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OILS & FATS INTERNATIONAL ONLINE EDITION SEPTEMBER 2019  MARCH 2020 WWW.OFIMAGAZINE.COM

BLEACHING EARTHS

Moving towards natural clays

OILSEEDS

The mechanical alternative

BIOFUELS

HVO making it big

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CONTENTS

PROCESSING & TECHNOLOGY ONLINE EDITION – SEPTEMBER 2019-MARCH 2020 OILS & FATS INTERNATIONAL

FEATURES

EDITORIAL:

Catalysts

Editor: Serena Lim serenalim@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855066 Assistant Editor: Gabriel Day gabrielday@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855157

Processing & Technology

SALES: Sales Manager: Mark Winthrop-Wallace markww@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855114

18

Sales Consultant: Anita Revis anitarevis@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855068

Catalysts are an essential part of the hydrogenation process of vegetable oils

PRODUCTION: Production Editor: Carol Baird carolbaird@quartzltd.com CORPORATE: Managing Director: Steve Diprose stevediprose@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855164 SUBSCRIPTIONS: Elizabeth Barford subscriptions@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855028 Subscriptions, Quartz House, 20 Clarendon Road, Redhill, Surrey RH1 1QX, UK

Crucial ingredient in hydrogenation process

Biofuels

4

From speciality to commodity New crystallisation and separation technologies are being used to produce speciality fats

Oilseeds

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22

A member of FOSFA Oils & Fats International (USPS No: 020-747) is published eight times/year by Quartz Business Media Ltd and distributed in the USA by DSW, 75 Aberdeen Road, Emigsville PA 17318-0437. Periodicals postage paid at Emigsville, PA. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Oils & Fats c/o PO Box 437, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437 Published by Quartz Business Media Ltd Quartz House, 20 Clarendon Road, Redhill, Surrey RH1 1QX, UK oilsandfats@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855000 Printed by Pensord Press, Gwent, Wales

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Oils & Fats International

HVO making it big Hydrotreated vegetable oil offers advantages over traditional biodiesel and new production facilities are scheduled to come online in the next few years

11

The mechanical alternative Extrusion pressing offers a mechanical alternative to the traditional method of soyabean processing, which involves using volatile hexane as a solvent

Bleaching earths

15

Moving towards natural clays Natural bleaching earths pre-blended with steam activated carbons have been shown to be a beneficial alternative to acid-activated bleaching earths in removing undesirable components during edible oil refining

Plant, Equipment & Technology

25

Plant & technology listing OFI’s fully updated global selection of plant and equipment suppliers to the oils and fats industry

DIARY & STATISTICS Diary of Events

29

International events listing

Statistics

30

Statistical data from Mintec

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PROCESSING & TECHNOLOGY

From speciality to commodity

Increasing demand for cocoa butter-based confectionery has sent producers on a quest for alternatives to avoid the high cost of the original product or to improve melting properties. New crystallisation and separation technologies are being used to produce these speciality fats Desmet Ballestra Group

W

ith increasing consumption of cocoa butter (CB)-based confectionery foods worldwide, demand for CB is far exceeding its availability, with high prices as a direct result. In order to overcome the shortage and, at the same time, improve the physical properties of some CB sources, the confectionery industry is continuously looking for alternatives to either replace CB in their recipes or improve its melting properties. These alternatives are better known as speciality or confectionery fats. Specialty fats belong to a unique category because they are substitutes for other types of high value-added exotic fats like CB, typically used in an extensive range of chocolate, confectionery, bakery and ice cream products. Confectionery fats are designed to resemble the functional properties of CB and there are three types of CB alternatives – the cocoa butter equivalents (CBE), the cocoa butter substitutes (CBS) and the cocoa butter replacers (CBR). Real chocolate is made using only CB or CB blended with a maximum of 5% CBE. Apart from a reduction in fat costs,

the main advantage of adding CBE is to improve the physical properties of the fat fraction in the chocolate. CBE can be customised by a proper selection of its constitutive ingredients, such as palm mid fraction, shea butter stearin, illipe, sal, kokun and mango kernel fats. When the melting profile – usually expressed as a solid fat content (SFC) profile – of the CBE is well above the CB SFC profile, it becomes a cocoa butter improver (CBI). Since CBE is fully compatible with CB (due to its high concentration of POP, POS and SOS triglycerides), the amount of CBE that can be incorporated into a CBEbased chocolate is a flexible parameter, allowing producers to make chocolate products with a minimum amount of CB. CBS-based chocolates are the most widely consumed products of the three. A CBS-based chocolate does not require tempering. The main sources of CBS are palm kernel and coconut stearin. Due to shorter chain triglycerides (lauric and myristic types), the compatibility of CBS with CB is very low, typically 5%. Commercially available CBSs are usually post-hydrogenated, fully or partially u

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PROCESSING & TECHNOLOGY hydrogenation), or even interesterified (chemically or enzymatically, randomly or selectively) to match the product specifications.

The specific functionality of CBR is due to the presence of trans fatty acids (35-45%), which today are under fire from health conscious consumers and experts. To overcome this, CBRs with lower trans fat content (5-8%) are now being developed. From a processing point of view, all vegetable fats used in these applications are mostly fractionated (ideally with dry, optionally with solvent processes), possibly hardened (preferably with full

Fractionation technology

When applied to speciality fats, the term ‘fractionation’ refers to a selective fractional crystallisation of triglycerides, followed by the separation of the solid from the remaining liquid fraction. The fractional crystallisation is carried

Figure 1: Operation schematic of the Statolizer process in dry fractionation Cocoa Butter Equivalents

HPMF Solvent

SBS Solvent

33.4

32.8

31.0

% (HPLC)

Cocoa Butter Substitutes

IV

PKO Single-stage Statolizer

PKO Double-stage Statolizer

PKS

HPKS (CBS1)

PKS (CBS2)

PKS

<1

4.8

7.4

7.0

u

CO Single-stage Statolizer

u

HPKS (CBS3)

CS IV ~5

CS IC ~3

<1

4.6

2.5

% (GC)

DAG

2.4

1.0

1.2

C8:0

<1.5

<1.5

<1.5

<2.5

<2.5

4.5

2.8

POP

67.4

68.6

0.8

C10:0

2.2

2.6

2.2

2.8

3.1

4.7

4.2

POS

12.0

15.1

12.1

C12:0

54.5

53.4

54.9

56.3

55.9

48.3

47.9

SOS

1.2

1.9

76.1

C14:0

23.2

22.2

25.6

19.6

19.3

25.2

28.8

C16:0

9.8

9.3

10.1

8.9

8.8

9.9

11.0

C18:0

2.2

10.5

2.0

2.0

10.9

2.6

2.8

C18:1

6.9

-

4.7

7.5

-

3.6

2.1

SFC (%@°C)

Parallel IUPAC 2 150 b (tempered)

SFC (%@°C)

Serial IUPAC 2 150 a (non-tempered)

10

91

94

94

10

92

99

97

92

99

91

96

20

85

88

93

20

87

98

95

83

96

72

90

25

73

79

93

25

75

92

85

63

84

40

71

30

42

47

92

30

34

50

56

16

42

1

17

35

1

0

86

35

0

5

1

0

5

0

1

40

0

-

9

40

-

0

0

-

0

-

0

Source: Desmet Ballestra

IV

HPMF Statolizer

u

Source: Desmet Ballestra

u depending on the application. The latter is progressively being abandoned in favour of the trans-free version. CBR-based chocolates were, for a long time, considered the best economical alternative to real CB-based chocolate. The main sources for CBR are palm, soyabean and rapeseed oils. CBRs are non-tempering fats and they have a partial compatibility with CB with a typical tolerance of 20% of CB.

Table 1: Parameters of some hard palm mid fractions (HPMF), shea butter stearin (SBS), palm kernel stearins (PKS), hydrogenated palm kernel stearins (HPKS), and coconut stearins (CS) obtained from dry (Statolizer) or solvent (acetone) fractionation

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Figure 2: Multi-stage dry fractionation process of palm oil

Source: Desmet Ballestra

Figure 3: Single- and double-stage dry (Statolizer) fractionation process of palm kernel oil

Source: Desmet Ballestra

PROCESSING & TECHNOLOGY

u out by controlled cooling of a melted fat (dry fractionation) or after it has been diluted in an organic solvent (solvent fractionation). Dry fractionation is a sustainable and well proven process as it does not use chemicals, produces no effluent and experiences no oil losses. Different crystalliser types with appropriate and specific designs are commercially available on the market, as well as different separation processes, with the membrane filter press and the vacuum belt filters

most widely used in dry and solvent fractionation, respectively. Dry fractionation can be implemented in continuous mode with the iConFrac process – developed by Desmet Ballestra – the operation of which is based on interconnected Mobulizers. The technology was developed in response to demand for enhancing overall performance with higher olein yields and higher fractions quality, at lower utility consumption. Desmet’s Statolizer is another

technology dedicated to static dry crystallisation (see Figure 1, previous page). The fully automated system was developed in response to issues with traditional panning and pressing and solvent fractionation technologies. The Statolizer can handle highly viscous crystal slurries and it is applied to CBE (hard palm mid fraction or HPMF) and CBS (palm kernel and coconut stearin). Membrane press filters, working up to 30 bars of squeezing pressure, are the most powerful tools for separating olein and stearin fractions in dry fractionation. Solvent fractionation is less popular due to its higher production cost and capital investment, possible safety hazards and environmental issues. However, certain high-grade products can only be made using solvent fractionation. Traditionally, the fat to be processed is diluted in a solvent, usually acetone, at a specific ratio, typically 3:1 to 4:1 (solvent/ oil). Adding a solvent dramatically lowers the viscosity of the crystallising mass and results in a much quicker crystallisation. In solvent fractionation, there is no real standard plant and each is designed for its specific purpose. The most important aspect of the process is the washing stage during filtration, which allows entrained olein in the stearin cake to be washed out into the olein filtrate stream. Countercurrent horizontal vacuum belt filters enable the filter cake to be washed with fresh and cold solvent after main filtration. Rather than sending these streams to solvent recovery, recycling them to the front of the process allows for a second chance to recover final traces of olein and reduces solvent consumption. These filters are totally enclosed so that they can operate in a fully explosion proof environment.

Practical approach

Cocoa butter The most abundant triglycerides in CB are POP, POS and SOS. Globally, there is a wide variety of CBs, which are considered soft or hard depending also on the quantity of tri-saturated triglycerides (StStSt) present. Fractionation of CB can be done dry or in solvent. When fractionation is conducted in dry conditions and under shear, the crystal slurry viscosity rapidly increases, which necessitates early filtration. The triglyceride composition of stearin and olein fractions and the operation yield (10-20%) obtained this way are far from those obtained from solvent fractionation. However, with the Statolizer technology, static crystallisation can be carried out beyond the viscosity limits, u

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PROCESSING & TECHNOLOGY u allowing a time-dependent and more powerful demixing of the three monounsaturated triglycerides, as evidenced by the solid fat content profile of the corresponding stearin and the operation yield (>50%), which are getting close to solvent fractionation. Cocoa butter equivalents HPMF and shea butter stearin (SBS) are often used as ingredients for CBE, with shea butter increasing the SOS content, while palm oil is the source of POP. HPMF is produced through multi-stage fractionation of refined palm oil (see Figure 2, previous page). Palm oil fractionation makes it possible to cover a wide range of food products, from hard fats to confectionery fats and cooking oils.The first two steps are easily completed by dry fractionation under shear and the iConFrac continuous process can be used for them. However, when it comes to concentrating the POP in the HPMF, a certain viscosity develops that forces producers to turn to alternative technologies, like the Statolizer, or solvent fractionation for the last step. Acetone is generally preferred due to lower energy consumption and better selectivity. Indeed, symmetrical triglycerides tend to experience higher crystallisation in acetone compared to non-symmetrical ones. Furthermore, diglycerides – being more soluble in acetone – will concentrate in the mid olein, allowing for better reduction in HPMF. Today, high grade HPMF can be obtained from palm oil using the Statolizer technology in the last fractionation step (see Table 1, pg6). Compositional and thermal properties tend to largely approach what the acetone process can do. However, the dry route remains a less attractive option for performance yield. Further developments are aimed at specifically improving the yield as the dry fractionation route is by far the most sustainable one. For some feedstocks, like shea butter and the highest quality speciality palm oil-based end products, dry fractionation is difficult and the solvent technology is, to date, still the preferred route (see Table 1, pg6). Due to high latent heat release from the crystallisation of SOS (the major triglyceride of shea butter), dry crystallisation is often not manageable, no matter what the crystalliser’s design. Using the acetone process for shea butter fractionation has three advantages: ▪ Better crystallisation heat dissipation under diluted conditions

▪ Adjustment of the diglyceride level in the stearin ▪ Possible upstream removal of the karitene by precipitation in the solvent. Shea butter is characterised by its 4-5% level of karitene (poly-isoprenic hydrocarbon fraction), which cannot be easily removed by conventional refining processes. Having a negative impact on the crystallisation properties of SBS, the karitene content has to be reduced for edible product applications. The solid fat content profile of HPMF is completely different from that of SBS, the latter being much harder and having a melting point between 35 and 40°C. Adequate selection of the relative proportions of the two components and possible addition of other tropical fats makes it possible to modulate the melting properties of CBE according to final product specifications. Cocoa butter substitutes CBS, mainly derived from palm kernel oil (PKO) or coconut oil (CO), is particularly high in lauric and myristic fatty acids. However, CO has a lower iodine value (IV) due to a lower oleic content, compensated for by more caproic and myristic fatty acids. Both PKO and CO can be fractionated in their crude, semi or fully refined states. For PKO (see Figure 3, previous page), the Statolizer allows consistent production of palm kernel stearin IV~7 in a single-stage process. This palm kernel stearin can be used as a CBS after full hydrogenation (CBS 1, IV < 1) (see Table 1, pg6). A double-stage process route allows for the production of unhardened yet high quality CBS 2 (IV <5). This unhardened palm kernel stearin has outstanding melting and crystallisation properties when compared to the traditional (singlestage), fully hydrogenated stearin fraction. The absence of post-hydrogenation is considered a plus for those who aim to produce clean and green CBS. An increase in total stearin yield can be achieved through successive fractionation of the corresponding palm kernel olein into a second palm kernel stearin IV ~7 and a higher IV palm kernel olein. After post-hardening (IV < 1), this second palm kernel stearin has the characteristics of a good CBS (CBS 3), although it is a little softer. The reduced hydrogenation capacity is another important benefit of the double-stage static fractionation process of PKO. For CO, it is possible to obtain, in one single-stage process with the Statolizer technology, stearins with an IV varying

between 2 and 5 (see Table 1, pg6). This IV is lower than that of a typical palm kernel stearin, which is around 7. However, the corresponding solid fat content profiles are softer, essentially at 30°C and this cannot really be improved after full post-hydrogenation. For this reason, CO is a less suitable feedstock for use in normal substitute chocolate coatings. Other applications are biscuit filling creams or chocolate centres, where the rapid melt gives a pleasing cooling sensation in the mouth. Cocoa butter replacers Good CBR can be obtained through dry fractionation of partially hydrogenated soft oils. This can easily be done using the iConFrac process. When starting with, for example, partially hydrogenated soyabean oil (IV around 77), the olein can be re-fractioned, producing a stearin (CBR), which has a steep melting profile and a high trans isomers content of more than 40%. However, the negative image of trans fatty acids in food products and regulations put in place to mitigate them have made these types of products less and less desirable.

Conclusions

CB alternatives are mostly manufactured from fractionated tropical fats, selected based on their final applications. Some are blended in variable proportions, used as they are or post-hydrogenated. The current tendency is to avoid trans isomers in food formulations and favouring low or zero trans products. Fractionation technology has progressed, particularly in the last decades, so that the majority of these products can today be obtained using the dry process route. Another recently developed approach is lipase-catalysed CBE production, resulting in structured lipids with a high amount of symmetrical SOS triglycerides. This process, however, remains quite costly, considering the enzyme price and the post-treatments (distillation, fractionation) necessary for purification and quality improvement. Through innovation and creativity, confectionery fats have evolved from a speciality to a commodity. New directions in both crystallisation as well as separation are being explored and it is only a matter of time when the results reach the level of industrial reliability and efficiency. ● This article is written by Dr Véronique Gibon, science manager, and by Dr Ir Marc Kellens, global technical director, at Desmet Ballestra Group

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OILSEEDS Extrusion-pressing offers a mechanical alternative to the traditional method of soyabean processing, which involves the use of volatile hexane as a solvent

The mechanical alternative

T

he mechanical processing of soyabean is a convenient alternative to chemical extraction, particularly for local processing at small and medium capacities of up to 400,000 tonnes/year. Extrusion-pressing using screw presses and extruders offers a number of benefits, primarily low operating costs and the elimination of the risks associated with the handling of the solvent, hexane. The traditional method of soyabean processing extracts oil from dehulled and flaked beans by a chemical solvent, usually hexane. Hexane is a very volatile and explosive substance, requiring strict safety measures. Being a toxic substance, hexane also needs to be removed entirely from the oil and meal, which is an energyhungry process that requires a large amount of steam to achieve legislative limits for the residual hexane content.

Hexane free

Mechanical processing involves the extrusion of dehulled, or even hulled soyabean, with a subsequent pressing of the oil in a screw press. As there are no chemical solvents involved throughout the entire process, there are also no special safety measures regarding toxicity and explosiveness. Thanks to its compact dimensions, the whole technology demands less installation space, further reducing investment costs. The availability of presses and extruders at different performance capacities allows the construction of a line at a capacity from 2,000-400,000 tonnes/ year of soyabeans. These capacities fit well with the current trend of local

processing of agricultural commodities for the production of feed and food. The products of mechanical extraction are just raw vegetable oil and press cake, with no residual solvents.

Press cake – an added value

Mechanical pressing of oil offers a number of advantages over chemical extraction. The resulting oil contains less phospholipids, which makes subsequent oil refining easier. There is also a higher content of phospholipids in the cake, an advantage for its use in the feed industry. Pressing with extrusion combines the advantages of both processes. Extrusion causes disruption of cellular structures, the removal of anti-nutritional substances, gelatinisation of starch and the heating of raw soyabeans. This increases the oil yield in the subsequent pressing process as well as improving the digestibility of the cake. Increasing heat exposure affects the soya proteins in a way that protects them from digestion by the rumen organisms in ruminants, increasing their usability for nutrition. Conversely, a lower heat exposure in extrusion–pressing leads to higher digestibility of protein, which is very convenient for the nutrition of monogastric animals such as pigs, poultry, and fish. Because mechanical extraction does not involve the perfect separation of vegetable oil from the seeds, the residual press cake contains more oil (around 6-8%) and therefore more metabolisable energy compared to chemically extracted soya meal. In addition, the oil in the cake is bound in the cells, rather than

distributed freely, which further improves its use, especially in ruminants. This ‘bound’ oil also increases the mechanical resistance of granules in the production of granular compound feed from the cakes. Consequently, due to the different feed-related qualities, press cake is not just a simple replacement for extracted meal. It is a different product, superior in many important characteristics, and thus also in its market value.

Energy savings

During extrusion and pressing, a considerable amount of heat is produced, particularly in the form of flash steam at the outlet of the extruder, and from the heat convection from the screw press. A complex multi-stage recuperation system can recover up to 40 kWh/t of energy, which brings significant operational savings and makes mechanical extraction 150 kWh/t more energyefficient than chemical extraction. The low energy demands of the process and the possibility of local processing of locally grown soyabeans help reduce the carbon footprint of the production of soya cake-based feed. A significant advantage of local processing is the ability to control quality all the way from the seed to the final product, including the processing of certified products such as GMO free, Certified Organic and Clean Label. This article has been supplied by Czech engineering firm Farmet, which in 2017 installed an extrusion-pressing system with a processing capacity of 65,000 tonnes/year for soyabean processing for Gamota JR sro in Slovakia

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3-MCPDE & GE Tackling the formation of 3-MCPDEs and GEs in edible oils involves following good practices – during cultivation, harvest and transport of oil fruits and seeds, to refining and post-refining Serena Lim Edible oils are produced from various commodities – including fruits, seeds, nuts and fish – and their refining at 200°C or higher can produce carcinogenic 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDEs) and glycidyl esters (GEs). Humans are exposed to 3-MCPDEs and GEs from consuming refined oils or food products containing refined oils, such as infant formula, dietary supplements, fried potato products and fine bakery wares. The occurrence of 3-MCPDEs and GEs in food oils was first reported in the mid-2000s and various regulations and recommendations have since been introduced, setting maximum limits for these process contaminants. The EU set maximum levels for GEs in February 2018 (see box, pg20), while the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) set a tolerable daily intake for 3-MCPDs in January 2018 of 2µg/kg body weight per day (0.002ppm/kg body weight). The Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) is also expected to adopt a new Code of Practice (CoP) in July on how to prevent and reduce 3-MCPDE and GE formation in refined oils and foods made with refined oils. The EFSA has found that palm oil and palm fats have the highest levels of 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD (including esters) and GEs among vegetable oils.

Formation factors

Most unrefined oils do not contain detectable levels of 3-MCPDE or GE but different types of unrefined oils have different capacities to form them during the deodorisation step of edible oil refining, according to the CAC draft CoP. The processing conditions during refining also have an important effect on the 3-MCPDE and GE formation. “For vegetable oils, factors that contribute to the capacity to form 3-MCPDE and GE during refining include climate, soil and growth conditions of source plants or trees, their genotype, and harvesting techniques. These factors all affect the levels of precursors of

Mitigation stra 3-MCPDE and GE, such as acylglycerols and chlorine-containing compounds,” the draft CoP says. “3-MCPDE forms primarily from the reaction between chlorine containingcompounds and acylglycerols like triacylglycerols (TAGs), diacylglycerols (DAGs) and monoacylglycerols (MAGs). GE forms primarily from DAGs or MAGs.” Some chlorinated compounds are also precursors for 3-MCPDE formation. Oil-producing plants or trees absorb chloride ions (in the form of chlorinated compounds) during growth, from soil (including from fertilisers and pesticides) and from water. These chloride ions are converted into reactive chlorinated compounds, leading to the formation of 3-MCPDE during oil refining, the draft CoP says. Oil fruits and seeds contain the enzyme lipase. Lipase activity increases when fruit matures, while the lipase activity in seeds remains stable. Lipase interacts with oil from mature fruits to rapidly degrade TAGs into free fatty acids (FFAs), DAGs, and MAGs. The effect of lipase in seeds that are appropriately stored is negligible.

Mitigation strategies

Because 3-MCPDEs and GEs are formed via different mechanisms, varying mitigation strategies are needed to control their formation. “GE is generally easier to mitigate

than 3-MCPDE because its formation is directly associated with elevated temperatures, with formation beginning at about 200°C and becoming more significant at temperatures above 230°C,” the draft CoP says. GE is formed mainly from DAGs and does not require the presence of chlorinated compounds. Oils can be deodorised at temperatures below 230°C to avoid significant GE formation. However, it is not practical to decrease deodorisation temperatures below the threshold that would lead to 3-MCPDE formation (160-200°C), as that could affect the quality and safety of the oil. The CoP says that although 3-MCPDE and GE are primarily produced during deodorisation, mitigation measures can be applied across the edible oil production chain, from agricultural practices (such as cultivation, harvesting, transporting and storing of oil fruits and seeds), to oil milling and refining (crude oil production and treatment, degumming/bleaching and deodorisation), as well as to post-refining measures (additional bleaching and deodorisation and the use of activated bleaching earth). “Where possible, it may be best to remove precursors at the earlier stages of processing, to minimise the formation of 3-MCPDE and GE. “In concert with mitigation of 3-MCPDE and GE, it is also important to consider

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3-MCPDE & GE temperatures, 180-270°C) to remove FFA, colours, and volatile compounds, including certain contaminants. Physical refining involves degumming, bleaching, and deodorisation (which occurs at higher temperatures than chemical refining), as it does not have a neutralisation step. While several factors influence the selection of physical refining, it is typically conducted on oils containing low levels of phospholipids.

Good agricultural practice

rategies the overall impacts on the quality of refined oils and oil-based products, including properties such as smell and taste, FFA profiles, stability attributes, levels of nutrients, and the removal of contaminants such as pesticides and mycotoxins.”

Recommended practices

Producing edible vegetable oils involves several major steps: cultivating, harvesting, transporting and storing the fruits and seeds for further processing; palm oil milling where fruit is sterilised and crude oil is extracted; oilseed crushing where oilseeds are cleaned, ground, steamed and crude oil is extracted; and refining of the crude oils. Producing edible fish oils involves harvesting the fish, steam cooking, dewatering/wet reduction (which involves pressing the liquor, separating the oil and water, and optionally, water washing the oil), and refining of the crude oils. There are two main types of edible oil refining. Chemical refining consists of degumming (removal of phospholipids); neutralisation (addition of hydroxide solution to remove FFAs through formation of soaps); bleaching (using clays) to reduce colours and remove remaining soaps and gums, trace metals, and degradation products; and deodorisation (a steam-distillation process carried out at low pressures, 1.5-6.0 mbar, and elevated

The CoP says that when it comes to palm oil and planting new trees, farmers should consider selecting plant varieties with low lipase activity in oil fruits, as low lipase activity is one factor that can reduce formation of FFAs and acylglycerol precursors. “During cultivation of oil plants or trees, farmers should minimise the use of substances such as fertilisers, pesticides, and water that have excessive amounts of chlorine-containing compounds, in order to reduce chlorine uptake by the fruits and seeds. Non-chlorinated sulfate fertilisers could serve as an alternative to chlorine-containing fertilisers.” Farmers should also harvest oil palm fruits when they are at optimal ripeness, minimise handling of the fruits to reduce bruising and prevent formation of FFAs, and avoid using damaged or overripe fruits, which may be associated with higher 3-MCPDE and GE formation. Oil palm fruits should also be taken to oil mills as soon as possible.

Oil milling and refining

Crude oil production and treatment The draft CoP says processors should consider storing oilseeds for milling at cool temperatures (below 25°C) and dry conditions (optimally under 7% moisture content) to help ensure low levels of lipase. Once oil palm fruits are at the mill, processors should sterilise them immediately (preferably within less than two days of harvesting) at temperatures at or below 140°C to inactivate lipases (with temperatures varying depending on the sterilisation method). Fruits may be washed before sterilisation to remove chlorine precursors. For oilseeds, processors should clean, grind and heat to inactivate lipases. “Processors should consider washing crude vegetable oil with chlorine-free water to remove chlorine-containing compounds. They should avoid using residual vegetable oil recovered from solvents or additional extractions, as this oil tends to have higher levels of

precursors, such as DAGs and chlorinecontaining compounds.” Processors should also assess precursors in batches of crude vegetable oils or fish oils (such as DAGs, FFAs or chlorine-containing compounds) to adjust refining parameters and target appropriate mitigation strategies depending on the type of vegetable oil or fish oil being processed and processing conditions. “Preferentially refining crude vegetable oil or fish oil with low concentrations of precursors can produce finished oils with lower levels of 3-MCPDE and GE.” Degumming During the degumming stage, processors should use milder and less acidic conditions (either degumming with a low concentration of phosphoric, citric, or other acids or water degumming) to decrease 3-MCPDE in vegetable oils or fish oils. The concentration of acid depends on the quality of the crude vegetable oil or fish oil. Care should be taken to remove sufficient concentrations of phospholipids and acid to ensure quality. Lowering the degumming temperature may help to reduce formation of 3-MCPDE precursors in vegetable oils. However, the degumming temperature will depend on numerous factors including the type of vegetable oil. Neutralisation Using chemical refining (neutralisation) as an alternative to physical refining can help remove precursors (such as chloride) and reduce FFAs, which may allow for lower deodorisation temperatures in vegetable oils or fish oils. However, chemical refining can lead to excessive oil loss (especially for palm oil due to higher FFA levels) and may have a greater environmental impact than physical refining. Bleaching Using greater amounts of bleaching clay may reduce formation of 3-MCPDE and GE in all vegetable oils and fish oils. However, bleaching clays that contain significant amounts of chlorine-containing compounds should be avoided. The use of more pH-neutral clays reduces the acidity and potential to form 3-MCPDE in palm oil, some seed oils and fish oil. Deodorisation The draft CoP says processors should consider conducting deodorisation of vegetable oils and fish oils at reduced temperatures to decrease formation of GE. For example, it has been suggested

u

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3-MCPDE & GE u that deodorisation should be conducted at 190-230°C for vegetable oils and less than 190°C for fish oils. The temperature will vary depending on the residence time of the oil. As an alternative to traditional deodorisation, processors can conduct dual deodorisation of vegetable oils and fish oils (2-stage deodorisation) to reduce the thermal load in oil and decrease formation of GE, with a smaller reduction in 3-MCPDE. This includes both a shorter deodorisation period at a higher temperature and a longer deodorisation period at a lower temperature. “Consideration needs to be given to parameters such as temperature, vacuum pressure, time and variations in equipment design and capability. Also, additional post-processing may be required to reduce levels of GE.” Use of a stronger vacuum can help

evaporate volatile compounds due to the increased steam volume and rate of stripping, contributing to decreased deodorisation temperatures and reduced formation of GE, and to a lesser extent 3-MCPDE, in vegetable and fish oils. Short-path distillation (in place of deodorisation) has been shown to reduce the thermal load and formation of esters in fish oil, contributing to lower amounts of 3-MCPDE and GE in comparison to conventional deodorisation. Short-path distillation enables gentle removal of volatile compounds at relatively low temperatures. This is accomplished through reduced pressure, where the boiling point of the compound to be separated is lowered and there is increased efficiency due to the short distance between the evaporator and the condenser surface. However, additional post-processing

EU considers 3-MCPDE provisions and GE changes The EU enacted Regulation (EU) 2018/290 on 26 February 2018 to set maximum limits for GEs in vegetable oils and fats, and products containing them, in Section 4: • 4.2.1 Vegetable oils and fats placed on the market for the final consumer (maximum 1,000µg/kg) • 4.2.2 Vegetable oils and fats for the production of baby food and processed cereal-based food for infants and young children (maximum 500µg/kg) • 4.2.3 Powder infant formula, follow-on formula and foods for special medical purposes (75µg/kg until 30 June 2019, then 50µg/kg from 1 July 2019) • 4.2.4 Liquid infant formula, follow-on formula and foods for special medical purposes (10µg/kg until 30 June 2019, then 6µg/kg from 1 July 2019) Additional GE provisions are currently under discussion in working groups with member state experts, according to Frans Verstraete of the European Commission Health and Consumers Directorate-General. They include adding fish oil and oils from other marine organisms to the scope of Sections 4.2.1 and 4.2.2 above; and adding young child formula to sections 4.2.2, 4.2.3 and 4.2.4. Also under discussion are maximum levels for 3-MCPD and 3-MCPDEs. There are two proposed levels for vegetable oils and fats and fish oils for the final consumer, or for use as food ingredients: • 1,250µg/kg for unrefined oils, refined oils and fats from coconut, maize, rapeseed, olives (except olive pomace oil) sunflower, soyabean and palm kernel and mixtures of oils and fats from this category only. • 2,500µg/kg for other refined vegetable oils (including live pomace oil), fish oil and oils of other marine organisms and mixtures of oils and fats from this category only. For mixtures of oils and fats from the two different categories, the oils and fats used as ingredients must comply with the maximum level set for each oil and fat. If the quantitative composition of the mixture is not known, then the sum of 3-MCPDs and 3-MCPDEs should not exceed 2,500µg/kg. • • •

For vegetable oils and fats destined for baby food and processed cereal-based food for infants and young children and young child formulas, a level of 750µg/kg is being considered. For infant formula, follow-on formula and foods for special medical purposes intended for infants and young children (powder) and young child formula, the level proposed in 125µg/kg. For infant formula, follow-on formula and foods for special medical purposes intended for infants and young children (liquid) and young child formula, the level proposed is 15µg/kg.

using mild deodorisation is needed to address sensory considerations after short-path distillation

Post-refining treatment

Additional bleaching and deodorisation following initial bleaching and deodorisation has been shown to achieve lower levels of GE in refined palm oil. (The second deodorisation should occur at a lower temperature than the first deodorisation.) Application of activated bleaching earth during post-refining has been shown to reduce GE in refined vegetable oils. Use of short-path distillation (at <1mbar pressure and 120-270°C temperature) on bleached and deodorised vegetable oil can reduce acylglycerol components and levels of 3-MCPDE and GE. Treatment of refined medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) oil with fatty acids and a cation counterion, such as an alkali metal, as well as one or more bases, converts 3-MCPDE to MAGs, DAGs and TAGs, and GEs to DAGs.

Food products

Oil selection Selecting refined vegetable oils and fish oils with low levels of 3-MCPDE and GE (either through natural occurrence or through application of mitigation measures) results in lower levels of 3-MCPDE and GE in finished products containing these oils. For example, variation in levels of 3-MCPDE and GE in infant formula has been observed and selection of oils low in 3-MCPDE and GE can result in infant formulas with lower 3-MCPDE and GE levels. However, manufacturers also may have to consider quality or compositional factors. For example, for infant formula, refined oils are selected by manufacturers to ensure these products meet compositional criteria. Processing modifications Reducing the amount of refined vegetable oils and fish oils used in finished products may be an alternative to reduce the levels of 3-MCPDE and GE in the finished product. However, this could impact the organoleptic or nutritional qualities of the finished products. Use of refined vegetable oils themselves during frying does not contribute to formation of additional 3-MCPDE and GE, but the formation of additional 3-MCPDE during frying may result from the type of food that is fried, such as meat and fish products.   Serena Lim is the editor of OFI

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BLEACHING EARTHS

Natural bleaching earths pre-blended with steam activated carbons have been shown to be a beneficial alternative to acid-activated bleaching earths in removing undesirable components during edible oil refining Pat Howes Acid-activated bleaching earths have historically been the materials of choice for the bleaching of edible oils. ‘Bleaching’ earth is actually not a good name for the material, as bleaching earths are multi-functional absorbent/adsorbent, catalysts and ion-exchange media. The removal of both primary – and secondary – oxidation products, gums, soaps and trace metals are some of the additional beneficial features of bleaching earths. In recent years, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins, 3-monochloropropane diols (3-MCPDs) and glycidyl esters (GEs) have been added to the list of undesirable components that need to be removed or reduced. Bleaching earths and related absorbents

Moving towards natural clays play an important role in removing these impurities. The catalytic properties of acidactivated bleaching earths help them to decompose the hydro-peroxides, and to crack and protonate pigments that may not otherwise be absorbed within the bleaching earths. The downside of the catalytic properties includes the promotion of double-bond shift, and conjugation of double bonds, which reduces the oxidative stability of oils that contain polyunsaturated fats, such as soyabean and canola oils. For instance, the conjugation of three double bonds may increase the oil’s oxidation rate by 25 times. Acid-catalytic cis- to trans-isomerisation at double bonds also occurs, resulting in unhealthy trans-isomers. Trans isomers adversely affect the cloud point of the oil. In relation to palm oil, they reduce the olein yield by about 0.1% to 0.2%. Catalytic polymerisation of the

unsaturated components in the oil leads to an increase in the oil’s viscosity, which is also undesirable. Another undesirable acid-catalytic property is the enhancement of the formation of unwanted components such as 3-MCPDs. The desire to limit non-specific catalytic reactions in the oil is one of the drivers in the trend away from acid-activated bleaching earths and acidic surfacemodified bleaching earths, towards natural non-acidic bleaching earths. There are a range of non-acidic natural clays that are utilised as bleaching earths, including attapulgite, sepiolite, and bentonite, and other clays and their related intergrowth materials. Attapulgites, although good at removing many impurities, are often not the most cost-effective option, due to their high oil retention. Sepiolites like attapulgites can be good natural clays, but also have high oil retention and low bulk density. Attaplugites crystals are needle-shaped, u

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BLEACHING EARTHS

Activated carbons are used to absorb impurities during bleaching of edible oils and are commonly made from coconut shell, coal and wood u Sepiolites are fibrous, whereas bentonites

are flat flakey platelets. If you taste some sepiolite-based bleaching earth, your tongue will feel like it has been in contact with fibreglass. It should be noted that the irritant properties of those attapulgites and sepiolites do not adversely affect the quality of the oil, they are used to refine. Bentonite and its related intergrowth materials do not generally contain fibrous silicas or other harmful silicas. The bulk density of bentonites is higher than that for attapulgites and sepiolite, and the oil retention for bentonites is lower than that for attapulgite, sepiolite and acid-activated bentonites. For these reasons, many refiners prefer bentonite-based natural bleaching earths. The benefit of the natural clays is that they do not act as solid acid catalysts. Instead their main action is by absorption/ adsorption of the pigments, primary and secondary oxidation products, residual gums, trace metals etc. There are differences in absorption properties between natural and acidactivated bleaching earths. Natural clays have a lower pore volume than acidactivated bleaching earths. The average pore size of natural bentonite type clays is larger than that of acid-activated bentonite, due to the different cationic composition of the two materials. Natural clays can absorb larger molecules than acid-activated bleaching earths, which is beneficial for the removal of larger components from some poor quality oils. In addition to bleaching earths, there are other natural or non-acidic materials that are used for absorptive

bleaching. Activated carbons are one such absorbent.

Activated carbons

Activated carbons have been available for some time, and have been utilised for the absorptive bleaching of edible oils. Acidactivated carbons tend to give the lowest freshly refined oil colours, but give poorer refined oil stability. Steam-activated carbons are slightly more expensive, and generally give a fully-refined oil of crisper appearance and better stability. Historically, the main problems with activated carbons have been their price, high oil retention, and their friability, leading to fines that are difficult to filter from the oil. Part of the problem is that the most appropriate activated carbons have not been selected. Normally, refiners would seek activated carbons of high methylene blue (MB), high iodine value (IV), or high carbon tetrachloride (CTC) value, as these have the highest absorption capacity. However, activated carbons of the highest absorptive capacity have the weakest structures, and more easily break down in pumps and other equipment when utilised at the refinery, leading to problems with fines. To overcome this problem, it is best to select activated carbons that have the desired mechanical strength. These tend not to be the activated carbons with the highest MB, IV, or CTC. Not only would the lower MB, IV and CTC material have greater mechanical strength, but they could also exhibit a greater bond strength, for the removal of the undesirable impurity, as compared with activated carbons with the highest

MB, IV and CTC. Lower MB, IV and CTC activated carbons have a lower oil retention, which approaches that of attapulgites. Activated carbons are made from a wide range of substrates; commonly used materials are coconut shell, coal and wood. Each activated carbon has its own pore size distributions, covering micro-, meso- and macro-pores. Ideally, the refiner needs to match the porosity of the absorbent with the sizes of the impurities they wish to remove. The formulation of bleaching earths with activated carbons provides a range of pore sizes. Optimisation is not an easy task for the refiner, especially when the composition of the oil being refined changes with time/batch. Some bleaching earths producers utilise a number of activated carbons in their blends with natural bleaching earths. In this way, the impurity removal properties of the pre-blended bleaching earth with activated carbons will have the ability to absorb the widest range of impurities. Pre-blended natural bentonite type bleaching earth, with the mechanically stronger activated carbons, can have a similar oil retention to acid-activated bleaching earths, while maintaining particle integrity and optimising absorptive performance.

Increased challenges

In recent years, the challenges for refiners have increased. In addition to the removal of pigments, oxidation products, gums and trace metals, refiners now need to remove PAHs and dioxins, and mitigate 3-MCPDs and GEs. Activated carbons are good at removing PAHs, dioxins and chlorine and chlorine- containing compounds. The formation of 3-MCPDs has been attributed to acid-catalytic reaction of chlorine/chloride with the partial glycerides present in the oil. Activated carbons blended with natural bleaching earths have been shown to reduce the formation of 3-MCPDs. This action has, in part, been attributed to the lack of acidcatalytic behavior in the natural bleaching earth and steam-activated carbon blend, and to the removal of chlorine/chloride by the activated carbon. Natural bleaching earths pre-blended with steam activated carbons have been shown to be a beneficial alternative to acid-activated bleaching earths for refining edible oils, while minimising the formation of undesirable components such as PAHs, dioxins and 3-MCPDs. ● This article was written by Dr Pat Howes, technical director at Malaysia’s Natural Bleach Sdn Bhd

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BLEACHING EARTH

Activated SEPIOLITE as an effective Bleaching Earth Study concludes that acid activated sepiolites have significant advantages on the refining of vegetable oils and biofuel feedstocks compared to conventional bleaching earths in the market Studies carried out by TOLSA in collaboration with the Spanish Research Center “CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa”, have demonstrated the advantages of using bleaching earths based on acid activated sepiolite clays for the refining of vegetable oils and biofuel feedstocks.

Vegetable Oil Regarding the vegetable oil refining, tests were performed on three vegetable oils that show different composition and characteristics: palm, olive and sunflower. Bleaching and deodorizing tests were done on a laboratory scale and on a pilot plant scale. Besides, oil retention and filtration rates for each clay were evaluated. Results showed that activated sepiolites are especially effective on the removal of chlorophylls (mg/kg) from vegetable oils, which result in excellent deodorization performances. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that the oil retention (%) and filtration times (s) of sepiolite-based bleaching earths are significantly reduced due to the

pore distribution and particle shape of the fibers of this mineral. Phosphorus (ppm) and metal traces content (ppm) were analyzed after bleaching stage. Deodorized oil samples were sent to a specialized laboratory for 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) (ppb), GE (ppb) analysis. This tests also reviewed that activated sepiolites have excellent metal traces removal capacities, especially effective on phosphorus, calcium and iron absorption. Moreover, the most effective reductions of 3MCPDs and GEs are achieved with this material on sunflower and olive oils, due to the effective chloride (Cl-) compound removal and the capacity to adsorb diacylglycerides (DAG), precursors of the glycidyl esters (GE).

Biofuel On the second part of the research, a biofuel feedstock composed of a mixture of used cooking oils (UCO) and palm oil (PO) was tested, focusing on metal and phosphorus reductions. Acid activated sepiolites were compared to smectite clays, which are

the main bleaching earths found on this market. Data obtained by Tolsa show that the fastest filtrations are achieved by the activated sepiolites. Apart from certain improvements on the reduction of the total amount of P + metals (ppm), especially in calcium, sulfur, and iron that could be observed once compared to the traditional activated bleaching earth based on bentonite clays. In conclusion, Tolsa studies showed that the use of acid activated sepiolite clays on vegetable oil refining have significant advantages (specially on filterability, metal removal and 3MCPD reduction) compared to the main bleaching earths found on the market (based mainly on attapulgite and smectite clays). With regards to the pretreatment of biofuel feedstocks, the specialized bleaching earths proved greater filterabilities, being able to provide a better performance on higher impurity, less homogeneous and harder to treat feedstocks, which accounts for the latest trend characteristics for the feedstocks in this market. This article was submitted by Tolsa, Spain

MINCLEAR® High Absorptive Bleaching Earths based on Natural and Activated Clays.

TOLSA, S.A. Parque Empresarial Las Mercedes C/ Campezo,1. Ed. 4, Pl. 2ª 28022 Madrid, Spain Tel.: +34 913 220 100 industrial@tolsa.com

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CATALYSTS

Crucial ingredient in hy

Catalysts are an essential part of the hydrogenation process of vegetable oils. Dr Paul Hudson of Johnson Matthey explores the basics of catalysts, including what catalysts are, why they are needed, how they work and what are the properties of the best catalysts

S

uccessful catalytic hydrogenation of edible oils began with the work of Wilhelm Norman in 1902. Catalytic hydrogenation was important in giving a new route to manufacture solid fats required for margarine production which, until Norman’s invention, were at risk of being in short supply. The invention meant a wider choice of raw materials was available to make margarine at the right consistency than just the animal fat that had been mostly used until that point. Though the invention of techniques for converting liquid oils into solids fats was significant, the ability to scale up hydrogenated fat production took time to catch up. Norman helped Joseph Crosfields develop a full-scale plant for the production of hydrogenated fats in Warrington, England, in 1907. In 1911, Norman was instrumental in the commissioning of the Oelwerke Germania fat hardening plant at Emmerich, Germany, where nickel

hydrogenation catalysts continue to be manufactured to this day. Early catalysts were variable, having poor activity/selectivity, and – in combination with low-quality hydrogen – poorly pre-refined oils and the use of relatively simple plant equipment meant the process was far from optimised, with reactions taking a long time and leading to variable products. Nickel was used as the catalyst of choice even from the early days of oil hydrogenation. It remains the metal of choice for most edible oil hydrogenation reactions due to it being cost-effective and versatile, working across a wide range of feeds.

The what and why of catalysts

A catalyst is a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction but is not consumed in the reaction and does not affect its equilibrium. A catalyst effectively reduces the energy barrier to a reaction, which allows the reaction to take place. Without a catalyst, the reaction may be very slow or not possible at all (see Figure 1, pg20). Catalysts used for edible oil hydrogenation are processing aids and not food ingredients, which means they are used in the processing of foodstuffs but are entirely removed from the products in post-processing. In the case of edible oil hydrogenation, it may appear that the catalyst is consumed during the reaction as reuse of the catalyst is only possible to a limited extent. Although hydrogenation catalysts require regular replacement, they are not technically consumed. Rather, they are deactivated and hence need replacing. Hydrogenation of fatty acids in

triglyceride feeds can be performed for edible oil applications where hydrogenated fats are required or for technical applications where hydrogenated fatty acids are the product. Hydrogenation of edible oils is done to improve the oxidative and flavour stability or melting behaviour of oils. High levels of unsaturation in oils lead to a large number of double bonds in the triglycerides, which decreases the oxidative and flavour stability for the oil. The amount of unsaturation is characterised by the iodine value (IV) of the oil, with higher IV indicating more unsaturation, or more double bonds present. By hydrogenating the oils to reduce the number of double bonds (increase saturation/decrease IV), the shelf life and flavour stability of the oil can be greatly increased, which improves both the sustainability of edible oils, by reducing waste, and the profitability for oil producers and vendors. The amount of or type of unsaturation present in oils also influences the melting behaviour of the oil. Increased unsaturation means a lower melting point, so when an oil is hydrogenated – which decreases the amount of unsaturation – the melting point of the oil increases. Through catalyst selection and process optimisation, it is possible to produce oils and fats with increased melting points or potentially more demanding melting profiles. Hydrogenation of oils generates fats used in a wider variety of products than would be possible with an unmodified oil feedstock, such as high melting point frying/bakery fats and steep melting

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CATALYSTS

hydrogenation process

curve confectionery fats through to salad oils that do not have solids present at room temperature but do have improved oxidative stability.

the hydrogenation reaction, including the oil feedstock, the catalyst and process parameters. Many properties can be used to describe a catalyst:

What makes a good catalyst?

Activity The primary function of the catalyst is to allow the reaction between hydrogen and the double bonds in the oil to take place. The activity of a catalyst describes how effectively a catalyst will drive a reaction, all else being equal. A more active catalyst will mean faster reactions, whereby the IV drop is more rapid. However, the maximum activity of a catalyst might only be realised if the reaction feedstock is sufficiently ‘clean’ and the process used is sufficiently optimised.

A catalyst is formulated to optimise effectiveness in particular applications. A nickel hydrogenation catalyst for triglycerides/fatty acids is essentially made up of three parts: active nickel, support and the encapsulating fat. It is the nickel surface area that is responsible for the activity of the catalyst and catalyses the reaction between hydrogen and the double bond in fatty acids. The support is present to allow a high dispersion of the nickel so that more activity can be obtained using effectively lower levels of nickel. Modern hydrogenation catalysts are usually supplied pre-reduced and encapsulated in a hardened fat. The prereduction of the catalysts means an easy start-up of the hydrogenation process, which increases efficiency and reduces cost for the user by eliminating a lengthy reduction step. The encapsulating fat protects the reduced nickel metal from air, which makes the handling of the catalysts safe and easy. Hydrogenation of oils is a three-phase reaction, where hydrogen gas is mixed into the liquid oil with the solid catalyst also dispersed through the mix. The hydrogenation reaction takes place when the hydrogen and a triglyceride adsorb onto the nickel located on the catalyst surface. Without the presence of the catalyst, no reaction would take place. Various parameters govern the effectiveness of

Nickel loading and surface area The nickel content of a catalyst is easily quantifiable and tells the user what proportion of a catalyst is nickel metal. In the past, higher nickel content may have meant a higher performance hydrogenation catalyst. However, with improved formulations and better manufacturing of catalysts, it is not just the amount of nickel in a catalyst but how the nickel is present in a catalyst that determines how active the catalyst will be. For the same amount of nickel in a catalyst, a higher dispersion of the nickel leads to smaller nickel crystallites on the catalyst surface and a higher overall ‘nickel surface area’ for the same amount of metal (see Figure 2, page 20). Increased nickel surface area means it is possible to squeeze extra performance per mass of nickel. This is to be balanced

with the ability of a catalyst to resist deactivation. More highly dispersed nickel may be more highly active to begin with, but may be more sensitive to deactivation, for example by water. Polyene selectivity Catalysts are described by selectivity of two types. The first is polyene selectivity which is the ability of a catalyst to effectively hydrogenate fatty acids sequentially so that the hydrogenated product has a more desirable fatty acid profile (see Figure 3, page 21). A highly polyene selective catalyst will preferentially hydrogenate the most unsaturated fatty acids first, such as linolenic acid (C18:3), which increases the proportion of linoleic acid. Afterwards, the linoleic acids (C18:2) will preferentially be hydrogenated to oleic acid (C18:1). Finally the oleic acid is hydrogenated to saturated stearic acid (C18:0). A polyene selective catalyst is useful for increasing oxidative stability of an oil by removing the linolenic acid while producing minimal saturated fat, for example. Trans selectivity Trans selectivity describes how effectively hydrogenation of oils takes place without producing the trans configuration of double bonds in the product. Minimising trans formation during hydrogenation is largely a question of process optimisation. Trans fats form when the catalyst surface enters a state of being hydrogen-starved. When insufficient hydrogen is available at the surface of a catalyst, double bonds that adsorb onto the catalyst surface may not be hydrogenated. In this case, the

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CATALYSTS

Differentiation of catalysts

Process parameters

For a reaction to take place, an amount of energy is required, which is referred to as the activation energy (Ea). The activation energy for the reaction with a catalyst is lower than without a catalyst Figure 1: Operational principle of catalysts

1) A cube with nominal 10cm edge length, giving it a volume of 1,000cm3 and a surface area of 600cm2 2) The cube is sliced in half along each axis to create eight smaller cubes with 5cm edge lengths. The amount of material still has a volume of 1,000cm3 but the total surface area increases to 1,200cm2 3) Each of these cubes is again cut in half on each axis, which reduces edge length to 2.5cm and total surface area to 2,400cm2, while still keeping volume the same

The nickel can be imagined as the cube with its surface area increasing by dividing and dispersing the metal more finely Figure 2: The principle of nickel dispersion

molecule may desorb and diffuse back into the bulk oil unchanged. Otherwise, the double bond in the molecule may isomerise to a trans configuration before desorption. This is how trans fats are formed. To reduce the proportion of trans fats that are produced, it is important to maintain saturation of the catalyst surface with hydrogen. Resistance to deactivation Some substances act to reduce catalytic activity. Examples in edible oils are sulphur- or phosphorous-containing materials. A high level of such materials in a hydrogenation feed (due to lower quality/’dirty’ feed being used) will increase the time required for the hydrogenation to take place – if it is possible to attain target specifications at all – or the amount of catalyst required for the hydrogenation reaction.

Nickel hydrogenation catalysts are not all alike. Extensive R&D efforts mean catalysts are researched and formulated for specific applications and to make specific products from particular feedstocks. For example, catalysts for hydrogenating triglyceride feeds will not be suitable for hydrogenating fatty acid feeds. Highly technical modern catalysts are formulated to have higher activity per amount of metal, although higher metal loading does not guarantee a better

Source: Johnson Matthey

Source: Johnson Matthey

Increased catalyst loading is required due to the catalyst effectively cleaning the oil by absorbing the substance which acts to deactivate it. Excess catalyst over and above that required to clean the oil retains catalytic activity and performs the hydrogenation reaction.

catalyst. Differentiation between catalysts for the same application comes from the effectiveness of the catalysts in consistently achieving the desired product in the desired time in a cost-effective manner overall. The catalyst is likely the most expensive material in the production of hydrogenated fats and, with modern manufacturing practices, a high quality catalyst should behave as expected time and time again. Hydrogenation is possible with a wide range of feeds – from highly unsaturated soyabean through to more highly saturated oils such as palm oil. The same catalysts may be used across the range of feeds but the feedstock itself can introduce variability in terms of the outcome of the reactions. Oil feeds from different plants have varying fatty acid profiles, levels of free fatty acids and levels of deactivating substances in their makeup. These can even vary for oil from the same plant depending on how the plant was grown and the level of refining of the oil. Palm oil is an example of an oil with a greater proportion of saturated fat than other plant-based oils. This is compared to soyabean oil, which can have relatively high levels of linolenic fatty acid. Soyabean oil is usually considered an example of a ‘clean’ oil, usually having relatively low levels of substances that inhibit catalyst activity, such as sulphur and phosphorous, whereas canola oil is relatively ‘dirty’, having higher levels of deactivating materials. Effective refining of oil prior to hydrogenation not only means a higher quality final product but also protection for the hydrogenation catalyst from deactivation during the process. Variability in the composition and level of contaminants in an oil mean hydrogenation of oils can, at times, give surprising changeability in the apparent effectiveness of a catalyst even when using high quality catalysts and in a wellcontrolled process. Hydrogen has low solubility in feed oils, so working with high hydrogen pressure in a reactor increases the amount of hydrogen available to react with the oil at the catalyst surface. If the amount of hydrogen is low, the reaction rate will be low and increased trans fat will be formed, which may be undesirable. Conversely, if high hydrogen pressure is used, the reaction will be shorter/ faster and less trans fat will be formed. The tradeoff is that polyene selectivity of the reaction is reduced under higher pressure, meaning more saturated fat will

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likely be produced, which again may be undesirable. A high temperature reaction will increase the hydrogenation reaction rate, leading to shorter reaction times to hit the target IV. However, increased temperature will also decrease hydrogen solubility in the oil, meaning less will be available for reaction at the catalyst surface, which in turn means the proportion of trans fat produced during the reaction will likely increase. Mixing is an occasionally overlooked aspect of the hydrogenation reaction but it is critical in ensuring that the mixing of the solid/liquid/gas is effective enough to maximise the efficiency of the hydrogenation reaction. Good mixing means hydrogen is optimally available at the catalyst surface and the reaction can proceed with maximum efficiency. If mixing is poor, the catalyst surface can become hydrogenstarved, which will reduce the reaction rate and lead to increased trans fat formation.

Limitations and expectations

Modern plant equipment allows detailed monitoring, control and accurate metering of raw materials, which means product IV is straightforwardly targeted for a hydrogenation reaction. The volume of hydrogen consumed in a reaction can be monitored and the volume of hydrogen required to achieve a specified IV is easily calculated prior to reaction. Therefore, when that known volume of hydrogen is consumed, the reaction is stopped knowing the IV target has been achieved. The IV of the product is closely related to the melting point of the fat, which, in turn, can be better characterised by a solid fat content (SFC) measurement. Targeting a low IV for complete hydrogenation is straightforward and the reaction simply continues until the IV is achieved according to the hydrogen consumption. Targeting an intermediate IV is likely to be required for improving oxidative stability or specific melting behaviour. Using slip melting point as a target is again straightforward, as the hydrogenation can be adjusted through iterative testing to achieve the required melting point. Achieving more complex product properties, like solid fat content at varying temperatures, is a highly demanding application that may be difficult or impossible to achieve with hydrogenation alone. Some amount of product formulation or compromise on product properties may be required, as well as the hydrogenation of the feed.

Linoleic acid (C18:2) is the unsaturated fatty acid in the feed to be converted to oleic acid (C18:1) without hydrogenating further to stearic acid (C18:0). C18:2’ and C18:1’ represent linoleic and oleic fatty acids with trans configured double bonds. A reaction demonstrating high polyene selectivity would mean more C18:1 would be produced with less C18:0. Good selectivity against trans formation would mean less C18:2’ and C18:1’ Figure 3: Selectivity among reactions

Types of hydrogenation catalysts

There are multiple ways hydrogenation catalysts can be employed depending on the application of the hydrogenated fat. Full or dead-end hydrogenation involves the removal of effectively all double bonds from an oil feedstock by a highly active catalyst. Full hydrogenation is used where maximum oxidative stability or fully hardened fats with high melting points are required, such as for use as frying fats, for further formulation into products such as margarine, or in non-food applications such as naturally-derived candles. In modern times, fully hydrogenated fats are also used as interesterification feedstock. Partial hydrogenation refers to hydrogenation where the target is removal of some of the double bonds in the feed oil. An example of partial hydrogenation would be preferential conversion of linolenic fatty acid groups in a feed to linoleic/oleic fatty acids whilst producing as little stearic (fully saturated) fatty acid as possible. Partial hydrogenation improves the properties of oils but has the downside that it produces trans fats. In some applications, such as cocoa butter substitutes/replacements (CBS/ CBR), the steep melting profile of trans fat is the only way to achieve desired product properties. CBR/CBS require steep melting curve fats to ensure the fats in confectionery goods remain solid at room temperature for transport and storage, but melt completely when being consumed as they would otherwise diminish the pleasant mouthfeel and sensory experience consumers enjoy. Hydrogenation of oil using sulphided nickel catalysts allows fats to be produced with preferential trans fat production, which can then be further formulated into products. Fatty acid hydrogenation can be

Source: Johnson Matthey

CATALYSTS

performed before or after splitting the triglyceride into fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids are also hydrogenated to increase oxidative stability and alter melting behaviour, but the catalysts used are different to those used for triglyceride feeds. Hydrogenation of fatty acid feeds and feeds high in free fatty acids (FFAs) can lead to nickel soap formation during the reaction. Soap formation not only reduces catalyst activity, but the hydrogenated products may also require more postreaction clean up to remove nickel soaps formed by the FFAs. Vacuum distillation or neutralisation of oils prior to hydrogenation will help reduce FFAs and protect the catalysts and product from the problems of nickel soap formation. Use of specialist catalysts resistant to soap formation will give superior results versus more conventional nickel catalysts and will lead to more effective hydrogenation of the feed. Hydrogenation of triglycerides and fatty acids is a complex reaction, but it is better understood now more than ever. Advanced catalyst formulations and process design/control mean reactions can be optimised to high efficiency, giving predictable results and consistent products in a cost-effective manner. With an increasing world population and a drive for sustainable use of resources, hydrogenation of oils and fatty acids will continue to be required to support the global need for oils and fats in foodstuffs as well as naturally derived ingredients for consumer products like detergents and cosmetics.  ● Dr Paul Hudson is technical manager for edible oils and oleochemicals at Johnson Matthey, which supplies the PRICAT™ range of catalysts

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Photo: Neste

BIOFUELS

The Neste HVO production facility in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, is the largest in Europe and among the largest in the world

HVO making it big Hydrotreated vegetable oil boasts a great number of advantages over traditional biodiesel, among them lower emissions, higher fuel efficiency and a chemical structure identical with petroleum diesel. With the growing interest in all markets, particularly in Asia, and the many new production facilities scheduled to come online in a few years, HVO could be the fuel of the future  Ile Kauppila

T

he times in the biofuel sector are a-changin’. In the last decade, the marketplace for diesel based on hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) has developed rapidly. Production has increased exponentially and new producers keep popping up to try their luck as demand ramps up in both traditional and new markets. But the greenhorns face tough competition as Finland’s Neste – the world’s largest HVO producer – seems to reign supreme in the sector. But what is HVO? Isn’t it just another name for biodiesel or is it something different altogether? Neste’s head of technical services Markku Honkanen and head of market intelligence Anselm Eisentraut talked to Oils & Fats International to explain the basics of HVO and its future prospects.

Feedstock flexibility

HVO can be produced through several processes, such as hydrocracking, but perhaps the most common is hydrodeoxygenation, also known as hydrogenation or simply hydrotreatment. In this process, hydrogen is added to either a plant- or animal-based feedstock. It combines with oxygen, thus removing water from the mix and resulting in a renewable, paraffinic fuel product. Honkanen and Eisentraut say that in

the last decade or so, the feedstocks used to produce HVO mostly consisted of vegetable oils. For example, in 2007, when Neste opened its first commercial scale facility – which was also the world’s first HVO plant of this scale – in Porvoo, Finland, co-located with the company’s crude oil refinery, it processed mostly palm oil. According to the firm, at this point, palm oil made up 90% of its HVO feedstock. Palm oil, however, suffers from a bad reputation regarding its sustainability. The EU has decided to phase high ILUC-risk vegetable oils out of its list of sustainable renewable fuels by 2030m including palm oil. Combustion engine manufacturer Volvo Penta – which in the beginning of 2016 approved HVO as a fuel in all of its diesel engines – also notes that other vegetable oils, such as soya and rapeseed, require immense areas of land to produce the quantities of oil needed for HVO production. As a result, HVO producers have begun to move away from vegetable oils. “These days HVO is produced to a growing degree from waste and residue oils and fats. These come from food, fish and slaughterhouse industries and nonfood grade vegetable oil fractions,” say Honkanen and Eisentraut. Neste – a member of the Rountable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) since

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BIOFUELS 2006 and the holder of the world’s first RSPO-RED Supply Chain sustainability certificate – has cut the share of palm oil in its feedstock mix from 90% palm oil to 80% waste and residue materials, such as used cooking oil (UCO). In addition, other possible waste feedstocks include animal and fish fat and camelina, soya and rapeseed oil refining residues. “Neste uses more than 10 different raw materials to produce our renewable products,” say Honkanen and Eisentraut. “An extensive raw material base provides flexibility, as it allows us to respond to the needs of different markets and customers.”

Differences with biodiesel

The large number of feedstocks from which HVO can be produced and the fact that HVO is often marketed as a petroleum diesel replacement means the product often gets confused with ‘traditional’ biodiesel. However, Honkanen and Eisentraut say that the two are completely different products, despite their superficial similarities. “The chemical composition of HVO is similar to that of conventional diesel. It can be blended with fossil diesel in all proportions or used as a 100% pure product. The maximum allowed concentration of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel in regular diesel in Europe is usually 7% due to quality reasons,” they say. Unlike most traditional biodiesels, HVO can be stored for a long period of time without major changes to its properties. Additionally, HVO does not accumulate water, which Honkanen and Eisentraut say is sometimes a challenge with biodiesel. “Biodiesel should be used within six months from its manufacturing date to minimise the potential of changes in product quality and the risk of microbial growth,” the two note. HVO also benefits from better cold weather performance when compared to biodiesel – an important property in northern countries like Neste’s home Finland. For example, the cloud point, indicating the lowest possible storage temperature, of Neste’s HVO fuel is -34°C, while the cloud point of rapeseed biodiesel is only -10°C, say Honkanen and Eisentraut. The cold weather characteristics of HVO can be adjusted during the manufacturing process. The cetane number of HVO – the indicator of how easily a fuel ignites in the engine, with a higher number signifying better ignitability – is higher than traditional biodiesel’s or even fossil diesel’s. Biodiesels generally have cetane

numbers in the range of 50-60, which is roughly similar to petroleum diesel. HVO, on the other hand, boasts cetane numbers above 70. Honkanen and Eisentraut say the high cetane number helps engines start in cold weather and lowers fuel consumption, particularly in urban environments. Last, but not least, HVO does not contain any sulphur or aromatics, and so generates few impurities in an engine. According to an August 2017 study by Gladstein, Neandross and Associates for two southern California air quality management districts, HVO reduces nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions by 13% and 29%, respectively. Honkanen and Eisentraut say that the savings are higher the older the vehicle in which the fuel is burned is. It also generates no ash, which may extend the service life of particle filters. Biodiesel, on the other hand, can generate more NOx emissions than fossil diesel due to its oxygen content. Honkanen and Eisentraut note that the emissions from fossil diesel may also decrease the life span of motor oil and particle filters.

Growing production

In the global HVO marketplace, demand is set to be growing and there may soon be a supply stream changing geographical shift eastward. So far, according to second generation biofuels broker Greenea, most of the fuel demand has come from Europe and North America, but there is growing interest coming from Asia, which could change the map of the HVO supply sector. Currently, the global installed HVO production capacity sits at 4.745M tonnes (see Figure 1, following page). Neste is the largest producer in the HVO market with

Markku Honkanen, head of technical services, Neste

a capacity of roughly 2.6M tonnes/year, divided between four plants in Finland, the Netherlands and Singapore. In Italy, ENI has started production at its Venice plant, which has a 350,000 tonnes/year capacity, while in France, Total’s La Mede refinery is set to come online soon, adding 500,000 tonnes/year of production capacity to the EU sector. On the other side of the Atlantic, Renewable Energy Group and Diamond Green Diesel have a combined production capacity of 750,000 tonnes/year, says Greenea. Out of the two, Diamond holds more capacity, having in 2017 expanded its full capacity to more than 800,000 tonnes/year. However, most companies are planning expansions and new players are entering the marketplace. Greenea expects global capacity to grow by more than 40% by 2020, reaching 6.7-7.5M tonnes, if all the expansion projects go through. While the EU and the USA are poised to remain the top markets, Asia is rising in the marketplace both due to increasing interest of Asian economic superpowers – like China and Japan – to boost their share of the renewable fuels market and the number of planned new production capacity in Asia. HVO-based aviation fuel is also an up-and-coming market segment, says Greenea, although full realisation of HVO’s potential could take several years.

Regulatory daydream

Because of the shift to waste feedstocks, Honkanen and Eisentraut note that the name HVO is, in fact, becoming an inaccurate term to describe the product manufactured by most current producers. Indeed, since the product is to an increasing degree not manufactured from vegetable oil, the title HVO sounds like an oxymoron.

Anselm Eisentraut, head of market intelligence, Neste

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BIOFUELS Denmark 150,000 tonnes

AltAir Fuels USA 125,000 tonnes

Diamond Green Diesel USA 500,000 tonnes (Expansion to 800,000) REG USA 250,000 tonnes

UPM

Finland 100,000 tonnes

Total France 500,000 tonnes

Neste Netherlands 1M tonnes

Cepsa (Co-processing) Spain 180,000 tonnes Repsol (Co-processing) Spain 60,000 tonnes ENI Italy 300,000 tonnes (Under construction) Italy 550,000 tonnes

Finland 200,000 tonnes Finland 200,000 tonnes Singapore 1M tonnes Sinopec China 20,000 tonnes

Figure: Greenea, Neste

Preem (Co-processing)

Figure 1: Current and planned HVO production units

Others catching up?

Approved by the EU Commission, the HVO-VS is a sustainability verification system designed to verify biofuels’ compliance with the sustainability criteria embedded in the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED). The scheme is audited by an independent third party and is currently used to verify RED compliance of waste- and residue-based biofuels.

Figure 2: EU HVO capacity (‘000 tonnes)

Figure: Greenea

“However, product names cannot be easily changed to better describe the origin of the fuels, as they are common in European regulation, fuel standards and biofuel quality recommendations set by automotive companies,” they explain. As the fuel is popularly called HVO, despite the actual feedstock used to make it, the term might cause some confusion among consumers. Therefore, producers often give their products different brand names. Neste, for example, calls its product Neste MY Renewable Diesel, while both Diamond Green Diesel and ENI have titled their fuels Green Diesel. Regulations-wise, HVO is a relatively non-problematic fuel. Due to its identical chemical composition with petroleum diesel, it does not suffer from the limits imposed on the blending of conventional biodiesel. The EU, for example, limits conventional biodiesel blending at 7% based on the EN590 diesel standard, while elsewhere in the world blending limits of 10% and 20% can be found. High concentrations of traditional biodiesel can cause problems with engines, says Neste, but HVO poses no such problems. “In fact, HVO is the biocomponent recommended by the latest and strictest Worldwide Fuel Charter (WWFC) specification. WWFC 5 does not allow the use of traditional biodiesel, but it does recommend the use of renewable diesel because of its high cetane number, for example,” say Honkanen and Eisentraut. To ensure compliance with EU renewable fuel regulations, Neste spearheaded the development of the HVO Verification Scheme (HVO-VS).

Both Honkanen and Eisentraut and Greenea trust that the future can be very bright for HVO. “We believe that the demand for renewable diesel will continue to increase globally, going forward, as more and more countries and regions are stepping up their emissions reduction ambitions,” say Honkanen and Eisentraut. For the sovereign market leader Neste, development of pre-treatment capabilities is a key focus area. Additionally, Honkanen and Eisentraut list nontechnical challenges such as regulatory developments, ensuring and further developing sustainability and developing new customer segments for renewable diesel and jet fuel as issues producers will be concentrating on. Greenea notes that HVO price development will be an interesting factor to keep an eye on. US producers are expected to increase their output in the next few years, which should positively influence liquidity on the market. Greenea says this might put pressure on prices, breaking Neste’s near-monopoly. But Honkanen and Eisentraut are not worried, saying that while some might consider the price of Neste’s HVO fuel a disadvantage, that is not the case. “Indepedent research shows that HVO – such as Neste MY Renewable Diesel – is one of the cheapest options to reduce emissions in transport. And it is the only option that can be adopted now, without any modifications into engines or fuel distribution systems,” they say. ● Ile Kauppila is the former assistant editor of OFI

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PLANT, EQUIPMENT & TECHNOLOGY

Plant & technology listing 2019 Oils & Fats International features a fully updated global selection of plant and equipment suppliers to the oils and fats industry, accompanied by a chart of company activities

Argentina Progobal Juan Pablo II 6750, Rosario Santa Fe Tel: +54 341 4544544 E-mail: grabois.rafael@proglobal.com www.proglobal.com

Austria BDI-BioEnergy International GmbH Parkring 18 8074 Raaba-Grambach, Styria Tel: +43 316 4009100 E-mail: sales@bdi-bioenergy.com www.bdi-bioenergy.com GIG Karasek GmbH Neusiedlerstrasse 15-19 Gloggnitz 2640 Tel: +43 2662 42780 E-mail: office@gigkarasek.at www.gigkarasek.at Other: Thin film evaporators, short path evaporators and falling film evaporators, thin film dryers Kemia Handels- und Projektierungs GmbH Hietzinger Hauptstrasse 50 Vienna 1130 Tel: +43 1 8770553 E-mail: kondor@kemia.at www.kemia.at Other: Triglycerides of modified structure, dead fish gasification, biomass gasifier

Belgium Desmet Ballestra Group - Oils, Fats and Oleochemicals Division Belgicastraat 3 - B-1930 Zaventem Tel: +32 2 7161111 E-mail: info@desmetballestra.com www.desmetballestra.com

De Smet SA Engineers & Contractors Watson & Crick Hill, Building J Rue Granbonpré 11 - Box 8 B-1435 Mont-Saint-Guibert Tel: + 32 10 43 43 00 E-mail: info@dsengineers.com www.dsengineers.com Other: EPC/EPCM contractor Pattyn Packing Lines NV Hoge Hul 2 – 8000 Bruges Tel: +32 50 450 480 E-mail: info@pattyn.com www.pattyn.com

Bulgaria Elica-elevator Ltd 32 Haralampi Dzhamdziev St Silistra 7500 Tel: +359 899 943497 E-mail: k.radulov@elica-elevator.com www.elica-elevator.com Other: Sunflower dehulling equipment

Canada SOLEX Thermal Science Inc 250, 4720 - 106 Avenue SE, Calgary Alberta T2C 3G5 Tel: +1 403 254 3500 E-mail: info@solexthermal.com www.solexthermal.com Other: Vertical seed conditioners, pellet coolers

China Crown Asia Engineering* 3rd Floor, Block A, Building 18 Innovation Base HUST Science Park, No 33 Tangxunhu Bei Road Donghu High-Tec Zone Wuhan City, Hubei Province Tel: +86 27 87223888 E-mail: sales@crownironasia.com www.crownironasia.com FAMSUN Oils&Fats Engineering Co Ltd No 1 Huasheng Road, Yangzhou Jiangsu 225127 Tel: +86 514 87770799 E-mail: myoil@famsungroup.com www.famsungroup.com Other: White flakes, fermenting meal, full fat soya extrusion, silos, conveyers

Guangzhou Scikoon Industry Co Ltd No 2 Xianke Yi Road Huadong Town Huadu District, Guangzhou Guangdong 510800 Tel: +86 20 39388895 E-mail: export@scikoon.com www.scikoon.com Other: Aspirator, cracking, flaking mill, counterflow cooler, conditioner, meal crusher, fluid bed dryer Jeff International Trading Co Ltd Weilaixinjiayuan Building Chengguan Street Zhuanghe, Dalian City Liaoning Province -116400 Tel: +86 15566809756 E-mail: jeffachilles@yeah.net Myande Group Co Ltd 199 South Ji’An Road Yangzhou City 225127 Jiangsu Province Tel: +86 514 87849111 E-mail: info@myande.com www.myandegroup.com

Czech Republic Farmet AS Jirinková 276, Ceská Skalice 55203 Tel: +420 491 450 116 E-mail: oft@farmet.cz www.farmet.eu Other: Oilseeds and vegetable oil processing technologies. Feed extrusion, feed milling technologies

Denmark GEA Process Engineering AS Gladsaxevej 305, Soeborg 2860 Tel: +45 41748485 E-mail: sascha.wenger-parving@gea.com www.gea.com Other: Vacuum and dry condensing systems Gerstenberg Services AS Vibeholmsvej 21 PO Box 196 Brøndby 2605 Tel: +45 43432026 E-mail: mgn@gerstenbergs.com www.gerstenbergs.com Other: Margarine production plant

u

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PLANT, EQUIPMENT & TECHNOLOGY u

Haarslev Industries AS Bogensevej 85, Søndersø 5471 Tel: +45 63831100 E-mail: info@haarslev.com www.haarslev.com

E-mail: info@bruker.com www.bruker.com Other: Benchtop instruments for quality control: SFC, dynamic fat crystallisation analysis, oxidation monitoring

SPX Flow Technology Danmark AS Oestmarken 7 Soeborg DK-2860 Tel: +45 70278222 E-mail: ft.enquiries@spxflow.com www.spxflow.com Other: Dynamic mixing, sugar fat application, pasteurisation, emulsification, CIP plant

Buss-SMS-Canzler GmbH Kaiserstrasse 13-15 Butzbach 35510 Tel: +49 6033 850 E-mail: info@sms-vt.com www.sms-vt.com Other: Monoglyceride production, thin film and short path evaporators, molecular distillation

France

Centrimax – Winkelhorst Trenntechnik GmbH Kelvinstrasse 8, Cologne, NRW 50996 Tel: +49 2236 393530 E-mail: info@centrimax.com www.centrimax.com

Promill RN 12 Serville 28410 Tel: +33 2 37389193 E-mail: info@promill.fr www.promill.fr Serac 12 route de Mamers 72400 La Ferté-Bernard Tel: +33 2 43 60 28 28 E-mail: facheriaux@serac.fr www.serac-group.com

Germany Air Liquide Engineering & Construction Olof Palme Strasse 35 Frankfurt am Main 60439 Tel: +49 69 58080 E-mail: oleo@airliquide.com www.engineering-airliquide.com/ oleochemicals Other: Lurgi multi-seed sliding cell extractors; oil, fatty acid and methyl ester hardening; fatty alcohol production; glycerine to propyl glycol production B+B Engineering GmbH Otto-von-Guericke-Str 50 D-39104 Magdeburg Tel: +49 391 5054 995-0 E-mail: info@b-b-engineering.de www.b-b-engineering.de Other: Turn-key contractor; vegetable oil refining technologies (hydration, degumming, neutralisation, bleaching, deodorisation), turn-key plants; pilot plants, SKID-mounted refineries, lecithin drying plants, rapeseed dehulling process, utility generation and distribution systems, energy recovery systems Bruker Biospin GmbH Silberstreifen 4, 76287 Rheinstetten Tel: +49 721 5161 6151

Crown Europe - CPM SKET Niederbieberer Str 126 Neuwied 56567 Tel: +49 2631 97710 E-mail: branchoffice@cpm-sket.de www.cpm-sket.net/en/contacts/neuwied GEA Group - Product Group Separation Werner-Habig-Strasse 1 Oelde 59302 Tel: +49 2522 770 E-mail: www.gea.com/contact www.gea.com Other: Miscella clarification, aquaeous extraction, press oil clarification, soap stock splitting, alkali neutralisation and fractionation, dewaxing, centrifugal separators and decanters GEA Germany Ettlingen Am Hardtwald 1, 76275 Ettlingen Tel: +49 7243 7050 E-mail: chemical@gea.com www.gea.com Other: Evaporation and distillation plants GekaKonus GmbH Siemensstrasse 10, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344 Tel: +49 721 943740 E-mail: info@gekakonus.net www.gekakonus.net HF Press+LipidTech Seevestrasse 1 Hamburg 21079 Tel: +49 40 77 179-0 E-mail: service-plt@hf-group.com www.hf-press-lipidtech.com Other: Screw presses, spare parts and services

HTI-GESAB GmbH Sauerbruchstrasse 11, Ellerau Schleswig-Holstein DE-25479 Tel: +49 4106 70090 E-mail: info@hti-ellerau.de www.hti-ellerau.de INTEC Engineering GmbH John-Deere-Strasse 43 Bruschsal D-76646 Tel: +49 7251 9324312 E-mail: christian.daniel@intec-energy.de www.intec-energy.de Other: Biomass- and coal-fired power plants, sludge drying and incineration systems, ORCbased power generation modules, thermal oil heaters, steam generators Körting Hannover AG Badenstedter Str 56 Hannover 30453 Tel: +49 511 21290 E-mail: st@koerting.de www.koerting.de Maschinenfabrik Reinartz GmbH & Co. KG Industriestrasse 14, Neuss 41460 Tel: + 49 2131 9761-0 E-mail: info@reinartz.de www.reinartz.de Other: Screw presses, screw dryers, seed conditioning, oil storage, animal feed and bioenergy production VTA GmbH & Co KG Bernrieder Strasse 10 Niederwinkling 94559 Tel: +49 9962 95980 E-mail: info@vta-process.de www.vta-process.de Other: Wiped film and short path distillation, distilled monoglycerides Schneider Kessel GmbH Hildburghauser Str 79 12249 Berlin Tel: +49 307 5449399-0 E-mail: info@schneider-kessel.com www.schneider-kessel.com

India Kumar Metal Industries Pvt Ltd Plot No 7 Mira Industrial Estate Western Express Highway Mira Road (E), Mumbai Maharashtra 401104 Tel: +91 9860272657 E-mail: dilip@kumarmetal.com www.kumarmetal.com

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PLANT, EQUIPMENT & TECHNOLOGY Mectech Process Engineers Pvt Ltd 366, Phase – 2, Udyog Vihar Gurgaon – 122 016 Haryana Tel: +91 124 4700800 Fax: +91 124 4700801, 4700802 E-mail: info@mectech.co.in www.mectech.co.in Other: Hydrogenation and IE plants Sharplex Filters (India) Pvt Ltd R-664, Rabale MIDC Navimumbai 400701 Tel: +91 22 69409850 E-mail: sales@sharplexfilters.com www.sharplexfilters.com United Engineering (E) Corporation Plot 75, Sector 3 IMT Manesar Gurugram Haryana 122051 Tel: +91 1244273011 E-mail: sales@uec-india.com www.uec-india.com Other: Screw presses, complete turnkey seed processing and pressing plants, seed conditioning, dewatering presses, animal feed, spares and services. Veendeep Oiltek Exports Pvt Ltd N-16/17/18 Additional MIDC Patalganga Maharastra 410207 Tel: +91 9769315463 E-mail: pmbhandari@veendeep.com www.veendeep.com

Italy Andreotti Impianti Spa Via Di Le Prata 148, Calenzano Florence 50041 Tel: +39 055 44870 E-mail: info@andreottiimpianti.com www.andreottiimpianti.com Other: Plants for oilseeds, edible oils and oleochemicals Binacchi & Co Srl Via Gramsci 84, Varese Gazzada-Schianno 21045 Tel: +39 0332 461354 E-mail: mail@binacchi.com www.binacchi.com Other: Soap and detergent processing plants and equipment, packaging machinery CM Bernardini International SpA Via Appia km 55900, Cisterna di Latina

LT 04012 Tel: +39 06 96871028 E-mail: info@cmbernardini.it www.cmbernardini.it Other: Oil hydrogenation

Muar Ban Lee Group JR52, Lot 1818, Jalan Raja, Kawasan Perindustrian Bukit Pasir Muar, 84300 Johor Tel: +60 6 9859998; E-mail: mbl@mbl.com www.mbl.com

CMBITALY-TECHNOILOGY Via D Federici 12/14 Cisterna di Latina Lazio 04012 Tel: +39 06 9696181 E-mail: info@technoilogy.it www.technoilogy.it

OILTEK Sdn Bhd Lot 6, Jalan Pasaran 23/5 Kaw Miel Phase 10 40300 Shah Alam, Selangor Tel: +603 554 28288 E-mail: oiltek@oiltek.com.my www.oiltek.com.my Other: Heating systems for bulking installation

Desmet Ballestra SpA - Detergents, Surfactants and Chemicals Division Via Piero Portaluppi 17 20138 Milano Tel: +39 02 50831 E-mail: mail@ballestra.com www.desmetballestra.com Servizi Industriali Srl Marie Curie 19 Ozzano Dell’Emilia Bologna 40064 Tel: +39 051 795080 E-mail: commerciale@macfuge.com www.macfuge.com

Malaysia Besteel Berhad* Lot 9683 Kawasan Perindustrian Desa Aman Batu 11, Desa Aman Sungai Buloh Selangor 47000 Tel: +6012 6729683 E-mail: michaelchan@besteerlberhad.com www.besteelberhad.com Other: Turnkey contractor for palm oil mills EMEC Packaging Solutions Sdn Bhd PT 13532, Jalan Bating Pandamaran 42000 Pelabuhan Klang Selangor Darul Ehsan Tel: +603 3168 6300 / 3165 1344 E-mail: info@emec-corp.com www.emec-corp.com JJ-Lurgi Engineering Sdn Bhd No 7-13A-01, Jebsen & Jessen Tower, UOA Business Park (Tower 7) alan Pengaturcara U1/51A, Seksyen U1 Shah Alam Selangor 40150 Tel: +60 3 50306363 E-mail: jj-lurgi_enquiry@jjsea.com www.jj-lurgi.com

The Netherlands amafilter – LFC Lochem, Filtration Group Process Systems Hanzeweg 21, 7241 CS Lochem Tel: +31 573 297 777 E-mail: info@filtration.group www.filtration.group Other: Cricket filters, bags & cartridge solutions CPM Europe BV Rijder 2 1507 DN, Zaandam, Noord-Holland Zaandam Tel: +31 75 6512611 E-mail: info@cpmeurope.nl www.cpmeurope.nl Geelen Counterflow Windmolenven 43, Haelen 6081 PJ Tel: +31 475 592315 E-mail: info@geelencounterflow.com www.geelencounterflow.com Other: Coolers and dryers Van Mourik Crushing Mills* Boylestraat 34, Ede 671 8XM Tel: +31 318 641144 E-mail: info@crushingmills.com www.crushingmills.com

Serbia T-1 Ada Karadordeva 60, Ada 24430 Tel: +381 24 854585 E-mail: sales@t-1.rs www.screw-presses.com Other: Screw presses, spare parts, refurbishing

Singapore LIPICO Technologies Pte Ltd 61 Bukit Batok Crescent #06-03 to #06-06 Heng Loong Building Singapore 658078 Tel: +65 631 67800 E-mail: sg.enquiry@lipico.com www.lipico.com

u

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09/09/2019 15:20:04


PLANT, EQUIPMENT & TECHNOLOGY u

Sweden

United Arab Emirates

AAK AB* Skrivaregatan 9, Malmö 215 32 Tel: +46 40 6278300 E-mail: info@aak.com www.aak.com

Metan FZCO Office 2203, Jafza View 18 Jebel Ali Dubai 61389 Tel: +971 4 8895657 E-mail: m@metan.ae www.metan.ae

Alfa Laval Corporate AB Rudeboksvägen 1 SE-226 55 Lund Tel: + 46 46 36 65 00 E-mail: alfa.laval@alfalaval.com www.alfalaval.com

Switzerland Bühler AG Gupfenstrasse 5, Uzwil, St Gallen 9240 Tel: +41 71 9551111 E-mail: media@buhlergroup.com www.buhlergroup.com Other: Cracking & flaking mills, vertical seed conditioners, horizontal & vertical impact dehullers and hammer mills, fluidising beds, bagging stations, chain conveyors, ship loaders/unloaders, filters, throw & drum sieves, hull separators, drum magnets, cylindrical case aspirators Buss ChemTech AG Hohenrainstrasse 12A, Pratteln 4133 Tel: +41 61 8256462 E-mail: info@buss-ct.com www.buss-ct.com Other: Hydrogenation process design Sulzer Chemtech Ltd Neuwiesenstrasse 15, Winterthur 8401 Tel: +41 52 2623722 E-mail: chemtech@sulzer.com www.sulzer.com

United Kingdom Chemtech International Crown House, 1A High Street Theale, Berkshire RG7 5AH Tel: +44 1189 861 222 E-mail: nigel@chemtechinternational.com www.chemtechinternational.com Crown Europe - Europa Crown Waterside Park, Livingstone Road, Hessle East Yorkshire HU13 0EG Tel: +44 1482 640 099 E-mail: sales@europacrown.com www.europacrown.com Lovibond Tintometer Lovibond House, Sun Rise Way, Amesbury Wiltshire SP4 7GR Tel: +44 1980 664800 E-mail: sales@tintometer.com www.lovibond.com Other: Colour measurement for quality control Oxford Instruments Tubney Woods, Abingdon Oxfordshire OX13 5QX Tel: +44 1865 393200 E-mail: magres@oxinst.com https://nmr.oxinst.com/

USA

Turkey Keller & Vardarci Industries Ltd Sti Cinar Sok No 12 Ege Serbest Bolgesi, Gaziemir Izmir, Izmir 35410. Tel: +90 232 4784814 E-mail: gulservardarci@vardarci.com.tr www.keller-vardarci.com Other: Seed cleaners, dehullers, screw oil presses, cookers, screens, filter presses, spare parts for oil crushing mills, cottonseed delinters, lint cleaners, bale presses

Ukraine TAN LLC* 20 Ushynskogo Street, Chernihiv 14014 Tel: +380 462 672112 E-mail: tan@tan.com.ua www.tan.com.ua

Anderson International Corp* 4545 Boyce Parkway, Stow, Ohio 44224 Tel: +1 216 6411112 E-mail: eric.stibora@andersonintl.com www.andersonintl.com Blackmer* 1809 Century Avenue SW, Grand Rapids Michigan 49503 Tel: +1 616 2411611 E-mail: info@blackmer.com www.blackmer.com

The Dupps Company 548 North Cherry Street Germantown Ohio 45327-0189 Tel: +1 937 8556555 E-mail: info@dupps.com www.dupps.com Other: Process drying, oilseed screw press, rotary drum dryers, airless dryers French Oil Mill Machinery Company 1035 W Greene Street, PO Box 920 Piqua Ohio 45356 Tel: +1 937 7733420 E-mail: oilseedsales@frenchoil.com www.frenchoil.com Other: Mechanical screw presses, conditioners/ cookers, animal feed, rate bins, oil settling tanks, oil filters, cleaners, cake coolers Pope Scientific Inc POB 80018 Saukville Wisconsin 53080 Tel: +1 262 2689300 E-mail: dsegal@popeinc.com www.popeinc.com Other: Degassers, evaporators, reactors, foods, flavours, fragrances, portable vessels, pilot plants and turnkey processing systems, Nutsche filterdryers The above companies are a selection of plant, equipment and technology suppliers to the oils and fats industry who have replied to an Oils & Fats International questionnaire this year. Please refer to ‘Summary Table of Company Activities’ chart for companies’ areas of operation. ‘Other’ refers to other activities selected in the accompanying chart * Denote entries from 2018

Crown Americas - Crown Iron Works 9879 Naples Street NE, Blaine, MN 55449 Tel: +1 651 639 8900 E-mail: sales@crowniron.com www.crowniron.com

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09/09/2019 15:20:04


DIARY OF EVENTS Seville hosts 17th Euro Fed Lipid Congress

The 17th Euro Fed Lipid Congress and Expo is being held in one of the most colourful cities in Europe – Seville – on 20-23 October. “Since it is being held in 2019, at the dawn of the new decade, the congress has been named ‘Driving Science and Technology to New Horizons’, the organisers say. “We believe that it is time to rethink and replan research into new projects and to identify new knowledge gaps that need to be filled.” Five parallel sessions will be held during the congress covering topics including Processing & Sustainability; Palm Oil; Analytical, Authenticity & Lipidomics; Plant & Synthetic Lipids; Bioscience & Biotechnology; Lipid Oxidation, Deep-frying & Antioxidants; Olive Oil; Speciality Oils, Lipids in Novel Foods & Bioactive 25-26 September 2019

Products; Health & Nutrition; Marine & Algal Lipids; Physical Chemistry; Lipids in Animal Science; and Oleochemistry & Biofuels. A table top exhibition will feature around 25 suppliers of technology and services to the oils and fats industry. The congress will be held at the Barceló Sevilla Renacimiento hotel, built in the style of the Guggenheim Musuem in New York. A scientific tour will be held on 20 October, with a visit to the Instituto de la Grasa labs and facilities and an olive oil tasting session. The congress dinner will be held on 22 October at the Abades Triana restaurant, next to the Guadalquivir River in the popular Triana neighbourhood, serving Andalusian avant-garde cuisine. Seville is one of the most popular destinations in Europe and its habour is the only river port in Spain. Its Old Town contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Seville cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies. Euro Fed Lipid is a federationof 13 oils and fats scientific associations and aims to further lipid science and technology. For further information on the 17th Euro Fed Lipid Congress, visit: www.eurofedlipid.org/pages/sevilla.html

20-23 October 2019

7th Oleochemicals Outlook Singapore www.cmtevents. com/aboutevent. aspx?ev=190923&

17th Euro Fed Lipid Congress Barceló Sevilla Renacimiento Seville, Spain www.eurofedlipid.org/pages/ sevilla.html

25-27 September 2019

23 October 2019

Globoil India 2019 Mumbai, India globoilindia.com/index.html

Oils & Fats Processing, Product Quality Control & Optimization - Analytical Methods Seville, Spain www.smartshortcourses.com/ oilmethods2/program.html

5-11 October 2019 18th AOCS Latin American Congress and Exhibition on Fats, Oils and Lipids Foz do Iguacu, Brazil www.meetings@aocs.org 8-10 October 2019 The 11th Palmex Indonesia Medan, Indonesia www.palmoilexpo.com

For a full events list, visit: www.ofimagazine.com

28 Oct-1 November 2019 86th NRA Annual Convention California, USA www.nationalrenderers.org/ events/convention

3-6 November 2019 17th Annual Roundtable Meeting on Sustainable Palm Oil (RT17) Marriott Marquis Bangkok Queen’s Park Thailand www.rt.rspo.org 6-7 November 2019 World Oilseed Congress 2019 Lviv, Ukraine worldoilseed.org 7 November 2019 China International Oils & Oilseeds Conference (CIOC) Guangzhou, China www.dce.com.cn/ CIOCEN/464520/464521/ index.html

30 Oct-1 November 2019

7-8 November 2019

15th Indonesian Palm Oil Conference and 2020 Price Outlook (IPOC) The Westin Resort Nusa Dua Bali, Indonesia www.gapkiconference.org

DGF Jahrestagung 2019 Radisson Blu Hamburg, Germany veranstaltungen.gdch. de/tms/frontend/index. cfm?l=8876&sp_id=1

7-8 November 2019 Advanced Technologies in Oilseed Processing, Edible Oil Refining and Oil Modification Guangzhou, China www.smartshortcourses.com/ oilprocess22/program.html 9-10 November 2019 2nd AOCS China Section Conference Guangzhou, China www.aocs.org/networkand-connect/membership/ sections#china-section 19-21 November 2019 International Palm Oil Congress & Exhibition (PIPOC) 2019 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia pipoc.mpob.gov.my 22-23 November 2019 PORAM Annual Events 2019 (Forum, Golf & Dinner) Dorsett Grand Subang Hotel Kuala Lumpar, Malaysia poram.org.my/p 5 December 2019 10th Fats & Oils Istanbul/ Feeds & Grains Istanbul Istanbul, Turkey www.agripro.com.tr 20-21 January 2020 Fuels of the Future 2020 CityCube Berlin, Germany www.fuels-of-the-future.com 9-12 February 2020 World Congress on Oils & Fats 2020/ISF Lectureship Series International Convention Centre, Sydney, Australia wcofsydney2020.com 8-10 March 2020 10th International Symposium on Deep-Frying Hagen, Germany www.dgfett.de/index.php 26-29 April 2020 2020 AOCS Annual Meeting Montreal, Canada www.annualmeeting.aocs.org

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09/09/2019 15:21:41


STATISTICS STATISTICAL NEWS FROM UFOP Vegetable oil prices

Following a slight rise in the first half year of 2019, the vegetable oil price index of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations declined six points to 126 in June, due to a slide in palm and soyabean oil prices. Prices for palm oil on the Bursa Malaysia exchange fell by almost 10% over the past six months due to sluggish demand on the global market and seasonal growth in output. Prices of soyabean oil also flagged due to low export prospects and forecasts of adequate global supply. In contrast, prices of sunflower and rapeseed oil rose due to continued buoyant demand based on expectations of smaller harvests in key origin countries. The FAO index shows the changes in international prices for 10 different vegetable oils.

FAO global vegetable oil price index

EU oilseed crop

The European Commission estimates that EU oilseed production for 2019 will be 31.7M tonnes, down 4% from 2018 and 5% below the long-standing average. The decline in rapeseed is especially severe due to a drought-related 15% reduction in EU rapeseed area and poor yields provisionally estimated at 3 tonnes/ha. The EU rapeseed harvest is forecast at just less than 18M tonnes, down 10% from 2018. EU soyabean production is projected to remain stable at 2.9M tonnes. Sunflowerseed output is projected at 10.7M tonnes.

EU oilseed crop (million tonnes)

Rapeseed

The International Grain Council (IGC) has projected global rapeseed production at 69.8M tonnes for 2019, a fall of 3% from the previous year due to inadequate rainfall and distribution of rain over the growth period. The EU will produe approximately 17.9M tonnes and Canada is projected to see a significantly smaller harvest of 18.9M tonnes. However, Ukraine is expected to produce 3.7M tonnes, up approximately 1M tonnes from the previous year, due to an expanded rapeseed area. The IGC expects rapeseed stocks to reach 7.1M tonnes in 2019, the highest level in 10 years, due to rising Canadian stocks and the country’s ongoing shipment problems to China. World rapeseed supply and demand (million tonnes)

Prices of selected oils (US$/tonne)

Mintec

Feb 19

Mar 19

Apr 19

May 19

Jun 19

Jul 19

Soyabean

736.8

720.7

711.2

703.8

714.0

722.2

Crude palm

588.4

557.9

564.7

534.5

514.6

531.8

Palm olein

581.5

549.3

554.1

522.5

515.0

526.1

Coconut

747.8

721.7

688.1

660.0

664.0

688.8

Rapeseed

810.5

795.4

800.0

809.9

827.5

828.2

Sunflower

707.5

699.5

710.5

717.0

735.1

738.7

Palm kernel

740.8

685.6

647.1

621.0

566.9

580.2

Average

702.0

676.0

668.0

653.0

647.0

659.0

Index

166.0

160.0

158.0

155.0

153.0

156.0

Mintec provides independent insight and trusted data to help the world's most prestigious brands to make informed commercial decisions. Tel: +44 (0)1628 851313. E-mail: sales@mintecglobal.com Web: www.mintecglobal.com The Union for the Promotion of Oil and Protein Plants (UFOP) represents the political interests of companies, associations and institutions involved in the production, processing and marketing of oil and protein plants in Germany

30 – OFI SEPTEMBER 2019 - MARCH 2020 ONLINE EDITION ● TO SUBSCRIBE CLICK HERE Stats Sept.Oct.indd 1

09/09/2019 15:22:49


Every bean is precious. Treat it that way. Bühler’s process technology and associated equipment for soybean dehulling is setting highest efficiency standards. At every stage – cleaning, heating, popping, cracking, hull separation and subsequent flaking – the machinery works seamlessly together to minimize total cost of ownership and to achieve highest yields from both, freshly harvested and highmoisture soybeans. Find out more: www.buhlergroup.com/oilseeds oilseeds@buhlergroup.com

Innovations for a better world.


Hydrogenation

Other equipment

Screens & filtration

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

Storage & handling

End user processes/equipment

PROCESS PLANT & EQUIPMENT

Refining

Extraction

Oilseed crushing mills Solvent extraction Fish oil/meal processing Rendering/fat melting plant Pelleting mills Other Degumming Winterising Crystallisation Oil distillation/fractionation Alkali & physical refining Interesterification Miscella refining Deodorisers Bleachers Oil dryers Fat splitting Fatty acid distillation/fractionation Other Hydrogen generators Hydrogen systems

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P&E Chart 2019 WEB.indd 2

Crown Asia Engineering*

China

SOLEX Thermal Science

Canada

Elica-elevator

Bulgaria

Pattyn Packing Lines

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Other Cooking/salad oils Butter formulation Shortening/margarine production Vitamin E production Lecithin production Suplhonation Ethoxylation/propoxylation Detergent formulation Detergent production Soap production Soap finishing Cosmetics production Glycerine refining Fatty acid derivatives Pharmaceuticals Biodiesel/methyl ester Other Pneumatic conveyors Belt conveyors Vibratory conveyors Slatted conveyors Elevators Loading arms/chutes Auger feeders Storage silos Storage tanks Other Screens Centrifugal separators Gravity separators Magnetic separators Membrane separators Filter presses Pressure leaf filters Other Packing equipment Instrumentation Pumps/fluid handling Vacuum systems/ejectors Process heating systems Steam boilers Thermal oil heaters Heat recovery systems Other

De Smet Engineers & Contractors

Desmet Ballestra Group

Belgium

Kemia Handels- und Projektierungs

GIG Karasek

BDI-BioEnergy International

PROCESS S.R.L. (PROGLOBAL)

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Austira

Argentina

Plant & technology chart 2019

14/06/2019 10:42:18

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OLEOCHEMICALS Methylesters • Glycerine • Biodiesel Fatty Acids • Fatty Alcohols

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P&E Chart 2019 WEB.indd 3

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Kumar Metal Industries

India

VTA & Co

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Other Degumming Winterising Crystallisation Oil distillation/fractionation Alkali & physical refining Interesterification Miscella refining Deodorisers Bleachers Oil dryers Fat splitting Fatty acid distillation/fractionation Other Hydrogen generators Hydrogen systems Other

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Cooking/salad oils Butter formulation Shortening/margarine production Vitamin E production Lecithin production Sulphonation Ethoxylation/propoxylation Detergent formulation Detergent production Soap production Soap finishing Cosmetics production Glycerine refining Fatty acid derivatives Pharmaceuticals Biodiesel/methyl ester Other Pneumatic conveyors Belt conveyors Vibratory conveyors Slatted conveyors Elevators Loading arms/chutes Auger feeders Storage silos Storage tanks Other Screens Centrifugal separators Gravity separators Magnetic separators Membrane separators Filter presses Pressure leaf filters Other Packing equipment Instrumentation Pumps/fluid handling Vacuum systems/ejectors Process heating systems Steam boilers Thermal oil heaters Heat recovery systems Other

Extraction

Schneider Kessel

Maschinenfabrik Reinartz

Körting Hannover

INTEC Engineering

HTI-GESAB

GekaKonus

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HF Press+LipidTech

Crown Europe - CPM SKET

GEA Group, Product Group Separation

Centrimax-Winkelhorst Trenntechnik

GEA Germany Ettlingen

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ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

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l Oilseed crushing mills l Solvent extraction Fish oil/mealbehind processing Technology l Science

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Bruker Biospin

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B+B Engineering

Air Liquide Engineering & Construction

Germany

Serac

Promill

France

SPX Flow Technology Denmark

Haarslev Industries

Gerstenberg Services

GEA Process Engineering Denmark

Denmark

Farmet

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Czech Republic

Myande Group

Jeff International Trading

Guangzhou Scikoon Industry

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PROCESS PLANT & EQUIPMENT

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FAMSUN Oils&Fats Engineering

Crown Asia Engineering*

China

SOLEX Thermal Science

t 2019: Summary table of company activities

14/06/2019 10:42:20


Hydrogenation

End user processes/equipment Storage & handling

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

Other equipment

Screens & filtration

PROCESS PLANT & EQIUPMENT

Refining

Other Cooking/salad oils Butter formulation Shortening/margarine production Vitamin E production Lecithin production Suplhonation Ethoxylation/propoxylation Detergent formulation Detergent production Soap production Soap finishing Cosmetics production Glycerine refining Fatty acid derivatives Pharmaceuticals Biodiesel/methyl ester Other Pneumatic conveyors Belt conveyors Vibratory conveyors Slatted conveyors Elevators Loading arms/chutes Auger feeders Storage silos Storage tanks Other Screens Centrifugal separators Gravity separators Magnetic separators Membrane separators Filter presses Pressure leaf filters Other Packing equipment Instrumentation Pumps/fluid handling Vacuum systems/ejectors Process heating systems Steam boilers Thermal oil heaters Heat recovery systems Other

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*Denote entries from 2018

P&E Chart 2019 WEB.indd 4

Keller & Vardarci Industries

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United Arab Emirates

Sulzer Chemtech

Turkey

Buss ChemTech

Switzerland

BĂźhler

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Alfa Laval Corporate

AAK*

LIPICO Technologies

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Sweden

Singapore

T-1 Ada

Serbia

Van Mourik Crushing Mills*

Geelen Counterflow

Filtration Group Process Systems

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CPM Europe

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Netherlands

Besteel Berhad*

Servizi Industriali

Malaysia

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Desmet Ballestra

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OILTEK

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Muar Ban Lee Group

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JJ-Lurgi Engineering

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Binacchi & Co

Italy

Andreotti Impianti

United Engineering

Veendeep Oiltek Exports

Sharplex Filters

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CMBITALY-TECHNOILOGY

Oilseed crushing mills Solvent extraction Fish oil/meal processing Rendering/fat melting plant Pelleting mills Other Degumming Winterising Crystallisation Oil distillation/fractionation Alkali & physical refining Interesterification Miscella refining Deodorisers Bleachers Oil dryers Fat splitting Fatty acid distillation/fractionation Other Hydrogen generators Hydrogen systems

CM Bernardini International

Extraction

Mectech Process Engineers

Plant & technology chart 2019: Summary table of co

14/06/2019 10:42:22


OLEOCHEMICALS Methylesters • Glycerine • Biodiesel Fatty Acids • Fatty Alcohols

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Pope Scientific

French Oil Mill Machinery

Dupps Company

Other

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Extraction

Crown Americas - Crown Iron Works

Blackmer*

Anderson International*

USA

Lovibond Tintometer

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Science behind Technology

Refining

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l

l

Butter formulation Shortening/margarine production Vitamin E production Lecithin production Sulphonation Ethoxylation/propoxylation Detergent formulation Detergent production Soap production Soap finishing Cosmetics production Glycerine refining Fatty acid derivatives Pharmaceuticals Biodiesel/methyl ester Other Pneumatic conveyors Belt conveyors Vibratory conveyors Slatted conveyors Elevators Loading arms/chutes Auger feeders Storage silos Storage tanks Other Screens Centrifugal separators Gravity separators Magnetic separators Membrane separators Filter presses Pressure leaf filters Other Packing equipment Instrumentation Pumps/fluid handling Vacuum systems/ejectors Process heating systems Steam boilers Thermal oil heaters Heat recovery systems Other

End user processes/equipment

l l l l l l l l l l l l

l

l l l l l

Storage & handling

l l l l l l l l l l

Oilseed crushing mills Solvent extraction Fish oil/meal processing l l Rendering/fat melting plant l Pelleting mills l l Other l l Degumming l l Winterising l Crystallisation l l l Oil distillation/fractionation Alkali & physical refining l v2-87x265General-OFI-2015.indd 1 Interesterification l Miscella refining l l l Deodorisers Bleachers l l l Oil dryers Fat splitting l l l Fatty acid distillation/fractionation l Other Hydrogen generators l Hydrogen systems l

l l l

Screens & filtration

l l l l l

Other equipment

l l

Oxford Instruments

Crown Europe - Europa Crown

Chemtech International

United Kingdom

Metan FZCO

Keller & Vardarci Industries

l

United Arab Emirates

Sulzer Chemtech

Turkey

e of company activities

14/06/2019 10:42:24

Profile for Quartz Business Media

OFI September 2019 - March 2020 Online  

OFI September 2019 - March 2020 Online