ISSN 1614-4600 · NOV · DEC £13 · US$ 24.50 · €18.90
Review of Architecture and Construction Details · Brick Construction · Vol. 2017 · 6
∂ Review of Architecture Vol. 6, 2017 • Brick Construction Editorial office: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: +49 (0) 89 38 16 20-57 Dr. Sandra Hofmeister (editor-in-chief, V. i. S. d. P.), Sabine Drey, Andreas Gabriel, Frank Kaltenbach, Julia Liese, Michaela Linder, Peter Popp, Maria Remter, Jakob Schoof, Edith Walter, Heide Wessely Christa Schicker (freelance assistants) Dejanira Ornelas Bitterer, Marion Griese, Barbara Kissinger, Emese M. Köszegi (drawings) Editorial team DETAIL product information: Thomas Jakob, Jenny Clay Tel.: +49 (0)89-38 16 20-0 Peter Green Christ & Gantenbein pp. 42 – 49 Marc Selway (English translations) Advertising: E-mail: email@example.com Tel.: +49 (0) 89-38 16 20-48 Advertisement Sales Representative Cézanne Sales Services Denise Cézanne-Güttich Rotdornstr. 2 41352 Korschenbroich, Germany T: +49 (0)2182 578 39 73 F: +49 (0)2182 578 39 75 M: +49 (0)172 821 0095 E: firstname.lastname@example.org Distribution and marketing: E-mail: email@example.com Tel.: +49 (0) 89-38 16 20-0 Subscription contact and customer service: Vertriebsunion Meynen Grosse Hub 10 65344 Eltville, Germany E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Tel.: +49 (0) 61-23 92 38-211 Fax: +49 (0) 61-23 92 38-212 Publisher and editorial office: DETAIL Business Information GmbH Hackerbrücke 6 80335 Munich Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 89-38 16 20-0 Fax: +49 (0) 89-39 86 70 www.detail.de/english
Detail of facade of the European Hansemuseum in Lübeck by Andreas Heller Architects & Designers
Editorial The Versatility of Bricks Brickwork has had a chequered history. In the Middle Ages, it advanced to become the favourite material of municipalities; and with the advance of industrial production in the late 19th century, its fortunes reached a new peak. Only a few decades later, however, brickwork was to meet with competition from concrete, steel and glass, and today it is only one material among many. Nevertheless, the small-scale texture and haptic qualities of exposed brickwork continue to exert a special attraction. Depending on its coloration and surface character and the way the bricks are bonded and jointed, there is still an enormous range of design possibilities with this material. Some architects even develop their own bricks for a particular project, as one sees in the European Hansemuseum in Lübeck with its hand-pressed forms (see illustration) or the grey walling of the Museum of Art in Basle with its subtle colour shadings. For the house in Catalonia, on the other hand, standard blocks were used which lend the building its own rough internal and external character. Since thermal insulation calls for a multilayer form of facade construction today, brickwork can no longer be equated with the powerful load-bearing walls we know from the past. But the development towards a thin outer skin does not have to be of disadvantage. In the Discussion section, buildings are presented that are wrapped in a lightweight enclosure of perforated brickwork. The fact that monolithic forms of construction are still possible today is shown by the architects Bruno Fioretti Marquez with their housing development in Berlin – built with large-size insulating blocks (which are also considered in the Technology section). Despite their different functions – as a building skin or as a load-bearing structure – bricks remain an exciting material to use with a lot of design and technical potential. Julia Liese email@example.com
Reports 1 Editorial Julia Liese 4
SOS Brutalism – Rescue the Concrete Monstrosities Oliver Elser
Regional History Beneath the Sand: Tirpitz Museum in Blåvand Jakob Schoof
animago Award 2017, Books
Discussion 12 The Lightness of Brickwork Julia Liese
Documentation 20 Free-Standing Lift in Gironella Carles Enrich 23 House in London Russell Jones 28 European Hansemuseum in Lübeck Andreas Heller Architects & Designers 33 School Extension in Versailles Joly & Loiret Agence d’Architecture 38 House near Barcelona Harquitectes 42 Extension of the Museum of Art in Basle Christ & Gantenbein 50 Housing Developement in Berlin Bruno Fioretti Marquez Architekten 56 Housing in Gothenburg Johannes Norlander
Technology 62 Sustainable Construction with Thermally Insulating Brickwork – Production, Use, Recycling Michael Pröll, Dieter Rosen
Products 68 76 82 90
Construction Office Health and Leasure Heat Insulation and Moisture Protection
96 Service 102 Persons and organizations involved in the planning • Contractors and suppliers 104 Contributors
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Regional History Beneath the Sand: Tirpitz Museum in Blåvand
Architecture: BIG Text: Jakob Schoof Photos: Rasmus Hjørtshøj Sparse pine and birch woods with sand dunes in between covered in grass and heather: at the end of 1944, in the midst of such a setting, the Wehrmacht – the German armed forces – began to erect their largest bunker complex of all time near Blåvand on the west coast of Denmark. With two mighty cannon emplacements, the Tirpitz position was meant to defend the harbour entrance to nearby Esbjerg. The project was never completed, however, and after the war, the Danish state attempted to dynamite the more southerly of the two bunkers – abortively, as it turned out – later converting it into a museum. On top of this powerful structure with its 3.5-metre-thick external walls a transparent dome with floral decoration was placed, and this still forms the crowning feature today. In 2012, Bjarke Ingels Architects (BIG) were directly commissioned to undertake a major extension of the Tirpitz Museum. With their design, the office extrapolated the existing topography and concealed the main part of the 2,800 m² area of the building beneath the ground. Only four
masses of earth, enclosed within the angular lines of Corten steel balustrades, project from the dunes. Between them, gently sloping ramps lead up to the central square of the museum, which is surrounded by bluish, reflecting sunscreen glass. Via a glazed corridor, visitors have access to the somewhat scantly dimensioned reception area, where the cafe is situated. From there, a staircase leads down to the principal storey of the museum, where four independent exhibition areas are grouped about a central circulation space. In one of these galleries, audio stations provide eyewitness recordings with information about events during the Second World War. In the second hall, regional history is documented; and in the third, visitors can learn all about the formation and artistic uses of amber. The fourth gallery is empty at pres-ent, but it is foreseen as a space for special exhibitions in the future. A long tunnel with thick, rolled-steel plate flooring links the central museum area with the interior of the bunker. Where the route for visitors bends off to the right is a mirrored pivoting
door. This can be turned aside to open up a second section of the tunnel, thereby allowing exhibits to be transported directly from the parking area on the road to the display spaces. The entrances to the four galleries were also conceived with huge pivoting doors, which in normal use are open by only a narrow slit, but which for exhibition purposes can be turned aside completely by hand to facilitate the implementation of the museum programme. The contrast between the low distribution spaces on the one hand – which are without natural lighting and where the ceilings and walls are clad with perforated acoustic elements of blackened sheet steel – and the exhibition galleries on the other could hardly be greater. Daylight enters the halls at an upper level through structural glazing in the facades. The glazing is up to six metres high, and the largest panes are as much as 17 m² in area. The facades are entirely free of load-bearing columns. The exposed concrete roof areas, which are up to 1,000 m² in extent, are thus freely cantilevered out from the rear enclosing walls. The ceiling downlights were specially designed for the museum and fit precisely in the grid of shuttering holes in the concrete soffit. For the floor, 30 ≈ 30 cm end-grain slabs were assembled on a double-floor system, beneath which all other services for the exhibition spaces were installed. When required, the halls can be darkened with the aid of internal roller blinds. In order not impair the appearance of the soffits, the motor-operated blinds are fitted at the foot of the fenestration and closed in an upward movement. In addition to its notable overall form, many such surprising, yet pragmatic, detail solutions contribute to the convincing overall impression made by the museum building. Only the accessible roof areas have suffered significantly from the initial surge of visitors: the plantings have been decimated, and the signs of erosion cannot be overlooked. Not without good reason, municipal representatives elsewhere are seeking to keep the tourist masses away from sensitive dune landscapes.
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Axonometric view of lower floor 1 Bunker museum 2 Museum for Regional History 3 Special exhibitions 4 Workshop space 5 Amber Museum 6 World War Museum (audio stations) 7 Cloakroom/Store/ Mechanical services
1 6 2
Layout plan, lower level scale 1:1000 1 Cloakroom 2 Workshop space 3 World War Museum 4 Amber Museum 5 Special exhibitions 6 Museum for Regional History 7 Bunker Museum
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Free-Standing Lift in Gironella
Architecture: Carles Enrich Photos: Adrià Goula The coarse-textured outer skin of the lift shaft, which consists of perforated bricks set on edge, immediately betrays the fact that this envelope does not have a loadbearing function. On the contrary, its light, open appearance allows the internal steel structure of the roughly 24-metre-high lift tower to shimmer through. In the evening, when the brick skin is illuminated from inside, the pattern of the perforations is quite distinct. During the day, in contrast, the envelope appears closed and makes a clear a reference to the red-brick facades of the industrial buildings on the banks of the River Llobregat. Here, in the lower part of Giro nella, the town has witnessed continuous growth, whereas the historic city on the hill
above has become depopulated over the years. In the past, it was accessible from the river solely via a steep, off-putting staircase. The lift now links the old urban centre – with medieval buildings in part – and the treelined river promenade in the new town. The lower section of the lift structure, where the trees afford shade, is constructed in glass. Above the treetops, the glazed cabin is shielded on three sides by the brick outer skin. This filters the sunlight, facilitates a throughflow of air and affords shade. The side facing the medieval retaining wall has been left open, allowing an unim-peded view of this roughly 20-metre-high historic structure, which consists partly of bare rock and partly of stone walling.
Plans • Elevation scale 1:100
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Free-Standing Lift in Gironella
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1 1 brick wall: vertically cored bricks 275/125/93 mm 2 80/80 mm steel angle 3 80/80/8 mm steel SHS 4 balustrade 5 12 mm laminated safety glass 6 sliding door: glass in steel frame 7 glazed lift cabin 8 metal bridge: 10 mm chequerplate 9 80/80/6 mm steel SHS 10 rainwater gutter 11 100/100 mm steel angle 12 30/30 mm steel angle
Horizontal section Vertical sections scale 1:10
10 10 12 12 9 9
3 9 9
1 1 3
3 5 5
Review of Architecture + Construction Detail Published by: DETAIL Business Information GmbH Hackerbrücke 6, 80335 Munich, Germany Tel.: +49 (0)89-38 16 20-0 www.detail.de PO Box: Postfach 20 10 54, 80010 Munich, Germany Managing director: Karin Lang Publishing director: Claudia Langert Editorial team: (address as above) Tel.: +49 (0)89-38 16 20-57 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Dr. Sandra Hofmeister (editor-in-chief, (V. i. S. d. P.)), Sabine Drey, Andreas Gabriel, Frank Kaltenbach, Julia Liese, Michaela Linder, Peter Popp, Maria Remter, Jakob Schoof, Edith Walter, Heide Wessely Dejanira Ornelas Bitterer, Marion Griese, Barbara Kissinger, Emese M. Köszegi (drawings) Editorial team DETAIL product information: Thomas Jakob, Jenny Clay Tel.: +49 (0)89-38 16 20-0 English translations: Peter Green Christ & Gantenbein pp. 42 – 49 Production /DTP: Peter Gensmantel (manager), Michael Georgi, Cornelia Kohn, Andrea Linke, Roswitha Siegler, Simone Soesters Distribution & Marketing: Kristina Weiss (manager). Irene Schweiger (sales) Tel.: +49 (0)89-38 16 20-25 Advertising: Annett Köberlein (manager), Claudia Wach (sales administrator) Tel.: +49 (0)89-38 16 20-24 Advertisement Sales Representative Cézanne Sales Services Denise Cézanne-Güttich Rotdornstr. 2 41352 Korschenbroich Germany T: +49 (0)2182 578 39 73 F: +49 (0)2182 578 39 75 M: +49 (0)172 821 0095 E: email@example.com
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ISSN 1614-4600 · NOV · DEC £13 · US$ 24.50 · €18.90
Review of Architecture and Construction Details · Brick Construction · Vol. 2017 · 6
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Cover 6_2017: European Hansemuseum in Lübeck Architects: Andreas Heller Architects & Designers Black-and-white photos indroducing main sections: page 3: Tirpitz-Museum in Blåvand Architects: BIG, Copenhagen page 11: Housing block, Ho Chi Minh City Architects: Sanuki Daisuke Architects, Ho-Chi-Minh-Stadt page 19: Free-Standing Lift in Gironella Architect: Carles Enrich, Barcelona page 61: LT House in Longh Thanh Architects: Tropical Space, Ho Chi Minh City page 67: Church in Vilanova de la Barca Architects: AleaOlea architecture & landscape, Barcelona Photo Credits Photos for which no credit is given were either provided by the respective architects or they are product photos from the DETAIL archives. pp. 1, 28 – 32, 104 midddle: Werner Huthmacher pp. 3, 6 bottom, 7: Rasmus Hijortshøj p. 4 top: Gili Merin 2017 p. 4 bottom: Jason Hood 2016 p. 5: Paolo Mazzo 2010 p. 6 top: BIG Bjarke Ingels Group pp. 11, 16, 17: Hiroyuki Oki pp. 12 bottom, 12/13, 61: Trieu Chien pp. 12 middle, 14, 19, 20 – 22, 38 – 41, 67, 104 right: Adrià Goula p. 15: Tim Soar p. 18: Iwan Baan pp. 23 – 27: Rory Gardiner pp. 33 – 36: Schnepp Renou
pp. 42 – 43, 45 bottom: Kunstmuseum Basel, Julian Salinas p. 44: Kunstmuseum Basel, Photo: Stefano Graziani pp. 45 top, 47: Stefano Graziani pp. 48, 49: Radu Malasincu p. 48: ® VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2017 ® Judd Foundation / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2017 pp. 50 – 55: Christoph Rokitta p. 56: Ulf Celander pp. 57, 59, 60: Rasmus Norlander p. 65: Ernst Fesseler p. 104 left: Harquitectes p. 68 top, bottom centre: Delfino Sisto Legnani + Marco Cappelletti p. 68 top, bottom right: People's Architecture Office / Gao Tianxia p. 69 top left, middle: Novelis p. 69 top, bottom right: Paul Zanre Photography p. 70 top right: Alex de Rijke/dRMM p. 70 middle right: Jasmin Sohi/dRMM p. 72 top centre, right, middle right: Paul Thomas Photographic Ltd p. 74 top right: Jenny Clay p. 74 middle left, bottom left, right: Agnese Sanvito p. 76: Julia Maria Max p. 78 top centre: Studio 2.0 p. 80 top left, middle left: Jasper Sanidad P. 84 top left, centre, bottom left: Sun Resorts p. 84 top right, bottom right: Richard James Taylor for Belmond Andean Explorer p. 86 top left: Sergio Grazia p. 86 top right, bottom: Morten Rakke Photography p. 88 top centre, right, bottom centre: Simon Miles Photography p. 92 bottom, right: Bradley Cameron p. 94 bottom, left: The Westgate Oxford Alliance
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Sustainable Construction with Thermally Insulating Brickwork – Production, Use, Recycling
Text: Michael Pröll, Dieter Rosen Bricks as a constructional material have been an essential part of our building culture for thousands of years, but their nature has undergone change. In recent decades, political intervention, seeking a drastic reduction of energy consumption, has led to a radical shift. The small solid brick of former times has developed into a much larger, high-tech product with strong thermal-insulation properties. Only in this way was it possible to continue using monolithic forms of construction – single-skin brick outer walls without additional thermal insulation – and still comply with the new energy standards. Bricks differ from other walling blocks in their material make-up. As a ceramic product, they have a capillary structure that is moisture diffusing and possesses good hygrothermal properties. In contrast to hydraulically bonded materials like calcareous sand, aerated or lightweight concrete, bricks are dry ex-works. Temperature-, moisture- or load-related deformation is minimal. Bricks do not contain pollutants, and they contribute to a healthy spatial climate. In view of their long, virtually maintenancefree life (ill. 6), brick buildings are regarded as particularly good in terms of their value stability. A distinction is made between facing bricks and common bricks. Single-skin external walls are usually constructed with common bricks that are not frost-resistant and need
to be protected against the weather. Walls of this kind are usually wet rendered/plastered on both faces. Suitable mineral mixes are matched to the brick backing and ensure stable conditions for the long life of a facade. Facing bricks (also engineering bricks) are used only in double-skin walls and are mostly found in an unrendered exposed form. They are frost-resistant, robust and absorb scarcely any moisture. In view of modern energy standards, in heated buildings, this kind of brick can be used only for thermally discrete external skins outside a thermally insulated basic structure. Manufacturing thermally insulated bricks Bricks, as a natural building material, are made with earth, water and fire. The basic raw material is clay, which consists largely of loam (Al2O3 ) and sand (SiO2 ). Cored bricks acquire their form and perforations via a mouthpiece at the end of a vacuum extrusion press. Before this can happen, however, the material has to be processed. The raw material excavated from the pit is crushed to a grain size of less than 1 mm. Water is added to this to increase the plasticity. To optimize the thermal insulating properties, the density of the bricks is reduced through the use of “lightweight” loams, through a porofication of the brick and through the nature of the perforations.
Thermal conductivity λ [W/mK]
Typical values for fired bricks lie between 550 and 900 kg/m3. Additives such as sawdust, recycled paper fibres and polystyrene can be mixed with the loam. During the firing process, at around 900 °C, these burn up completely, leaving behind micropores. The encapsulated pockets of air reduce the specific gravity and improve the thermal insulation properties of the brick. As early as 1959, an application was made to patent the pore-making process. Since 2001, the voids in larger-scale thermally insulating blocks have been filled with insulating material. This was an essential step in the development to avoid heat radiation, convection, etc. within the voids. For this purpose, mainly mineral insulation was used such as perlite, mineral-wool pads, or loose mineral-wool filling, and occasionally thermal insulation material with an organic basis such as wood fibres or polystyrene. The proportion of filling is about 6 per cent. As a result of these measures and the additional use of new coring geometries or greater thicknesses of the walls of the brick, it was possible to improve sound insulation and the load-bearing capacity, too, at a single stroke. Concentrating mainly on thermal insulation had led to insulating bricks with extremely slender walls. With thicknesses of only 3 mm, perforated bricks of this kind were ultimately unable to meet the requirements of multistorey housing. Recognition of
Peak values for thermal conductivity in W/mK for walling in vertically cored bricks 1
Loading effect nEd ≤ Loading resistance nRd
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275 3 storeys
Typical compressive strength of brickwork fk in MN/m²
this fact has led, over the past 15 years, to the development of stronger vertically cored bricks specially made for multistorey housing. In addition to their low thermal conductivity, they have a much greater load-bearing capacity with which buildings up to eight storeys in height can be implemented in monolithic brick construction. At the same time, the constructional acoustic qualities of thermally insulating bricks has been optimized to meet increased sound-insulating requirements. Technical evaluation With the latest generation of thermally insulating bricks, it has been possible greatly to improve other technical properties as well –
compressive strength, sound insulation and fire protection – all of which are important considerations in the context of multistorey housing. For this building type, an external wall thickness of 36.5 to 42.5 cm has established itself for monolithic forms of construction. With U-values of 0.18 – 0.25 W/(m2K) this complies with energy standards that make it eligible for official support from the Reconstruction Loan Corporation (KfW) banking group. What is more, in view of their comparatively high density (800 – 900 kg/m3 in multistorey housing), modern bricks and blocks possess a great thermal storage mass and thus have a regulating effect on temperatures. In modern multistorey housing, increased sound insulation is often a
Values attainable with brickwork in thermally insulating bricks
Thermal conductivity U-values – wall thickness 30 cm – wall thickness 36,5 cm – wall thickness 42,5 cm
Direct sound-insulation value
R W,Bau,ref = 48 up to 52 dB
Calculated airborne sound-insulation value
R'W ≥ 55 dB
Fire resistance from 30 cm thickness
up to 90 mins. and firewall
Compression strength of brickwork according to German standard DIN EN1996
fk = 3,0 up to 5,2 MN/m2
further requirement. In brick forms of construction, the airborne sound insulation value necessary for this (R'w ≥ 55 dB) is normally achieved with 24 cm party walls in perforated blocks with a concrete filling. These walls are tied into the flanking external wall construction – in thermally insulating bricks – which, in turn, must have a direct sound-insulation value of R'w ≥ 48 dB (ill. 7). In the context of fire protection, too, brickwork has to comply with strict building regulations. Produced in a firing process, bricks are classified as a non-combustible building material, according to European standards, and have a fire-resistance of long duration. They do not result in fire loads, and they emit no fumes.
Types of product
¬ = 0,07 up to 0,12 W/mK U = 0,25 up to 0,30 W/m2K U = 0,21 up to 0,28 W/m2K U = 0,18 up to 0,26 W/m2K
1 2 3 4 5
Seven-storey housing block, Kronen site, Memmingen Siebendächer Baugenossenschaft eG History of thermal conductivity in vertically cored bricks Load-bearing capacity of monolithic brickwork Capacity of modern thermally insulated bricks in multistorey housing construction Production of aggregate
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Coordinating furniture styles The Kamos Plus and Kamos Pure collections from Newform Ufficio can be used separately or together for optimal planning of closed offices and open spaces, where the same suite of finishes is desired. Both are built with quality and ergonomics at the forefront, says the company. Below, Kamos Plus boasts refined styling details and is available in a wide choice of finishes including Tundra elm and Tenebra walnut. With its minimal lines it is described as a mid-level executive style, and is shown here with coordinating wall cabinets. Kamos Pure, seen bottom, is a flexible and economic solution, in both metal and wood versions. This collection is said to offer a huge potential with best price performance, particularly for open-plan offices, which can be more difficult to furnish. Again, this comes with cabinetry and also a curved desk option. The small desk shown here has built-in storage, and would make a suitable choice for a dynamic/desk-sharing set-up. Elm and walnut finishes, shared with Kamos Plus, are combined with Virgilio ash and a grey finish, with a metal structure. www.newformufficio.it
Modular tables are made to measure and easy to dismantle The historic Villa Blanc in Rome has recently found a new use as a campus for the LUISS Business School. Careful preservation work under the supervision of architect Massimo Picciotto has restored the building complex and the surrounding park, adapting the premises to its new educational role. For the spectacular space that is the Aula Magna hall (shown top, left), Marcel Breuer chairs and A 1700 Evolution system tables from Thonet were chosen. The modular tables, designed by Uwe Sommerlade, have been made in customised dimensions for this new lecture and event space. In solid sessile oak and Resopal® decorative laminates, the made-to-measure tables with multimedia integration are easy to dismantle and reassemble when the space is needed for special events. Classic Marcel Breuer S 64 cantilever chairs in tubular steel (artistic copyright Mart Stam) were designed in 1929 and became an emblem of the Bauhaus movement. Here they are personalised with blue Kvadrat® upholstery and solid oak armrests, to fit in with their sophisticated surroundings. With a black finish, the A 1700 table system has a completely different look in the meet-
ing room above, paired with the S 60 cantilever chair. New leg styles recently joined the table product offering, for example, an elegantly curved cast aluminium foot stabiliser in three different sizes looks lightweight and replaces the former flat steel base on the new T-leg. Inlays of wood, leather or other materials can also be inserted, giving further scope for individualisation. The S 60 seat shell in moulded wood is connected with the chrome-plated tubular steel frame via the armrests. Milled openings ensure a comfortable sitting climate and visually structure the backrest. Upholstery is leather or fabric, with armrests in elastomeric plastic or leather. Top right, the S 95 conference chair comes in different versions to cover a broad spectrum of uses. Two backrest heights are available for the cantilever chair (which has a specially developed tilt mechanism providing a comfortable cantilever effect) and for the swivel chair versions with four-leg cross frame and optional castors. A return mechanism on the swivel chairs ensures that the seat returns to its original position when the user rises. www.thonet.de
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Streamlined soundproofing Glass partitions are a good way of creating an open-plan ambience within offices but poor sound insulation can be an issue. CRL has addressed this with its Office Partition XL system, which can accommodate 28 mm insulating glass to insulate against sound transmission up to 42 dB, offering an effective solution for modern interior design. Installation is designed to be quick and simple – the height of hinged doors can be easily adjusted, glass fabrication is not required and the doors can be installed in mounted ceiling profiles in wall-to-glass or glass-toglass applications. Floor-to-ceiling doors can also be mounted if desired. Hinges, latches and handle sets are available. Suitable for 180 °, 135 ° and 90 ° abutment joints, T-connections and corner joints, the standard dry-glazed system provides maximum transparency and an elegant appearance with its thin, powder-coated profiles, available in a satin-anodised or brushednickel finish. For 8 to 16 mm monolithic toughened glass or laminated glass, the profiles are supplied with EPDM fixing gaskets in black or grey. www.crlaurence.co.uk
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Customisable carpet choice Designers and creators of carpets and rugs for over 30 years, the Crucial Trading floor covering company says it constantly looks at new ways to work with natural fibres. Now it has developed a hospitality collection made from 100 % wool for use in offices and hotel lobbies and bedrooms as well as bars, restaurants and retail spaces, enabling brands and businesses to create the right first impression. This customisable collection provides a diverse variety of choice combining quality materials with hard-wearing longevity and comfort underfoot. Designed with specifiers, architects and interior designers in mind, the collection consists of 40 wool structures from single-loop to more complex patterns in a choice of 35 different colours. In addition, if desired two or more colours can be woven together to create a bespoke product. An online Hospitality Builder takes clients through the process, from pattern and colour selection to reviewing the final design for submission. The average turnaround time from ordering to delivery is six to eight weeks.
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