajevo, ad then it goes to the Center for Contemporary Art in Northampton in England, and in October last year it will also be seen by the audience in the Cultural Centre in Belgrade.

Harmony is Possible The Third Fair of National Minorities, in which twenty one associations from B&H participated, took place on December 22 in Doboj. “This event reminds us of the several centuries long existence and cultural and historical tradition of national minorities in this area, as well as traditionally good relations and respect of all citizens, regardless of ethnicity and religion”, said deputy mayor of Doboj Dragan Vasilić, while opening the Fair.


New Projects in Tourism Eighty projects in the area of tourism (out of 273, which arrived to the open call), in total amount of about KM 750,000, will be financed by the Ministry of Trade and Tourism of the Republic of Srpska. Agreements to this respect were signed by the Minister Maida Ibrišagić–Hrstić. It con­cerns realization of promotional activities in tourism, construction of tourist infrastructure, creation of tourist signalization, organization of tourist events, construction or adaptation of tourist-hospitality capacities. This type of incentive, it has been announced, will be continued next year.

Herzegovina Wines, the World Prefix Tourist Cluster Herzegovina, with assistance from Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and technical support from the Regional Development Agency for Herzegovina, organized a two days long event “The Days of Open Wine Cellars in Trebinje Wineries”. On this occasion, the ambassa-

dor of Japan in B&H Hideo Jamazaki said that the government of Japan has been supporting projects related to wine tourism in Herzegovina for many years, and will continue to do this in the future, because wines from this region are recognizable for their quality around the world. Only the cellar of Tvrdoš Monastery was this year visited by more than 40,000 tourists, and its wines are exported to 20 countries around the world.

sion to highlight the significant potential of this mountain in the winter period in alpine, adventure, youth and sports tourism. >> With their performances in Paris and Strasbourg, the pupils of the School of Music “Kornelije Stanković” from Ugljevik presented a musical opus from theirs homeland and the entire Srpska, and a performance in Gothenburg is ahead of them. >> The first fair of handicrafts, old and artistic crafts, gathered at the Museum of Semberija in Bijeljina 58 participants from the South Slavic area, and presented were jewelry, clothing, household ornaments... >> Handball Goalkeeper, the Most Important Element of Success, a book of the famous former goalkeeper of Handball Club “Borac” and the national team of Yugoslavia Abas Arslanagić, was launched in mid-December in the Hall of “Banski Dvor” in Banjaluka. >> Performances of Choir “Banja­lu­čan­ ke” are a good sign for artists on how to represent the culture of Srpska beyond its border, said the Minister of Education and Culture Goran Mutabdžija after receiving the representatives of this choir, organized on the occasion of winning two gold medals at the International Choir Competition in Spain. >> A 26 meters high memorial cross will be built in Zlatište, with inscribed names of more than 6,600 Serbs from Sarajevo killed in the recent war – it was decided by the Presidency of the Association of Detainees of the Republic of Srpska at the recent meeting in Rogatici.

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A LITTLE PHOTO-GUIDE THROUGH SRPSKA

Love the Homeland With Your Eyes

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Photographs: Branislav Andrić, Milan Blagojević, Radojica Ćosović, Saša Janjušić, Saša Knežević

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eauty must be looked at in order to thrive. Only then its connection with the soul lives, only then it thrills. The world is first conceived and loved through the eye. If you see beauty with your heart, than what you are standing in front is a mirror. “Only shallow people do not judge based on appearance. True mystery of the world is the visible and not the invisible.” Before us is Srpska seen through the eyes of its photographers. A large number of photographs from the open call of the Tourist Organization of the Republic of Srpska were presented to us as a proposal for thinking, as a possibility and promise, as an invitation. So, how to reduce them to six, for this occasion? (Unfortunate man always sees more and better what he is deprived of than what he has left in his possession. And it should be the other way around.) There are various shots here. Professional and amateur, those that that are the result of long periods of waiting and those made by accident. Enchanting in their imperfection and ruined by fixing them in Photoshop. There are other visual thoughts, almost essays, as well as quick reactions in a suddenly recognized moment. Pretty summer sunset in the main street of the “youngest old city in Europe”. The famous bridge, a noble thought ejected between two coasts, reflecting in calm water and clear sky. A man flies like a bird over his homeland, through “huge microcosms” Two of them, small and big, are sitting in an embrace on a lookout like on the throne. Old and young, smiling, on sledges, sank in the snow like in a memory of childhood. A hill in the village, house and orchard, before the storm. Sunrise over the city and lake, over the temple and field, in us. Everyday beautiful images that we remember only when we see them in the paper. Thanks to TORS, for their courtesy photos, we halt the words. We open our eyes.  (B. M.)

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JAHORINA, THE CENTRE OF WINTER TOURISM AND WHITE SPORTS IN SRPSKA

In the Old

Olympic Circle From the first skis, brought exactly ninety years ago, millions of winter sport lovers passed through here. Beginners and great champions, local people and foreigners, big and small, they skied sown these slopes and stayed in local boarding houses, remained permanently enchanted and kept coming back. The true climax was marked by the Winter Olympic Games, which took place here in 1984. Accounting for all this, the Tourist Organization of Eastern Sarajevo entered the new winter season with all the old and new trump cards

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ong tradition of skiing and organizing winter competitions on Jahorina begins as far back as in 1923. That year, accounts say, the first skis were brought here. Since then, more than a million lovers of this white sport from around the world have made their firs steps on the slopes and tracks of Jahorina. Jahorina is today one of the most popular winter centers in the Balkans, and many regard it as one of the most beautiful mountains in Europe. On the altitude of 1,529–1,916 meters, it has over 20 kilometers of well developed ski sloes for alpine skiing. The slopes are connected with modern vertical transportation (three six-seats, two two-seats and four ski lifts), with total capacity of over 12,000 skiers per hour. For the lovers of Nordic skiing, slope “Dvorište” is a real pearl. There is also a modern shooting range for biathlon, which provides conditions for superb competitions. It is on this track that the World Military Championships in biathlon took place, in February 2011. Vicinity of the international airport in Sarajevo provides easy access to the ski center to a large number of tourists coming from abroad. – In addition for those who love skiing, snowboarding and other snow sports, offers programs for those looking for fun and entertainment, traditional cuisine and local specialties, trekking in the beautiful winter environment and quality accommodation in cozy and pleasant atmosphere of the local hotels, guest houses, apartments and other types of accommodation – says Branka Spasojević, director of the Tourist Organization of East Sarajevo. – In addition to this, hotels in Jahorina offer the opportunity to relax in a modern well equipped wellness center located in them.

Zlatibor Connection – We will continue to develop programs in the area of Jahorina, as well as the city of East Sarajevo. We are planning to implement projects with our partners in Montenegro (municipalities Plužine and Kolašin) and Serbia (municipality of Čajetina and Tourist Organization of Zlatibor). The project is related to development of certain tourist segments on Jahorina and Zlatibor – says Branka Spasojević, director of the Tourist Organization of East Sarajevo.

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Summer Attraction on the Mountain – In the future, we will intensively develop summer tourist programs on Jahorina, in order to improve this segment of our offer as well – says Branka Spasojević. – We want to Jahorina to have its well deserved place on the tourist map of this part of Europe as a summer destination as well. For now, in the summer months, popular programs include seminars, conferences, congresses, schools in nature, sports camps, relax, wellness and extreme weekends in exclusive hotels on Jahorina, as well as adrenaline sports, such as mountain biking and hiking. Let’s not forget trekking along well developed mountain treks, collecting medicinal herbs and much more than that.

Jahorina is a mountain that has a soul, adds Spasojević. Except for skiing, our guests are always returning to us also because, as they say, they feel very much at home here. It was here that, long time ago, they made ​​friends for life. – Jahorina is also is competitive for its prices, which are much lower than in other ski resorts in the territories of the Southern Slavs, and for this reason our old guests have remain loyal to us, while new ones keep coming – says the director of the Tourist Organization of East Sarajevo. – Everything on Jahorina is ready for the winter tourist season 2013/2014. The trails are cleaned, vertical transportation transport repaired and prices of skipasses fixed, which were available in the period by November 11 and promotional discounted prices in the Olympic Centre “Jahorina”. ON RUSSIAN WINGS As in previous years, the Tourist Organization of East Sarajevo, in cooperation with the Association of Hoteliers on Jahorina, Olympic Centre “Jahorina” and Tourist Organization of Republika Srpska, participated in numerous fairs and tourism trade shows in Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia and Croatia. And the focus has always been the promotion of the upcoming winter tourist season. From November 8 to 10, the seventeenth Tourism Exchange “Workshop 2013” took place on Jahorina, in which about sixty travel agencies from B&H, Serbia, Montenegro and Slovenia participated, as well as representatives of twenty agencies from Russia. People at the Tourist Organization of East Sarajevo hope that this will contribute to an increase in the number of RusSRPSK A  No 4  2013

Photographs: Vladimir Stanišić, Ivana Amović, Miroslav Bundalo, Archives of OC „Jahorina“

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sian tourists on Jahorina. This event also included a presentation on Jahorina for Russian tour operators, who then visited all hotels on this mountain, learned about their offers and made good business arrangements for the upcoming winter tourist season. – Especially important for us is information announced at the Tourism Exchange by Jurij Basjuk, director of Moskovia Airlines – continues Spasojević. – As of December 20, 2013, there will be new regular flight Moscow–Sarajevo. Once a week there ill be a flight from Domodedo-

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vo Airport in Moscow, in morning hours, and return flight to Moscow would be on the same day in the afternoon, from “Butmir” Airport in Sarajevo. If we take into account that the visa regime has been significantly simplified for guests from Russia, namely the former mandatory, and by no means cheap taxes were abolished, there is a reason to be optimistic about the arrival of a large number of Russian tourists to Jahorina as well. Tourist season 2013/2014 was opened in mid December with already traditional event “Approaching Winter”, which gathered this year numerous travel professionals and friends of Jahorina from the country and abroad. Tourist Organization of East Sarajevo hopes that the works on completion of gondola Jahorina–Pale will soon be finished, and this will improve tourist programs on this mountain, and extend ski slopes by about 15 kilometers. 


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AMBARINE IN THE VICINITY OF DERVENTA, BETWEEN LEGEND, SCIENCE AND CAUTIOUS SPECULATIONS

Mysterious

Jars in Stone

They can be found in several villages, but only those in Donji Detlak have been explored. They are linked to the Neolithic Period, Roman times and the Middle Ages. Were they food containers, secret places to hide valuables, or they had some more mysterious ritual function? Vitruvius, Xenophon, Strobo, Pliny and Tacitus wrote about similar objects. Some link the ambarines from Derventa to the former Detlak Monastery, from the period of King Dragutin Nemanjić. In 2010, this complex was declared a cultural and historical heritage of great importance Text and photographs: Damir Kljajić

 Savo Pečić, local chronicler

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lthough in existence for hundreds of years, ambarines or hambarines have to date remained a true archeological enigma, because to the questions about their purpose and time when they were made there is no unanimous answer by archaeologists or other explorers. Everybody agrees only on one thing – these unusual holes in the rock, in the form of a jar with a small opening, wide in the middle and narrower toward the bottom, were made by human hand. SRPSK A  БРОЈ 4  2013

In Srpska, ambarines can be found in several places in Derventa region, in the villages of Donji Detlak, Gornja Lupljanica, Crnča, Osinja, Velika Sočanica, Dažnica and Modran. Explorers have different opinions on when the ambarines were built and what their purpose was. The most common one is that t hey served as storage places, most probably for food, and they are linked to the Neolithic Period Roman times and the Middle Ages.


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 Ambarines in Donji Detlak, an aerial photo Archeologist Milan Đurđević during excavations on this site, in 2009

 The Church of St. Ilija, with a cemetery, in the place where there used to be Donji Detlak Monastery

In Derventa region, only those in Donji Detlak have been explored. The first exploration was conducted in 1892, led by Kosta Herman, then the editor of the Official Gazette of the National Museum in Sarajevo. On this occasion, 23 pits were identified, in the form of jars (amphorae), 1.5 to 2.8 meters deep, with the middle part about 1.8 meters wide and the opening 0.45 to 0.60 meters wide. On the openings of some ambarines they have identified cut grooves, which were most probably used for lids they were closed with. During the exploration, 15 ambarines were cleaned and fully explored, and eight remained buried and unexplored. Still, nothing was found on the basis of which it would be possible to conclude in what period they were made. Ambarines in Donji Detlak are also recorded in the Archaeological Lexicon of B&H, and they were also studied by Staniša Tutnjević, as research for his book Following the Traces of Detlak Monastery, published in 2008. “The name ambarine derives from Persian word ambar, which means an ancient building for cereals, a silo. It was most probably adopted at the time of Turkish rule”, wrote Tutnjević.

Object of Great Importance Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural-Historical and Natural Heritage, Republika Srpska proclaimed in 2010 the Cultural-Historical Complex “Detlak” an immovable cultural-historical good of great significance. The Committee for preservation of national monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina put this site, which it calls Bukvik, to the temporary list of national monuments of B&H, together with the Church of St. Ilija.

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The latest explorations of ambarines in Donji Detlak were conducted in 2009 by the Republic Institute for the Protection of Cultural-Historical and Natural Heritage, Republika Srpska. On this occasion all pits were cleaned, and in one they found remains of ceramics from the late Middle Ages. WHITE AMPHORAE FOR BLACK DAYS Some archaeologists say that ambarines are granaries from the Late Antiquity. Their linking with the Roman period comes from the similarity in the shape of ambarines and Roman amphorae, and because historian Tacitus in his book Germania mentions similar underground granaries that existed before the migration of peoples to our territories. There are assumptions that ambarines in Derventa region were made before the 4th century and that they were built by Romans or Illyrians. It is also written that in 1951, in Donji Detlak, one villager was digging rock for the foundation of the house not far from the ambarines, and on this occasion found one well preserved grave. In the stone casket there was a skeleton and various types of jewelry known from Roman history. Exploration in Donji Detlak from 2009 and records from older periods prompted some explorers to conclude that ambarines were the best preserved object of medieval material culture in this part of Srpska. Recently, they have been most frequently linked to Detlak Monastery, which was most probably located at the place where today is the Church of St. Ilija, and in which, in 1628, one of the gospels was copied. The monastery disappeared in the late 13th and early 14th century, during the reign of Serbian King Dragu-


Protective Works The Cultural-Historical Complex “Detlak” includes sites Ambarine and Pećina, with monastery Church of St. Ilija and Christian Orthodox cemetery in Donji Detlak. On the basis of material remains, among which is the tomb with inscribed Andrea’s cross, it is believed that the Christian Orthodox cemetery is more than 300 ears old. In 2010, an open call was organized for development of a part of the complex (Ambarine site). In late 2011, they began construction of the protective structure, exterior development and construction of information boards.

tin Nemanjić. Certain historians and archaeologists believe that ambarines were made in this period, for the needs of the monks. There are also assumptions that they were built during great epidemics. The area in Donji Detlak where ambarines are located has different names in the literature: Ambarine, Hambarine, Bukvik and Čizmovina, Cultural-Historical Complex „Detlak“. In 2007, site Pećina was found not far from there, and in 2009, on this site, archaeologists discovered numerous Paleolithic flint stones, fragments of ceramics and other material remains. They also found hollows in rocks, created by human hand, and historians think that it was most probably a place of monastic hermitage. MANY LINKS, REMOTE AND VAGUE Ambarines in other villages in Derventa have remained in the shadow of these in Donji Detlak, and have not been researched yet. In Gornja Lupljanica they are located in

the hamlet of Brestovci, on several locations. Locals think that they were dug during great wars, to hide food and gold. In Crnča, they are located near the houses of Davidovići, on the border with Osinja. During construction of the road Modran–Osinja, in 1953, two ambarines found in Osinja were destroyed. Villagers who live in the hamlet of Danilovići in Velika Sočanica say that there are ambarines in immediate vicinity of their houses, but that they have been covered with soil. One was found during exploitation of limestone in the village of Dažnica, but was destroyed during further works in the quarry. Unusual jars in the rock can be found also in Modran, not far from ilirska gradina on Vis. Ambarines are also mentioned in the village of Mujdžići near Jajce (1913), in Podstinje near Kiseljak (1923). Similar objects can also be found in Kruščani, near Olovo. In the vicinity of Gračanica, in Federation of B&H, ambarines were also found, but there they were made of dirt. Similar objects have been found in Hungary, Slavonia, Lower Austria, Moravia and Czech Republic, and they Vitruvius, Xenophon, Strobo, Pliny and Tacitus wrote about them. 

 Interior of a pantry Ambarines in Donji Detlak, side view

Mice and Gold Villagers of Gornja Lupljanica say that one ambarine used to be located in the woods that belonged to Novaković family. According to legend, it was discovered by a miller who, long time ago, used to work at the mill on the Lupljanica Creek. One cold night he went to the woods to get wood, to make fire in the mill. In the woods he saw mice that removed the leaves and were eating cereal. He came closer and saw the lid of a hole, lifted it and in this hole (ambarine) he found bigger quantities of gold and cereal. He collected the gold and fled from the village, forgetting about the cold.

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ZIMZOGRAD, A LITTLE NEW YEAR’S URBAN FAIRYTALE FROM BANJALUKA

Between Dream and Reality Citizens of Banjaluka, in the heart of this city, got an enchanting winter legend and real holiday atmosphere. This city within the city, under protection of St. Nicholas, gathers old and young people, big and small, all those who have not forgotten how to rejoice and dream. And when, in the middle of January, colorful lights are turned off and those ordinary ones are turned on, and when boy Zimzolin withdraws behind the cloak that covers this world of ors, magicians of Zimzograd will go for vacation as well. Until we wake up again in our Zimzograd next winter Text and photographs: Senka Trivić SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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ed, blue, yellow... Viewer’s eye glitters shines in the colors of decorative lights. In the apple of the eye, stars on the heavenly night canvas are complemented with irregular shapes of small and big decorations which indicate only one: New Year’s holidays. The entire place is encircled with clattering of faster and slower steps, dull sounds of winter shoes with stiffer soles and those noisier than ladies’ boots. But the happy shouts of children muffled everything out. The youngest, who can rejoice for a single colorful ball, are now captivated hundreds of them which are used to decorate Zimzograd. Understandable. On this place, all year round we are looking at the grey paved surface and one alley of immature trees in front of the bus stops. Now, with wooden houses, shiny Christmas tree, indispensable St. Nicholas and a small amusement park, it is a true little holiday oasis in the heart of Banjaluka. How many months there are in a year – there are twice as many little houses that look like each other from the outside, and within their four walls offer all kinds of gadgets. Neither young nor old people can resist the cookies. And while the cold

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air is visibly marking every breath, the mixture that feels like it was made by a mother’s hand is melting in one’s mouth. And in a split second, the eye is already looking for other tastes that would complement the experience. Boiled wine tea, coffee in contact with cold fingers feel good even before the hot beverage warms up the body from the inside.

CHILDREN’S STORY Why don’t grown-ups believe in fairytales any more? Neither St. Nicholas nor chocolate wrapped in shiny cellophane brings them joy. Let alone a stuffed animal! There is only one rule for it, in the world of little ones: the bigger, the more beautiful and the more we care about it. That is why we are struggling to throw as many balls as possible on that strange place in the amusement park, while our eyes are recklessly following our buddies who are in the little train or in bumper cars. Children’s house, the grown-ups say, has been conceived only for us. While waiting for our first New Year’s presents, we are anxiously trying to remember what we got last year. We are showing off in front of each other, trying to detect who is still walking around SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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by holding their parents’ hands, and who has received the first symbol of independence and the right to explore on their own. Of course, before the watchful eyes of their chaperons. Neon decorations shed light in all directions, while the music is so loud that we can hardly discern the spoken words. It seems that everything is dancing and attracting at the same time. It feels good to just stop by one of the little houses. We are rising on our tiptoes to see what is hiding behind the first row of piled New Year’s mugs, decorations and figurines. While crawling between the legs, our attention is drawn by a line of children who are patiently waiting to have their photographs taken with St. Nicholas. He is comfortably sitting in his armchair. Yeas, the real St. Nicholas. Big, with white beard and red suit, he is smiling friendly while lifting each one of us onto his lap. And none of the children is crying. I am not crying either. It is warm in the Children’s House. How warm, we are reminded by the cold winter air when we make the first step outside. Uh, and the little horses. We must not forget them. In all colors, they are dancing in the circle, slowly swaying to pleasant tunes that come from black boxes.

THE STORY OF GROWN-UPS At the opening ceremony there were many citizens and honored guests. Slobodan Gavranović, the mayor of Banjaluka, cut the

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tape and marked the beginning of a new story. He was also symbolically elected the mayor of Zimzograd. Nobody was hiding the enthusiasm about what has been accomplished, and the tourist potential of this entire idea was highlighted. And so the director of the Tourist Organization of the city, Ostoja Barašin, expressed his hopes that this enterprise will additionally attract tourists in the winter period and inspire them to stay for a few days. All those who were present said that Zimzograd was born in 2013, and that in the years to come it will grow bigger and more beautiful. Within the little winter town there is also the Joyful House intended for elderly citizens of Banjaluka. It is the place where numerous performances of local bands and ensembles will take place, as well as those from other Southern Slavic territories. The gastronomic offer is complemented by traditional barbeque, among which the famous Banjaluka ćevap is indispensable. In several little houses they sell appropriate winter gifts, and cotton candy beings us back into the times of old-fashioned amusement parks.

LEGEND ABOUT ZIMZOLIN Zimzograd, this pretty little town, just like most airy tales, was created in the heads of grown-ups. A boy named Zimzolin, says this fairytale from Banjaluka, had an unusual dream in which he encountered the tooth fairy. She gave him the task to find the place in which he would build a little town enchanted with joy and peace, comfortable like a spa resort and safe as a harbor. Wandering around the world Zimzolin was persistently searching for a place exactly like that. He slept very little and he walked fearlessly. When the mid December arrived, he found a city inhabited by people with pure and open hearts. Exactly because of this, he decided to give them a place in which people celebrate and rejoice. This modern legend is maybe not as old as the one known by most citizens of Banjaluka, about the beautiful Safikada, but it definitely brings us back to the time when it was easier for us to accept and appreciate cheerful spirit and moments of rest and relaxation. Maybe exactly Zimzograd will become the place of a new love, real or imagined. But don’t all true loves look like a fairytale? 


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P I L G R I M A G E S GOMIONICA MONASTERY, BETWEEN ZMIJANJE PLATEAU AND TIMAR, A WONDERFUL MIRACLE OF SURVIVAL

Man is Dreaming,

God Decides and

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It apparently dates back to the late 13th and early 14th century, but there are no preserved written accounts on its construction and founder. In legends, people link it to the Nemanjić dynasty (as if there could be someone else). Shrouded in legend and belief, it has survived many difficult times. Even writer Petar Kočić, who began his journey to the world from the local monastery school, cold not tell a story about all these deaths and resurrections, migrations and restorations. However, all nihilists have long disappeared in the darkness of the centuries and their names nobody mentions any more, and the Monastery is still standing in its place, older and younger than ever By: Dajana Korolija

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 Doors of Gomionica Monastery and the old fresco St. George Killing the Dragon

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o reach Gomionica Monastery, you head west from Banjaluka, take a road forty two kilometers long, along the upper course of the creek that the Monastery was named after. Near the Bronze Mine, twelve kilometers long gravel road branches out and leads to the village of Kmećani. Then you are close. The monastery is connected with all parts of Zmijanje, but those narrow and rocky rural roads from past centuries are not very suitable for modern traffic. Church of the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin, old and new residence, fountain and built fence, are standing harmoniously against the landscape of Zmijanje Plateau, to the West from it, facing the district called Timar and the valley in the middle course of the Gomionica. Outside the monastery fence there is an old cemetery, with crosses made of tuff, which is excavated from the Matavaz, Perašev Creek and other tributaries of Gomionica. It is well known that it was from this monastery school that writer Petar Kočić started his long journey into the world, to announce the beauty and fame of this area. “So much love and beauty, spirituality and goodness gathered in this place, providing a refuge to people and giving the stronghold to their faith”, says a travel writer.

The Oldest Manuscript Numerous manuscripts are held in Gomionica. The oldest are Letters (Sermons) of Holy Fathers in the paschal cycle and Pentecost, in Serbian edition, with preserved 312 sheets.

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The sisterhood from Gomionica, with ten nuns, led by abbess Jefimija and father Methodius, rock solid and unfaltering in its spiritual mission. It enjoys great trust among people. Gomionica Monastery originated in the Middle Ages. According to legend, it is an endowment of someone from the holy Nemanjić dynasty. Saint Sava and Saint Simeon are mentioned, which has more to do with people’s imagination than accurate history. Written accounts, unfortunately, have not been preserved. Presumably, in the 14th century King Dragutin had under his rule some territories nearby, and Gomionica, just like other monasteries in Krajina, could have been built from his contributions. The first preserved written accounts are from the first half of the 16th century. In Turkish census from 1540/41, this monastery is mentioned under names Gomionica and Zalužje. In the second census from 1560, they say that prior Andrej had been the abbot of the monastery for twenty four years. Gomionica, therefore, certainly existed even before 1536. Exactly that year this prior was appointed, the fraternity lives there, and afterwards the monastery was fortified. Throughout its history, Gomionica has suffered together with its people. There were numerous migrations and refugees. Therefore, many works of art and valuable manuscripts from here could be found around the world. One silver lined cross from Gomionica in 1640 is today located in London. Father Methodius says: “I guess they need something from this corner of the wide world to complete their collections.”


The oldest book for which we know was copied in Gomionica is Tipik of Jerusalem by St. Sava Sanctified. Copied here in 1599, at the time of prior Dionid, it is today located in Arad. It complements one museum collection in the Diocesan Library of that Romanian city. Apparently, monks from Gomionica fled to that side as well, and reached Hodoš Monastery. We know that the fraternity, led by prior Pahomije Knežević, fled in 1737 to Slavonia, and there they were given permanent residence in Pakru and St. Anne monasteries, next to modern Pakrac. The last sufferings, and the greatest one, Gomionica experienced in 1941. In June that year, prior Serafim (Štrkić) and the entire fraternity were killed by Croatian Ustashas, and in December the Germans bombed the monastery. NURSERY OF FEMALE MONASTICISM Gomionica was never again restored as a male monastery. In 1948, with the blessing of Bishop of Banjaluka Vasilije (Kostić), three Ukrainian nuns come here, with their elder-spiritual monk Vasilije, and Gomionica becomes a female monastery for the first time. This small sisterhood and their spiritual leader had been in a Christian Orthodox monastery in Prnjavor, in the same diocese, but that sanctity was also destroyed by Croatian Ustashas. In 1954, the blessing of Bishop of Žiča German and Bishop of Banjaluka Vasilije, u Mother Voskresija comes to Gomionica with three sisters from Nikolj Monastery in OvčarKablar Gorge. They were all from Osečina, in Podgorina, near Valjevo. Administration of

Gomionica at that moment goes to the hands of a Serbian woman. (They remained there for six years, and were then transferred to Herzegovina, where they restored Žitomislić and Dobrićevo monasteries.) Gomionica was then a great nursery of female monasticism. Even in places where there had never been nuns, they were sent from here to establish female monasteries. Numerous nuns went to many different places. Two went to Macedonia, some to Fruška Gora, some to Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia. Mother Anastasija, mow prioress of Vavedenje Monastery in Belgrade, was a novice in Gomionica. There are three legends connected with the Monastery. The first, that Gomionica is an endowment of Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja and St. Sava. The second, which was recorded by I. F. Jukić in 1843, then priest J. Novaković, that Gomionica was built by Sultana Mara. researchers assumed that this could have been Mara, daughter of Despot Đurđe Branković, wife of Murat II, or daughter of Despot Jovan, also Mara, but historical sources do not confirm that either of them had connections with Gomionica. The third legend attributes the reconstruction of the

 Monastery fountain and memorial plaque to the priest Jovan Kočić (father of the famous writer Petar), who died in 1904, as monk Gerasim in this monastery

Treasury The treasury of Gomionica has been growing for centuries. Gifts from metropolitans, monks, nuns and anonymous donors from different parts of the Christian Orthodox world were coming in the form of crosses, candle holders, choir, epitrachils and incense holders. The oldest item of artistic crafts that is kept here is a carved wooden cross from the 17th century, with relief presentations of twelve Great Feasts.

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Monastery to the Zmijanje Prince Obrad,  Eternal resting place of Gomionica who supposedly built this monastery after Turkish occupation of Bihać. If Prince Monastery nuns Obrad excelled in conquering the city, it is not impossible that the rulers rewarded him Hayloft in the with such a permit, but it is more likely that monastery this would be the right to conduct restoracourtyard tion than to found the Monastery. GOD’S HEARTBEATS

Church of the presentation of the Blessed Virgin in Gomionica, southern side

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Frescoes in the dome and pendentives of Gomionica were painted by talented painters. The better one painted Pantocrator, characters from heavenly liturgy, Christ’s image on ubrus, Mother of God and archangels in apse, and a character of an unknown young saint in the lowest zone of the altar. Especially captivating is the image of the Mother of God Odigitrija (The Road Guide), painted on gold background, dressed in dark red dress and dark blue cloak decorated with floral ornaments. She holds the baby in her right hand, Christ, who is giving a blessing with his right hand, and she is holding a gold sphere in her right hand. Based on the accounts of Nikodim, author of records in Sermons of Holy Fathers from Gomionica in the times of prior Serafim, in 1747, the monastery church was restored. The works were on a smaller scale. There are three other accounts about this restoration, one in the hand written Gospel and two in u Gomionica Hand Written Psalter. A note written on a piece of paper, dated from 1770, tells about a repeated reconstruction of the monastery that began in 1769 and was completed that same year or year after. A traditional legend tells us that the Monastery was burned and desolated in the time of the First Serbian Uprising, and was SRPSK A  БРОЈ 4  2013

later gradually covered, repaired and encircled with a wall. In 1953, Gomionica was declared a cultural monument, and it was being repaired in the years to follow. “The greatest joy of the Monastery is that it has preserved its role and mission”, says father Methodius. “Monks detach themselves from the world in order to fulfill the order about the love of God and to be witnesses to resurrected Christ. Those are Christ’s monks. It is a call from the heavens, and it is only achievable with great sacrifice and great love toward Christ the Lord, in order to save your soul and every man who comes to this earth, every man who contacts us for any reason. Monks are not some Monks are not some strange people who, disappointed in the world, don’t know what to do with themselves. And they are not alienated from people among which they live, because if this were the case they could achieve nothing. They could help neither themselves nor others. Apostle Paul says to the people: ‘You are God’s farmland, you are God’s building.’” And then father Methodius changes his tone of voice, and certain sorrow and worry echo in his words. “A priest calls from the altar with words: ‘Blessed be the kingdom of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, now and always and forever and ever.’ If there is no one to confirm this with word Amen (Let it be so), the liturgy is considered incomplete”, he says. “And the surroundings of our Monastery has been left for the most part without young population, everybody has gone their way. For elderly people, the Monastery is very important, but they don’t have much strength and are constantly struggling for bare existence. But still, we hold on. We know that everything there is exists according to the thought and approval of God.” 


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LAKTAŠI MUNICIPALITY, IN NORTHWESTERN SRPSKA, A PLACE WHERE HARD-WORKING PEOPLE CREATE VALUE

for Improvement of All Environment

There is no elbowing in Laktaši. Everything can be accomplished with a good idea, personal endeavor and great effort. Everybody here is given a true opportunity and support, and can count of fair play. The municipality was one of the first in Srpska to achieve high international standards in the quality of public services in local administration. Therefore 180 million Euros of direct foreign and local investments. Possibilities are numerous, especially in agriculture and tourism. For this reason, may are choosing Laktaši as a place of residence and business

By: Suzana Kvrgić

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here are not so many places in this world that manage to preserve past from oblivion with their natural, human and social resources, to provide safe and comfortable present and create value for a better future. One of these places is the municipality of Laktaši, in northwestern Republika Srpska, on main highways and regional roads that connect the best from all sides of the world, inter-

woven with fertile Lijevče field and decorated with beautiful Vrbas River. Well-known, since ancient times, for its protective attitude toward earth, friendly intentions toward others, progressive sense in economy and unique natural resources, the municipality of Laktaši has grown from a small Roman settlement into a modern local community that is a unique brand of Republika Srpska. When it was founded SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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 Center of Laktaši, a night panorama

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in 1955, Laktaši Municipality had a population of 23,000. Administratively, today it is inhabited by 36,000 people, over 388 square kilometers, in 37 settlements. For all those who decide to invest in public or private entrepreneurship, the municipality of Laktaši offers unique possibilities. From allowances in obtaining all necessary operating permits, through lowest administrative fees for the construction of production and agricultural facilities, to the possibility of paying liabilities in installments and financial subsidies for development of entrepreneurship.

Food, the Measure of Abundance Combination of the fertile Lijevče field, moderate climate, agricultural tradition and hard-working people has made the municipality of Laktaši a recognizable agricultural area. Over 25,000 hectares of agricultural land is covered with farm land, orchards and meadows. The first vineyards in B&H were planted in the territory of the municipality of Laktaši, in Mahovljani, and two thirds of local households today are involved in a in one of the agricultural sectors, mostly animal husbandry, vegetable growing, farming, fruit growing and viticulture.

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Favorable conditions and stimulations, and expedient and efficient administration of this municipality, which was the first in Republika Srpska to achieve international standards ISO 9001:2008 for quality management in the field of public services in local administration, have attracted a number of investors. This is also reflected in 180 million Euros of direct foreign and local investments, as well as presence of big global and regional companies such as “Coca-Cola”, “PepsiCo Investments”, “British American Tobacco”, “Iskra AE”, “Kolektor Group” and others. Thanks to its economic potential, the municipality of Laktaši today offers to local and foreign investors five industrial zones – Aleksandrovac, Laktaši, Trn, Krnete and industrial zones along Highway M16 Klašnice–Prnjavor. If you have a business idea, in the municipality of Laktaši you will quite certainly turn it into business success! POSSIBILITIES FOR EVERYBODY Moderate climate, lush green vegeta­tion, clean air, forests and rivers, geo-stra­tegic position, traffic infrastructure, friendly people with entrepreneurial spirit, healthy and good food, and experience in wellness and health tourism, form the basis for the development of Laktaši as tourist centre as well. If you add to this the vicinity of big regional centers, such as Banjaluka, Zagreb, Belgrade, Ljubljana, and international airport which is only three kilometers away from the city, there is no obstacle for the municipality of


Laktaši to become and interesting tourist destination. It was ancient Romans who discovered the medicinal qualities of local geothermal springs. They built Thermae which even today represent a unique cultural and historical monument, but also great potential for balneology tourism of the municipality of Laktaši. Laktaši Spa Resort and Slatina Spa Resort have been attracting guests since ancient times with the medicinal effects of their thermal-mineral springs. In addition to the proven medicinal effects on rheumatic diseases, post-traumatic disorders and many illnesses that are the consequence of contemporary way of life, these two spa resorts are recognizable for highly professional medical staff and a wide range of services. Additionally, the newly built superb accommodation capacities, and perfect natural environment that surrounds them, make these two spa resorts the most

The Hall Newly built sports hall in Laktaši is the source of pride for every athlete. With capacity of 3,000 seats, with modern equipment, it is suitable for organizing major sports events and is the home to Basketball Club “Igokea”, one of the best basketball clubs in Southern Slavic territories.

visited and the best equipped tourist-rehabilitation centers in the region. All those who have chosen the municipality of Laktaši as a place to live, do business or a tourist destination have witnessed the numerous opportunities offered by this municipality, from cultural, sports, educational, entertainment, tourist, administrative, recreational. And they are also convinced that contents like these can improve personal initiative, enthusiasm and desire for advancement of every individual. So, welcome to Laktaši, the place of numerous opportunities for everybody! 

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 Seat of municipal administration and square with a church

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GREAT SERBIAN PAINTER KOSTA HAKMAN (1899-1961) AND HIS LIVES

Stepping Out of the Shadow of History He indeed had many lives, “a hundred and more”. From his hometown of Bosanska Krupa, over Tuzla and Sarajevo, he arrived to Prague. He then continued his studies in Vienna, Cracow, and over Italy and Belgrade reached Paris. Then again came back to Belgrade. He spent World War II in a prisoners of war camp. From 1953, he was again teaching at the Academy of Fine Arts in the Serbian capital. Unlike other professors, he immediately recognized the value of the then young Ljuba Popović, Uroš Tošković and Milić of Mačva. And his own great painting skill was only a lot later recognized again and in the right manner

By: Dejan Djorić

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osta Hakman, painter and professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade was forgotten perhaps least for artistic reasons compared to other artists of his generation. How much our experts and cultural public can be unjust towards important people from the past is proven by the fact that there has not been an exhibition of Kosta Hakman’s works for a long time, nor has an adequate monograph about him been published, although he is one of the most important modern artists of ours. As such, he was recognized during his time, however not in ours, in the period of postmodern art, when “a thousand flowers blossom” only ostensibly. He was born in Bosanska Krupa on May 22, 1899 and went to school in Tuzla, where his teachers described him as a boy of “strong stature and brilliant intelligence”. He had a remarkable talent for languages and drawing, as well as national self-consciousness he was given in his parents’ home. Like many remarkable Bosnian intellectuals, he cooperated with “Young Bosnia“. After the assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Crown Prince in 1915, although already at the age of fifty, he was arrested, convicted to nine months and sent to prison.

He graduated from the gymnasium in Sarajevo. Todor Švrakić, his drawing professor and Prague student, inspired him to study in Prague. He was financially supported by the Sarajevo “Prosveta“, left to Prague, managed to pass the preliminary examination and enter the preparatory class of professor Vlaha Bukovac, with whom Milan Konjović studied too. THROUGH CEZANNEISM AND PLENERISM Hakman declared himself “Serb of Orthodox Christian faith”. Between 1919 and 1923, more than a hundred students from the Balkans studied in Prague, one of the leading art centers. The education

 Auto portrait with black hat, 1924/25

Film An excellent documentary was made about this artist, entitled The Lives of Kosta Hakman. Painters Ljuba Popović, Momo Kapor, Milić of Mačva, Marklen Mosjenko, historian Dušan Bataković, PhD, art historians Ljiljana Stojanović Piletić and Simona Čupić, PhD, Stanislav Živković, PhD, as well as his wife Radmila and daughter Milica Hakman spoke about his life, work and the whole époque. The editor was director Dragan Ćirjanić, who has been persistently, for years, realizing his smart project of discovering forgotten geniuses of Serbian culture.

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 Kosta Hakman, 1930 Wife Radmila Hakman, 1940 Daughter Milica Hakman, 1952

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was strict, so he, like Konjović, soon abandoned painting according to the old rules of academic realism. At the time, Prague was the suburb of Paris in terms of art, and for him, Hakman, the direct contact with European culture was very useful. He estimated that he would continue his studies more successfully in Vienna, and he was again supported by the Sarajevo “Prosveta”. He was comfortable with the informal studies. Students painted according to personal affinities and only technical errors were corrected. Although he found answers to many questions interesting to him in rich Viennese museums, he did not continue his studies in Vienna. He was left to himself in his work, he could not afford a decent life, and the art circles remained closed for him since he was a foreigner. His encounter with Marcel Schneider, philosophy student, was crucial for his third attempt to study, this time in Cracow, where Yugoslav students also used to go. The Polish academy of arts was more advanced than those in Vienna and Prague, the analysis of the painting was based not only on postimpressionism (taught by Stanislav Weiss and the greatest Polish modern artist Jacek Malchevsky), but also on Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism. He worked hard, mastering the rules of Cezanneism and Plenerism, so he won awards for landscape and nude at the final exam. He traveled Italy and then settled in the capital of the newly established Yugoslavia. He had his first solo exhibition in Belgrade in 1925, sold most of the paintings, settled SRPSK A  БРОЈ 4  2013

his finances and fulfilled his wish to travel to Paris. There, in the art center of the world, he also worked devotedly, painted in the studio and in nature, complementing his knowledge in museums. He stayed in Paris four years. After returning to Belgrade, his second solo exhibition in 1929 was well accepted by both the audience and the critics. He became member of the “Oblik” group, which, unlike the “Zograf ” group, gathered modernists. In 1930, Ivan Meštrović, head of the Croatian Association of Art, included him in the Yugoslav national representative selection for the exhibition in London. During the 1940s, Hakman was one of the most important Serbian painters. He won “Gold Medal” at the World Exhibition of Art and Technology in Paris in 1937, in a very strong competition. In Rome, his painting was purchased for the National Gallery of Modern Art, and his paintings were decorating the Italian parliament at the time. He also became engaged in tutoring, first as high school drawing professor, then at the Department of Architecture of the Faculty of Technology (1935-1940). He became part-time professor of the Belgrade Academy of Fine Arts in autumn of 1940. Hakman also had a talent for theoretically contemplating art. HEALED WITH GREAT LOVE After breaking out of World War II, as a soldier of the regular Yugoslav army, he became prisoner of war. As an expert in languages, he was an interpreter in the camp. Due to his unyielding attitude in


Rab, 1930

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W O R L D S

Barefoot in the garden, 1938

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defending our people and suspicion that he was Jewish, he was often tortured. This made him severely ill, so at the end of the war he was returned to Belgrade. He recovered with the care of his wife Radmila, with whom his friend and biggest collector at the time Pavle Beljanski introduced him and then wed them in 1947. In this marriage, Milica Hakman was born, who later became art historian. Hakman returned to the Academy of Fine Arts as regular professor in 1953. Unlike other professors, he recognized future stars in young lions Ljuba Popović, Uroš Tošković and Milić of Mačva. During that period, he had four solo exhibitions. Severely ill, he died in 1961 in Opatija, where he was treated from heart disease. After his death, three solo exhibitions were organized to honor him, as well as a retrospective exhibition in the Belgrade Museum of Contemporary Art in 1988. Kosta Hakman is an expressive colorist, a painter with a large thematic specter, able to discover using oil and watercolor technique, on the traces of Cezanneism and Postimpressionism, the world of still life, nude, landscape, veduta, marina, figural compositions, portrait and selfportrait. Although he has not been into drawing, it can be noticed that he positions his paintings skillfully in terms of composition and drawing, while some he even resolves remarkably linear. The Plenerism brought savory and sharpness, the masculinity and power of strike, the firmness of the composition into the mild

and visually acceptable world of softly painted matter, without ever betraying the main pastel tone of the Belgrade Painting School. He is stylistically original, different from our modernists also for the fact that he sometimes expertly resolved figural compositions with expressive movement and dynamics, diagonally cutting the painting. He was not interested in subtle reflections of light or local tone, but wide artistic specter from extreme dark gamma to light, transparent colors which seem almost obsessive. Certain art historians, such as Ljiljana Stojanović Piletić, recognized Hakman’s quality and dedicated years of research. A small monograph of this author about Hakman was published in Belgrade in 1994 by the Museum of Contemporary Art. As a custodian of the Museum, she continued her work on the text about Hakman, thus one of the most studious monographs here was created (and will probably be published next year). Thanks to the great efforts of Milica Hakman, the painter slowly but surely began stepping out of the shadow of history that undeservedly fell upon him. Kosta Hakman, the artist who based the aesthetical on the ethical and patriotic, was also accepted as significant in his birth town of Bosanska Krupa, which today does not belong to Republika Srpska. The founding of his memorial museum in his hometown is in progress. He is perhaps our best example that manuscripts do not burn and paintings do not fade and that true values, wherever and whenever, will once be recognized. s SRPSK A  No 4  2013

 Auto portrait with accordion, 1926 Interior with a violin, 1961

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T R E A S U R I E S

A Walk through MUSEUM OF OLD HERZEGOVINA IN FOČA AND ITS VALUABLE COLLECTIONS

Bright Annals

Thousands of objects and photographs, collected during more than half a century in the former Hotel “Gerstl”, takes you from here to exciting journey through epochs and worlds. You admire the skills of old craftsmen from Foča, whose golden handicrafts were highly regarded in Vienna and Belgrade. You learn about everything that was coming and going away down the old caravan road toward Dubrovnik and Constantinople, about mastery and sophistication that adorned city houses in Foča in the 19th century, how horrifying and magnificent was the price that people here have always paid for freedom. And much more than that Text and photographs: Radmila Đević

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oča, a picturesque little town for centuries nested between the mountainous Ćehotina and emerald Drina, carries a rich history. Its streets and buildings have their stories, persons and ideas. Most of them are preserved and maintained by the Museum of Old Herzegovina in this SRPSK A  БРОЈ 4  2013

town. All those who visit Foča today cannot truly get to know it unless they walk through this historical collection, because the memory of this part of the Drina basin has been systematized and stored here. The Museum of Old Herzegovina, not by accident, adorns the main street in Foča.


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T R E A S U R I E S

Memory and Traces Foča was first mentioned as the city of Hotča in 1336, and then in 1450, during the rule of herceg Stjepan. In the Middle Ages, on the place where today there is theatre, the settlement began. It has had its current name since the 16th century.

 The first car in Foča, 1922. Hotel “Gerstl”. The first Serbian school in Foča (19th century)

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Formerly there was Hotel “Gerstl” on this place. It was built in Austro-Hungarian period, in 1906, and its owners were mister and misses Gerstl, Samuel and Karolina. The hotel was modern, with 24 rooms. In World War Two, in 1944, it was demolished. Later, Hotel “Vučevo” was built on that same spot, which was adapted into a museum in 1956. Through its four permanent exhibitions, the Museum testifies on Foča, customs, names, times, substantiating everything with preserved photographs and objects. One of the exhibitions, “Foča in the past”, enables the visitors to experience past times, from Middle Ages, through Turkish and AustroHungarian occupation, to world wars in the 20th century and more recent times. By opening the door of the exhibition area, we go back to the period when Foča developed from a little square into a trading and craftsmen centre. Its former location, on the caravan road between Dubrovnik and Constantinople, enabled that the fame of its craftsmen spreads across the Balkan and European market. Museum exhibits testify that craftsmen from Foča reached their highest achievement in metal crafts. – There used to be over 560 stores in Foča, which shows that craftwork thrived during and at the end of the Turkish period, but also later. Some of the most beautiful and good quality objects are all types of knives (daggers, yataghans, sabers, Damascus swords, switchblades) – says the curator of he Museum Dragica Ćurčić, showing these preserved objects. Silversmiths’ workshops had a long tradition in making jewelry. – Pavte, buckles, brooches – shows Dragica Ćurčić. – Jewelry was reaching Vienna, Budapest and Balkan markets, thanks to the building of trading skills and business connections with Dubrovnik. In addition to jewelry making, silversmiths did silver and bronze embroidery. The area of Foča was also famous for home textile and carpet production. Women diligently wove carpets, prayer


mats and cloths, embroidered and knitted many types of garments and ornaments. Artisan crafts were on the rise until the arrival of Austro-Hungarian rule, when many craftsmen reoriented their activities because the culture progressed and time imposed other customs. There is a well known workshop of Šundurika family who made ornamented canes, cigar holders, ornaments, and at that time they used to take orders from Vienna. The Museum also preserves a conductor’s baton from that period, made by Šundurika family. BRAND OF RESPECTABLE FAMILIES Citizens of Foča, in the period of Austro-Hungary comprised of Serbs (Christian Orthodox and Muslims) and Croatians, organized rich cultural, religious, educational and economic life. – They used to enrich their lives and the life of Foča through singing societies, theatre companies, excursions, the youth gathered at fairs and picnics, entertained themselves in the so-called “haylofts” near the rivers. Famous doctor Risto Jeremić, the first surgeon in Bosnia and Herzegovina, graduated medicine in Graz. He was the initiator of many cultural and sports events in Foča. He established Anti-Alcoholic Society and Scouts. Public schools are being founded. We have preserved the first list of students of the Serbian School from 1865, which was given to us by professor Marko Vego. Today, it is a written cultural monument – says Dragica Ćurčić, while leafing through photographs. A number of respectable families have left an important imprint in Foča. Jeremić, Kočović, Mazić, Muftić, Zulfikarpašić, Hadživuković, Glođajić and other families. – Radmilo Mazić is one of the best known photographers in Foča. His photographs bring us back to the period before 1905. It was a much esteemed family, which is shown in their photograph. At that time, as we can see on the photos, the citizens of Foča were well dressed and had noble appearance. City panoramas show that Foča was becoming increasingly urbanized. The Museum also shows how the population of Foča was growing, from 4,613 in 1931, to 11,530, from the 1981 census. It also testifies how Foča was destroyed during the wars, but that after them, especially after World War Two, it became an urban and tourist place.

 Young scouts from the society founded by Dr Risto Jeremić. A youth party in haylofts. The famous Serbian family Mazići

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T R E A S U R I E S  Sabers. Conductor’s baton and decorations. Decorative dishes from ethnographic collection. A heating device from hotel rooms in “Gerstl”. Safe deposit box of Glođajić family

– The first car, which belonged to the Post, came to Foča in 1922. Football in 1913. The first antenna was mounted on November 29, 1962 on Kmur transmitter. The first television set arrived at the end of 1962. All facts about this are preserved, in images, this museum exhibition. You can turn a big wheel of history in a short time in this exhibition space. You run through the streets of Foča, but you do not miss a single corner of it. And just when you think that the wheel has stopped, it turns and you find yourself in Roman times, you touch authentic objects from that era. Your eyes stay on the famous fibula, ladle, an interesting goblet, Roman coins, but also a plough from the 9th century, found in the area of Foča (a similar item can only be found in the National Museum in Sarajevo and one museum in Czech Republic). CENTER OF FREE TERRITORY When you leave exhibition “Foča in the Past” behind you, the door will open to the ethnographic exhibition that shows a part of a city house room from the early 20th century. In this colorful corner you are surrounded by unusual handicrafts, mirrors, cushions, decorative bowls, which reflects those ancient interiors. There is also a real bed, at that time attractive and rare, because people were mostly sleeping on straw mattresses. – Exhibited are village clothes and other handmade garments worn in our territories until the 1960’s – says our host. – The exhibition with various household items made of wood, clay and metal is complemented by a cane, hinge for gurabija, bucket for milking cows, dishes, clay pots, safety deposit box of the wealthy Glođajić family. Also preserved is a vessel in which live coals would be placed, as the only heating elements in the rooms of Hotel “Gerstl”.

Plan In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the museum has regularly hosted exhibitions from various regions of Srpska and Serbia, from the Museum of Contemporary Art in Banjaluka, to the Museum in Užice, Gornji Milanovac... – In this way we participate in enrichment of cultural life in our city. We are trying to host at least one exhibition from Srpska and beyond every month in our Gallery. One of the visited exhibitions was for the 20th anniversary of the work of the Parliament of Srpska. Our plan for the future is to become the leader in cultural tourism of Foča – says Branka Dragičević, director of the Museum of Old Herzegovina.

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Foreigners – They come often, mostly from Slovenia, then from Serbia, Croatia, there are many Czechs and Slovaks. They are surprised that Foča had so strong crafts and educated people. de. Exhibition “Foča in the Past” has the most visitors, although the interest for exhibitions from World War Two has been growing in the past years. Formerly, the museum was a mandatory destination, today to a smaller extent, but we are still satisfied with the number of visitors. During one summer season, about five hundred foreigners visit the museum – says Dragica Ćurčić.

We leave the cozy city room and on the next step through time we see Foča in the period from January 20 to May 10, 1942. “One hundred and ten days of Foča Republic”, the third permanent museum exhibition shows Foča as the center of free territory. Preserved documents, photographs, telegrams, tickets, testify that the Supreme Command of People’s Liberation Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia used to stay here. The exhibition also includes “The Foča Regulations”, famous document from this period, written by Moša Pijade. From this exhibition we learn that the first national hero in this period was announced in Foča, the first medical journal Sanitet was published here, the first hospital founded. First it was a military hospital, and in 1958 it receives the outlines that it has today. In the building of the Healthcare Centre in Foča, frozen partisans who crossed the Igman Mountain were being treated. We finalize our journey through time with exhibition “The Battle of Sutjeska”, prepared for the 70th anniversary of this event. Photographs, maps, legends and original items show all the heroism and sacrifice in the struggle for freedom, and the exhibition is complemented by video recording “The most famous days of the Anti-Fascistic Battle of Sutjeska” bay Radivoje Obrenović, a journalist from RTRS. There are thousands of objects, collected in the past fifty seven years, which is the age of this museum institution, and it is difficult to see all of them in only one visit. Because of its value, a visit to the Museum is a true excursion through time and history of this area. Dragica Ćurčić, the curator, is the guide on this journey for many tourists, student excursions, guests and invitees. s


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S T A G E

PRODUCTION “THE FOURTEENTH” IN THE NATIONAL THEATRE OF SRPSKA

In the Hundred Years World War

Staged as a documentary film in theatre, this production directed by Ana Đorđević from Belgrade leaves time to every historical personality to explain why they did something. It indicates that the year of 2014, in which we are about to enter, is the child of 1914. That the reality which we live and that we are witnesses to has begun to be created then. And that we should not celebrate one hundredth anniversary of the beginning of World War One, but a century long epoch of continuation of a total world war By: Milica Despot

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rincip, Franz Ferdinand, Sofia Hohenberg, Nedeljko Čabrinović, together on stage, on the main stage of the National Theatre of Republika Srpska. First there is silence, followed by thunderous applause, not heard from the audience in Banjaluka in a long time. This is a part of the atmosphere from the premiere of The Fourteenth directed by Ana Đorđević from Belgrade, which opened the 84th season in the National Theatre of Srpska. Đorđević, who is also the playwright, explains that this play is entitled The Fourteenth because it concerns the

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events related to the assassination in Sarajevo from June 28, 1914. – We are heading toward 2014, when we will, remembering 1914, realize that we are living a reality which has begun to be created then, that the modern era that we are witnesses to was born then, that 2014 is the child of 1914. In 2014, one hundredth anniversary of the beginning of World War Two will be celebrated, but for me this is also a century of continuation of a total world war, an epoch of world war – sys the director. She reminds that many theatre companies in the Southern Slavic area, and


beyond, will deal with Gavrilo Princip and assassination of Franz Ferdinand, as will other art media and the public in general. – But for us who are creating the production of The Fourteenth, this is the year in which we are looking for answers to questions (without thinking that it is possible to find them) which nobody has managed to finally answer since 1914. Many of these questions are related to the data that is the subject of dispute among historians, even fierce conflicts – says Đorđević. FREEDOM FIGHTERS AND HEROES OF THE CENTURY The audience was thrilled with the manner in which the director, together with the artistic team of the National Theatre of Srpska, staged the production in this theatre. Everybody who saw The Fourteenth agree that this is a kind of stage documentary, where scenes alternate just like on the film tape. And, maybe the most valuable, as opposed to those who are taking one or the other side, this story has many angles. Stories of Gavrilo Princip, Nedeljko Čabrinović, Franz Ferdinand, Princip’s mother and sister, overlap and create a mosaic that tells us that life is not a movie, but that it often creates movie scenes. It warns the audience that nothing can be black or white, that both Gavrilo and Ferdinand have something to say. Many shivered when watching the scenes when Gavrilo, from an assassin, becomes only a young man that his mother is talking about, in exceptional acting creation of Miljka Brđanin Babić.

The Book – When collecting historical materials and writing the play, we relied on the book “Sarajevo 1914” by Vladimir Dedijer, and to a smaller extent on other sources. This comprehensive book includes an incredibly big number of angles from which one can see the Assassination in Sarajevo. Besides this, it also has a certain purely literary value. It has opened al those questions that the adaptation also tried to present by using fragmentation, editing and reediting, but this time through dramatic situations and with purely theatrical language – says director Ana Đorđević.

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S T A G E

 After the première, halls of the National Theatre were crowded and filled with good atmosphere

– The fact that we play the roles of true persons created additional responsibility during the work on this production. They existed and they brought many changes on the history and the world. It is difficult to make roles based on characters who gave their ideals and lives to us and to the future – says Miljka Brđanin Babić. Eyes of the audience were for the most part turned to young actor Danilo Kerkez. By interpreting the character of Gavrilo Princip, he set foot on the stage of the National Theatre of Republika Srpska for the first time. – I committed myself to the role of Gavrilo Princip in detail and with great passion. Nobody should be ashamed of his name, or be scared to say it out loud. Gavrilo truly wanted to do good for his people. I see Gavrilo Princip and all the members of “Young Bosnia” as heroes, not only of 1914, but of an entire century – says Kerkez.

Background – One of the questions that we deal with in this production is who was really behind the assassination: Official Serbia, or “Black Hand” or Austro-Hungary? Or Germany, Britain, Russia, a Masonic lodge? Or maybe all of them together and at the same time? Because, a world war, always a serious project directed to a very specific and most probably achievable goal, was being prepared intensively since the early 20th century. The Assassination in Sarajevo served only as the final and long expected spark – says director Ana Đorđević.

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I am honored to be entrusted with such a great role in the production of Ana Đorđević. He was given an opportunity, he says, to be a part of a great theatre team. He is especially thrilled because reactions of the audience were positive. – I believe that The Fourteenth will be equally well accepted in other cities of Srpska, but also outside the country, and that it will participate in festivals – said Kerkez. Conviction of the young actor, senior student of the Academy of Arts in Banjaluka, came through already during Encounters of B&H in Brčko, from November 21 to 29, where the production won four awards. The jury award for the best overall production, jury and audience award for the best female role (Miljka Brđanin Babić), jury award for the best male role (Željko Erkić). Dragana Purković Macan was awarded by the jury for the best set design. OBJECTIVELY AND EMOTIONALLY New Season of the National Theatre of Srpska is entitled “The History Repeats Itself ”, which is fully in accordance with the concept of The Fourteenth. – We have no ambitions to provide answers through this production to all questions related to the year of 1914. However, I think that the National Theatre of Srpska has opened a serious issue, trying to be realistic in time and space in which we live – says Nenad Novaković, director of the National Theatre of Srpska.


The Team Actors of “The Fourteenth” are Branko Janković, Goran Jokić, Željko Erkić, Zlatan Vidović, Sandra LJubojević, Miljka Brđanin Babić, Dragana Marić, Danilo Kerkez and Ivan Perković.

Actor Zlatan Vidović won the sympathies of Banjaluka audience by interpreting the character of Nedeljko Čabrinović. – Sarajevo 1914. by Vladimir Dedijer is probably the most accurately written book, just like a thriller about the Assassination in Sarajevo, about its cause and consequences, but also about biographies of people who were directly or indirectly involved in the assassination of Franz Ferdinand – says Vidović. A little over 60 characters alternately appear on the stage, and every actor plays six, seven or eight roles. – It is not easy to play in productions that are directed as a documentary film, where we change costumes from one scene to the next, change character and the way we speak – says actor Goran Jokić who is also playing the role of Gavrilo Princip’s father. – We told a human story about how the world around us can make people miserable. We are also analyzing the fact to what extent an individual is able to change that world if he is persistent and determined, as Gavrilo Princip was.

This gallery of different characters, whose fates are interwoven from Sarajevo to Vienna and vice versa, also includes Sofia Hohenberg. The role was entrusted to actress of the National Theatre of Republika Srpska, Sandra Ljubojević: – When you work with someone who really knows what they want, then the work is demanding, but gives great satisfaction. Ana is a director whose guidance you can fully accept and be sure that she will do good job. It is very important for an actor. The play is very interesting and inspiring. Situations are very emotional, characters demanding. I rally enjoy this multi-media story. The storyline of The Fourteenth skillfully and subtly, with acting and director’s eye, opens the door of history, warning that its course cannot be changed, but could be illuminated in a new way. The quality of this play is proven by awards, the fact that it is emotional can be seen in audience reactions, and the sold tickets showed that it is necessary. There was no lack of objectivity, because each one of the historic characters has his or her time to remind us why they did something. And we need not say to what extent it is necessary in 2014. 

Knowledge – For me, working on this production as an important thing, also because I learned many new and important facts about the history of our people – says Zlatan Vidović, an actor of the National Theatre of Srpska.

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THE MOST AWARDED CHAMBER CHOIR IN SRPSKA CONTINUES ITS SERIES OF SUCCESSES

“Banjalučanke” Made

of Solid Gold

For the fourth year in a row they have been in the official list of the top fifty chamber choirs of the World Choir Association. Their worldwide competitive appearances have been crowned with gold and silver, from Linz to Venice, from Malta to Budapest, from Belgrade to Barcelona, from China to the USA... They are preparing for the World Choir Olympics, in Riga next year. And all this time they are acting as one big family and are committed to their personal growth and to their art, continuously dreaming the old artistic dream of perfection

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hoir “Banjalučanke” added to the string of successes gold medals from International Choir Competition “Cant al mar” in Barcelona and Calella, which took place from October 23 to 27 in the organization of the World Choir Association “Musica Mundi” – Interkultur. Under art management and under the baton of conductor Mladen Matović, beautiful girls with enchanting voices thrilled both the audience and the critics. They have received awards in categories of female choirs and folklore music. The competition was fierce: 40 choirs from 16 countries (Germany, Estonia, Russia, Israel, China, Norway, Finland, Austria, Indonesia, Spain...). “Banjalučanke”, who are a part of the Art Association “Art puls”, were the only representative of Srpska and B&H. – We are proud that at another important international competition we have practically repeated, once again, the feat from Budapest, where we also won two gold medals in these categories, and preserved continuity of good quality competition performances at the international scene – says Mladen Matović. Before the five-member jury, consisting of the most famous world experts in choir music from Austria, Spain, Sweden, Germany and Latvia, Choir “Banjalučanke” presented itself with very demanding compositions of local and foreign composers.

By: Aleksandra Glišić – We did our best to represent our city and Republika Srpska with as much dignity as possible. We are overjoyed for adding new gold to the previous gold medals from Linz, Venice, Malta and Budapest, and to Olympic silver medals from China and USA. This competition was for us the last international test on the road to the next World Choir Olympics, in Riga in mid July 2014, for which our choir was directly qualified – adds Matović. For the fourth year in a row, “Banja­lučanke” are in the official list of the top fifty chamber choirs of the World Choir Association Interkultur. Based on this, Matović is certain  “Banjalučanke” that the choir, as before, will find understandat Saint Sava ing and the necessary institutional support Academy in “Sava” for participation in the upcoming Olympics. Centre in Belgrade More than five hundred choirs from eighty countries will get together in Riga. Performance at – We are very grateful to all friends of the World Choir the ensemble, as well as competent state Olympics in China

Conductor Composer and conductor Mladen Matović was born in 1980 in Banjaluka. There he finished primary and secondary school of music “Vlado Milošević”. At the Department of Music Arts of the Academy of Arts in Banjaluka he graduated with grade point average of ten, and later earned his Masters degree in the class of professor Gordana Stojanović. At the end of 2004, he became the conductor of Choir “Banjalučanke”. He is artistic director of the city children’s choir “Zvončići” and vocal ensemble “Sjećanja”. He is the author of “My Republic”, the official anthem of Srpska.

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C H A N T  From the International Choir Competition “Cant al mar” in Barcelona, October 2013 From the première of music miniature “Count down, or three on ‘E’”, Banjaluka, October 2013

and city institutions, who have previously supported the choir’s participation in competition. We must especially mention the Cabinet of the President f the Republic, government of Republika Srpska and, of course, the city of Banjaluka – says Matović. Unselfish support also came from the Central Cultural and Artistic Society “Veselin Masleša”, which gave to the choir authentic traditional costumes, an important element of performances of the choir in the category of traditional music. Immediately before their departure to Spain, “Banjalučanke” attracted attention of the local public with their original performance in the official program of Choir Encounters of Banjaluka. It was the first performance of the composition Countdown or Three on “E”, by Mladen Matović. Premiere of this choir miniature, exceptionally successful, was at the competition in Budapest, in March 2013. It is unique for the fact that at the very end the choir members finish countdown by “killing the conductor on the stage”. – The composition is based on three well known counting rhymes that begin with letter “E”, and the composition itself is a short audio comment of a civilization which, after reaching climax, moves toward its destruction. That is why the frustrated choir members “murder the conductor” – explains Matović. WHAT PRECEDES THE VICTORIES

Photographs: Archives of Choir “Banjalučanke”

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Female Chamber Choir “Banjalučanke” was founded in 1977, upon initiative of Ante Šašić, a music teacher from Banjaluka. With thirty six years long experience and hundreds of concerts in the country and abroad, high artistic level and stylistically diverse repertoire, the choir has become an indispensable factor in the Southern Slavic cultural scene. In the war and post-war period, from 1994–2004, the ensemble was under artistic management of Branislav Đaković and Aleksandra Ostojić. Matović soon introduced numerous novelties in the approach to repertoire and performance, with a desire to prepare the choir as soon as possible for performances in the most significant world competitions. – Awards are very important stimulation in continuous improvement of the quality of performance and a great satisfaction for everything that must be invested in superb SRPSK A  БРОЈ 4  2013

artistic results – says Matović. – We participate regularly in numerous celebrations in Srpska and Serbia. I find especially important our performance in one of the central St. Sava celebrations in “Sava” Centre in Belgrade, where we performed as the only participant from Srpska. In addition to international recognitions, “Banjalučanke” have also received the Plaque of the City of Banjaluka for exceptional contribution in affirmation of the art of music of the Balkans. The fact that they have created one exceptionally harmonious and healthy team, which is functioning as a big and happy family, they also see as their great achievement. On the desire to represent Srpska in the world as well as possible, they have also developed a high degree of collective responsibility and self-awareness. – It is one of the main preconditions for work and good results. In months before a competition, we often have five to six rehearsals per week. So, great dedication and sacrifice are necessary. Maybe it seem easy to someone from the outside, only good things are seen in the media, but those who are involved know very well how much effort is needed for such a serious and studious work. Repertoire of “Banjalučanke” includes very diverse program in terms of genres and styles. Matović: – Compositions are spanning from works of old maestros from the Renaissance, through eternal Rukoveti by Mokranjac and pearls of local choir literature, all the way to very demanding works of contemporary choir literature for female choirs. Our concert repertoire also includes stylized traditional melodies of the Balkan peoples, as well as choir adaptations of some of the most beautiful examples of local and foreign evergreen music. Financing stability is necessary for art ensembles. – Since there are not so many individuals and ensembles of this kind, I think that it would be much more effective to institutionalize continuous report and condition it with results – says Matović. – For as long as artists, with their demanding art work, are involved in problems of providing transportation, accommodation, meals, costumes, every result will be the fruit of someone’s Don Quixotian efforts. And that someone can get tired from fighting the windmills and give it all up. 


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MILIVOJE UNKOVIĆ, PAINTER AND SCULPTOR, A MEMBER OF THE SERBIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ARTS, EXCLUSIVELY FOR “NATIONAL REVIEW”

For New Cultural

Energy

Culture has been reduced to 0.6 percent of gross domestic product. Most competent institutions, instead of support to the national culture, is flirting with the bizarre grayness of the “new art practices” and is drowning us in colorful global desert without identity. Politicians in their narcissism are forgetting: the depth of cultural values of a nation also represents the limits of that nation. Everything is justified with the lack of money, and essentially it is about the lack of ideas, professionalism and responsibility toward national culture. Something must be done now

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hese are times of making some little private countries, and politicians in cultural institutions are dealing with their primitivism frustrations by avoiding construction of powerful cultural centers. they forget that the limits of culture of one nation are also its ethnic limits. Art needs fast changes. And so Milivoje Unković, one of the greatest living Serbian artists and a member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts, speaks in the interview for National Review. His artistic career is over 50 years long, he is equally good in painting, sculpture, graphics, design, even caricature. – The past is – he says – like dreams already dreamt. A lot of it is crystal clear, but the essence is hidden in the mist. The same goes with my works, which are imbued with various ruins. I am probably one of those authors who will not be able to organize their retrospective exhibition at least partially complemented. And what is your artistic self-determination and what were the beginnings of this 50 years long career? My world is a world of imagination. imagination is my spiritual energy that is the essence of every coming into being

By: Mirjana Kusmuk that is interpreted as creation. I believe that these imaginative predispositions are woven into the genetic code, and that our creative determination depends on our ability to decode them. Every beginning is identical to the first and insecure step from our childhood. It is the indefinite area of unknown, exciting and sublime. In addition to all of its vagueness and imperfection, it is necessary to muster the strength and self confidence to step into this infinity, find your own code of communication and preserve your own recognizable signature. In this search for your own spiritual identity, I have been persevering in time, by means

Photographs: Archives of the interlocutor

The Journey Milivoje Unković (Nevesinje, 1944), a member of the Academy of Sciences and Arts, completed his graduate and undergraduate studies at the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade. Until 1992, he was a professor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Sarajevo and dean of the Painting Department. Afterwards, he lived for 20 years as a refugee and worked in Germany. Since 2011, he has been living and working in Banjaluka, and he marked his return with exhibition in the Museum of Contemporary Arts of Srpska. He has received numerous art awards and recognitions, His works can be seen in the mot famous galleries and private collections around the world. He is not employed in any Art Academy in RS.

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L O O K O U T S of what I have created thus far, and which is immanent to the primordial creative imagination, or spirituality. Your artistic opus is very productive. Who are the artist’s muses? Although I have been creating for more than 50 years, I have almost lost the idea about the huge volume of my work. My works are left to their own fate. I neither praised them nor criticized them. If they deserve major public attention, they will win their status by themselves (if today somebody still has a sense of cultural identity, common good and national interest). This approach that I have toward my own work is completely opposite to the contemporary promotion of art works and artists. Before us are staged visual values without coverage, in order to blend as well as possible into the bizarre grayness of the “New artistic practice” that is dominant in the global world stage, far from anything that could be described as art. My muses are liberated from all those externally imposed rules, they preserve my internal spiritual and moral autonomy, creating absolute freedom in which honest and true art can only be created. ORIENTATION IN THE PROGRAMMED CHAOS Can a talent be educated? A diamond can be found only in nature, it cannot be produced chemically, but only skillful cutting it will become truly precious and shine in its full might. The same goes with talent. There lies huge responsibility of professors in art

Sculptures In December 2012, he made Banjaluka more beautiful with its first sculpture. He donated the “Tree of Life”, 412 centimeters high and weighing about 3,000 kilograms, to the Radio-Television of Republika Srpska, and it is now decorating b the area in front of the house of RTV. Sculptures “Noah’s Arc”, “Dialogue of Forms in Space” and “Planetoid” were recently mounted in the park of Slatina Spa Resort. Min November, on the day of signing the Dayton Peace Accord, his monumental sculpture “Doves of Peace” “ was formally unveiled in the vicinity of the building of the government of Srpska. He has also been preparing a sculpture which will decorate the area in front of the Serbian Consulate in Banjaluka, by symbolizing unbreakable tie between one people currently living in two states, but who is sharing one cultural identity.

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academies who are directing the students with their diamond cutting. Your students used to say that you are one of the best lecturers. Many of them have become well known in the art world. How did you achieve this? During education, I never thought that I would be involved in educational work, I thought this would be too responsible a job, and I preferred to work as a freelance artist. I accepted the invitation I received in 1973 from the newly founded Academy in Sarajevo to become teaching assistant to my high school professor Borislav Aleksić out of respect for my former professor. Everything else came out of my efforts to justify that trust in all my academic titles, from the assistant to tenured professor. As a professor I was following the principles that came from life, I taught students what could be taught, and what does not jeopardize their individual predispositions. Deep inside, I have always preserved that part of me that was still a student, and this made it easier for me to open up the area for communication, it was easier to understand their problems and we would jointly find solutions. I asked my students to verify every word I say and every advice I give to them, so they would not be just blind followers, because there are no recipes in arts. I am certain that none of the students was bio threatened by my approach to education, nobody was forced to wear uniform, everybody has found their own way, more or less successful, and adequate to the invested effort and genetic predispositions. To what extent is art valued today? In these times of consumerism, everything is adapted to the market, a form of molding and putting uniforms. Marketing and good packaging are the most important, and it seems that nobody is interested in the content. In all this, it is the most difficult for culture to adapt. All those imposed rules are contrary to the character and role of culture, and that is why it has been paying big price and has been reduced to the lowest level of existence, and the authors themselves are humiliated. This is the work of unimaginable frames of technicism, those powerful tools in the hands of bureaucrats who are doing everything to reduce our senses to numb-


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ness, alienation and devaluation of everything that is above average. Art still exists among authors with strong personalities and individuals who have managed to preserve their spiritual orientation and their own criteria of valuation in this programmed chaos. “NEW ART PRACTICE” OF SELF DENIAL What is worth attention in our art scene? I am at the age when I have rich creative experience, I am well informed about

Wiping of Traces Many Serbian painters have left their mark in the cultural life of B&H. What is the fate of those who worked in Sarajevo? As the biggest Serbian city after Belgrade, it is logical that Sarajevo carries a strong historical mark of the authors of Serbian origin and that a big percentage of cultural and artistic heritage of that city is Serbian. In recent constructions of all life and cultural segments, from language to “new perspectives” on historical periods, everything is being retailored and deprived of meaning. An unreasonable need to forge and hide. Serbian authors are present to that extent in which the current politics needs them in order to simulate multi-ethnicity on the world political stage. In this daily wiping of Serbian traces from all areas of life, culture is especially interesting, because it has to much material evidence.

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what has been going on in the art scene in the world, I am interested in all that, but it does not concern me. Now I am a little distanced from all that hectic chaos, and it feels good. I am surrounded with all those extorted innovations that look like all others in the world, I see everything and I am not run over by time (as they like to define those who think differently). Most of it seems interesting to me, but I would single out the talent of young artists as the most valuable. Someone has been persistently pushing them toward the world stage of “new art practice”, for which neither talent nor education is necessary, because people who thrive there are failed engineers, art historians, autodidacts, riggers and other illusionists. It is a kind of pseudo-culture, but far from arts. I am neither bitter nor angry because of this, but I cannot accept what is being offered without criticism. Every generation should bear its load of responsibility, if this generation today has at all any sense related to cultural specificities’ of the area in which it exists. What happened with your art work in Sarajevo, in your studio in that city, with works in the studio in Počitelj?


I am only one of 150s000 Serbs who, in the 1990’s, with empty hands and clear conscience, left Sarajevo and shared the fate of his countrymen. My artistic opus from a period of about thirty years – paintings, graphics, drawings, sculptures, library, art and family documentation – it was all stolen and destroyed. Nothing was spared in the insane concept of eliminating all traces of Serbian existence. As a recipient of the major award of the city of Sarajevo for contribution in the development of culture, I was one of the first to be honored with dismissal from the Academy of Fine Arts. I was a fulltime art professor and dean of graduate studies. My only sin was that I was a Serb. In the dismissal, that was never handed out to me, this truth was translated into the language of deception that I failed to respond to fulfillment of my work obligations. For more than twenty years, I have not said one word about Sarajevo and my colleagues, despite various malicious accusations, which was an orchestrated way of spreading hatred toward countrymen of Serbian origin. By refusing to give my studio back to me, the cultural scene in Sarajevo has definitely confirmed its

propensity toward ethnic cleansing. I am not judging anyone, I leave them to their conscience. For me, Sarajevo is in the past forever and I don’t want to spend the rest of my life in new delusions. Srpska does not have a museum which would collect artwork of the greatest Serbian painters from this region. Serbia doesn’t have one either. How and by what means should Serbian people and its culture be presented to the world? Serbs in Republika Srpska have managed to defend a part of their historical and ethnic territory. Politicians, in their narcissism, only see their contribution in that struggle. But, in the absence of philosophical and strategic vision, everything

The Youngest Portraitist of Josip Broz – In 1976 I receive an invitation to do a portrait of Josip Broz in Bugojno with a group of well known painters. We spent three days with Tito and Jovanka, already breaking all the protocols. By painting and, during the breaks socializing with coffee and lunch, we met that other dimension of Broz’s charisma, less known to the public. I think that I made one good drawing of Tito then. Today it can be found in the Gallery of Yugoslav Portrait in Tuzla, and it was also printed as a postal stamp which was, in 1976, recognized by philatelists as the most beautiful postal stamp in Yugoslavia.

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L O O K O U T S risky move, but great life experience gives me self-confidence and belief that even in conditions like these we can build Banjaluka and turn it into an indispensable cultural center on the world map. When I speak about these dear people, excellent intellectuals, I don’t speak about a formal and organized group that is active from the shadows. Through their creative work, positive energy pulsates toward the public opinion, spontaneously, its influence is spreading on a daily basis to new followers. In this way they act naturally, in the only way that is appropriate for the character of culture, farm from clan and bureaucratic concepts. can be prone to collapsing. Reducing culture to 0.6 percent of the gross domestic product clearly defines its position and lack of perspective. Most of the newly established institutions, instead of sheltering and presenting the national cultural heritage, are involved in “new art practice” and are becoming branch offices of some undefined non-governmental organizations. They fulfill the wishes of various creators of eliminating the cultures of small peoples. Everything is justified with the lack of funds, and essentially this is about the lack of ideas, professionalism and responsibility toward national culture. FAITH IN THE BLOOMING OF BANJALUKA After 20 years of exile in Germany, you returned to Banjaluka? Banjaluka has quite spontaneously become my new destination. Thanks to some friends that are very dear to me, people who have a vision of getting out of localized parameters of life and culture, refined and sophisticated sensibility in which social interest is above the personal one, I have joined the idea to be a part of that positive energy. To imbue this city with a spirit and fight for creating a harmonious creative atmosphere that will be dominated by professionalism, high artistic standards, affirmation of national values and their presentation on local and international cultural scene. This decision of mine to chose another, maybe the last life destination, to again at the advanced age start from zero, is a

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You are also the selector of the International Art Colony “Pliva”? I am trying to continue a cultural mission, integration of our territories into international art currents, which was started by Nadežda Petrović as far back as in 1905 in Sićevo. It is still the most democratic form f organizing, socializing, selection and presentation of artistic work under the control of authors themselves. Pseudocriticism is continuously trying to devalue this form of organization, only because it is not in its control. Today it is the only way of creating important international collections on the postmodern concept of respecting all art of art. Organizing International Art Colony “Pliva” requires a lot of physical, professional and collaborative engagement in creating all professional conditions for the functioning of this institution, preserving dignity of the artists and art in a discreet way and with a collection on a high international level (which Srpska would not be able to provide by purchasing art work). How to repair the conditions in the culture? Former practice has been marked by absence of major strategies for development of culture and wrong orientation in the work of cultural institutions. It is time for a comprehensive professional analysis of what has and has not been done, for taking strategic positions and adopting an operational plan of priorities in further implementation of cultural policy, especially in increasing awareness, professionalism and responsibility on all organizational levels.


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ALEK­SAN­DAR GA­TA­LI­CA, THIS YEAR’S RECEPIENT OF “KOČIĆ’S QUILL”, EXCLUSIVELY FOR “NATIONAL REVIEW”

Under the Shadow of Lost Paradises Humans have remained the same through millennia, ascensions and deaths. This can be seen in borderline situations, at final exams. From Scheherazade and Iliad to the very day, there has been no literature without a well told story. Heroes are walking on wires and going down dangerous roads instead of the readers. Don’t have illusions; artists are not the embodiment of the goodness of their art. There is no end to misfortunes, thus we should arm ourselves with patience and faith. Never cry over previous happiness, because paradise is not paradise while we’re living it, but when we lose it

By: Vesna Kapor

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e entered Serbian literature in 1993, with his novel Lines of Life and translation of three ancient Greek tragedians (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides). Today, he has six novels behind him, six books of stories and novellas, seven books of translations from ancient Greek, six books on music. The climax is certainly his novel The Great War, for which he was last year awarded with the NIN Award and “Meša Selimović” Award. Aleksandar Gatalica (Belgrade, 1964) graduated world literature in 1989. He worked as editor in newspapers, publishing houses, RTS, was art director of the Opera and “Madlenianum” Theater… From this year, he is head of the National Library of Serbia Department for Culture Programs, Public Relations and Protocol. Married, one child.

In your novel The Great War, at the very end, you note the thought of Archibald Reis that “nothing on the human soul or body has changed, whatever exertion or suffering it is exposed to…” Humans are always the same through centuries? Yes, humans are always the same and I don’t know why this surprises us. Put people to war and you’ll see that they will divide into ten percent of the most wonderful and bravest souls and ninety percent

of beasts. At times of peace, when we are all surrounded by hypocrisy, this cannot be seen well; that is why literature is there to see and point it out. That will make the readers think and see whether they are in the humane tenth. In fact, anyone who feels something on the pages of literature, anyone who trembles, anyone who sheds at least one tear over the fates of characters, is sure they were chosen for the one tenth. ON A WIRE, ABOVE THE ABYSS You begin your book of stories Century with a dedication to Đorđije Vuković, who once told us that “a story has to be completed”. As if you are holding on to that rule? From the very beginning, I have been of the opinion that literature is nothing without a well told story and it has been

Photo: Dušan Stojančević and guest’s archive

To Have and Not To Have Is it difficult to determine the measure of the factual and the documentary in the literary? Nothing is difficult when you start creating a new world. It doesn’t have such a division noticed by critics: real and factual up to this point, imagined from here. In the new world of literature, everything is mixed on an organic basis, therefore undividable, and then it’s pretty hard to answer such a question, unless simply saying: nothing is difficult when you have the real idea, everything is difficult when you don’t.

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so ever since Scheherazade and Iliad to the very day. It’s not true that even the grandiose expressionists from the twentieth century were not masters of narration. Just look at Mann’s Doctor Faustus with the epic story about Adrian Leverkin who makes a deal with the devil. However, although the story is the airway of prose, although prose cannot exist without it, it seems that it’s not so simple to tell a good story. Many writers cannot do it, and then, due to their incapability, turn to some kind of poetics, underestimate the story, denigrate it and push it to the margins of genre literature. I don’t think that way. I want life on my pages; I want heroes who escaped this life to become heroes of the other, literary life, I’m looking for protagonists who will not be artificial, whose life, stumbling and death will have the strength of true sac-

Symphonic Literature When observed as a piece of music, how would you determine your literary opus? As a symphony. It merges the form of sonata, concert dialogue, and the oratorio use of chorus. A symphony is a form attacked and buried in music just like novel was in literature. Still, both novel and symphony continue to live.

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rifice and realistic failure. Only as such, they will make you, readers, become one with them. The historical time and personal time of your heroes are dramatically interlaced. They are obsessed with the need to stop time or passionately participate in creating a new, upcoming one. How do you determine their literary fates? My heroes walk on wire. They step on the tight edge, with the abyss underneath them and little heads of the audience that breathlessly watch them from the depths. They make the first few steps and, while they are still close to the starting point and it seems to them that they can walk over the wire in front of them, they behave as “normal walkers on wire”. As they continue further and find themselves in the middle of the wire, equally distant from the starting point and safety at the end, they begin getting stranger and excessive features. It is the moment when their madness, their visionary nature, their vainly heroism or complete lack of principle comes to the scene. It is of no importance how they react. They all stop being humans at that moment and become one of the literary creatures that amaze and often even


scare us with their excessiveness. What is the point of presenting such heroes? So that the readers understand that the same could happen to them, except that, in most cases, the rules of possibility and probability in the real world luckily prevent it. However, what if any of us found ourselves in a situation the characters from the Great War are? I AM LIVING SEVERAL LIVES Duality of everything existing, system of mirrors and converse reflection, follow many of your characters. It seems that you are also filling a less known part of history: ending the stories of a world and many people whose fates were removed or skipped by historians? Telling many (simultaneous) stories is my specialty. There are so many of them inside me, that it is no problem to tell a hundred of them (like in the Century), even a thousand. For me, putting them together, tightening them so that they could begin vibrating together like parallel strings, therefore creating aliquot tones, is a real “sports discipline”. This phenomenon has been studied in music a long time ago. What we call tone A, for example, has its aliquot resonant additions, which make it soft and warm. The Chinese toys sing Christmas songs so disgustingly due to the lack of these aliquots. I try to do the same in literature. Each character is only the top of the iceberg; each one of them pulls an entire settlement of both the living and the dead, their same-minded, doubles, ancestors and descendants. That is what excites me and tests my tidiness and skill of planning a complicated work of art, which truly remains complicated just for me, not my readers. Artists have a special place in your opus. However, none of the beauties they create can crucially change the course of history. Still, the episodes in which they, with their will of power and enthusiasm, reach the highest realms of heroism and beauty of human spirit, shed a different light on the main course of events. Are there artists today who could handle collective dramas and shine with human beauty? Artists cannot shine, they are not expected to. Their works of art shine. Let’s

Teachers and Reading Touches of centuries, mixing of the past and the future through the present, happen via fantastic motifs and topics. Is that a premeditated procedure in your case, part of the subconscious, or what science implies under parallel worlds? No, that is the learnt technique of creating a fantastic story. It begins when you open a fantastic box named frame of the story; then you put a few fantastic objects in it (a suitcase with strange features, an umbrella which can carry twenty kilograms of medications inside it) and at the end rotate all that with foreign forces. The result has been the same for several centuries, actually even longer. Just look at Leonid Andreev’s story “He” or Franz Kafka’s “In the Penal Colony”, and you will understand what I was reading and who my teachers were. It remains to be seen whether I have surpassed them, but no one can take away from me the fact that I have studied hard.

shatter another myth. An artist is the embodiment of the goodness of his or her art. Not true. Many artists are pimps of their art. They write it using their skill, and then sell it like some Bible sellers. I’ve never been able to sell my work. I’ve never been my own agent. I’ve never had a website updated daily (although I have a website), I’ve never bothered to find myself on Wikipedia. When I was awarded with the Association of Drama Artists Award for my drama Nail with Two Heads, there was a real turmoil to find me, because I didn’t sign it… What can I say? Obviously the only thing I am able to do is writing. Perhaps more cannot be expected from me as an artist. My living several lives is another story, so I’m also a reporter, translator from Ancient Greek and music critic. In these areas, I believe I have some skill and ability to organize, but in literature, I’m ashamed to sell what I’ve written. MY GUIDE EURIPIDES The Great War is narrated in fragments; events from different sides of the front were chained together and given as in a mirror. Thus we realize that all stories are known everywhere, that humans are the same everywhere? It is a very important question, entering both the area of aesthetics and of ethics. One of the ways not to present cliché characters to the readers is to have a bit of bad in every good, and have a seed of good in every bad character. This is what SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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Dragan Stojanović used to teach us as students. Why does a writer do so: this ethical trap, so to say, takes him down a flat road to the area of beautiful, to the area of aesthetics. If a good writer would be engaged in stigmatizing bad guys and praising good ones, like the bad writers do, he’d completely dive into daily ethics and appear as a judge on the pages of his books, which is in no way a good role for him or her. This way, the writer has the opportunity to sing some of the most beautiful songs about humaneness, which is always imperfect, but has one good feature – it is given the possibility to advance… Good-bad and bad-good characters turn the attention to that wonderful imperfection of humans. That is why I have the greatest admiration for humans and that, I believe, can be seen in my books. Did translating classical literature open any cognitions in the present time and is it necessary for a contemporary writer to read antique literature? Perhaps not for every contemporary writer, but for me it certainly is. And how did your friendship with Euripides begin? As a student, I began translating his drama Alcestis. I entered this endeavor slightly due to psycho-analytic reasons. My wounds from my mother’s death were still fresh and this drama, with the main motif being the sacrifice of a mother and woman Alcestis and her return from the dead, gave me the opportunity to recognize one of those “skeletons” of my life and to, as the English would say, put them “in the closet”. Later, my friendship with Euripides continued with translating his drama Iphigenia at Aulis, and at the end The Bacchantes. I noticed that he is a writer who masterly operated, even manipulated the dramatic situations and emotions

Literary Ali-Baba’s Cave – My life doesn’t have a place in my literature. I’m living an ordinary, more often unhappy than happy life, and I have never thought of making literature out of it. Third- or first-person, it’s all the same. My literary world is Ali-Baba’s Cave, it has everything that’s missing in my, your and our lives.

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of his audience. As a contemporary translator who translated most of Euripides, I became a kind of his secretary in our language. I began associating with him and understanding the uniqueness of his talent. A writer is a kind of a manipulator – he plays with the feelings of his readers, but he must be careful never to cross the line of playing, because he might be, as in the ancient times, whipped (literary or metaphorically). This most shameful punishment for a tragedian always stood over Euripides’ head: he would bring the


audience to the verge of tears and then, in the final moment, reward it with salutary catharsis, thus saving himself from whipping, which happened to tragedians who made the audience cry and deprived it from catharsis. It’s clear what you can learn when learning from such a writer. I am happy because both Iphigenia at Aulis and The Bacchantes were staged in the National Theater and for being able to see how audience today reacts to characters and scenes of my great teacher and guide Euripides.

THE GREAT WAR ISN’T OVER When writing, you often use archive material. What traces have you found there? For me as a writer, the most important thing as that they’re alive. I am equally happy when I find scenes from the life of no-goods as well as true heroes in archives and documents. A writer must really inhabit his work with life. Since I have already given up on poetizing my life or the life of my generation, I must find it somewhere else. And I do! In the jungles SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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of South America, among the psychoanalysts of Sigmund Freud, in the trenches at the Western Front, in Java, Sumatra, New York, yes, very often there, although, to tell you a secret, I’ve never been in New York! For decades now, critics don’t know how to classify me (the favorite discipline of critics: classifying artists). I certainly don’t belong to the narrow circle of national literature, but I’m certainly not a postmodernist who “feeds on books”, because I “feed on life itself ”. Everything else can be learned, but getting into the eyes and shoes of someone who lived a long time ago is an occult issue and there is no rule on how to master it. By dividing your novel into five wholes – “Year of the Pathologist”, “Year of Merchants”, “Year of the King”, “Year of the Emperor” and “Year of the Criminologist” – you actually follow your main character: war. How did you determine such a form of The Great War and select the characters? Every writer wishes to explore the literary areas no one has ever stepped into before him. This is an adventurous feature writers share with the conquerors of the Wild West or South Pole. I must say that the excitement is similar as well. I wanted to write a novel which won’t have a main character – probably the first of its kind in Serbian literature. So, The Great War has 78 characters, among them probably fourteen are the main ones, but among those fourteen, not one, not a single one is the main. This centripetal feature of the novel was a great challenge, as well as the weaving of something I could call the novel-saga or the novel-rug (a carpet with threads pulled through one under another). You can imagine how exciting that was. Sometimes I feel sorry for my readers. They enjoy in their, readers’ way, but none of them in my, writer’s way. I travel, suffer, feel joy, cry, bleed, stumble with my characters and love them all. The hardest thing for me is when I have to kill them. However, when the logic of a literary work demands it, it has to be done without questioning. Thus the most stupid question unprepared readers ask a writer perhaps is: “Did it really have to happen that way?” The answer is: “If it didn’t, it would be a bad novel!”

There is, however, something else. Writing is the queen of arts, because a writer, when writing a new work, must simultaneously determine its world, tools for building it, inhabit it with characters made only for that occasion, choose a language used only for that case, and at the end use a bit of magic practiced only for that situation... So, has the Great War ended or are the centuries only about to be settled, as in the story “Guardians of the Deserted Century”? It hasn’t ended and, unfortunately, there is no end to misfortune. We must arm ourselves with patience and faith. Fernando Pessoa wrote that human ships are sailing in all directions, towards thousands of different ports, but all with the same name: Misfortune. Moments of happiness are rare and one should use them fully. Everything else is suffering, fighting… I fight both as a writer and as a human, I work from morning to night, I complete several tasks at once, I’m always rushing, I never have time, I can hardly find an hour or two to answer these questions. And when I stop, I rest for a moment and then start rushing again. I will obviously rest when I close my eyes. And another important thing: never cry over past happiness, because paradise is not paradise while we’re living it, but when we lose it. Remember your paradises with love, without tearing apart the little happiness that’s left for you. This was, of course, invented by Milton before me, but I, as someone who irrevocably lost many of his paradises, quote him here, at the end of this interview.  SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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Music is a Journey and Searching PROFESSOR MARIJA ŠESTIĆ, PIANIST AND SINGER, SPEAKS FOR “NATIONAL REVIEW”

She is not in the hurry, and she is the youngest piano teacher in Srpska with Masters degree. She teaches at the Academy of Music, but she is aware that one cannot survive by doing arts here. She is singing serenades, and is in love with jazz. From the “Euorosong”; that great field of show business, she remembers people and friendships. She knows that talent is indispensable and that everything depends on one’s work. She listens carefully to herself and is able to wait for the right moment for everything. And she combines all this with ease, with charisma that conquers

By: Sandra Josović

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he enrolled in the Academy of Music in Banjaluka when she was thirteen, and today she is the youngest piano teacher in Srpska with Masters degree. She has been on the stage since she was eight, equally successful as a pianist and vocal soloist. With her appearance, voice and charisma, she draws attention and conquers hearts wherever she appears. Although her talent has already been crowned with numerous awards and rec-

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ognitions, and her name is recognizable and sought for outside the borders of the country in which she lives, her star is yet to shine with its full might on the musical sky. She loves jazz, and enjoys singing songs from musical heritage. You have developed love for music in early childhood. What memories connect you to this period when this love grew into profession?


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I remember that since early childhood I wanted to be involved with music, namely to be a singer. Since I was always singing, my parents soon recognized this desire, and enrolled me in the school of music. I chose to play piano, because it seemed to be the easiest instrument, with well displayed keys, instead of complicated strings. I remember that I liked the school very much, but I didn’t like practicing piano. In the beginning it was boring for me but, as I was growing up, it turned into pleasure, and at the end into great love toward this instrument. In addition to strong desire and motivation, it was still a difficult period, with a lot of hard work and sacrifice. There was no time for real childhood. And then preparations for competitions and concerts, and stress you are exposed to since the early age. But despite all the challenges, love toward music kept me going. Today I enjoy my profession. Already as a little girl you were winning festival awards. What do they mean for you today, and can you single out some of them? My first piano awards are especially dear to me, because those were the first rewards for practice and work and learning the process. It is different with singing, because there are more factors that determine whether you will be awarded or not (for example, is the song good, what kind of stage appearance you have...). Not only the performer is being evaluated, as is the case in classical music.

How important are children’s festivals and do they really impact the future career of young talents? Children’s festivals are a wonderful thing for children, primarily because of socializing and getting to know this type of music and performances. I remember that I was completely surprised when I won the first award at the “Đurđevdan Festival”, because between my performance and the announcement, running around with other kids, I already forgot that I was at a competition. After festivals in Southern Slavic regions, there were those further away, international ones. There you already gain experiences in which you can realize whether you want to do this in the future.

REQUIREMENTS OF PROFESSIONALISM, FEES FOR THE POOR You are the youngest person with Masters degree in piano in Srpska. If you wanted to dedicate yourself only to the career of a pianist, would that be possible in a country like ours? It is almost impossible to make that type of career in these circumstances, es-

By Birth and Otherwise – Talent is a trigger for everything that follows. And that everything is work, work and only work. Since music is an art, namely a specific profession, the role of education is not decisive in it, in terms of public schooling, but how much one lives with his instrument. There are excellent musicians without a day of school or, those who completed a school, but remained mediocre or bad in their profession.

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E X P E R I E N C E S pecially in terms of making a living. In order to be a professional pianist, you must have regular concerts and participate in competitions, just like professional tennis players. Only, unlike them, you almost don’t get paid anything, and the effort is on the same level. It is known that today people live from money, not from love or pleasure. You teach at the Academy of Arts in Banjaluka. What do you advise to your students what road should they take after the diploma? There are many options, but everything depends on the degree of dedication and interest. And today luck also plays an important part, to say the least. Classical music is not a profession in which you can make material profit, so the students often lose motivation too soon. They quickly become aware that, once they graduate from the university, it will be difficult for them to find a job. It is difficult to keep the motivation and dream about big career when the reality is the way it is. You also successfully perform as a vocal soloist. In what role you enjoy more? I enjoy equally both of them, one complements the other and it is good that I don’t always do the same thing. Sometimes, however, I find myself in a situation that I don’t have enough time to work on both, but then again, it is all music, it is related, and is not a big problem for me.

Photographs: Archives of the interlocutor

To what extent your appearance in “Eurosong” in 2007 influenced your career and how do you see this experience today? Appearance in “Eurovision” is a precious experience. From today’s point of view, I wish I had been a few years older, because I would experience differently certain things and certainly gain more out of it. But now I would have bigger stage fright.

Only Beautiful Memories Is it difficult to handle the pressure of the public and success already in early childhood? It has not always been pleasant, there have been comments and situations in which I was hurt. Children can often be cruel and tasteless with their jokes. But these things get deleted as you grow up and only beautiful memories remain.

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I had an excellent team of young, talented and positive people who helped that this event has remained as a beautiful memory and that I become richer for beautiful acquaintances and friendships. NEW WORLDS AND CHALLENGES

You feel at ease in different musical genres – from classical music, through pop, to traditional serenades. What are your musical preferences and do you compose yourself? Certainly, my taste in music has been changing with time and under the influence of people I work with. Classical music is always present and I feel it as my own. I have wonderful cooperation with musicians from Southern Slavic countries, with whom I perform sevdah and traditional music, in imaginative adaptations. Privately, I am most interested in jazz. For me, it is a new world and challenge, which I am trying to get to know and experience better. I have my ideas, but I have not recorded my song, I guess it is not the right moment yet. Lately you have been performing often with “DrAmmar Project” and singing traditional sevdalinke that originate not only from B&H, but from other parts of Europe as well. What is the charm of this folk music and how did you get involve in it? By accident. I had an opportunity to sing sevdalinka at the presentation of the song for “Eurovision” and I felt that I was doing it with ease. I think that traditional music from these areas is one of the most beautiful in Europe. It should be nurtured and performed, both in traditional and new arrangements. You have been on the musical stage since you were eight, but you have not yet recorded an author’s album. Du you have plans to record one? I do. I cannot single out one reason why this has not happened yet. Generally, I work in this direction and I hope to get good ideas and good quality music. I try not to burden myself too much with planning, but to listen and to get to know myself, and wait for the right moment for everything. I have already accomplished something, I hope there will be good will for future work. 


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T H E

M E D I A DUBRAVKA GAJIĆ, EDITOR-IN-CHIEF OF THE INFORMATION PROGRAM OF THE TELEVISION OF REPUBLIKA SRPSKA

Attraction of Our Backyard I believe in the “old concept” according to which the role of the media is to inform and not to rule. It is a narrow path we are walking on while trying to remain serious and professional, without losing attractiveness and profitability. The European media game is still to difficult for us, but in the Balkans we have something to show. Our programs have excellent ratings in Srpska, and we are trying very hard to cover with our topics the entire Republic on a daily basis

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he finished elementary and high school in her hometown of Karlovac. When she was nineteen, she started to study law in Zagreb, that unfortunate 1991. Much later, in Banjaluka, she graduated in the area of media management. Eighteen years ago, in the company of one TV editor, not knowing who he was, she sharply criticized the RTRS. “When he asked me if I would be able to do it better, I said, full of youthful optimism: Yes. And here I am, since then, for years.” She has been in the Information Program since the beginning. She went through almost all shows, either as a host or as editor. “I am my own worst critic.”

The Television of RS has been operating for more than two decades, just like the young republic whose name it caries. Seen from this time, how does this past journey look like? The process of growing up is interesting, especially when you see it from a big-

Outflows and Fillings In all southern Slavic countries there is a problem of outflow of good quality and highly competent personnel. Does this feel in your work and how should this be handled? Of course it feels, but everybody decides for themselves how to handle it. Sometimes it pays off to invest knowledge and energy into some people, advise them, and on some cases it doesn’t. It is the matter of assessment and your readiness.

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ger time distance. Everything that at times seemed more or less difficult, now has a different dimension. It is important to look ahead and never to think that you have reached the finish line. Responsibilities of a public media service are specific even in much simpler circumstances than these in which we live. What are the biggest challenges that the Information Program of the TVRS is facing? Just like other TV houses, we are fighting competing the internet and everything it offers, with unbelievably fast information flow. How to offer information in the best way and with best quality, and remain professional and objective, but still not become sterile and indifferent? How to show that you are socially sensitive and that peoples’ destinies concern you? How to put everything that has happened in one day into one compact whole, watchable and acceptable in the way that thee viewers will stay with you tomorrow as well? The greatest challenge is to remain professional, and not playing on the card of being attractive, commercialism. It is a thin line and it is important to be careful at every step. Networks of associates and field work in the media of this part of Europe are being shut down under the blows of the cri-


sis. Had the Information Program of the TVRS managed to preserve its network of correspondents and what quality can be obtained from this? Excellent question, and I am the right person to answer it. Namely, in the past two years I have worked in the Department for Correspondents’ and IT Centers. The correspondents’ network of the RTRS is a harmonious unit, and we are planning to strengthen it with technical and human resources. The work of this department is maybe best reflected in the show Srpska Today, which is as old as the RTRS. Its ratings are excellent, which means that people are interested in everything that is happening in Srpska. We pay attention on a daily basis that the entire Republic is covered in all our shows. RESPECTED AND PROUD What are you satisfied with, and what would you like to improve in the program that you edit? Journalists in the information program are really something special. I like how they think and how committed they are to work. I like the way in which we discuss the current day, as well as their readiness to fulfill the task. In addition to serious work, they are always willing o find time for lighter subjects, you know, for that little tease that makes you feel glad to start a ne day tomorrow exactly there. The crown of our day is “News 2”. At times I find its luster more or less appealing. Still, there is no day that I don’t think that we could have done more and better, but then... I am not really modest. I want a lot and not only in the Information Program. I want us to have even better ratings and be more respected by others, and to be more proud of ourselves. Too much, right? What media products from your Information Program you regard as referential in the Balkan and? European media market Honestly, I think that the European media market is too fierce a battlefield. Italians and French have perfectly made up shows. The Balkans? There we are certainly referential with a few of our shows. I would single out the political magazine “Stamp” and the show “Used to Be”. SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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M E D I A Technology is developing fast, almost every time in terms of quality, and the human factor can easily be adjusted to it. VICIOUS CIRCLE OF WRONG DEMAND Almost all important parameters indicate that the old concept of the media has fallen apart, the concept pursuant to which they are here to inform, and in postmodern times they have turned into input machines for uploading information that generate desirable behavior of the system? It must mean then that I am also very old, because I believe in the original concept of the media. I think that our task is to inform.

Based on objective research, some shows of the TVRS Information Program have high ratings also in the Muslim-Croatian Federation, just like in cable networks of the surrounding Sothern Slavic countries. How do you explain this? (Laughter) It seems that most people from this region likes to take a peek at his neighbor, and especially if they see a well arranged backyard there... We have entered the era of digital television. What will this really bring in our lives and our profession?

Crisis of Humanity Experts say that journalism is a profession in deep crisis, both for editors and journalists, and also in terms of morality. What are your experiences in this? Not only this profession is in crisis. Unfortunately, I think that humanity itself is in a serious crisis, and thus all the areas that people are involved in.

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Southern Slavic territories are infested with tabloid media, which is simultaneously the cause and the consequence of major disturbances, and their main product is the degenerated audience itself. Tabloidization has also entered the central information shows of major television houses? I wouldn’t say that their main product is the “degenerated audience”. Maybe they have only decided to offer what they can sell. Here we get back to one of the earlier questions. To what extent are we degenerated altogether? To what extent do we respect or accept other people’s values, and how do we qualify our own? Why are we so ready to criticize, and at the same time not ready to change anything, fearing to get out of our cocoons, and the frames that were imposed to us by somebody else? Why aren’t we ready to look deep down ourselves and face ourselves and the others? Why aren’t we ready to be happy for little things, to share a smile, to not rush anywhere? I wish I had answers. I cannot and I will not dispute that tabloidization exists in certain informative shows, not in my company, but in general. But, is this a compromise for what the audience really wants to see? And again, we are getting back to the question: to what extent are we human and in what way? Based on your forecasts, when the TVRS enters its fourth decade of existence, what will be its place in the Balkan media market? A strong and respectable place in Republika Srpska. 


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Value in the Long Run BILJANA CVIJANOVIĆ, THE BEST MIDDLE DISTANCE RUNNER IN B&H

Another successful year is behind her. She improved her own state records on 1,500 and 3,000 meters steeplechase. She won gold medal at the Balkan Championship, participated in the Mediterranean Games. She wants to represent her people with charm, dignity and champion-like persuasiveness of Novak Đoković or Emir Bekrić. If she could, she would first restore all those shut down plants in her Doboj, which used to feed the entire district By: Dejan Bulajić

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he has been setting and breaking records for years, although the conditions in which she trains are contrary to all strict standards of top sports. As if she was prepared for this many years ago when she decided to chose the athletic road out of many possible life paths. – It seems that encounter with the athletics happened by accident. A visit to the stadium in Doboj was decisive. I found a big group of boys and girls, some of whom were my friends, who ran and had a good time. I learned that they had just returned from a cross-country organized by the RTS in Sremska Mitrovica, and on photographs it all looked so interesting that I immediately wanted to become a part of it. From that day, in 1998, my connection with athletics is unbreakable. I began not only to practice, but also to get interested in everything that accompanies this sport. At that time, my role model was Gabrijela Sabo, world and Olympic middle distance champion, so I began to focus on that discipline myself. I felt better in longer races and it seems that I was able to offer more in them, and I felt better in that method of practice. That is why I am still a middle distance runner. The first steps on the racetrack awakened a strong competitive spirit. – I was not even aware that this spirit was so strong inside me, although I admit

that I was primarily attracted to having good time with friends, new acquaintance sand first travels. However, with time, we were developing that childlike desire to be better than the others. Slowly it grew in to serious ambition, which steel keeps me going. A lot of time has passed since then, and the desire to compete and win has not left me. It seems, unfortunately, that similar characteristics are not typical for the modern generations, who look on sports as on an urban pastime. – It seems that television and internet have killed the ambition among boys and girls to dedicate themselves actively to sports. In my Doboj, fewer and fewer children practice sports, and I am afraid that the situation is not much better in other parts of Srpska. As if sport has become too difficult a school subject. There is some truth in it, but it was the same before, and nobody was running away from it. Sport has always belonged to those who were

Reflection of Character – Sport has given me opportunity to realize myself in accordance with my personality. I am very persistent and ambitious. I like to be independent in what I do and to depend primarily on my own effort. The athletics has given me this and maybe for this reason tied me to it. SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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T A L E N T S  A rest in Dubai: Biljana in the break between competitions

persistent and bold, so I wonder where they are today. I know that I must not skip training even when it is minus 20, or plus 40 degrees outside, and it has never been easy, but I have never regretted it, not once. Sport has taught me that you must give a lot in order to show to yourself how much you are worth. However, many people around us live somebody else’s lives. They imagine around themselves stereotypical film stories, in which everything is within reach and where there is a shortcut for everything. It is sad that many young people are for this reason condemned to live in a shallow, deceptive and cheap reality, and they will not become aware of this for a long time. SMILE OF A TAX ANALYST Sport is not the only important thing in Biljana’s life. – I still believe that I will remain involved in athletics for a long time. Even when I decide to stop competing, I hope that I will be able to transfer my extensive experience to young generations. But, I have realized in time that everything is relative and that some paths get interrupted abruptly. That is why I have secured myself on the other side, in the field that has also awoke certain passion in me. It is economy. I graduated from the university, became a tax analyst, because I am very much interested in this subject matter. Who knows? Maybe the plans don’t work out and I realize in time that I have nothing else to do in the athletics. If that happens, I will not feel well, but I will be ready to take a different road. It seems, unfortunately, that many people have a reckless perspective on history, not learning any lessons from what already happened to us. – Maybe that is why many bad things are repeating. To know and understand

Kitchen – I can say that I am doing very well in the kitchen. I prefer when I am alone and when I can experiment, because I always have to change something in the recipes. Baking cakes is a special pleasure for me. I think that athletes are addicted to sweets. And if someone comes to visit, I don-t miss the opportunity to serve them with a chocolate cake. Of course, I like to make salty dishes as well, and rolled chicken breast is my favorite.

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your own history should be more a matter of good manners than education, and it seems that today many lack both. There are more and more of those who say that we should leave the past behind, which basically means that we should almost forget it. If we actually do that, we will stop remembering who we are and why we have existed for so long, as people that sometimes carry to heavy a burden of fate. To know you own history means to respect yourself, and there is so much in it that we


can be proud of. It is a wonderful feeling that does not need to be displayed or explained, and I think that athletes are doing that in the right way. Just look at Novak Đoković, or Emir Bekrić, how wonderfully they represent their country. It is not only about their triumphs and medals, but the sense of dignity and awareness that they belong to the nation which will be differentiated from many others by the memory on what they were and what they are now. Doboj as the hometown.

– When I speak about Doboj there is a smile on my face but, I admit, sometimes there is gloominess in it. Primarily because my city is going through some difficult times. In this formerly developed industrial place not many things are still working, it is difficult to find jobs, and an increasing number of people, especially young people, are leaving are leaving the city looking for work, some of them to Serbia, others are going abroad. It is evident on peoples’ faces, in the spirit that is SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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And Conditions Are... Conditions... – It is really something that maybe we should not be talking about. For the entire year I have been practicing in the stadium where there is no racetrack, because the city and the club simply have no money to finance preparations, although I have been the best athlete in Doboj for the past six years. Simply, there are not enough funds, and this makes me even more proud of everything I have achieved so far. In this, I am trying not to think about whether the results would have been better if I had only had better conditions for work.

dominant on the city streets. Besides this, Doboj is a beautiful city. Landscapes that surround it make it even more peaceful and tame, and for a long time this used to be a trait of its citizens. There are not many places that are situated on three rivers like Doboj – the Bosnia, Usora and Spreča, which create a magnificent environment. The famous Doboj Fortress is dominant over the city, and we like to gather there. One of the characteristics of small towns is that people are closer to each other and like to hang out. This is also the case with Doboj. AMONG THOSE WHO STAYED HERE If she could change something in it... – Without hesitation I would restore the factory plants around the city, which used to feed this entire district. That would stop the outflow of people and in a short time the city would regain its former splendor. Doboj used to be one of the railway hubs of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a busy place where people gathered from all over. Sometimes I dream that people are coming back to it on these same roads. As a passionate athlete, I would also like playgrounds, stadium and the hall to be revived. So that parents would send their children to practice sports, without worrying who and how will work with them. So that proven coaches start creating new talents, and that the entire city is proud while watching them grow up into real stars. Rest assured that throughout my career there is this desire to animate as many children as possible, especially girls, to get involved in athletics. To recognize sport as  From traveling one of the more valuable options, which around the world could enrich their life. and with little Long term plans in Doboj. niece Ena, her – I have not decided yet. This year I lucky star received Serbian passport, and with this I

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have the right to compete for Serbian representation. If this comes true, there is a possibility Tat I move to Serbia. However, if it does not happen, I will stay here. For sixteen years I have been training at the Athletic Club “Doboj”, although a few months ago I signed membership card for Athletic Club “Čajetina” in Serbia, for which I will compete for double registration. Two years ago I extended my sports activity, since I opened a studio for fitness, Pilates and aerobic, with a goal to inspire as many women as possible to turn toward healthy lifestyle. I am attracted to this and I work on it with a lot of energy and strong will. Her close relationship with her family also connects her to her hometown. – It is the generator of positive energy in my life. I am very attached to my family, especially my twin sister Bojana. I have another sister, Slađana, who is six years older than us. We don’t have a brother, but I don’t think that my father regrets that too much, because he is blissful in the company of four women. Anyway, he says himself that Bojana is his son. Wherever I go, no matter how far I am or how long I am absent, not a single day will pass without me talking to her at least once. That is a habit that I believe I will never give up. She has her own family now, and she gave us this great gift in the form of her little daughter Ena, who has become my lucky star. All the medals and records I have achieved this year carry her name, because at the moment of every joy I had her in my mind. And there are plenty reasons to rejoice. – A truly successful year is behind me. I have improved my own records on 1,500 and 3,000 meters steeplechase. I am the only athlete in Bosnia and Herzegovina who won a medal at the Balkan championship. In the race on 1,500 meters, in which Amela Terzić triumphed, I placed third. I also participated at the Mediterranean Games. If I managed to qualify to participate in the Olympic Games, I think that would be the crown of my career. I am a realistic person, fully aware that the conditions in which I work do not allow me to think about medals in the top world competition. That is why I have been dreaming about crowning my career with the right to participate in one of the greatest competitions in the world. After all this years, it would not be an insignificant reward for all this effort. 


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E N E R G Y Drina waiting construction of new hydro power plants

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MIXED HOLDING “POWER UTILITY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA”

Matured Together with the Republic This strategic company is an energy giant and the spinning wheel of the economic development of Srpska. It is comprised of the Holding Company and eleven subsidiaries. Annually, it produces and distributes, in the average, over 5,000 gigawatt-hours, of which 20-30 percent is exported. It supplies 540,000 customers in Srpska, at the most favorable prices in the Southern Slavic region. It has 8,400 employees. In order to properly face the challenges ahead, they are planning investments in new production capacities in Dabar, on the Upper and Middle Drina, on the Bosnia and Vrbas...

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ikola Tesla’s discovery of alternating current is the basis for the production and use of electricity in the entire modern industry. Just like discovery of the wheel is the eternal driver of human progress, alternating current changed the world like the Prometheus, giving it light and energy.

Not by accident, we use this reminder to begin the story about Mixed Holding “Power Utility of the Republic of Srpska”, a strategic company, energy giant and spinning wheel of the economic development. “Power Utility of RS” is comprised of the Holding Company and eleven subsidiaries, connected in the Mixed Holding, SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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E N E R G Y  Dam “Grančarevo” on the Trebišnjica

with a goal to produce and distribute electric power, and supply households in Srpska. Total installed power of its production capacities is 1,348 MW, average annual production a little above 5,000 GWh of electric power. It supplies about 540,000 customers in Srpska and sells 20–30 percent of produced electric power in the open market, depending on hydrological and other circumstances. It has 8,400 employees. From its foundation on June 2, 1992, “Power Utility of RS” has gone through different phases on its road of the post-war consolidation and recovery, up until stabilization and development. It would be a story about organizing a company and starting the production, and connecting “remnants” of the high voltage and low voltage network and establishing the system of transmission and distribution of electric power, which has enabled supply of electric power to the customers in the territory of Republika Srpska. Post-war years were marked with great insolvency, hiring of “third parties”, especially in mines on removal of the stripping and excavation of coal. Frequent downtimes during operation of production companies, especially thermal power plant, poor transmission and distribution network and frequent outages in delivery of electric power marked the first post-war years. It was necessary to increase the operating reliability and safety of the system, and for that it was necessary to invest in revitalization and reconstruction of the existing production capacities, and construction of new and repair of the existing network, transformer stations and other facilities for transmission and distribution of electric power. All this was followed by appropriate organizational changes. In late 2006, “Power Utility of RS” was organized as Mixed Holding, which was followed by a period of stabilization of the system in all segments.

Losses are in the Past About 5-6 years ago, the times when the “Power Utility” operated with losses and was insolvent are finished. Today, it is a desirable business partner, who is settling its obligations in time. A part of generated profit is paid to the shareholders as dividends. Since the government of Srpska is the majority shareholder, the biggest percentage of the dividends is paid to the Action Fund of RS.

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Significant funds have been invested in revitalization and modernization of the plants, by applying environmental standards acceptable in the European Union, so the level of reliability and operational readiness of the production capacities has been raised significantly. SECURE PACE OF THERMAL POWER INDUSTRY This has resulted in increased production. Thermal power plants have achieved record production, although the plants have been commissioned more than 25 years ago.


Thermal power plant “Ugljevik”, after reconstruction and capital overhaul, which was completed in 2010, produces annually over 1,800 GWh of electric power, which was unimaginable when the equipment was brand new, The available capacity has been increased by over 20 percent. Thermal power plant “Gacko” has achieved record production in 2011, almost 1,600 GWh of electric power. Since the capital overhaul was completed in 2012, this year it is expected to produce 1,700 GWh of electric power. Determination of the government of Srpska is to produce sufficient quantities of

electric power, in order to secure supply to all consumers in the Republic at economically acceptable prices. Tariffs under which the consumed electric power is calculated have been defined in 2009 and have not been changed since then. “Power Utility of RS” has much lower prices for the customers in RS than those at which “Electric Pow-

Reaching the Record It is expected that this year the “Power Utility of RS” will produce over 6,000 GWh of electric power, and thus it would reach the record production from 2010.

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 Thermal power plant “Gacko”

er Industry of HZHB” and “Electric Power Industry of B&H” are supplying customers in their area. Other countries in the region, except for Serbia, whose prices are at the average lower than the prices in Srpska, have much higher prices of electric power. In this way, all consumers of electric power in Srpska have certain benefits from successful operation of the “Power Utility of RS”. Prices of energy sold in the open market are much higher than in Srpska, and a part of costs of production for “Tariff Customers” is covered with income from export. In this way, practically, consumption in Srpska is partially subsidized. Despite this, in recent years “Power Utility of RS” has been making a positive financial result. In accordance with the law, a part of the profit is allocated for donations in the field of sports, culture and for charity. In the past five years, the “Power Utility” has allocated 14.3 million KM only for donations. In addition to investments in the existing facilities, in previous years we have conducted research and preparation of design –technical documents for new facilities. Possibilities for construction of new facilities have been evaluated, the existing solutions have been reconciled and new projects have been developed. This is the

“Cijevna 3”, on the Bosnia In addition to the said big projects, currently underway is preparation for realization of project “Cijevna 3” on the Bosnia River, with installed power of 13,9 MW. It is implemented by company “Elektro Doboj”, with loan funds from “KfW Bank”.

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basis for the government of Srpska and the “Power Utility” for making decisions on construction of new facilities for the production and distribution of electric power, and for introduction of new technologies into this area oblast. The achieved results justify investments in new facilities. PROJECTS WITH FAR-REACHING IMPORTANCE Hydro-power plant “Dabar” is the central and most profitable power plants in the system of the “Upper Horizons”, and it is the priority in the investment plan of the Mixed Holding “Power Utility of Srpska”. They plan to invest 174 million Euros in it, since the tunnel Fatničko polje – Bileća has already been completed. This project is in the phase of implementation. Preparation of the main design is still underway, but preparatory works are already in the final stages. They are building access roads, water supply system, power line and transformer station, canal through Fatničko polje. Compensation pool in Fatničko polje is in the final stage. A part of the lining of the tunnel Fatničko polje – Bileća is already completed. They expect that next year conditions will be met for construction of 12 kilometers long headrace tunnel. The “Power Utility” has prepared design documents on the level of preliminary design, with necessary studies for the reimple-


mentation of project “Upper Drina”. Position of the government of Srpska is that this project should be realized through strategic partnership, and that funds should be secured in this manner. Since this is a project of special significance for Srpska and that all aspects of the project must be taken into account, the government has not yet decided about the strategic partner. The “Middle Drina”, on the section between Bajina Bašta and Zvornik, is a demanding project. Since the Drina on this part is of the border between Serbia and Srpska, it is logical that electric power industries of two Serbian republics participate in the construction of these facilities. Governments of Serbia and Italy have signed an agreement defining activities in realization of joint projects in energy sector. They defined potential projects, the “Middle Drina” being one of them. The Italian party appointed as the holder of realization of these investments company “SECI Energia”. Therefore, “Power Utility of RS” has concluded a preliminary agreement on establishing strategic partnership for the purpose of realization of project “Middle Drina” through joint venture with “Electric Power Industry of ” and “SECI Energia” from Italy. The government of Italy would guarantee for this project purchase price of electric power of 155 EUR/MWh, for a period of 15 years. The government Srpska has decided to award concession for construction and

use of small hydro power plant “Bočac 2” to company “Hydro Power Plants on the Vrbas” from Mrkonjić Grad, with installed power of up to 10 MW. There are ongoing negotiations with the government of RS about the concession agreement. The “Power Utility of RS” has been investing significant funds in the construction of new and repair of the existing network and transformer stations, in order to provide secure supply to consumers in Srpska. They have also been introducing the most advanced technologies in monitoring consumption of electric power, in order to reduce losses in distribution and total operating costs. A large number of companies and employees from Srpska and the region will be engaged in the realization of these projects. In terms of personnel and material resources, the “Power Utility” is able to independently, or with a strategic partner which has funds and experience, realize the said projects, while taking into account sustainable development of the social community. 

 Building of the “Power Utility of RS” in Trebinje

Wind for Electricity The “Power Utility of RS” in its development plans did not neglect the production of power from other renewable sources. They have renewed explorations and measurement of potentials of the wind in the area of East Herzegovina, between Ljubinje and Kalinovik. Based on the results of measurements and studies, the preparation of which is underway, the most favorable locations for construction of one or two wind farms with power of about 50 MW will be selected.

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“UGLJEVIK” MINE AND THERMAL POWER PLANT, THE LARGEST MANUFACTURER OF ELECTRIC POWER IN SRPSKA

Guarantor of power Stability

Continuing mining and thermal energy traditions one hundred and fourteen years long, today it is a modern company, with a thermal power plant with installed power of 300 megawatts and a mine with projected annual production of 1.75 million tons of coal. Investments in new equipment, reconstruction of production plants and meeting high environmental standards are paving a secure road in the times ahead, so important for the Republic and the local community

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he first works on excavation of coal in the Ugljevik basin began in 1899, when “Ugljevik” Mine was opened, and have been lasting continuously since then. During this time, various states and regimes have changed. The first explorations in the Ugljevik basin were conducted in the times of Austria-Hungary, under which the organized exploitation began. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia invested a lot in the development of the mine, which was state owned at that time. Even the occupying forces in World War Two did not miss to exploit the local coal. The biggest upswing was marked by the mine in the second half of the 20th century, at the time of industrialization in then socialist Yugoslavia. It had continuous growth trend until the mid 1960’s. It was then, because of the economic reform and drastic replacement of coal with oil products, that it loses its market and goes into crisis It experiences its new great upswing within “Ugljevik” Mine and Thermal Power Plant, a subsidiary within Mixed Holding “Power Utility of the Republic of Srpska”. In this form it is strengthening the surface mine “Bogutovo Selo”, a new, modern and big mine. During construction of the Mine and Thermal Power Plant “Ugljevik I”, they adopted the plan to build four thermal energy blocks in the same location, 300 MW each. On the basis exploration of 60 percent of Ugljevik basin, available reserves of coal in

the amount of 462 million tons were recognized, which gives raw material base exactly for four thermal energy blocks, 300 MW each. Main works on the construction of the Mine and Thermal Power Plant “Ugljevik I”, with power of 300 MW and average annual production of 1,560 GWh, began in 1977 and were completed in 1985, when the Thermal Power Plant began its normal operations. Because of the war in the territory of B&H, the thermal power plant was not operational between June 1992 and late November 1995. The fate of this area was in all these years unbreakably tied to this team. EFFECTS OF BIG INVESTMENTS In recent years, this company had big investment projects. – Energy sector is one of the key sectors for our future, and in the past three years company “Ugljevik” Mine and Thermal Power Plant has had positive results. This is the result of internal transformation and stabilization, as well as support from the government of the Republic of Srpska – told us Milorad Dodik, then Prime Minister of Srpska, at the ceremony of 110th anniversary of the mine. – This company has survived maybe the most difficult times. The clear policy we have now formulated in energy area is certainly providing the foundations for stability, good and successful future operations of this team... In the upcoming SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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years, “Ugljevik” Mine and Thermal Power Plant will be an important point of investment, new jobs and total development of the Republic of Srpska. This was confirmed in the following years. Investments in new equipment, reconstructions and replacements of individual plants, realized with support from “Power Utility” and the government of the Republic of Srpska, are proof that this company is very much counted upon. We should add to this new investments, such as desulphurization project, replacement of electrical filters, new mechanization and facilitates in the mine. The best confirmation of the soundness of such decisions is the record production of electric power in 2012 of 1,837,054 MWh, the biggest in the twenty seven years long history of work of this electric power company.

Numbers By 2012, in 113 years of mining in Ugljevik, 46.93 million tons of coal was excavated. From 1985 until 2012, more than 32 million MWh of electric power was delivered to the electric power system through “Ugljevik” Mine and Thermal Power Plant.

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Investments in the thermal power plant have mostly been realized within regular annual overhauls. The key investment project in this year’s overhaul is certainly automation of the block, namely installation of DCS control and monitoring system. Installation of this system completed the major part of the planned works on reconstruction, replacement and revitalization of thermal power plant facilities. In times ahead, the emphasis will be placed on environmental projects. – Functioning of the thermal power plant after the overhaul confirms this work was completed with good quality. Effects are evident in stable operation, there are no power oscillations. Control of the production process was facilitated, the level of safety at work was raised, possibility of subjective error in the process of control of operating modes is reduced to minimum. Taking into account all this, we expect certain fulfillment of the annual plan of production of electric power – says Dragan Miljanović, executive director for technical issues in “Ugljevik” Mine and Thermal Power Plant. TAKING CARE OF THE ENVIRONMENT Last year, the waste water treatment plant was completed, and reconstruction


of electrical filters is planned. The biggest and the most important work in the area of environmental protection is certainly completion of the desulphurization project, for which a Japanese loan had previously been approved in the amount of 100 million EUR, with total repayment period of thirty years, including a ten year grace period. It is the biggest environmental project in the entire “Power Utility of the RS”. Justification of all investments madder thus far has been confirmed through results in the production of electric power, coal, increased overburden layers, and especially through technical efficiency of the plants. The planned investments in the following three years will additionally secure stability and reliability of operation of the block, reliability of supply of thermal power plant with coal, as well as fulfillment of environmental standards. – Through the achieved level of production and realized investments (which confirmed and ensured good perspective of this production facility), in the previous years this team has set very high standards for themselves. Of course, these good results are the consequence of well designed and realized investments, for which we had understanding and full support from the “Power Utility of the RS”, competent ministry and the government of Srpska,

but also of efforts of all our employees – says company director Žiko Krunić. – We must continue the trend of good production, taking into account the significance of the company for Srpska and for our region. Additionally, it is our responsibility to think about and work on further rationalization of production and maintenance of good production, business and market perspectives of this company. Unobstructed work of this company and realization of investments directly influence economic development of the local community and Srpska, as well as the standard of workers and citizens of this area. 

Concession The government of the Republic of Srpska (Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mining), and Mixed Holding “Power Utility of the RS” (Parent company in Trebinje, Subsidiary “Ugljevik” Mine and Thermal Power Plant) signed on September 13, 2013, in Banjaluka, an agreement on concession for the use of coal in deposits of “Bogutovo Selo” and “Ugljevik East”, in Ugljevik municipality. The agreement was signed for twenty six years, with a possibility of renewal.

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ENGINEERING JOURNAL: REPARATION OF WATER SURGE BELOW THE DAM OF THE HYDRO POWER PLANT “VIŠEGRAD”

Intervention Unique in the World Based on measurements from 2012, over fourteen cubic meters of water per second surges below the body of the dam. Most of it is drained into the abyss on the bottom of the accumulation, about 140 meters upstream from the dam, and then disappears through the system of underground channels, passes underneath the dam at depths of 70-130 meters, and springs in the riverbed downstream. Reparation is a very demanding undertaking. It is implemented simultaneously with the normal operation of the hydro power plant, without reducing the accumulation level. The works will last eighteen months and will be completed by May 15, 2014.

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fter international tender for the most favorable bidder for the works on repair of water surge underneath the dam of HE “Višegrad”, in October 2012 an agreement was signed with Austrian company “Strabag AG”. At the same time, an agreement on project supervision and monitoring was also signed with Swiss consortium “Stucky” and the Institute for Water Management “Jaroslav Černi” from Belgrade. The contractors were introduced into work on November 15, 2012, and deadline for the completion of works is eighteen months. SRPSK A  БРОЈ 4  2013

The reparation project itself is very complex. Based on the manner of reparation, which was dictated by the geological conditions, it is unique in the world, both in practice and in professional literature. The entire undertaking is implemented simultaneously with normal operation of the hydro power plant and with the existing backwater level, without reducing the accumulation level. Based on the latest hydrological measurements, at the end of 2012, the quantity of water that surges underneath the body of the dam was 14.27 cubic meters per second. This


is also the “baseline measurement”, against which the reduction of losses after the reparation works will be observed, namely the effects and success of the project. Most of the water that surges underneath the dam is drained into the abyss on the bottom of the accumulation, about 140 meters upstream from the dam. The abyss has a diameter of about 5 meters and it swallows over eight cubic meters per second. After this, the water disappears from the accumulation through a system of underground channels, running below the body of the dam at depths of 70-130 meters, and resurfaces in the springs in the riverbed downstream from the dam. The reparation consists of preparatory and reparation works, which are planned in two phases. By now, all necessary preparations for the conducting of works have been completed, and the works are planned in the dynamic plan for the first quarter of 2013. Construction of the primary landfill for inert materials is also in the final stage. The first phase of reparation works includes filling of the channel on the abyss, and the second one involves reparation works on the dam profile, directly along its upstream face (extending the diameter of wells and additional filling of caverns and karst channels in the dam area). Before the beginning of reparation works (Phase I and II), the project envisages construction of explorative-benchmark

wells on the upstream face of the dam and deep piezometric wells in injection gallery in the body of the dam, where instruments for monitoring will be installed, which will be connected into a single system for data acquisition. The data is further processed with appropriate dedicated software and is included in the mathematical model, which is the final phase of data processing, and the control of success of reparation works. EXPLORATIVE WELLS ARE PROMISING After the construction of work platforms, on February 15, 2013, construction of explorative-benchmark wells on the upstream face of the dam began. The project envisages nine of these wells, and three piezometric wells in injection gallery in the body of the dam. By now, seven explorative-benchmark wells and two piezometric wells have been made. Depth of explorative-benchmark wells is 160–180 meters underneath the bottom of the accumulation. Condition for the completion of the wells was entering impermeable rocks (marly limestone with layers of marl). The piezometric wells in injection gallery are made up to the depth of 120– 145 meters below the bottom of the injection gallery.

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P R O J E C T S All results of the explorative drilling are being monitored and analyzed, and this will be used in directing the reparation works in the later stages. By now, results of drilling had positive results. Karst channels and caverns have been detected, along which the water disappears from the accumulation underneath the body of the dam, and the designed geological forecasts on their positions have been confirmed. On all explorative-benchmark wells made so far, karst channels have been identified (with dimensions in vertical cross section of 0.5–2.5 meters) and caverns (dimensions 0.3–3.5 meters). They are arranged in zone 70–110 meters below the bottom of the accumulation, on the upstream face of the dam. Karst channels on bigger depths (up to 150 meters – RB-7) are rare. In all wells they detected a drop in piezometric level against the level of the accumulation 15.5–21.5 meters. Results of explorative-benchmark wells are promising. The caverns and karst channels along which water is lost from the accumulation could be closed and water loss reduced. In the second half of June 2013, they started the filling of the abyss with inert materials of different grain sizes (0–4 millimeters, 4–8 millimeters, 8–16 millimeters). A conveyer belt placed between the harbor and the crater, about 370 cubic meters of materials have been thrown into the abyss. There was a blockage of karst channels in the abyss and a part of the accumulation and the abyss itself were subsequently surveyed. It turned out that in the previous four years, from the completion of exploratory works in 2009 until the beginning of construction works in 2012, the mouth of the abyss had been significantly extended. This indicates that major collapses, namely backfilling of the abyss ha happened, and that a large quantity of branches was sucked in.

Preparatory works They include the construction of the existing access roads to the construction site, providing connections for electric power, technical and drinking water, transport and mounting of equipment, construction of primary landfill for inert material (stone aggregate) with necessary equipment, construction of work platform above the abyss, construction of transportation system from the primary landfill to work platform above the abyss, construction of work platform for the conducting of reparation works on the upstream face of the dam, transport and mounting of equipment for injection...

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The design supervisor thought that at no cost they should stop the works on the abyss because it would jeopardize the fate of the entire design. For this reason, they decided to clear the abyss by using airlifting method. In early August 2013, the abyss was cleared up. New surveys showed that it contained active water flows which, it was assumed, carry inert material to the dam and obstruct the karst channels and caverns underneath. CLOSING GIVES RESULTS In September, in agreement with the design supervisor, it was decided to simultaneously insert the inert material on the abyss, just like into wells RB-4 and RB-10 along the face of the dam, in which the biggest caverns had been discovered. By now, about 30 cubic meters of inert material have been filled into the abyss, and in RB-10 well about 1,000 cubic meters. About 30 cubic meters of inert material was also filed in RB-4 well, and ion this way this well was closed. It is planed that in the upcoming period several thousand cubic meters of inert material is filled, through the abyss and through the wells along the face of the dam, as well as through new wells that will be made between the already existing ones. It is very important to note: it is determined that the inert material insert thus far is not resurfacing into the riverbed of the Drina, to downstream springs. Therefore, all this material remains in karst channels and caverns underneath the dam, which was the goal of this project. After filling of caverns underneath the body of the dam, the final injection and sealing of the wells will be executed, and the effects of this operation will be determined in control wells. In addition to working in difficult winter conditions, we are convinced that this project will be successful and that we will achieve the planned results. The works are planned to be completed by May 15, 2014. Mile Perić, B.Sc. in Technology Engineering, Executive Director for Investment and Development Mirko Ostojić, B.Sc. in Civil Engineering, Lead Project Manager Čedo Kalajdžić, B.Sc. in Geology, Main Engineer for Geological Works


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NEDELJKO KESIĆ, DIRECTOR OF THE “HYDRO POWER PLANTS ON THE VRBAS”

Development Projects are Priority

Draught and unfavorable hydrological situation are creating serious problems and cause losses, at the average every third year. The western part of Srpska provides 5 and consumes 52 percent of total produced electric power in the Republic. Together with the desire to increase production and profit, as well as to improve supply, these are the main reasons why they have started the construction of “Bočac 2” and why they are planning additional three small hydro power plants on the Vrbas, downstream from the existing capacities

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riorities of the “Hydro Power Plants on the Vrbas” are to increase production and revenues, ensure better supply for the users, and we are now facing the work on developing the capacities for the construction of new small hydro power plants on the Vrbas – says Nedeljko Kesić, director of this subsidiary from Mrkonjić Grad. – The project for the construction of small hydro power plant “Bočac 2” is well under way. In addition to this, by means of current maintenance we will maintain the facility of the hydro power plant on such a high level that it has the necessary operating readiness for the production of electricity at all times.

To what extent dry periods, which hit the entire Srpska this year and in previous years, hamper the production? A lot. It is exactly in such periods that we operate with losses. In order to have adequate production, of course, in addition to ready production plants, we also need water. Dry periods occur approximately every third year, and then we generate loss. The problem should be solved by building capacities on the Vrbas River, downstream from the plant HE “Bočac”. Precisely for this reason we are building “Bočac 2” – in order to eliminate the consequences of droughts and generate more profit.

To what extent has the production plan been realized for this year, and what is the production plan for the next year? In the past eleven months we have produced 252,963,000 kWh, namely realized 92 percent of the production plan for 2013. The production plan of HE “Bočac” in 2014 is 274,25 GWh, most of which should be realized in March, April and May.

ONE VENTURE, NUMEROUS BENEFITS

What is your average annual profit? In 2008, the company generated profit in the amount of 4,466,878 KM, a year later 4,622,344 KM, and in 2010 a little less: 4,205,812 KM. Because of extremely bad hydrological conditions during that entire year, in 2011 we had losses in the amount of 3,744,394 KM. Last year, the situation somewhat improved, and we generated 169,984 KM of profit.

“Bočac 2” is currently the biggest and the most significant project realized by the “Hydro power plants on the Vrbas”? Project “Bočac 2” is planned to be realized by extending the existing dam of the compensation pool HE “Bočac”. The main

Workers Are Special Quality To what extent does level of training and experience of employees influence production results and operational readiness of a hydro power plant? We have regular professional training and advanced education of the existing personnel. We maintain professionalism on high level. We also have young personnel who are learning about specificities of certain activities together with the senior staff. Work activities in a hydro power plant require continuous training, and we often hire consultants for the most important questions

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 Dam of hydro power plant “Bočac”

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idea is to use the energy of the available difference in levels, which has occurred by forming the compensation pool, namely the water that is in the current conditions directed through the overflow. Taking into account the fact that the pool with adjacent structures already exists, that their characteristics will not be changed (horizontal or vertical extensions, and similar), there are certain economic benefits from such an intervention, with minimum investment and minimum potential influence on the environment. HE “Bočac 2” should be built on the existing dam “Bočac 2”. Installed power would be 8.76 MW, and average monthly production 41.603 GWh. This hydro power plant is also attractive because it fits into the existing water supply and environmental requirements, and it contributes to the increased volume of power production. Construction of the small HE “Bočac 2”, as well as other hydro power plants in Republika Srpska, is a development project which has numerous positive economic benefits. Investments in energy system of the primary production sector will create conditions for development of associated industries. Currently underway is preparation of the

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main design for the construction of “Bočac 2” and tender for procurement of electrical and hydro mechanical equipment. What is the condition of the plants of “Hydro Power Plants on the Vrbas”? The hydro power plant was built in 1981, which means that it was commissioned exactly 32 years ago. It was built for seven years and it is one of the last structures of this type that were built in Yugoslavia. The equipment that was installed then was the most advanced and the machines, with useful life of 70 years, are today in a very good condition. Every year we have annual overhaul, which also includes control of the plants and associated equipment, so the machines are 100% ready at all times, and we do not have any problems related to the plants. What is the planned direction for the development of your company? Hydro potential of the Vrbas is very much underused. We have prepared a study which shoed that downstream we can build a few other smaller hydro power plants. Besides “Bočac 2”, we are planning to build another three male hydro power plants. It is a decision of the company management and competent authorities, namely the government of Srpska and the competent ministry, to build these capacities on the Vrbas River. Our goal is to, through this construction, provide jobs for as many people as possible, and generate maximum profit for the company, but also for the municipality (by means of respective tax liabilities). In other words, this will be good for everybody. One hydro power plant will have 10, the second 19, and the third 27 megawatts. It is important to understand that this hydro power plant on the Vrbas is the only one in the western part of Srpska. We produce about five percent of total electric power on the level of Srpska, and the western part consumes 52 percent, so these new capacities are have crucial significance. 


N E T W O R K

“ELEKTROKRAJINA” IN BANJALUKA – AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF THE “POWER UTILITY OF RS”

Responsibilities of the Largest Distributor This subsidiary takes over 49 percent of total electric power for the needs of the customers and covers more than 36 percent of the area of Srpska, which makes it the main distributor and supplier in this market. It has marked improvement of financial results. Modernization of the business system and satisfied customers remain the priority of “Elektrokrajina” in the upcoming period as well

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lektrokrajina” is today a successful and modern company with 1,639 employees (of which 179 with university degree) and it has 251,745 consumers. It covers 16 municipalities. – Main activities of the company are distribution and supply of electric power, and it also conducts activities of designing, construction and maintenance of electric power facilities. In the previous period, the goals of company’s business policy were primarily focused on stable and efficient supply of the customers, providing

electric power for new customers (for this reason “Elektrokrajina” is the backbone of economic development in our distribution area). One of the goals was also to reduce distribution losses and increase the percentage of collection of funds for consumed electric power – says director of ZP “Elektrokrajina” Seka Kuzmanović. The Company is managed by shareholders, organized in the Shareholders’ Assembly. “Elektrokrajina” is organized in 10 operating units, and all company functions are brought together on the level of the Head Office located in Banjaluka. SRPSK A  No 4  2013

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N E T W O R K  Seka Kuzmanović, director of “Elektrokrajina”

DEVELOPMENT State owned subsidiary “Elektrokrajina” was founded under the Decision of the “Power Utility of RS” on August 17, 1992, and later, pursuant to the decision on change of organizational form, it transformed into ZP “Elektrokrajina”. However, the history of “Elektrokrajina” lasts much longer – 66 years, because it has been operating since 1947 under different names and with changed areas of activity. After World War Two, a regulation was adopted on foundation of power company “Elektrobih” in Sarajevo, with several branch offices. A branch office was formed in Banjaluka for the needs of that district, with several offices. Soon there was reorganization of the company in Sarajevo, the process of branch offices becoming independent and transfer to the accountability of local boards. In April 1947, under the resolution of the government of B&H, the former branch grows into “Electrical Company” of Banjaluka. MODERNIZATION One of the tasks set by people in “Elektrokrajina” is continuous modernization and introducing of new technologies, for better quality supply of the consumers with electric power. – New technological achievements enabled introduction of modernization and monitoring of the distribution network by means of SCADA, DMS (dynamic synoptic boards) and AMM (Automated Meter Management) systems. By using these tools and systems, we will increase reliability of the distribution network and reduce distribution losses – emphasizes director Kuzmanović. In 2011, “Elektrokrajina” introduced ISO standards 9001:2008, 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007, thus creating possibilities for better operation, environmental protection and safety of the workers. – Among the most important investments in the previous five years are relocation of measuring points, introduction of

Good Trends From 2006 until today, distribution losses have been significantly reduced and trend of growth in clients’ debt was stopped, and investments have been increased. Total income in 2004 amounted to 151,662,000 KM, and last year it was 207,238,000 KM.

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the system of remote reading, reconstruction and construction of TS, SNM, NNM in all operating units, construction of RTS Trebovljani, Bronzani Majdan and others – says Seka Kuzmanović. PLANS The goal of “Elektrokrajina” is to improve the results of financial operations, primarily through reduction of distribution losses and activities on increasing the collection of electric bills. And they have been doing this successfully for years, which is reflected in the fact that in the first ten months of this year “Elektrokrajina” increased its income from electric power by 2 percent. Operating income in the period from January to September 2013 amounted to 134.8 million Deutschemarks, which is an increase by three million in comparison with the same period in 2012. – Total electric power taken over in 2012 amounted to 1,460,816.766 kWh, and by November 31, 2013, it amounted to 1,630,370.621 kWh, so an increase was achieved here as well - says Kuzmanović. In her words, “Elektrokrajina” will in the upcoming period as well focus on these lines of development and increase of quality. They are planning, among others, reconstruction and construction of TS, SNM, NNM by operating unit, and construction of cable canalization in urban areas of operating units. She highlights that the stronghold for all this will be in good quality human resources, and that the management is dedicated to rejuvenating the staff and providing them advanced training, as well as dedicating more attention to the improvement of work conditions. – For all these years our team has been active on the social plan as well, giving contributions to development of local communities, in which all employees and management of the company participated. Through the Unit of Voluntary Blood Donors within the company, they give blood regularly twice a year, as well as in certain emergency situations – says Kuzmanović. – Every year they are organizing workers’ sports games on the level of the “Power Utility of the RS” in which we make good results. We have also supported numerous cultural and sports activities of a wider national interest, on the basis of sponsorship, marketing promotion and commercial advertisement. 


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MIXED HOLDING “ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY OF REPUBLIKA SRPSKA” HOLDING COMPANY a.d. TREBINJE

ZP „ELEKTRO DOBOJ“ a.d. DOBOJ Nikole Pašića 77, 74000 Doboj, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina Phone: +387 53 209 700; Fax: +387 53 241 344; www.elektrodoboj.net, info@elektrodoboj.net

Srpska - No 4