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April 2018—Vol.41 No.4



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To make glass better, put us in the mix. Improving combustion can enable you to increase glass production, reduce fuel consumption, enhance glass quality, and reduce emissions, such as NOx, SOx, CO₂, and

particulates. Let Air Products’ in-house modeling and melting experts help you get there. For more than 70 years, we’ve delivered safe oxygen solutions, from our very first oxygen enrichment applications to our continuously evolving portfolio of low-emissions Cleanfire® oxy-fuel burners. You can count on Air Products for reliable gas supply and to help optimize your production—just like we have done for hundreds of furnaces all over the world.​ Contact us to put the skills and experience of our global team to work for you. Optimal melting takes one key ingredient: Us.

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April 2018 Vol.41 No.4


April 2018—Vol.41 No.4


Editor’s Comment


International news



Glass International April 2018




Front cover image




Company profile: Glassman Mexico: Mexican glassmakers attend Glassman Latin America show Company profile: Celsian: Dutch group has passion for glass


Annealing: Henry F. Teichmann Planning for speed and time


Future of Furnaces: FIC UK, Electroglass, Fives, Sorg, Horn, Teco and FEVE: What is the future of furnaces?


Forming: Masso: How to improve glass quality from the hot point


History: Let there be light


Environment: Lhoist: A solution for removing acid gas from glass

25 Plus find us on Linked-In and Twitter.

Company profile: Allied Glass decoration: Allied Glass heralds the return of its decoration unit



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Editor’s comment

Greg Morris Editor: Greg Morris Tel: +44 (0)1737 855132 Email: Editorial Assistant: Sheena Adesilu Tel: +44 (0)1737 855154 Email: Designer: Annie Baker Tel: +44 (0)1737 855130 Email:

What next for the Mexican container glass sector?


’ve just returned from the Glassman Latin America trade show in Mexico which, judging by exhibitor feedback, was well received and deemed a successful event. Visitors attended in their numbers and were from the majority of the Mexican container and hollow glass manufacturers. The glassmaking professionals who attended represented the entire spectrum of the container glassmaking process, from the batch plant to the furnace and forming process, to the cold end and inspection and packaging. It is clear that glassmaking is thriving in Mexico in particular at the moment. Its rise has been rapid and sustained in recent years, with new furnace openings in the past year alone, such as at the combined O-I and Constellation Brands IVC plant at Nava on the US border. Growth is set to continue, with Heineken’s glass provider Crown Vichisa’s $200 million bottle plant currently under construction in Meoqui, Chihuahua province. When it opens in October it is set to provide 145,000 tonnes of container glass, or 750 million bottles, a year. New glass plants will inevitably lead to more people working in the sector. Mexico already has a rich glassmaking heritage, with its famous beer and tequila leading to equally innovatively designed

and crafted glass bottles. Mexican professionals are held in very high regard and can be found working in glassworks all around South America and further afield. What is the next step for the Mexican industry? It is likely to continue its growth, with the world’s appetite for its beer and spirits showing little sign of diminishing. The Central American nation has the expert glassmakers, who, thanks to the growth of the industry in their homeland, may decide to return home. Mexico has more container glass plants than a number of neighbouring countries combined, such as Colombia and Ecuador. Yet for such a sizeable glass industry, it does not have the same amount of leaders on the global stage. For example, the world’s largest container glassmaker, O-I, has several senior executives originally from South America, but they are from Colombia and Peru. Now is the time for a young Mexican executive, brimming with energy and belief, to become a leader outside of their homeland. Such an example may inspire a new generation of Mexicans that glassmaking is a fulfilling career. � Greg Morris, Editor

Quartz Glass Portfolio

Monthly journal for the industry worldwide

Directory 2017 Annual international reference source


Sales Director: Ken Clark Tel: +44 (0)1737 855117 Email: Sales Executive: Manuel Martin Quereda Tel: +44 (0)1737 855023 Email: Managing Director: Steve Diprose Chief Executive Officer: Paul Michael Subscriptions: Elizabeth Barford Tel: +44 (0)1737 855028 Fax: +44 (0)1737 855034 Email: Published by Quartz Business Media Ltd, Quartz House, 20 Clarendon Road, Redhill, Surrey RH1 1QX, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1737 855000. Fax: +44 (0)1737 855034. Email: Website:

Official publication of Abividro the Brazilian Technical Association of Automatic Glass Industries

Member of British Glass Manufacturers’ Confederation

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United National Council of the glass industry (Steklosouz) Glass International annual subscription rates including Glass International Directory: For one year: UK £173, all other countries £242. For two years: UK £308, all other countries £432. Airmail prices on request. Single copies £47.

Printed in UK by: Pensord, Tram Road, Pontlanfraith, Blackwood, Gwent NP12 2YA, UK. Glass International Directory 2017 edition: UK £206, all other countries £217. Printed in UK by: Marstan Press Ltd, Kent DA7 4BJ Glass International (ISSN 0143-7838) (USPS No: 020-753) is published 10 times per year by Quartz Business Media Ltd, and distributed in the US by DSW, 75 Aberdeen Road, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437. Periodicals postage paid at Emigsville, PA. POSTMASTER: send address changes to Glass International c/o PO Box 437, Emigsville, PA 17318-0437.

Glassman specialist exhibitions rotate between America, Asia and Europe © Quartz Business Media Ltd, 2018 ISSN 0143-7838

Glass International April 2018

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International News

BA Glass is to invest €45 million in its glass factory at Villafranca de los Barros, Spain. The Villafranca de los Barros site will be the group’s largest upon completion of the investment, which will include the construction of a new furnace. In addition to this investment, another €20 million will be added to modernise

two existing furnaces. The site is located 150km north of Seville and its workforce will expand from 300 to 380. BA Glass President, Sandra María Santos, said it was a strategic investment that would allow the group to cover market demand, and at the same time, allow it to increase exports to countries such as Portugal, France, Belgium,

and others in Europe or North Africa. In the long-term the company plans to set up a glass training school at the site to ‘have people very well prepared to work in any of the group’s 12 plants’, said Santos. BA Glass manufactures 20 million glass containers a day across Europe.

Wheaton buys Verescence’s Brazil operation for R45 million Brazilian glass packaging manufacturer Wheaton has agreed to purchase Verescence’s Sao Paulo plant. The merger will guarantee an increase of about 28% for Wheaton in Brazil, which will see its turnover rise to R$1 billion. The deal will make Wheaton one of the largest global packaging operations for the world’s perfumery and cosmetic glass. The sale of Verescence’s Brazilian operation was expected. The land on which the company’s plant is installed is mostly occupied by Verallia, which is to complete the construction of a new plant in Jacutinga, inland São Paulo, in 2019. The acquisition will strengthen Wheaton’s position in three of its key customers and expand its leadership in the domestic market. With the operation, the moulds and all the machinery, including the bottle painting line and the Verescence moulds will be transferred to the Wheaton plant in São Bernardo do Campo.

For Wheaton’s Commercial Director, Renato Massara, the most important thing is to ensure that Verescence customers will not suffer a break. “We have been preparing to receive the Verescence lines since August, we have reformed a kiln that had been in the works for ten years and we have expanded the other, so we will have four kilns available to the market,” he said. The investment made by the company only to receive the SGD lines was R$45 million ($13.6 million). The company also plans to build a new furnace in the short term. Wheaton currently operates 24 production lines dedicated to the beauty market. Verescence operated six lines, but

had been using only three of them, because of a problem with the furnace. “We want to gain competitiveness, we are in a very good condition of quality and operations and we want to reinforce this position even more,” says the commercial director. Now, in addition to Wheaton, the only company with production of glass bottles for perfumes and cosmetics in the country is also Brazilian glassmaker Anchieta. Mexican glassmaker Vitro has had land in Bahia for the construction of a plant for two years, has not started construction. Wheaton will also incorporate Verescence’s pharmaceutical operation.

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Groundbreaking for US container glass plant

Arglass has started the groundbreaking for the construction of its glass container manufacturing plant in Georgia, USA. Groundbreaking started on April 9, 2018 with the plant scheduled to begin production in May 2019.

Vesuvius legal action

Vesuvius has taken legal action to protect its intellectual property rights associated with Smartly Driven roll patents and end cap attachment technology. Vesuvius has identified several patent violations associated with fused silica roll technology, specifically employing mechanical end cap attachments. OEM furnace builders have been alerted about the infringing companies, and that if rollers fitted with such end caps are incorporated into a furnace, both the OEM and the end customer could unknowingly be infringing Vesuvius’ patents.

LiSEC develops laminated line

The Austrian flat glass processor, LiSEC, has delivered the country’s first laminated glass line. The line was manufactured in LiSEC’s Competence Centre for laminating. It is a U-shape solution for a maximum glass size of 2600 x 5000 millimetres. The line has been sold to Al Hadi Glass Industries in Kuwait. The glass processor factory chose LiSEC because the new technology was tailored to its needs.

AGC wins gold

AGC Glass Europe has been awarded Cradle to Cradle Certified Gold for its patterned glass. The flat glass manufacturer, based in Belgium, became certified for its range of patterned glass. It includes the largest portfolio of certified products under the Cradle to Cradle Programme.

BA Glass in €45 million Spanish container facility investment


5 Glass International April 2018

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International News

Ambev Brazil doubles capacity with Heye help

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Ambev has invested €30 million in its Rio de Janeiro, Brazil site. The company also received training for its production personnel, as well as manufacturing knowhow. Germany’s Heye International was responsible for the co-ordination of the project, including the delivery of three 12-section triple gob IS machines to double the plant’s manufacturing capacity. The plant has one fur-

nace of 350 tpd plus a second furnace also at 350 tpd but with more cavities, which improved its capacity utilisation. The multi-zone central lubrication system in the machines helps to reduce the consumption of lubricants, keeping the machine cleaner. A range of equipment was also supplied, from feeder mechanisms to lehr loaders. Staff training was arranged both on-site and

at Heye’s headquarters in Obernkirchen, Germany. Among the subjects addressed were production, mechanical and electrical issues, as well as specialist mould repair training. “These training programmes were positively received by local glassworks personnel in Brazil,” said Lorenzo Barquin, Global Director Glass Operations at Ambev. The plant specialises in production of beer bottles for its parent company.

F.I.C. opens office in Germany F.I.C. (UK) has established a new sales and technical support office in Germany due to increased demand for its products in Europe and around the globe. F.I.C. Germany will be led by Managing Director Mr. Christoph Jatzwauk. Mr. Jatzwauk (pictured) has more than 25 years of experience with the design, construction and optimisation of all types of glass furnaces and sizes, as well has hands-on experience working for almost two years at BSN Glasspack in Budenheim. Mr. Stuart Hakes, Chief Executive of F.I.C. (UK) said: “We believe the ad-

dition of Christoph to our team allows us to respond more rapidly to customer demand. This is in mainland Europe and around the globe, particularly for our electric boosting systems, for both conventional requirements and the realisation that Hybrid Super-boosting is an aid to reduction in emissions, as well as a new generation of all-electric melting. “The expertise Christoph brings will keep us at number one with regard to development of environmentally friendly partial and full electric melting know-how. “We see a growth in de-

mand in electric melting, using renewable resources to generate the electricity as one of the most efficient ways to reduce the CO2 footprint.”

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International News


Brazilian closure

Brazilian printed glassmaker União Brasileira de Vidro (UBV) is to close. Sergio Minerbo, UBV President, said Brazilian economic conditions and the domestic market situation made the decision inevitable. Therefore, the company would not rebuild its furnace for another production cycle. “In this way, we inform that on April 3, 2018 we discontinued production. “From that date we will attend to the requests in the commercial conditions in force until our stocks of the various products and measures last. “

Agr opens in Mexico

Agr International has opened a sales and service centre in Mexico. Agr Packaging Services is a wholly owned subsidiary which will allow Agr to manage all of the sales, parts supply, service and support operations for its equipment in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. Agr said that as the packaging markets in Mexico and the surrounding region continue to expand, it has recognised substantial growth in demand for its quality management and process control equipment.

Grodno investment

The trade company Triton in Moscow, Russia will invest $1 million to upgrade a pattern glass line at Belarusian glass manufacturer Grodno Glassworks. Yuri Skripko, Grodno Glassworks’ Director, said: “We are going to make an improved-quality pattern glass. Triton will buy half of the output for making shower booths in Russia.” “The contract allows the Russian company to consequently buy $9 million worth of glass. “We are going to sell the rest at home and abroad. “This glass is not only used for making shower booths but for making furniture and greenhouses.”


FAMA secures Mexican order Grupo Modelo has ordered an IS machine from FAMA for its Nueva Fábrica Nacional de Vidrio container glass manufacturing facility, located in Mexico City. The 10-section triple gob machine was due to start-up in the first week of April as part of a turn key project, which will see FAMA deliver, install and start-up the machine. Jose Huerta, General Manager at Grupo Modelo’s Nueva Fábrica Nacional de Vidrio plant said: “Grupo Modelo is committed to the environment and is looking for partners with the same vision.” Luis Zertuche, FAMA’s Director of Sales and Marketing said: “For us it’s a great success, we have been talking to Grupo Modelo for two years now and

we are very proud to supply them with this machinery. “Grupo Modelo is a prestigious customer and very well known both in Mexico and the world, so we hope it is the start of a very long relationship between our two companies. FAMA is confident we can deliver the quality of services that they require.” “We have been trying to

penetrate the market for two years and have been working very hard to position ourselves as an alternative option to the existing companies that provide moulds, IS machines, engineering services and technical services, so for us it’s excellent news.” The machine will produce beer bottles at an approximate speed of 375 bottles a minute.

Nampak to sell its glass division Nampak has told shareholders it is selling its glass division. “To ensure the long-term profitability of glass and to address the operational skills gap, the board has resolved to approach packaging industry players to invite proposals for the sale of the glass business,” it said. Exploratory discussions had been held with a number of

strategic partners and a formal corporate finance disposal was in process, it said. It is thought the business could end in foreign hands as competition authorities are unlikely to agree to a deal with the sole other South African container glassmaker, Consol Glass. In November 2011, Nampak

spent R938m ($78.1 million) to acquire the 50% of its glass business it did not own from joint venture partner, German-based Wiegand-Glas. At the time Nampak CEO Andrew Marshall said the acquisition was part of a strategy of ‘investing in our core businesses where we believe we have competitive advantages.’

Emhart completes Chinese deal Bucher Emhart Glass is to take over the remaining shares of its joint venture with Shandong Sanjin Glass Machinery. The joint venture was formed in 2011 and specialises in glass forming machinery in China. Emhart said the complete takeover emphasises the im-

portance of the Chinese market and will lead to a rapid and more systematic development of the subsidiary. In 2011, Bucher Emhart Glass acquired a stake of 63% of Shandong Sanjin, which is located in Zibo. Sanjin produces standard glass forming machines, in-

spection machines and annealing lehrs specifically for the Chinese market. Bucher Emhart Glass exports glass forming and inspection machines, serving China’s high-end segment only. The takeover will be concluded in the next few months.

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International News


Verallia Portugal recycling programme

Verallia Portugal has launched the ‘Garrafita visits school’ programme for three to seven year-olds. The programme will teach children the benefits of glass recycling and sustainability. The glass manufacturer’s aim is to encourage children to promote recycling with their friends and families. The programme’s mascot, ‘Garrafita’ (the Portuguese nickname for ‘garrafa’ or bottle) interacts with the children during animations to explain the life cycle of glass. More than 80 children participated in the programme in 2017.

Top 10 stories in the news Our most popular news over the past month, as determined by our website traffic All full stories can be found on our website, � 1. Ambev Brazil doubles glass capacity with help from Heye � 2. Grupo Modelo orders FAMA IS machine � 3. Wheaton buys Verescence’s Brazil operation for R45 million � 4. Work starts on new US container glass plant � 5. BA Glass in €45 million Spanish container facility investment � 6. Nampak to sell its glass division � 7. Emhart to complete takeover of its Chinese joint venture � 9. Glassman Latin America conference papers available to download � 10. Johannes Schick to leave Stölzle Glass

Furnace Solutions unveils programme

The organiser of the Furnace Solutions conference has unveiled its programme. The annual training day and conference takes place on June 6 and 7 in Stoke-onTrent, UK. The conference includes eight 30-minute presentations and the training day seven presentations. More details from the event website at

Veolia opens £10 million UK recycling facility

Knauf Insulation and Veolia have opened a 60,000 tonnes/ year glass recycling facility in St Helens, UK. Veolia’s facility uses technology to sort and separate glass at a microlevel, delivering an ultra-pure glass cullet. The machinery includes vibrating screens for size sorting, magnets to extract ferrous materials and eddy current separators for nonferrous materials. The facility enables Knauf Insulation to secure its glass supply and maximise the use of recycled materials instead of virgin minerals. The glass collected equates to 350 million bottles thrown out yearly – which could otherwise end up in landfill or pollution.

Sorg sells its 300th x40 forehearth The Sorg Glass Conditioning team celebrated the sale of its 300th x40 forehearth with a 300cl bottle of champagne. The glass technology specialist’s programme included the 240, 340, 540 and 640 models. Sorg combined the advantages of BEG forehearths with its own design to come up with the 340S and 340S+ forehearths. Mr Fred Aker, Sorg’s Sales

Director, said: “It is a pleasure having such a widely accepted product.” “It makes my job in sales much easier. “We look forward to establishing the new improved Sorg 340S+ forehearth in the market as well.” Mr Aker presented the champagne bottle to Jürgen Grössler, the Head of the Glass Conditioning department.

This is a major milestone for Sorg after the takeover of the Bucher Emhart Glass forehearth programme in 2006. The glass conditioning department has also completed projects including: 290 STF forehearths, 160 STW working ends, 50 special forehearths (Boroglass and C-Glass), 65 forehearth side wall boosting systems, 90 stirrer units and 150 Conti-Drain systems.

Soliver to re-open this year after $32 million investment Lebanese glass container manufacturer Soliver will reopen its factory in Bchamoun in mid-2018. According to a report in the project will include a $32 million investment to upgrade its glass-

making machines. Soliver’s production capacity is 70,000 tons of glass containers per year. Production of coloured (green and brown) glass is around 10,000 tons a year. It provides its products to 15

domestic manufacturers such as Interbrand, Pepsi and Kassatly Chtaura, among others. More information from WqaLimacZcB

Read the full story at First with the news.

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Celebrating 50 years of quality UK manufacturing

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International News


Bottero clarification

In the February 2018 issue, page 32, we wrongly reported that a technology supplier for Mexican glassmaker Vidrio Formas was Bucher Emhart Glass. The Mexican company is actually supplied by Italian IS machine manufacturer, Bottero.

Schott forms JV

Schott has formed a joint venture company called Zhejiang Crystal-Schott Optical Technology. It said the new company connects Schott’s expertise in optical materials and thin glass with the processing and coating knowledge of its Chinese partner CrystalOptech and T.Best. The joint venture company will be part of Schott’s Advanced Optics business unit. After approval from antitrust authorities, it will focus on developing and manufacturing high-end optical components for various applications.

Guardian declaration

Guardian Glass North America has published Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) and Health Product Declarations (HPDs) version 2.1 for flat glass and processed glass. An EPD is a standardised way of quantifying the environmental impact of a product or system. They are verified and registered documents that communicate transparent and comparable information about the life cycle environmental impact of a product. The declaration is also in accordance with ISO 14025 and can help building projects earn up to two LEED v4 credits. HPDs disclose the potential chemical concerns of products in accordance with the Health Product Declaration Standard, which provides a consistent reporting format to increase the quality and availability of product consent and health information.

Gerresheimer expands development centre for glass Gerresheimer Medical Systems is to expand its Technical Competence Center (TCC) in Wackersdorf, Germany to include glass. The company will create 3000m2 of additional space for the development and industrialization of glass products, such as syringes and carpules. The task area of the centre will be expanded beyond the pre-

vious area of focus of plastics to include the additional material of glass.

Construction began recently, and the project should be completed by year end.

Verallia partners with Italian cola Verallia has partnered with certified supply chain Molecola, the first 100% Italian cola beverage. Verallia presented Molecola 90-60-90, a new glass bottle for the hotel, restaurant and catering sectors (HORECA). Verallia’s mission with

Molecola 90-60-90 was to translate and apply a design concept to glass, in order to create a new icon for Italy. This was done by emphasising the elegance of the bottle, through its sinuous shape, which was modeled on the curves of Italian cinema’s

1950s divas. The bottle is also named after the measurements of the post-war divas and made of textured glass, which was developed to highlight the ‘tailored’ architecture of the product.

Glass for Europe elects chairman Christian Quenett from glass and glazing manufacturer NSG Group has been elected as the trade association Glass for Europe’s Chairman. Dr Quenett, the Head of Architectural Glass Europe at Pilkington Deutschland of NSG Group, was elected as the new Chairman of the Board of Directors at Glass for Europe

during the general assembly. Dr Quenett said: “I am eager to support Glass for Europe’s activities. “I want to make sure that the vision of the flat glass industry is properly disseminated among opinion leaders and policy makers in Brussels and across the European continent.”

Vertech’ welcomes CFO Vertech’ has appointed a new Chief Financial Officer, Christelle Trontin. Christelle holds a Degree in Certified Accounting and has worked in diverse fields such as banking, automotive, wine and public sectors for the past 15 years.

Christelle joined the company in January and is also in charge of the Human Resources Management. Vertech CEO Ulas Topal said her enthusiasm and dynamism will be great assets to the company.

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KBA Kammann

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Decoration machines for processing glass, plastic and metal packaging. KBA-Kammann GmbH Bergkirchener Str. 228 32549 Bad Oeynhausen

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Company profile: Allied Glass Decoration

Allied Glass heralds the return of its decoration unit Allied Glass’s decoration facility has risen from the ashes after a catastrophic fire in autumn 2016. The company invested in the latest machinery to offer the most advanced decoration techniques from a new site. Greg Morris spoke to Michael Hogley about the facility’s transformation.

“To see everything wiped out like that was



he first thing you notice about Allied Glass’ new decoration and warehouse facility is how fresh it feels. Gleaming white walls, a high ceiling and a shiny floor greet you as you step in to the manufacturing area. The facility has only recently opened after a huge effort from company staff and management to get it up and running. The most eye-catching items are the modern pieces of decoration equipment situated in the centre of the shop floor. Pride of place is a KBA-Kammann K15 machine, while alongside it is a Tecno5 automatic machine and nine semi-automatic Dubuit machines. The company’s Head of Design and Decoration, Michael Hogley, (pictured above) is understandably proud of the new investment.

“The first time I walked in was the relief of how great this facility is, it is modern, clean and state of the art. The whole facility site had an extensive renovation prior to us so when we came in it was literally brand new. “We essentially opened the doors to a new factory and it gave us the opportunity to put our own mark on it. It was a blank canvas and we had the time to work on it and it has paid dividends today.” The idea was to create a one stop shop for glass packaging. The company wanted to take control of the entire pack so not only does it provide the glass packaging but also the secondary processing of the decoration as well. “There has been a drive in demand for decorative ware within the spirits market in recent years Continued>>

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Company profile: Allied Glass Decoration

because it adds luxury and value, so that was the driver to create a decorative facility,” he adds. The site is also equipped with two new Pennekamp lehrs as well as plenty of warehouse space. The site offers decorative options such as silk screen printing, ceramic inks, organic printing and precious metal printing, such as real gold and platinum. It is a remarkable turnaround from just over 18 months ago when on October 6, 2016 the decoration facility was completely destroyed. At the time it was located at Cross Green Way, situated a mile from Leeds city centre. The fire started accidentally on a Thursday night after most staff had gone home. A strong breeze meant

bottles while Allied got back on its feet. A few months later, in January 2017, the facility’s 30 staff were brought to the new site to help with the renovation work. Then just seven months after the blaze, in April 2017, the group moved into the £2.5 million facility at Wakefield Eurohub in Yorkshire, UK. “It was an unbelievable turn around, especially when you consider the lead times of such large pieces of machinery,” says Mr Hogley. “The whole team did really well, everybody from up at the top right the way down. Everybody was passionate about getting it back up and running. A lot of people had a lot of involvement throughout the years to get the department to where it was. � The KBA-Kammann K15 machine takes priode of place in the new facility.

“The first time I walked in was the relief of how great this facility is, “It was a stressful time but it also showed state of the art. what Allied - and the industry - could do as a business when faced with tough times.” The 196,000ft2 space is located half way between its Leeds and Knottingley manufacturing plants. The previoius Cross Green site had the Dubuit and Tecno machines but the machinery in the Wakefield site is more automated and, alongside the Kammann machine, can handle larger volumes. Most of the glass that requires screen printing comes from the Knottingley site, where the company’s premium coloured lines are based.

it is modern, clean and


the small, isolated fire quickly spread, burning everything in its wake, including the site’s decoration machinery. “To see everything wiped out like that was heartbreaking,” recalls Mr Hogley. “But from that lowest point something amazing came out of it. Without that fire we would not have this brand new facility and state of the art equipment that we have here today. “The mentality was that we would come back bigger, better and stronger with new machinery and in a better position than we’d been in. But to do that we knew we would have to go through short term pain to get there.” A plan was formed to move to a new site conveniently situated between its two manufacturing plants in Yorkshire, UK. Negotiations took place with other glass manufacturers who offered to help by supplying

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Company profile: Allied Glass Decoration

From a manufacturing point of view, the new machinery allows more rapid job changes on the smaller machines. A job change will typically take 30 minutes on the Dubuit machine and four job changes a day are not unknown as a result. “We have the breadth of machinery to fit not just the high volumes but for the craft scene too. Those guys can be Customers who have anything between 2000 and 10,000 bottles a year so we still need that visited us have been flexibility and we do that with the semi-automatic Dubuit.” impressed. They’ve seen The new Pennekamp lehrs play a crucial role in the that we have great pieces decoration process. They are the same type of lehrs found at of kit, a fantastic facility any glass plant but operate at a different temperature. While in a and that we are back in glass factory they would typically start at 550°C, printing starts at a

The manufactured bottles, anything in size from 50ml to 4.5 litres, are delivered to the site, where they are left for a couple of days while they adjust to the new temperature. They are then printed on and either put into storage at the warehouse or sent directly to customers. The majority of products decorated there are spirits bottles, and the glass can be sent around the globe when it leaves the Wakefield site (pictured above). “A lot of the precious metal and luxury goes into Asia where there is a requirement for it at the moment. On the other hand, in the UK in particular, we deal with a lot of craft, which is in much smaller volumes.” The balance between dealing with the much larger volumes of the mass market and the smaller runs of the craft movement means that the company believes it has addressed with the investment in the new machinery. While the Kammann machine can deal with runs of up to 100,000 bottles a day, the smaller Dubuit machines are suited for much smaller production output, such as a craft customer, which may only require 2000 bottles a year. The latest, six-colour print Tecno5 machine is suitable for smaller and mid-level ranges. “The new equipment gives us more flexibility and decoration options and allows us to push the boundaries of what we can do,” states Mr Hogley. The new equipment offers a range of options. The Kammann K15, for example, is an automatic printing machine, capable of doing up to six colours in one pass, can print round corners, shaped containers as well as squares, rectangles and flats. “The industry looks at the Kammann machine as the industry leader,” adds Mr Hogley. “It has brought immediate results and allows us to push the boundaries of innovations within print. There’s so much we can do with it and it allows us more scope. It’s a really good piece of kit!” Innovation remains key to the sector. Customers are constantly trying to differentiate. All of the brands try to tell a story and the entire pack, from glass to decoration, must reflect the values the brand is communicating. “We’re seeing more choice and a faster pace of innovation now. The investment in the machines allows us to offer more flexibility. We have the machinery and set up here to allow us to service that need in the industry.”


lower temperature. Depending on the job it can start at about 210°C, rise to 410°C and then to 550°C. It will then drop back down for a cooling off period. The temperature has to gradually rise to allow the bottle to adhere (cure). Work is still ongoing at the site, with the offices being refurbished and a training facility for 15 people set to be unveiled in the summer. The company has to keep on top of the latest decoration techniques and trends. One topic is Indutry 4.0, the ability for machines to talk to each other and its use in decoration. Another is the ability to decorate the entire surface of a bottle, which has become more commonplace. But for now, the organisation is proud of its new environment and keen to promote its latest developments. “No one has a facility as new and fresh as this. We’re evolving and we know that we can’t stand still. Customers who have visited us have been impressed. They’ve seen that we have great pieces of kit, a fantastic facility and that we are back in business,” concludes Mr Hogley. �

Allied Glass decoration unit, Wakefield, UK

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Spotlight: Mexico

FAMA’s Marketing Executive Carla Cortes (centre), with FAMA’s Executive VP, Diverse Industries, Jose Manuel Contreras Lomeli to the right and its Director General, Juan Farias Garza, to the left, flanked by staff from the organiser, Quartz Business Media.

Mexican glassmakers attend Glassman Latin America show Mexican container glassmakers including O-I, Pavisa and Sivesa attended the Glassman Latin America event. They were joined by delegations from other domestic companies such as Saverglass, Vitro Cosmos and Vidrio Formas at the combined exhibition and conference. Greg Morris spoke to delegates.


verseas glassmakers which attended included Costa Rica’s Vical, O-I from Perrysburg in the USA and Holophane in the USA. The exhibition included 100 suppliers to the glassmaking industry, which were exhibiting their latest technologies. The event was officially opened by Mexico’s FAMA, which had one of the largest exhibitor stands. Other companies with booths included Mexican companies Interglass and MGFS as well as overseas groups Specialty Rondot, BDF Industries, Pyrotek, Iris Inspection Machines and RHI Magnesita. Jose Luis Velez, Managing Director of Mexican lubricant manufacturer, Interglass, said: “It’s been a good show, we’ve welcomed a lot of visitors and

had some good meetings, so we’re satisfied. “The Mexican glass industry is in a very good place at the moment. Saverglass is opening a new glass plant here in Jalisco, while the Industria Vidriera de Coahuila (IVC) plant at Nava is already the biggest in the world and will be twice as big as it is now. So it is going to be massive. “The rest of the plants are also moving forward, there is lots of investment in Mexico because of all the glass for use domestically and for export.” Roy Clarkson, Regional Sales Director for Sheppee International, said: “The show has been very good, we have had customers not just from Mexico, but Costa Rica and the USA, so it has attracted more than we anticipated.” Continued>>

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Spotlight: Mexico















1. Hector Garcia 2. Marguerite Morrin 3. Juan S. Farias Garza 4. Fernando Jauregui 5. William Meza


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7. Job Van De Laar

Among the topics of discussion at the event were the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between USA, Canada and Mexico. The agreement has come under scrutiny recently after US president, Donald Trump, threatened to pull out of the deal. Mr Velez said: “We are worried about the changes being made in the NAFTA agreement, but at the same time somehow confident, based on the fact that we are also the second largest consumer for the US, so it’s not just one way situation where they have everything to win and nothing to lose. “Closing the border in commercial terms would mean for them losing one of their most important markets.” His views were echoed by Hans Mehl, General Manager at Mexican company MGFS. “The Mexican glass industry is so important

8. Fabio Galliano 9. Jean-Luc Logel 10. Benjamin Köster 11. Rüdiger Nebel 12. Andy Reynolds 13. Roy Clarkson 14. Vitaliano Gregori 15. Francois Breye

and so independent. There is an influence from America in terms of machines and investment but there are other sources out of Europe, India, and other countries, where if the industry cannot buy from the USA because of taxes or fines, they have other sources where they can buy from and companies will do it.” He shared his booth with seven representative companies and said: “For us the show was very good, the first day we didn’t think there were so many people but as the day ended it was great, we made great contacts and had great discussions. “The second day was shorter but the visitors were more important, and were decision makers such as furnace manager and plant directors.” Carlos Garcia, Territory Manager for Mexico and

16. Eleonora Bordini


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Spotlight: Mexico

“The second day was shorter but the visitors were more important, and were decision makers such as furnace

manager and plant directors.

Hans Mehl, General Manager at Mexican company MGFS.

South America for Specialty Rondot believes the Mexican glass industry has a bright future. “Since I joined the industry in 2010 it has been growth, growth, growth with new plants, new technology, new furnaces, faster machines and larger capacity. The Mexican market is at its most dynamic at the moment. The famous Mexican tequila, beer and liquors have driven this growth. “All the big plants have plans for the future and all want to comply with what the market requires. Even the small glass manufacturing companies are talking about new furnaces or faster and bigger machines. “The NAFTA agreement is a concern but most of the glass manufacturers have agreements not to be affected if the NAFTA agreement is changed. They have their ways to continue to supply the US market, which is one of the main markets of glass here in Mexico.” Erica Jaspers, Vice President of Sales and

“The talent that the industry has in Mexico is super qualified and super


Antonio Hernandez, of BDF Industries.

Marketing at Dura Temp, and the technical sales team travel to Mexico several times a year to visit the nation’s glass plants. In the 14 years she has been with Dura Temp she has seen Mexico become an important investment market. “Many of the major glass manufacturers are choosing to invest outside of the US, and Mexico is a country where they have poured a lot of money. As a supplier to the glass industry it’s important to continue to support this market. Mexico is one of the biggest export markets for Dura Temp.” The company has hired additional staff to provide support to its team that works in Mexico. Dura Temp provides ware handling material that goes on IS machines, transfer machines and lehr stacker bars. It works with many OEMs so its material comes standard on the machines and is then continues to be purchased by glass factories after the initial machine installation. “We have a new pusher assembly design for machines that incorporate air-assisted bottle positioning into the backplate. We highlighted it at this show and have had quite a bit of interest. “The show has been good as we have had the opportunity to meet with customers from the Guadalajara area, the Mexico city area, as well as from Chile and Central America.” “Regarding NAFTA, we’re concerned about what might happen and we follow it closely. It is likely that there will be changes made to the agreement.

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Spotlight: Mexico

“The Mexican glass industry is in a very good place at the moment.” Jose Luis Velez, Managing Director of Mexican lubricant manufacturer, Interglass. “We have a vast number of machines here and have worked on a number of important furnaces for customers. Mexico is an important part of our operations and we do a lot of things that are very productive in getting us opportunities as we are all in one for glass.” He is optimistic about the future of the Mexican glass market and predicts a number of industry leaders and executives will be from Mexico soon. “The talent that the industry has in Mexico is super qualified and super trained. Mexico has great talent with very disciplined people and a lot of know-how in their field. The ex-Vitro philosophy is something which O-I is perpetuating. “The talent coming from Mexico to the Americas is absolutely outstanding.” �

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“However, many US-based manufacturers have a vested interest to ensure that we continue to have a certain level of free trade between the US, Mexico and Canada as our countries rely heavily on one another. Mexico and Canada are two of the US’s biggest trading partners and I believe that many US manufacturing sectors will challenge protectionist measures that will ultimately disadvantage us in the export market. The outcome of the negotiations is a concern for us, but we are hopeful that for a solution that will satisfy all three countries.” Antonio Hernandez, of BDF Industries, has worked in the glass industry since the 1990s, first with Mexican glassmaker Vitro in its Sales and Marketing before joining BDF four years ago as its General Manager for the Americas. “I would say that BDF has a solid platform for melting, forming and automation in glass with one of its main partners, Owens-Illinois, Ambev, Vical and then other partners such as Pavisa and Vicrila. We have a new venture where we have partnered with Saverglass selling four machines and automation products for the wine and high glass market that they are targeting in the summer of 2018. “Mexico is a great platform and market for us and has brought a lot of projects, through O-I with the purchase of the ex Vitro plants and has given us an arena to participate on a global platform.

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Company profile: CelSian Glas

Dutch group has passion for glass

Since joining the Dutch company over 18 months ago, CelSian Managing Director Harmen Kielstra has seen first hand just how passionate about glass its staff are. He spoke to Greg Morris about the company’s plans for the future. Business nous While the majority of the employees come from a research or academic background, Mr Kielstra’s previous role was at Dutch paint and coatings multi-national, Akzo Nobel. Celsian required his acumen and business nous to bring a more commercial sense to the company. While the staff have the academic rigour and depth of knowledge about glass, Mr Kielstra’s job is to manage the company as a business: to ensure it remains stable, spot commercial opportunities and ensure it continues to post a profit. “My job is to find that balance. I don’t want to lose the scientific rigour and enthusiasm, there is a unique attitude here and we can solve things that no-one else in the industry is able to solve. But it also comes down to making sure a project is profitable. It’s a balance to find the scientific with the commercial.” The company was formed in 2012 as a spin off of the TNO government research institute in The Netherlands and is owned by First Dutch Innovations, led by entrepreneur Peter Goedvolk. Continued>>


rom the former research lab of a global glass manufacturer, Celsian’s knowledge and know how is transferred around the world. The Dutch company is relatively small with just 20 permanent staff but is a hotbed of glassmaking talent. It has worked on 30% of all active glass furnaces in the world today and helped deliver countless energy savings for glassmakers. The company is entirely devoted to glassmaking and ways of improving the manufacturing process, either through its software applications or, increasingly, through its global training programme. Managing Director Harmen Kielstra joined the company in September 2016 and was quick to recognise the passion for glass among the company’s personnel. “The staff here live and breathe glass. There is a real passion for the material. When they become involved in a project or there is a problem to solve it is sometimes difficult to keep their feet on the ground. They are happy to spend their weekend here solving the problem if they could.”

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Company profile: CelSian Glass

Focus Celsian’s focus is on three specific areas of glassmaking: furnace support, modelling, and training. It states it has worked on 30% of the world’s active glass furnaces and implementation of its models have been proven to optimise glass properties and deliver energy savings. Emission measurements is mainly at glass manufacturers in the region, further furnace support activities such as energy balance analysis and furnace lifetime projects are executed all around the world. Its training programmes have become popular in recent years and has expanded from a single course about physics in its native Eindhoven to four and five-day seminars in Toledo, USA and in Sheffield, UK. Since their introduction, more than 1500 participants have taken part on the courses. In addition to this it also runs the GlassTrend seminars, which aims to improve the competitive strength of the glass industry by organising seminars and managing pre-competitive industry projects. The largest chunk of the company’s output is its modelling offering and is what the company is most famous for. “It’s the workhorse of the company,” adds Mr Kielstra, pictured above. The company has its own Energy Balance Model (EBM) energy balance software, own glass tank model and model-based control. “We have simulation software to simulate the melting process and that ties into everything we do in furnace support. Of course we could do a furnace inspection on a regular basis, we could

“In terms of innovating around a certain theme and doing it hand in hand with customers it’s almost a perfect model and I’m proud

it works.

Celsian’s CO+ sensor was launched in 2017 and has been installed in eight places since.

make temperature images of the inside of a furnace but in many cases, when there are significant challenges from the operational perspective, we would bring our software on board because that speeds up the process. We could do variation studies and that can really quantify what is happening “In most cases the software is proven right. So the software is the majority of where everything is organised around.” The company works in several sectors of the glass industry: container, flat, and fibre among them. Most of its custom is US-based, although if work is in Europe for a North American manufacturer it will list the work as being USbased.

Partnerships Some of its customers are deep into model simulation. In many cases they don’t always share their Intellectual Property (IP) elsewhere but are happy to work with Celsian. The glassmaker gains from Celsian’s latest research, while Celsian is able to use the glassmaker’s facility to test new ideas. The combination of Celsian’s research and academic background combined with the dayto-day process optimisation challenges of a glassmaker works well, and both parties gain from each other. “It is like an innovation platform that we use. We have customers in different glass segments who will come in every few months and we will visit them every few months. It’s an agreed programme over multi years,” states Mr Kielstra. “In terms of innovating around a certain theme and doing it hand in hand with customers it’s almost a perfect model and I’m very proud that it works.” Its software is regarded as its greatest asset and is continuously being reviewed and developed as part of its R&D package. Among its recent launches is a non-invasive CO sensor, which is placed in the exhaust port as close as possible to the combustion area. The sensor has had eight installations in the fibre and container sectors so far (pictured overleaf). “Mature customers who really understand their processes agree that measuring oxygen is only one part but what you’re really interested in is measuring CO. We’ve a solution for that which is a non-invasive laser base which means the laser will beam for eight, nine or even 10 years. “We expect ultimately that oxygen sensors will become redundant and the industry will move to non-invasive sensors.” A milestone in the company’s history occurred in 2013 when it moved premises into the 1500m2 former glass research unit of the Royal Dutch Philips factory, 2km across town in Eindhoven.


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The company managed to keep the research facility’s glass testing equipment, which included a small-scale furnace. Visitors to the site have so far included guests from prestigious companies such as Schott and Corning, which have said they are impressed with the facility.

Future For Mr Kielstra, the appeal of joining Celsian was to work in a small company and to grow it. He had spent 16 years at Akzo Nobel, including a stint living in the UK, and wanted a role back in the Netherlands. He is enjoying his time at the company and within the glass industry. “It’s a wonderful organisation, it has its challenges, and I enjoy it. We work with leading clients and try to come up with solutions from an environmental perspective. Our customer may have an environmental challenge and we will bridge that with innovation and come up with a solution from a software or R&D perspective.” “I was told beforehand that the glass industry is slow and conservative, but I was told that about the coatings industry, and I found that in both cases it is not true! “There are challenges ahead. In the container sector it is interesting to see what will be the food and packaging base for the future. Will it be carton, PET or glass-based? If we can support the industry to try and win that competition then that is a wonderful thing.” For Celsian, the future aim is to continue to encourage staff to go out and meet more manufacturers to discuss new software and ways to increase furnace lifetime. New software is in the pipeline and some of it will be upgraded to make it more userfriendly. The group would also like to make more partnerships in the industry with other suppliers and technology organisations. “I want to work closer with customers but also other players in the industry to make things more efficient. I wonder if we could combine certain efforts during a furnace rebuild for example, which ultimately will be for the benefit of customers and also means we can expand our global reach.” �

Celsian, Eindhoven, The Netherlands Celsian’s measuring van is used to perform a range of measuring services.

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Planning for speed and time Samuel Leaper* describes how it is critical to engineer and evaluate the overall glass thermal treatment process to ensure that forming speed and annealing time requirements are compatible.


s with any glass forming process it is necessary to stress relieve or anneal the glass as it cools from a viscous state to its final rigid form. This holds true for the production of ‘hollow glass products’ which includes an almost infinite variety of tableware, food and beverage containers, consumer products and pharmaceuticals. Another common thread in the production of these products is speed. Today many food and beverage containers are formed at a rate well in excess of 500 pieces per minute. Tableware, consumer products and more speciality items can vary greatly but are also produced at impressive rates that are continuously increasing due to improved forming processes and container design. Annealing glass is a time and temperature sensitive process dictated by several elements of the specific hollow glass product including shape, weight, temperature at the start of the annealing process, maximum thickness and forming quality. Engineering and evaluating the overall glass thermal treatment process to assure the forming speed and annealing time requirements are compatible is critical. In almost every case hollow glass products produced by high speed forming machines are stress relieved in a continuously conveying annealing lehr. Essentially the lehr equalises the temperature of the glass products being produced removing any strain introduced during the forming process. Once this is accomplished, the lehr controls the rate at which the glass cools to prevent reintroducing Permanent Annealing Strain or fractured glass due to thermal shock.

Annealing Point To have a better understanding of the basic process described above some specific terms need to be defined. A typical

textbook definition of the Annealing Point of glass sounds something like this: “the temperature at which internal stress in glass is potentially relieved through internal Viscous Flow”. This typically indicates the upper end of the annealing range. The lower end of the annealing range or the Strain Point, is defined as “the highest temperature from which strain free glass can be cooled quickly without introducing permanent strains”. For typical soda-lime glass annealing points average around 1000°F (537.7°C) and strain points 940°F (504.4°C). To begin evaluating the glass thermal treatment process it is necessary to know

accomplish this. Typically glass container entrance temperatures average 850 - 900° F (454.4 – 482.2° C). Due to its natural insulating properties, when glass cools from a liquid to a solid state there are significant variations in the rate of cooling specifically through the thickness of the glass. The actual shape of the glassware can also contribute to this variation in cooling rate. For instance a narrow neck container, if left to cool on its own in ambient temperature air after forming, can spontaneously fail or fracture. This is due to rapid cooling on the exterior surfaces of the container and a much slower

both the annealing point and the strain point of the glass. You must also have a good estimation of the glass entrance temperature. It is most beneficial to the overall annealing process to maintain as much glass entrance temperature as possible. Be on the lookout for any factory conditions that contribute to temperature loss such as external equipment or man cooling fans as well as draft-inducing open doors and exhaust louvers. As noted above, annealing or stress relieving the glass depends on bringing the entire piece to a state of temperature equilibrium. The more core glass temperature you maintain the quicker and easier it is to

cooling rate on the inside surfaces. Like most materials, when glass is heated the molecules become excited and expand. As a glass container cools the exterior surface cools at a higher rate than the interior allowing the molecules on the exterior surface to naturally realign and essentially contract. This compressed outer layer then prevents natural alignment of the molecules in the inner glass surfaces creating opposing forces of compression on the exterior surface and tension on the interior surface. This actually occurs all the way through the thickness of the glass creating layers and general lamination of the glass structure. The result is Permanent

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tension tends to build from the centre and diminish at the external surfaces. In this case the entire glass product is essentially ‘incased’ in compression with the higher tension layers trapped in the middle.

to control the cooling rate of the glass to avoid creating the significant variations in temperature through the thickness of the glass as described above. As the glass cools, molecule realignment also occurs at a diminishing rate. Eventually the glass reaches a point where the contraction due to molecule realignment (Viscous Flow) is complete. This, as noted above, is described as the lower annealing point or strain point. Once you have successfully controlled the cooling rate to this temperature, the actual annealing process is complete. You can no longer introduce Permanent Annealing Strain into the glass. The third and final process objective is to continue cooling the glass to the required lehr exit temperature to allow for lubricity coating, handling, inspection and packaging, approximately 300° F – 148.9°C. What is not widely recognised is that after the glass is below the strain point you can cool the glass right up to the rate of thermal shock without changing the quality of the annealing. Thermal Shock is defined as temporary strain as opposed to the Permanent Annealing Strain described above. Thermal Shock results in violent and immediate excitement and expansion of the glass molecules (through rapid temperature change), which results in immediate failure or not. Thermal Shock has no impact on the level of Permanent Annealing Strain. Note that the forming quality of the glass can have an impact on how much Thermal Shock is required to result in fracture/failure.


Time and temperature

So, when we anneal glass with a typical annealing lehr, the first process objective is to equalise the glass product to the Annealing Point (1000°F/537.8°C). This ensures all the molecules are in a similar state of expansion, but not so excited as to cause the glass to begin transitioning back to a liquid state and slump or deform (Viscous Flow). The second objective is

Successful execution of the process objectives above are completely dependent on creating the necessary glass time and temperature relationship with the annealing lehr. The time requirements relate mainly to glass weight, thickness and heat transfer. Although weight does play a factor it’s the glass products maximum thickness that

has the greatest impact. As noted above glass is a natural insulator. The thicker the glass the more time is necessary for conduction or heat transfer to take place. This is necessary to bring the glass to a state of temperature equilibrium (molecules in similar state of expansion through viscous flow) and prevent wide variation in cooling rates as the glass passes below the strain point. If we assume the following for a glass container: � Entrance Temperature = 900°F (482.2°C) � Heating Rate from Entrance Temperature to Annealing Point = 50°F/ minute (27.8°C) � Annealing Point, Soda-Lime Glass = 1000°F (537.7°C) � Strain Point, Soda-Lime Glass = 940°F (504.4°C) � Maximum Thickness = .500” (12.7mm) � Maximum Cooling Rate, Annealing through Strain Point = 8°F / minute (4.4°C) � Maximum cooling Rate, Strain Point through Lehr Exit Temperature = 25°F/ minute (13.9°C) � Proposed Exit Temperature = 250° C (121.1°C) The most critical portion of the process to control is the maximum cooling rate the glass will see from the Annealing Point through the Strain Point. The total temperature change required between the Annealing and Strain Point is 60°F (33.3°C). By dividing this total change (∆T) by the maximum cooling rate noted above we arrive at the necessary time to complete the process, approximately 7.5 minutes. The next element to control and slightly less critical is the cooling rate from below the strain point to the Lehr Exit Temperature. Continued>>

Annealing Strain, which can be great enough to cause spontaneous failure of the glass container. As a rule, the last surface of any glass product to cool will be the surface with the most tension. When glass fails, it fails in tension (glass has significant strength in compression). For glass container producers, this explains the ‘internal scratch test’, one method for determining how much Permanent Annealing Strain remains in a container after it has left the annealing lehr. When dealing with flat glass products (glass dinner plates, serving trays, etc) where more of the external surface is exposed to the generally higher cooling rates,

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Environment Annealing

Lehr configuration

Following the same calculation detailed above we arrive at a total required temperature change of ∆T 690°F (383.3°C) at a rate of 25°F/minute (13.9°C) requiring 27.6 minutes completing the process. We now have two of the three values necessary to estimate the total time required for complete thermal processing. The only value left to estimate is the time necessary for the glass product to reach the Annealing Point and achieve an equilibrium state relieving any thermal strain introduced during the forming process. The rate at which this temperature increase occurs is the least critical. Glass can be heated at a much higher rate than it can be cooled without fracturing. It is difficult to introduce enough Thermal Shock causing the glass to fracture when heating up versus cooling. If we use a heat up rate of 50°F (27.8°C) per minute, double the rate of cooling between the Strain Point and Exit Temperature, only approximately two minutes is required for the glass product to reach equilibrium at the Annealing Point. There has always been some speculation that it is necessary to soak or hold the glass at the annealing point to fully relieve any strain which may exist. Some earlier published laboratory data indicated a soak time at the Annealing Point of 15 minutes was necessary to achieve full strain relief. Time and experience has shown (specifically in glass articles with no more than .500” – 12.7mm maximum thickness) that once the Annealing Point is reached molecule alignment and subsequent strain release is almost instantaneous. Finally, if the three time values of 2 minutes, 7.5 minutes and 27.6 minutes are added up we arrive at a total of 37.1 minutes. This is the minimum time required to completely process the

subject glass container described above.

Variation Any variation of the critical product and process data detailed above could result in increasing or decreasing the required time to thermally process the glass container. The variations usually end up requiring slightly more overall time. For instance, if the glass entrance temperature decreases to 800°F (426.7°C), the required annealing temperature increases to 1010°F (543.3°C) and the desired exit temperature decreases to 225°F (107.2°C). These changes combined add just over three minutes to the overall process for a revised total required process time of approximately 40 minutes. Several other factors related to glass production and factory conditions can affect the overall time necessary to thermally process a particular glass container or hollow glass product. In most cases it is prudent to allow for 10 to 15% additional time beyond the ‘calculated minimum.’ As expected a lighter glass container with thinner bottom and wall thicknesses would require less overall processing time. Less glass thickness allows for higher cooling rates between annealing and strain points. For example, a light weight beverage container weighing 6oz. (170 grams) with a maximum thickness of .125” (3.2mm) can be cooled from the annealing point through the strain point at rates in excess of 18° F/minute (10°C). Primarily less overall weight allows for higher cooling rates from below the strain point to the Proposed Exit Temperature. A lightweight item as described above can be thermally processed in 18 to 20 minutes.

With a good understanding of our glass containers time and temperature requirements, we can move to evaluating the specific lehr configuration necessary to carry out the annealing and thermal processing. A typical glass container and hollow ware annealing lehr can be broken into two major areas. First is the tunnel, which refers to the enclosed area of the lehr where the heating and cooling rate of the glass is controlled. The tunnel is typically comprised of individual modules or zones of equal length. Width varies widely based on capacity but remains uniform from zone to zone. These zones are designed to produce a gradually decreasing temperature curve which typically starts slightly above the calculated Annealing Point of the glass and decreases zone by zone until the desired glass exit temperature is achieved. For the most efficient heat transfer method most modern lehrs utilise convection fans and can be heated with gas burners or electric elements. Second is the Open Packing Table. Primarily this allows for any additional cooling, application of lubricity coating or simply provides an area for manual inspection or packaging. The critical area for evaluation is the configuration of the tunnel.

Forming process As mentioned earlier a typical glass container and hollow ware lehr continuously receives glassware directly from the forming process. Ware is conveyed through the tunnel via a metal mesh lehr belt that provides a stable surface for conveyance as well as allowing recirculated air to pass through and around the glass products. The combination of lehr belt speed and the individual temperature set points in each of the control zones produces the necessary cooling rates to properly anneal and cool the glass as described earlier. This is specifically where the speed and time elements come into play. To determine if the cooling rate and overall tunnel time requirements can be met, you must know what lehr belt speed will be necessary to support the proposed forming speed. To accomplish this you must know the maximum diameters/dimensions of the proposed glass ware, the speed at which it will be produced (pieces per minute) as well as the lehr belt loading patterns which includes the proposed bottle Continued>>

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spacing. See the example outlined below: � Lehr Belt Width = 3000mm � Glassware Maximum Diameter = 63.5mm � Proposed Spacing Between Glassware = 19mm � Proposed Forming Speed = 500PPM With the information above we simply calculate as follows: � 3000mm belt width / (63.5mm diameter + 19mm spacing) = 36.4, so 36 pieces loaded across the lehr belt � 500PPM/36 pieces across the belt = 13.8 rows of glassware per minute (RPM) � 13.8 RPM (63.5mm diameter + 19mm spacing) = 1138.5mm/minute belt speed (44.9”/minute) With the necessary belt speed now calculated, the required thermal process time or tunnel time can be plugged in to confirm the necessary lehr tunnel length. If it is determined that the overall tunnel time to process this example is 20 minutes, you would simply multiply the calculated belt speed 1138.5mm/minute by the required tunnel time (20 minutes)

to determine the required overall length of the tunnel, 2770mm or approximately 75’-0”.

Cross section It is important to evaluate lehr capacity based on a cross section of proposed products. Errors can be made by simply evaluating the total area of tunnel based on the maximum tonnage of the forming process. Loading pattern requirements coupled with individual variations in glassware thickness, weights and dimensions can result in a mismatch between forming speed and tunnel time. Specifically with glass containers, it is sometimes necessary to load the lehr belt in a pattern typically referred to as ‘mould in row’. This is where only a single forming machine cycle is loaded across the width of the lehr belt. Referencing our example above, we calculated a maximum of 36 pieces could be loaded across the 3000mm wide belt. If for example this piece of glassware was being formed on a 10 -section triple gob machine one complete machine cycle would produce 30 pieces of glassware. However, it has

no impact on the speed the glass is being produced and, with six fewer pieces of glassware loaded across the lehr belt, it does impact the speed at which the lehr belt must travel. In this example the lehr belt speed would have to increase from 1138.5mm/minute to 1369.5mm/minute increasing the required tunnel length from 22.770mm (75’-0”) to 27.390mm (90’-0”). This is usually where the glass producer places a phone call to the lehr supplier and states ‘my glass tonnage has not changed but my annealing quality has, for the worst!’ If the production conditions were not evaluated properly to assure speed and time compatibility, solutions for the glass producer and the lehr supplier may be in short supply. Armed with a good basic understanding of glass container and hollow ware annealing properties evaluating, engineering and planning for a successful overall thermal treatment process is assured. �

*Sales Manager, Henry F. Teichmann, McMurray, PA, USA

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Future of furnaces: FIC

What is the future of furnaces? Tough new environmental legislation will be implemented in the next few years by policymakers, which will impact the number of emissions glassmakers can produce during the manufacturing process. Over the next few pages furnace makers give their views on what the future holds for them and describe the actions they are taking to meet environmental objectives. On the final page, the European Container Glass Federation (FEVE) describes some of the European policies that are due to be implemented. Stuart Hakes, Chief Executive, FIC (UK) 1. What is your company’s involvement in the furnace industry for glassmaking? We are a major supplier of equipment to all types of glassmaking furnaces. As well as the design and build of all-electric furnaces we also supply various other electrical heating solutions to improve productivity and/or glass quality. These solutions include electric boosting, electric forehearths and isothermal units to eliminate top to bottom and side to middle temperature differences in forehearths. We also supply water-cooled bubbler systems that eliminate erosion of the refractory floor. We have a range of unique electrode holders and supply both molybdenum and tin oxide electrodes.

2. In your opinion, is the glass furnaces sector evolving quickly enough with new ideas to address the new wave of environmental thinking and meet the Paris climate agreement? And can you indicate what your company has done to address this? The glass furnace sector has been too slow to wake up to the ramifications of the Paris climate agreement. We have been pushing energy substitution for some years now and the idea of super-boosting to reduce both carbon dioxide and NOx. We have developed proposals for large scale all-electric furnaces in the range of 250 – 600 tonnes per day.

3. What are the technological challenges facing the furnaces sector in terms of meeting environmental legislation? Is the legislation realistic? The technological challenges require a paradigm shift. This means that decision makers have to move out of their comfort zone and accept radical solutions are required to meet the emissions objectives. The legislation is nothing short of ambitious and will involve huge investments, but if there is a will then there is a way of achieving these objectives.

6. What will the furnace of the future look like? Will it be run entirely on renewable fuels or a hybrid of energy sources? Future furnaces will have a smaller footprint and run entirely on low carbon renewable fuels. These furnaces will be hybrid furnaces switching between various fuels based upon optimal cost. �

FIC UK, Penzance, UK

4. How do you foresee furnaces evolving over the next say, five to 10 years? The glass industry will try and take small steps but in reality these steps will be bigger than they realise. New control systems that optimise reduced emissions based on low carbon fuels including renewable electricity, oxy and syngas will become standard and super-boosting will be introduced.

5. Do you think it possible furnaces will have shorter lifetimes in future? Or can you see their lifetimes increasing? Furnace life will become shorter enabling more cost effective options to be considered.


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Environment Future of furnaces: Electroglass

Richard Stormont, Managing Director, Electroglass, UK 1. What is your company’s involvement in the furnace industry for glassmaking? Electroglass develops, designs and supplies electric glass melting and conditioning systems for glassmakers worldwide. Over its 42-year history the company has supplied continuous all-electric furnaces ranging from less than one tonne/day to 250 tonnes/day capacity, producing glass for containers, tableware, lighting, fibre, insulation glass wool, pharmaceutical and special technical glass products. The company also designs and supplies electric boosting systems for fuel-fired furnaces to increase furnace output and glass quality and to reduce overall energy consumption and emissions per tonne of glass produced.

2. Is the glass furnaces sector evolving quickly enough with new ideas to address the new wave of environmental thinking and meet climate legislation? Glassmaking is an energy-intensive process and conventional fuel-fired furnaces are both of limited energy efficiency and generate significant emissions from the combustion process, making them prime targets for environmental concerns. There have been and will no doubt continue to be incremental improvements in the energy efficiency of fuel-fired furnaces and in technologies and equipment for the reduction or ‘capture’ of harmful emissions, but much more than this is needed to meet some of the targets being set and the expectations of all concerned for our environment. Our focus has always been on energy efficiency and minimising or eliminating harmful emissions in the glassmaking process, both achieved through the development of so-called cold-top allelectric melting and immersed electrode boosting for fuel-fired furnaces.

3. What are the technological challenges facing the furnaces sector in terms of meeting environmental legislation? Is the legislation realistic? Although very many furnaces incorporate electric boosting systems, by far the greatest proportion of glass being made today is produced using

fossil fuel energy. Few purely fuel-fired glass furnaces reach or exceed thermal efficiencies of 40% to 45%, and then typically only in the largest of container glass furnaces and only when operating at full design output. The large majority of fuel-fired glass furnaces are significantly less efficient than this, especially smaller capacity units and those melting more difficult glass types. Low thermal efficiency means not only higher costs but also greater levels of emissions for each tonne of glass produced. It is difficult to see where the step changes needed to meet today’s targets can come from without much greater adoption of alternative and fundamentally more efficient technologies, either replacing fuel-fired melting or at least in the form of hybrid melters with a heavy reliance on highly efficient electric melting technologies.

4. How do you foresee furnaces evolving in the next few years? Electricity needs to be generated. While the use of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation is of course increasing rapidly, fossil-fuel-fired (oil, gas or coal) power stations still provide the majority in most regions. These also have a level of inefficiency, but firstly the thermal efficiency of an average fuel-fired power station is significantly higher that an average fuel-fired glass furnace, and secondly emissions arising in a small number of power stations are both far easier and far cheaper to deal with than those emissions transferred to a large number of glass furnaces. A well-designed all-electric furnace of over say 100 tonnes/day capacity can have a thermal efficiency of 80% to 85% and produces no combustion emissions. Even a small furnace of say 10 tonnes/ day can have an efficiency of 70%. On this basis all-electric melting is an obvious candidate for environmentally friendly glass making. There is to date limited experience in all-electric furnaces of the size of today’s larger capacity container glass furnaces for instance. However one of the main reasons

for size in this context is the better fuel efficiency of larger furnaces. In allelectric furnaces, the difference in the energy consumption of say two furnaces of 150 tonnes/day and one furnace of 300 tonnes/day will be very small. In other words there is not necessarily a significant energy cost penalty in a greater number of smaller capacity units. The interim position is increased use of ‘hybrid’ melters, essentially fuel-fired with high levels of electric boosting, accounting for perhaps 50% of the furnace’s output. The technology is well proven, and capital cost, overall energy consumption and emissions per tonne of glass produced are all greatly reduced.

5. Do you think furnaces will have shorter lifetimes? In our field of electric furnaces, we continue to lengthen furnace lifetimes, through ever better understanding of energy, temperature distributions, the resulting convection currents, glass flow and refractory wear patterns.

6. What will the furnace of the future look like? Will it be run entirely on renewable fuels or a hybrid of energy sources? It will be a long time before fuelfired furnaces are replaced, but everincreasing renewable energy sources for the electricity generation will, I believe, continue the movement to heavily boosted fuel-fired furnaces and for many industry sectors, the most environmentally friendly solution of allelectric melting. �

Electroglass Ltd, Benfleet, UK

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Future of furnaces: Fives Stein

Andy Reynolds, Business Development Director, Fives Stein, UK 1. What is your company’s involvement in the furnace industry for glassmaking? Fives (Glass) supplies melting furnaces, conditioning systems and associated ancillary equipment, for all types of glass manufacture. Fives Stein Limited (FSL) in the UK, serves the non-float sector (the float sector being served by Fives Stein SA in France). In respect to melting technology, FSL specialises in electric melting, oxy-fuel and hybrid furnaces; consequently, most of our business at present is in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, technical and fibre markets rather than container production (where FSL involvement is focused on working ends and conditioning forehearhs).

2. In your opinion, is the glass furnaces sector evolving quickly enough with new ideas to address the new wave of environmental thinking and meet the Paris climate agreement? And can you indicate what your company has done to address this? Converging forces have, I believe, triggered the ‘wake-up’ call for what is a technically conservative industry. Even without the pending legislation on emissions, the fact is that the availability of conventionally extracted fossil-fuels will decline within 30 years – that’s less than two furnace campaigns in the container or float sector. We already see larger players in container production investigating ‘new’ technologies with the aim of reducing or eliminating dependence on gas. The next two to three years will show us if these thoughts translate into positive steps. Producers will not move without being pushed – technical ‘quantum leaps’ are not in this industry’s nature. Fives is already investing in programmes to assess how electric melting and hybrid technologies can

be extended further into the highervolume (lower-value) product sectors of container, float and reinforcement fibre. Some of this work is done in partnership with furnace users; one of the key objectives being how to reduce risks when ‘up scaling’ technologies only well proven at smaller furnace capacities.

3. What are the technological challenges facing the furnaces sector in terms of meeting environmental legislation? Is the legislation realistic? Environmental objectives will only be achieved by a move away from fossil-fuel technology; we should not underestimate the challenge, considering that much of the focus in recent years has been at honing the same technologies to what are now impressive levels of performance across all criteria. Legislation that is both ambitious and binding must be enforced through the economics of cost – we have no choice if we wish to avert global warming.

4. How do you foresee furnaces evolving over the next say, five to 10 years? The use of higher electrical boosting levels (super-boosting) will be the first step to reduce emissions and in such cases furnace design will not change so much. The stepchange will be to all-electric melting and we see at least one big container player taking

this step very soon. Furnaces will be cold-top vertical melting as used already in higher value glass production such a cosmetics and pharmaceutical.

5. Do you think it possible furnaces will have shorter lifetimes in future? Or can you see their lifetimes increasing? Investment in furnaces with very long campaigns (15-20 years) really makes little sense now (certainly in Europe at least). Short campaigns give more opportunities to adapt and evolve – from all aspects including capacity and technology. Shorter campaigns work if rebuild times and costs are also significantly reduced – as is the case with all-electric systems. At FSL we also promote consideration of ‘modular’ melting units, where individual parts of the system can be rebuilt while production continues.

6 What will the furnace of the future look like? Will it be run entirely on renewable fuels or a hybrid of energy sources? At FSL we believe it is inevitable that in the future all glass furnaces will be fully electric. As the contribution of renewal electricity increases, countries where it is still environmentally preferable to burn fossil-fuel directly in furnace rather than in a power station will diminish. If electricity is generated ‘cleanly’ and costs become favourable, then there is simply no technical argument for thermal intensive industries such as glass melting not to use it. In the short to mid-term, the legislation will impact heavily on the capex and opex for fuel-fired furnaces; electric boosting reduces the problem but does not eliminate it – the future is therefore electric. �

Fives Stein, Didcot, UK


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Future of furnaces: Sorg

Dr Matthias Lindig, Research and Development Manager, Sorg 1. What is your company’s involvement in the furnace industry for glassmaking? Sorg has been involved with glass furnaces and installations for the production of all types of glass for decades and has earned a reputation for driving innovation throughout the industry. An example of the innovative attitude of the company is the development of a batch preheating system for lower cullet percentages which has been operating successfully for years reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions as well as making it possible to melt more glass using the existing furnace area.

2. In your opinion, is the glass furnaces sector evolving quickly enough with new ideas to address the new wave of environmental thinking and meet current climate legislation? And can you indicate what your company has done to address this? The short answer is that Sorg is moving quickly enough and that some of the future solutions lie in the past. One Sorg customer has been employing cullet preheating continuously for three decades. Sorg is a pioneer in all-electric melting which eliminates CO2 from combustion and NOx emissions. If you ask me if the industry is adopting these measures as quickly as Sorg would like, then the answer is probably no. Current energy prices and CO2 certificates are at low prices that do not drive innovations. On the other hand, lower costs are good for the industry and the competitiveness of glass as a whole. Other measures from Sorg include allelectric melting, batch preheating as well as extremely efficient oxy-fuel melters such as our OxEcon.

The anticipated new target values will clearly require additional flue gas cleaning equipment. The second issue will be the trading of emission allowances. This trading was established in order to allow the manufacturers to improve their processing in steps. The value of the European allowances will become significantly higher in the near future. Without changes in existing melting technology the operational cost per ton of glass will rise for manufacturers in the common market. This will give manufacturers outside of the EU with less stringent emissions limits a competitive advantage.

5 Do you think it possible furnaces will have shorter lifetimes in future? Or can you see their lifetimes increasing?

4. How do you foresee furnaces evolving over the next say, ďŹ ve to 10 years?

6. What will the furnace of the future look like? Will it be run entirely on renewable fuels or a hybrid of energy sources?

The key issue for the next ten years will be the continuously decreasing amount of free emission allowances for the glass manufacturers. Our crystal ball sees partial substitution of fossil fuels with electricity. Hopefully generated from clean renewable sources. This will lead to more boosting, more interest in allelectric melting and possibly new interest in an old Sorg concept, the EMDR. This is a hybrid furnace that is largely all-electric with enough fossil fuel to allow the melting of problem glass.

Higher specific pull of melting furnaces is connected with reduced emissions per ton of glass. And higher specific pull is also linked with shorter lifetimes. This can be partially compensated through best practice maintenance and furnace audits including radar such as being developed by PaneraTech. Please pose this question to the refractory suppliers as well. Hopefully (for our customers) advances in materials will lead to even longer campaigns.

The hybrid furnace is already state of the art and quite common. Most container glass furnaces are operated with a mix of fossil firing and electric boosting up to 15%. This boosting rate may very well increase in the near future. Employing electricity from renewable sources is not an obstacle for glassmakers. The concern is: will we be able to generate enough renewable energy for all of the new demands including public transportation and electric cars? ďż˝

Sorg, Lohr am Main, Germany

3. What are the technological challenges facing the furnaces sector in terms of meeting environmental legislation? Is the legislation realistic? When we talk about legislation, we have to address the emission limits harmonised in the European Union and periodically reviewed and updated based on bench mark studies.


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Future of furnaces: Horn

Volker Scharnagl, Furnace design / Thermodynamics specialist, Horn Glass Industries

1. What is your company’s involvement in the furnace industry for glassmaking? Horn Glass Industry supplies complete glass production plants. Our main focus is on all kind of furnaces for industrial glass production as well as distributors, forehearths and float glass technology. Adjacent equipment such as burners, gas stations and batch chargers are also produced in house.

2. In your opinion, is the glass furnaces sector evolving quickly enough with new ideas to address the new wave of environmental thinking and meet climate legislation? And can you indicate what your company has done to address this? No. Since the regenerative end-port fired furnace is still the most efficient technology for glass production, there will be no significant change. The system is at its limit. Optimisation is almost complete. Horn has improved furnaces with regard to energy efficiency and NOx emissions drastically. There

has been an improvement of existing technology.

3. What are the technological challenges facing the furnaces sector in terms of meeting environmental legislation? Is the legislation realistic? Allowed pollutant emission values are already quite low in Europe, US and increasingly in other parts of the world. The current values for NOx emission are achievable with current technology, but not with the same specific melting rate. So there are two options: 1. Specific melting rate is reduced in order to reduce emissions. It means that, consequently, refractory costs will increase. 2. The furnaces work at a high energy efficiency and the waste gas is purified afterwards by secondary measures such as the DeNOxPlant (e.g. a Ceramic Candle Filter).

4. How do you foresee furnaces evolving over the next say, ďŹ ve to 10 years? See point 3 or a totally new melting concept evolves.

5. Do you think it possible furnaces will have shorter lifetimes in future? Or can you see their lifetimes increasing? It depends. Referring to point 3.1. furnace lifetimes will increase, referring to point 3.2.

furnace lifetimes will rather decrease. In general furnace owners will try to prolong furnace lifetimes as much as possible in order to get the minimum production loss during rebuilds and the minimum investment cost. Although the latter has two aspects. Prolonging the lifetime of a furnace also means an increase in maintenance costs.

6. What will the furnace of the future look like? Will it be run entirely on renewable fuels or a hybrid of energy sources? In the case that the technology does not change completely and glass production remains a melting process induced by thermal heat, furnaces will mostly stay the same. Changes will be driven by economical reasons and ecological law. In the case that fossil fuel becomes extremely expensive and electric power correspondingly cheaper, there is the possibility that the superstructure will be heated electrically by plasma and/ or heating rods combined with direct electric heating in the glass melt. If fossil fuels remain as cheap as they are and NOx emissions are restricted further, everyone will buy a catalytic DeNOx plant while the furnace itself produces NOx at quite a high level. Probably the glass production process will switch totally from a melting to another kind of process, like sol-gel or catalytic melting like in aluminium production, which will lead to a totally different technology. But there is no evidence for such essential changes. ďż˝

Horn Glass, Ploessberg, Germany


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Future of furnaces:Tecoglas

Mike Davies, Managing Director, Tecoglas 1. What is your company’s involvement in the furnace industry for glassmaking? We develop design and supply all types of furnaces to all sectors. These include regenerative furnaces, recuperative furnaces, oxy-fuel furnaces, electric melt furnaces and float glass furnaces for all sorts of sectors including the container, tableware, float, fibre and E glass types.

2. In your opinion, is the glass furnaces sector evolving quickly enough with new ideas to address the new wave of environmental thinking and meet the Paris climate agreement? And can you indicate what your company has done to address this? In my honest opinion, probably not, it needs to be forced. Unless there is a step change in legislation, and it is enforced by government, manufacturers will stick to the cheapest way of producing glass. But legislation has to be fair. There is no point in the UK going all electric for example, if the rest of Europe still relies on fossil fuel because then the UK will suffer from cheap imports. In tableware, for example, Dema Glass in Chesterfield, UK closed down purely on the basis of Far East imports. If overseas companies are able to melt glass in a non-environmentally friendly way,

then it is cheap. Tecoglas has investigated all sorts of fuel efficiency, and conducted a lot of research in electric melting. We have invested heavily in Celsian and Glass Service modelling, so we have a lot of experience in all electric, semi hot top and hot top mixed melt furnaces. We have a lot of experience in oxy fuel, batch pre heating and end of pipe cleaning. We are ready for industry to come to us with their requirements for a particular furnace and then we can do it. It’s not our job to convince them but if they do decide to go oxy fuel or electric, the cost of glass will increase significantly.

3. What are the technological challenges facing the furnaces sector in terms of meeting environmental legislation? Is the legislation realistic? It is realistic legislation but the industry will have to wake up and spend a lot of money if they wish to meet it. That will not go down well with shareholders or the public, because they will have to pay for the increase in the end product. If we go down the electric or renewable routes, the whole industry will be turned on its head and this will mean huge technological changes.

4. How do you foresee furnaces evolving over the next say, five to 10 years?

5. Do you think it possible furnaces will have shorter lifetimes in future? Or can you see their lifetimes increasing? The furnaces of the future will be small, electric and less flexible; with shorter lifetimes. It means there will be two rebuilds per every one of a traditional furnace. For a container glass furnace the rebuild will be every five to six years compared to 10 or 11 years today. The benefit is that the rebuilds will be shorter because there are no regenerators, so the glass to glass downtime will be shortened, but it will mean a major investment every five to six years.

6. What will the furnace of the future look like? Will it be run entirely on renewable fuels or a hybrid of energy sources? More electricity will be used and the furnace of the future will be heavily boosted or made of mixed melt. Teco has had the designs for a hybrid furnace for a long time and we can sell any type of furnace to anybody in the world. �

Tecoglas, Sheffield, UK

There will initially be more use of electric,

more boost into fossil fuel furnaces, then the fossil fuel furnace will probably migrate to oxy fuel, and ultimately the way it’s heading, it will be entirely electric.


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Future of furnaces:Feve

Fabrice Rivet, Director, Environment, Health and Safety, FEVE.

1. What impact will forthcoming legislation in 2020 have on glassmakers? Technically, the new ETS directive after 2020 will impose a 43% reduction to ETS sectors between 2005 and 2030. That’s already more than what incremental changes can bring (such as improved thermal insulation, batch preheater, methane cracking). However, in 2050 (that’s only ‘two furnaces away’) the reduction will have to reach 80 to 95%, and that means breakthrough technologies must be implemented. Given the fact that process emissions are hard to reduce, this means that the melting process will have to be carbon-free. Glassmakers will have to take risks to move in that direction.

2. What should furnace makers do to prepare for this legislation? Start thinking about the next CO2 free furnace generation. Investigate EU and national funding for innovation. Collaborate closely with glassmakers to assess needs and constraints. Assess the financial viability of other business models (smaller and more flexible electric furnaces, biomass availability, hybrid technologies).

3. What will happen if glassmakers fail to comply with this legislation in 2020? They will have to buy CO2 allowances whose price is expected to rise from €10 today to about €30 in the future. For a typical glass furnace of 400 tonnes /day which is 60% above the benchmark (not exceptional as the benchmark will be low), this represents a cost of about

€900,000 per year.

4. Due to the size of the industry, are glassmakers more vulnerable to this legislation compared to other sectors such as steel or aluminium? This is a difficult question. Steel and aluminium can be compensated for the indirect costs (electricity). Glass cannot. This is certainly a competition issue. All depends in which country the producer is located and if this country compensates or not the indirect costs. For the direct costs, it is much more difficult to answer (and aluminium being electricity intensive direct CO2 emissions are not a deciding factor). Steel plants are also bigger and have a scale-effect which can be important for highly CAPEX intensive innovations.

5. In your experience, are glassmakers already preparing for this legislation?

6. What advantages, if any, does this legislation give to glassmakers when they comply with it? All glassmakers will comply with the legislation. But the question is if all can achieve the requested reductions in the timeline. If not they will have to pay more to comply. In our view, the ETS legislation has no real opportunities, except giving an advantage to those who will successfully decarbonise the fastest. But they will have to invest and take risks, with no guarantee of success. That being said, we also see that some big customers of the glass industry are making statements about their intentions to decarbonise their products. Those glassmakers which will offer a carbon-free glass will have an advantage. �

FEVE, Brussels,

Yes glassmakers know about the issue. It is also the role of the associations to alert them about the challenges ahead. There are some projects developed by glassmakers (and they remain confidential at this stage) but let’s face it, the carbon price today is not the only major driver fuel prices are also very important.

Mr Fabrice Rivet discusses the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), which is a cornerstone policy to tackle climate change. Glassmakers, along with other manufacturing industries, have to comply with the legislation or face fines of €100/tonne of CO2 emitted. The ETS system discussed here is focused on CO2 emissions. Glassmakers should also be aware of other legislation such as Glass BREF, which deals with emissions such as NOx, SOx and dust, as well as the Circular Economy Package.


FURNACES articles.indd 7

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How to improve glass quality from the hot point Mathieu Girard* discusses the improvements his organisation has made to glass quality from an OPEX point of view. It reconsidered sources of improvement from the last place of the hot point.


lass quality has various meanings and if we consider a wide extended definition, I would include at least these four elements: stability, intrinsic physical and chemical qualities, visual specification and production cost. Whereas glass groups and factories can deal with many CAPEX options to improve glass quality such as Industry 4.0 concepts, furnace design optimisation and new combustion systems, opportunities to improve glass quality based on daily purchases are not frequently offered by suppliers. Starting from a virgin piece of paper, we decided to reconsider sources of improvement from an OPEX point of view, starting from the last place of the hot point. And step-by-step, we are swimming against the glass flow to evaluate any opportunity. In the past eight years we ran many trials and have had a consistent feedback on our experiences.

� Fig 1. Typical failure due to thermal shock on orifice ring. zirconia content grade, an optimised grain size distribution and recent process. The target is to get a refractory with a lower glassy phase content, lower bulk density and higher open porosity. We have seen a real improvement in terms of thermal shock resistance during installation, which is the first step to improving glass quality. This Gen-2 series also gave a longer lifetime of up to 20%. Gen-3 consists of a clever improvement of the orifice ring weakness, in terms of resistance against corrosion.

First solution The first and easy-to-use OPEX solution is a Redesigned-Orifice-Ring (Fig 1). If you consider the current generation of product as ‘generation 1’, we developed ‘generations 2 and 3’. Gen-2 gives a consistent reduction of failure at installation - up to 80% - decreases unexpected breakdown and increases the stability of the gob. Gen-3, which has been implemented step-by-step, gives an outstanding lifetime up to 300% longer than a ‘generation 1’ product. Gen-3 is dedicated to lines with low changes in production over the year and that do not use a coating solution. Generation 2 is dedicated to all lines. In detail, Gen-2 consists of a higher

Insert technology This Redesigned-Orifice-Ring gets an innovative insert-technology (Fig 2). Inserts are designed in a highresistance refractory with high chemical � Fig 2. Design with insert.


46 0 Glass International April 2018

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The evaluation of the Redesigned-Tube is not as easy as the Redesigned-OrificeRing solution, but we can give a range of a –20% to -90% reduction of rejection rate during quality control.

Impact on stability of glass quality: Typical lifetime for 3 kinds of orifice rings

5 4

Masso +





0 0








� Fig 3. One-year changes – 8 for classical OR, 6 for Gen-2/Masso and 2 for Gen-3/Masso+

compatibility. We selected a product with almost null dilatation at operational temperature and a cold crushing strength 500% higher than a conventional refractory for this application. During a standard campaign, the wear of the insert will be almost null, which has opened up opportunities in terms of a mid/long campaign and avoids the uncomfortable hot-operation on spout. Other benefits are the weight stability of the gob and the conservation of the right gob shape thanks to an almost-null deviation of initial dimensions. The critical point of this development was to create a design able to eliminate mechanical and thermal stresses that ensured efficiency and reliability over the campaign. The creation of simple gob and double gob designs were tough, but the most complicated part was, without a doubt, the optimisation of the triple gob design. Gen-2 and Gen-3 Redesigned-OrificeRings are substantial improvements to glass stability, which reduces the frequency of changes (Fig 3).

Redesigned Tube The second and easy-to-use OPEX solution is a Redesigned-Tube (RT). This solution is almost 10-years old and many groups and factories in Western Europe know about it. Statistics say that 89% of users are seeing consistent improvement in glass quality, an increase in gob homogeneity or a decrease in defect rates. The initial design was requested by Mr. Jérôme Canaguier after a discussion with a cosmetic glass producer in Belgium and is now being used in container, pharmaceutical and tableware glass all around the world. We have seen an effect on light streaks, cat scratches and cords but in some cases, we are not satisfied enough with the impact on glass defects. Designs have continuously improved over two years through mathematical and physical studies combined with hundreds of industrial experiences. RT 2.0 was introduced in 2015 and RT 3.0 was introduced in 2017. RT 4.0 will be the latest design and will be coming soon. We expect a particularly increased affect on cat scratches.

Concept The concept of the rotor-tube itself is obvious. The first issue was to make the tube-mechanism evolve accordingly, which hopefully was managed by glass factories very efficiently. The stirring effect was introduced for the same reason and many people use stirrers in the forehearth. At the first stage of this development, we paid a lot of attention to the impact on other process parameters. If I have to mention two of them, I would say: Firstly, the risk of mechanical failure due to big stones being blocked in one helix, and secondly, the potential negative impact on gob weight, especially on sensitive lines and process. We are still considering many parameters to run continuous research, such as the angle of blades, number, size, position and so on (Fig 1). Our Rotor-tube concept has already given better results, with the latest version of the design being used in Asia and Europe. There are other opportunities to easily improve glass quality through OPEX on forehearths but the two mentioned are rapid to implement and give immediate benefits. �

*Sintered Refractories Manager, Comercial Quimica Masso, Lyon, France

Wear in mm

7 6

� Fig 4. 4-helix tube designed by Masso.

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Prof. John Parker

Let there be light Prof Parker* discusses the role of glass in the lighting industry


n 1945, 795 million incandescent light bulbs were sold in the USA – five per person - but they are now almost universally banned! How did this happen? Early lights were fires – blazing torches; oil lamps and candles were slightly more sophisticated, using a wick to transport molten fats to the flame. This involved carbon particles generated during combustion, as the light source. Faraday devoted six lectures to candles for the Royal Society’s Christmas lectures in 1848! Hot bodies emit energy in proportion to the fourth power of temperature (in Kelvin) but most is infrared radiation, particularly at low temperatures. Light is only seen above 500°C, initially as a dull red glow. The proportion increases with temperature but is never large - a candle, whose flame reaches 1400°C, converts < 0.1% of its energy into useful light! Of course, on a cold winter’s night you can always warm your hands with the unseen component. Candles needed holders and glass candlesticks were made alongside brass ones. In the 18th century they were blown, but the advent of pressing machines in the 19th century allowed mass production. From the mid 19th century, candlesticks with complex patterns and lifelike figures became popular and many are now collectors’ items. For greater opulence, more sophisticated glass candlestick holders, candelabras and chandeliers were made. The reflections of flames on the component glass jewels and internal refraction of transmitted light, which split into its spectral colours, enhanced the effect, particularly using lead crystal. For oil lamps, glass chimneys protected the flames from draughts. Mosque lamps made in Egypt and Syria in the 13th and 14th century famously demonstrate Islamic Art. As understanding of electricity and

charge storage devices developed, inventors started to dream of electric lamps, which offered convenience and the possibility of greater efficiency if operable at higher temperatures. The first patent was in 1761, but two difficulties were encountered. The first was the filament. Platinum and other noble metals (osmium, palladium) were expensive and none survived long at high operating temperatures. Platinum melts at just 1772°C; offering only a marginal improvement in light output over the candle. Although, carbon melts at 3550°C and was the basis of many patents, such as those made by carbonising cotton. Secondly, a vacuum was needed to prevent oxidation and possibly the solution. Glass provided an airtight transparent envelope. Still, passing conductors through a glass envelope without air leakage required hermetic glass-to-metal seals and a glass that prevented a current short circuit even when it was hot. Both Edison (USA) and Swann (UK) submitted patents in 1878 demonstrating the manufacture of a commercial product. After discussions, the two agreed to collaborate and create a joint company, which was subsequently taken over by Edison. In 1904, a rival company introduced tungsten filaments. Its high melting point (3410°C) and low evaporation rate made it ideal. Metallurgical developments facilitated wire drawing and the famous coiled coil was developed to reduce convective heat transfer. Inert gas atmospheres slowed tungsten evaporation, minimising its condensation, which blackened the bulb and reduced light output. Each development allowed higher operating temperatures, which gave more light/ buck but couldn’t circumvent the inherently low efficiency (a few %). The Corning Ribbon machine could form 1000 bulbs per minute from a thin

ribbon of hot glass with lens shaped sections regularly spaced along it. These thick, hot patties of glass were aligned with holes in a moving belt, flowing through before being blown into moulds lined with a wetted carbonaceous paste to provide a cushion of steam, which rotated to eliminate seam lines. The moulds lasted for decades but were frequently re-coated. The quartz-halogen lamp was an improvement; more compact than an incandescent and formed from tubing. Chlorine in the envelope reacts with evaporated tungsten to form gaseous tungsten hexachloride. This has a low boiling point and cannot condense on the envelope which is also designed to run hotter, achieved by using thermal shock resistant vitreous quartz. The tungsten hexachloride decomposes preferentially near the hottest (thinnest) spots in the filament re-depositing tungsten, a clever self-repairing mechanism. This means operating temperatures could be increased, giving a modest efficiency gain but, significantly, a greater output from a smaller bulb. Incandescents have allowed workers to enter gunpowder stores safely, to work under the ocean and to travel at high altitudes. Centuries ago sleep was often taken in two sessions with an active interval, lit by candlelight. Incandescent lamps allowed us to choose our bedtime and work schedules; therefore the norm became eight hours of sleep. Low efficiency was their downfall. Some applications are suited to their broad IR emission spectrum, such as drying paint; we can even watch it happening… given enough light! �

Curator of the Turner Museum of Glass, The University of Sheffield, UK

48 Glass International April 2018

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A solution for removing acid gas from glass Dry sorbent injection (DSI) with engineered hydrated lime sorbents, such as Sorbacal SP/SPS, offers a cost-effective method for acid gas compliance states Jerry Hunt*.

Evolution of Engineered Hydrated Lime Sorbents In the past, hydrated lime (i.e. Ca(OH)2) was produced for a variety of applications unrelated to acid gas abatement and as a result, material properties were not optimised for a reaction with acid gases. In these so-called ‘standard hydrated lime’ sorbents, surface area and porosity - the key properties that govern acid gas capture – were not explicitly controlled in the manufacturing process. In order to more efficiently capture acid gases, first generation engineered hydrated lime sorbents (EHLS) were manufactured with increased surface area coupled with a smaller particle size to provide a performance enhancement over ‘standard hydrated lime’. Additional research demonstrated that increased pore volume would also boost acid gas removal efficacy. This led to the development of second generation EHLS, Sorbacal SP, which had a higher pore volume (> 0.2 cm3/g) as

well as a higher surface area (> 40 m2/g), resulting in properties two to three times greater than ‘standard hydrated lime’. The third generation EHLS, designated as Sorbacal SPS, utilises a chemical activator to accelerate acid gas kinetics coupled with the optimised physical properties of Sorbacal SP for an even more reactive sorbent. Furthermore, the chemical activator used for Sorbacal SPS reduces the sorbent’s resistivity, which has demonstrated improved response in electrostatic precipitators compared to other, nonactivated hydrated lime products. Fig 2 illustrates the evolution of hydrated lime products specifically engineered for acid gas abatement.

Acid gas abatement Today, DSI with Sorbacal SP and Sorbacal SPS are currently being utilised by dozens of facilities for removal of SO2, HCl, SO3/ H2SO4 and HF. In many applications, greater than 90% removal of the previously mentioned acid gases has been demonstrated using DSI with Sorbacal SP or Sorbacal SPS at facilities with electrostatic precipitators as well as baghouse filter units. Sorbacal SP is currently also being used in conjunction with Tri-Mer’s ceramic filter technology in more than two dozen glass furnaces for multi-pollutant control, one of which is SO2. To achieve high acid gas removal rates, system design and sorbent selection Continued>>

� Fig 1. Generic Schematic of

Product storage silo

Typical DSI System. Flow + sorbent partitioning device

Dosing system Injection lances


SI systems are a relatively low capital cost technology that has successfully demonstrated the capability to control acid gas emissions in the power industry and in a multitude of industrial applications, including glass production. DSI systems offer an acid gas emission control solution that is relatively easy to retrofit at existing facilities and provides a high degree of flexibility. While each DSI system generally consists of a motive air system, storage silo, dosing system, piping/portioning device and injection lances, each end user may require some customised DSI design features (Fig 1).

Moving air + conditioning system

Flue gas duct

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Standard hydrated limes

High quality standard hydrated lime

2nd generation EHLS

SP at > 600°F with multiple standard injection lances. The DSI system doses Sorbacal SP with a loss-in-weight feeder system and the SO2 emissions are periodically measured using temporary gas analysers. Fig 3 shows recent DSI performance data indicating that with Sorbacal SP dosage rates at just under 140 lb/hr, this facility is able to achieve greater than 95% SO2 removal efficiency.

3rd generation EHLS


Typical available Ca(OH)2 - [%]



Typical surface area [m2/g]








High pore volume & surface area

Typical pore volume [cm3/g]


Typical D50[microns]





Larger particles better handling properties




require careful consideration. Below are some of the fundamental conditions that drive acid gas capture efficiencies and resultant sorbent consumption rates. In general, DSI performance is impacted by the gas temperature, particulate control device, gas moisture and sorbent dispersion. � Gas temperature – DSI chemistry is non-linearly impacted by gas temperature. Understanding the role that gas temperature plays for each acid gas is critical to selecting the ideal sorbent injection location. Specifically, each acid gas has a different optimal injection temperature for a reaction with hydrated lime. � Particulate control device – Whether a site has an electrostatic precipitator or filtration unit (e.g. fabric filter, ceramic filter) will also have an impact on DSI performance. The filter cake that builds up across the filtration unit also provides a medium for additional acid gas scrubbing. Optimising filter cake thickness and residence time can also impact DSI system performance. � Gas moisture – The applications with the peak sorbent utilisations tend to be the sites with the highest gas moisture content. Full scale DSI testing specific to SO2 removal indicates that DSI performance is typically directly correlated with gas moisture content. � Sorbent dispersion – Appropriately designing the injection grid to ensure that the sorbent and acid gases mix well is imperative to ensure that the necessary acid gas removal is achieved as well as the

optimisation of sorbent consumption. New improved sorbent dispersion technologies are commercially available and have demonstrated the ability to improve DSI performance and/or reduce sorbent consumption. Below is a case study from an industrial facility using Sorbacal SP coupled with a filtration unit over the past few years to provide control of several pollutants, including SO2. This site has relatively low moisture content in the flue gas stream (< 5% by volume moisture) and injects Sorbacal



100 Over 95% SO2 removal efficiency achieved with Sorbacal SP

80 SO2 Emissions (lb/hr)

� Fig 2. Comparison of Various Hydrated Lime Sorbent Physical and Chemical Properties.

Engineered hydrated lime sorbents such as Sorbacal SP and Sorbacal SPS often provide the following benefits: � Sorbent cost savings – Sorbacal SP/SPS typically reduces sorbent consumption by 30-50% over standard hydrated lime sorbents, usually resulting in a lower annual sorbent spend. � Disposal cost savings – Reducing sorbent consumption with Sorbacal SP/ SPS will generate less residue (i.e. less in = less out), resulting in a residue of disposal savings. � Reduced impact on particulate collection devices – Reduced sorbent dosing into an electrostatic precipitator may directly impact particulate collection efficiency and in a baghouse it could impact the bag cleaning cycle frequency. In particular, Sorbacal SPS is optimised for electrostatic precipitator applications compared to standard hydrates; the chemical activator in Sorbacal SPS not




0 0







Sorbacal SP dosage rate (lb/hr)

140 160

� Fig 3. DSI Performance with Sorbacal SP for SO2 Removal from Industrial Application.

50 Glass International April 2018

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only improves acid gas reactivity, but also reduces sorbent resistivity. Combined with a larger particle size, this combination of properties results in reduced potential for detrimental impacts to the electrostatic precipitator. � Flexibility – Opportunity fuels or raw materials with higher sulphur and/or chloride contents may offer an attractive lower cost option; Sorbacal SP/SPS can provide the higher acid gas removal necessary in order to operate with these fuels/raw materials. � Simplified logistics and supply – Reducing sorbent consumption with Sorbacal SP/SPS increases the number of available storage days in a fixed silo volume. Lower consumption will also reduce the number of deliveries required.

Total cost of ownership (TCO) Deciding which sorbent is the optimal solution for each acid gas removal application is not necessarily as simple as comparing the lowest delivered cost. The most cost-effective solution overall is determined by the sorbent, which provides the lowest TCO. While delivered cost is important, it is also necessary to factor in the sorbent performance to determine the total annual sorbent expenditure. The DSI performance for each sorbent may also play a role in the residue disposal costs as well. For example, if using Sorbacal SP or SPS results in a 30-50% lower sorbent consumption, it will result in less generation of residue and therefore have a lower annual cost for disposal. Disposal costs can be a significant consideration; especially if sodium sorbents are considered - sodium sorbents potentially result in increased heavy metals leaching (i.e. selenium and arsenic), which may cause residue to be classified as a hazardous waste. It is also important to consider other factors, especially when retrofitting a DSI system to an existing facility, such as impacts to the particulate control device (especially for an electrostatic precipitator) and the waste handling system.

Conclusion DSI is a reliable acid gas control technology that has been installed at numerous glass production facilities in order to control acid gas emissions that are generated from the raw materials and/or fuels. Development of engineered hydrated lime products such as Sorbacal SP/SPS have paved the way for new and less costly acid gas compliance solutions. Sorbacal SP/SPS has demonstrated the capability to achieve > 90% acid gas (e.g. SO2 and HCl) emissions reduction while using 30-50% lower consumption rates, in contrast to standard hydrated lime sorbents. In addition to providing savings on sorbent expenditures, Sorbacal SP/SPS can also provide reduced disposal costs, simplified logistics/supply, as well as increased flexibility. Ultimately, the best sorbent for each site may not be the lowest delivered cost, but rather proper consideration of TCO which takes into account the sorbent cost, sorbent consumption rate, disposal cost, as well as the balance-of-plant impact. �

* Flue Gas Treatment technology Specialist, Lhoist North America, Fort Worth, Texas, USA

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Glass International April 2018  
Glass International April 2018