OFI June 2022

Page 1

OILS & FATS INTERNATIONAL JUNE 2022 ▪ VOL 38 NO 5

BLEACHING Optimising filtration

HVO

Treating feedstocks WWW.OFIMAGAZINE.COM

Cover June 2022.indd 1

09/06/2022 08:51:19


Ensuring Food Safety Our innovative technical solutions enable our customers to produce superior products that meet the highest standards and certifications requirements. ■ ■

End product with great taste and appearance Nutritional value according to your specifications Optimized shelf life and functionality Minimized components causing health concerns Safe technologies for Food, Feed & Greenfuel and Chemicals for Life industries of end consumers

www.desmetballestra.com


CONTENTS

OILS & FATS INTERNATIONAL

IN THIS ISSUE – JUNE 2022 Bleaching Earths

FEATURES

NEWS & EVENTS

Plant, Equipment & Technology

Plant & technology listing 2022 OFI features a fully updated global selection of plant and equipment suppliers to the oils and fats industry, accompanied by a chart of activities

30

Photo: Adobe Stock

Bleaching Earths

20

Tackling new contaminants As food regulations become increasingly stringent on harmful contaminants, mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) could soon follow a similar course to 3-MCPD esters in terms of regulations

Comment

2

Renewable diesel

Optimising filtration

From past to future Bleaching earths have evolved from removing primary and second oxidation products and undesirable pigments to playing a key role in the remediation of dioxins, pesticides, PAHs and 3-MCPDs

Photo: Adobe Stock

32

Treating feedstocks HVO can reduce the use of fossil fuels and recycle waste streams but its production requires efficient, flexible, safe, reliable and sustainable pretreatment of feedstocks

Bans shake market

Ukraine/Russia News

4

Filtration is an important step in the bleaching process of edible oils and depends on factors such as oil type, bleaching temperature, level of impurities, and the type of bleaching earths and filtration aids used

26

Cover photo: Neste

Photo: Adobe Stock

15

Attack on Ukrainian ports despite talks on exports

General News

6

Indonesia ends temporary palm oil export ban

Biofuel News

10

Vote to ban soya/palm-based biofuels by 2023

Transport News

12

EC proposing logistics rescue plan for Ukraine

Biotech News

14

China approves Bioceres drought-resistant soya

Statistics

36

World statistical data

Diary of Events

37

www.ofimagazine.com

Contents June 2022.indd 1

International events listing

OFI – JUNE 2022

1

13/06/2022 14:55:32


EDITOR'S COMMENT

OILS & FATS INTERNATIONAL

VOL 38 NO 5 JUNE 2022

Bans shake market Indonesia’s surprise decision on 28 April to ban exports of crude and refined palm oil products shook a global vegetable oil market already struggling with shortages of sunflower oil resulting from the Russia-Ukraine war.

EDITORIAL: Editor: Serena Lim serenalim@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855066

Palm oil is both the largest volume and most exported vegetable oil in the world (some 77M tonnes and 50M tonnes respectively), while Indonesia accounts for the most production and exports of this oil (59% and 56% respectively).

Assistant Editor: Gill Langham gilllangham@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855157 SALES: Sales Manager: Mark Winthrop-Wallace markww@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855114 Sales Consultant: Anita Revis anitarevis@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855068 PRODUCTION: Production Editor: Carol Baird carolbaird@quartzltd.com CORPORATE: Managing Director: Tony Crinion tonycrinion@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855164 SUBSCRIPTIONS: Jack Homewood subscriptions@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855028 Subscriptions, Quartz House, 20 Clarendon Road, Redhill, Surrey RH1 1QX, UK

The temporary export ban was introduced as the country struggled to control soaring cooking oil prices against a backdrop of mounting civil unrest. There have been a raft of changing policies in Indonesia since January – from subsidies on packaged and bulk cooking oil; to domestic sales obligations for crude palm oil (CPO) exporters; to raised palm oil export levies and taxes. The government even widened its palm oil export ban from just refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palm olein to CPO and other refined products only one day after its initial announcement. The ban – put in place until the domestic bulk cooking oil price dropped to 14,000 rupiah (US$0.96)/litre – was reversed on 23 May as small-scale farmers started to receive less money for their oil palm fresh fruits and stocks built up in storage facilities for a crop that needs to be processed immediately after harvest. The domestic market still remains a priority as the Indonesian government reinstated its domestic market obligation and price schemes to ensure continued supplies of cooking oil (see p6). Indonesia’s problems are an illustration of the rising food prices and supply deficits being felt by countries around the world – especially in developing nations which have seen their currencies depreciate in recent months.

© 2022, Quartz Business Media ISSN 0267-8853

These problems call into question biofuels which may still utilise food feedstocks.

WWW.OFIMAGAZINE.COM

“We’re going to see more pressure on countries to reduce their biodiesel and renewable diesel mandates,” says chief commodities economist at StoneX Financial, Arlan Suderman (see also p10).

A member of FOSFA Oils & Fats International (USPS No: 020-747) is published eight times/year by Quartz Business Media Ltd and distributed in the USA by DSW, 75 Aberdeen Road, Emigsville PA 17318-0437. Periodicals postage paid at Emigsville, PA. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Oils & Fats c/o PO Box 437, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437 Published by Quartz Business Media Ltd Quartz House, 20 Clarendon Road, Redhill, Surrey RH1 1QX, UK oilsandfats@quartzltd.com +44 (0)1737 855000 Printed by Pensord Press, Gwent, Wales

In addition, as the war in Ukraine continues, “there is a growing likelihood that food shortages, particularly of grains and vegetable oils, will become acute, leading more countries to turn to trade restrictions,” the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) said in an April report. As well as Indonesia, the IFPRI lists some of the countries which have restricted or banned cereal and oilseed exports including: • • • •

Argentina (soyabean oil and meal, through 31 December 2023) Algeria (pasta, wheat derivatives and vegetable oil, through 31 December) Egypt (vegetable oil, corn, wheat, wheat flour and pasta, through 12 June) Russia (sunflowerseed, wheat, rye, barley and corn, through 30 June)

The coming summer looks to be one of rising food prices, with all the economic, political, and social consequences this brings. @oilsandfatsint

Oils & Fats International

2 OFI – JUNE 2022

Comment June 2022.indd 1

Serena Lim serenalim@quartzltd.com www.ofimagazine.com

09/06/2022 08:48:44



UKRAINE/RUSSIA NEWS UKRAINE: Ukraine exported 140,071 tonnes of sunflowerseeds from 1 May-15 May, bringing total exports since the beginning of the marketing year to a record 311,711 tonnes, due to lower demand from domestic crushers and low local prices prompting traders to increase exports, AgriCensus wrote on 18 May. However, the volumes reported by customs did not reflect exact volumes transported due to lengthy queues at the country's borders and along the Danube River delaying delivery, the report said. The main buyers included Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Turkey. The US Department of Agriculture forecasts that Ukrainian sunflowerseed exports would total around 350,000 tonnes by the end of the 2021/22 season. RUSSIA: The export duty on sunflower oil was set to increase by US$152.80/tonne – or 41% – to US$525/ tonne from 1 June, AgriCensus reported on 4 May. The duty was based on a floating index that valued sunflower oil at US$1,750/ tonne. The export duty on sunflower meal would increase by 9% to US$105/tonne, with both fees in place until the publication of an update, AgriCensus wrote. RUSSIA/UKRAINE: Following anecdotal evidence from the United Nations that Russian troops were seizing Ukrainian harvests – including wheat, barley and rye – the Ukrainian Ministry of Defence’s intelligence arm has said that Russian ships carrying stolen Ukrainian grain had reached the Mediterranean Sea and were likely to be heading to Syria, where it could be supplied to other Middle East countries, Fortune reported on 12 May. 4 OFI – JUNE 2022

General News June 2022.indd 2

Attack on Ukrainian port despite talks on exports

Photo: Adobe Stock

IN BRIEF

Russian president Vladimir Putin has said that he is prepared to allow “unhindered” grain exports from Ukraine ports in coordination with Turkey, Reuters reported on 30 May from a Kremlin account of talks between Putin and Turkish president Tayyip Erdogan. However, a Russian attack on silos at the Ukrainian port of Mykolaiv has raised doubts on the likelihood that Russia will allow Ukrainian crop exports, according to a 6 June AgriCensus report. "Traders are losing confidence Russia will live up to their expectations to allow Ukraine to export grain, after two warehouses with sunflower meal at Nikatera were hit by a rocket over the weekend," Terry Reilly, senior grain and oilseed commodity analyst at Futures International, said. With prices of grain, cooking oil, fertiliser and energy soaring since Russia's invasion of Ukraine

on 24 February, the United Nations (UN) says a global food crisis is deepening and is trying to broker a deal to unblock Ukraine's grain exports, according to the Reuters report. “During the discussion of the situation in Ukraine, emphasis was placed on ensuring safe navigation in the Black and Azov seas and eliminating the mine threat in their waters,” the Kremlin reportedly said of the talks between Putin and Erdogan. Putin, according to the Kremlin account, had added that if sanctions against Russia were lifted, it would allow Russia to “export significant volumes of fertilisers and agricultural products.” It was not immediately clear which Ukrainian ports Putin was speaking about, Reuters wrote. Ukraine's main grain export ports include Chornomorsk, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Kherson and Yuzhny. Erdogan said that Turkey was ready to support any peace efforts between Ukraine and Russia, and was prepared to take on the role of third-party observer to ensure that any agreement was followed by both sides, once reached. Against this backdrop, the UN and the Russian government have had “constructive discussions” aimed at increasing grain and fertiliser exports from Russia to global markets, Reuters reported UN spokesperson Stephane Dujarric as saying. UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterresis is trying to broker what he calls a “package deal” to resume both Ukrainian food exports and Russian food and fertiliser exports, according to Reuters.

Crop forecasts as sowing nears end Ukraine's spring crop sowing campaign reached 12.64M ha or 89% of the planned area as of 26 May, AgriCensus reported the country's agriculture ministry as saying. Further progress was expected to be limited with about a third of the area normally available to Ukrainian farmers – some 12M ha – inaccessible due to occupation by Russian troops, close proximity of farmland to hostilities, landmines in fields and damaged artillery, tanks and other material in liberated territories, the 26 May report said. With spring sowing coming to an end, it was possible to make estimates on the potential harvest for 2022, AgriCensus wrote. The Ukrainian Club of Agrarian Business (UCAB) forecast that this year, Ukraine could harvest close to 50M tonnes of grain and 16M tonnes of oilseeds, specifically: • Wheat: 18M tonnes (against 32.2M tonnes in 2021)

• Corn: 25.7M tonnes (42.1M tonnes in 2021) • Barley: 5.2M tonnes (9.4M tonnes in 2021) • Other grain crops: 1.4M tonnes (2.3M tonnes in 2021) • Sunflower: 10.6M tonnes (6.4M tonnes in 2021) • Soyabeans: 3M tonnes (3.5M tonnes 2021) • Rapeseed: 2.7M tonnes (2.9M tonnes in 2021) "Soyabean and rapeseed show the lowest gross harvest reduction due to the relatively small weight of the crop combined with a high price, which facilitates logistics in exports," said Svitlana Lytvyn, a Ukraine-based analyst at UCAB. "Therefore, some farmers have increased these crops." However, total gross harvest would be reduced due to a lower sown area and reduced yields resulting from less fertilisers, and other yield inputs. www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:05:42


Give your hydrotreater catalyst more life.

DOUBLE IT.

Crown delivers maximum contaminant removal to extend hydrotreater catalyst life. Get the cleanest possible feedstock delivered to your hydrotreater and achieve up to double catalyst life with Crown. Our rugged, robust RD Ready ™ Pretreatment System is guaranteed to meet product specs for all common contaminants and drastically improve plant uptime by reducing the need for catalyst changeovers. Backed by the construction of 50+ biodiesel plants, design of 10+ renewable diesel pretreatment plants, and a propriety database of feedstock specs and results, Crown’s RD Ready™ Pretreatment System protects your investment now, and in the future. Protect your hydrotreater and your Renewable Diesel operation with Crown.

Edible Oils | Biodiesel | Renewable Diesel | Oleochemical Contact Crown today 1-651-639-8900 or visit our website at www.crowniron.com


NEWS

Indonesia ends temporary palm oil export ban Indonesia ended its palm oil export ban on 23 May, following its shock announcement a month earlier that it would temporarily halt exports of crude and refined palm oil; refined, bleached and deodorised (RBD) palm olein; palm oil mill effluent (POME) and used cooking oil. The ban was introduced on 26 April as the country struggled to control soaring cooking oil prices against a backdrop of mounting civil unrest. Indonesian chief economics minister Airlangga Hartarto said at a press conference on 20 May that as well as lifting the ban, the government would reinstate its Domestic

Market Obligation (DMO) and Domestic Price Obligation schemes to ensure continued supply of domestic cooking oil. Hartarto said the government was looking to set a DMO of 10M tonnes of cooking oil, with 8M tonnes for domestic consumption and reserves of 2M tonnes. The state food procurement agency Bulog would also set up a buffer stock of cooking oil at 10% of domestic demand. A Reuters report on 25 May said that palm oil producers' mandatory domestic sales volume would be based on their refining capacity, with producers and exporters also required to participate in the

government’s bulk cooking oil programme. The Indonesia Palm Oil Association (GAPKI) said some aspects of the DMO would also be determined by other rules, such as the technical procedure to calculate the volume of the DMO. The industry was still waiting for the government to announce those rules and no export permits had been issued yet, GAPKI added. Meanwhile, the government plans to audit all palm oil companies operating in the country and require them to move their headquarters onshore amid efforts to improve governance of the sector, senior cabinet minister Luhut Pandjaitan said.

The Chinese government has lifted its ban on canola imports from two of Canada’s largest exporters, three years after it suspended their licences amid escalating tensions between the two countries, The Globe and Mail reported on 18 May. A statement from Global Affairs Canada on 18 May said that China had advised Canada of its decision to reinstate the licences of Viterra and Richardson International, which had been banned since March 2019. Prior to the 2019 ban, China – the world’s largest canola importer – had imported US$2.8bn/year worth of canola from Canada, The Globe and Mail wrote. The ban was imposed at a time of heightened tensions between China and Canada. In late 2018, China had denounced Canada for its

Photo: Adobe Stock

China lifts ban on canola imports from Canada

China is the world's largest canola importer

move to arrest and authorise extradition proceedings against Huawei chief financial officer Meng Wanzhou. The move was followed by China’s arrest of two Canadians, Michael Kovrig and Michael Spavor, who were accused of espionage-related offences. All three were released last

September. At the time of the initial ban, China cited quality concerns as the reason behind it, claiming its inspectors had found pests in samples. However, the move was widely regarded as retaliation for Canada’s actions against Wanzhou. China’s lifting of the ban

was welcomed by Canola Council of Canada president Jim Everson. “This is a positive step forward, restoring full trade in canola with China and ensuring that all Canadian exporters are treated equally by the Chinese administration,” he said. The ban had cost the industry between US$1.5bn and US$2.3bn between March 2019 and August 2020, the trade organisation said. In late 2019, Canada had taken the case to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO set up a dispute resolution panel in 2021. In its submission to the WTO at the time, China said “the measures were imposed to the extent necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health and in a transparent and non-discriminatory manner.”

India allows duty-tree imports of crude soya, sun oils The government of India will allow duty-free imports of 2M tonnes of both crude soyabean oil and crude sunflower oil for the current and next fiscal year to March 2024 in a bid to control local prices, according to a 24 May Reuters report. Prior to the announcement on 24 May, trade and government officials had said India could cut an import tax on crude soyabean oil and crude sunflower oil. Traders now needed to seek their import 6 OFI – JUNE 2022

General News June 2022.indd 3

quota from the government, Reuters wrote. India – the world’s top importer of edible oils – had previously abolished the basic import tax on crude palm oil, crude soyabean oil and crude sunflower oil, but continued with a 5% tax known as the Agriculture Infrastructure and Development Cess (AIDC) on the three grades of edible oils. Industry body, the Solvent Extractors' Association of India, had requested the

government to also consider cutting or abolishing the 5% AIDC on crude palm oil, the report said. India, which imports more than twothirds of its edible oil needs, has been struggling to control local edible oil prices in recent months, according to the report, with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the resulting shortage of edible oils making it even more difficult for the government to contain prices. www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:05:47


NEWS

Rainforest destruction still widespread The destruction of rainforests remained widespread last year, according to new data from the University of Maryland reported by the World Resources Institute’s Global Forest Review. Tree cover totalling 11.1M ha was lost in the tropics last year. The loss of 3.75M ha of tree cover in tropical primary rainforests – areas of critical importance for carbon storage and biodiversity – was of particular concern, the report said. Over 40% of deforestation – a total of 1.5M ha – took place in Brazil last

year and, as in previous years, persistent high rates continued in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where almost 500,000ha of primary forest was lost due to the expansion of small-scale agriculture and tree harvesting to meet energy demands. In contrast, primary forest loss dropped in Indonesia for the fifth consecutive year, falling by 25% compared to 2020. New research showed that deforestation linked to palm oil is at a 20-year low with No Deforestation, No Peat and No Exploitation (NDPE) commitments now covering 83%

of palm oil refining capacity in Indonesia and Malaysia. In addition, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil had tightened sustainable certification requirements in 2018 to prohibit deforestation and peatland clearing, the report said. Deforestation would need to decline at a much faster rate to meet 2030 zero-deforestation targets, the Global Forest Review wrote, and although Indonesia’s rapid decrease in primary forest loss should be acknowledged as a major achievement, achieving similar declines around the world would not be straightforward.

Cubiq Foods to scale up with Cargill funds Spanish alternative fat company Cubiq Foods announced on 9 May that it had raised a total of €5.75M (US$6M) in funding from four investors, including global agribusiness giant Cargill. Cubiq Foods said the investments would allow it to expand commercial and production operations in North America and Europe and to launch new products. Cargill’s investment was the first step in a partnership that included a product development plan and an agreement to market and sell Cubiq Foods’ products. Last year, Cubiq Foods launched Go!Drop, a plant-based fat replacement which could be used as an alternative to animal fats in processed meat products, dairy derivatives, bakery products, confectionery and saturated vegetable fats (such as coconut oil) in vegan food products. Later this year, Cubiq Foods said it would be launching Go!Mega3, a micro-encapsulated omega-3 product and, early next year, it would be launching its first cultivated fatbased ingredient for food applications in the US market. “Our strategic partnership with Cubiq will help us better serve our customers by accelerating the development of plant-based alternatives,” said Vivek Cherian, meat and dairy alternatives category leader for edible oils at Cargill. The other investors apart from Cargill were Moira Capital Partners, SGEIC and Newtree Impact. www.ofimagazine.com

General News June 2022.indd 4

OFI – JUNE 2022

7

13/06/2022 15:05:47


NEWS MEXICO: US confectionery and snacks giant Mondelēz International is set to acquire leading Mexican confectionery company Ricolino from baked products firm Grupo Bimbo. Mondelēz International, the owner of Oreo cookies and Cadbury chocolate, said the US$1.3bn acquisition would double the size of its business in Mexico. With four manufacturing facilities, Ricolino produces and distributes a range of lollipops, marshmallows, chocolates and other confectionery products under the Ricolino, Vero, La Corona and Coronado brands. “This acquisition will more than triple our routes to market [in Mexico]," Mondelēz International chairman and CEO Dirk Van de Put said on 25 April. The deal follows Mondelēz's completed acquisition of Chipita Global SA, a leading cake and pastries firm in Central and Eastern Europe, in January. CANADA: A partnership between plant-based protein company Burcon NutraScience and cold-pressed virgin oil processor Pristine Gourmet is set to develop protein ingredients from sunflowerseed. Sunflower’s neutral colour and taste, along with its lack of allergens, made it ideal for the development of new plant-based ingredients, co-investor Protein Industries Canada said on 26 April. Canadian sunflower protein was currently used mainly in livestock feed and pet food, it said. Burcon and Pristine Gourmet would evaluate protein extraction techniques and processes; measure the protein differences between different sunflower meals; test protein samples in food applications; and scale up the preferred processing method into a pilot plant. 8 OFI – JUNE 2022

General News June 2022.indd 5

Argentine farmers shift to soya due to fertiliser prices Farmers in Argentina are shifting from cereal crops to soyabeans amid rising fertiliser prices, World Grain reported from a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) report on 29 April. With soyabeans requiring less fertiliser than some other crops, Argentine farmers are expected to plant 17M ha to produce 51M tonnes of soyabeans in the marketing year 2022/23, according to the Global Agricultural Information Network (GAIN) report from the USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS). The USDA projected soyabean planted area to increase by 650,000ha, or 4%, from its adjusted estimate for 2021/22, while total production was expected to increase by 24%. The 41M

tonne crop in 2021/22 was heavily impacted by drought. “While this forecast (for 2022/23) assumes a return to normal weather, some analysts are predicting a possible third year of La Niña, a weather pattern that traditionally leads to drier growing conditions in Argentina,” the USDA said. “The increase in planted area will largely come at the expense of corn acreage, which is expected to fall in response to high fertiliser costs and the need for crop rotation in some places.” Crushing volumes in 2022/23 crush are expected to reach 41.5M tonnes, up 6.7% from the USDA’s revised 2021/22 forecast, due to a recovery in domestic production and soyabean imports.

Le Creuset warns against cooking with olive oil

Photo: Adobe Stock

IN BRIEF

Leading French cookware maker Le Creuset has warned customers not to cook with olive oil, Olive Oil Times reported on 3 May. The company answered a customer complaint by stating

that its frying pans and woks should not be used to cook with olive oil as they could shorten their durability. According to a report that first appeared in the Daily Mail and later in The Telegraph

newspapers, Le Creuset warned its customers “to avoid using olive oil” while recommending oils with a higher smoke point like rapeseed oil, coconut oil and sunflower oil. “Olive oil has a very low smoke point, and this can form a brownish film on the pan (burnt oil), creating a barrier between the food and the pan." Mark Greenaway, a chef, told The Telegraph that olive oil should only ever be used in finishing a dish. "If you cook with it, the smoke point is so low it removes the Teflon [a brand name for the chemical, polytetrafluoroethylene] from non-stick pans or ‘burns’ traditional pans.”

Darling to acquire Brazil's FASA Group US renderer and renewable diesel producer Darling Ingredients has announced it is set to acquire Brazil’s largest independent rendering company FASA Group. The BRL2.8bn (US$560M) cash acquisition was due to close by the end of this year, subject to customary conditions, the company said. With 14 rendering plants and two more under construction, FASA Group has a processing capacity of more than 1.3M tonnes/year. “Brazil is a leader in global agricultural commodities growth and is expected to take on a

bigger role in world meat production, making it a premier location for rendering growth,” Darling Ingredients chairman and CEO Randall C Stuewe said. “FASA will also supplement Darling Ingredient's global supply of waste fats.” Darling Ingredients operates 250 plants in 17 countries and repurposes nearly 10% of the world's meat industry waste streams into value-added products, such as green energy, renewable diesel, collagen, fertiliser, animal proteins and meals, and pet food ingredients. www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:05:51


OUR PLANTS THINK GREEN. Special proven technology for organic chlorine removal in low grade feedstocks for HVO production.

www.technoilogy.it

EXPERTS IN: EDIBLE OIL EXTRACTION AND REFINING • OLEOCHEMICALS • BIODIESEL PRODUCTION USED MINERAL OIL RE-REFINING • WASTE OIL PRE-TREATMENT FOR BIOFUEL PRODUCTION


BIOFUEL NEWS GERMANY: The government’s environment ministry is working on a proposal to phase out the use of biofuels produced from food and feed crops by 2030, Argus Media wrote on 17 May. A working paper released by the ministry proposed lowering the use of cropbased biofuels to comply with Germany’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction quota to 2.5% in 2023, from 4.4% this year. The cap would subsequently fall to 2.3% in 2024, 2.1% in 2025, 1.9% in 2026/27, 1.2% in 2028/29 and then to zero the following year. To offset the reduction, the working paper suggested increasing the multiplier for electricity used to charge e-cars to four, from three currently, and the multiplier for the use of green hydrogen and PtX-fuels to three, from two. In addition, the cap for waste-based biodiesel produced from used cooking oils (UCO) and animal fats could be lifted slightly, but no numbers were given in the working paper. The proposals were criticised by German biofuels association VDB, which said a reduction of the proportion of biofuels was not needed as ethanol producers generally used grain that was unsuitable for the food sector, and biodiesel producers had already cut back their production in favour of food production. PANAMA: Bioenergy products development firm SGP BioEnergy said on 18 May that it is set to develop a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) facility in Panama. Due to become operational in five years, the Biorefineria Ciudad Dorada plant in Colon and Balboa would produce 180,000 barrels/day of biofuel. 10 OFI – JUNE 2022

Biofuel news June 2022.indd 2

Vote to ban soya/palmbased biofuels by 2023 The European Parliament’s environment committee (ENVI) has voted to limit crop-based biofuels to no more than half the share of total biofuel use in transport and to phase out palm and soya-based biofuels by 2023, EU Bioenergy reported on 18 May. The committee also voted for an amendment recommending that primary woody biomass should no longer be subsidised

and should largely be excluded from counting towards renewable energy targets, the report said. The ENVI committee made the announcements on 16 May as part of its revision of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED). The EU Parliament’s ITRE (energy) committee will also propose its own amendments to the RED this month. Any

proposed amendments by the ENVI and ITRE would have to be approved by the Parliament’s plenary after the summer break, EU Bioenergy said. Meanwhile, the European Council was also considering amendments to the RED, with the final outcome of the trialogue process – where Parliament and Council need to agree a final compromise – expected late this year at the earliest.

One-fifth of European biofuels from UCO Nearly one-fifth of all European biofuels is now made from used cooking oil (UCO), which has also witnessed the most absolute growth compared with any other biomass-based diesel feedstock in Europe and North America in the last few years, the ACI Oleofuels 2022 conference heard on 18-19 May in France. Globally, 6.6M tonnes of UCO biofuels were consumed last year, representing 5% of the total biofuels market, Cornelius Claeys, manager (biofuels) at Stratas Advisors, said. “Alternative waste feedstocks and low carbon production pathways need to be scaled up,” he added. In the medium to long-term, Claeys said he expected the Russia-Ukraine conflict to accelerate energy transition in the EU. Thomas Balle, industry technology specialist at Novozymes, said EU legislation would drive demand of waste-based and advanced biodiesel.

Photo: Neste

IN BRIEF

Used cooking oil is now the feedstock for nearly a fifth of biofuels produced in Europe

Russia-Ukraine war stalls EU biofuels Rising food and fuel costs, pushed up by the crisis in Ukraine, are pushing several EU countries to freeze or lower 2022-2023 low-carbon blending mandates for transportation fuels, according to Cornelius Claeys at Stratas Advisors, writing on energypost.eu on 23 May. In Finland, the 2022 and 2023 blending obligations were reduced by 7.5 percentage points. Swedish lawmakers were consider freezing 2023 obligations at 2022 levels while in Norway, government discussions were ongoing to undertake similar measures. “These Nordic countries can afford to reduce their blending mandates while still complying with EU directives,” Claeys wrote. Germany and Belgium may reduce the allowed contribution of crop-based biofuels towards

blending mandates, which would risk undercompliance with EU directives. Central and Eastern Europe would also risk under-compliance if they directly reduced blending mandates but some countries planned to do so anyway. “In the case of Croatia, penalties for fuel suppliers that do not meet obligations will be waived,” Claeys said. If all the eight countries mentioned implemented their plans, there could be a reduction of up to 2bn litres of biofuel demand in 2023, ironically increasing fossil fuel demand, just as discussion was ongoing to ban EU imports of Russian oil and refined products by the end of the year. The USA, in contrast, was strengthening biofuel incentives by allowing year-round E15 use, with a philosophy that a higher share of ethanol would reduce the price per gallon of gasoline. www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 09:17:03


OFI Half Page Horizontal Ad - Grow Profits.indd 1

11/27/21 6:16 PM

The Dallas Group is the leader in edible oil filtration, adsorbent treatment, and purification solutions across several industries. Our experts will work with you to develop a strategy that will quickly and economically optimize your filtration or purification process.

DALSORB® oil purifier extends the life of commercial frying oil and improves product quality.

MAGNESORB® adsorbents are specifically designed to quickly and economically remove naturally occurring and reaction by-product contaminants in a broad range of oleochemicals.

MAGNESOL® is the leading adsorbent for removal of residual catalyst and other polar contaminants in the production of the high quality polyols and surfactants.

www.dallasgrp.com | info@dallasgrp.com +1.908.534.7800 www.ofimagazine.com

AN ISO 9001:2015 COMPANY

R-664, T.T.C. Industrial Area, Thane-Belapur Road, Rabale, MIDC, Navi Mumbai - 400701, India Tel : +91-91-3692 1232/39 | E-mail : sales@sharplexfilters.com | Website : www.sharplex.com

OFI – JUNE 2022

11


TRANSPORT NEWS IN BRIEF UKRAINE: The operators of a key Black Sea canal temporarily halted vessels moving towards the Danube River ports of Reni, Izmail and Giurgiulesti in a bid to reduce a huge backlog, AgriCensus reported on 11 May. Sulina Canal links the shallow water Ukrainian Izmail and Reni ports, and the Romanian port of Giurgiulesti, with Black Sea export facilities. The canal had reported a major increase in activity following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine as it is a key link in moving Ukrainian agricultural produce. Ukraine has been restricted to loading coaster-sized vessels at Izmail and Reni as Russia has blockaded its deep sea ports.

EC proposing logistics rescue plan for Ukraine The European Commission (EC) has plans to set up ‘Solidarity Lanes’ to ensure Ukraine can export grain and oilseeds and import essential goods, including humanitarian aid, animal feed and fertilisers, World Grain wrote on 13 May. Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on 24 February and its blockage of Ukrainian ports, grains and other agricultural exports have been unable to reach their destinations. Around 20M tonnes of grain need to leave Ukraine in less than three months using European Union (EU) infrastructure, according to Commissioner for Transport Adina Valean. Thousands of railway wagons and trucks are waiting for clearance on the Ukrainian side, with the average waiting time for railcars currently 16 days, but up to 30 days at some borders. Further quantities of grain are still stored and held back

in Ukrainian silos ready for export. Challenges include different rail gauge widths, with Ukrainian railway wagons not compatible with most of the EU rail network, meaning most goods need to be trans-shipped to trucks or railway wagons that match the EU standard gauge. Short-term actions to address the obstacles and set up “Solidarity Lanes” would include calling on EU market players to urgently make additional freight rolling stock, vessels and trucks available. To match supply and demand and establish relevant contacts, the commission said it would set up a match-making logistics platform. The commission also called on market players to urgently transfer mobile grain loaders to the relevant border terminals to speed up trans-shipment. A road transport agreement with Ukraine would also remove bottlenecks.

New marine fuel piloted in Scandinavia

UKRAINE: A total of 61,007 tonnes of vegetable oils were exported by rail from Ukraine between 1-27 April, AgriCensus reports. Izov was the busiest border point, taking the highest volumes of vegetable oils through the Polish border. Around 19,000 tonnes of vegetable oils also passed through Batyevo on the Hungarian border, while 4,096 tonnes went through the Moldavian border points of Mohyliv-Podilskyi and Sokyriany. Lower volumes went through the Romanian border points of Vadul-Siret and Dyakovo.

Neste, French fuel supplier Altens and pipeline firm TRAPIL delivered up to 3.5M litres of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) by pipeline in France, Neste announced on 2 April. The HVO was delivered

12 OFI – JUNE 2022

Transport news May 2022.indd 2

Renewable diesel producer Neste said on 17 May that it is piloting a new co-processed marine fuel in Scandinavia with Nordic Marine Oil to help the maritime sector reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The company said the shipping industry accounted for 90% of world trade and 13% of global transport emissions, The co-processed marine fuel would be produced at Neste’s refinery in Porvoo, Finland, where renewable raw materials are co-processed with fossil raw materials. The drop-in fuel would be available at key ports across Denmark from Nordic Marine Oil, which specialises in the supply of bunker fuels and lubricating oil to the shipping industry. • A collaboration between

Photo: Adobe Stock

UKRAINE: Ukraine could face a storage shortfall of up to 20M tonnes due to damage to the domestic silo network, AgriCensus reported on 19 May. Total pre-war domestic storage capacity was an estimated 57-60M tonnes but large carryover of stocks from the 2021/22 marketing year due to Ukraine’s inability to export crops, and a decent crop forecast for this year, were forcing producers to turn to non-traditional storage methods at inland silos, including using silo bags.

Shipping accounts for 13% of global transport emissions

from Le Havre to Gennevilliers, near Paris, where Altens stores its products for the region. The delivery took less than 48 hours to complete and replaced 110 truck deliveries, Neste said.

Cargill buys land at port for crushing plant Canada’s Saskatchewan province has sold land at its inland port to global agribusiness giant Cargill for a canola crushing plant, the Saskatoon Star Phoenix reports. The Global Transportation Hub (GTH) authority in Regina,

Saskatchewan – one of Canada’s inland ports – sold the land to Cargill for US$38M, according to the 6 April report. Cargill announced plans for the new 1M tonnes/year canola plant last April, saying it expected to begin construction

this year with plans to become operational by early 2024. Alongside plans for the US$350M Regina canola plant, Cargill said it would also be updating its canola facilities in Camrose and Clavet to increase production. www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:02:46


MORE THAN ENERGY

Efficient high temperature energy solutions with steam and thermal oil. Services by GekaKonus: Engineering | Design | Consulting Commissioning | After Sales Service

GekaKonus GmbH · Siemensstraße 10 · D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen Tel.: +49 (0) 721 / 9 43 74 -0 · Fax: +49 (0) 7 21/ 9 43 74 - 44 · info@gekakonus.net · www.gekakonus.net

// THE NEW BENCHMARK IN EXTRACTING LIQUIDS SP340XP-1000 & SP280R HIGHER PERFORMANCE IN EXTRACTING OILSEEDS AND RENDERING PRODUCTS. • • • •

Process design Crude oil processing Pressing & Refining plants Screw presses

• • • •

Disc driers Sterilizers Meat slurry vessels Spare parts & Services

GET IN TOUCH WITH US! Phone +49 40 77179-0 E-Mail service-plt@hf-group.com

hf-press-lipidtech.com

www.ofimagazine.com

Member of the HF FoodTech Group hf-foodtechgroup.com

OFI – JUNE 2022

13


BIOTECH NEWS USA: Perdue AgriBusiness announced on 10 May that it had entered an agreement in which it will raise more sustainable poultry through improved soya genetics and feed quality using Zeakal’s PhotoSeed trait technology. Biotech firm Zeakal said its technology had been developed to increase photosynthetic capacity, converting more CO2 and sunlight into energy for the plant. In soyabeans, this had resulted in improved oil and protein content while improving the sustainability index of the crop, Zeakal said. Perdue is a leading poultry producer and soyabean processor and has more than 75M bushels of storage, a deep-water port, trans-loading facilities, oilseed crushing operations, an edible oil refinery and protein blend mills. EU: The European Commission (EC) approved two genetically engineered (GE) crops – one for soyabean and one for corn/maize – for food and animal feed on 19 May, the Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) wrote. Following publication in the European Union’s (EU) Official Journal on 20 May, the authorisations remain valid for 10 years and are applicable to food and feed for import and processing, with all products subject to the EU's strict labelling and traceability rules.

China approves Bioceres drought-resistant soya China has approved the import and use of Argentine biotechnology firm Bioceres Crop Solutions’s drought-resistant soyabean strain. Bioceres said in a 29 April statement that China’s Agriculture Ministry had approved the import and use as a raw material of soyabeans produced using its drought tolerance technology HB4. According to a Bloomberg report, HB4 is the first drought-resistant soyabean available to farmers and the endorsement from the world’s largest consumer of soyabeans paves its way for entry into a key market. HB4 had already been approved for growth and commercialisation in Brazil, Canada, Paraguay and the USA, while Argentina had

authorised the HB4 strain only for growth and consumption in 2015. “HB4 Soy is now approved for unrestricted growth and commercialisation in the United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, all together representing roughly 85% of the global soybean trade,” Bioceres said. “Before, there was a commercial risk that maybe the product would be rejected in China,” Bioceres CEO Federico Trucco. “Now, the approval allows our sale process to escalate.” Bioceres sees a total potential market for HB4 of 20M-25M ha in Argentina, Brazil and the USA, mostly in areas more affected by weather extremes, such as La Niña in Argentina and Brazil’s south, Bloomberg wrote.

Bunge and CoverCress launch new crop Global agribusiness giant Bunge and US pennycress start-up CoverCress Inc (CCI) have announced the launch of a new winter oilseed crop that fits into existing corn and soyabean rotations. A long-term commercial relationship between the two companies would support the expansion of CCI’s CoverCress technology, the firms said on 26 April. By using breeding and gene editing, CCI had converted field pennycress (pictured), a winter annual weed, into the new crop. Adding a new crop into rotation on existing land during winter could provide farmers with additional revenue while also providing cover, reducing nitrogen loss and improving overall soil health, according

Photo: Adobe Stock

IN BRIEF

Calyxt seedless hemp offered improved yields and quality to thesays companies. Chevron announced a joint

“We believe rotational cover crops will play a key role in our strategy in connection with our recently announced partnership with Chevron,” Bunge CEO Greg Heckman said. Bunge and US energy firm

venture on 2 May, called Bunge Chevron Ag Renewables, to develop renewable fuel feedstocks, with both firms acquiring an ownership stake in CCI before the announcment.

EU chemicals agency says glyphosate is not carcinogenic The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) published a risk assessment on 30 May saying the herbicide ingredient glyphosate does not cause cancer in humans, Politico reports. The agency's Committee for Risk Assessment found that “the available scientific evidence did not meet the criteria to classify glyphosate for specific target organ toxicity, or as a carcinogenic, mutagenic or 14 OFI – JUNE 2022

Biotech news June 2022.indd 2

reprotoxic substance”. The ECHA’s latest announcement did not deviate from its opinion in 2017, when it did not classify glyphosate as carcinogenic, Politico wrote, but it did say that glyphosate could cause serious eye damage and was toxic to aquatic life. The agency's opinion is set to influence the European Union’s (EU) decision to ban or reauthorise the herbicide for use, with

the European Commission (EC) expected to make a recommendation by July 2023 at the earliest, following delays, Politico wrote. In the USA, thousands of litigants have taken legal action alleging that their non-Hodgkins' lymphomas was caused by Roundup, a glyphosate-containing herbicide sold by global agrochemical company Monsanto and now owned by German chemicals giant Bayer. www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:07:31


PLANT, EQUIPMENT & TECHNOLOGY Argentina

Proglobal Juan Pablo II 6750, Rosario, Santa Fe Tel: +54 341 4544544 E-mail: grabois.rafael@proglobal.com www.proglobal.com

Austria Andritz AG Stattegger Strasse 18, Graz A-8045 Tel: +43 5 08 05/5 62 31 E-mail: separation@andritz.com www.andritz.com/separation * Anton Paar GmbH Anton-Paar-Strasse 20, 8054 Graz Tel: +43 316 257 1350 E-mail: info@anton-paar.com www.anton-paar.com BDI-BioEnergy International GmbH Parkring 18, Raaba-Grambach, Styria 8074 Tel: +43 316 4009100 E-mail: sales@bdi-bioenergy.com www.bdi-bioenergy.com GIG Karasek GmbH Neusiedlerstrasse 15-19 Gloggnitz, Lower Austria 2640 Tel: +43 2662 42780 E-mail: office@gigkarasek.at

www.ofimagazine.com

P&E listing 2022.indd 1

OFI 2022 plant & technology guide Oils & Fats International features a fully updated global selection of plant and equipment suppliers to the oils and fats industry, accompanied by a chart of company activities www.gigkarasek.com Other: Hydrogenation Kemia Handels und Projektierungs GmbH Hochheimg 20, Vienna 1130 Tel: +43 676 948 2223 E-mail: kondor@kemia.at www.kemia.at Other: Palm oil dynamic extraction, feedstock pre-treatment

Belgium

Desmet Ballestra Group - Oils, Fats and Oleochemicals Division Belgicastraat 3, B-1930 Zaventem Tel: +32 2 7161111

E-mail: info@desmetballestra.com www.desmetballestra.com Other: Biodiesel & HVO pre-treatment; biodiesel and FAME – transesterification, esterification, biofuel distillation. Glycerine purification; fatty acids; fatty alcohols (Davy Process technology) De Smet SA Engineers & Contractors Watson & Crick Hill - Building J Rue Granbonpré 11 - Box 8 B-1435 Mont-Saint-Guibert Tel: + 32 10 43 43 00 E-mail: info@dsengineers.com www.dsengineers.com Other: EPC/EPCM contractor

u

OFI – JUNE 2022 15

16/06/2022 10:25:08


PLANT, EQUIPMENT & TECHNOLOGY u Pattyn Belgium NV Hoge Hul 2 – 8000 Bruges Tel: +32 50 450 480 E-mail: info@pattyn.com www.pattyn.com

Bulgaria

Elica PROcessing 32 Haralampi Dzhamdziev St, Silistra 7500 Tel: +359 86 820 820 E-mail: k.radulov@elica-pro.com www.elica-pro.com Dehulling equipment

Canada

SOLEX Thermal Science Inc 250, 4720 - 106 Avenue SE, Calgary Alberta T2C 3G5. Tel: +1 403 254 3500 E-mail: info@solexthermal.com www.solexthermal.com Other: Pre-heaters, vertical plate conditioners and meal pellet coolers, conditioning systems

China

COFCOET No 186 Huihe Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214035 Tel: +86 15261581901 E-mail: chenyao@cofcoetint.com www.cofcoet.com Crown Asia Room 301, 18th Building, Innovation Base HUST Science Park, No.33 Tang Xum Hu Bei Road, Donghu High-Tech Zone Wuhan City, Hubei 430074 Tel: +86 27 6784 7531 E-mail: sales@crownironasia.com www.crownasia.com Other: Dehulling, plant protein concentrates, botanicals, nutraceuticals * FAMSUN Oils & Fats Engineering Co Ltd No 1 Huasheng Road Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225127 Tel: +86 514 87770799 E-mail: myoil@famsungroup.com www.famsun.com Other: White flakes, fermenting meal, full fat soya extrusion, silos, conveyors Guangzhou Scikoon Industry Co Ltd No 2 Xianke Yi Road, Guangzhou Huadu 510800. Tel: +86 20 39388895 E-mail: export@scikoon.com www.scikoon.com Other: Aspirator, cracking, flaking mill, counterflow cooler, conditioner, meal crusher, fluid bed dryer Myande Group Co Ltd 199 South Ji’An Road Yangzhou City 225127, Jiangsu Province Tel: +86 514 87849111 E-mail: info@myande.com www.myandegroup.com 16 OFI – JUNE 2022

P&E listing 2022.indd 2

Czech Republic

Farmet AS Jirinková 276, Ceská Skalice 55203 Tel: +420 491 450 116 E-mail: oft@farmet.cz www.farmet.eu Other: Hexane free oilseeds and vegetable oil processing technologies. Feed extrusion, feed milling technologies

Denmark

* GEA Process Engineering A/S Gladsaxevej 305, Soeborg 2860 Tel: +45 21296867 E-mail: steen.lassen@gea.com www.gea.com Other: Vacuum and dry condensing systems Gerstenberg Services AS Vibeholmsvej 21, Brøndby 2605 Tel: +45 43432026 E-mail: mgn@gerstenbergs.com www.gerstenbergs.com Other: Hyrodgenation, margarine production plant * Haarslev Industries AS Bogensevej 85 Søndersø 5471 Tel: +45 63831100 E-mail: info@haarslev.com www.haarslev.com SPX Flow Technology Danmark AS Oestmarken 7, Soeborg DK, 2860 Tel: +45 70278222 E-mail: gs.dk.sales@spxflow.com www.spxflow.com Other: Butter equipment; emulsifying systems for mayonnaise, dressings and sauces; margarine/shortening process lines; sugar fat/ cream filling process lines; CIP Plant.

France

Olexa 47 Alleé d’Irlande Z.A.C B.P 42015, 62060 Arras Tel: +33 21 55 36 00 E-mail: hello@olexapress.com www.olexapress.com Other: Turnkey plants, cookers, screw presses, spare parts, services * Promill RN 12, Serville 28410. Tel: +33 2 37389193 E-mail: info@promill.fr www.promill.fr * Serac 12 route de Mamers 72400 La Ferté-Bernard. Tel: +33 2 43 60 28 28 E-mail: facheriaux@serac.fr www.serac-group.com

Germany

Air Liquide Engineering & Construction Olof Palme Strasse 35, Frankfurt, 60439 Tel: +49 69 58080 E-mail: green-chemicals-fuels@air-liquide. com www.engineering-airliquide.com/ green-chemicals-fuels Other: HVO pretreatment, HVO/renewable diesel/renewable jet fuel, fatty alcohol, bio propylene glycol, green chemicals, proprietary equipment B+B Engineering GmbH Otto-von-Guericke-Str 50 D-39104 Magdeburg Tel: +49 391 5054 995-0 E-mail: info@b-b-engineering.de www.b-b-engineering.de Other: Turnkey contractor; vegetable oil refining technologies (hydration, degumming, neutralisation, bleaching, deodorisation), turnkey plants; pilot plants, SKID-mounted refineries, lecithin drying plants, rapeseed dehulling process, utility generation and distribution systems, energy recovery systems Bruker Biospin GmbH Rudolf-Plank Str. 23, 76275 Ettlingen, Tel: +49 721 5161 6500 E-mail: info@bruker.com www.bruker.com Other: Benchtop instruments for quality control: Solid fat content, total fat, crystallisation analysis, oxidation and freshness monitoring Buss-SMS-Canzler GmbH Kaiserstrasse 13-15, Butzbach, 35510 Tel: +49 6033 850 E-mail: info@sms-vt.com www.sms-vt.com Other: Equipment to process monoglyceride, fish oil, omega-3, lecithin and Vitamin E: thin film evaporators, short path evaporators, molecular distillation, thin film dryers Centrimax – Winkelhorst Trenntechnik GmbH Kelvinstrasse 8, Cologne 50996 Tel: +49 2236 393530 E-mail: info@centrimax.com www.centrimax.com * GEA Westfalia Separator Group GmbH Werner-Habig-Strasse 1 Oelde 59302 Tel: +49 2522 770 E-mail: www.gea.com/contact www.gea.com Other: Miscella clarification, aquaeous extraction, press oil clarification, soap stock splitting, alkali neutralisation and fractionation, dewaxing, centrifugal separators and decanters www.ofimagazine.com

16/06/2022 10:25:08


PLANT & TECHNOLOGY * GEA Wiegand GmbH Am Hardtwald 1, 76275 Ettlingen Tel: +49 7243 7050; E-mail: chemical@gea.com www.gea.com Other: Evaporation and distillation plants GekaKonus GmbH Siemensstrasse 10, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen 76344 Tel: +49 721 943740 E-mail: info@gekakonus.net www.gekakonus.net

Clean and ef ficient vacuum systems for refining and deodorising

HF Press+LipidTech (member of the HF FoodTech Group) Schlachthofstrasse 22, 21079 Hamburg Tel: +49 40 77 179-0 E-mail: service-plt@hf-group.com www.hf-press-lipidtech.com Other: Oilseed processing, refining, screw presses, plant engineering, rendering, biomass technology, storage tanks, process tanks, multichamber tanks HTI-GESAB Hoch-Temperatur Industrieanlagen GmbH Sauerbruchstrasse 11, Ellerau Schleswig-Holstein 25479 Tel: +49 4106 70090 E-mail: info@hti-ellerau.de www.hti-ellerau.de INTEC Engineering GmbH John-Deere-Strasse 43, Bruchsal D-76646 Tel: +49 7251 9324312 E-mail: christian.daniel@intec-energy.de www.intec-energy.de Other: Biomass- and coal-fired heat, supply and power plants, sludge drying and incineration systems, ORC-based power generation modules, thermal oil heaters, steam generators

• Ice Condensation • Alkaline Closed Loop

Körting Hannover GmbH Badenstedter Str 56, Hannover 30453 Tel: +49 511 2129-0. E-mail: sales@koerting.de www. koerting.de/en/

both systems with clean cooling tower

Maschinenfabrik Reinartz GmbH & Co KG Industriestrasse 14, Neuss 41460 Tel: + 49 2131 9761-0. E-mail: info@reinartz.de www.reinartz.de Other: Screw presses, screw dryers, seed conditioning, oil storage, animal feed and bioenergy production oilRoq GmbH Pfaennerhoehe 35, Halle, Sachsen-Anhalt 06110 Tel: +49 345 68578071 E-mail: sales@oilroq.eu www.oilroq.eu Other: Bleaching, esterification, edible oleochemical hydrogenation, metallic candle filter Rono Maschinenbau GmbH Ringstrasse 6, Selmsdorf 23923 Tel: + 49 38823 54480 E-mail: info@ro-no.de www.ro-no.com Other: End user processes/equipment for various spreads, pastry and bakery products, wafer cream, mayonnaise, ketchup and gelatine. CIP systems, skid units, continuous melting systems u www.ofimagazine.com

P&E listing 2022.indd 3

OFI – JUNE 2022

17

+49 511 2129-306

|

sales@koerting.de

|

koerting.de

16/06/2022 10:25:09


PLANT, EQUIPMENT & TECHNOLOGY u

VTA Verfahrenstechnische Anlagen GmbH & Co. KG Bernrieder Strasse 10 Niederwinkling; 94559 Tel: +49 9962 95980 E-mail: info@vta-process.de www.vta-process.de Other: Thin film, wiped film and short path distillation; thin film deodorisation

India

Kumar Metal Industries Pvt Ltd Plot No 7, Mira Co-Op Industrial Estate Mira Road, Thane, Maharashtra 401104 Tel: +91 22 28458300 E-mail: info@kumarmetal.com www.kumarmetal.com Other: Mechanical/speciality extraction, deacidification, dewaxing, soap noodles plant, acid oil, screw/chain conveyors, thermic fluid heater, high pressure thermosiphon, rengenerative heat exchangers, feed mill process Mectech Process Engineers Pvt Ltd 366, Phase 2, Gurgaon, 122 016, Haryana Tel: +91 124 4700800 E-mail: info@mectech.co.in www.mectech.co.in Other: Hydrogenation and IE plants, gravity and candle filters Sharplex Filters (India) Pvt Ltd R-664, Rabale MIDC, Navimumbai Maharashtra 400701 Tel: +91 9136921232-39/+91 22 27696322/31/39 E-mail: sales@sharplexfilters.com www.sharplexfilters.com Other: Process filtration equipment, candle & polishing bag filters, tubular centrifuges United Engineering (Eastern) Corporation LLP Plot 75, Sector 3, IMT Manesar Gurgaon Haryana 122051 Tel: +91 1244273011 E-mail: sales@uec-india.com www.uec-india.com Other: Screw presses, complete turnkey seed processing and pressing plants, seed conditioning, dewatering processes, animal feed, spares and services

Florence, Tuscany, 50041 Tel: +39 055 44870 E-mail: info@andreottiimpianti.com www.andreottiimpianti.com Other: Plants for oilseeds, edible oils and oleochemicals

Aman Batu 11, Desa Aman Sungai Buloh, Selangor 47000 Tel: +6012 6729683 E-mail: michaelchan@besteerlberhad.com www.besteelberhad.com Other: Turnkey contractor for palm oil mills

Binacchi & Co Via Gramsci 84, Varese, Gazzada Schianno 21045 Tel: +39 0332 461354 E-mail: mail@binacchi.com www.binacchi.com Other: Liquids (oils, detergent) bottling lines

* EMEC Packaging Solutions Sdn Bhd PT 13532, Jalan Bating Pandamaran 42000 Pelabuhan Klang Selangor Darul Ehsan Tel: +603 3168 6300 / 3165 1344 E-mail: info@emec-corp.com www.emec-corp.com

CMB SpA Via Appia km 55900, Cisterna di Latina LT 04012 Tel: +39 06 96871028 E-mail: info@cmb.it www.cmb.it Other: Oil hydrogenation, plants for oilseed preparation, extraction, refinery, oleochemical; fatty acids dry fractionation plant; 1st & 2nd generation biodiesel & glycerine refining; semi-continuous hydrogenation; POME treatment; HVO pretreatment; methyl ester distillation; ultraneutralising process; soap stock splitting; ice condensing systems, wiped film evaporators; fatty acids hardening

INTEC Energy Systems Sdn Bhd 6F-21, IOI Business Park Bandar Puchong Jaya 47170 Puchong, Selangor Tel: +603 5891 6642 E-mail: yap.fw@intec-energy.de or asyraf. ghazali@intec-energy.de www.intec-energy.com Other: Biomass- and coal-fired energy and power plants, sludge drying and incineration systems, ORC-based power generation modules, thermal oil heaters, steam generators, solid fuel firing systems, waste heat boilers

* Desmet Ballestra SpA – Detergents, Surfactants and Chemicals Division Via Piero Portaluppi 17, 20138 Milano Tel: +39 02 50831 E-mail: mail@ballestra.com www.desmetballestra.com Macfuge Servizi Industriali Srl Via Marie Curie 19, Ozzano Dell’Emilia Bologna 40064 Tel: +39 051 795080 E-mail: macfuge@macfuge.com www.macfuge.com

Veendeep Oiltek Exports Pvt Ltd N-16/17/18 Additional MIDC Patalganga Maharastra 410207 Tel: +91 9769315463 E-mail: pmbhandari@veendeep.com www.veendeep.com

TECHNOILOGY Via D. Federici 12/14 04012 Cisterna di Latina, Lazio Tel: +39 06 9696181 E-mail: info@technoilogy.it www.technoilogy.it Other: Vegetable oil extraction and refining; advanced technology to mitigate 3-MCPD & GE in infant formula and food grade products; fat processing; oleochemicals; biodiesel production; waste oil advanced pre-treatment for biofuel production; used mineral oil re-refining; lab analysis & process development; process & product testing on pilot plants

Italy

Malaysia

Andreotti Impianti Spa Via Di Le Prata 148, Calenzano 18 OFI – JUNE 2022

P&E listing 2022.indd 4

* Besteel Berhad Lot 9683 Kawasan Perindustrian Desa

JJ-Lurgi Engineering Sdn Bhd No 7-13A-01, Level 13A Jebsen & Jessen Tower UOA Business Park (Tower 7), Jalan Pengaturcara U1/51A Seksyen U1 Shah Alam Selangor 40150 Tel: +60 3 50306363 E-mail: jj-lurgi_enquiry@jjsea.com www.jj-lurgi.com Muar Ban Lee Group JR52, Lot 1818, Jalan Raja, Kawasan Perindustrian Bukit Pasir Muar, 84300 Johor. Tel: +60 6 9859998 E-mail: mbl@mbl.com www.mbl.com Other: Methane biogas capture plant, waste water treatment * Oiltek Sdn Bhd Lot 6, Jalan Pasaran 23/5 Kaw Miel Phase 10 40300 Shah Alam, Selangor Tel: +603 554 28288 E-mail: oiltek@oiltek.com.my www.oiltek.com.my Other: Bulking installation heating systems

The Netherlands

CPM Europe BV Rijder 2, Zaandam, 1507 DN Tel: +31 75 6512 611 E-mail: info@cpmeurope.nl www.cpmeurope.nl Other: Plant protein concentrates, botanicals, nutraceuticals www.ofimagazine.com

16/06/2022 10:25:10


PLANT, EQUIPMENT & TECHNOLOGY Filtration Group BV – Amafilter Hanzeweg 21, 7241 CS Lochem Tel: +31 573 297 777 E-mail: info.fgnl@filtrationgroup.com www.amafiltration.com Other: Cricketfilter, pressure leaf filter elements, vertical/horizontal pressure leaf filter systems

www.buss-ct.com Other: Hydrogenation process design

Geelen Counterflow Windmolenven 43, Haelen 6081 PJ Tel: +31 475 592315 E-mail: info@geelencounterflow.com www.geelencounterflow.com Other: Coolers and dryers

Turkey

Niverplast BV Baruch Spinozastraat 2 Nijverdal, Overijssel 7442 PD Tel: +31 548 538 380 E-mail: sales@niverplast.com www.niverplast.com

Serbia

T-1 Abraziv doo Sencanski put bb, 24430 Ada Tel: +381 24 854585 E-mail: sales@t-1.rs www.screw-presses.com Other: Screw presses, spare parts, refurbishing

Singapore

LIPICO Technologies Pte Ltd 61 Bukit Batok Crescent #06-03 to #06-06 Heng Loong Building 658078 Tel: +65 631 67800 E-mail: sg.enquiry@lipico.com www.lipico.com

Sweden

Alfa Laval Corporate AB Rudeboksvägen 1, SE-226 55 Lund, Skåne Tel: +46 46 36 65 00 E-mail: alfa.laval@alfalaval.com www.alfalaval.com

Switzerland

Bühler AG Gupfenstrasse 5, Uzwil, St Gallen 9240 Tel: +41 71 9551111 E-mail: media@buhlergroup.com www.buhlergroup.com Other: Cracking/flaking mills, vertical seed conditioners, horizontal and vertical impact dehullers and hammer mills, fluidising beds, bagging stations, chain conveyors, ship loaders/unloaders, filters, throw & drum sieves, hull separators, drum magnets, cylindrical case aspirators Buss ChemTech AG Hohenrainstrasse 12A, Pratteln 4133 Tel: +41 61 8256462 E-mail: info@buss-ct.com www.ofimagazine.com

P&E listing 2022.indd 5

Sulzer Chemtech Ltd Neuwiesenstrasse 15, Winterthur 8401 Zürich. Tel: +41 52 2623722 E-mail: chemtech@sulzer.com www.sulzer.com

Keller & Vardarci Industries Ltd Sti Cinar Sok No 12 Ege Serbest Bolgesi Gaziemir, Izmir 35410 Tel: +90 232 4784814 E-mail: info@keller-vardarci.com www.keller-vardarci.com Other: Cottonseed delinting machinery, equipment for oil crushing mills. For all other oilseeds: seed cleaners, dehullers, oil presses, cookers, screens, filter presses, spare parts for oil crushing mills, turnkey project equipment

United Arab Emirates

Metan FZCO Office 2203, Jafza View 18, Jebel Ali Dubai 61389, Tel: +971 4 8895657 E-mail: m@.metan.ae www.metan.ae

United Kingdom

Chemtech – TMCI Padovan Spa Crown House, 1A High Street Theale, Berkshire RG5 7AH Tel: +44 1189 861 222 E-mail: sales@chemtechinternational.com https://chemtech-division.com/en/ Crown Europe - Europa Crown Waterside Park, Livingstone Road Hessle, East Yorkshire HU13 0EG Tel: +44 1482 640099 E-mail: sales@europacrown.com www.europacrown.com Other: Plant protein concentrates, botanicals, nutraceuticals De Smet Rosedowns Cannon Street, Hull, HU2 OAD Tel: +44 1482 329864 Email: sales@rosedowns.co.uk www.rosedowns.co.uk Oxford Instruments Halifax Road, High Wycombe, HP12 3SE Tel: +44 1494 442255 E-mail: magres@oxinst.com http://nmr.oxinst.com

USA

Anderson International Corp 4545 Boyce Parkway, Stow, Ohio 44224 Tel: +1 216 6411112 E-mail: eric.stibora@andersonintl.com www.andersonintl.com

Crown Global Companies - Crown Iron CPM 9879 Naples Street NE, Blaine MN 55449 Tel: +1 651 639 8900 E-mail: sales@crowniron.com www.crowniron.com Other: Plant protein concentrates, botanicals and nutraceuticals * French Oil Mill Machinery Company 1035 W Greene Street, PO Box 920 Piqua, Ohio 45356 Tel: +1 937 7733420 E-mail: oilseedsales@frenchoil.com www.frenchoil.com Other: Mechanical screw presses, conditioners/cookers, animal feed, rate bins, oil settling tanks, oil filters, cleaners, cake coolers, roller mills and performance trial testing * Myers Vacuum 1155 Myers Lane, Kittanning, PA 16201 Tel: +1 724 545 8331 Email: dymers@myers-vacuum.com www.myers-vacuum.com Nel Hydrogen 10 Technology Drive, Wallingford Connecticut. CT 06492 Tel: +1 203 949 8697 E-mail: info@nelhydrogen.com www.nelhydrogen.com * Pope Scientific Inc 351 N. Dekora Woods Blvd Saukville. Wisconsin 53080 Tel: +1 262 2689300 E-mail: dsegal@popeinc.com www.popeinc.com Other: Degassers, evaporators, reactors, foods, flavours, fragrances, portable vessels, pilot plants and turnkey processing systems, Nutsche filter-dryers The Dupps Company 548 North Cherry Street Germantown, Ohio 45327-0189 Tel: +1 937 8556555 E-mail: info@dupps.com www.dupps.com Other: Rendering equipment, process drying, oilseed screw press, rotary drum dryers, airless dryers ● The above companies are a selection of plant, equipment and technology suppliers to the oils and fats industry who have replied to an Oils & Fats International questionnaire this year. Please refer to ‘Summary Table of Company Activities’ chart for companies’ areas of operation. ‘Other’ refers to other activities selected in the accompanying chart * Denotes entries from 2021 OFI – JUNE 2022

19

16/06/2022 10:25:10


Plant & technology chart 2022: Sum

/ EXPERIENCED PROJECT EXECUTION / EFFICIENT CUSTOMER SERVICE

GLOBAL SOLUTIONS PROVIDER FOR THE INDUSTRIES OF

FOOD, FEED & BIOFUEL

Screens & filtration Other equipment

desmetballestra.com

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

Storage & handling

Y

Refining

Extraction

/ PRODUCT PROCESSING EXPERTISE

Hydrogenation

/ R&D AND INNOVATION

PROCESS PLANT & EQUIPMENT

/ EXPERIENCE AND LEADERSHIP

End user processes/equipment

Leading Oils & Fats Technologies

Oilseed crushing mills Solvent extraction Fish oil/meal processing Rendering/fat melting plant Pelleting mills Dehulling & Other Degumming Winterising Crystallisation Oil distillation/fractionation Alkali & physical refining Interesterification Miscella refining Deodorisers Bleachers Oil dryers Fat splitting Fatty acid distillation/fractionation Other Hydrogen generators Hydrogen systems

   

 

               

            

*Denote entries from 2021

China

SOLEX Thermal Science

Canada

Elica-elevator

Bulgaria

Pattyn Belgium

De Smet Engineers & Contractors

Desmet Ballestra Group

                    

                 

 

Other Cooking/salad oils Butter formulation Shortening/margarine production Vitamin E production Lecithin production Suplhonation Ethoxylation/propoxylation Detergent formulation Detergent production Soap production Soap finishing Cosmetics production Glycerine refining Fatty acid derivatives Pharmaceuticals Biodiesel/methyl ester Other Pneumatic conveyors Belt conveyors Vibratory conveyors Slatted conveyors Elevators Loading arms/chutes Auger feeders Storage silos Storage tanks Other Screens Centrifugal separators Gravity separators Magnetic separators Membrane separators Filter presses Pressure leaf filters Other Packing equipment Instrumentation Pumps/fluid handling Vacuum systems/ejectors Process heating systems Steam boilers Thermal oil heaters Heat recovery systems Other

Belgium

Kemia Handels-und Projektierungs

GIG Karasek

BDI-BioEnergy International

Anton Paar*

15:23

Austria: Andritz

15/06/2022

Proglobal

1

Argentina

AW_DB_AD_OFI_HP_87x265_SPONSOR_V1.pdf

                  

   

    

 

 

 

            

                                              

  

        

    

      

 

 


OLEOCHEMICALS Methylesters • Glycerine • Biodiesel Fatty Acids • Fatty Alcohols

                                         

        

        

      

                     

 

  

 

   

 

  

 

  

 

 

          

 

VTA Verfahrenstechnische Anlagen

      

  

 

    

     

 

   

       

Rono Maschinenbau

 

       

Other

      

  

   

    

oilRoq

Maschinenfabrik Reinartz

Körting Hannover

INTEC Engineering

HTI-GESAB

HF Press+LipidTech

GekaKonus

GEA Wiegand*

GEA Westfalia Separator Group*

   

        

  

  

 

  

                 

         

    

   

             

     

Cooking/salad oils Butter formulation Shortening/margarine production Vitamin E production Lecithin production Sulphonation Ethoxylation/propoxylation Detergent formulation Detergent production Soap production Soap finishing Cosmetics production Glycerine refining Fatty acid derivatives Pharmaceuticals Biodiesel/methyl ester Other Pneumatic conveyors Belt conveyors Vibratory conveyors Slatted conveyors Elevators Loading arms/chutes Auger feeders Storage silos Storage tanks Other Screens Centrifugal separators Gravity separators Magnetic separators Membrane separators Filter presses Pressure leaf filters Other Packing equipment Instrumentation Pumps/fluid handling Vacuum systems/ejectors Process heating systems Steam boilers Thermal oil heaters Heat recovery systems Other

Extraction

Refining

  

Hydrogenation

    

 

PROCESS PLANT & EQUIPMENT

              

End user processes/equipment

 

Science behind Technology

Storage & handling

           

Centrimax-Winkelhorst Trenntechnik

Buss-SMS-Canzler

Bruker Biospin

B+B Engineering

   

          

Air Liquide Engineering & Consstruction

   

    

 

Screens & filtration

 

Oilseed crushing mills Solvent extraction Fish oil/meal processing Rendering/fat melting plant Pelleting mills Other  Degumming  Winterising  Crystallisation  Oil distillation/fractionation   Alkali & physical refining  v2-87x265General-OFI-2015.indd 1Interesterification  Miscella refining Deodorisers   Bleachers   Oil dryers   Fat splitting  Fatty acid distillation/fractionation   Other   Hydrogen generators Hydrogen systems  

      

Germany

Serac*

Promill*

Olexa

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

France

SPX Flow Technology Danmark

Haarslev Industries*

Gerstenberg Services

GEA Process Engineering*

Denmark

Farmet

Czech Republic

    

Other equipment

           

Myande Group

                 

Guangzhou Scikoon Industry

Crown Asia

                 

FAMSUN Oils&Fats Engineering*

COFCOET

mmary table of company activities


Other equipment

Screens & filtration

ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT

Storage & handling

Hydrogenati on & EQUIPMENT End user processes/equipment PROCESS PLANT

PROCESS PLANT & EQIUPMENT

Refining

Hydrogen systems

             

                                

    

Suplhonation Ethoxylation/propoxylation Detergent formulation Detergent production Soap finishing Cosmetics production Glycerine refining Fatty acid derivatives Pharmaceuticals Biodiesel/methyl ester Other Pneumatic conveyors Belt conveyors Vibratory conveyors Slatted conveyors Elevators Loading arms/chutes Auger feeders Storage silos Storage tanks Other Screens Centrifugal separators Gravity separators Magnetic separators Membrane separators Filter presses Pressure leaf filters Other Packing equipment Instrumentation Pumps/fluid handling Vacuum systems/ejectors Process heating systems Steam boilers Thermal oil heaters Heat recovery systems Other

*Denote entries from 2021

    

    

   

    

                    

     

                   

       

    

   

    

  

                             

                          

           

      

           

 

 

               

 

    

       

       

  

    

 

                         

     

 

    

      

      

       

       

           

   

Turkey: Keller & Vardarci Industries

Sulzer Chemtech

Buss ChemTech

Bühler

Switzerland

Sweden: Alfa Laval Corporate

LIPICO Technologies

 

 

   

 

 

 

  

Singapore

           

   

 

           

  

T-1 Abraziv doo

  

               

           

Serbia

Niverplast

Geelen Counterflow

Filtration Group BV-Amafilter

CPM Europe

  

Netherlands

 

Oiltek*

INTEC Energy Systems

Malaysia

TECHNOILOGY

Macfuge Servizi Industriali

Desmet Ballestra

CMB SpA

                

     

 

  

  

Soap production

Binnachi & Co

Andreotti Impianti

                     

Other Cooking/salad oils Butter formulation Shortening/margarine production Vitamin E production Lecithin production

Italy

Vendeep Oiltek Exports

United Engineering (Eastern) Corp

Sharplex Filters

Metech Process Engineers

Kumar Metal Industries

  

Muar Ban Lee Group

Oilseed crushing mills Solvent extraction Fish oil/meal processing Rendering/fat melting plant Pelleting mills Dehulling & Other Degumming Winterising Crystallisation Oil distillation/fractionation Alkali & physical refining Interesterification Miscella refining Deodorisers Bleachers Oil dryers Fat splitting Fatty acid distillation/fractionation Other Hydrogen generators

JJ-Lurgi Engineering

Extraction

India

Plant & technology chart 2022: Sum

     

 

 

 

 

 

       

     

  

       

 

       

 

 

 

      


OLEOCHEMICALS Methylesters • Glycerine • Biodiesel Fatty Acids • Fatty Alcohols

           

Solvent extraction

Pelleting mills

 Other

       v2-87x265General-OFI-2015.indd 1         

 

 

Degumming Winterising Crystallisation Oil distillation/fractionation Alkali & physical refining Interesterification Miscella refining Deodorisers Bleachers Oil dryers Fat splitting Fatty acid distillation/fractionation Other Hydrogen generators Hydrogen systems Other

  

                                           

                                                                                  

Extraction

Fish oil/mealbehind processing Technology  Science  Rendering/fat melting plant

 

Cooking/salad oils Butter formulation Shortening/margarine production Vitamin E production Lecithin production

Sulphonation Ethoxylation/propoxylation Detergent formulation Detergent production Soap production

   

    

   

15/06/2022

The Dupps Company

Pope Scientific*

Nel Hydrogen

Myers Vacuum*

French Oil Mill Machinery*

Soap finishing Cosmetics production Glycerine refining Fatty acid derivatives Pharmaceuticals Biodiesel/methyl ester Other Pneumatic conveyors Belt conveyors Vibratory conveyors Slatted conveyors Elevators Loading arms/chutes Auger feeders Storage silos Storage tanks Other Screens Centrifugal separators Gravity separators Magnetic separators Membrane separators Filter presses Pressure leaf filters Other Packing equipment Instrumentation Pumps/fluid handling Vacuum systems/ejectors Process heating systems Steam boilers Thermal oil heaters Heat recovery systems Other

Refining

         

 Oilseed crushing mills

Global Technology provider for Food, Feed & Biofuel 4/30/15 10:34 AM PREPARATION

Cleaning / Cracking / Dehulling Conditioning / Flaking / Expanding

PRESSING Hydrogenation

C

M

Y

CM

End user processes/equipment

    

1

MY

CY

CMY

K

Full Pressing / Prepressing

EXTRACTION

Extractors / Desolventing Toasting Distillation / Solvent Recovery

REFINING

Degumming / Neutralising / Bleaching Winterising / Deodorising

FAT MODIFICATION

Fractionation / Hydrogenation / Interesterification

OLEOCHEMICALS

Methylesters / Glycerine / Biodiesel Fatty Acids / Fatty Alcohols Storage & handling

Crown Global Compaies, Crown Iron, CPM

Anderson International Corp

  

Screens & filtration

USA

Oxford Instruments

De Smet Rosedowns

Crown Europe – Europa Crown

Chemtech – TMCI Padovan

    

AW_DB_AD_OFI_HP_87x265_GENERAL_V1.pdf

Other equipment

 

United Kingdom

Metan FZCO

UAE

mmary table of company activities

desmetballestra.com

GLOBAL SOLUTIONS PROVIDER FOR THE INDUSTRIES OF

FOOD, FEED & BIOFUEL

15:17


BLEACHING EARTHS

Filtration is an important step in the bleaching process of edible oils which depends on factors such as the oil being processed, bleaching temperature, the amount of impurities in the oil and the type of bleaching earths and filtration aids used Rick Veldkamp Filtration is an important step in the bleaching process of edible oils and is an intensive operation in terms of manual activity and constant surveillance by operators. The length of the filtration cycle is critical and is dependant on the oil being processed, the bleaching earth used, bleaching temperature, and the amount of soaps, gums and moisture in the oil. The frequency of filter changes affects the cost of bleaching, with a longer filter cycle lowering the cost. A pre-coating agent will extend filtration cycles and reduces stress on filter screens, minimising their chemical cleaning. Filter aids also allow less frequent changes of polishing filters and can enhance filter cake release.

Filter selection and size

Selecting and sizing filters is based on the bleaching process, the solids that have 20 OFI – JUNE 2022

Bleaching earths filtration June 2022.indd 2

Photo: Adobe Stock

Optimising filtration to be moved, and capital and operational expenditures. Feedstocks before filtration will contain certain pollutants including 0.1% H20. The water is evaporated during vacuum bleaching and other contaminants like phosphatides will be removed with the bleaching clay. In physically refined oil, the maximum phosphatide level should not exceed 25ppm. Caustic or chemically refined oil should be filtered with a maximum of 0.1% H2O, 25ppm soap and 5ppm phosphatides. Contaminant levels have a significant effect on filterability and even more on the frequency of washing filter leaves. In all cases, it is important that when choosing a filter type and supplier, a dedicated design that uses only a specific clay, adsorbent, filter aid or filter that makes the use of other products impossible should be avoided.

screen or cloth. Below 0.3% solids, a precoat or body feed is required. The flow rate ranges from 0.02-2.5m3/m2/h. Polishing/police filters are safety filters which inform the processor that the main filtration is working correctly. They can have disposable elements such as bags or cartridges for applications with around 1-100ppm solids and work most economically at <25ppm solids. There are good reasons to avoid or minimise the use of disposable elements as replacing bags, cartridges or paper sheets requires the filter to be opened, which requires operator time to change them and can also result in health/quality issues. Bags and catridges will also be soaked in oil, resulting in oil loss. The answer are pulse type filters using filter cloths as the filter media, which can be retained for 12-24 months.

Filtration options

In the bleaching process of edible, vegetable, animal and fish oils, there has been a continuous quest for improved performance, bigger filters and higher yields. In the early stages of oil bleaching, such as Hercules filtration in 1939, the industry was already focused on lowering bleaching clay consumption or obtaining better yields from clays. Refining and removal of the substances that caused high clay consumption were the first improvements and major steps were also made with improved designs of centrifuges used in refining. The relation between the presence of  factors – such as phosphatides, soap,

Filtration options can be divided into continuous filters (centrifuges and decanters, vacuum belt filters, vacuum drum filters, continuous settlers, hydro cyclones and belt presses) (see Figure 1, p22) and discontinuous filters (sand and media filters, filter presses, cartridge, bag and other disposable element filters, pressure leaf/tube type filters and single plate Nutsch filters) (see Figure 2, p22). Process filters (pressure leaf or tube filters) (see Figure 3, p22) can be used for applications ranging from 0.001-5% solids, up to a maximum of 15%. With 0.3% solids or higher, oil can be filtered directly on

Choice of bleaching systems

www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:13:20


TRADITION IS GOOD,

INNOVATION IS BETTER

Revolutionary cost-benefit

in bleaching oils and fats


Continuous - Centrifuges /Decanters

Source: PMI-Tech (Europe) BV

Discontinuous – Pressure leaf or tube type filters For batch or continues process

7

Vertical Tank Process Filters Double cake discharge vibrators For leaf filters 78m2 and above

Pulse Filter 2.5 – 100 m2

Leaf Filter 5.0 – 125 m2

(up to 200 candles)

(150m2) (up to 24 leaves)

Standard Continuous Bleaching

12

Figure 3: Process (pressure leaf or tube) filters

BLEACHING EARTH

BLEACHING FILTER

BLEACHING FILTER

POLISHING FILTERS

SLURRY TANK

VACUUM BLEACHER

STORAGE

SPENT EARTH

Figure 4: Standard continuous bleaching 22 OFI – JUNE 2022

Bleaching earths filtration June 2022.indd 3

SPENT EARTH

Source: PMI-Tech (Europe) BV

Discontinuous / Batch – (membrane) Filter Press

Source: PMI-Tech (Europe) BV

6

Figure 1: Continuous – centrifuges/decanters

Figure 2: Discontinuous filters

 free fatty acids (FFAs), sulphur, oxidation products and moisture – and bleaching and filter performance paved the way for better bleaching clays. Acid-activated clays became the standard. The addition of water in the initial stages of the leaching process was a major breakthrough in the late 1970s. Removal of residual oil from bleaching clays was the next move with the introduction of ‘Thompson Washing’ – the washing with hot water of filter cake after completion of the filter cycle resulted in 10-12% residual oil. However, this was a messy and expensive process to run. It was the tallow/soap industries that had to deal with poor feedstocks and they discovered that if bleaching clay could be used two to three times more efficiently, there was still 40-50% residual bleaching strength left in the clay. However, it was quickly discovered that if the clay-loaded filter cake/residue was shifted to the feed of the bleacher, only very short filtration times could be achieved because the substances that needed to be removed – such as phosphatides, soap and oxidation products – resulted in almost instant blockage of the clay layer. This, however, would become the most efficient way to work with improved adsorbents. The counter-current bleaching process is another variation in the more efficient use of bleaching clay (see Figure 5, p24). The secret in this process is the avoidance of any contact between the used clay with air or moisture before it is re-introduced in a second bleacher. This way the oil is in contact with the clay twice and up to 40% clay reduction can be achieved with high clay-consuming oils such as coconut, palm and rapeseed. US speciality chemicals firm WR Grace, then promoted the use of silica under the name of Trisyl. Initially silica was added to conventional clay but, at later stages, the best results were obtained when the feedstock was bleached under atmospheric conditions at no more than 700C. Trisyl was used to remove the majority of gums (phosphatides), soap and oxidation products before the actual bleaching process. If the conventional bleaching clay was limited on the filter, and the filter was used for pre-bleaching, this layer removed the solids, substantially lowering the amount of potential clay used. The system became known as Tri-Clear (WR Grace), Combiclean (Desmet Ballestra) or DoublePass Bleaching (Crown Iron Works) and is the most commonly used industry system today (see Figure 6, p24). 28 The use of different processes and

Source: PMI-Tech (Europe) BV

BLEACHING EARTHS

www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:13:22


Process Aids

BLEACHING EARTHS

For vegetable and animal oils and fats

Selecting the right filter screen

When selecting a screen for bleached oil filtration, it is important to remember that it is not the screen which is doing the filtering, but the initial layer of clay or precoat. The screen only supports this first layer of solids but it plays a very important role. The refiner’s nightmare is to have found the most optimal bleaching clay only to find out it will not filter properly. The most common filter screens for oils and fats filtration are the Reversed Plain Dutch Weave (PZ-80 RPDW), the Plain Dutch Weave (PDW) and the Square Weave (60 mesh SW) (see Figure 7, p24). The Square Weave has the highest permeability, with a low blockage tendency and easy cake drop and is clean after cake discharge. For the PZ-80 RPDW and PDW, a filter aid pre-coat is optional, but for the 60 mesh SW, a filter aid pre-coat is necessary at a rate of 0.5-1kg of dry filter aid per square metre of filter area. The pre-coat prevents the screen from coming into contact with the bleaching clay and possible gluey or slimy solids in the bleached oil. This will make vibrationdriven cake discharge easier, and less frequent fouling of filter leaves and subsequent washing. Dirty filter screens result in unevenly formed filter cakes, poor filter performance, higher consumption of processing aids, and therefore higher product losses. Dirty filter screens are the result of over-drying of filter cakes. This leads to blocking of filter screens with particle residues that get stuck in filter pores or in between warp and weft wires.

Filter Aids

Adsorbents

Filterable Adsorbents

Mineral

Organic

Mineral

Organic

Mineral

Organic

Perlite

Cellulose

Bleaching Earth

Activated Carbon

Functionalized Diatomite

Functionalized Cellulose

Diatomite

Wood

Synthetic Silica Natural Silica

Table 1: Processing aids – Bleaching earths & adsorbents + Filter aids

Source: J Rettenmaier & Sohne

adsorbents, less bleaching clays, the reuse and more optimal use of clays, are all being practiced within modern refineries.

In Europe, Diatomite The is hardly any and fat processing. The solids (bleaching earth and/or filter perlite and cellulose. mainused objecti vemore for oil Reasons foristhis: high specific weightlayer of Diatomite aid) will be re-circulated over the filter to of filter aids to provide a pre-coat and the associated high loss in the build a filter thin cake. layer of filter cake (0.5-1kg/m2) or septum which is “ti ght”oilenough to spent Diatomite retain all the suspended solids from the in which the actual filtration takes place. liquid being filtered. The size of the solids should not be too  www.jrsfiltration.com

Why PZ-80 (RPDW) and 24x110 mesh (PDW) filter screens block during cake formation and 60 mesh (SW) filter screens do not !

Slide 3

Bleaching earths and filter aids

Processing aids can be divided into bleaching earths/adsorbent products and filter aids (see Table 1, above right) Bleaching earths and adsorbents such as silica and activated carbon are used to remove unwanted matter such as colouring substances (chlorophyll, carotenoids), metals, soaps, pro-oxidants, some alfatoxins, some heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and some pesticides and herbicides. Bleaching earths are generally composed of up to three types of clay minerals: bentonite, attapulgite and sepiolite. Oil is placed in contact with the clay so that impurities are adsorbed on the clay’s surface and the clay with contaminants is removed by filters. Filter aids include diatomatheous earth, www.ofimagazine.com

Bleaching earths filtration June 2022.indd 4

natural bleach_mini_ofi.indd 1

OFI – JUNE 2022

23

07/06/2019 16:54

13/06/2022 15:13:22


BLEACHING EARTHS

“Counter Current” Bleach Process (by B+B)

blocked, cleaning becomes necessary which, in turn, causes an interruption in flow. Most bleaching clays will act as a body feed and are made with excellent filtration characteristics. In bleaching, the amount of bleaching clay and filter aid used is an important cost factor. The amount of oil in the filter cake is also important as any oil in the cake will be synonymous with additional loss. Because filtration takes place via the cake built on the screen, cake drying is an important step as drying which takes place for too long or at too high a temperature will bake the cake on the screen.

FRESH CLAY BLEACHED FILTERED OIL

VACUUM BLEACHER

CONVENTIONAL LEAF FILTER

CAKE BACK TO MEAL PROCESS

Tri-Clear ® Double bleach ® or Combi-Clean ® Process Figure 5: Counter Current bleaching process (with pre-filtration and or silica purification) REDUCED CLAY SILICA

120-130°C

H2O (OIL)

BLEACHED CLEAN OIL

REFINED OIL

SILICA BLEACHER

90°C

VACUUM BLEACHER STAND-BY

Bleaching Filtration

70°C

(pre-coated application)

90°C VACUUM DRYER

CAKE BACK TO MEAL PROCESS24 x 110 Dutch Weave

Filter Screen Wire thickness 0.26 – 0.36 mm Figure 6: Tri-Clear, Combiclean process or DoublePass bleaching • Retention approx. 120 microns nominal •

Bleaching Filtration

Bleaching filtration (with standard carbon or fine clays, (pre-coated application) pre-treated with silica and pre-coated application) 24x110 Dutch Weave Filter Screen Wire thickness 0.26-0.36 mm PZ80 (Strong) Panzer Weave Filter Screen • Wire thickness Retention approximately 120 microns nominal 0.2 – 0.4 mm

Pre-coat Filter Screen •

Retention approx. 80 microns nominal

Bleaching filtration Mesh (Plain Weave) Filter Screen (with standard carbon on fine 60 clays, pre-treated with silica and pre-coated applicati on • Wire thickness 0.19 mm PZ280 (strong) Panzer Weave Filter Screen • Retention approx. 200-240 microns nominal Wire thickness 0.2-0.4mm Retention approximately 80 microns nominal Pre-coat filter screen 60 mesh (Plain Weave) Filter Screen Wire thickness 0.19mm Retention approximately 200-240 microns nominal Figure 7: Filtration screens  fine as to go through the filter screen, nor too big as to block the screen. When the application requires a continuous dosage of filter aid during the entire cycle, this is called body feed. 24 OFI – JUNE 2022

Bleaching earths filtration June 2022.indd 5

The body feed will keep the cake open and will give enough porosity so that the maximum quantity of suspended solids can be retained before the septum becomes blocked. When the septum is

Source: PMI-Tech (Europe) BV

BLEACHER

Automation options

The processing industry has been looking for more efficient options to filter or clean bleached oil for many years. Increased capacities and increased number of filters has resulted in bigger units to provide more filter area per filter, less operator involvement, and more automation. Filter areas in vertical tank and vertical leaf filters have increased from 50m2 to 125m2 per unit. Horizontal tank filters are available at 225m2 per filter but require a much larger footprint and create housekeeping problems when opened for cleaning. Pressure leaf filters are discontinuous and need to be taken off-line to be cleaned, whereas a continuous process requires more than two filters, requiring more and better automation as there is no time to open filters for visual inspection. Cake discharge has always been a point of concern as it was not always known if the filter cake had left the filter after the vibration cycle, with cake accumulation potentially resulting in damaged filter leaves. The solution is the use of load cells that measure the weight of the empty filter tank. If the cake is not fully discharged, the filter will not be able 36 to go back on-line. The selected and chosen screen is also an important part of successful filter performance.

Source: PMI-Tech (Europe) BV

OPTIONAL SILICA BLEACH

Source: PMI-Tech (Europe) BV

FILTERED OIL

RPP PULSE FILTER

Filtration trends

Filtration is heading towards bigger capacities with multiple filters in service, which will demand more automation and better utilisation of installations. Waste management is also becoming increasingly important and special attention should be paid to spent clay and carbon; and the disposal of consumables such as filter bags and cartridges. This 38 will require the implementation of special screens and cake discharge systems to improve cake discharge in bleached oil. ● Rick Veldkamp is the European sales manager of PMI-Tech (Europe), Netherlands 37

www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:13:23



Photo: Adobe Stock

BLEACHING EARTHS

Fuller’s Earth was traditionally mixed with oils and fats to achieve a purified product

From past to future Historically, the main aim in treating oils and fats was to clarify, make the oil/fat more palatable and increase the period before it became rancid. This was achieved using ‘Fuller’s Earth’ powder that was mixed with the oil/fat, then separated from the oil/fat to give the purified product. Natural Fuller’s Earth powder from England, which is bentonite (montmorillonite)-based, was of superior performance to Fuller’s Earth from other countries. German scientists then discovered that acid leaching of their local Fuller’s Earth improved its impurity removal performance and, at the same time, reduced the colour of the oil being treated to a greater extent compared with natural Fuller’s Earth. As a result, acid-leached Fuller’s Earth was marketed as ‘bleaching earth’. Since that time, the focus has been on bleaching earths that give the lowest coloured bleached or fully-refined oils. Today, bleaching earths have an especially important role in the refining of oils and fats. The term ‘bleaching earths’ does not adequately describe all their functions. 26 OFI – JUNE 2022

Natural bleach 2.5pg version with Taiko ad.indd 2

Bleaching earths have evolved from removing primary and secondary oxidation products and undesirable pigments to playing a key role in the remediation of dioxins, pesticides, PAHs and 3-MCPDs Dr Patrick Howes Wider role

Bleaching earths are required to reduce or remove residual soaps, trace metals and gums remaining in an oil after the neutralising and degumming processes. Historically, the main function of bleaching earth was to remove the primary and secondary oxidation products, and toxic- and cosmetically-undesirable pigments. In recent years, the bleaching stage has also been required to play a key role in the remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins, pesticides and 3-monochloropropane diol (MCPD)s. To achieve all these functions, some leading bleaching earth manufacturers have designed carefully formulated highperformance bleaching earths, consisting of ingredients that can meet the challenges of the additional requirements.

Silicas, silicates and active carbons are the most common ingredients. Natural, acid-leached and formulated bleaching earths work with three main actions: absorption, ion-exchange and acid-catalytic. Absorption removes the bulk of the impurities, ion-exchange removes the polyvalent harmful trace metals, and acid-catalytic action decomposes primary oxidation products and pigments. Of these actions, ion-exchange and absorption are the most desirable as they do not alter the beneficial nutritional properties of the oil being processed. Acid-catalytic action, although useful, can also cause some undesirable side reactions, such as cis- to transisomerisation and double-bond u shift, particularly in unsaturated oils,

www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:18:00


E D I B L E O I L S | B I O D I E SE L | R E N E WA B L E D I E S E L

MORE THAN A MINERAL When you choose Oil-Dri, you get more than a reliable adsorbent. You gain a world-class team of technical service experts to help you make tough decisions and save refinery resources. With a corporate commitment to reducing waste and conserving natural resources, we offer high-performing purification solutions for pre-treatment of oils and fats for food and biofuels.

LEARN MORE AT OILDRI.COM/GETMORE Proudly Owned and Manufactured in the U.S.A. © 2022 Oil-Dri Corporation of America. All rights reserved.


Photo: Adobe Stock

BLEACHING EARTHS

Activated carbons absorb both inorganic and organochlorines and thus play an important role in the mitigation of 3-MCPDs

u and double-bond conjugation and polymerisation in polyunsaturated oils. Many trans-isomers are believed to be harmful. Other undesirable properties of trans-isomers are their higher melting points compared with cis-isomers. This adversely affects the cold stability of the oil, resulting in a slightly lower olein yield when fractionating palm oil. Double-bond shift can change the biological functionality of the oil, for example, anti-inflammatory omega-3 oil can be transformed into pro-inflammatory omega-6 oil. Double-bond conjugation adversely affects the oxidative stability of the oil to a high degree relative to its natural non-conjugated form. Polymerisation of polyunsaturated fats raises the viscosity of the oil. Acid catalytic formation of 3-MCPDs during the bleaching stage has also been found for oils containing inorganic and/or organochlorine molecules together with partial glycerides, when acidic bleaching earths are used. For these reasons, bleaching earths with predominantly absorptive action are generally preferred over those with acidcatalytic properties. Acid-catalytic cracking is, however, useful for decomposing pigments that are too large to fit within the pores of the bleaching earth. Activated carbons have historically been used as bleaching earths and are available with a full range of pore sizes. The main problem with the highestperformance activated carbons is their relatively high price, and their tendency to disintegrate into fines that cause clogging and breakthrough in filters. It is therefore 28 OFI – JUNE 2022

Natural bleach 2.5pg version with Taiko ad.indd 3

important to select activated carbon that have good structural integrity to eliminate the problems with fines. Activated carbons are increasingly utilised in formulated bleaching earths to aid the removal of undesirable components that are too large to be absorbed within the pores of conventional bleaching earths. Of the high-performance materials, highly acid-activated bleaching earths and activated carbons are generally sensitive to high-shear environments such as sharp bends during pneumatic conveying and pumping when in oil slurry. Shear can detach the silica fronds on acid-activated bleaching earths, reducing the bleaching performance and adversely affecting oil filtration properties. Similarly, shear will break down highly activated carbons and adversely affect the oilfiltration properties. To overcome these problems, it is advisable to control the degree of activation to a level where the structural integrity of the material is preserved when utilised under normal refiner conditions.

Bleaching parameters

The main parameters controlled by bleaching earth manufacturers are activity, oil filtration time (OFT), moisture content, acidity (pH) and bulk density. Activity is a measure of bleaching/ impurity removal performance. OFT is an indicator of the oil filtration rate/filter press throughput capability. Moisture content is the percentage of water content, pH is a measure of acidity, and bulk density is a volumetric measure.

High activity is desirable as less bleaching earth will be required. However, the higher performance may come with downsides of poorer OFT and higher oil losses in the spent bleaching earth, so overall cost-effectiveness versus performance must be considered. Increased grinding of bleaching earth will generally give lower bulk density and higher activity but the OFT and oil loss in the spent bleaching earth will increase. The cost of the oil lost in the spent bleaching earth is a very important factor when selecting the most appropriate grade of bleaching earth. Low OFT represents fast filtration, which is generally desirable as it represents potentially greater potential throughput at the filtration stage. However, this is good to a point, as an OFT which is too low will reduce the press-bleach effect, so that the full potential of the bleaching earth is not achieved. Nobody likes to buy water but it is a functional component of bleaching earth that aids its performance. Ideally, from a performance standpoint, the moisture content of bleaching earth should be as high as possible, while still maintaining the bleaching earth as a free-flowing powder. For this reason, some bleaching earths have moisture contents of 15-18%. If the moisture content is below about 10%, the bleaching performance begins to fall due to insufficient hydration of the cations, leading to a reduction in pore size. Bleaching earths are powerful absorbents and easily pick up moisture from the atmosphere. It is for this reason that some bleaching earths are dried to lower moisture content, to ensure that their flow properties are maintained after transport, storage and handling. pH is a measure of acidity. Historically, acid-activated bleaching earths have been very acidic, eg pH2 to pH3. These days, refiners are more aware of the adverse effects of low pH on the nutritional and physical properties of the oil, particularly the oxidative stability, solid fat content and viscosity. Some high-performance bleaching earths are neutral or close to pH7. Bulk density generally has an inverse corelation with the oil retention of the spent bleaching earth. Higher bulk density allows a greater weight of bleaching earth to be filled into silos and into containers when shipped. With ocean freight rates being extremely high at the moment, higher bulk density allows the minimisation of the transportation element of the bleaching earth costs.

www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:18:07


BLEACHING EARTHS Bleaching earth properties

The most popular natural bleaching earths on the market today are based on bentonite clay, attapulgite (a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate) or sepiolite (a clay mineral). Bentonite has a leaf-like layered structure, somewhat similar to the clay mineral talcum, where impurities can enter the porous spaces from four edges. Attapulgites and sepiolites have tubular structures, like a bunch of straws, where the impurities can only enter the pores from the two ends of the tubes. Bentonite powder was historically utilised for powdering babies bottoms, whereas attapulgites and sepiolites have a fibrous or needle-like morphology that can cause irritation to skin and to lungs if inhaled. Bentonites-based bleaching earths have lower oil retention in the spent earth, while attapulgite- and sepiolite-based bleaching earths have significantly higher oil retention. Surface-modified bleaching earths are natural clays that have been surfacetreated with acid, without washing away the resultant acidic salts. Surface modification is sometimes referred to as dry processing, as there is no acid-slurry stage. This class of bleaching earths retains

its natural activity and has some of the acid-catalytic properties of conventional acid-activated earths. Surface-modified bleaching earths may reduce in acidity and performance if stored for a long time. Conventional acid-activated bleaching earths are bentonites that have been acid-leached in a slurry form, then washed free of excess acid and acidic salts. This is a far more expensive processing route compared with using surface modification technology. During acidleaching, the structure of the natural bentonite is partially removed, opening up new porosity between silica fronds. In the process of acid leaching, the cation exchange capacity is reduced, and the interlayer spacing is also reduced relative to the natural bentonite. The acid leaching process increases the total pore volume. Natural and acid-activated bleaching earths have mainly micro- and meso-pores that can absorb small- and medium-sized impurities. Activated carbons can have a full range of micro-, meso- and macro-pores. The macro-pores of activated carbons can absorb the larger molecules that cannot fit into the micro- and meso-pores of the natural and acid-activated bleaching earths. The macro-pores enable activated carbons

to absorb large pigment and harmful materials such as dioxins, inorganic and organic chlorides, pesticides, PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since activated carbons absorb both inorganic and organochlorines, they play an important role in the mitigation of 3-MCPDs. Activated carbons can be either chemical- or acid-activated or steam activated. Acid-activated carbons may give lower colour oil when freshly refined, but most often the stability of the fully refined oil is superior when steam activated carbons are utilised. The use of steam-activated carbons results in a fully refined oil of a clearer, crisper, brighter appearance that has superior stability. Activated carbons can be made from a wide range of materials including bamboo, various woods and shells. The carbon is effectively sequestered in the activated carbon, thus removing potential greenhouse gases from the environment. New formulation of bleaching earths are constantly being developed to meet the new challenges that arise, to ensure that the required standards of fully refined oils are continually achieved. ● Dr Patrick Howes is technical director of Natural Bleach Sdn Bhd, Malaysia

Globally Preferred Bleaching Earth EMPOWERING EDIBLE OIL TO RENEWABLE BIOFUEL AT TAIKO, WE LISTEN AND PROVIDE SOLUTIONS. ■ e�ective removal of undesirable impurities ■ cater to wider spectrum of feedstocks and applications ■ reliable supply and superior product quality ■ sustainable approach in sourcing and manufacturing ■ comprehensive technical support and R&D coverage

w. www.clay.taikogroup.net

taiko_half page.indd 1 www.ofimagazine.com

Natural bleach 2.5pg version with Taiko ad.indd 4

e. taikoclaymkt@takogroup.net

e. office@taikogroup.eu

t. +603 7660 7716

t. +31 10 800 5479 10/06/2022 OFI – JUNE 202213:41 29

13/06/2022 15:18:07


BLEACHING EARTHS

Tackling new contami MINERAL OIL SATURATED HYDROCARBONS

MOSH

Paraffins: open-chain (branched) HC

MINERAL OIL AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

MOAH R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

Mono or polycyclic aromatic HC

Figure 2: Potential health risk associations with MOHs

Soyabean oil

R

Crude palm oil

R

R

R

R

Sunflower oil

Figure 3: Ratio of MOSH/MOAH content in soyabean, crude palm and sunflower oils

Figure 4: Timeline of events likely to lead to regulations on MOHs 30 OFI – JUNE 2022

Clariant bleaching earth NEW.indd 2

Source: Clariant

R R

Source: Clariant

Figure 1: Chemical structures of MOSH and MOAH

Source: Clariant

R

Source: Clariant

Naphtenes: cyclic, saturated HC

R

R

As food regulations become increasingly stringent on harmful contaminants, mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOHs) could soon follow a similar course to 3-MCPD esters in terms of regulations Carlos Rodriguez, Vinicius Celinski In recent years, food safety regulations have become increasingly stringent in order to protect consumers from harmful contaminants. Among the latest targets have been 3-MCPD (monochloropropane diol) esters in edible oils, such as tropical oils. Due to their potential carcinogenicity and toxicity, the European Commission Regulation (EU) 2020/1322 was introduced in September 2000, specifying maximum limits for 3-MCPD esters in food products. Another group of contaminants – MOHs (mineral oil hydrocarbons) – could

www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:24:42


BLEACHING EARTHS

Photo: Adobe Stock

aminants

soon follow a similar course to 3-MCPD esters in terms of regulations. Derived from crude petroleum distillation, MOHs are complex hydrocarbon mixtures (fraction C10 – C50), mainly consisting of MOSH (mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons) and MOAH (mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons) (see Figure 1, left). The new regulatory focus on MOSH and MOAH is due to the serious adverse effects they pose on human health, especially of 3-7 ring MOAH (see Figure 2, left).

Presence in different edible oils

MOHs are not comprised of a standard ratio of MOSH to MOAH. This is particularly evident when examining different oils (see Figure 3, left). In crude palm oil, there is a major presence of heavy compounds, with MOAH considered to be the most concerning. However, this is greatly dependent on the source of the contamination. In contrast, impurity levels in sunflower oil are relatively low, and limited to MOSH. Soyabean oil typically contains both MOSH and MOAH but in less worrying concentrations than in tropical oils. www.ofimagazine.com

Clariant bleaching earth NEW.indd 3

Minimisation strategy

Considering that MOSH and MOAH are not naturally part of the composition of edible oils, it is useful to analyse where they may originate in order to be able to help minimise their concentration. Possible sources of MOSH and MOAH include: • Smoke drying • Drying on asphalt surfaces (palm oil) • Transport and handling • Lubrication • Leakages • Anti-dust agents • Migration of impurities (e.g. ink) through packaging • Maintenance operations

bind the contaminants and enable their removal from edible oils. Light molecules can be removed during the deodorisation process at high temperatures and low-pressure conditions. However, this is not the case for medium to heavy compounds. Further physical properties, such as density and boiling point, make these remaining contaminants practically impossible to remove through any process commonly available in existing refinery layouts. To develop an optimal minimisation strategy for MOHs, the following aspects should be considered: • Physical properties • Compound polarity • Potential metals for binding MOHs • Molecule size and shape

As with 3-MCPD esters, one could attempt to control every step of the value chain. However, it can be quite Clariant’s R&D team is currently working complex to remove MOSH and MOAH to develop processes and processing aids contaminants completely, or even to to tackle the challenge of MOSH and reduce them to the low levels different MOAH removal and hopes to be able to food safety authorities are planning to present effective solutions in the near regulate on. future. ● MOH compounds have been on regulators’ radars since 2010. Carlos Rodriguez is head of technical sales Now, with the availability of more and Dr Vinicius Celinski is application reliable and harmonised detection development manager at Clariant methods, agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority, Joint Research Centre, or Fediol (EU vegetable oil and protein meal industry association), are High Absorptive Bleaching starting to propose limits in sensitive Earths based on Natural products, such as and Activated Clays. infant food (see Figure Excellent for the treatment of 4, left). Vegetable Oils & Biofuel Feedstocks Enhanced detection techniques have also made it evident that MOH contaminants are difficult to be fully eliminated only through improved sourcing.

Challenges of MOH removal

MOH compounds are hydrocarbons that may be linear, branched or contain (alkylated-) rings, possess limited polarity and come in different sizes (C10-C50). Therefore, it is difficult to find an effective adsorption process to

• Chlorophylls removal. • Low oil retentions. • Excellent filtration rates. • Phosphorus and metal traces removal. • Reduction of the precursors of 3-MCPD and GE. • Effective stability of oils.

Tolsa, S.A.

C/ Núñez de Balboa, 51 28001 Madrid - Spain Tel.: +34 913 220 100 industrial@tolsa.com

OFI – JUNE 2022

31

13/06/2022 15:24:43


RENEWABLE DIESEL

Photo: Adobe Stock

Treating feedstocks

Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) can reduce the use of fossil fuels and recycle waste streams but its production requires efficient, flexible, safe, reliable and sustainable pre-treatment of feedstocks Veronique Gibon, Wim De Greyt, Jan De Kock, Marc Kellens To address global warming challenges, it is essential to reduce the use of fossil fuels, which is the objective of the European Commission’s ‘Fit for 55’ and Renewable Energy Directive (RED) II policies. The EU aims to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels, and to define a common framework for the promotion of renewable energies. Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) or hydro-processed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) is a renewable diesel which can reduce the use of fossil fuels and recycle waste streams. European demand for drop-in biofuels 32 OFI – JUNE 2022

HVO.indd 2

– HVO and sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) – will significantly increase in the coming years, supported by higher blending targets and the introduction of new mandates for the aviation sector. It is projected that the HVO/HEFA share in European oil-based biofuel demand will increase to 35% by 2030.

Biodiesel, HVO and SAF

Conventional (first generation) biodiesel is a diesel fuel consisting of long-chain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) typically made by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel has to meet international quality standards such as the ASTM D6751 or EN14214 and is approved for blending with petroleum diesel. Renewable diesel is a biomass-derived fuel suitable for use in diesel engines and meets the ASTM D975 or EN15940 standards for synthetic diesel. It consists of hydrocarbons and is mostly produced by a hydrotreating process but it can also be obtained via gasification, pyrolysis or other bio- and thermochemical technologies. The term HVO is used for renewable diesel fuels produced via a so-called hydrotreating process (hydrogenation and hydrocracking) of different feedstocks, such as vegetable oils, waste cooking

oils, animal fats, acid oils and fatty acid distillates. HVO, also called green diesel, has similar properties to fossil diesel but with some differences such as a lower density and higher energy content. It typically has a low sulphur content, is free from oxygen and aromatic hydrocarbons, and has a high cetane number. HVO offers a series of benefits over FAME, such as reduced nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate emissions, better storage stability and better cold flow properties. It can be used in existing diesel engines without blending limitations. SAF is the commonly used term for nonpetroleum synthesised jet fuel components produced in accordance with ASTM D7566 specifications. It is derived from renewable resources that enable a reduction in net life cycle carbon dioxide emissions compared to conventional jet fuels. SAF can be produced from waste and plant-based raw materials using essentially the same technology as for HVO production. When SAF is blended with conventional jet fuel, it meets ASTM D1655 specifications. All major European and US airlines have recently announced that they will start using increasing volumes of SAF on a voluntary basis in anticipation of a future u compulsory SAF proportion. www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:29:03


Sustainable

Profitable

Dupps Rendering Solutions

Continuous Rendering Systems

Optimized fat and meal production The high product quality specifications you require, and the flexibility to adjust to changing demands.

Dramatically reduced downtime Unsurpassed reliability backed up by the rapid response of the largest field service team and parts inventory in the industry.

Complete systems integration Every type of major equipment — including new Dupps-Gratt horizontal bowl decanters and disctype vertical centrifuges — as well as unsurpassed engineering expertise in creating better ways to recycle protein by-products into profitable fats and meals.

Cookers and Dryers Screw Presses Decanters and Centrifuges Size Reduction Equipment Process Control Systems Material Handling Equipment

Total Service and Support

Explore Dupps systems, service & support www.dupps.com • (937) 855-6555 Building the tools for a more sustainable world

The Dupps Company • Germantown, Ohio • U.S.A.


RENEWABLE DIESEL

u

Figure 1a: Overview of the pre-treatment of various raw materials for HVO

Source: Desmet Ballestra

Figure 1b: Basic and alternative HVO feedstock pre-treatment processes

Source: Desmet Ballestra

HVO markets and producers

HVO technology

The EU’s RED II promotes the use of biofuels, favouring next-generation biofuels that are obtained from non-food waste feedstocks. Today, the only commercial alternative to FAME is HVO that can be obtained from waste feedstocks, while awaiting larger quantities of raw lignocellulosic and algal biomass. The HVO process uses hydrogen, instead of methanol, in the conventional biodiesel process. Bio-propane is the major by-product and there is no lowvalue glycerol production. HVO can be blended with fossil fuel in higher ratios than the 7% used nowadays for biodiesel. The same feedstocks can be used for HVO and biodiesel production. However, the technology, as well as the final products, are different and producers have a different core activity. While biodiesel is mainly produced by food oil refiners, HVO production is mostly carried out by petrochemical 34 OFI – JUNE 2022

HVO.indd 4

companies because they are familiar with the hydrotreatment process, which typically operates in two stages. The double bonds of the hydrocarbon chains are first saturated with hydrogen. This is followed by the elimination of oxygen atoms through three parallel mechanisms: hydro-deoxygenation, decarboxylation and decarbonylation. An extra step is mandatory for SAF production. Catalytic hydrotreatment is carried out at a high temperature (from 300-400°C) and hydrogen pressure (between 3-20 MPa). Sulphide nickel-molybdenum (Ni-Mo) and cobalt-molybdenum (Co-Mo) supported on alumina are the most common catalysts used, along with sulphur-free noble metals such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) or zeolite-supported Pt catalysts. Along with the process temperature and pressure, the catalyst type has an important impact on the final HVO product quality (compositional distribution).

Today’s main HVO markets are in Europe and in the USA but new markets are developing fast in other continents as well. While biodiesel is still the most common biofuel in Southeast Asia, HVO production is also taking off in that region. Global HVO production capacity is expected to exceed 20M tonnes/year in the coming years. A number of companies have developed in-house HVO production processes but, in most cases, the HVO technology is offered by licensors. The Finnish company Neste Oil, a pioneer in HVO technology, is today the leading renewable diesel and jet fuel producer worldwide. Its NEXBTL technology can turn a wide range of renewable feedstocks into premium biofuels and other products. Neste Oil’s first commercial-scale HVO plant was set up in 2007 at Porvoo, Finland. Today, it also has large capacity plants in Asia and in Europe. When the scheduled expansion of these plants are realised by the end of 2023, Neste Oil will have a global HVO production capacity close to 4.5M tonnes/year, including 1.5M tonnes/year of SAF. HYDROFLEX is the technology supplied under license by Denmark’s Haldor Topsøe which was developed in 2004 in anticipation of new market trends. HYDROFLEX units run alongside conventional petrochemical units all over the world with full flexibility, allowing the transformation of any renewable feedstock into drop-in, ultra-low sulphur gasoline, jet fuel or diesel. ENI (Italy) has developed the ECOFINING system in collaboration with Honeywell-UOP and, in 2013, started up a green refinery project based on the conversion of two existing hydrodesulphurisation units in Venice and Gela into hydro-treatment processes. Several other plants using the technology are in operation in the USA and in Europe. The VEGAN HVO technology developed and licensed by France’s Axens Group is a flexible solution for hydro-treating a wide range of lipids and producing low-density, high cetane renewable diesel as well as renewable sulphur-free jet fuel. This technology was originally developed by IFP Energies Nouvelles in the mid-2000s and is the result of Axens’ wide experience in conventional hydro-processing technologies and catalysts, with more than 200 units licensed in the world.

Feedstock selection

A wide variety of products containing

www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 15:29:06


RENEWABLE DIESEL

Feedstock pre-treatment

The HVO process requires efficient, flexible, safe, reliable and sustainable pre-treatment of feedstocks. In general, pre-treatment is necessary to remove impurities such as phosphorous, metals, polyethylene, nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine-containing components that are naturally present in some raw materials. Pre-treatment is a critical step in protecting HVO catalysts and increasing their life span, and to avoid operational problems in the industrial installation. The quality requirements for feedstocks at the inlet of the HVO unit are mostly set by the HVO technology providers and are generally quite stringent (see Table 2, right). An efficient and flexible pre-treatment process will determine if, or to what extent, a low quality feedstock can be used; this will directly impact the viability of the HVO plant. Pre-treatment of good quality raw materials (vegetable oils, UCO and high grade animal fats) is quite straightforward and can be accomplished by a series of processes that are already known within the edible oil refining sector. The basic configuration of a standard HVO pretreatment plant (see Figure 1a, previous page) normally has two cleaning sections: an acid degumming section followed by a dry pre-treatment/bleaching section. Acid degumming with washing efficiently removes most impurities such as phospholipids, metals and mineral salts. Dry pre-treatment/bleaching, with activated bleaching earth or silica, achieves the required low levels of contaminants. Animal fats and some UCOs may nevertheless require an additional second bleaching step to remove polyethylene and plastics residues that can be present www.ofimagazine.com

HVO.indd 5

FFA (%)

P (ppm)

Metals (ppm)

N (ppm)

S CI–total Polyethylene (ppm) (ppm) (ppm)

50-250 100-300 30-200 2-20 <5 <3 Edible vegetable oils <6 Crude palm oils <15 15-30 20-60 10-20 <10 Used cooking oils 1-10 <50 5-15 10-100 20-100 <20 2-35 50-1,000 200-2,000 50-1,500 20-200 50-500 Animal fats 50-60 50-1,000 100-1,000 50-250 20-100 <25 Acids oils >85 <10 <10 <10 <5 Palm fatty <10 acid distillates

_ _

Source: Desmet Ballestra

Raw material

0-200 0-1,000 _ _

Table 1: Quality parameters of different HVO feedstocks Raw material

Unit (max)

Official methods

Free fatty acids

% ppm

AOCS Ca 5a-40

5

20

20

95

ISO 8534:2017 AOCS Ca 2e-84 AOCS Ca 3a-46 AOCS Ca 6a-40 AOCS Ca 17-01 AOCS Ca 17-01 ASTM D5185 ASTM D4629 ASTM D2622 ASTM D4294 ASTM D5453 EN 14077 ASTM D7359 AOCS Ca 16-75

500

500

700

500

500 NS 3 10

500 1 3 5

100 1 2 5

500 NS 3 10

50 100

350 250

100 30

350 100

10

50

5

50

50

50

50

50

Moisture content Insoluble impurities Unsaponifiable Phosphorous Metals (total*)

ppm

Nitrogen Sulphur

ppm ppm

Chlorine (total)

ppm

Polyethylene

ppm

NS: Not specified

% ppm ppm

Provider A

Provider Provider Provider B C D

*Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, K, B, Si, Zn, AI

Table 2: Inlet product specifications for different HVO technology providers (A, B, C, D) in these raw materials (see Figure 1b, previous page). For other low quality feedstocks, some additional steps may be required prior to the standard pre-treatment process. This includes a pre-filtration step to remove high levels of solid impurities, polyethylene and some nitrogen components (for example, from protein) and/or a specific heat pre-treatment step to remove phosphor-containing components and metals from very low quality animal fats (EU Category 1 and 2 animal by-products) and acid oils, as the basic pre-treatment plant configuration fails to remove these contaminants to low enough levels. Finally, an alternative pre-treatment process has been developed for very poor quality feedstocks like some acid oils, distillation pitches and trap grease. This process mostly consists of fat splitting followed by fatty acid distillation. The process is very efficient at treating feedstocks with extremely high loads of contaminants, but often has lower yields then a classic pre-treatment process and has much higher Capex and Opex costs. Its application has, until now, been limited to low capacity plants with difficult feedstocks.

Source: Desmet Ballestra

triglycerides and/or fatty acids can be used in HVO production. These include vegetable oils, beef tallow and waste or used cooking oil (UCO). There is also increasing use of wastes or residues such as non-food grade vegetable oils, low quality animal fats, sludge palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillers’ grains and solubles (DGS) corn oil, or refining byproducts such as acid oils from soapstock, oil recovered from bleaching earths, fatty acid distillates, distillation pitches and even non-glyceride feedstocks. Due to sustainability but also for economic and political reasons, producers are increasingly looking for lower quality, waste and non-food alternative feedstocks. The quality parameters of some raw materials used for HVO are presented in Table 1 (right).

Pre-treatment providers

Providers of pre-treatment processes for HVO mostly originate from the vegetable oils and fats industries since the technologies are very similar to vegetable oil refining for food applications. The companies generally have an extensive portfolio of similar technologies. However, since HVO producers are increasingly focusing on low quality feedstocks, existing processes need to be adapted and optimised to clean these feedstocks. In addition, as more pretreatment plants come into operation, greater operational experience is gained and this allows a continuous improvement in pre-treatment plant configurations to enhance efficiency, reliability and safety. Desmet Ballestra is one of the companies which supplies pre-treatment technology at the start of the HVO process to treat feedstocks. The objective is to guarantee the quality requirements set out by different HVO technology providers and to meet the highcapacity ranges (up to 5,000 tonnes/day inlet capacity) required by this industry. ● Veronique Gibon is science manager; Wim De Greyt, R&D manager; Jan De Kock, key account manager; and Marc Kellens, group technical director at Desmet Ballestra OFI – JUNE 2022

35

13/06/2022 15:29:06


STATISTICS STATISTICAL NEWS

Mintec

Vegetable oil prices

Vegetable oil prices (Mintec Category Index) – US$/tonne

The Mintec Category Index (MCI) for global vegetable oils softened in May, averaging US$2,027/tonne; a decline of 2% month-on-month (m-o-m). Vegetable oil prices have continued to fall from the unprecedented levels reached in March, following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, due to demand rationing of buyers unwilling to pay elevated prices. The global MCI remains up at 11% year-on-year (y-o-y) on tight supply conditions due to the ongoing Russia-Ukraine war, export regulations, soaring input costs and logistical disruptions.

Mintec

Sunflower oil market

Mintec

Sunflower oil prices (Mintec Benchmark Price) – €/tonne

Palm oil prices (Mintec Benchmark Price) – €/tonne

Prices of selected oils (US$/tonne) Dec 21

Jan 22

Feb 22

Mar 22

Soyabean

1,383.1

1,421.8

1,537.3

Crude palm

1,265.0

1,320.1

1,497.0

Palm olein

1,147.4

1,223.3

Coconut

1,781.4

1,928.3

Rapeseed

1,729.9

Sunflower Palm kernel Average Index

Apr 22

May 22

1,922.7

1,868.3

1,859.2

1,669.6

1,578.6

1,623.8

1,422.3

1,605.4

1,445.6

1,515.3

2,145.3

2,180.4

2,000.8

1,698.3

1,773.7

1,666.0

2,057.6

2,120.9

1,909.0

1,385.5

1,390.8

1,517.0

2,351.0

2,136.0

2,096.8

1,743.8

2,017.5

2,262.5

2,320.0

1,977.3

1,724.8

1,491.0

1,582.0

1,721.0

2,015.0

1,875.0

1,775.0

353.0

375.0

408.0

478.0

444.0

421.0

36 OFI – JUNE 2022

Stats June 2022.indd 1

The Mintec Benchmark Price (MBP) for EU sunflower oil decreased by 15% m-o-m to reach €1,755/tonne on 9 June due to demand rationing and substitution with other edible oils. Global sunflower oil supply remains tight as Ukrainian exports are limited due to damage to sea ports and infrastructure with only some supply entering the market by rail or truck. Russia is set to raise its sunflower oil export tax by 7% to US$560/tonne; further tightening global sunflower oil supply. Due to uncertainties over plantings in Ukraine, global sunflower oil production for the upcoming 2022/23 marketing year is set to decline by 4% compared to the 2021/22 estimate.

Palm oil market

The Mintec Benchmark Price (MBP) for EU palm oil was assessed at €1,473/tonne on 9 June; down by 3% m-o-m. This represents a 13% decline from the record high of €1,691/tonne reached on 28 of April, following Indonesia’s export ban on crude palm oil (CPO) and its derivatives. On 23 May, the Indonesian government revoked the palm oil export ban and replaced it with a Domestic Market Obligation (DMO). Despite the export ban not reaching its aim of curbing domestic prices to IDR14,000/ litre, the reversal was due to palm oil storage space reaching full capacity. The DMO now requires producers to sell about 300,000 tonnes of palm oil supply on the domestic market to ensure sufficient domestic supply. According to market sources, shipments have been slow as exporters have faced issues with the requirements. Thus, on 7 June, the Indonesian government implemented an export acceleration scheme to improve exports with the aim of shipping at least 1M tonnes of CPO and derivative products. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, global palm oil production for the upcoming 2022/23 marketing year is set to rise by 3% y-o-y to 79M tonnes due to favourable weather in Southeast Asia. Mintec provides independent insight and data to help companies make informed commercial decisions. Tel: +44 (0)1628 851313 E-mail: sales@mintecglobal.com Website: www.mintecglobal.com

www.ofimagazine.com

13/06/2022 11:59:16


DIARY OF EVENTS 27-28 June 2022

4-9 September 2022

6-9 November 2022

MCPD Esters and Glycidyl Esters (GE) Symposium 2022 Berlin, Germany https://veranstaltungen.gdch.de/tms/ frontend/index.cfm?l=11198&sp_id=2

FOSFA Advanced Education Course University of Greenwich, London, UK www.fosfa.org/news/events/fosfaadvanced-education-course/

5-6 July 2022

17th GERLI Lipidomics Meeting – Lipids: from Membrane Dynamics to Signaling Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat, France www.gerli.com/congres/gerli-17thlipidomics-meeting-saint-jean-cap-ferratfrance/

FOSFA Basic Introductory Course University of Greenwich, London, UK www.fosfa.org/news/events/fosfa-basicintroductory-course/

13th Biofuels International Conference & Expo Brussels, Belgium https://biofuels-news.com/conference/ biofuels/biofuels_index_2022.php 10-12 July 2022 International Convention and Exhibition on Home and Personal Care Ingredients Goa, India www.isdcconference.org 10-15 July 2022 International Symposium on Plant Lipids Grenoble, France www.gerli.com/en/internationalsymposium-on-plant-lipids-ispl-2022/ 20-22 July 2022 19th Global Oleochem Summit 2022 Changsha China https://webshow.ienmore. com/?activityId=1690&languageType=1 28-29 July 2022 International Conference on Algal Biotechnology and Applications Vienna, Austria https://waset.org/algal-biotechnologyand-applications-conference-in-july2022-in-vienna 31 July-3 August 2022

4-9 September 2022

8-9 September 2022 High Oleic Oils Congress 2022 Madrid, Spain http://higholeicmarket.com/hoc-2019 12-16 September 2022 oils+fats and Drinktec Messe Munich, Germany www.oils-and-fats.com/index.html 13 September 2022 International Palm Oil Sustainability Conference Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia https://mpoc.org.my/7th-internationalpalm-oil-sustainability-conference-2022iposc-2022/ 4-6 October 2022 Sustainable Protein Forum (Hybrid) Chicago, Illinois, USA https://sustainableprotein.aocs.org/ 20-21 September 2022 Palmex Malaysia 2022 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia http://asiapalmoil.com 23-28 October 2022

Edible Oil/Products Processing Course College Station Texas, USA https://fatsandoilsrnd.com/

North American Renderers Association Annual Convention Ritz Carlton Laguna Niguel California, USA https://nara.org/about-us/events

18-19 August 2022

25-27 October 2022

Palmex Thailand 2022 CO-OP Exhibition Centre, Suratthani, Thailand www.thaipalmoil.com

Palmex Indonesia 2022 Medan, Indonesia http://palmoilexpo.com

23 August-3 September 2022 2nd World Congress on Oleo Science (WOCS 2022) (Online) https://confit.atlas.jp/guide/event/ wcos2022/top

Diary June 2022.indd 1

27-30 September 2022 Australia Renderers Association 16th International Symposium Royal International Convention Centre, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia www.arasymposium.com.au

29-30 November 2022 Unconventional Ag Hyatt Regency, Minneapolis, USA https://ong.highquestevents.com/ereg/ index.php?eventid=653921& 13-15 December 2022 AlgaEurope 2022 Rome, Italy https://algaeurope.org/ 23-24 January 2023 Fuels of the Future 2023 Berlin, Germany https://www.fuels-of-the-future.com/en 6-8 March 2023 Palm & Lauric Oils Price Outlook Conference & Exhibition (POC2023) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 5-7 June 2023 12th CESIO World Surfactant Congress Rome, Italy https://cesio-congress.eu/ 11-14 June 2023 International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts (AlgalBBB 2023) Waikoloa Beach, Hawaii, USA www.elsevier.com/events/conferences/ international-conference-on-algalbiomass-biofuels-and-bioproducts 17-20 September 2023 Euro Fed Lipid Congress & Expo Poznań, Poland https://eurofedlipid.org/ 24-27 September 2023 16 International Rapeseed Congress Sydney, Australia www.irc2023sydney.com

For a full events list, visit: www.ofimagazine.com Information subject to change

09/06/2022 10:37:18