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ანა კლდიაშვილი ნინო ღაღანიძე თამარ ჯაყელი

xelovneba VIII klasi moswavlis wigni

გრიფმინიჭებულია საქართველოს განათლების, მეცნიერების, კულტურისა და სპორტის სამინისტროს მიერ 2020 წელს

გამომცემლობა „კლიო“


ანა კლდიაშვილი, ნინო ღაღანიძე, თამარ ჯაყელი

ხელოვნება VIII კლასი მოსწავლის წიგნი

რედაქტორი ნანა კუპრაშვილი

თბილისის სახელმწიფო სამხატვრო აკადემიის პროფესორი, ხელოვნებათმცოდნეობის დოქტორი

კომპიუტერული უზრუნველყოფა

ირმა ლიპარტელიანი

© 2020. გამომცემლობა „კლიო“ © 2020. ანა კლდიაშვილი, ნინო ღაღანიძე, თამარ ჯაყელი ყველა უფლება დაცულია ISBN 978-9941-481-??? პირველი გამოცემა — 2020

დამატებითი ინფორმაცია სახელმძღვანელოს/სერიის შესახებ იხილეთ ვებ-გვერდზე: www.facebook.com/PublishingHouseklioო და/ან www.klio.ge

შპს „გამომცემლობა კლიო“ აღმაშენებლის გამზ. #181, თბილისი, 0112 ტელ.: (+995 32) 234 04 30 E-mail: book@klio.ge www.klio.ge


Sinaarsi garemo da xelovneba 1. uZvelesi qalaqebi...............................................6 2. rekonstruqcia....................................................10 3. saxlis maketi.......................................................11 4. rogor asaxavdnen garemos Zvel egvipteSi.......12 5. egvipturi xelovnebis motivebi........................16 6. katakombebis xelovneba......................................17 7. vakeTebT niRabs...................................................22 8. rogor aisaxeba garemo Sua saukuneebis xelovnebaSi............................24 9. rogor SevinarCunoT kulturuli garemo.......29 10. peizaJi Cinur xelovnebaSi...............................33 11. vxatavT tuSiT, melniT, akvareliT.................38 12. aRmosavluri xelnaweri wigni..........................39 13. aRmosavluri zRapris ilustracia.................44 14. panorama..............................................................45 15. haerovani perspeqtiva.......................................47 16. feradovani perspeqtiva....................................50 17. ganaTeba da Crdili...........................................53 18. sagnis forma da Crdili ..................................57 19. kino da mxatvroba.............................................58 20. `viRebT~ kinofilms .........................................62 21. garemos asaxvis xerxebi....................................63 adamiani da misi Sinagani samyaro 22. istoriuli epoqa da adamiani...........................66 23. `maradiuli saRebavebi~ da `sicariele~..........70 24. portreti _ gansxvavebuli xedva....................73 25. xelovanis amocana da saxviTi xerxebi............74 26. foni da figura.................................................77 27. portreti qarTul mxatvrobaSi......................78 28. realobisa da warmosaxvis zRvarze.................82 29. warmosaxva da namuSevari..................................85 30. adamiani Tanamedrove qarTul qandakebaSi.....86 31. mcire plastika..................................................89 32. Zveli namuSevris axali sicocxle...................90 33. xelovnebis nimuSi _ STagonebis wyaro...........95


adamiani, sazogadoeba da xelovneba 34. arqeologiuri monapovari _ informaciis wyaro............................................98 35. xelovneba _ informaciis wyaro......................102 36. `dedamiwis moqalaqe~.........................................107 37. protesti xelovnebaSi......................................108 38. istoriuli faqti xelovnebis nawarmoebSi.....113 39. pikaso omis winaaRmdeg.....................................114 40. xelovneba Zaladobis winaaRmdeg.....................116 41. xelovneba da adamianis mankierebani...............117 42. performansi.......................................................120 43. Cveni performansi.............................................125 44. kritikuli damokidebuleba xelovnebaSi.......126 45. karikatura.........................................................131 46. monotipia...........................................................132 47. xelovneba bunebis gadasarCenad......................133 48. rogor davexmaroT dedamiwas..........................137 49. RirsSesaniSnavi movlena xelovnebis nawarmoebSi.........................................................138 proeqti 1. Sexvedra xelovanTan...........................140 proeqti 2. kompiuteruli teqnologiebi.............141 proeqti 3. karnavali..............................................142 ganmartebebi ...........................................................143


garemo da xelovneba adamiani odiTganve akvirdeboda mis garSemo arsebul samyaros: mcenareebs, cxovelebs, zecas, mzes, varskvlavebs, mTebsa da velebs, zRvebsa da mdinareebs. erTi sityviT, yvelafers, rac mis garSemo iyo da Semdeg asaxavda Tavis naxelavSi. magram amave dros, igi sakuTari xeliT qmnida kidec garemos: agebda saxlebs, salocavebs, taZrebs, Teatrebs, moednebs, kirwylavda quCebs, aSenebda baRebs, iwyobda yofas: qmnida WurWels, nivTebs, agegmarebda da agebda qalaqebs anu qmnida kulturas.

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am TavSi Tqven SeiswavliT rogor da ra xerxebiT asaxavda adamiani xelovnebis nimuSebSi mis garemomcvel samyaros da rogor awyobda igi sakuTar saarsebo garemos.

• • • • • • • • • •

rogor awyobda adamiani sakuTar saarsebo garemos uZveles droSi? rogor aisaxeba bunebrivi garemo egviptur xelovnebaSi? ratom ar aisaxeba garemo katakombebis kedlebze gamosaxul scenebze? rogor aisaxeba garemo Sua saukuneebis xelovnebis nimuSebze? ra aris kulturuli garemo da ra qmnis mas? ras niSnavs restavracia? rogor aisaxeba sivrce da garemo Cinur peizaJze? ra xerxebs iyeneben garemosa da sivrcis gadmosacemad renesansis epoqaSi? ra rols asrulebs SuqCrdili garemos realisturad asaxvaSi? ra faqtorebi unda gaiTvaliswinos mxatvarma kinofilmSi garemos Seqmnisas?


1. uZvelesi qalaqebi gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor awyobda adamiani sakuTar saarsebo garemos uZveles droSi? • romeli qalaqi iTvleba dedamiwis yvelaze Zvel qalaqad? • rogori gegmareba hqonda uZveles qalaqebs _ ieriqonsa da CaTal-huiuks? • rogori iyo CaTal-huiukis sacxovrebeli saxli da ra iyo masSi uCveulo? • riT amkobdnen saxlebis kedlebs CaTal-huiukSi?

I. uZvelesi droidanve adamiani awyobda da agebda sakuTar saarsebo garemos. mas Semdeg, rac igi gamoqvabulidan gamovida, daiwyo sakuTar Werze zrunva anu saxlis Seneba. saxls saxli emateboda da ase iqmneboda pirveli dasaxlebebi. nel-nela patara dasaxlebebidan ki uZvelesi qalaqebi warmoiSva. 1. gaixseneT da CamoTvaleT, romel uZveles qalaqebs icnobT da sad mdebareobda isini.

legendebi uZvelesi qalaqebis Sesaxeb yvela xalxis zepirsityvierebasa Tu lite­ raturaSia SemorCenili. es did daxmarebas uwevs arqeologebs am qalaqebis aRmoCenisa da Seswavlis saqmeSi. swored arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad aRmoCnda uZvelesi qalaqebi: CaTal-huiuki da ieriqoni. mecnierebma Seiswavles, gaaanalizes, daaTariRes gaTxrebis Sedegad mopovebuli masala da am qalaqebis rekonstruqciac moaxerxes.

2. rogor aRwerdiT ieriqons ilustraciaze mocemuli rekonstruqciis mixedviT? 3. romel Zvel legendas, eposs an literaturul nawarmoebs dadgamdiT an filmad gadaiRebdiT am garemoSi?

ieriqoni. rekonstruqcia

II. yvelaze Zvel gamagrebul qalaqad dedamiwaze ieriqoni iTvleba, romelic ierusalimidan 30 km-Si, mdinare iordanes dasavleT sanapiroze mdebareobda. es qalaqi dResac arsebobs. sainteresoa, rom ieriqoni zRvis doneze 200 metriT dablaa ganlagebuli. ieriqonis Sesaxeb bibliaSia moTxrobili. bibliis Tanaxmad, mose winaswarmetyvelis gardacvalebis Semdeg israelTa tomis meTauri isu nave gaxda. man qanaanis dapyroba gadawyvita. pirveli qalaqi, romelic mas unda aeRo, ieriqoni iyo. ebraelebs bevri smenodaT am qalaqis mZlav­ri da 6

ieriqonis gaTxrebi


mterTagan auRebeli galavnis Sesaxeb da amitom SiSobdnen, rom Zalze rTuli iqneboda ieriqonis aReba. maSin isu navem xerxi ixmara da qalaqs alya Semoartya. eqvsi dRis ganmavlobaSi ebraelTa jari uCumrad uvlida qalaqs gars, raTa ieriqonis mcxovreblebs hgonebodaT, rom israelianTa laSqari ulevi iyo. meSvide dRes ki laSqarma sayvirebis gamayruebeli xmis TanxlebiT Caiara galavnis kedlebTan, amas panikaSi Cavardnili qalaqis mcxovrebTa sasowarkveTili yvirili da Tavad dampyrobelTa yiJinac daemata da qalaqis kedlebi Camoiqca. ieriqoni daeca.

ieriqonis aReba. santa maria majores mozaika. romi. 432-440.

ieriqoni. galavnis SemorCenili nangrevi

4. Tqveni azriT, ra funqcia unda hqonoda fotoze mocemul galavnis mrgval nawils? 5. aRwereT adreqristianuli mozaika, romelzec ieriqonis aRebaa gamosaxuli.

ieriqonis gaTxrebi mTeli XIX saukunis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobda, magram uSedegod. qalaqis kvals arqeologebma mxolod XX saukunis dasawyisSi miagnes. gaTxrebis Sedegad aRmoCnda qalaqi, romlis nangrevebic naTlad warmoaCenda mis uZveles istorias. aq sxvadasxva drois rvaze meti fena aRmoCnda da dadginda, rom ieriqoni dedamiwis erT-erTi uZvelesi qalaqia da is Tavisi arsebobis aTi aTas wels iTvlis. es iyo kargad gamagrebuli, borcvze naSeni sakmaod didi qalaqi, romelsac gars ertya or rigad ganlagebuli galavnis mZlavri kedlebi. gareTa kedlis sisqe 2 metri iyo, Sidasi ki – 4 m; maTi simaRle ki daaxloebiT 10 metrs aRwevda. kedlebs Soris daSoreba 5 metri iyo da gasasvlelSi sacxovrebeli saxlebi iyo CaSenebuli. arqeologebma daadgines, rom ieriqonis mosaxleoba aliziT nageb mrgval saxlebSi cxovrobda. saxlis WerSi tradiciulad Riobi iyo datanebuli. ieriqonis mSenebelTa ostatoba saarako iyo mTel Zvel samyaroSi. garda amisa, ieriqonis gaTxrebisas aRmoCnda sawyobebi, sadac qalaqis sarCo-sabadeblis maragi inaxeboda. mecnierebma aq ipoves xorbliT, finikiT, fetviTa da sxva produqtebiT savse saTavsebi. sainteresoa Zalze mniSvnelovani faqti – 1930-36 wlebSi warmoebuli gaTxrebis Sedegad arqeologebma daadgines, rom ieriqonis mZlavri kedlebi gareT iyo gadmongreuli. ikiTxavT albaT, ra aris amaSi uCveulo? rogorc wesi, qalaqis kedlebi ngrevisas Sida mxares Camoiqceva xolme. am faqtis axsna dResac uWirT mecnierebs. am fenaSi Zlieri xanZris kvalic da ngrevac dasturdeba. arqeologebma es fena Zv. w. XIV saukuniT daaTariRes da bibliaSi moTxrobili isu naves periods miakuTvnes. magram es mxolod erTi periodia ieriqonis istoriaSi. 7


III. 1958 wlis 10 noembers britanuli institutis samma warmomadgenelma anatoliaSi (axlandeli TurqeTis teritoria), konias platoze mdebare erT-erT borcvs daadga Tvali da ivarauda, rom es borcvi sakuTar wiaRSi warsulis naSTebs inaxavda, rac imave dRes ramdenime uZvelesi keramikuli WurWlis natexebis aRmoCenamac daadastura. momdevno wlebSi ingliselma arqeologma jeims melaardma aq gaTxrebi Caatara da erT-erTi uZvelesi qalaqi-`megapolisi~ CaTal-huiuki aRmoaCina, romelSic, arqeologebis azriT, daaxloebiT, aTi aTasi adamiani cxovrobda. es borcvi aTaswleulebis ganmavlobaSi warmoiqmna da masze 18 arqeologiuri fena dasturdeba. gansakuTrebiT saintereso da uCveulo aq gaTxrili sacxovrebeli saxlebi aRmoCnda. yvelaze metad mecnierebi iman gaaogna, rom saxlebs Soris, romlebic alizisagan iyo nagebi, ar iyo gasasvlelebi, quCebi, viwro bilikebic ki. isini erTmaneTze mijriT iyo ganlagebuli. mxolod zogierT adgilas rCeboda patara, Ria areebi, sadac yridnen nagavs, Semdeg zemodan ferfls ayridnen da ase icavdnen sanitariul normebs. saxlebs brtyeli gadaxurva hqonda da erTi oTaxisa da saTavsisagan Sedgeboda. ucnauri is iyo, rom saxlebs fanjrebi hqonda, magram ar hqonda kari. quCebi qalaqSi faqtobrivad, saxlebis brtyeli saxuravebiT iqmneboda. saxlSi Sesasvleli Riobi ki WerSi iyo gaWrili da Signidanac da garedanac kibeebi hqonda midgmuli. oTaxSi iyo Rumeli, sawoli adgili, sadac daaxloebiT rva adamiani eteoda, aseve, ramdenime saTavsi da sakuWnao. Signidanac da garedanac 6. warmoidgineT, rogor STabeWdilebas moaxdenda Tqvenze quCebis gareSe naSeni qalaqi. 7. daakvirdiT CaTal-huiukis sacxovrebeli saxlis rekonst­ ruqcias. ra aris saxlis qveS gamosaxuli da ratom? 8. Tqveni azriT, ra aris gamosaxuli CaTal-huiukis am moxatulobaze?

CaTal-huiuki. rekonstruqcia

CaTal-huiuki. sacxovreblis rekonstruqcia

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CaTal-huiuki. sacxovreblis kedlis moxatuloba. Zv. w. VI-V aTaswleulebi


CaTal-huiukis saxlebis moxatuloba. Zv. w. VI-V aTaswleulebi

saxlebis kedlebi TeTri alebastriT iyo galesili, kargad gaprialebuli da xSirad moxatulic. am moxatulobebze gvxvdeba rogorc cxovelTa gamosaxulebebi, aseve nadirobis scenebi. zogan ki ulamazesi geometriuli motivebiTaa kedlebi Semkuli. erT-erTi saxlis kedelze gamosaxulia qalaqTan axlos mdebare e.w. orTava vulkani hasandagi amofrqvevis dros, qvemoT ki wiTeli saRebaviT Seqmnil geometriul figurebs vxedavT, romlebsac zogierTi mecnieri Tavad qalaqis gamosaxulebad miiCnevs. nagebobaTa erTi nawili uxvad iyo Semkuli mxatvrobiT, am nagebobebSi aseve gvxvdeba kedelSi Cadgmuli xaris Tavebi didi rqebiT. rogorc Cans, aq xaris kulti iyo gavrcelebuli. melaardis azriT, es nagebobebi calke mdgomi salocavebi unda yofiliyo. CaTal-huiukis saxlebSi salocavi adgilebic iyo mowyobili, romelTa win ojaxis wevrebi ritualebs asrulebdnen. savaraudod, maT rwmena-warmodgenebTan iyo dakavSirebuli isic, rom CaTal-huiukSi, ieriqonis msgavsad, micvalebuls imave oTaxSi, taxtis qveS marxavdnen. yvelaze mTavari, ramac arqeologebis gaoceba gamoiwvia, iyo is, rom CaTal-huiukis yvela saxli TiTqmis erTi zomisa iyo da arc erTi maTgani gansakuTrebuli fufunebiT ar gamoirCeoda, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom sazogadoebis yvela fena erTnairad cxovrobda da socialuri diferenciacia am saxlebSi ar Cans. unda iTqvas, rom cxovrebis saerTo done CaTal-huiukSi sakmaod maRali iyo.

9. aRwereT, rogor aris gamosaxuli qalaqi CaTal-huiukis erT-erTi saxlis kedelze. 10. Tqveni azriT, risTvis SeiZleboda gamoeyenebinaT sakuWnaos es ori damoukidebeli ube?

xaris Tavebi. CaTal-huiuki. Zv. w. VI-V aTaswleulebi

sakuWnao. CaTal-huiuki. Zv. w. VI-V aTaswleulebi

davaleba airCieT romelime sxva uZvelesi qalaqi. moiZieT mis Sesaxeb informacia (istoriuli, arqeologiuri gaTxrebis, misi gegmarebisa da sxv.), dawereT ese da waradgineT klasis winaSe.

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2. rekonstruqcia

CaTal-huiukis saxlebis Sesaxeb Tqven warmodgena ukve gaqvT. 1997-1999 wlebSi mecnierebma am saxlebis rekonstruqcia ganizraxes da eqsperimenti Caatares. mosamzadebeli samuSaoebi ori wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinareobda da Semdeg erT-erTi saxli absoluturi sizustiT aRadgines da moxates.

G

F

E

E

A _ Sesasvleli B _ Rumeli C _ saWmlis mosamza­de­beli adgili D _ kibe E _ saZile baqnebi F _ sakuWnao G _ marcvlis Sesanaxi adgi­li

E C C

A

B

D

CaTal-huiukis rekontruqciis nimuSebi

praqtikuli samuSao daaTvaliereT am gverdze mocemuli CaTal-huiukis rekonstruqciis fotoebi. Semdeg gaecaniT imiris goris aRwerilobas da nebismieri xerxiT SeqmeniT am nagebobebis rekonstruqcia.

aRweriloba I. sameurneo daniSnulebis nagebobebi wriuli moyvanilobisaa, oRond _ ufro momcro da sanaxevrod miwaSi Casmuli. fiq­roben, rom maT kari ar hqondaT da `gum­ba­Tis~ nacvlad, asaxdeli xufi ukeTdeboda. aRweriloba II. sacxovrebeli saxlisa da sameurneo Senobebis garda, aqve iyo TixiT galesili ormoebi sanovagisa da wylis maragisaTvis. mTeli es sacxovrebeli `ujredi~ garSemovlebuli iyo wriuli galavniT. aRweriloba III. am nasoflarebze saxlebi umetesad riyis qvebiT Semo­sa­­zRvruli wriuli moedneb­is garSemo iyo dajgufebuli.

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ganmart ebebi rekonstruqcia _ rai­ mes pir­ vandeli sa­xis aRdgena.

 gainawileT jgufSi funqciebi. muyaosagan rekonstruirebuli nagebobebis Seqmnisas aucileblad gaiTvaliswineT maTi formebi (saxlebi _ mrgvali, gadaxurva _ konusiseburi);  damxmare saTavsebis da ormoebis Sesaqmnelad SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT Tixa. daamagreT formatze Tixis wreebi da SigniT marcvleuli (mag., xorbali) CayareT;  did formatze nagebobebis gadatanisas wriulad ganalageT isini mrgvali moednis Sesaqmnelad.


3. saxlis maketi

uZvelesi nasaxlarebisa da qalaqebis gacnobis Semdeg, albaT, saintereso iqneba, scadoT, sakuTari xeliT daamzadoT wriuli formis Tu baniani saxlebis maketebi. nebismieri masalis (magaliTad, Tixa, plastilini) gamoyenebiT SesaZlebelia gamoZerwoT sacxovrebeli saxlebi da sxva detalebi. warmoidgineT, magaliTad, rogori formis da ra zomis unda yofiliyo banian saxlSi Casasvleli kibe, romelic garedan edgmeboda saxls. sacxovreblebis irgvliv SeqmeniT bunebrivi garemo xeebisa da sxva mcenareebis saxiT. rogor fiqrobT, kidev ra SeiZleba yofiliyo uZvelesi dasaxlebebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli yofis nawili, yoveldRiuri moxmarebis ra sagnebi iqneboda xmarebaSi? sakuTari fantaziiTa da mecnierebis mier Seqmnili rekonstruqciis daxmarebiT saxlis modelebis Seqmna Tqvenc SegiZliaT.

Tqveni Tanatolis namuSevari. sacxovrebeli saxlebi. xedi zemodan.

praqtikuli samuSao gaecaniT romelime uZvelesi dasaxlebis an qalaqis Sesaxeb arsebul informacias da nebismieri masaliT gamoZerweT sacxovrebeli saxlebi da SeqmeniT misi erTi sacxovrebeli ubani.

 SemTxveviTobis principiT, dagirigdebaT danomrili baraTebi, romelime uZvelesi dasaxlebis an qalaqis miTiTebiT. yvela im TanaklaselTan erTad, romelsac Sexvda igive dasaxleba an qalaqi, moiZieT damatebiTi informacia mis Sesaxeb;  SearCieT da moimarageT bunebrivi da xelovnuri masala davalebis Sesasruleblad: Tixa an plastilini _ saxlebis gamosaZerwad; xis totebi, balaxi, foTlebi, makrateli, qaRaldis da cxeli webo, webovani qaRaldi da sxv. _ bunebrivi garemos Sesaqmnelad;  individualurad gamoZerwe saxli, sayofacxovrebo detalebi;  individualurad Seqmnili namuSevrebi gaaerTianeT ise, rom miiRoT sacxovrebeli ubani _ saxlebi, bunebrivi da adamianis xeliT Seqmnili garemo;  namuSevrebis wardgenisas isaubreT amgvar qalaqebsa Tu soflebSi mcxovrebi adamianebis yoveldRiuri cxovrebis wesis Sesaxeb, aseve bunebrivi garemosa da adamianis xeliT Seqmnili garemos Sesaxeb: rogori iyo is adre da rogor gamoiyureba axla.

Tqveni Tanatolis namuSevari. sacxovrebeli saxlebi.

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4. rogor asaxavdnen garemos Zvel egvipteSi

gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor aisaxeba egviptur xelovnebaSi bunebrivi garemo? • xelovnebis romeli dargebi iyo ganviTarebuli egvipteSi? • rogor warmoedginaT egviptelebs imqveyniuri samyaro? • ris Sesaxeb gvawvdis informacias egvipturi xelovneba?

I. Tqven Zveli egvipturi civilaziciis Sesaxeb wina wlebidan ukve bevri ram iciT. bevr egviptur Zegls icnobT; warmodgena gaqvT xelovnebis romeli dargebi iyo ganviTarebuli aq da romeli niSan-TvisebebiT xasiaTdeboda TiToeuli maTgani. axla ki unda gavecnoT rogor xedavda Zveli egvipteli garemomcvel samyaros da rogor asaxavda mas.

1. CamoTvaleT egviptis xelovnebis (arqiteqturis, qanda­ kebis, ferweris, gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis) TqvenTvis cnobili nimuSebi. 2. SeecadeT, mokled daaxasiaToT isini.

samarxis kedlis mxatvroba. deir el medina. Zv. w. XIII s.

Zvel egvipteSi taZrebi, micvalebulTa akldamebi, sulis mosaxseniebeli saTavsebi Semkuli iyo reliefebiTa da freskebiT. kedlebs uwyvet zolebad, ramdenime rigad miuyveboda scenebi gardacvlilis cxovrebidan. aq gamosaxuli iyo brZolebi, mowinaaRmdegeTa tyved ayvana, maTi Camotareba, nadimi, nadiroba, Sesawiris mirTmeva, Cacmis rituali, Sromis scenebi da mravali sxv. ucxo Tvalisagan dafarul, dagmanul akldamebSi, reliefebisa Tu kedlis mxatvrobis saSualebiT gaSlili iyo adamianis miwieri cxovrebis amsaxveli scenebi. xelovnebis am SesaniSnav Zeglebs veravin xedavda, radgan adamianis dakrZalvis Semdgom akldama iluqeboda da Sig qurumebis garda aRaravin Sedioda. magram egviptelTaTvis sulac ar iyo arsebiTi naxavda am suraTebs maTi Seqmnis Semdgom vinme, Tu ara, radgan es ar iyo mnaxvelis TvalisaTvis gankuTvnili Sida sivrcis samkauli. aq xelovnebas arc meti, arc naklebi, ukvdavebis mimniWeblis, misi msaxuris, sikvdilis Semdgom sicocxlis gamgrZeleblis roli ekisreboda. maSinac ki, rodesac egviptur samarxSi Cveulebrivi, yofiTi ambavia asaxuli, mag., mwyemsi wvelis Zroxas an moaxle samkauls awvdis dedofals, gamosaxuleba sruliad daclilia yofiTobisamwyemsi wvelis Zroxas. gan da am qmedebis erTgvar lakoniur, maradiul samarxis reliefi. deir el bahari. Tebe. Zv. w. XXI s. formulad warmogvidgeba. 12


3. aRwereT, ras saqmianoben am reliefze gamosaxuli adamianebi. 4. rogori fonia am reliefze? 5. rogor aris asaxuli am reliefze garemo?

princesa seSetis samarxis kedlis reliefi. saqara. Zv.w. XXIV-XXII s.

princesa idutis samarxis kedlis reliefi. saqara. Zv.w. XXIV s.

6. imsjeleT, ra adgili uWiravs ieroglifebs (warwerebs) am reliefze. 7. ra rols asrulebs warwerebi namuSevris mxat­vruli saxis SeqmnaSi?

ra qmnis am STabeWdilebas? adreuli xanis reliefebze, romlebic umetesad SeRebili iyo, ZiriTadad sada fons vxvdebiT. fonze arasdros gamoisaxeba garemo, peizaJi an interieri, anu arasdrosaa miniSnebuli is konkretuli sivrce, romelSic moqmedeba mimdinareobs. magaliTad princesa seSetis samarxis kedlis Semamkobel reliefze, Cven vxedavT navs da mis qveS horizontalurad ganlagebul Tevzebs, magram fonis danarCeni nawilebi absoluturad sadaa; mdinare asaxuli ar aris, is mxolod igulisxmeba. Sesabamisad, fonis sada sibrtye miRmier, ganyenebul, maradiul sivrced gaiazreba da mas kavSiri ar aqvs realobasTan. swored am irealur sivrce-sibrtyeze, gamosaxulebebTan erTad, daitaneba warwerebic. warwera egvipturi reliefebis aucilebeli da amave dros, mxatvrulad mniSvnelovani elementia.

II. Tu egviptis arsebobis adreul etapze wamyvani dargi reliefi iyo, mogvianebiT, samarxebis Semkobisas, upiratesoba kedlis mxatvrobam moipova. taZrebsa Tu didebulTa samarxebSi scenebi horizontalur registrebad aris ganawilebuli. egvipteli ostatebi aqac micvalebulTa samyaroSi gadasuli sulis imqveyniur cxovrebas asaxavdnen, romelic miwieri sicocxlis gagrZelebad, mis erTgvar

leRvis krefa. xnumhotepis samarxis kedlis mxatvroba. beni hasani. Zv.w. XIX s.

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oreulad hqondaT warmodgenili. da amitom mkvidrad naSeni samarxebis kedlebze datanil mxatvrobaSi naTlad aisaxa imdroindeli egviptis buneba _ flora da fauna. adamianebi ki agrZeleben im saqmianobas, romliTac dakavebuli iyvnen amqveyniur cxovrebaSi — xnavdnen, Tesavdnen, mosavali mohyavdaT, nadirobdnen da Tevzaobdnen, Sinaur cxovelebs mwyemsavdnen da a. S. da miuxedavad imisa, rom bunebis xedi am xelovnebaSi calke ar gamoisaxeba, egvipteli mxatvrebi bunebriv garemos mainc gamosaxaven, oRond Zalze Taviseburad. egviptur moxatulobebze gamosaxul Sromis scenebze adamianTa cocxali moqmedebaa asa­xuli. scenebis dinji, Tanmimdevruli monacvleoba iseT STa­ beWdilebas axdens, TiTqos mayureblis Sromis scenebi. deir el medina. Zv.w. XIII-XI ss. Tval­ win mTeli wlis ganmavlobaSi mimdinare sasoflo-sameurneo samuSaoebi iSleba. erTmaneTs cvlis sxvadasxva sezonis amsaxveli suraTebi. ostatebi amasac ar sjerdebian da meti sicxadisaTvis ieroglifebiT Sesrulebul erTgvar ganmartebiT warwerebs uSualod rTaven scenebSi. egviptur moxatulobebze gamosaxul am Sromis scenebze xSirad vxvdebiT garemos calkeul elementebs. magaliTad, sakaras erT-erT moxatulobaze, romelzec leRvis krefis scenaa warmodgenili nayofiT daxunZluli leRvis xis orive mxares gamosaxuli figurebidan erT-erT mamakacs xelSi kalaTi uWiravs, leRvs krefs da kalaTSi awyobs, meore ki iqve Camuxlula da nayofiT savse yuTs Tavs axuravs. cxadia, Cven aq vxedavT xes, mis nayofs, magram garemo aq mainc sruliad pirobiTia; mTeli moqmedeba ganyenebul, sada fonzea gamosaxuli, TiTqos dakrulia masze.

rTveli. kedlis mxatvroba. Tebe. Zv. w. XVI-XVIII ss.

8. daakvirdiT am gverdze mocemul scenebs. aRwereT, ra saqmianobas ewevian aq warmodgenili adamianebi da rogor aris aq asaxuli garemo.

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IV. egvipturi xelovneba mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli Zvel egviptelTa msoflmxedvelobasa da religiasTan. amitom mas mkacrad gansazRvruli kanonebi aqvs SemuSavebuli, romlebsac egvipteli ostatebi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi icavdnen. egvipturi reliefis erT-erTi mTavari ganmsazRvreli niSani isicaa, rom adamianis figura erTdroulad ramdenime rakursiT gamoisaxeba. Tavi profilSia, sxeuli fasSi, xolo fexebi isev profilSi. amiT moqandake cdilobs, iseTi gamosaxuleba Seqmnas, romelic adamianis sxeuls yvela mxridan warmoaCens. cxovelebisa da frinvelebis gamosaxvisas ki ostati Tavisufalia amgvari pirobiTobisagan. igi didi interesiT akvirdeba gare samyaros da Semdeg didi sizustiT faraonis nadiroba. kedlis mxatvroba. gadmoscems maTi sxeulis formebs, Seferilobas, Tebe. Zv.w. XV s. moZraobis maneras, damaxasiaTebel niSnebs. nilosis atexil WalebSi mocurave navebSi fexze 9. Tqveni azriT, ramdenad remdgari adamianebi mdinareSi mosriale Tevzebs alisturadaa warmodgenili am iWeren, tyeebsa Tu xelovnurad gaSenebul baRebscenaze mcenareebi, frinvelebi Si ki mravali frinvelis WikWiki ismis TiTqos. da cxovelebi? cxovelebiTa da frinvelebiT ase mdidari buneba iyo am saxelmwifos mcxovrebTa realuri garemo, sadac dinjad, gamozomili ritmiT miedineboda maTi sicocxle. rogorc ukve iciT, egvipteli ostatebi sakuTari rwmena-warmodgenebis gaTvaliswinebiT qmnidnen imqveyniuri cxovrebis amsaxvel suraTebs da Tavisdauneburad, Zveli egvipturi civilizaciis realuri, sisxlsavse, warmtaci samyaro Seqmnes, romelic ager ukve ramdeni saukunea, TvalsaCinod mogviTxrobs egviptis istoriisa da kulturis Sesaxeb.

veluri kata. hnumhotepis samarxis kedlis mxatvroba.Tebe. Zv. w. XVI-XVIII ss.

daval eba frinvelebi akaciis xeze. kedlis mxatvroba. Tebe. Zv. w. XX s.

daakvirdiT mocemul or ilustracias da maTi STagonebiT Tavad daxateT pirobiT garemoSi TqvenTvis sasurveli cxovelebi da frinvelebi.

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5. egvipturi xelovnebis motivebi

egviptur kulturaSi mniSvnelovani adgili ekava lotosis yvavils, romelsac simboluri mniS­vnelobac eniWeboda. is xSirad gvxvdeba reliefur kompoziciebsa da moxatulobebze. am egzotikuri yvavilis forma gamoiyena egvipturma arqiteqturamac, sadac ayvavebuli Tu daxuruli yvavilis formis kapitelebia gamoTlili uzarmazari qvis svetebisaTvis. lotosis yvavilis plastikuri monaxazis gamoyeneba egviptis kulturis Temaze Seqmnil namuSevarzec SegiZliaT.

egvipturi reliefi. egvipte. Zv.w. I aTaswleuli

egvipturi kedlis mxatvroba. Tebe. Zv.w. XV s. egvipturi kedlis mxatvroba. Tebe. Zv.w. XV s.

praqtikuli samuSao SeqmeniT namuSevari egvipturi xelovnebis nimuSebis motivebis gamoyenebiT. SearCieT sasurveli saxatavi masala (feradi fanqari, pasteli, guaSi da akvarelis saRebavebi) da teqnika.

 daaTvaliereT egvipturi arqiteqturis, egvipturi moxatulobebisa da reliefebis nimuSebi;  SearCieT egvipturi xelovnebisaTvis da­­ma­xasiaTebeli mcenareuli motivebi, frinvelebis an cxovelebis gamosaxulebebi;  gaiTvaliswineT egvipturi moxatulobebis feradovneba da Tqvens namuSevarze gamoiyeneT lokaluri ferebi. Tqveni Tanatolis namuSevari

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6. katakombebis xelovneba gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• ratom ar aisaxeba garemo katakombebis kedlebze gamosaxul scenebze? • ra aris katakomba da ra funqcia hqonda mas? • ratom gaCnda romis imperiaSi katakombebi? • riT amkobdnen katakombebs? • ra simboluri mniSvneloba hqonda katakombebis kedlebze daxatul gamosaxulebebs?

I. Tqven winaSea kedlis mxatvrobis ori nimuSi. orive romis imperiaSi, daaxloebiT erTsa da imave drosaa Seqmnili da orive maTganze mcenareebi da frinvelebia gamosaxuli, Tumca isini sruliad gansxvavebul STabeWdilebas qmnian. baRi. kedlis mxatvroba. pompei. I s.

mtredebi. katakombebis mxatvroba. romi. I s.

1. romeli namuSevari qmnis realuri baRis STabeWdilebas? 2. rogor aisaxeba garemo TiToeul am moxatulobaze da ra msgavseba da gansxvavebaa maT Soris am TvalsazrisiT? 3. romel namuSevarzea ufro mowesrigebuli kompozicia?

s akl as o di s kus i a imsjeleT, romel namuSevarze asaxuli garemo ufro realisturad da romeli gamoirCeva garemos meti pirobiTobiT?

am namuSevarTagan erT-erTi vezuvis amofrqvevis Sedegad daRupuli qalaqis, pompeis vilaSi aRmoCnda. meore ki romSi, pirveli qristianebis saidumlo miwisqveSa samlocvelos erT-erT kedels amkobda. miuxedavad imisa, rom maTze msgavsi motivebi _ mcenareebi da frinvelebia gamosaxuli, garemo aq sruliad sxvadasxva principiTaa agebuli da gansxvavebul STabeWdilebas axdens. modi, vnaxoT, ra ganapirobebs am gansxvavebas.

II. warmoidgineT Zlevamosili romis imperiis dedaqalaqi romi Cveni aTaswleulis pirvel saukuneebSi. qalaqs amSvenebs warmarTuli RmerTebisadmi miZRvnili brwyinvale taZrebi, quCebsa da moednebze, baRebsa da gzajvaredinebze, warCinebul romaelTa da imperatorTa sazeimo qandakebebi dgas. brZolebSi gamarjvebul mxedarmTavrebs triunfiT xvdebian romis moqalaqebi da gamarjvebebis aRsaniSnavad qalaqSi satriumfo TaRebs ageben. kolizeumSi drodadro sxvadasxva sanaxaoba imarTeba, forumebze uamravi xalxi ireva, warCinebuli romaelebi TermebSi 17


(abanoebSi) nebivroben. simdidresa da fufunebaSi arian Caflulni romis mmarTvelni. imperiis Zlevamosileba da simdidre Cans yvelaferSi: romauli qalaqebis wyalmomaragebisa Tu kanalizaciis gamarTul sistemebSi, mkvidrad naSen gzebSi, grandiozul nagebobebSi. erTi sityviT, romSi cxovreba Cqefs. swored am dros romSi arsebobs adamianTa jgu­fi, romelic mowyvetilia am saerTo oromtri­als; isini drodadro romis maxloblad mdebare mitovebul miwisqveSa karierebSi _ kata­kombebSi ikribebian. isini axali religiis _ qristi­anobis mimdevrebi arian. axali religia romaelebisagan sruliad gansxvavebul Rirebulebebs efuZneboda. miwieri siamovnebis, amqveyniuri keTildReobis, simdidrisa da fufunebis nacvlad, is sulier simdidreze akeTebda aqcents da maradiul cxovrebas hpirdeboda mimdevrebs. qristianuli religiis Tanaxmad, adamianis mizani maradiuli sicocxlis, sasufevlis _ samoTxis damkvidrebaa. miwieri cxovreba mxolod gansacdelia anu adamianis gamocdaa. is xanmoklea da mas mosdevs maradiuli sulieri cxovreba _ samoTxe an jojoxeTi, imis mixedviT, Tu rogor gaiara adamianis sulma miwieri gza, rogor ga­ uZlo xorcieli cxovrebis cdunebebs. bunebrivia, fufunebis moyvare, miwier siamovnebas dawafebul, gancxromasa da momxveWelobaSi mcxovrebi romis imperiis mesveurebisaTvis amgvari msoflmxedveloba sruliad gaugebari kalistos katakombebis kubikulebi. iyo. amitom maTi mxridan pirveli qristianebi did devnas ganicdidnen da iZulebulni iyvnen, farulad Sekrebiliy­ vnen ritualebis Casatareganmart ebebi blad. amgvari faruli Tavyrilobebi romSi e.w. kubikulebi _ katakombebis katakombebSi xdeboda. katakombebi miwisqveS gaked­lebSi sagangebod gamokveTi­ Txrili derefnebis da saTavsebis mTeli sis­ li niSebi, romlebSic micvaletemaa, sadac kedlebSi sagangebod gamokveTil nibulebs krZalavdnen. SebSi _ kubikulebSi qristianebi, Zvel romaelTa ikonografia _ garkveuli msgavsad, TavianT micvalebulebs krZalavdnen. drois ganmavlobaSi SemuSavebuaqve sruldeboda sulis mosaxsenebeli rituali wesebi, romlis mixedviTac lebic. amgvarad, katakombebi qristianTa dakriqmneba qristianuli siuJetebi da wmindanTa gamosaxulebebi. Zalvis, maTi faruli TavSeyris da ritualebis Catarebis adgilad iqca.

r o m is k a t a k o mb e b i sityva `katakomba~ warmo­dgeba laTinuri sityvi­sa­gan `cumba~, rac Txrils niSnavs. romis midamoebSi mravlad iyo qvis (tufis) mosapovebeli karieri. am mitovebul miwisqveSa karierebs romaelebi, xolo Semdeg pirveli qristianebi TavianT samlocveloebad da micvalebulTa dasakrZalad iyenebdnen. droTa ganmavlobaSi katakombebSi calkeul mowameTa saxelobis samlocveloebic aRmocenda. ufro mogvianebiT ki aq wmindanTa nawilebsac inaxavdnen. mag., 258 wels romis wminda sebastianes katakombebSi droebiT gadaitanes mociqulTa _ petresa da pavles wminda nawilebi. amgvarad, qristianTa devnis epoqaSi katakombebi qristianul siwmindeTa sacavadac iqca.

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san sebastianos katakombebis mxatvroba. romi. III s.

san sebastianos katakombebis mxatvroba. Tevzi ziarebis purebiT. romi. III s.

priscilas kata­ kombebi. romi. IV s.

III. pirveli qristianebi mxatvrobiT amkobdnen katakombebs: TeTr fonze wiTeli zolebiT erTmaneTisagan gamijnul areebSi religiur siuJetebs da sxvadasxva simbolur gamosaxulebebs aTavsebdnen. romis katakombebis mxatvrobaSi uamravi gamo­saxuleba gvxvdeba: mtredi, Ruza, xe, jvari, Tevzi, Citi da a.S. garda amisa, aq bib­liisa da saxarebis siuJeturi scenebi da cal­ keuli wminda­nebic gamoisaxeboda xolme: qriste keTili mwyemsis saxiT, RvTismSobeli yrmiT, micvalebu­­ lebi locvis pozaSi xelapyrobilni, irmebi wya­ ros­Tan, Citebi, romlebic yurZens kenkaven da a.S. droTa ganmavlobaSi dadginda sce­ nebis gamosaxvis wesi. wesebis am erTobliobas ikonografia ewodeba. erTi SexedviT, katakombebis gamosaxulebebi arafriT gansxvavdeba romis warmarTuli mxatvrobisagan, magram mTavari maTi axali Sinaarsi da simboluri mniSvnelobaa. manamde arsebulma bevrma gamosaxulebam Tu siuJetma katakombebis adreqristianul mxatvrobaSi axali mniSvneloba SeiZina. mag., axalgazrda mwyemsi zurgze batkniT, qristianebisaTvis mwyemsi keTilis, anu Tavad macxovris simbolod iqca, romelic morwmuneTa sulebs mwyemsavs; Citi, romelic yurZnis marcvlebs kenkavs, Cveulebrivi idiliuri siuJetis nacvlad, morwmunis suls ganasaxierebs, romelic qristianuli moZRvrebis arss eziareba. Ruza, romelsac Cveulebriv gemebi navsadgurSi Sesvlisas uSveben xolme wyalSi, Tavad morwmunis suls ganasaxierebs, romelmac navsayudeli rwmenaSi, qristianobaSi hpova. Zvel romaelTa rwmeniT farSavangis sxeuli uxrwneli iyo, amitom igi qristianTaTvis maradiuli sicocxlis simbolod iqca.

mwyemsi keTili. kalistos katakombebi. romi. III s.

adami da eva. kalistos katakombebi. romi. III s.

4. aRwereT aq warmodge­nili scena adami da evas gamosaxulebebiT. 5. Tqveni azriT, ra simboluri datvirTva aqvs am scenaze gamosaxul xes?

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IV. katakombebis mxatvrobaSi scenebi da calkeuli gamosaxulebebi erTmaneTisagan wiTeli gamyofi xazebiTaa gamijnuli, rasac erTgvari wesrigi Seaqvs moxatulobaSi da TiToeuli gamosaxulebis mkafiod aRqmas uwyobs xels. am STabeWdilebas ufro aZlierebs sada, TeTri foni. warmoidgineT, miwisqveSa bnel momcro darbazSi mdgomi qristianebi, xelSi CiraRdnebiTa da sanTlebiT, rogor aRavlenen locvas. sanTlebis mocimcime SuqiT ganaTebuli TeTri kedlebi TiTqos rZisfer buruss qmnis, saidanac kedlebze daxatuli wmindanTa figurebi feradi, gacrecili landebiviT amoizrdebian. es marTlac idumali, Zalze mistikuri da albaT, emociuri sanaxaoba iqneboda. 6. aRwereT fotoze warmodgenili kalistos katakombebis moxatuloba. 7. Tqveni azriT, ra principiT aris agebuli mxatvroba? 8. ras fiqrobT, ratom iyenebdnen katakombebis mxatvrobaSi TeTr fons?

kalistos katakombebi. romi. IV s.

landebi SemTxveviT rodi vaxseneT: katakombebSi figurebi Tavisufali monasmebiT, mkafio konturebis gareSea daxatuli. am monasmebiT figurebis garkveuli moculobiTobac miiRweva. weris amgvari Tavisufali manera siaxle rodi iyo, is romSi farTod iyo gavrcelebuli da mas xelovnebaTmcodneebma e.w. iluzionisturi manera uwodes. daakvirdiT priscilas katakombebis macxovris saxes. is TiTqos `iZerweba~ Tavisufali, msuye monasmebiT da moculobas iZens.

V. katakombebis mxatvrobis mTavari siaxle gamosaxulebis da fonis urTierTmimarTebaSia. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, foni katakombebSi yvelgan TeTria, ris gamoc masze warmodgenili feradi gamosaxulebebi mkafiod ikiTxeba. sakmaod moculobiTi figurebi TiTqos amoizrdebian am ganyenebuli TeTri fonidan da livliveben abstraqtul `TeTr~ sivrceSi. daakvirdiT locvis pozaSi gamosaxul RvTismSoblis figuras prismacxovari. komodilas katakombebi. romi. IV s.

RvTismSobeli oranta. priscilas katakombebi. romi. IV s.

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9. gaixseneT, rogor asaxavdnen egviptelebi garemos freskebze da SeadareT katakombebis mxatrobis garemos asaxvis principebs. ra msgavseba da gansxvavebaa maT Soris?


cilas katakombis moxatulobidan. grZel samosSi vedrebis pozaSi gamosaxuli (am pozas oranta ewodeba) qalis sakmaod didi masiuri moculobiTi figura TiTqos marTlac uwonadoa da TeTr fonze farfatebs. am moxatulobaTa avtorebs ar ainteresebT realuri garemos asaxva. aq arc niadagis zolia miniSnebuli, arc ca, arc realuri garemos arc erTi sxva elementi, maTi yuradReba mTlianad sulieri samyaroskenaa mipyrobili, amitomac amboben isini uars amqveyniuri garemos nebismier detalze da moqmedeba sxva, sulier sivrceSi gadaaqvT, romelsac ganyenebuli `manaTobeli~ TeTri foni gansaxierebs.

10. gaixseneT sami yrmis Zveli aRTqmiseuli istoria. 11. aRwereT am figurebis po­ zebi. ra ewodeba amgvar pozas da ramdenad Seesatyviseba is siuJetis Sinaarss. `sami yrma saxmilsa Sina~ (cecxlis RumelSi). pris­cilas katakombebi. romi. IV s.

Tumca aris iseTi scenebi, romlebzec mainc SexvdebiT garemoze miniSnebas. amis magaliTia scena priscilas katakombebis mxatvrobidan, romelzec Zveli aRTqmis siuJeti `sami yrma saxmilsa Sina~ (cecxlis RumelSi) aris asaxuli. aq gamosaxuli sami figuris fexebTan Tqven xedavT sxvadasxva mxares mimarTul, Tavisuflad dadebul wiTel monasmebs. Tu am siuJetis Sinaarss gaixsenebT, mixvdebiT, rom aq cecxlis alebia daxatuli. am SemTxvevaSi Tavad siuJetis Sinaarsi iTxovda cecxlis miniSnebas da ostatmac Zalze pirobiTad, wiTeli, qaoturi, Tavisufali monasmebiT daxata is.

saidumlo seroba. pris­cilas katakombebi. romi. IV s.

davaleba daakvirdiT proscilas katakombebSi gamosaxul `saidumlo serobis~ scenas. aRwereT, rogor aris gadmocemuli garemo am scenaze. dawereT ese da warudgineT klass.

ganmart ebebi oranta _ vedrebis poza, rodesac figura gamosaxulia ganze gaSlili, maRla awvdili xelebiT, xelisgulebiT mnaxvelisaken. mogvianebiT ewoda mavedrebeli RvTismSoblis erTerT ikongrafiul tips.

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7. vakeTebT niRabs

Cven adreqristianuli xanis xelovnebis simboloebs gavecaniT, magram simboluri gamosaxulebebi bevr Zvel kulturaSia gavrcelebuli: egvipteSi, SuamdinareTSi, amerikis indielebis kulturaSi da a.S. simboluri datvirTvis mqone xelovnebis nimuSebs Soris gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva sxvadasxva epoqaSi Seqmnili niRbebi. maTSi gamoyenebuli masala da dekoris yvela elementi simboluri mniS­ vnelobis matarebelia da bevr rames mogviTxrobs ama Tu im kulturis Sesaxeb. XX saukunis dasawyisSi didi popularobiT sargeblobda afrikuli niRbebi, ramac garkveuli zegavlena moaxdina Tanamedrove xelovnebis ganviTarebaze. niRbebis simboluri mniSvneloba da dekoratiuli xasiaTi Tqveni Tanatolis mier Seqmnili niRabi bevri mxatvris STagonebis wyarod iqca. afrikuli niRbebis pirobiTi formebiT da simboluri mniSvnelobis mqone dekoratiuli elementebiT gatacebuli iyo pablo pikaso, romlis Semoqmedebis erTi periodi mieZRvna kidec amgvari nimuSebis Seqmnas. Tanamedrove xelovnebis namuSevris Seqmnisas pikaso iyenebs afrikuli niRbebisaTvis damaxasiaTebel saxviT xerxebs: formis stilizaciasa da deformacias. amdenad, am Zvelma tradiciam gagrZeleba Tanamedrove xelovnebaSic hpova. pablo pikaso. qalis Tavi. 1907.

es afrikuli niRabi mxatvris am namuSevris inspiraciis wyaros warmoadgens

afrikuli niRbebi

1. SeadareT pikasos mier Seqmnili namuSevari afrikul niRabs. aRwereT da daaxasiaTeT is saxviTi xerxebi, romlebic am or namuSevarzea gamoyenebuli.

afrikul niRbebs garkveuli ritualebis dros: qorwilebis, dakrZalvis, omSi wasvlis Tu nadirobis an mosavlis aRebis win iyenebdnen. yvela am SemTxvevisaTvis sagangebo niRabi mzaddeboda da maTze gamosaxul elementebs _ xazebs, ferebs, ornamentul saxeebs _ Tavisi simboluri datvirTva hqonda. niRabi umetesad adamianis saxes warmoadgenda, Tumca masSi xandaxan sxvadasxva cxovelis 22


niSnebic iyo xolme CarTuli, mag., maimunis, leopardis, niangis, kus da sxv. TiToeuli niRabi romelime wminda suls ganasaxierebda, adamiani ki, romelic am niRabs ikeTebda, am sulis droebiT TavSesafars warmoadgenda _ ase sjerodaT niRbebis Seqmnelebs.

pikasos `afrikuli periodi~ 1907 wels axalgazrda pablo pikaso afrikis eTnografiul gamofenaze moxvda, romelic parizSi, trokaderos sasaxleSi iyo warmodgenili. STabeWdileba imdenad didi iyo, rom rogorc mogvianebiT mxatvari Tavad ixsenebda, Tavdapirvelad gamofenidan wasvla mounda, magram Tavs Zala daatana da sakraluri ritualebisTvis Seqmnili niRbebi da sxvadasxvagvari nivTebi daaTvaliera, romelTa meSveobiTac adamianebi borotad ganwyobil ZalebTan gamklavebas cdilobdnen. sakuTari SiSebis dasaZlevad adamianebi am ritualur sagnebs sxvadasxva formas da fers aZlevdnen. pikaso ixsenebda, rom am gamofenis naxvis Semdeg mixvda, ra aris ferwera. misi azriT es esteTikuri procesi ki ara, erTgvari magiaa, romelsac Suamavlis roli akisria adamianebsa da maTTan dapirispirebul samyaros Soris. mxatvroba, Zalauflebis mopovebis saSualebaa, rodesac SiSsa da survilebs sasurvel formas mianiWeb. „im dRes mivxvdi, rom me vipove Cemi gza~, _ werda pablo pikaso. am dRis Semdeg Seicvala mxatvris xelwera. man martiv, sada, xSirad deformirebul formas mimarTa. 1907-1909 wlebi mxatvris SemoqmedebaSi `afrikuli periodis~ saxeliTaa cnobili.

 moifiqreT, rogor niRabs gaakeTebT da ra masalas

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnili niRbebi da eskizi

praqtikuli samuSao nebismieri masalisagan SeqmeniT niRabi sakuTari interpretaciiT da simboloebis gamoyenebiT.

gamoiyenebT;  sanam niRbis konstruqcias SeqmniT, SeqmeniT niRbis eskizi feradi fanqrebis an saRebavebis gamoyenebiT;  eskizis mixedviT SeqmeniT konstruqcia;  moifiqreT niRbis e.w. konstruqcia _ rogor daimagrebT mas saxeze an rogor dakidebT kedelze interieris mosarTavad;  moifiqreT ras gamosaxavT niRabze, rogori saxeebiT da ra xerxebiT SeamkobT mas;  niRbisaTvis SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT Txeli muyao an sqeli qaRaldi, romlisganac formas gamoWriT;  SegiZliaT niRabs Tqven mier interpretirebuli ornamentuli saxeebi daaxatoT an daaweboT sxvadasxva masalis (qsovili, feradi qaRaldi, Rilebi, mZivebi, maqmanebi, bunebrivi masala) elementebi.

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8. rogor aisaxeba garemo Sua saukuneebis xelovnebaSi gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor aisaxeba garemo Sua saukuneebis xelovnebis nimuSebze? • romeli xerxebiT aisaxeba pirobiTi garemo Sua saukuneebis reliefebsa da moxatulobebze? • xelovnebis romeli dargebis namuSevrebiT imkoba qristianuli taZari?

I. Tqven ukve iciT, rom adamiani yuradRebiT akvirdeboda garemos da xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargis namuSevrebSi asaxavda am dakvirvebis Sedegebs. amasTanave, sxvadasxva epoqisa da qveynis xelovnebaSi garemo gansxvavebulad aris warmodgenili. gamonaklisi arc Sua saukuneebis qristianuli xelovnebaa. qristianuli taZari xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargis _ mxatvrobis, mozaikis, plastikis Tavmoyris adgilia. xelovnebis am dargebis namuSevrebiT imkoba taZris interieri da misi fasadebi. rogorc ukve iciT, qristianuli xelovneba simboluri mniSvnelobis mqonea da morwmuneebs nebismieri dargis namuSevrebSi swored simboluri formiT mouTxrobs qristianobis mTavari azris, misi istoriis, macxovris, RvTismSoblis, wmindanTa da mowameTa Sesaxeb. pirveli, rac taZrisaken mimaval mnaxvels egebeba, misi eqsterieria. Sua saukuneebis qarTuli qristianuli taZris fasadebi reliefuri gamosaxulebebiTaa Semkuli. reliefebze Zveli aRqmisa da saxarebis siuJetebia aRbeWdili. aseve aq gvxvdeba cxovelebis, frinvelebisa da fantastikuri arsebebis gamosaxulebebi. reliefTan erTad, Sua saukuneebis eklesiaTa fa­­ sadebis dekoris umniSvnelovanesi elementia CuqurTma. CuqurTmas gansakuTrebiT uxvad iyenebdnen qarTul taZrebSi. mcenareuli garemos mTeli mravalferovneba Sua saukuneebis qarTvel ostatebs daxvewil CuqurTmaSi aqvT Caqsovili. ras ar SexvdebiT am natif ornamentul wnulebSi _ vazis mtevnebsa Tu ylortebs, yvavilebsa Tu foTlebs, ucxo nayofsa Tu dagrexil Reroebs. qvis ostatebi sarkmlebis sapireebsa Tu svetebze zogjer reliefur, moculobiT mcenareebs samTavisi. XI s. aqandakebdnen, zogjer ki am gamosaxulebebs mcenareebis stilizebuli sqemis saxes aZlevdnen, 1. gaixseneT romel qarTul ro­ melic ornamentuli wnulis saxiT efineboda taZrebSi xarT namyofi da aRwereT maTi eqsterieri. ked­lis zedapirs. bunebriv garemoze dakvirvebis Sedegebi taZris fasadebze gamokveTil reliefebSic gvxvdeba. Sua saukuneebis xelovnebas gamoganmart ebebi saxulebebis pirobiTi xasiaTi da maTi simboluri eqsterieri _ (fr. gare) raime mniSvneloba axasiaTebda. amitom reliefur komobieqtis (mag., nageboba, ariqtepoziciebSi CarTuli frinvelebisa da cxovelebis qturuli ansambli da sxv.) gare gamosaxulebebi xSirad ostatis warmosaxvis nayosaxe, misi mxatvruli gaformefia da fantastiuri arsebebis saxiT warmoudgebis elementTa erTianoba. eqsba mnaxvels. CuqurTma da ornamenti dekoratiul terieris antonimia interieri _ aqcentebs svams qarTuli taZrebis fasadebsa Tu obieqtis Sida sivrce. interierebSi da gansakuTrebul xibls sZens maT. 24


samTavisis taZris CuqurTma. XI s.

maRalaanT eklesiis CuqurTma. XVII s.

2. aRwereT samTavisisa da maRalaanT eklesiis fasadebze gamosaxuli ornamentebi da Tqveni sityvebiT daaxasiaTeT orive fotoze warmodgenili ornamenti. ra msgasebasa da gansxvavebas xedavT maT Soris?

ananuris taZris reliefi. XVI-XVIII ss.

martvilis taZris reliefi. XII s.

3. aRwereT martvilisa da ananuris taZrebis Semamkobeli reliefebis gamosaxulebebi. ras fiqrobT, romeli cxovelis da frinvelis realuri detalebi gamoiyena ostatma maTi Seqmnisas? 4. bunebrivi garemos romeli elementebia aRbeWdili am kompociebze?

II. rogori iyo Sua saukuneebis saxviTi xelov­nebis erT-erTi wamyvani dargis, monumenturi anu kedlis mxatvroba? Sua saukuneebis monumenturi mxatvrobis miz­ ania macxovrisa Tu wmindanebis cxovrebis Tvalxiluli Cveneba. qristianul ta­­­ZarSi Sesul mlo­cvels kedlebi­d­ an macxovris, RvTismSoblisa da wmindanTa gamosaxulebebi egebeba. aqvea scenebi maTi cxovrebidan. Tavdapirve­lad, adre­qris­tianul xa­na­Si taZ­re­bi mxa­tvrob­iT mxo­­lod na­wi­lobriv im­­­­ko­bo­da. am dros mxatvroba taZris azrobrivad yvelaze mniSvnelovan nawilebSi _ gumbaTsa da sakurTxevelSi _ gvxvdeba. taZris interieris calkeul nawilTa mxatvrobiT Semkobis tradicia adreul Sua saukuneTa manZilze mTel marTlmadideblur samyaroSi arsebobda. 25


III. mogvianebiT, X-XI saukuneebidan moyolebuli, taZari ukve mTlianad imkoboda mxatvrobiT. nawilobriv moxatul taZrebs Semdgom saukune­ebSi xSirad xelaxla moxatavdnen xolme. amis magaliTia atenis sioni, romlis Tavdapirveli nawilobrivi moxatuloba taZris Tanadroulia (VII s.), xolo sruli mxatvroba XI s-Sia Sesrulebuli. amgvarad ganaxlebul taZrebSi xSirad SegviZlia davinaxoT sxvadasxva dros Sesru­lebuli mxatvrobis calkeuli fenebi.

5. Tqveni azriT, ratom gamoisaxeba jvari gumbaTSi? 6. Tu dakvirvebixarT, ra aris gamosaxuli mxatvrobiT Semkuli eklesiis kedlebze? 7. Tqveni dakvirvebiT, sad, ro­mel adgilas gvxvdeba ma­cxo­ v­risa da RvTismSoblis ga­mo­sa­ xulebebi?

jvris amaRleba. gumbaTis mxatvroba. iSxani. XI s.

RvTismSobeli yrmiT. sakurTxevlis mozaika. gelaTi. XII s.

qristianuli taZris mkacrad gaazrebul simbolur sivrceSi ferwerac Sesabamisi simbolu­ri mniSvnelobis mixedviT nawildeboda. tradiciisamebr, gumbaTSi gamoisaxeboda qriste yovlismpyrobeli saxarebiT xelSi, romelic marjveniT akurTxebda qristian ers. saqarTve­lo ­ ­­Si gumbaTSi ufro xSirad jvari gamoisaxeba. gumbaTis Semdeg taZris yvelaze mniSvnelovan nawilSi _ sakurTxevelSi anu samoTxeSi, gamoisa­xeboda RvTismSobeli, radgan igi Tavadaa samoTxis erT-erTi simbolo, qristianTa sulebis xsnasa da samoTxeSi maT damkvidrebaze mavedrebeli. taZris ked­ lebze, zeda nawilSi, mxa­ tvrobiT mo­ Tx­ robili iyo macxovris amqveyniuri istoria. es faq­tob­ri­vad, saxare­bis ilust­ri­rebaa ml­o­c­ve­lisaT­vis, romelic scenaTa daTvali­er­ebis meSveobiT moixi­lavda wminda istorias da TiTqos moilocavda wminda miwebsac. 26


atenis sionis mxatvroba. iosebis sizmari. XI s. gelaTis mxatvroba. XVII s.

IV. saxarebis siuJetebis dasuraTebisas mxatvrebi zedmiwevniT pirobiTad asaxaven im garemos, sadac viTardeba moqmedeba. pirobiToba vlindeba iseT detalebSi, rogoricaa mag., mTebisa an kldeebis, xeebis da yvavilebis formebi. Sua saukuneebis mxatvrebi pirobiTad gamosaxaven ara mxolod bunebriv, aramed adamianis xeliT Seqmnil garemosac. sxvadasxva Senobis, saxlebis, taZrebis, qalaqis koSkurebiani galavanis forma martivi marTkuTxedebis da sibrtyeebis, zogan maTSi gaWrili sarkmlebis saxiTaa warmodgenili da orferda saxuraviTaa gadaxuruli. am nagebobebis gamosaxvisas sxvadasxva mxares mimarTuli

ubisis taZris sakurTevlis moxatuloba. macxovari. XIV s.

iosebis sizmari. atenis sionis mxatvroba. XI s.

8. daakvirdiT, saxa­ re­ bis romeli epizodia gamosaxuli gelaTis XVII s-is mxatvrobis nimuSze? 9. aRwereT, rogoraa asaxuli garemo gelaTis moxatulobis scenaze? 10. ras fiqrobT, rogoria atenis sionis mxatvrobis warmodgenil nimuSze mZinare iosebisa da mis ukan gamosaxuli Senobis proporciuli urTierTdamokidebuleba?

27


kedlebi perspeqtivis kanonebis dacvis gareSe, erT sibrtyezea datanili, rac kidev ufro pirobiT iers sZens maT. xSirad SexvdebiT iseT scenebsac, sadac ama Tu im obieqtis siRrmeSi mimavali paraleluri waxnagebi perspeqtivis kanonebis Tanaxmad ki ar viwrovdeba, aramed piriqiT, farTovdeba. am xerxs ukuperspeqtiva anu Sebrunebuli perspeqtiva ewodeba. saxarebis epizodebis dasuraTebisas mxatvars mxolod ZiriTadi moqmedebis arsis gadmocema ainteresebs, amitom, adamianebis figurebi didi zomisaa, xolo maT irgvliv gamosaxuli garemos elementebi _ gacilebiT patara. amdenad, yuradReba adamianebze, macxovrisa Tu wmindanebis gamosaxulebebze, maT Jestebsa da pozebze maxvildeba, xolo irgvliv warmodgenili garemo mxolod miniSnebad rCeba.

r a a r is q r i s t i a nu l i t aZari qristianuli taZris mTavari daniSnuleba morwmuneTa TavSeyra da RvTis­ msaxurebis Catarebaa. eklesiis agebisa da Semkobis wesi, garda tradiciuli kanonebisa, TiToeuli arqiteqturuli da dekoratiuli elementis gamomsaxvelobiT efeqtsac iTvaliswinebs. swored RvTismsaxurebisas eniWeba gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba daxvewil arqiteqturul formebs, interierTa morTulobaSi gamoyenebul mozaikas, mis zedapirze areklili sanTlebis mocimcime als, mxatvrobiT gacocxlesveticxoveli. interieri. 1010-1024. buli saxarebis epizodebs. amas Tan erTvis samRvdeloebis sazeimo Sesamoseli, Zvirfasi TvlebiT mooWvili oqro-vercxlis saeklesio nivTebis elvareba, keTilxmovani galobis xma da sakmevlis surneli. yovelive es erTad amaRlebuli sixarulis gancdas badebs morwmunis gulSi. ai, ras werdnen eklesiis mamebi qristianul taZarSi mimdinare wirva-locvis Sesaxeb: `rodesac adamiani taZarSi Sedis, umalve xvdeba, rom es Senoba adamianis mier ki ara, RvTi­uri gangebiT aris Seqmnili. misi suli RmerTisaken miiltvis da zecad maRldeba...~

daval eba daakvirdiT xarebis kompozicias ubisas XIV saukunis moxatulobidan. aRwereT angelozisa da RvTismSoblis gamosaxulebebi, garemo, sadac saxarebis es cnobili siuJetia gamosaxuli. yuradReba miaqcieT figurebis da nagebobebis zomebis urTierTSefardebas. CamoayalibeT kompoziciis romeli elementebi atarebs pirobiT xasiaTs. ubisis taZris moxatuloba. xareba. XIV s.

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9. rogor SevinarCunoT kulturuli garemo gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• ra aris kulturuli garemo da ra qmnis mas? • ras niSnavs restavracia? • vin arian restavratorebi? • ra aris materialuri da aramaterialuri kulturis Zeglebi?

I. nebismier qveyanaSi mogzaurobisas Tvals itacebs misi bunebrivi garemo. samxreTis qveynebSi es feradi, Wreli flora da faunaa, xSiri da daburuli tyeebi, peizaJebi Tbili zRvebiTa da uxvwyliani mdinareebiT, bevri simwvane, egzotikuri mcenareebi da sxva. CrdiloeTis bunebas ufro neitraluri, mSvidi ferebi, yinuliviT civi wyali da kamkama haerSi Soridan dasanaxi xedebi axasia-

freskis afcqvnili zedapiri

ubisa. XIV s. dazianebuli freskis nimuSi

freskis SemorCenili fragmenti kedelze

Tebs. es yvelaferi waruSlel STabeWdilebas axdens mnaxvelze. magram garda mravalferovani bunebrivi garemosi, arsebobs kidev adamianis xeliT Seqmnili garemo _ qalaqebisa da soflebis arqiteqtura, mdidruli sasaxleebi Tu ubralo sacxovrebeli saxlebi, taZrebi da samrekloebi, mxatvrobiT da reliefiT Semkuli nagebobebi, xelovnebis nimuSebiT savse muzeumebi. es yvelaferi Cveni winaprebis mier aris Seqmnili da materialuri kulturis Zeglebia. arsebobs aramaterialuri kulturis Zeglebic: xalxuri simRera, samzareulo, anbani da sxv. es yovelive kulturul memkvidreobas warmoadgens da Cven garSemo kulturul garemos qmnis. swored bunebrivi da kulturuli garemos erTianoba ganapirobebs ama Tu im qveynis gansxvavebul, dasamaxsovrebel saxes.

a r a m a t e r i a l u ri k u l turi s Zegl ebi aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreoba — zepirsityvierebis tradiciebi da gamoxatvis formebi, saSemsruleblo xelovneba, adaT-wesebi, Cveulebebi, teqnologiebi, tradiciul xelovnebasTan dakavSirebuli codna da unar-Cvevebi, maTTan dakavSirebuli instrumentebi, sagnebi, artefaqtebi da kulturuli sivrceebi. UNESCO-s aramaterialuri kulturuli memkvidreobis siaSi Setanilia 3 qarTuli Zegli: qarTuli polifonia, Rvinis dayenebis uZvelesi qarTuli tradiciuli meTodi da qarTuli anbanis sami uZvelesi saxeoba.

29


saqarTvelo mdidari warsulis mqone qveyanaa da samarTlianad amayobs Tavisi kulturuli garemoTi, romelsac mravali saukunis ganmavlobaSi Cveni winaprebis mier Seqmnili materialuri da aramaterialuri kulturis Zeglebi qmnis. Cveni valia SevinarCunoT es umdidresi kulturuli garemo.

II. xelovnebis Zeglebi droTa ganmavlobaSi ziandeba garemo pirobebis Tu Senaxvis arasaxarbielo pirobebis Tu udieri mopyrobis gamo. eqskursiaze yofnis dros, albaT SegimCneviaT, rom moxatuloba zog adgilas Camocvenilia, zogan amomtvreuli an amoburculia anu dazianebulia. albaT, iseT eklesiebSic yofilxarT, sadac ulmobel dros araferi dauzogavs. miwisZvrebs kedlebi dauxeTqavs da gumbaTi Camouqcevia, qarsa da wvimas kedlebidan saRebavi Camourecxavs, xanZarsa da saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi danTebul sanTlebs gauWvartlavs da gauSavebia freskebi. kidev ufro dasanania, rodesac Cvenamde avad Tu kargad moRweul Zeglebs dRes maT dasaTvaliereblad mosuli adamianebi azianeben, udierad epyrobian, TavianT saxelebs aweren saukuneebis winandel kedlebs. sabednierod arseboben iseTi adamianebi, romelTa profesionaluri movaleoba aseTi ZeglebisTvis sicocxlis SenarCunebaa. ra unda vicodeT imisaTvis, rom yovel Zegls sicocxle SevunarCunoT, gavufrTxildeT da SevecadoT, SevunaxoT isini momaval Taobebs? modi, ufro dawvrilebiT gavecnoT, ra aris restavracia da rogor muSaoben am profesiis mqone adamianebi _ restavratorebi.

III. restavracia/konservacia mecnierebis dargia. `restavracia~ laTinuri sityvaa da aRdgenas niSnavs. dRes ufro xSirad iyeneben termins `konservacia~, rac arsebulis, Tundac dazianebulis, SenarCunebas niSnavs. restavratorebi _ kulturis ZeglTa (arqiteqturis, mxatvrobis, qandakebis, gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis nimuSebis) dacvis sferoSi moRvawe adamianebi, faqtobrivad, am Zeglebis „mkurnalebi“ arian. Sesabamisad, isini uamrav samecniero meTods iyeneben Zeglebis kvlevisas, amitomac restavracias dRes mecnierebis dargad miiCneven. restavratoris profesia moiTxovs mravalmxriv codnas erTi SexedviT erTmaneTisagan daSorebul sferoebSi: fizikaSi, qimiaSi, biologiaSi da, rasakvirvelia, xelovnebis dargebsa da xelovnebis istoriaSi. saerTaSoriso sazogadoebam droTa ganmavlobaSi am sferoSi mravali saerTaSoriso dokumenti (veneciis qartia, eTikis kodeqsi da sxv.) SeimuSava, romlebSic am dargis ZiriTadi principebia Camoyalibebuli. 30

1. daasaxeleT Tqveni qalaqisa Tu regionisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli kulturuli garemos umTavresi elementebi. kulturuli memkvidreobis romel Zeglebs icnobT kargad Tqvenს regionSi da ra iciT maT Sesaxeb.

SiomRvime. jvarTamaRlebis eklesiis moxatuloba. XIII s.

ganmart ebani baTqaSi _ kedlis, tixris, Weris mosapirkeTebeli Sre, romelsac gluvi zedapiris misaRebad iyeneben. Sua saukuneebis eklesiebSi specialuri baTqaSiT ifareboda mosaxatad gankuTvnili kedlebis zedapiri. avTenturoba _ namdvili, ueWveli, utyuari, sinamdvilis Sesabamisi; igulisxmeba xelovnebis nimuSis pir­vandeli saxe. qartia (berZn.) _ politikuri, socialuri Tu profesiuli moTxovnebis gamomxatveli sabuTi, aqti.


IV. saqarTvelos nebismier qalaqsa Tu sofelSi adamianis Tvali aucileblad SeamCnevs Zvel, istoriul nagebobebs; es an taZari da misi samreklo, an Zveli sacxovrebeli, an SemaRlebul adgilze mdebare saTavdacvo koSki da galavani SeiZleba iyos. rac ufro Zvelia aseTi nageboba, miT ufro dazianebulia, rogorc wesi, da gamagrebas an restavracias saWiroebs. xuroTmoZRvruli Zeglebis restavracia maTi gamokvleviT, Zeglis azomviT, dazianebuli adgilebis dafiqsirebiT iwyeba xolme. arqiteqtor-restavratorebi SemorCenil istoriul wya­ roebSi eZeben masalas konkretuli Zeglis Sesaxebac, romelic maT restavraciis procesis dros gamoadgebaT da saSualebas miscems, zustad aRadginon dazianebuli _ Camongreuli an didi xnis win SekeTebuli da gadasxvaferebuli nawilebi. aseTi masalis moZiebas didi mniSvneloba aqvs, radgan Zeglis avTenturobis SenarCuneba restavratorebis erT-erTi umTavresi amocanaa.

2. gaixseneT Tqvens garemoSi arsebuli istoriuli arqiteqturuli Zegli. aRwereT misi dRevandeli mdgomareoba. xom ar saWiroebs restavracias da konkretulad ra nawilebia dazianebuli?

qvenatkocas eklesia yvavis saydara. restavracia

Seswavlili unda iyos arqiteqturuli nagebobis masala da mSeneblobis dros gamoyenebuli samSeneblo xerxebi. yvelaferi es restavratorebs daexmarebaT Zeglis aRdgenis dros. Tu dazianeba masStaburia, Zegli mTlianad xaraCoSi Caismeba da misi yvela elementi winaswar Sedgenili da damtkicebuli sarestavracio proeqtis Sesabamisad iqneba aRdgenili. uSualod aseTi samuSaoebis mimdinareobis dros xSirad saintereso da mniSvnelovani aRmoCenebic keTdeba. drois safarqveS moqceuli da miviwyebuli detalebis gamomzeureba, warwera iqneba es Tu ornamentuli dekori, TiTqos axal furcels Slis qarTuli kulturuli memkvidreobis istoriaSi. aseTi aRmoCenebi gakeTda, mag., nikorwmindis taZris gumbaTis yelis sarestavracio samuSaoebis mimdinareobis dros, rodesac restavratorebma gumbaTis yelSi adamianis gamosaxulebiani reliefis nimuSi aRmoaCines. dRes mTeli saqarTvelos teritoriaze SeiZleba SexvdeT sarestavraciod gamzadebul aseT nagebobebs. xaraCoebiT garSemortymuli istoriuli Zeglebi Cveni kulturuli memkvidreobis gadarCenis, maTTvis sicocxlis gaxangrZlivebis nikorwmindis axlad aRmoCenili reliefi wina pirobaa. 31


IV. vidre restavratorebi kedlis mxatvrobis restavracias Seudgebodnen, maT unda daadginon, ra „uWirs“ Zegls. isini yovelmxriv swavloben mas, agro­ veben istoriul, dokumentur masalas, iReben foto­ ebs, akeTe­ ben sqemebsa da naxazebs, swavloben saRebavebis Semadgen­ lobas da a.S.; yvelaze mTavari isaa, rom gairkves dazi­ anebis mizezebi, rac ZiriTadad fizikuri, qimiuri da biologiuri analizebis Catarebis Sedegad dgindeba. erTi sityviT, restavratorebi „diagnozs usvamen“ Zegls. albaT dagainte­re­sebT, rogor mu­Sa­o­ben res­ tavra­to­­­re­bi Zeg­l­ze? mo­­nu­­men­tur mxat­v­ro­ba­ ze muSaobisas res­tav­ratorebi mraval xer­­xsa da meTods iye­ ne­­ ben imis mixedviT, Tu ra tipis dazi­ aneba aRi­ niSneba. umetes SemTxvevaSi, isini saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi mtvriTa da WvartliT dafaruli freskebis zedapirs wmenden. yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi atareben analizebs da mxolod amis Semdeg arCeven, romeli masaliT gawmindon moxatuloba. es Zalze faqizi samuSaoa, gawmendis Semdeg saRebavebi ufro xasxasa da elvare Cans. Tqven, albaT, SegimCneviaT mxatvrobis dazia­ ne­­­ buli adgilebi _ gamofuyuli, gamoberili „ube­­­ ebi“. Tu aseTi adgilebi ar gamagrda, mxat­ vroba SeiZleba Camocvivdes. aseT SemTxvevaSi res­tavratorebs dguSiT sagangebo xsnari SehyavT da baTqaSs kedelze xelaxla amagreben. xSirad isec xdeba, rom TviT kedeli, romelsac mxatvroba amkobs, isea dazianebuli, rom mas Camongrevis saSiSroeba emuqreba. aseT SemTxvevaSi freskas mTlianad xsnian kedlidan da axal safuZvelze gadaaqvT. moxsnili freskebi adgils muzeumebSi imkvidrebs da axal sicocxles iwyebs. saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeumSi SegiZliaT naxoT nabaxtevis amgvarad moxsnili XV saukunis moxatulobis calkeuli scenebi.

restavratori muSaobisas

daval eba Tu romelime dazianebul Zeglze guli SegtkivaT, aRwereT, ra saxis dazianebebia masze, gadaiReT fotoebi da SeecadeT, xma miawvdinoT am saqmis specialistebs.

nabaxtevis moxatuloba. XV s.

rogor gavufrTxildeT Zeglebs? mitovebul eklesiaSi misuli adamiani anTebul sanTels moxatul kedelze rodesac amagrebs, man, albaT, ar icis, rom amiT mxatvrobas azianebs. Cven unda gavicnobieroT, rom istoriuli Zeglebi gansakuTrebul mopyrobas saWiroebs; rogori keTili ganzraxvac unda gvamoZravebdes, TviTneburad ar unda SevexoT maT: ar gavwmindoT gaWvartluli mxatvroba, ar SevecadoT mis gamagrebas, an ar vcadoT dakarguli nawilis aRdgena-moxatva, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT, eklesiis kedlebze sakuTari saxelis miweraze.

32


10. peizaJi Cinur xelovnebaSi gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• sad Camoyalibda peizaJi, rogorc mxatvrobis damoukidebeli Janri? • rogor formatze da romeli mxatvruli masaliT iqmneba Sua saukuneebis Cinuri peizaJi? • rogor aisaxeba sivrce da garemo Cinur peizaJze? • romel mxatvrul xerxebs iyenebs Cinuri mxatvroba peizaJis Seqmnisas? • riT gansxvavdeba Cinuri peizaJi evropulisagan?

I. adamiani garSemortymulia uaRresad mraval­ fe­ rovani garemoTi, romelic yvela kontinentze, dedamiwis sxvadasxva geografiul wertilSi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebulia. uZvelesi droidan adamiani interesiT akvirdeba am garemos _ bunebas, cxovelebs, frinvelebs, mcenareebs da sakuTari xeliT Seqmnil namuSevrebSi gadaaqvs es STabeWdilebebi. zogjer es keramikuli WurWlis zedapirze amokawruli sqemebia, zogjer TixiT naZerwi formebi (mcire plastika). bunebrivia, garemos asaxvas mniSvnelovani adgili ekava mxatvrobaSic. CineTi uZveles civilizaciaTa Soris pirveli qveyanaa, sadac bunebis xedebma, rogorc mxatvrobis damoukidebelma Janrma _ peizaJma daimkvidra adgili. 1. rogor da rodis Camoyalibda peizaJi, rogorc mxat­vrobis damoukidebeli Janri evropul kulturaSi? 2. daasaxeleT TqvenTvis cnobili peizaJis yvelaze adreuli nimuSebi. 3. daakvirdiT aq warmodgenil peizaJebs da gansazRvreT, ra msgavseba da gansxvavebaa Cinur da evropul peizaJebs Soris?

uiliam terneri. romis xedi aventinis mTidan. 1836. dong qiCangi, peizaJi. 1630.

II. Cinuri peizaJis xelovnebaSi saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi yalibdeboda gansakuTrebuli wesebi da Sesrulebis gansxvavebuli teqnika. pirvel yovlisa, es farTo, TiTqos Soreuli wertilidan danaxuli bunebis xedia. Cineli ostatebi TiToeul gamosaxul detals konkretuli, xSirad cnobadi adgilis dafiqsirebis survilis garda, simbolur mniSvnelobasac aniWebdnen. arsebobs Cinuri peizaJis ramdenime saxeoba; maTgan erT-erTi „San-Sui“ anu „mTebi da wyalia“. cadaziduli 33


mTebis moculobebi da mdinareebis farTod gaSlili dineba bunebis yvela elementis erTianobas, mTeli samyaros harmonias ganasaxierebs. Zvel Cinel ostatebs SeeZloT, adamianis grZnobebi da safiqrali misi _ adamianis gamosaxvis gareSe, mxolod bunebis xedis asaxviT gamoexataT, radgan maTi namuSevrebis Sinaarsi ara mxolod weliwadis ama Tu im droze mouTxrobs mayurebels, aramed poeturi formiT saubrobs axalgazrdobasa da sibereze, erTgulebaze, cxovrebis warmavlobaze, siyvarulsa Tu ganSorebaze. Cinuri peizaJis erTi damaxasiaTebeli niSani isicaa, rom peizaJSi uSualodaa CarTuli ieroglifebiT Sesrulebuli poeturi teqsti. CineTSi kaligrafia xelovnebis dargadaa miCneuli. ganaTlebuli adamiani, Zveli Cinelebis azriT, Tanabrad unda yofiliyo daostatebuli mxatvrobaSi, poeziaSi, musikasa da kaligrafiaSi. amitomac, daxvewili, lakoniuri ieroglifebiT Sesrulebuli teqsti uSualod peizaJis kompoziciaSia CarTuli da mis ganuyofel nawilad aRiqmeba.

qu dingi. zafxulis mTebi. 1050.

4. aRwereT STabeWdileba. ra rols asrulebs kompoziciaSi ieroglifebiT Sesrulebuli teqsti?

III. tradiciis mixedviT, Cinuri peizaJi vertikalur an horizontalur gragnilze ixateboda. vertikaluri formis gragnili SedarebiT moklea, iSviaT SemTxvevaSi misi maqsimaluri sigrZe 3 metrs aRwevs. mniSvnelovania, rom Zvelad aseTi formis gragnilebi kedelze dasakidad iyo Seqmnili, magram mudmivad ar iyo gamofenili interierSi. gragnili daxveuli inaxeboda da gansakuTrebul momentebSi ixsneboda kedelze dasakidad, radgan Cinelebi Tvlidnen, rom suraTis daTvaliereba sakmaod did drosa da Sinagan koncentracias moiTxovda mayureblisagan. aseTi suraTis daniSnuleba xom konkretuli xedis asaxva ki ara, samyaros Sesaxeb gacilebiT Rrma, poeturi da filosofiuri gancdis gaRviZeba da STabeWdilis moxdenaa. horizontaluri gragnili ki ufro grZeli, 10 an meti metris sigrZis SeiZleba yofiliyo. isic daxveuli inaxeboda da mis dasaTvaliereblad magidaze dadebuli gragnilis TandaTanobiT gaxs34

guo xi. mTebi. XI s.


na iyo aucilebeli. mis zedapirze datanili gamosaxulebebi mayureblis Tvalwin erTimeores miyolebiT panoramul suraTs warmoadgenda. arc verti­ ka­­ luri da arc horizontaluri formatis mqone peizaJebs ara aqvs CarCo. maT, rogorc wesi, orive mxares, mokle kideebze, lilvi aqvs datanebuli, romlis meSveobiTac gragnili saWiro dros faqizad ixveva da iSleba. Cineli fermwerebi arasdros akeTebdnen eti­ udebs. namuSevari sruldeboda bunebaze didi xnis dakvirvebis, gamosasaxi detalebis gaaz­re­bis, TiTqos maT arsSi Cawvdomis gziT da aras­dros isaxavda miznad wamieri STabeWdilebis da­fiq­sirebas. 5. gaixseneT, romel mxatvrul mimdinareobas hqonda dasaxuli miznad wamieri STabeWdilebis asaxva ferwerul namuSevarze?

IV. Cinuri ferweris Taviseburi mxatvruli ieri didad aris damokidebuli tradiciul samxatvro masalaze. mxatvroba sruldeba qaRaldze an sagangebod winaswar weboTi damuSavebul abreSumis qsovilze. namuSevari sruldeboda tuSis saRebaviT. mxat­ vari sxvadasxva sisqis kalmiT swrafad da zusti moZraobebiT asrulebda monasmebs. mas didi xnis win mofiqrebul kompoziciaSi winaswar hqonda gansazRvruli TiToeuli xazis sisqe Tu sigrZe; ostati saRebavis intensiobis meSveobiT

qaRaldi, funjebi da melani

C in u r i mxa t v rob i s S e s axeb rogorc cnobilia, qaRaldic da abreSumic Zveli Cinelebis gamogonebaa da orive CineTidan gavrcelda mTel msoflioSi. maTi damzadebis saidumlos CineTis saxelmwifo mkacrad inaxavda, radgan es masalebi maTi sagareo vaWrobis mniSvnelovan wyaros Seadgenda. saxatavi masala Tavdapirvelad mxolod Savi tuSi iyo, xolo VIII-IX saukuneebSi bunebrivi mineralebiT SeRebili feradi tuSi gaCnda. dabal magidaze winaswar iSleboda qaRaldi an abreSumi, lagdeboda tuSis saRebavi da sxvadasxva sisqis bewviani kalmebi. tuSi myari zodebis saxiT mzaddeboda da mxatvari mis gasazaveblad wyals da specialur brtyelzedapirian qvebs iyenebda. Zvel saxatav qaRalds msxvili forebi hqonda. aseTi faqturis mqone qaRaldi dadebul saRebavs swrafad iwovda da TiToeuli monasmis dadeba mxatvrisagan virtuozul ostatobas moiTxovda, radgan Tu monasmi gaidRabneboda, misi Sesworeba SeuZlebeli iyo da Zvirad Rirebuli masala gafuWdeboda. Cineli mxatvari siyrmidan mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi swavlobda xelovnebis am dargis Taviseburebebs. swavlis procesSi Zalian didi roli eniWeboda gardasuli drois cnobil ostatTa mier Seqmnil Teoriul traqtatebs, sadac dawvrilebiT aris aRwerili ara mxolod tradiciuli mxatvruli xerxebi, aramed poeturi da filosofiuri formiT aris axsnili ferweris arsi da misi amocanebi. IX saukunis cnobili Cineli moazrovne CJan ian-iuani ase aRwerda Cinuri mxatvrobisa da damwerlobis Rrma kavSirs: `rodesac isini ferweriT ver gamoxatavdnen sakuTar azrs, ieroglifebs werdnen, xolo rodesac damwerlobiT ver gadmoscemdnen azrs, xatavdnen suraTebs~.

35


gadmoscemda axlos Tu Sors mdebare elementebs, Crdilebs, Tu Tovlis siqaTqaTes. mxatvris xelis moZraobis sizuste da gamomsaxveloba miT ufro mniSvnelovania Cinur peizaJSi, radgan is arasdrosaa gadatvirTuli mravalricxovani detalebiT da mis lakoniur xasiaTs Zunwi, magram mxatvrulad mniSvnelovani elementebi qmnis. 6. rogori mxatvruli xerxebia, ramdeni saxis xazi da monasmia gamoyenebuli warmodgenil peizaJebze? 7. rogor aris gadmocemuli aq Soreuli xedi?

iang hoi. peizaJi. XVII s.

V. evropuli mxatvruli tradiciisagan gansxvavebiT, Cineli ostatebi ar iyenebdnen geomet­ri­ul perspeqtivas, romlis mixedviTac suraTze siv­rce axlo da Soreuli planebis monacvleobiT igeba. amis nacvlad, isini ostaturad iyenebdnen vertikaluri gragnilis formats da mis zeda mxares gamosaxavdnen elementebis erT jgufs, xolo qvemoT _ meores. iseTi STabeWdileba iqmneba, rom TiTqos zeda rigis gamosaxulebebi mayure-

wa r w e r eb i Ci nur gra f i k aSi Cinuri naxatis ganuyofeli nawilia Savi an feradi tuSiT Sesrulebuli warwera. sxvadasxvagvari xaziT Semowerili ieroglifebi bunebrivad exameba da asrulebs naxats. tradiciulad, naxatze moTavsebulia xolme misi mflobelis beWedi _ wiTeli tuSiT an melniT dasmuli ieroglifi. zogierT naxatze aTeulobiT amgvar niSans SexvdebiT, rac imis dadasturebaa, rom es naxati Taobidan Taobas gadaecemoda.

cu vei. bambuki. XVI s.

36

Sen zou. awowili mTebi. 1467.

cin Suani. didebuli uyurebs gedebs. XIII s.


iakob van reisdali. tyis peizaJi nakaduliT. 1665-1668

kamil koro. peizaJi. 1867.

blisagan yvelaze didi manZiliTaa daSorebuli, sasuraTe sibrtyis qveda nawilSi gamosaxuli ki piriqiT _ axlosaa. amas isic emateba, rom Sua saukuneebis Cinur mxatvrobaSi tuSis saRebaviT ixateba, mag., uzarmazari mTis Txeli konturuli monaxazi da maT mwvervalebs garSemo exveva tuSiTve Sesrulebuli, nislis aRmniSvneli gamWvirvale ferweruli laqebi. kidev erTi sagulisxmo Tavisebureba TiTqmis xeluxlebeli fonis datoveba, misTvis gansakuTrebuli datvirTvis miniWebaa. tipuri evropuli peizaJisagan gansxvavebiT, Cinur mxatvrobaSi xSirad rCeba „carieli“ foni, romelic aqa-iq gamosaxul xeebTan, mTebTan, mdinaresTan Tu bunebis sxva detalebTan erTad, sasuraTo areze ganfenili haeris gancdas aRZravs da amiT met damajereblobas sZens namuSevars. sityvaZunwi, lakoniuri kompoziciebi, sul ramdenime detaliT mxolod mianiSnebs bunebis xedze, suraTis dasruleba ki Sua saukuneebis Cinel ostatebs mayu­reblis warmosaxvisaTvis aqvT mindobili. 8. SeadareT erTmaneTs evropuli da Cinuri peizaJis warmodgenili nimuSebi. daaxasiaTeT TiToeuli maTgani. 9. rogor gamoxatavs Cineli ostati mdinaris dinebas, ra msgavseba da ra gansxvavebaa wylis gadmocemis TvalsazrisiT, evropul da Cinur mxatvrul xerxebs Soris? 10. ra msgavseba da gansxvavebaa, scenaSi CarTuli warwerebis TvalsazrisiT, egvipturi da Cinuri xelovnebis nimuSebs Soris?

dong bangda. gazafxulis dila. XVIII s.

daval eba CamoayalibeT Sua saukuneebis Cinuri peizaJis mTavari maxasiaTeblebi, ra niSnebiT gansxvavdeba Cinuri ferwera evropulisagan, romel mxatvrul xerxebs aniWeben upiratesobas Cineli ostatebi?

37


11. vxatavT tuSiT, melniT, akvareliT

Zvelad grafikuli namuSevris tuSiT Sesasruleblad bunebriv masalas _ batis frTas iyenebdnen, zogjer ki, lerwmis Rerosac xmarobdnen. Tqven ukve iciT, rom tuSiT an melniT Sesrulebuli naxati mkafio da natifia. am efeqtis misaRwevad batis frTisa Tu lerwmis Reros wvers sagangebod Tlidnen. dRes grafikosebi sxvadasxva zomisa da formis kalmebs iyeneben. am kalmebiT gansxvavebuli sisqis da intensiobis Strixebis gamosaxvaa SesaZlebeli. es grafikosebis iaraRebia – kalmistrebi, romelTa meSveobiTac isini sxvadasxvagvar mxatvrul efeqts aRweven. daakvirdiT Zveli Cineli mxatvris mier Sesrulebul mcenares. aq ostati gansxvavebuli xasiaTis monasmebs iyenebs. moqnili xaziTaa gadmocemuli mcenaris Rero, xolo gacrecili, TiTqos odnav gadRabnili nacrisferi laqebiT (Savma tuS­ma wyalSi gazavebis Sedegad baci Seferiloba miiRo) asaxulia yvavilebis nazi furclebi. xe­ lux­lebladaa datovebuli foni mcenaris garSemo, rac gansakuTrebuli simsubuqis STabeWdilebas aRuZravs mayurebels.

praqtikuli samuSao SeqmeniT TqvenTvis sasurveli namuSevari bunebis Temaze. davaleba SeasruleT tuSis, melnis da kalmebis an bunebrivi resursis gamoyenebiT.

lui pingi. ayvavebuli atmis toti. XVIII s.

tuSis kalmebi

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnili namuSevrebi

 gaixseneT, rogori efeqtebis Seqmna SeiZleba TiToeuli saxatavi masaliT (tuSiT, melniT, akvareliT) da, aqedan gamomdinare, moifiqreT, romeli masala ufro Seesabameba Tqven mier arCeul kompozicias;  Tu namuSevris Sesrulebas tuSiT gadawyvetT, kalamTan erTad, SesaZloa, sxvadasxva bunebrivi masala, mag., cocxis Reroebi, qaTmis bumbuli an sxva gamoiyenoT;  dafiqrdiT, rogori efeqtis miRweva gindaT Tqvens namuSevarze da amis mixedviT SearCieT Strixebi. SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT vertikaluri an daxrili, spiraluri, jvaredini, naxevarwriuli an texili Strixebi;  iaponuri da Cinuri nimuSebis msgavsad, SegiZliaT Tqvens namuSevarze qarTuli warwera daitanoT. SesaZlebelia amgvarad miuTiToT namuSevris saTauri an avtoris vinaoba.

38


12. aRmosavluri xelnaweri wigni gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor aris Semkuli Sua saukuneebis xelnaweri wigni? • riT gansxvavdeba Sua saukuneebis dasavluri wignis Semkuloba aRmosav­lu­risagan? • romeli mxatvruli niSnebiT xasiaTdeba sparsuli miniatura?

I. wigni da misi Semkobis istoria kacobriobis ganviTarebis umniSvnelovanesi movlenaa. sxvadasxva qveynis cxovrebaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili ekava xelnakeTi wignis Seqmnis, dasuraTebis gansxvavebul tradiciebs, romelSic sarkesaviT airekleba ama Tu im xalxis damokidebuleba samyarosadmi, maTi xelovnebis mTavari maxasiaTeblebi da gemovneba.

bizantiuri xelnaweri wigni. XII s.

`Jamni~. xelnaweri wigni. germania. XV s.

Sua saukuneebis kulturis erT-erTi aseTi gamorCeuli movlena aRmosavluri, kerZod ki, spar­suli xelnaweri wigni da misi dasuraTebaa. am xelovnebas sparsul kulturaSi mravalsaukunovani tradicia aqvs da ganviTarebis gansakuTrebul simaRles man XIII-XVII saukuneebSi miaRwia. ostaturad nakeTebi da feradi suraTebiT Semkuli xelnawerebi popularuli iyo da Zvirad fasobda ara marto sparseTSi, aramed mezobel qveynebsa da evropis saxelmwifoTa samefo karzec. wignis dasuraTebisa da Semkobis am xelovnebam mravali qveynis da, maT Soris, qarTuli xelovnebis ganviTarebazec didi zegavlena iqonia, gaamdidra isini aRmosavluri feradovnebiTa da gamomsaxvelobis gansakuTrebuli stiliT. am xelovnebis xibli da mimzidveloba imdenad didi iyo Sua saukuneebSi, rom istorikosebi xSirad imasac ki amboben, sparseTis dapyrobis msurveli araerTi qveyana, sabolood, sparsuli wignis mxatvrobis tyve­obaSi eqceoda xolmeo.

visramiani. qarTuli xelnaweri wigni. 1729.

ganmart ebebi miniatura _ xelnaweri wig­ nis Semamkobeli patara zomis suraTi.

39


1. SeadareT Sua saukuneebis miniaturebi erTmaneTs, ra gansxvavebas xedavT maT Soris? 2. raSi mdgomareobs msgavseba aq warmodgenil miniaturebs Soris? 3. romeli maTgani xasiaTdeba gamosaxvis ufro pirobiTi maneriT da rogor detalebSi aisaxeba es mkafiod?

ga nm artebebi papirusi _ tropikuli lerwami, romlis Reroebisagan damzadebul sawer masalas iyenebdnen egviptelebi da sxva Zveli xalxebi (maT Soris qarTvelebic). pergamenti _ gansakuTrebuli wesiT damuSavebuli xbos, batknis an Tiknis tyavi, iyenebdnen sawer masalad qaRaldis gamogonebamde. `Sahnames~ ilustracia. sparsuli miniatura. XVI s.

II. xelnaweri wignis Seqmnis da misi Semkobis tradicia damwerlobis mqone yoveli qveynis kulturis ganuyofeli nawilia. riT gamoirCeoda sparsuli xelovnebis es dargi, mag., dasavluri, qristianuli Sinaarsis mqone xelnawerebisgan an piriqiT, ra hqonda maT saerTo? rogorc xedavT, mxatvrulad gaformebuli wignis dasavlur da aRmosavlur nimuSebs Soris msgavsebac bevria da gansxvavebac. es arc aris gasakviri, radgan xelnaweri wignis ilustracia, pirvel rigSi, teqstis ama Tu im monakveTis dasuraTebas gulisxmobs. Tumca, sxvadasxva dros da sxvadasxva kulturaSi wignis dasuraTebis sakuTari tradicia hqondaT, rac ganapirobebs kidec dasavluri Tu aRmosavluri xelnawerebis gansxvavebul xasiaTs. modi, gavecnoT sparsuli miniaturis xelovnebas da mis Taviseburebebs.

nadirobis scena. sparsuli miniatura. XVII s.

sparsuli miniatura. XVI s.

40


rogor iqmneboda aRmosavluri xelnaweri wigni sparsuli xelnaweri wigni iqmneboda e.w. qiTabxanaSi, romelic erTdroulad wignsacavic iyo da wignebis damzadebis centric. rogorc iciT, qaRaldi Cinelebma jer kidev II saukuneSi gamoigones, magram imdenad mkacrad icavdnen misi damzadebis saidumlos, rom mTelma msofliom da, maT Soris, sparseTmac qaRaldis Seqmnis wesi mxolod VIII saukuneSi moipova. manamde aRmosavluri da dasavluri samyaro teqstebis dasawerad da dasasuraTeblad sxva masalebs, mag., egvipteSi damzadebul papiruss an pergaments iyenebda. daaxloebiT 1000 wlisaTvis aRmosavlur samyaroSi qaRaldis damzadebis kargad cnobili ramdenime centri arsebobda. sparselebi qaRalds selisa da kanafisagan amzadebdnen. am process bevri dro sWirdeboda. sabolood miRebul da ukve gamomSral masas specialuri qvis an minis natexiT aprialebdnen erTgvarovani, uxinjo zedapiris misaRebad. feradi saRebavebis misaRebad mineralebi da bunebrivi pigmentebi gamoiyeneboda. am gziT miRebuli saRebavebi mkveTri, kaSkaSa da Zalze feradovania, Tumca zogierTi maTgani droTa ganmavlobaSi qimiur reaqciaSi Sedioda qaRaldTan da azianebda mas. amitom Zveli xelnaweri wignebi sagangebo pirobebis dacviT inaxeba specialur sacavebSi, raTa Tavidan aviridoT maTi Semdgomi dazianeba da ganadgureba. saxatav funjebs ciyvis an sparsuli grZelbewviani katis bewvisagan amzadebdnen. mxatvars da kaligrafs erTi wignis Sesaqmnelad didi raodenobis saRebavi da sxvadasxva sisqis bevri funji sWirdeboda. qaRaldis momzadebaze, teqstis gadaweraze, dekoratiuli ornamentis Seqmnaze ram­ denime ostati muSaobda. gansakuTrebiT mdidruli xelnaweris Seqmnisas jer kidev notio furclebis kideebze oqros mtvers afrqvevdnen mooqrovebis efeqtis Sesaqmnelad. wignis Seqmnis am rTul da xangrZliv procesSi erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi roli ilustraciebis momxatvel ostats eniWeboda. miniaturebisaTvis teqstSi datovebul adgilebSi mas ama Tu im epizodis dasasuraTebeli mxatvroba unda Seeqmna. amgvari miniaturebi xan originaluri anu mxatvris mier uSualod wignis Seqmnis procesSi daxatuli, xanac ki romelime cnobili nimuSis gameorebiT iyo Seqmnili. aseT SemTxvevaSi ostatebi ama Tu im scenis trafarets iyenebdnen, romlis meSveobiTac sanimuSo gamosaxuleba axal wignSi gadahqondaT. gadamweris, mxatvrisa da dekoratoris samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg wignis furclebi ikinZeboda da maT tyavis an xis Zvirfas CarCoSi svamdnen. cxadia, rom xangrZlivi Sromis Sedegad damzadebuli wigni metad Zvirad Rirebuli sagani iyo da misi floba mxolod didebulTa Tu samefo karis wevrTa privilegias warmoadgenda.

ganmartebebi qiTabxana _ wignsacavi (ar­qi­vi) da wignebis damzadebis centri. trafareti _ 1. Txeli firfita, romelSic amoWrilia raime saxe an asoebi; iyeneben, mag., kedlis, firniSis mosaxatad, warwerebis gasakeTeblad (daadeben saTanado zedapirs da zevidan wausvamen saRebavs). 2. gadat.: erTxel da samudamod miRebuli, gacveTili forma, mza nimuSi; Sabloni.

„iskandernames~ ilustracia. miniatura. XIV s.

41


III. sparsuli miniaturis TvalSisacemi Tavisebureba isaa, rom masSi ugulebelyofilia sasuraTo sibrtyeze gamosaxulebebis realisturad asaxvis principi. ostatebi ar eswrafvian sivrcis STabeWdilebis Seqmnas. mxatvari pirobiTad, sibrtyobrivad asaxavs garemos furcelze, ar icavs adamianisa Tu sxva cocxali arsebebis proporciul Sefardebas bunebis elementebTan. mag., fexmorTxmiT mjda­ ri personaJi TiTqmis imave zomisaa, rogorisac iqve gamosaxuli xeebi an mTebi. mayurebeli TiTqos odnav zemodan dascqeris suraTs, romelzec feradovani baRebis, samxedro banakebis xedebi, brZolisa Tu dasvenebis scenebia asaxuli. aseve pirobiTad aris asaxuli garemo, rodesac moqmedeba romelime sasaxlis darbazSi mimdinareobs. mxatvari erT sasuraTo areze warmoadgens Senobis SigniT da mis gareT momxdar ambebs, TiTqos nagebobebis kedlebi gamWvirvale xdeba da gareT myof mayurebels Tavisuflad SeuZlia dainaxos is, rac sasaxlis kedlebs miRma, mdidrul interierSia moqceuli. Senobis kedlebi feradi filebiTaa moWiquli da ornamentiT dafaruli, TiTqos yvelgan ornamentiT Semkuli xaliCebia gadmofenili. TiTqmis arsad gvxvdeba carieli, mxatvris mier Seumkoblad datovebuli are. amitom zogjer Wirs kompoziciaSi personaJebis erTi SexedviT gamorCeva, imdenad erwymis maTi figurebi garemos, mTlianad Cawerili da „CaZirulic“ ki aris masSi.

rustami. sparsuli miniatura. XVI s.

4. daakvirdiT da aRwereT miniaturaze gamosaxuli adamianebis, frinvelebis, mcenareebis formebi. romel mxatvrul xerxebs iyenebs ostati gamosaxulebebis Seqmnisas? 5. aRwereT da daaxasiaTeT warmodgenili miniaturebis kompoziciebi. Tqveni azriT, rogor aris Sevsebuli gamosaxulebebiT sasuraTo sibrtye?

STabeWdilebas aZlierebs aRmosavluri feradovneba, romelic lokaluri ferebis simdidriT da mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva. yvela feradovani laqa erTnairad intensiuria, yvela kaSkaSebs ise, TiTqos am baRebsa Tu interierebSi mudam erTnairad anaTebs mze. versad dainaxavT samosis nakecebSi Cawolil Crdi­lebs, romelTa meSveobiTac evropeli mxatvrebi sxeulisa Tu sagnis formas moculobas aniWeben. sparsul miniaturaze yvela sagani sibrtyobrivadaa dafenili sasuraTo areze, Tumca, moqnili da plastikurad gamomsaxveli xazi/naxati brtyel formas erTgvar simrgvales mainc aniWebs. 42


6. Tqveni azriT, ra xasiaTis nawarmoebia dasuraTebuli da rogor gadmoscems mxatvari garemos? 7. Tqveni azriT, rogor erwymis erTmaneTs miniatura da xelnaweri teqsti?

gveleSapTan brZola. sparsuli miniatura. XV s. „iskandernames~ ilustracia. miniatura, XIV s.

miniaturebis kompoziciaSi uSualod CarTuli damwerloba kidev ufro dekoratiul elfers aniWebs mas. asoebis denadi moxazuloba, xazis sinatife da plastikuroba ornamentul xasiaTs aniWebs teqsts, romelic uSualod miniaturis garSemoa Tavmoyrili. Tavis mxriv, calkeul gamosaxulebaTa pirobiToba aseve ornamentul xasiaTs atarebs da TiTqos imeorebs asoebis moxazulobas. sparsuli xelnaweri wignis yvela elementi _ teqsti da miniatura, kompozicia, xazi, feri, formebi, ornamenti mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli erTmaneTTan da mkafiod amJRavnebs samyarosadmi adamianis damokidebulebis iseT niSnebs, rogoricaa uSualoba, feradovnebiT tkboba, garkveulwilad zRaprulobis SegrZneba da dekoris siyvaruli. swored am formiT gadmoscemdnen Sua saukuneebis sparsi mxatvrebi aRfrTovanebas samyaros mravalferovnebis, bunebis elementebisa Tu adamianis xeliT Seqmnili detalebis mimarT. aRmosavluri, kerZod, ki sparsuli miniaturis feradovneba, dekoratiuloba, misi kompoziciuri wyobis Taviseburebebi _ sibrtyobrioba, xaliCiseburad Sevsebuli sasuraTo areebi XX saukunis evropul ferweraSic gamovlinda da axali mxatvrobis erT-erT mniSvnelovan maxasiaTeblad iqca.

vasili kandinski. cis laJvardi. 1940.

davaleba XX saukunis zogierTi mxatvari Tavis namuSevrebSi iyenebda aRmosavluri miniaturisTvis damaxasiaTebel mxatvrul xerxebs. aRwereT da daaxasiaTeT vasili kandinskis aq warmodgenili namuSevari. yuradReba gaamaxvileT suraTis feradovnebasa da sasuraTe sibrtyis Sevsebis principze.

43


13. aRmosavluri zRapris ilustracia aRmosavluri literaturuli nawarmoebis gaformebisas didi yuradReba eqceva ara mxolod sakuTriv ilustracias, aramed mTlianad wignis Semkulobas. feradi ornamentiT morTuli furclebi mdidrul da sazeimo elfers aniWebs wigns. aRmosavluri miniaturis mTavari principebi da gamomsaxvelobis mxatvruli xerxebia: lokaluri da intensiuri ferebis simravle, sasuraTo aris Tanabrad Sevseba sibrtyobrivi gamosaxulebebiT, moqnili, denadi xazi da gamosaxulebis pirobiToba, ornamentuli dekoris simravle. amave dros, didi yuradReba eqceva garemos _ baRebSi aTasgvari yvavili xarobs, mindor-vels feradi mcenareebi amkobs, nakadulebi da mdinareebi moedineba, zRapruli cxovelebi da frinvelebi saxloben. mdidruli sasaxleebis darbazebs ferad-feradi xaliCebi amSvenebs da maT kedlebs ornamentuli dekori amkobs.

baRi. sparsuli miniatura. XV s.

praqtikuli samuSao SearCieT romelime aRmosavluri zRapari. gaiTvaliswineT aRmosavluri miniaturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli aRmosavluri mxatvrobis tradiciuli elementebi da principebi, romlebsac wina gakveTilze gaecaniT da daasuraTeT Tqven mier SerCeuli teqsti.

Tqveni Tanatolis namuSevari

 daiyaviT jgufebad. gainawileT gasaformeblad zRapris monakveTebi;  TiToeulma jgufma dagegmeT samuSa­os Tanmimdevroba;  gansazRvreT wignis gverdis zoma da formati, ga­da­ wy­viteT, Tqveni teqsti xel­naweri iqneba Tu nabeWdi;  moifiqreT, rogor gaaformebT am siuJets: gamoiye­ nebT Tu ara ornaments, TavsarT-bolosarTebs; ra masalas gamoiyenebT gverdis gasaformeblad da romeli teqnikiT SeasrulebT ilustraciebsa Tu ornamentebs. SegiZliaT nimuSad gamoiyenoT saxelmZRvaneloSi warmodgenili sparsuli miniaturebi, romlebzec am kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli poeturi da zRapruli garemoa aRbeWdili;  SeecadeT, gaformebisas gamoiyenoT aRmosavluri miniaturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli feradovneba.

44

kompiuteruli programiT Sesrulebuli namuSevari


14. panorama

Tqven ukve iciT, rogor aisaxeba garemo sxva­dasxva epoqasa da civilizaciaSi: Zvel egvipteSi, adreqristianul da Sua saukuneebis xelovnebaSi, Cinur da aRmosavlur kulturaSi. rogorc dainaxeT, yvela maTganSi garemo pirobiTadaa xolme warmodgenili, magram es pirobiToba gansxvavebuli xasiaTisaa. garemos asaxva yovelTvis dakavSirebuli iyo im msoflmxedvelobasTan, romelic ama Tu im qveynis sazogadoebaSi iyo gavrcelebuli.

f

Z

k f u k

vizualuri gzamkvlevi. Tqveni Tanatolis namuSevari

v s U

M

G

b

w

n

y davaleba

daiyaviT jgufebad. moswavleebis erTi jgufi ganasaxierebs mogzaurebs, romlebic imogzaureben sxvadasxva epoqasa da qveyanaSi. sxva jgufebi, baraTebis gaTamaSebis gziT, airCeven Tqvens mier naswavli qveynebidan erT-erTis kulturas da moemzadebian mogzaurTa dasaxvedrad. isini gamoiyeneben wina gakveTilebze SeZenil codnas da moiZieben damatebiT informacias imisaTvis, rom srulad warmoaCinon arCeuli epoqis da qveynis kultura. am mizniT muyaos didi zomis formatze SeqmeniT pano. gamoiyeneT mravalferovani masala, Sesabamisi xerxebi da panoze asaxeT SerCeuli kulturis ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi, simboloebi da garemo. mogzaurTa jgufi mogzaurobis dawyebamde Seqmnis vizualur gzamkvlevs, romelSic gamoiyenebs sxvadasxva qveynis xelovnebisTvis damaxasiaTebel elementebs: damwerlobis nimuSebs, simboloebs, garemos asaxvis Taviseburebebs. mogzaurTa jgufis winaSe panos wardgenis dasrulebis Semdeg, jgufebis mier Seqmnili namuSevrebi gaaerTianeT mTlian panoramad.

45


egvipte

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnili panoebi

CineTi

aq mocemuli rCevebi SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT davalebis Sesrulebisas:

 gaixseneT, ra niSnebiT xasiaTdeba ama Tu im qveynis xelovneba, rogor aisaxeba garemo am qveynebis saxviT xelovnebaSi; es principebi gamoiyeneT panoebis Seqmnisas;  mogzaurTa jgufs SeuZlia Seqmnas vizualuri gzamkvlevi, romelSic gamoiyenebs sxvadasxva qveynis xelovnebisTvis damaxasiaTebel damwerlobis nimuSebs, simboloebs, ama Tu im qveynis xelovnebisTvis damaxasiaTebel elementebs;  gaixseneT, romel masalas da gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebebs aniWebs upiratesobas ama Tu im qveynis xelovneba da amis gaTvaliswinebiT SearCieT masala da xerxebi konkretul panoze samuSaod;  Tqvens mier Seqmnili panos wardgenisas isaubreT imaze, rac TqvenTvis cnobilia am qveynis istoriis, religiis, kulturis Sesaxeb. SeecadeT, daasabuToT, ratom airCieT esa Tu is masala da gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebi.

46

egvipte


15. haerovani perspeqtiva gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi: • • • •

ra xerxebs iyeneben garemosa da sivrcis gadmosacemad renesansis epoqaSi? rogor asaxavs haers leonardo da vinCi? ra aris sfumato? ra aris haerovani perspeqtiva?

I. Tqven ukve iciT, rogor asaxaven garemos Zvel egvipteSi, antikur samyaroSi, Sua saukuneebSi, Zvel CineTsa da sparseTSi, magram aqamde arsad ar Segvxvedria realurad asaxuli garemo anu ise warmodgenili garemo, rogorsac Cven TvaliT vxedavT. pirvelad es italiuri renesansis xelovnebaSi moxda, magram am epoqaSic realuri garemos asaxvisaken mxatvrebi nel-nel, nabij-nabij midiodnen. Tavdapirvelad gaCnda geometriuli perspeqtiva, romlis saSualebiTac pirveli nabiji gadaidga realuri sivrcis asaxvisaken. odnav mogvianebiT ki gaCnda perspeqtivis sxva saxeobebic, romlebmac sivrcis da Sesabamisad, realuri garemos asaxvis gzaze mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula. 1. gaixseneT geometriuli perspeqtivis is kanonebi, romlebic renesansis epoqis arqiteqtorebma aRmoaCines da mxatvrebma gamoiyenes sibrtyeze sivrcis anu realuri garemos asasaxad.

II. XV saukunis florencia evropis erT-erTi mdidari da mowinave qalaqia. aq arnaxulad viTardeba vaWroba, ayvavebas ganicdis sabanko saqme. mTeli Zalaufleba gavleniani florenciuli ojaxis _ mediCebis xelSia. mediCebis gvari aristokratiuli warmoSobis ar iyo, samagierod, maTi ramdenime Taoba sakuTari ojaxisaTvis saxelisa da pativis mosaxveWad mfarvelobda da afinansebda im drois gamoCenil filosofosebsa da xelovanebs. am gvaris mamamTavris, kozimo mediCis xelSewyobiT, florenciaSi Camoyalibda filosofosTa gaerTianeba, e.w. platonis skola, romelSic Tavmoyrili iyvnen im drois mowinave moazrovneebi: marselio fiCino, piko dela mirandola da sxvebi, romlebmac erTgvarad aaRorZines antikuri filosofia da Tavisi naSromebiT udidesi gavlena iqonies renesansis epoqis msoflmxedvelobis Camoyalibebaze. mediCebis mowveviT florenciaSi moRvaweobdnen gamoCenili xelovanebi: bruneleski, dona­ telo, botiCeli, miqelanjelo da sxvebi. am ojaxis dakveTiT isini xelovnebis gamorCeul nimuSebs qmnidnen, riTic saxeli gauTqves rogorc florencias, ise mediCebis gvars. 1444 wels kozimo mediCim florenciis centrSi sakuTari sacxovrebeli sasaxle `palaco mediCi rikardi~ aago. es iyo monumenturi, masiuri da Zalze STambeWdavi nageboba, romelic am Zlevamosili ojaxis mimarT pativiscemasa da mowiwebas aRZravda TanaqalaqelebSi. magram, mediCebis azriT, es ar kmaroda. maT surdaT, nebismier palaco mediCi rikardi. 1444. 47


benoco gocoli. mogvTa msvleloba. 1459-1464.

stumars _ ucxoels Tu italiels, mtersa Tu moyvares, naTeli warmodgena Seqmnoda maTi ojaxis simdidresa da Zlevamosilebaze. da ai, mediCebma sakuTar karze miiwvies florencieli fermweri benoco gocoli da mas sasaxlis mcire zomis samlocvelos moxatva daukveTes. mxatvroba samlocvelos sam kedels faravs da aq mogvTa msvlelobaa gamosaxuli. siuJetis mixedviT, mogvebi varskvlavs mihyvebian ierusalimidan beTlemisaken, raTa Tayvani scen axalSobil qristes, magram gocolis freskaze RvTis­ mSoblisa da yrmis gamosaxulebas ver ipoviT. aq mxolod sami mefe mogvis _ kasparis, melqiorisa da balTazaris mogzaurobaa aRbeWdili sazeimo, xalxmravali msvlelobis saxiT. 2. gaixseneT saxarebiseuli istoria mogvebis Sesaxeb. 3. rogor fiqrobT, ratom gamosaxa mxatvarma msvleloba toskanis peizaJis fonze? 4. daakvirdiT aq mocemul ilustracias. perspeqtivis romel kanons iyenebs benoco gocoli am kompoziciaze?

benoco gocoli. mogvTa msvleloba: kaspari, melxiori da balTazari. fragmenti.

benoco gocolim procesia ierusalimis nacvlad, italiis erT-erTi provinciis _ toskanis peizaJis fonze gamosaxa da amiT TiTqos Tavis Tanamedrove samyaroSi gadmoitana Soreul droSi momxdari sakraluri istoria. aqve Casva nadirobisa da yoveldRiuri yofis amsaxveli scenebi. es mxatvroba Zalze xalisiani feradovnebiT xasiaTdeba. mnaxvels aocebs xasxasa ferebi, maTi mravalferovneba, aseve gasaocaria adamianTa individualizebuli saxeebi. gocoli detalis ostatia, igi guldasmiT xatavs yvelafers: 48


bunebas, arqiteqturas, Zvirfasi samosis detalebs, qsovilis faqturas, ornamentebs, samkaulebs, cxenebis aRWurvilobas... da es yovelive, xalisian feradovnebasTan erTad, sazeimo ganwyobilebas qmnis. ro­gorc uk­ve iciT, per­speq­ti­va sity­va­sity­viT niS­navs „cxa­dad vxe­dav“. da mar­Tlac, im epo­qa­Si, ro­mel­Sic xa­zob­ri­vi per­speq­ti­vis ka­no­ne­bi Ca­mo­ya­lib­da, mxat­vre­bi cxa­dad da mka­fi­od xa­tav­dnen yve­la­fers. 5. da­ak­vir­diT be­no­co go­co­ lis mi­er Seq­mni­li kom­po­zi­ci­is, „mog­ve­bis msvle­lo­bis“ frag­ ments. aR­we­reT sxva­das­xva plan­ ze war­mod­ge­ni­li ada­mi­a­ne­bi­sa da cxo­ve­le­bis ga­mo­sa­xu­le­be­bi.

ganmart ebebi

benoco gocoli. mogvTa msvleloba. fragmenti.

sfumato _ ferwerul nawarmoebSi ukana planze gamosaxulebis mkafio konturebis erTgvari Serbileba, gabundovneba, riTic suraTze naTlad gadmoicema sivrcis efeqti.

da­ak­vir­diT fres­kis am frag­men­ts. esaa uSo­re­si pla­ni, ro­mel­zec mka­fi­o­daa amo­xa­tu­li Ti­To­e­u­li fo­To­li. ax­la ga­i­xe­deT fan­ja­ra­Si da SeZ­le­bis­dag­va­rad da­ak­vir­diT da­ax­lo­e­biT igi­ve man­Zi­liT da­So­re­bul mce­na­re­ebs (xe­ebs, buC­qebs). xe­davT Tu ara ase­ve mka­fi­od Ti­To­e­ul fo­Tols? cxa­di­a, ara. rac uf­ro Sor­saa sa­ga­ni Cven­gan, miT uf­ro bun­do­va­ni xde­ba mi­si kon­tu­re­bi Cveni TvalisaTvis. 6. Tqveni azriT, ra­tom ver vxe­davT Cven mka­fi­od So­ri man­Zi­li­dan sag­nis yo­vel de­ tals?

amis upirvelesi mizezi Cveni mxedvelobis Taviseburebaa — Cveni Tvali mxolod garkveul manZilze arCevs saganTa detalebs. garda amisa, arsebobs sxva — fizikuri faqtorebic: ro­gorc iciT, Cven­sa da Cven­gan da­So­re­bul ne­bis­mi­er sa­gans So­ris ha­e­ri­a. rac uf­ro me­tia man­Zi­li Cven­sa da sa­gans So­ris, miT me­tia ha­e­ris raodenoba; ha­e­ris Se­mad­ge­ne­li uxi­la­vi na­wi­la­ke­bis sim­rav­lis ga­mo is na­ wi­lob­riv kar­gavs gam­Wvir­va­le­bas, rac abun­dov­nebs ga­mo­sa­xu­le­bas, sim­kveT­res ukar­gavs mis kon­tu­rebs. garda amisa, haeri, rogorc wesi, orTqlisa da mtvris nawilakebs Seicavs, rac kidev ufro aZnelebs Sor manZilze xedvas. 7. Tqveni azriT, iT­va­lis­wi­neb­da Tu ara benoco go­co­li am garemoebas?

be­no­co go­co­li­ geometriuli per­speq­ti­vis ka­no­ne­bis mi­xed­viT ageb­da kom­po­zi­ ci­ebs, iT­va­lis­wi­neb­da fi­gu­re­bis zo­ma­Ta kle­bas siR­rmis kva­lad, mag­ram mis namuSevarze ar aris haeri. xazobrivi perspeqtivis saSualebiT suraTze iqmneba siRrmis iluzia, magram ar igrZnoba haeri. anu sivrce ar aris asaxuli srulyofilad. rogor ixateba haeri, romelic TvaliT uxilavia? es sakiTxi pir­ve­lad italiuri re­ne­san­sis epo­qis ge­ni­a­lur­ma mxat­var­ma, le­o­nar­do da vin­Cim da­a­ye­na. mis su­ra­Teb­ze uka­na plan­ze ga­mo­sa­xul pe­i­za­Jeb­Si ve­Rar na­xavT mka­fi­od da­xa­tul de­ta­lebs. 49


da­ak­vir­diT le­o­nar­do da vin­Cis namuSevaris, „wm. ioane naTlismcemelis“ frag­ments. 8. Se­saZ­le­be­lia Tu ara, mka­fi­od ga­var­Ci­oT, ra aris ga­mo­sa­xu­li xis ukan, siR­rme­Si leonardo da vinCis suraTze? 9. ig­rZno­ba Tu ara suraTis am fragmentze ha­e­ri?

leonardom Sors gamosaxuli sagnebis konturebi gaabundovna; amiT haeris da, Sesabamisad, realuri sivrcis STabeWdileba Seqmna. am xerxs sfumato ewoda. faqtobrivad, leonardom SeZlo peizaJis `haeriT sisavse~ daexata da amiT perspeqtivaSi mimavali sivrce gamoesaxa sibrtyeze. swored am xerxs haerovani an atmosferuli perspeqtiva ewoda. am­gva­rad, le­o­nar­do da vinCim adreuli renesansis epo­qis mo­na­po­vars, ge­o­met­ ri­ul per­speq­ti­vas, ha­e­ro­va­nic mi­u­ma­ta da am aR­ mo­Ce­nam mom­dev­no epo­qe­bis mxat­vrebs sa­Su­a­le­ba mis­ca ti­lo­eb­ze ha­e­riT sav­se uki­de­ga­no siv­rce­ e­bi ae­sa­xaT.

leonardo da vinCi. wm. ioane naTlismcemeli. 1515. fragmenti

10. SeadareT benoco gocolis namuSevris fonze gamosaxuli peizaJi leonardos namuSevris fonis peizaJs. 11. romel maTganze igrZnoba sivrce ufro metad da ratom?

III. ax­la ki vna­xoT es­pa­ne­li mxat­vris, ve­las­ ke­sis su­ra­Ti „qa­laq bre­das ga­sa­Re­bis Ca­ba­re­ba“.

daval eba moiZieT namuSevari, romelSic, Tqveni azriT, gamoyenebulia haerovani perspeqtiva. gaaanalizeT es namuSevari. aRwereT, ra xerxebiT aris asaxuli masSi sivrce. dawereT ese da warudgineT klass.

12. ig­rZno­ba Tu ara velaskesis am su­raT­ze ha­e­ri? 13. ram­de­ni pla­nia am su­raT­ ze? 14. Se­a­da­reT wi­na da uka­na pla­ nebi er­Tma­neTs da Ca­mo­a­ya­li­beT maT So­ris arsebuli gan­sxva­ve­ba. 15. ro­ gor ganwyobilebas qmnis fo­ni ve­las­ke­sis am su­raT­ze? velaskesi. qalaq bredas gasaRebis Cabareba. 1634-1635.

ro­gorc xe­davT, si­So­ris, Cven­sa da pe­i­zaJs So­ris man­Zi­lis Seg­rZne­bas uka­na plan­ ze gaS­li­li, xedvis zeda wertilidan danaxuli bun­do­va­ni, TiT­qos bu­rus­sa Tu kvam­ lSi gax­ve­u­li brZo­lis ve­li ba­debs. am­gva­rad ixa­te­ba uxi­la­vi da gam­Wvir­va­le ha­e­ri. 50


16. feradovani perspeqtiva I. Tu davakvirdebiT wina gakveTilze ganxi-

lul or suraTs, aSkarad davinaxavT, rom benoco gocolis moxatulobaze wina da ukana planze gamosaxuli foTlebis feri xasxasa da mwvanea. leonardosTan ki isini fers icvlis: wina planze foTlebi muqi mwvanea, xolo siRrmeSi _ Ria mwva­ ne an yviTelSi gardamavali. rogor fiqrobT, ra mizans emsaxureba leonardos mier, siRrmis kvalad, feris gaRiaveba? modi, patara eqsperimenti CavataroT. aiReT wiTeli qsovili da daakvirdiT misi feris intensiobas. Semdeg es qsovili Tqvengan Sors dadeT da daakvirdiT, rogor icvleba wiTlis JReradoba. Tqven dainaxavT, rom rac ufro Sorsaa feri, miT ufro klebulobs misi intensioba anu feri ufro mqrqali xdeba, radgan Cvens Tvalsa da sagans Soris arsebuli haeri zemoqmedebs masze. haeris didi masis SemTxvevaSi, sivrce cisfers iRebs, rogorc es cis SemTxvevaSi xdeba; swored haeris cisferi cvlis Sors myofi sagnebis Seferilobis intensiobas da is cisfris zemoqmedebiT ufro civi xdeba. ase xedavs adamianis Tvali da rodesac mxatvrebi peizaJSi realuri sivrcis gadmocemas cdiloben, isini feris, tonis gaRiavebis amgvar xerxs mimarTaven, romelsac feradovan perspeqtivas uwodeben.

mTebi. foto.

1. aris Tu ara kaspar daviT fridrixis am suraTze gamoyenebuli haerovani da feradovani perspeqtivis xerxebi? 2. rogor icvleba feris intensioba am suraTze? 3. icvleba Tu ara mTebis konturebi siRrmis kvalad am suraTze da rogor?

kaspar daviT fridrixi. peizaJi nisliT. 1819.

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II. feradovani da haerovani perspeqtivis xerxebiT sibrtyeze sivrcis asaxvisas mxatvrebi xSirad iyeneben feris gradacias. laTinurad gradatio TandaTanobiT matebas niS­ navs. rac ufro met TeTrs SevurevT fers, is ufro gaRiavdeba da naklebi iqneba feris simkveT­ re da JReradoba, rac aq mocemul skalaze kargad Cans. swored erTi feris JReradobis klebiTa da matebiT viRebT am feris gradaciis skalas. mxatvrebi gradacias xSirad suraTze feradovani perspeqtivis gamosaxvis dros iyeneben. erTi feris gradaciis skalaze TiToeul monakveTze ganlagebuli feri, mis sxvadasxva tons warmoadgens.

feris gradaciis skala

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier xeliT da kompiuteris saSualebiT Seqmnili namuSevrebi

praqtikuli samuSao gamoiyeneT feradovani perspeqtivis xerxi, daxateT, aplikaciiT an grafikuli kompiuteruli programis saSualebiT SeqmeniT siRrmeSi mimavali sivrcobrivi peizaJi.

 Tqven mier mofiqrebul kompozicias SeurCieT formati _ horizontaluri an vertikaluri. SearCieT saxatavi masalac: feradi fanqrebi, akvareli, guaSi. SegiZliaT, namuSevari kompiuteruli programis gamoyenebiT SeqmnaT;  SegiZliaT, sivrcobrivi peizaJi kolaJis teqnikiTac gaakeToT. aseT SemTxvevaSi sxvadasxva ferisa da tonis qaRaldebi an qsovili dagWirdebaT. kolaJis Seqmnisas SegiZliaT samganzomilebiani formebic gamoiyenoT;  gaiTvaliswineT, rom wina planze ufro intensiuri ferebi unda gamoiyenoT ukana planTan SedarebiT. ferebs Soris gadasvlebi ar unda iyos mkveTri.  gaixseneT, rom perspeqtivis gadmosacemad siRrmeSi obieqtebis zoma TandaTan unda Semcirdes.

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17. ganaTeba da Crdili gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• ra rols asrulebs SuqCrdili garemos realisturad asaxvaSi? • Crdilis ramdeni saxeoba arsebobs? • sad da rodis Cndeba Crdilis gamosaxuleba ferweraSi? • ras niSnavs formis SuqCrdiliT modelireba? • ra aris tenebrizmi da kiaroskuro?

I. amJamad Cveni interesis obieqti raime nivTi ki ar aris, aramed misi Crdilia. Cven vxedavT Crdilebs diliT, roca mze amodis da misi sxivebi garemos anaTebs; vxedavT Crdilebs SuadRes, roca mze zenitSia, aseve, vxedavT maT saRamos, mzis Casvlisas. Crdilebi iwyeben `TamaSs~ sanTlis Suqze, an maSin, rodesac buxarSi cecxli gizgizebs. erTi sityviT, sadac aris sinaTle, iq aris Crdilic. Sesabamisad, garemos realisturad asaxvisas udides rols swored ganaTeba da SuqCrdili asrulebs. II. arsebobs Crdilis ramdenime saxeoba. Crdilis raobasa da mis asaxvaze sxva­ dasxva drois xelovanebi muSaobdnen, magram sxvadasxva saxis Crdilebis gansazRvreba XVII saukuneSi daadgines. 1681 wels florenciaSi gamovida `xatvis xelovnebis toskanuri leqsikoni~, romelSic filipo bandanuCim gansazRvra Crdilis sami saxeoba: sakuTari Crdili (ombra) _ esaa Crdili, romelic sakuTriv sagnis zedapirze sinaTlis moxvedris Sedegad Cndeba. naTeli adgili

sakuTari Crdili

naxevar­C rdili

dacemuli Crdili

Crdilis Sesaxeb aba, dafiqrdiT, Crdili xom aramaterialuri ramaa; Crdils verc xels mohkideb, mas arc suni aqvs, arc xma. erTi sityviT, is mouxelTebelia. amitom adamianebi Crdils xSirad iyeneben raRac iseTis aRsaniSnad, rac realuri, namdvili ar aris. arsebobs gamoTqma `CrdilebTan brZola~, rac uazro brZolas gulisxmobs; anda, rodesac axseneben e.w. Crdilovan kabinets, gulisxmoben, rom esaa mTavroba, romelsac realuri Zalaufleba ar gaaCnia. Zveli berZnebis rwme­niT, gardacvlili adamiani Crdilebis/aCrdilebis qveyanaSi gadadis. Tumca, am SemTxvevaSi paradoqsi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom Crdili, romelic Tavad aramaterialuria, sagnis materialurobas, mis arsebobas adasturebs, radgan rac ar arsebobs, is Crdils ver mogvcems. es odiTganve icodnen adamianebma. indur eposSi `mahabharata~ moTxrobilia mSvenieri asulis, damaiantis istoria. RmerTebma, romlebic moxiblulni iyvnen patarZlis mSvenierebiT, misi saqmros saxe miiRes da qorwilis dRes qals xuTi sruliad erTnairi saqmro mouvlines. Semcbarma damaiantim gulSi locva warmoTqva da umal goneba gaunaTda, man SeniSna, rom xuTidan mxolod erTs, namdvil saqmros hqonda Crdili.

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naxevarCrdili (mezza’ombra) _ esaa monakveTi sagnis zedapirze, romelic sagnis yvelaze ganaTebul da yvelaze Cabnelebul monakveTebs Soris mdebareobs da maT Soris sinaTlis sibneleSi rbilad gadasvlas asaxavs. dacemuli Crdili (sbattimento) _ Crdili, romel­ sac erTi mxridan ganaTebuli sagani raime zedapirze iZleva. erTi mxridan ganaTebul saganze xSirad Cndeba yvelaze Ria adgili, romelsac xSirad mxatvrebi xeluxleblad toveben. 1. gansazRvreT da miuTiTeT, zeda ilustraciaze sad aris sa­ kuTari Crdili, sad naxevarCrdili da sad _ dacemuli Crdili? 2. aRwereT aq warmodgenili egvipturi da Cinuri xelovnebis nimuSebi. 3. gamosaxulia Tu ara am namuSevrebze Crdilebi? 4. rogor aris aq gamosaxuli forma?

saneleblebis damzadeba. Zveli egvipte. Zv. w. XIV s.

III. Tu daakvirdebiT egvipturi kedlis mxatvrobis nimuSs, dainaxavT, rom aq arc sakuTari Crdi­lebi, arc naxevarCrdilebi da arc dacemuli Crdilebi gamoyenebuli ar aris. forma aq xaziTaa SemosazRvruli da Semdeg Sevsebulia erTi feriT. Crdilebi arc Cinuri mxatvrobis nimuSSi gvxvdeba. ratom ar xatavdnen sinaTles da Sesabamisad, Crdilebs, Zveli egviptelebi an Cinelebi? nuTu isini ver xedavdnen maT? Tqven ukve iciT, rom egvipturi mxatvroba samarxebis kedlebs amkobda da is micvalebulis imqveyniuri maradiuli cxovrebis `megzuri~ iyo. egviptelTa warmodgeniT ki miRmier samyaroSi amqveyniurisagan gansxvavebuli kanonebi moqmedebda da, maTi azriT, sinaTle da SuqCrdili iq dun ci xiani. CineTi. XVII s. ar iyo. Cinur peizaJzec ostatebi realur samyaroSi maradiulisa da waruvalis asaxvas cdilobdnen da amdenad, mouxelTebel da mudmivad cvalebad Crdilebs maT naxelavSi adgili ar hqonda. mkvlevrebma erTaderT Cinur suraTs miakvlies, romelzec Crdili iyo gamosaxuli da iciT ratom? es iyo leqsis ilustracia, romelSic saubari iyo mTvaris Suqsa da Crdilebze. 54


rac Seexeba ZvelberZnul mxatvrobas _ berZnuli larnakebis mxatvrobaSi, cxadia, arc sinaTle da arc Crdilebi ar gamoisaxeba. Tumca, Zvel berZnulSi arsebobda sityva `skiagrafia~ (scio _ Crdili, graphos _ wera) anu `CrdilebiT wera~, magram axla Zneli dasadgenia, zustad ras aRniSnavda es termini. am periodis ferweris arc erT Zegls Cvenamde ar mouRwevia, magram cnobilia, rom kedlis mxatvroba sakmaod iyo gavrcelebuli saberZneTSi da aq sxvadasxva dros mravali cnobili fermweri moRvaweobda (polignotosi, apelesi, Zevksisi da sxv.). pliniusis cnobiT, Zv.w. V s-is II naxevarSi aTenSi muSaobda saxelganTqmuli mxatvari apolodorosi, romelmac pirvelma berZen fermwerTa Soris gamosaxa Crdilebi. IV. formis SuqiTa da CrdiliT damuSaveba Tu dacemuli Crdilebis gamoyeneba dasavleT evropis mxatvrobis monapovaria. dacemuli Crdilebi Tavdapirvelad renesansSi, kvatroCentos epoqaSi Cndeba, rogorc CrdiloeT evropaSi, ise italiaSi. swored dacemuli Crdili pirveli nabijia SuqiT, sinaTliT realuri garemos asaxvis gzaze. daakvirdiT rober kampenis suraTis fragments, romelzec dacemuli Crdilebia gamoyenebuli. aq kargad Cans, Tu rogor ecema sakmaod Rrma Crdili lurji qsovilidan da fanjris darabidan fonze gamosaxul, siRrmeSi mimaval kedels, rac erTgvarad, sivrcis SegrZnebas badebs.

berZnuli krateri (wylis an Rvinis WurWeli). Zv. w. V s.

ganmart ebebi kiaroskuro _ italiuri termini, romelsac iyeneben saxviTi xelovnebis nimuSze Zlieri Suqisa da Crdilis saSualebiT samganzomilebiani moculobiTi formisa da realuri sivrcis aRsawerad.

5. daakvirdiT karlo krivelis namuSevars. miuTiTeT, sad aris gamoyenebuli am suraTze dacemuli Crdilebi? imsjeleT, ramdenad realuria isini.

rober kampenis saxelosno (Jak dare?). RvTismSobeli yrmiT interierSi. 1432. fragmenti.

karlo kriveli. xareba. 1486. fragmenti.

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VI. ganaTebis efeqtebis gamoyeneba ferweraSi iSviaToba ar aris. am xerxs sxvadasxva drois mxatvrebi mimarTavdnen da mas tenebrizms uwodebdnen (it. tenebroso _ muqi, pirquSi, idumali). esaa erT-erTi saxviTi xerxi, romlis drosac mkveTri SuqCrdili e.w. kiaroskuro gamoiyeneba. am dros xdeba sinaTlisa da sibnelis mkveT­ri dapirispireba da sibnele gamosaxulebis mniSvnelovan nawils `STanTqavs~. ga­na­Te­bis efeqtsa da SuqCrdils Zal­ze aq­ti­u­rad iye­neb­dnen ba­ro­kos epo­qa­Si. ara­so­des, arc erT epoqasa da kul­tu­ra­­Si ga­na­Te­bas suraTze ase­Ti di­di mniS­vne­ lo­ba ar mo­u­po­ve­bia. er­T-er­Ti pir­ve­li mxat­va­ri, vinc mkveT­ri ga­na­Te­ba aq­ti­u­ rad ga­mo­i­yena, aris ka­ra­va­jo. da­ak­vir­diT mis su­raTs „trapezi emausSi“.

ka­ra­va­jo. trapeza emausSi. 1601.

rembrandti. abraamis msxverplSewirva. 1635.

ka­ra­va­jos su­raT­ze si­naT­liT gan­sa­kuT­re­bu­la­daa ga­mo­yo­fi­li moq­med pir­Ta sa­xe­e­bi (gan­sa­kuT­re­biT — macx­ov­ris sa­xe) da xe­le­bi, da­nar­Ce­ni ki TiT­qos Crdil­ Si iZi­re­ba. ga­na­Te­bu­li da Cab­ne­le­bu­li ad­gi­le­bis am­gva­ri mkveT­ri da­pi­ris­pi­re­ ba idumal garemos qmnis da Ta­vad sa­xa­re­bi­se­u­li si­u­Je­tis Se­saty­vis da­Za­bul, mRel­va­re, dra­ma­tul ganwyobilebas ganapirobebs. aba, daakvirdiT rembrandtis `abraamis msxverplSewirvas~. rogor iZireba sibneleSi abraamis sxeuli, mkveTrad ganaTebuli ki mxolod misi saxe da xelebia. 6. gaixseneT bibliuri istoria abraamis Sesaxeb. 7. Tqveni azriT, ratomaa sibnelidan `amotacebuli~ mxolod misi saxe da xelebi?

am suraTze muq garemoSi ganaTebiT gamoyofilia wina planze morCilad gawolili Wabukis _ sasikvdilod ganwiruli isaakis SiSveli figura. sinaTlisa da sibnelis amgvari mkveTri dapirispireba Zlier emociur muxts aniWebs suraTs da, amave dros, dramatul ganwyobilebas qmnis. 56

daval eba SearCieT ganaTebis didostatis, italieli mxatvris karavajos romelime suraTi; aRwereT, rogor aris masze ganawilebuli mkveTri SuqCrdili da rogor iyenebs mxatvari ganaTebis efeqtebs. gamoiyeneT gakveTilze naswavli terminebi.


18. sagnis forma da Crdili

Crdili ucnauri ramaa. is sagnis Tanmxlebia, magram, aramdgradia: xan Cndeba da xan qreba; is ganaTebis kuTxisa da intensiobis kvalad, mudmivad icvlis formas. Tqven ukve iciT, ra aris sakuTari Crdili da dacemuli Crdili, romel mxares Cndeba isini da ra ganapirobebs amas. erTi SexedviT, amis garkveva dakvirvebuli adamianisaTvis iolia, magram TvaliT danaxulis gaazreba da Semdeg amis furcelze gamosaxva yuradRebas, mondomebasa da, rogor ucnauradac unda mogeCvenoT, logikur azrovnebas moiTxovs. warmoidgineT lurji burTi. misi ganaTebuli mxare Ria cisferi iqneba, xolo iq, sadac e.w. sakuTari Crdili moxvdeba _ yvelaze muqi lurji. am or adgils Soris Suqis matebisa da klebis kvalad Cven lurjis sxvadasxva tons davinaxavT. swored es ferebi warmoadgens lurjis naxevartonebs. amgvarad, naxevartoni sagnis ferze sinaTlis zemoqmedebis Sedegad miRebuli feris sxvadasxva niuanss ewodeba.

praqtikuli samuSao SearCieT sagani an sagnebi (naturmorti) da sakuTari Tu dacemuli Crdilebis saSualebiT gamosaxeT furcelze.

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnili namuSevrebi

 SearCieT sagani an sagnebi, romlebsac SuqCrdilis saSualebiT damaxasiaTebel formas mianiWebT;  gadawyviteT, ra masaliT imuSavebT; SegiZliaT, gamoiyenoT rogorc saRebavebi, aseve fanqriT SeasruloT namuSevari;  Tavdapirvelad sagnis forma ubralo fanqris saSualebiT zustad daitaneT furcelze;  daakvirdiT da daadgineT, saidan ecema Suqi sagans, romlis gamosaxvac gsurT;  ganaTebis wyaros mdebareobis mixedviT gansazRvreT, romel mxares eqceva sakuTari Crdili da dacemuli Crdili, rogori forma aqvs am Crdilebs da msubuqad moniSneT isini furcelze;  daakvirdiT, TandaTanobiT rogor gadadis sagnis yvelaze muqi, CrdilSi moqceuli adgili yvelaze ganaTebulisaken da SeecadeT, SuqCrdilis asaxvisas naxevartonebi gamoiyenoT.

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19. kino da mxatvroba gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• ra faqtorebi unda gaiTvaliswinos mxatvarma kinofilmSi garemos Seqmnisas? • ratom aris kino xelovnebis sinTezuri dargi? • rodis da sad iRebs kinos istoria saTaves? • rogor muSaobs kinofilmis Seqmnisas mxatvari?

ganmart ebebi artefaqti _ adamianis xeliT Seqmnili nebismieri obieqti, maT Soris xelovnebis nawarmoebi.

kadrebi kinoserialidan `daunTaunis saabato~

I. rogorc ukve iciT, kacobrioba Tavisi arsebobis ganmavlobaSi yuradRebiT akvirdeba garemos, afiqsirebs misTvis saintereso detalebs da Semdeg ama Tu im epoqisa da kulturisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli mxatvruli xerxebiT asaxavs mas xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargis namuSevrebSi. amasTanave, uxsovari droidan adamiani sakuTari xeliTac qmnis garemos, agebs sacxovriss, agegmarebs quCebsa da moednebs, aSenebs sxvadasxva masalis da teqnikis gamoyenebiT sxvadasxva daniSnulebis nagebobebs, amkobs maT dekoriT. adamianis mier asaxuli an misi xeliTve Seqmnili garemos xilvisas istoriiT dainteresebul adamianebs didi sizustiT SeuZliaT imis amocnoba, Tu romel epoqas an qveyanas, romel kulturas ganekuTvneba esa Tu is artefaqti. magram aris xelovnebis dargi, romelSic zogjer aucilebelia sul sxva­ dasxva epoqisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli garemos xelovnurad Seqmna. xelovnebis amgvar nawarmoebs erTi avtori aras­ dros hyavs da misi Seqmnis rTul, xangrZliv procesSi sxvadasxva profesiis adamianis Sromaa Cadebuli. xelovnebis es dargia kino. 1. Tqveni azriT, ra ti­pis filmebSia mxatvris ro­ li gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani?

kino xelovnebis yvelaze axalgazrda dargia. nebismieri Janris filmi iqmneba sxvadasxva profesiis adamianebis _ scenaristis, reJisoris, msaxiobebis, operatoris, kompozitoris da sxvaTa erToblivi ZalisxmeviT. maT Sorisaa mxatvaric. Teatris msgavsad, kinos arsebobac warmoudgenelia mxatvrobis, mxatvris gareSe. filmis Se58

kinos istoriidan 1895 wels safrangeTSi Zmebma lui da ogiust lumierebma kinoaparati gamoigones. oficialurad swored aqedan iRebs saTaves kinoxelovneba. Tavdapirvelad kinoaparatis saSualebiT firze mxolod moqmedebis aRbeWdva iyo SesaZlebeli, xmisa da feris gareSe. es periodi kinos istoriaSi munji kinos saxeliTaa cnobili. mogvianebiT, teqnikis ganviTarebasTan erTad, ki­ nom `ena amoidga~ da xmovani gaxda, SavTeTri gamosaxuleba ki feradma Secvala.


saqmnelad xelovnebis sxvadasxva dargis _ literaturis, mxatvrobis, musikis, samsaxiobo da reJisoris xelovnebis warmomadgenelTa erToblivi muSaobaa saWiro; Canafiqris xorcSesxma swored maTi TanamSromlobiT xdeba. amdenad, kinoc, Teatris msgavsad, sinTezuri xelovnebaa, oRond, misgan gansxvavebiT, bevrad ufro axalgazrdaa. droTa ganmavlobaSi Camoyalibda kinofilmis sxvadasxva saxeoba: mxatvruli, dokumenturi, samecniero-popularuli, animaciuri (multiplikaciuri). yovel maTganSi aqtiur rols asrulebs mxatvari.

II. kinos mxatvroba Teatrisagan ramdenadme gansxvavebuli xasiaTisaa. Tu Teatris mxatvari SezRudulia sasceno sivrciT, kinos mxatvars meti gasaqani da Tavisufleba aqvs, radgan kinoaparats yvelafris gadaReba SeuZlia da meti teqnikuri SesaZleblobebi aqvs sxva­dasxvagvari efeqtis Sesaqmnelad. kinos mxatvris samuSao ramdenime etapisagan Sedgeba. Tavdapirvelad mxatvari ecnoba scenars, im epoqasa da qveyanas, romelSic viTardeba moqmedeba, scenaris Sesabamisad arCevs bunebriv garemos _ bunebis xeds an interiers, romelSic momavali filmi unda gadaiRon. SesaZloa, mxatvarma garemo Tavadac Seqmnas sagangebo gadasaReb pavilionSi. amisaTvis mxatvari iyenebs iseT nivTebsa da detalebs, romlebic konkretul epoqasa da qveyanas mogvagonebs.

kadrebi filmidan `elisabedi _ oqros xana~

mxatvruli filmebis istoriaSi iseTi SemTxvevebicaa cnobili, rodesac gansakuTrebuli masStabis istoriuli filmebisaTvis gadamReb jgufs neba darTes gamoeyenebinaT samuzeumo eqsponatebi _ samosi, samkauli, sayofacxovrebo sagnebi. cxadia, aseTi „fufuneba“ mxolod gamorCeul kinoproeqtebs eniWeba. yvela sxva SemTxvevaSi gadasaRebi moednis garemo mxatvrisa da misi asistentebis didi garjisa da ostatobis meSveobiT igeba. yvelaferTan erTad, es sakmaod did xarjebTanac aris dakavSirebuli, radgan kinofilmis TiToeuli, TviT yvelaze mokle epizodic ki, reJisorisa da msaxiobebis xelovnebasTan erTad, didi sizustiT Seqmnil garemos moicavs, rac, saboloo jamSi, qmnis namuSevris saerTo atmosferos da mayurebels epoqas SeagrZnobinebs. mxatvari reJisorTan SeTanxmebiT, scenaris calkeuli epizodebis Canaxatebsa da eskizebsac qmnis. igi cdilobs Caswvdes personaJTa xasiaTs, warmogvidginos maTi garegnoba da epoqis Sesatyvisi Cacmuloba. amis Semdeg, mxatvris eskizebis mixedviT ikereba kostiumebi, igeba dekoraciebi, ewyoba garemo da a.S. mxatvarma, SesaZlebelia, Tavad gadaRebis procesSic miiRos monawileoba da sanam operatori gadaRebas daiwyebdes, kinokameris meSveobiT TiToeuli kadris kompozicia daadginos. 59


III. Tqven, albaT, ginaxavT qarTuli mxatvruli filmi `iavnana~, romelic 1993 wels reJisorma nana janeliZem iakob gogebaSvilis nawarmoebis mixedviT gadaiRo. rogorc xSirad xdeba xolme, am filmze ramdenime mxatvari muSaobda da maT funqciebi ganawilebuli hqondaT. gia buRaZem filmisaTvis eskizebi Seqmna, madlen yuSitaSvilma _ kostiumebi, xolo nikoloz zandukeli gadasaRebi moednis mowyoba-dekorirebaze muSaobda. es yovelive, cxadia, reJisorTan erTad, masTan SeTanxmebiTa da misi uSualo xelmZRvanelobiT xdeboda. sagangebod SeirCa is adgilebi, sadac filmi unda gadaeRoT. is, ZiriTadad, saguramoSi, ilia WavWavaZis saxl-muzeumSi, mis ezosa da saxlSi gadaiRes, Tumca, scenebis nawilis gadaReba TbilisSi _ muzeumSi Ria cis qveS _ mouxdaT. filmis TiToeuli kadris kompozicia winaswar aris mofiqrebuli da Zalian hgavs Zveli drois fotosuraTebs, sadac adamianebi mSvidad pozireben kameris win. mxatvrebis mier Seqmnili romantikuli garemo, filmis personaJebis garegnoba da samosi, eqsterierisa da interieris detalebi, mayureblis Tvalwin warsuli epoqis qarTuli yofis scenebs acocxlebs. am mizans emsaxureba gamomsaxvelobis iseTi xerxebi, rogoricaa: daxvewili feradovneba, statikuri da dinamikuri kadrebis monacvleoba, TavSekavebuli ritmi, rac mTlianobaSi cnobili literaturuli nawarmoebis mixedviT gadaRebuli filmis dasamaxsovrebel ganwyobilebas qmnis. 2. gaixseneT mxatvruli filmi IV. kinos mxatvris profesia, garda Semoq­ `iavnana~ da SeecadeT Camoaya­ medebiTi unar-Cvevebisa, did erudicias mo­ liboT, riT dagamaxsovrdaT igi? iTxovs, radgan man mayureblis Tvalwin vizu­ 3. ras hkiTxavdiT am filmis alurad unda gaacocxlos ara mxolod ama Tu im reJisors, mxatvars? istoriuli epoqis suraTi am ukanasknelisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli arqiteqturis, dizainis an esTetikis daxmarebiT, aramed, xSir SemTxvevaSi, warmoadginos preistoriuli epoqis garemo. aseT SemTxvevaSi, kinos SemqmnelTa rigs mecnierebic ematebian, romlebic maT xelT arsebuli, xSirad fragmentuli informaciis safuZvelze rekonstruqcias ukeTeben, mag., uZvelesi cxovelebisa da frinvelebis gamosaxulebebs, raTa meti damajerebloba SesZinon kinofilms. mecnierTa da xelovanTa amgvari TanamSromloba istoriuli Janris nawarmoebebis Sesaqmnelad xSirad gamoiyeneba. istorikosebi gansxvavebuli epoqis iaraRs, samoss, interierebs, Tqven warmoidgineT, zogjer kinokadrSi aRbeWdil saWmel-sasmels da sanovages, an sayofacxovrebo nivTebsac mkacrad akontroleben, rom yvela detalSi zedmiwevniT daicvan istoriuli sizuste. amdeni mcdelobis miuxedavad, mainc xdeba xolme ise, rom filmSi raRac uzustoba, istoriul epoqasTan Seusabamo detali gaipareba, Tumca amas mxolod specialistebi an istoriaSi kargad garkveuli mayu­reblebi amCneven. 4. xom ar iciT aseTi istoriuli uzustobebis magaliTebi msoflio kinoxelovnebidan?

60

kadrebi kinofilmidan `iavnana~.


V. kidev ufro rTulad aris saqme, rodesac filmSi fantastikuri siuJeti unda aisaxos. Sesabamisi garemos Sesaqmnelad mxatvarma sakuTari fantazia unda moiSvelios da Seqmnas, mag., iseTi personaJebi, rogorebicaa ucxoplanetelebi an fantastikuri cxovelebi Tu arsebebi. fantastikis Janris filmebi didi popularobiT sargeblobs mayurebelSi da amis erT-erTi piroba swored maTi uCveulo da moulodneli vizualuri mxarea. aseTi filmebisaTvis garemo, rogorc wesi, sagangebod agebul pavilionebSi iqmneboda, magram kompiuteruli teqnologiebis swrafma ganviTarebam situacia Secvala da amJamad am tipis kinofilmis gadaReba swored kompiuteruli grafikis aqtiuri gamoyenebiT mimdinareobs.

kadri filmidan `iuriuli periodis parki~

kadri filmidan `mexuTe elementi~

kadri filmidan `oblivioni~

5. gaixseneT, romel fil­mebSi gaqvT nanaxi STambeWdavi vizualuri efeqtebi da rogori xasiaTis iyo isini? 6. rogor fiqrobT, ra rols Seasrulebda maT SeqmnaSi mxatvari? 7. xom ver daasaxelebT iseT popularul filmebs, romlebic, Tqveni azriT, kompiuteruli grafikis gamoyenebiT aris Seqmnili? riTi xasiaTdeba fantastikuri Janris filmebSi asaxuli vizualuri garemo?

davaleba moemzadeT praqtikul gak­veTilze Sesasrulebeli samuSaosaTvis, waikiTxeT giorgi leoniZis moTxroba `natvris xe~.

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20. `viRebT~ kinofilms

kinos gadaReba sakmaod rTuli, xangrZlivi, Sromatevadi SemoqmedebiTi da teqnikuri procesia, romelSic uamravi adamiani monawileobs. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tqven arc teqnikuri aRWurviloba gaqvT da erTi gakveTilic ar eyofa am saqmes, mainc SeecadeT, kinos mxatvrebad warmoidginoT Tavi da `gadasaRebad moamzadoT~ erTi an ramdenime kadri giorgi leoniZis moTxrobis _ `natvris xis~ qvemoT SemoTavazebuli fragmentis mixedviT.

praqtikuli samuSao SeqmeniT eskizebi. Tqven mier Seqmnili eskizis mixedviT moamzadeT dekoracia, sadac gadaiRebT an dadgamT scenas SemoTavazebuli nawyvetis mixedviT g. leoniZis moTxrobidan `natvris xe~.

 SeecadeT, mocemuli teqsti TvaliT `dainaxoT~, anu moqmedebaSi warmoidginoT nawyvetSi aRwerili suraTebi;  moTxrobis es nawyveti dayaviT epizodebad da SeqmeniT TiToeulis eskizi;  eskizis Seqmnisas gaixseneT, ra iciT namuSevarSi ganwyobis Seqmnis Sesaxeb da gamoiyeneT Sesabamisi mxatvruli xerxebi;  kadris sasurveli kompoziciis misaRebad, kinokameris magivrobas Tqvenive damzadebuli Savi CarCo gagiwevT;  CarCos meSveobiT sxvadasxva wertilidan SexedeT kadrs da Tqveni Canafiqris Sesaba­misad SearCieT scenis yvelaze momgebiani xedi.

n a t v r is xe

(nawyveti)

`eliozs swamda: ianvris sastik yinvian RameSi Tu SuaRamisas moxvdi tyeSi da Tu cis gaxsnas Seeswar, maSin dainaxav turfad ayvavilebul, jadosnur xes. ara mSveniereba mas ara sjobia! is xe Turme erT saaTSi kidec ayvavdeba, kidec nayofs moisxams. Tu misi nayofi xelT igde, erTi gakvneta da morCa! siRaribe imwamsve Camogecleba samudamod! vin uTxra, vin Caagona, dResac ar vici! es kia, rom ianvris RameebSi roca yinviT ca gaskdomazea, xSirad daxetialobda dakonkili eliozi tyeSi martodmarto, cis gaxsnisa da im natvris xis naxvis molodinSi... ...da, ai, erT zamTris dilas, roca sicives WaxWaxi gaudioda, tyidan marxiliT Camoasvenes gafiCxuli eliozi. natvris xis ZiebaSi, mis yaraulobasa da lodinSi, yinviT ayvavebul xis qveS gayinuliyo. _ marTlac, iseTi lamazi xe amoerCia sawyals, rom imis danaxvas araferi sjobda. yinvas moerTo aTasnairi yvaviliT, arSiebiT, ruSebiT, jinjilebiT, sul dasuraTebuli iyo _ ambobda tyis mcveli bodaveli, romelic SemTxveviT zed wasdgomoda gayinul eliozs bnel tyeSi~. giorgi leoniZe

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21. garemos asaxvis xerxebi

Tqven ukve iciT, rom sxvadasxva epoqasa da qveyanaSi arsebobda sasuraTo sibrtyeze sivrcis iluziis Seqmnis sxvadasxva xerxi. gavixsenoT zogierTi maTgani. am mizniT evropul mxatvrobaSi, renesansidan moyolebuli, farTod gamoiyeneba geometriuli, haerovani da feradovani perspeqtivis Seqmnis xerxebi. kinoxelovnebaSi mxatvari, reJisorTan erTad, qmnis sasurvel garemos, sadac xan sivrce, xan ki ekranze asaxuli kinokadris kompoziciis sibrtyovaneba aris xazgasmuli. sivrcis gadmocemis TvalsazrisiT, mniSvnelovania formis damuSavebis xerxebis codna Crdilisa da moculobis gamoyenebiT. zemoT CamoTvlili gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebis mravalferovneba ganapirobebs adamianisa da garemos gamosaxvis Taviseburebebs sxvadasxva epoqis kulturaSi.

leonardo da vinCi. mona liza. 1503. pinturikio. xareba. 1501.

kaspar daviT fridrixi. dila mTebSi. 1810.

moris utrilo. monmartri. 1938.

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kadrebi filmidan `saiaTnova~ (broweulis feri). reJisori sergo farajanovi. 1968.

kadrebi filmidan `aSik-qeribi~. reJisori sergo farajanovi. 1988.

davaleba SeqmeniT xelovnebis romelime dargis (ferwera, grafika, kinoxelovneba) namuSevari, romelSic adamiani da garemo asaxuli iqneba sivrcisa da formis gadmocemis romelime mxatvruli xerxis (haerovani da feradovani perspeqtiva, ganaTebisa da SuqCrdilis efeqtebi) meSveobiT.

 moifiqreT, xelovnebis romeli dargis namuSevris Seqmna gsurT;  xelovnebis dargis gansazRvris Semdeg, SearCieT Sesabamisi masala da teqnika: zeTis, akvarelis an guaSis saRebavi, feradi fanqrebi da sxv.;  davalebis Sesasruleblad Tqven SesaZloa, SeqmnaT ferweruli an grafikuli suraTi, aseve kinokadris mosamzadebeli eskizebi. eskizebis mixedviT dadgmuli kompoziciebiT mobiluri telefonis meSveobiT gadaiReT video;  daaTvaliereT saxelmZRvaneloSi warmodgenili masala _ geometriuli, feradovani da haerovani (sfumato) perspeqtivis nimuSebi, mxatvrobisa da kinoxelovnebis nawarmoebebSi ganaTebisa da dacemuli Crdilebis magaliTebi, aseve, sibrtyobrivi da sivrcobrivi kinokadrebi cnobili kinofilmebidan. ilustraciebze asaxuli mxatvruli xerxebi gamoiyeneT namuSevris Seqmnisas.

`saiaTnova~ (broweulis feri). reJisori sergo farajanovi. 1968.

kadri filmidan `mandarinebi~. reJisori zaza uruSaZe. 2013.

kadri filmidan `mandarinebi~. reJisori zaza uruSaZe. 2013. kadri filmidan `name~. reJisori zaza xalvaSi. 2017.

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adamiani da misi Sinagani samyaro adamiani, Tavisi arsebobis mTeli istoriis ganmavlobaSi qmnis xelovnebis nimuSebs da yvela etapze asaxavs sakuTar Tavs. sxvadasxva epoqaSi Seqmnili adamianis gamosaxuleba arsebiTad gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan.

II

am TavSi Cven visaubrebT imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra ganapirobebs am gansxvavebas da adamianis romel Tvisebebs Tu niSnebs wamosweven win ama Tu im periodSi; vimsjelebT, rogor aisaxeba sxvadasxva drois xelovnebaSi adamiani, misi garegnoba, xasiaTi Tu Sinagani samyaro; aseve davinaxavT, rogor SeiZleba amovikiTxoT Semoqmedis damokidebuleba zogadad adamianis mimarT misi namuSevris mixedviT.

• rogor gamoisaxeba adamianis Sinagani samyaro sxvadasxva epoqaSi? • rogor asaxavs xelovnebis nawarmoebi epoqis Taviseburebebsa da am epoqis adamians? • rogor SeiZleba amovikiTxoT mxatvris an epoqis msoflmxedveloba erTi namuSevrisa da masze gamosaxuli adamianis saxis mixedviT? • dazguri mxatvrobis romel JanrSi aisaxeba adamianis Sinagani samyaro yvelaze ukeT? • rogor gamoisaxeba adamianis grZnobebi da emociebi siuJetur kompoziciebSi? • romeli mxatvruli xerxebis meSveobiT aris SesaZlebeli adamianis Sinagani samyaros gadmocema portretSi?


22. istoriuli epoqa da adamiani gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor gamoisaxeba adamianis Sinagani samyaro sxvadasxva epoqaSi? • rogor asaxavs xelovnebis nawarmoebi epoqis Taviseburebebsa da am epoqis adamians? • rogoria saxarebiseuli siuJetis interpretaciebi sxvadasxva epoqaSi?

I. qristianobis mTel msoflioSi gavrcelebis Semdeg saxarebis siuJetebs saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi gamosaxavdnen sxvadasxva epoqis Tu qveynis xelovnebaSi. saxviTi xelovnebis dargebis _ kedlisa da wignis mxatvrobis, qandakebis, dekoratiul-gamoyenebiTi xelovnebis nawarmoebebi am siuJetebis meSveobiT mouTxrobda mrevls qristianobis arsis Sesaxeb. magram sxvadasxva epoqaSi es gansxvavebuli xerxebiT xdeboda. modi, vnaxoT, rogor icvleboda saxviTi xerxebi, rogor gansxvavebulad gamoisaxeboda rogorc garemo, aseve adamiani. Tqven winaSea sxvadasxva epoqaSi saxare­biseul siuJetze Seqmnili ori namuSevari. 1. gansazRvreT, saxarebis ro­ me­li siu­Jetia asaxuli aq warmodgenil nimuSebze. 2. aRwereT TiToeuli maTgani. 3. ra msgavsebasa da gansxvavebas xedavT maT Soris da ra STabeWdilebas aRZravs TiToeuli maTgani? 4. daaxasiaTeT orive namuSevarze warmodgenili garemo. Sua saukuneebis bizantiuri moxatuloba. XIII s.

andrea del kastanio. 1555.

II. yvela epoqa Taviseburad asaxavs saidumlo serobis siuJets. Sua saukuneebis ostati minimaluri xerxebiT gadmoscems Sinaarss. es faqtobrivad am siuJetis simboloa da mxolod faqtis arsis gadmocemas isaxavs miznad. amitom naxevar­ wriuli formis magidis rkalis gaswvriv romauli wesis mixedviT, naxevrad wamowolili figurebi _ macxovari da mociqulebi _ pirobiTi saxiT arian warmodgenili. mayureblisaTvis mniSvnelovania macxovris figuris identificireba 66


da amitom is magidis marcxena kideSi, mociqulTa mwkrivis dasawyisSia gamosaxuli. qristianuli iko­ no­ grafiis mixedviT, mas jvrovani Saravandi aqvs. mociqulTa figurebi ZiriTadad mowiTalo kon­turiT aris Semoxazuli. maTi mosasxamebis na­ ke­ cebis naxati TiTqos arc asaxavs samosis qveS sxeulis formebs.

III. sruliad gansxvavebulia adreuli renesansis epoqis mxatvris, andrea del kastanios midgoma amave siuJetisadmi. igi cdilobs, realur movlenad warmoadginos saidumlo serobis scena, xolo masSi monawile personaJebi realuri adami­ anebis saxiT warmoaCinos. macxovrisa da moci­ q­ ul­­ Ta figurebi anatomiis kanonebis codniT, pro­­porciebis mkacri dacviT aris warmodgenili. Ta­visufali da damajerebelia gamosaxul personaJTa pozebi da Jestikulacia. maTi samosis nakecebis qveS realuri moculobiTi formebi ikiTxeba.

Sua saukuneebis bizantiuri moxatuloba. XIII s. fragmenti.

5. aRwereT kastanios namuSevarze gamosaxul mociqulTa pozebi da Jestebi. 6. romel namuSevarze ufro metadaa gamoxatuli adamianuri emociebi: Sua saukuneebis Tu renesansis periodis freskaze?

„saidumlo serobis~ orive kompoziciaze mxatvari mociqulTa gamosaxvisas misdevs TiToeuli maTganis ikonografias da zogi axalgazrda mamakacis saxiTaa warmodgenili, zogi ki _ TmaSevercxlili Warmagi adamianis saxiT. magram kastanios namuSevarze isini bunebrivad moZraoben, erTmaneTTan urTierToben, maTi umetesoba JestebiT gamoxatavs sakuTar emociebs. naTelia, rom mxatvris mTavari amocana asaxos realuri adamiani. es SemTxveviTi rodia. renesansi swored miwier adamians aqcevs samyaros centrSi da mas `samyaros gvirgvins~ uwodebs. Sesabamisad, realuri, miwieri adamianis grZnobebi, gancdebi, misi reaqciebi am epoqis xelovanTa interesis mTavar sagans warmoadgens. am TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva leonardi da vinCi.

IV. leonardo da vinCis `saidumlo serobac~ magidis erT mxares mjdom qristesa da mociqulebs warmogvidgens. moqmedeba oTaxSi viTardeba. mnaxvels imgvari STabeWdileba eqmneba, TiTqos Tavadac am oTaxSi, magidis pi­rispir dgas da uSualod akvirdeba pe­ rsonaJebs. Tavad suraTze sivrce geometriuli perspeqtivis kanonebiTaa agebuli.

andrea del kastanio. 1555. fragmenti.

andrea del kastanio. 1555. fragmenti.

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leonardo da vinCi. saidumlo seroba. 1494-1498.

kompozicia isea agebuli, rom qristes Tormeti mowafe oTx samkacian jgufs qmnis. isini Zalze co­cxal, bunebriv moZraoba­Si arian gadmocemuli. le­­onardom konkretuli momenti gamosaxa, rodesac qristes ukve naTqvami aqvs, erT-erTi Tqvengani gamcemso. mxa­tvari am sityvebze qristes mowafeebis reaqcias asaxavs. mas ainteresebs TiToeuli mowafis, rogorc adamianis, sapasuxo reaqcia, emocia macxovris mier warmoTqmul sityvebze. amas ki mxatvari saxeebze aRbeWdili gansxvavebuli emociebiT, sxva­dasxva moZraobiTa da JestiT gamosaxavs. cnobilia, rom leonardo dainteresebuli iyo Jestebis `en­iT~. igi ambobda: `ada­ mianis Jestebi iseve mravalferovania, rogorc misi azrebis dineba~. 7. daakvirdiT, rogor aris agebuli garemo, sivrce am namuSevarze da Sea­dareT is am kuTxiT wina or namuSevars. 8. SeadareT leonardos figurebis Jestebi kastanios figurebisas; imsjeleT, romel namuSevarzea ufro bunebrivi da metad emociuri Jestebi. 9. SeecadeT, gansazRvroT, ra emocias gamoxatavs TiToeuli mociqulis saxe, moZraoba da Jesti. daaxasiaTeT TiToeuli maTgani.

leonardo da vinCi. saidumlo seroba. fragmentebi. 1494-1498.

d a v in C i s ` s a i du ml o s e roba~ leonardo da vinCis `saidumlo seroba~ milanis santa maria dele gracies monastris satrapezos aRmosavleT kedels amkobs. leonardom aq teqnikuri eqsperimenti Caatara da freskis Seqmnisas erTdroulad gamoiyena zeTisa da temperis saRebavebi. amis gamo freska jer kidev mis sicocxleSi dazianda da Camocvena daiwyo. am Sedevrs bevrjer Cautarda restavracia, Tumca uSedegod. meore msoflio omis dros freska saswaulebrivad gadarCa. satrapezos bombi moxvda da TiTqmis mTlianad daingra. mxolod freskiT Semkuli kedeli daifara gangebam.

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V. saxarebis am erT-erTi yvelaze amaRelvebeli siuJetisadmi interesi arc momdevno epoqebSi ganelebula. XX saukunis cnobili xelovani salvador dali sruliad gansxvavebulad miudga am siuJets. gamWvirvale xuTkuTxedis qveS moTavsebuli masiuri magida da mis garSemo macxovrisa da mociqulTa figurebi mistikur xasiaTs aniWebs kompozicias. am ganwyobilebas aZlierebs namuSevris yvela detali: macxovris figura naxevrad wyalSia moqceuli, xolo magidis garSemo ganlagebuli muxlmoyrili mociqulebi TavCaqindrulni usmenen mas.

salvador dali. saidumlo seroba. 1955.

zemodan mTel kompozicias minis kubis miRma gamosaxuli mamakacis xelebgaSlili torsi agvirgvinebs, romelic TiTqos mfarvelobs mTel scenas. salvador dali siurrealisti mxatvaria da am namuSevarzec bevri detali scdeba realobis farglebs. mag., minis kedlebs miRma gamosaxuli ukacrieli peizaJis detalebi, kamkama wylis talRebze mosriale navebi, romlebic TiTqos arRvevs kedlebs da uSualod iWreba kompoziciaSi. xelovnebis bevri mkvlevari aRniSnavs, rom dalis es namuSevari, garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, leonardo da vinCis amave saxelwodebis nawarmoebiT aris STagonebuli. marTlac, magidis centrSi warmodgenili macxovris figura vizualurad mogvagonebs leonardos cnobil kompozicias. magram salvador dalis „saidumlo seroba“ gajerebulia realobis miRma myofi detalebiT da aRsavsea mistiuri ganwyobilebiT, rac kidev ufro amZafrebs scenis sakralur Sinaarss.

10. aRwereT, rogor asaxavs salvador dali mociqulTa figurebs. 11. Tqveni azriT, ratom ar Cans arcerTi mociqulis saxe am namuSevarze?

davaleba SearCieT Sua saukuneebisa da renesansis epoqis TiTo namuSevari Temaze `RvTismSobeli yrmiT~. SeadareT isini erTmaneTs; gansazRvreT, ra ganasxvavebs Sua saukuneebisa da renesansis RvTismSoblebsa da yrmebs da axseniT, ra ganapirobebs am sxvaobas.

69


23. `maradiuli saRebavebi~ da `sicariele~ gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor SeiZleba amovikiTxoT mxatvris an epoqis msoflmxedveloba erTi namuSevrisa da masze gamosaxuli adamianis saxis mixedviT? • adamianis Sinagani samyaros romel aspeqtebs usvamen xazs mxatvrebi sxvadasxva epoqaSi?

miunhenis pinakoTekaSi daculia 1500 wliT da­ T­ a­ riRebuli, zeTis saRebavebiT Sesrulebuli al­ breht diureris erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili av­ toportreti, romelzec bewvis sayeloian samosSi gamowyobili mxatvari muq fonzea gamosaxuli. mxatvars mSvidi, gawonasworebuli mzera Cven­­ sken aqvs mopyrobili, TiTqos Tvals TvalSi gviyris; marjvena xeli, moxdenili JestiT, mker­ dTan aqvs mitanili. daxvewili saxis nakvTebi, sulSiCamwvdomi, Rrma mzera da Txeli, natifi TiTebi diurers daxvewili, sulierebiT aRsavse adamianis iers aniWebs. misi gamosaxuleba TiTqmis mTlianad avsebs sasuraTo sibrtyes. erTi SexedviT, suraTi Zalze lakoniuria, yovelgvari zedmeti detalis gareSe. aq TiTqos yvelaferi cxadia, magram mnaxvels mainc erTgvari idumalebis gancda eufleba. amas ki, pirvel rigSi, ganaTebuli da Cabnelebuli adgilebis monacvleoba unda ganapirobebdes.

albreht diureri. avtoportreti. 1500.

1. daakvirdiT da daasaxeleT, romeli adgilebia am suraTze moqceuli CrdilSi da romelia yvelaze ganaTebuli?

mTlianad suraTi muqi koloritiT xasiaTdeba, magram aq mkveTradaa amonaTebuli ori are _ figuris saxe da xelebi, danarCeni nawilebi _ diureris grZeli Tma da misi samosi, TiTqos fonis wyviadSi „iZireba~. mnaxvels iseTi SegrZnebac SeiZleba daeuflos, TiTqos mxatvris saxe da xelebi Tavad gamoscems am Suqs. risi Tqma unda amiT diurers?

`m a r a d iu l i s a R e b a v e b i ~ diureris orive mxares, misi Tvalebis gaswvriv Sav fonze oqrosferi daxvewili asoebiTaa Sesrulebulia ori warwera. marcxena mxares diureris inicialebsa da suraTis Sesrulebis TariRs vxedavT, marjvniv ki aseve oqrosfriT datanili laTinuri warweraa: „me, albreht diurerma niurnbergidan maradiuli saRebavebiT davxate sakuTari Tavi 28 wlis asakSi“. ucnauri warweraa, ras unda niSnavdes aq naxsenebi „maradiuli saRebavebi“? ras gulisxmobs mxatvari? rogorc zogierTi mkvlevari varaudobs, unda vifiqroT, rom am SemTxvevaSi „saRebavi“ farTo mniSvnelobiTaa naxmari da mxolod fers rodi gulisxmobs, aramed mTlianad mxatvris sametyvelo enas, yvela im xerxsa da saSualebas, romelic Semoqmedis xelTaa.

70

albreht diureri. warwerebi avtoportretze. 1500.


renesansis epoqaSi, maSin, rodesac diureri moRvaweobda, Camoyalibda azri, rom mxatvari mxolod xelosani rodia, romelic tiloze ostaturad xatavs sagnebsa da adamianebs; mxatvari is moazrovne adamiania, romelic akvirdeba samyaros, sakuTari grZnobebisa da cnobierebis prizmaSi atarebs miRebul STabeWdilebebsa da codnas da Tavisi namuSevrebiT raRac Zalze mniSvnelovans eubneba adamianebs anu azrovnebs da qmnis. azrovneba ki jer swored samyaros TvaliT danaxviT iwyeba. ai, ratom anaTebs diureri figuris saxes da ratom svams maxvils Tvalebze, romlebSic adamianis Sinagani samyaro, rogorc sarkeSi, ise airekleba. magram danaxva da azrovneba sakmarisi araa, danaxulsa da azrad Camoyalibebuls asaxva unda. aq ki xelia mTavari, romelic amis gakeTebas SeZlebs. xelebi ki qmedebis iaraRia; gulTan mitanili xeliT diureri TiTqos migviTiTebs, rom igi am xeliT qmnis da sakuTar guls uziarebs mnaxvels. Tvali, romelic dainaxavs ara marto Cven garSemo arsebul samyaros, aramed RvTaebriv naTelsac da xelebi, romelTa saSualebiT es yovelive namuSevarze aisaxeba, anu azrovneba da qmedeba am namuSevris da, zogadad, diureris devizadac SeiZleba CavTvaloT. aq Cans, rom diurers, 28 wlis asakSi, sruliad gaazrebuli aqvs sakuTari misia.

II. sxvaTa Soris, am suraTze kidev erTi ucnauri ram gvxvdeba. diureri sakuTar Tavs uCveulo rakursiT _ anfasSi warmogvidgens. am periodSi portretze adamiani yovelTvis sam meoTxedSi gamoisaxeboda; Tavad diureric Tavis or adreul avtoportretSi swored sam meoTxed pozaSi gamosaxavs sakuTar Tavs. fasSi, rogorc wesi, macxovari gamoisaxeboda xolme. sxvaTa Soris, mecnierTa didi nawili Tvli足s, rom diurerma sakuTari Tavi qristes darad gamosaxa. erT-erTi mosazrebiT, Tavda足pir足ve足lad diureri qristes gamosaxulebis daxatvas apirebda da Sua gzaSi avtoportretad gadaakeTa. asea Tu ise, diureris am saxeSi marTlac aris RvTaebrivi naperwkali, simSvide, sibrZniT aRsavse Rrma mzera da spetaki keTilSobileba.

albreht diureri. avtoportreti. 1493.

2. SeadareT diureris ori adreuli portreti erTmaneTs. 3. SeadareT diureris adreuli portretebi 1500 wlis portrets. ra msgavsebasa da gansxvavebas xedavT maT Soris?

4. ras fiqrobT, xom ar iyo kadniereba diureris mxridan sakuTari gamosaxulebis SemTxvevaSi qristeze miniSnebis gakeTeba?

g a n m a rt e b e b i anfasi/fasi _ pirdapir danaxuli/asaxuli adamianis saxe.

albreht diureri. avtoportreti. 1498.

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diureri Tavad morwmune qristiani iyo da ra gasakviria, Tu mas, rogorc morwmune adamians, macxovarTan Sinagani msgavsebis survili gauCndeboda. es xom nebismieri adamianis miswrafeba da, Tu gnebavT, movaleobacaa. aki ambobda pavle mociquli: „ara me, aramed qriste CemSi~. ase xedavda diureri sakuTar Tavs da zogadad, adamians, mis Sinagan samyaros, mis misias miwier cxovrebaSi da es avtoportreti swored amaze „gvesaubreba“.

5. gaaanalizeT pavle mociqulis es fraza. Tqveni azriT, ras gulisxmobs is?

III. pikasos erT-erTi cnobili namuSevari `absentis moyvaruli~ warmogvidgens kafeSi mjdom qals, romelic magidas uzis da sasmels miirTmevs. Cven winaSea Suaxnis gamxdari qali, romelsac cali xeli nikapTan miutania, meore, arabunebrivad grZeli xeli ki mWidrod aqvs sakuTar sxeulze Semoxveuli; TiTqos am poziT pikaso qalis sakuTar TavSi Caketilobas usvams xazs. pikaso ar cdilobs realisturad gadmosces figura, piriqiT, igi Segnebulad mimarTavs deformacias da disproporcias: xazs usvams qalis kuTxovan formebs, sagangebod agrZelebs mklavebs, zrdis xelis mtevnebis zomas da uxeS formas aniWebs maT. qalis saxec aseTive kuTxovania, gamokveTili yvrimalebiTa da mokumuli tuCebiT, wvrili TvalebiT, romelSic azris natamali ar ikiTxeba. misi mzera carielia. am figuris xilvisas mnaxveli xvdeba, rom pikaso martoxela, cxovrebisagan gariyuli, sakuTar TavSi Caketili adamianis tragedias gvixatavs, romelic cdilobs, sakuTari sicariele sasmliT Seavsos.

pablo pikaso. absentis moyvaruli. 1901.

6. Tqveni azriT, ratom mimarTavs pikaso deformaciis xerxs?

7. Tqveni azriT, kidev romel mxatvrul xerxebs iyenebs pikaso martosulobis am STabeWdilebis gasaZliereblad?

adamianis martoobis, gaucxoebis da misi Sinagani samyaros sicarielis Tema xSirad gvxvdeba XX s-is dasawyisis xelovnebaSi: edgar degas, eduard manes, anri tuluz-lotrekis SemoqmedebaSi. rogorc Cans, TviT drom gamoiwvia am Temis gaaqtiureba. rogorc am ori sxvadasxva periodis TiTqmis 400 wliT erTmaneTisagan daSorebuli mxatvris namuSevrebis analizma gviCvena, adamianis Sinagan samyaroSi sul sxvadasxva ram iqcevs maT yuradRebas: diurers idealebis mqone sulieri srulyofilebisaken mswrafi adamiani ainteresebs, xolo pikaso win wamoswevs Tanamedrove adamianis problemas _ mis Sinagan sicarieles. 72

8. SeadareT diureris avtoportretisa da pikasos absentis moyvarulis ZiriTadi ideebi. ra gansxvavebaa maT Soris. riT axsniT maT Soris arsebul sxvaobas?

daval eba moiZieT zemoT CamoTvlili mxatvrebidan erT-erTis namuSevari absentis Temaze. gaaanalizeT da SeadareT pikasos namuSevars.


24. portreti _ gansxvavebuli xedva sxvadasxva epoqaSi xelovanebi adamianis gamosaxvisas sxvadasxva gamomsaxvelobiT xerxebs iyenebdnen. magaliTad, renesansis epoqaSi adamians realisturi mxatvruli xerxebiT asaxavdnen da did mniSvne­ lo­ bas aniWebdnen figuris proporciebis sworad gadmocemas, formaTa mo­culobiT damuSavebas, garegnul msgavsebas... Tanamedrove xelovneba ki sruliadac ar isaxavs miznad naturis zedmiwevniT zustad asaxvas. mag., XX saukunis erT-erTi mimdinareoba _ kubizmi, romlis cnobili warmomadgeneli pablo pikasoa, nebismier gamosaxulebas geometriul formebad Slis da mravalferovani sibrtyeebis monacvleobiT, adamianis sruliad pirobiT, sib­ rtyobriv gamosaxulebas warmogvidgens.

Tqveni Tanatolis namuSevari a)

pablo pikasos mier Seqmnili abstraqciuli portreti (a) da Tqveni Tanatolis namuSevari (b)

b)

praqtikuli samuSao moifiqreT, realisturi Tu kubisturi portretis Seqmna gsurT. SearCieT Tqveni gadawyvetilebis Sesabamisi saxatavi masala (fanqari, guaSi) da SeqmeniT portreti.

 daakvirdiT Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Sesrulebul portretebs da maT detalebs. fanqriT Sesrulebuli naxati mSvidi, realisturia. formis damuSavebisas gamoiyeneT modelirebis anu formis damrgvalebis wesi, romelic zedapirze SuqCrdilis ganawilebiT miiRweva;  fanqriT Sesrulebul namuSevarze sxvadasxva tipis Strixebis gamoyeneba SegiZliaT;  Tu kubisturi namuSevris Seqmnas gadawyvetT, moifiqreT, ramden geometriul formad unda daSaloT Tqven mier SerCeuli gamosaxuleba;  miaqcieT yuradReba, rom TiToeuli geometriuli forma guaSis sakmaod sqeli Savi konturiT aris moCarCoebuli, rac kidev ufro dinamikurs xdis gamosaxulebas.  mniSvnelovania imis gaazrebac, rom es geometriuli formebi sxvadasxva feris SeiZleba iyos.

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25. xelovanis amocana da saxviTi xerxebi gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• ra aris weris manera? • rogor da romeli xerxebiT xsnian adamianis Sinagan samyaros pol sezani da ogiust renuari? • ra kavSiria xelovanis amocanasa da saxviT xerxebs Soris?

1. londonis nacionalur galereaSi daculia pol sezanis mier Seqmnili portreti, romelzec warmodgenilia qali locvisas; igi TiTqos orive xeliT Cafrenia krialosans. daZabulobisagan `mokrebili~ sxeuli, win gadmoxrili Tavi, daJinebuli, Tumc gaucxoebuli mzera, mokumuli tuCebi sakuTar TavSi Caketili mlocveli qalis saxes warmogvidgens. esaa sasowarkveTili, magram rwmenaSi mtkice adamianis nebelobiTi (da ara emociuri) locva. es yovelive mkafiod Cans, radgan qalis figura Zalze axlosaa motanili mnaxvelTan da TiTqmis mTel sasuraTo sibrtyes avsebs. suraTi erTgvar pirquS STabeWdilebas tovebs, raSic Tavad qalis daZabuli, koncentrirebuli mzera, Caketili poza da suraTis molurjo-tyviisferi koloriti qmnis, magram am STabeWdilebis SeqmnaSi gansakuTrebul rols asrulebs weris erTgvari `mZime~ manera. aba, daakvirdiT, rogor wers sezani kabas da qalis mxrebze dafenil mosasxams. igi tilos zedapirze debs sqel, gaumWvirvale, `mZime~ monasmebs; rogor sqlad, gamozomilad, fena-fena ideba monasmebi erTimeoreze ise, TiTqos mxatvari kldis myar qanebs xatavdes da ara rbil qsovils. saRebavi TiTqos qvavdeba da tilos zedapiri kldis mkvriv, wonad faqturas gvagonebs. sxvaTa Soris, Tavad sezani ferweras qvismTlelis saqmianobas adarebda. amgvaradvea dawerili muqi fonic, romelzec praqtikulad SeuZlebelia detalebis garCeva, Tumca, feradovnebiTa da monasmebis simkvriviT isic analogiur STabeWdilebas axdens da uknidan ise ketavs figuras, rom mas erTgvar daxSul sivrceSi amwyvdevs. diax, es sakmaod damafiqrebeli suraTia, romelSic asaxulia adamianis sali kldesaviT mtkice rwmena.

II. modi, axla impresionisti mxatvris, ogiust renuaris mier Seqmnili `Jana samaris portrets~ davakvirdeT. Cven winaSea lamaz mwvane kabaSi gamowyobili nazi da momxiblavi axalgazrda qali, 74

pol sezani. moxuci qali krialosniT. 1896.

ogiust renuari. msaxiob Jana samaris portreti. 1877

ganmart ebani weris manera _ saxviTi xerxebis erToblioba, teqnikuri da stilis­turi Taviseburebani, romlebic konkretuli Semoqmedis mxatvrul individualobas gansazRvravs.


vardisferi saxis kaniT, Cafiqrebuli, Tbili, meocnebe mzeriTa da msubuqi RimiliT. sezanis portre足 tisagan gansxvavebiT, Jana samaris portreti er足Ti SexedvisTanave xalisian ganwyobilebas qmnis da amaSi, Tavad Janas mSvenier garegnobasTan da laR RimilTan erTad, gansakuTrebul rols suraTis JReradi koloriti da msubuqi weris manera asrulebs. mwvane kabisa da movardisfro-monarinjisfro fonis Sexameba erTgvar dapirispirebas qmnis; Janas mwvane kabaze Cven vxeogiust renuari. msaxiob Jana samaris davT sxvadasxva sufTa feris _ Zalze moZrav, portreti. fragmenti zogjer daudevrad dadebul lurj, yviTel da iisfer monasmebs, romlebic TiTqos xelis swrafi moZraobiTaa datanili suraTis zedapirze. isini pulsireben, zedapiris vibracias iwveven da sicocxlis, xalisisa da silaRis SegrZnebas aZliereben. miuxedavad imisa, rom qalis figura Zalze axlosaa mnaxvelTan motanili, misi konturebi gabundovnebulia, TiTqos figura erTgvar burusSia gaxveuli, rac mnaxvelSi iwvevs SegrZnebas, rom sasuraTo sivrce sinaTliTa da haeriTaa savse. erTi sityviT, Sesrulebis manera suraTis xalisian, sicocxliT savse ganwyobilebas qmnis. esaa Sedevri, romelSic renuarma, Jana samaris garegnul silamazesTan erTad, misi Sinagani sinaTlisa da mSvenierebis, sicocxlis sisavsis gadmocema SeZlo. Cven davinaxeT, rom Sesrulebis sxvadasxva manera sxvadasxva ganwyobilebis Seqmnas emsaxureba. imis mixedviT, Tu ra Canafiqri aqvs mxatvars, mas SeuZlia Sesabamisi saxviTi xerxebis SerCeva: muqi Tu naTeli koloriti, myari Tu moZravi monasmi, weris TavSekavebuli Tu Tavisufali manera. Tuki renuari msubuqi monasmebiT xatavs sicocxliT savse axalgazrda qals da mis garSemo sinaTliT gamsWvaluli haeris msubuq atmosferos qmnis, sezani asaxavs kldesaviT mkvri足 vi substanciis mqone mlocvel qals, aseTsave mkvrivsa da myar garemoSi. am ori namuSevris mier aRZruli STabeWdilebac, Sesabamisad, erTmaneTisagan sruliad gansxvavebulia.

III. Zalze sainteresoa `Jana samaris portretis~ Seqmnis istoria. parizi. madam Serpanties saloni, sadac sxva stumrebTan erTad, renuaric imyofeba. iReba kari da Semodis mimzidveli axalgazrda qali, romelsac TiTqos sinaTle Semoaqvs oTaxSi. renuari im dResve sTavazobs Janas misi portretis daxatvas da isic Tanxmdeba. Jana samari cnobili msaxiobi iyo. mas lamazi ar eTqmoda, magram yvela Tanxmdeboda, rom Zalze momxiblavi qali iyo, rasac mis gulRia Rimils miawerdnen. Janas pirveli portretiT (a), romelic renu足 arma daxata, Tavad mxatvari ukmayofilo darCa, amitom, renuarma Janas meore portreti Seasru-

msaxiobi Jana samari. foto. 1870.

1. daakvirdiT Jana samaris am fotos. Tqveni azriT, ramdenad zustad asaxa renuarma qalis garegnoba da misi xasiaTi Tavis cnobil portretSi?

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la, swored is, romelzec Cven visaubreT. 1877 wels renuarma es suraTi impresionistebis mesame gamofenaze waradgina. am suraTis Sesrulebis manera Zalian gansxvavdeboda msaxiobis sxva portretebisagan. cxadia, suraTs kritikiT Sexvdnen. renuars dascinodnen, `qalis xelebi Tevzis qercliT dafarao~. zogierTs albaT gulic gauskdeboda, renuars Janas sxva portreti rom gamoefina, romlis Zalze Tavisufali Sesrulebis manera im droisaTvis marTlac uCveulo iqneboda (b).

a)

ogiust renuari. Jana samari. 1877

2. rogor STabeWdilebas axdens Tqvenze ogiust renuaris es namuSevari (b)? 3. weris rogori manera axasiaTebs Jana samaris am portrets (b)? 4. SeadareT is Jana samaris Cven mier ganxilul portrets. ra gansxvaveba da msgavsebaa maT Soris?

b) ogiust renuari. Jana samari. 1878

IV. renuaris mier Sesrulebuli Jana samaris kidev erTi portreti sruliad gansxvavebulia (g). es sazeimo portretia, romelzec qali warmodgenilia mTeli taniT, Zvirfas kabasa da mdidrul garemoSi. rogorc cnobilia, Tavad Janas survili iyo, rom igi aristokrati qalis saxiT gamoesaxa mxatvars. renuarma portreti parizis salonSi gamofina; rodesac mxatvarma is gamosafenad miitana, suraTi jer kidev ar iyo mSrali da amitom laqiT ar iyo dafaruli. vinc suraTi Caibara, ifiqra, rom es mxatvris xelmokleobis brali iyo da suraTs sakuTari iniciativiT laqi wausva. ra Tqma unda, suraTi gafuWda da mxatvarma is axlidan gadawera. V. renuariseuli weris manera impresionistebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. renuari swored impresionizmis warmomadgenelia. misi gmirebi xalisiani da mxiaruli adamianebi arian; isini icinian, erTobian, cekvaven, erTmaneTTan siamovnebiT urTierToben. mis SemoqmedebaSi ver ipoviT tragikul scenebsa da pirquS adamianebs. Jana samaris es portretebic swored amis dadasturebaa. 76

g) ogiust renuari. Jana samari. 1878

daval eba gaixseneT wina wels naswavli mimdinareoba — impresionizmi da gansazRvreT, ra niSnebiT miakuT­ vnebT renuars am mimdinareobas.


26. foni da figura

albaT dakvirvebixarT, rom nebismier portrets aqvs foni, romelic sruliad gansxvavebuli SeiZleba iyos. is xan sruliad neitraluri, erTi feris sibrtyea, xan muqi, moSavo-moyavisfro da aseTi foni Cabnelebuli sivrcis STabeWdilebas tovebs. zogjer mxatvrebi adamianis portrets Soreuli peizaJis fonze gamosaxaven da es peizaJi xan bunebis mSvenieri xedis saxiTaa warmodgenili, xan ki qalaqis urbanuli peizaJis saxiT. aris SemTxvevebi, roca mxatvrebi figuras interieris fonze xataven, rogorc es ogiust renuaris Jana samaris erT-erT (gv. 77, sur. g) portretzea gamosaxuli. es yovelive Tavad mxat­vris Canafiqrsa da mis mizanzea damokidebuli. 1. aRwereT rafaelis suraTze asaxuli foni. romel mxatvrul xerxebs iyenebs mxatvari fonis SemTxvevaSi? 2. rogori urTierTmimarTebaa figurasa da fons Soris rafaelis suraTze? 3. rogor STabeWdilebas qmnis foni da ramdenad Seesabameba is wina planze gamosaxul figurebs?

praqtikuli samuSao rafaeli. madona konestabile. 1502-1504.

gamosaxeT adamianis figura nebismier fonze nebismieri xerxiT.

 pirvel rigSi, gansazRvreT rogori STabeWdilebis Seqmna gindaT Tqvens namuSevarze; moifiqreT, rogori iqneba Tqven mier daxatuli adamiani, misi garegnoba, saxis gamometyveleba, samosi, varcxniloba da a.S.;  dafiqrdiT, ras gamosaxavT fonze da rogor Seesabameba es foni Tqven mier SerCeul ganwyobilebas da adamianis gamosaxulebas; fonis gamosaxvisas SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT ukve naswavli geometriuli, haerovani da feradovani perspeqtivis xerxebi;  gamoiyeneT iseTi ferebi, romlebic aseve SesabamisobaSi iqneba suraTis saerTo ganwyo­bilebasa da figuris xasiaTTan. aseve guldasmiT SearCieT suraTis saerTo STabeWdilebis Sesabamisi sxva xerxebi: kompozicia, monasmebi, xazi, ritmi da sxv.

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Sesrulebuli namuSevrebi

77


27. portreti qarTul mxatvrobaSi gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• dazguri mxatvrobis romel JanrSi aisaxeba adamianis Sinagani samyaro yvelaze ukeT? • rogor nawarmoebs ewodeba avtoportreti? • romeli mxatvruli xerxebis meSveobiT aris SesaZlebeli adamianis Sinagani samyaros gadmocema ferwerul portretze?

I. saxviTi xelovnebis iseTi dargebi, rogoricaa mxatvroba da qandakeba, udides yuradRebas uTmobs adamiansa da mis sulier samyaros. adamianis xasiaTi, misi fsiqologia, guneba-ganwyoba da emociebi xelovnebis uamravi nawarmoebis interesis sagani da mTavari Temaa. maT Soris qarTuli mxatvrobac aris. XIX saukuneSi qarTul xelovnebaSi gaCnda pirveli dazguri portretebi, romlebzec qarTveli Tavadaznaurobis warmomadgenlebi iyvnen gamosaxulni. batoniS­vilebis Tu calkeul warCinebul aristokratTa da maTi ojaxis wevrebis jgufuri an individualuri portretebi am adamianTa yofis aucilebel nawilad iqca. salome orbelianis portreti. XIX s.

iakob hovnaTaniani. martiros obelianis portreti. 1840-1850.

1. ra saerTo niSnebs xedavT tfilisuri portretebis warmodgenil nimuSebSi? aRwe­reT maTi kompozicia, koloriti, formaTa damuSaveba. 2. rogor daaxasiaTebdiT portretebze gamosaxul adamianebs?

am periodSi Seqmnili portretebi `tfilisuri portretuli skolis~ saxeliTaa cnobili. rasakvirvelia, es namuSevrebi iqmneba sxvadasxva Taobis, sxvadasxva xelweris mqone mxatvrebis mier. magram maT erT mxatvrul jgufad mravali saerTo niSanic aerTianebs. Tbiliseli mxatvrebi, rogorc wesi, adgilobriv tradicias misdeven da naklebad arian ganswavluli evropuli mxatvrobis TvalsazrisiT. 78


3. ra saxis informacias gvawvdis tfilisuri portretuli skolis namuSevrebi konkretul ada­mianze, epoqaze? 4. ras fiqrobT, ro­meli literaturuli na­warmoebis an speqtaklis gaformebaSi SeiZleba am portretebis gamoyeneba.

rogorc xedavT, XIX saukunis qarTul portretebs kompoziciis da koloritis sisadave, gamosaxulebis statikuri xasiaTi aerTianebs. personaJebis neitralur fonze warmodgeniT mxatvrebi mayureblis yuradRebas iseT detalebze amaxvileben, rogorebicaa maTi saxasiaTo garegnoba, gamometyveleba, Tavis daWeris manera. sainteresoa, rom mxatvrebs am portretebSi wamieri ganwyobilebis gadmocema naklebad ainteresebT. gacilebiT mniSvnelovania maTi sulieri mdgomareoba, romelsac mayurebeli personaJebis odnav sevdiani, dafiqrebuli gamoxedviT, Tavis daWeris gansakuTrebuli maneriT SeigrZnobs. tfilisuri portretis skola Rirseuli adamianebis saintereso galereas qmn­is da TiTqos XIX saukunis sazogadoebis jgufur portrets warudgens mayurebels.

II. XIX saukunis II naxevridan saqarTveloSic moRvaweoben klasikuri samxatvro ganaT­ lebis mqone qarTveli mxatvrebi. maT Soris yvelaze saxelmoxveWili, pe­­ terburgis sa­m­xa­tvro akademiis kur­­sdam­Tav­rebuli, mxa­tvari gigo gabaSvilia. gigo gabaSvilis SemoqmedebaSi aisaxa misi interesi sxva­­dasxva eTnikuri warmomavlobis adamianebisadmi. mis mier daxatuli eTnografiuli portretebi am Janris klasikuri nimuSebia. Cveulebrivi portretisagan gansxvavebiT, eTnografiuli portreti aqcents tipaJze da am tipis adamianebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli samosis detalebze svams. personaJi TiTqos ar pozirebs, Tavisi cxovrebiT cxovrobs da namuSevarzec uSualo, TiTqos SemTxveviT danaxuli kadria aRbeWdili. gigo gabaSvili evropuli ferweris tradiciebis mimdevaria. mis namuSevrebze adamianebi didi ostatobiT, realisturad arian gamosaxuli. gigo gabaSvili. moqalaqis portreti. 1910-iani wlebi.

gigo gabaSvili. xevsuri. 1910-iani wlebi.

5. SeadareT erTmaneTs `tfilisuri skolisa~ da gigo gabaSvilis portretebi. CamoayalibeT, ra msgavseba da ra gansxvavebaa maT Soris.

79


III. qarTul mxatvrobaSi niko firosmani qmnis namuSevrebs, romlebzec adamiani axleburadaa danaxuli. erTi mxriv, advili amo­ sacnobia misi profesia, socialuri kuTvnileba, meore mxriv ki, es ara mxolod realuri pirovneba, aramed socialuri tipaJia. mxatvari personaJs ara dafiqsirebul realur droSi, aramed odnav ganyenebul garemoSi aTavsebs, sadac Zneli dasakonkretebelia, dRe-Ramis romeli monakveTia asaxuli. firosmanis portretebi bevr rames mogviTxrobs gamosaxuli adamianebis bunebaze, isini uSualo kontaqts amyareben mayurebelTan da Zalze dasamaxsovrebel personaJebs warmoadgenen. 6. daaxasiaTeT gamomsaxvelobis ZiriTadi xerxebi da saSualebebi (kompozicia, koloriti, for­maTa damuSaveba), romlebsac iyenebs mxatvari aq warmodgenil namuSevrebSi.

firosmani. meTevze. 1908.

IV. adamianis Sinagani samyaros gadmocemis TvalsazrisiT, gansakuTrebuli Janria avtoportreti. mxatvrebi avtoportretis Seqmnisas, garegnuli msgavsebis gadmocemasTan erTad, sakuTari xasiaTis, Sinagani bunebis maTTvis kargad nacnobi niuansebis gadmocemas cdiloben. mag., didi qarTveli mxatvris, daviT kakabaZis erT-erTi avtoporteti wiTeli fardis fonzea gamosaxuli. mxatvris masiuri figura, Caketili poza Zlieri nebisyofis mqone adamians warmogvidgens. misi figura suraTis wina kidesTan axlos aris motanili, magram mayurebelsa da personaJs Sofirosmani. meezove. 1914. ris warmosaxviTi distancia SenarCunebulia da misi xasiaTi advilad amosacnobi rodia. kakabaZe TavdaWerili, sakmaod mkacri xasiaTis mqone adamianis saxiT warmogvidgeba. mis saxeze Znelia amoikiTxo raime konkretuli emocia, Tumca JReradi wiTeli fardis foni emociur muxts matebs suraTs. rogorc ukve iciT, uaRresad mniSvnelovania figurisa da fonis urTierTmimarTeba personaJis xasiaTis ukeT warmosaCenad. 80


7. Tqveni azriT, ra mxatvruli roli eniWeba portretze gamosaxul garemos d. kakabaZis avtoportretze?

daviT kakabaZe. avtoportreti. 1917.

amdenad, daviT kakabaZe, erTi mxriv, emociurad TavSekavebuli adamianis saxiTaa warmodgenili, magram, meore mxriv, ucxo TvalisaTvis dafaruli mgrZnobeloba, romantikuli buneba da sulieri energia suraTis saerTo koncefciaSi wiTeli fardisa da uCveulo peizaJis saxiT aris gamJRavnebuli.

V. XX saukunis Sua xanebSi, qarTul mxatvrobaSi, realistur portretTan erTad, iqmneba ufro pirobiTi xasiaTis namuSevrebi, romelTa erTi nimuSi esma onianis mier Sesrulebuli `ana abaSiZis portretia~. savarZelSi mjdomi qalis sxeuli pirobiTi formebiTa da zogan mxolod miniSnebuli nakvTe­ biT gamoisaxeba. kabis kalTaze dakrefili Txe­li xelebi, viwro weli da sifrifana, TiTqos uwono figura mTlianad Caflulia savarZelSi da daucvelobis STabeWdilebas aRuZravs mayu­ rebels. maRali yeli da saxis daxvewili nakvTebi, Zveleburi kaba da samkauli gardasuli epoqis per­ sonaJebTan iwvevs asociacias. mayurebeli Znelad arCevs qalis saxis nakvTebs, magram esma onianis mier gamoyenebuli mxatvruli xerxebi Seucdomlad mianiSnebs mis daxvewil sisadaveze, keTilSobilebaze. mxatvrobis es saintereso dargi xom ara mxolod garegnuli niSnebis zustad gadmocemas, aramed sulieri samyaros, adamianis Sinagani bunebis gadmocemas isaxavs miznad.

esma oniani. ana abaSiZis portreti. 1977.

8. CamoayalibeT, romeli mxatvruli xerxebia gamoyenebuli am namuSevarze. ras fiqrobT, re­alisturia Tu ara es nawarmoebi? 9. xom ar giCndebaT asociacia sxva epoqis romelime cnobili mxatvris portretebTan? daasaxeleT es mxatvari da scadeT, gansazRvroT, ra niSnebiT hgavs maT warmodgenili namuSevari. 10. rogor daaxasiaTebdiT war­­modgenil qals?

81


28. realobisa da warmosaxvis zRvarze gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor gamoisaxeba adamianis grZnobebi da emociebi siuJetur kompoziciebSi? • rogor Tanaarsebobs realisturi da pirobiTi xerxebi ferwerul nawarmoebSi? • rogor SeiZleba Caetios ramdenime kadri erT suraTSi?

I. adamianis grZnobebi, emocia, Sinagani samyaro ferwerul nawarmoebSi sxvadasxvagvarad SeiZleba iyos asaxuli. rodesac mxatvari portrets qmnis, bunebrivia, cdilobs, garegnul msgavsebasTan erTad, konkretuli adamianis Tvisebebi an misi ganwyobileba gadmosces, magram rogor unda aisaxos sevda an bedniereba, imedi, aRmafrena da sxva adamianuri grZnobebi maSin, rodesac mxatvari siuJetur kompozicias xatavs? swored amas isaxavs miznad XX saukunis cnobili mxatvari mark Sagali Tavis ucnaur poetur namuSevrebSi. 1. rogor daaxasiaTebT m. Sagalis am namuSevars? 2. Tqveni azriT, ra aris uCveulo am namuSevarze? 3. rogor aris agebuli am namuSevris kompozicia da rogor ferebs iyenebs mxatvari aq? 4. ras fiqrobT, rogor ganwyobilebas qmnis mxatvari am namuSevarze?

mark Sagali. qalaqis Tavze. 1913.

qalisa da mamakacis sakmaod mozrdili figurebi caSi aWrilan. maT qvemoT xedvis zeda wertilidan patara qalaqi moCans. aq gamosaxulia saxlebi da Robis ramdenime mwkrivi, romelic saxlebsa da karmidamos ki ar akravs gars, aramed TavisTvis gadaWimula sasuraTo sibrtyis mTel siganeze da suraTis marjvena kidesTan uCinardeba. caSi mfrinavi figurebi ise laRad da mSvidad gamoiyurebian, TiTqos es maTi bunebrivi mdgomareoba iyos. cxadia, rom isini Seyvarebulebi arian. mamakacs cali xeli nazad Semouxvevia qalisaTvis. es misi belaa, misi cxovrebis mudmivi Tanamgzavri, erTguli meuRle, romelic yvela gansacdels SagalTan erTad iziarebda. erTmaneTs gadaWdobilni isini erTni arian. raRac uxilav Zalas autacia Seyvarebuli wyvili da caSi miafrens. SesaZloa, cxovrebis sixaruli, aRtaceba da erTmaneTis siyvarulia es Zala, miwas rom moswyvita es wyvili. qvemoT ki maTi mSobliuri qalaqi, rogorc miraJi, `micuravs~. mamakacis sxeulze geometriuli formebi Warbobs, qalisa ki momrgvalebuli, moq­ nili xaziTaa Semowerili. mxatvari qalis samosis detalebsac ki guldasmiT gamosaxavs, arc maqmaniani qvedabolo da moxdenili fexsacmeli gamorCenia. per­sonaJebis sxeulebisa da pozis zomieri pirobiToba dedamiwaze gamosaxuli sax­lebis, usasrulo Robis da saidanRac gaCenili mwvane Txis pirobiTobas kargad Seesabameba. erTi SexedvisTanave igrZnoba, rom suraTis kompozicia aramyaria, wonasworoba darRveulia. qalaqi TiTqos damrecad `curdeba~ kompoziciis marjvena ki82


disaken, sivrceSi `dneba~ misi konturebi, Tavad caSi mofarfate figurebi ki cxadia, yovelgvar simyares moklebulni arian. es yovelive arcaa gasakviri, aq xom mSobliuri qalaqis sevdiani monatrebaa asaxuli.

II. mark Sagalma mTeli cxovreba erTi qveynidan meoreSi mogzaurobaSi gaatara. misma mZime bavSvobam belorusiis erT patara qalaqSi, vitebskSi gaiara, Semdeg igi ruseTis did qalaqebSi swavlobda da muSaobda. mere xan safrangeTSi cxovrobda, xan litvaSi, xan germaniaSi, drodadro samSobloSi brundeboda, Semdeg amerikaSi gadavida, dabolos, isev safrangeTSi dabrunda. Sagali bevrs muSaobda, axali STabeWdilebebiT savse intensiuri cxovrebiT cxovrobda, magram mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi mis namuSevrebSi mSobliuri qalaqis xedebi, bavSvobis mogonebebi da gancdebi iCens Tavs. 5. ras fiqrobT, romeli qveynis arqiteqturis tipuri nimuSia am suraTze asaxuli? 6. ra iqcevs pirvel rigSi mayureblis yuradRebas am suraTze? 7. ras fiqrobT, realisturia Tu pirobiTi warmodgenili namuSevari?

mark Sagali. vitebskis Tavze. 1914.

rogorc Cans, mark Sagals warmosaxvis gansakuTrebuli unari hqonda. mis warmosaxvaSi erTmaneTs erwymoda mogonebebis realuroba da bavSvisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli fantaziebi. bavSvobisdroindeli mogonebebi ki misi Semoqmedebis ulevi wyaro iyo. igi mudmivad xatavda Tavis mSobliur vitebsks. mis warmosaxvaSi mudmivad cocxldeboda mexsierebaSi Rrmad CabeWdili nacnobi adgilebi. am suraTze swored ganmart ebebi vitebskia gamosaxuli, daTovlili saxlebiTa da quCebiT, xaxvisbolqviani gumbaTebiT dagvirgvimiraJi _ optikuri movlena atmosferoSi, romlis drosac nebuli yviTeli taZriT, mzesaviT rom kaSkaSebs Cans sagnebis moCvenebiTi gamoTovlis fonze da `aTbobs~ vitebskis susxiani saxulebebi. zamTris erT Cveulebriv dRes. rom ara erTi denostalgia (berZn. nostos Sin tali _ cis fonze gamosaxuli mamakacis mfrinavi dabruneba, algos tkivili) – figura, es Cveulebrivi zamTris peizaJi iqnebo„samSoblos sevda“; samSobloSi da. Seufereblad didi zomis abgagadakidebuli dabrunebis SeuZleblobiT gaxeljoxiani mamakaci saxlebis saxuravebs sadacaa mowveuli sevda. gadaufrens. es moxetiale mogzauris figura, albaT, Tavad samSoblodakarguli, nostalgiiT Sepyrobili mxatvaria, romelic sakuTari mogonebebis samyaroSi daqris. 83


III. mark Sagali mxolod sevdisa da nostalgiis mxatvari rodia. misi mxatvrobis poeturi samyaro Tanabrad aRbeWdavs cxovrebis mxiarul da sevdian mxareebs. mxatvris cnobierebaSi Semonaxul da Semdeg suraTebSi asaxul siuJetebSi orive ganwyobilebas sakmaod didi adgili uWiravs. mTavaria, aRviqvaT misi namuSevrebis mxatvruli ena da SevZloT, amovikiTxoT mxatvris Canafiqri. amas ki gamomsaxvelobiT saSualebebze: kompoziciaze, ferze, formaTa damuSavebis maneraze dakvirvebiTa da maTi gaanalizebiT movaxerxebT. 8. dafiqrdiT, ra aris warmodgenili mark Sagalis am namuSevarze? 9. rogori ganwyobileba su­ fevs suraTze? 10. gamosaxvis romel xerxebs gamoyofdiT am namuSevarze?

mark Sagali. cirkis cxeni. 1964.

sacirko warmodgenis mxiaruleba da aurzauri mxatvars brwyinvaled aqvs asaxuli suraTze `cirkis cxeni~. cirkis arena ramdenime segmentad aris dayofili da mayurebeli zemodan, TiTqos akrobatebis mier cirkis gumbaTis qveS Sesrulebuli nomris simaRlidan adevnebs Tvals imas, rac qvemoT xdeba. jam­ bazs, akrobats, mojiriTe qals, iluzionists mxatvari cirkis arenaze erTad gamosaxavs. mayureblis Tvalwin kadrebiviT monacvleobs maTi nomrebi. es swrafi cvla cirkis sxvadasxva artistis erTad dafiqsirebiT, maTi nomrebis kadrirebis principiT, xalisiani feradovnebiT aris gamowveuli. mrgvali arenis garSemo pirobiTad moniSnuli mayureblebiT Sevsebuli rigebi moCans. Cven TiTqos gvesmis energiuli musikis xmac, romlis fonze Tavis xelovnebas sxvadasxva profesiis artistebi warudgenen mayurebels. mTeli sacirko warmodgena TiTqos erT suraTSi Caatia mxatvarma, mayurebels gauziara sakuTari STabeWdileba, mxiarulebiT da aRtacebiT aRsavse grZnobebiT aavso igi. mark Sagali im SemoqmedTa rigs miekuTvneba, romlebmac sakuTari warsuli, mogonebebi, gancdebi erT did feradovan warmosaxviT samyarod aqcies da adamianebs gauziares. am samyaroSi sakuTari `wesrigi~ sufevs: adamianebi caSi dafrinaven, cxovelebi musikalur instrumentebze ukraven, Taigulebs odnav gasarCevi landebis Saravandi adgas. fizikis kanonebze ufro mniSvnelovani aq adamianis grZnobebi, daudaval eba faravad gadmocemuli emociebi, gverdigverd gamoifiqreT, Tqveni mogonebemosaxuli dardi da sixaruli, sevda, monatreba bis romeli epizodis dasuraTeda imedia. erTi sityviT, es mark Sagalis zRaba gsurT. SearCieT saxatavi mapruli samyaroa, romelSic adamianis grZnobebi sala da xerxebi da SeasruleT da gancdebi bavSvuri uSualobiTa da gulwrfenamuSevari. lobiTaa asaxuli. 84


29. warmosaxva da namuSevari

xelovnebis nawarmoebi SeiZleba sxvadasxva Temaze iyos Seqmnili. mxatvrebi xan konkretuli adamianis portrets qmnian, xan istoriul an religiur siuJets asuraTeben, nawarmoebis Tema Cveni yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan aRebuli siuJetic SeiZleba iyos. magram zogjer nawarmoebis Tema mxolod mxatvris fantaziis nayofia. mis warmosaxvaSi Tavs iyris odesRac miRebuli STabeWdilebebi, cocxldeba wakiTxuliT, gagoniliT an nanaxiT aRZruli emocia da es yvelaferi mxatvrul formas iZens. Semdeg xelovani irCevs Sesaferis masalas, teqnikas da sakuTar fantazias mindobili iwyebs muSaobas. SesaZloa, mas Tavidanve hqondes warmodgenili, risi daxatva surs, an Tavisuflad mihyves SemoqmedebiT process da ase Seasxas xorci sakuTar warmosaxvas.

praqtikuli samuSao SeqmeniT warmosaxviTi namuSevari nebismier Temaze. namuSevris Sesaqmnelad gamoiyeneT TqvenTvis sasurveli masala da teqnika.

Tqveni Tanatolis mier Sesrulebuli namuSevrebi

 namuSevris Seqmnisas SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT rogorc Sav-TeTri, aseve feradi grafikis teqnika;  Tqveni namuSevari SeiZleba iyos rogorc mravalfiguriani, aseve erTfiguriani;

 Tavdapirvelad ubralo fanqriT moxazeT Tqven mier warmodgenili kompozicia;  fanqriT Sesrulebul monaxazze daiwyeT feradi saxatavi masaliT _ pasteli, akvareli, guaSi _ muSaoba. namuSevari SeiZleba Sesruldes kalmiT an wvrili funjiT da tuSiTac;  daasaTaureT Tqveni namuSevari;  namuSevris wardgenisas isaubreT Tqvens Canafiqrze. ra STabeWdilebebs an emociebs ukavSirdeba is. yuradReba gaamaxvileT, saxatavi masalisa da teqnikis romeli Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebiT airCieT isini. isaubreT imazec, rogori mxatvruli saxe miiRo Tqvenma Canafiqrma;  moismineT TanaklaselTa azri Tqvens namuSevarze.

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30. adamiani Tanamedrove qarTul qandakebaSi gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor aisaxeba qandakebaSi adamianis Sinagani samyaro? • rogor iqmneba istoriuli da miTuri personaJebis qandakebebi? • SesaZlebelia Tu ara qandakebis mxatvrul formaSi poeziis Taviseburebebis asaxva?

I. xelovnebis nawarmoebi yovel­Tvis gamoxatavda sakuTari epoqis suliskveTebas, masSi mkafiod mJRavndeboda avtorisa da misi Tanadrouli sazogadoebis damokidebuleba arCeuli Temis mimarT; masSi yovelTvis airekleboda adamianis Sinagani samyaro da misi grZnobebi. erTi sityviT, xelovnebis nawarmoebi komunikaciis erTgvari saSualebaa da misi meSveobiT cxadi xdeba, ras fiqrobs, rogor aRiqvams romelime konkretul istoriul epoqaSi mcxovrebi adamiani sakuTar Tavsac da zogadad samyarosac. am TvalsazrisiT Zalze sainteresoa XX saukunis qarTuli qandakeba. Tqven ukve iciT, rom mrgvali qandakeba ar iyo xelov­ nebis tradiciuli dar­ gi saqarTvelosaTvis. misi ganvi­ Tareba, upirveles yo­vlisa, cnobili qar­Tveli moqandakis, iakob nikolaZis saxel­ Tanaa dakavSirebuli. swored iakob nikolaZem Cauyara safuZveli Tanamedrove qarTuli qandakebis ganviTarebas da garkveuli TvalsazrisiT, gezic misca mas. 1. daakvirdiT Cax­ru­xaZis portrets da Ca­mo­aya­ libeT, rogor STa­beWdilebas aRZravs is. 2. daaxasiaTeT qandake­ba da gansazRvreT is Ziri­ Tadi mxatvruli xer­xebi, romlebic ganapirobebs qandakebiT gamow­veul STabeWdilebas.

mrgvali qandakeba saxviTi xelovnebis gamorCeuli dargia. is sivrceSi damoukidebeli obieqtis saxiT dgas. gansakuTrebuli ostatoba sWirdeba imas, rom qvis magar faqturas sasurveli forma da xasiaTi mianiWo, TiTqos „daarbilo“ is da aiZulo, gadmosces ara mxolod adamianis nak-

iakob nikolaZe. CaxruxaZe. 1944.

r o d e n is mo w a f e XX saukunis cnobilma qarTvelma moqandakem iakob nikolaZem profesiuli ganswavlisa da daostatebis grZeli gza ganvlo. moskovisa da odesis samxatvro saswavleblebis damTavrebis Semdeg igi safrangeTSi gaemgzavra da SeZlo daaxloeboda did frang moqandakes, ogiust rodens. erTi wlis ganmavlobaSi axalgazrda qarTveli rodenis saxelosnoSi muSaobda. mas myar masalaSi gadahqonda rodenis nawarmoebebi, ramac didi gamocdileba SesZina. rogorc Tavad iakob nikolaZe ambobda, rodenis saxelosnoSi gatarebuli erTi weli ostatobis namdvili skola iyo misTvis.

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iakob nikolaZe. ilia WavWavaZe. 1936.


vTebi, aramed misi pirovnuli Tvisebebic, aRbeWdo emociebi da mayureblamde mkafiod miitano personaJis sulieri gancdebi. Sua saukuneebis qarTveli poetis, CaxruxaZis portretSi iakob nikolaZe swored ase qmnis faqizi sulis mqone keTilSobili adamianis mxatvrul saxes. xSirad qandakeba kon­kretuli adamianis ga­mo­saxulebacaa da, amave dros, erTgvari si­mbo­l­oc. mo­­qandake, aseT SemTxvevaSi, portretuli niS­nebis gamoqandakebis nac­­vlad, ganzogadebul sa­xes qmnis, romelSic ama Tu im adamianis konkretuli Tvisebebic aisaxeba da misi sazogado Rvawlic. SesaZloa, qandakebis Tema miTologiuri personaJi an sulac garkveuli idea iyos. moqandake Tavad irCevs im plastikur mxatvrul saSualebebs, romelTa meSveobiTac mayurebeli SeZlebs qandakebis simboluri mniSvnelobisa da misi Sinaarsis amo­kiTxvas. 3. aRwereT is mxatvruli xer­ xebi, romelTa meSveobiTac iqmneba esa Tu is mxatvruli STabeWdileba TiToeuli qandakebis SemTxvevaSi. 4. ramdenad Seesabameba TiTo­ euli es figura am pirovnebebis Sesaxeb Tqvens warmodgenas?

gogi oCiauri. vaJa-fSavela. Tbilisi. 1975.

elguja amaSukeli. vaxtang gorgasali. Tbilisi. 1957-1967.

aseTi miTologiuri personaJia medea, rome­ lic moqandake merab berZeniSvilma sakuTari warmosaxviT gaacocxla. miTi argonavtebisa da medeas Sesaxeb farTod iyo cnobili antikur samyaroSi. moqandake am konkretuli personaJis sakuTar interpretacias gvTavazobs. qandakebis mxatvrul for­mebs da maT gamomsaxvelobiT principebze dakvirveba naTels xdis, rom Tanamedrove moqandake mayurebels medeas istoriis dramatul mxareze yuradRebis gamaxvilebas sTavazobs.

III. TbilisSi, WavWavaZis gamzirze moqandake juna miqataZis mier Seqmnili galaktion tabiZis qandakeba dgas. quCidan kargad moCans poetis TiTqos miwidan amozrdili figura. galaktioni XX saukunis qarTveli poetia, romlis saxec bevr fotosa Tu satelevizio Ca-

merab berZeniSvili. medea. biWvinTa. 1967-1970.

5. gaixseneT argonavtebis mi­ Ti da medeas istoria. romel dra­matul epizodebs gamohyofT am miTSi gansakuTrebulad. 6. romeli saxviTi xerxebis gamoyenebiT aRwevs moqandake mxatvrul gamomsaxvelobas medeas saxis Seqmnisas?

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nawerSi aris Semonaxuli. moqandakem ki mis gamosaqandakeblad uCveulo mxatvruli forma airCia. po­ etis figura TiTqos boboqar talRebSia gaxveuli. qandakebis kompozicia erTian dinamikur ritms qmnis da poetis saxec TiTqos am ritm­Sia Cawerili. j. miqataZis qandakeba qandakebis enaze gadatanil im energias warmoudgens mayureb­els, romelic galaktionis striqonebSia Caqsovili. Tanamedrove qandakebis mxatvruli forma xSirad aratradiciulia.

7. aRwereT juna miqataZis qandakeba. 8. gaixseneT, galaktionis poe­ ziidan romelime leqsi, romelic Tavisi ganwyobiT am qandakebas mogagonebT. 9. ramdenad Seesabameba es qandakeba Tqvens warmodgenas galaktionis, rogorc didi poetisa da pirovnebis Sesaxeb?

gia jafariZe. qandakebebi baraTaSvilis xidze. Tbilisi. 2006.

10. aRwereT baraTaSvilis xidze ganlagebuli qandakebebi da gadmoeciT Tqveni STabeWdileba. 11. gansazRvreT, ra faq­torebi ganapirobebs kon­­ kretuli mxatvruli STa­beWdilebis Seqmnas. 12. Tqveni azriT, ramdenad Sesaferisia es adgili (xi­di) am qandakebebisaTvis?

juna miqataZe. galaktioni. Tbilisi. 1980.

adamianebis sifrifana, pirobiTi formebis mqo­ne figurebi TiTqos mimofantulia mTel xidze. xidis moajirze Semoskupebuli an miyrdnobili figurebi erTbaSad ar iqcevs yuradRebas. maTi zoma adamianis Cveulebriv zomas ar aRemateba da amitom isini, erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba Cveulebriv gamvlelebad aRviqvaT. am SemTxvevaSi xelovneba aqtiuradaa SemoWrili adamianis sivrceSi. pirobiTi xerxebis gamoyeneba saSualebas aZlevs moqandakes, plastikur namuSevars SesZinos dekoratiuloba, xolo garemos SerCevisas upiratesoba mianiWos moulodnelobas, bunebriobas, uSualobas.

davaleba SearCieT romelime qarTveli mwerali an poeti, romlis Semoqmedebasac qarTuli literaturis gakveTilebze gaecaniT. warmoidgineT, rom moqandake xarT da misi portreti unda SeqmnaT. CamoayalibeT sakuTari koncefcia, rogor da romeli atributebiT gamosaxavdiT mas. Semdeg SeqmeniT misi portreti nebismieri masaliTa da xerxebiT, Tqveni koncefciis mixedviT.

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31. mcire plastika

Tqven albaT qandakebis mraval nimuSs gaecaniT am sagnis swavlisas. imasac SeamCnevdiT, rom qandakeba sxvadasxva epoqaSi xan realisturi iyo, xan ki pirobiTi formebiT xasiaTdeboda. xelovnebis am dargs mravali iseTi saxviTi saSualeba gaaCnia, romliTac Zalze Rrma da rTuli ideebis asaxvaa SesaZlebeli. am xerxebis gansakuTrebuli mravalferovnebiT XX-XXI saukuneebis xelovneba gamoirCeva. Tanamedrove artistebi, sruli Tavisuflebis farglebSi, sakuTari Canafiqris Sesabamisad irCeven mxatvrul formas, xerxebsa da an realistur, an pirobiT, zogjer ki, abstraqciul namuSevrebs qmnian. gansxvavebulia Tanamedrove qandakebis masalac; tradiciuli Tixis, xis, qvis da liTonis garda, qandakeba SesaZloa sxvadasxva xelovnuri masalisagan (poliesteri, kauCuki, celofani da sxv.) iyos Sesrulebuli. is SeiZleba SeRebilic iyos da moxatulic. erTi sityviT, Tanamedrove artistebi yvela SesaZlo xerxsa da masalas iyeneben; isini xSirad msubuqi iumoriT an ironiiT udgebian namuSevars da formis gamartivebas, deformacias mimarTaven. dafiqrdiT, romeli midgomaa TqvenTvis ufro saintereso, mosinjeT Tqveni Zalebi qandakebaSi da Tqveni Canafiqris Sesabamisi mxatvruli forma da saxviTi xerxebi gamoiyeneT.

henri muri. figura.1986.

katarina friSi. eqspozicia. poliesteri. 2015.

praqtikuli samuSao SeqmeniT mcire plastikis nimuSi.

 moifiqreT mcire plastikis rogor nimuSs SeqmniT;  Tavdapirvelad SeqmeniT eskizi da moamzadeT samuSaod Tixa;  SegiZliaT, asec moiqceT: gamoWraT eskizi da daadoT Tixis naWers. konturis mixedviT Tixaze moxazoT gamosaxuleba specialuri saWrelis an wvrili fanqris saSualebiT, moaSoroT zedmeti nawili da gamoZerwoT figura. SegiZliaT figuris gamoZerwva eskizis gareSec;  Zerwvis win daisveleT xelebi;  daacadeT gaSroba gamosaxulebas;  survilis SemTxvevaSi gamSrali gamosaxuleba SegiZliaT moxatoT guaSis saRebavebiT.

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnili namuSevrebi

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32. Zveli namuSevris axali sicocxle gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor aisaxeba adamianis Sinagani samyaro sazeimo portretze? • rogor SeiZleba erTi mxatvris namuSevari meore mxatvrisaTvis STagonebis wya­ro gaxdes? • rogor gamoxatavs XX saukunis mxatvari adamianis sasowarkveTas ukiduresi formiT?

I. Cven ukve aRvniSneT, rom iseTi Janris nimuSebSi, rogoric portretia, yvelaze kargadaa SesaZlebeli adamianis Sinagani samyaros asaxva. portreti zogjer mxatvris iniciativiT ixateboda, rodesac mxatvari romelime adamianis saxesa da mis Sinagan samyaros sainteresod miiCnevda, rogorc es Jana samarisa da renuaris SemTxvevaSi moxda. warsulSi, sanam fotografias gamoigonebdnen, portretebs mxatvrebi, xSir SemTxvevaSi, qmnidnen sxvadasxva qveynis monarqebisa da didebulebis dakveTiT, romlebsac sakuTari Tavis ukvdavyofa am saxiT surdaT. ase gaCnda e.w. sazeimo an oficialuri portreti, romelzec maRali wris warmomadgenlebi mTeli Tavisi didebulebiT iyvnen xolme gamosaxulni. XVII saukunis espaneTis samefo karis mxatvari diego velaskesi, albaT, mxatvrebs Soris gamorCeulia imiT, rom mas dakveTiT samefo ojaxis wevrebis yvelaze meti portreti aqvs Seqmnili. gansakuTrebuli adgili ki mis SemoqmedebaSi papis, inokenti X-is portrets ukavia.

warwera s uraTze velaskesma inokenti X-is portretze Zalze originalurad gadawyvita mxatvris xelmoweris sakiTxi; man paps marcxena xelSi patara baraTi daaWerina, romelzec weria: „mis uwmindesobas, pap inokenti X-s. diego velaskesi misi udidebulesobis, kaTolike mefis karis mxatvari“.

1. aRwereT papis poza da Cacmuloba. 2. imsjeleT, rogor aris gamosaxuli garemo portretze.

diego velaskesi. papi inokenti X. 1650.

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II. espaneTis mefem, filipe IV-m madridSi xelovnebis akademiis daarseba ganizraxa. 1650 wels velaskesi, mefis davalebiT, romSi gaemgzavra, sadac mas madridis xelovnebis akademiisaTvis „maradiul qalaqsa“ da veneciaSi xelovnebis nimuSebi _ qandakebebi da ferweruli tiloebi _ unda SeeZina. swored aq Sexvda igi paps, inokenti X-s, romelmac mxatvars sakuTari portreti daukveTa. mxatvarma papi pirvelad oficialur Sexvedraze naxa. papi mTeli brwyinvalebiT iyo warmodgenili am Sexvedraze: igi baldaxinis qveS, SemaRlebaze mdgom mooqrul taxtze medidurad ijda, tanT papis Zvirfasi samosi ecva da gamWoli, civi mzeriT egebeboda stumrebs. erTi sityviT, es marTlac RmerTis nacvali iyo dedamiwaze. cnobilia, rom meored velaskesi sruliad Sem­ TxveviT Sexvda paps. mxatvars ufleba darTes, vatikanSi dacul xelovnebis nimuSebs gascnoboda da igi mTel dReebs swored aq atarebda. erTxelac, rodesac velaskesi vatikanis darbazebSi daseirnobda, man fanjridan baRSi eulad mimavali papi dainaxa. es sul sxva adamiani iyo; sadRac gamqraliyo misi mediduroba da civi mzera, Canda, rom is raRaciT iyo daTrgunvili Tu Sewuxebuli. velaskesma papi ubralo mokvdavis, dardiT damZimebuli adamianis saxiT ixila. amjerad velaskess ukve ori absoluturad gansxvavebuli STabeWdileba hqonda papis Sesaxeb. III. am portretidan gvicqers asakovani mamakaci cocxali saxiT. mas meCxeri wveri, Txeli tuCebi, xorciani cxviri da Rrmad Camjdari wvrili cisferi Tvalebi aqvs, romelTa gamWol, civ mzeraSi undobloba, eWvi da cbiereba gamosWvivis. cnobilia, rom inokenti X Zalze veragi da daundobeli mmarTveli iyo; velaskesma dainaxa masSi es Tvisebebi da moaxerxa portretSi warmoeCina papis realuri saxe. rodesac Tavad papma naxa es portreti, manac ki ver damala da aRmoxda: Troppo vero! _ rac ase SeiZleba vTargmnoT: `zedmetad zustia!~ ra igulisxmeboda am frazaSi? mxatvris ostatobiT aRfrTovaneba Tu sakuTari Tavis mTeli sisavsiT danaxva am portretze?

diego velaskesi. papi inokenti X. fragmenti

3. daakvirdiT inokenti X-is portrets da imsjeleT, romeli STabeWdilebis mixedviT Seqmna velaskesma es portreti.

4. Tqveni azriT, ras gamoxatavda papis es sityvebi?

gasaocaria velaskesis ostatobac! daakvirdiT, rogori sazeimo JReradoba aqvs molaplape wiTeli abreSumis zedatans da rogor qaTqaTebs TeTri maqmanebiT Semkuli qvedabolo. velaskesi virtuozulad gamosaxavs qsovilebis faqturas, sxvadasxva feris Tavisufali monasmebiT ostaturad da artistulad wers TeTr samoss, priala aTinaTebs wiTel mosasxamze, taxtis sazurgis mooqrul, bzinvare detalebs. es marTlac virtuozuli namuSevaria. Zalze swrafad gavarda xma velaskesis am Sedevris Sesaxeb da italiis sxvada­ sxva kuTxidan mxatvrebi mis sanaxavad modiodnen, zogi maTgani mis aslsac ki akeTebda, raTa am didi espanelis virtuozuli xelweris saidumlos Caswvdomoda.

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rodesac velaskesma paps es portreti miarTva, papma igi guluxvad daasaCuqra _ oqros masiur jaWvze dakidebuli, Zvirfasi TvlebiT Semkuli medalioni uboZa, romelSic Tavad papis miniaturuli portreti iyo moTavsebuli.

IV. Tanamedrove xelovnebaSi arc ise iSviaTia SemTxveva, rodesac mxatvrebi Zveli ostatebis suraTebs nimuSad iyeneben, imeoreben mTel kompozicias an konkretul motivebs, zogjer calkeul detalebs cvlian da sakuTar interpretacias gvTavazoben. erT-erTi aseTi magaliTia cnobili ingliseli mxatvris frensis bekonis seria, romelic mxatvars velaskesis mier Sesrulebuli, romis papis, inokenti X-is portretis Temaze aqvs Seqmnili da romelic daaxloebiT 50-mde namuSevars moicavs. dasawyisSive unda aRvniSnoT, rom bekoni TviTnaswavli mxatvari iyo, mas ferwera arasdros arc erT samxatvro saswavlebelSi ar uswavlia da Tavis maswavleblebad warsulis did mxatvrebs Tvlida. igi kargad icnobda mxatvrobis istorias, sistematurad aTvalierebda Tavisi sayvareli fermwerebis _ velaskesis, rembrandtis, miqelanjelosa da sxvaTa ilustrirebul albomebs da Semdeg maT namuSevrebze sakuTar variaciebs qmnida. yvelaze cnobili ki maT Soris, swored Cven mier zemoT naxsenebi, velaskesis Temaze Seqmnili seriaa. bekoni velaskesis am portrets udides Sedevrad Tvlida, magram mas mxolod reproduqciebiT icnobda. igi imdenad iyo aRfrTovanebuli am namuSevriT, rom romSi yofnisas (swored aq inaxeba es portreti) verc ki gabeda misi naxva; rogorc Cans, mxatvars eSinoda originalTan Sexvedris, raTa misi aRfrTovaneba ar gaqarwylebuliyo.

V. erTi SexedviT, SeiZleba mogveCvenos, rom bekoni imeorebs velaskesis namuSevars: Tavad siuJets, figuris pozas, rakurss, magram Tu kargad davakvirdebiT da davfiqrdebiT, bekonma velaskesis portretidan faqtobrivad araferi datova. papis wiTeli mosasxami mxatvarma civi iisfriT Caanacvla, xolo TeTri qvedatani, romelic velaskesTan Tbili mooqrosfro tonalobisa iyo, bekonTan civ, WuWyian nacrisfrad gadaiqca. saxe, romelic velaskesma detalurad, zedmiwevniTi maneriT gamosaxa da romelzec brwyinvaled warmoaCina papis cbiereba, bekonma saerTod Secvala. mis saxeze arc Tvalebi Cans da arc saxis sxva nakvTebi; samagierod, mnaxvels imTaviTve xvdeba TvalSi misi daRebuli piri da 92

frensis bekoni. papi inokenti X. 1953.

5. TqvenTvis cnobili romeli mxatvari SegiZliaT daasaxeloT, romelic aseve aqtiurad mimarTavs formis deformacias eqspresiis gadmosacemad? 6. pikasos romel namuSevars gagonebT bekonis es suraTi Tavisi eqspresiulobiT? 7. gaixseneT pikasos namuSevari „absentis moyvaruli“ da SeadareT pikasos adamianis Sinagani mdgomareoba bekonis papisas. ra msgavseba da ra gansxvaveba SeiZleba davinaxoT maT Sinagan mdgomareobaSi? 8. aRwereT, rogor aris gadmocemuli garemo bekonis sura­Tz ­e da ra STabeWdilebas qmnis is. 9. aris Tu ara sivrce bekonis namuSevrebSi da rogoraa is agebuli? 10. gaixseneT wina wlebSi ganvlili masalidan, XX saukunis kidev romeli mxatvrebis SemoqmedebaSi gvxvdeba velaskesis namuSevrebis interpretacia?


TiTqos yurebSi Caesmis misi ganwiruli yvirili. velaskesis TavSekavebuli, mSvidi, cbieri, magram mediduri papi, bekonTan yvirilisagan daRrejil, avadmyofuri saxis mqone sasowarkveTil adamianad iqca. ufro metic, SeiZleba vTqvaT, rom igi Tavad iqca yvirilad, radgan TiTqos yvela nakv­ Ti gaqra misi saxidan, darCa mxolod daRebuli piri. bekonma yvelaferi Tavdayira daayena. es ukve velaskesiseuli papis oficialuri portreti rodia, es gausaZlisi Sinagani tkivilisagan cxovelur bRavilamde misuli adamianis ganzogadebuli saxea. rogorc erTma cnobilma frangma filosofosma Jil deliozma Tqva, yvirili bekonTan is procesia, romlis drosac mTeli sxeuli TiTqos adamianis piridan gamodis.

frensis bekoni. myvirali Tavi. 1952.

11. Tqveni azriT, ras ambobs bekoni yvirilis asaxviT Tanamedrove adamianis Sesaxeb? 12. kidev romel mxatvars aqvs asaxuli adamianis sasowarkveTili yvirili?

bekonisaTvis sxva xelovanTa Semoqmedeba xSirad gamxdara STagonebis wyaro; Tavad yvirilis motivic, romelic bekonis mTel Semoqmedebas gasdevs, mxatvars sabWoTa reJisoris, sergei eizenSteinis filmma STaagona (`javSnosani potiomkini~, 1925). am filmSi, romelic araerTxel iqna aRiarebuli yvela drois saukeTeso filmad, aRwerilia 1905 wlis ruseTis revoluciis movlenebi da naCvenebia revoluciis mTeli sisastikiT CaxSoba xelisuflebis mier. swored am filmSi nanaxma kadrma, romelSic qali ganwirulad kivis, iseTi Zlieri STabeWdileba moaxdina mxatvarze, rom es motivi samudamod Sevida bekonis SemoqmedebaSi. bekonis erT-erTi biografi aRniSnavda: „is, vinc amoicnobs bekonis figurebis yvirilis mniS­ v­ ne­ lobas, ipovis bekonis Semoqmedebis gasaRebs“. unda aRiniSnos, rom warsulis xelovnebis Tu Tanamedrove xelovnebidan raime motivis aRebis da interpretirebis tendencia XX saukunis xelovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli niSania da mas am periodis xelovanebTan xSirad vxvdebiT.

VI. bekonis `papi inokenti X~ Zalze eqspresiuli namuSevaria da amas, cxadia, ganapirobebs Tavad papis mxatvruli saxe, romlis SeqmnaSi ganm­ sazRvrel rols saxviTi xerxebi asrulebs. suraTis civi koloriti mZime da pirquS ganwyo­bi­ lebas qmnis, daudevrad dadebuli monasmebi TeTr qvedaboloze nervul, eqspresiul STabeWdi­lebas

frensis bekoni. 1986.

saklaso diskusia gaaanalizeT bekonis aq warmodgenili namuSevari. imsjeleT Tqvens STabeWdilebaze, saxviT xerxebze. daasaTaureT is da SeecadeT gansazRvroT, ra ideaa gamoxatuli am namuSevarze.

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ganapirobebs. figuris deformacia, misi datexili formebic eqspresiis gaZlierebas emsaxureba. gansakuTrebiT iqcevs yuradRebas Sav fonze papis mTeli sxeulis simaRleze gavlebuli sakmaod sqeli vertikaluri monasmebi, romlebic TiTqos cxaurs waagavs, erTgvar bariers qmnis mnaxvelsa da papis figuras Soris da, amave dros, TiTqos Caketil sivrceSi aqcevs Tavad papis gamosaxulebas. garemo am suraTze Zalze pirobiTia.

VII. bekonma, faqtobrivad, mTlianad Secvala velaskesis namuSevris koncefcia; man aiRo motivi, Tema, sakuTar samyaroSi, ukiduresi dramatulobiT aRsavse TanamedroveobaSi gadmoitana is da Tanamedrove adamianis tragikuli arsebobis WrilSi warmoadgina. bekons xSirad sayvedurobdnen, rom igi adamianTa Sinagani samyaros zRvargadasul dramatizacias axdenda, magram bekoni mxrebs iCeCda da pasuxobda: „SeuZlebelia imaze metad dramatizeba, vidre es sinamdvileSia“. es cxovrebis miseuli sakmaod pirquSi xedva iyo, romelic misi Semoqmedebis xasiaTs gansazRvravda.

bekoni s axi reba TviTmxilvelebi ixseneben, rom erTxel bekonma erT-erTi galereis win gavlisas, vitrinaSi sakuTari suraTi dainaxa da imdenad ar moewona, rom galereaSi Sevida, 50 aTas girvanqa sterlingad iyida sakuTari suraTi da daxia. amgvari faqti, rogorc misi Tanamedroveebi ixseneben, araerTxel momxdara.

davaleba gaaanalizeT Tanamedrove kubeli mxatvris xulio lazaris namuSevari `papi inokenti XLV~ da gansazRvreT, am Temis rogor interpretacias akeTebs mxatvari. imsjeleT, ra msgavsebas da ra gansxvavebas xedavT bekonisa da velaskesis namuSevrebs Soris. Tqveni naazrevi werilobiT warudgineT klass.

xulio lazari. papi inokenti XLV. 2020.

r o g o r „ mi a gno “ b e k o nma s akuTar xel weras frensis bekoni erT-erTi im mxatvarTagani iyo, visi namuSevrebic sicocxleSive Zalze Zvirad iyideboda. erTxel, rodesac bekonma Tavisi morigi suraTi „ferwera 1946“ sakmaod sarfianad gayida, gadawyvita, megobrebTan erTad monte-karloSi daesvena. iq ZiriTadad bohemur cxovrebas eweoda, magram erTxelac, rodesac xatvis survili moeZala, aRmoaCina, rom aRarc tilo hqonda, arc sakmarisi saRebavebi da, rac mTavaria, _ aRarc fuli. maSin man Tavisi erT-erTi daumTavrebeli tilo aiRo, gadmoabruna da xatva suraTis ukana pirze daiwyo. bekons Zalze swrafad uxdeboda muSaoba, radgan daugruntavi tilo elvis siswrafiT iwovda zeTis saRebavs, amitom mxatvari Zalze mobilizebuli unda yofiliyo, raTa yoveli misi monasmi zedmiwevniT zusti gamosuliyo. es yovelive ki mis xelweras metad Taviseburs da miseuls xdida. „es CemTvis aRmoCena iyo, tilos ukana mxare swored saCemo iyo. monasmi, romelic amgvarad xvdeba tiloze, samudamod rCeba masze. mxolod amgvar suraTs vTvli xelovnebis nimuSad~. ase „miagno“ bekonma sakuTar xelweras. am faqtis Semdeg bekoni mudmivad am xerxiT muSaobda; amitomac mis suraTebze, saRebavis fenis qveS, xSirad Cans xolme daugruntavi tilos faqtura.

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33. xelovnebis nimuSi _ STagonebis wyaro Tqven ukve iciT, rom XX saukunis xelovnebaSi xSirad gvxvdeba Tanamedrove mxatvrebis mier Zveli ostatebis namuSevrebis axleburad gaazrebisa da gamoyenebis SemTxvevebi. mxatvrebi am namuSevrebidan iReben motivebs, zogjer calkeul detalebs da sruliad axleburad, axal konteqstSi, Tanamedrove epoqis problemebis WrilSi iazreben maT. am procesSi xSirad icvleba namuSevris Tavdapirveli, avtoriseuli koncefcia. Tanamedrove avtorebis damokidebuleba asaxulisadmi zogjer dramatulia, rogorc es bekonis SemTxvevaSi iyo, zogjer _ ironiuli, zogjer _ neitraluri. cxadia, rom es yovelive Tanadroul problemebTan aris dakavSire­ buli. Tanamedrove mxatvrebi aseve cvlian gamosaxvis xerxebsac, raTa gansxvavebuli formiT miitanon mnaxvelamde Tavisi saTqmeli.

amadeo modiliani. Jana yviTel sviterSi. 1918.

1

davaleba

namuSevris analizi mocemuli namuSevrebidan Se­arCieT TqvenTvis sasurveli erTi portreti da dawereT ese mis Sesaxeb.

ian vermeeri. gogona margalitis sayuriT. 1665.

SeecadeT, Tqveni naSromi pasuxobdes Semdeg kiTxvebs:  namuSevris aRwera;  ra ganwyobilebas da STabeWdilebas aRZ­ ravs is?  romeli saxviTi xerxebia gamoyenebuli?  ra aris xelovnebis am nawarmoebis idea da rogor aris is asaxuli saxviTi xerxebis saSualebiT. van gogi. eqim gaSes portreti. 1890.

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2

da v a l e b a

namuSevris interpretacia SeqmeniT SerCeuli suraTis Tqveneuli versia. Tqveni ese da namuSevari waradgineT klasis winaSe.

ian van eiki. mamakaci CalmiT (1433) da Tqveni Tanatolis mier Sesrulebuli am portretis interpretacia

gustav klimti. kocna (19071908) da Tqveni Tanatolis mier Sesrulebuli am Temis ironiuli interpretacia

 SeecadeT, SeimuSaoT namuSevris sakuTari koncefcia;  Tqveni Canafiqris gansaxorcieleblad, gansazRvreT Tqveni koncefciis Sesabamisi saxviTi xerxebi: masala, kompozicia, feradovneba, monasmebi, ritmi, xazi da a.S.;

 Tqveni kompozicia, SesaZlebelia, gansxvavdebodes originalisagan. mag., SesaZlebelia, originalSi mTavari figura moTavsebuli iyos centrSi, Tqven ki SecvaloT kompoziciuri ganawileba da is, sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr, Tqveni miznidan gamomdinare, moaTavsoT marcxniv an marjvniv;  SegiZliaT Tqvens namuSevarze iseTi obieqtebic gamosaxoT, romlebic originalSi ar aris warmodgenili;  SegiZliaT, Tqveni Canafiqris Sesabamisad, SecvaloT originalis feradovnebac.

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adamiani, sazogadoeba da xelovneba xelovnebas bevri ram xelewifeba: is gvaniWebs siamovnebas, gvawvdis informacias da reagirebs warsulis Tu dRevandelobis ama Tu im movlenaze, gamoTqvams protests Zaladobis, usamarTlobis, sisastikis, omis winaaRmdeg; kritikulad afasebs movlenebs, zogjer mouwodebs sazogadoebas. amdenad, xelovneba udides rols asrulebs adamianis cnobierebis Camoyalibebasa da sazogadoebaSi garkveuli Rirebulebebis damkvidrebaSi. am TavSi Tqven gaecnobiT, rogor axerxebs am yovelives xelovneba, ra xerxebiTa da gzebiT mimarTavs is adamians, Tu mTel sazogadoebas da romel Rirebulebebs amkvidrebs am gzaze.

III

• ra informacias gvawvdis xelovneba ama Tu im civilizaciis, kulturis an epoqis Sesaxeb? • aris Tu ara xelovneba informaciis wyaro? • ra informacia SeiZleba mogvawodos xelovnebis nimuSma istoriuli faqtis Sesaxeb? • ZaluZs Tu ara xelovnebas gamoxatos myisieri protesti TanamedroveobaSi momxdari faqtebis mimarT? • rogor xdeba adamianTa mankierebebis mxileba xelovnebaSi? • ra aris performansi? • rogor ibrZvis xelovneba ekologiis dasacavad?


monapovari _ 34. arqeologiuri informaciis wyaro gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi: • ra informacias gvawvdis gaTxrebis Sedegad mopovebuli masala? • ra informacias gvawvdis kretis kulturis Sesaxeb misi ganaTxari masala: arqiteqtura, mxatvroba da keramika? • xelovnebis romeli dargebi iyo ganviTarebuli kunZul kretaze?

I. kacobriobis istoriaSi arsebobs iseTi uZvelesi da amJamad gamqrali civilizaciebi, romelTa Sesaxeb araferi iqneboda cnobili, rom ara gaTxrebis Sedegad aRmoCenili maTi xelovneba da kultura. Zv. w. III-I aTaswleulebiT daTariRebuli erT-erTi aseTi iyo kreta-mikenis uZvelesi kultura, romelic win uswrebs Zvel berZnul epoqas da misi uSualo winaparia. Zvelma berZnebma icodnen maTi miTebi mefe minosze, labirinTsa da minotavrosze, Tesevsze, romelmac urCxuli minotavrosi daamarcxa. werilobiTi wyaroebi am kulturis Sesaxeb ar mogvepoveba, Tumca, yvelaferi, rac am uZvelesi civilizaciis Sesaxeb dRes viciT, arqeologebis _ hainrih Slimanisa da artur evansis mier warmoebuli gaTxrebis Sedegad gaxda cnobili. am gaTxrebis Sedegad qalaqebSi _ knososSi, festossa da maliaSi aRmoCnda didi sasaxleebi, romlebic warmodgenas gviqmnis kretelTa yofis Sesaxeb.

knososis sasaxle. Zv.w. XVI s.

knososis sasaxlis aRmosavleT frTaSi mdebare saabazano oTaxi. Zv.w. XVII-XV ss.

II. labirinTis msgavsi uzarmazari sasaxle borcvzea ganlagebuli da 16000 kv. m-zea gadaWimuli. mas pirobiTad Tu vuwodebT sasaxles. es, faqtobrivad, nagebobaTa kompleqsia, romelSic uzarmazari marTkuTxa (60x28 m.) Ria ezos garSemo or an sam sarTulad, ganlagebulia sxvadasxva daniSnulebis, formisa da zomis ramdenime aseuli saTavsi. isini ezos garSemo Tavisuflad, nebismierad da asimetriuladaa Tavmoyrili. raime logikis an sistemis moxelTeba am sasaxlis gegmarebaSi Zalze rTulia. aq erTmaneTs moulodnelad cvlis sacxovrebeli oTaxebi, sazeimo da saritualo darbazebi, samefo apartamentebi da samsxverploebi, saTavsebi religiuri ritualebisaTvis da didi verandebi, moedani Teatraluri warmodgenebisaTvis, grZeli Tu mokle derefnebi, kibeebi da sasinaTlo Webi, moulodneli mosaxvevebi, sakuWnaoebi Tu saxelosnoebi, saabazano oTaxebi da sxv. sasaxle wyliT maragdeboda da sakanalizacio sistemiT iyo aRWurvili. 98


1. gaixseneT miTi minotavrosis Sesaxeb da dafiqrdiT, riT SeiZleba is davukavSiroT knososis sasaxles. 2. ra nawilebisagan Sedgeba knososis sasaxlis svetebi. ra aris uCveulo maT mxatvrul Tu konstruqciul iersaxeSi? 3. romeli sarTulis oTaxebi iqneboda ukeT ganaTebuli sasinaTlo Webis meSveobiT? knososis sasaxle. sasinaTlo Wis qveda iarusi wiTeli svetebiT. Zv. w. XVI s.

knososis sasaxles, faqtobrivad, ar hqonda sarkmlebi. cxeli klimatis pirobebSi es sruliad bunebrivi iyo. samagierod, Suqisa da haeris miwodeba xdeboda alag-alag ganlagebuli mcire zomis ezoebidan da WerSi gaWrili Riobebidan, romlebic sasaxles mTel simaRleze msWvalavda da erTgvari sasinaTlo Webis funqcias asrulebda. ganaTebis amgvari sistema _ ukeT ganaTebul da SedarebiT Cabnelebul saTavsTa monacvleoba _ mTel sasaxles Zalze cxovelxatul da, rogorc mecnierebi varaudoben, erTgvar idumal iers mianiWebda. knososis sasaxle Tavisi asimetriuli, nebismieri, mkacr logikas moklebuli gegmarebiT, arqiteqturuli formebisa Tu calkeuli detalebis simsubuqiT, xalvaTi sivrceebiT Tavisufal da laR ganwyobilebas qmnida. am STabeWdilebis SeqmnaSi did rols asrulebda kedlis mxatvrobac, romelic Zalze uxvad iyo knososis sasaxleSi.

III. am freskebSi aSkarad gamosWvivis kretelTa mdidari fantazia, maT mier samyaros cocxali da uSualo aRqma, maxvili Tvali da sicocxlis siyvaruli. es yovelive moxatulobaTa xalisian feradovnebasa da dekoratiulobaSi vlindeba. freskebze gamosaxulia feradi zRapruli samyaro ulamazesi mcenareebiTa da Zalze bunebriv, saxasiaTo moZraobaSi warmodgenili cxovelebiTa da frinvelebiT. knososis sasaxlis freskebze yofiTi scenebic uxvad gvxvdeba. maTze garkveulwilad asaxulia sasaxlis binadarTa cxovreba: religiuri dResaswaulebi da procesiebi, Teatraluri warmodgenebi, cekvebi, nadimebi da sxv. erT-erT fragmentze gamosaxulni arian moxdenil grZel kabebSi gamowyobili maRali wris 4. aRwereT knososis sasaxlis freska `qalebi cisferSi~. 5. ra STabeWdilebas axdens es gamosaxulebebi Tqvenze? 6. daaxasiaTeT gamosaxvis xerxebi.

knososis sasaxle. freska `qalebi cisferSi~. fragmenti. Zv. w. XVI-XV ss.

99


knososis sasaxle. cisferi Citi. freska. Zv.w. 1500.

`parizeli qali~. knososis sasaxlis freskis fragmenti. Zv.w. XVI-XV ss.

qalbatonebi; maT mSvenieri varcxniloba aqvT, Tavze diademebi ukeTiaT, xolo yelsa da xelebs uZvirfasesi samkaulebi umSvenebT. isini nebierad sxedan Ria cis qveS, bewvgadafarebul skamebze da oqrosa da vercxlis Tasebidan sasmels miirTmeven. SedarebiT ukeT SemorCa erT-erTi axalgazrda qalis gamosaxuleba. mas Txeli qsovilis moxdenili kaba mosavs, Tma Tavisuflad, kululebad eSveba mxrebze. momxiblavi saxis nakvTebi _ Txeli, odnav grZeli cxviri, wiTlad SeRebili patara lamazi tuCebi, moRerebuli yeli _ qalur sinazesa da sikekluces asxivebs, sicocxliT aRavsebs mis gamosaxulebas da erTgvarad Tanamedrove qalis saxesTan asociacias iwvevs. yovelive aman sababi misca arqeologebs, am gamosaxulebisaTvis `parizeli qali~ ewodebinaT. misi profili TiTqos daudevrad, Tavisuflad, erTi SexedviT, naCqarevadaa moxazuli; xazi alag-alag sqeldeba, zogan ki Txeli da sifrifana xdeba, wydeba kidec da kvlav grZeldeba. `parizeli qalis~ saxis nakvTebis proporciebi erTgvarad darRveulia: cxviri da Tvali didia, nikapi ki _ uCveulod patara. swored amitom igi bunebrivi gveCveneba. bunebriobis STabeWdilebis Seqmnas xels uwyobs qalis saxasiaTo, arcTu ise lamazi, odnav winwamoweuli da wawvetebuli formis cxviri, misi moxdenili, kekluci poza, mouwesrigebeli varcxniloba, mxrebze Tavisuflad dayrili Savi kululebi da sxv. yvela es detali qalis xasiaTis Sesaxeb garkveul warmodgenas gviqmnis (Tumc es ar aris portreti). sicocxle Cqefs im freskebSic, romlebzec xarTan TamaSobebia gamosaxuli. erT-erT aseT scenaSi cisfer fonze Zlieri da mkafio konturiT Semoxazuli xaris didi figuris gverdiT axalgazrda `tanmovarjiSeebis~ moZravi gamosaxulebani miniaturuli da sifrifana gveCveneba. erT maTgans xarisaTvis rqebze 7. ra informacias iRebT moxatulobis am nimuSebidan kretelTa cxovrebis wesze?

knososis sasaxle. xarTan TamaSoba. freska. Zv.w. XVI s.

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wauvlia xeli, meore mis zurgze yiras Wimavs, mesame ki xars ukan udgas. erTi SexedviT, es TiTqos Cveulebrivi sanaxaobaa, Zalze cocxali, xalisiani, magram sinamdvileSi freskaze, albaT, religiuri qmedeba, ritualia gamosaxuli. xaris kults xom gansakuTrebuli adgili eWira kretaze, razec minotavrosis miTic metyvelebs. am scenis xalisiani koloriti da saerTo dekoratiuli xasiaTi migvaniSnebs, rom sakulto-saritualo kompoziciebic iseTive sicocxlis damamkvidrebeli impulsis matarebelia, rogorc yofiTi scenebi, rac, savaraudoa, kretelTa msoflaRqmis qvakuTxedi iyo.

IV. asimetria, Tavisufali, laRi, dinamikuri formebisadmi midrekileba, sazeimo ganwyobileba gamosWvivis rogorc kretis arqiteqturasa da kedlis mxatvrobaSi, aseve keramikul nawarmsa da mis ornamentul SemkulobaSi. kretis keramikisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia formis moqniloba da dinamikuroba, ornamenti ki saocari organulobiT exameba mas. larnakebis moxatulobaTa kompo­ ziciuri struqtura iseTive Tavisufali da laRia, rogoric knososis sasaxlis freskebisa. yovelive amis SesaniSnavi nimuSia e.w. larnaki palekastrodan, romlis dabalsa da ganier mucelze rvafexaa gamosaxuli. aucileblad unda SevniSnoT, rom larnakis forma unaklo rodia; igi zog adgilas odnav Cazneqilia, zogan ki, piriqiT _ amoburculi. erTi sityviT, forma asimetriulia. es, rogorc Cans, sagangebod keTdeba da swored amis gamo iseTi STabeWdileba gveqmneba, TiTqos rvafexa marTlac SemoWdobia larnaks Tavisi sacecebiT, marwuxebSi mouqcevia is da mTeli forma, sacecebis moZraobasTan erTad, Cven Tvalwin pulsirebs, ikumSeba da iSleba, rac acocxlebs, suls STaberavs Tixis am usulo WurWels. kretelebi yovelives gacocxlebis, usulo sagnebisaTvis sasicocxlo Zalebis miniWebis saocari unariT iyvnen dajildoebulni, rac am xelovnebis gacnobisas yovel fexis nabijze gamosWvivis. rogori cocxali da bunebrivia titebis gamosaxuleba oinoqoies tipis larnakze filakopedan (kunZuli melosi). rogorc davinaxeT, xelovnebis nimuSebi fasdaudebel informacias gvawvdis kretas kulturis Sesaxeb, romelsac `sicocxlis arsis wvdomis kultura~ SeiZleba vuwodoT.

larnaki palekastrodan. Zv.w. XVI s.

oinoqoie filakopedan. k. melosi. Zv.w. 1700-1400.

8. gaaanalizeT, rogor erwym­ is erTmaneTs forma da dekori filakopes oinoqoies SemTxvevaSi.

davaleba 1. SearCieT romelime kulturis an epoqis xelovnebis nimuSi, romlis analizis Sedegad miiRebT informacias Sesabamisi periodis Sesaxeb. 2. warmoidgineT da aRwereT aq warmodgenili nimuSebis mixedviT, rogori iqneboda knososis sasaxlis binadarTa cxovreba asketuri Tu laRi, reglamentirebuli Tu Tavisufali?

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35. xelovneba _ informaciis wyaro gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• aris Tu ara xelovneba informaciis wyaro? • ras vigebT 1830 wlis safrangeTis revoluciis Sesaxeb delakruas suraTidan `Tavisufleba barikadebze~? • rogoria delakruas Tavisuflebis xati?

I. xelovnebis Sesaxeb Tqven ukve bevri ram iciT, TqvenTvis, albaT, isic cxadia, rom xelovneba mxolod adamianis Tvalis saameblad ar iqmneboda. is yovelTvis aRZravda masSi grZnobebs, gancdebs, mimarTavda mis cnobierebas, gonebas, ubiZgebda mas azrovnebisaken; aseve, awvdida adamians garkveul informaciasac. aba, dafiqrdi, ras niSnavs sityva `informacia~ (ingl. in form)? es niSnavs `formaSi~, magram ra cxaddeba am `formaSi~? diax, am formaSi devs garkveuli azri, Sinaarsi, sazrisi anu informacia. xelovnebis nawarmoebi raRacas `ambobs~ da Cven es `raRac~ unda amovikiTxoT. zogjer informacia zedapirze devs, zogjer ki misi amokiTxva arc ise iolia da analizsa da codnas moiTxovs. xelovnebis nawarmoebi rom informaciis garkveul wyaros warmoadgens, amis naTlad danaxva Teodor Jerikos 1818-19 wlebSi Sesrulebuli suraTis _ `meduzas tivis~ magaliTze SeiZleba.

Teodor Jeriko. „meduzas~ tivi. 1818-1819.

1. aRwereT es suraTi. rogor STabeWdilebas axdens is Tqvenze da ratom? 2. romel xerxebs iyenebs avtori, raTa mZafrad gadmosces siuJetis dramatuloba?

II. am suraTis siuJeti realur faqts efuZneba. gemma `meduzam~ katastrofa ganicada da uamravi adamiani _ mgzavrebi da ekipaJis wevrebi daiRupnen. gemze myofi 140 adamianidan mxolod mcire nawilma moaxerxa tivze gadasvla da isini mTeli ori kviris ganmavlobaSi saWmlisa da wylis gareSe darCnen. maTi nawili tivzeve daiRupa. tivis mgzavrebma ramdenjerme horizontze gemebi dalandes, isini xels uqnevdnen, eZaxdnen maT saSvelad, magram amaod, tivi veravin SeniSna. sabolood, rodesac gemma `argusma~ tivze myofebi ipova, cocxali maTgan mxolod 15 adamiani iyo darCenili. 102


sazogadoeba aRSfoTebuli iyo xelisuflebis umoqmedobiT da maT Soris iyo mxatvari Teodor Jeriko, romelic Tavisi suraTiT gamoexmaura am faqts. man did, dramatuli JReradobis mqone tiloze gansakuTrebuli sizustiT asaxa mRelvare zRva, moqufruli ca, sasowarkveTil adamianTa mdgomareoba _ SimSilisa da wyurvilisagan Ronemixdili da ukve gardacvlili adamianebi. cnobilia, rom am realobis aRsawerad Jeriko dadioda morgebSi, akeTebda micvalebulTa Canaxatebs, konsultaciebs iRebda eqimebisagan, raTa rac SeiZleba zustad gadmoeca tivze myof adamianTa saxeebi, maTi sxeulebi Tu mdgomareoba. rom ara Jerikos es mRelvare suraTi `meduzas tivi~, Cven am faqtis Sesaxeb dRes araferi gvecodineboda. albaT, es iyo pirveli SemTxveva, rodesac mxa­t­varma Tavis Tanamedrove tragikul faqtze moaxdina reagireba da swrafad Seqmna namuSevari.

Teodor Jeriko. „argusis“ gamoCena. Canaxatebi. 1818.

3. Cans Tu ara am suraTze mxatvris damokidebuleba momxdari faqtis mimarT?

Jeriko didxans eZebda iseT kompozicias, romelic yvelaze ukeT warmoaCenda am movlenis tragikul xasiaTs. cnobilia, rom igi uamrav mosamzadebel Canaxats akeTebda amisaTvis. 4. ra saerTo aqvs Canaxatebs da suraTs? 5. iyenebs Tu ara Jeriko am Canaxatebis garkveul elementebs Tavis ferwerul tiloze?

III. 1830 wlis ivlisSi safrangeTis mefem Sarl X-m gamosca ramdenime kanoni, romlebic zRudavda adamianTa politikur uflebebs, daawesa cenzura da daarbia opoziciuri gazeTis tipografia. amis gamo 27 ivliss parizi mRelvarebam moicva, xalxi quCaSi gamovida da samdRiani quCis brZolebis Sedegad, mefe iZulebuli iyo, safrangeTidan gaqceuliyo. maleve parlamentma taxtze Sarl X-is biZaSvili lui-filipi aiyvana, romelmac xalxs daubruna warTmeuli uflebebi: Sekrebebisa da sityvis Tavisufleba da piroba dado, rom qveynis marTvisas mkacrad daicavda konstitucias. 1830 wlis am amboxebas ivlisis revolucia ewoda. swored am movlenas asaxavs frangi mxatvris, eJen delakruas suraTi „Tavisufleba barikadebze“ (sxvagvarad am suraTs asec moixsenieben: „Tavisufleba win miuZRvis xalxs“).

ganmart ebebi cenzura _ saxelmwifos mier sainformacio saSualebebisa da xelovnebis sferos kontroli; misTvis arasasurveli xelovnebis nawarmoebisa an informaciis gavrcelebis akrZalva. tipografia (typos _ anabeWdi, grapho _ vwer) _ dawesebuleba, sawarmo, sadac sxvadasxva saxis gamocemebi ibeWdeba. abreviatura (Brevis laT. mokle) _ raimes dasaxelebis Semokleba, dasaxelebaSi gamoyenebuli sityvebis pirveli asoebis gamoyenebiT.

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eJen delakrua. Tavisufleba barikadebze: 1830 wlis 28 ivlisi, 1830.

IV. „Tavisufleba barikadebze“ didi zomis suraTia (3 x 2.5 m), romelzec warmodgenilni arian amboxebulebi. am suraTze centraluri adgili uWiravs axalgazrda qals, romelsac cal xelSi zeaRmarTuli safrangeTis samferovani droSa, meoreSi ki SaSxana uWiravs. mis moZraobaSi winamZRolis SemarTeba da gambedaoba ikiTxeba, igi TanamoZmeebs Setevisaken mouwodebs, aqtiurad moabijebs win, TiTqos sadacaa suraTis sivrcidan gadmova. zogierTi mecnieris azriT, delakruam es suraTi amboxebis monawile im cnobili qalis, mrecxavi ana-Sarlotas saxis mixedviT Seqmna, romelsac mefis jariskacebma Zma moukles, ris Semdegac man xelSi iaraRi aiRo da parizis barikadebze kacebis mxardamxar ibrZoda. Tumca, es konkretuli qalis gamosaxuleba namdvilad araa. es marianaa _ safrangeTis respublikis simbolo, romelic ganasaxierebs am qveynis nacionalur devizs _ „Zmoba, erToba, Tavisufleba“ (dRes misi profili safrangeTis saxelmwifo beWedzea gamosaxuli). esaa didi zorba fexSiSveli qali, moSiSvlebuli mkerdiT. rodesac Cven adamianis Tavganwirvis gadmocema gvsurs, vambobT xolme: „SiSveli xelebiT“ ekveTa mterso; delakrua ki frangebis Tavganwirvas Tavisuflebis figuris „SiSveli mkerdiT“ gamoxatavs. 6. romel cnobil qandakebas mogagonebT Tavisuf­ lebis es figura da ratom?

qals Tavze frigiuli qudi axuravs, romelic Tavisuflebis simbolos warmoadgens. amgvari qudebi Zvel samyaroSi im adamianebs exuraT, vinc monobas Tavi daaRwia da Tavisufleba moipova. aRsaniSnavia, rom qali Tavisi tipuri berZnuli profiliT da aseve sxeulis mwyobri da monumenturi formebiT antikur qalRmerTs mogva104

eJen delakrua. Tavisufleba barikadebze. 1830. fragmenti.


gonebs, magram, amave dros, es sisxlsavse, realuri qalia. delakrua am saxis Seqmnisas rTuli amocanis winaSe idga: rogor ginda gamosaxo iseTi abstraqtuli politikuri cnebebi, rogorebicaa Tavisufleba, Zmoba, erToba?! delakruam es moaxerxa, qalis am saxeSi man SeZlo antikuri qalRmerTis didebuleba, xalxidan gamosuli ubralo qalis TavdadebisaTvis Seerwya da Tavisufleba, rogorc cneba, gamoesaxa, Seeqmna Tavisuflebis xati.

eJen delakrua. Tavisufleba barikadebze. fragmentebi. 1830.

V. delkaruas kargad aqvs gaazrebuli Tavisuflebis figuris garSemo gamosaxuli adamianebis mxatvruli saxeebic. cilindriani mamakaci franguli burJuaziis ganzogadebul saxes warmoadgens. zogierTi mkvlevari varaudobs, rom es Tavad delakruas portreti unda iyos. mis gverdiT gamosaxuli beretiani axalgazrda mSromeli klasis warmomadgenelia. amgvari beretebi parizis tipografiebis muSebs exuraT. swored isini gamovidnen pirvelebi barikadebze, radgan Sarl X-is brZanebulebiT, presis Tavisuflebis SezRudva parizis tipografiebs daxurviT emuqreboda da es adamianebi samuSaos kargavdnen. suraTis marcxena kideSi ucnauri TavsaburaviT gamosaxul axalgazrdas vxedavT, romelic politeqnikuri saswavleblis moswavle unda iyos, amgvar qudebs swored am skolis moswavleebi atarebdnen. es figura parizis inteligenciis ganzogadebul saxed miaCniaT mkvlevrebs. erT-erTi mecnieris azriT, Tavisuflebis figuris gverdiT mdgomi pata­ ra biWuna realuri istoriuli personaJi, vinme darkoli unda iyos, romelic pa-

sa fr a nge T i s re v ol u c i ebi safrangeTis didi revoluciis (1789-1799) Sedegad dasrulda Zveli wesrigi, daemxo monarqia da 1792 wlis seqtemberSi damyarda pirveli respublika. ivlisis revoluciis (1830) Sedegad taxtidan Camoagdes mefe Sarl X da taxtze avida lui-filipi. am dros safrangeTSi konstituciuri monarqiaa. Tebervlis revolucia (1848) miznad isaxavda moqalaqeTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebis damyarebas. Sedegad taxtidan Camoagdes mefe lui-filip I da gamocxadda meore respublika. seqtembris revoluciis (1870) dros taxtidan Camoagdes napoleon III da damyarda mesame respublika. eJen delakrua. Tavisufleba barikadebze. fragmenti. 1830.

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rizis ratuSisaken mimaval grevis xidze Setevas miuZRoda da am brZolaSi daiRupa. erTi sityviT, Tavisuflebas brZolaSi mihyve­ bian sxvadasxva socialuri klasis warmomadgenlebi: burJuebi, muSebi, inteligencia, patara biWunac ki. amiT delakrua gviCvenebs frangi xalxis erTianobas ivlisis revoluciis dros, ra­mac ganapiroba kidec maTi gamarjveba. 7. aRwereT biWunas gamosaxuleba. ras gamoxatavs misi saxe, moZraoba? 8. ra informacias gvawvdis delakruas es suraTi safrangeTis revoluciis Sesaxeb?

delakruas „Tavisufleba barikadebze“ Tavisi droisaTvis Zalze radikaluri suraTi iyo da respublikis ideas amkvidrebda; realoba da simboluroba erTmaneTTan mWidrod iyo dakavSirebuli da realuri istoriuli faqti amaRlebul da romantikul WrilSi iyo warmodgenili. miuxedavad imisa, rom Jerikoc da delakruac Tavis Tanadroul movlenebs asaxaven, es suraTebi mainc istoriul Janrs ganekuTvneba.

VI. Zalze sainteresoa am suraTis istoria. delakruas Tavad amboxebaSi monawileoba ar miuRia da barikadebze ar mdgara; magram suraTis Seqmnis idea imTaviTve gauCnda da man es uzarmazari tilo sam TveSi daxata. igi Zmas werda: „marTalia, me samSoblosaTvis ar mibrZolia, magram misTvis suraTs mainc davxatav“. eJen delakrua. Tavisufleba barikadebze. fragmenti. 1830. pirvelad es suraTi parizis salonSi 1831 wels gamoifina da sazogadoebam is didi aRfrTovanebiT miiRo. suraTi saxelmwifom sakmaod did Tanxad SeiZina da erTxans luqsemburgis sasaxleSi gamofina. magram rogorc ki safrangeTSi kvlav mRelvareba daiwyo da 1832 wels ajanyeba moxda, saxelmwifom CaTvala, rom suraTi cudad moqmedebda sazogadoebaze, adamianebSi Tavisuflebisadmi swrafvas aRvivebda da is mxatvars ukan daubrunes. 1848 wlis revoluciis Semdeg „Tavisufleba barikadebze“ kvlav dabrunda luvrSi. 2013 wlis 13 Tebervals muzeumis ucnobma 28 wlis damTvalierebelma qalma suraTs uCumrad saRebaviT waawera _ „AE911“. es iyo erT-erTi organizaciis („arqiteqtorebi da inJinrebi simarTlisaTvis 9/11-is teraqtebis Sesaxeb“) abreviatura. cxadia, es qali daakaves, restavratorebma ki meore dRes warwera ise moaSores suraTs, rom arc misi kvali darCa da arc suraTi dazianebula.

d a v a le ba aiReT rveuli da am Tavis gakveTilebis gavlis kvalad, CainiSneT is movlenebi Cveni Tanamedroveobidan, romlebic Tqvenze STabeWdilebas moaxdens. CaiwereT informacia am movlenebis Sesaxeb, gaakeTeT grafikuli da ferweruli Canaxatebi.

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36. `dedamiwis moqalaqe~

wina gakveTilze Tqven naxeT, rogor reagirebdnen mxatvrebi maT garSemo momxdar mniSvnelovan movlenebze, saWirboroto sakiTxebze; rogor asaxavdnen am movlenebs namuSevrebze da warmoaCendnen sakuTar damokidebulebas maT mimarT. Cven garSemo dResac uamravi saintereso da mniSvnelovani movlena xdeba. mediasaSualebebi operatiulad gvawvdian informacias Cvens qveyanaSi Tu dedamiwis sxva wertilSi mimdinare ambebis Sesaxeb. sainformacio nakadi zogjer imdenad didia, rom adamians uWirs yvela faqtis aRqma da maTze reagireba, maT Soris yvelaze mniSvnelovanis da sainteresos gamoyofa. Tumca, arsebobs am planetis yvela moqalaqisaTvis Tanabrad mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi. maT rigs miekuTvneba 2019 wels eTiopiis mTavrobis iniciativiT momxdari faqti: 12 saaTis ganmavlobaSi qveynis mosaxleobam milionobiT xe dargo. es aqcia ekologiuri dabinZurebis da katastrofis winaSe mdgar dedamiwaze sicocxlis gadarCenis, Jangbadis SenarCunebis mizans emsaxureboda. masSi monawileobda, rogorc zrdasruli mosaxleoba, aseve, mozardebi. am aqciiT mosaxleobam maRali samoqalaqo TviTSegnebis magaliTi misca mTel msoflios. rogor fiqrobT, miiRebdiT Tu ara monawileobas msgavs aqciaSi da mniSvnelovnad migaCniaT Tu ara es sakiTxi? reagireba Cven garSemo momxdar dadebiT Tu mZime da usiamovno, tragikul movlenebze, romlebic Cvens samyaroSi xdeba da am movlenebisadmi sakuTari damokidebulebis gamoxatva nebismieri formiT, yoveli adamianis, rogorc `dedamiwis moqalaqis~ erTgvari movaleobac kia. xelovnebis saSualebiT amis gakeTeba ki, Tqvenc SegiZliaT.

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnili namuSevrebi

praqtikuli samuSao nebismieri saxatavi masaliT an kolaJis teqnikis gamoyenebiT SeqmeniT am samoqalaqo aqciis amsaxveli namuSevari.

 gaecaniT eTiopiaSi Catarebu-

eTiopiaSi xeebis dargvis aqciis monawileebi

li aqciis amsaxvel vizualur masalas;  SearCieT saxatavi masala an kolaJisTvis saWiro sxva resursi;  SearCieT Tqveni Canafiqris Sesabamisi kompoziciuri xerxi;  namuSevari SesaZlebelia SeqmnaT rogorc individualurad, aseve jgufurad;  klasSi namuSevrebis prezentaciis dros moawyveT diskusia Temaze: `ekologia _ mTeli dedamiwis sazrunavi~.

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37. protesti xelovnebaSi gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi: • • • •

ra informacia SeiZleba mogvawodos xelovnebis nimuSma istoriuli faqtis Sesaxeb? protesti omis winaaRmdeg _ xelovnebis erT-erTi wamyvani Tema? rogor da ra formiT aprotestebs francisko goia oms? romel saxviT xerxebs iyenebs mxatvari suraTis sazrisis warmosaCenad?

I. albaT gangicdiaT siamovneba, rodesac suraTze bunebis mSvenier xeds an romelime naturmortze warmodgenil ulamazes yvavilebsa da daxvewil da moxdenil nivTebs umzerT. mSvenierebis gancda da harmoniiT mogvrili simSvide gveufleba antikuri gmirebis, RmerTebisa Tu qalRmerTebis winaSec; mowiweba da sulieri mRelvareba gvipyrobs Sua saukuneebis wmindanTa gamosaxulebebisa Tu religiuri siuJetebis aRqmisas, magram xelovneba mxolod Cveni samyaros Tu adamianis mSvenierebas rodi asaxavs. modi, davsvaT kiTxvebi da gavceT maT pasuxebi: 1. ras asaxaven antikur samyaroSi? 2. ras asaxaven Sua saukuneebis ostatebi? 3. romel Temebs mimarTaven renesansis periodis mxatvrebi?

francisko goia. ofortebi seriidan `omis saSinelebani~. 1814.

xelovnebis istoriaSi dgeba periodi, rodesac is cdilobs, ar idges ganze cxovrebisagan da reagireba moaxdinos nebismier faqtze, romelic sazogadoebaSi xdeba, rodesac Semoqmedi cdilobs, garkveuli rakursiT dagvanaxvos esa Tu is movlena, faqti da sakuTari damokidebuleba warmoaCinos misdami. xelovneba acxadebs protests, ilaSqrebs sisastikis, Zaladobisa da usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg, kritikulad afasebs movlenebs, zogjer cdilobs, mouwodos sazogadoebas da aCvenos gza. diax, xelovnebas es yovelive xelewifeba. Cven SevecdebiT gavaanalizoT, rogor axerxebs amas xelovneba, rogor da ra xerxebiTa da gzebiT mimarTavs is sazogadoebas, ra Rirebulebebs amkvidrebs am gzaze da ra rols asrulebs amaSi mxatvris pirovneba. amis magaliTi sakmaod bevria xelovnebaSi da erT-erT aseT TvalsaCino magaliTs espaneli fermweris, francisko goias SemoqmedebaSi vxvdebiT.

II. goia ofortis teqnikiT qmnis Tavis cnobil grafikul serias `omis saSinelebebi~, romelsac igi dakveTis gareSe, sakuTari iniciativiT asrulebs da masSi gamoxatavs protests omis winaaRmdeg. es seria didi tiraJiT mxolod espaneTis dampyroblebisagan gaTavisuflebis Semdeg daibeWda. 108


francisko goia. ofortebi seriidan `omis saSinelebani~. 1814.

4. gaaanalizeT, romel motivebs irCevs goia omis saSinelebaTa warmosaCenad da SeecadeT, axsnaT, ratom? 5. daaxasiaTeT, romel mxatvrul xerxebsa da elementebs iyenebs goia am grafikul seriaSi.

III. 1808 wlis madridis ajanyebis droisaTvis goia ukve cnobili da damsaxurebuli mxatvari iyo. arsebobs gadmocema, rom igi Tavisi Svilis saxlis fanjridan uyurebda, rogor xvretdnen dampyroblebi espanel ajanyebulebs. aravin icis, ramdenad Seesabameba es simarTles, magram goia rom SeZra madridis quCebSi datrialebulma xocva-Jletam, faqtia da amas misi Semoqmedebac adasturebs.

1808 w l i s 2 ma i s i s a j a nyeba madri dSi 1808 wlis 2 maiss madridSi ajanyebam ifeTqa. am ajanyebas Tavisi wina pirobebi hqonda. espaneTis samefo taxtis memkvidre ferdinandi ecada, taxtisaTvis CamoeSorebina moqmedi monarqi, sakuTari mama karlos IV. maT davaSi momrigeblad safrangeTis imperatori, napoleon bonaparti gamovida. man karlos IV da misi vaJi safrangeTSi gaamwesa da espaneTis samefo taxtze Tavisi Zma, Jozef bonaparti aiyvana. am faqts espanelebi mSvidad Sexvdnen, magram sazogadoeba gansakuTrebiT maSin aRSfoTda, rodesac dedaqalaqSi gavrcelda xmebi, espaneTis taxtis kidev ori memkvidris, princebis safrangeTSi gasaxlebis Sesaxeb. amiT faqtobrivad nadgurdeboda samefo ojaxi da uqmdeboda espaneTis samefo taxti. madridis mTavar moedanze, del solze spontanurad Sekrebil espanelTa protesti maleve gadaizarda ajanyebaSi da frang dampyrobelTa winaaRmdeg sisxlismRvreli brZola gaimarTa. ramdenime saaTSi madridi ajanyebulTa xelSi aRmoCnda, magram ukve saRamos safrangeTis jarebma mobilizeba moaxerxes da 3 maiss, gamTeniisas madridis gareubanSi ajanyebis CaxSoba da ajanyebulTa masobrivi daxvreta daiwyo. Cvenamde moaRwia daxvretilTa siebma, maTi umetesoba rigiTi moqalaqeebi iyvnen. ajanyebis CaxSobis Semdeg madridi CaCumda. wesrigi TiTqos aRdga kidec, magram ori kviris Semdeg dapirispirebam kvlav ifeTqa, romelic mxolod 1814 wels espaneTidan frangebis gandevniT dasrulda. 6 weli qveyanaSi samoqalaqo omi mZvinvarebda, romelsac dampyrobeli aRvivebda.

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IV. 1814 wels madridSi dabrunebulma espaneTis kanonierma mefem ferdinand VII-m goias 1808 wlis madridis ajanyebis ukvdavsayofad ori suraTi daukveTa. goiam e.w. madridis diptiqoni Seqmna. es iyo ori suraTi: `1808 wlis 2 maisis ajanyeba madridSi~ da `1808 wlis 3 maisi. daxvreta~. es suraTebi erTiani ideiT iyo gamsWvaluli da asaxavda espanelTa brZolas TavisuflebisaTvis.

francisko goia. 1808 wlis 2 maisis ajanyeba madridSi. 1814.

6. gaaanalizeT, rogor aris agebuli am suraTis kompozicia. 7. romeli gamosaxulebebia gamoyofili feriT?

goia am suraTze ajanyebis konkretul epizods Zalze axlo xediT warmogvidgens. kadri gadaWedilia dinamikuri figurebiT. pirveli, rac adamians TvalSi xvdeba, uzarmazari TeTri cxenis figuraa, romelzec wiTel SarvalSi Cacmuli mamluqia gadawolili. mas xanjalSemarTuli ajanyebuli espaneli sadacaa cxenidan Camoagdebs. ukana planze erTmaneTs gadaWdobili figurebi areulobis, qaosis STabeWdilebas qmnian. kompozicia gadaWedilia, TiTqos mouwesrigebelic da Cven Tvalwin aqtiuri brZolis bunebrivi scena iSleba. meore suraTze, `1808 wlis 3 maisis daxvreta~, ajanyebulTa dasjis, daxvretis dramatuli scenaa gamosaxuli. marjvniv dampyrobelTa damsjeli razmis siRrmeSi mimarTuli mowesrigebuli rigia gamosaxuli, romlis wevrebsac sasrolad gamzadebuli iaraRi moumarjvebiaT. zurgiT mnaxvelisaken mobrunebuli figurebi, romlebic Tanabar ritms qmnian, TiTqos upirovno arsebebs warmoadgenen da erTian damsjel `meqanizmad~ aRiqmebian. maT muq siluetur figurebs suraTis marcxena mxares mnaxvelisaken piriT gamosaxuli, dasaxvretad gamzadebuli, emociur pozebSi warmodgenil ajanyebulTa figurebi upirispirdeba, romlebsac suraTis centrSi gamosaxuli farnis Suqi anaTebs. ganwiruli adamianebi cocxal jgufs qmnian, JestebiT sakuTar grZnobebs: sasowarkveTilebas, SiSs da, zog SemTxvevaSi, SemarTebasac gamoxataven. 110


francisko goia. 1808 wlis 3 maisis daxvreta. 1814.

8. rogor emociebs aRZravs es suraTi TqvenSi? 9. ras fiqrobT, vis TanaugrZnobs aq mxatvari?

sa k l a s o di s k u s i a romelia am kompoziciis centraluri figura da ratom? Tqveni azriT, ras gamoxatavs es figura?

samosis kaSkaSa ferebiT aqcentirebul ajanyebulTa jgufis centrSi warmodgenil, muxlebze mdgom espanel patriots xelebi zemoT aRupyria. Tavganwirva da Seudrekeloba gamosWvivis mis pozasa da saxis gamometyvelebaSi. amave dros, figuris zeapyrobili xelebi TiTqos jvarcmis pozas imeorebs da qristesTan asociacias iwvevs, miT umetes, rom goia mis xelisgulebze stigmatebsac gamosaxavs. amgvarad avlebs mxatvari paralels qristesa da mis Tanamedrove espanel patriots Soris. goiam Tavisi Tanamedrove faqti gmirul-istoriul movlenad aqcia, misi gmirebi realobidan aRebuli adamianebi arian da ara gaidealebuli an simboluri figurebi. es suraTi Zlieri emociuri muxtis matarebelia da did STabeWdilebas axdens, raSic cxadia, mniSvnelovan rols saxviTi xerxebi asrulebs. aq dramatulobis gancdas gansakuTrebiT aZlierebs ganaTeba da suraTis feradovani gadawyveta. ukana planze gamosaxuli, wyvdiadSi CaZiruli pirquSi qalaqis silueti da Savi ca, TiTqos mZime `lodad~ awveba scenas. wina planze ki ganaTebu-

francisko goia. 1808 wlis 3 maisis daxvreta. fragmenti. 1814.

francisko goia. 1808 wlis 3 maisis daxvreta. fragmenti. 1814.

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li da Cabnelebuli monakveTebis monacvleoba, maTi mkveTri dapirispireba, daZabulobas qmnis. scenis emociurobas aZlierebs weris manerac. aba, daakvirdiT, rogori farTo da Tavisufali monasmebiT wers mxatvari mTavari figuris TeTr perangsa da yviTel Sarvals, sisxlis nakadebs miwaze da sxva detalebs.

V. albaT gagiCndebodaT SekiTxva, ratom acvia goias suraTze _ `1808 wlis 2 maisis ajanyeba madridSi~ _ aRmosavluri samosi mebrZols, romelsac espanelebi ebrZvian. cnobilia, rom napoleonis armiaSi frangebTan erTad, arabi mamluqebic iricxebodnen. am pasuxis Semdeg albaT kidev ufro sainteresoa, ratom gamosaxa goiam wina planze arabi mamluqi da amiT is franguli okupaciis simbolod aqcia. rogorc Cans, napoleonis winaaRmdeg brZola goiasaTvis espanelTa TavisuflebisaTvis maradiuli brZolis nawili iyo. misi azriT ki, brZola TavisuflebisaTvis mud­mivad mimdinareobda. espanelTa mexsierebaSi kar­gad iyo aRbeWdili maT samSobloSi musulmanTa ramdenimesaukunovani batonoba da maTgan gaTavisufleba _ e.w. rekonkista. suraTze mamluqis gamosaxviT mxatvari, erTi mxriv, realur situacias asaxavs, meore mxriv ki, am ajanyebas espanelTa TavisuflebisaTvis brZolis istoriul jaWvSi abams da amiT mnaxvelis winaSe 1808 wlis ajanyebas warmoaCens, rogorc maradiul brZolas samSoblos TavisuflebisaTvis. 10. daakvirdiT da imsjeleT, rogor gansxvavdeba mTavari figurisa da jalaTebis samosis damuSavebis manera erTmaneTisgan. Tqveni azriT, riT aixsneba es gansxvaveba? francisko goia. 1808 wlis 3 maisi. daxvreta. fragmentebi.1814.

ga n m a r t e b a ni oforti _ Rrma gravirebis xerxi, romlis drosac liTonis firfita ikawreba saWrisiT, Semdeg gakawruli adgilebi mJaviT muSavdeba, momdevno etapze ki saRebaviT ifareba. oforti amgvarad gravirebuli firfitidan Sesrulebul anabeWds ewodeba. diptiqoni _ orkecad akinZul-Sekruli dafa anu saweri ficari. stigmatebi (berZ. Stigmatos) _ niSani, Wriloba, wyluli. morwmuneebs stigmatebi macxovris iarebis darad uCndebodaT sxeulze zustad im adgilebze (xelebze, fexebze, ferdze), sadac mas Wrilobebi hqonda miyenebuli. mamluqi (arab. niSnavs „mikuTvnebuls“) — aramuslimuri warmoSobis TeTrkaniani meomari mona. mamluqebi XI saukunis II naxevridan mravlad iyvnen egvipteSi, XVIII saukunis dasawyisidan — eraySi. rekonkista (esp. Reconquista dabruneba) — dakarguli qristianuli miwebis dabrunebis procesi pireneis naxevarkunZulze, romlebic dapyrobili hqonda mavrebis samefos.

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38. istoriuli faqti xelovnebis nawarmoebSi goias suraTi `1808 wlis 3 maisi. daxvreta~ protestis erTgvar formulad iqca, romelic SemdgomSi mravalma mxatvarma maTi Tanamedrove sxvadasxva tragikuli movlenis asasaxad gamoiyena. maT Soris aris eduard mane, oto diqsi da pablo pikaso.

praqtikuli samuSao daaTvaliereT aq warmodgenili namuSevrebi. aRwereT isini, SeadareT erTmaneTs da aseve SeadareT goias analogiur kompozicias. dawereT ese am Temaze da warudgineT klass.

eduard mane. meqsikis imperator maqsimilianes daxvreta. 1867.

 samuSaos Sesrulebisas aucileblad moiZieT TiToeuli movlenis Sesaxeb istoriuli faqtebi. dawereT maT Sesaxeb da am istoriuli faqtebis gaTvaliswinebiT gaaanalizeT TiToeuli namuSevari;  SeadareT es namuSevrebi kompoziciuri wyobis mixedviT da gaaanalizeT maT Soris arsebuli msgavseba da gansxvaveba;  analizisas yuradReba miaqcieT gamomsaxvelobiT xerxebs: Sesrulebis maneras, pirobiTobebs, feradovan gadawyvetas;  warmoadgineT Tqveni ese klasis winaSe. daicaviT sakuTari mosazrebebi.

oto diqsi. quCis brZola. 1927.

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39. pikaso omis winaaRmdeg gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• ZaluZs Tu ara xelovnebas gamoxatos myisieri protesti TanamedroveobaSi momxdari faqtebis mimarT? • rogor gamoxatavs protests omis mimarT pikaso namuSevarze `gernika~? • aris Tu ara pikasos `gernika~ CvenTvis informaciis wyaro?

I. xelovnebis istoriaSi mravladaa xelovanebis mier ama Tu im faqtisa Tu movlenis mimarT protestis sxvadasxva formiT gamoxatvis magaliTi, magram erT-erTi yvelaze aqtualuri da mniSvnelovani, albaT, omis SemaZrwunebeli sisastikis asaxvis metyveli da amaRelvebeli magaliTebia. rogorc wina gakveTilze dainaxeT, nebismieri faqtis Sesaxeb saWiroa garkveuli istoriuli monacemebis codna, raTa ufro kargad gavigoT suraTis sazrisi da gavacnobieroT, ras aprotestebs Semoqmedi ama Tu im nawarmoebiT. amjerad amas pikasos mier Seqmnili suraTis _ `gernikas~ magaliTze gavakeTebT.

pablo pikaso. gernika. 1937.

II. 1937 wels parizSi didi msoflio gamofena unda gamarTuliyo, romelzec sxvadasxva qveyanas Tavisi pavilioni unda moewyo da sakuTari qveyana warmoeCina. swored am gamofenis espanuri pavilionisaTvis pablo pikasos didi ferweruli tilo daukveTes; pikaso didxans fiqrobda, magram ver gadaewyvita, ra gamoesaxa am tiloze. swored am dros moxda iseTi faqti, romelmac pikasos am gamofenisaTvis Tavisi genialuri `gernikas~ Seqmna STaagona. 1937 wlis 26 aprils germanelebma gamanadgurebeli ieriSi miitanes espaneTis erT-erTi regionis _ baskeTis qalaq gernikaze; germanulma bombdamSenebma umowyalod dabombes da miwasTan gaaswores qalaqis 70 procenti. ieriSi daaxloebiT sam saaTs gagrZelda, ris Sedegadac qalaqis mosaxleobis daaxloebiT mesamedi daiRupa; 20-ze meti sabrZolo TviTmfrinavi cxrilavda yvelas, vinc afeTqebuli da cecxlmodebuli Senobebidan Tavis daRwevas cdilobda. gernika sami dRe iwvoda. yvelaze SemaZrwunebeli ki is iyo, rom germanelebs es masobrivi Jleta mxolod sakuTari pablo pikaso. gernika. fragmenti. 1937. 114


sahaero Zalebis gamocdad hqondaT Cafiqrebuli meore msoflio omis win, romelic mogvianebiT, 1939 wels daiwyo. cxadia, am faqtma aRaSfoTa civilizebuli samyaro; gernikaze am saSineli Tavdasxmis gasaprotesteblad pirvel maiss erTi milioni adamiani gamovida parizis quCebSi. arc pikaso darCenila gulgrili am movlenisadmi, mas ukve hqonda aqtualuri Tema msoflio gamofenaze warsadgeni suraTisaTvis da igi aqtiurad Seudga muSaobas; pirveli mosamzadebeli naxatebi man swored parizis saprotesto aqciis meore dRes Seqmna. mxatvari aTi dRis ganmavlobaSi gegmavda samuSaos, kompoziciisa da ferebis dasadgenad ramdenime eskizic Seqmna da Semdegi erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi damxmareebis gareSe muSaobda am uzarmazar suraTze, romlis zomebi marTlac STambeWdavia (7,8x4,5 m). igi cvlida gamosaxulebebs, adgenda calkeul detalebs, mTlian kompozicias da suraTis kolorits. aseTia `gernikas~ wina istoria.

III. erTi SexedvisTanave cxadia, rom es di足di

pablo pikaso. gernika. fragmentebi. 1937.

1. Tqveni azriT, ase farTod gavrceldeboda Tu ara gernikas dabombvis ambavi da emaxsovreboda is kacobriobas, rom ara pikasos suraTi `gernika~? 2. gaaanalizeT, romel saxviT xerxebs iyenebs pikaso adamianTa tanjvisa da omis saSinelebebis gadmosacemad?

zomis suraTi omis saSinelebas asaxavs da mna足 xvel足sac omiT miyenebul tanjvasa da tkivils ganacdevinebs. mnaxveli xedavs qaosur kompozicias: sasuraTo sibrtyeze gabneuli calkeuli gamosaxulebebi TiTqos ar emorCilebian araviTar kompoziciur kanonzomierebas. sibrtyeze mimofantulia xarisa da cxenis Tavebi, adamianTa sxeulis nawilebi: xelebi, fexebi. aqvea sxvadasxva sagani: lampa, naTura, yvavili, Citi, xanjali da sxv. bunebrivi kavSiri am sagnebs Soris darRveulia da am fragmentebis ganlageba sruli qaosis STabeWdilebas qmnis, rac omiT Seqmnil qaoss ganacdevinebs mnaxvels da imTaviTve usiamovno gancdas badebs masSi. am gancdas aZlierebs aq gamosaxuli figurebis eqspresiuloba: tkivilisagan xaxadaRebuli cxenis Tavi imdenad mZafrad emociuria, rom mnaxvels TiTqos misi Wixvinic ki esmis; tanjvas TiTqos daumaxinjebia adamianTa saxeebi. grafikulad moxazul am adamianTa deformirebuli gamosaxulebebidan TiTqos ganwiruli yvirili swvde足ba Cvens yurs. muqi koloriti ki pirquS, dramatul ganwyobilebas aZlierebs. erTi sityviT, `gernika~ omis saSinelebaTa, sisastikis, qaosisa da adamianTa tanjvis amsaxveli suraTia, romliTac pikaso protests ucxadebs Zaladobas da am formiT gamoxatavs TanagrZnobas omis msxverplTa mimarT. daval eba aRsaniSnavia, rom aq gamosaxul figurebSi SeadareT erTmaneTs goias (mag., xarisa da cxenis TavebSi, Citisa da xanjlis ferweruli tilo `1808 wlis gamosaxulebebSi da sxv.) garkveul simboloebs 3 maisi. daxvreta~ da pikasos xedavdnen, magram Tavad pikaso ambobda, rom es `gernika~ Sesrulebis maneris suraTi mxolod saSineli sisastikiT daxocil TvalsazrisiT. CamoayalibeT, adamianTa Sesaxebaa da amis miRma yovelive umra gansxvavebaa maT Soris. niSvneloa.

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40. xelovneba Zaladobis winaaRmdeg

XXI saukuneSi dedamiwaze mravladaa cxeli wertili, bevr adgilas ismis afeTqebebis xma da iRvreba sisxli, nadgurdeba soflebi, qalaqebi da usaxlkarod rCebian adamianebi. xelovnebas sazogadoebaze zemoqmedebis didi unari aqvs. is mZlavri iaraRi SeiZleba iyos mSvidobismoyvare adamianebis xelSi, Tuki Zaladobis winaaRmdeg protests xelovnebis nawarmoebis meSveobiT gamovxatavT. plakatis lakoniuri vizualuri mxare yvela erovnebis adamianisaTvis advilad gasagebia da swored amitom efeqturad aRwevs mizans. SeuerTdiT Zalmomreobis mowinaaRmdegeTa rigebs da moiTxoveT mSvidoba mTel samyaroSi.

praqtikuli samuSao jgufebSi moifiqreT iseTi kompozicia, romelic gamoxatavs omis saSinelebas. SeqmeniT monoqromuli kompozicia (an gamoiyeneT TeTri, Savi da nacrisferi ferebi kompoziciis Sesaqmnelad). SearCieT simboloebi Tqveni damokidebulebis gamosaxatavad.

 praqtikuli samuSaos Sesasruleb­ lad daiyaviT 4-5-kacian jgufebad. TiToeulma jgufma moifiqros plakatis mTavari idea da Seusabamos mas plakatis mxatvruli saxe;  gadawyviteT, ra teqnikiT an romeli mxatvruli xerxebis gamoyenebiT gsurT plakatis Sesruleba. gaanawileT jgufSi funqciebi da SeudeqiT muSaobas. davalebis pirobis Sesabamisad unda gamoiyenoT Savi, TeTri da nacrisferi. mxatvruli efeqtis gasaZliereblad plakatis fonad SeiZleba gamoiyenoT feradi (mag., wiTeli, lurji, narinjisferi) qaRaldi;  moawyveT klasSi Tqven mier Seqmnili plakatebis prezentacia da isaubreT omis, Zaladobis mimarT Tqveni damokidebulebis Sesaxeb.

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41. xelovneba da adamianis mankierebani gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• rogor xdeba adamianTa mankierebebis mxileba xelovnebaSi? • rogoria piter breigelis samyaro? • ras gvaswavlis saxarebiseuli igavi brmebis Sesaxeb?

I. rogorc davinaxeT, xelovnebas ZaluZs gamoxatos protesti da dagvanaxvos mxatvris damokidebuleba ama Tu im movlenis mimarT. amave dros, xelovnebas SeuZlia kritikis TvaliT Sexedos adamianebs, warmoaCinos maTi mankieri mxareebi da gaakritikos mTeli sazogadoebac. aseTi Semoqmedebi sazogadoebis sindisad iqcevian xolme. swored aseTi xelovania piter breigeli (ufrosi, 1525-1569). piter breigeli brwyinvale realistia, Tumca igi Zalze Taviseburad asaxavs mis Tanamed­ roveobas. igi mTeli gulisyuriT akvirdeba da swavlobs cxovrebas, adamianTa yofas, Tavad adamianebs, maT xasiaTsa da Tvisebebs da Semdeg Tavis suraTebSi asaxavs maT. igi qmnis samyaros, romelSic saxlis dazianebul saxuravze gaCenil xvrelebs adamianebi comis gundebiT gmanaven (1), sadac mwyemsebi, cxvrebis nacvlad, Rorebs parsaven (2), sadac SarvalCaxdili ubadruki jariskaci, mtris nacvlad, xmliT utevs aguriT naSen kedels (3), sadac adamianebi aRsarebas eSmaks abareben (4). CamonaTvali Zalze vrcelia. breigeli Tavis suraTebze warmogvidgens ugunurebs, xeibrebsa da xepreebs da amiT amaTraxebs sazogadoebas, romelSic bevri ram Tavdayira dgas; Tumca Tavad es sazogadoeba amas sulac ver amCnevs. 4

1

2

5

3

piter breigel ufrosi. flamandiuri andazebi. fragmentebi.1559.

1. aRwereT breigelis suraTis me-5 fragmenti. Tqveni azriT, ras miaTrevs godriT mamakaci? 2. Tqveni azriT, ras gulisxmobs flamandiuri gamoTqma `godriT orTqlis tareba~?

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II. Cven winaSea breigelis cnobili suraTi `igavi brmebis Sesaxeb~. soflis mSvidi peizaJis fonze Camwkrivebuli brmebi erTmaneTs miyvebian. maTi usinaTlo winamZRoli xevSi Cavardnila da sadacaa danarCenebic ukan miyvebian. es figurebi mnaxvelTan axlos, wina planzea motanili. erTi SexedviT, es sruliad realisturi, yofiTi scenaa, romlis danaxvisTanave gviCndeba SekiTxva: risi Tqma unda mxatvars am namuSevriT?

piter breigel ufrosi. igavi brmebis Sesaxeb. 1568.

am suraTis danaxvisTanave adamians ori urTierTgamomricxavi grZnoba eufleba. erTi mxriv, mas simSvide da stabilurobis SegrZneba ipyrobs, rasac fonze gamosaxuli soflis mSvenieri idiliuri peizaJi ganapirobebs, meore mxriv ki, bevrad ufro Zlieria erTgvari mousvenrobis da usiamovnebis gancda, romelic mnaxvels wina planze gamosaxuli usinaTloTa figurebis danaxvisas eufleba. xedavs ra diagonalurad ganlagebul, moyanyale figurebs, mnaxvelis mzera figuraTa mier Seqmnil daRmaval, diagonalur jaWvs miyveba da Tavadac TiTqos miwa ecleba fexqveS, mousvenroba da arastabiluroba ipyrobs. garda amisa, wina planze gamosaxuli es figurebi sakmaod usiamovno SegrZnebebs aRZraven mnaxvelSi. kargad daakvirdiT usinaTloTa figurebs, gansakuTrebiT ki maT saxeebs. mxatvari zedmiwevniT realisturad gamosaxavs maT; imdenad realisturad da zustad, rom Tanamedrove eqimebma TiToeul aq gamosaxul usinaTlos diagnozic ki dausves. piter breigel ufrosi. igavi brmebis Sesaxeb. fragmenti. 1568.

118

3. aRwereT figurebis jaWvi da TiToeulis moZraoba. rogoria maTi ritmi? 4. daakvirdiT figurebis sa­ xis gamometyvelebas. aRwereT TiToeuli maTgani da am figurebiT aRZruli STabeWdileba. 5. aRwereT peizaJi da misiT aRZruli STabeWdileba.


mag., mesame figuras Tvalze libri aqvs gadakruli, romelsac samedicino enaze kataraqta ewodeba. meores aSkarad daTxrili aqvs orive Tvali. SesaZloa, igi Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis dasajes ase sastikad. carieli Tvalis ubeebi da daRebuli piri gaborotebuli adamianis iers aniWebs mas. mis ukan gamosaxul figurasac, Txeli tuCebiT da grZeli cxviriT, saxeze cbiereba aRbeWdvia... rTulia uTanagrZno aseT adamians, Tundac usinaTlos. diax, breigeli ar TanaugrZnobs maT. albaT, ucnaurad mogeCvenebaT aseTi damokidebuleba xelovanis mxridan adamianis mimarT, magram breigeli cdilobs, fizikuri naklis miRma personaJebis sulieri simaxinje dagvanaxos, maT sulier sibrmaveze, siRatakesa da ugunurobaze migvaniSnos. am brmebma TavianT winamZRolad brma airCies da rodesac brmas brmebi mihyavs, Sedegic aseTia _ isini ufskrulSi iCexebian. es maTes saxarebis igavis erTgvari vizualuri xatia. maTes saxarebaSi ieso mociqulebs farisevlebis Sesaxeb eubneba: `moeSviT maT: brmebi arian da brmebisve winamZRolni; xolo Tu brma win uZRvis brmas, oriveni ormoSi Cacvivian~ (maTe, 15-14). cxadia, am sityvebiT macxovars mxedvelobaSi adamianTa sulieri da ara fizikuri sibrmave hqonda da breigelic swored amaze migvaniSnebs, rodesac fonze, suraTis centrSi taZars gamosaxavs. sainteresoa, rom mxatvari aq misi mSobliuri mxaris, brabantis mSvidsa da mSvenier peizaJs gamosaxavs; es patara taZari ki dResac dgas briuselTan axlos, erT-erT sofelSi.

piter breigel ufrosi. igavi brmebis Sesaxeb. detali. 1568.

saklaso diskusia 1. gaecaniT maTes saxarebis am monakveTs. 2. ras gvaswavlis igavi brme­bis Sesaxeb? 3. gaaanalizeT da imsjeleT, ramdenad zustad asaxavs breigeli am saxarebiseul igavs.

III. am suraTze erTmaneTs upirispirdeba wina planze gamosaxuli adamianebis fizikuri Tu sulieri simaxinje da ukana planze gamosaxuli ulamazesi mSvidi da udrtvinveli buneba. risi Tqma undoda mxatvars amiT? breigeli gviCvenebs bunebis maradiulobas, mis sidiades, simSvides da imas, rom bunebaSi yvelaferi kanonzomeria. xolo adamianTa sazogadoebaSi ki ugunurebas da uamrav mankierebas dausadgurebia, keTilgonierebas TiTqos dautovebia adamianTa samyaro, maTi goneba da gulebi.

IV. breigeli aqtiurad reagirebda yvelaferze, rac mis garSemo xdeboda. mis maxvil Tvals ar epareboda arc yofiTi detalebi da arc istoriuli movlenebi; Sesabamisad, am suraTs garkveuli istoriuli konteqsti aqvs. 1560 wels espanelebma daipyres niderlandebi da saSineli terori daamyares iq. sikvdiliT dasajes rva aTasze meti adamiani. amis sapasuxod holandielma xalxma gmiruli winaaRmdegoba gauwia dampyroblebs, Tumca niderlandebis maRali sazogadoeba, rogorc brma winamZRoli, gaurigda espanelebs da misi Cumi TanxmobiT, saxalxo ajanyeba sastikad iqna CaxSobili. swored am faqtma ubiZga breigels, Seeqmna es genialuri suraTi. 119


42. performansi

gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi: • • • • •

xelovnebis romeli Tanamedrove formebi gaCnda XX saukuneSi? ra aris performansi? romeli niSnebiT xasiaTdeba performansi? rogor gamoxataven protests performansis saSualebiT? rogor SeuZlia xelovnebas CarTos mayurebeli saxelovnebo procesSi?

I. Tu SegiZliaT warmoidginoT, rom xelovnebis dRevandel samyaroSi ar arsebobs mxatvroba, qandakeba? gamofenaze misvlisas kedelze ar gxvdebaT ferweruli namuSevari? albaT, ara. magram XX s-is 30-ian wlebSi germaneli filosofosi da xelovnebis kritikosi valter beniamini Tvlida, rom evropuli ferwera, romelic saTaves renesansis epoqidan iRebs, SeiZleba saerTod gaqres xelovnebis sivrcidan. tradiciuli ferweris `sikvdils~ winaswarmetyvelebdnen sxvebic. marTalia, es mTlad ase ar moxda, magram XX saukunis 50-iani wlebidan moyolebuli nel-nela gaCnda xelovnebis axali formebi: aqcia, performansi, hefeningi, invaironmenti, lend arti, obieqti, instalacia da sxv., romlebsac aRaraferi hqonda saerTo xelovnebis tradiciul dargebTan: ferwerasTan, grafikasTan, qandakebasTan. xelovnebis am axal dargebs Soris erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli da popularuli performansi gaxlavT. performansi inglisuri sityvaa (Performance) da warmodgenas niSnavs, Tumca, Teatraluri warmodgenisagan is sruliad gansxvavdeba. Tavdapirvelad, termini `performansi~ gamoiyena kompozitorma jon keijma 1952 wels. man Tavisi koncertis afiSaze daawera es sityva. performansis saxelwodeba iyo `4'33''~ (siCumis 4 wuTi da 33 wami). performansi, rogorc Tanamedrove xelovnebis erT-erTi forma 1960-ian wlebSi warmoiSva, xolo termini `performansi~ mxolod 1970-ian wlebSi gavrcelda. misi warmomadgenlebi arian: iv klaini, vito akonCi, ioko ono, iozef boisi, marina abramoviCi da sxv. performansis dros nawarmoebi iqmneba mxatvris an adamianTa jgufis moqmedebiT, romelic xorcieldeba garkveul adgilas da garkveul dros.

jon kei ji kompozitori da Tanamedrove musikis reformatori. misi musika SemTxveviTi elementebis _ xmauris, bunebrivi xmebis, eleqtronuli JReradobisa da siCumis nazavs warmoadgenda. keijis azriT, amgvar musikas namdvili cxovrebis arsSi Sehyavs msmeneli. misi erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili musikaluri piesa 4'33'', siCumisa da bunebrivi xmebis mosmenas sTavazobda msmenels 4 wuTisa da 33 wamis ganmavlobaSi. jon keiji. performansi 4'33'' (siCumis 4 wuTi da 33 wami). 1952.

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II. modi, gavecnoT, performansis nimuSebs. cnobilma Tanamedrove artistma, marina abramoviCma Tavis kolegasa da meuRlesTan, aseve cnobili germanel artistTan, ulaisTan erTad Caatara performansi saxelwodebiT `Sexebis wertili~. isini sada, Sav-TeTr samosSi gamowyobilni, garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi pirispir idgnen, erTmaneTs TvalebSi Sescqerodnen da saCvenebli TiTebiT exebodnen. marina abramoviCisa da ulais interesis sagani adamianis urTierToba iyo. `swored adamianTa Soris urTierToba gvaniWebs `sasicocxlo energias~ _ ambobdnen artistebi. am statikuri da xanmokle performansis mTavari idea adamianebs Soris energiis gacvla, erTi adamianis mier meorisaTvis, Tundac erTi TiTis SexebiT, dadebiTi energiis gadacemas gulisxmobda. marina abarmoviCisa da ulais ramdenime erToblivi mniSvnelovani performansi aqvT Seqmnili. Tumca 1990-iani wlebis Sua xanebidan marina abramoviCi damoukideblad muSaobs da did warmatebasac aRwevs. Tanamedrove xelovnebaSi is erT-erTi warmatebuli qali xelovania, romelmac 1997 wels veneciis bienales mTavari prizi `oqros lomi~ miiRo namuSevrisaTvis `balkaneTis baroko~. marina abramoviCi Tanamedrove xelovnebis cocxali legendaa, da rogorc Tavad uwodebs Tavs `performasis bebiaa~.

cit a t a `xelovneba mxolod silamaze da esTetikurad sasiamovno ram araa. is unda gvaSfoTebdes da kiTxvebs gviCendes~. marina abramoviCi

marina abramoviCi da ulai. performansi `Sexebis werili~. 1980.

1. Tqven rogor axsnidiT am performansis arss? 2. ras fiqrobT, rCeba Tu ara raime performansis Semdeg xelovnebis nimuSis saxiT?

ganmartebani performansi _ Tanamedrove xelovnebis forma, romelic efuZneba xelovanis mier warmodgenil konkretul sivrceSi drois konkretul monakveTSi mimdinare qmedebas.

v e n e c iis b i e na l e veneciis bienale, romelic 1895 wels daarsda, msoflio xelovnebis erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili forumia, romelic yovel or weliwadSi erTxel imarTeba. masSi mravali qveyana iRebs monawilebas _ waradgens namuSevars, romelsac saerTaSoriso Jiuri gansjis. bienaleze qveynebi warsdgebian nacionaluri pavilionebis saxiT. yovel bienales aqvs Tavisi Tema da devizi, romelic mowodebulia garkveulwilad asaxos Tanamedroveobis aqtua­luri sakiTxebi. magaliTad, 2007 wels gamofenis Tema iyo: `iazrovne SegrZnebebiT, igrZeni gonebiT. xelovneba awmyoSi~. momdevno, 53-e bienales Tema ki gaxldaT: `Seqmeni samyaroebi~. bienales mTavari prizi gaxlavT oqros lomi, romelic gadaecema qveyanas saukeTeso pavilionisaTvis da aseve mxatvars _ saukeTeso namuSevrisaTvis. veneciis bienale. 2016.

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III. Tqven ukve gaecaniT performansis Sesaxeb zogad informacias da performansis konkretul nimuSs. axla vcadoT, CamovayaliboT, ra niSnebiT xasiaTdeba performansi. performansi ewyoba garkveul dros, konkretul adgilas. masSi monawileobs artisti, mxatvari da, Zalze xSirad, CarTulia mayurebelic. performanss aqvs garkveuli mizani _ gamoxatos avtoris mier Cafiqrebuli idea da ise miitanos mnaxvelamde, rom isic CarTos am ideis ganxorcielebaSi. aqedan gamomdinare, artisti gegmavs qmedebebs da SesaZloa mas garkveuli scenaric hqondes. performansis kidev erTi, Zalze arsebiTi niSania is, rom performansi xelovnebis erTjeradi nimuSia, misi dasrulebis Semdeg rCeba mxolod dokumenturi masala: fotoebi, videofirebi. performansis Sesaxeb informacias swored am dokumentebiT viRebT. IV. sazogadoebis aqtiurad CarTva performansSi xelovnebis am formis erT-erTi umTavresi niSania. Tanamedrove artistebi Tvlidnen, rom xelovnebis iseTi tradiciuli formebis aRqmisas, rogorebicaa ferwera, grafika da qandakeba, mnaxveli pasiuria da saWiroa misi aqtiurad CarTva saxelovnebo qmedebaSi. isini sTavazoben mayurebels, monawileoba miiRos performansis Seqmnis procesSi. am mxriv XX saukunis erT-erTi saintereso da masStaburi artistia germaneli xelovani iozef boisi, romelmac Tavis performansSi saxelwodebiT „7 aTasi muxis xe“ uamravi adamianis CarTva moaxerxa. boisi darwmunebuli iyo, rom xelovnebas samyaros gardaqmna, misi ukeTesobisaken Secvla SeuZlia da igi am mosazrebis damkvidrebas xelovnebis axali formebis gamoyenebiT, originaluri performansebiT cdilobda. mas ekuTvnis cnobili gamonaTqvami: `nebismieri adamiani xelovania~, romelzec dResac bevrs msjeloben da kamaToben.

iozef boisi. performansi. „7 aTasi muxis xe“. 1982.

3. Tqveni azriT, ras gulisxmobda iozef boisi am cnobil gamonaTqvamSi? eTanxmebiT Tu ara mas? 4. ras fiqrobT, ratom irCevda iozef boisi xSirad performanss, rogorc gamoxatvis formas?

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iozef boisi. performansi. „7 aTasi muxis xe“. 1982.


1982 wels qalaq kaselSi mimdinare didi saerTaSoriso gamofenis farglebSi iozef boisma axali farTomasStabiani proeqtis ganxorcieleba daiwyo. muzeumis Senobis win daxvavebuli iyo meore msoflio omis Semdeg darCenili 7000 didi zomis qvis bloki, romlebic adamianebs mudmivad axsenebda mZime warsuls. boissa da mis Tanamoazreebs maT nacvlad muxis xeebi unda daergoT. yovel dargul xesTan idgmeboda TiTo bloki da ase TandaTan mcirdeboda maTi raodenoba. artistis Canafiqris mixedviT, igi kaselidan ruseTis mimarTulebiT unda gamgzavrebuliyo, Seevlo gzad mdebare yvela qalaqSi da daergo iq muxis xeebi. igi TiToeul dasaxlebul punqtSi xvdeboda adgilobriv mosaxleobas da arwmunebda maT xeebis dargvis aucileblobaSi, esaubreboda sxvadasxva saWirboroto Temaze.

iozef boisi. performansi. „7 aTasi muxis xe“. 1982.

5. Tqveni azriT, rogori tipis performansia boisis proeqti `7 aTasi muxis xe~? 6. ras fiqrobT, ratom airCia iozef boisma proeqtis gansaxorcieleblad konkretulad es marSruti? 7. Tqveni azriT, ratom mogzaurobda xelovani qalaqidan qalaqSi da ra Temebze esaubreboda adgilobriv mosaxleobas?

am proeqtis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani aspeqti is iyo, rom am sasargeblo saqmis keTebisas nacnob Tu ucnob adamianebs Soris keTili urTierTobebi damyarebuliyo. cnobilia, rom erT-erT qalaqSi ubrad myofi ori mezobeli Serigda, boisTan urTierTobis, masTan saubris Semdeg, maT erTad darges muxis nergi. amgvarad,

io z e f b oi s i XX saukunis cnobil germanel xelovans iozef boiss saintereso biografia aqvs. igi bavSvobidan gatacebiT kiTxulobda wignebs xelovnebis, biologiis, medicinis Sesaxeb. Semdeg literaturam da filosofiam gaitaca da seriozulad Seiswavla goeTes, Sileris, Sopenhaueris naSromebi. mTeli sicocxle amayobda imiT, rom 1933 wels, maSin, rodesac nacisturi partia sajarod wvavda aTvalwunebul wignebs, sakuTari skolis ezoSi agizgizebul koconze dawvas gadaarCina karl lines cnobili wigni „bunebis sistema“, rac im droisaTvis usafrTxo saqme sulac ar iyo. ramdenime wlis Semdeg daiwyo meore msoflio omi da axalgazrda boisi germanul jarSi aRmoCnda. igi samxedro mfrinavi gaxda da 1944 wels misi TviTmfrinavi mowinaaRmdegem Camoagdo. Tavad boisi ixsenebda, rom misi gayinuli sxeuli TviTmfrinavis namtvrevebSi aRmoaCina momTabare mosaxleobam, ueWvel sikvdils ki imiT gadaurCa, rom sqlad wausves gadamdnari cximi da qeCaSi gaaxvies, raTa rogorme gaeTboT. gonze mosvlis Semdeg pirveli, rac gadarCenilma mfrinavma igrZno, Taflis gemo iyo, riTic kvebavdnen mas mTeli am xnis ganmavlobaSi. boisis biografebi aRniSnaven, rom aravin uwyis, sinamdvileSi ra moxda TviTmfrinavis Camogdebis Semdeg, Tumca, erTi ram cxadia, sisxlismRvrelma omma Rrma kvali datova boisis cnobierebaSi. omis Semdeg i. boisma diuseldorfis akademia daamTavra da saxeli gaiTqva, rogorc originaluri TvalTaxedvis mqone artistma da aqtiurma moqalaqem. erTxans imave akademiis profesori iyo, magram mere Tavisufali Semoqmedis kariera arCia. sainteresoa, rom Tavis SemoqmedebaSi boisi mimarTavda aratradiciul masalas, yvelaze xSirad ki qeCas, gadamdnar qons (cxims) da Tafls iyenebda sxvadasxvagvari obieqtebis Sesaqmnelad.

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es performansi adamianebSi, maT Sinagan samyaroSi saukeTeso grZnobebs aRvivebda; aiZulebda maT erwmunaT, rom samyaros ukeTesobisaken Secvla maTzea damokidebuli. ase gadaaqcia xelovanis Zalisxmevam omis mtanjveli mogonebebi da piradi gamocdileba sikeTis, Serigebis, samyaroze erToblivad zrunvis aqtad.

V. XX saukunis 90-iani wlebidan moyolebuli, Tanamedrove qarTveli artistebic mimarTaven xelovnebis am axal formas da dasamaxsovrebel performansebs sTavazoben sazogadoebas. aseTia, mag., oleg timCenkos performansi, romelic Tbilisis istoriis muzeumSi mimdinare gamofenaze Catarda. 8. ras fiqrobT, ra iyo am performansis mTavari idea? 9. Tqveni azriT, Seicavda Tu ara aRniSnuli performansi ir­o­niis an iumoris elementebs? 10. ra informacias gvawvdis oleg timCenkos performansi 1990-iani wlebis saqarTvelos politikis Sesaxeb?

oleg timCenko. performansi muzeumSi. 2010.

moqmedeba ase viTardeboda: muzeumis Senobas erTdroulad ramdenime Zvirad Rirebuli Savi manqana miadga, saidanac oficialurad Cacmuli mamakacebi gadmovidnen. isini Sevidnen SenobaSi. erTi maTgani (es Tavad artisti gaxldaT) mudmivad iyo garSemortymuli SedarebiT brge axalgazrda mamakacebiT, romlebic erTi nabijiTac ki ar Sordebodnen mas, TiToeul maTgans piradi dacvis wevrebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli atributi _ yursasmeni hqonda da isini drodadro xmadabla saubrobdnen, mokle Setyobinebebs gadascemdnen erTmaneTs. performansis mTavarma gmirma swrafad daaTvaliera gamofena da Tavis amalasTan erTad, aseve swrafad datova muzeumis Senoba. mayurebelTa erTma nawilma icno artisti, xolo meorem realobis nawilad aRiqva moqmedeba, radgan msgavsi scenis naxva sruliad SesaZlebeli iyo nebismier sajaro RonisZiebaze. es iyo politikuri xasiaTis performansi, romelic 1990-iani wlebis xelisuflebis cxovrebis wesis imitacias axdenda, amiT am wesis simaxinjes usvamda xazs da aprotestebda. rogorc davinaxeT, performansi SeiZleba Seexos adamianis saqmianobis nebismier sferos, mis Sinagan samyaros, socialur Tu politikur problemebs, ekologiis sakiTxebs da sxv.; man SeiZleba gaaprotestos sazogadoebaSi mimdinare movlenebi an faqtebi. erTi sityviT, Tavisi xasiaTiT, es `meamboxe~ xelovnebaa, romelSic yvelaferia SesaZlebeli. 124

saklaso diskusia 1. ra Temebi gaRelvebT da ra ideis garSemo gsurT adamianebis gaerTianeba performansis meSveobiT? 2. ra Temas airCevdiT da rogor performanss CaatarebdiT Tqveni ideis gansaxorcieleblad?

c i t at a „rodesac adamianebi mekiTxebian, var Tu ara xelovani, me vpasuxob, daanebeT Tavi sisuleleebs, me ara var xelovani. ufro sworad, iseTive xelovani var, rogoric nebismieri sxva adamiania, arc meti, arc naklebi“. iozef boisi

daval eba moiZieT iozef boisis romelime namuSevari, gaaanalizeT is; SeecadeT amoicnoT, ra mizani hqonda artists da ra xerxebiT miaRwia mizans. Tqveni mosazrebebi warmoadgineT klasis winaSe esses saxiT.


43. Cveni performansi

performansi sxvadasxvagvari SeiZleba iyos _ dagegmili, improvizebuli, raimes mxardasaWerad gamarTuli an piriqiT, raimes gasaprotesteblad mowyobili. mas SeiZleba iumoristuli elferic dahkravdes, an romelime konkretuli da kargad cnobili movlenis parodias warmoadgendes. erTi sityviT, performansiT, iseve, rogorc saxviTi xelovnebis tradiciuli nawarmoebiT, Cveni fiqris Tu gancdis, imedis, damokidebulebis Tu mosazrebis gamoxatva SeiZleba. rogorc dainaxeT, performansis forma misi avtoris neba-survilze, Canafiqrze, fantaziasa da azrovnebazea damokidebuli. did rols asrulebs performansSi mayureblis CarTvis da masTan erTad moqmedebis aqti. performansis gamarTva yvela asakis da profesiis adamians SeuZlia.

kalifornieli moswavlis performansi `moagrove namsxvrevebi~. 2012.

 moifiqreT, romeli ideis gamoxatva gsurT performansis formiT, rogori tipis gsurT iyos performansi _ dagegmili Tu improvizebuli, vin iqneba CarTuli mis ganxorcielebaSi, sTxovT Tu ara CarTvas damswre sazogadoebas da ra resursi dagWirdebaT Canafiqris gansaxorcieleblad;  didi mniSvneloba aqvs performansisaTvis adgilis sworad SerCevas; saklaso oTaxi, derefani, ezo an darbazi unda SearCioT imis mixedviT, Tu ra masStabi eqneba Tqvens performanss;  moifiqreT, dagWirdebaT Tu ara xmovani an musikaluri gaformeba da rekviziti. aucileblad izruneT imaze, rom performansi foto an videogadaRebis saxiT iyos dafiqsirebuli. SesaZlebelia, erTi idea moswavleTa ramdenime jgufma warmoadginos an piriqiT, TiToeul jgufs sakuTari Canafiqris ganxorcieleba surdes am formiT;  Tu jgufurad muSaobas gadawyvetT, mosafiqrebeli iqneba isic, erTdroulad warmoadgenT namuSevrebs Tu rigrigobiT. gaxsovdeT, rom performansis maRal mxatvrul xarisxs originaluri idea da am ideis Sesabamisi forma ganapirobebs.

simone forti. performansi `daxrili sibrtye~. 1961.

praqtikuli samuSao moifiqreT performansis idea, dagegmeT da ganaxorcieleT is.

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier ganxorcielebuli performansi ekologiis Temaze

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44. kritikuli damokidebuleba xelovnebaSi gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• ra aris realizmi da kritikuli realizmi? • ra informacias gvawvdis onore domies liTografiebi safrangeTis istoriis Sesaxeb? • ra aris liTografia?

I. XIX saukune boboqari periodia kacobriobis istoriaSi. am dros momxdari revoluciebi, omebi, socialuri Zvrebi aryevs mTel evropas. Sesabamisad, xelovnebac am problemebze garkveul reagirebas axdens. mxatvrobaSi am periodSi ZiriTadad religiuri da miTologiuri siuJetebi, warsulis heroikuli scenebi gvxvdeba, magram axal socialur da politikur fonze Cndebian xelovanebi, romlebic sazogadoebis saSualo da dabali fenebis, ubralo adamianebis cxovrebas aRweren da asaxaven. es damokidebuleba garkveul mimdinareobad yalibdeba, romelsac realizmi ewoda. literaturaSi realistebad gvevlinebian mwerlebi: emil zola da onore balzaki, mxatvrobaSi ki erT-erTi pirveli realisti frangi mxatvari gustav kurbe gaxldaT. igi Tavad aRiarebda, rom mTeli Tavisi arsebiT demokrati da revoluciis mxardamWeri iyo da Tavis SemoqmedebaSi ubralo xalxis cxovrebas asaxavda. II. gustav kurbes erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili namuSevari `qvis mtexvelni~ uzarmazari tiloa (sigane daaxl. 2 m.), romelzec ubralo adamianebis Sromaa asaxuli. Tavad mxatvari ase ixsenebs am suraTis Seqmnis istorias: `mezierTan axlos (ornanis midamoebSi) me SevCerdi, rom davkvirvebodi or mamakacs, romlebic qvebs amtvrevdnen Saragzaze. iSviaTad Tu Sexvdebi siRaribis aseT aSkara gamoxatulebas, ase rom, idea suraTisaTvis adgilzeve momivida~.

1. ras fiqrobT, am citatidan gamomdinare, ram ubiZga mxatvars, aesaxa ubralo adamianebis Sroma?

gustav kurbe. qvis mtexvelni. 1849.

tradiciulad, aseTi didi zomis tiloebze miTologiur, religiur an heroikul-istoriul siuJetebs asaxavdnen xolme. es erT-erTi pirveli SemTxveva iyo xelovnebis istoriaSi, rodesac arafriT gamorCeuli ubralo adamianebi aseT grandiozul tiloze moxvdnen. namuSevris masStabma gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba SesZina am adamianebs da maT Sromas. suraTis kompozicia sada da martivia. erTmaneTis gverdiT gamosaxuli ori mamakaci, romlebic wina planze mnaxvelTan axlos arian wamoweulni, mZime fizikur Sromas eweva. isini xreSis misaRebad qvis lodebs amtvreven. erTi maTgani Camu126


xlula da lods didi uroTi amtvrevs. mis ukan warmodgenili axalgazrda ki ukve xreSad qceul, danawevrebuli qvebiT savse kalaTs ezideba. gaxunebuli, daxeuli samosi, gacveTili fexsacmelebi am adamianTa ubadruk yofas usvams xazs. arc erTi maTganis saxes kurbe suraTze ar gviCvenebs. profilSi gamosaxul asakovan mamakacs saxes qudi ufaravs, axalgazrda ki Cvenken zurgiTaa mibrunebuli da Cven mxolod mis kefas vxedavT. isini usaxelo muSebi arian. kurbe ar akonkretebs maT saxes, ar gviCvenebs maT pirovnul niSnebs. piriqiT, azogadebs maT da amiT ambobs, rom Tanamedrove yofaSi aseTi adamiani Zalze bevria; es is adamianebi arian, visi Sromis Sedegadac iqmneba sazogadoebis keTildReoba. faqtobrivad, am namuSevris mTavari `gmiri~ Sromaa da ara Tavad gamosaxuli adamianebi. kurbe ar erideba imxanad miRebuli mSvenierebis normebis darRvevas. igi mwiri, muqi feradovnebiT da uxeSi farTo monasmebiT gadmoscems dasvril, dakonkil samoss, ar erideba asaxos figurebis mouqneli pozebi, erTi sityviT, ar aidealebs am Sromas, piriqiT, detalurad da piruTvnelad aRwers realobas. albaT amitomac iTvleba kurbe axali mimdinareobis _ realizmis erT-erT fuZemdeblad.

III. realizmis kidev erTi frangi warmomadgeneli onore domie iyo. domie politikuri karikaturis mamamTavaria. Tavisi politikuri mrwamsiT domie monarqiis mowinaaRmdege da revoluciis gulmxurvale mxardamWeri iyo. igi TanaugrZnobda wvril burJuazias da mSromelebs, romlebmac safrangeTSi faqtobrivad, 1830 wlis revolucia moawyves, magram datova Tu ara am xalxma barikadebi, maT aRmoaCines, rom qveyana, respublikis nacvlad, kvlav monarqiad darCa, taxt­ ze ki maT mefobisaTvis sruliad Seuferebeli lui-filipi daxvdaT. lui-filipis mmar­ Tvelobis dros qveyana gadatrialebaTa mcdelobebma, gaficvebma da saprotesto aqciebma moicva. swored am dros Cndeba aq satiruli xasiaTis presa, Jurnalebi: `karikatura~ da `Sarivari~, romlebic sargeblobdnen revoluciis Sedegad mopovebuli sityonore domie. msxlebi. 1831. vis TavisuflebiT da daundoblad akritikeb­dnen, dascinodnen da amaTraxebdnen xelisuflebas. swored am JurnalebTan TanamSromlobs onore domie, aqveynebs Tavis liTografiebs, romlebSic dascinis safrangeTis monarqs lui-filips. erT-erT Tavis karikaturaze igi lui-filips oTx gamosaxulebas aTavsebs da Cven vxedavT, TandaTan rogor iqceva mefis saxe msxlad. frangulad ki sityva msxali _ Puar, `msxalsac~ niSnavs da `sulelsac~. domies erT-erTi yvelaze popularuli karikaturaa lui filipis gamosaxuleba pantagruelis saxiT. `gargantua da pantagrueli~ XVI saukunis frangi mwerlis fransua rables satiruli romania, romelic mama-Svilis, ori Rormucela goliaTis Sesaxebaa dawerili da romelSic sarkastulad aris gamaTraxebuli adamianis mankierebani, saxelmwifo da eklesiac ki. Tavis karikaturaze domiem goliaTi, Rormucela gargantuas saxiT mefe lui-filipi gamosaxa, romelic tomarasaviT devs savarZelze da xalxis mier motanil, tomrebSi Cawyobil oqros ylapavs. iqve mis savarZelTan irevian misi marioneti ministrebi. 127


s akl as o di s kus i a risi Tqma undoda domies Tavisi liTografiiT `gargantua~?

2. romeli kompoziciuri xerxia gamoyenebuli domies mier am namuSevarze?

onore domie. gargantua. 1831.

onore domie am karikaturebis gamo gaasamarTles da samefo ojaxis wevris SeuracxyofisaTvis cixeSi gamoamwyvdies, magram verc fuladma jarimebma da verc dapatimrebam ver SeaCera mxatvari. cixidan gamosvlis Semdeg, igi agrZelebda satiruli furclebis Seqmnas, romlebSic umwvavesad akritikebda da dascinoda imdroindel xelisuflebas, politikur moRvaweebsa da marTlmsajulebis usindiso warmomadgenlebs.

IV. domies erT-erTi yvelaze maxvili namuSevaria `sakanonmdeblo wiaRi~, romelzec warmodgenilia safrangeTis sakanonmdeblo organos (axla rom parlaments veZaxiT) sxdoma. Casuqebul, `pativcemul~ kanonmdebelTagan zogi Tvlems, zogs sulac sZinavs, zogi gaSterebuli WerSi iyureba, zogierTebi ki erTmaneTSi saubroben. erTi sityviT, aravis ainteresebs, ras ambobs sxdomis wamyvani, romelic dabneuli dgas. domie am adamianebis karikaturul saxeebze maxvilad aRbeWdavs ugulisyurobas, gulgrilobasa da upasuxismgeblobas. sainteresoa liTografiis kompoziciuri wyoba. skamebi, romlebzec parlamentarebi sxedan, wriuladaa ganlagebuli; gverdebidan kompozicias araferi ketavs da iseTi STabeWdileba rCeba, TiTqos es skamebi sasuraTo sibrtyis miRma,

ganmartebebi

onore domie. sakanonmdeblo organo. 1834.

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realizmi _ mimdinareoba literaturasa da xelovnebaSi, romelic miznad isaxavs sinamdvilis obieqturad asax­vas. karikatura _ satiruli an iumoristuli gamosaxuleba, romelSic komikuri efeqti Seqmnilia raime niSnis gazviadebiT; grafikis erT-erTi Janri, romelic satiruli da iumoristuli formiT gamosaxavs konkretul adamianebs an adamianTa tipebs, aseve, socialur, politikur da yofiT movlenebs.


mayureblis sivrceSic grZeldeba. es SemTxveviTi rodia. avtori sagangebod arCevs am xerxs, raTa gviTxras, rom amgvari adamianebi aqve, Cvens sivrceSic arseboben. ai, ras werda domieze misi megobari, frangi poeti Sarl bodleri: `esaa mxatvari, romelic arTobs parizelebs. yoveldRe, yvela fenis warmomadgeneli, qali Tu kaci, moxuci Tu axalgazrda elis gazeTs, romelSic isini sakuTari qveynis politikuri cxovrebis iumoriT asaxul scenebs xedaven~. da marTlac, domie yoveldRe muSaobda, liTografiis teqnikiT ilustraciebsa da satirul furclebs qmnida da amiT faqtobrivad, franguli demokratiis istorias `werda~. igi realisti iyo, radgan realurad arsebul adamianebs xatavda, Tumca, azogadebda maT Tvisebebs da tipaJebs warmogvidgenda, magram, amave dros, mxatvari daundoblad akritikebda da dascinoda am realobas. amitomac mas e.w. kritikuli realizmis warmomadgenlad miiCneven. domie Zalze nayofieri mxatvari iyo. man mTeli sicocxlis ganmavlobaSi 4000-ze meti liTografia da fanqriT Sesrulebuli amdenive namuSevari Seqmna, ris gamoc `karikaturis miqelanjelos~ uwodebdnen. es iyo politikosebis Tu ubralo adamianebis, sxvadasxva socia­lu­ri fenis Tu marTlmsajulebis warmomadgenelTa mTeli galerea, romelSic xan msubuqad, iumoriT, zogjer ki daundoblad, sarkastulad iyo asaxuli adamianis mankieri Tvisebebi: siZunwe, momxveWeloba, Rormuceloba, gulgriloba, gautanloba, flidoba, farisevloba da a.S.

ganmartebani sarkazmi _ individis an cxovrebis mankieri mxareebis, uaryofiTi sazogadoebrivi movlenebis RvarZliani dacinva, mwvave ironia. daundoblad aaSkaravebs adamianTa da sazogadoebis yvela sferos uaryofiT mxareebs. satira _ komikuris mkveTri gamovlineba xelovnebaSi dacinvis gziT. sapatio legionis ordeni _ safrangeTis respublikis umaRlesi jildo udidesi samxedro da samoqalaqo miRwevebisaTvis. dawesebulia napoleon bonapartis mier 1802 wels. aniWebs safrangeTis prezidenti. ordenis devizia „Rirseba da samSoblo“.

daval eba gaecaniT domies naxatebis mixedviT Seqmnil animaciur films (https://www.youtube.com/ imswatch?v=QQnNwcKagHw). jeleT, ra siuJetzea agebuli filmi da ras gvaswavlis is. dawereT Tqveni mosazreba eses saxiT da warudgineT klass.

l iTo g ra f i a (lithos _ qva, graphos _ vxatav, vwer) beWduri grafikis erT-erTi saxeoba, romelic XVIII saukunis miwuruls gamoigona germanelma msaxiobma da dramaturgma a. zenefelderma. liTografiis SemTxvevaSi mxatvari naxats qvis brtyel zedapirze cximiani fanqriT asrulebs, Semdeg qva mJaviT muSavdeba; mJava mxolod qvis im nawilebs faravs, sadac ar aris cximiani fanqriT datanili gamosaxuleba, radgan mJava cximze ar moqmedebs. amis Semdeg, qvas zemodan sagangebo tipografiul saRebavs usvamen, romelic piriqiT, ar ekareba mJaviT dafarul adgilebs da edeba cximiani fanqriT datanil gamosaxulebas. Semdeg etapze qvas qaRalds afareben da presSi atareben, ris Sedegadac qvaze datanili gamosaxuleba furcelze sarkiseburad gadadis. es teqnika farTod gamoiyeneboda wignis ilustraciebis, rukebis, etiketebis, plakatebis, gazeTebisa da Jurnalebis gasaformeblad da calkeuli grafikuli furclebis dasabeWdad. am teqnikas mravali cnobili mxatvari mimarTavda, maT Soris: francisko goia, eJen delakrua, anri tuluz-lotreki da sxv. liTografias aseve uwodeben am teqnikiT Sesrulebul namuSevars.

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u a r i jil do z e Tavisi drois ori udidesi mxatvari _ kurbe da domie, safrangeTis saxelmwifos gadawyvetilebiT, sapatio legionis ordeniT daajildoes. orivem protestis niSnad, uari ganacxada jildos miRebaze. kurbem ministrs mwvave werili miswera. igi aRniSnavda, rom mTavrobisagan, romelic monarqiul wyobas uWerda mxars, mas aranairi sikeTisa da pativis miReba ar surda. cota xnis Semdeg es werili gazeTSi daibeWda, ramac kurbes mimarT sazogadoebis keTilganwyoba gamoiwvia. ai, domie ki dumda. cota xnis Semdeg domie da kurbe quCaSi xvdebian erTmaneTs. kurbem SekiTxva dausva megobars: sajarod ratom ar ganacxade, uari rom Tqvi am sapatio jildozeo? ratom? _ upasuxa domiem, _ me gavakeTe is, rac unda gamekeTebina da vfiqrob, es sruliad sakmarisia.

3. rogor adamianad warmoaCens domies aq moTxrobili ambavi `uari jildoze“?

V. maxvili Tvali da maRali ostatoba, azris zustad Sesatyvisi formiT gadmocema domies mTel Semoqmedebas axasiaTebs, maT Soris, mis mcire plastikasac. diax, domie qandakebebsac qmni­da da ar `Ralatobda~ sakuTar Temas. igi qanda­ kebaSic iumoriTa da sarkazmiT warmoadgenda adamianTa tipebs. mxatvris Tanamedroveni ixseneben, rom domie gasaocari siswrafiT Zerwavda Tixisagan am saxeebs, xelis ramdenime moZraoba da ucbad Tixisagan Cndeboda adamianis saxe _ tipaJi, misTvis damaxasiaTebeli garegnuli niSnebiT Tu Sinagani bunebis amsaxveli detalebiT da es yo­ve­live naturis gareSe, mexsierebiT keTdeboda. 4. rogor STabeWdilebas axdens Tqvenze domies qandakebebi? 5. daaxasiaTeT am portretebze gamosaxuli adamianebi. romel adamianur Tvisebebs miawerdiT maT saxeebis mixedviT?

onore domie. bankiri. 1833

onore domie. ucnobi. 1832

onore domie. loran kunini. 1832-35

VI. domie marTlac gamorCeuli xelovania, romelmac erT-erTma pirvelma kritikulad asaxa realoba da Tavis namuSevrebSi sakuTari damokidebuleba gviCvena am realobis mimarT. misi Semoqmedeba inspiraciis wyarod iqca mravali xelovanisaTvis. mag., cnobili `biTlzis~ erT-erTi wevris, pol makartnisa da misi meuRlis, lindas iniciativiT, domies motivebze Seiqmna SesaniSnavi animaciuri moklemetraJiani filmi `domies marTlmsajuleba~ (Daumie's Law), romelic mTlianad domies liTografiebiT aris agebuli, rac imis niSania, rom domies Tematika da kritikuli damokidebuleba dResac ar kargavs aqtualobas. 130


45. karikatura

ras fiqrobT, karikaturaSi xazgasmulia adamianis konkretuli garegnuli niSnebi Tu SesaZlebelia, rom namuSevarze aisaxos misi adamianuri Tvisebebic. mag., miamiti xasiaTi, enakvimatoba, sizarmace Tu sxva ram? sxvadasxva epoqasa da qveyanaSi arsebobda grafikis am saxeobis _ karikaturis gansxvavebuli saxeebi: politikuri, literaturuli, megobruli da sxv. rogorc wesi, karikatura grafikuli saxatavi masaliT _ fanqriT, tuSiT da kalmiT, pasteliT sruldeba. Tumca, rasakvirvelia, SeiZleba gamoiyenoT nebismieri masala.

praqtikuli samuSao nebismieri grafikuli masaliT SeqmeniT realuri an literaturuli personaJis karikatura. gadmoeciT ambavi karikaturis saSualebiT.

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnili karikaturebi

 moifiqreT, romeli literaturuli nawarmoebis personaJis karikaturas SeqmniT;  gaecaniT teqsts. moniSneT personaJis saxasiaTo garegnuli da adamianuri Tvisebebi;  SearCieT saxatavi masala da SeqmeniT karikatura;  miaqcieT yuradReba personaJis saxasiaTo aqsesuarebs _ samosis detalebs, samkaulebs da sxv.

danieli karikaturistis herluf bidstrupis namuSevrebi. 1980.

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46. monotipia

wina gakveTilze, onore domies namuSevrebis magaliTze, Tqven gaecaniT beWduri grafikis erT-erT teqnikas _ liTografias da SeityveT, rom misi gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi naxatis dafaze amokawvra, amokveTa anu gravireba ar xdeba. arsebobs grafikis kidev erTi teqnika, romelic, liTografiis msgavsad, ar saWiroebs dafaze gravirebas. esaa monotipia. monotipia SedarebiT martivi teqnikaa. minis, liTonis an plastikatis dafaze feradi saRebaviT, tuSiT an melniT ixateba gamosaxuleba, Semdeg mas zemodan qaRalds afareben, presaven da amgvarad iReben anabeWds. cxadia, am gziT mxolod erTi anabeWdis miRebaa SesaZlebeli, Tavad saxelwodebac (mono) erTs gulisxmobs. monotipia Tavdapirveli gamosaxulebis sarkisebur anabeWds iZleva. mas sakmaod farTo mxatvruli SesaZleblobebi aqvs. rogorc wesi, naxati naklebad mkafioa, feradovanma laqebma ki dapresvisas, SesaZloa, saxe icvalos da avtorisTvis moulodneli mxatvruli efeqti Seqmnas.

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnili namuSevrebi monotipiis Seqmnis procesi

praqtikuli samuSao SeasruleT dekoratiuli namuSevari monotipiis teqnikis gamoyenebiT.

 winaswar fanqriT gaakeTeT Tqveni momavali namuSevris eskizi;  SearCieT ferebi, romelsac gamoiyenebT;  winaswar momzadebul dafaze daitaneT saRebavi eskizis mixedviT;  rodesac CaTvliT, rom naxati mzad aris furcelze gadasatanad, mas zemodan qaRaldi daafareT;  qaRaldi nebismieri feris SeiZleba iyos;  winaswar moifiqreT, riT dapresavT saRebavian dafasa da qaRalds. am mizniT SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT wignebi;  Tu dasapresad gamoiyenebT wyliT savse boTls, romelsac qaRaldis zedapirze ramdenjerme gadaatarebT, gansxvavebul mxatvrul efeqts miiRebT – gamosaxulebis konturebi waiSleba, gaidRabneba;  dapresvis Semdeg qaRaldi frTxilad aiReT dafidan.

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47. xelovneba bunebis gadasarCenad gakveTilis ZiriTadi sakiTxebi:

• romeli faqtorebi uqmnis safrTxes dedamiwis ekologiur sistemas? • rogor ibrZvis xelovneba ekologiis dasacavad? • ra saSualebebiT gvawvdis plakati da posteri informacias? • rogor gamoxataven protests dedamiwis ekologiuri sistemis darRvevis winaaRmdeg?

I. xelovnebas bevri ram ZaluZs da adamianebi aqtiurad iyeneben mis am SesaZleblobebs. mag., xelovneba didi xania dgas samyaros ekologiuri sistemis gajansaRebis, misi gadarCenis sadarajoze. xelovnebis iseT dargs, rogoricaa plakati, posteri, swrafad SeuZlia informaciis gaziareba milionobiT adamianisaTvis, swored maT daekisra mniSvnelovani roli am saqmeSi. Tanac, vizualur gamosaxulebas gansakuTrebulad efeqturad SeuZlia gaagebinos mayurebels saTqmeli, gamoiwvios masSi emociebi, gaaRvivos TanagrZnoba da realuri saqmis keTebis survili. jer kidev XX saukunis dasawyisSi, mecnierebisa da teqnikis arnaxuli ganviTarebis paralelurad, bunebis Semswavleli mecnierebebis warmomadgenlebi mouwodebdnen sazogadoebas efiqra imaze, rom aunazRaurebeli ziani ar mieyenebina bunebisaTvis. magram, samwuxarod, es ase ar moxda da teqnologiurma progresma Tu sxva aRmoCenebma didad daazarala Cveni bunebrivi garemo. romeli erTi CamovTvaloT: gaiCexa tyeebi, fabrika-qarxnebisa da transportis gamonabolqvma daabinZura haeri da wyali, sayofacxovrebo nivTebSi gamoyenebulma nivTierebebma adamianis sicocxlesa da janmrTelobas Seuqmna problemebi.

II. erTi mxriv, nebismieri civilizebuli qveynis ganviTarebis logikuri Sedegia qalaqebis ricxvis da, saerTod, urbanuli kulturis mzardi tendencia. sul ufro meti mosaxleoba iyris Tavs did qalaqebSi da maT, Sesabamisad, didi raodenobis sacxovrebeli farTi, samuSao da momsaxure organizaciebi sWirdebaT. qalaqebSi izrdeba Senobebis ricxvi da klebulobs mwvane nargavebis moculoba. amis Sedegi ki isaa, rom haeri dabinZurebulia, rac realur safrTxes uqmnis mosaxleobas. am problemas mowinave qveynebi gaazrebuli strategiuli gegmiT udgebian, SemoaqvT iseTi samSeneblo regulaciebi, romelTa mixedviTac dauSvebelia axali raionebis dagegmareba rekreaciuli zonebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. ra-

plakati ekologiis Temaze `dedamiwa _ Cveni saxli~

1. CamoTvaleT TqvenTvis cno­ bili faqtorebi, romlebic safrTxes uqmnis Cvens garesamyaros.

Tanamedrove qalaqi

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sakvirvelia, didi yuradReba eTmoba ukve arsebul parkebsa da skverebsac. plakatis xelovneba didi xania dgas bunebis damcvelTa rigebSi da lakoniurad, yvelasaTvis gasagebi vizualuri formiT afiqsirebs bunebis damcvelTa pozicias.

s a k l a so di s k us i a 1. daakvirdiT plakatze gamosaxul TeTr daTvs. raze amaxvilebs yuradRebas misi avtori da imsjeleT, rogor ukavSirdeba es plakati ekologiuri katastrofebis Temas? 2. daakvirdiT plakatze gamosaxul pingvins. ra Seusabamobas xedavT da rogor axsniT plakatis mTavar ideas Tqveni sityvebiT?

plakati `ocneba tyeze~

bunebis dacvis saerTaSoriso organizacia `grinpisis~ mier Seqmnili plakatebi ekologiis Temaze

2. aRwereT plakati `ocneba tyeze~. Tqveni sityvebiT gadmoeciT misi Sinaarsi. 3. rogori Crdilebia gamoyenebuli am plakatze da sad? 4. romel problemas exeba pla­ katis ZiriTadi Tema? 5. rogor SeafasebdiT am pla­ katis vi­zu­alur mxares?

III. xelovnebis Tanamedrove formebiT ekologiis problemebis warmoCena da dedamiwis dabinZurebis gaprotesteba mTel msoflioSi Zalze aqtiurad xdeba. braziliis udides qalaq rio-de-JaneiroSi 1992 wels, gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis (gaero) egidiT, Catarda didi forumi saxelwodebiT `planeta dedamiwa~, romelzec mTeli msofliodan Casulma delegatebma SeimuSaves garemos dacvis 20-wliani gegma. 20 wlis Semdeg, 2012 wels ki, kvlav rio-de-Ja­neiroSi Catarda saangariSo konferencia `RIO-20~, romelzec Sejamebuli iqna, Tu ra gakeTda mTel msoflioSi garemos dacvis TvalsazrisiT am xnis ganmavlobaSi. am konferenciaze Camovidnen ara marto politikosebi da mecnierebi, aramed xelovanebic, romlebmac ekologiur sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli mravali saprotesto aqcia gamarTes. maT Soris erT-erTi saintereso aqcia moewyo okeanis sanapiroze. asobiT adamiani aq ise ganlagda, rom zemodan SeiZleboda gamosaxulebis da misi Tanmxlebi warweris danaxva. Rios Para a Vida portugaliurad niSnavs `mdinareebi sicocxlisaTvis~. am aqciis mizani iyo mdinare amazonze didi eleqtrosadgurebis mSeneblobis winaaRmdeg protestis gamoxatva, radgan es mSeneblobebi datborviT emuqreba am regionis unikalur tyeebs. 134


6. aRwereT fotoze asaxuli, rios sanapiroze aqciis monawileTa mier Seqmnili gamosaxuleba. 7. ra kavSiria gamosaxulebasa da warweras Soris da rogor gamoxatavs es gamosaxuleba protestis arss?

rio-de-Janeiro. bunebis damcvelTa aqcia okeanis sanapiroze. 2012.

IV. 2015 wels, parizSi, klimatis cvlilebasTan dakavSirebuli konferencia gaimarTa, romelsac ramdenime mniSvnelovani saprotesto aqcia mohyva. maT Soris iyo performansi `angelozebi da qolgebi~. am performansis arsi imaSi mdgomareobda, rom aqtivistebi luvris administraciisagan moiTxovdnen, gaewyvita kavSiri da ar mieRo finansuri daxmareba msxvili navTobmompovebeli kompaniebisagan, romlebic muzeumis sxvadasxva aqtivobas afinansebdnen. performansis organizatorebis azriT, muzeumi, navTobi da ekologia SeuTavsebelia erTmaneTTan da saWiroa am `mankieri kavSirebis~ gawyveta. es iyo maTi devizi. aqtivistebma luvris minis piramidasTan gaSlil qolgebze dawerili asoebiT lozungebi aawyves:

Climate Justice: No excuses _ klimaturi marTlmsajuleba: Sewyalebis gareSe Fossil Free Culture _ wiaRiseulisagan Tavisufali kultura

parizi. bunebis damcvelTa aqcia luvrTan. 2015.

8. ganixileT es saprotesto lozungebi. imsjeleT, rogor ukavSirdeba isini aqciis mizans? 9. moifiqreT, Tqven Tavad romel lozungebs daamatebdiT?

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parizi. bunebis damcvelTa aqcia luvrTan. 2015.

garda amisa, aqve, Ria cis qveS iyvnen angelozebis samosSi gamowyobili adamianebi; maT mkerdze hqondaT warwerebi, romliTac sazogadoebas garemos dacvisaken mouwodebdnen. sanam gareT aqcia mimdinareobda, SavebSi Cacmuli aqtivistebis jgufi muzeumSi Sevida da erT-erTi darbazis iatakze navTobis msgavsi muqi siTxe daasxa. Semdeg maT fexze gaixades, gubeSi gaiares da luvris sxva darbazebSi gaifantnen. maT yvelgan datoves nafexurebi imis niSnad, rom navTobma adamianTa yofis yvela sferoSi SeJona da yvelaferi daabinZura, maT Soris, xelovnebis es taZaric, romelic Semowirulobebs swored navTobis magnatebisagan iRebda. cxadia, muzeumis an sxva sajaro sivrcis dabinZureba dauSvebelia. sxvaTa Soris, am performansis 10 monawile policiam 1 dRiT daakava muzeumSi wesrigis darRvevisaTvis. am SemTxvevaSi aqciis monawileebma protestis es forma vandalizmisgan anu kulturuli memkvidreobis Zeglis ganzrax dazianebisgan gansxvavebiT imitom airCies, rom surdaT, sazogadoebisaTvis TvalnaTliv eCvenebinaT, rogor daaziana da ekologiuri katastrofis winaSe daayena navTobma mTeli samyaro.

ganmart ebani

parizi. bunebis damcvelTa aqcia luvrSi. 2015.

davaleba moifiqreT, Tqvens qalaqSi, sofelSi, ubanSi arsebul romel ekologiur problemas gaaprotestebdiT. ra formiT gamoxatavT Tqvens protests _ posters SeqmniT, performanss moawyobT Tu aqcias gamarTavT. dawereT Tqveni koncefcia da warudgineT klass. SearCieT saukeTeso koncefcia da ganaxorcieleT is.

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rekreaciuli zona _ dasvenebisa da gantvirTvisaTvis gamoyofili sagangebo zona, romelic moicavs baRebs, parkebs, skverebs da a.S. ekosistema _ cocxali da aracocxali bunebis erTob­ li­ oba garkveul teritoriul erTeulSi. gaero (gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia, SemoklebiT gaero) — sayovelTao mSvidobis uzrunvelyofisa da saxelmwifoTa TanamSromlobis saerTaSoriso organizacia, romelic Seiqmna 1945 wlis 26 ivniss. aqcia _ raime politikuri, ekonomikuri, samarTlebrivi an sxva miznis misaRwevad wamowyebuli da ganxorcielebuli qmedeba.


48. rogor davexmaroT dedamiwas miuxedavad imisa, rom ekologiuri problemebis gadaWra saxelmwifoebriv midgomas, did finansur mxardaWeras da gonivruli strategiis arsebobas moiTxovs, Cveulebriv moqalaqeebsac SegviZlia mokrZalebuli wvlili SevitanoT am saqmeSi. sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom iseTi xelovnurad Seqmnili masala, rogoricaa plastmasi da celofani, did zians ayenebs dedamiwas. maTi narCenebi aseulobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi ar ixrwneba da ganadgurebis an gadaSenebis safrTxis winaSe ayenebs zogierTi cxovelisa da frinvelis arsebobas am samyaroSi. rogor SeiZleba davexmaroT dedamiwas? gavacnobieroT, rom Cvens samyaroSi arsebuli florisa da faunis dacva TiToeuli moqalaqis valia. Tu mtkiced gadavwyvetT ar movixmaroT mavne masalisagan damzadebuli CanTebi da parkebi, sanacvlod ki ekologiuri masalisagan Cveni xeliT damzadebuli nivTebi SevTavazoT Cvens axloblebs, axal sicocxles SevZenT naxmar nivTebs, naklebad davabinZurebT garemos, SevamcirebT mavne masaliT damzadebuli nivTebis yoveldRi­ ur gamoyenebas. Cveni samyaros unikaluroba misi ekosistemis yvela elementis harmoniul TanaarsebobaSi mdgomareobs.

praqtikuli samuSao SeqmeniT plakati ekologiis Temaze. plakatis masala da Sesrulebis teqnika Tqvens arCevanzea damokidebuli.

 Tu gacnobierebuli gaqvT safrTxe, romelic emuqre-

Tqveni Tanatolebis mier Seqmnili plakatebi

ba dedamiwis erTian ekosistemas, moifiqreT plakatis Tema;  idea SeiZleba emsaxurebodes am safrTxis Sesaxeb sazogadoebis informirebulobas an saxavdes gzebs problemis gadasaWrelad da mouwodebdes adamianebs, dairazmon konkretuli aqtivobis gasaxorcieleblad;  plakatis masala da Sesrulebis teqnika Tqvens arCevanzea damokidebuli;  SesaZlebelia gainawiloT funqciebi erT namuSevarze muSaobisas an, piriqiT, gamoacxadoT konkursi SerCeul Temaze saukeTeso individualuri plakatis gamosavlenad;  winaswar konsultacia da rCeva hkiTxeT sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis pedagogebs da ise aarCieT plakatis Tema;  gaiTvaliswineT, rom yovelTvis Zalian mimzidvelia plakatis an posteris gonebamaxviluri gadawyveta, rac ufro gasagebs da advilad aRsaqmels xdis mis mTavar ideas.

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movlena 49. RirsSesaniSnavi xelovnebis nawarmoebSi rogorc ukve iciT, xelovnebis nawarmoebi mravalferovan informacias Seicavs. is SeiZleba asaxavdes warsulis faqtebs, gamogonil samyaros, adamianebs da maT Sinagan samyaros, garemos, romelSic vcxovrobT, movlenebs, romlebic Cven garSemo xdeba da sxv. dRes Cveni planetis nebismier wertilSi momxdari faqtis, movlenis Sesaxeb informacia elvis siswrafiT vrceldeba. Cven, adamianebi sxvadasxvagvarad vreagirebT am informaciaze: gvixaria, vuTanagrZnobT, ganvicdiT da zogjer qmedebiTac ki gamovxatavT Cvens samoqalaqo pozicias. mxolod amgvari aqtiurobiT SeiZleba vupasuxoT im gamowvevebs, romlis winaSec Cveni planeta dgas.

1

davaleba

namuSevris analizi

gigo gabaSvili. alaverdoba. 1898.

Jak lui daviTi. napoleonis koronacia. 1805-1807.

SeecadeT, Tqveni naSromi pasuxobdes Sem­ deg kiTxvebs:  aRwereT namuSevari;  ra ganwyobilebas da STabeWdilebas aRZ­ ravs is;  romeli saxviTi xerxebia gamoyenebuli;  ra aris xelovnebis am nawarmoebis idea da rogor aris is asaxuli saxviTi xerxebis saSualebiT. kostantine briulovi. pompeis ukanaskneli dRe. 1833.

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mocemuli namuSevrebidan Se­ arCieT erT-erTi da dawereT ese, romelSic unda gansazRvroT, ra saxis informacias gvawvdis es namuSevari da romeli mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebia masSi gamoyenebuli.

konstebli. Weqa-quxili. 1898.


tornado. aSS

2

da v a l e b a

SearCieT Tanamedrove samyaroSi mimdinare TqvenTvis saintereso movlena an sakuTar qalaqSi/sofelSi momxdari RirsSesaniSnavi faqti da asaxeT is nebismieri mxatvruli xerxiT da teqnikiT. berlinis kedlis dangreva. 1989.

 namuSevris Sesrulebamde gamoiyeneT ferweruli an grafikuli Canaxatebi;  namuSevris Sesrulebisas SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT Sav-TeTri da feradi grafikis, monotipiis teqnika an SeqmnaT ferweruli namuSevari;

 Tqveni namuSevari SesaZlebelia plakatis saxiTac warmoadginoT;  namuSevris wardgenisas uambeT Tanaklaselebs masze asaxuli faqtis, movlenis Sesaxeb. mouTxreT, romeli mxatvrul-gamomsaxvelobiTi xerxebi SearCieT Canafiqris xorcSesasxmelad.

koronavirusis gavrceleba. 2020 xanZari avstraliaSi. 2020

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proeqti 1. Sexvedra xelovanTan xelovnebis nawarmoebi dakvirvebul mayurebels bevr saintereso ambavs mouTxrobs sakuTar Tavzec da avtorzec, magram Tavad xelovanTan Sexvedra gansakuTrebul SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs, vesaubroT mas ara mxolod sakuTriv mis Semoqmedebaze, aramed imazec, ras fiqrobs igi zogadad xelovnebaze, mis daniSnulebaze sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, Tanamedrove mimdinareobebze da, vin icis, kidev ramden saintereso rameze.

imisaTvis, rom es Sexvedra yvelasTvis saintereso aRmoCndes, gaiTvaliswineT ramdenime rCeva:

 winaswar auci­leblad gaecaniT im xelova-  konkretuli xelovanisaTvis am Temaze nis Semoqmedebas, romelTanac gsurT Sexvedra;

 sasurvelia, Tu Sexvedris momzadebisas moiZiebT mowveuli xelovanis nawarmoebebs da SeqmniT stends, sadac warmodgenili iqneba es masala;

 moifiqreT Seki­ Txvebi, romelTa dasmac gsurT konkretulad am SemoqmedisaTvis;

dasmuli SekiTxvebis garda, moiZieT dokumenturi masala, romelSic Zveli Tu axali drois xelovanTa gamonaTqvamebia dafiqsirebuli. gauziareT erTma­neTs es Sexedulebebi. SesaZloa, bevri maTgani sakamaTo iyos TqvenTvis. imsjeleT da CamoayalibeT Tqveni mosazrebebi xelovnebis warmoSobis mizezebsa Tu misi daniSnulebisa da funqciis Taobaze;

 Tqven mier momzadebuli SekiTxvebi Sei-  Sexvedris videoCanaweris an fotomatiaZleba exebodes sazogadod xelovnebas, umjobesi iqneba, Tu Sexvedras Tematuri xasiaTi eqneba. Sexvedris Tema SeiZleba aseTi iyos: ratom qmnian adamianebi xelovnebis nawarmoebebs?

140

nis Sesaqmnelad daxmareba SeiZleba ufrosebs sTxovoT. gadaRebuli masala gamoaqveyneT Tqveni skolis saitze.


proeqti 2. kompiuteruli teqnologiebi Tanamedrove sakomunikacio teqnologiurma saSualebebma ara mxolod teqnikuri revolucia moaxdina, aramed mTlianad Secvala sazogadoebis msof­ lmxedveloba. am process erTdroulad bevri dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxare aqvs, Tumca aRaravin kamaTobs imaze, rom Tanamedrove, sul ufro srulyofili teqnikuri saSualebebi Cveni yoveldRiuri cxovrebis ganuyofel nawilad iqca. dRes savsebiT cxadia, rom am axal pirobebTan misadageba uwevs xelovnebis nebismier dargs, iseve, rogorc sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sxva sferos. gaiTvaliswineT, rom xelovnebas gacilebiT didi SesaZleblobebi aqvs mas Semdeg, rac sxvadasxva saxis mxatvruli efeqtis miReba gaadvilda kompiuteris daxmarebiT. Tumca, ar dagaviwydeT, rom kompiuterma ver `Caanacvla~ xeliT Seqmnili mxatvruli nawarmoebi da misi unikaluroba. kompiuterma da internetma, erTi mxriv, adamianebs Soris uSualo, cocxali urTierTobis deficiti gamoiwvia, magram, maTive meSveobiT, adamians saxlidan gausvlelad SeuZlia naxos axali filmi, daaTvalieros msoflios yvela muzeumis koleqcia da `daeswros~kidec ama Tu im mniSvnelovan mxatvrul aqcias msoflios nebismier wertilSi. SevecadoT gavac­nobieroT, rogor Se­ic­vala xelovnebis ro­ li sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi axali teq­ nologiebis gamogonebis Semdeg. amgva­ ri proeqtis savara­u­do saxelwodeba Se­­iZleba iyos: `kompiuteri da interneti _ mteri Tu moyvare?~

 samuSaos dawyebamde CaatareT gamokiTxva Tqvens Tanatolebsa da axloblebSi, imis gasarkvevad, Tu ra rols asrulebs es saSualebebi maT cxovrebaSi;

 gaarkvieT, ras Tvlian adamianebi teqnikuri revoluciis naklad da ras _ miRwevad;

 dafiqrdiT, sakomunikacio saSualebebis romel mimarTulebebs aqvs, Tqveni azriT, yvelaze didi da jerjerobiT bolomde gamouyenebeli SesaZleblobebi da ra sargeblobis miReba SeiZleba am mimarTulebis ganviTarebiT;

 moiyvaneT xelovnebis nebismier dargSi axali teqnologiebiT ganpirobebuli yvelaze mniSvnelovani miRwevebis magaliTi;

 dafiqrdiT, xelovnebis romel dargebze moaxdina axalma teqnologiebma yvelaze didi gavlena;

 cxadia, rom am proeqtis prezentacia axali sakomunikacio da teqnologi­uri saSualebebis meSveobiT unda moxdes, rac mis efeqtianobas Seuwyobs xels.

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proeqti 3. karnavali saskolo zeimis _ Teatraluri warmodgenis, karnavalis Catareba, gamarTva, mowyoba Sromatevadi, magram Zalian saxaliso procesia. aseT RonisZiebaSi, rogorc wesi, mTeli klasia CarTuli, yvelas gansazRvruli movaleobebi da funqciebi aqvs _ zogi saorganizacio saqmeebs agvarebs, zogi dekoraciebsa da kostiumebis eskizebs asrulebs. am eskizebis mixedviT SeirCeva Semdeg masala da sruldeba Tavad namuSevrebi. kompiuteruli teqnikis gamoyenebiT SesaZlebelia zeimisTvis afiSebisa da mosawvevi baraTebis damzadeba. erTi sityviT, aq TiToeuli Tqvenganis Zalisxmevaa saWiro, magram samagierod, zeimis mxiaruli da xalisiani atmosfero erTbaSad dagaviwyebT daRlas, Tqvenc da mowveuli stumrebic did siamovnebas miiRebT da sasiamovno STabeWdilebebiT aRivsebiT.

 zeimis Temis arCevisas gaiTvaliswineT yvela Tqvenganis interesebi. umjobesia, Tu Tqve­ni zeimi Tematuri iqneba da saSualeba geqnebaT gamoiyenoT Tqveni codna ama Tu im epoqis an qveynis samosis, aqsesuarebis Sesaxeb. mag., SeiZleba scadoT da kostiumebis eskizebSi eTnografiuli motivebi _ xalxuri kostiumis detalebi gamoiyenoT. am xerxs xSirad mimarTaven Tanamedrove modelierebi.  tradiciuli veneciuri karnavalis detalebi _ Teatraluri niRbebi, mdidruli Tavsamkauli da samosi did gasaqans miscems Tqvens fantazias. aq nebismieri bunebrivi da xelovnuri masalis _ bumbulis, feradi lentebis, maqmanebis, mZivebis gamoyeneba SeiZleba.

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ganmartebebi abreviatura (Brevis laT. mokle) _ raimes dasaxelebis Semokleba, dasaxelebaSi gamoyenebuli sityvebis pirveli asoebis gamoyenebiT. avTenturoba _ namdvili, ueWveli, utyuari, sinamdvilis Sesabamisi. igulisxmeba xelovnebis nimuSis pir­vandeli saxe. anfasi/fasi _ pirdapir adamianis saxe.

danaxuli/asaxuli

artefaqti _ adamianis xeliT Seqmnili nebismieri obieqti, maT Soris xelovnebis nawarmoebi.

ri Suqisa da Crdilis saSualebiT samganzomilebiani moculobiTi formisa da realuri sivrcis aRsawerad. kubikulebi _ katakombebis kedlebSi sagangebod gamokveTili niSebi. mamluqi (arab. niSnavs „mikuTvnebuls“) — ara­ muslimuri warmoSobis TeTrkaniani meomari mona. mamluqebi XI saukunis II na­ xevridan mravlad iyvnen egvipteSi, XVIII saukunis dasawyisidan — eraySi. miniatura _ xelnaweri wignis Semamkobeli patara zomis suraTi.

aqcia _ raime politikuri, ekonomikuri, samarTlebrivi an sxva miznis misaRwevad wa­ mowyebuli da ganxorcielebuli qmedeba.

miraJi _ optikuri movlena atmosferoSi, romlis drosac Cans sagnebis moCvenebiTi gamosaxulebebi.

baTqaSi _ kedlis, tixris, Weris mosapirkeTebeli Sre, romelsac gluvi zedapiris misaRebad iyeneben. Sua saukuneebis eklesiebSi specialuri baTqaSiT ifareboda mosaxatad gankuTvnili kedlebis zedapiri.

nostalgia (berZn. nostos Sin dabruneba, algos tkivili) – „samSoblos sevda“; samSob­ loSi dabrunebis SeuZleblobiT gamowveuli sevda.

diptiqoni _ orkecad akinZul-Sekruli dafa anu saweri ficari. ekosistema _ cocxali da aracocxali bunebis erTob­ li­ oba garkveul teritoriul erTeulSi.

oranta _ vedrebis poza, rodesac figura gamosaxulia ganze gaSlili, maRla awvdili xelebiT, xelisgulebiT mnaxvelisaken. mogvianebiT ewoda mavedrebeli RvTismSoblis erT-erT ikongrafiul tips.

gaero (gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia, SemoklebiT gaero) — sayovelTao mSvidobis uzrunvelyofisa da saxelmwifoTa TanamSromlobis saerTaSoriso orga­nizacia, romelic Seiqmna 1945 wlis 26 ivniss.

oforti _ Rrma gravirebis xerxi, romlis drosac liTonis firfita ikawreba saW­ ri­siT, Semdeg gakawruli adgilebi mJaviT muSavdeba, momdevno etapze ki saRebaviT ifa­ reba. oforti amgvarad gravirebuli fir­fitidan Sesrulebul anabeWds ewodeba.

ikonografia _ garkveuli drois ganmavlobaSi SemuSavebuli wesebi, romlis mixedviTac iqmneba qristianuli siuJetebi da wmindanTa gamosaxulebebi.

papirusi _ tropikuli lerwami, romlis Reroebisagan damzadebul sawer masalas iyenebdnen egviptelebi da sxva Zveli xalxebi (maT Soris qarTvelebic).

karikatura _ satiruli an iumoristuli gamosaxuleba, romelSic komikuri efeqti Seqmnilia raime niSnis gazviadebiT; grafikis erT-erTi Janri, romelic satiruli da iumoristuli formiT gamosaxavs konkretul adamianebs an adamianTa tipebs, aseve, socialur, politikur da yofiT movlenebs.

performansi _ Tanamedrove xelovnebis fo­ rma, romelic efuZneba xelovanis mier warmodgenil konkretul sivrceSi drois konkretul monakveTSi mimdinare qmedebas.

kesonebi _ mxatvrulad gaformebuli kvad­ ratuli an mra­ valkuTxovani CaRrmaveba, rom­ liTac amkoben nagebobis Wers, gumbaTs an TaRebs. kiaroskuro _ italiuri termini, romelsac iyeneben saxviTi xelovnebis nimuSze Zlie-

pergamenti _ gansakuTrebuli wesiT damuSa­ vebuli xbos, batknis an Tiknis tyavi, iyenebdnen sawer masalad qaRaldis gamogonebamde. qiTabxana _ wignsacavi (ar­ qi­ vi) da wignebis dam­zadebis centri. realizmi _ mimdinareoba literaturasa da xelovnebaSi, romelic miznad isaxavs sinamdvilis obieqturad asax­vas.

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rekonkista (esp. Reconquista dabruneba) — dakarguli qristianuli miwebis dabrunebis procesi pireneis naxevarkunZulze, romlebic dapyrobili hqonda mavrebis samefos. rekonstruqcia _ rai­mes pir­vandeli sa­xis aRdgena. rekreaciuli zona _ dasvenebisa da gantvirTvisaTvis gamoyofili sagangebo zona, romelic moicavs baRebs, parkebs, skverebs da a.S. sapatio legionis ordeni _ safrangeTis res­ publikis umaRlesi jildo udidesi sam­ xedro da samoqalaqo miRwevebisaTvis. dawesebulia napoleon bonapartis mier 1802 wels. aniWebs safrangeTis prezidenti. ordenis devizia „Rirseba da samSoblo“. sarkazmi _ individis an cxovrebis mankieri mxareebis, uaryofiTi sazogadoebrivi movlenebis RvarZliani dacinva, mwvave ironia. daundoblad aaSkaravebs adamianTa da sazogadoebis yvela sferos uaryofiT mxareebs. satira _ komikuris mkveTri gamovlineba xelovnebaSi dacinvis gziT. sfumato _ ferwerul nawarmoebSi ukana pla­ nze gamosaxulebis mkafio konturebis erT­ gvari Serbileba, gabundovneba, ri-

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Tac suraTze naTlad gadmoicema sivrcis efeqti. stigmatebi (berZ. Stigmatos) _ niSani, Wriloba, wyluli. morwmuneebs stigmatebi macxovris iarebis darad uCndebodaT sxeulze zustad im adgilebze (xelebze, fexebze, ferdze), sadac mas Wrilobebi hqonda miyenebuli. tipografia (typos _ anabeWdi, grapho _ vwer) _ dawesebuleba, sawarmo, sadac sxvadasxva saxis gamocemebi ibeWdeba. trafareti _ 1. Txeli firfita, romelSic amoWrilia raime saxe an asoebi; iyeneben, mag., kedlis, firniSis mosaxatad, warwerebis gasakeTeblad (daadeben saTanado zedapirs da zevidan wausvamen saRebavs). 2. gadat.: erTxel da samudamod miRebuli, gacveTili forma, mza nimuSi; Sabloni. qartia (berZn.) _ politikuri, socialuri Tu profesiuli moTxovnebis gamomxatveli sabuTi, aqti. cenzura _ saxelmwifos mier sainformacio saSualebebisa da xelovnebis sferos kontroli; misTvis arasasurveli xe­lovnebis nawarmoebis an informaciis gav­ rcelebis akrZalva. weris manera _ saxviTi xerxebis erToblioba, teqnikuri da stilis­ turi Tavisebureba­ ni, romlebic konkretuli Semoqmedis mxatvrul individualobas gansazRvravs.

ხელოვნება, მე-8 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი  

ხელოვნება, მე-8 კლასი, მოსწავლის წიგნი  

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