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TECHNOLOGY

MEAT

GLOSSARY

A of TERMS and CONCEPTS Authors

Giuseppe L. Pastori, Lidano De Cesari, Massimo Parisi, Daniele Romano, Sabrina Tondato, Salvatore Velotto


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TECHNOLOGY

MEAT

GLOSSARY

A of TERMS and CONCEPTS Authors

Giuseppe L. Pastori, Lidano De Cesari, Massimo Parisi, Daniele Romano, Sabrina Tondato, Salvatore Velotto


A text that deals with terms, concepts and definitions on the world of meat is certainly not a novelty, but the purpose of this Meat Glossary originates from the need to share a language common to all Food Technologists at every level of the fresh and processed meats sector to study, model and facilitate the operations related to the transformation and production of meat foods, starting from the raw materials of domestic animals bred to provide us with food. This work has been written in English not only to make it accessible to everyone, but also to create an inexhaustible source of information and creative interactions between Food Technologists worldwide. This project originates - even if developed independently - from the World’s Fair EXPO 2015 in Milan (“Feeding The Planet”) and from the idea of the Italian Board of Food Technologists to create an international collaboration for the production of a Global Glossary of Food Processes and Technologies for the benefit of all professionals (including those from related sectors such as Veterinarians and Nutritionists) A first glossary, dealing with the basic terms and fundamental concepts of Unit Operations, was published in 2018 by Claudio Peri, Professor Emeritus of the University of Milan, who helped introduce the discipline of Food Technologies in Italian Universities. This work today is the continuation of that first project, undertaken by both alumni and other Food Technologists who graduated from other Italian universities and who are working in the meat supply chain. It is not intended to be an exhaustive work (it does not deal with animal breeding and nutrition, for example), but a work in progress to extend the knowledge and vision about the sustainable development of Food Processes and Technologies.

To Prof. Claudio Peri, our mentor, and to all those who have advised, encouraged and helped us in drafting this text


CONTENTS

The Food Technologist and the sustainability of meat production (Carla Brienza)

7

The authors’ introduction

10

Glossary 13 Appendix 161 Bibliography 179 Regulatory references 185 Authors 189


THE FOOD TECHNOLOGIST AND THE SUSTAINABILITY OF MEAT PRODUCTION Carla Brienza

Past President of the Italian Board of Food Technologists

In the last few years, Food Technology has proved to be an essential innovation factor for a growing social and production diversification; it has become a professional discipline in a society that is continually becoming more advanced and technological. Fulfilling current needs without compromising the future requires us to act by ensuring that sustainability conditions are guaranteed simultaneously in three areas: ethical/social, economic/financial and the environment. The key principles of food sustainability lie within these three macro areas, and we must bear them in mind when dealing with novel food and new formulations, food safety and food security, nutrition and health, animal well-being and fair trade, as well as when designing sustainable production food chains. The meats sector lies within this area. Meat has been part of the human diet since the dawn of man. For hundreds of thousands of years hominids based their survival on hunted meat and vegetables that grew wild. Later, the initial hunting and harvesting practices progressively moved into livestock farming and agriculture. Meats contributed to changing man’s way of life from a mainly nomadic lifestyle to a sedentary one as well as changing dietary habits

and the management of the environment where he lived. Agriculture developed together with the domestication of animals, which were selected and bred to help working in the fields and to provide food, wool and skins. Growing awareness of food sustainability, and in particular of meats and processed meats, has led to an increased scrutiny of factors that define its main characteristics: wholesomeness, safety, environmentally-friendly production and acceptable overall economics. In this context, the professional Food Technologist, with his technical, legal and management skills, will enter the meat chain with responsibilities in the areas of management and process control, product design, as well as the analysis of the economic, socio-cultural and environmental aspects of the food chains. Managing the complexity of agrifood systems by giving priority to sustainability fits the United Nations’ objectives for sustainable development by supporting the promotion of inclusive industrialization, innovation support, reduction of water consumption, innovative production systems, formulation of sustainable products and reduction of waste, in particular via responsible consumption (Fig. 1). 7


Fig. 1 - Commodity breakdown of the total waste of Italian families WHO WASTES MORE?

Consumption is the phase in which there is the greatest waste FRESH BREAD

3%

FROZEN FOOD

13%

16%

1% BEVERAGES

5% MEAT AND FISH

38%

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

LONGSTORAGE FOOD

PRODUCT BREAKDOWN OF THE TOTAL WASTE OF ITALIAN FAMILIES

FOOD WASTE IS ESTIMATED AT AROUND 5.5 MILLIONS TONS PER YEAR FRESH FOOD

24%

Source: Translated from La sostenibilità delle carni e dei salumi in Italia (2018), elaborated by Garrone P. et.al., 2012

Attention is being focused more and more on meat consumption; meat is increasingly subject to criticism, essentially linked to nutritional, ethical and environmental issues. It is important, however, to highlight the concept of diet according to the Greek medicine model, i.e. a way of life that includes all aspects of daily life, from food to physical exercise and rest. And so diet has become a byword for lifestyle. Education should therefore encourage people to follow a balanced “food model”, based on consumption of all foods without excess. In this sense, the Mediterranean Diet is of great help: the recommendations for this model encourage the balanced consumption of all foods, including meats and processed meats, which are needed to ensure a wholesome diet. To be more specific, each food 8

supplies the organism with useful nutrients: Meats, for example, are sources of essential proteins and amino acids, of micronutrients and bioactive compounds that support a number of special functions. These components are highly bioavailable (and so better absorbed by the body) with respect to vegetable-type sources. In some cases (for example vitamin B12), they can only be found in animal foods such as meats. Furthermore, animal proteins have a high biological value as they supply an ideal quantity of all the nine essential amino acids that are not produced by our organism and which must be consumed daily. It is therefore vital to analyse the functions of each single nutrient, relating them to the requirements of the human body in the different stages of life. Moving from the nutritional aspect to the medical


one, we enter the domain of clinical pathology, which in many cases can be more or less related to the consumption of food. In the case of meats, there is great emphasis on the presumed correlation between the consumption of meats and a number of forms of cancer (Fig.2). Despite the fact that there are many theories in this field, connection between the disease and moderate consumption has not, as yet, been demonstrated, and scientific studies have not reached any final conclusion, except that of keeping consumption within the levels put forward by the prevailing nutritional models. It is, however, interesting to analyse the reasons for these presumed connections, so as to understand the possible approaches for their control. Level of consumption, therefore, is the fundamental link for correlating a food with its effect on health and sustainability in general.

It was Paracelsus who said «the dose makes the poison». The IARC - International Agency for Research on Cancer’s guidelines on the consumption of red meats and processed meats should be considered in terms of population and public health. They should never be interpreted as individual guidelines, given that the risks associated with the consumption of red meats and derived products depends on different factors such as hereditary factors and lifestyles. Meat Technology - A Glossary of Terms and Concepts was conceived, created and designed from the Food Technologists’ viewpoint, not claiming to be an exhaustive work, but as an aid to a systematic approach to the meat processing and transformation sector, written in a language that is common to all Food Technologists, sector professionals and stakeholders of the meat chain.

Fig. 2 - Health risk factors

Source: Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation GBD 2017; extraction done in May 2020 taking into consideration the risk factors associated with colorectal cancer

9


THE AUTHORS’ INTRODUCTION Giuseppe L. Pastori The world of technologies of all nature and species increasingly speaks a common language that goes beyond individual nations, either because knowledge and ideas are immediately made available and applicable everywhere, or because markets are increasingly globalized and products can be exported and purchased in every corner of the globe. The world of Food Technologies is certainly no exception: it is a subject of study and professional knowledge that has a common language all over the world and which develops in two directions. On the one hand, there are the academic courses, which starting from the definition of the Unit Operations (based on the concepts of physics, physical chemistry and biochemistry) teach the fundamentals of food science more or less in the same way in all countries and universities. On the other hand, all derived applications materialize into Food Processes or, more generally, Food Technologies, declined into the various food production chains. However, the obtained food products retain their national identity, sometimes even a regional or local footprint, which differentiates them and strongly distinguishes them from similar products made in other countries. When exported, 10

our food products are appreciated in world markets and receive recognition and awards for their level of excellence (unfortunately, at times, they are also imitated, see the phenomenon of “Italian sounding”). This is the case of many Meat and Processed Meats products, often available in Italy as certified PDO and PGI products, fully guaranteed for their qualities and culinary value and exported all over the world. But this is also the case of products such as cooked ham or certain seasoned products which, although not having a territorial characterization, are made with specific technologies, making them unique in the world panorama. Taking into account markets globalization and the presence of our products in the world, there is also the need to protect their identity spreading our “culture of doing things”, supported also by specific technical literature which can be understood worldwide. Hence the idea of a glossary of meat technology, which does not presume to fill any gap in international literature and which does not even aim to explain how the Italian product is made, in particular because we are fully aware that food science and food production are often linked to national cultures, specific local realities and


specific historical developments; for this see other texts and academic treatises. This glossary was created with a common language in mind, which is particularly necessary in a complex and multidisciplinary world. For this reason, it was written in English, which makes it accessible to everyone; we intend to reach a heterogeneous world made up of meat professionals, academics, schools and universities, industrial associations and companies, technologists of all levels and degrees. This is the point of view of Italian Food Technologists who fully share their role with other professionals such as veterinarians and animal nutrition experts, and today also digitalization experts for product traceability and (future) blockchain. The project is not an end in itself; it started a few years ago following the experience acquired at the Universal Exhibition-EXPO 2015 in Milan under the guidance of Prof. Claudio Peri, Emeritus Professor of the University of Milan and pioneer of Food Technologies in Italy. Our intention was the launching of a global glossary of the principles and process applications of Food Technologies. The idea was to start with a long-term international collaboration project, proposing a series of chapters on different food processes. The first global part was published on the occasion of the International fair Ipack-Ima Milano 20151, while the first chapter of that series is now this text, the result of our tenacity to complete a work

that we wished to achieve. Our hope is to encourage other fellow food technologists to complete their works concerning other food supply chain processes. We hope that this Glossary will help create a new communications network between food technologists, at the same time establishing a spirit of creative and friendly collaboration in all countries and continents. Sources of the terms, concepts and definitions in this publication include texts of international organizations, such as ISO, Codex Alimentarius, WHO/FAO, EFSA, FDA, European and international laws and regulations and some texts cited in the bibliography. But most of all, they originate from our direct experience as food technologists, a team of professionals, university professors and packaging/distribution experts.

1

C. Peri and Sr. M.F. Traynor (2015). Food Technology – A Glossary of terms and concepts. Tecniche nuove

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THE GLOSSARY


A

Abdominal fat

The fat within the abdomen of the animal that often surrounds the organs of the abdomen, e.g. kidney fat. The abdomen is the region of the body between the thorax and the pelvis which contains the viscera.

Achilles hung

The process of suspending the carcass from the Achilles tendon, a tendon in the distal hind leg. This procedure of hanging the animal’s body from a part of its body prevents meat contraction.

Acidification

This term refers to the ability of microorganisms to form acid when the carbohydrates are degraded. For fermented meat products (as salami and seasoned), would be desiderable the lactic acid production from selected microbial starter cultures, instead, for instance, of acetic or butirric acid from deteriorating microorganisms.

Additives

The term “additives” referring to the manufacture of food products (and meat products) indicates the substances deliberately added to food products for the purpose of performing certain technological functions. As such, in terms of the law they are not consumed as foodstuffs and are not used as ingredients but become themselves, directly or indirectly, parts of the food to which they are added. All the additives used (apart from those used as a technological adjuvant) must be indicated on the label of the respective product. Internationally, before being used, they are assessed for safety by agencies such as EFSA and Codex Alimentarius (Joint Food Standards Organization of FAO and WHO). In Europe they are identified by a numerical abbreviation preceded by the letter E (or the initials INS in the rest of the world according to Codex).

Adipose tissue

This term refers to the tissue consisting of adipose cells (adipocytes), which store and mobilize fat, located most15


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M MAP (Modified Atmosphere Packaging)

Marinade

82

MAP consist in the replacement of air in a package with a fixed gas mixture so as to increase the shelf life of the product. The most frequently used gas mixtures (precise composition depending on the food and on the project objectives) are: - Carbon Dioxide (CO2) for its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties - Nitrogen (N2) for its role in preventing oxidative spoilage - Oxygen to reduce the risk of anaerobic bacteria growth and maintaining the bright red colour of fresh meats MAP does not provide full preservation capacity if it is not duly associated with effective HACCP procedures and with careful temperature control along all the production and distribution cycles. It must not be confused with CAP, Controlled Atmosphere Packaging, a techniques using active gas mixtures control systems, usually used in large warehouses. MAP is today a fundamental asset of Self Service Retailing and different configurations/systems are available (also giving a presentation styles): - thermoforming: tray is formed, loaded, vacuumized and gas mixture injected on specifically designed thermoforming line; a flexible material barrier top is used as a top lid. - HFFS: based on a standard “Horizontal Form Fill Seal” technique where a given gas mixture is injected in a tubular pack before final sealing/cutting; shrink barrier films are used. - Tray Lid: based on a preformed barrier tray closed with a flexible top material as a Lid. Mixture of oil with wine, lemon juice or vinegar and herbs in which meat or fish is soaked before cooking, both to give flavour and to make it more tender.


FLOWCHART Fresh meat - Slaughtering I Beef II Pork III Poultry Fresh meat - Preparation IV Hamburger V Meat preparation Meat processed VI Bresaola VII Cooked ham VIII Culatello IX Dry cured ham X Fresh sausages XI Mortadella XII Roasted chicken/turkey (in casing or in mould) XIII Seasoned salami XIV Würstel XV Zampone & Cotechino

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I - BEEF SLAUGHTERING (courtesy G. Roli-L. De Cesari) INPUTS

OPERATIONS AND INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS

Transport to abattoir/ lairage Veterinary Check

Careful transportation/lairage after long distance Acceptance/Refusal Very careful-kind treatment Severing carotid and jugular vein (***)

Stunning/Killing Bleeding

Centrifuging(*)

Pre skinning/skinning

Salting(*)

OUTPUTS

Plasma (animal feed) Corpuscle (pharmaceuticals) Leather manufacturing

Red offals separation (liver, spleen, hearts, sweetbreads, tail, head, tongue):

Evisceration

Washing, Cutting, Packing, Cooling: Washing/Freezing: Hearts, Pancreas, Spleen: Lungs, Brain, Tits: Freezing Lungs, Brain, Tits:

Human consumption Processed Meats Pharmaceuticals(**) Animal Feed Protein feed/waste

Pharmaceuticals(**) White Offals separation: Stomach: Human consumption Tripes: emptying/washing Natural Casings/sutuIntestine: Emptying, washing, res mat. salting Rendering Carcass cutting Vet Inspection Final Inspection Final Cooling (24-48 hours)

Fat/other organs Bones/Hooves Rendering Sampling/separation of of SRM (Specified Risk Materials) Analysis/Incineration Weighing/scoring/Labelling -To point of sale -To cutting/deboning/portioning/packaging

(*) Performed at some large slaughterhouses; many plants provide specified packaging/ labelling and supply external processors. (**) After BSE, beef is not a fundamental source of eparin and insulin; Pork is no. 1 source for eparin (China no.1) and microbial Insulin is growing fast. (***) When severing with a hollow knife, carefully collected blood is acceptable also for products intended for human consumption.

162


Giuseppe L. Pastori Master in Food Science and Technology, Milan University. He currently practices as freelance meat technologist and food consultant, specialized in research and development, applications and managing solutions. For more than twenty five years, he worked for the major companies, in the processed meat industry, in Italy and abroad, where he held manager positions in technical area (Production and R&D). He also gains interest in the recovery of by-products aimed at energy efficiency and the principles of the circular economy. He is a technical consultant to some meat and milk sector magazine. Lidano De Cesari Master in Food Science and Technology, Milan University. After his first experience as University Researcher, Institute of Food Technology - University of Milan, he spent some years as R&D Coordinator at Liquichimica Biosintesi (industrial Fermentations). Later on, he joined WR GRACE/CRYOVAC (now Sealed Air Corporation) in various R&D positions, moving finally in a variety of senior executive engagements, both domestic and international, in Sales and Marketing responsibilities, including Sales Manager Italy and Sales Director/EMEA (Cryovac Equipment Business Unit). After retirement, he continue as a freelance consultant with focus on Food Contact Plastic materials. Massimo Parisi Holds a degree in Food Science and Technology at the University of Catania in the 1996/97 academic year and qualified at the University Federico II of Naples. The professional activity is mainly focused on food safety and on the formulation of food products, working over the years both in the processing companies and in the consulting company and as a freelancer. He currently works at a consulting firm specializing in the food sector and carries out consultancy activities taking care of the audit and food self-control aspects of his customers, the quality assurance management of the accredited Accredia laboratory attached. It also carries out consultancy activities for agri-food companies for food safety certifications. Since 2010 he has been a counselor in the Order of Food Technologists of the Sicily and Sardinia Regions, later covering the role of Secretary and currently Vice-President. Daniele Romano Holds a degree in Food Science and Technologies and a Ph. D. in Food Biotechnologies from Catania University. In 2010 he became a counselor of the Food Technologies Board of Sicily and Sardinia and since 2014 he has been the Board President. In the last fifteen years, he has managed several projects on the process and formulation of new products for some Sicilian companies in the sectors of bakery products, vegetable and meat-based canned foods, ice cream, and sweet creams production. He currently holds the role of Food Technologist at Damiano S.p.A, a food industry specialized in the processing and transformation of almond and other nuts, and he is involved in research and development. Sabrina Tondato Graduated in Food Science and Technologies at the “Università degli Studi” of Udine. After a shot experience in the food supplement sector, since 2005 she works as a member of the consulting team for Food industries for “Leochimica srl” (now ALS Italia srl) in Zoppola, Pordenone. At the moment she is responsible of the Food Consulting team for ALS Italia srl, specialized in food labelling, sensorial analysis, auditing and food legislation. She is registered at the Professional Register of the Food Technologist of Friuli Venezia Giulia since 2007, and regional Counselor since 2015. Salvatore Velotto Obtained his Master degree in Food Science and Technology in 2000. He won in 2001 a position in the Ph. D. course on Animal Production Sciences and the 29th January 2004 he obtained his Ph. D. He is currently professor of Food Science and Technology at the University of Rome San Raffaele and La Sapienza. For over 15 years he has carried out research and teaching activities at the University of Naples Federico II. He is a Food Technologist with expertise in the scientific, technological, managerial and legislative field of the complex food chain system. He is from 2009 the President of the Council of Campania and Lazio Food Technologists. He has published 50 research papers on the food technology.

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MEAT Technology - A GLOSSARY of terms and concepts  

Available only in print - this is only an abstract. Glossary request: www.ecod.it The purpose of this Glossary originates from the need t...

MEAT Technology - A GLOSSARY of terms and concepts  

Available only in print - this is only an abstract. Glossary request: www.ecod.it The purpose of this Glossary originates from the need t...

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