Suspended Living in Temporary Space

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EDITED BY MARCO VAUDETTI VALERIA MINUCCIANI SIMONA CANEPA NILUFER SAGLAR ONAY

Suspended Living in Temporary Space EMERGENCIES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 9 OCTOBER 2017 POLITECNICO DI TORINO TURIN, ITALY


05 Collana Alleli / Events Scientific commitee Edoardo Dotto Nicola Flora Antonella Greco Bruno Messina Stefano Munarin Giorgio Peghin – The volumes published in this series are subjected to a peer-review process

ISBN 978-88-6242-252-9 First edition March 2018 © 2018 LetteraVentidue Edizioni © 2018 Texts / Photographies: each authors No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including photocopying, even for internal or educational use. Italian legislation allows reproduction for personal use only, provided it does not disadvantage the author. Therefore, reproduction is illegal when it replaces the actual purchase of a book as it threatens the survival of a way of transmitting knowledge. Photocopying a book, providing the means to photocopy, or facilitating this practice by any means is similar to committing theft and damaging culture. If mistakes or omissions have been made concerning the copyrights of the illustrations, we will gladly make a correction in the next reprint. Book design Raffaello Buccheri LetteraVentidue Edizioni S.r.l. Corso Umberto I, 106 96100 Siracusa, Italy Web www.letteraventidue.com Facebook LetteraVentidue Edizioni Twitter @letteraventidue Instagram letteraventidue_edizioni


EDITED BY MARCO VAUDETTI VALERIA MINUCCIANI SIMONA CANEPA NILUFER SAGLAR ONAY

Suspended Living in Temporary Space EMERGENCIES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS 9 OCTOBER 2017 POLITECNICO DI TORINO TURIN, ITALY



CONTENTS 9

Preface 1 SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

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Living in a tent Marco Vaudetti

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Living mobile for emergency: lessons from big architects Simona Canepa

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Emergency homes: technical solutions and culturalized space. Cases study in Turin (Italy) Valeria Minucciani

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Interior solutions for standard emergency architecture Nilufer Saglar Onay 2 INVITED SPEAKERS

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Reflections on adaptive reuse strategies for a socio-spatial refugee integration Carmen Mendoza-Arroyo

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Homelessness and the violence of space Mario Perini

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Migration phenomenon and places of transit. “The refugee camp of Choucha, Tunisian-Libyan border�

Sana Tamzini


3 - PARTICIPANTS 95

Transit cities: a critical analysis of transitional camps in the urban context of Paris Michel Jaquet, Carmen Mendoza-Arroyo

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Negotiating precarity through housing Nilay Unsal Gulmez

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Integrative refugee housing: the efficacy of adaptive reuse in the United States and Germany Walker Toma

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Incremental self-help temporary housing Mahsa Safaei, Yurdanur D. Yüksel

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Intellectual migrant’s place Selen Kurt, Sait Ali Köknar

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Remaking of home by syrian refugees in Kilis Elbeyli Refugee Camp Feyza Macit, Durnev Atilgan Yağan

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The influences of syrian refugees on turkish cities: Kilis case Esra Islamoğlu, M. Serhat Yenice

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Unfinished design as a new trans-disciplinary prospective Luciano Crespi, Fiamma Colette Invernizzi

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Adaptive reuse of abandoned buildings for refugees: lessons from european context Haniyeh Razavivand Fard, Asma Mehan

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Reconsidering transitional shelters Armin Tayyebiazar, Mahsa Safaei, Yurdanur D. Yüksel

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Refugees, economic migrants and demographic decline in Italy Estella Pasquini


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Suspended living in permanent temporality and resisting in spatial terms: the case of Al-Wihdat Saba Al Muhtaseb, Nilay Unsal Gulmez

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(Con)temporary living. The Identity Game Roxana Madalina Ghibusi

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Make place Paolo Giardiello, Marella Santangelo

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Conditions of reception of victims of illegal immigration Khaled Omrane



Scientific committee Marco VAUDETTI Valeria MINUCCIANI Simona CANEPA Nilufer SAGLAR ONAY


SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

Living in a tent Marco VAUDETTI DAD Department of Architecture and Design Politecnico di Torino, Italy marco.vaudetti@polito.it

Architect, full professor in interior and exhibit design at Department of Architecture and Design Politecnico di Torino. Currently he teaches the course “Interior Architecture and Exhibit” at Master of Science in Architecture Construction City and the course “Exhibit Design” at Design and visual communication Degree. He’s coordinator of 1st level Master in Interior, Exhibit & Retail Design of Politecnico di Torino since 2014. Member of the College of Teachers of PhD in interior design and exhibit of the Polythecnic of Milan. Since April 2014 he’s scientific director of the memorandum of understanding between the Regional Superintendency of the penitentiary for Piedmont and Valle d’Aosta, the Department of Architecture and Design at the Politecnico di Torino and the Department of Law, University of Turin, for activities of study, research and training, aimed at improving the overall state of the architectural structures of Italian prisons and, in particular, that of the prisons in Piedmont and Valle d’Aosta. From 2012 he is scientific coordinator of Atelier of Architecture “ARC ATELIER” dedicated to proposals for measures to improve the quality of the interior spaces of the Prison Lorusso e Cutugno of Turin for studies and research on architectural issues prison. Coordinator of National research program PRIN 2008 project title “Intervention in archaeological areas for activities related to musealization and cultural communication” (March 2010 – December 2012) Coordinator of Research group “Exhibit guidelines for district 1-3-4 Ecomuseum and Information Center for young people of Turin city”.


Marco VAUDETTI

Fig. 2 / Spatial distribution.

Fig.3 / Longitudinal section.

Fig.4 / Axonometric view.

19


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Figg. 5, 6 / Interior views of the living module.

Inside the C-shaped wall that forms the front partition element, the access door is set; the wall is made up of a 40 mm cardboard honeycomb panel with fireproof MDF coating. The furnishings supplied with the module are composed of: a small table, in aluminium, covered in wood, foldable and extendable by telescopic system; wardrobe fixed to the honeycomb panel slats and equipped with two front shelves, one for TV support and one safe deposit box. In addition, there is a side niche for clothing (Figg. 5, 6). Emergency housing solutions: reorganisation of the interior space of the tent2 The tent is of the Montana Ferrino type, exterior cladding in PVC coated fire-retardant waterproof modacrylic cotton, self-supporting armor with galvanized steel tubes and steel joints and crosspieces along the perimeter base. The supplied flooring uses the use of plastic, modular or roller-shutter-type shelves, covered with a dustproof polyethylene sheet; alternatively, a modular wooden platform is expected, of the type used for fair stands so as to offer greater stability and durability over time. The solution consists of two configurations: -- a single person configuration, organized with bed, wardrobe, table, chair, armchair; -- a configuration for the couple, organized with a double bed, wardrobe, table, chairs; the chest opens upwards reducing the area of use. 2. Thesis by Daniele Bertoglio e Giulia Calvo, supervisor M. Vaudetti, Politecnico di Torino July 2017, Bachelor in Design and visual communication.


Marco VAUDETTI

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Fig. 7 / Axonometry of the tent structure.

The internal division of the spaces for the single is developed on the two sides of a distribution corridor that crosses the tent throughout its length, from which the individual spaces can be accessed; the latter are delimited and separated from each other through cotton/modacrylic, fire-retardant and waterproof sheets, fixed to the tubular structure of the tent with rings, so as to allow it to slide and thereby secure access within the various individual spaces (Fig. 7). With regard to furniture components: -- for the wardrobe system a tube composition was connected to the skeleton of the tent and partly to the partition system and equipped with grid shelves; -- the lighting basic of the tent has been integrated with a watertight ceiling fixture attached to the wardrobe system; -- the table is of the folding type, inserted inside the wardrobe system, as well as the enclosed chairs; -- the bed also functions as a sofa/armchair, which can be inserted into the wardrobe system.


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Fig. 4 / Alberto Rosselli, Capsula abitativa: different configurations.

Fig. 5 / Pierluigi Spadolini M.A.P.I.: assembly steps.

Spadolini’s M.A.P.I. proposal M.A.P.I. is the acronym that identifies the Housing Module of Ready Intervention designed by Pierluigi Spadolini, in 1982 to cope with the emergency of the Irpinia earthquake, but then built only in 1988 to cope with the Armenia’s one. This was the first dwelling example built in laboratory, thus zeroing out the operations on site. The housing unit was conceived as a suitably equipped, easy to transport emergency response module, which can be placed in any site without damaging the land on which it was placed, recoverable. Through a simple opening device of walls, ceilings and floors made of plastic material, the house tripled its volume (Fig. 5). It did not require foundation work, but since it was equipped with sleigh and telescopic supports, the module could be placed everywhere in a short time without the help of specialized personnel. Service components and internal partitions were distinct from the basic module and could be added as needed. They consisted of the body bath block, the kitchen block complete with equipment, containers and cabinets of various heights and internal walls and could all be contained in the central part during transport. The module was equipped with hot air heating system, electrical system and water-sanitary system. For its innovative technological features and design, MAPI module won the Gold Compass Award in 1986. This module was part of SAPI (Home System of Ready Intervention) which included other multi-functional modules equipped for school, work, catering, liturgical use, in order to allow the realization of a more complex settlement.


Simona CANEPA

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Bibliographical references E. Ambasz (a cura di), “Italy: The New Domestic Landscape”, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, 1972. T. Cecere, E. Guida, R. Mango, “L’abitabilità transitoria, la ricerca architettonica per nuove strategie abitative, Fratelli Fiorentino, Napoli, 1984. C. Latina, “Sistemi abitativi per insediamenti provvisori” Milano, BE-MA, 1988. F. Gurrieri, “Pierluigi Spadolini Umanesimo e tecnologia” Milano, Electa, 1988. R. Mango, E. Guida, “Abitare l’emergenza. Studi e sperimentazioni progettuali”, Napoli, Electa, 1988. M. De Giorgi (a cura di), “Marco Zanuso architetto”, Milano, Skira, 1999. P. Sulzer, “Jean Prouvé: oeuvre complète = complete works”, Basel, Birkhäuser, 1999-2008. D. De Nardi, “Jean Prouvé idee costruttive”, Torino, Testo e Immagine, 2000, C. Falasca, “Architetture ad assetto variabile: modelli evolutivi per l’habitat provvisorio”, Firenze, Alinea, 2000. S. Ban, “Shigeru Ban Shigeru”, London, Laurence King Publishing, 2001. L. Van Schaik, “Sean Godsell: opere e progetti”, Milano, Electa, 2004. R. Bologna, C. Terpolilli (a cura di), “Emergenza del progetto. Progetto dell’emergenza: architetture con-temporaneità”, Milano, Motta Editore, 2005. Fig. 7 / Shigeru Ban Paper Log house: axonometric view. This prototype of emergency house was first used during Kobe earthquake in 1995, then the earthquake in Northwest Turkey in 1999, the tsunami in Southeast Asia in 2004, the hurricane Katrina in New Orleans in 2005 and the Sichuan earthquake in 2008.

L. Alessio, “Shigeru Ban”, Roma, Edilstampa, 2008. P. Jodidio, “Shigeru Ban: complete works 1985-2010”, Köln, Taschen, 2010.


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Fig. 2 / The different colouring, although not specifically designed, helps to reduce depersonalization of containers, marked with a number.

Fig. 3 / The outdoor spaces, with their very regular shape and proportions, are mainly used to lay laundry, also in the Better Shelters sector.

only to welcome refugees, but also to promote their integration: it is supervised by the Civil Protection and managed by the Red Cross, with the help of several volunteers. It is not limited to providing food and accommodation, but also offers assistance for integration, including psychological support. The containers of the TAV camp, which also housed different offices and activities (including sports) were recovered and, in the face of great demand, a second settlement was added to host people remaining for a few days: initially, it was a true tent city that was disused in autumn 2017 and replaced by a Better Shelters Ikea system. The camp can accommodate up to 400 people (not more than 300 temporary guests, who remain only a few days waiting to be directed to other facilities, and no more than 100 stable guests, who can stay for a year, waiting to gain autonomy). The layout of the camp takes into account the different flows (short-and long-term guests) and routes (migrants and volunteers). Containers are certainly anonymous boxes on which, however, some intervention could be made: in fact they have been externally painted with colours – chosen on the basis of availability and not for other reasons – which allow them to be distinguished from each other (Fig. 2). This feature – in itself very inexpensive – could be studied not only to identify the different functions (offices, services, gymnasium, classrooms,


Valeria MINUCCIANI

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canteen, study room, TV room, library room) but also to distinguish the houses from each other (currently they’re marked with a number). In addition, as we know, colours have a perceptive, cultural and psychological bearing that could be consciously exploited.21 The daily life of migrants in the “permanent” area is very regular and marked by the different activities. In the free time, people can leave the camp or socialize with each other in dedicated spaces or even in outdoor areas, which are tidy but not specifically designed for any activity. After the abandonment of the worksite, in fact, the vegetation had quickly taken over, so that after a general cleanup some trees were planted (olives, oaks, magnolias). At present, the external connecting spaces appear simple but effective, although the role of greenery does not seem studied for any particular function. They are mainly used to socialize but also to bring outside the rooms some activities (such as drying laundry) that cannot find space inside22 (Fig. 3). Each container has 40 places and is divided into small room, with bathroom, mostly equipped with two beds where guests are grouped according to the ethnic groups23. Although the housing is temporary for some, precarious for others, the cultural conditioning emerges. A systematic, continuous observation over time, certainly would 21. See the above mentioned case of Paris. 22. Silvia Paulillo's thesis, The Emergency Temporary Housing (Master of Science in Architecture Construction City, Politecnico di Torino, 2015/2016, supervisors Guido Callegari and Valeria Minucciani) presented in 2016, focused precisely on the situation of the Fenoglio camp in Settimo Torinese: she highlighted the actual needs, only partially satisfied. In particular, she emphasized the need for spaces for socializing among ethnic groups; practical and concrete services, such as laundries, lofts and more chemical toilets; points for foreign communication, such as internet points and telephones; places of worship; library; flexible units for every need, to accommodate entire families. As you can see, some of these needs have been met in the meantime, in some way. 23. Currently guests come from 18 different countries (Asia and Arica).

Fig. 4 / The cleanliness and the order in the rooms, as can be seen referring to these beds, considerably vary among people.

Fig. 5 / In this case the guest preferred to do without other comforts (by obstructing the entrance into the bathroom and leaning the wardrobe against the bed) in order to obtain inside the small room a free space to pray.



Invited speakers Carmen MENDOZA-ARROYO Mario PERINI Sana TAMZINI


INVITED SPEAKERS

Migration phenomenon and places of transit The refugee camp of Choucha, Tunisian-Libyan border Sana TAMZINI Researcher and academic Interior design department, École Supérieure des Sciences et Technologies du Design, Manouba University, Tunis, Tunisia sana.tamzini@gmail.com

Since the outbreak of the Tunisian revolution in 2011, the country has become and to this day a transit area for migrants wishing to travel to Europe, via Italy, by sea*. It is the whole of this foreign population who sought to leave the country as soon as hostilities broke out. The case of the Choucha refugee camp, which we will examine in detail in this article, is an example of the worrying ambiguity of the humanitarian today. But this one goes beyond the only space of the camps; all the spaces created today by an intervention deployed under the humanitarian banner everywhere repeat this ambiguity. * Cf. BOUBAKRI Hassan. “ Le Magghreb et les migrations de transit: le piège?”. Migrations Société, vol. 18, n. 107, septembre-octobre 2006, pp. 85-104.


Sana TAMZINI

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In urban areas, refugees had guaranteed access to basic services such as health care and education. They received a resettlement grant and housing assistance from UNHCR partners Crescent and Islamic Relief Worldwide. With financial assistance, refugees were able to participate in language and vocational training courses as well as income-generating projects. About 300 refugees refused assistance in urban areas. 4. Methodology and process Starting from the observation of places and living conditions of refugees in the Choucha camp in Tunisia from 2012 until 2013, when it was closed, this research is a reflection on the spatial flexibility of emergency areas, which questions the contexts of spatial and temporal transit locations. What is the psychological impact on the body and its spatiality? How can we transfer human from one place to another in the name of emergency without worrying about the impact of their uprooting? How international organizations, local associations, public authorities in humanitarian action and recent migration policies systematically adopt this solution to “regroup” humanitarian refugees, “park” to “wheel”, “hold” or dismiss the “displaced” and migrants, “illegal” and other undesirable? We appealed to the inquiry and to the archive, to the still image and the moving one, this material can be read as an analytical attempt of the spatial experience of refugee or as a human work; created by the human and suffered by humans, looked at as a family album with real lives, or listened to as a collection of poignant stories. The floor was given to refugees and volunteers, researchers, journalists, artists to capture and explore their work, sometimes with the participation of the refugees themselves, the experience of migration. Based on the camp of Choucha aerial views provided by the UCR from 2011 to 2013, we began a temporal analysis of the spatial development of the camp. We have identified various areas A, B, C, D and E (Fig.1).

Fig. 1 / The spatial evolution of the Choucha refugee camp.



Participants Michel JAQUET - Carmen MENDOZA-ARROYO Nilay UNSAL GULMEZ Walker TOMA Mahsa SAFAEI - Yurdanur D. YÜKSEL Selen KURT - Sait Ali KÖKNAR Feyza MACIT - Durnev ATILGAN YAĞAN Esra ISLAMOĞLU - M. Serhat YENICE Luciano CRESPI - Fiamma Colette INVERNIZZI Haniyeh RAZAVIVAND FARD - Asma MEHAN Armin TAYYEBIAZAR - Mahsa SAFAEI - Yurdanur D. YÜKSEL Estella PASQUINI Saba AL MUHTASEB - Nilay UNSAL GULMEZ Roxana Madalina GHIBUSI Paolo GIARDIELLO - Marella SANTANGELO Khaled OMRANE


PARTECIPANTS

Incremental self-help temporary housing Mahsa SAFAEI Architectural Design, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey mahsa.safaee@yahoo.com Prof. Dr. Yurdanur D. YĂœKSEL Architectural Design, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey d.yurdanur@gmail.com

Providing adequate affordable housing for low-class households, homeless poor, disaster victims, slum and squatter settlements and migrants has been a challenging problem of the 20th and 21st centuries. Homelessness and displacement issues occurring aftermath of these events intensifies the need for immediate shelters. The much concerning point is the immediate use of the time and dependable contribution to shelter making. However, the quality of the shelters are vital to the residents. In this vein, it is aimed to enhance the existing condition with consideration to the specific characteristics of the shelter including physical, social, economic, psychological, and environmental dimensions to address a proper qualified living space that can stay longer. The study of the previous experiences indicates the important role of the local participants in using available or vernacular materials to achieve this target. On the other hand, programming, decision making, and crisis management demand noticeable attention of time and pre-preparation. In this fashion, this paper attempts to recognize several successful temporary housing examples that have been developed by the participation of the residents. It is to reassess the advantages and disadvantages of these projects. Methodologically, the examples are compared according to the corresponding indicators of successful temporary housings. The results can contribute to the development of an economic temporary housing which fulfills the residents’ expectations, responds to their social and environmental needs, and lives longer time. It is a sturdy and heathy housing that adapts to their residents’ habits, reflects their life style and culture, and respects the environment. This is a primitive step to the development of the temporary housing that which promises better conditions for homelessness.


Mahsa SAFAEI - Yurdanur D. YÜKSEL

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Fig. 3 / Pallet house prototype, Sri lanka, designed by I-Beam Architecture and design team. www.i-beamdesign.com

Tab. 3 / Assessment of pallet house.

and depending to the conditions, each of these shelters can be deployed. Score of each is so close to the ideal. The concept is well established in all of the examples. 6. Temporary housing that can be converted to permanent housing - group 2 6.1 Superadobe, sand bag shelter, eco-dome - 1995 The sandbag or ‘superadobe system’ is a prototype for temporary housing consists of sandbags and barbed wire as the materials of war to provide sustainable and affordable shelters. These shelters, designed by Nader Khalili meet United Nations standards. Normally, the concept contributes to the natural disastrous victims and war-torn victims; used in cold and mountainous, and dry and hot climates. The homogenic structure of the shelter which knit the body to the earth and is the sand from top to toe, makes the shelter more resistant. Sandbags and barbed wire are usual war materials. 6.2 Rubble house – 2006 ‘Rubble house’ known as the ‘Stonehouse’ was designed by Mike Lawless to demonstrate the construction of a low-cost aesthetically pleasing and energy-efficient eco-home


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Fig. 2 / Container house No: 3 of Mahmud from Idlib.

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Fig. 3 / Street view of container houses.

up to dry or plants to provide shade or as hobby as examples of different spatial use outside the containers. The limited space is tried to be maximized by taking advantage of all the facade, surface spaces at different layers and heights. The use of height is understood both as a programmatic solution for small space use and as specific to Syrian cultural practices. Along with that, hanging up laundry on the facade and also on the interior wall surface due to privacy are common programmatic solution developed for natural drying. In the interiors (Figg. 4-9), usually open storage solutions are used for daily used items such as coats, bags, toys; quick to reach ones such as flyswatter, tissue holder and decorative items such as paintings and clocks. For more personal items, RecaÄ&#x; from Aleppo (Container 2) created a clothes rack by building up a second layer of curtain on the wall with the use of nail and tie. Omar from Aleppo (Container 4) has a wall filled with hooks for bird cages and is prevalent within the camp since that is shared hobby among Syrian people and it reminds them of their life before the war. It is observed that the bird cages that are placed in the height of the rooms sometimes along the ceiling line, sometimes stacked or hanged over the wall or at the corner are both a hobby and also used as ornamental features. So the kind and amount of items stored at those hanged and elevated storages differ in scales and heights from a rosary to a baby stroller that makes the spatial use specific to Syrian cultural practices. Alternative detailed uses are also developed through daily practices. For example, Besime from Lazkiye (Container 1) uses the horizontal storage provided with l profile structures installed at the ceiling for alternative use such as putting or hanging mattresses and other items under it. Shelves are another common configuration that may be in the form of display shelves especially on the corner. Use of lace upon shelves is one of the most common cultural practice while ornamenting and adding personality to interior space. Shelving units on the wall that may be hidden by a curtain or might be kept as it is below the ceiling for storage or decoration. Cooking Syrian food means so much for refugees who went through some time only on aid products, are now able to buy the food they need by the e-card given to each family. The provided kitchen has a sink on the base cabinet with two doors. Refugees


Feyza MACİT – Durnev ATILGAN YAĞAN

Fig. 4 / Container house No: 1 of Besime form Lazkiye.

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Fig. 5 / Interior of Container house No: 2 Recağ from Aleppo.

usually extend kitchen countertops along the wall using a piece of wood or simply by a flat cover upon fridge that is places next to the unit. To save space and allow for more practical and organized use of kitchen, besides adding shelves above the countertop nails or hooks are attached to the wall to hang items that get used everyday. Since the containers are designed for a generic emergency use, it doesn’t perform well in the climate of Kilis. One solution developed for the performance of the container in the very hot region especially during summer times, is a box like structure installed outside on the window surface covered by textile. The box is produced by using rods and covered with fabric. The fabric that is pulled over the structure outside the window is dampened, so as the air flows from outside to inside, cools and climatize the air in the inside. Sometime the technique is used by or simply using a dampened flat textile cover that make a shadow. This solution supports the privacy requirements of the interior too. As time goes by, with an acceptance that this will be their home for a period of time, the urge to make the interior space feel more like home grows. For example, taking off shoes at the door is both a custom and a demonstration of respect that Syrian refugees have for the idea of home. Along with the need for personal space, refugees also spend more time decorating the interior with textiles and objects to make it more personal, such as the laces that tailor Adil from Azez (Container 8) stitched or the decorative collages that Besime’s daughter Ulye from Lazkiye (Container 1) made after three years of moving in. Also, although refugees left everything behind, some managed to bring some personal items that hold sacred meanings such as Holy Quran that the families cared for the most and took from their home as they abandoned. Some items held private meanings such as Omar’s wedding cd (Container 4) and gifts or compass of Abdulmelik from Aleppo (Container 7) that he keept for nine years as a present from his cousin. They also might be some items that they used to have back home such as wall carpets or even birds that is very common cultural interest among Syrian refugees. These tokens of remembrances recreate something from home as symbolic actions. Development of spaces for commercial activities in the containers are also observed. Although there is a certain amount of money given per family and people are able to go to the city center to work during the day, small scale commercial activities proliferated in and around the containers to create some extra income and support small local commercial activity where the markets are far away in the camp. Required functional


Luciano CRESPI – Fiamma Colette INVERNIZZI

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Fig. 3 / C. Oliver, St. Miquel 19 project, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

of activity, the building was definitively abandoned and left at the mercy of the weather and of the actions of the time that lead it to become a leftover. A last attempt, ruinous, was carried out at the turn of the millennium: the existing roof was dismantled for an upcoming project but, due to a bankruptcy, the reuse has never been completed, leaving the building unattended with no covering. The area is about 890 sqm and contains a three-story building having the Milanese architectural features of the early twentieth century, today abusive home for several homeless people. The project, carried out with the collaboration of the Municipality of Milan and the Suburbs project, has the purpose of restoring value to the building of Pianell Street, 15, transforming it into a temporary shelter for families with precarious and economic difficulties. The main concept lies in applying the theoretically elaborated planning techniques of interior design and, by using poorly readily available materials, thus enhancing the existing building by considering its features as an opportunity rather than as constraints. Students and researchers are stimulated and enticed not to follow the techniques already known in the field of building renovation, but to look for new, different and complex, of high aesthetic and conceptual value. From the initial stage of exploration of the theme in its cultural and social implications, it goes through the formulation of master plans and experimental tests of space and equipment designed for the existing space, enhancing its value. Each project is conceived taking into account the regulatory, technological, economic, and viability parameters required by the present Municipalities so that the project will make a real concrete proposal for future public or private buyers and to make so that it is not a mere theoretical exercise, but a concrete answer to a contemporary need.


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Fig. 4 / Case Study selected as a didactics experience, Pianell Street, 15, Milan, 2017.

Bibliographical references [1] Ambrosini, M. (2016). Migrazioni e Mediterraneo: una questione ancora irrisolta, Roma: Atlante Politico Treccani. [2] “Antivilla”, Domus, maggio 2015. [3] Argan, Giulio Carlo (2005). Scultore per vocazione, in Michelangelo scultore, Milano: Rizzoli/Skira. [4] Bachelard, G. (1975). La poetica dello spazio, Bari: Dedalo (ed. orig. 1957). [5] Bammer, A. (1992). Editorial. New Formations: Journal of Culture/Theory/Practice, 2, 2, 1-24. [6] Benjamin, W. (2000). Parigi, la capitale del XIX secolo. In W. Benjamin, I «passages» di Parigi (pp. 5 18). Torino: Einaudi (ed. orig.. 1935). [7] Bourdieu, P. (1969). La maison kabyle ou le monde renversé. In J. Pouillon, P. Maranda (Ed s.), Echanges et communications: mélanges offerts à Claude Lévi Strauss à l’occasion de son 60e anniversaire (pp.739 - 758). Hague - Paris: Mouton. [8] Bouriaud, N. (2014). Il radicante, Milano: Postmedia Books (ed. orig. Radicant. Pour une esthétique de la globalization). [9] Brandlhuber, A. (2017), in M.Jonna, Antivilla: un’opera provocatoria e dissacrante di Arno Brandlhuber, Icon.

[10] Canfora, L. (2017). La schiavitù del capitale, Bologna: Il Mulino. [11] Crespi, L. (2008). Neotopie, in Piccinno, G., Space design, Santarcangelo di Romagna: Maggioli. [12] Crespi, L. (2009). Caravanserragli, in Fassi, D., Giunta, E., Rebaglio, A. (a cura), Sustainable mobility, Collana GIDE, Santarcangelo di Romagna: Maggioli. [13] Crespi, L. (2011). Neotopia. Interior design in the transformation of disused industrial areas, in “Patrimoine de l’industrie”, n. 26. [14] Crespi, L. (2011). Neotopie, in Corrado, M., Lambertini, A. (a cura), Atlante delle nature urbane, Bologna: Editrice Compositori. [15] Crespi, L. (2013). Da spazio nasce spazio. L’interior design nella trasformazione degli ambienti contemporanei, Milano: postemedia books. [16] Crespi, L. (2016). Design Innovation for Contemporary Interiors and Civic Art, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. [17] Crespi, L. ed. (2017) Design Innovation for Contemporary Interiors and Civic Art, Hershey, PA USA: IGI Global. [18] Crespi, L., Ruffa, F. (2014). Da spazio nasce spazio, in Cognetti, F. (a cura), Vuoti a rendere, Milano: Quaderni di Polisocial.


PARTECIPANTS

Refugees, economic migrants and demographic decline in Italy Estella PASQUINI Master International Cooperation Sustainable Emergency Architecture. Universidad Internacional de Catalunya. Barcelona. Spain desiertoceleste@gmail.com

During recent years Europe has been facing a massive influx of refugees, creating the need for EC members to develop strategies and policies for reception and integration. A majority of the refugees that Italy is receiving do not comply with the EU requirements necessary for them to benefit from international protection programs; instead, these refugees hosted by Italy are classified as economic migrants. As a result, hundreds of thousands of migrants are homeless and without any type of protection, putting them at risk of falling into the net of criminal organizations and contributing to social unrest. This thesis analyses this issue by considering two distinct bodies of knowledge. The first discusses integration, identity, and participation; the second relates to the demographic decline in the Northern highincome countries. In this second topic, an opportunity emerges for mutual understanding and collaboration between sending and receiving countries. In this context, the study also examines the need for economic growth and its dependence upon a nation’s human capital stock level. This work focus on the Italian refugee reception system, then considers a conceptual framework analysis reviewing the literature in the two key areas of study mentioned above. Follows a case study research assessing the refugee reception policies in the Veneto region of Italy, including some recommendations to provide background for policymakers.


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Fig. 1 / Distribution of refugees in the reception structures.

facilities or under the SPRAR system depends on the availability of places. Ideally refugees should not spend more than one month in big centres, but many of them spend one year due to the lack of availability in the smaller CAS structures. The refugees are expected to be evenly allocated through the entire country. They are also expected to receive, in addition to food and shelter, pocket money for transport and telephone calls, health and legal assistance, psychological support when needed, and training and language courses.

Fig. 2 / Typologies dedicated to housing refugees.

1.2.3 Second reception level SPRAR: (Protection System for Refugees and Asylum Seekers), was created in 2002 for refugees fleeing Kosovo and is still functioning, coordinated by a Central Service entrusted to the National Association of Italian Municipalities (ANCI) (08-04.2017) and the Ministry of Interior. The SPRAR system offers a wide range of services (shown below) that take into consideration the individual needs of each refugee. Unfortunately, in 2015 SPRAR had only 22,000 places available for 144,000 refugees in need. It is considered the best solution at the national level but in 2015 the program received only 242 million of Euros out of 1 billion Euros allocated to refugee programs.


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Fig. 3 / East Wihdat area before and after the upgrade.

construction as well, most of the refugees were skilled labors before the exile and could work in different fields, and the UDD encouraged their participation. This project was a success by the standards of an urban upgrade, and that could be told by the people’s satisfaction after the implementation. They ended up with results they could never imagine after 20 years of miserable conditions [16] (Fig. 3). What’s exciting about this project is people’s response towards it. In the early visits to camp, we weren’t aware of this project at all. While crossing the street that marks the camp boundaries to the development area it wasn’t possible to sense any difference. “This is the camp, and this is the camp too” one of the young men answered once, when he is asked where does crossing this street leads to. People have acclaimed their ownership to their properties and announced it the camp as well. This became obvious during the interviews when people were asked to mark the boundaries of the camp as they perceive it. All the interviewees (from both Wihdat camp and development area) have agreed on the triangular shape that bounds the Wihdat camp with the development area. Not just the residents, many of the workers in both Greater Amman Municipality and the DPA got it that way. All the development area residents have introduced themselves as Wihdat camp dwellers as well. A young explained that its “ayb” – a disgrace to even question that. He said, “We are all one, it’s like saying that you are not proud to be from al Wihdat”.(CD (Camp Dweller) #7, male, 28 years old). 5.2 Al Tayyibat Village In 1999, the government built a project directly on the opposite street of al Wihdat camp from its west side. The project was called “Qaryet al tayyibat”, and was meant to function as a shopping center. The world “Qaryeh” means village, where al “Tayyibat” means the good things. This project was designed to imitate the cultural markets, with its shops and kiosks, but with a more organized shopping experience (Camp Official (CO) #1, 2016). “The project was one of the most beautiful projects I’ve seen” one of the municipality workers described it. “I don’t know why it didn’t work” he added (CO#1).


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Fig. 4 / Al Tayyibat village.

In the camp, the impressions about this project were quite the opposite of East Wihdat Development Project. During site visits, we learned that the project’s location used to be a “Hesbeh” that means the main vegetable market, and the government had to relocate it to a more distant location to build the village. This seemed to be the first thing to anger the residents of the camp who were working in the “Hesbeh”. Others had the impression that this project is an attempt to replace the main “souq” market in al Wihdat, and that it would cause their incomes to decline. Those who had no business to worry on simply explained that it was too expensive for them to shop from. “This place is very fancy, it must have cost a lot, and to rent a shop there you must pay a lot, so what will the merchant do then? He will sell with higher prices! I’d rather shop at the market here, everything is cheap.” One of the ladies explained (CD #5, female, 44). Other women complained that it was too far away for them to go for shopping. “My mothers and aunts refused to go there, as it is too far for them to walk” one of the young men explained (CD #10, male, 22), then he smiled and added, “Though we all know it is not far at all…”. The location was not only criticized in terms of distance, many explained that for those who work outside the camp, the bus drops them directly in front of the camp, they shop from the camp’s market and head home. As for the village being on the opposite side of the camp, heading there for their needs, then heading back to the camp just doesn’t make any sense as told by a young man “My bus drops here… why go all the way there?” (CD #11, male, 35). It seems to be agreed upon between all the camp dwellers to reject this project, each for his own reason. Some shops opened for three months and closed, others lasted until the end of the year. Furthermore, rumors started targeting this place as a drug addict’s hub, or that many immoral activities take place there, making people more reluctant to visit it. Eventually, that place got completely abandoned and did turn into a hub for suspicious activities (Fig. 4). Nowadays it’s locally called “Qaryet al Khabeethat” that means the village of the bad things.


PARTECIPANTS

(Con)temporary living. The Identity Game Roxana Madalina GHIBUSI Department of Architecture and Urban Studies, University Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy roxanamadalina.ghibusi@polimi.it

This paper presents the results of a cross-disciplinary research applied on a specific case. The challenge was to activate and re-qualify an abandoned area leaving from the temporary and the contemporary dimensions of the today’s background. An answer to this challenge was searched throughout an approach proposed by Prof. Massimo Bruto Randone. The research method, in this specific case, is structured on four main ecologies: Space, Identity, Policy and Program. Following this approach, in the abandoned Milanese area of Scalo Porta Romano the objective was to address different points of view, multiple scales and cross-disciplinary insights. The Policy was concerned about articulating stakeholders into policies that are not generic and can activate the area. Program is about flexibility on short and long term that calibrates the different rhythms of the agriculture, the city and the needs of the society. The Space pillar evolved from the existing layers that structured the area and became the support of the new modular Interventions. The social analysis carried in the Identity pillar clearly states the importance of giving solutions that have impact both on local and global scale regarding the need of housing (social, temporary), services and cultural education. Inside the research, the ‘Identity’ point of view was the part of the research supported by a team of psychosociologists and proofed to be the one aiming to activate and support a synergy between all possible, present and future identities that are present in the contemporary city. The question we arrive to now is: how can we understand, engage and codesign with multicultural users in a sustainable way? Is the game a possible way?


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1. The “Up_Citying” workshop As part of the PhD program in Architectural, Urban and Interior Design of the Department of Architecture and Urban Studies of Politecnico di Milano, the workshop, entitled “Up_Citying” had the objective of proposing a possible scenario for an abandoned railway station area in Milan. The methodology was developed on four main aspects with the continuous support of specialists from various fields: Architecture, Design, Cultural and Psychological Sociology, Public administration and Urbanism. Among the cross disciplinary team of professors and specialists that guided the project were Imma Forino, Massimo Bruto Randone, Pierluigi Salvadeo, Paolo Inghilleri, Nicola Rainisio, Marco Boffi, Tommaso Goisis, Demetrio Scoppelliti, Andrea Minetto, Erika Noren, Alberto Francini and Nicolò Ornaghi. The team of PhD students and architects (Francesca Berni, Veronica Ferrari, Federica Marchetti, Roxana Madalina Ghibusi, Luyi Lui, Gianfranco Orsenigo and Jing Sun) following the approach, arrived at a result that answered multiple questions, part of them discovered during the research. The team itself was a multicultural one, an aspect that also strengthens the idea that there is great potential after crossing the first communication and ethnical barriers. After identifying the most important opportunities of the project area, both on local and global scale, and using the agriculture as common ground on the existing structure of a large scale ‘empty’ area, the strategy was entitled AgriUrbana (Fig. 1). In the following pages, it is going to be presented “Identity”, the social part of the research.

Fig. 1 / Conceptual collage of the AgriUrbana Strategy.


Roxana Madalina GHIBUSI

Fig. 7 / The Identity Game instructions cards.

Fig. 8 / Playing the Identity Game.

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4. Closing remarks The variety of users of space is definitely a challenge at first sight. As architect, I believe we can learn from the beneficiary and the constraints of the first cultural barriers can be crossed in creative ways, using co-design as an approach and trying to adapt traditional and global accepted tools like the game in an inspirational and educational way. The recent events of the migration wave that entered Europe can be an opportunity to learn how to use this attitude of playing to understand, know and then offer inclusive solutions from all fields of expertise.

Fig. 9 / The Identity Game instead of a traditional survey.


On 9th October 2017, the international conference Suspended Living in Temporary Space was held at the headquarters of the Architecture School of the Polytechnic of Turin. Some scholars, architects but not only, have found themselves reflecting on the role of the architect and architecture within the almost apocalyptic scenario of the great migratory waves following disasters and emergencies, with specific attention to the context of the Mediterranean area. In this scenario, there are those who flee alone and with the whole family, people who leave a promising profession and others who leave almost nothing; unaccompanied minors and adults. For everyone, we must, first and foremost, guarantee the fundamental right of a refuge. It is easy to see how many studies, idea competitions, experimental projects carried out by architects to tackle this problem, but if we refer to common practice, then we must recognize that the role of architecture as a discipline has been decidedly secondary. The contributions collected here testify to this double track, where the most innovative experiments haven’t often interfered with the reality of the facts. The origin of the participants at this conference, Turkey, Spain, Tunisia and Italy, also underlined how the problem of housing emergency is particularly felt and debated in these countries also within the universities.

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