MOBILE VET UNITS TSAVO – MARA – MERU AMBOSELI REPORT JULY, AUGUST & SEPTEMBER 2016
MOBILE VETERINARY UNITS OVERVIEW JULY, AUGUST & SEPTEMBER 2016 During the July to September 2016 3-month reporting period, the DSWT in partnership with the Kenya Wildlife Service and their four dedicated KWS field veterinary officers, attended to 84 wildlife cases. Of the 84 cases attended 49 cases included elephants; 23 of these elephant cases were directly related to poaching activities including poisoned arrow poaching, spearing, snaring and gunshot injuries, whilst there were also 5 elephant rescues during this period, 3 human-wildlife conflict cases, 1 relocation, 1 collaring of the famous Amboseli tusker â€˜Timâ€™, as well as 9 cases treated for natural causes and 6 post-mortems. During this period 3 rhino cases were also attended to along with 15 lion cases. A number of other species including giraffe, zebra, buffalo and other plains game were also treated by the four veterinary units throughout this period.
The Tsavo Mobile Vet Unit attended to 31 cases, an increase in comparison to the last quarter, which can be contributed to the onset of the dry season and increasing poaching and human-wildlife conflict cases throughout the Tsavo Conservation Area. The cases treated by Dr Poghon and his team during July to September included 23 elephants, 5 lions, 1 giraffe and 2 antelopes. The Mara Mobile Vet Unit attended to 22 cases of which 6 of the cases involved elephants, 7 cases were lions, 1 rhino, 2 zebras, 2 giraffes, 1 buffalo and 2 antelopes. The Meru Mobile Vet Unit attended to 11 cases including 5 elephants, 2 rhinos, 1 buffalo, 1 lion and 2 zebras. The Amboseli Mobile Vet Unit attended to 20 cases, 15 of which were elephant cases and the other cases included 2 lions and 3 plains game.
TSAVO MOBILE VET UNIT REPORT JULY, AUGUST & SEPTEMBER 2016
TSAVO MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT JULY 2016 Introduction In the month of July several cases were handled though there was a decrease in number of cases compared to the previous month. Cases included treatment of an elephant orphan with an arrow wound at the Ithumba stockade and two elephants with arrow wounds in Tsavo East as well as a lion and buffalo treatment. The unit also collared two male problematic lions in Kuku Ranch for human wildlife conflict control. The Tsavo ecosystem remains dry and cases are expected to remain high as animals venture far in search for water and forage.
RESCUE OF AN ELEPHANT CALF, DIDA HAREA, TSAVO EAST NATIONAL PARK, 1ST JULY 2016
History and rescue operation Visitors reported an elephant calf wandering alone with no family nearby. The vet team together with the Voi stockade team rushed to the location to find the calf with no mother or any other herd within the area. The tiny calf was rescued and taken to the stockade where it was fed on milk before being airlifted to Nairobi.
LION COLLARING EXERCISE IN KUKU RANCH, 2ND TO 7TH JULY
Kuku ranch is a community conservation area bordering Tsavo West National Park and Chyulu National Park. Human predator conflict is high in the mainly pastoralist community that keep livestock as their main economic activity. There is an increase in livestock predation by carnivores in the ranch creating hostilities with the community. Discussion between the park warden, community representatives and the unit resolved to collar the problematic lions for easy monitoring and assist in conflict mitigation. Immobilization and collaring The lions were immobilized using 300 mgs of Ketamine and 4 mgs of Meditomidine Hcl after responding to a calling station near one of the hotspots aided by night vision equipment. The collars were fitted with enough space to allow the lions to feed and move with ease. The lions were revived one and half hours later using 2.5 mgs Atipemazole Hcl and monitored until he moved away on his own. Further follow up reports indicate they are doing well with the satellite component sending signals.
TREATMENT OF AN ELEPHANT ORPHAN, ITHUMBA, TSAVO EAST, 7TH JULY
History This elephant orphan, Makireti, returned to Ithumba stockade with an arrow head stuck in her left rib cage with blood oozing out. The Vet was airlifted by DSWT aircraft to the area to find the elephant inside the enclosure with others. Immobilization, examination and treatment A dan-inject dart was prepared and filled with 10 mgs of Etorphine. She was easily darted inside the stockade and moved a short distance before going down on the right side just outside the stockade enclosure. The arrow head was loosened and removed. The wound was washed with water mixed with Hydrogen peroxide before tincture of iodine was applied and then sprayed with Oxytetracycline spray and covered with green clay. Long acting antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs were administered parenterally. He woke up gently as his group milled around him in support. Prognosis Prognosis is good
TREATMENT OF AN ELEPHANT BULL WITH AN ARROW INJURY, KALUKU, TSAVO EAST, 22ND JULY
History An elephant bull was reported injured by DSWT Kaluku team after being spotted by an aerial patrol plane. The vet team rushed to the area to find the bull with another bull and a family of nearly 30 elephants nearby. The Vet team drove to the area and the DSWT helicopter was brought in and helped spot and dart of the elephant. Immobilization, examination and treatment The elephant was immobilized using 18 mgs of Etorphine in a dan-inject dart using the dan-inject system from the helicopter. He was darted in the rump and went down after 9 minutes. There was a penetrating wound on the back that had started to heal. The wound was enlarged and an arrow head retrieved from the injury. The necrotic tissues were cut off and the wound cleaned using water mixed with Hydrogen peroxide and tincture of iodine. An intravenous administration of 50 cc Dexamethasone Hcl was given through the ear vein and 100 cc of long acting Amoxicillin injected intramuscularly. Reversal The anesthesia reversal was done by administration of Diprenorphine Hcl at three times the Etorphine dose. The bull woke up and moved away slowly. Prognosis Prognosis is good.
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED BUFFALO, MAUNGU, TSAVO EAST, 25TH JULY
History An injured buffalo bull was reported by KWS rangers manning the southern part of Tsavo East National Park near Maungu trading center. The vet unit rushed in to find the injured and bleeding buffalo alone nearby. Fresh injuries on the back at the lumbo-sacral area were evident from the bleeding. Immobilization, examination and treatment Immobilization was acheived using 7 mgs of Etorphine mixed with 60 mgs of Xylazine. The Buffalo went down in 5 minutes. There were multiple bite and scratch wounds suspected to have been caused by a lion attack on the lumbar-sacral and perineal region with hemorrhage. The wounds were washed clean and splashed with iodine. Oxytetracycline spray was applied and a final cover of green clay used to cover the wound. Long acting Amoxicillin and dexamethasone Hcl were administered parenterally. Reversal He was revived using 24 mgs of Diprenorphine Hcl mixed with 2.5 mgs of Atipemazole Hcl. The Buffalo woke up and moved away shortly. Prognosis Prognosis is guarded.
TREATMENT OF A SNARED LION, GALANA CONSERVANCY, TSAVO EAST, 25TH JULY
History The lion was reported to be in a pride of three with a tight tissue cutting wire snare around the waist. The vet team rushed in to find the young lion with its mother and siblings resting on the banks of Galana River. Immobilization, examination and treatment A dart containing 300 mgs of Ketamine and 4 mgs of Meditomidine was prepared to immobilize the lion. It took about 5 minutes for the lion to be fully immobilized and a vehicle was used to push the pride away. He was moved to a shady area and the tight snare around the abdominal area was removed. The resultant gaping wound cut through the skin and muscles but did not perforate the peritoneal cavity. The wounds were cleaned and sutured with about 20 interrupted nylon sutures with drainage gaps left open. Iodine was applied before the area was spray with Oxytetracycline. Green clay was used to cover the sutured area to aid in healing and keep dirt out of the wound. 15 cc of long acting Amoxicillin and Dexamethasone was administered parenterally. Reversal The operation took 1 Â˝ hours and the lion was revived using 2.5 mgs of Atipemazole. He woke up and was joined by the rest of the pride. Prognosis Prognosis is good.
EXAMINATION OF A BUFFALO CARCASS, VOI SAFARI LODGE, TSAVO EAST, 27TH JULY
History An injured buffalo bull that was lying motionless near a dry water hole was reported by the Voi Safari Lodge staff. The team rushed in to find the buffalo dead. Age approximation was done and most of the teeth were worn out due to advanced age. Deaths of very old and very young animals are usually experienced during the dry seasons. Death was deemed natural due to old age.
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED ELEPHANT COW, IRIMA, TSAVO EAST NATIONAL PARK, 30TH JULY
History This elephant cow was spotted in Irima area of Tsavo East by visitors touring the area with a wound on the back with blood and pus oozing from it. They notified the vet team who rushed to the area to find the elephant with another elephant cow and two calves. Immobilization, examination and treatment The elephant was immobilized using 16 mgs of Etorphine in a dan-inject dart from a vehicle. She was darted in the rump and kept in the open and separated from the other elephants by the vehicle. She went down after 6 minutes on the left flank. There was an arrow wound to the back near the spine with massive muscle destruction, pus and debris accumulation. The wound was probed and found to be deep. Dead tissues and pus were cleaned out using water mixed with Hydrogen peroxide. Tincture of iodine was applied and Oxytetracycline spray administered before a final cover of wetted green clay applied. An intravenous administration of 50 cc Dexamethasone Hcl was given through the ear vein and 150 cc of long acting Amoxicillin injected intramuscularly. Reversal Drug reversal was done by administration of Diprenorphine Hcl at three times the Etorphine dose. The cow woke up and moved away slowly to join her herd. Prognosis Prognosis is good.
EXAMINATION OF A LAME ELEPHANT COW, SALA GATE, TSAVO EAST, 31ST JULY
History and examination An elephant cow was reported lame and struggling to walk near Sala gate by tour drivers visiting Tsavo East. The vet unit rushed to the area to find the lone cow with her 2-year-old calf under a tree. The injured right rear leg was deformed and shorter than the left giving an obvious abnormal gait and motion. The right knee joint was bigger than normal but no wound was observed. The elephant could use the leg but with difficulty due to the deformity. Conclusion was that the leg had a previous injury (old) that had long healed with limb deformity and no intervention could be successful. The deformity is not life threatening hence good prognosis.
TSAVO MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT AUGUST 2016 Introduction The month under review witnessed an increase in injuries in elephants especially the bulls, a clear indication of them being targeted for their ivory. Three elephant bulls were treated in Lualenyi/Taita salt lick area for injuries of the leg. Two other elephant bulls were treated for spear wounds in Ol Donyo Wuas and Kimana sanctuary in Chyulu/Amboseli area. Two lionesses were also attended to for injuries in Taita salt lick and Ngutuni sanctuaries. Three Elephant autopsies were also undertaken in Satao area of Tsavo East and KARI farm in Bachuma. The Tsavo ecosystem is expected to remain dry until the short rains of November.
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED ELEPHANT BULL, LUALENYI RANCH, 1ST AUGUST
Introduction The elephant bull was reported to be lame by KWS team manning southern Tsavo west after being spotted by an aerial patrol plane. The vet team rushed to the area but could not locate the Elephant at the coordinates given and requested for a spotter plane from DSWT Kaluku office. The Aeroplane arrived and spotted the Elephant after a 30-minute search. The Vet team drove to the area and darted the elephant. Immobilization 18 mgs of etorphine in a dan inject dart was prepared and loaded into a dart gun. A vehicle was used to approach and dart the huge bull. He was darted at the ramp and went down on the right flank after 8 minutes. Treatment There was a penetrating wound at the left hind foot just above the sole from the front going backwards. Necrotic tissues were cut off and wound cleaned using water mixed with hydrogen peroxide and tincture of iodine applied. The wound was then packed with green clay. Caused of the wound could not be determined. An intravenous administration of 50 cc Dexamethasone Hcl was given through the ear vein and 100 cc of long acting Amoxicillin injected intramuscularly. Anaesthesia reversal was done by administration of Diprenorphine Hcl at three times the Etorphine dose. The bull struggled to wake up and was assisted onto its feet and moved away slowly. Prognosis is guarded.
RESCUE OF AN ELEPHANT CALF, NDARA PLAINS, TSAVO EAST NATIONAL PARK, 3RD AUGUST 2016
History and rescue operation The Vet unit while patrolling the park found an elephant calf that was wandering alone with no family or any herd in the vicinity. The vet team informed the Voi stockade team who rushed to the location to find the calf with no mother. The tiny calf was rescued and taken to the stockade where it was fed on milk before being airlifted to Nairobi DSWT nursery. Sadly, this calf passed away soon after his arrival at the Nursery due to the trauma of being abandoned and poor health.
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED ELEPHANT BULL, TAITA SALT LICK SANCTUARY RANCH, 7TH AUGUST 2016
Introduction The elephant bull was reported to be lame by Taita hills rangers manning the sanctuary after being spotted near a watering point. The vet team rushed to the area to find the huge bull under a tree nearby. Darting equipment and drugs were prepared and the elephant was darted. Immobilization & Treatment 18 mgs of etorphine in a dan inject dart was prepared and loaded into a dart gun. A vehicle was used to approach and dart the huge bull. He was darted at the rump and went down on the left flank after 7 minutes. There was a penetrating wound at the right hind foot just above the fetlock joint entering the foot from the lateral aspect and disappearing under with no exit. A wound on the sole of the opposite leg was cleaned using water mixed with hydrogen peroxide and tincture of iodine applied. The wound was then packed with green clay. Cause thought to be a bullet. Anaesthesia reversal was done by administration of Diprenorphine Hcl at three times the Etorphine dose. The bull struggled to wake up and was assisted onto its feet and moved away slowly. Prognosis is guarded.
ELEPHANT AUTOPSY, SATAO, TSAVO EAST, 8TH AUGUST 2016
History A report was made by KWS rangers of an elephant carcass that was sighted in Satao, Tsavo East National Park aged at about four days old. The request was for autopsy to be undertaken to know the cause of death. Autopsy The carcass was male lying on the right flank with the face chopped off and tusks recovered. It was in mid advanced state of putrefaction. There abdominal area was eaten away by scavengers and part of the colon was exposed. The skin on the left flank was removed exposing the subcutis which that was clear with no injuries seen. The carcass was flipped over exposing the right flank. On opening the abdominal cavity no significant findings were observed. Cause of death â€“ Natural
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED ELEPHANT BULL, TAITA SALT LICK SANCTUARY, 8TH AUGUST 2016
Introduction The lame elephant bull was reported by DSWT Bura team patrolling Taita salt lick sanctuary. The team rushed back to the area where they treated another bull the previous day. The bull was found lying down under a tree nearby and woke up after seeing the vehicle approach. Immobilization 18 mgs of etorphine in a dan inject dart was prepared and loaded into a dart gun. A vehicle was used to approach and dart the huge bull. He was darted at the ramp and went down on the right flank after 7 minutes. Treatment There was a penetrating wound at the left hind foot just above the fetlock joint from the lateral aspect of the foot. Another wound entered the left knee joint from the cranial aspect of the foot. The wound was cleaned using water mixed with hydrogen peroxide and tincture of iodine applied. The wound was then packed with green clay. An intravenous administration of 50 cc Dexamethasone Hcl was given through the ear vein and 100 cc of long acting Amoxicillin injected intramuscularly. Anaesthesia reversal was done by administration of Diprenorphine Hcl at three times the Etorphine dose. The bull struggled to wake up and moved away slowly. Prognosis is guarded to poor.
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED ELEPHANT BULL, KIMANA RANCH, AMBOSELI, 9TH AUGUST
Introduction The elephant bull was reported to be injured by community rangers manning Kimana sanctuary in Amboseli after being spotted with a swollen abdomen. The vet team rushed to the area and found the young bull foraging nearby with a swollen left abdominal wall. Immobilization 18 mgs of etorphine in a dan inject dart was prepared and loaded into a dart gun. A vehicle was used to approach and dart the huge bull. He was darted at the ramp and went down on the right flank after 9 minutes. Treatment There was a penetrating wound at the left chest area caused by a spear with massive accumulation of pus below the wound and extending to the lower abdomen. The lowest point of the swelling was opened and pus drained out. Necrotic tissues were cut off and wound flushed using water mixed with hydrogen peroxide and tincture of iodine applied. The wound was finally packed with green clay. An intravenous administration of 50 cc Dexamethasone Hcl was given through the ear vein and 150 cc of long acting Amoxicillin injected intramuscularly. Anaesthesia reversal was done by administration of Diprenorphine Hcl at three times the Etorphine dose. The bull struggled to wake up, stood up and moved away slowly. Prognosis is guarded.
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED ELEPHANT BULL, OLDONYO WUAS, CHYULU NATIONAL PARK, 11TH AUGUST
Introduction The elephant bull was reported to be injured by community rangers from Mbirikani group ranch in the Chyulus after being spotted with a bleeding wound on the left ramp. The vet team rushed to the area using DSWT airplane and found the huge bull foraging in a bushy area and required the assistance of the chopper. The DSWT chopper was called in and arrived in time. Immobilization 18 mgs of etorphine in a dan inject dart was prepared and loaded into a dart gun. A Helicopter was used to approach and dart the huge bull and keep him from running into thick bush. He was darted at the ramp and went down on the right flank after 10 minutes. Treatment There was a fresh deep penetrating wound at the left ramp caused by a spear with a lot of bleeding. The wound was probed and was about 30 cm deep. The wound was flushed using water mixed with hydrogen peroxide and tincture of iodine applied. It was finally packed with green clay. An intravenous administration of 50 cc Dexamethasone Hcl was given through the ear vein and 150 cc of long acting Amoxicillin injected intramuscularly. Anaesthesia reversal was done by administration of Diprenorphine Hcl at three times the Etorphine dose. The bull woke, stood up and moved away slowly. Prognosis is good
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED LIONESS, NGUTUNI CONSERVANCY, TSAVO EAST, 12TH AUGUST 2016
History, examination and management The lion was reported to have strayed outside Ngutuni wildlife sanctuary into the standard gauge Railway (SGR) construction site stopping work at the site. The vet team were requested to translocate the two-year-old lioness back to the sanctuary as she could not cross the new predator proof fence put up by the DSWT to keep off wildlife from straying to community areas. The vet team rushed in to find the young lioness resting near the fence. A dart containing 300 mgs of Ketamine and 4 mgs of Meditomidine was prepared and darted. It took about 5 minutes for the lioness to be fully immobilized. He was moved to a shade and a penetrating wound on the right hip area was treated and sutured. 15 cc of long acting Amoxicillin and dexamethasone was administered parenterally. After an operation that took half an hour the Lioness was moved to a safe rocky outcrop away from Buffaloes who were nearby and revived using 2.5 mgs of Atipemazole. She woke up and was joined by the rest of the pride. Prognosis is good.
ELEPHANT AUTOPSY REPORT, SATAO CAMP, TSAVO EAST, 14TH AUGUST 2016
History A report was made by KWS rangers of an elephant carcass that was sighted in Satao, Tsavo east National Park aged at about 1 month old. The request was for autopsy to be undertaken to know the cause of death. The autopsy dating of time of death placed at between 1-2 months. Autopsy The carcass was male lying on sternal recumbency with the tusks removed by KWS rangers. It was in an advanced state of decomposition with most soft tissues rotten away and what was left was a shell of skin and bones underneath. The carcass was flipped over exposing the underneath that was a shell of skin and skeletal tissues only. The skin crusting indicated and aged cow. No cases of injured elephants were reported in the area in recent days. Cause of death â€“ Could not be established due to advanced decomposition and assumed to be natural.
10. TREATMENT OF AN INJURED LIONESS, TAITA SALT LICK CONSERVANCY, 23RD AUGUST History, examination and management The lioness was reported injured by Taita sanctuary rangers. The vet team rushed in to find the adult lioness resting under a tree with her sub adult cubs. A dart containing 300 mgs of Ketamine and 4 mgs of Meditomidine was prepared and darted. It took about 10 minutes for the lioness to be fully immobilized. She was moved to a shade and examination of the wound on the right hind limb near the Achilles tendon insertion revealed a severed/torn Achilles tendon. Remedy is through delicate and expensive surgical intervention not available to the unit. The lioness will be monitored and hope the cubs can hunt for their mother. Meanwhile 15 cc of long acting Amoxicillin and dexamethasone was administered parenterally. She was revived using 2.5 mgs of Atipemazole. She woke up and was joined by the rest of the pride. Prognosis is poor.
11. ELEPHANT AUTOPSY, KARI BACHUMA, TSAVO EAST, 25TH AUGUST 2014 History A report was made by KWS rangers of an elephant carcass that was sighted in KARI Bachuma farm, Tsavo east National Park aged at about 3 days old. The request was for autopsy to be undertaken to know the cause of death. Autopsy The carcass was male lying on the left flank with the face chopped off and tusks recovered by KWS. It was in an early state of putrefaction. External examination of the carcass did not reveal any external injury at all apart from the soiling of the perineal area. The skin on the right flank was removed exposing the subcutis which that was clear with no injuries seen. On opening the abdominal cavity, the peritoneal fluid was blood tinged. The intestines were abnormally empty of any food materials with massive diffuse necrosis of the intestinal mucosa. The liver and kidney were quite decomposed. Cause of death â€“ Possible food poisoning.
OTHER CASES ATTENDED TO BY TSAVO VET UNIT An orphan Oryx was playing with a Zebra at Voi DSWT stockade and accidentally broke his leg. He was put on a cast but the fracture could not be properly reduced due to overriding. Sadly, he was euthanized to save him from a lot of pain and suffering.
TSAVO MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT SEPTEMBER 2016 Introduction The month of September experienced lesser number of Veterinary cases compared to the month of August. However, many of the cases were serious and the animals had to be put down to alleviate their suffering. Cases handled included a speared Elephants in Rombo group ranch and another in Amboseli National park. An injured lion was also attended to near Voi safari lodge for serious fight injuries caused by Buffalo attack. The region continues to experience a dry spell leading to deaths in old Elephants and newly weaned calves due to food and water scarcity.
EUTHANASIA OF A SPEARED ELEPHANT, ROMBO RANCH, 14TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History This elephant bull was reported to be lame by Ol Donyo Wuas Rangers patrolling Rombo Group Ranch. The Elephant was previously treated by the Amboseli Vet Unit but did not recover. The Vet team travelled by road to an area near the Tanzanian border and found the lame elephant nearby. Immobilization, examination and management The young elephant was immobilised using 8 mgs Etorphine in a dan-inject dart from foot using a dan-inject gun. He was darted at the rump and went down on the right flank after 5 minutes. There was a penetrating wound to the right front foot at the ankle joint with massive swelling and infection. Dead tissues and pus were cleaned. Probing the wound revealed it went deep into the joint which was infected and filled with pus; the left foot was also affected. Prognosis A poor prognosis due to joint infection was made. The Elephant was euthanized and the tusks removed and handed over to Rombo KWS station. Autopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The cause of the injury was spear.
EXAMINATION AND MANAGEMENT OF AN ELEPHANT COW AND CALF, SATAO, TSAVO EAST NATIONAL PARK, 16TH SEPTEMBER
History and Rescue This Elephant was reported recumbent by Tsavo Trust Team with the family staying beside her including her small one year old calf. The vet team rushed to the area to find the elephant cow flat on the ground with two adult elephants and two calves standing beside her. The family were pushed to a distance and the fallen cow assisted several times onto her feet in vain. She was in very poor body condition due to the dry conditions in Tsavo and old age. A final decision was made to Euthanize her and rescue her one year old calf. The calf was taken to Voi stockade and airlifted to Nairobi DSWT orphanage the next day.
TREATMENT OF A SPEARED ELEPHANT CALF, AMBOSELI NATIONAL PARK, 17TH SEPTEMBER
History This elephant calf was reported by the Amboseli trust for Elephants having a spear wound with blood oozing from it at the rump. The Vet was airlifted to Amboseli by the DSWT aeroplane to find the ground team waiting at the airstrip. After a brief search we found the elephant in a swampy area with his family. After several attempts to push them out, the family came out of the swamp with the injured calf. Immobilization, examination and treatment The young elephant was immobilised using 5 mgs Etorphine in a dan-inject dart from a vehicle using a dan-inject gun. He was darted at the rump and went down on the right flank after 7 minutes. A vehicle was used to approach and dart the calf. Three vehicles were used to separate the calf with the mother. There was a penetrating deep wound to the left rump that was about 20 cms deep. It was cleaned using water mixed with Hydrogen Peroxide and afterwards tincture of iodine applied. The wound was then packed with green clay. Cause of the injury was a spear. An intravenous administration of 20 cc Dexamethasone Hcl was given through the ear vein and 40 cc of long acting Amoxicillin injected intramuscularly. Reversal Anaesthesia reversal was done by administration of Diprenorphine Hcl at three times the Etorphine dose. The calf woke up and was pushed to rejoin her family. Prognosis Prognosis is good.
RESCUE OF A YOUNG ELEPHANT, MZIMA PIPELINE, TSAVO EAST, 18TH SEPTEMBER
History A report was made by tourists of a young Elephant that had fallen onto a shallow watering point along the Mzima springs - Mombasa water pipeline that passes through the park. Rescue and Treatment The vet team together with the Voi Stockade Team rushed to the area to find the young elephant out of the water but lying down nearby. After examination it was discovered he was too weak to survive alone and was transported to Voi stockade for treatment and care. At the Voi stockade he was given 50 % dextrose bolus IV and a further slow IV lactated ringerâ€™s solution through the ear vein. He was able to stand up after 5 hours. Further administration of long acting Amoxicillin and Dexamethasone was done. Further treatment and feeding with Lucerne and other concentrates will be done until full recovery. Prognosis was guarded.
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED LION, VOI SAFARI LODGE, TSAVO EAST, 23RD SEPTEMBER
History The lion was reported to be sick by tourists visiting the park. The vet team rushed to find the young lion along park headquarters - Voi safari lodge road. Immobilisation, examination and management The lion was darted with 300 mgs of Ketamine and 4 mgs of Meditomidine. It took about 5 minutes for the lion to be fully immobilized. He was moved to shade and a penetrating wound to the abdominal area right through the abdomen and exiting at the back was seen. Massive internal bleeding was also observed due to rapture blood vessels and intestine. He was euthanized due to poor prognosis. Cause of death was Buffalo attack.
RESCUE OF A GRANTS GAZELLE, VOI WILDLIFE LODGE WATER HOLE, TSAVO EAST, 23RD SEPTEMBER
Rescue A report was made by tourists of a Gazelle stuck in mud at the lodges’ water hole and struggling to get fee in vain. The vet team rushed in and freed the traumatised antelope.
ELEPHANT DEATH REPORT, NGUTUNI, TSAVO EAST, 27TH SEPTEMBER
History A report was made by KWS rangers of an elephant calf carcass that was seen in Ngutuni, Tsavo east National Park. The request was for autopsy to be undertaken to know the cause of death. Autopsy The carcass was male lying on the right flank with the perineal area and part of the trunk eaten away. There seemed to be sand disturbance made by the mother next to the carcass. Close examination revealed lion attack wounds on the less than one-month old calf. The mother was most probably single and couldn’t ward off lion attacks. Cause of death – Lion attack
OTHER CASES ATTENDED TO BY TSAVO VET UNIT The unit also undertook an autopsy of a security dog that died after a short illness in Ngulia Rhino sanctuary. There were diffuse haemorrhages in the pericardium, lungs and the spleen was enlarged. Post mortem diagnosis was Trypanosomiasis infection.
MARA MOBILE VET UNIT REPORT JULY, AUGUST & SEPTEMBER 2016
MARA MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT JULY 2016 The month was characterised by a drop in precipitation and an influx of wildebeest into the Mara from the Serengeti as the time coincides with their annual migration. There is also an increase of tourists to witness this spectacle. There is still plenty of food and water for the wildlife to utilise. Follow-up on several cases handled the previous month including the injured rhino indicate they responded well to treatment and are now recovered. The following are cases that were handled during the period under review;
ASSESSMENT OF AN ELEPHANT BULL, OLARRO CONSERVANCY (SIANA), 13TH JULY 2016
History This massive bull was seen by Olarro Conservancy rangers in company of two other equally big bulls within Siana area with a slight whitish discharge on his right flank. They reported to have seen him two days before with a small closed swelling on the same spot but feeding normally. They informed the mobile veterinary unit for assessment and advice on the way forward. General observation: This bull was found in the company of three other males browsing in a small thicket full of acacia trees. All of them were feeding normally and in good body condition. Examination of this particular bull showed he had a small shallow abscess that had recently ruptured discharging all the pus out. At the time of arrival, the wound was dry with all the pus drained out. Nothing unusual in the behaviour and body condition of this bull was noticed. Closer examination revealed no foreign body lodged but just a normal abscess that ruptured.
Prognosis After weighing in the options, it was decided not necessary to immobilise this elephant as the condition did not warrant intervention. The elephant was in good shape and could heal without intervention. The Olarro management was advised to monitor this bull and report to the unit on his progress.
SNARED ZEBRA, OLARRO CONSERVANCY (SIANNA AREA), 13TH JULY 2016
History This zebra was spotted with a snare around his neck by Olarro and Sianna rangers on their routine patrols. They sought the services of the Mobile Veterinary Unit to de-snare this zebra. This zebra was seen in company of wildebeests with no other zebras close to her. The other zebras were several hundred meters away from her. The wire could be seen dangling from her neck making her uncomfortable as she tried to graze. She appeared restless. Immobilization, examination and de-snaring Restraint was achieved chemically by use of a combination of 6mgs Etorphine hydrochloride and 50mgs Azaperone in a 1.5ml dan-inject dart fired from a vehicle. It took eight minutes for the drugs to take full effect with the zebra going down on her left lateral side. A plain wire snare around her neck was removed. It was not very tight but had created an abrasion wound around the neck. The wounds were disinfected with Iodine and Oxytetracycline spray applied. In addition, she received 3000mgs Amoxicillin antibiotic parenterally. Reversal The anesthetic was reversed using intravenous administration of 18mgs Diprenorphine hydrochloride through the jugular vein. She woke up in three minutes and joined the wildebeests nearby. Prognosis Good.
INJURED LION, NABOISHO CONSERVANCY, 18TH JULY 2016
History This injured lion was first seen injured and reported for our attention by The Mara Lion Project team. This lion was seen in the company of another male lion with an injury on his face lying under a small thicket. He seemed to be in pain and needed attention. Immobilization, examination and treatment This lion was chemically restrained by use of a combination of 4.8mgs Medetomidine and 230mgs Ketamine hydrochloride delivered in a 3ml Dan-inject dart fired from a vehicle. It took 15 minutes for the drugs to take full effect with the lion assuming sternal recumbency after retreating deeper into the thicket. After confirming that he was stable, he was stretchered out of the thicket into an open field for examination and treatment. Examination revealed a deep wound on his face suspected to have been caused by a bite from other lions after a fight. The wound was deep and accessed the nasal cavity with mucoid discharge streaming from the wound opening. Treatment involved debriding the wound with dilute Hydrogen peroxide on a gauze swab to remove as much dead debris as possible, irrigation with tincture of iodine and infusion of cloxacillin ointment. This lion further received 3000mgs Amoxicillin antibiotic and 20mgs Dexamethasone sodium anti-inflammatory all administered intramuscularly. To take care of both internal and external parasites, he was given 80mgs Ivermectin subcutaneously. Reversal The anaesthetic was reversed by intramuscular administration of 15mgs Atepamezole hydrochloride one hour after immobilization. He woke up after ten minutes and retreated back to the thicket. Prognosis Good
INJURED SUB ADULT LION, OLARE MOTOROGI CONSERVANCY, 19TH JULY 2016
History This young male was seen at the border of Olare Motorogi and Masai Mara National Reserve by The Mara Lion Project team alone with an injury on his back. They requested the services of the unit for assessment and possible treatment. The wound looked septic and needed attention. Immobilization examination and treatment Immobilization was achieved by use of a combination of 4mgs Medetomidine and 220mgs Ketamine hydrochloride in a 3ml dan-inject dart from a vehicle. It took 15 minutes for the drugs to take full effect with the lion assuming right lateral recumbency. Examination revealed a deep bite wound on the lumbar section of his spine. Luckily the spinal cord was not affected. The wound was beginning to get septic and was most likely caused by conflicts with other lions. The wound was debrided with dilute Hydrogen peroxide, wiped clean with a swab and rinsed with clean water before tincture of iodine being applied. The wound was then infused with cloxacillin antibiotic ointment. Additional treatments include intramuscular administration of 3000mgs Amoxicillin antibiotic and 20mgs Dexamethasone sodium anti-inflammatory. He was also given 80mgs Ivermectin parasiticide to take care of internal and external parasites. Reversal The anaesthetic was reversed by intramuscular administration of 15mgs Atepamezole hydrochloride one hour after immobilization. He woke up after five minutes and walked away. Prognosis He is expected to make full recovery
INJURED ELEPHANT, BUSHTOPS AREA (SIANA AREA), 21ST JULY 2016
History This elephant was seen limping by the Bush Top scouts while on their patrols near their camp. They called the unit for assessment and treatment. This elephant was found alone in a thicket browsing but with difficulty walking. She was limping on her right front limb. Immobilization Examination and Treatment Immobilization was achieved by use of 15mgs Etorphine hydrochloride delivered in a 1.5ml Dan inject dart from foot because of the thicket. It took eight minutes for the drugs to take full effect with this elephant assuming left lateral recumbency. Examination revealed a penetrating wound to the inner side of her right front limb near the elbow. The wound was septic with purulent discharge and most likely caused by an arrow which had since fallen. The pus was completely drained and wound cleaned with help of hydrogen peroxide to remove all dead debris. Clean water was copiously used to rinse it before being disinfected with iodine and finally green clay being packed. Additional treatment included parenteral administration of 30000mgs Amoxicillin antibiotic and 4000mgs Flunixin meglumine anti-inflammatory.
Reversal The anaesthetic was reversed by 42mgs Diprenorphine hydrochloride given intravenously through a prominent ear vein. She woke up in three minutes and dashed back to the bush. Prognosis Good. OTHER ACTIVITIES Other activities carried out during the month include sampling of several wildlife ungulates for PPR which is a viral condition incriminated for losses of some small ruminants in pastoral areas within the country. Notable outbreaks with significant losses was reported in 2007 and 2008 where many small ruminants succumbed. Since then, there have been pockets of outbreaks in many parts of the country. This sampling was done in collaboration with KWS headquarter team and the investigation will be done with Royal Veterinary College London and ministry of livestock. Similar sampling will be carried out by Ministry of livestock, veterinary department on domestic animals. Samples from both domestic and wildlife species will be analysed for exposure or presence of the virus and will advise policy makers on way to prevent its circulation. A total of 55 animals were sampled at livestock wildlife interface areas captured by darting and use of capture nets. Species sampled included, buffaloes, wildebeests, topis, hartebeest, grant gazelles, impalas, tommy gazelles, waterbucks and warthogs.
MARA MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT AUGUST 2016 Introduction The period under review was characterised by drop in precipitation with more dry and windy days experienced. Much of the grass has been utilized by the migratory wildebeests currently occupying much of Masai Mara Ecosystem. Most of the elephants are out of the reserve having moved to surrounding conservancies and community areas. Water for animals is still available everywhere though. The following were cases handled during the month;
RE-TREATMENT OF AN INJURED ELEPHANT, MARA BUSH TOPS CONSERVANCY, 12TH AUGUST 2016
History This elephant had been treated the previous month for an injury on the inner side of her right front limb. At the time, she was in a thick bush, darted on foot but could not move much and fell on her left side within the thicket. Access to the wound that time was limited as she lay on the wrong side and on a terrain which the vehicle could not access for flipping her over.
With limited options the wound was cleaned, probed as much as was possible and no foreign body found. After giving her antibiotics and anti-inflammatories, she was revived as the posture and terrain was not comfortable to avoid compromising her life. A repeat immobilization and further examination treatment was scheduled to be carried out after two to three weeks. Rangers were tasked to keep watch on her until repeat treatment be done. On the morning of this date, the BushTops rangers called the unit having seen her with a number of other elephants. She had improved tremendously but there was need for further examination and treatment. She was in an open plain presenting with best opportunity for immobilization and better examination. Immobilization, examination and treatment She was chemically restrained by use of 15mgs etorphine hydrochloride delivered in a 3ml daninject dart. Darting was done from a vehicle. She was prevented from accessing the nearby thicket before giving in to anaesthetics after eight minutes. This time she assumed right lateral recumbency presenting us with the perfect position for examination. Thorough examination on the wound was carried out which involved extending the wound opening and dissecting deeper into the tissues. An arrow head was found firmly embedded deep in the tissues beyond sight and easy reach. It was retrieved, the wound debrided with hydrogen peroxide, lavaged with copious amount of water and disinfected with tincture of iodine. Green clay was finally packed. In addition, this elephant received intramuscular injection of 30000mgs amoxicillin antibiotic and 5000mgs flunixin meglumine anti-inflammatory.
Reversal Achieved by administration of 36mgs diprenorphine hydrochloride through a prominent ear vein. She was helped to rise up by roping with one attempt. She stood up and moved away strongly. Prognosis This elephant cow is expected to make full recovery.
GIRAFFE IN LEMEK CONSERVANCY, 16TH AUGUST 2016
History This giraffe had been spotted with an arrow sticking from her neck by KWS rangers on patrol two days prior to her intervention. However, she disappeared as soon as the veterinary team headed for assistance. She reappeared two days later and was successfully helped. General observation She was found in an open field with a herd of about twenty giraffes with an arrow sticking out on her left side of the neck. She was still in good body condition though as she was seen ruminating. Immobilization and treatment She was chemically restrained by use of combination of 12mgs etorphine hydrochloride and 50mgs azaperone delivered in a 3ml daninject dart. The drugs took effect after eight minutes and she was effectively restrained by roping her down. Prognosis The barbed arrow was gently pulled out and the resultant wound debrided with hydrogen peroxide, wiped with sterile gauze swab before tincture of iodine and oxytetracycline wound spray being applied. Additional treatment included parenteral administration of 10000mgs oxytetracycline anti-biotic and 1500mgs flunixin meglumine anti-inflammatory. Reversal Achieved by administration of 24mgs diprenorphine hydrochloride intravenously through the jugular vein. She rose up immediately to join the rest of the herd. Good. The arrow was not poisoned.
LION AT DUMA CAMP, MARA NORTH CONSERVANCY (NEAR DUMA CAMP), 16TH AUGUST 2016
History This lion was seen limping by the Duma Camp management and called us for assessment and possible treatment. General observation This lion was found lying at the edge of a small shrub with his brother some distance away. He seemed relaxed and had recently fed. When agitated to move, he did so with slight limp on his right front limb. No visible wound could be seen but he seemed to have sprained his carpal joint during a hunt. Treatment The team felt, he did not need to be immobilized but anti-inflammatory drugs were delivered remotely using 3mls daninject darts from a vehicle. A total of 12mgs of dexamethasone sodium anti-inflammatory drug was successfully delivered remotely with the darts falling off as soon as drugs were delivered. Prognosis Good. 4.
RE-LOCATION OF AN ELAND, FIG TREE CAMP, 17TH AUGUST 2016
History This eland possibly orphaned long ago had become semi-habituated occasionally coming to Fig Tree Camp within Masai Mara National Reserve. Of late she had stationed herself within the camp with increased aggressiveness to people. There was need to move her back deep into the reserve to join other eland herds. Capture and relocation She was restrained chemically by use of combination of 8mgs etorphine hydrochloride and 50mgs azaperone delivered in a 1.5ml daninject dart. Darting was done on foot. Drugs took full effect within eight minutes with the eland assuming sternal recumbency. She was loaded onto a truck on sternal recumbency and released thirty kilometres into the park away from human habitation to join a herd of other elands close by. It is hoped she will live with her newly found colleagues.
DE-SNARING OF A ZEBRA, NABOISHO CONSERVANCY, 20TH AUGUST 2016
History This zebra thought to be part of the migratory group was seen by Naboisho Conservancy rangers with a loose plain wire snare around her neck. She was still in good health and grazing with a group of other zebras. They informed their management who in turn called the veterinary unit for help. General observation She was found grazing with other zebras and wildebeests in good condition. The wire around her neck was visible though not tight to strangulate her. Immobilization and snare removal She was chemically immobilized by use of a combination of 5mgs etorphine hydrochloride and 50mgs azaperone delivered in a 1.5ml daninject dart.Darting was done from a vehicle. It took seven minutes for the drugs to take full effect with the zebra assuming left lateral recumbency. The snare was then removed. As it was loose, no damage had been created and hence this zebra was revived immediately.
Reversal Achieved by administration of 12mgs diprenorphine hydrochloride intravenously through the jugular vein. She rose up in two minutes to join other zebras. Prognosis Good.
INJURED ELEPHANT, OLARRO CONSERVANCY, 21ST AUGUST 2016
History Olarro conservancy rangers saw this elephant with an arrow sticking on his right abdomen and informed their management who dully sought our services. General observation This elephant was seen in company of about thirty elephants browsing by the edge of a thicket. An arrow head could be seen on the right side of his abdomen with some clear discharge. Immobilization, examination and treatment Immobilization was achieved by use of 15mgs etorphine hydrochloride delivered through a 3ml daninject dart. Darting was done from a vehicle. Upon darting, the other members of the herd got agitated and took off. He followed them into the thicket along a Lugga. The drugs finally took effect after seven minutes and he assumed right lateral recumbency. He had to be flipped over by pulling with help of ropes and vehicle in order to access the injury. Arrow head that had been in place for approximately one day was retrieved. It was a barbed arrow. Luckily it was not poisoned. The resultant wound was debrided with hydrogen peroxide, rinsed with clean water and tincture of iodine applied. Cloxacillin ointment and green clay was then infused into the wound. Additional treatments included parenteral administration of 15000mgs amoxicillin antibiotic and 4000mgs flunixin meglumine anti-inflammatory. Reversal Achieved by administration of 36mgs diprenorphine hydrochloride through a prominent ear vein. He woke up in three minutes to join the herd. Prognosis Good.
POST MORTEM OF A BLACK RHINO, MASAI MARA NATIONAL RESERVE, 21ST AUGUST 2016
History This male black rhino christened Parkire had been treated previously on two occasions for a deep penetrating wound on his left hind leg in what was suspected to have been a gunshot wound. The first intervention was carried out on June, 17th 2016 at GPS 36M 0755698 UTM 9819152 within Masai Mara National Reserve close to border with Tanzania. At that time, the wound was suspected to have been three days old with fresh bleeding. Palpation revealed a small crack on the proximal portion of tibiofibular bone. After the first treatment there was tremendous improvement with this rhino relocating deep into the reserve, a distance of more than eight kilometres browsing normally with occasional use of the affected limb. He later on disappeared for a week but was finally spotted by the rhino patrol team having suddenly deteriorated in condition. A second treatment was advised and subsequently done on 1st August 2016 with little improvement. Her body condition deteriorated sharply and succumbed on the morning of 21st August 2016. Prompt post mortem was then carried out with the following revelations;
This rhino had fallen into a Lugga with a small stream upon death. He was found on right lateral recumbency. There was no evidence of struggle before death at this location as this rhino appeared to have rolled into the Lugga as he was dying. The head of this rhino was partially submerged in the flowing water but there was no evidence of aspiration. His body condition was poor with bony prominences discernible. He had a body score of 2 in a scale of 1-5 with 1 poor and 5 good. Both horns were intact and had been fitted with transmitter and transponders. Apart from the wound on the left hind leg and a healed abrasion on his left flank, no other injury could be seen on the carcass. The injured limb was severely atrophied due to underuse.
On opening the carcass, the following observations were made;
There were indications of severe anemia. There was little volume of blood recoverable. There was evidence of gelatinous fatty degeneration. This is a sign of prolonged debility. Assessment of the injured limb showed a penetrating wound on the proximal inner side of the tibiofibular bone with a ventro -dorsal course caused by a high velocity projectile. This caused a crack on the tibio-fibular bone with further damage to the knee joint. There was partial rupture of the joint capsule with escape of the joint (synovial) fluid. Tracing the loci of this projectile revealed it was deflected ventrally upon hitting the bony part of this joint and finally lodging itself on the muscular tissues of this leg close to the ankle joint where it was recovered. There was massive damage on the soft tissues of this leg in addition to damage to the knee joint and surrounding osseous tissue. There was also evidence of osteomyelitis development.
Conclusion This rhino died of complications that arose after sustaining a gunshot wound which included severe loss of blood, osteomyelitis and generalised sepsis, immunosuppression from stress and pain among other challenges. Both horns were recovered and handed over to county security team for accounting and custody. The recovered projectile was handed over to KWS investigation team for further analysis and follow-up.
ELEPHANT WITH AN ARROW, MUSIARA (MASAI MARA NATIONAL RESERVE), 26TH AUGUST 2016
History This massive bull was seen by the Masai Mara Reserve rangers with an arrow sticking from his right flank in a swamp in Musiara area within the reserve. He was in company of a herd of about thirty elephants. They called the veterinary unit for assistance. General observation This bull was sighted with the arrow sticking within a marsh in Musiara area. He was in company of a herd of about thirty elephants. Access to the marsh with vehicles was impossible and this bull with the rest of the herd appeared to be in no hurry to leave the marsh. Immobilization, examination and treatment After several attempts to push this bull out of the marsh failing and time moving, the team decided to seek the services of a helicopter to try push him out. He was eventually pushed out and darted from a helicopter using 16mgs etorphine hydrochloride delivered in a 3ml daninject dart.It took ten minutes for the drugs to take full effect with this elephant assuming left lateral recumbency. Examination revealed an arrowhead lodged on his right flank, the shaft having fallen soon after the elephant was darted and pushed out of the swamp. The arrow head was gently pulled out and the resultant wound thoroughly cleaned with hydrogen peroxide and copious amount of water. The arrow appeared to have been in place for one day.Ticture of iodine disinfectant and cloxacillin ointment antibiotic were also applied. Additional treatments included parenteral administration of 15000mgs amoxicillin antibiotic and 4000mgs flunixin meglumine anti-inflammatory. Reversal Achieved by intravenous administration of 42mgs diprenorphine hydrochloride through a prominent ear vein. He woke up after three minutes and moved away. Prognosis Good. The arrow was not poisoned.
INJURED LION, TALEK AREA (MASAI MARA NATIONAL RESERVE), 28TH AUGUST 2016
History This lion was seen with serious fight injuries by a tour guide on the morning of 26th August 2016. He reported this to the veterinary unit. Immediate search in conjunction with the county rangers was fruitless as this lion had moved away into hiding. The search continued for the next two days where he was located some kilometres away from the initial spot. General observation He was found lying in a small bush near a lugga with two females nearby. A carcass belonging to a topi was seen nearby and assumed to have been killed by the females. This injured male looked well fed and it was thought he had a share of the topi meal. He had injuries on her back, left front and left hind limb all suspected to have been caused by fight with other lions. Immobilization, examination and treatment Restraint was achieved chemically by use of a combination of 4.8mgs medetomidine and 250mgs ketamine delivered through a 3ml daninject dart from a vehicle. This male was completely anaesthetized after ten minutes. After making sure he was stable, examination was conducted which revealed deep bite wounds on his back, left hind and forelimbs. The wounds were thought to have been caused by fights with other males over territories. These wounds were relatively fresh. All the wounds were debrided with hydrogen peroxide, rinsed with clean water and wiped dry with sterile gauze swab. Tincture of iodine disinfectant and cloxacillin antibiotic were applied. In addition, this lion received 3000mgs amoxicillin antibiotics and 16mgs dexamethasone sodium antiinflammatory, all given intramuscularly. Reversal Achieved by intramuscular administration of 15mgs atepamezole hydrochloride one hour after immobilization. He woke up ten minutes after reversal and moved towards the female colleagues. Prognosis Good.
MARA MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT SEPTEMBER 2016 Introduction The month under review had a few small showers at the beginning which intensified towards the end but on average, it was dry. Most wildlife, particularly elephants, have moved out of the reserve into community areas and private conservancies. This has resulted into some conflict incidences with at least one elephant calf succumbing to multiple spear wounds. The rest of the elephant herd that was trapped during this encounter finally managed to find their way back to the Conservancies and Reserve, some with injuries. One female was traced to Olesukut conservancy where she was treated for a spear wound. The following are cases that were handled during the month;
EXAMINATION OF A SPEARED ELEPHANT CALF, EMARTI (TRANS MARA), 9TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History This baby elephant was among a herd that crossed Mara River into farmlands in Trans Mara with the local community resorting to attacking them. The Mara Elephant Project Team and KWS Rangers were on the ground trying to push the elephants back to nearby conservancies and unfortunately this calf had been fatally speared. General observation This baby elephant was in good body condition though still suckling. She lay on her side with multiple deep spear wounds evident in most parts of her body. There was severe bleeding and at least one penetrating wound into her thorax with damage to the lungs and heart by the offending spear. This caused instant death. The KWS security team and Mara Elephant Project team guarded the remaining herd and pushed them out of the community areas and into the conservancies at night.
INJURED LIONESS, TALEK (MASAI MARA NATIONAL RESERVE), 10TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History This lioness was in a group of six composed of two males and four females and reported to us by the Masai Mara Reserve warden in charge of Talek sector. They had killed a buffalo and appeared to be harbouring some injuries. General observation She was seen near a small river under a shade with the other female pride members. The males were a few meters away. She had visible injuries to her hind legs and a small swelling on her belly, specifically at the umbilicus. Immobilization, examination and treatment She was chemically restrained by use of a combination of 4.8mgs Medetomidine and 240mgs Ketamine delivered using the Dan-Inject Dart system from a vehicle. She became fully anaesthetised after ten minutes. Cloxacillin eye ointment was applied to both eyes and a blindfold put in place. The rest of the pride members took off as soon as the drugs took effect. She appeared to be in good condition and had recently fed. Examination revealed she had bite injuries from a fight with other lions. The wounds were debrided with dilute Hydrogen peroxide, rinsed with clean water and wiped dry with gauze swab. The wounds were then disinfected with tincture of iodine and topical Oxytetracycline spray applied. As for the swelling on the umbilicus, closer examination, which included palpation and careful aspiration revealed this was a long standing umbilical hernia she grew up with. It was thought to be inconsequential with no need to repair considering the age and the good health this lioness displayed even with this condition. Additional treatment included parenteral administration of 3000mgs Amoxicillin antibiotic and 16mgs dexamethasone sodium anti-inflammatory. Reversal Reversal of anaesthetic was achieved by intramuscular administration of 15mgs Atepamezole hydrochloride one hour after immobilization. She woke up after eight minutes and joined the other members of the pride. Prognosis Good.
RESCUE OF A BUFFALO, KWS RESEARCH STATION (MARA), 12TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History This old male is a member of a bachelor herd consisting of four old males that have stayed around the research station for a couple of years now. He was found in the mid-morning of this date struggling to get out of a small muddy pool he had wallowed in. After several attempts, he became fatigued and could not get himself out of the mud. He was eventually roped and pulled out of the mud and after resting for few minutes, he got up and began grazing. This buffalo is getting old and may not be able to stand challenges in the wild for long.
TREATMENT OF A SPEARED ELEPHANT, OLESUKUT CONSERVANCY, 16TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History This elephant, nursing a two-year-old calf, was seen in a herd of about 20 elephants by the Olesukut conservancy management. She had a spear wound to her right thoracic area slightly behind and below her right shoulder and thought to be one of the herds recently harassed after crossing to Emarti farmlands. The management sought our services to treat this elephant. She was in a rocky place with some thicket. After careful consideration helicopter services were utilised for darting and guiding her out of the thicket. Immobilization, examination and treatment Immobilization was achieved by use of 15mgs Etorphine hydrochloride delivered through a 3ml dan-inject dart from a helicopter. She was then guided out of a thicket to open ground for easy access for treatment. Drug induction time was 10 minutes and she assumed right lateral recumbency. She had to be flipped over for the attending team to access the injury. Examination revealed a less than one-week old wound below and behind her right shoulder most likely caused by spearing. The wound was dorso-ventrally directed but did not penetrate the ribcage. The offending spear had only partially split some external thoracic muscles. The wound was debrided with Hydrogen peroxide, flushed with clean water and irrigated with tincture of iodine. Green clay was then packed into the wound. Other treatments include intramuscular administration of 30000mgs Amoxicillin antibiotic and 5000mgs Flunixin meglumine anti-inflammatory. Reversal Reversal of anaesthetic was achieved by intravenous administration of 30mgs Diprenorphine hydrochloride through a prominent ear vein. She woke up after four minutes to join the rest of the herd. Prognosis This elephant is expected to make full recovery.
TREATMENT OF A SNARED GIRAFFE, OLESUKUT CONSERVANCY, 16TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History This giraffe was spotted by the Conservancy Rangers as they were checking on the injured elephant. She was treated soon after the elephant case was handled. This giraffe was in company of ten giraffes browsing within the Conservancy. She was limping on her left front leg. A wire snare was visibly tight round her left front limb between the shoulder and knee. Immobilization, examination and treatment Immobilization was achieved by use of combination of 12mgs Etorphine hydrochloride and 60mgs Azaperone delivered in a 3ml dan-inject dart from a vehicle. It took eight minutes for the drugs to take full effect and this giraffe assisted to the ground with the help of ropes. Examination revealed a tight plain wire snare which had eaten into the muscular tissues of the leg. The wire was removed leaving an open wound. This wound had been infested with maggots and appeared septic. All the maggots were removed manually and necrotic tissue debrided with the help of Hydrogen peroxide. Copious amount of water was used to rinse this wound before tincture of iodine was applied. Green clay was then packed into the wound to promote quick healing. Other treatments instituted include intramuscular administration of 7500mgs Amoxicillin antibiotic and 1500mgs Flunixin meglumine anti-inflammatory. To get rid of maggot re-infestation, she was given 200mgs Ivermectin parasiticide subcutaneously. Reversal This was achieved by intravenous administration of 24mgs Diprenorphine hydrochloride through the jugular vein. She woke up immediately to join the rest of the herd. Prognosis Good.
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED LION, MARA PLAINS (NEAR TOTO CAMP), 17TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History This lion was seen injured and reported to us for attention by the Masai Mara Reserve Warden in charge of Olkiombo sector. He was found resting under a tree with his brother watching close by. He had multiple bite wounds thought to have been caused while defending their territory from other intruding lions. When agitated to move, he did so with pain and difficulty. Immobilization, examination and treatment Restraint was achieved chemically by use of a combination of 6mgs Medetomidine hydrochloride and 260mgs Ketamine hydrochloride in a 3ml daninject dart. Darting was done from a vehicle with the drugs taking full effect in ten minutes. He was pulled to a shade before commencement of treatment. He had multiple bite wounds inflicted by other lions that appeared deep with a big haematoma that was evacuated behind his left shoulder. All the wounds were debrided with Hydrogen peroxide, rinsed with clean water and disinfected with tincture of iodine. Cloxacillin ointment was also infused and topical Oxytetracycline spray applied. He was also given 3000mgs Amoxicillin antibiotic and 16mgs Dexamethasone sodium anti-inflammatory intramuscularly. Reversal Reverasl of the anaesthetic was achieved by intramuscular administration of 15mgs Atepamezole hydrochloride one hour after immobilization. He woke up in seven minutes to join his brother. Prognosis Good
POST MORTEM OF A LIONESS, OLARE MOTOROGI CONSERVANCY, 26TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History This lioness was seen emaciated and frail by Olare Motorogi Conservancy Management together with Mara Lion Project team. They called the veterinary unit for assessment and treatment. However, the lioness died when the team was on their way to help. General observation of the carcass The following were general findings of the carcass:
This lion died with her head submerged in a river. She was severely emaciated with body score of 2 in a scale of 1-5 where 1 is poor and 5 good. There was no evidence of struggle before death and she appeared to have slid into the water upon death. No external injury could be seen on the carcass. On opening the carcass, the following findings were noted, The trachea was frothy with the froth descending all the way to the lungs The heart muscles had hypertrophied with the chambers almost becoming occluded because of muscular thickening Liver and other abdominal organs were found to be sound. It was noted that it was a while since this lioness fed
Discernible gross pathological changes were observed in both lungs with the left lung showing severe pathological changes appearing atrophied and very compact. It was hard and firm on palpation with a lot of frothy stuff oozing on slicing. The lung also appeared tough with a lot of fibrous tissue in the lung parenchyma. The right lung showed similar changes but of lesser degree Conclusion This lioness died of chronic form of interstitial pneumonia with the attendant pathological changes including those found in the heart associated with this condition.
MERU MOBILE VET UNIT REPORT JULY, AUGUST & SEPTEMBER 2016
MERU MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT JULY 2016 Introduction This report describes the activities of the Meru Veterinary Unit in July 2016. Northern Kenya experienced dry weather during this month, however, pasture and water resources were still available following the long rains. In Loisaba Conservancy an elephant was treated for lameness caused by suspected gunshot injuries. We also immobilized a common zebra in Meru National Park to remove a snare and treat resulting wounds on the leg. An elephant which showed lameness in Kirisia Forest Reserve was responded to but could not be traced for treatment.
REMOVAL OF A SNARE IN A COMMON ZEBRA, MERU NATIONAL PARK, 6TH JULY 2016
History Rangers on patrol reported that a common zebra had injuries caused by a snare in Mulika plains, Meru national park. After a two day search we found the zebra which suffered lameness. It was immobilized to remove the snare. Immobilization, examination and treatment A combination of Etorphine and Medetomidine Hcl delivered in a 3 cc Dan-Inject dart was used to immobilize this zebra. Darting was done from a vehicle and the dart was delivered into the left thigh. The zebra went down in 3 minutes. Examination showed a swollen left limb distal to the hock joint. The snare seemed to have fallen off during darting but there were deep lacerations caused by the snare. The wounds were washed using an antiseptic and debrided using Hydrogen peroxide. Povidone iodine was also applied. Antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs were administered by intramuscular route. Prognosis Five minutes later this zebra was fully reversed. It is expected to make a complete recovery soon.
EYE INFECTION IN A BUFFALO, LEOPARD ROCK, MERU NATIONAL PARK, 9TH JULY 2016
History A buffalo in Leopard Rock lodge was reported to have shown blindness for two weeks and required veterinary evaluation on its welfare. It was usually seen around the lodge at night may be due to its security. The buffalo which was examined on 9th July was found to be in good body condition. It showed a swollen left eye and slight purulent discharge. The swelling on the left eye was reported to have reduced. The right eye was normal. Traumatic eye injury was believed to be the cause of unilateral blindness. We recommended further observation of this buffalo, so no further treatment was done at the time.
TREATMENT FOR LAMENESS IN AN ELEPHANT, LOISABA CONSERVANCY
History Scouts from Samburu Trust reported an elephant which showed lameness and a swollen leg in Loisaba Conservancy. The elephant had moved from Ol Maiso Conservancy where it had been reported four weeks prior but could not be tracked for treatment. The DSWT provided a helicopter for immediate response and darting through the Sky Vet program. Immobilization, examination and treatment Examination showed an infected puncture wound at the distal end of the left forelimb. Cause of the wound was suspected to be gunshot injuries which showed signs of healing. Manipulation of the leg did not show fractures. The wounds were washed with water and an antiseptic before the necrotic tissue was debrided with Hydrogen peroxide. Povidone iodine was also applied. A systemic antibiotic Betamox trihydrate and anti-inflammatory drug Flinixin meglumine were administered. Reversal For reversal of anesthetic effect Diprenophine hydrochloride 42mg was given intravenously and the elephant came around after 4 minutes. Prognosis This elephant is expected to make a complete recovery soon.
INJURED ELEPHANT, SEIYA LUGGA, KIRISIA, 19TH JULY 2016
History Wildlife scouts in Kirisia forest reported that an elephant had shown lameness for four days. It was confined to an area at the edge of Seiya lugga with limited movement. An assessment was carried out with the aim of administering treatment. On 18th July we found this elephant in company of another male in a thicket which was not accessible by vehicle. It was in good body condition. The elephant showed lameness of the left hind leg but we were unable to observe closely to determine the cause or extent of injury. This area was not suitable for darting. On 19th July we were not able to trace the elephant for treatment. It had moved deeper into the forest. Area scouts will search and report when this animal is found. No images available
MERU MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT AUGUST 2016 Introduction This report describes activities of the Meru Veterinary Unit in August 2016. During this month unit staff were away on annual leave hence some of the cases were attended by the Sky Vet unit. A snare was removed around the trunk of an elephant in Meru National Park. We also treated an elephant for an abscess on its flank. In Ol Pejeta conservancy a black rhino was reported to have suffered from minor rectal tear. We would like to thank Dr. Fred Ochieng from KWS headquarters for standing in while we were away. This was made possible through the DSWT Sky Vet program.
SNARED ELEPHANT, MERU NATIONAL PARK, 16TH AUGUST 2016
Introduction A young male elephant in Meru national park had a snare at the base of its trunk. This elephant was first seen in June but could not be found for treatment. On 16th August this elephant was reported by Elsas Kopje lodge tour guides who requested immediate treatment. Snares if untreated can cause debilitating tissue in elephants in this case it can cause asphyxiation. This case was attended by Dr. Fred who was facilitated by the DSWT sky vet program and a report prepared. This elephant was sighted with a wire snare near Mulika airstrip. The elephant was among a herd of about 70 elephants. The snare was just at the base of the trunk very proximal to the mouth. This animal was in good body condition and the snare had not gone deep through the soft tissue. Chemical immobilization & treatment The young bull was effectively immobilized using 12mg Etorphine Hcl. Aerial darting was done using a helicopter and the animal went down in about 5 minutes. The wire snare was then exposed from the soft tissue and cut loose. The wound had no pus or maggots hence thorough cleaning was done using copious amount of water and tincture of iodine. Green clay was applied topically for residual antibiotic therapy and the wound was then sprayed with Oxytetracycline spray to abate fly infestation. Parenteral administration of 15000mg amoxicillin trihydrate (BetamoxÂŽ) and 40mg ColvasoneÂŽ was injected intramuscularly. Reversal of anaesthesia was done using 60mg Diprenorphine Hcl injected via the auricular vein. Recovery from was smooth and the bull walked away with significant relief. Prognosis Favourable as the snare was reported in time and had not penetrated deep into the soft tissue. The wound caused was also not septic.
SICK BLACK RHINO, OL PEJETA CONSERVANCY, 27TH AUGUST 2016
A black rhino was reported to have passed blood during defecation. This happened on three occasions although it showed normal behavior and good appetite. A minor rectal tear of unknown etiology was suspected. Following discussions with rhino monitoring team, we recommended further observation of this animal. Two days later it was reported that no more blood was seen in stool. No images available 3.
ABSCESS IN AN ELEPHANT, MERU NATIONAL PARK, 30TH AUGUST 2016
History This elephant was found during patrol in the park on 31st August 2016. It had pus oozing from a swelling in the abdominal flank. This elephant was darted for examination and treatment. Immobilization and Examination Immobilization was achieved using Etorphine hydrochloride 18mg in a single 3cc DanInject dart with a 2.2 Ă— 60 mm needle. Darting was done from a vehicle with the dart placed into the gluteal muscles. After 10 minutes this elephant went into left lateral recumbence. Examination showed an open abscess. Treatment and prognosis Debridement of the abscess was carried out to remove pus and necrotic tissue using hydrogen peroxide, application of iodine. Green clay was then applied. A systemic antibiotic was injected to prevent spread of infection. This animal will make a full recovery in the coming days.
LAMENESS IN A LION, LEWA CONSERVANCY, 31ST AUGUST 2016
History A female lion in Lewa conservancy was immobilized to remove a tracking collar which had malfunctioned. The lioness was also treated for lameness on its right forelimb. Immobilization, collar removal and treatment The lioness was darted using a combination of Ketamine hydrochloride and Medetomidine Hcl. Darting was done from a vehicle with the dart placed into the shoulder muscles. Down time was 6 minutes. A blindfold was applied and the lion moved to a shade for examination and treatment. Its collar was also removed. Lameness was caused by a wound on the medial claw of the right forelimb. For treatment the wound was cleaned and hair clipped. Povidone iodine and topical antibiotic spray was applied. Antisedan was injected intramuscularly 45 minutes after sedation to reverse the effects of medetomidine Hcl. Ten minutes later the lioness came around.
MERU MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT SEPTEMBER 2016 Introduction This report describes activities of the Meru Veterinary Unit in northern Kenya in September 2016. Generally, dry weather conditions continued to affect many parts in northern Kenya causing reduced water sources and vegetation. This has led to increased interaction, in areas where pasture and water is available, between wildlife and communities living around these conservation areas. The following activities were carried out during the month under review: a male white rhino was relocated to Solio wildlife sanctuary after it broke out through the fence. Three leopards which were involved in conflict with communities in central and northern Kenya were released in Meru National Park. In Lewa Conservancy an elephant which had a wire entangled around its legs was darted to remove the wire and a Grevy zebra carcass was examined to determine the cause of death. In Naibunga Conservancy an elephant was darted to investigate the cause of lameness. We would like to acknowledge logistical and financial support provided by the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust to enable timely veterinary intervention on affected wildlife in northern Kenya.
WHITE RHINO RELOCATION, SOLIO RANCH, 8TH SEPTEMBER 2016
Relocation On 7th September, a male white rhino (WR) in Solio ranch was reported to have escaped out of the sanctuary into a nearby property (private airstrip) through a gap in the fence on an eroded river bed. There was serious concern about its security and it also posed a risk of injury to people since this airstrip bordered a public road. Attempts to drive back this rhino using a helicopter and vehicles were not successful. On 8th September, it was captured and released into the sanctuary. A combination of Etorphine and Azaperone was delivered using the Dan-Inject darting system into the neck muscles from foot. Induction time was seven minutes with the rhino lying on lateral recumbency. Its respiration rate and temperature was monitored during the procedure. Reversal Partial reversal of Etorphine was achieved by intravenous administration of M5050ÂŽ and five minutes later the WR, which was in a standing position, was prodded into a customized transportation crate. In the crate, full reversal of anesthetic effect was achieved by intravenous administration of Naltrexone Hcl. This WR was successfully released into the wildlife sanctuary and has since settled well in its territory. We acknowledge KWS rangers in Solio who protected the rhino when it broke out of the sanctuary and assisted in the capture operation.
REMOVAL OF A SNARE FROM AN ELEPHANT, LEWA CONSERVANCY, 8TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History An elephant was reported to have a loose wire entangled around its leg in Lewa Wildlife Conservancy. This elephant was in a group of 4 and was suspected to have picked the wire while attempting to break through a fence. It was immobilized to remove the snare before it caused further damage on its legs. Immobilization and snare removal Immobilization was achieved using M99ÂŽ delivered in a DanInject darting system. This group of elephants were agitated and were darted from a vehicle after a brief chase. Down time was eight minutes with the elephant lying on right lateral recumbence. This loose snare was cut and removed from the legs. Reversal The anesthetic effect was reversed by intravenous administration of M5050ÂŽ through the superficial ear veins. This elephant was in standing position after three minutes and ran off to join the rest of the herd.
POST MORTEM EXAMINATION OF A GREVY ZEBRA, LEWA CONSERVANCY, 9TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History A Grevy zebra carcass in good body condition was found by rangers during routine patrol in Lewa Conservancy. A post mortem was conducted to investigate and document the cause of death. This grevy zebra was found to have ruptured its colon with digested material in the abdominal cavity causing peritonitis. Rupture was suspected to have been caused by trauma. Images unavailable
LAMENESS IN AN ELEPHANT, NAIBUNGA CONSERVANCY, 18TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History An elephant bull was reported to have shown lameness and swelling of its right forelimb in Naibunga Conservancy with minimal movement over the previous two days. Immobilization, examination and treatment Immobilization was achieved using Etorphine delivered using the Dan-Inject darting system from a helicopter with the elephant falling on left lateral recumbence after 10 minutes. Examination showed a swelling of its right carpal; joint sprain was diagnosed. No other significant findings were seen. Anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics were administered intramuscularly. This elephant is expected to recover in the coming days. Reversal Complete reversal from anesthesia was achieved by intravenous administration of Diprenophine Hcl. Two minutes later the elephant was in a standing position. Prognosis Good
LEOPARD RELEASE, MERU NATIONAL PARK, SEPTEMBER 2016
History Three leopards were released in Meru national park in September 2016. They were captured using cage traps by KWS problem animal control units in Gilgil, Kajiado and Biliqo Belesa conservancy. The leopards were reported to have caused livestock depredation and the relocation was aimed at rehabilitating them into new wildlife areas. A suitable release site was selected at a central area within the park near a river with riparian vegetation providing cover for the leopards. Two leopards were initially quarantined in Nairobi KWS veterinary unit, physically examined and fitted with tracking collars to assist in post release monitoring. Data from the collars will provide useful information and guide management decisions.
AMBOSELI MOBILE VET UNIT REPORT JULY, AUGUST & SEPTEMBER 2016
AMBOSELI MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT JULY 2016 Introduction The SCA Mobile Vet Unit during July was faced with an increased number of cases within the ecosystem. The gradual increase in the number of cases is probably due to the dry spell that is setting in. Cases ranged from human-wildlife conflict to poaching.
ELEPHANT RESCUE, AMBOSELI, 2ND JULY 2016
History A young elephant was reported abandoned in Amboseli ecosystem within community land in Rombo area by Big Life rangers. The mother could not be traced hence reunion was impossible. A decision was made to relocate him the DSWT stockade at Nairobi National park for care and nurturing. Immobilization Physical restraint was used due to the age of the baby elephant. Using a land cruiser the young elephant was relocated to Amboseli National park awaiting relocation to Nairobi. The DSWT arranged for a chartered aircraft to relocate the elephant to the Nairobi stockade. The elephant was immediately airlifted to Nairobi for care and nurturing. Prognosis The elephant is in good health and chances of survival high.
TREATMENT OF AN ELEPHANT WITH AN ARROW INJURY, TSAVO EAST, 9TH JULY 2016
History The elephant was spotted by the DSWT rangers while on routine patrol. Plans were made to airlift the vet from Amboseli to Ithumba immediately. The veterinary team from Amboseli attended to the case for assessment and treatment. Immobilization, examination and treatment The elephant was immobilized using 17 mgs Etorphine Hydrochloride in a 3cc dart using the Dan Inject system from a vehicle. The elephant went down in a dog sitting position after 8 minutes and therefore had to be flipped to access the wound and for safety of the elephant. The trunk was maintained patent using a piece of stick placed across the nostril entrances. The temperature was high hence plenty of water was doused on the elephant to keep the body temperatures low. The ears were used as blindfold. On physical examination the elephant had a wound (approx. 2 months old) to the right flank region. The wound was septic with necrotic tissue and had been caused by an arrow head. The wound was thoroughly cleaned using water and Hydrogen Peroxide then lavaged using tincture of Iodine. Topical antibiotic cream and green clay was then applied into the wound to facilitate healing and avoid infection. The elephant was then injected with 100 ml Betamox L.A and 50 ml Dexamethasone at different sites intramuscularly. The entire operation lasted about 30 minutes. Reversal Diprenorphine Hydrochloride (48mgs) into the ear vein was used. It took about 5 minutes to be fully awake from anaesthesia. Prognosis
POSTMORTEM OF A POISONED LION, AMBOSELI, 9TH JULY 2016
History The female lion was found dead in a ridge and was heavily swollen. Adjacent to the carcass was a dead black backed jackal also presumably died on the same day. Within 100 meters there were also remnants of bovine offals. The post-mortem was performed 5-7 days after death. Pathological changes in the carcass included;
Heavy intestinal and stomach hemorrhage Heavy bleeding from the mouth Fragile liver. The Carcass was infested with maggots
Conclusion The pathological changes indicated the cause of death to have been poisoning. The changes are characteristic of Amitraz. This is a very common poison available in all agrovet shops and is suspected to have been used in this case. The fact that a black backed jackal with similar pathological changes died at the same time and within a radius of about 100meters indicates that the two animals must have fed on the same poisoned bait. The presence of offals within the same area indicates that the culprits may have used the offals for poisoning the animals. No images available
POSTMORTEM OF A POISONED BLACK BACKED JACKAL, AMBOSELI, 9TH JULY 2016
History The jackal was found dead in a thicket adjacent to a lion carcass that presumably died on the same day. Within 50 meters there were also remnants of bovine offals. The post-mortem was performed 5-7 days after death. Pathological changes in the carcass included; Heavy intestinal and stomach hemorrhage Heavy bleeding from the mouth Fragile liver. The Carcass was infested with maggots Conclusion The pathological changes indicated the cause of death to have been poisoning. The changes are characteristic of Amitraz. This is a very common poison available in all agrovet shops and is suspected to have been used in this case. The fact that a lion with similar pathological changes died at the same time and within a radius of about 100meters, indicates that the two animals must have fed on the same poisoned bait. The presence of offals within the same area indicates that the culprits may have used the offals for poisoning the animals. No images available
AN ELEPHANT INJURED DURING HUMAN WILDLIFE CONFLICT, AMBOSELI ECOSYSTEM-SELENGEI, 12TH JULY 2016
History The elephant was spotted by Big Life Rangers. It had a fairly large swelling on the left hind limb. He also had a clearly visible wound on the left hind quarters and was severely limping. Immobilization, examination and treatment This elephant was immobilised using 17mg Etorphine Hcl in a 3 ml Dan - inject dart using the Dan-Inject system from a vehicle. After 8 minutes, the bull went on lateral recumbence. The trunk was maintained patent using a piece of stick placed across the nostril entrances. Plenty of water was doused on the elephant to keep the body temperatures low. The ears were used as blindfold. On physical examination the elephant had swelling of the left hind limb. A clearly visible wound was also seen on the hind quarters. The wound was 15 cm deep and had been caused by a spear in a human wildlife conflict situation about 4 days earlier. The wound to the hip was most likely inflicted by a fall or fight. It was suspected that the swelling could have been caused by trauma. The elephant was injected with 200 ml Betamox L.A and 100 ml Flunixine meglumine at different sites intramuscularly. The entire operation lasted about 30 minutes. Reversal Diprenorphine Hydrochloride (54 mgs) into the ear vein was used. It took 10minutes to get up and walk away from the site. However, he had to be assisted by a land cruiser to get up. A follow up after 3 to 4 weeks will determine the fate of the elephant. Prognosis Fair
POSTMORTEM OF A SPEARED ELEPHANT, AMBOSELI, 13TH JULY 2016
General Observation The carcass was relatively fresh (3-4 days old) and the head region had been scavenged on presumably by scavengers. Both tusks had been severed off by use of a sharp object with a third of the entire carcass remaining within the carcass and the rest having been taken by presumably poachers. A fresh wound about 10 cm diameter and 15 cm deep was visible on the left flank. A white powder material was clearly visible on the edges of the wound. Inside the wound was clotted blood and black discolouration of the soft tissue surrounding the wound. Conclusion The wound was relatively fresh and had not punctured any vital organs indicating the death was quite fast. The wound was too big for a bullet or an arrow head therefore the poachers must have used a spear laced with some lethal poison targeting the huge tusks. Skin and soft tissue with the powder on it were collected and delivered to the veterinary headquarters for further investigation
TREATMENT OF A SICK LION, AMBOSELI, 27TH JULY 2016
History A lioness was spotted by rangers at Amboseli National park and reported to have been lame and emaciated. The veterinary team immediately attended to the case and made a decision to immobilize and examine the lion. Immobilization, examination and treatment The lion was immobilized using 4.0 mgs Medetomidine and 295 mg Ketamine in a 3cc dart from a vehicle using Dan-inject system. Full immobilization took place after 6 minutes and he fell on lateral recumbence. The lion was blind folded and opticlox applied to the eyes. On physical examination the lion had no injuries but was highly emaciated and anemic. The lion was injected with 40 ml Betamox and 30 ml Dexamethasone at different sites intramuscularly. 10ml Catasol and Ivomec was also administered to take care of the external and internal parasites. The operation lasted 1 hour and 30 minutes. Revival The lion was then revived using 12 mg Atipamizole and was fully recovered after 30 min. The young lion was fed on an impala carcass that had been hunted down by other carnivores and abandoned. Prognosis A follow up indicated a healthy looking lioness on her footpath to recovery.
ELEPHANT RELOCATION FROM MARBA-AMBOSELI ECOSYSTEM, 31ST JULY 2016
History This elephant has been invading farms and destroying valuable crops including maize, beans, watermelons, tomatoes among others as well as water storage facilities, a property of the community members. The animal has posed a major security threat to people, on daily basis as they invade various facilities and farms. This elephant bull with no family was roaming freely in farmlands daily causing public panic and crop destruction. Kenya Wildlife Service management requested us to move this problematic animal to Tsavo East National Park. Immobilization The elephant was immobilised using 18mg Etorphine in a 3 ml Dan - inject dart Using a Dan inject dart rifle from a helicopter. The elephant was darted at 7.14 am and he was immobilized after 25 minutes. He went down in a dog sitting position and was flipped onto lateral recumbence using the land cruiser. It took about two and a half hours to load the animal into a truck. To keep the elephant under anesthesia total of 3mg of Etorphine Hcl was used as a to top up at a dose rate of 1mg of Etorphine given I.V at 08.14am, 8.50am and at 9.37 am. The elephant was also injected with the following, Oxytetracycline 30000mg I.M and Dexamethasone 50mg I.M Reversal The anaesthetic was reversed using 72mg of Diprenorphine IV in the ear vein at about 10.25 am. Due to complications of anaesthesia considering the age, the elephant could not get up. He succumbed to the complications and died despite efforts applied; 20ml Dexamethasone iv, and Naltrexon.
AMBOSELI MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT AUGUST 2016 Introduction A new KWS Field Veterinary Officer took charge of the DSWT funded Amboseli Mobile Veterinary Unit during the month. The new vet in charge is Dr. Ndambiri Ephantus. The month under review has been characterized by hot dry and dusty kind of weather. Wild animals are observed at the fall of every night moving from the Amboseli N.P. to community area surrounding the park in search of foliage to supplement what the park is offering. At the fall of the dawn the movement is vice versa as wild seek solace and water within the park. This movement a times results to conflict leading to hostility towards wild from the community. These results to human inflicted injuries especially spear wounds. Cases witnessed within the month are as indicated below.
LAME WILDEBEEST, AMBOSELI, 23RD AUGUST 2016
History After being observed for four days with unimproving left hind limb lameness and loosing body condition, it was darted with 4mgs Etorphine and 50mgs Azaperone. The first dart was poorly placed because of the strong wind necessitating second dart which was perfect. Induction took ten minutes. Animal assumed right lateral recumbence and was covered with blind fold to limit sight stimulation and corneal injury. Examination The limb was palpated for any swelling and then manipulated from hoof upward. It was noted to have slight crepitus on the medial aspect of the genu joint rostrally. Little swelling and warmth were evident. This meant it had a chip fracture of the distal femur. This could have been caused by abrupt stiff strain on the joint either following sudden freight or during fight with its counterpart. It was decided to be given a chance to live because it was bearing weight slightly on the limb reaching for water and foliage. Treatment It was injected with 40mgs Dexamethasone and 20ml Catosal intramuscularly at different sites. Subcutaneously it was covered for endo- and ecto- parasite using 7mgs Ivermectin. It was revived with 12mgs Diprenorphine into jugular vein. It was completely up in three minutes and ambulated away. Prognosis It was given guarded prognosis considering the presence of big predators within the area and that it could not easily salvage itself through freight. Will be monitored for any possible review after ten days.
INJURED ELEPHANT, KIMANA SANCTUARY, 26TH AUGUST 2016
History It was reported to have a swelling on the right shoulder with dry discharge from the swelling apex. This caused slight lameness. It was sedated using 14mgs Etorphine and 1000 I.U Hyaluronidase in 1.5ml dart propelled by Dan â€“Inject darting system. Induction took eight minutes and covered substantial distance because he was afraid and aware before darting. He assumed dog sitting position but was pushed on left recumbence by the help of the strap anchored on the vehicle and on right tusk. Its right ear was used as blind fold to cover the right eye. Trunk was immediately straitened and kept patent by the piece of stick across the rostral opening. Examination Due to shearing of muscles before and after darting the swelling burst open and started discharging tenacious pus jerking out upon that limb stumping on the ground. The pouch was about thirty centimeters deep and though septic it had no maggot invasion. This was due to spear head which eventually dropped out because no foreign body was recovered from the pouch. Treatment It was cleaned thoroughly with Hydrogen Peroxide and Iodine flushing as much of it from the pouch as possible by pressing using foot thumping. Then 30000mgs Tetracycline was infiltrated into the pouch followed by Green Clay to enhance wound healing. Systemically it was injected with 40ml Catosal and 30000mgs Tetracycline into muscles at different sites to prevent development of septicemia. 50mgs Dexamethasone was injected to ease inflammation. It was revived with 40mgs Naltrexone into the superficial ear vein after forty minutes since darting. It was on all four in one and half minutes energetically and ambulated away strongly. Prognosis It has a favorable one because the injury was noted early before causing severe lameness and before septicemia setting in.
MONITORING â€˜TIMâ€™ THE ELEPHANT, KIMANA SANCTUARY, 27TH AUGUST 2016
Health Inspection This particular candidate is renowned for long and heavy tusks hence under active monitoring after recently having been treated of spear injury. The tusks expose him to security threat hence need of surveillance. It had not been sighted over a month. He resurfaced at Kimana Sanctuary in company of other three males. All were found browsing on acacia shrubs headed for water at the nearby stream. His health was impeccable showing complete healing on the left ear base where the injury was. He was ambulating evenly and had no notable injury externally. His monitoring will continue physically as he awaits collaring so that he can be monitored more accurately and on daily basis.
INJURED ELEPHANT, ROMBO AREA, 29TH AUGUST 2016
History It was reported by Big Life rangers as being unable to wander around and with a wound on the left rump dorsally near spine. It was in company of her daughter between one and two years old. For effective examination and treatment both had to be darted with daughter first followed by dam. Calf was sedated using 5mgs Etorphine and 500 I.U Hyaluronidase in 1.5ml dart propelled by Dan â€“Inject darting system. Induction took five minutes and lay on left lateral recumbence about ten meters from the mother. Dam was darted with 13mgs Etorphine and 1000 I.U. Hyaluronidase in 1.5cc dart. She was on dog sitting posture in seven minutes and was pushed on to left lateral recumbence by help of rangers. Each trunk was kept patent by use of a piece of stick across the opening distally. The top most eyes were blinded using ear flaps. Examination Daughter had no noticeable injury superficially while her mother was dehydrated with sunken eye with poor muscle cover. The wound was leading to the front though just about ten centimeters under the skin. This was seemingly due to penetrant like spear which did not lodge in the muscles but caused skin break. It was septic with tenacious pus. There was also an old healed wound scar on the right flank just behind the rib cage. Treatment The septic wound was cleaned with Hydrogen Peroxide ensuring all pus suppurate then flushed with Iodine. It was liberally sprayed with Tetracycline wound spray and filled with green clay. It was covered systemically with 15000ml Amoxicillin and 40ml Catosal into muscles at different sites.Narcosis was reversed with 12mgs Diprenorphine into ear vein of the calf first until signs of reversal were eminent when the mother was reversed with 80mgs Naltrexone mixed with 300mgs Doxapram into ear vein. The calf got up after 3minutes one minute earlier than the mother and walked about twenty meters before charging towards the mother where we were. We flew and she got away again. Mother tried to get up twice and before the third we supported her head with the strap on the right tusk and she got up. She inspected her surrounding walking weakly and sluggishly for about fifteen minutes. She then assumed sternal recumbence and we left her to get up on her own under keen watch of the rangers. Prognosis It was prospected as guarded because of the poor body condition she was in. It was not definitively clear why she had such poor health while the daughter was very healthy.
POSTMORTEM OF AN ELEPHANT, ROMBO AREA, 30TH AUGUST 2016
Postmortem Report The female mother elephant treated on the 29th sadly died the following day due to her poor condition. A postmortem was done the following day and these were important observations made;
She was on left lateral recumbence The two trophies (tusks) were picked by KWS Rombo PAC team for safe custody and onward transmission.Mucus membranes were very dry with sunken eyes. Hardly was there bleeding even during and after recovery of the tusks. The right flank skin scar was examined and so was the fresh injury on the left rump near the spine. Both were just intradermal and had not in any way reached the sub cutis. Bowels were filled largely with air with five balls in gastric pouch of ruminal contents. Mesenteric vessels were less congested and hardly any peritoneal fluid. Her omentum was devoid of fat tissue and membranous. There was little straw coloured pericardial fluid with Myocardium depicting different types of hemorrhages superficially. The heart was devoid of coronary fat and left ventricle myocardium had gelatinous material superficially. When cut the wall was very thick leaving very little room internally. Her dentition shown two fully grown molar meaning the calf she had could have been the first ever to calf No other important observation was made on other vital organs such as liver, spleen, kidneys and lungs
Conclusion From ante mortem examination she seemed to have had a long standing condition affecting her health performance. The flesh wound during treatment was ruled out as cause of her ill health and so was the scar during the postmortem. Her health depicted poor performance due to severe emaciation and dehydration. All these were supported by her failing heart which depicted congestive heart problem. She could not keep up with pace of the others hence her isolation. She could not aggressively look for browse and water during the prevailing dry season thus her poor general body condition. Cause of death Tentatively the female elephant died because of cardiorespiratory issues. CALF The female calf was not located on this particular day. Aerial support both from David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust and Big Life were in vain. Ground teams from Amboseli Mobile Vet Unit, Big Life, DSWT Voi and Mc tao, KWS Rombo and Tsavo East were on standby just in case she was spotted to facilitate a rescue. Indications are that she could be heading to Kimana Sanctuary. Alternatively, if she is not spotted in the next three days she could have been adopted by other herds. Meanwhile situation is under surveillance if she may show up and needs rescue.
LAME ELEPHANT, AMBOSELI, AUGUST 2016
History This elehant was reported by IFAW walking with difficulties on his left hind limb towards the swamp from community area. Quick response was mounted and he was found near the swamp. He was darted with 13mgs Etorphine and 1000 I.U. Hyaluronidase in 1.5cc dart. Induction took eleven minutes and assumed right recumbence. His left eye was covered with left ear pinna. Examination The left knee had angry open wound covered with necrotic shreds and creamy pus. It was swollen. On the same limb at the rump area, there was a discharging penetrating wound. It was discharging serous fluid and had been caused by spear like three days earlier. It was about fifteen centimeters deep. Treatment Both wounds were cleaned with Hydrogen Peroxide and Iodine. The penetrating one was infiltrated with 7500mgs Amoxicillin and all were smeared with Green Clay to enhance healing. Both were then topically sprayed with Tetracycline wound spray. Systemically he was injected with 15000mgs Amoxicillin and 40ml Catosal into muscles to cover against opportunistic bacterial pathogens. To cater for inflammation noted it was injected with 50mgs Dexamethasone. Revival He was revived with 36mgs Diprenorphine injected into superficial ear vein. He was up in two minutes and ambulated slowly away. Prognosis He has guarded prognosis because of the involvement of the joint tissue and second injury at the rump area
FAMILIARIZATION TOURS Following transfer of resident vet early this month, the new vet ventured into familiarization tour of the new environment and also to meet other stakeholders within the area. 16-17/8/2016: Reported to Amboseli Mobile Veterinary Unit base at Amboseli N.P. 18/8/2016; Took over the Vet Unit from the outgoing Vet at the Unit base 20-21/8/2016: Went round the Amboseli National Park 22/8/2016: Visited Kimana Sanctuary Hqs and exchanged mobile numbers for vet assistance request 23/8/2016: Attended Section Heads meeting and handing over of the out-going AD to in-coming AD Southern Conservation Area 24/8/2016: Visited Loitoktok KWS Sub-station. We exchanged contacts for any vet assistance request 26/8/2016: Visited Porini Camp and Lion Guardian camp and exchanged contacts 29/8/2016: Visited KWS Rombo Station and exchanged contacts
AMBOSELI MOBILE VETERINARY UNIT SEPTEMBER 2016 Introduction Amboseli National Park and itâ€™s environ remain intermittently hot and cool on different days due to the influence of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Wild animals continue to wander in and out of the park in search of forage supplementation. This sometimes doesnâ€™t work well with community around because wild animals intrude into residential and farm areas leading to conflict. It is because of this that the Vet Unit continues to experience human-wildlife conflict based injuries. The month under review has experienced elephant spearing cases. These were attended to promptly thus promoting and quickly restoring animal welfare. Following are veterinary activities within the conservation area during the month.
TREATMENT OF AN INJURED ELEPHANT, WAERATA KUKU RANCH, 4TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History The elephant was spotted and reported by community game scouts as having lameness and remaining static most of the time. Immobilization, examination and treatment It was darted with 13mgs Etorphine in 1.5cc dart filled with water for injection. It was in some shrubs which made the approach by vehicle impossible, thus the animal was darted on foot. The dart landed on the right rump prompting the animal to run away with difficulties. It was fully immobilized in seven minutes assuming a sitting position. It was pushed to the left lateral recumbence manually. The right ear was used as blind fold and trunk was kept patent with the aid of a piece of stick at extreme open end. Both fore limbs had traumatic wound injuries within carpal joints. The right one was more severe penetrating from right to left side of limb while the left one had gone through from medial side half way without an exit. Both had missed the joints but sepsis was setting in the tissues. Both limbs were swollen but the right one was more pronounced and this limb was always favored in ambulation. Both wounds were exuding creamy pus and emitting a foul smell. These could have been caused by two different spears with first one going through the right limb followed by the second one on the left limb some time later since the right wound seemed to have initiated healing process much earlier than the left one. Both wounds were carefully cleaned with Hydrogen Peroxide and Tincture of Iodine allowing removal of dead debris through effervescences. It was followed by infiltration of Tetracycline wound spray into the cleaned cavities followed by generous packing of Green Clay. The elephant was injected with 40mgs Dexamethasone through the ear vein and 30ml Catosal and 15000mgs Amoxicillin intramuscularly at different sites. The dart wound was infiltrated with one Cloxacillin cream tube to avoid abscessiation. Reversal The elephant was revived with 36mgs Diprenorphine Hydrochloride into jugular vein. It was completely revived in three minutes and walked away. Prognosis It was given guarded prognosis considering both fore limbs were speared with spreading sepsis involving joint tissues.
POSTMORTEM OF AN ELEPHANT, SEREGEI RANCH, 6TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History This elephant had been treated initially on the 12th July 2016 for a spear wound on the right gluteal area and a sole abscess on the right hind limb. Postmortem depicted severe lameness of the left hind limb which was not established as the cause as there was no swelling or crepitation. Review was intended on 28th August 2016 when a visit to the ranch was made only to learn that the last time it was spotted was during initial treatment. A carcass was reported to have been sighted on 6th September 2016 by Lion Guardian rangers who bumped into it while on a trail of a collared lion through the ranch. A postmortem examination was done to establish first whether it is the candidate initially treated and possible cause of death. General examination Important observations made were: -It was in sitting position and two tusks were missing. The carcass had dried up and little foul smell was still present. -It was established that it had a callus covered fracture of the left olecranon process. -The dry skin at right gluteal area had a skin tear and the sole of the same limb depicted perforation. -The green colour on the left lump was present which had been applied by use of Tetracycline wound spray to help in post treatment monitoring. Postmortem Diagnosis Possibly succumbed to complications arising after spear injuries which had caused the prognosis to be guarded upon initial treatment. Conclusion It was established that the carcass belonged to the previously treated candidate who succumbed to injuries thereafter. The fracture on the left hind limb was seen as severe lameness (before death) of the affected limb. The skin break at the right gluteal area and sole perforation on the same limb conformed to antemortem pathology witnessed during treatment. The ivory had been poached possibly by poachers who trailed the animal to its death location or someone who bumped into the carcass by chance. Serengei Ranch is vast and thickly forested. It is patrolled by game scouts who patrol on foot making effective coverage almost impossible. This could have contributed to lack of timely spotting of the carcass there before.
TREATMENT REVIEW OF AN INJURED ELEPHANT, KIMANA SANCTUARY, 7TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History It was reported by Sanctuary rangers. The elephant had previously been attended to on 8th August 2016 due to an abscess on the lower side of left belly. The swelling had subsided but there was still evidence of creamy discharge hence need for review. Immobilization, examination and treatment It was darted using 13mgs Etorphine and 1000 I.U Hyalase in 1.5cc dart via vehicle darting. The dart was propelled remotely by use of Dan-inject darting system. He assumed sitting position but was pushed on left recumbence by the help of the strap anchored on the vehicle before flipping him again onto right lateral recumbence to expose the septic injury. Its right ear was used as blind fold to cover the right eye. Trunk was immediately straightened and kept patent by the piece of stick across the nostril opening. The abscess had shrunk leaving an open wound covered with creamy tenacious pus. Itsâ€™ muscle cover was fair It was cleaned with Hydrogen Peroxide and Iodine. There was another wound near linea alba just distal to the abscess wound still with pus. It was cleaned the same way and all were sprayed with Tetracycline wound spray after which they were packed with Green Clay to encourage healing. Systemically it was injected with 30000mgs Tetracycline into muscles at different sites to prevent development of septicemia and 50mgs Dexamethasone was injected intramuscular to ease inflammation Reversal It was revived with 40mgs Naltrexone into the superficial ear vein after forty minutes since darting. It was fully up on all four in two minutes energetically and ambulated away strongly. Prognosis It is favorable because of good response for treatment.
POSTMORTEM OF AN ELEPHANT CALF, LAKE JIPE-TSAVO WEST, 8TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History It was reported by OC Lake Jipe KWS base as having succumbed to death on the previous day during late evening hours. It had been spotted having difficulties in breathing with wheezing sounds from the wounded neck ventral area. The rangers retrieved the small tusks for safe custody and onward transmission. General examination Examination aged the calf approximately to be of two years. The postmortem was done and these were important observations made: -It was on right lateral recumbence and observations were done before turning it to left recumbence. -Dry blackish discharges were noted on the front limbs -The ventral neck area at the neck base had several penetrating discharging, septic maggot infested wounds -At the lumbar area of the spine there was a skin break depicting septic wound. It was pronged and had not penetrated into muscles. -The carcass was tossed on to left recumbence and conspicuous were several tearing wounds on the left hind and fore limbs laterally midway. The hind went through the cartilage of genu joint interfering with joint integrity and surrounding soft tissue. The fore one though latero-caudally on elbow joint didnâ€™t get into tge joint itself but damaged the soft tissue only. All wounds had foul smell with necrotic tissue present. -Several shallow scratch-like marks were evident on the left flank and slightly on right. -At the neck ventrally, the tissues within entire epiglottis area were swollen and edematous. The larynx cartilages had been torn apart making it flaccid. The soft tissue damage had attracted maggot invasion with their larvae. There was little froth at entrance to the trachea. Postmortem Diagnosis Cardiorespiratory failure secondary to unsuccessful lion attack. Conclusion It was ruled that the male calf succumbed to injuries sustained especially at the larynx area. These resulted to insufficient respiration causing cardiorespiratory failure hence death. Ante mortem was reported as wheezing sounds at the wounded area as some air escaped through the injury. Predators were presumed to be lions because of the scratches and attempt to strangle and probably the calf fought for his life alone or with assistance from the family members but then mauling sustained at the neck was fatal.
ELAND TREATMENT, SAMBU-ISINETI AREA, 9TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History It was spotted and reported by Big Life scouts as being lethargic and lame. Immobilization, examination and treatment It was darted using 8mgs Etorphine and 100mgs Azaperone. Dart was delivered by use of dart gun on foot. It was completely immobilized in seven minutes and assumed right lateral recumbence. A blind fold was placed on its head. Dart was retrieved from the dart site and its wound infiltrated with one tube ofCloxacillin cream. Water was intermittently applied after every five minutes on its body to control body temperature. The left hind limb had a swelling medial side at hock joint and was the one causing lameness. It was aspirated using gauge no. 19 needle and yielded flank blood meaning it needed time to ripen before it is drained or lacerated. The tail had a kink at the middle which was due to a transverse wound which was almost severing it completely. This was thought to have been caused by hyena it an attempted attack. The candidate was weak and seemed pregnant which was a burden due to its foot and poor forage cover. The skin tuft remaining at the tail kink area was severed using scalpel blade and bleeding vessels were ligated. The stump was cleaned using Hydrogen Peroxide and Tincture of Iodine and smeared with Green Clay after Tetracycline wound spray application. It was boosted with 20ml Multivitamin and 4500mgs Amoxicillin into different muscle areas. 8mgs Ivermectin was subcutaneously administered to cater for ecto- and endo- parasites. A review was scheduled after a week so that abscess can be examined for possible draining. Reversal It was revived with 24mgs Diprenorphine Hydrochloride into jugular vein. It was left fully aware of its surrounding but sluggish to get up. A guard was left in place and instructed to call after 20 minutes if she failed to walk away but she got up and walked away after seven minutes, even before we had left the location. Prognosis It has fair to guarded prognosis because of the poor body state, pregnancy and lack of enough browse.
ELEPHANT â€˜TIMâ€™ COLLARING EXERCISE, AMBOSELI N.P. EASTERN BORDER, 10TH SEPTEMBER 2016
History The old bull has been identified as perennial crop raider. It is important to note that he bears the longest and heaviest tusks in comparison with his counterparts. This has resulted in man-inflicted injuries to this old bull. He has suffered two spearings in a span of less than two years. This inhumane act could be geared to poaching due to his tusks or as a means of chasing him from farms. This necessitated need to know his whereabouts so that his life can be protected and also to repel him from raiding farms. This was to be achieved by use of GPS Collar which could give his locations especially before every night fall so that PAC Team can follow and remove/relocate him if near farms hence ensuring his security and thus circumvent any human-wildlife conflict. This continues to put him in danger. The collaring exercise was scheduled for 10th September 2016. This was graced by Director General-KWS amongst KWS fraternity and NGOs. These included the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust, Wildlife Direct, Safe the Elephant, Amboseli Elephant Trust, Big Life, local community and media houses. Prior to the planned exercise his health was evaluated on 27th August 2016 when he was spotted in Kimana Sanctuary. He was in the company of other two bulls and who busy browsing healthily and was out of musth. Both previous spear wounds had healed but left little bumps on the left rump and right ear base. He was given a clean bill of health. He was trailed and found near Amboseli N.P. east border with community within the corridor. He was still in the company of two bulls.
Immobilization He was darted using a vehicle after being directed to an open savannah. Immobilization was achieved by use of 18mgs Etorphine and 2000I.U Hyalase in three centiliter dart. He was scared before and after darting but he was maintained within the open savannah by use of four vehicles until he gained static posture after eight minutes. He then went into incomplete sitting position after four minutes when he was pushed to left recumbence manually. His trunk was straightened and maintained patent by use of a piece of stick at the entrance of the nostrils. His ear flap was used as blind fold to cover the eye preventing damage from external stimuli and drying. One tube of Cloxacillin cream was put in the eye to prevent corneal damage and another one was put in the right medial thigh dart wound to prevent abscess development. He was dowsed with water to control temperature. His initial rectal temperature was 39.5C followed by second reading after five minutes of 38.9C. The third was 38.3C followed by final one of 37.5C just before revival after 20 minutes of the procedure. Initial breathing rate was 8 rhythms every minute dropping to 5 just before revival.
He was covered systemically with 50mgs Dexamethasone injected into gluteal muscles to stabilize the cell membranes because he ran before and after darting. Sampling Samples picked included skin tissue from the ears, ticks from various body parts, tail hair and fecal sample. Collar was donated by Safe the Elephant and Wildlife Direct who also did the fitting under the watch of KWS. It was fitted reasonably loosely to allow ample neck movement permitting for any further growth, if any, and to prevent strangulation. Examination The whole body was examined for any injuries or wounds and none were noticed. The larger right bump on the rump was aspirated after palpation but yielded no aspirate. That needle wound was infiltrated with Cloxacillin wound cream to prevent abscessiation. Reversal This was done after approximately 35 minutes since darting took place. The vehicle was placed strategically near with straps ready just in case he needed some assistance whilst getting up after revival considering his advanced age. It was revived with 48mgs Diprenorphine into jugular vein concomitantly administered together with 80mgs Naltrexone into muscles. He was completely up in three minutes. He examined the collar using the trunk and shook his head before ambulating away majestically.