Glass International June 2019

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June 2019—Vol.42 No.6



From raw material intake Glass International June 2019

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To make glass better, put us in the mix. Improving combustion can enable you to increase glass production, reduce fuel consumption, enhance glass quality, and reduce emissions, such as NOx, SOx, CO₂, and

particulates. Let Air Products’ in-house modeling and melting experts help you get there. For more than 70 years, we’ve delivered safe oxygen solutions, from our very first oxygen enrichment applications to our continuously evolving portfolio of low-emissions Cleanfire® oxy-fuel burners. You can count on Air Products for reliable gas supply and to help optimize your production—just like we have done for hundreds of furnaces all over the world.​ Contact us to put the skills and experience of our global team to work for you. Optimal melting takes one key ingredient: Us.

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Contents Editor: Greg Morris Tel: +44 (0)1737 855132 Email: Designer: Annie Baker Tel: +44 (0)1737 855130 Email:

June Vol.42 No.6


Sales Executive: Manuel Martin Quereda Tel: +44 (0)1737 855023 Email: Managing Director: Steve Diprose


Editor’s Comment


International news


Company profile: Phoenix Award Winner Phoenix Award celebrates Spanish Research Professor’s 40 years


Electric Glass Fiber UK Transformation of UK fibre glass plant


The Silica Chronicles A new way to raise funds to enhance recycling


Batch Plant EME: Cutting edge technology for modern batch and cullet systems


Batch Plant Zippe: Zippe’s Control System Technology goes B-ZMART


Company profile: Newport Industries Newport Industries unveils £8 million soda ash handling site


Company profile: Vicrila Vicrila plots largest ever expansion


Forming Heye: Safety benefits of IS machine lighting


Cold end MSK: Complete cold end for Turkish glass plant


Forming Vimec: Vimec introduces inspection for moulded glass sealing surface


British Glass Milk bottles are cream of the crop


History In the pink


Henderson Unbreakable glass

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Printed in UK by: Pensord, Tram Road, Pontlanfraith, Blackwood, Gwent NP12 2YA, UK. Glass International Directory 2018 edition: UK £206, all other countries £217. Printed in UK by: Marstan Press Ltd, Kent DA7 4BJ Glass International (ISSN 0143-7838) (USPS No: 020-753) is published 10 times per year by Quartz Business Media Ltd, and distributed in the US by DSW, 75 Aberdeen Road, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437. Periodicals postage paid at Emigsville, PA. POSTMASTER: send address changes to Glass International c/o PO Box 437, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437.

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International News

2019 DIARY




The clock is ticking

We’ve all seen the images of Greta Thunberg, the Swedish schoolgirl who, at the age of 15, began protesting about the need for immediate action on climate change. Her actions were replicated in turn by thousands of schoolchildren around the world who have taken part in Fridays for Future strikes. In April, more than 1000 people were arrested in London as part of the Extinction Rebellion mass climate protest. The protestors did not conform to a stereotype of a typical environmental activist. They were not just young people in dreadlocks, wearing beaded bracelets given to them while ‘finding themselves’ on a spiritual journey in Asia. Among those arrested in London were an 83 year old man, actresses and poets. The protestors were normal people, just like you and me! Climate change is the Zeitgeist. People, particularly those in the West with a higher carbon footprint, will have to change the way they live. Reduce, recycle, reuse. Thankfully, the glass industry has made dramatic steps and already has superior environmental characteristics. But more needs to be done. The next hurdle is European legislation in 2030 and 2050 where emissions from glassmaking furnaces will have to be cut dramatically. The year 2050 may seem a long time but is actually only two furnace lifetimes away. If the industry doesn’t act, the next generation of climate protestors will be on its case.

Glassmakers attend Emhart summit

01-04 SGT Annual Conference Conference with the theme Sand to Splendour. Cambridge, UK 17-18 Glassman Europe Biennial trade show and conference focused on hollow and container glass. Lyon, France europe 17-19 Glass Trend Seminar on Process Automation and Big Data Hosted by Linde in Munich. Munich, Germany 24-26 World Soda Ash Conference Three day conference focused on the raw material. Cannes, France events/World-Soda-AshConference-2019/speakers. html

Glassmakers from more than 36 countries attended a summit which explored the future of glass packaging. Summit19, organised by Bucher Emhart Glass, investigated the themes that will make a difference to the container glassmaking industry in forthcoming years. The three-day event included 15 conference presentations, opening and closing talks from Bucher Emhart Glass President Martin Jetter, as well as networking. Approximately 100 glassmakers were in attendance at the event in Zurich, Switzerland, close to Emhart’s headquarters. These included Allied, BA Glass, Bangkok Glass, Encirc, Ekran, FEVE glass association, Heineken, HNG, O-I, San Miguel Yamamura, Takestan Packaging Glass, Toyo

Glass, Vetropack, Vidroporto, Wiegand-Glas and more. In a keynote speech, Bucher Industries CEO Jacques Sanche investigated the elements that made companies successful. He highlighted a McKinsey and Company book, Beyond the Hockey Stick, which had investigated thousands of businesses over a 10 year period and compared their financial performance. The most successful companies had displayed 10 key elements, one of which was past investment in R&D. He said: “There was a clear correlation between those companies that had been investing in R&D and those that made a better race during these 10 years. It obviously paid off to have a higher R&D budget than the ones who didn’t have.”

Be first with the news!

24-26 Gulf Glass Trade show for the Middle East region. Dubai, UAE 24 An introduction to glass packaging One day course tailored to those in packaging roles. Sheffield, UK


01-04 Vitrum Trade show focused on the flat glass sector. Milan, Italy 15-17 Glass Failure Analysis Three day course introducing glass strength and causes of failure. Sheffield, UK

VISIT: for daily news updates

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International News


Forglass begins AGC project in Belgium

Leading companies from the Brazilian glassmaking industry attended Glassman South America in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Major Brazilian glassmakers including O-I, Verallia, Vidroporto, Nadir Figueiredo, Ambev Vidros, Wheaton Brazil, Schott, Vivix, AGC, Guardian and Vidraria Anchieta were among those to attend. Glassmakers from around South America also visited. These included Heinz-Glas of Peru and Cristalerias Toro of Chile. The two-day event in Sao Paulo, Brazil included a trade show and two free to at-

tend conferences. German exhibitor Isimat stated: “Thank you for the great show. We had exciting days in Sao Paulo with lots of interesting discussions - always a pleasure to be a part of this fantastic exhibition.” The number of visitors to the event totalled 653. Steve Diprose, Managing Director of organiser Quartz Business Media, said: “I would like to thank all exhibitors, visitors and speakers for helping make this event a successful one. We took great pleasure in seeing so many high level vis-

itors from around the region attend the event. We hope they were able to network with as many exhibitors as possible and learn about new trends in glassmaking. “Feedback from exhibitors has been very positive so far with the majority stating how pleased they were to have meaningful discussions with such a variety of South American glassmakers.”

The next Glassman takes place in Lyon, France on September 17 and 18.

£50m UK scheme will ‘increase plastic use’ A deposit return scheme which includes glass will prompt brands to switch to plastic packaging, say glassmakers. It follows the Scottish Government’s announcement to include glass packaging in a deposit return scheme (DRS). In response the UK glass manufacturing sector said this will lead to brands to switch to plastic packaging. The glass industry has also expressed its disappointment that industry and retailer views were overlooked. The concern follows statements from Iceland, The Scottish Retail Consortium and

The Scottish Beer and Pub Association, who said glass packaging should be excluded from the design of a DRS scheme to avoid estimated running costs of £50 million. A DRS aims to generate more packaging for recycling, but experts have argued that including glass in a DRS would decrease the current UK glass collection rate of 67%. The increased costs for including glass to retailers and brand owners will encourage a switch from glass to alternative packaging materials, meaning even more plastic will be on the market, said British Glass.

Members of the glass manufacturing sector said they are committed to increasing the use of recycled and glass (cullet) in their manufacturing process and support any initiatives to raise glass recycling. Some industry furnaces already run on 90% recycled cullet, which saves raw material, reduces energy and CO2 emissions. The UK glass sector has suggested ‘ambitious targets’ for glass collection of 85% by 2030 but believes that this is only achievable under an alternative Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) Scheme.

Euroglas furnace enters production

Euroglas has officially opened its fifth float glass furnace in recent weeks. The latest installation at Ujazd, Poland is already running at full capacity, barely three months after commissioning. The experienced project team managed to reduce the construction period by two months compared to the previous tank. The new furnace is named ‘Gabriela’, following a tradition that each Euroglas furnace bears its patron’s first name; in this case, the daughter of Managing Director Piotr Noga. The additional capacity enables Euroglas Polska to satisfy increased demand in the Polish and European glass market. This is one of the world’s largest plants and was established in 2009 in collaboration with PressGlass . The four Euroglas plants are in Haldensleben, Germany; Osterweddingen, Germany; Hombourg, France; and Ujazd, Poland and were all founded together with medium-sized partner companies. Glas Trösch is the parent company and is based in Switzerland.

Brazilian industry attends Glassman South America

Forglass has started a new project for AGC MOL Belgium. The project calls for design and construction of a new cullet return line for the client’s float furnace. There are several reasons why Forglass is an ideal partner for AGC MOL Belgium. First of all, the project provides for a large number of hoppers, which must not only be fabricated of suitable steel, but also precisely designed for convenient handling within the facility and for easy delivery and assembly on site. Forglass has the technologists to complete this part of the project in full.

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International News

SGD Pharma invests €20 million in Sucy-en-Brie Introducing the Cleanfire® ThruPorte™ burner A prescription for aging regenerators Undergoing regenerator repairs or having

SGD Pharma is to invest €20 million in its Sucy-EnBrie, France glassmaking facility. The pharmaceutical glassmaker, along with its shareholder JIC, plans to rebuild the furnace and modernise the century-old site. The factory has 400 employees and has been dedicated to producing pharmaceutical glass vials

and bottles since 1917. The factory supplies syrups, droppers, tablets, injectable and infusion bottles to more than 450 customers globally. Every year, Sucy produces number of bottles of Type II & III flint and amber moulded glass bottles, making the factory one of the largest players in the European health care in-

dustry. Its 41,000m² surface includes two furnaces and eight production lines connected to ISO 8 clean rooms. The furnace renovation will include a complete rebuild using advanced technologies to meet its continuous improvement initiatives while reducing its environmental footprint.

Libbey signs APS agreement

difficulty maintaining full production in an aging furnace? Turn to Air Products’ new Cleanfire® ThruPorte Oxy-fuel burner for an onthe-fly heating solution to avoid downtime or extend your furnace campaign. This patented and commercially-proven technology, installed from the underside of your port, allows you to add heat where and when its needed. Key features: • Tandem water-cooled oxy-fuel burner and oxygen staging lance • Proven durable design that can be easily installed in an existing port, while the furnace is running • Adjustable flame length and angle for optimal heat distribution and surface coverage • Remote, wireless and continuous online monitoring of burner performance • Available for rapid deployment To make glass better, put Air Products in the mix.

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US tableware manufacturer Libbey has signed a distribution agreement with Germany’s Assheuer + Pott (APS). Libbey said the deal would add premium serve-

ware and buffetware products to its offering. APS is a manufacturer and distributor of catering products based in Germany. Through the distribution agreement, Libbey

will offer more than 300 catering, buffet and tabletop products that provide solutions for hotel, restaurant and catering customers in the US and Canada.

Verescence inaugurates decoration technology Verescence has inaugurated a capacity increase of its hot stamping workshop in its Somme plant, in Abbeville, France. The company’s president Thomas Riou, General Manager France, Hélène Marchand, and Factory Director, Thierry Calmard,

presented the various investments conducted at the site to local dignitaries. The company has invested in the decoration facility for the past decade to improve the performance of its hot stamping production lines and said it was at the forefront of

technology. The site has hired an additional 30 staff in that time. Dignitaries in attendance included Abbeville’s sub-prefect, Philippe Fournier Montgieux, and the regional representatives of Hautsde-France.

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International News


AGR appoints research scientist in Delft

Dr Clarissa Justino de Lima has joined the AGR testing laboratory team in Delft, the Netherlands as a Research Scientist. Her main areas of responsibility will include fracture analysis and container testing, as well as seminar instruction. She will also have considerable involvement with internal research projects and technical papers as they relate to glass as a material for use in the container industry. Clarissa Justino de Lima received her PhD in Civil Engineering from Technische University Delft. She also holds a Master’s degree in Science and Engineering of Materials from Federal University Alfenas in Brazil.

Top 10 stories in the news Our most popular news over the past month, as determined by our website traffic All full stories can be found on our website, � 1. Bucher Emhart Glass sells refractory business to Rath Group � 2. Absolut Elyx bottle pushes boundaries of industrial glass production � 3. Sisecam CEO awarded with the Order of the Star of Italy � 4. Scottish DRS ‘will damage UK glass manufacturing’ � 5. Forglass begins AGC project in Belgium � 6. Verescence inaugurates decoration technology � 7. Groot Glass appoints consultant for $284 million solar power plant � 8. Brazilian industry attends Glassman South America � 9. Guardian Glass inaugurates production line at Hungarian plant � 10. £50m DRS will ‘hit glass recycling and increase plastic use’

Bucher Emhart Glass sells refractory business to Rath

Iris Inspection appoints Project Engineers

Iris Inspection machines has created Project Engineer positions for Francesco Martinelli, David Vaslin and Clément Galifet. The trio had all worked at IRIS previously as Customer Engineers. Over a period of several years, they have acquired considerable knowledge and experience of the company’s Evolution series of camerabased, non-contact inspection equipment, while constantly expanding their skill set. The Project Management team works in close cooperation with Iris Sales Managers and assumes a leadership role in the WENSPECT projects for complete cold end lines.

Bucher Emhart Glass has sold its refractory business to the Rath Group. Austria’s Rath Group is an internationally active company that has stood for high-quality refractory solutions for more than 125 years. It has taken over the production facility for refractory materials for the container glass industry, including plants in Owensville, USA (pictured).

Bucher Emhart Glass said it was convinced the sale is beneficial for all parties involved. Rath will take over all the employees in Bucher Emhart Glass’s production and research site in Owensville. They will gain from the expanded development possibilities within the Rath Group, said Emhart. The specialists from both businesses will profit from

synergies in product development as well as production. Customers will benefit from the strengthened business, as there are no actual changes with the Rath Group taking over and continuing the complete production facility as well as the product portfolio. The final sale is planned for autumn 2019. Customers will be informed in due time about the details.

Glass Focus 2019

Organised by British Glass, Glass Focus 2019 takes place at the Mercure St Paul’s Hotel in Sheffield on November 21. A full daytime programme of speakers, networking and discussions will be followed by an evening gala awards dinner. Everyone with a stake in glass is invited to attend, including manufacturers, researchers and suppliers.

Fusión y Formas selects MAVSA MAVSA has closed a business deal with Mexican glass manufacturer Fusión y Formas. The Argentinian producer will supply a complete special IS 3 sections line including: 81 Type Feeder, IS3 Machine & Conveyor, Conveyor Exten-

sion, Cross Conveyor, Stacker, Electronic Timing & Drive, and variable equipment for tequila bottle production. It will be the first automatic line for the Mexican glass manufacturer as it usually produces using the semi-auto-

matic process. The IS3 Line will be able to pull 15 tonnes of sodalime glass per day. MAVSA is a producer of spare parts globally for feeders, IS machine, tableware machines and mould equipment.

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International News


Pakistan float project

At the recent China Glass 2019 exhibition in Beijing, China Triumph International Engineering Co Ltd (CTIEC) signed a contract to construct a 600 tonnes/day float glass plant in Pakistan. The contact was signed by senior officials from CTIEC and Pakistan-based Orient Group.

Hartmann & Bender secures Mexican deal

Hartmann & Bender, a machine parts and equipment supplier to the container glass industry for more than 40 years, has entered a partnership with Interglass, to create a market presence throughout Latin America. Interglass is a Mexican developer, manufacturer and supplier of speciality lubricants for the global glass industry. This alliance will allow to provide the best solutions for customer needs. Hartmann & Bender is the right partner to all the matters out of special-engineering.

President opens Bolivian factory

Bolivian president Evo Morales has officially inaugurated a new $59 million glass plant in the country. The Envibol container glass site has a capacity of 130 tonnes a day and produces bottles of 620 millilitres and 330ml among others. Managing Director Oscar Sandy told Bolivian TV programme El Pueblo es Noticia that workers from Uruguay will train its 147 staff until December 31. About 15 specialists, with at least 30 years experience, will train workers mainly in the handling and care of the machines. The factory is located in the municipality of Zudañez, department of Chuquisaca, and construction work began in 2016. Italian group BDF Industries secured the turnkey supply of the furnace, forehearths and control automation of the casting process.

Guardian Glass inaugurates Hungarian production line Guardian Glass has inaugurated a new laminating line at its float glass plant in Orosháza, Hungary. It invested in the line to support the increased demand for laminated glass in Europe. The line produces standard and coated laminated glass, as well as speciality products such as acoustic, thick, coated and coloured laminated glass.

The rising demand for laminated glass is being driven by three trends: *Country-level regulations in Europe require the use of safety glass in an increased number of fenestration and interior applications, for which laminated glass is the most effective solution. *The desire for buildings to have more natural light

is driving the trend towards larger, energy-efficient windows, which requires the use of laminated glass for higher mechanical resistance and security. *A general rise in demand for noise reduction for both residential and commercial buildings has increased the use of acoustic laminated glass.

TECO’s Brian Naveken wins Hotbels BTU award Brian Naveken of Toledo Engineering Company (TECO) furnace design company has been named as this year’s Hotbels BTU award winner. Mr Naveken was presented with the award at this year’s Hotbels seminar held in Lexington, Kentucky, USA. The award recognises a person or organisation’s contribution to the glass industry. Mr Naveken said: “I feel honoured to be given this award. I was really in respect to be included in the list of previous winners. It’s an impressive list and I am honoured to be in that list.” Mr Naveken joined furnace design engineers TECO in 1998 and transferred to its Technical Group in 2007. He has been a Furnace Design Engineer since. Speaking to Glass International, he paid tribute to two

colleagues at TECO: Chris Hoyle and Fred Paulsen. “They have helped me with a lot of my papers and collaborated with me. They have given me recommendations and suggestions on to how to take papers forward.” Mr Naveken gave an hourlong presentation titled: Alternative Furnace Design: past, Present and Future. The seminar is an annual event, organised by Hotwork and Fosbel. This year it included eight conference presentations delivered by a variety of glass technology suppliers and glassmakers. Multiple representatives from 40 glass production facilities were in attendance, in addition to attendees from 23 different organisations that supply services to the industry. In his paper, Mr Naveken suggested that furnaces will

increasingly be heavily boosted or all electric. Float furnaces, which have never been boosted in the past, could be boosted by up to 2.5MW. He has been involved with the Hotbels seminar for 12 years and delivered seven presentations in that time. “I like the event because there is a good mixture of people and papers and plenty of interaction with other people from the glass business. “It’s small enough so you can interact with everybody by the time you leave.” Mr Naveken is a certified Manufacturing Technologist by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers and has been on the Board of Trustees for GMIC for 11 years. In addition, he is the Chairman of the GPC Sustainability Symposium.

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Company profile: Phoenix Award winner

Phoenix Award celebrates Spanish Research Professor’s 40 years Professor Alicia Duran was named this year’s Phoenix Award Glass Person of the Year. She has spent more than 40 years in the industry and was recognised for her work in glass research. Greg Morris spoke to her at her headquarters in Madrid.


rofessor Alicia Duran thought someone was joking when she was told she had won the Phoenix award. She believed Phoenix chairman Jean-Luc Logel was trying to persuade her to join the judging committee when he rang to tell her the good news. It was only a few days later, when she checked with Phoenix committee member Erik Muijsenberg that she realised the news was true. “I thought it was a daydream. I had to check with Erik because I wondered if it was a joke. To win the Phoenix award was a great surprise and a great honour. I was flattered to know that people in the industry had nominated me.” Professor Duran has worked with glass for more than 40 years. She has worked with it both from an academic sense and an industrial perspective, having taken part in many projects with Spanish glassmakers. The Phoenix Award Committee said it selected Professor Duran to receive this year’s award in recognition of her extensive work in the furtherance of glass, glass-ceramics and solgel materials research, from basic research to applications in the industrial glass sector and other final users of glassy materials. It said: “She has maintained a continuous collaboration with Spanish and international glass industry, in topics such as enhancing energy saving in furnaces, environmental issues and emission control or recycling systems.”

Early career Prof Duran first became acquainted with glass shortly after her arrival in Spain from her native Argentina in 1978. She had completed a physics degree in her homeland and joined the Institute of Ceramics and Glass (CSIC) within the Spanish Research Council in Madrid to study a PHD under her first teacher José María Fernandez Navarro. After two years her work brought her into contact with the glass industry, specifically the Saint-Gobain research centre in Spain. There, she made friends with people who she is still close

with today including Angel Joglar and Pedro Casariego, as well as the then director Germán Artigas. “We started at approximately the same time and had a lot in common. We were involved in many projects and have stayed friends over the years.” One of the first topics in which they worked was a three-year project on the development of opal glassware. The team had to follow the design of the composition and over the years had to do tests, the fabrication and overcoming all the problems that appeared in the products such as cracking and desulpherisation. “It was a great experience to go from the very beginning of identification and the design of the composition to the final product on the market. I think this experience marked my future research for the rest of my life,” reflects Prof Duran. She has developed her career at CSIC and is today a Research Professor. She leads the GlaSS research group at the Department of Glass. It employs 15 people and is the reference centre for Spanish glassmaking, she states. Among its many topics of research are the environment and energy. “Our work, our identity, is that we try different topics that we work on. We try to go from basic science through the development of these materials and their process and to arrive at the real application of the product. “We are proud that we can take something from its basic science to its final product.” Prof Duran has also been Secretary of the Glass Section of the Spanish Ceramic and Glass Society for more than 25 years. She has also worked with Spain’s Ministry of Environment, the Spanish Association of Glass Container Producers (ANFEVI) and with the European Container Glass Federation (FEVE). The work with FEVE included the

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Company profile: Phoenix Award winner

“Glass has converted in to the most important material in the world. We are now talking about the glass era because glass is behind the technological revolution through the use of optical

fibres underneath the ocean.

because the price of cerium oxide had increased in a short space of time.” In the second, four-year project, Prof Duran was tasked by the group to enhance the quality of the glass to appear more crystal-like while lowering the melting temperature at the same time. Her group manage to achieve this by adding barium and substituting calcium as well as other changes. “We managed to diminish the melting temperature by 50°C and arrived with a glass with better chemical resistance, and that was brighter. The glass was very nice!” While Vicrila has not used the glass yet, Prof Duran is hopeful the new product will open up new markets to the organisation. Prof Duran first became aware of the Phoenix award when her friend Javier Gutierrez Martinez de Companon Botieres, then Director General of Vidrala, won it in 2009. “I was so happy he won it because he is a great example of how to manage a company in an industrial culture.” She is the second female winner of the award. Ms Alev Yaraman, of Sisecam, won the award in 1999. Ms Yaraman and Prof Duran were also the first and second female presidents of the International Commission of Glass (ICG). The role of women in glassmaking is a subject close to Prof Duran’s heart. She is keen to encourage more women to the industry and increase their visibility when they get there. It is a problem for both industry and academia she states. While women form the majority of people at the beginning of careers in chemistry, biology and medicine, very few make it to top positions. Prof Duran states: “It is not just a question of human rights it is a question of equality. Diversity increases quality, it increases competition and increases perspective. If there is an increase in groups with different perspectives we will arrive at more clear and different ideas. “It has been proved that to have more women at the top has increased the quality and turnover of a business.


certification that all glass containers produced in Spain are food safe and has worked with the federation on REACH legislation for the glass industry. Her proudest project was a six year assignment with tableware manufacturer Vicrila between 2010 and 2016. She worked on two major projects with the Bilbao, Spain based glassmaker. One involved the elimination of cerium oxide from the glass composition. Cerium oxide was used by the group for the oxidation and decolouring of glass. “We eliminated it! The cerium oxide, the cobalt and all the decolourants. Vicrila was very happy

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Company profile: Phoenix Award winner

“I know it is not a quick and easy change but there are many arguments supported by many serious reports from big consulting companies that put a convincing case forward to have women in senior roles.” She cites Turkish glassmaker Sisecam as a gender diverse company in the glass industry, with many women in top roles.

ICG President Prof Duran was named President of the International Commission of Glass (ICG) last September at an event in Yokahama, Japan. The ICG has been part of her life since 1998 when she was awarded the Gottardi prize for best young researcher. She has held many roles within the organisation including in education and training, treasurer and vice president. “The roots of ICG are that we promote collaboration within competition. “I enjoy it because it is the oldest and strongest glass association and is an example for the glass and ceramics sector.” The ICG is run by volunteers, focuses on industry and academia and its backbone is its technical committees. These focus on a variety of sectors of the glass industry, such as basic science, the environment and glass melting. “I think the variety and range of topics we cover is the secret of our survival.” The commission plans to evolve in line with changing glass techniques and technology. It is also requesting more investment from glass manufacturers to continue the good work of its technical committees. An example is TC 9 which focuses on energy saving in furnaces. The collaborative work of the committee has saved companies a substantial amount of money on energy costs and calculates the best parameters of a furnace.

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Her passion for glass remains undimmed and she plans to continue promoting its benefits. Alongside ICG colleague David Pye, she is promoting a proposed Year of Glass to the UN to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the German Glass Association (DGG) in 2022. “Glass has converted in to the most important material in the world. We are now talking about the glass era because glass is behind the technological revolution through the use of optical fibres underneath the ocean. “Glass is everywhere- in solar panels, in mobile phones, in optics and in bio materials. Glass is key.” She is looking forward to the Phoenix celebratory banquet on October 4 in Madrid where old friends and colleagues will attend. These include Angel Joglar and Juan Martín Cano, industry friend Fabio Nicoletti, as well as Francisco Prieto from Verallia and ANFEVI, and Javier Gutierrez from Vidrala and ANFEVI. “To get this prize is very important and an honour in my professional career. It is recognised by people of the glass industry in a sector in which I have worked all of my life,” she states. �

Phoenix Award, Institute of Ceramics and Glass, Madrid, Spain

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Electric Glass Fiber UK

Transformation of UK fibre glass plant Electric Glass Fiber UK was named company of the year at the recent British Glass focus awards. The UK association highlighted the Nippon Electric Glass’s (NEG) subsidiary’s drive towards safety and its focus on staff engagement. Greg Morris spoke to NEG’s Steve Keeton and Phil Eccles.


lectric Glass Fiber UK was named the British Glass company of the year during the recent Glass Focus awards. The association highlighted the strides the Nippon Electric Glass (NEG) subsidiary had made in reporting safety issues as well as its continued focus on staff engagement. Both Steve Keeton, the plant’s Operations Manager, and Phil Eccles, its EHS manager, were at the event when the announcement was made. Mr Keeton said: “We were ecstatic. It was a complete surprise because you cannot enter the Company of the Year award, it is decided entirely by judges from within the glass industry. “People within the industry have seen what the company has achieved and what we have been working on across the range so we were really proud.” The award committee took the view that there had been a complete refocus at the company since its takeover by Japanese organisation Nippon Electric Glass in October 2016. The plant had implemented a near miss reporting programme, called Hiyari Hatto (Japanese for Near Miss), throughout the site between 2016 and 2018. While the facility had had a near miss reporting programme for years, the change in safety culture helped engage staff as well as educate them and reduce risks that could lead to an accident. Mr Keeton said: “NEG is very focused on near miss. We had an expectation that everybody would participate in submitting Hiyari Hattos. “Hiyari Hatto is a Japanese take on the near miss, it means people are fearful of an injury or of an incident. “It could be a case of I saw an unsafe act, I identified an unsafe condition, or there was a true near miss that needed to be reported and

� The NEG site in Wigan, UK.

addressed.” The company formed a system where anybody with access to a computer could enter a near miss. Those without access to a computer could fill in a form. Each report was subsequently followed up. On top of this, there were communications on noticeboards, monthly newsletters, digital signs and groups discussions to educate staff ahead of the launch. Everybody from contract workers to the Managing Director were encouraged to participate. All employees were challenged to submit one report a month. The process reached its peak during the plant’s most successful furnace rebuild ever, particularly in terms of safety, last summer. Only a handful of minor first aid cases were reported during the two-month project, which involved demolition of an old furnace and construction of a new one. The project involved 84,000 man hours of work with a host of people from both NEG and its contractors on site. Despite this, there were only six reported first aid cases. Workers were given an induction programme which highlighted the importance of safety before going on site. Workers included a variety of contractors from different disciplines who had not worked together before. Some were there only for a day while others were there for the entire duration of the project. Everyone was told about the importance of near misses and safety. Those who were caught too

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� The NEG UK team at the Glass Focus, left to right:

many times were sent off site. Mr Eccles said: “There was a heightened importance of safety on site and everybody came together to make it a success. “To have six minor first aid cases for 84,000 man hours is classed as a major success and is well below the average for a construction site.” The process has helped educate staff about the importance of reporting and how it can reduce the risk of accidents. Before, there was an apathy in not reporting near misses. But as part of the education process staff were encouraged to think about the consequences and the possibility of staff injury. While the near miss philosophy had been on site for some time it became a real focus after 2016. Mr Eccles said: “There’s been a perception that a lot of near misses can mean that the workplace is unsafe. However, we consider that all reported near misses are opportunities to continuously improve. “The philosophy of the education process is to

• Brian Stewart (Managing Director), • Phil Eccles (EHS Manager), • Steve Leach (Technical Manager), • Steve Keeton (Operations Manager), • Rob Beesley (IT Manager), • Sally Blades (HR Manager), • Dave Dalton (Chief Executive, British Glass).

report near misses today and prevent an accident tomorrow. We’d rather have a large number of near misses that we can do something about rather than dealing with an incident investigation report after somebody has been injured.” Mr Keeton added: “It’s all about education. We want people to understand their environment and the risks they’re exposing themselves to, and what they can do to make it better for themselves and their colleagues.” It was during this period that the topic of safety and of people engagement began to overlap. Staff began to increasingly take more responsibility of their environment, their colleagues and of themselves. It led to a breakdown of barriers between staff and management with an acceptance that everyone needs to work together to make the business more successful. Mr Keeton said: “What we’re trying to do as a business is help to drive engagement and acceptance of new ideas. That’s been a big driver in people reporting things, accepting reports and Continued>>

Nippon Electric Glass Fibre UK

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Nippon Electric Glass Fibre UK


control processes. Such was its success that 14 of the staff are still with the group in more senior roles and with more responsibility. Mr Keeton said: “It’s been a good measure of success for us because all of those jobs would have been available externally with a larger cost to us to train people to bring them up to speed. “Now we have people on the shop floor who weren’t in the development group asking for education and when the next opportunity will be. beginning to trust us more so they don’t believe Where before we pushed education, there is now a we’re going to frivolously dismiss their colleagues � Glass fibre composites in pull from them. Staff want to be involved and be a if they’re found without glasses, for example. automotive use. part of it.” “We’re not at the end but we’re certainly part The facility won the NEG President’s Award way through the transformation.” thanks to cost efficiency and harmonious UK, The company launched a training programme US and Japanese relationships in the successful for its staff to help strengthen the business rebuild project. through its people. The selection process for To help celebrate management organised a trip the programme was similar to a job interview. to Haydock Races for those who had made an extra Applicants had to respond to a job advert, while effort during the rebuild. the interview process included a personality Mr Keeton said: “That was our way of telling profile, psychometric testing and an interview people we recognise your efforts, we recognise with senior management. The initial idea you’re getting more engaged with us and that in was to select 10 staff for the programme GLASS FOCUS AWARDS turn feeds more engagement.” but such was the level of interest that 15 Both the President’s Award and the Glass were taken on. Focus award now sit pride of place in the The Glass Focus awards celebrate the best Some were attuned for leadership facility’s display cabinet and are there for of British glassmaking and highlights while others were more suited to all to see. the achievements of the sector in seven categories. technical roles. He said: “It’s great to show our Japanese Among the categories are sustainable practice, The plant spent £100,000 on the guests and visitors and it highlights what health and safety in action, innovative solutions programme and set up a training a good year it has been for us!” � and strengthening business through people. room specifically for the purpose. Nippon Electric Glass, Wigan, UK This year’s event takes place on Training included demonstrations on flow and speed control together Thursday November 21 in Sheffield, UK. with how to manually and automatically

There is every possibility you have used an NEG item of glass at some point. Its glass products are widely used in the consumer and industrial sectors. While its most popular applications are wind turbine blades and in automotive use, its applications are varied. Its glass is found in products such as body boards, building materials, glass for lighting and cooking appliance top plates. It is also used in electronics and in IT as a substrate for LCDs and OLED displays as well as a substrate for solar cells.

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The Silica Chronicles

A new way to raise funds to enhance recycling Richard McDonough* highlights the work of a new glass recycling organisation in the United States: The Glass Recycling Foundation

� Glass from a Material Recovery Facility (MRF) being delivered to Momentum Recycling in Utah in 2017. (Photograph is provided courtesy of Momentum Recycling.)

and demonstration projects,” Ms. Hennemann continued. “At this point, we don’t have a specific list of projects we will fund,” explained Mr. Ron Holmes, Treasurer of the Glass Recycling Foundation as well as the Director North America, Packaging & Technology at Diageo. Diageo is a global leader in beverage alcohol with major operations in the United States. “We’re focusing on first raising funds,” continued Mr. Holmes. “We’re working with members of the Glass Recycling Coalition as well as others within the United States. We view the creation of the Glass Recycling Foundation to be a positive accomplishment. Collaboration works well within the glass industry and increases sustainability options. With glass recycling, we reduce landfill use, reduce energy needs, and reduce overall costs.” One of the entities helping to create

this new non-profit organisation is another non-profit organisation active in a variety of recycling industries, including the glass recycling industry The Recycling Partnership. According to its website, “As a leading, national force for improving recycling, The Recycling Partnership puts private dollars to work in communities because we know that when we invest in a system to protect resources, empower sustainable action and unlock opportunity, everyone wins.” “There isn’t one solution that will work everywhere,” stated Ms. Stephanie Kersten-Johnston Director of Innovation at The Recycling Partnership. “But with donations in hand, the goal is to provide grants and other funding sources to increase glass recycling across the United States.” Ms. Kersten-Johnston is also serving as a member of the Board Continued>>


n many industries, there are times when competitors become colleagues. Though competition is still a critical part of their business, individuals and companies see great promise in working together on industry-wide issues. Various players within the glass industry have been working together on the issue of recycling for several years through the Glass Recycling Coalition. Missing from those collaborative efforts, though, has been steady funding that may benefit recycling within the glass industry overall. Leaders from different parts of the glass industry recently decided to join together to solve that missing piece of the puzzle by creating the Glass Recycling Foundation. Manufacturers, recyclers, suppliers, purchasers, and others have founded this new non-profit organization. According to its website, the mission of the Glass Recycling Foundation is “To promote the preservation of the environment through glass recycling through education, grant making and creating pilot programs for effective glass recycling working in collaboration with other trade organizations in the glass recycling value chain.” “Our goal is to raise $1 million during the next six to 12 months,” stated Ms. Laura Hennemann, Vice President of Marketing & Communications at Strategic Materials. She is also the Secretary of the Glass Recycling Foundation. Strategic Materials “processes recycled glass and plastic for use in a wide array of products, creating efficiencies for our customers while conserving earth’s natural resources,” according to the company’s website. “With the initial funding secured, we anticipate reviewing and providing grants for glass recycling interventions

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Environment The Silica Chronicles

� Left and right: Pictured above is the Glass Optical Scanner in operation at the Rumpke Waste & Recycling Facility in Dayton, Ohio. Two Glass Conveyors are seen

in the left photograph at the same facility. (Photographs are provided courtesy of Rumpke Waste & Recycling.)

of Directors of the Glass Recycling Foundation. “In my prior role at Heineken, I was a funding representative on the Glass Recycling Coalition,” stated Ms. KerstenJohnston. “I saw value in the establishment of the [Glass Recycling] Foundation as a fundraising arm and, despite changing roles/organizations, I was keen to remain active in the glass space specifically, so I accepted a role on the Foundation Board as a means to do so.” Owens-Illinois (O-I) is also backing this new non-profit organisation. “As a pioneer and leader in the glass packaging industry, it was only natural for O-I to be involved with the Glass Recycling Foundation,” stated Mr. Jim Nordmeyer, Global Vice President, Sustainability at O-I. “The Glass Recycling Foundation will be instrumental in advocating and advancing recycling. There has never been a country-wide non-profit dedicated to projects focused on glass recycling. The Glass Recycling Foundation will give visibility and voice to those who are trying elevate grass root efforts and impact change.” According to Mr. Nordmeyer, “O-I purchases more post-consumer recycled glass (cullet) than any other company in the world. We rely heavily on it in our operations.” Mr. Nordmeyer is a member of the Board of Directors of the Glass Recycling Foundation. The potential to expand glass recycling within the United States is a goal that

many in the glass industry view as very feasible. “Greater than 80% of the population want to recycle,” stated Mr. Nordmeyer. “Glass is made from three natural ingredients: sand, limestone and soda ash. It is reusable and recyclable. And it does not break down into harmful chemicals in the earth or oceans. Glass is all about the taste buds. Glass preserves products in their purest, most enjoyable form.” Mr. John Lair, President and CEO of Momentum Recycling in Salt Lake City, Utah, concurred. “Glass is one of the most recyclable of � Glass bottles made of recycled glass are utilised by Diageo throughout the world.

the items in the waste stream,” stated Mr. Lair. “We need to make sure that glass continues to be collected and recycled, and we are pleased that the Glass Recycling Foundation will help ensure that this happens.” While the specific projects that will be funded through the Glass Recycling Foundation are yet to be determined, the pros and cons of glass recycling are known by many within the industry. “Using recycled glass conserves natural resources, reduces greenhouse gas emissions and lowers the amount of energy needed to melt the raw materials,” explained Mr. Nordmeyer of O-I. “In addition, glass recycling creates jobs across the value chain, and, at the end of the day, it is the responsible thing to do for our planet and future generations.”

(Photograph is provided courtesy of Diageo.)


� Glass bottles in the process of being manufactured by Owens-Illinois (O-I) at its facility in Brockway, Pennsylvania. (Photograph is provided courtesy of O-I.)

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The Silica Chronicles

“Customers and consumers want responsible, meaningful packaging,” Mr. Nordmeyer continued. “This includes products that can be recycled, refilled and reused without harming the environment. Glass is the perfect packaging to accomplish this in the circular economy. [The] Glass Recycling Foundation will play a critical role in supporting glass recycling initiatives to keep glass out of landfills. We are seeing more communities, especially in the United States, taking glass out of curbside recycling bins. This is very short-sighted as the long-term benefits of glass recycling far outweigh the shortterm challenges which boil down to economics.” “Recycling in general is very local,” explained Mr. Nordmeyer. “The list of acceptable recycle items vary from state to state and even from community to community. There’s just no standard approach. A number of organisations provide educational materials and communications regarding acceptable materials; however, the current national average contamination (nonrecyclables) in a single stream cart is 25%.” Distance is a key challenge with glass recycling. “Glass recycling works best when both the source of the cullet and the customer purchasing the cullet are within 200 to 300 miles of one another,” stated Mr. Holmes of Diageo. “Beyond that distance, glass recycling is not as viable today.” The Recycling Partnership agrees with the assessments detailed by the officials with O-I and Diageo. “Glass is suffering from some challenging contradictions,” stated Ms. Kersten-Johnston of The Recycling Partnership. “While being an endlessly recyclable material that is arguably a recycling icon in consumer minds, it’s a material that suffers from low popularity and investment in the recycling system because it’s heavy/challenging to transport, breaks easily (making it challenging to separate, and arguably causing contamination of other more valuable streams), and lacks end markets due to cheap and easy access to virgin materials. While there may be other pros and cons in the mix, many of which also affect other commodities, the essence of the challenges will typically come down to these limiting dynamics for glass.” The leadership of the Glass Recycling Foundation hope to be able to fund interventions and demonstration projects that will emphasise the positive aspects of recycling glass and, at the same time, help to solve some of the challenges currently in place within the glass recycling industry. “Those interested in further information on the Glass Recycling Foundation are encouraged to go to the website for the 501(c)(3) non-profit organization,” noted Ms. Hennemann of Strategic Materials. “We welcome support from all sectors of the glass industry and beyond.” The website address for the non-profit organization is Please note that in the United States, the term “501(c)(3) non-profit organization” generally means that contributions to these tax-exempt organizations are tax-deductible to donors under section 501(c)(3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code. �

Do you have questions about the glass industry? Governmental regulations? Company operations? Your questions may be answered in future news columns. Contact Richard McDonough at © 2019 Richard McDonough

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From raw material intake to batch charging We manage all your raw materials including cullet and provide sophisticated




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Batch plant

Cutting edge technology for modern batch and cullet systems Grant Bailey* highlights some of the latest technology employed by EME to deliver modern batch plant systems.


s any leading glass producer will tell you, quality is paramount and can only be achieved through consistency, team work and reliable technology. EME understands this only too well and supports our customers in all of these areas. As a leading batch and cullet systems supplier, with a long history of delivering quality equipment to the glass industry, we work with our customers to deliver reliable, yet cutting edge, solutions for all of their needs.

� Access to the offloading bins with barcode and/or RFID.

The cornerstone to consistency is good information. Any action based on poor information will result in variations to the process and ultimately result in poor performance. EME recognises the need for consistent high quality data and has many solutions to drive consistency. Take our QR code reading systems or RFID tagging systems for example. These solutions allow customers to identify every single load of raw material from the source. All raw material data is transported with the delivery and identified by our custom raw material intake system at the factory. The identification is made possible through our ability to interpret data from our customers’ ERP systems pertaining to each raw material purchase order. Once each delivery if verified as ordered and correct, the incoming weight is recorded through seamless integration with the truck scales. Proceeding from there, the delivery is guided via directional signals to the correct offloading point. The offloading points are secured, for example with boom gate, electronic bollards or automated closure flaps, to prevent the incorrect material from being sent to the wrong silo. Final verification is made, by scanning the RFID tag or QR

code, in order to activate the unloading system. Lastly, upon completion of the delivery the load data is sent to the customer’s ERP system to allow them to automatically generate the goods receipt

and process payment. Another feature that our customers, and their suppliers, find convenient is the ability to monitor stock levels remotely or even through their inventory data in their ERP systems. Customers are able to use this inventory data, based on mass balance data and combined with radar level verification, to model raw material consumption and optimise their supply chain and manning levels. Automated ordering of critical materials can be made ensuring consistent and timely deliveries. Through EME’s web based interfaces access to live system data is made available on any mobile device. This service has configurable user rights and thus can be made available to sub-suppliers, without the risk of exposing sensitive operational information, in order to monitor parts of the process pertaining to their activities. This entire process requires minimal user interaction, when at all, and is repeatable and reliable. Providing perfectly consistent and accurate raw Continued>>

Consistency is key to a good recipe

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Environment Batch plant

ďż˝ Preventive Maintenance.

material data. After assuring the delivery of raw materials to the batch plant, EME once again looks to technology to ensure the best homogenous batch production. The dosing and weighing of raw materials to form a batch is carried out using the latest generation weighing processors. These processors are seamlessly integrated into PLC and SCADA systems allowing operators to have a consistent interface for all aspect of plant operation. The dosing accuracy of the equipment is calculated by our engineers and controlled with precision via the PLC system. Our Batch Tools System provides our customers with full flexibility, from recipe to recipe, to continually monitor and optimise their weighing process. The weighing system also has a self-evaluation or autocheck system that automatically verifies all scales, on a regular basis, are behaving normally. In the event of an anomaly our SCADA system raises an alarm, quite standard, however the EME system is also able to export these alarms to our customers centralised alarming system. This allows customers to deliver personalised alarms to the right person. Technicians are able to remotely connect, once again using our web based systems, to investigate and even solve some problems. Even when a remote solution is not possible technicians have the advantage that they can prepare for the field work in advance, thus cutting the time needed to solve to problem. At EME we are always looking to the future. It is common practice to add cullet to the batch after mixing. The question always arises as to how to create a homogenous ratio of cullet to batch? The key to this is the homogenous

introduction of cullet onto the batch during transport. EME employs laser technology in order to, not only identify material presence on the belt, but also the material thickness. This allows us to vary the amount of cullet being added to the belt and the timing in which it is added. It should also be noted that the EME Batch Consumption data is handled using a variety of technologies to provide our customers with the most flexible access to this critical data. Data is presented in preconfigured reports as wells as in its raw form. CSV, Excel and XML exports are all standard features in our system. Direct data sharing with customer database systems is also facilitated allowing them to add this data directly into their production systems. This data, combined with the data on the source of the raw materials facilitates total traceability, a highly sought after element in quality management systems. As we continue to follow the batch on its way to the furnace it is now a good time to discuss reliability.

Reliability is the ability to deliver over and over again It is understandable that customers want reliability in their batch plant since without continuous batch delivery to the furnaces their production would come to a halt. We appreciate the need for redundancy and backup solutions. Our Batch Transport systems are designed precisely with this in mind. Customers are able to choose from multiple transport routes with the click of a button with our specially designed Node Routing software, thus allowing batches to be efficiently re-routed. In the cases of emergency, take for

example a power outage, our control systems are able to intelligently detect the interruption and automatically enable emergency transport routes. Operators are under considerable pressure during power outages and EME reduces their stress by keeping their furnace silo levels stable through a simple stress free interface. As with all equipment and technology systems, plants are subject to aging as well as wear and tear. To ignore this unavoidable outcome would be folly. We strive to provide our customers with the most reliable systems. Notwithstanding our superior equipment quality we provide additional rational solutions to our customers to ensure that batch production is never interrupted for too long a period. EME delivers process monitoring devices to allow for status feedback for our mechanical equipment, be it from rotation control to current monitoring of motors, the operator is always informed of the operating status of his equipment. In addition to monitoring of the equipment we also provide failsafe solutions for the system operating and monitoring the plant. The use of high availability failsafe CPU’s, combined with redundant server solutions, leave customers satisfied that they are always in control. Up until this point we have discussed how a consistent process can be created through intelligent design. We have also shown how reliability can be provided in order to support the continuity of this process. The successful operation of a batch plant however also requires good teamwork. Without teamwork the batch plant will not be able to operate optimally. Continued>>

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Teamwork – working together towards a common goal Take for example the case of a faulty scale. The system consistently reports that a scale is out of tolerance; the operator however ignores this fact and forces the plant to continue operation. This scale is now adding 150kg of soda per batch too much. This batch plant produces 200 batches per day. The result is 30,000kg of soda is being used than is reflected in the system. The result: � The silo mass balance is wrong, raw material deliveries are impacted � The batch composition if wrong, resulting in poor glass quality � The faulty equipment is not repaired, the problem continues A good team would have been able to prevent such an event from becoming a problem through good communication. EME understands the need for good communication and facilitate this through clear documentation, SCADA interfaces with visual stimulation, well labelled warnings and alarms, and most importantly early warning systems. Every SCADA system delivered by EME has the as built flowsheet and circuit diagrams located directly on the SCADA. We leave no room for key information to be lost. All alarms reference equipment tags which in turn correspond directly with the flowsheet and circuit diagrams. This allows operators and technicians to work together as a team to clearly identify the problem, to communicate where it is and efficiently resolve it. EME believes prevention is better than the cure. The fact that every EME batch system comes standard with our Live Maintenance Management tool bears testimony to this. This tool provides maintenance teams with live run-time based information. Planned maintenance can be carried out based actual needs as opposed to fixed routines that become costly and are premature. Its run-time based maintenance allows teams to attend to the needs of the plant in a cost effective and efficient manner. Planning for maintenance is made easy through our notification system that advises that equipment will be due for service in after a given period of time. In the event that a customer is in need of additional support, EME is always there as a part of the team. Not all support requires an on-site presence in modern batch plants. Safe and secure remote support is offered to all our customers in their times of need. Our engineers are able to remotely diagnose problems and offer technical solutions through connecting directly with our batch plants. Remote commissioning is also possible in some cases. All of this due to the fact that EME has a custom built simulation centre that can simulate any customer’s plant in order to reproduce a fault or demonstrate functionality of our software. EME is a company that has been a consistently reliable technology partner our customers for decades. Trusting in the experience of the past, combining it with the technology of today, to deliver the batch and cullet systems of tomorrow. �

*Technical Director, EME, Erkelenz Germany






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GH_1-2pp_Ad_A4+Bleed_Layout 1 15/08/2016 10:53 Page 1








GLASSWORKS HOUNSELL We make new, we make spares, we refurbish and we advise. We have a tradition that dates back to our foundation in 1877 and we adhere to core values that have stood the test of time. How well our products work and how long they last drive our commitment to quality, allowing us to remain a leading manufacturer.

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Masters in manufacturing

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Batch plant

Zippe’s Control System Technology goes B-ZMART I signal in case of problems. In addition to the control systems of individual machines and the transportation of raw materials and batch, the organisation’s core competence extends to the areas of weighing and dosing. These are particularly important as it is here that the quality of the batch and, consequently of the glass, is determined. Zippe’s goal is to produce the highest quality batch in the shortest time. To accomplish this it is necessary that the weighing and dosing parameters are optimally adjusted and updatable during a process change. Currently there are various tools which allow for a fully automatic adjustment or monitoring. The most important characteristics of a SCADA system for the latest batch house control systems are: � Flexible recipe administration � Batch reports � Consumption reports � Alarm and messaging texts � Log function of all important plant parameters and user commands � Data collectors � Interfaces for subordinate ERP systems � Standard interfaces for data exchange such as xml, xls, pdf, rtf

� Highly reliable systems by synchronization between redundant servers and redundant PLCs � Trends, diagnosis, and monitoring tools Today, integrated development tools connect the PLC and SCADA worlds with one another. The Siemens TIA- platform (Totally Integrated Automation) allows efficient engineering thanks to integrated interfaces for data exchange. In addition to traditional SCADAsolutions, Zippe has already executed more than 20 projects in Plant-WideAutomation with the Siemens PCS7. This system provides a unified operation concept for the different areas of a glass production plant. With this approach, batch house and melting furnace, as examples, can be incorporated into a multi-project in which data can be supplied transparently with open interfaces that enable an information exchange to coordinate the process for each one more effectively. This is significant as the interconnection of plant areas is becoming increasingly important in developing digitalisation. Continued>>

n 2020 Zippe will be celebrating its 100th anniversary, 50 years of which it has also been a control system supplier. This heritage, combined with futureorientation and continued R&D has led to it being an industry thought leader in control system technology. As a specialist for batch plants and cullet return systems, Zippe was actively developing automation solutions right at the beginning of the third industrial revolution. The first solutions were relatively simple with message texts that could only be released by a printer. In the following decades, automation systems developed into modern SCADA systems with interfaces for subordinate ERP systems. At the time there was no standard connection by bus systems and the weight information from raw material scales could only be transferred by electrical I/O signals. As time progressed, so did business communication and extended control system possibilities. The implementation of web interfaces led to even more possibilities such as remote access for diagnostic purposes. With today’s electronic systems it is has become possible to examine and evaluate the scale sensors, the so-called ‘load cells’, even more closely and send an alarm

This example illustrates the B-ZMART app runtime.

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Environment Batch plant

Interconnection is crucial for customers who wish to run self-sufficient plants which only need operator supervision. To realise this there is no way around the integration and evaluation of sensors and digital connection. The potential to optimise batch plant production are evident, especially in the areas of performance, material flow, tolerance minimisation and increase of the plant availability. Processing of existing sensor data provides the possibility to further improve the process regulation. The automatic optimisation of the production process adjustments aims at a process automation and operation without personnel. Future challenges will lie in a better understanding of all available information and using it systematically. Algorithms must be developed to gain as much knowledge as possible from all this multiple data. This will allow questions such as ‘What happened?’, ‘Why did it happen?’, ‘What could happen?’ and ‘What should the reaction be?’ to be answered and addressed rapidly. To provide this analytical data,

information must be collated and presented using the following two options: � The Cloud solution Data is sent to the internet and administered by reliable providers. This raw data, initially of no value, can then be interpreted and visualized by an app. � The server solution Here data collecting servers can be installed into the plant’s IT-infrastructure. Data is also collected by a computer and illustrated by an app or internet browser while a dashboard shows the prepared data graphically. This version allows for data to be accessed from within the corporate network or alternatively, through encrypted access from the internet. Zippe’s B-ZMART app allows access to local data or scale parameters with a dashboard, which give customers access to all data and information at any time, obviously accessed only via a secure VPN connection. The following displays are currently possible: � Visualisation of the electronic

weighing system � A mobile access to the process message � Historical data such as the operating time of the plant in a bar or pie chart � Access to the weighing electronics If required, more modules can be integrated into the app, for example a silo management tool which reports the filling levels. An alarm or messaging system, which alerts critical levels to the smartphone, is also available. The daily operating time of scales, mixer and the batch transport are all portrayed visually. From this the efficiency of the plant can be derived. You can determine how long the plant runs per day and the scale of the daily production capacity and any changes can be easily identified and interpreted accordingly. These mobile apps have been developed to make the electrical control systems of Zippe batch plants even smarter, giving you greater control. �

Zippe, Wertheim, Germany


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Company profile: Newport Industries

Newport Industries unveils £8 million soda ash handling site Newport Industries is a distributor of soda ash to the UK glass market. On the first anniversary of the opening of its new bulk handling facility in Liverpool, UK, Greg Morris was invited to visit by Bill Whittaker*.


ewport Industries has opened its £8 million soda ash bulk handling terminal in the UK. The facility, based at Canada Dock in the port of Liverpool, has more than doubled the company’s handling capacity of soda ash. It means the company can supply the UK glassmaking industry with higher volumes of the raw material. Thanks to its investment in new, modern equipment it can also supply the industry at a much more rapid rate. The company is the exclusive agent of Turkey’s Eti Soda and imports about 260,000 tonnes of natural soda ash a year. The soda ash is mined at Eti’s Beypazari and Kazan plants in Turkey and shipped from its Derince Port to locations all around the world, including Liverpool. Soda ash is a vital raw material for glassmaking and most of the soda ash imported by Newport Industries will be used by UK glass manufacturers.

Benefits Bill Whittaker, Newport Industries Sales Director, states a benefit of the site is the efficiency of the

� Newport Industries is based on a five-acre site at Canada Dock, Liverpool.

� Modern equipment means the soda ash can be distributed rapidly.

new operation. “I would say that this is the best import facility for soda ash and distribution in Western Europe. We use modern equipment, the process is fast and there is less risk of contamination. “We are set up to supply the whole of the UK and well placed for glass clusters along the M62 corridor.” Bill has been involved in the project since its inception and was one of the first people based on the site, in just a cabin in its early days. “We would not be able to deliver the volumes that we do if we had stayed still and not been able to supply the market as well as we do with the old equipment. The equipment is so good and everything is so quick and efficient compared to the traditional warehouse dispatch.”

Site background The new site is set on five acres of land on the River Mersey. It consists of a 300-metre long quay, which is long enough to dock two ships at a time. The water is 10.5 metres deep, which allows soda ash vessels of up to 50,000 tonnes to moor there.

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Company profile: Newport Industries

On land, two 7,500 tonnes silos feed two smaller silos. The smaller silos are capable of delivering 100 tonnes an hour of soda ash into waiting distribution lorries. Bill states: “It takes a lorry to go from weigh bridge to weigh bridge about 20 minutes, with truck loading at 6 minutes It would take much longer than that in a traditional warehouse.” The site also contains two warehouses capable of housing 1504 pallets. Inside are a variety of packs of different chemicals and minerals for the sectors Newport Industries serves. The facility will generally receive two ships a month from Turkey, which will be moored at the site for approximately two days while they unload. A discharge hopper will unload the soda ash from the hold of the ship on to an enclosed automatic conveyor. The conveyor transports the

Patel, made the decision to move to the Canada Dock facility after spotting the trend for increased demand for soda ash from glassmakers. Since the closure of Tata Chemical’s Winnington site in 2013 the UK has been a net importer of soda ash. Newport Industries is a global chemical importer and distributor, and is the UK’s largest importer of soda ash. It supplies the container and flat glass sectors across the UK. While glass is its largest marker, the company also supplies about 10 other sectors with various chemicals and minerals. It has smaller sites in Ayr, Scotland, Londonderry, Ireland and in Ipswich, England to distribute to local glassmakers from each site. �

*Sales Director, Newport Industries, Richmond, UK

soda ash into the larger silos, which subsequently feed the smaller silos. The extraction method is modern and environmentally friendly. The enclosed conveyor means there is less spillage of the glass raw material, less dust and less risk of cross contamination. The traditional method of warehouse storage increased the risk of cross contamination from the likes of bird droppings, dust and other chemicals.


The site itself was formerly a coal export dock, with hints of its history still on display in the form of rail tracks dotted around the facility. After a few years of disuse, Newport Industries made the decision to invest in the site in 2016. The company has revitalised the site, which consists of four silos and two warehouses. It has also taken on staff and employs 10 people. To ensure the dock was capable of holding the larger, 8000 tonne silos, construction workers had to drill 18 metres down into the bedrock of the earth to lay 180 concrete columns, known as piles. The company had been based just a few miles down river in Runcorn, UK, since 2009. Newport Industries Managing Director, Raj

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Company profile: Vicrila

Vicrila plots largest ever expansion Spanish tableware manufacturer Vicrila is to invest more than €17 million in a modernisation project at its Basque site. Glass International spoke to its Managing Director, Fernando Bermejillo, about the company’s investment plan.

� Fernando Bermajillo.

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Company profile: Vicrila


ableware manufacturer Vicrila is currently embarking on a major investment plan at its Lamiako, Basque site in the north west of Spain. The company, founded in 1890, is modernising its production equipment and adding a production line. The project will be completed in 2022 and is the largest of its type it has ever undertaken. The investment will allow it to be more competitive in a globalised environment, bring it greater flexibility and rapid production. It will increase its capacity to 42,000 tonnes of glass a day. Overseeing it all is Vicrila Managing Director Fernando Bermejillo. The group is the only company in Spain that produces both water and soda glasses as well as wine and other tableware glass. “Even though we are quite small, internationally speaking, compared to our competitors such as Arc International, Pasabache and Libbey, we are very agile and have a close proximity to our customers,” he states. It customers are from the food service sector. The close relationship it shares with them means the company can rapidly develop new products that meet current trends. “So we are confident that we’ll have a well assured position in the future,” Mr Bermejillo states. “We already have the sales strategy outlined, so we only need the necessary financial investment to keep improving. Industrial companies such as Vicrila need large investments to go forward. In our case the main objectives are to be more competitive, agile, flexible and have an even faster response capacity for market requirements and new trends.”

This investment will allow it to be an even more flexible glassmaker. It wants to have the flexibility to be able to do shorter runs with a wider range of products, to give clients the best possible service. The plan is to be more flexible in its processes within its manufacturing lines and improve its logistics. As part of its customer service, it has expanded its products catalogue for some of its largest clients. In the past year it has designed an exclusive tableware item (glass of wine) for each of them, and that design will always be used just for those companies. “We also want to be more flexible improving the logistics, and have glass manufacturing processes similar to a lean factory. “We don’t want to have a bigger production capacity but to improve all the processes, so we can do them quickly and with less effort,” “We have one factory which is split into two parts – the hot and the cold end. The one at the top is dedicated to the hot end. That one is much more Continued>>


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Company profile: Vicrila

automated with the machines using the drops that come from the furnaces. “The other part is the cold end, where we produce all the packaging and we manipulate the process. In this plant we have six production lines, two of which are completely automated. We made the latest investment in one of them last month. The plan is to automate another one this year, two next year and so on. A seventh line will be built during the period of investment. “We are going to invest in both the hot and cold ends, but the amount depends on each necessity. At the cold end, including the modernisation of the line and some other works, we’ll spend around €700.000. Just the works taking place for the heat treatment this year will be approximately €1.5 million while a new tableware line is €3 million.

Environmental focus

There will be an environmental focus during the investment period. “In Vicrila we are very involved in doing all we can for the environment. All issues related to that

matter result in a lower consumption or a better use of energy and raw materials. “That is part of what we are doing, changing and trying new materials that are more environmentally friendly and of course everything related to energy: lower consumption, be more responsible, use all the heat coming from the furnaces, etc. “You could say that everything related to energy savings is an obsession for us, because percentage wise it is our biggest cost. The investment project will take place in continuous stages between 2018 and 2022. The second glassware line is planned to be operational by 2021.

Customer service All the works taking place are focused on its service. It does not just sell glass but provides a complete, more rounded package to its clients. “What we do sale is an organisation that needs to provide a perfect service, obviously dealing with glass. We interpret the service as a wide concept:

logistics, quick answer to clients when they need something from us, offer accurate quotes. All that is related to the contact with the client, what is called ‘the moment of the truth’ is what we are focusing on. Our main goal is to improve our service every day.” The group also has plans to expand into the USA. It already has agents in all Spanish speaking countries. Some of the agents work for large manufacturers or smaller ones that don’t have exclusivity with us. These are normally focused in specific markets such as Chile or Uruguay. “For the US market we have three options. We have already started to work with one of them and we now have to make a decision regarding the other two, because both want exclusivity and they have a different brand concept. “At the end of May we are attending an exhibition in Chicago where we will meet these two companies to make a decision. In a market like American it is essential to work with a local distributor. “ Mr Bermejillo has worked for the company

since January 2018 after a career in the foundry industry. He enjoys the glass sector. “From a commercial point of view I prefer the glass industry. When you work for a steel foundry for example you rarely see the client, you normally don’t have contact with them because the materials are used to ensemble something else like an engine for example. “In the glass industry you have an immediate contact with your costumers. We have our own agents visiting them very often. If for example I go to a restaurant where they use our tableware, I can speak with them about the service and the quality. “From a concept point of view I also love the glass industry. You get something with no shape that is formed of raw materials and energy and suddenly you heat it up, put it inside a mould and something amazing comes out of it. I find that extremely attractive.” �

Vicrila, Lamiako-Leioa, Spain,

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Environment Forming

Safety benefits of IS machine lighting The latest generation of IS machines can be equipped with sophisticated status lighting to provide enhanced safety, while also increasing mould life expectancy, explains Wilfried Seidensticker*. The status lighting is a coloured RGB-section lighting that colour changes depending on the current status of a section.


n addition to providing pure white light illumination for the blank side, Heye International also offers colour status lighting for its latest generation of SpeedLine IS machines. This colour status lighting (coloured RGB status lighting with an option for white lighting) has been supplemented by a further function that, in addition to its security benefits, also increases the usefulness of this option. This enhancement relates to the equipment’s lubrication (swabbing) cycle. Effectively, the lighting is mounted in the blank side control panel and in its simplest form (white light only), illuminates the section for work that needs to be undertaken there, including job and equipment exchanges. Initially, the coloured RGB status lighting with an option for white lighting took into account the opportunity to increase operator safety. With the coloured lighting, the operator can visually identify the different operating states of the machine/section. Without illumination, the section is in normal production mode. By a further defined assignment of different colours, the operator is shown further possible operating states. This includes: � Section stop activated. � Start phase (reset actuated). � Start up and operation without gobs. � Special ‘cold blank mould’ programme. � No communication between status lighting and control (failure). � Special ‘lubrication cycle’ programme.

Which lubrication periods can be selected? The ‘lubrication cycle’ function gives the operator additional support when carrying out daily work routines. By blinking in an assigned colour, the function makes it visible that the lubrication of the blank and/or the neckring is necessary after a

Heye International’s coloured RGB status lighting with white lighting option provides enhanced safety, while also increasing mould life expectancy.

defined time interval. The time interval can be stored in the HMST (Heye Modular Servo Technology) control, either in the form of minutes or after a certain number of processed gobs.

Can swabbing of neckrings be indicated separately? The necessary swabbing of both the blank mould and neckring is indicated to the operator by a colour-coded light that flashes in each station. Flashing frequency increases as the specified interval is exceeded. The flashing is stopped by the operator pressing the ‘blank lubricating’ button, before lubricating the blank mould and/or the neckring and pressing the button again, returning the station to the operating state. Thereafter, the interval begins to count again, until re-lubrication of the blanks or neckrings is displayed again.

Which IS machines can be equipped with status lighting? Coloured RGB status lighting with white lighting option is available for all SpeedLine IS machines that are equipped with modern machine control and HMST control. Via this added safety benefit, the operator has access to another useful tool to support daily work routines in a simple way. Furthermore, by maintaining a regular lubrication interval, optimum mould lifetime is guaranteed. �

*Product Manager Hot End, Heye International, Obernkirchen, Germany email: web:

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SIMPLY MAKING GREAT GLASS WITH HEYE SMART SOLUTIONS PORTFOLIO Closed-loop Process Control solutions for automated production Smart machine controls for flexibility and speed Smart data – integrated production data with Heye PlantPilot Multilevel Safety Concept


Environment Cold end

Complete cold end for Turkish glass plant MSK has delivered the complete cold end including controls and assembly from one source to the Bastürk Cam glass plant in Malatya, Turkey.


astürk Cam started production at the beginning of January 2018. The cold end includes the connection of the lehr with three bottle conveyor lines, palletizers, shrink wrapping system, and pallet conveyors and has already been designed for extension by an additional furnace.

Full-service supplier with experience At glasstec 2016, the Turkish manufacturer Bastürk Cam placed an order with MSK for delivery of the complete cold end for its new glass production plant in Malatya. The decades of experience and leading know-how of the full-service cold end provider MSK was one of the decisive factors for the glass production newcomer. The cold end was designed for

an existing building structure and started up less than a year later. MSK ensured the best-possible communication with the project owners at Bastürk Cam with a Turkish-speaking project management team at MSK and Turkish-speaking on-site assembly team in Turkey. MSK delivered all the equipment for the cold end starting from the lehr all the way to the pallet packaging from one source and as a turnkey installation. This helped rule out several component interfaces as error sources and network the entire system with a uniform control software.

One source from lehr to packaging Production at Bastürk Cam started on schedule in January 2018 with the start-

up of the first lehr. The produced bottles and jars are transported on three bottle conveyor lines through the inspection area to the palletizers. MSK bottle conveyor systems are made in-house from stainless steel and premium components to ensure a long life and, like all MSK machines, are controlled uniformly by the same MSK software EMSY. The three installed palletizers MSK Triotech are equipped with the universal palletizing head MSK Unitech. This allows for the flexible production of the various glass products in Malatya with the same palletizing head without downtimes for job changes. The palletizing stations are supplied by a central dressing line with two pallet formats. After palletizing, pallet conveyors and a mobile MSK

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ďż˝ The cold end includes the connection of the lehr with three bottle conveyor lines, palletizers, a shrink wrapping system and pallet conveyors. pallet shuttle car transport the glass pallets fully automatically to the shrink-wrapping line MSK Multitech, where they are film-wrapped and thus protected on all 6 sides for storage and transportation.

Savings with universal palletizer The swivel-arm palletizing system MSK Triotech in combination with the universal head MSK Unitech as is used at BastĂźrk Cam provides a great benefit since all products can be processed by one and the same palletizing head. Compared to a gripper tube system, the universal solution thus saves a significant amount of time for job changes. In addition, the air consumption is significantly reduced and there is no need to buy replacements for the wear parts of the gripper tubes. The palletizers at BastĂźrk Cam process up to 3 layers per minute and are also


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Environment Cold end

equipped with three MSK traymakers, a central intermediate sheet inserter and cover sheet/tray inserter, as well as a wood frame inserter. The central dressing line pre-assembles a bottom film sheet for the empty pallets, which in combination with the film hood later forms an all-round sealed packaging. MSK Triotech palletizers stand out due to their space-saving construction and low wear, since the palletizing column stands firmly on the floor and only the arm swings around the column.

Flexible pallet packaging With the MSK Multitech shrink-wrapping system, the cold end in Malatya has a compact, high-performance, and flexible solution. The system is equipped with two film formats and makes it possible to package up to 60 pallets per hour. The compact design with lowerable machine head at the working level and maintenance-free time belt technology allows for simple and quick maintenance and ensures very low energy consumption. “The MSK Multitech pulls the film hoods over the pallet loads without touching them. This is a very safe packaging solution for sensitive glass products and

In terms of capacity, it is already designed to cover the addition of an additional furnace, which is planned for 2019. When required, the still unpackaged glass pallets are transported from all palletizing lines to the shrink-wrapping line. The shuttle car also covers the central dressing line for the preparation of empty pallets. Overall, the mobile pallet conveyor is designed for an output of up to 60 pallets per hour and thus ensures a quiet, safe, and automated flow of materials. also makes it technically possible to use thinner films, which has a positive effect on packaging unit costs”, explains Uwe Jonkmanns, Director Sales and Marketing at MSK. The film is shrunk using an MSK safety shrink frame. The special warm air mixing process heats the film in a targeted and gentle manner, allowing it to retain its tensile strength and durability. MSK shrink frames work with heat recovery, significantly increasing energy efficiency.

Automated flow of materials The MSK shuttle car has the central task of fully automatically connecting all production, palletizing, shrink-wrap, and empty pallet lines without using a fork-lift.

EUROPE 2019 17-18 September 2019, Lyon, France

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Your free pass to attend will allow you access to the international exhibition and two free-to-attend

Uniform and networked control MSK controls the entire cold end at Bastürk Cam with the MSK EMSY software specially designed for MSK systems. The intuitive visualisation software, equipped with 3D animations, is easy to operate and shortens the training time. Any parameters that have been entered once can be transferred to other machines automatically. The software allows to trace the products through the entire logistics system as well as to control the overall equipment. �

MSK, Kleve, Germany

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From batch plant to the warehouse, YOUniverse creates a maximum flow of information to enable as many machines as possible to “talk” to each other to improve efficiency, productivity and profitability. With its open information interchange, this revolutionary system allows machines from any manufacturer to be linked to the YOUniverse. Welcome to the future – yours and your factory‘s.

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Real-time Process & Quality Controls


Vimec introduces inspection for moulded glass sealing surface A Line-Over-Finish inspection system contains a line-scan camera which observes the sealing surface of a rotating jar.

At the same time, the reliability of existing systems is below marketexpectation and False Accepts still lead to customer-complaints. After nearly three years of studies, tests and validation, Vimec has recently released Enceladus. We look back on

a project that was initiated as a LOFinspection system and resulted in a powerful edge inspection system with unprecedented performance and reliability. Continued>>


n today’s food packaging solutions, glass is an excellent material. It is an inert material, transparent, strong, low cost and fully recyclable! Besides these properties, glass can be shaped in nearly any form by moulding. The production of moulded consumer glass products is done by inserting a ‘gob’ of molten glass in a mould. While the glass cools, it accurately takes the shape of the mould and a product is formed. In the forming process, all moulddetails are taken over in the geometry of the product. This applies to the wanted features, but sometimes also leads to unwanted features. Unwanted features negatively influence the product-quality or can even cause a reject. One typical defect-mode which relates to moulding is called Line-Over-Finish (LOF). A Line-Over-Finish defect is a physical imperfection on a surface and it

is a problem when it occurs on a sealing surface, for example the edge of a jar where the lid has sealing contact. For moulded glass production-facilities, the LOF is an exceptionally nasty feature, since it is hard to prevent and most difficult to detect. Existing LOF-inspection systems have a high False Reject-ratio, which leads to unnecessary rejects and reduced factoryoutput.

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Environment Forming

Furnace Draining

Like all our solutions, the inspection is established with machine-vision and specifically designed for reliable inspection of a defined feature. The functionality has been designed in such a way that there are no compromises to the glass production process. There is only a physical add-on to the existing line, all parameters, speed and handling have remained unchanged. Vimec products are always named after a certain moon. The LOF-inspection device is named Enceladus, a name which is particularly relevant for two reasons: � Enceladus is the moon which was discovered after Mimas (which is the name of Vimec’s off-line moulded glass inspection system), � Enceladus is the moon with the highest albedo (reflection of light), which is suitable given the enormously bright LED panel.

The high performance is achieved with a line-scan camera which observes the sealing surface of a rotating jar. In order to meet the market-wishes and demands, the hardware resulted in an extreme set-up of ultra-fast linescan imaging, telecentric optics and a customised, enormously high-powered LED light setup. To have real-time processing of the extreme data-capturing, a double CameraLink connection and dedicated algoritms have been implemented. Vimec is proud to announce that Enceladus will join the existing productfamily of moulded glass inspection-tools. �

Vimec, Eindhoven,The Netherlands


Recycling Drain

Furnace Heat-Up


� Line-Over-Finish

� Air bubbles

� Chips

� Dips


� Moulded glass

� Round diameter up to 96.5mm

� SYSTEM CAPABILITY � Resolution 11 micron

� In-line cold end inspection

� Capacity 240 parts per minute @96.5mm diameter

�Max capacity depends on edge-diameter

Experienced Teams

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� SYSTEM HARDWARE PROPERTIES � Line-scan, framerate 250 kHz � Telecentric optics � LED white light 1500 Lumen

WORLDWIDE AVAILABILITY Tel.: +41 71 649 20 90

� Integrated cooling to maintain operating temperature to max 70°C

� Sideways adjustable to adapt to product diameter � Height adjustable to adapt to product height

Glass International June 2019

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British Glass

Milk bottles are cream of the crop The UK Friends of Glass project to promote the benefits of glass, driven by British Glass, has proved that glass milk bottles are a hit for a number of dairies. milk delivered in glass. “We’re a family business and we are all about delivering what our customers want. Many of them don’t live close to a shop, so we offer a range of products they can get on the doorstep.” Nigel also believes that Blue Planet II was the game-changer that sparked the new demand for milk in glass from small dairies. “We are selling two thirds more than before the programme,” he explains. “I thought it would be a short-lived fad but it is still going strong. It’s even led to a demand for organic milk that just wasn’t there before. We now sell about 150 pints of organic milk in glass a day.” Nigel says his customers are intent on moving away from buying plastic and believes that any difference in price doesn’t put people off. “I think they are determined to do something positive about reducing the amount of plastic in the environment and buying milk in glass bottles is one easy way they can do this.” The future looks rosy for the dairy. “We recently started to deliver to a village where one of our lads is based. It was his idea to extend his round there. He now sells 250 pints every Tuesday and Friday.” The Blue Planet effect has been significant for Woodman’s Dairy in Cardiff. It launched as a small family business in 1983 in the Rumney area, when there eight dairies delivering milk to the doorstep in Rumney alone. Today there are only three in the whole of Cardiff. Prior to Blue Planet II, the dairy was selling around 6,000 glass bottles of milk a week, now it has climbed to 10,000. “We used to deliver to every house in every street,” says Mark, “but we couldn’t compete with the supermarkets on price, so the business inevitably declined. “All we could do was concentrate on providing a good service”. But with the screening of Blue Planet II in January 2018, there was an immediate upswing in demand for milk in glass bottles. “Prior to the programme, we may

have had about one or two new enquiries a week. We now typically get anything from 10 to 20 enquiries every week and 80% of these are for milk in glass bottles.” And the demand just keeps on growing. “Every time there is something about the plastic problem on the news, we get another influx of calls. Customers are keen to do something to reduce the amount of plastic they are buying.”

Mark doesn’t see the surge in interest for milk in glass bottles as a flash in the pan: “People view milk in glass bottles as more environmentally friendly and were delighted that a milkman service was still available. There’s no doubt, there is potential to double the size of the business.” A spokesman for Friends of Glass said: “We’re delighted to see this upswing in doorstep deliveries of milk in glass bottles! “It’s wonderful to see this sea change in people’s attitude to sustainability. Glass bottles can be recycled hundreds of times, in fact infinitely. That’s why they are so much better for the environment. “And glass is a purer material to use– it doesn’t allow any chemicals to leach into your food or drink.” �

British Glass, Sheffield, UK


rom Dundee to the East End and Camarthen to Cardiff, milk is being delivered in traditional glass bottles. The dairies are putting it down to the Blue Planet II effect. And the return to tradition means salvation for many small family farms. In Dundee, Kerr’s Dairy has been serving local people for more than 100 years. When Kelvin Kerr (pictured) became the fourth generation of his family to run the business, he faced an uphill battle. The supermarkets were undercutting on price, using milk as a loss leader. But then Blue Planet II came along and he saw a massive upswing in sales. Kelvin said: “In early 2018 we were selling 750 pints a week in glass bottles. Just a year later it’s risen to between 4,000 and 5,000. “And customers love the fact that the glass bottles are recycled on average 20 times.” At Parker Dairies in the East End and the City of London, a steady decline of up to 7% a year has been transformed with 1,700 new doorstep customers last year. Many are millennials who love the idea of milk in glass bottles delivered to their home by electric vehicles. Depot Manager Paul says: “It’s become quite trendy to buy your milk this way.” Paul is another who believes Blue Planet II is to thank. “There’s no doubt that the programme had a huge part to play in the increased sales. People want to find alternatives to plastic.” And as consumers continue to turn to alternatives to plastic, the demand for the healthy, environmentally-friendly glass milk bottle looks set to be a winner for Parker Dairies for some time to come. Nigel Dragone has been running Nigel’s Dairy in Camarthen for 22 years and has recently seen an explosion in demand for both milk and fresh fruit juice in glass bottles. Nigel, who works with son Angelo, says: “The demand keeps growing from village to village. We’re getting calls from areas as far away as Swansea, specifically asking for

45 Glass International June 2019

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06/06/2019 08:40:16


Prof. John Parker

In the pink Prof John Parker* discusses the use of selenium in glassmaking.


elenium was first isolated and characterised in 1817 by Berzelius, who recognised it as a chemical element similar to tellurium which had been known since 1782. How did he link them? They were both associated with the smell of garlic! The word selenium derives from the Greek for ‘Moon’ and was given because tellurium was already named after the ‘earth’. It is also related chemically to sulphur and is often a by-product in the extraction of metals from sulphide ores, where it partially replaces the sulphur. It rarely occurs in the Earth's crust in its elemental state or even as pure compounds. The chief commercial uses for selenium today are in glassmaking and pigments. Being a semiconductor selenium has been used extensively in photocells e.g. for xerography but its applications in electronics have been largely replaced by silicon semiconductor devices. Now some 25% or more of the 2500 tons of selenium generated annually is used in glass production. Selenium compounds can be toxic in large quantities, but trace amounts are necessary for many organisms and all animals. Consequently it is often a recommended constituent in dietary supplements, including those for children. Some plants require relatively large amounts of selenium and can sequester it from their surroundings while others apparently require very little. The main commercial use of selenium (Se) in glass-making is for colour control. Elementary Se or one of its compounds are often added to glass batches and result in a pink/red coloration; concentrations needed in the batch are only a fraction of 1%. The colour Se imparts balances out the green tints that arise from the iron impurities present in most glasses.

It can be added to a batch as elementary selenium or as selenite and selenate salts. Elemental selenium has low melting and boiling points of 221˚ and 685˚C respectively which make it extremely volatile in glass making and so much can be lost up the chimney; its oxides are no more stable. However early reactions with for example sodium carbonate in the batch mean that it can be trapped in the melt. In the melt it can adopt different oxidation states according to the local redox conditions, defined by the gases released by the melting batch and to some extent by the furnace atmosphere. The rates of loss are consequently dependent on batch redox and the oxygen concentration in the combustion space; Weyl summarised a number of experimental studies on the subject and concludes that the choice of batch additive has only a minor influence on retention. The first publications on the addition of selenium to glass batches were between 1911 and 1915; it is normally added with a small amount of cobalt to achieve an almost balanced optical absorption throughout the visible spectrum i.e. a grey shade which is difficult to spot. It replaced the use of manganese (known as glassmaker’s soap). Selenium is also used to reduce solar heat transmission in plate glass. Just as it can contribute to a grey tint to bottle glass, it can do the same for window glass and hence reduce the overall energy transmission in the visible part of the spectrum without significantly changing the colour balance of the image seen. This lowers the energy throughput of the window and can reduce the demand on air conditioning units in hot climates. Where a stronger red color is needed, it can be produced by precipitation of mixtures of CdSe and CdS in the glass to give nanocrystals of a Cd(S.Se) solid

solution. CdS on its own gives a yellow colour and the precise hue depends on the S:Se ratio. The use of such colourants though while common in the past is subject to environmental pressure because of cadmium’s toxicity. Another application of selenium is for the manufacture of chalcogenide glasses, based on elements such as Ge, As, Se and Te. These form very stable glasses with a wide range of interesting properties based on their semiconducting behaviour and an extended transmission in the infrared. They can be used in photocells, optical switches, memory devices and hence information storage. Research has been extensive over the last few decades but the many devices created have not been widely commercialised to date. Even in its pure form Se melts can be cooled to give glasses, whose properties can be extended by adding different concentrations of sulphur. These materials are low melting point and give transparent, coloured liquids with high refractive indices. They were used by geologists as a way of measuring the refractive index of high r.i. minerals using immersion and the Becke Line test. Nowadays selenium is finding applications in the field of coatings because of its semiconducting properties. For example it can be used to make solar cells based on CdTe-CdSe compounds. Perhaps such manufacturers are once again in the pink.�

Bibliography Weyl: Coloured Glasses. Publ. Society of Glass Technology. *Curator of the Turner Museum of Glass, The University of Sheffield, UK

46 Glass International June 2019

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04/06/2019 16:06:14

Technical Topics

John Henderson

Unbreakable glass R

ecently I was at the excellent inaugural professorial lecture of Prof. Paul Bingham of Hallam University and in it he speculated on the future for glass. In the list was what many see as the ‘Holy Grail’ of glassmaking an ‘unbreakable glass’. This set me thinking (dangerous, I know) about how far we have come on that particular ‘journey’. Firstly, we need to define what we mean by ‘unbreakable’ as under the right conditions everything is breakable. In glass terms I think most people would settle for a glass that was strong enough for everyday use but would have enough ductility and resilience to not break by brittle fracture. Others may have more scientific definitions or different interpretations of strength but for now just consider something that would be useful and recognisable to that most ubiquitous character the ‘man, sorry, person in the street’. Immediately I can hear the clamour from various glass sectors that we have some variations of this goal now. I agree up to a point but they are all external to the glass itself and employ a processing stage to achieve that strength. Let’s have a quick look at these techniques. The first and oldest way of making glass stronger is by toughening it, some call it tempering but let’s not get into semantics. How long toughened glass has been around is a matter of debate but it is, no doubt, a long time. However, patents for various forms of strengthening using a quenching technique started to appear in the second half of the 19th century. With this technique toughened glass is produced when glass at or near its softening point is cooled very quickly on the outside surface causing it to contract and solidify while the bulk of the glass is still soft. This action forms a layer of glass on the surface of the glass which is in compression with

respect to the rest of the glass, as glass is strong in compression this gives the object a ‘tough’ outer coat which imparts some strength to it. This is the technique used to produce toughened glass for architecture, automobile and numerous other areas. The commonest form of quenching is to blow air onto the hot glass in a manner that cools the outside surface as uniformly as possible so as to distribute the compressive stresses as evenly a possible. This is a complicated process requiring good control of air movement around the glass article to ensure the uniform heat removal as is possible. Toughening flat or relatively flat articles is the least complicated but the complexity increases rapidly as the shape profile becomes more bowl like. In recent years great advances in toughening hollowware such as drinking glasses has been made and products are available but they tend to have a high width to height ratio as it is tricky to get the air in and the heat out of a confined space in a controlled manner. I can remember producing a prismatic ring for airfield lighting that was actually fitted into the runway. It had to be toughened to allow for the impact of aircraft tyres and also so it did not damage those tyres if and when it broke. The only economic way to produce such a ring was to press it as a shallow bowl with a thin centre web which could be quickly cut out. The cut surface was then ground to a grey finish. This had two effects, it was a necessary dimensional control and it minimised surface imperfections that would affect toughening. We put a lot of effort into making the air blowing heads as uniform as possible but we still lost an average of 30% of the production on toughening. Toughened glass can also be produced by quenching in a bath of suitable oil and

most high pressure gauge glasses were produced this way. It had the advantage over air quenching of producing a more uniform stress pattern with less chance of distortion, although it was a more expensive process and did not produce as deep a compressive layer as air quenching. Some might argue that the current crop of glasses used for tablet and mobile phones are well on the way to being unbreakable as they are so tough considering their thickness. Experience tells us that this is not the case as many a parent or undergraduate will testify. Interestingly these are also toughened glass but the technique used is a chemical one. Essentially the process relies on removing a small atom (actually ion but simplicity rules!) from the surface of the glass and replacing it with a larger one, generally with glass it is sodium out and potassium in. The potassium going in is about 30% larger than the sodium coming out so produces compression in the surface, this compression layer is relatively shallow but it means that very thin glass can be toughened successfully. This technique is more expensive than thermal quenching so is usually used in higher value thin glass field such as electronics and pharmaceuticals. I had intended to talk about all the good work done by container manufacturers in plunger design and forming operations and the use of coatings but the word count has beaten me, perhaps later. So will we ever have unbreakable glass I suspect only if we can ‘change the laws of physics, Captain’. �

Society of Glass Technology, Sheffield, UK

John Henderson reports on the industry’s attempts at the Holy Grail of glassmaking, manufacturing an unbreakable glass.

47 Glass International June 2019

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05/06/2019 11:14:26






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