Leisure and Movement in Urban Space Edition âˆ‚
4 Sports culture in everyday life Sandra Hofmeister 12 Trends in sports hall construction Roland Pawlitschko 20 Active cities Jakob Schoof
MIXED USE 28 Sports hall with ﬂats in Copenhagen, DK Dorte Mandrup 40 Social housing with two sports halls in Paris, FR AAVP Architecture 50 Canteen with ﬁtness rooms in Gif-sur-Yvette, FR Studio Muoto OUTDOORS 60 Playground and sports ground in Copenhagen, DK JAJA Architects 68 Multipurpose building at the Escola Gavina in Valencia, ES Carmel Gradoli, Arturo Sanz, Carmen Martinez Arquitectos LIGHT 80 Sports hall in Es Puig d’en Valls, ES MCEA Arquitectura 94 Campus extension in Madrid, ES Estudio Arquitectura Campo Baeza
106 Gymnasium in Chelles, FR LAN Architecture 116 Sports hall in Villach, AT Dietger Wissounig Architekten 128 Sports hall in Bietigheim-Bissingen, DE Auer Weber CONSTRUCTION 140 School sports hall in Zurich, CH Christian Kerez 150 Sports centre in Sargans, CH Hildebrand & Ruprecht Architekten 162 Sports education and training centre Mülimatt in Brugg / Windisch, CH Studio Vacchini Architetti 176 Energetic refurbishment of a gym in Berlin, DE ludloff + ludloff Architekten 190 Sports hall in Calais, FR Bureau faceB
APPENDIX 202 Authors Picture credits 203 Project participants 208 Imprint
Sports culture in everyday life
Living, working, recreation and circulation: the Athens Charter (1933) organised the city into separate functional units. Individual urban quarters were to fulﬁl these functions and be connected with each other by transport axes. As a manifesto for the urban development of modernity, largely formulated by Le Corbusier, the Athens Charter drew up guidelines that attracted widespread interest after World War II. To this very day, the planning of post-war modernity, with its functionally separated quarters, characterises many cities and the negative impact is obvious. Mono-functional dormitory or office districts that are deserted during the day or in the evenings, are a consequence of the function-based urban concept, just as the noisy traffic arteries of the car-friendly city. Since leisure and sports, too, were considered separate functional units, large sports facilities or amusement parks were often accommodated in separate areas away from residential and office districts. 4
WORK-LIFE BALANCE Though these large sports palaces or leisure complexes from the 1960s and 1970s usually offer a wide range of facilities, they are, from today’s perspective, rather difficult to integrate into the everyday life of the city, since the distances to these sports venues are long. Nevertheless, sport in the 21st century is becoming increasingly important in society. This is supported not only by the mediatisation of major events such as the Olympic Games or the
World Cup but also, and above all, by growing health awareness in the interest of a work-life balance. Sport is omnipresent and pervades the everyday life of people in the city. This applies to all age groups and social classes. Compatibility with a usually strictly regulated daily routine, however, plays a decisive role here. Surely it is convenient when the yoga studio around the corner from the office can be visited during the lunch break or when the park for Nordic walking after work is right on the doorstep and if local sports clubs are allowed to use the gyms of the district schools in the immediate vicinity as well. Instead of spatially and functionally separated zones for sport, its connectivity and integration into people’s everyday life is important today. The closer ﬁtness studios, massage therapists or dance classes are to places of
Cultural and Sports Centre Wangari Maathai in Paris: According to Bruther's concept, the uses of the new building are stacked vertically. This creates room for outdoor sports grounds despite the urban density of the Saint-Blaise district.
SPORTS CULTURE IN EVERYDAY LIFE
residence or work, the more likely they are to be attended. For architecture and urban planning, this means that smaller sports buildings should be spread across the entire city area. However, especially in densely built-up large cities, this is a planning challenge: in the course of redensiﬁcation, areas for sports, too, must be found and corresponding spaces created. Commercial premises can be reused for sports activities or already existing halls of municipal facilities converted, so that various users can utilise them for different types of sport. As diverse as the spaces for sport, however, are the architectural and planning requirements, which vary depending on the type of sport and location. Architects who conceive and implement these buildings must therefore address the speciﬁc requirements and needs in each case. Ultimately, the objective is to integrate the new sports facilities into the respective context and equip them with qualities such as daylight and a spatial ambience, as well as implement acoustically effective measures. The more pleasant the atmosphere of the facilities, the more readily athletes, too, can enjoy their leisure time. MIXED USE Gyms and library spaces, dance halls, as well as an open-air swimming pool on the roof: the new Sesc 24 de Maio in São Paulo, completed in 2017, stacks its extensive range of cultural, sporting and medical facilities on a total of 14 ﬂoors. The building, designed by the Brazilian Pritzker Prize laureate Paulo Mendes da Rocha and MMBB Arquitetos, is located in the dense and lively business district of the historical centre of the metropolis. Up to 5,000 visitors daily visit the non-proﬁt facility of the Serviço Social do Comércio (Sesc), the services of which are aimed at socially disadvantaged families. Young and old people read newspapers and books in the library, participate in the numerous sports 6
classes on the 8th and 9th ﬂoors or attend the evening theatre performance. The successful mixed use was inspired by the conversion of the former barrel factory Sesc Pompéia (1986) by Lina Bo Bardi. A ramp in the rear provides access to all ﬂoors of the building housing the individual functions. Instead of solely a “sports temple”, as it were, a lively and multilayered sports and cultural centre was created here, which is oriented towards the speciﬁc needs of the people – even including a free-of-charge visit to the dentist. Mixed-use concepts such as these are adopted because they integrate sports and leisure in the immediate living environment and everyday life of users. Current buildings with similarly complex utilisation concepts, which are at present being created in many places, are models for a new typology with future potential. In Copenhagen, the Danish architect Dorte Mandrup created a hybrid comprising a supermarket, sports areas and ﬂats with her design for Sundbyøster Hall 2. The three different uses of the new building are recognisable in the differentiated facade design (p. 28ff). This example makes clear that sport in an urban environment is turning into a form of usage on a par with retailing, ﬂats or offices. OUTDOOR SPACES Outdoor sports are also possible in the city. In many metropolitan cities, the prerequisites for this have been established for a long time. Beach volleyball players characterise the image of the wide sandy beach of the Copacabana in Rio de Janeiro, while at the famous seafront promenade, which was given a distinctive appearance by Roberto Burle Marx’s ﬂoor patterns of ornamental waves, there are stretching bars and other ﬁtness equipment installed at regularly spaced intervals. Those who display their biceps in pull-ups here have, however, usually trained extensively beforehand.
In many cities, lawns or other open spaces, such as sandy spaces between buildings, are used by amateur footballers in an ad hoc manner—as temporary playing ﬁelds for the duration of a football match. More recent types of sport such as parkour or skateboarding also occupy open spaces and existing architecture to test daring feats on squares, ramps or staircases, sometimes much to the chagrin of owners. In response to these trend sports, special spaces for outdoor sports are being planned in many cities. The roofs of buildings often provide space for skate parks with ramps, halfpipes or grinds. Volleyball courts and basketball hoops can be integrated into urban green areas, similarly to playgrounds previously. Even a glittering office building, such as the fully glazed Salewa headquarters in Bolzano, designed by the Milanese architects Park Associati, has a public climbing wall on its facade. Here, amateur climbers and professionals can train on 8 spit lines and 22 routes.
CONSTRUCTION TYPES In spite of the new trend sports, classic sports halls still comprise a large proportion of the sports facilities on offer. These are often visible as individual annexes to existing historical school buildings or as separate sports centres in the cityscape, though many seem to have gotten a bit long in the tooth. Other such buildings were conceived as architecturally modest boxes, also with respect to the spatial experience they offer inside. New construction types, in contrast, are leading to the realisation of sophisticated architecture for sports, which can also be implemented with consideration for the costs and the employed construction materials. Lightweight construction methods using timber permit large spans while creating a special ambience in the interior, as in the spacious sports centre in Sargans by Hildebrand & Ruprecht Architects
The skate park in Mérida is also used at night. José Selgas and Lucía Cano designed the Factoriá Joven youth centre as an ensemble of pavilions and open spaces.
The Vertical Gym by Urban-Think Tank accommodates various sports and culture on four ﬂoors. The building in a densely populated, poor district of Caracas was inexpensively built from prefabricated elements.
SPORTS CULTURE IN EVERYDAY LIFE
Sports hall with ﬂats in Copenhagen
Living, shopping and doing sports under a single roof—the Sundbyøster Hall 2 in the Amager neighbourhood combines these three functions in an unconventional manner. A supermarket, a sports hall and penthouse ﬂats have been stacked on top of each other, forming a large hybrid with a nuanced design. In doing so, the different uses remain clearly discernible: the supermarket is located on the ground ﬂoor and above it is the sports hall, whose red facade elements take up the colour of the neighbouring brick buildings, while the twelve aluminium-clad penthouses, spanning the entire breadth of the building, are positioned on top. The sports hall forms the core of the complex and extends the range of sports and recreation activities for the children of the neighbouring Sundbyøster school while it can also be used by sports clubs on afternoons and evenings. The hall and ﬂats have a common entrance area on the eastern side. The stairs and seating steps lead across the brightly lit space and up to the changing rooms, the hall and the stand. The latter is located on the front side, since the playing ﬁeld occupies almost the entire width of the plot. The gymnastics hall, glazed to full height on two sides and housed above the changing rooms, is accessed via the stand. The sports hall, measuring 20 × 40 × 9 m, is a light-ﬂooded space that is visually connected to the street life thanks to large corner glazing. To ensure that daylight can enter as glare-free as possible, the facade elements are sloped: 28
on their inner sides, they reﬂect and scatter the light into the hall through the full-height glazed slits between the elements. The sports hall and the supermarket were prescribed in the space allocation plan, while other functions were optional, though limited by the small plot and the maximum building height. The Copenhagen-based architect Dorte Mandrup, who developed this usage combination for the public-private partnership project in cooperation with an investor, was only able to realise the residential ﬂoor by integrating the hall beams on the penthouse level. Hence, the 2.80 m high and 20 cm thick in-situ concrete beams, with their span of 24 m, simultaneously form cross-walls and dividing walls for the ﬂats. The resulting 24 m long and only 5 m wide ﬂats are accessed by an arcade along the southern facade. Here, small, wood-panelled cubes form semi-private entrance areas. The courtyards, centrally cut into the penthouses, bring daylight into the deep and narrow ﬂoor plan. The two-storey dining and living area is additionally lit by elevated, room-wide ribbon windows. Moreover, the gallery and the south-facing roof terrace extend the living area by a second level. In order to meet the high sound insulation requirements in housing construction, the sports hall had to be acoustically decoupled. This resulted in the creation of a diverse and lively urban building block that encourages synergies without the uses disturbing each other. MIXED USE
SPORTS HALL WITH FLATS IN COPENHAGEN, DK
Location Copenhagen, DK Completion 2015 Construction period 18 months
Dimensions of the sports hall (l × w × h) 62.00 × 27.00 × 8,30 m
Programme / Functions Ground ﬂoor: shops / supermarket First ﬂoor: sports hall, activity hall Second ﬂoor: housing Structure The 2,800 mm high and 200 mm thick in-situ concrete beams are monolithically connected to a 180 mm thick in-situ concrete slab over the hall and also serve as dividing walls between the dwellings. In order to reduce sound transmission, the ﬂoors of the dwellings were executed as ﬂoated screeds on a 25 mm layer of insulation, separated from the walls by insulating strips.
Use for sports facilities The sports hall spans two ﬂoors and is adaptable to accommodate different styles and sizes of events and sports such as badminton, tennis, basketball, football or soccer. Grandstand with approx. 100 seats.
Lighting Natural light and artiﬁcial light for the sports area Ventilation Centralised system for retail and sports hall, decentralised systems for each housing unit. Heat recovery for all units.
Site plan scale 1:6000 1 2 3 4
Sundbyøster Hall 2 Sundbyøster School Existing sports hall Sundbyøster Square 1 2
Sections Floor plans scale 1:750 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Supermarket Residents’ parking Access to sports hall and dwellings Sports hall Mechanical services Steps for sitting Store Changing room Void Gym Access balcony Bedroom Kitchen / Dining area Courtyard Living area Gallery
12 15 14 13 16 12 11 Third ﬂoor
8 10 4
5 First ﬂoor
Second ﬂoor b
2 1 c
c 3 a
SPORTS HALL WITH FLATS IN COPENHAGEN, DK
MULTIPURPOSE BUILDING AT THE ESCOLA GAVINA IN VALENCIA, ES
Campus extension in Madrid
A large complex complements the private Francisco de Vitoria university founded in the 1990s in Pozuelo de Alarcón on the western outskirts of Madrid. The pure, gleaming white building, designed by the architect Alberto Campo Baeza from Madrid, is divided into two parts that are clearly differentiated both in terms of their size as well as the facade design. While the sports hall is a brightly lit volume with extensive glazing that opens up towards the outside, the ﬂanking two-storey wing, with its seminar rooms and offices, is a more introverted cube with a perforated facade. Both structures are connected by a single-storey central section, which accommodates entrances, a foyer and a café; its ﬂat roof acts as a terrace, which is accessible via the seminar rooms and the stand. Not visible from the outside, the basement houses multipurpose rooms, a gym, changing rooms and two swimming pools. The facades of the 50 m long, 38 m wide and 12 m high sports hall are designed to optimally supply daylight to the interior, while simultaneously responding to the climatic conditions of central Spain. Hence, the northern and eastern sides chieﬂy consist of translucent insulating glazing, which admits glare-free, scattered light into the hall. The southern facade, by contrast, is completely clad in white, only 10 mm thick glass-ﬁbre-reinforced concrete panels. The western side, ori94
Estudio Arquitectura Campo Baeza
ented towards the afternoon sun, is also largely closed. Here, however, the lower area, with its continuous glazing extending across the building corners, provides direct visual contact between the inside and the outside, between the activities in the hall and on the central square of the campus; three large entrance doors are also integrated into the glazed ribbon and oriented directly towards the square. This corresponds with glazing that extends across the entire length of the building on the opposite facade towards the roof terrace, permitting visual contact towards both sides. The sports hall has a steel structure whose 3.10 m high steel trussed girders span the hall width of 37.80 m. The loadbearing structure and all surfaces in the interior are designed in white—both the acoustic panels on the walls and the ceiling, as well as the ceramic surface of the stand. On the one hand, the monochrome and bright surfaces scatter the incoming light, while on the other, they lend the space surprising lightness. Restriction to only a few selected materials and the chromatically homogeneous design underline its almost abstract impact. In the evening, the pavilion-like structure gleams from the inside like a luminary, further emphasising the immaterial, ﬂoating impression. Apart from its use as a sports hall, it also offers an attractive setting for conferences and universitybased events. LIGHT
CAMPUS EXTENSION IN MADRID, ES
Location Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, ES Completion 2016 Construction period 13 months
Programme / Functions Sports hall (3,300 m2), gymnasium (1,300 m2), swimming pool (1,100 m2), school with classrooms (800 m2), canteen, physiotherapy Structure Sports pavilion: steel structure Seminar and office volume: reinforced concrete
Dimensions of the sports hall (l × w × h) 60 × 50 × 12 m Use Basketball, indoor football, swimming (25 m) et al. The sports complex can also be used as a large multipurpose area and meeting hall, facilitating a range of university activities. Grandstand with 198 seats
Lighting The sports hall is conceived as a light box. Generous amounts of daylight enter through the north and east facades of the hall, made largely of translucent glass. The white surfaces of the interior increase the brightness of the room. Ventilation Differentiated and independent treatment of the sports zones in respect of their occupancy. For the sports hall, there is a system of temperature control, heating and cooling and ventilation.
Site plan scale 1:12 500
Section Floor plans scale 1:1000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Weight-lifting Multi-purpose room Fitness Waiting room Swimming pool Sports hall Main entrance Entrance hall with café Kitchen Office Shop Void Spectator stand Terrace Seminar room
15 15 12 13
a 10 6
CAMPUS EXTENSION IN MADRID, ES
Vertical sections scale 1:50 1
160 –380 mm precast prestressed folded frame element in self-compacting concrete 2 mm plastic sealing layer 160 –380 mm precast prestressed folded frame element as Pos.1 steel connecting plate; grouted joint sealing layer 18 mm oriented-strand board 80/180 mm wood bearers/ 180 mm mineral-ﬁbre thermal insulation 22 mm oriented-strand board vapour barrier 50 mm cement-bonded wood-wool acoustic soffit post-and-rail facade: 70/70/4 mm steel SHSs triple glazing: 6 mm toughened glass + 14 mm cavity + 6 mm ﬂoat glass + 14 mm cavity + 12 mm lam. safety glass aluminium ﬁxing strips 5 –8 mm neoprene/polyurethane 95 mm reinforced screed 0.2 mm polythene sheeting 40 mm impact-sound insulation 0.2 mm polythene sheeting 300 mm reinforced concrete
MÃœLIMATT SPORTS EDUCATION AND TRAINING CENTRE IN BRUGG / WINDISCH, CH
MÃœLIMATT SPORTS EDUCATION AND TRAINING CENTRE IN BRUGG / WINDISCH, CH
Sandra Hofmeister is editor-in-chief of Detail magazine. After studying history of art and Romance studies in Berlin and Munich, she received her doctorate at the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich. She was editor-in-chief of the German edition of Domus from 2012 to 2015. Her articles on architecture and design have been published in international newspapers, magazines and books. In addition to her work as an editor and publisher, Sandra Hofmeister is a lecturer at the Faculty of Architecture of the Technical University of Munich.
Dorte Mandrup Front cover (Horizontal section,
Roland Pawlitschko is an architect, freelance author, editor, translator and architecture critic. After studying architecture at the Technical Universities of Karlsruhe and Vienna, he worked with various German and Austrian architecture ﬁrms. Today he curates exhibitions on architecture and the public sphere, organises architectural excursions and writes articles and essays that are published in books, magazines and daily newspapers. Collaborating with the Detail editorial team since 2007, he has written and designed print and online articles, especially for Detail structure. Jakob Schoof is editor at Detail, where his responsibilities are chieﬂy focused on specialised publications and special issues on energy efﬁciency and sustainability. After studying architecture at the University of Karlsruhe, he worked for the architectural magazine AIT from 2000 to 2009, initially as a trainee, then as editor and ﬁnally as divisional director of Corporate Publishing. Apart from editing, he gives lectures and chairs events, preferably in the ﬁeld of sustainable building and climate protection.
Sports hall with ﬂats in Copenhagen)
Javier Callejas Back cover (Campus extension in Madrid) Alexandra Timpau 5 Iwan Baan 7 bottom, 16 Iwan Baan VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019 7 top, 22 top Nelson Kon 8, 9 Bruno Klomfar 11 top Alberto Cosi 11 bottom Alex Maclean 13 top Julienne Schaer 13 bottom Velux / Patricia Weisskirchner 15 © A. Zahner Co. 17 Shigeo Ogawa 19 Rasmus Hjortshøj / Coast 21 top, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66, 67 Public Domain 21 bottom Mikkel Frost / Cebra 22 bottom Walter Mair 25 top, 146/147 Stef Declerc 25 bottom Gibbon Slacklines (image modiﬁcation) 26 Adam Mørk 29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 36/37, 38 Luc Boegly 41, 42, 44, 46, 47, 48 Pierre L’Excellent 49 Maxime Delvaux 51, 54, 191, 193, 194 / 195 Muoto 52 Myriam Tirler 55, 56, 57 Axel Schmidt / Flussbad Berlin e.V. (image modiﬁcation) 58 Mariela Apollonio 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77 Threthny/ﬂickr (image modiﬁcation) 78 David Frutos Fotografía de Arquitectura 81, 82, 84, 85, 86 / 87, 88, 89, 90, 92 / 93 Javier Callejas 95, 96, 98/99, 100, 101, 102, 104, 105 Julien Lanoo 107, 108, 110/111, 112, 114, 115 Paul Ott 117, 118, 121, 124 top right and bottom left, 126, 127 Jasmin Schuler 120, 122, 124 top left Roland Halbe / artur 129, 132/133, 134 bottom, 136, 137 Thomas Madlener 134 top Chris Gloag (image modiﬁcation) 138 Dario Pfamatter / Christian Kerez 141, 142, 148 Andreas Gabriel 144 Hannes Henz 149 Roman Keller 151, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160 / 161 René Rötheli 163, 166/167, 168, 169, 171, 172 / 173 Jan Bitter 177, 179, 180, 181, 182/183, 184, 186 faceB 196, 197 bottom Jonathan Alexandre 197 top Delphine Lermite 199 Medios Publicos EP, CC BY-SA 4.0 (image modiﬁcation) 200
Photographs not specially credited were taken by the architects or are works photographs or were supplied from the DETAIL archives.
IMPRINT Editor Sandra Hofmeister Authors Claudia Fuchs (project texts), Sandra Hofmeister, Roland Pawlitschko, Jakob Schoof Project management Michaela Busenkell Team Michaela Linder, Maria Remter, Lena Stiller, Petra Zattler Translation Julian Jain Copy editing Stefan Widdess Proofreading Meriel Clemett Design Wiegand von Hartmann GbR Sophie von Hartmann, Moritz Wiegand Illustrations Detail Business Information GmbH, München DTP Roswitha Siegler Reproduction ludwig:media, Zell am See Printing and binding: Kösel GmbH & Co. KG, Altusried-Krugzell
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T da To d y’s sports buildings and spaces for ac cti t vity and d physical training make aesthetic contributions to the urban space. This book doc cum ments sop o histticated archite t cture for sports and exe x rcise activities with ﬁfteen European examples. Various design solutions, mat aterials and planning requirements for school gyms, sports halls in office an nd residential buildings or roo ofto ftop facilities are presented. ft
Leisure and Movement in Urban Space. More information: https://bit.ly/2JwWQSB