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peeieeflekeÀ KeejHegÀìer efoveeefveefceÊeeves ceeveJee®eer Heoef®evns (?) Gceìuesu³ee Òel³eskeÀ HegUCeer Je ef®eKeueer meHeeìîeebJej KeejHegÀìeR®eer ueeieJe[ keÀjC³ee®ee Òe³elve Deelee meJe&$e nesT ueeieuee Deens. mebjef#ele veme&jer le³eej keÀªve l³eeceO³es efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®³ee KeejHegÀìeR®³ee jesHeeb®es mebJeOe&ve keÀªve leer jesHes ueeJetve KeejHegÀìeR®es pebieue Hegve©ppeerJeerle keÀjC³ee®ee ne SkeÀ Òe³elve Deens. ceeCemeeuee mebJesovee#ece yeveefJeleevee efvemeiee&ves DeveskeÀ MekeÌleer efou³ee Deensle. DeeHeu³eeuee iebOe, ®eJe, mHeMe&, o=äer ³eecegUs Deeveboer peerJeve peielee ³esles. ¿ee®e MekeÌleeRveer DeeHeCe DeeHeu³eeuee GHekeÀejkeÀ Je DeHee³ekeÀejkeÀ ieesäer DeesUKet MekeÀlees. HeCe jemee³eefvekeÀ ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀebveer DeeHeu³eeuee Deelee neveerkeÀejkeÀ ogie¥OeerHeemetve cegkeÌleer efceUeueer Deens keÀe? DeeHeu³eemeceesj®es peieC³ee®es DeeJneve DeefOekeÀ keÀþerCe keÀjCeejs ìe@eqkeÌmemeerìer. Des ìt Pes[ DeMeer KeejHegÀì®eer Je l³ee mebyebOeerle IeìkeÀeb®eer ceeefnleer osCeeje ne uesKe KeejHetÀìer®es meJe& meboYe& SkeÀef$eleefjl³ee DeeHeu³eemeceesj þsJelees. SJe{îee ÒeefoIe& Òeefle#esveblej Deepe yejmeCeeje neTme ne efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®³ee DeeMee DeekeÀeb#ee HetCe& keÀjCeeje Demesue. Hejbleg ³ee HeeJemee®eer Òeefle#ee keÀjleevee ceveele Gþuesu³ee uemee#ejles®³ee lejbieebkeÀ[s ogue&#e keÀª vekeÀe. HeeTme yejmet ueeieuee, meJe& OejCes Yejueer lejerner HeeCeer cee$e peHetve JeeHeje³euee efMekeÀe. HeeCeer GHeueyOe Peeues lejerner GOeUHeÆer keÀª vekeÀe. HeeC³ee®³ee ³eesi³e JeeHeje®ee, Je<ee&peuemebOeejCee®ee cnCepes jsve Jee@ìj neJexmìeRie keÀjC³ee®ee lemes®e meeb[HC³ee®ee Hegve&JeeHej keÀjC³eemeeþer ³eb$eCee efvecee&Ce keÀjC³ee®ee DeeHeCe ceveesceve kesÀuesuee mebkeÀuHe ¿ee HeeJemeeȳeeveblej le[erme v³ee DeeefCe DeeHeu³ee efJekeÀemeiebiesuee HeeJemee®³ee Jee efvemeiee&®³ee uenjerJej DeJeuebyetve ve þsJelee... leb$e%eevee®³ee mene³³eeves DeeHeCe mJe³ebHetCe& nesC³ee®ee mebkeÀuHe HetCe& keÀª ³ee! HeeJemee®³ee Deeieceveeyejesyej®e meCeemegoer®ee keÀeU megª nesle Deens. Je[e®³ee, DeeHeu³eeuee Jejoeve þjuesu³ee ³ee JeìJe=#ee®³ee HeÀebÐee Je Heeves ve Deesjyee[lee... DeKeb[ Je=#ee®eer Hetpee keÀª³ee! JeìHeewefCe&cesuee Heefjmejeleerue JeìJe=#e MeesOetve l³eeb®³ee mebj#eCee®ee efveOee&j keÀª³ee! He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®³ee 17 Jee JeOee&Heve efoveer He³ee&JejCee®eer ®eUJeU DeefOekeÀ meMekeÌle yeveefJeC³eemeeþer He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®es meom³e nesT³ee!


Mudskipper : An amphibious fish found in the mangrove, which spends most of its time on land. Very active on mudflats during low tide. It can breathe through its mouth as well as its skin. It skips with the help of its fins hence the

efveJeìe ë Deeheu³ee efove®e³exleerue yengleebMe JesU peefceveerJej IeeueJeCeeje KeejHegÀìerceOeerue SkeÀ ceemee. Deesnesìer®³ee JesUsuee ef®eKeueeceO³es peemle meef¬eÀ³e Demeleele. Deeheu³ee leeW[eÜejs Je lJe®esÜejsmeg×e MJeeme IesT MekeÀleele.

meuueeieej mebHeeokeÀ ë [e@. Deefveue keÀekeÀes[keÀj [e@. DeªCe peesMeer [e@. nsce®ebê ÒeOeeve [e@. Meece DemeesueskeÀj [e@. mebpe³e osMecegKe

cegK³e mebHeeokeÀ ë [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer

efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj

keÀe³e&keÀejer mebHeeokeÀ ë meew. keÀefJelee JeeueeJeuekeÀj English Editor : Prof. Clara Correia

mebHeeove mene³³e ë DeefJeveeMe Yeiele cegKeHe=ÿ ë mvesnue Heìsue ceO³eHe=ÿ ë DeefJeveeMe Yeiele mepeeJeì ë ceveer<e JeeIe

ns ceeefmekeÀ ceeuekeÀ, ÒekeÀeMekeÀ He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb®e ³eeb®³eemeeþer mebHeeokeÀ [e@. mebpe³e peesMeer Je Òee. efJeÐeeOej JeeueeJeuekeÀj ³eebveer Þeer efÒebìme&, S-117, Deceji³eeve Fb[mì^erpe efÒecee³emesme efue. Sme. ìer. JekeÀ&Mee@He meceesj, KeesHeì, þeCes (He) ³esLes cegefêle keÀsues Je DeeHeueb He³ee&JejCe - ieeUe veb. 15, oeoespeer keÀesW[osJe mìs[er³ece, KeejìCe jes[, þeCes (He) 400 601 ³esLes ÒekeÀeMeerle keÀsues. mebHeke&À ë 022-25411633 ceeefmekeÀeletve ÒekeÀeefMele Peeuesu³ee celeebMeer mebHeeokeÀ mencele Demeleerue®e Demes veener.

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Yeeie ë 13 ~ DebkeÀ ë 2

~ He=ÿmebK³ee ë 40

jlveekeÀje®es Deblejbie ~ [e@. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs Dee³eyeermeefyeue®eer efHeuueb ~ [e@. jepet keÀmebyes Demes ceuee Jeeìles... legcneuee? ~ [e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs Deecner mepeie keÀOeer nesCeej? ~ ceveer<e JeeIe neveerkeÀejkeÀ ogie&bOeveeMekeÀs - ìe@efkeÌmemeerìer ~ [e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee ~ DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs HegÀueJee ë yesn[e ~ Debpevee osJemLeUs efkeÀìkeÀeb®³ee efJeMJeele ~ cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea, ³egJejepe iegpe&j cegbyeF&peJeU efomeuesues HeengCes He#eer ~ DeefJeveeMe Yeiele Jeelee& He$e ~ ÒeefleefveOeer

9 11 14 15 16 18 23 24 25

A to Z about Mangroves I Laxmikant Deshpande

27

The Plant Life : Roots I Sweedle Adesh Shivkar

29

5

Mangroves and its Silviculture

I Sneha Shirodkar-Nalawade

31

Environmental Interpretation I Dr. Vidya Hajirnis

32

Mangroves I Kalpana Malani

33

A Journey to Goan Forest I Srujani Walavalkar

34

New Trends in Environment Protection Paryavaran Shala

I Shubhda Kushwaha

I Mukul Mujumdar

35 36

Where there is a will .... I Shreelata Menon

37

Silent Green Lover

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I Profile

Jeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 400 ÜwJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 800 Heb®eJeeef<e&keÀ : ©. 1800

Yearly : Rs. 400/2 Years : Rs. 800/5 Years : Rs. 1800/-

DeeHeueer Jeie&Ceer ceveerDee@[&j, [er.[er. Üejs efkeÀbJee yeBkeÀ Dee@HeÀ Fbef[³ee, þeCes Keeles ¬eÀ. 004310110007618 ³ee Keel³eele (Dee³e.SHeÀ.Sme. meer. keÀes[ BKID0000043) Sve.F&.SHeÀ.ìer. ves pecee keÀª MekeÀlee.


5

jlveekeÀje®es Deblejbie Òee. Heg©<eesÊece keÀeUs 93225 07685

meeiejer les u eieUleer , Deeieer , mecegêele mees[ues peeCeejs Òeef¬eÀ³ee ve kesÀuesues meeb[HeeCeer Je cewuee; ceemes, keÀesUbyeer, ceesleer, keÀeueJes Fl³eeoeR®eer peeHseemeueuseer Melseer (l³eemeeþer HeeC³eele Ieeleuesueer Keles); Mesleerleerue efPejHetve ³esCeejer jmee³eves (Keles Je veeMekesÀ) DeMee ef J eef J eOe ceeveJeef v eef c e& l e Òeo<geCeecbeU g s leme®se peeieelfekeÀ leHeceeve Je= × er Je $eÝleg c eeve yeoueeb c eg U s KeejHegÀìeR®eer Jeves mebkeÀìûemle nesle Deenlse.

HebkeÀce³e HegUCeeRJejerue KeejHegÀìer HeefjmebmLee uesKeebkeÀ 13 Jee ieus³ee ueK s eekbeÀele HekbeÀce³e HeU g Ceer DeeeCfe ef®eKeue meHeeìîee keÀMee yeveleele, l³eeb®es iegCeOece& Je pewJeefJeefJeOelee ³eeb®ee efJe®eej kesÀuee. l³ee uesKeebkeÀele KeejHegÀìer HeefjmebmLeeb®ee mJeleb$e uesKeebkeÀele efJe®eej keÀjCeej Demee GuuesKe neslee®e. yengleskeÀ HebkeÀce³e HegUCeer Je ef®eKeueer meHeeìîeebJej KeejHegÀìeR®eer Jeves G<Ce keÀìeryebOeele Dee{Uleele. ³ee KeejHegÀìeR®eer J³eeK³ee efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀejs kesÀueer iesueer Deens. Del³eble megÒeefleefÿle DeMee Dee@keÌmeHeÀ[& Fbûepeer MeyokeÀes<eele `G<Ce keÀefìyebOeeleerue efkeÀveejHeÆeRJejerue oueoueeR®³ee #es $ eele Dee{UCeejs Je p³eeb ® ³ee ceg U eb ® eer peefceveer®³ee Jej iegbHeÀCe Peeuesueer Demeles DeMee Je=#e Jee Peg[gHeebvee KeejHegÀìer cnCeleele' ner J³eeK³ee GHeueyOe Deens. mHe@efveMe, Heesleg&ieerpe, DeceesjfkeÀve Je ÖeÀW®e, DeMee JevemHeleevRee Je l³ee®b³ee mecegnebvee `cebieue' (mangal/mangle) Demes mebyeesOeleele. KeejHegÀìer JevemHeleer Je l³eeb®³ee mebueive peerJeeb®³ee peerJemebnleeruee (biomes) efJemeeJ³ee MelekeÀe®³ee GÊejeOee&le HeefjmebmLeeb®ee opee& ef o uee ies u ee Je peef c eveer J ejer u e HeefjmebmLeebceO³es meJee&efOekeÀ GlHevve DemeCeeN³ee HeefjmebmLee Demes l³eeb®es JeCe&ve kesÀues iesues. peieYejeleerue leyyeue 110 ÒepeeleeR®³ee

JevemHeleeR®ee meceeJesMe KeejHegÀìeRceO³es kesÀuesuee Deens. ceb[ue Je veemekeÀj ³ee Meem$e%eebveer 2008 meeueer Yeejleeleerue efJeefJeOe ÒekeÀej®³ee 12 DeefOeJeemeebletve Dee{UCeeN³ee 36 kegÀueebceOeerue 52 peeleer Je 82 ÒepeeleeR v ee KeejHeg À ìer JevemHeleeR®ee opee& efouee Deens. KeejHeÀgìe®Reer JeewMfeÿs ë KeejHegÀìer JevemHeleeRvee `ÒeefleketÀueleeefÒe³e' (extremophiles) cnCelee ³esF&ue keÀejCe ³ee oueoueer®³ee, DeefmLej Je HeeCeLeU efþkeÀeCeer pesLes meeceev³e Pee[s-Peg[Hes efìkeÀeJe Oeª MekeÀle veenerle DeMee efþkeÀeCeer Jee{leele. SJe{s®e veener lej HeeCeer ceygeuekeÀ Demevtener l³eele #eeje®bes ÒeceeCe Del³eeef O ekeÀ Demeu³eeves KeejHeg À ìeR v ee ef¬eÀ³eeJew%eeefvekeÀ DeJe<e&Ceeuee (physiological drought) leeW [ ÐeeJes ueeieles . #eejeb ® ³ee leeCeeJ³eefleefjkeÌle peefceveerle Del³eble keÀceer ÒeceeCeele DemeCeeN³ee ÒeeCeJee³eg®³ee ÒeceeCee®eener leeCe l³eebvee menve keÀjeJee ueeielees. YejleerDeesnesìer®³ee ®e¬eÀele DeefOemlej Deeueìtve Heeueìtve HeeC³eeKeeueer Je HeeC³eeJej jnele Demeu³eevesner KeejHegÀìeR®³ee De[®eCeerle Yej He[les. ÒeeflekegÀue HeefjefmLeleerle kesÀJeU leie OejCesner DeJeIe[ Demeleevee KeejHegÀìer DeeHeu³ee


DebieYetle DevegketÀueveebÜejs peesceeves HeÀesHeÀeJeleevee efomeleele. meeceev³eleë l³eebvee KeeN³ee HeeC³ee®³ee leCeeJeeKeeueer jneJes ueeiele Demeu³eeves l³eebvee `ueJeCeeosedYfeo' Jeevemes (halophytic plants) cnìues peele.s ³ee JeevemeecbeO³es DeefOekeÀlece ÒeefleketÀueves (adaptations) heeC³ee®³ee ce³ee&efole lej #eejeb®³ee Dece³ee&o GHeueyOelesJej ceele keÀjC³eemeeþer Demeleele. KeejHegÀìer JevemHeleeR®³ee efJeefJeOe DebieebceO³es efometve ³esCeejer DevegkegÀueves Keeueerue ÒekeÀej®eer Demeleele. cegUs ë oueoueerle, DemLeerj DeefOemlejele cegUs Keesue Jee{tve HeCe&mebYeejeuee Hegjsmee DeeOeej osT MekeÀle vemeu³eeves leer peefceveerueiele otjJej Hemejleele. efMeJee³e Kees[e®³ee peefceveerueiele®³ee YeeieeHeemetve efJeefJeOe efoMeebvee DeeieblegkeÀ cegUs (adventitious roots) Jee{tve JeekeÀefJeuesu³ee ieg{i³eeÒeceeCes JeUtve ef®eKeueele ©leleele Je Kees[euee DeeOeej osleele. ³eebvee `ieg{ieer cegUs' (knee roots) Demes®e veeceeefYeoeve Deens. keÀener ÒepeeleeRceO³es HeÀebÐeebHeemetve Keeueer Jee{le peeCeejer DeieblegkeÀ cegUs ³esleele p³eeb®³eecegUs HeÀebÐeebvee `ìsketÀ' efceUlees. DeMee cegUebvee `DeeOeej cegUs' (prop roots) eEkeÀJee leer eflejkeÀer Jee{u³eeme `leeCe cegUs' (stilt roots) cnCeleele, p³eeb®³eeÜejs Pee[ GvceUtve He[C³eeuee efJejesOe neslees. oueoueer®³ee He=ÿYeeieemeefvveOe DemeCeeN³ee cegUebHeemetve mejUmeesì nJesle Jee{Ceejer GHecegUs yeveleele p³eeb®³eeJej `JeukeÀjbOe´s' (lenticels) Demeleele. ³ee JeukeÀjbOe´ebceOetve MJemeveJee³egb®eer nJesyejesyej osJeeCeIesJeeCe nesles. l³eebvee `Jeeleob[' (pnuematophores) cnCeleele Je ³eeb®³ee Deeleerue Yeeieele DemeCeeN³ee Jeele HeeskeÀȳeebceOetve cegUe®³ee DeblejYeeieele Je KeesueJejerue GHecegȳeebHe³e¥le MJemeve Jee³egb®es DeefYemejCe nesTve HeeCeer Je Hees<ekeÀeb®³ee Mees<eCeekeÀefjlee DeeJeM³ekeÀ Tpee& le³eej kesÀueer peeT MekeÀles. ³ee Jee³eglekeÀ GleercegUs (aerenchyama) cegUs veepetkeÀ yevet ve³esle cnCetve l³eele Jeleg&UekeÀej (circular) keÀþkeÀ keÀesefMekeÀe (sclereids) Dee{Uleele. Kees[ ë yeN³ee®e KeejHegÀìeRceO³es cegUekeÀ[erue Yeeie HegÀieerj yeveuesuee Demelees. p³eecegUs Kees[ HeÀebÐee Je Heeveeb®ee Yeej Hesuet MekeÀles. vesceke̳ee ³ee®e keÀe³ee&meeþer Kees[ele `Demebiele Deveg<ebefiekeÀ Jee{' (anomalous secondary growth) neT s ve l³eele ÒekeÀeÿ peueJeenkeÀ veȳee®beer (xylem vessels) Je ¢{eslekeÀ lebletb®eer (sclerenchyma fibers) mebK³ee ue#eCeer³e nesles. Kees[e®es keÀeefþC³e Je ÒekeÀeÿ jmeJenve oesvnercegUs nesles. Heeves ë Heg<keÀUMee KeejHegÀìer JevemHeleeR®eer Heeves pee[, ®eece[îeemeejKeer eEkeÀJee ceebmeue Demeleele. l³eeb®ee De#eeefYecegKe (adaxial) met³ee&keÀ[erue He=ÿYeeie cesCeemeejKes DeeJejCe Demeuesuee Je ®ecekeÀoej Demeu³eeves yeje®emee met³e&ÒekeÀeMe HejeJeefle&le kesÀuee peelees. l³eeb®³ee DeefHelJe®esJej (epidermis) pee[ GHe®ece& (cuticle) Demeles. p³eecegUs GHe®eceea³e yee<Heeslmepe&ve (cuticular transpiration) keÀceer ÒeceeCeele nesles. Heevee®³ee De#eefJecegKe (abaxial) He=ÿYeeieeJej oeì kesÀme Demeleele DeeefCe HeCe&jbOe´s (stomata) kesÀJeU ³ee®e GHe®ecee&Jej Je Keesue mLeeefHele Peeuesueer Demeleele, p³eecegUs jbOe´er³e yee<Heeslmepe&ve (stomatal transpiration) osefKeue efve³ebef$ele ÒeceeCeele nesles. DeefHelJe®esKeeueerue DeOemlJe®ee (hypodrmis) eEkeÀJee ceO³eeslekeÀele (mesophyll) Deeê&lee meeþJeCeeN³ee Gleerves (water storing tissues) ³egkeÌle Demeles. p³eecegUs Heeves ceebmeue yeveleele. DeMee keÀcekegÀJele

GleeRvee DeeOeej cnCetve ¢{eslekeÀ Gleer (sclerenchyma) DeLeJee keÀþkeÀ keÀeesMfekeÀe®beer (sclerereids) ³eepsevee Peeueuseer Demele.s DeMee Me<gkeÀleeosedYfeo Deveg k et À ueveeb c eg U s (xerophytic adaptations) KeejHeg À ìeR b v ee ef¬eÀ³eeJew%eeefvekeÀ DeJe<e&Ceeme leeW[ osCes Meke̳e nesles. Òepeveve ë KeejHeÀgìer JevemHeleer meyeepre Je DeJeÊ=eyeepre (spermatophytic angiosperms) Demeu³eeves l³eeb®es Òepeveve ÒeeOeev³eeves efye³eebÜejs nesles. efye³eeb®eer HeebieCeer nesles mece³eer pej YetYeeie Yejleer®³ee HeeC³eeKeeueer jeefnuee eEkeÀJee efye³ee oueoueerle He[u³ee lej l³ee me[tve peeT MekeÀleele. yeerpeebkegÀjCeemeeþer DeeJeM³ekeÀ ÒeeCeJee³et ef®eKeueele efceUt MekeÀle veener. ³eecegUs peJeUHeeme meJe&®e KeejHegÀìeRle DeeHeeql³ekeÀ peveve (viviparous germintation) eEkeÀJee iegHle-DeeHeeql³ekeÀ (cryptoviviparous) peveve Dee{Ules. ³eele HeÀU peveveerJe=#eeJej Demeleevee®e l³eeleerue yeer/efye³eeb®es DebketÀjCe nesles Je jesHee®eer Lees[er Jee{ Peeu³eeveblej®e HeÀU Keeueer He[les. HeÀueeJejCe (pericarp) Je yeer ³eeb®³ee ojc³eeve nJes®eer HeeskeÀUer Demeles. p³eecegUs MJemeveemeeþer ÒeeCeJee³et efceUt MekeÀlees. HeÀUeletve DeeefocetU (radicle) yeensj ³esTve les Keeue®³ee Debieeuee pee[ Je pe[ nesle peeles, p³eecegUs DeKesjerme osþ legìtve HeÀU Keeueer He[les. Deesnesìer mece³eer ns Keeueer He[u³eeme DeeefocetU ceT ef®eKeueele KeesueJej ©leles. p³eecegUs meeJekeÀeMe Jee{CeeN³ee Yejleer®³ee HeeC³eeyejesyej les GHeìues peele veener. Yejleer®³ee keÀeUele HeÀU Keeueer He[u³eeme les GYes lejbiele jenles Je Deesnesìerle HeeCeer meeJekeÀeMe Deesmejleevee DeeHeesDeeHe ef®eKeueele ©leles. Yeejleeleeure KeejHeÀgìer ë Yeejle ÜerHekeÀuHeer³e (peninsular) osMe Demeu³eeves l³eeuee 7516.6 efkeÀ.ceer. ueebyeer®ee efkeÀveeje ueeYeuee Deens. osMeele peJeUHeeme 6750 Jeie& efkeÀ. efceìj SJe{s #es$e KeejHegÀìer pebieueebveer J³eeHeuesues Deens. veÐeeb®³ee cegKeekeÀ[erue ef$eYetpe ÒeosMe (delta) meeiejer efkeÀveejHeÆer, Kee[îee (estuaries) KeepeCes (lagoons) keÀeW[HeeCeer (creeks) HeM®epeue (backwaters) DeeefCe meeiejer efÜHes (islands) ³eeb®es efkeÀveejs ns meejs KeejHegÀìeR®es DeefOeJeeme Deensle. KeejHegÀìer pebieues ÒemLeeefHele nesC³eemeeþer meeOeejCe 200 les 300 meW.efce. Jeeef<e&keÀ Hepe&v³eceeve, 20 les 35 DebMe mesequme³eme leHeceeve Je 60 les 90 ìkeÌkesÀ SJe{er nJesleerue Deeê&lee ns Hees<ekeÀ IeìkeÀ Deensle. Yeejleele KeejHegÀìer pebieueeR®eer leerve ÒecegKe #es$es KeeueerueÒeceeCes Deensle 1. HetJe& efkeÀveejHeÆer ë ³eele 4700 Jeie& efkeÀuees ceerìj SJe{s #es$e KeejHegÀìeRKeeueer Deens. HeefM®ece yebieeue, Deesefjmee, DeebOe´ Je leeefceUvee[t jep³eebleerue iebiee, ngieUer, ceneveoer, ieesoeJejer, ke=À<Cee Je keÀeJesjer ³ee ÒeceKge Je l³ee®b³ee GHeveÐeelbeeure e$feYepte ÒeoMse ³eeJbejeure DemeCeeN³ee KeejHeÀgìer Jeveeb®ee meceeJesMe neslees. ³eeleerue megbojyeve, megJeCe&jsKee, efYelejkeÀefCekeÀe Je efHe®eeJejce KeejHegÀìer Jeves megÒeefme× Deensle. 2. HeefM®ece efkeÀveejHeÆer ë megceejs 850 Jeie& efkeÀ.ceer. SJe{s HeefM®ece efkeÀveejHeÆerJejerue #es$e KeejHegÀìer Jeveebveer J³eeHeues Deens. ³eele cenejeä^, iegpejele, ieesJee, kesÀjU Je keÀvee&ìkeÀ jep³eebceOeerue cegbyeF&, YeeJeveiej, PegDeejer, kegbÀoeHetj-ceeueHes Je Flej og³³ece Kee[îeebueiele DemeCeejer Jeves megHeefjef®ele Deensle.


3. Deboceeve-efvekeÀesyeej efÜHemecetn ë ³eele 1190 Jeie& efkeÀ.ceer.Jej Hemejuesueer KeejHegÀìer pebieues Deensle. ³ee Kesjerpe ue#eÜerHe ³esLesner KeejHegÀìer Jeves Dee{Uleele. KeejHegÀìeR®³ee JewefJeO³eles®ee letueveelcekeÀ DeY³eeme keÀjC³eemeeþer `letueveelcekeÀ KeejHegÀìer JewefJeO³e' KeejHegÀìeR®³ee kegÀue, peeleer Je ÒepeeleeR®eer mebK³ee l³ee ÒeosMeeleerue meJe& ÒekeÀej®³ee KeejHegÀìer JevemHeleeR®³ee SketÀCe mebK³es®³ee efkeÀleer ìkeÌkesÀ Deens ns ÒeefleHeeefole kesÀues peeles. megbojyeveeleerue letueveelcekeÀ KeejHegÀìer JewefJeO³e meJee&efOekeÀ 90 ìkeÌkesÀ Demetve ue#eÜerHe ³esLes les veer®elece eEkeÀJee 9.4 ìkeÌkesÀ SJe{s Deens. KeejHeÀgìe®Res JeieekaeÀjCe ë meHeg<Heer JevemHeleeR®³ee JeieeakeÀjCeele KeejHegÀìeR®es mLeeve JesieUs vemetve ³ee JevemHeleeR®eer kegÀues efJeefJeOe JeieeakeÀjCe HeoebKeeueer Hemejuesueer Deensle. meJe&meeOeejCeHeCes KeejHegÀìeR®es oesve Jeie& kesÀues peeleele. l³eeleerue Demmeue KeejHegÀìer (true mangroves or major mangroves) ³ee HegUCe#es$eele®e Dee{UCeeN³ee KeejHegÀìer Demetve Jej JeCe&ve kesÀuesueer DevegketÀueves DemeCeeN³ee Òepeeleer ³eele cees[leele. ogmeN³ee, Yeeieeroej KeejHegÀìer (associate mangrove or minor mangrove) ³ee ieìele cees[CeeN³ee JevemHeleer HegUCeeruee YetYeeieeMeer pees[CeeN³ee peefceveer®³ee HeÆîeebJej Dee{Uleele Je l³eebvee meceLe&HeCes #eejeb®³ee DeeflejskeÀe®ee Je DeJe<e&Ceemece HeefjefmLeleer®ee meecevee keÀjlee ³esle veener. ³ee JevemHeleer l³eeb®³ee ce³ee&efole DevegketÀueveebcegUs KeejHegÀìer pebieueeleerue HeefjIee®³ee #es$eele efometve ³esleele. ³eeKesjerpe ef¬eÀ³eeJew%eeefvekeÀ (physiological) ¢efäkeÀesveeletve l³ee #eejeb®³ee leeCee®es (salt tress) keÀmes efve³eespeve keÀjleele ³eeJeªve #eej JeieUCeeN³ee, #eej meb®e³e keÀjCeeN³ee Je #eej ñeJeCeeN³ee KeejHegÀìer Demesner JeieeakeÀjCe kesÀues peeles. #eej JeieUCeeN³ee KeejHegÀìer HesMeerjmee®ee HejemejCe oeye (ostomic pressure) G®®e jeKetve #eej JeieUle kesÀJeU HeeCeer Mees<eC³eele ³eMemJeer þjleele. #eej-meb®e³e keÀjCeeN³ee KeejHegÀìeR®es DeJe³eJe, ÒeecegK³eeves Heeves, ceebmeue Demetve l³eeble peuemeb®e³e keÀjCeeN³ee Gleer Demeleele. p³eecegUs #eej

Demebnle (dilute) jentve l³eeb®ee efJeHejerle HeefjCeece ìeUuee peelees. #eej ñeJeCeeN³ee KeejHegÀìeR®³ee HeeveebJej Je keÀener JesUe Flej DeJe³eJeeb®³ee He=ÿYeeieeJej #eej m$eJeCeeN³ee ûebLeer Demeleele, p³ee DeefleefjkeÌle #eejeb®ee efve®eje keÀjleele. KeejHegÀìeR®eer Heeves DeLeJee keÀener JesUe HegÀues, HeÀUs ³eeb®es jbie Jee Flej JewefMe<ìîes ³eeJeªve KeejHegÀìeR®eer Òe®eefuele veeJes yesleueer peeleele. leebye[er KeejHegÀìer, jeKeer KeejHegÀìer, veeefjbieer KeejHegÀìer, KeejHegÀìer meHeÀj®ebo, veoerleerue KeejHegÀìer, meeiejer Kepetj, megbojer ner ³eeleueer keÀener veeJes. KeejHegÀìeR®es He³ee&JejCeer³e cenÊJe ë KeejHegÀìer efkeÀveejHeÆer®³ee ÒeosMeemeeþer GHekeÀejkeÀ Demeleele. meeOeejCeHeCes veoer®³ee cegKeeYeesJeleer®³ee #es$eele ueeskeÀJemleer oeì Demeu³eeves ³ee #es$ee®es mLee³eerkeÀjCe (stabilization) keÀjC³eemeeþer KeejHegÀìer DeeJeM³ekeÀ Deensle. veoerceOetve Jeenle ³esCeeN³ee ce=okeÀCeebvee jesKetve þsJele efkeÀveeN³ee®es #ejCe (erosion) LeebyeJetve Yet#es$e Jee{JeC³ee®es keÀe³e& KeejHegÀìer keÀjleele. KeejHeÀgìe®Reer ceU g ,s Kee[ s Je HeÀeÐbee®b³ee DeeOeejs veeveeeJfeOe MeJweeue,s ieesieueieeF&, efMebHeer, mebefOeHeeo ³eeb®³ee Òepeeleer HeÀesHeÀeJeleele. meeiejer HeefjmebmLeeble ve Dee{UCeejs efkeÀìkeÀ, keÀesUer, cegbi³ee ³eebmeejKes ÒeeCeerosKeerue KeejHegÀìeRceO³es efveJeeN³eeme Demeleele. KeejHegÀìer Je l³eeb®³ee DeeÞe³eeme DemeCeeN³ee MewJeeueeb®es ÒeeLeefcekeÀ GlHeeove SJe{s peemle Demeles keÀer efJeefJeOe GHeYeeskeÌl³eebvee Devve HegjJetvener les efMeuuekeÀ jenles. ³ee DeefleefjkeÌle peerJemecetn GlHeeovee®es (net community production) kegÀpeCeeN³eeme[CeeN³ee meWêer³e HeoeLee¥®³ee mJeªHeele peJeUerue meeiejer HeefjmebmLesle efve³ee&le nesles. ³eecegUs KeejHegÀìer HeefjmebmLesuee ueeietve DemeCeeN³ee DeHeleìer³e meeiejer #es$ee®ee JeeHej DeveskeÀ meeiejer ÒeeCeer Òepeveve Je mebieesHeve (breeding and nursing ground) #es$e cnCetve keÀjleele. cnCetve®e ³ee #es$ee®es meeiejer celm³eeslHeeoveele Devev³emeeOeejCe cenÊJe Deens. KeejHegÀìer Jeves efkeÀveeN³ee®es Je efkeÀveejer Jeml³eeb®es DekeÀeqmcekeÀ Hetj (flash floods), je#emeer GOeeCe efkebÀJee lmegveeceermeejK³ee efJe¬eÀeU ueeìebHeemetve mebj#eCe keÀjleele. ner Jeves


8 nesle Deens. Iejs, GÐeesie, J³eeHeejer peeieeflekeÀ leHeceeve Je=×ercegUs Jee{CeeN³ee He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[Ue®es keÀe³e& keWÀês, yebojs, jmles, efJeÐegle Jeeefnv³ee, HeeC³ee®³ee HeeleUeHreemevtener ekfeÀveejHeÆe®res j#eCe keÀª MekeÀleele. KeejHegÀìeR®es iesueer oesve oMekesÀ He³ee&JejCe o#elee ceb[U þeCes Kee[er DeLeJee keÀeW[HeeCeer otjOJeveer®³ee leeje DeMee efJeefJeOe ueekeÀt[ IeÆ Je keÀ[keÀ Demeu³eeves l³ee®ee (Thane creek) mJe®ílee DeefYe³eeve ®eeueefJele Deens. Meemeveeves ³ee®eer keÀejCeebmeeþer KeejHegÀìer Jeves veä kesÀueer JeeHej Iejyeeb O eCeer , ueekeg À [keÀece, veeWo I³eeJeer cnCetve vegkeÀl³ee®e Heej He[uesu³ee peeieeflekeÀ HeeCeLeUer efoveeme ieusee.r ieus³ee keÀener oMekeÀelbe KeejHeÀgìer nes[îee-penepe yeebOeCeer ³eebmeejK³ee SkeÀ MJesleHeef$ekeÀe le³eej kesÀueer Demetve leer þeC³ee®es Dee³egkeÌle, cenejeä^e®es Jeveeb®³ee j#eCeeyeeyele peeie©keÀlee DemebK³e keÀeceebmeeþer keÀjlee ³eslees. cegK³eceb$eer, jep³eHeeue Je Meke̳e Peeu³eeme keWÀêer³e He³ee&JejCe ceb$eer DeeefCe/ Peeueer Demeueer lejer Deepener l³eeb®es KeejHegÀìeR®³ee ueekeÀ[eb®ee G<ceebkeÀ DeLeJee ÒeOeevece$beer ³ee®b³eeHe³el¥e leer Hee®seeJfeC³ee®es Òe³elve ®eeuet Deenlse. peeieelfekeÀ mebj#eCe Flej J³eeHeejer DeemLeeHeveeb®³ee DeefOekeÀ Demeu³eeves FbOeve cnCetvener HeeCeLeUer efoveer efkeÀceeve ÒeeosefMekeÀ Heefj<eos®es meb³eespeve keÀªve l³eele þeCes letuevesle HeÀej®e og³³ece þjle Demeu³eeves l³eeb®ee ®eebieuee JeeHej neslees. leebye[îee Kee[er Je KeejHegÀìeR®eer meÐeefmLeleer®ee Dee{eJee ceeb[tve l³eeb®³ee mebj#eCe - ³ee Jeveeb®ee Nneme peieYejele megª®e KeejHegÀìeRmeejK³ee Pee[ebHeemetve ì@efveve ns meJbeOev&ee®eer evfekeÀ[ meJeev¥ee HeìeJfeC³ee®ee Je l³eele me¬eÀe³re menYeeiee®es DeeJeenve Deens. ³eeefMeJee³e meeiejer lesueieUleer, b U ®eeueJeelre Deen.s vekgeÀlee®re þeCes Kee[e®reer Deeieer , meceg ê ele mees [ ues peeCeejs jmee³eve ef c eUleb p³ee®ee ®eece[s keÀjC³ee®ee ÒeIeele ieuseer 10 Je<ex ce[ g Jeele ce[ b Ueves keÀsueer Deens p³eeceO³es KeejHeÀgìer Òeef¬eÀ³ee ve kesÀuesues meeb[HeeCeer Je cewuee; keÀceefJeCes, jbieyebOekeÀ cnCetve lemes®e ³ee$ee ³ee veJeevre ÒekeÀuHee®eer me© keÀener Deew<eOeebceO³es JeeHej kesÀuee peelees. Je l³ee DeeOeejs HeÀesHeÀeJeCeeN³ee ÒeeCeer Je He#eer peieleeuee oeo osC³eemeeþer ceemes , keÀes U b y eer , cees l eer , keÀeueJes Fl³eeoeR ® eer pees H eemeues u eer Mes l eer megbojyeveceO³es Jeeef<e&keÀ 111 ìve SJe{s veeieefjkeÀebvee menYeeieer keÀªve Iesleues peele Deens. ³ee ues K eeÜejs os K eer u e meeceev³eeb v ee KeejHeg À ìer Jeveeb ® eer cenleer ef J e<eo keÀjC³ee®ee (l³eemeeþer HeeC³eele Ieeleuesueer Keles); ceOe KeejHegÀìer JeveebceOetve efceUJeues Òe³elve kes À ues u ee Deens . l³eeuee ³ees i ³e Òeef l emeeo os T ve DeeHeCee meJee¥ ® ee ³ee Mesleerleerue efPejHetve ³esCeejer jmee³eves peeles. ceeCetme Je l³ee®es HeeUerJe ÒeeCeer Jevee® b ³ee mej b #eCe-meJ b eOev & eele me¬eÀe³ r e menYeeie ÒeeHle JneJee DeMeer DeHe# s ee Deen. s (Keles Je veeMekesÀ) DeMee efJeefJeOe ³eeb®es KeeÐe cnCetvener keÀener KeejHegÀìer ceeveJeefveefce&le Òeog<eCeebcegUs lemes®e JevemHeleer®ee JeeHej neslees. DeMee leNnsves KeejHegÀìer JeveebHeemetve Lesì lemes®e DeÒel³e#e Demes DeveskeÀ HeÀe³eos nesleele peeieeflekeÀ leHeceeve Je=×er Je $eÝlegceeve yeoueebcegUs KeejHegÀìeR®eer Jeves mebkeÀìûemle nesle Deensle. p³eecegUs l³eeb®es mebj#eCe Je mebJeOe&ve nesCes Del³eble efvekeÀ[er®es Deens. FjeCe®³ee jecemeej Menjele Peeuesu³ee 1971 meeue®³ee DeefOeJesMeveele KeejHeÀgìemReceejseure OeekseÀs ë efkeÀveejHeÆerJejerue jefnJeeMeebvee KeejHegÀìer®es cenÊJe Gceiegvener jespe®³ee KeejHegÀìeR®es cenÊJe DeOeesjsefKele keÀjC³eele Deeues Je peieYejeleerue 110 osMeebleerue 850 HeeCeLeU peeieebvee `jecemeej mLeUeb'®ee opee& osTve GHeefpeefJekesÀmeeþer KeejHegÀìeR®eer lees[ kesÀueer peele Deens. Jee{l³ee ueeskeÀmebK³es®³ee jsìîeecegUs Je oeefjêîe js<esKeeueer DemeCeeN³ee Jeiee&uee Flej l³eeb®³ee mebj#eCe-mebJeOe&vee®eer peeieeflekeÀ peyeeyeoejer mJeerkeÀejC³eele mJemle He³ee&³e vemeu³eeves KeejHegÀìeR®ee veeMe ³ee Jeiee&keÀ[tve kesÀuee peele Deeueer. þeCes Kee[er®ee Heefjmej, `jecemeej #es$e' cnCetve Ieesef<ele JneJes ³eemeeþer Òe³elve megª Deensle. Yeejleeleerue 26 #es$es `jecemeej mLeUs' Deens. Hejbleg ³eentve efkeÀl³eskeÀ HeìeRveer KeejHegÀìer Jeveebvee OeeskeÀe ne cnCetve ceev³e Peeuesueer Deensle Je l³eeleerue 4 les 5 #es$eeble KeejHegÀìer Jeves DeewÐeesefiekeÀerkeÀjCeecegUs Hees®ele Deens. GÐeesieebvee DeeJeM³ekeÀ peefceveer oueoueerle YejeJe ìeketÀve GHeueyOe kesÀu³ee peele Deensle. l³ee®eÒeceeCes ³ee Deensle. DeveskeÀ DeMeemekeÀer³e mebmLee Je Meemeve ³ee mebJeOe&veele keÀe³e&jle GÐeesieebvee ueeieCeeN³ee keÀ®®³ee ceeueemeeþerner KeejHegÀìeR®eer yesmegceej keÀÊeue Deensle.


9

YeìkeÀbleer [e@. jepet keÀmebyes 9004924731

he#eerefvejer#eCeeuee meg©Jeele kesÀueer lesJneheemetve DeveskeÀoe efnceeue³eele peeCes Peeues. he#eer efvejer#eCee®³ee íboeceO³es DeeheCe p³ee heo´Mseele peelees l³ee heo´Mseeleeure JewefMeäîehetCe& lemes®e he´eosefMekeÀ he#eer (Sb[sefcekeÀ) yeIee³euee efceUCes cenlJee®es ceeveues peeles. keÀejCe ns he#eer peieele Flej$e kegÀþsner yeIee³euee efceUle veenerle. Flej heo´Mseele ekEeÀJee meJe$&e eofmeCeejs he#eer DeeheCe DeeOeer®e yeefIeleuesues Demeleele Jee l³eebvee yeIeC³eeceO³es Deeheu³eeuee efJeMes<e ©®eer vemeles.

Dee³eyeermeefyeue®eer efheuueb enfceeue³eele peeC³ee®eer meObeer peJsne-peJsne efceUles lesJne keÀener he#³eeb®eer ceveele ³eeoer le³eej nesles. yejs®e he#eerefvejer#ekeÀ lej Deelee mJeleë®eer `ueeF&HeÀ-efuemì' þsJeleele. l³eeceO³es DeeheCe mebhetCe& Dee³eg<³eele he#³eeb®³ee efkeÀleer he´peeleer yeefIeleu³ee l³ee®eer ieesUeyesjerpe kesÀuesueer Demeles. ef n ceeue³eele Dee{UCeeN³ee Deves k eÀ Jew e f M eäîehet C e& he#³eeb h ew k eÀer SkeÀ cnCepes Dee³eyeermeefyeue ne he#eer. SkebÀojerle efììJeer DeeefCe Dee³eyeerme ¿ee oesve he#³eeb®ee mebkeÀj keÀªve efvecee&Ce Peeu³eemeejKee efomeCeeje ne he#eer. mebhetCe& efnceeue³eeleerue KeUeUl³ee veÐeeb®³ee hee$eele mecegê meheeìerheemetve efJeefMeä Gb®eerJej Dee{UCeeje. Yeejleelener efieueieerì heemetve hetJexuee De©Cee®eue he´osMehe³e¥le®³ee efnceeue³eeleerue veÐeebceOetve l³ee®ee meb®eej Deens. [eske̳eeJej keÀeUer ìesheer, ieȳeele keÀeUe heÆe. leueJeejermeejKeer yeekeÀoej ueeue ®ees®e. ceeve, Jejheeþ Je hebKe keÀj[s. leeW[eJeUe keÀeUe. hee³e ueebye heCe Mejerje®³ee ceeveeves DeeKeg[ JeeìCeejs. veoer®³ee hee$eeleerue JeeìesUs jeKee[er-heeb{js oie[ OeeW[s DeeefCe Dee³eyeermeefyeue®³ee JeCee&®eer jb i emeb i eleer peg U t v e ³es l es . HeÀlekeÀue ceeb [ t v e SkeÀoe®ee keÀe lees oie[ OeeW[îeebceO³es yemeuee lej l³eeuee MeesOeCes DeJeIe[ Demeles. ef n ceeue³eele kes À ues u ³ee he#eerefvejer#eCeeojc³eeve he´l³eskeÀ JesUsme ne he#eer ceeP³ee `JeeBìs[' (yeIee³e®ee³e) ®³ee ³eeoerle Demee³e®ee. ces 2016 ceO³es Yetleeveuee peeC³ee®ee ³eesie Deeuee. SkeÀe DeeþJe[îee®³ee he´ J eemeele efnceeue³eeleerue veÐee DeeefCe heJe&leebJej YeìkebÀleer Ie[le nesleer. peieeleerue DeefleMe³e oge|ceU mecepeu³ee peeCeeN³ee he´ p eeleeR h ew k eÀer SkeÀ Demeuesuee heeb{N³ee heesìe®ee yeieUe (JneF&ìyesueer[ nsje@ve), l³ee®es Iejìs DeeefCe oesve efheueb yeIetve Peeues. oge|ceU keÀeȳee ceeves®ee ¬eÀeQ®e (yue@keÀ-veskeÌ[ ¬esÀve) yeIetve Peeuee. hejleeruee SkeÀ efoJeme efMeuuekeÀ Demeleevee Yetleeve®³ee he#eerle%ee Þeerceleer jsyeskeÀe he´Oeeve

¿eebvee ceer Dee³eyeermeefyeue kegÀþs efomesue cnCetve ef J e®eejues . Deece®ee ceg k eÌ k eÀece heejes efJeceeveleUe®³ee meceeblej JeenCeeN³ee veoer®³ee hew u eleer j eJej leeMeer veeceies ¿ee he´ M emle ef j mee@ ì & c eO³es nes l ee. heejes ns ieeJe meceg ê meheeìerheemetve 2200 ceerìj Gb®eerJej Jemeuesues Deens. Dee³eyeermeefyeue ¿ee veoer®³ee hee$eele®e efomelees Demes jsyeskeÀe ce@[ceveer ceuee meebefieleues DeeefCe efceeEìie keÀOeer mebheles Demes ceuee Peeues. efceeEìie mebhelee®e ceer ke@Àcesje Je ogyeeaCe IesTve veoerkeÀ[s OeeJe Iesleueer. ³eeefþkeÀeCeer Ke®etve peeT ve³es cnCetve veoer®ee mebhetCe& keÀeþ oie[er eEYele DeeefCe ueesKeb[er leejebveer yeebOetve megjef#ele kesÀuesuee Deens. ¿ee eEYeleerJej yemetve `íeve' he#eer efvejer#eCe keÀjlee ³esles. yeg[euee Lees[sHeÀej oie[ DeeefCe leeje yees®eleele, Deelee SJe{s menve keÀje³euee ueeiesue®e keÀer! huebyeerDeme js[mìeì& ¿ee Jeenl³ee veoer®³ee hee$eele keÀerìkeÀ KeeTve peieCee´³ee he#³eeb®³ee oesve pees[îee, heeb{N³ee Oeesyeer®³ee (JneF&ì Je@ieìsue) oesve pees[îee yeIetve Peeu³ee. ceuee veoer®³ee hee$eekeÀ[tve SkeÀ efJeefMeä DeeJeepe ³esle jeefnuee heCe ceuee lees he#eer keÀener keÀsu³ee eofmevsee. leJse{îeele SkeÀ jeKee[er keÀj[e, JeekeÀ[îee keÀeUheì ®ees ® eer ® ee, leg l eejer (meB[hee³ehej) meejKee DeeefCe DeekeÀeje®ee he#eer oie[ OeeW[îeebceOetve leg©leg© ®eeuele ³esleevee efomeuee. veJeerve hep´eeleer efceUeu³ee®³ee Deeveboele ceer DeveskeÀ íe³eeef®e$es keÀe{ueer. l³ee®ee keÀue ve G[lee leg©leg© ®eeueC³eekeÀ[s®e Demeu³ee®es efomeues. l³eecegUs ceuee lees efkeÀJeerhe#³ee®es efheuuet Demeu³eehe´ceeCes Yeemeuee. lees he#eer heeC³eepeJeU peeTve KeeÐe MeesOee³e®ee he´³elve keÀª ueeieuee. Lees[îee®e JesUele l³ee®³ee ceeieeJej DeeCeKeer SkeÀ ceesþe he#eer Demeu³ee®es ceuee oge|yeCeerletve ef o meues . ef ì ìJeer m eejKee ne he#eer DeesUKeC³emeeþer ceuee hegmlekeÀ GIe[e³e®eer DeeJeM³ekeÀlee veJnleer. Dee³eyeermeefyeueuee ceer efkeÀleeroe lejer hegmlekeÀele yeefIeleues nesles DeeefCe DeMee DeefOeJeemeele Oegb[eUues nesles. Deepe hegmlekeÀeleuee Dee³eyeermeefyeue®e veJns l³ee®es


10 efheuue meg×e FLes npej nesles. efheuet veoer®³ee hee$eele KeeÐeMeesOeC³emeeþer GleeJeerU Peeues nesles lej l³ee®eer DeeF& l³eeuee heeC³eeheemetve otj yeesueeJele nesleer. Lees[îee JesUele l³ee®eer DeeF& l³eeuee DeeJeepe keÀjerle mJele뮳ee ceeiesceeies ®eeuee³euee he´Je=Êe keÀªve Lees[îee Gb®eerJejerue oie[ebceO³es IesTve iesueer. efheuet DeueieoheCes efle®³ee heesìeKeeueer Iegmeues DeeefCe efomesveemes Peeues. Dee³eyeermeefyeue DeeJeepe keÀjerle jeefnuee. mee³ebkeÀeU®es peJeUheeme meele Jeepele Deeues nesles DeeefCe nJesle ye´³eehewkeÀer ieejþe peeCeJele neslee. GÐee heneìs hejle Dee³eyeermeefyeue®es efvejer#eCe keÀje³e®es DeMeer ceveele KegCeieeþ yeebOetve Peesheer iesuees. heneìs mee[s®eejuee®e he#³eeb®³ee efkeÀueefyeueeìeves peeie Deeueer. mee[shee®e®³ee megceejeme Dee³eyeermeefyeue cee³eueskeÀe®³ee MeesOeele ceer veoerleerjeJej heesnes®euees. ieejþe Yejhetj neslee heCe ceer Leb[er®³ee efnMeesyeeves keÀhe[s Ieeuetve Deeuees neslees. Lees[îee®e JesUele ceuee Dee³eyeermeefyeue SkeÀìe vemetve oesIes Deensle lemes®e efheueb megOoe oesve Deensle Demes ue#eele Deeues. ³eeJesUsme ceer oesve ke@Àcesjs meesyele Iesleues nesles. l³eecegUs ceuee Sme.Sue.Deej.veer íe³eee®fe$eCe lej e[ f epfeìue keÀ@ceNs³eeveer eqJn[erDees MeteEìie keÀjlee Deeues. ceeP³ee Demes ue#³eele Deeues keÀer efheueeb®eer DeeF& veoer®³ee hewueleerjeJej peeTve eflekeÀ[tve efheueebvee meeo Ieeueerle nesleer. hejle efheueebpeJeU peeTve DeeJeepe keÀjerle nesleer. leer l³eebvee veoer®es KeUeUles hee$e heej keÀjC³eemeeþer GÐegÊeÀ keÀjerle nesleer. Lees[îee JesUeves oesvner efheueb DeeF&®³ee meceesj leg©leg© OeeJele Jeenl³ee heeC³eele Glejueer. meg©Jeeleeruee heeC³ee®ee peesj Je Keesueer keÀceer Demeu³eecegUs leer heg{s iesueer. Lees[s heg{s peelee®e leer heesne³euee ueeieueer. ceer éeeme jesKetve Oejuee. keÀejCe heg{s heeefCe Keesue lej nesles®e efMeJee³e he´Jeene®ee peesj megOoe Kethe neslee. DeeF&keÀ[s heesnle peeCeejer efheueb keÀener #eCeele®e veoer®³ee MeÊeÀerheg{s KeUeUl³ee heeC³eele Jeentve iesueer, efkeÀceeve ceuee Demes Jeeìues. keÀejCe eqJn[erDees MeteEìieceO³es SkeÀ efheuet Jeentve peeleevee ceuee mheä efomeues. ceer ogmejs efheuet MeesOeues lesJne les he´Jeeneleerue oie[eJej Deesj[le GYes Demeuesues efomeues. ceuee neoju³eemeejKes Jeeìle nesles. megowJeeves l³eeves ceeIeej Iesleueer. SkeÀ efheuet Jeentve iesu³eeveblejmeg×e Dee³eyeermeefyeue ceeoer ogmeN³ee efheuueeuee hewueleerjeJej ³esC³eemeeþer yeesueJele nesleer. Lees[îee®e JesUele ogmejs efheuuetner veoer®³ee peesjoej he´Jeenele Jeentve peeleevee®es ogozJeer ¢<³e ceuee yeIeeJes ueeieues. ceer megVe ceveeves peeiesJej®e efLepeuees. oesvner ke@Àcesjs yebo kesÀues. ceer Deelee ieeMee iegb[eUtve ªceJej pee³e®ee efJe®eej keÀjerle Demeleevee keÀener ef c eef v eìeb v eer veJ³eeves Dees U Keer ® ee Peeues u ee Dee³eyeermeefyeue®³ee efheuuee®ee ef®ejkeÀe DeeJeepe ceuee Lees[e otjJeªve SsketÀ Deeuee. ceesþîee ceesþîee oie[OeeW[îeebceOetve Jeeì keÀe{erle meJee¥ie efYepeuesues DeeefCe Ieeyejuesues les efheuet pesLetve heeC³eele Glejues nesles eflekeÀ[s hejle

OeeJele nesles. l³ee®eer DeeF& hewueleerjeJe©ve kesÀefJeueJeeC³ee nekeÀe Ieeueerle nesleer (eEkeÀyengvee les ceuee lemes Jeeìle DemeeJes). leeruee efle®³ee ye®®³ee®ee DeeJeepe ³eslee®e l³ee®³ee [eske̳eeJeªve G[tve leer Gb®e efþkeÀeCeer Glejueer Je l³eeuee peJeU yeesueeJetve Iesleues. efheuet OeeJele peeTve DeeF&®³ee heesìeKeeueer ieg[the Peeues. efheuet heesìeMeer Demetve meg×e leer cee³e ceeTueer kesÀefJeueJeeC³ee nekeÀe Ieeueerle nesleer DeeefCe mewjYewj vepejsves meYeesJeleer yeIele nesleer. leer®es ogmejs heesj kegÀþs efomele veJnles. efheuueeuee cee³es®eer Gye ueeYeueer. Lees[îee®e JesUele l³ee®³ee Debieeleueer ng[ng[er efveIetve iesueer DemeeJeer. hejle DeeF& G[tve hewueleerjeJej iesueer DeeefCe efheuueeuee meeo Ieeuet ueeieueer. efheuuet leg©leg© OeeJele megìues. veoer®³ee hee$eeleerue oie[OeeW[îeeb®eer l³eeuee heJee& veJnleer. l³eeuee efomele nesleer leer HeÀÊeÀ DeeF& DeeefCe SsketÀ ³esle nesles les DeeF&®es yeesueeJeCeejs mJej. KeUeUl³ee he´Jeene®eer l³eeuee eE®elee veJnleer. Yeerleerner veJnleer. DeeF& ceuee megjef#ele efþkeÀeCeer IesTve peeCeej Deens Demee l³eeuee efJeéeeme neslee. ceeP³ee ceeveJeer ceveeuee keÀerJe Deeueer leer Dee³eyeermeefyeue®³ee ceeoer®eer. KeUeUl³ee veoer®³ee hee$eeleerue íesìîeeMee yesìeJej (meB[yeej) leerves Deeheues Iejìs kesÀues nesles. l³eele Deb[er Ieeuetve, GyeJetve l³eeletve ¿ee ieeW[me efheuueebvee pevce efouee neslee. efleLes leeruee DeeefCe efle®³ee JebMee®³ee efoJ³eeuee meehe eEkeÀJee DeMee peefceveerJejerue Me$etheemetve OeeskeÀe veJnlee. keÀejCe veoer®³ee DeMee OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ hee$eele kegÀCeerner he´JesMe kesÀuee vemelee. efheuueebvee DeueerkeÀ[®³ee leerjeJej IesTve ³esC³eeceeies ceie efle®ee keÀe³e GÎsMe DemeeJee ¿ee®ee ceer efJe®eej keÀjerle neslees. keÀejCe veoer®³ee keÀ[suee mebhetCe& oie[er eEYele yeebOeuesueer nesleer. ceePeer Yeerleer JeeìeJeer lej leer ceeP³eeheemetve otj veJns lej efheuueebvee ceeP³eekeÀ[s IesTve ³esle nesleer. heCe SkeÀ ieesä cee$e efveefM®ele nesleer, leer cnCepes veoeruee Lees[e pejer ueeW{e Deeuee lej cee$e ¿ee yesìeJej®eer efheueb efveefM®ele®e Jeentve iesueer Demeleer. efnceeue³eeleerue veÐee keÀOeer ogLe[er Yeªve Jeenleerue ¿ee®ee keÀener vesce veener. l³ee ¢äerves hee$eeceOeerue ner peeiee efveM®ele®e OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ nesleer. l³eecegUs pevcelee®e efheuueebvee veoer®³ee keÀeþeJej nueefJeCes®e megjef#ele þjues Demeles. keÀoeef®ele leeruee ¿ee®eer peeCe DemeeJeer. yeIelee yeIelee oesve leeme efveIetve iesues. Dee³eyeermeefyeue®³ee ceeoer®eer efheueeuee IesTve peeC³ee®eer Oe[he[ ®eeuet jeefnueer. efheuuet Jeenl³ee heJ´eeneuee Ieeyeªve hejle JeUle jeefnues. ceuee ceeIeejer efHeÀjCes DeeJeM³ekeÀ nesles. Deepe ceeP³ee oewN³ee®ee MesJeì®ee efoJeme neslee. ceePee heefjJeej cegbyeF&le ceePeer Jeeì yeIele nes l ee. Lees [ îee®e Jes U ele hew u eleer j eJejer u e efJeceeveleUeJe©ve ceer DeekeÀeMeYejejer Iesleueer. Gb®eGb®e peeCeeN³ee efJeceeveeletve Keeueer yeIeleevee veoer®es hee$e kesÀJeU js<esmeejKes efomet ueeieues. efJeMJee®³ee he´®eb[ hemeeN³eele Dee³eyeermeefyeue®ee pevce ce=l³et®ee mebIe<e& ³eMemJeer JneJee cnCetve osJeeuee ceer ceveesceve meekeÀ[s Ieeleues.


11

efJeMes<e uesKe

ceuee Demes Jeeìles! legcneuee?

[e@. veeiesMe ìskeÀeUs 98696 12531 nstekale@gmail.com

ûeeceer C e Yeeieele Mes l eeceO³es , iee³ejeveele Dee{Ceeje ne He#eer Deelee ueHgle Deens. iee³ejeveeceO³es ieJelee®es yeer, G[Ceejs ef k eÀìkeÀ KeeTve ®ejeT peveeJejeb®³ee HeeþerJej yemetve Deejece keÀjCeeje DeeefCe meesyele Hejeie eEme®eve keÀjCeeje ne jepeme Deelee iee³ejeve, ®ejeT peveeJejebmeesyele®e De¢M³e Deens. pewJeefJeefJeOeles®ee ne Nneme Yeªve keÀe{Ces Deelee kesÀJeU DeMeke̳e.

meeUK bg ee®ree ceePee meybeObe yeeueHeCeeHes#ee MeeUsceO³es Demeleevee peemle Deeuee. Hee®eJeer®³ee Jeiee& l e Demeleevee Yet i ees u ee®³ee ieg © peeR v eer Jeiee&ceOeerue meJe& cegueebvee Òel³eskeÀer SkeÀe He#³ee®es veeJe meebieC³eeme meebefieleues. ef®eceCeer, keÀeJeUe, Ieej, ceesj, keÀeWye[e, ie©[, efieOee[, megleej DeMeer veeJes Jee{le Demeleevee SkeÀeves Iegye[e®es veeJe Iesleues DeeefCe Jeiee&le nem³ekeÀuueesU Gþuee. DeeFv&es keÀener eofJemeeHbeJtee®ae oeKeJeueusee YeejÜepe ceer Heeefnuesuee Demeu³eecegUs ceer HeìkeÀve l³ee®es veeJe Iesleues. ceeP³ee yeepetuee yemeuesu³ee meoeves Gþtve peesjele cnìues meeUgbKeer DeeefCe keÀe³e DeeM®e³e&! l³eeves ®ekeÌkeÀ efHeMeJeerceOetve meeUgbKeer®es íesìs efHeuuet neleele IesTve ieg©peeRvee oeKeJeues. ieg©peeR®es jeieJeCes DeeefCe l³ee efHeueeme leeye[leesye l³ee®³ee cetU peeiesJej mees[C³ee®eer Dee%ee mJeerkeÀeªve Deecner ceOeu³ee megÆerle yeensj He[uees meoeves les efHeuuet oeKeJeC³eemeeþer®e MeeUsle DeeCeues nesles. iegg©peeRveer lees®e keÌueeme IesCes DeeefCe efHeuueg ceuee oeKeJeC³ee®es Òeel³eef#ekeÀ ne efveJJeU ³eesiee³eesie neslee. Mesleele ef®eb®es®³ee Kees[eceO³es Demeuesu³ee ueneveMee efyeUeceOetve les yeeU Keeueer He[ues. meogves l³eeme Heeefnues, Deb i eeJej®³ee ueeue ceg b i ³ee keÀe{u³ee, meeUKbg³ee®³ee Le³eLe³eeìe®eer HeJee& ve keÀjlee l³eeves l³ee efHeueeme mJe®í kesÀues. HeeCeer efoues DeeefCe MeeUs l e Ies T ve Deeuee. og H eejer ieg © peeR v eer Deecneuee megÆer osTve Mesleele efHeìeUues. eE®e®esl³ee l³ee Kees[eceOeerue efyeUele Deecner l³eeme megKeªHe mees[ues. meeUgbKeer®ee $eeme nesT ve³es cnCetve ceer ceePe neleele ueebye keÀeþer þsJeueer nesleer. Heg{s keÀe³e Peeues, ceeefnle veener. HeCe ieg©peeR®³ee OeekeÀecegUs meoe ®eej efoJeme Mesleele iesuee veener ns vekeÌkeÀer. meeUgbKeer®ee ceePee mebyebOe veblej ceer Menjele Deeu³eeJej peemle Deeuee. megÆerceO³es ieeJeer iesu³eeJej Mesleele l³ee Hegvne Yesìle. meeUgbKeer DeeHeCeeme vesnceer pees[erceO³es Dee{Ules. vej

DeeefCe ceeoer Pee[eJeªve SkeÀ$e yeensj He[leele DeeefCe mee³ebkeÀeUer efJemeeJ³eemeeþer Hejle l³ee®e Pee[eJej ³esleele. ne mecegnele jenCeeje He#eer Deens. yee¿e mJeªHeeJeªve vej DeeefCe ceeoer DeesUKeCeb ns HeÀej®e keÀþerCe keÀece Deens. ®ee@keÀuesìer jbie, keÀeUs cemlekeÀ, [esȳeebceeies efHeJeUer HeÆer, efHeJeUs Hee³e, l³ee®e jbiee®eer ®ees®e, HebKeeb®³ee keÀ[ebvee ueneveMeer Heeb{jer HeÆer ns l³ee®es JeCe&ve oesIeebveener ueeiet He[les. ef®eceCeerHes#ee ceesþe DeeefCe keÀyeglejeHes#ee ueneve Demeuesuee ne He#eer DeeefMe³ee Keb[e®ee efveJeemeer Deens. cee$e Deelee lees peieele meJe& $ e Dee{Ulees . eqmJePe&jue@C[ceOeerue ceeTbì efìefìueerme ³ee meJee&le Gb®e yeHeÀe&U HeJe&leeJej ceer l³eeme ceeP³ee megûeeme Helveerves efouesueer meepetkeÀ HegjCee®eer HeesUer KeeT Ieeleueer Deen.s HeeU s e®r³ee SkeÀe Ieemeemeeþer l³ee®eer DeeefCe keÀeJeȳee®eer Peeuesueer ceejeceejer ke@ÀcesN³eeceO³es yebomeg×e kesÀueer. ceejeceejer keÀjCeejer leer meeUgbKeer veJnleer lej vej He#eer neslee. SkesÀkeÀeUer MeslekeÀN³eeb®ee efce$e Demeuesuee ne He#eer Deelee Me$et Peeuee Deens. ceeP³ee Meeues³e peer J eveeceO³es Gvneȳeele ceer Deece®³ee Mesleie[îeeyejesyej Mesleele veebiejCeer HeenC³eeme peele Demes. GÎsMe SkeÀ®e, veebieje®³ee ceeies. keÀeJeUs DeeefCe meeUgbK³eeb®eer efMemleerceO³es megª Demeuesueer pe$ee. peefceveerceOetve yeensj He[Ceejer meJe& efkeÀ[ ns oesve He#eer HeÀmle keÀjle Demele. oevsnenrer He#³ee®bee ne eJfeCee®ree keÀeU DeeeCfe ³ee®e keÀeUeceO³es l³eebvee efkeÀìkeÀªHeer ÒeefLevee®ee Hees<ekeÀ Deenej efceUle Demeu³eecegUs l³eeb®eer Deb[er DeeefCe l³eeceOetve efvecee&Ce nesCeejer yeeUs meg×e OeäHegä Demele. nefjle ¬eÀebleer Deeueer. Mes l eeceO³es jemee³eef v ekeÀ Keles Deeef C e efkeÀìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee ceneHetj Deeuee. ceªve He[uesueer efJe<e³egkeÌle efkeÀ[ KeeTve DeveskeÀ He#³eeb®ee ce=l³et Peeuee. GlHevvee®³ee nJ³eemeeHeesìer MeslekeÀN³eebveer Mesleeb®es yeebOe lees[ues. Pee[s


12 lees[ueer. l³eecegUs He#³eeb®ee efveJeeje njJeuee. Deepe ûeeceerCe YeeieebHes#ee MenjebceO³es®e He#eer peemle Dee{Uleele. l³eelener keÀeJeUs DeeefCe meeUgbKeer®es ÒeceeCe ue#eCeer³e Deens. SkesÀkeÀeUer ûeeceerCe efMekeÌkeÀe Demeuesuee meeUgbKeer ne He#eer Deelee Menjer Peeuee Deens. l³ee®es cegK³e keÀejCe cnCepes ieeJeekeÀ[erue l³ee®ee njJeuesuee Deenej DeeefCe efveJeeje. meeUbgKeer ne MeekeÀenejer lemes®e ceebmeenejer meg×e Deens. HeerkeÀeJej He[uesueer keÀer[, ieJeleeJej G[Ceejs efkeÀìkeÀ, Deȳee ³ee Devveeyejesyej®e jmeoej HeÀUeJej meg×e ne leeJe ceejlees. kesÀJnelejer pJeejer®es keÀefCeme, ieJne®eer DeeWyeer ³eeuee ®ees®e ceejCeeje ne He#eer Deelee êe#es, mì^e@yesjer ³eeb®eemeg×e DeemJeeo Iesle Deens. Pee[eJeªve He[uesues HeÀU pesJne DeeHeCe Heenlees lesJne l³eeJej oesve leevre ®ee®seer ceejueus³ee DeeHeCeeme eofmeleele. ne meeUKbg³ee®bee ÒeleeHe. HeeHseìeves Keeuuesues HeÀU vesnceer Keesue efye³eeHe³e¥le Hees®euesues Demeles. meeUgbK³eeb®es Jee{les ÒeceeCe ne DeveskeÀ osMe, Menjs ³eeb®³eemeeþer eE®eles®ee ÒeMve Peeuee Deens. Deemìs^efue³eeves lej keÀebiee© DeeefCe meeUgbKeer ³eeb®³eeefJe©× DeeIee[er®e GIe[ueer Deens. He#³eeb®³ee mebJeOe&vee®ee efJe®eej keÀjleevee l³eeb®eer leerve Yeeieele efJeYeeieCeer kesÀueer peeles. Demlebiele, Demlebiele nesC³ee®³ee ceeiee&Jej Demeuesues DeeefCe efJeMes<e cenÊJe vemeCeejs. meeUgbKeer ne cenÊJe vemeuesuee He#eer Deens. HeCe l³eeuee ogue&ef#ele keÀªve ®eeueCeej veener. ceeCemeeb®³ee menJeemeele jenCeeje ne He#eer keÀyeglejeSJe{e $eemeoe³ekeÀ vemeuee lejer YeefJe<³eele lees vekeÌkeÀer®e mebkeÀì DeeCet MekeÀlees. ie=nmebkegÀueele meeUgbK³eeb®eer Jee{leer mebK³ee Depetvelejer kegÀCee®³ee ue#eele ³esle veener. HeerkeÀeJejerue keÀer[, Oeev³e, ueneve jmeoej HeÀUs KeeCeeje ne He#eer ceeveJeefveefce&le HeÀjmeeCe, ef®eJe[e ³eeJej meg×e keÀeJeUs, keÀyeglej ³eeb®³eemen menYeespevee®ee Deevebo Iesleevee ceer keÀu³eeCe Kee[er DeeefCe Ssjesueer HegueeJej Heeefnuesuee Deens. þeCes-keÀu³eeCe Kee[erle keÀmeueerner pewJeefJeefJeOelee efMeuuekeÀ veener ³ee®es ns oMe&keÀ lej veJns? SefÒeue-ces ne ³ee He#³ee®ee efJeCeer®ee keÀeU Demelees. Je[, eEHeHeU,

peebYetU, meesveceesnesj ³eemeejK³ee Je=#eebJej mee³ebkeÀeUer meJe& meeUgbK³ee Jemleermeeþer peeleele. met³e& ceeJeUC³ee®³ee megceejeme Jemleer®es Pee[ MeesOetve je$eYej PeesHe IesTve Heneìs les JeveYeespeveeme yeensj He[leele. Jemleerme Demeleevee®e l³eeb®³eeceO³es ÒeCe³e pees[Heer le³eej nesleele DeeefCe les Dee³eg<³eYej SkeÀ$e mebmeej keÀjleele. efceueveeveblej meeUgbKeer Je<e&Yejele SkeÀoe®e ®eej les Hee®e Deb[er osles. leerve DeeþJe[îeele ceeoer Deb[îeebvee GyeJetve efHeueebvee pevce osles. DeeF&-Je[erue ®eej DeeþJe[s yeeUebvee YejJeleele DeeefCe l³eebvee DeekeÀeMeele Yejejer IesC³eeme efMekeÀJeleele. meeUgbKeer®es Iejìs keÀe[îee, keÀeìke̳ee, JeeUuesueer Heeves ³eeb®³ee mene³³eeves kesÀuesues Demeles. DeekeÀej meeOeejCeHeCes GY³ee keÀHeemeejKee Demelees. ceesþîee Je=#eeJejerue ueneveceesþîee [esueerceO³es, efíêeceO³es, megleejHe#³eeves kesÀuesu³ee IejìîeeceO³es®e l³eebvee IeeueJetve meeUgbKeer DeeHeues Iej keÀjleele. Iej yeUkeÀeJeC³eeJeªve l³eeb®³ee®e oesve pees[îeebceO³es nesCeeN³ee ceejeceeN³ee KetHe®e peerJeIesC³ee Demeleele. ³eeceO³es HeÀkeÌle vej®e neCeeceeN³ee keÀjleele DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee oesve efm$e³ee HeÀeboerJej Meeble yemetve les Henele Demeleele. p³ee®ee efJepe³e nesF&ue l³ee®³ee ceeuekeÀer®es les Iejìs nesles. Pee[eJejerue le³eej Ieje®ee MeesOe ueeieuee keÀer oesve-leerve pees[H³eebceO³es ³eeJeªve ³eg× megª nesles. l³eeJesUer l³eeb®³ee Yeeb[Ceeb®es keÀke&ÀMe DeeJeepe vekeÀesmes Jeeìleele. meeUgbKeer®es Iejìs p³ee Pee[e®³ee ueneveMee [esueerceO³es DeLeJee Peg[HeeceO³es Demeles efleLes De®eevekeÀ ceeCemee®es Deeieceve Peeues keÀer meeUgbKeer vej-ceeoer mewjeì nesleele DeeefCe l³ee Heefjmejele efìJe efìJe DeeJeepe keÀjle eIfejìîee ceejleele. MelseeceO³es meeUKbg³ee®eer keÀkeÀ&Melee Jee{ueer keÀer mecepeeJes l³eeb®es Iejìs ³esLes®e DeemeHeeme Deens. ûeeceerCe Yeeieele MesleeceO³es, iee³ejeveele Dee{Ceeje ne He#eer Deelee uegHle Deens. iee³ejeveeceO³es ieJelee®es yeer, G[Ceejs efkeÀìkeÀ KeeTve ®ejeT peveeJejeb®³ee HeeþerJej yemetve Deejece keÀjCeeje DeeefCe meesyele Hejeie eEme®eve keÀjCeeje ne jepeme Deelee iee³ejeve, ®ejeT


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peveeJejebmeesyele®e De¢M³e Deens. pewJeefJeefJeOeles®ee ne Nneme Yeªve keÀe{Ces Deelee kesÀJeU DeMeke̳e. Yeu³eeceesþîee ®ejeT kegÀjCeeceO³es ueneveceesþîee Peg[Heele DeveskeÀ meeUgbK³ee l³eeb®eer efHeuues Jee{Jeleele. Deb[er GyeJeC³ee®³ee keÀeUele ceeoer IejìîeeceO³es DeeefCe vej kegÀjCeeceOeerue SkeÀe Yeu³ee ceesþîee Pee[eJej Jemleeruee Demeleele. l³eeb®ee ne peeielee Heneje®e Demelees. DeveskeÀJesUe meeUgbKeer®es SkeÀ pees[Hes DeOee&-HeeTCe SkeÀjJej DeefOekeÀej ieepeJeles. l³ee Heefjmejele ceeoer Deb[er GyeJele Demesue DeLeJee efHeues Demeleerue lej vejHe#eer melele efIejìîee cee©ve ceeoer He#³eeme meeJeOe keÀjle Demelees. Me$eg®es Deeieceve Peeues keÀer oesIes efceUtve lees Heefjmej efìJeefìJe keÀªve oCeeCetve mees[leele. meeUgbKeer ne Oeerì DeeefCe Dee¬eÀcekeÀ He#eer Deens. pescelesce ®eejHee®e Je<ee¥®es Dee³eg<³e ueeYeuesuee He#eer Pee[eJej mecegnele PeesHeleevee íeveMeer DebieeF& mJeleëmeeþer ieeTve®e PeesHelees. keÀeJeȳeeb®³ee keÀke&ÀMe ieeWieeìele cee$e ns keÀesCeeuee®e SsketÀ ³esle veener. efleLe&#es$eeJejerue kegbÀ[, keÀUesU ne ceeP³ee DeY³eemeee®e efJe<e³e. ³eemeesyele eEHe[oeve DeeefCe l³eeceO³es He#³eeb®ee menYeeiemeg×e. ce=l³etveblej®es efJeOeer keÀjCeeN³ee ef l eLe& # es $ eeJej keÀeJeȳeeyejes y ej meeUg b K ³eeb ® eer mebK³eener Jee{le Deens. eEHe[emeeþer Deves k eÀJes U e l³ee keÀeJeȳeeyejes y ej Dee¬eÀcekeÀ nes l e Deens l e. ûeeceer C e He³eeJ&ejCee®eer veeU lee[ s vte meeUKgbeer ³ee He#³ee®es MenjekeÀ[s kegÀ®e, ie=nmebkegÀues DeeefCe meYeesJeleer®³ee keÀ®ejekegbÀ[îeebpeJeU®eer l³eeb®eer Jeo&U ne eE®eles®ee efJe<e³e Deens. keÀyeglej DeeefCe keÀeJeȳeebmeeþer ®eeuet Demeuesues Devveoeve meeUgbK³eebvee Deeceb $ eCe os l e Deens . Fceejleer ® ³ee ie®®eer J ej þs J eues u eer De[ieU meeUgbK³eebmeeþer efveJeeje DeeefCe l³eeb®³ee efHeueebmeeþer Deemeje þjle Deens. efMepeJeuesues Devve ne l³eeb®ee Deenej vemeleeveener l³eebvee lees keÀjeJee ueeiele

Deens. efKe[ke̳ee, ie@uejer ³eebvee peeȳee yemeJetve keÀyeglej, meeUgbKeer ³eeb®ee yeboesyemle nesT MekeÀlees. HeCe ner JesU kegÀCeecegUs Deeueer? Òel³eskeÀeme DeeHeu³ee ie@uejerle ef®eceCeer ³eeJeer Demes Jeeìles. HeCe keÀyeglej, keÀeJeUe vekeÀes. meeUgbKeer ie=nmebkegÀueele Demeueer lejer meO³ee leer SJe{er $eemeoe³ekeÀ veener. DeveskeÀeb®³ee ie@uejerceO³es ceer He#³eebmeeþer Oeev³eªHeer Devvee®eer, HeeC³ee®eer J³eJemLee Heeefnueer. ef®eceC³ee DeeefCe meeUgbK³eeb®eer ieoeameg×e. SkeÀ Deepeer ie@uejerle Keg®eeaceO³es yemetve leber menHebiele Heenleele. kegÀlegnueeHeesìer ceer l³eebvee efJe®eejues, ³eeleerue keÀesCelee He#eer legcneuee DeeJe[lees? l³eeb®es GÊej `meeUgbKeer'! SskeÀu³eeJej peje DeeM®e³e& Jeeìues. meeUgbK³ee vesnceer pees[erves ³esleele. ceespekesÀ®e Devve Keeleele DeeefCe Hejle peeleele. veblej ogmejs pees[Hes ³esles. ceuee l³eeb®eer ef M emle DeeJe[les . ns l³eeb ® es mHeäerkeÀjCe ceuee DeeJe[ues. HeCe les ie@uejerHe³e¥le®e ce³ee&efole nesles. meeUgbKeer ne MenjJeeef m e³eeb H es # ee meW ê er ³ e Mes l eer keÀjCeeN³ee MeslekeÀN³eebmeer ®eebieueer cew$eer keÀª MekeÀlees. l³eeves leer keÀjeJe³eeme nJeer Demes JeeleeJejCe ûeeceerCe Yeeieele le³eej nesCes iejpes®es Deens. He#³eeb®es Demes Menjer mLeueeblej DeveskeÀ mecem³ee efvecee&Ce keÀª MekeÀles. keÀyeglejeb®³ee mecem³esves ³eele Yej He[ueer Deens. l³eele Hejle meeUgbKeer®eer vekeÀes. Demes ceuee Jeeìles, legcneuee?


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ceeieeure ceenfv³eele 5 pevteuee peeieelfekeÀ he³ee&JejCe efovee®eer OeeceOetce ieuueer les efouueerheemetve Deieoer iueesyeue mlejeJej ieepeueer. ³ee efveefceÊeeves DeveskeÀ he³ee&JejCe le%eebveer ceeb[uesues efJe®eej DeeheCe efJeefJeOe ceeO³eceelbevte Jee®eue.s.. SkseÀues Demeleeure®e. ns meieUs ef J e®eej Ss k et À ve-heent v e ceeP³eemeejKee meeceev³ener he³ee&JejCe j#eCeemeeþer Peìt heenlees. DeeheCe keÀe³e Yej IeeueCeej Demee he´Mve l³ee®³eemeceesj GYee jenCes mJeeYeeefJekeÀ®e Deens. heCe SkeÀerkeÀ[s lep%e ceb[Uer l³eeb®es keÀece ®eesKe yepeeJele Demeleevee Deecner cee$e SkeÀceskeÀebkeÀ[s yeesìb oeKeefJeC³ee®eb keÀece keÀjlees.

Deecner mepeie keÀOeer nesCeej? Deepe peieYejele he³ee&JejCeemeboYee&leues `JesìueB[ [s' `SvJne³ejcesvì [s' `Jee@ìj [s' DeeefCe Demes DeveskeÀ `[s' heeUues peeleele. `iueesyeue Jee@e\ceie ' ne Meyo lej MeeUsleu³ee ef®ecegj[îeeb®³ee efveyebOee®ee efJe<e³e Peeuee³e. ns `[s' heeUC³ee®eer JesU Deeheu³eeJej keÀe Deeueer? ³ee®ee cee$e Deecner efJe®eej keÀjle veener. `owJe' DeeefCe `efmemìerce' ³eeJej meJe& oes<e LeesheJetve Deecner veeceeefvejeUs neslees. he³ee&JejCee®ee meceleesue efyeIe[Jee³euee Deecner®e keÀejCeerYetle Deenesle ns Deecner efJemejlees. he³ee&JejCee®eer veJ³eeves DeesUKe keÀªve I³ee³e®eer Kejblej Deeheu³eeuee keÀener®e iejpe veener. ns he³ee&JejCe DeeheCe ueneveheCeeheemetve®e `DeY³eeme'le Deeuees Deenesle. `osJee legPes efkeÀleer megboj DeekeÀeMe, megboj he´keÀeMe met³e& oslees' ne he³ee&JejCee®ee heefnuee heeþ Deecner Heefnueerrle®e efiejJeuesuee Demelees. heCe les®e megboj DeekeÀeMe Deepe `efJekeÀemee'®³ee he´og<eCeeves keÀeUJeb[ues Deens... megboj he´keÀeMe osCeeje met³e& Deepe `DeesPeesve' Yesotve Deeie DeeskeÀlees Deens. keÀejCe ne efiejJeuesuee Oe[e efJemeªve Deecner heg{®³ee Jeiee&le heesn®elees. heg{s Deecner legkeÀesyeeb®eer `Je=#eJeuueer' DeeefCe %eeveesyeeb®ee oefnYeele KeeCeeje `keÀeT' heeþ keÀjlees. heCe les l³eel³ee F³eÊeshegjleb®e ce³ee&oerle Demeleb. keÀejCe ³ee Oe[îeeb®ee `Jeehej' Deecner ceekeÌme& efceUJetve heg{®³ee Jeiee&le peeC³eemeeþer keÀjlees. heCe `efJekeÀemee'®³ee veeJeeKeeueer `ne³e-HeÀe³e' ien=mekbeÀgueembeeþe.r.. G·eCeheugeembeeþe.r.. `mceeì& efmeìer'meeþer ner Je=#eJeuueer®e Deecner keÀehetve ìekeÀlees DeeefCe l³eeb®³eeJej veeboCeejs Deece®es ef®eT-keÀeT njJetve yemelees. meJe&®e #es$eele `efJekeÀeme' ieleerceeve nesle Demeleevee he³ee& J ejCee®ee cee$e Nneme nes l e ®eeueuee³e. ceie veeveeefJeOe `he³ee&JejCe efove' meepejs nesleele. Deece®³eemeeþer l³ee®eb cenÊJe ns SkeÀefoJemeer³e `mesefueye´sMeve' hegjleb®e Demeleb. ³ee `efoveeb'Jej nesCeeN³ee ®e®ee& SsketÀve Deecneuee Lees[b mepeie JneJebmeb Jeeìleb. Deece®eb `he³ee&JejCe' Deece®³ee yeeukeÀveerletve... efKe[ke̳eebceOetve [eskeÀeJet ueeieleb; oesve-®eej jesheìer ueeJetve,

l³eebvee jespe heeCeer Ieeuetve Deecner he³ee&JejCe `pehelees'. ogmejerkeÀ[s Deecner osJeIejeleueb efvecee&u³e jespe meeþJetve megÆer®³ee efoJeMeer ieesUe keÀjlees; lesner hueemìerkeÀ®³ee efheMeJ³eebceOetve DeeefCe keÀeueewIeele Deece®³ee Menjele-ieeJeele Deefle¬eÀceCe kesÀuesu³ee SKeeÐee Kee[erhee$eele eEkeÀJee veoerle mees[tve oslees. nes³e, Deecner ns l³eeb®eb Deefle¬eÀceCe®e mecepelees. keÀejCe ieeJeeyeensj-Menjeyeensj DemeCeejer veoer-Kee[er Deece®³ee nÎerle keÀMeer, ne efJe®eej keÀje³eueener Deecneuee JesU vemelees. hetJeea hegCes Menjele he´JesMe keÀjleevee cegUe-cegþe veÐeeb®es íeve Jeenles he´Jeen uekeÀ[er hegueeJeªve ef o mee³e®es . Deepe cee$e l³eeuee De#ejMe: veeu³ee®eb mJeªhe Deeues u eb Deens . ³eeuee ceeP³eemeejKee meeceev³e ceeCemte keÀejCeeYrelte veener keÀe? ojJe<eea heeJemeele Deece®es veeues-ieìejb legbyeleele. l³eeletve Deesmeb[tve yeensj ³esCeeN³ee hueeeqmìkeÀ®³ee efheMeJ³eeb®es {erie Deece®³ee [esȳeebvee Kethele veenerle. keÀejCe Deecner®e l³eele evfeceeu&³e DeLeJee keÀ®eje Yeªve l³ee HeÀskeÀtve efouesu³ee Demeleele. ³ee efheMeJ³eebcegUs ieìejbveeues legbyeues keÀer Deecner cee$e ³eeuee `efmemìerce'®e peyeeyeoej Deens cnCele nele PeìkeÀlees. ner `efmemìerce' keÀener®e keÀjle vemeles keÀe? lej efle®³ee hejerves leer Ghee³e³eespevee keÀjles®e. Deepe DeveskeÀ Menjeb®³ee heeefuekeÀe-ceneheeefuekeÀebceOetve Deesuee-megkeÀe keÀ®eje JesieUe keÀjC³ee®es DeeJeenve kes À ues peeles . ef k eÀleer p eCe ³ee DeeJeenvee®ee Deeoj keÀjle Deensle? ieCeheleerveJeje$eer®³ee efoJemeeble IejeIejebletve efvecee&Ce nesCeejs efvecee&u³e ìekeÀC³eemeeþer peeieespeeieer `efvecee&u³e keÀueMe' þsJeues Deensle. HeCe Deecner Deece®³ee Jeenveeb c eOet v e®e l³ee keÀueMeele hueemìerkeÀ®³ee efheMeJ³eebceO³es Yejuesues efvecee&u³e efYejkeÀeJelees. ³ee efheMeJ³eeb®eb heg{s keÀe³e nesleb? ³ee®ee efJe®eej keÀje³eueener Deecneuee JesU vemelees. he³ee&JejCe le%e DeeefCe efmemìerce veeJee®eer he´MeemekeÀer³e ³eb$eCee l³eeb®³eehejerves pevepeeie=leer keÀjle Demeles®e. he´Mve SJe{e®e, keÀer ³eeyeeyeleerle Deecner mepeie keÀOeer nesCeej?


15

ìee@kfemÌemeeìrer

neveerkeÀejkeÀ ogie¥OeerveeMekesÀ ....

[e@. ef®e$ee peesMeer 98200 37224

og i e¥ O eer v eeMekeÀe®³ee Deef l e Jeehejeves Deejes i ³eeme Oees k eÀe mebYeJelees. DeveskeÀ Je<ex meelel³eeves ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀeb®ee Jeehej kesÀu³eeme keÀke& À jes i eemeejK³ee DemeeO³e jesieeuee leeW[ ÐeeJes ueeiet MekeÀles. Deeheu³ee cejeþer Yee<esle cnCe Deens `Deef l e les L es ceeleer . keÀesCel³eener ieesäer®ee DeeflejskeÀ ìeUe.

owvebefove peerJeveele keÀeceeefveefcel³e Iejeyeens j he[leevee meJe³eer v es Deeheu³ee DeeJe[er®³ee megiebOeer êJ³ee®ee HeÀJeeje DeeheCe DebieeJej G[Jelees. Gvneȳeele lej ³ee megiebOeer êJ³ee®ee ceeje melele Deeheu³ee MejerjeJej nesle Demelees. ³ee megiebOee®³ee menJeemeeves DeeheCe megKeeJele Demelees. he´Jeemeele lej ³ee megiebOee®ee menJeeme nJeenJeemee Jeeìlees. Lees[ke̳eele ©ceeue, heekeÀerì, Ie[îeeUeyejesyej ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀ yeeìueermeg×e he´Jeemeeleerue SkeÀ DeefveJee³e& IeìkeÀ yeveueer Deens. peeefnjeleer heentve, efce$e-cewef$eCeeRyejesyej ®e®ee& keÀªve, keg À þuee ef [ Dees peemle keÀeU ef ì keÀlees , menkeÀeN³eebvee DeekeÀe|<ele keÀjlees Fl³eeoer yeeyeeR ® ee DeY³eeme keÀ©ve Deeheu³ee DeeJe[ervegmeej ef[Dees®eer DeLee&le ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀe®eer efveJe[ nesles. Meem$e%eeb®³ee DenJeeueevegmeej lJe®es®³ee melele mebhekeÀe&le DemeCeejer ner ogie¥OeerveeMekesÀ Deeheu³ee Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ þª MekeÀleele. ³ee ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀeleerue keÀener IeìkeÀ lJe®esle lJeefjle Mees<eues peeTve Dehee³ekeÀejkeÀ þª MekeÀleele. ogie¥OeerveeMekesÀ keÀeKesle cnCepes®e mleveeueiele Jeehejueer peeleele; l³eeceg U s meneefpekeÀ®e mleveeb®³ee keÀke&Àjesiee®ee OeeskeÀe mebYeJelees. Deeheu³ee Mejerje®es meJee&le ceesþs Fbefê³e lJe®ee Demeu³eeves meJe&leeshejer efle®eer keÀeUpeer IesCes ns Deeheues keÀle&J³e Deens. efJeveekeÀejCe lJe®esuee Fpee keÀ© ve³es. DeekeÀ<e&keÀ Jesäveeleerue ogie¥OeerveeMekesÀ l³eeceO³es YesmeUuesu³ee keÀener jmee³eveebcegUs Deeheu³ee lJe®esuee IeelekeÀ þª MekeÀleele, p³eecegUs Deeheues Deejesi³e {emeUt MekeÀles. De@u³egefceefve³ece ³ee Oeelet®³ee meb³egieeb®ee meceeJesMe ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀeble Demelees. ner meb³egies lJe®esJejerue efíês yegpeJetve Ieece jesOekeÀe®es keÀe³e& keÀjleele. ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀe®³ee melele Jeehejeves

Mejejreyeenjs ìekeÀuee peeCeeje Ieece LeehseeJfeuee peeT MekeÀlees. heefjCeeceer Mejerje®es leeheceeve Demeceleesue nesT MekeÀles; pes Deeheu³ee Deejesi³eeme IeelekeÀ þª MekeÀles. lemes®e he@jeyeervemed ner jmee³eves megiebOeer êJ³eeb®ee keÀeueeJeOeer Jee{JeC³eemeeþer Jeehejueer peeleele. lemes®e leer Ieece ³esC³ee®³ee he´ef¬eÀ³esle efveye¥Oe IeeueC³eemeeþerner Jeehejueer peeleele. ³ee jmee³eveebcegUs Mejerjeleerue mebhe´sjkeÀeb®ee meceleesue efyeIe[tve Fbefê³eeb®³ee keÀe³e&#ecelesJej efJehejerle heefjCeece nesT MekeÀlees. he´ e s e f h eueer v e iuee³ekeÀe@ u e ³ee Del³eb l e Oees k eÀeoe³ekeÀ jmee³evee®ee Jeehej og i e¥ O eer veeMekeÀeble ceesþîee he´ceeCeele neslees. kesÀJeU oesve ìkeÌkesÀ jmee³evemeg×e mebJesoveMeerue lJe®esuee neefvekeÀejkeÀ þª MekeÀles. lJe®esuee kebÀ[ megìtve hegjU ³esT MekeÀles. lemes®e ¿ee jmee³evee®ee ³eke=Àle, ¿eo³e Je ceppeemebmLes®³ee keÀe³ee&Jej IeelekeÀ heefjCeece nesT MekeÀlees. ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀebceO³es ì^ekeÌueesmeve veecekeÀ jmee³eve Dee{Utve ³esles. SHeÀ.[er.S leHexÀ ³ee jmee³eveeuee efkeÀìkeÀveeMekeÀe®ee opee& efouee Deens. ns jmee³eve peerJeeCetjesOeer Demetve megiebOeer êJ³eeb®ee keÀeueeJeOeer Jee{efJeC³eemeeþer ³ee®ee Jeehej kesÀuee peelees. heeC³ee®³ee mebhekeÀe&le Deeu³eeJej ¿ee jmee³eveeheemet v e meb Y eeJ³e keÀke&Àjesie efvecee&Ce keÀjCeejs heoeLe& le³eej nesleele. p³eeceU g s Delbeëm$eeJeeves ceeveJeer jÊeÀe®es ieCgeOece& yeouet MekeÀleele. og i e¥ O eer v eeMekeÀe®³ee Deef l e Jeehejeves Deejesi³eeme OeeskeÀe mebYeJelees. DeveskeÀ Je<ex meelel³eeves ogie¥OeerveeMekeÀeb®ee Jeehej kesÀu³eeme keÀke&ÀjesieemeejK³ee DemeeO³e jesieeuee leeW[ ÐeeJes ueeiet MekeÀles. Deeheu³ee cejeþer Yee<esle cnCe Deens `Deefle lesLes ceeleer. keÀesCel³eener ieesäer®ee DeeflejskeÀ ìeUe.


16

DeeefCe Jemeble mleyOe Peeuee mee³eueWì efmÒebie uesefKekeÀe ë js®eue keÀeme&ve mJewj DevegJeeo ë meercee efHeleUs 93235 49307

keÀeyeec&eìs jmee³evee®b³ee mecenteleeure Dee³e Heer meer DeeeCfe meer Dee³e Heer meer ner oevse leC=eveeMekeÀs, Gobje®³ee keÀele[ecreO³es ieeþer (ìîet c ej) le³eej nes C ³eeme keÀejCeerYetle Deensle Demes efometve Deeues. l³eeleeure keÀener ieeþer ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ nels³ee. ³ee jmee³eveebcegUs keÀener ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ þjCeejs yeoue neCs³eeme meª g Jeele nelses DeeeCfe He³eeJ&ejCeele DeeOee®re DeemflelJeele Demeueus³ee Flej jmee³eveecbeU g s ner Òee¬feÀ³ee Hejger nelse.s

Òel³ekseÀ ®eejeme SkeÀ!... ®eH@ìj 14 ë Yeeie 2 oerIe&keÀeueHe³e¥le melele DeemexefvekeÀ³egkeÌle keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®ee JeeHej keÀªve jsef®evemìsF&ve Je keÀe@jyees[e ³ee MenjemeejKeer HeefjefmLeleer efvecee&Ce keÀjCes keÀener keÀþerCe veener. ³egveeF&ìs[ mìs ì med c eOeer u e leb y eeKet ® ³ee Mes l eeleer u e Deemex e f v ekeÀ®³ee HeÀJeeN³eeves leb y eeKet ® ³ee ceȳeeceOeerue ceeleer Deesueeref®ebye Peeueer, lemes®e Jee³eJ³eskeÀ[erue DeveskeÀ HeÀUyeeiee DeeefCe HetJexkeÀ[erue yuet yesjer ¿ee meJee¥ceO³es HeeCeer HegjJeþîeeletve Òeot<eCee®ee GodYeJe nesCes menpeHeCes Meke̳e Deens. DeemexefvekeÀves Òeotef<ele Peeuesues JeeleeJejCe HeÀkeÌle ceeveJeeJej®e veener lej ÒeeC³eebJejner HeefjCeece keÀjles. SkeÀ ef®eÊeJesOekeÀ DenJeeue 1936 meeueer pece& v eer n t v e Deeuee. ÖeÀe³eyeie&,me@keÌmeesveer ³esLeerue Heefjmejele ®eeboer Je ef M emes ns Oeelet ef J eleUJet v e Dees l eleevee DeemexefvekeÀ®³ee JeeHeÀe nJesle efcemeUu³ee. l³ee Deepetyeepet®³ee ieeJeeieeJeeletve JeeN³eeyejesyej Jeenele iesu³ee DeeefCe lesLeerue Mesleceȳeebleerue Yeep³eebJej Hemeªve Keeueer yemeu³ee. [e@. ¿etHej ³eeb®³ee cnCeC³eeÒeceeCes, l³ee Yeeieeleerue Iees[s, iee³eer, yekeÀN³ee DeeefCe [gkeÀjs DeLee&le ne®e YeepeerHeeuee KeeTve peieleele. l³eeveblej l³eeb®es kesÀme ieUt ueeieues DeeefCe ®eece[er pee[ pee[ nesT ueeieueer. peJeU®³ee pebieueele Jemeleer keÀjCeeN³ee njCeeb®³ee HeeþerJej Devewmeefie&keÀ jbiee®es efþHekesÀ DeeefCe keÀke&ÀjesieHetJe& ®eeceKeerU efometve Deeu³ee. SkeÀe njerCeeJej lej yejesyej keÀke&ÀjesieemeejKee®e Je´Ce meeHe[uee. HeeUerJe ÒeeCeer Je pebieueer ÒeeCeer oesIeebJejner HeefjCeece Peeuee lees Demee ö `Deele[îeeuee Deeues u eer met p e (Svìje³eìer m ed ) , peþje®ee DebleJe´Ce (Deumej), ³eke=Àleeleerue keÀeefþC³e (efmejesefmemed).' Oeelet efJeleefJeC³ee®³ee peeies®³ee DeemeHeeme®³ee keÀener ces{îeebceO³es veekeÀeleerue HeeskeÀUer®ee keÀke&Àjesie Jee{uesuee efomeuee. cesu³eeveblej l³eeb®³ee ceWotle, ³eke=Àleele DeeefCe ieeþer c eO³es Deemex e f v ekeÀ meeHe[ues . ³ee®e Heef j mejeleer u e keÀer ì keÀ Deeef C e ef J eMes < ele:

ceOeceeMeeb ® ³ee ce= l ³et ® es ÒeceeCe Deieoer Demeeceev³eHeCes Jee{uesues efomeues. HeeTme He[tve iesu³eeveblej Pee[eb®³ee HeeveebJej efmLejeJeuesueer Deemex e f v ekeÀ®eer Oet U Dees { îeeb c eO³es Je [yeke̳eebceO³es HeeC³eeyejesyej Jeenele Deeueer DeeefCe HeÀej ceesþîee mebK³esves ceemes cesues. veJeerve meWêer³e keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®³ee mecetnele Depet v e SkeÀe keÀke& À jes i epev³e jmee³eveeb ® es GoenjCe oslee ³esF&ue, pes jmee³eve Deȳee Je ieesef®e[ ceejC³eemeeþer meje&me JeeHejues peeles. Feflenemeele Hegjsmes HegjeJes GHeueyOe Deensle keÀer, keÀe³eÐeeves pejer megj#esmeeþer keÀener efve³eb$eCes Ieeleueer Demeueer , lejer keÀke& À jes i epev³e jmee³eveebMeer veeiejerkeÀeb®ee mebHeke&À ³eslees®e DeeefCe ner HeefjefmLeleer keÀeyetle DeeCeC³eeme meeJekeÀeMeerves ®eeueCeeN³ee keÀe³eÐee®³ee Òeef¬eÀ³esves efkeÀl³eskeÀ Je<ex peeleerue. ogmeN³ee YetefcekesÀletve Heeefnu³eeme ¿ee ieesäerleerue iebcele DeMeer keÀer pevelesuee megj#esmeeþer ÒeceeCeYetle þjJetve efouesueer keÀerìkeÀveeMekeÀeb®eer Deepe®eer cee$ee GÐee keÀoeef ® ele Del³eb l e OeeskeÀeoe³ekeÀ þª MekeÀles. 1955 meeueer pesJne ns jmee³eve veJeerve Deeues, lesJne GlHeeokeÀeves Depe& kesÀuee neslee keÀer HeÀJeejCeerveblej pej Lees[îee DebMeer jmee³evee®es DeJeMes<e SKeeÐee efHekeÀeJej jeefnues, lej les ûee¿e ÒeceeCe Oeªve leMeer DeefOeke=Àle HejJeeveieer osC³eele ³eeJeer. keÀe³eÐee®³ee DeeJeM³ekeÀlesvegmeej l³ee GlHeeokeÀeves l³ee®³ee jmee³eveeb ® ee Òe³eesieMeeUsleerue ÒeeC³eebJej ®eeb®eC³ee kesÀu³ee Deeef C e l³eeb ® ³ee Heef j Ceeceeb ® ee DenJeeue Depee&meesyele pees[uee neslee. Hejbleg DeVe Je Deew<eOe ÒeMeemevee®³ee Meem$e%eebveer l³ee®ee DeLe& Demee ueeJeuee keÀer - ³ee ®eeb ® eC³ee lej keÀke&Àjesiee®ee GodYeJe nesC³ee®eer Meke̳elee oeKeefJele Deensle. l³eevegmeej keÀefceMevejves DeeoMse eofuee keÀer ³eeme ‘Mevt³e mJeekreÀ=lee’r Deens DeeefCe pes DeVe jep³eeletve yeensj peeles Je Deele ³esles l³eeceO³es keÀe³eÐeeves jmee³eveeb®es Metv³e DeJeMes<e Demeues Heeefnpesle. Hejbleg GlHeeokeÀeuee keÀe³eÐeeves Hegvne Depe& keÀjC³ee®ee nkeÌkeÀ neslee.


17 ceie ns ÒekeÀjCe SkeÀe meefceleerkeÀ[s HesÀjleHeemeCeermeeþer osC³eele Deeues. meefceleerves efveCe&³e osleevee le[pees[ kesÀueer. oj oMeue#eeceeies SkeÀ ìkeÌkeÀe SJe{s®e ÒeceeCe DemeeJes Demes þjefJeC³eele Deeues. oesve Je<ee¥bmeeþer ns jmee³eve yeepeejele Deeues keÀer l³ee keÀeUele Depetve keÀener ®eeb®eC³ee Òe³eesieMeeUsle keÀªve ns jmee³eve vekeÌkeÀer keÀke&Àjesiepev³e Deens keÀe ns þjJee³e®es nesles. pejer Òel³e#eele ³ee meefceleerves Demes cnìues veener, lejer ³ee l³eeb®³ee efveCe&³ee®ee DeLe& Demee neslees keÀer Òe³eesieMeeUsleerue kegÀ$es DeeefCe Gboerj ³eeb®³eeJej Peeuesu³ee ®eeb®eC³eebyejesyej Deelee peveleener (efieveer efHeie) Òe³ees i eMeeUs l e JeeHeju³ee peeCeeN³eele®e ieCeues peeleer u e. Hejb l eg Òe³eesieMeeUsleerue ÒeeCeer leeye[leesye HeefjCeece oMe&efJeleele. oesve Je<ee¥veblej mHeäHeCes mecepeues keÀer les efJeefMeä DeUerveeMekeÀ keÀke&Àjesiepev³e nesles. lejerosKeerue DeVe DeeefCe Deew<eOe ÒeMeemeve leeye[leesye leer HejJeeveieer jÎ keÀª MekeÀues veener, p³eecegUs pevelee pes DeVeHeoeLe& Keeles l³eele keÀener DebMeer ³ee jmee³evee®es DeJeMes<e Demeleerue. DeKesjerme 1955 meeueer keÀecfeMevejves ‘M&evt³e DeJeMe<se ’ DeMee eofueus³ee DeeoMsee®es e[ f meyWej 1958 meeueer Heeueve keÀjC³eele Deeues. DeLeel&e keÀeìrkeÀveeMekeÀeleeure keÀkeÀ&jeisepev³e cnCevte ieCeleer keÀsueer ieuseuseer DeMeer HeÀkeÌle ner®e jmee³eves veenerle. Òe³eesieMeeUsleerue ÒeeC³eebJej kesÀuesu³ee ®eeb®eC³ee oMe&efJele nesl³ee keÀer [er[erìer cegUs mebMe³eemHeoHeCes ³eke=Àleeleerue ieeþer le³eej Peeu³ee. DeVe Je Deew<eOe ÒeMeemevee®³ee Meem$e%eebveer ³ee ieeþeR®ee (ìîetcej®ee) MeesOe ueeJeuee Keje Hejbleg l³eebvee l³eeb®es JeieeakeÀjCe keÀmes keÀjeJes ns l³eebvee keÀUsvee. Hejbleg l³eeb®³ee efJe®eejeÒeceeCes ne keÀceer ÒeceeCeeleerue ³ekeÀ=leeleeure HeMsee®R³ee Delbemlejeleeure keÀ@vmej Demes JeieekaeÀjCe keÀjlee ³eFsu&e. [e.@ ¿eHtejveer Deelee [e[ r eìreuree `keÀkeÀ&jeisepev³e jmee³eve' Demee opee& eofuee. keÀeyee&cesì jmee³eveeb®³ee mecetneleerue Dee³e Heer meer DeeefCe meer Dee³e Heer meer ner oesve le=CeveeMekesÀ, Gboje®³ee keÀele[erceO³es ieeþer (ìîetcej) le³eej nesC³eeme keÀejCeerYetle Deensle Demes efometve Deeues. l³eeleerue keÀener ieeþer ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ nesl³ee. ³ee jmee³eveebcegUs keÀener ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ þjCeejs yeoue nesC³eeme megªJeele nesles DeeefCe He³ee&JejCeele DeeOeer®e DeefmlelJeele Demeuesu³ee Flej jmee³eveebcegUs ner Òeef¬eÀ³ee Hegjer nesles. Deefceveesì^e³ePeesue ³ee leCeveeMekeÀecegUs Òe³eesie keÀjC³eele Deeuesu³ee ÒeeC³eebvee Lee³eje@F&[®ee keÀke&Àjesie (IeMeeleerue ûebLeer) Peeuee. 1959 ceO³es ¬e@Àveyesjer HeÀUeb®eer ueeieJe[ keÀjCeeN³ee DeveskeÀebveer Deefceveesì^e³ePeesue ³ee jmee³evee®ee ®egkeÀer®³ee HeOoleerves JeeHej kesÀuee. l³eecegUs yeepeejele efJekeÀC³eemeeþer iesuesu³ee yesjerJej jmee³eveeb®es DebMe jeefnues. DeVe Je Deew<eOe ÒeMeemeveeves pesJne ³ee Òeotef<ele yesjer peHle kesÀu³ee lesJne Gþuesu³ee Jeeo ÒeefleJeeoele Deieoer JewÐekeÀer³e #es$eeleerue keÀener peCeebveer yeN³ee®e ÒeceeCeele Kejs KeeìsHseCeeyeÎue MekbeÀe J³ekelÌe keÀsueer keÀer ns jmee³eve KejeKsej®e keÀkeÀ&jeise efvecee&Ce keÀjles keÀe! DeVe Je Deew<eOe ÒeMeemeveeves Meem$eMegOoHeCes kesÀuesu³ee efveJesoveele ns mHeäHeCes oeKeefJeues keÀer, Òe³eesieMeeUsleerue GbojebJej ³eeb®ee keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeefjCeece Peeuee Deens. ³ee ÒeeC³eebvee efHeC³ee®³ee HeeC³eele oj oMeue#eeceeies 100 Yeeie ( efkebÀJee one npeej ®ece®es HeeC³eele SkeÀ ®ece®ee) ³ee ÒeceeCeele jmee³eve efoues lesJne 68 DeeþJe[s Hegjs neslee neslee

Lee³eje@F&[ceO³es ieeþer (ìîetcej) le³eej Peeu³ee. oesve Je<ee¥veblej DeO³ee& DeefOekeÀ GbojebceO³es leHeemeCeer keÀjleevee ìîetcej Dee{Uues. l³ee®es efveoeve Demes keÀjC³eele Deeues keÀer ner Mejerjele DeefOekeÀ Peeuesueer Jee{ DeveskeÀ ÒekeÀej®eer Demetve Deelee meewc³e Deens, HeCe ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ Deens. ¿eeHes#ee megOoe DeefleMe³e keÀceer ÒeceeCeele jmee³eve osC³eele Deeues. lejerner ìîetcej le³eej Peeues®e. Kejs lej jmee³eveeb®ee Deefpeyeele HeefjCeece nesCeej veener, DeMeer efkeÀceeve HeeleUer®e meeHe[ueer veener. DeLee&led keÀesCeeuee®e ceenerle veener keÀer, efkeÀleer keÀceer ÒeceeCeele efouesues Deefceveesì^e³ePeesue ceeCemeemeeþer keÀke&Àjesiepev³e Demet MekeÀles. Hejbleg ne@Je&[& ³egefveJnefme&ìerleerue JewÐekeÀMeem$ee®es ÒeesHesÀmej [e@. [sJner[ jìsmìsF&ve ³eebveer efveoMe&veeme DeeCetve efoues keÀer, ns jmee³evee®es ÒeceeCe ceeCemee®³ee HeÀe³eÐee®es DemeC³eeSsJepeer l³ee®³eemeeþer DeHee³ekeÀejkeÀ®e þjsue. ns mecepeC³eekeÀefjlee Depetve Hegjsmee keÀeU iesuesuee veener, keÀer veJeerve keÌueesjervesìs[ ne³e[^eskeÀeye&ve, peblegveeMekeÀ DeeefCe DeeOegefvekeÀ leCeveeMekeÀ ³eeb®ee mebHetCe& HeefjCeece keÀe³e nesT MekeÀlees. yengleskeÀ ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ jesie FlekesÀ cebo ieleerves Jee{leele keÀer jesi³ee®³ee Dee³eg<³ee®ee yeje®emee Yeeie J³eeHeu³eeveblej®e JewÐekeÀer³e ef®eefkeÀlmesojc³eeve ue#eCes efomet ueeieleele. 1920®³ee ÒeejbYeer Ie[îeeUe®³ee leyekeÀ[erJej ([e³eueJej) ®ekeÀekeÀCeeN³ee DeekeÀ=l³ee jibeeJfeCeeN³ee yee³ekeÀe®bee j[ s e³receceO³es ye[ g eJfeueusee keÀbg®euee (yeM´e) keÀOeer keÀOeer Deesþebvee mHeMe& keÀje³e®ee. l³eecegUs les jmee³eve ®egketÀve Heesìele peeF&. ³ee yee³ekeÀebvee meeOeejCele: 15 SkeÀ Je<ee¥®ee keÀeU iesu³eeveblej DeefmLeb®ee keÀke&Àjesie (yeesve ke@Àvmej) Peeu³ee®es efveoMe&veeme Deeues. GÐeesieOebÐeeletve keÀke&Àjesiepev³e jmee³eveebMeer ³esCeeN³ee mebHekeÀe&cegUs nesCeeje keÀke&Àjesie lej 15 les 30 Je<ex efkebÀJee l³eeveblejner Peeu³ee®es efveoMe&veeme Deeues. GÐeesieOebÐeeletve efJeefJeOe keÀke&Àjesiepev³e HeoeLee¥Meer ³esle neslee, Hejbleg ³ee eMfeJee³e peJsne mevw³eoueeleeure ceeCemeeMbeer [e[ r eìre®ree ÒeLece meHbekeÀ& Deeuee lees keÀeU nesles 1942 meeue®ee DeeefCe meeOeejCe 1945 meeueeHeemetve veeieefjkeÀebMeer megOoe mebHeke&À ³esT ueeieuee. meeOeejCe 1950 ®³ee HetJee&Oee&le pesJne JesieJesieȳee ÒekeÀej®eer keÀerìkeÀveeMekesÀ JeeHejele ³esT ueeieueer, leesHe³e¥le ns keÀener veJnles. pes keÀener ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ MekeÌleer®es yeerpe ³ee jmee³eveebveer Hesjues Deens l³ee®es HeefjCeece HetCe&lJeeves Depetve efveoMe&veeme Deeues veenerle. DeLee&led SkeÀ efJeue#eCe ieesä Deelee ceenerle Peeueer Deens, keÀer yengleskeÀ ÒeeCeIeelekeÀ jesieebceO³es jmee³eveeb®eer Òeefleef¬eÀ³ee nesC³eeme yeje®e keÀeU ueeielees. ³eeuee DeHeJeeo Deens lees jkeÌlee®³ee keÀke&Àjesiee®ee. (u³egkesÀefce³ee®ee) DeCegyee@cye®³ee mHeÀesìeveblej efnjesefMeceeceO³es efpelekesÀ ueeskeÀ ye®eeJeues nesles, l³eeb®³eele kesÀJeU leerve Je<ee&veblej jkeÌlee®³ee keÀke&Àjesiee®eer ue#eCes efomet ueeieueer. Deelee efJeéeeme þsJeC³eeme keÀejCe Deens keÀer Òeefleef¬eÀ³esme ueeieCeeje JesU keÀceer keÀceer nesT MekesÀue. ³esCeeN³ee keÀeUele Flej ÒekeÀej®³ee keÀke&Àjesieeb®ee Òeefleef¬eÀ³es®ee keÀeue keÀceer Peeu³ee®es ue#eele ³es T Mekes À ue, HeCe meO³ee lejer jkeÌ l ee®³ee keÀke& À jes i ee®eer ue#eCes DemeeOeejCeHeCes efve³eceyee¿ele: DeefleMe³e ceboieleerves efJekeÀefmele nesle Deensle. ¬eÀceMeë


18

HeÀgueJee

yesn[e

Terminalia bellirica

Debpevee osJemLeUs ë 9324565060

yeN³ee®e Je<eeH¥eJteea yeeHet GHe&À Òee. cenepeve mejebyejesyej HegCes efJeÐeeHeerþele Je=#e efvejer#eCeeuee iesuees neslees. efleLes l³eebveer yesn[e Je=#e oeKeJeuee. l³ee®es KetHe keÀewlegkeÀ kesÀues. Deew<eOeer cenÊJe, ef$eHeÀUe ®egCee&leues l³ee®es mLeeve, Fl³eeoer meebefieleues. Je=#ee®³ee Òesceele SJe{s SskeÀu³eeJej ceer yesn[e®³ee DemebK³e efye³ee DeeCeu³ee DeeefCe l³ee Hesju³ee. jesHes ieeJeer vesueer DeeefCe ieeJe®³ee ie[îeeuee leer jesHes ueeJet³ee Demes meebefieleues. HeCe keÀener kesÀu³ee lees le³eej nesF&vee. MesJeìer Ke[meeJetve efJe®eejues, lesJne keÀes cnCeeuee, ``Denes leeF&, ner ³esȳee®eer efkeÀleerlejer Pee[s DeeHeu³ee FLes GieJeleele. Hejle keÀMeeuee ueeJee³e®eer?'' lesJne keÀUueb Deece®³ee MesleeYeesYejerle Jee{Ceeje ieeJeþer ³esUe ne®e yesn[e! SKeeÐee Je=#eeuee efveJJeU mLeeefvekeÀ veeJeeves DeesUKeC³ee®ee ne ceesþe leesìe. ceie, ³esUe GHe&À yesj[e, Meem$eer³e veeJeeves Terminalia bellirica. ef$eHeÀUe ®egCee&leuee efnj[e, DeeJeUe DeeefCe yesn[e ¿ee jeceyeeCe GHee³eebceOeuee SkeÀ cenÊJee®ee IeìkeÀ. Combrefaceae kegÀUeleuee SkeÀ. HetJeea ³ee®³ee HeÀUeb®ee keÀeHe[ jbieefJeC³eemeeþer, keÀele[b keÀceJeC³eemeeþer GHe³eesie Jne³e®ee. iegjb-{esjb, ceW{îee, nefjCeb, ceekeÀ[b ³ee®eer Heeveb-HeÀUb ®eJeerves Keeleele. ueeketÀ[ efìkeÀeT vemeu³eeves ne Je=#e HeÀejmee lees[uee peele veener. HeCe lees[ues ve peeC³ee®es DeeCeKeer SkeÀ keÀejCe cnCepes ³eeJej cegbpee jenlees DeMeer ueeskeÀeb®eer mecepetle. Deew<eOeer cenÊJe cnìues lej DeieefCele. KeeskeÀuee, [esȳeebs efJekeÀej, Deele[îeeb®es Deepeej ³eeJej ³ee®³ee HeÀUeb®ee/efye³eeb®ee JeeHej kesÀuee peelees. yesn[îee®ee eE[keÀ osKeerue Deew<eOeer Deens. yesn[e Depeg&ve Je=#ee®³ee kegÀUeleuee. pebieueeleu³ee Je=#eebceOeues ns ceesþs ketÀU. efnj[e DeeefCe DeeHeu³ee Heefj®e³ee®e osMeer yeoeceosKeerue ³ee®eer®e YeeJeb[b. yesn[e Del³eble osKeCee Je=#e. Yeejleele yengleskeÀ meJe&$e Dee{Ulees. HeeveieUer®ee Je=#e Demetve Deieoer efveke=Àä peefceveerJej osKeerue íeve Jee{lees.

peceerve ®eebieueer Demesue, DeesueeJee Demesue lej ne Je=#e 30 ceerìj®eer Gb®eerosKeerue ieeþt MekeÀlees. HeÀebÐeeb®³ee ìeskeÀeuee Heeveb ³esleele. veJeerve HeeueJeer legkeÀlegkeÀerle Demeles. HegÀueb DeeefCe Heeveb SkeÀoce®e ³esleele. Heeveb SkeÀeDee[ SkeÀ SkeÀJeìuesueer Demeleele. keÀesJeȳee HeeveebJej yeejerkeÀ leebyetme ueJe Demeles. Heeveeb®ee DeekeÀej keÀenermee HeÀCemeeb®³ee HeeveenmeejKee. HesÀye´gJeejer-cee®e& ojc³eeve HeeveieU nesTve SefÒeueceO³es veJeerve HeeueJeer ³esles. HegÀueyeep³eebmeejKeer HegÀueb efnjJeìefHeJeȳee jbieeb®eer Demetve l³eebvee Gûe oHe& Jeeme ³eslees. keÀeneRvee lees megJeeme Jeeìlees. HegÀueb Deeueer keÀer JeeleeJejCe ³ee®³ee®e Jeemeeves Yeªve peeles. DeeHeu³ee ¢äerves ³ee Pee[e®ee meJee&le cenÊJee®ee Yeeie cnCepes ³ee®es HeÀU. JeeìesUer, osþekeÀ[s Lees[er ueebye®e efvecegUleer efHeJeUmej jeKee[er jbiee®eer. HeÀUebJej Kejblej kebÀieesjs Demeleele. HeCe KetHe®e DemHeä, 4 mes.ceer. ueebye Demeleele. jeveleues ÒeeCeer ³ee®eer HeÀUb Keeleele. Deece®³ee ie[îee®eer cegueb HeueeHee®eesUe peeUtve l³eele ner HeÀUb Yeepeleele DeeefCe HeÀes[tve Keeleele. ³ee®³ee efye³eebHeemetve lesue keÀe{ues peeles. HeÀUb peemle Keeuueer keÀer veMee ³esles Demes cnCeleele. yesn[îee®es veeJe Terminalia bellirica. ³eeleerue Terminal cnCepes MeW[e. MeW[îeeuee HeÀUb ³esleele. Bellirica ne Dejyeer Yee<esleuee DeHeYe´bMe Deens. yesn[îee®es mebmke=Àle veeJe efJeefYelekeÀer. efYele cnCepes efYeleer. p³eecegUs jesiee®eer efYeleer veä nesles Demes ³ee®es HeÀU. ³eeuee keÀueerêgce Demesner cnCeleele. p³eecegUs keÀuen Jee{lees Demes HeÀU. keÀuen keÀe yejs? keÀejCe ³ee®eer ieesue HeÀUs pegieejele JeeHejleele. l³eeves keÀuen ceepelees. efJeefYelekebÀ mJeeogHeekebÀ keÀ<ee³e keÀHeÀefHeÊevegled G<CeJeer³e& efncemHeMe& Yesoveb keÀemeveeMevece~ ©#eb ves$eefnleb kesÀM³eb ke=ÀefceJewm³e&veeMevece efJeefYeleceppee le=ìdíeEokeÀHeÀJeelenjer ueIeg Demes YeeJe ÒekeÀeMeele efJeefYelekeÀer®es cenÊJe efoues Deens. ®ejkeÀ mebefnlesvegmeej efJeefYelekeÀerHeemetve megjeosKeerue yeveefJeueer peeles. leer HeÀejMeer ceeokeÀ vemeles. Gueì peKece, cenejesie, lJe®eejesie, jkeÌle keÀceer Peeu³eeme leer efoueer peeles. (Anemia) jmeeme=keÀ ceebme Yesoesvveeve oes<eeve nefvle efJeYeerlekeÀced mJejYesokeÀHeÀeslkeÀueso efHeÊejesieefJeveeMeveced efve<HeCe& yesn[e DeesUKeC³ee®eer KetCe cnCepes peefceveeruee meceeblej HeÀebÐee DeeefCe JewefMe<þîeHetCe& Kees* Kees[ keÀeUmej , ieo& leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®es. pegv³ee Kees[eb®³ee meeueer®e meeOeejCe Jeleg&Ueke=Àleer KeJeues ieUtve He[leele. HeÀebÐee keÀesJeȳee Demeleevee l³eeb®³eeJej ueJe Demeles. í$eer®³ee DeekeÀeje®es Je=#e Del³eble osKeCes Demeleele. l³eeb®³eeJej jesiejeF& nesle veener. DeeHeu³ee yeeieebceO³es, jml³ee®³ee keÀ[suee ueeJeC³eeemeþer GÊece Je=#e.


23

ekfeÀìkeÀe®b³ee eJfeMJeele ³egJejepe iegpe&j ë 98921 38338 nt[s[ ie´emene@hej veekeÀlees[s lemes Deeheu³eeuee Deieoer ueneveheCeeheemetve®e ceeefnle Demeleele keÀejCe les Deeheu³eeuee Deieoer Iejele, yeeiesle menpe Dee{Uleele. ³eeb®es ns veeJe efJeef®e$e Demeues lejer les keÀe he[ues ne Gueie[e Depetve Peeuesuee veener. ³eeb®es ceeie®es hee³e ³eebvee DeesUKee³e®eer meesheer KegCe Deens. ns hee³e®e l³eebvee Flej efkeÀìkeÀebhes#ee menpe JesieUs DeesUKelee ³esleele. efkeÀìkeÀeb®eer Gl¬eÀebleer Peeueer leWJne yeN³ee®eMee efkeÀìkeÀebvee l³eeb®³ee ye®eeJeemeeþer l³eeb®es jbie®e Ghe³eesieer he[t ueeieues. menmee ³eeb®es ns leb$e FlekesÀ he´YeeJeer Demeles keÀer l³eecegUs l³ee efkeÀìkeÀebvee efJe<e, efle#Ce megUs DeLeJee Flej ye®eeJee®³ee meeOeveeb®eer iejpe he[le veener. meesyele®³ee íe³eeef®e$eeleerue `nt[s[ ie´emene@hej' ns Demes®e leb$e mJele:®³ee ye®eeJeemeeþer Jeehejleele. heeJemeeȳee®³ee ceefnv³eele pej keÀe DeeheCe ¿ee he´keÀej®ee veekeÀlees[e yeefIeleuee lej lees Deieoer efnjJeeieej heeveemeejKee Demelees. Deieoer heeveeJej efMeje Demeleele leM³ee®e efMeje l³eeJejheCe Dee{Uleele. pemepemee heeJemeeUe Deesmejle peelees leme lemes mehìWyej, Deek@eìÌeysej ceenfv³eele ¿ee®bee jibe Lee[ s e enfjJee, Lee[ s e ehfeJeUmej leheekfeÀjer Dee{Ulee.s Leb[er®³ee ceefnv³eele ns efHeÀkeÀì leheefkeÀjer jbiee®es eEkeÀJee jeKee[er efomeleele. pej keÀe ns Deeheu³eeuee Gvneȳeele heeveieUer®³ee JesUsme Dee{Uues lej l³eeb®ee jbie SkeÀoce Meg<keÀ JeeUke̳ee heeveemeejKee®e Demelees.

Hooded Grasshopper The grasshoppers belong to the family of the Acrididae. The female grasshoppers store eggs inside her abdomen. The female clings to a sticks of grass while the male climbs on her back. The male squirts sperm into her abdomen to fertilize her eggs. The mating can take several hours. Female grasshoppers have pointed-ended abdomens with four small hooks which they use to dig into the ground. Grasshoppers lay 20 to 100 eggs at one time in the ground or in a piece of rotted wood. She covers her eggs with a sticky liquid that hardens and protects the eggs from enemies and diseases. This shell is called an “egg pod.” If the eggs are laid in the summer, they will live through the winter. The eggs hatch in the spring and nymphs emerge. When they hatch in the spring, they look like a tiny, fat worm. They have no legs, no feelers, and no wings. After a few minutes, the skin splits, and a baby grasshopper crawls out. It is called a nymph. The nymphs are lightly colored, but soon they get harder skin. They look like adult grasshoppers, but are smaller and have no wings. They eat plants. Nymphs molt every eight to ten days as they grow. They molt five or six times before becoming adults with wings. Nymphs take two to three months to mature.

www.yuwarajgurjar.com

cekeÀjbo kegÀuekeÀCeea ë 88981 01901

jefmìkeÀ Meem$eer³e veeJe ë ke̳etHeÀe FjerceBLeermed kegÀue ë efvecHeBÀefue[er GHekegÀue ë nsueerkeÀesveerveer HebKe efJemleej 50 les 60 efceefce Demeuesues ns HegÀueHeeKeª efHeJeUmej MeWojer jbiee®es Demeles. HebKee®eer Keeue®eer yeepet efHeJeUmej leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®eer Demetve efle®³eeJej ueneve DeekeÀeje®³ee ie[o leHeefkeÀjer Je Heeb{N³ee jbieeb®³ee KegCee. HebKeeb®³ee Jej®³ee yeepetJej Heg{erue HebKee®³ee cegUeMeer ueeuemej-leHeefkeÀjer jbiee®ee Yeeie. ceO³eJeleea Heeb{je eEkeÀJee efHeJeUmej ©bo HeÆe Je HebKeeb®³ee ìeskeÀeMeer ©bo keÀeUe Yeeie. ceeieerue HebKee®eer Jej®eer yeepet yengleebMeer ueeuemej efHeJeȳee jbiee®eer Demetve efle®³eeJeJe keÀeUHeì jbiee®³ee GOJe& kebÀmeeke=Àleer efìHeke̳eeb®³ee oesve jebiee Je keÀener ueneve DeekeÀeje®es efþHekesÀ Demeleele. KetHe Hepe&v³eceeve Demeuesu³ee meoenefjle pebieueele ns HegÀueHeeKeª Dee{Ules. pebbieueeleerue GIe[îee peeiee, ceeskeÀUJeves, jmles, pebieuekeÀ[e ³esLes JeeJeje³euee DeeJe[les. HeeveieUer®³ee pebieueele HeeCeer Demeuesu³ee peeieebYeesJeleer DeefOeJeeme. oef#eCe Yeejleele 2130 ceerìj Gb®eerHe³e¥le lej efnceeue³eele 1520 efceìjHe³e¥le ns HegÀueHeeKeª Dee{Ules. Je<e&Yej ³ee®es G·eCe efometve ³esles. cee$e Gvneȳeele mebK³ee keÀceer Demeles. ns HegÀueHeeKeª keÀceer Gb®eer®eer Pee[sPeg[Hes efYejefYejC³eemeeþer Hemeble keÀjles. ieleerceeve HeCe DemJemLe Je ®eb®eue ÒekeÀej®es ³ee®es G[Ces Demeles. ceOegÒeeMeveemeeþer HegÀueebJej vej-ceeoer oesIesner ³esleele. vej keÌJeef®ele®e ef®eKeueHeeve keÀjleele. oef#eCe Yeejle, ceneje<ì^, GÊejeb®eue, DeªCee®eue ÒeosMe F&Meev³e Yeejle, Deboceeve efvekeÀesyeej ³esLes lej peieele ÞeeruebkeÀe, vesHeeU, Yetleeve, yeebieueeosMe, c³eeveceej ³ee osMeeble ns HegÀueHeeKeª Dee{Ules. leebyeì (Flacortia) Je jeveleebyeì (Flacortia montana) ³ee Pee[ebJej Deb[er Ieeueles.

Rustic Sc Name - Cupha erymanthis Famiy - Nymphalidae Sub-family - Heliconinae With a wing span of 50-60 mm, it isbasically an orchre coloured butterfly. Underside is yellowish brown, with small white and dark brown markings. The upper fore wing is reddish brown at the wing base, a white or yellowish central band and wing tips broadly black. The upper hind wing is mostly redish yellow, with row of crescent shaped dots and small black spots. Sexes are similar. It occurs in evergreen forests with heavy rainfall. It is found in tree openings, paths, edges of jungle, secondary forests there. In deciduous forest it is found in riparian areas.It is active throughout the year however, less in summer. It is seen flying upto 2,130 meters in South India and upto 1,520 meters in Himalayas. It is a restless rapid flier. It is fond of flowers. Male sometimes visit damp patches. In India it occurs from South India up to Maharashtra, Uttaranchal to Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast, Andaman & Nicobar Islands. It occurs in Srilanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. It lay eggs on Governor’s Plum (Flacortia indica) and Mountain Sweet Thorn (Flacortia montana).


24

evfeje#reCe

ceybgeFp&eJeU eofmeueuses He#eer DeefJeveeMe Yeiele : 98920 61899

yee³ee meigejCe

Baya Weaver

íe³eeef®e$e - veerlee leemekeÀj

efþkeÀeCe ë [eWefyeJeueer

MekseÀeìîee

Black-winged Stilt

íe³eeef®e$e - Deeefcej MesKe

efþkeÀeCe ë veJeer cegbyeF&

ef®eceCeer®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee ueneve he#eer. leheefkeÀjer DebieeJej keÀeȳee jbiee®³ee js<ee Demeleele. efJeCeer®³ee nbieeceele veje®³ee heesìekeÀ[®ee Je [eske̳ee®ee Yeeie efheJeUe neslees. ieJelee®³ee efye³ee Je Oeev³e ³eeJej iegpejeCe keÀjleele. efJeCeer®ee nbieece mees[tve vej Je ceeoer meejKes®e efomeleele.

keÀeWye[er®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee ueebye hee³ee®ee he#eer. leueeJe, veÐee, mejesJejs Je lelmece heeCeLeU peeieebceO³es JeemleJ³e keÀjleele. peue®ej Je efkeÀìkeÀebJej iegpejeCe keÀjleele. Flej he#eebceO³es meJee&efOekeÀ ueebye hee³e Demeuesuee ne he#eer Deens. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele.

Sparrow sized small bird. Black streaks on brownish body. Male shows yellow colour on head and belly in breeding plumage. Feeds on grass seeds and grains. Except for breeding plumage male and female look similar.

Hen sized long legged bird. Prefers lakes, rivers and other wetlands. Feeds on aquatic insects and invertebrates. It has the longest legs among all the birds. Male and female look similar.

yeenfjer memeeCee

Peregrine Falcon

íe³eeef®e$e - ceesefnle JeebkeÀeJeeuee

efþkeÀeCe ë þeCes

je$ee®Rej {ekseÀjer Black-crowned Night Heron íe³eeef®e$e - DebkegÀj ceesF&$ee

efþkeÀeCe ë veJeer cegbyeF&

keÀeJeȳee®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee efMekeÀejer he#eer. ie[o jeKee[er Je leebyetme jbiee®ee osKeCee efMekeÀejer Deens. keÀyeglej Je Flej íesìîee DeekeÀeje®es he#eer lemes®e meehe Je mej[s ³eeJej iegpejeCe keÀjlees. [eWieje®³ee keÀheejerceO³es JeemleJ³e keÀjlees. efMekeÀejer®³ee JesUsuee leeMeer 320 efkeÀceer Fleke̳ee peueo Jesieeves G[t MekeÀlees. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele.

keÀeJeȳee®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee SkeÀ yeieUe. leueeJe, veÐee, mejesJejs Je lelmece heeCeLeU peeiee ³esLes JeemleJ³e keÀjleele. Flej yeieȳeehes#ee ®ees®e Je hee³e DeeKet[ Demeleele. ceemes ns he´cegKe KeeÐe Deens. cegK³eleë efveMee®ej Demeu³eecegUs met³ee&mleeveblej meef¬eÀ³e Demelees. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e Demeleele

A Crow sized raptor. Beautiful with dark grey and orange colour. Feeds on pigeons and other small birds, snakes and other reptiles. Prefers cliffs of mountains. Can fly at highest speed of 320 KMPH while hunting. Male and female look similar.

Crow sized water bird. Prefers lakes, rivers, reservoir and other wetlands. Has shorter legs and beak compared to other Herons. Mainly feeds on fishes. Male and female look similar.

keÀemb³e-HeKbeer keÀceUHe#eer

Bronze-winged Jacana

íe³eeef®e$e - Mebleveg kegÀJesmekeÀj

efþkeÀeCe ë ceeCeieeJe

keÀyegleje®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee ueebye hee³ee®ee he#eer. ceesþs leueeJe, peueeMe³es Je Flej heeCeLeU peeieebceO³es JeemleJ³e keÀjleele. peueJevemheleeRceO³es DemeCeejs efkeÀìkeÀ Je Flej peue®ejebJej iegpejeCe keÀjleele. hee³ee®eer yeesìs ueebye Demeu³eecegUs peueJevemheleeR®³ee heeveebJej menpeheCes ®eeuet MekeÀlees. vej Je ceeoer efomee³euee meejKes®e efomeleele. Pigeon sized long legged bird. Prefers lakes, reservoir and other wetlands. Feeds on insects in aquatic plants. Can easily walk on the leaves floating on the water surface due to its long toes. Male and female look similar.

lejgJseeueer HeekeÀeU s er Crested Treeswift íe³eeef®e$e - DeefJeveeMe Yeiele

efþkeÀeCe ë HeÀCemee[ DeYe³eejC³e

yegueyegue®³ee DeekeÀeje®ee SkeÀ he#eer. ueebyeì me[heeleU Mejerj, ueebye Meshetì Je [eske̳eeJej legje Demelees. meoenefjle lemes®e heeveieUer®eer JeemleJ³e keÀjleele. nJesle G[Cee´³ee efkeÀìkeÀebJej iegpejeCe keÀjleele. veje®³ee ieeueeJej leebyetme jbie Demelees Je ceeoer efHeÀkeÀì jbiee®eer Demeles. A Bulbul sized bird. It has a slender body, long tail and crest on its head. Prefers evergreen and deciduous forests. Feeds on flying insects. Male has orange patch on cheek.


25

Jeelee& He$e / News Letter Summer Camp : On 16th May, PDM

megÆerleerue efMeyeerj ë efo. 16 ces jespeer þeCes ³esLeerue meWì pee@ve ye@Hìermì MeeUsle GvneUer efMeyeerje®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. efMeyeerjele 55 efJeÐeeL³ee¥veer menYeeie Iesleuee. l³eebvee HeeCeer mebJeOe&ve, pewefJekeÀ keÀ®eN³ee®es efJeIeìve, þeCes Kee[er lemes®e jesHe ueeieJe[ ³eeyeeyele ceeie&oMe&ve keÀjC³eele Deeues. cegkegÀue cegPegceoej ³eebveer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.

conducted a Summer camp at St. John The Baptist High School. 55 students attended the camp. They showned a documentry on water saving, Solid wste management, Thane creek, etc. They were taught to plant saplings. Mukul Mujumdar was the resource person.

ie®®eerJejerue yeeie ë efo. 22 ces jespeer DebkegÀj Leerce Heeke&À ³esLes ie®®eerJejerue yeeie ueeieJe[er®eer keÀe³e&MeeUe Dee³eesepf ele keÀjC³eele Deeueer nesleer. keÀe³e&MeeUsle menYeeieer Peeuesu³eebvee He.o. ceb[Ue®es Yejle iees[ebyes ³eebveer Lees[ke̳ee peeiesle HegÀueCeeN³ee ie®®eerJejerue yeeies®es cenÊJe HeìJetve efoues. ³eeJesUer efJeefJeOe Òeel³eef#ekesÀ DeeefCe ueIegHeì oeKeefJeC³eele Deeues. lemes®e kegbÀ[erle jesHeeb®eer ueeieJe[ keÀMeer keÀjeJeer ³ee®esner ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Terrace garden Workshop : On 22nd May, PDM conducted a Terrace garden workshop at Ankur Theme park. Bharat Godambe explained to the participants the importance of terrace gardening through practical and ppt presentation. He also demonstrated pot filling.

efvemeie& YeìkebÀleer ë efo. 22 ces jespeer yeeje yebieues, þeCes HetJe& ³esLes pewJeefJeefJeOelee efoveeefveefceÊe efvemeie& YeìkebÀleer®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. ³eeJesUer peJeUHeeme 40 Pee[eb®es efvejer#eCe keÀªve l³eeb®es iegCeOece&, Deew<eOeer GHe³eesie Fl³eeoeR®eer ceeefnleer YeìkebÀleerceO³es menYeeieer Peeuesu³eebvee osC³eele Deeueer. Yejle iees[ebyes ³eebveer GHeefmLeleebvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Nature Trail :

On 22nd May, a Nature trail was organised at Bara Bunglow, Thane (E) on occassion of Biodiversity day. The participants were introduced to approx. 40 plants, their importance and medicinal use. PDM's Bharat Godambe was the resource person.

efvemeie& YeìkebÀleer ë efo. 22 ces jespeer He[ues ieeJe, [eWefyeJeueer ³esLes pewJeefJeefJeOelee efoveeefveefceÊe efvemeie& YeìkebÀleer®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. ³eeJesUer peJeUHeeme 35 He#³eeb ® es ef v ejer # eCe keÀªve l³eeb ® es pewJemeeKeUerleerue cenÊJe, l³eeb®eer peerJeveMewueer lemes®e Òeot<eCee®ee nesCeeje l³eeb®³eeJej HeefjCeece ³eeefJe<e³eer ceeefnleer osC³eele Deeueer. oMe&ve Heesleoej, ©Heeueer MeeF&Jeeues, DebefkeÀlee kegÀuekeÀCeea ³eebveer menYeeieeRvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.

Nature Trail : On 22nd May, a

Nature trail was organised at Padale Village, Dombivali (E) on occassion of Biodiversity day. The participants were introduced to approx. 35 birds. Their importance, and impact of pollution on their lifestyle was explained. Darshan Potdar, Rupali Shaiwale, Ankita Kulkarni guided the participants.


26 efvemeie& YeìkebÀleer ë efo. 22 ces jespeer He[ues ieeJe, [eWefyeJeueer ³esLes pewJeefJeefJeOelee efoveeefveefceÊe efvemeie& YeìkebÀleer®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. ³eeJesUer peJeUHeeme 35 He#³eeb®es efvejer#eCe keÀªve l³eeb®es pewJemeeKeUerleerue cenÊJe, l³eeb®eer peerJeveMewueer lemes®e Òeot<eCee®ee nesCeeje l³eeb®³eeJej HeefjCeece ³eeeJfe<e³eer ceeenfleer oCs³eele Deeuee.r oMev&e Heelseoej, ©Heeueer MeeF&Jeeues, DebefkeÀlee kegÀuekeÀCeea ³eebveer menYeeieeRvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.

Nature Trail :

On 22nd May, a Nature trail was organised at Padale Village, Dombivali (E) on occassion of Biodiversity day. The participants were introduced to approx. 35 birds. Their importance, and impact of pollution on their lifestyle was explained. Darshan Potdar, Rupali Shaiwale, Ankita Kulkarni guided the participants

yeerSce[yu³et Hueevìuee Yesì ë efo. 25 ces jespeer efceveeleeF& þekeÀjs Heefj®eeefjkeÀe ÒeefMe#eCe keÀWêe®³ee 29 eJfeÐeeL³eev¥eer SvJne³ejs eJqnpeeure®³ee keÀUJee ³eLseeure yee³eecse[ s ekreÀue Jemsì Hueevìuee Yesì efoueer. efJepe³e Ye[bie, ©Heeueer ceneuee, efMeuHee efMejJee[keÀj ³eebveer efJeÐeeL³ee¥vee pewefJekeÀ keÀ®eN³ee®es JeieeakeÀjCe DeeefCe l³ee®es efJeIeìve ³eeefJe<e³eer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. BMW plant visit : On 25th May, 29 students from Minatai Thakare

Instit. of Nursing and Education visited Enviro Vigil's BMW plant at Kalwa. Vijay Bhadang, Rupali Mahala and Shilpa Shirwadkar guided the students how to handle and dispose bio medical waste.

mJe³ebHeekeÀIejeleerue yeeie keÀe³e&MeeUe ë efo. 29 ces jespeer .He.o. ceb[Ue®³ee ûeerve keÀefj³ej keÀesmexme GHe¬eÀceebleie&le mJe³ebHeekeÀIejeleerue yeeie ³ee keÀe³e&MeeUs®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. mJe³ebHeekeÀ Iejele efvecee&Ce nesCeeje keÀ®eje, l³ee®es efJeIeìve keÀªve peeog®³ee yeeoueerÜejs Keleele ©Heeblej lemes®e Yeep³eeb®³ee efye³ee JeeHeªve jesHeeb®eer ueeieJe[ ³eeefJe<e³eer ceeefnleer osC³eele Deeueer. HeewefCe&cee efMejieeJekeÀj ³eebveer menYeeieeRvee ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues. Kitchen Garden Workshop : On 29th May, Kitchen garden wokshop

was conducted at Ankur Theme park, under Green Career Courses. The participants were guided how to segregate kitchen waste, composting with Magic bucket and methods of pot filling. Pournima Shirgaonkar was the resource person.

efvemeie& Ye´cebleer ë efoveebkeÀ 4 Je 5 petve jespeer peeieeflekeÀ he³ee&JejCe efoveeefveefceÊe efvemeie& YeìkebÀleer ®es Dee³eespeve keÀjC³eele Deeues nesles. ceevehee[e efvemeie& heefj®e³e keWÀê Je þeCes Kee[er ³esLes efvemeie& YeìkebÀleer®es Dee³eespeve keÀsues nesles. ceeveHee[e ³esLes megceejs 30 peeleeR®es lej þeCes Kee[er meHeÀejerle Hejleer®³ee ÒeJeemeeuee efveIeeuesu³ee jesnerle He#³eemen 40 peeleeR®es He#eer efvemeie&ÒesceeRvee yeIee³euee ecfeUeue.s Yejle iee[ s eybe,s DeeJfeveeMe Yeiele DeeefCe keÌueeje keÀesefj³ee ³eebveer ceeie&oMe&ve kesÀues.

Nature Trail :

On occassion of Environment Day, PDM organised nature trail at Manpada Nisarg Udyan and Thane creek on 4th and 5th June. Nature lovers saw 30 species at Manpada and 40 specis including Flamingo at Thane creek. Bharat Godambe, Avinash Bhagat and Clara Correia guided the participants.


27 27

SPECIAL ARTICLE

A TO Z ABOUT MANGROVES Laxmikant Deshpande Manager : Wetland Management and Sustainability

Godrej mangroves along West bank of Thane Creek

Mangrove Ecosystem, spread across the coastline of India, is legally protected with Coastal Regulation Zone Notification 1991. In 2013, Maharashtra Forest Department established Mangrove Cell for participatory conservation of mangroves. The Mangrove Cell registers cases of violation of CRZ Notification, mangrove destruction and takes appropriate legal action. Though Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Thane which are a part of Konkan coastline has rich mangrove ecosystem, awareness about its diversity, unique adaptations and ecosystem services among citizens and organizations is not adequate. Let us know basics of mangrove ecosystem, the first step in its conservation. Adaptation is a trait shown by plants and animals of changing physical structure or behavior for survival in unfavorable conditions. Mangroves have developed several adaptations like its specialized root system, salt glands for salt regulation, lenticel glands for gas exchange, viviparous germination for reproduction. Buttress is a type of mangrove roots developed for support to stop the tree from falling over. Orange mangroves, Kandel mangroves, Spur mangroves, Black mangroves, Cannonball mangroves, Orange mangroves are a few mangrove species with prominent buttress roots. Cable Roots are specialized mangrove roots that spread horizontally from tree trunk and help in absorption of nutrients as well supporting the tree to prevent it from falling. Grey mangrove and Milky mangrove have prominent cable roots.

Detritus Food Chain starts with decayed and decomposed biomass in mangrove ecosystem unlike other ecosystems where in food chain starts with producer plants. Mangroves produce rich detritus supporting coastal and marine biodiversity like crabs, gastropods, fish, prawns, lobsters, birds and several other creatures. Ecosystem Services are benefits of mangrove ecosystem that include Provisioning (food, raw material, medicine, water), Regulatory (climate, carbon sequestration, pollution control, pollination, erosion control), Supporting (habitat, genetic diversity) and Cultural (tourism, recreation, spiritual) services. Filtering salts is most common adaptation of plants and animals of mangrove ecosystem to ensure optimum salt concentration in body. While plants have natural filters in roots, on stems and leaves, some animals in mangrove forest use filter feeding method to ensure intake of more nutrients and less salts. Genus is first name in scientific name of an organism (for example, people are Homo sapiens - our genus is Homo and our species is H. Sapiens). Maharashtra has mangroves distributed in 12 genera. Halophytes are plants that can grow in highly saline conditions. Mangroves are facultative halophytes which means salt is not essential must requirement for plant growth but mangroves have adapted over millions of years to survive in saline conditions. Intertidal Zone is the habitat between high tide line and low tide line where mangroves grow. Joint Mangrove Management (JMM) by M S Swaminathan Research Foundation and Government of Tamil Nadu in 1997 was one of the first participatory mangrove plantation programs of India. Implemented at Pichavaram and Muthupet until 2003, JMM offered insights that guided mangroves management across India. Knee roots are specialized roots of Orange mangroves that emerge as a root loop from the underground root system and allow the exchange of gases in oxygen-poor sediments. Lenticel Glands are raised pores in the stem of mangroves


28

Male Inflorescence of Milky Mangrove

that allow gas exchange between the air and plant tissues. M angrove Associate plants are those that lack characteristics like breathing and stilt roots, viviparous germination, salt gland found in true mangrove species. They are largely found in mangrove ecosystem. Meswak, Derris, Sea Holly are a common mangrove associates of India. Niche is a special function of an organism in an ecosystem or range of environmental conditions required for an organism to reproduce. For example, Preventing shoreline erosion, breeding habitat for coastal biodiversity are some of niche functions and inter-tidal area are niche habitats of mangrove ecosystem. Oxygen dissolved in water is an important limiting factor which means its availability or shortage can influence survival and growth of mangrove ecosystem. P neumatophores are specialised breathing roots of mangroves that grow on cable roots over the ground and absorb oxygen to compensate its deficiency in soil. Grey mangrove and mangrove apple show dense and prominent network of pneumatophores. Quadrat is plot of area selected and marked to study plant and animal diversity of an ecosystem. It is most common technique used to study mangrove biodiversity. R iver Mangrove is a mangrove species named so because it grows in very less saline habitats more towards land front or riverine end of estuaries and creeks. Salinity is the concentration of salts in water and different mangrove species grow in different salinity ranges. For example, Nypa palm can grow in 0.5% saline water while Sueda mangroves can grow in water upto 35% saline water. Temperature more than 16OC is essential requirement of mangroves hence mangrove ecosystem grows only in tropical and subtropical countries.

Unisexual Flower is flower that has only male or female reproductive part. In mangrove ecosystem, only Milky mangrove, among all species has unisexual flowers. Viviparous Germination is unique reproduction system observed in mangroves wherein seeds are germinated while still on the plant and are dispersed mostly by water when ready to establish and grow. Wave Action is important limiting factor controlling growth of mangroves. Most mangrove species grow better in areas of good water flushing due to waves; but not in open seas due to too rough wave action. Xylem is parts of wood that regulates movement of water and other substances within a plant. Xylems in mangrove trees are specially adapted for reverse osmosis to control salt and act as filers; helping plant to survive in highly saline environment. Yield is measure of productivity of plants and calculated with biomass produced by it. Mangroves are considered richest ecosystem with its yield than most terrestrial ecosystems thus supporting diverse food chain and ecosystem services. Zonation is placement of mangrove species based on limiting factors such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, wave action. The species grow in three zones, viz, front, mid and back zones based on their suitability with these limiting factors. Every geographical area of Indian coast has different limiting factors and hence, mangroves species, too, change their zone depending on local specific conditions. Grey mangrove may be placed in front zone of one region while in mid zone of other based on its salinity and wave action.

Fragrant inflorescence of River Mangrove attracts honey bees and helps Apiculture


29

THE PLANT LIFE : ROOTS Sweedel Adesh Shivkar

As we set on a green journey, let us unveil an offbeat topic in the Kingdom of Plants. This series will reveal the myriad types and variation in the various ‘parts of a plant’ and give an insight into knowing more about them. Understanding more about their other aspects like shape, size, varieties and how they have developed strategies to survive superbly is important. Their design has allowed them to thrive successfully on this green planet. More about Roots A Root is the lowermost part of the plant which primarily helps in absorption of water and other dissolved minerals and transports them to the parts above. The word ‘underground’ is missing here because they aren’t always below the ground. Any plant or plant–like organism will have roots or some remnant of the same. This essential part keeps them grounded. It makes them stand out amongst the other living organisms on earth. Roots perform the important functions of anchorage, absorption of water and minerals and as reserves for food. While now we know the basic of roots and its function, let’s delve deeper into the world of these magnificent structures. Roots in the form of radicle emerge from a seed which absorbs water from the soil to trigger the growth of first set of leaf or leaves

to initiate food production. Water and minerals are absorbed from the soil with the help of process known as ‘osmotic pressure’. Diversity The radicle further matures into a root giving rise to lateral roots. The branching may go up to fourth level known as quaternary level. The root has various parts like root hairs, root cap, epidermis and so on. Various types - tap root, fibrous, adventitious, aerial and many more have been studied. The main root which grows bigger and longer and sends out secondary smaller lateral roots is the Tap root (e.g.: carrot, radish, banyan and mango). A potato though grows underground’ isn’t a root but a stem. Identifying a root from a stem is based on following characters – roots lack nodes, absence of leaf buds and they develop lateral roots. The second type i.e. Fibrous are thread-like roots, develop below the stem closer to the surface of the soil (eg: onion, sugarcane, palms, gingers, grasses). There are more types of roots that have evolved adapting to various climatic conditions, modifying themselves for diverse functions. The hostile environment of the mangrove habitat which is inundated with salt water most of the times


30 ground. These sturdy species are the first to establish in an area devoid of vegetation. It isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t necessary that a particular species will grow a root of same length, because it depends on soil and climatic conditions. Importance Roots shelter and provide microhabitat for ground dwelling fungi, plant and animal species. Many are highly medicinal and have been put to use for human well-being. The degraded areas in need of soil conservation are first introduced with grass seeds or saplings which prevent soil erosion and help in reforestation programmes. In the same way, some plant species popularly known as sand binders hold on to the sand in sea-shore and desert habitats. has been tackled by the unique roots of mangrove species. The specialized roots (not all) defy the basic behavior of growing into the soil and instead rise above to breathe in the anoxic habitat. Avicennia species which grow at the periphery (towards the shore) develop pneumatophores or breathing roots while Rhizophora species develop stilt roots to provide anchorage in the soft mudflats. Epiphytes like mosses, bromeliads, orchids grow on trees and rocks so they develop clinging roots â&#x20AC;&#x201C; an interesting phenomenon. Parasites like Loranthus, mistletoe are epiphytes too but they have developed a clever strategy to grow their roots into the host plant tissue to absorb nutrients from them. The adventitious type is the one which develops on other parts of plant. This is helpful in vegetative propagation of some species. The prop roots of a banyan tree and some members of fig family give extra support to the huge canopy. These develop from the stem and strike the ground. Vegetables like carrot, beetroot have evolved to store food in their main root. The food reserves help them to survive the unfavorable season. Members of the peanut family are known to convert the nitrogen into usable form with the help of bacteria residing in their roots. This nitrogen can be used by the plant itself and also made available to other plants and animals. This property is very important in the agricultural sector where nitrogen is replenished into the soil. Record setter Records say the deepest roots are those of a wild Fig tree of South Africa reaching 400 feet into the lithosphere. Grasses have smaller roots which grow few inches into the


31

MANGROVES AND ITS SILVICULTURE Sneha Shirodkar-Nalawade

Nature shows its uniqueness in its every form. Mangroves being one of the best examples of it. Mangroves occur in intertidal zones along sheltered coasts & river banks in coastal areas in tropical and subtropical countries of the world. They grow in conditions where few other plant species can survive. Mangrove habitat and characteristics The mangrove vegetation of the world can be divided into two broad groups. 1) The old world mangroves occurring in the Indo-Pacific region extending from the east coast of Africa to Samoain the South Pacific 2) The second group, the new world mangroves, occurs along the west coast ofAfrica between Mauritania and Angola, in the Americas on the east coast between Barbados andBrazil and on the west coast between Mexico and northern Peru. Indonesia has the largest total area of mangrove forest while the Sundarbans swamp region in Bangladesh and India is the largest single chunk of mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove vegetation primarily comprises trees and shrubs, with a limited number of palms and lianas.Major mangrove species belong to less than 15 families but the most frequently occurring mangroves belong to the Rhizophoraceae, Sonneratiaceae and Avicenniaceae. The Sundarbans, where members of the families Sterculiaceae and Euphorbiaceae predominate, is an exception. The mangrove environment is primarily saline, and the

vegetation grows and flourishes by using three different mechanisms which cope with excess salt. The roots of saltexcluding species of Ceriops, Excoecaria and Rhizophora can absorb only freshwater from the saline water through aprocess of ultrafiltration (Scholander, 1968). Species of Avicennia and Sonneratia can regulate the salt content of their tissues by glands in their leaves. Xylocarpus sp., Lumnitzera sp. and Sonneratia sp. deposit salt in older leaves, roots and bark (Josh), Jamale and Bhosal, 1975). Mangrove plants also display features similar to those in desert plants which tend to conserve. Water (Hutchings and Saenger, 1987). Mangroves occur in areas where strong wave actions are absent. The most extensive growth of mangroves can be seen in estuaries of rivers and protected lagoons and coastal lakes. Mangroves occur in areas of high humidity and their luxuriant growth is often associated with a high rainfall. Minimum air temperature and seasonal variations in temperature are important in the growth of mangroves. As cited by Chapman (1975; 1977), the best mangrove growth and development occur where the seasonal temperature variation does not exceed 10°C and where the air temperature in the coldest month is higher than 10°C. Mangrove soils are characterized by high salt and water, low oxygen and high hydrogen sulphide contents and contain a high proportion of humus (Macnae, 1968). The best growth and development of mangroves takes place on alluvial and muddy soils which are generally formed byte deposition of


32

water-borne soil particles. Mangrove soils are mostly anoxic except for the surface layer in which roots spread (Rag, 1987). As a result, mangroves generally have shallow root systems and therefore cannot withstand strong wind and grow better in a sheltered habitat. Mangrove seeds and propagules are dispersed exclusively by water and their distribution is therefore greatly influenced by tides which carry them both upstream and downstream. The tidal range, together with the topography, of an area regulates the lateral extent of mangrove development. The greater the tidal range, the greater the vertical range available for mangrove communities (Hutchings and Saenger. 1987). Tides also bring about changes in the salinity concentration of water in mangrove areas. Mangrove forests have an efficient mechanism for natural regeneration, particularly in areas within mangrove stands where site degradation has not taken place. Because of the daily or periodic inundation by tidal water as well as the deposition of water-borne soil particles, the forest bed is soft and always suitable for regeneration and normally does not require any site preparation. One other notable phenomenon in a large number of important mangrove species Rhizophora,Ceriops, Bruguiera, Kandelia and Nypa is that their seeds develop into seedlings while they are still attached to the mother tree. This phenomenon is known as vivipary where the embryo ruptures the pericarp and grows beyond it. In a second group, which includes species of Aegiceras, Laguncularia, Pelliciera and Avicennia, the embryo, while developing within the fruit, does not enlarge sufficiently to rupture the pericarp. This has been termed as cryptovivipary by Hutchings and Saenger (1987). Species of Excoecaria, Sonneratia, Heritiera and Xylocarpus are not viviparous. However, all of the above-mentioned species produce buoyant seeds which are dispersed exclusively by water and are capable of reaching any corner of the forest inundated by tidal water.

Most seeds that fall off mother trees during low tide stick to soft mud and quickly strike roots. In the case of viviparous seeds, the adventitious roots already present in the hypocotyl emerge and Anchor the seedlings (Chapman, 1976). However, in all cases the deposition of silt by subsequent high tides helps the seeds or seedlings to secure a better hold. In instances where seeds or seedlings drop during high tides, they continue to float in the water until they come into contact with a soil substrate and strike roots. It is interesting to note that most mangrove seeds retain viability for a long period while still in the saline environment, but lose viability soon after they are removed from that environment. Threats to mangrove forests and their habitats include: Clearing: Mangrove forests have often been seen as unproductive and smelly, and so cleared to make room for agricultural land, human settlements and infrastructure (such as harbours), and industrial areas. More recently, clearing for tourist developments, shrimp aquaculture, and salt farms has also taken place. This clearing is a major factor behind mangrove loss around the word. Overharvesting: Mangrove trees are used for firewood, construction wood, wood chip and pulp production, charcoal production, and animal fodder. While harvesting has taken place for centuries, in some parts of the world it is no longer sustainable, threatening the future of the forests. River changes: Dams and irrigation reduce the amount of water reaching mangrove forests, changing the salinity level of water in the forest. If salinity becomes too high, the mangroves cannot survive. Freshwater diversions can also lead to mangroves drying out. In addition, increased erosion due to land deforestation can massively increase the amount of sediment in rivers. This can overcome the mangrove forestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s filtering ability, leading to the forest being smothered. ... Page 34


33

MANGROVES Kalpana Malani

Basin mangrove forests: Stunted mangroves in the interior of swamps. Scrub mangrove Forests: A dwarf stand of mangroves found on flat coastal fringes due to high salinity.

Role of Mangroves

Mangroves evolved 114 million years ago in the IndoMalaysian area and then spread to other regions of the Tropics.. The worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mangrove forests cover 14 million hectares and are mostly limited to 25 degrees N & S of the equator. For mangroves to flourish the daytime temperature should be greater than 24 degrees Celsius and the annual rainfall over 40 inches. Mangrove swamps are the saltwater equivalent of the tropical rain forest and consist of trees and shrubs which have adapted to flooding and salinity (i.e. salt water) - Mangroves adapt to salt water by - Having a filter system in the roots - Storing the salt in the leaves which are then shed Transferring the salt to the leaf surface which is then washed out by the rain.

Types of mangrove Forests Overwash Mangrove Forests: Small islands covered with mangroves frequently washed by tides Fringing mangrove Forests: Strips of mangroves found along borders of waterways and sensitive to erosion Riverine mangrove forests: Luxuriant stands of mangroves found in tidal areas and creeks with fresh water inflow

Coastal protection - Absorb the shock of tidal waves , floods and storms Animal habitat and breeding and feeding grounds for birds, insects, mudskippers, crabs, fish, shrimps, mammals, amphibians and reptiles. Pollution Control and coastal water quality Improvement Carbon Sequestration. Ecotourism

Threats to mangroves Development of coastal regions for shipping and industry Sewage and industrial effluents Oil Pollution Overfishing Aquaculture Sand mining

Protection of mangroves in India The Indian Forest Act 1927 and the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 provide protection to flora and fauna. The


34

Environment Protection Act 1986 declares a Coastal Regulation Zone – coastal stretches are classified into 4 categories and mangroves are included in the most ecologically sensitive category – CRZ -1 ( I).

Some interesting facts The largest single mangrove forest of 1 million hectares is the Sundarbans in India and Bangladesh. Red mangroves ( Rhizophora sp.) have prop roots while Black mangroves ( Avicenna sp. ) have pneumatophores i. e. roots growing upwards. The proboscis monkey of Borneo feeds on tender young mangrove leaves. A report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) published 12 months after the devastating tsunami compared two coastal villages in Sri Lanka that were hit by the wall of water. It showed that two people died in the settlement with dense mangrove and scrub forest, while up to 6,000 people died in the village without similar vegetation. Worldwide there are more than 35 mangrove tree species. There are four common names for mangrove trees: white mangroves, black mangroves, red mangroves, and buttonwood mangroves. Mangrove ants walk on water or swim.

Further Reading and Bibliography Secrets of the sea – Readers Digest Publications Wetlands – Max Finlayson & Michael Mozer Mangroves of Goa – Vinod K. Dhargalkar, Richard D’souza, Devanand P. Karlekar, Arvind G. Untawale. https://www.leeandlow.com/images/pdfs/ 10_Mangrove_Tree_Facts.pdf http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/habitats/Mangrove

from Page 32

Mangroves and its Silviculture Overfishing: The global overfishing crisis facing the world’s oceans has effects far beyond the directly overfished population. The ecological balance of food chains and mangrove fish communities can also be altered. Destruction of coral reefs: Coral reefs provide the first barrier against currents and strong waves. When they are destroyed, the stronger-than-normal waves and currents reaching the coast can undermine the fine sediment in which the mangroves grow. This can prevent seedlings from taking root and wash away nutrients essential for mangrove ecosystems. Pollution: Fertilizers, pesticides, and other toxic man-made chemicals carried by river systems from sources upstream can kill animals living in mangrove forests, while oil pollution can smother mangrove roots and suffocate the trees. Climate change: Mangrove forests require stable sea levels for long-term survival. They are therefore extremely sensitive to current rising sea levels caused by global warming and climate change. Silviculture of mangroves The human greed of over exploiting nature has impacted mangroves too. So there was a need of systematic and sustainable use of mangroves throughsilviculture. Silviculture is the art and science of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, and quality of forest vegetation for the full range of forest resource objectives. With the exception of Asia, in most countries with mangrove formations no systematic Silviculture .In Asia, on the other hand, mangrove forests - including those in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh,Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia - have been under management for a long time. ForExample, the Sundarbans in India and Bangladesh has been under sustainable management for more than 100 years (Hussein and Ahmed, 1994).


35

NEW TRENDS IN ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION Shubhda Kushwaha

Have you ever imagined an environment that is not green, full of waste, and unclean? India has a rich tradition of biodiversity conservation. The growing awareness of importance and high rates of loss make it imperative to rapidly assess and conserve biodiversity. India became the first country in the world to have provisions for the protection and improvement of its environment. Inspite this, our country faces various environmental challenges in the form of growing population, change in lifestyles and balancing economic development and conservation. Biodiversity is currently an important issue. In the light of loss of diversity of biotic components, new trends and conservation strategies had to be formulated by responsible authorities. Some of the initiatives include: National Green Tribunal (NGT) National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management And Planning Authority (CAMPA) Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) Mangrove Cell There is also a need of corporate sector to take up the ownership of environment protection by having an Environmental Management System (EMS). This can be achieved through company Biodiversity Action Plans. EMS can take the charge of reducing the waste and efficient use of energy by sustainable practices. Social media has also been trendsetter now-a-days not only for fashion industry but also for small causes and bigger movements for preserving environment. It has been a big success in the recent time. Let it be the present “Save Aarey movement” which brought every nature lover together from pedestrian walking around or cyclists cycling down the Aarey. Everyone is playing an equal part in trying to give their best to protect the trees in the area and have been successful to a larger extent just by making the ruling party think over the issue repeatedly. “Save Thane Creek”, is another such movement for protecting the

creek and the surrounding mangroves. The areas adjacent have been in limelight and partly preserved even by the high court of Maharashtra. These two events have been in talks on every second person’s mind creating awareness and bringing few like-minded people together. Both these events received tremendous support from public forums, having many more people joining from all fraternity.

Whatever may be the ways, preserving and protecting our environment is now one of main goals of every individual and of government as well. Environment Protection will therefore contribute not only to conservation but also to survival of mankind.


36

ACTIVITY

PARYAVARAN SHALA

The year was 2004. Thane city was ‘developing’ at a fast pace. People were getting used to leading a mechanized life in concrete jungles. Very few had the time or inclination to explore nature or nurture nature. In view of such a situation, a handful of like minded nature lovers came together at Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal, a NGO in Thane, to try and change this picture. They were Dr. Mansi Joshi (a botanist), Dr. Jyoti Patwardhan, Dr. Arun Joshi and Prof. Vidyadhar Walavalkar. This enthusiastic group brainstormed and came up with the pioneer project of Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal called ‘Paryavaran Shala’. Paryavaran Shala was formed to create awareness and educate the masses about the importance of a healthy environment and balanced eco system. The target audience for the first batch were students studying in std VIIth and VIIIth. These students were taught about various subjects like components of a healthy environment viz., air, water, soil, etc and energy audit, bio diversity, etc. Eventually teachers and parents were also included in the audience and this project was aptly named ‘Khooli Paryavaran Shala’. There were no more any restrictions for age, sex, caste or profession for the audience. People from various professions, age, sex, etc. came together and joined this school and learnt about the environment. Nature trails were also introduced to make people aware of the bio diversity around us. Trails were conducted by experts on various subjects viz. plants, birds, insects, butterflies, etc. Once again people from various streams and age came together and learnt to explore and respect nature. Paryavaran Shala also initiated a unique project exclusively for school children called ‘Nisarg Mela’. Various competitions were designed to bring children closer to

nature. This is the 16th year of Nisarg Mela. Few competitions of Nisarg Mela viz. Nature Photography, Plant identification and Treasure Hunt are conducted in green patches around Thane city. Feedback from children about these competitions has revealed that children are very excited and amazed to learn about the bio diversity existing in our city. A drawing competition based on nature is also conducted. The final event for Nisarg Mela is conducted on Oct 2nd on occasion of World Wildlife Week. An Indian endangered species is considered as the mascot for Nisarg Mela. Exhibits on the species are displayed to make children aware about it’s existence as well as threats. The entry fee for this event is for children to prepare an eco friendly greeting card and a mask of any wildlife species. A ‘Best out of waste’ competition is also conducted to inculcate the value of ‘Reuse’ and ‘Recycle’ in our day to day life. A quiz competition, street play competition and power point competition on various environmental topics are also conducted on this occasion to set the children thinking in the right direction. Paryavaran Shala also organizes an annual Film Festival for school children in every December. Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal has a vast collection of documentary films on various aspects of the environment. These documentary films have a high educational value and are not easily available in the market. Films on various environmental concerns are screened during this festival to update children and to make them aware of the need for conservation. We invite volunteers from all streams of life to join hands with Paryavaran Shala to educate our children about a pollution free environment and healthy living. Please feel free to contact Paryavaran Shala at 022 25380648 or 98690 33583. You may also email at ‘paryavaranshala1@gmail.com’.


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A Journey to a Goan Forest Unforgettable Indian Pitta and the Stork-billed Kingfisher with catch such wonderful sight in the world No one can find a match... Minute after minute Hornbill go flying towards their nests and the flying Lizards... YES! flying Lizards were the best from the rest... Indian Gaur, we saw one at just five metres the waterfalls were beautiful with flowing water for hundreds of litres... Black Panther we did not see one but seen his droppings on the way all the three types of Nightjars, how quietly did they lay... The effect of this trip on us? Oh really don't ask! we all kept looking for birds in trees it was a hard task... Oh! how can I forget the grey-fronted pigeon and sightings of female Malabar Trogon in that beautiful region... And I say sorry again for not telling you about the dark-fronted babbler who was moving in and out... But, after coming back here I could tell the difference of the traffic of the trees there but here the traffic of humans...

Srujani Walavalkar Std. 8th : Bhagavati Vidyalay 022-2536 9547


PROFILE

SILENT GREEN LOVERS

Rama Bishnoi - Mumbai. Age 54 is a marketing consultant by profession and avid nature lover. Her goal is to infuse anyone and everyone with the love of nature and to protect, She especially deals with children and introduces to them the magic and wonder in nature. She is part of number of tree walks in Mumbai. She is a regular marathon runner and cyclist drawing attention to use alternates. An avid bird watcher participates in conducting trails and bird races with students only. She involves in nature related activities like tree appreciation walks and is an active participant in the activities BNHS, Sanctuary magazine. She keenly follows various therats to the beautiful natural habitat of the city and lend support to protect them. She is a true advocate of a sustainable green lifestyle. Pravin Vinayak Vishe - Age 32, a teacher by profession. He lives in Murbad. He is officially a snake rescuer in 2006. He has dedicated his life in creating awareness of biodiversity in various schools and surrounding villages. He works in close association with the forest department in recording data of the biodiversity in Murbad. Social awareness is his speciality. He is associated presently with Late Motiram Dalal Trust - Ambernath working exclusively for a rural development. Personally, he is now into plantation of medicinal plants and will shortly start a butterfly garden too. He is also currently creating awareness in rain water harvesting.

Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal

17th Anniversary We intend to celebrate the Anniversary of Paryavaran Dakshata Mandal this year on

Sunday, 10th July 2016 at 10 a.m. We extend our invitation to all over well wishers, who have been with us in this journey since it's inception and also those who have joined us in this journey. Special Guest Shri. Sunil Limaye

Guest of Honour Dr. Archana Godbole

(Chief Conservator of Forest, Wildlife, Pune)

(Applied Environment Research Foundation, Founder Director)

Dr. Vijay Joshi (Principal, Somaiya College of Science & Commerce, Vidyavihar, Mumbai)

Venue Sahayog Mandir, 2nd Floor, Sahayog Mandir Path, Naupada, Thane (W) Yours

Dr. Prasad Karnik (Chairmen)

Prof. Vidyadhar Walavalkar (General Secretary)


July 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine July 2016

July 2016  

Aapala Paryavaran Magazine July 2016

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