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; SENATE.

36TH CONGRESS, }

11t Suaion.

IBDUSTBIAL 4ND OTHER OONDITIOlfS OF =~D OF --PUERTO BIOO, AND THE FORK or Go . WHIOH SHOULD BE ADOPTED FOR IT. \'" . .

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. 81Bl10TECA GEN~RAl 'I

do~os Y··MAPAS . . ,. ) I UN , IVEISID. DE P. R.

JJBFORE THE

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C<oMMITTEE oN PACIFIC I 'LANDS1~NQ PuERTo· R1co F Til E ' (

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UNITED . T "rE

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ON

SE ATE BILL

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5, 1900.-Preaented. by ?. and ordered t~ be printe .

F ERRUAltY

WASHINGTON: • I

GOVERNMENT . PIRINTING OFFICE.

1900.

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STATEMENT

~fADE

BY BRIG. GEN.

m~oh.

E w.

nAvi , u.s. A.,

~IJLITAR{GOVERNOR OF THE· ISLANP OF ~UER1'0 RICO, ON

SA1'URDA·Y, .JA:NUAlt¥ 13, l!lOO, ~ION_o:,l.Y, .lANUARY 15, UJOO, AND ·WEDNE 'DAY, JANUARY 1,7, 1!'1001 I .

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The 'CHAIRMAN. What po:<ition do no hold in tion witlr the i:slmul of :Pul'rto Hil'o ~ 1 Gen '1'1\1 DAvis. I havtl been n,..,..igned c 1 Jmn.nding g neral o the geogmphienl dl'pnrtment of Pu.e•·to Wt·o. 1 1 The Cn ,\mMAN. \\hat dol' thnt indud ~ 1 Cl · nqml DA.VII'. The.i::~lnncl of l'urrto ltit·o nml ;;ome ndjnc nt i ~:~ lo.nds, 1 11 ·h ns ulcbm, Vieq11c?., nnd 1\lonn.' ai1d ,.. me other ljlllltll i: i~:~lnnds. Tb CHAIRMAN. v~tnnd i' whil'h w 'l'C Cl'th;d I y tha trcJity 0 peace of Pari ? J G nern,l DAVIS. Yc><, .,;ir. • . Th CIIAIIIM,tN. How lonO' h:we ·o11 been ~ ·\ Puet·to Rico Gcneml lh ,:1::<. Sin th th of( Un.r lm;tl • j The CHAIH~r~N. Yot1 lmvo been th r • uontT'nuou:;ly s ince~ G neml DAvis. Yr,.., ,..it·; .11ntil called to' d. hington. The CHAIIDtAN. 'Vhom did \ ' Oil l'nece cH 1 General D,•..vi. . Maj. Gen. G11r ' . H enry J Tli CnAIIDtAN. How Ion hnci he hl'C'n th re 1 G ner1.Ll DA~' J S . From th tlth of D • ·em! er pt·eceding my taking rhn.rge he wn in eommnwl, hut h hnd ·h n rl duty thet·e 'p l·eviou ly. · Tile CHAIR~rAN. Whom. did he s ucceed ~ 1 General DA IS. Gen .•John H. Bt·ookc, who rcceiyed the .· vet·e!gntJ: of th i lnnd hom th o pt ni"h Gm· ruor-Ge1\oml on the 1St of October prc\'iou . ' · · · The 0HAmMAN. If you mn, pi en,,. t II u,.., Ia1 a re;sult of y · ur obser- : nttion, yom· ·eondu:;ion with r pcC't to th rndu,;trinl con itions in the island, and th rondition of th people g nemlly thet·e. GenernJ DAVI . I willl'ln.y-;-Mr. GALUNGEU. Are ' tho. e adjacent i ·I qds you men ioned inhabited1 . _ 1 I G neml DAVI. Ye:;,. n·. 1 Mr. GALLINGER. I there n,ny con>:iidembl }!>opulO:ti n ~ I. General DAVI . The island of Viequez has about 7,qoo inhabitants. · Culebra has 6me 600 or 700· Mona n. mall umber, and a few other little islnnd~:~ hn,ve an incon: iderable number inbabi~nts. 1 Mr. GALLINGER. ·A few inhabitants each 1 1 G nernl DAvi . Y ir. , ,· Th CHAntl\IA.o.V. About what i the area of that island of Viequez1 General DAVIS. It is about 12 miles long and 3 miles wide-perho.p~

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GOVERN"M.EN11 JfOR

HE r LAN;D 0~' PUERTO RICO.

GOVERNM,ENT 'FOR

RlOO.

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'1.5 mile long nnd 13 or 4 mH . wide. It is.tthno t.n parnll logrmu it~ hu iness there · hcfort> the Qt"cupat ion. Th !schools . in Puerto Rico · conduetcd under tho Spunii!h . p:tcm were fe ' in number. T~e amount : bape very rich and fcl'til . In re:>~c.t ~ mdustnal m~t~ers-.The' HAIIL)!_AJ.'I'. Phv . stnt tb ituab?u g:en n~lly· 1.n the .•:slnnd, allotted for cdu('ation hy th insular budget v~s omething Ufe 800,o60> pefiOJ' It year, '1\8 I n(iw 'recall the tiglU'es. rho ~lllt'h 1' were officer and· with rltt:t\CUlar rcf~\rence. to th n ce . 1ty of Jegt:s!at1011: . n ra DA 1 . :\lr. lmi·rmaoand' gent} men of q:i· otn,!mtt,ee: .The of the gov rnm n,S holding lif po itions llfl r eceiving ~ni!!ons when i land of Ptt rto Rico hn an area of about 3,6 0. qual'e m'ile~, ac ·ordsnpomnnuate£1. ] .'h f' belong to 1\. civil-Sel'\'f' clns:s wh1ch IS not deing to th be t information tbnt. uow exi t:s, but that area has to be pendent upon ah)' t•hn.ng of admini tl'll.tion nly beilig r emoved f@~· · ·I I verified arid it i doubted i(the ar a i quite so hug . It has a P!JPUcnu . The lawyerA, or judge , rather , of t e iF~Iand, oecup)l ~~ similat• lation :o£ about-a million perha.ps- certainl~: on of the most densely • position. 'They belong to ll oln. s whieh i spoken of· a~ a career, populated·itrel\8 o~ B. · . o'r -:l. qu~re miles on. the face .of the enrth, Although thel·c .i. no pro vi ~ ion for pen. ion f r thq judges, \1s I now sp,proximatin~ th d nstty of ropuhttton of Belg~um, I thmk, and conrecall yet ther is Rn organiz11tion unlike an we lm\re hnro. Al l tlie . 1<ferably greater ~ltll' that o anv of our thirtdy settled agricultural 1awre,·s helong· to· whnt is called the Coli. IJP of Lllwyer. 1perhtt . 1• region in the Untt d :State . New England has atbout 200 to the omewhat simil~tr to otu· law institutes in ou ountl'y . · sqnar mil whil .Puet·to Rico ba nearly 300. · p to th ternlination of Spanish sover i~nty fairly ace rate andf The inhabitants llre mostl) of Spnni h origin-enJigran~ from pnin fRirly complete statti -tic had be n kept o'f t a e, indnst1·ie , and om~J . during the last -!00 yen1 and theu d cendants . The~e 1 a larg.e repmerce by officer conn . cte<l with the insul govern moot oder t~ . r · ntation from the Canar)' lslanrls and th BaleariC gronp m the order of the pnni h aptain-Genera1, and tho. e stati. tics ave beq · Mediterranean alar~ nUll')ber of Corsican. and their descendttnts, afld published to the world.' I think they are qu ;~ full and qn ' ceura~ : IQOMequently they ar Fr n h u bject. , a. f w German , a few English, "'o ftu· as relates to imports and exports 1 'Cle nee,, tonnage, n a·t-:and very few.1Am ricans befor the ot·cuplttion; n. !ew Vel)ezuelans, a ter that·m·e importJlnt to the ommercml n oYemerit of the ount .. few from ntb Domingo, nnd a f w Cuban , but the mo t of the popuI have relied upon .tho.·e tigurcs for stati. ties n the preparati n of su hj lation i Spanish. lncluded in that million are about 3001000 n gro r epprts as 1 have ubmitted to the Departm n , with · uch v iticatioiB and' mulatt . approriumte)y [\, littl 1'1101' than that num ber. about a: wns pos~;ible from clnta within my own cor trol. .1 '· 1 on -third of tll eritir p lpuln ion is of the negi·o or mixed race ' what The beginning of Amcrit·an control- that i , the end of Span;sh COJ;l-j would be ailed in t h Unit •d tate;; "colored" p ople. Of ptire· trol- dntes, for the whole if'land, from the 18 h of October, H~98, whEiD blood n' ~oe 'ther .nr about 70.000. tbe !'emaind .r mL~nttoe ' and [ n the b'o,·erei~ nty wns tmn .. fened. Pt·e,· ionr:~ that various t{>wns had. s~king Spani' h, and larl!'ely the ,..Ja,·e;; It berated 1~ 1 14. heen occup10d 1?.'' out· force · and of cour e there the chari~ of ·SOV"" The number of lave lrberated at that time wa' consid mbly le . . ereignty was earlier, such n:s Gllnni<m, Pone , land Gun.yama~ 1but th ~ than the number of il crroes in Puerto Rico, tli IIUlllb r being only formnl trllnsfer d1tte1S. from the 18(h of 0 •t tler, 18!)g:hwhert' General, about 00,000, tor who.m ~st>me i\11, 00 010 wll ,Paid 'the ow~1er . . 'J;'bat . Bropke relieved Genernl Mncins. The sch ~ule of t e canitulatio1n tatement gh·e ·a fmr 1d et~ of th e charnc~ r of the populnt10n as was !inbmitted , board of evncuntion . haw ing ·oviously prepjl.red ce I ':a:e!!pects numbers and rae . Ail re:;~d. l~tE'rlW\'I we bnve ?nly the . tui n datn, and the:se records 'of the evncuntio om1n ission ar ~ ow .o'fl'' Spani h records' of th c n.sus 1und 111 1 91 and that made 111 1887. file in the ·w!lli· ' Departmcnt nnd a.r ace; ssib e to Congress o course. The J;llO t .r cent c n us, that1of 1 07, wa:; not completed when the wat' The . chedule: of property tran f.erred includ buHdings and n.d an~ · interyened~at aU \'ents, the compilation wn. not ompleted. I ~v .1 defenses-~11 that p rtnlned' to the d?1~1inio qf Sr.nin. Th ema\!'· 1 how ~r u, abl to coll >ct 1tlmo. t all the dam of that cen ..us, and . der of the tsl nd wa.· trim fcrred a. 1n the >$:essron nnd o ersh1p1 from it give the ratio of those 'vho can read nnd write to those 'Y"ho of corpomtiouf4 and individual:; und munieipa 'ties. ' 1 .] can . not. Th . pnni:sh r p<_irt:ed 13.2 per ce u~ who could read and , Mr. CocKRELL. Wa. tber • any publi · land ? · write, and a f w more wbo ould. rend but not wr1te; I fol·get the exact . General D.Wll3. .I will CO!ne to that latte,r. ' he s~·sw m of go,·er numbers. • · ment: Puerto Rico was treated as a pr vim~ . ~eyoml the :e that · . · The ducnted cla iJ of Pueuto Rican are as well educated and accom-j to sa.v, a colonv. It WI\S under the minister Itramar. It w . one f' : lplish d as ·the educated men of any coun~ry. They haYe bad the . .the panish colonies. Cuh1\ had 1<ix Sn('h pr vlnce:, en<"h lik Puerto· · ' benefit of a liberal edncation, u few in the United tates, a good ,Ulany Rico so ~ar as the political o~·ganization is co~cbrn ed · the Ph I ppine,'l~ 10 Fran e, and a great n~.nny .i-t! Madrid and .Ha~na, here. they have lind several similar subdivisions, although· I fo · et·the number Gubli,.. passed throng~ th .umv 1. 1t1 e~. ~h l!twyer and doo~rs a:e ~ll however, w~ under a captai!1-geneml, who n: ··om bled the fun· iOI'\S of' graduates f 1t1th r the unn~ rs1t,r m Havana or some· umversttJ;.m nil the provmces under one bead. ~"uerto R1Ho1also had one ad, bt t Spain with very f w e'xception . The m 1·chants are largely SpaniSh, there was only O"!e administrative uni.t in hi ·ontrol. The over.n many 'of whom 'wilt probably pr sen ·e their na~iohality under the proment of the islBnd, in regardlto civil affairs,' committed · ctly tovision of the Tr at.~rof Pafis which ~iv th m that r.ght. A few may the captain-geperal, who wa nlso commande f the troops. Tbereadopt. American oitizensbip, and ultunately po8sibl~aUwill, but many ~vere certain fun 'tions whic.h were. retain~d in~*~ captain-gen l, for 1 <>f the-merciulnts who cond'uct the Ja'rge t part of th usinese of Puerto mstance, those connected Wtth pohce atfllJ1'8, 1tary and nav , ques.Rico will retain their Spanish citizen hjp, · . · tion of public afety, etc., .and the clergy all ported direct him. The.re are a' number of merch.a nts who are nath· 1 a few Oerm{n.s, Other R.dministra.t1ve funct\ions, such a.s pub ic school~:~ a.nd c aritablb aad a few ~gU h. I do not remember any Amertcan merchant 1.D ~ in. titutions, were in. the control of the provi · cial deputaoion a bodF ' I .

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OYltRNXENT F R TR E l L~ D

GOVE R ME NT F OR THE I . .LAND

also ha.ving admini tmti> fa ulties. · Tb pre id nt of that body was· also th admini tmtor of ertain lin:u ce. col\ t d br the d putacion. Although 'th · aptain -gell(iml was not~ innlly it.~ pr s~d nt, yet the \'itopre ident W t\8 it principal . X cuti\· Offi cer , and the control of ·cettain ftnanc colic ·ted for the ex ~en s of t hi d puta ·ion wa. administ red Th nex t :,~t p was th munlciJ?nlity. Tbi , in Puerto Rico, 1 by h ' tn. d fined a regi.on containing t wn ,-iiiR e , fnriJling cQmmunitic. - whnt we would eaU wards. Th n wa nuwsb , 'wnmp, snnd, . terile land f rtile. lattd, ulti\'&ted field , nnd nil thnt pertains in the U nited tate . to what we denominate a town hip. ' The go,· rnm nt Of our town hip ' ·ould under their . ystem con i. t of a ma~·or, " comn1o 1 council , munit·ipnl judg s, with tQe attribute which judg• s ba\· und r tho:ie condition ·, board. of ·. choortrustee and \·a,rious otber function s whi h w hn\· in our organization, e laborated ·. and . xtended for th larger connuul1itie. nnd cone ntrnt d for the smaller. Ench t wn bad llmnrot· nnd, d pend nt on it size, from two to liv 'i root mnyor okald . , and ten int (i. ., n. sismnt) nlcolde . The n came th town council&, YlltTin!!l in ·number from twelve to thirtr member , d, ! ndent n th siz of tbk tow n. Tb :s nr whn.t we C!lll aldenne n in our iti :s. ~ir. G LUNGEU. '£\ ctRd 0 1' RllJlO i nt~d! G n raJ D n . uppo><ed 't(l el l'tl'd, n>< wert' nlso the nlcnlde : but that was not tl reality. The>< to rn l'O U1ll'il>< hnd t.be snnie .fu)tCtion. . th · I'Ommon I'Otmcil$ in otir d ti('s. I do uot thiuk th •r ' ·wos any ~rticulnr diff~ l'<'lll'<'. .:a sidr:,; tH ' nutnil'ipul qouncil the re was. a mumcipal b01ud of th snmo muu her f mem l ' rs ntrying f rom tweh· t: fift en 'to tbirt~·. Thii'l 'vn~< nn at xilinr~· honrd,~.wbidt n:.sistt>tt 1' . parti ipa.t d in th pr pomtion of ti><tlll~ mntte t·:s ~r ~h~ prepn.mtio1! of th budg, t. Th ~· w r 1fot c Ill' t·h '~ 111 th dtt tutl f adnnutstmtwn, · ·but in tfi lar •e r affai t·. o.f th mu1i i ·ipnlit\·. · According to th la lv in fo re • the tuuh id J:ittl <·ouncilmcn wer e required t I cted. The thcorr of the on mmeut wns thnt theY wor , lect d, llt)d th .r w r e in nitrny l'tl ><<'><. 'o for us t he mn~·o r (the ttlcnld ). w · nt· m ed it wa ·understood thnt he . hould he ele<·tcd. H e v11 el cted, but in thi · manner: '1'h nnl nicipnl council ·ubmitted to th ca_p~nin "gen rt~l ~b n11mc.' of thr·e lm' 1( o ~ th ' ir ~wn t~umll() t'•. n. hgtble for IIJ?p01nt m nt It S a lcnld . It Wll>< 1n th dt. C l' t JOll of th captniu-gcn I'll I t sc ll'c one of the th ·ec. If h wu · not :<Ati><fi d with .nn.r of the. 1min . submitted h ' :<eut the li t back nnd n~<ked to ba,·o then~ ·ul mitt d th &\Ill n;: under o r ci\'il->< rdc S\·stem and thre I oth r name:; eam buck and if he wqs not ~;nti :sli d he ·ould appoint any membe r of th to wn <·oun ·il ns n 11\'0 r, but if no on of thetn sati faCtory be 1 could stl'p out ide of rtl:i l'Ouncil altogether nnd tnke ?.11. ~f hi . own t h i • · :;o thu~. so fn tl :s tb mn.y r w11s concern d,. it 1 Vld nt · tbt~t h wa r all~ tb !tpppintee of t b g ove t·nor-general. ·Below th municiwlit ·, in n xt succ :sion , were the wnrds ot·l~rrio:, and each bad for it political b ad u pe rson cn.IJed a ·c·ommis at·io, sel t d by the towJl council , fr m the :re..;id nt. of 'be barrioo,J. That i the political y 't em of go,· mm nt hnt Puet·tof.o enjoyed, tated very crud \~-. l. ould go into .~ tnil~. but thqt e you the fran.~e­ work of th go,- rnm nt. The 1 land of Puerto co depend: for 1t. p~osperity-. 1 1 Th H~"AN. Befor \'OU I 1\\'e thnt l'Ould YOU ::~peak of their j uicial y tem ~ · l. • •

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F PUERTO RWO .

tbe. capl~n-general

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mini~ter

Gepernl DAVI : In th cabinet of was .·• of ju tice; or an offi •ilL! who an. wored to th~ tie. Under the Sptu:'tisll . ystom I thin~ the cliurch wa mbraced in t nod I thi~tk it was called the mini try of gra and ju tice. The mi i tot· hnd a general supervisory control over n.IJ judJCilll matter!:!. ~·()presented tl e captnit)gen~ml. and the capmin_-gen rnl represc~ted the King. Th;e mini tor. of Justice h!ld n large mtluence respectmg l~gnl m&ttors"-lth.at is he bad powei: for great ontrol. It was po. 1ble for th.e minister of justice to put' a pro sure upon the com·ts or pon the determination of case.. • . · \ . The judicinl sy. tern con i ted ~f four cla of courts. ' Fir t the uprem9 comt, which stood to\vnrd the isln.n lthc same as th sup~cmp ourt smnd towllrd th S tate in our countr . The re were be lo.w the . uprcme court. thr e llttcliencin. , Qaving arir inn.\ and civil jm·isdict~on. Of ~be next co~rt ·' tho e of fir. t i~1. tunce, th rc wer e two ve, r preentmg eleven d1strwts, nnd.encb havmg am h trnte mtd. a p ·o. ecuting nttorney. Their jurisdiction wa.'l limited ; utI wit\ a. k tfi solicitorg en ro.l to give you fmth r d tail. about , esc comt~;. IJeloW the. w re the ll1U1)iciplll comt:. Tho Ctr;).mMAN. A jud~e for ench mnnici (i neJ·al DAVl. . y :;, >' ll' . 'l'he ' HAIR~!A '. About bow many ? ,. Gencrnl D AV IS. ' ennt\· di:strictS. Th C HA11ntAN. Th n' xt court nbo,·e. hat is the cotwt of first instmtce nnd instruetipn, of &hieb there we · cle,·en ~ G neml DAv J. . Tber w-er t weh·e. The CHAJIBlAN . A nd nbo,· thn~ ,t be cou t of ntl.diencin, of which thor w re tluc ? < · GCIJerltl DAns. Y s. ;< ir. The C HAJIOIAN. And nbol·e tbnt the :;upr t'tc court ? Gene ml.DAvrs. Ye». ,;ir. , ~ft-. FAIRUAKK . Are thos in existe nce n ,. ! G .neral DAn !'!. No, ><ir. ' Mt:. FArRIIANK . You nrc sp nking of th e -y:stom a:; it cxi t ed und t' the pllni ·h 1mthori ty ! ·. G neml DAn . Yes. ><ir. 1 1 The C HAIJDJA N. I will b ohlig d if you "ill tell wha t e "'.\'· teiu is now. I G neral DAn . I m.1dc n preiiminn.ry t tement conceming tbe authority , di. cr tion and power of the minis e ·of ju. tice nnd the powe r' for constmint that he mig ht ' Xerci. e, or that he Cliptnin-Ge ne ml might exe n ·i e throug h binJ. I snw numerou. ex mples of what ll thoug~t to be the Jlrejudicinl in flu nee of th1tt syste11 llncl I wn. caution d ·J?Y Genet·a\ H mT whom I ;tUI'l'ceded. Afte · two or three lnonth · Of considemtion and consultution with numer u:s Puerto Ri ca!n laW\' rs ~nd j.udge~, ~~;ft ." ~etting · th b . t juclicinl ir f? rmnti.on I could reali,.;2 ~ng that tbt JUdJcml ~·:;telll w~1. unknown t -1\lnet'i cnn >:~, r edlizmg that It wa the b!)p nnd expectation ,of Puerto R1can to beco~e American , ond that it was the expoctiution of mel'icans thllt c Puerto Rican sy tem of pro~edure .·hould he mnde, ~ for lt pot~:;il let to correspond with out· own, I tm·itod the e Puc t Rican Judge a1id la'Vyer !lnd Ainericnn htw,rers to . ubmit a pro e t for the reorgnnizntiorl of the judiciary that would gi,·e it n charnct r more nearlY r e:sembling our own, and' a drnft wa uhmitted nnd di cu. . d and ~u.bmitted tk'


OOVE&NKK

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PUERTO RICO.

rettu·~· of ju ti , till in ollie . He ·prepnr d on him elf nnd there wer ounterdrnfts prepn.red n d di ' t us d and tin~lly what is now in f rc waA : ubmttted to me ns military commander ·of the d partm nt. 1. . • • • Repre l.,'ntinJ{ the P1·e ~d nt of the nited tat s, who is th'e .., mmander in . h1 f of th Arm._v and N ·"Y• und Ill . th ncting gov rnor of tit pro¥ince, J ord red tli di co tiJmnnc of tb former r tcm and.implant d this on 1\S a tA'mpomr~ lll('flRIII'C until Congress should deeid on 1\' pennnnent gon>rmuentl; n lll<'t'e chnnge ft·om the exis.t ing fom1 of govel'llment to on that I tbou~bt would i11 m·u better udmill. istration during tbf:l .milihlry oc upation. nnd n, much longer u it might be tbougllt \\'Orth whil t l'Ontlnue it. itll'll~ Congre ~ should fit to do so. Tbi' judicinl ;;;y::~tt•tt i11stituh' d in Puerto Ril·o by military order, and with the appt'o\·nl f tin' lendi11g· PuN'to l~ican ln.w1ers aDd ju~ llnd all the Amerh•nn:; who,: l'Oun..;el I l'Ould s c'u r , · 18 as follow. m then ' ·ending ::<cnlc: • The municipal court, ,·err llllll'h n::< lw fonue~·nmniripltlrourt with limited jui:i!ld1 ·tion ~00 i~ l'i\·il <' ~.~e:; nnd whnt with us would r epro. nt ~ to 13 fin i11 <"rimimtl t'tt:;es. I nm not ::-~ ure of tho xa ·t llgure , but'that i m~· rel'ollel·tion. 'h·e distri ·t l'Otu't. for the li\·e S ogtaphirol eli ·tril't,; l'lldl co11"'i"tin f n. judge nnd two It sodn.tc · Judge and n. tiscal ,'fbo tull(l ~ i11 th p nt·c of our pro;;centi11g nttol'i1ey, tb courts ha,·ing jurisdietion Jn hoth l'idl nnd l'l'imim~l ca~ . · The li ·itor-G. neral will gh· ' you m r d<'tnil:< thr\11 1 cnn tnte nt this moment. )lr. FAIRBANKS. J:; thi.,: <'C b m in ·inU , Gen raJ DAvi . Ye ·, sir ; full y xprc ·"ed nnd l't otft Abo\'e tho five di;"triet 'c ourt", cou4itut d ns' 1 ho.\'e ·tated. i:< n ·upremc ourt, <'Oh· i, ting f n l·hi f ju tic !tiJd four nss itlt ju. til' ..· with n. p1·o ec n ~ing att rney. Thif< s,· t m Wit tnblish in 1\l'l' ·dnn with th follow·il_lg orde rs : •

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G n ral Ql'(ler81 } N . 114., .

DEP.~Rni EST

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i . Th e j11!~kinl t li ~trid of !l!lmRt'll . will c·t.•mpril!e . th • full nwinl-( n nndpnlit.i !1!: llnnuwltO, )l<'tlnt•, l'in.!.lnnho; FliJIIrtlo, nlmc.-111, Maunnho, .Junm•, Unrttho, i'lnn Lo• 1 l'l.'nzu1 l'ulllln~, nnd VIL'tfliC>!. II. l pon the J;'eCOmm ~mlnti o n of the jmlidul .lxotml tla: following 1 ppoinlmont.e Rl't' 11nnottnt'L'\I to tnke cffL'(•t An~,tn~t 10, 111!!19. I To he chid ju ~tit·c of I he Slll'l'l.'me t'OIIrt: 1\Jr.•T()!<(o I'!Qvero QuinonL'~<. . To be alll!o<'int < j11~tire~ nf t tll 811pret~o <'ollrl: Mrl Jo>'(• C!>nrado U o n~ntlez Mr,l ' · J ot<(! l\rariol Fi(llt<'l'lll', )lr. H11f11 •I .Sil'to Alicilltl, )lr. Juan Morera Martir~cz To be proi'Ccutin~,t nttorncy nf th e Rnprcm<• conr·t : ~Jr, . HnfRt:l Uomcro 1 \~wyo. To be ~ci\'tiii'Y of th~' ~UJ•I't'llll' <'ourt: 1\lr. Jo:ugcni ~ I1lt~·z Gaztamhide. To be Jllllg ~ o.f the th~tnd <'C•nrl nf Sun Jtum : Mr. .hmn Ram6n Hanu Velez Mr1 Angt'i J~<:Oiltn l,lninturo, Mr. Felipo Curhf Amnn. ~1 \ ' To be jutiJ..'t' of th etli~ lril'l t·onrt of l'tlllt'c: l\lr. J ~ Rllm6n lk•ccrra Garate Mr I idoro Soto Nll~n,· M1•. Hnr11611 (~nii\ull~~. I To IX' judl-ll!~ of the di~tri<:t enurt' uf . ~ln\'uguez : ~rr. Juan J. Porea BIUltcr Mr. Felipe Cll><nluc lr uit•()('('hen, Mr. Enrique Ll u'n ••ln C~tf<llh6. ' ' To he jtul)£t'S of the di ~trid t'lllll'l of Arcl'illu: Mr. \Julio M. Pndilla, Mr. salvador Fqlllltlo~u i\lir, )l r. llontcin Nit•ltl Ahl'ill(o. 1 To lJc /' mll(t'!! of the tli~ll'ict l'OIII'I of llllnlli<'IIO: M~ .•Tmtn F. Viii'! 0 ~hoteco . Mr. nic'llrrlo, ~' l'n~h1 l zqnicrdn, )lr. l'et lro Altlrt•\' )[unl~liu. ' , To be pro~t't! ntin ~,tn tto rn ey of tho t li~tri<·t ronrt of ~m Juan, Mr. Eduardo Acuna Aybar. To-he JII'O~ccutin!( ntt orncy nf the •li~tri('l · co'urt. ;\lontnlYo: , · 1 ' To.IJto pm"t'<'ltling nlt om ey of th di•lril'! c·n11rt nf Mttyngnez, Mr. J oll6 deDi :go j ) 'l nrtrnez. . I I T,o he pro~ecntin~,t nttni'I ~Cy nf the rti - tl'it't l'OIII't of Aret'iho, Mr. J esW! M. Rol!lly ' • \ nlclt'r6 n . · To he pnwec·ntinJ.t ntt ...·nc_,. uf th • di~tri<:t t·uurt f Jlmnncao, Mr. mili~ Toro

1...

To ho SC<'I't•hu·y of th e tli•tJ•!t·t c·nm·t nf ~'<1111 Junn , ~ To he Bl'<'rrlury <•f lht• di trwt t•nnrt nf Pone •, )[r. Tu be >'t.'l~ rt·tary pf lhu di tril't cu11rl of )fttyllj(III!Z, ) To he !'OCI'(•I!try of tlw tli•lril'l t•om·t of Aredi.Jo, l\lr. To lJc F<ec~eh~r~· of tilt' •l,i8t.rid ~u nrt of l<fu mumw, ~I II L The ,JIIdlt'! ~tl honrd \i'lll l!"'t; th ll l'<'t'~Sar.y r~u · •yf'lt·m , for m~Jnllm !,.!l h e l'ourt ollkml•, uml appomt111 J'('!<j)t'Cti\'O otHt•(•• on the lOth tin.' · of Angn•t, 1899. .B~· cornmnntl ~'~ Brigndil'r-Gt•ncrnl Du,·is:

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r. Hnm(on Fnlc6n EliW!. o~ TonH, • to. · r.l J o!iC Ho~ndo A'y ur. nto11 io 1\fol'l.'nu C ldcrun . . Jm!l• J:Uulfun Apohtc. tion for estnl>lil!hing tho. ne w t41C propt!r emplo)'ees in their

W .l. HAl.!,, Adjufrmt-Gcuem/.

m· Pn:nTo R1co,

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I

l

I'

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uc,~n~ .

S<m Jrwu, . l ttfTU&t 7,1 99.

. 'pop !~ recom mcml11ti n of the jutlidn l ard tlw judicial s~·8t. m of ?u<'rto~ico 1e re J'llllmZed Ri! foil we, t talr.e effect Au~:u~t 10, 1 1)9; on11mlnfter whtch date the p l'Ct'CJl l ystem will to e xist IICCOrding to · n~lmctio n s whkh will be pnblishCd lat r. . , .. '• l. 'fhe mprem t'Ourt, of Puerto Rico, with ~ id n!'e fixt.>tl in San Juan, will h ereafter con@i!!t of on cbief justictj11nd four n,.,..,x·i 1 ju8tiet'l', who will t•onstitute 11 juditial bench for all ,ci\'il and crhnil]ul I n~in~ 11 prO>'t.'{'Uting nttomcy hall aleo be attach !II tben1to who ball rcpl'lc'l:'<'nt th • •tut • n ull proper 'ca.!ions. The upreme t'Ourt !!hall hu,·c one J<Ct'l't'l:l ~· · two (•nurt clerk~, on 61 clerk and t r of t'OIQ, l!ix elerk~. o n janitor, umltwo t'liliff•. • !!. The i!land is d~,·idt'<l into li w judidul <~ trkt•, "· ho~e rt'~pec tiYe capital .cities are"' n Joan, Pont-e, MRy&)!u ~z, An'l·iiJO. uml lu mnc'll . · 3. Tbe judicial tlil'tri<'l of , ni1 Juan will '(>Il l) ri"" th e f•Jil uwiull mufiicipaliti : San Juan, Ve,Ea Baja,\\~ Aha, Coro1.al .·11mnj1 "• Toa Altu, ~ u Bajll, .Domdo,Bayanl ' n, ~ Pif'oll'al!, TruJ.Ill ;-\Ito, 11 linn, R io •mnde, Loi't:o, agu!U!, .;\~tll8 Buenlll!, Comeno, Cayev, .Jind 1 Ira. ' 4.. The judicial dil!triqt of Punre will c mpri th following n\1tnicipalitiee: Pon e, J - pja7_ C'Oilmo, Bari'Ofl, Adjuntlll!, J>efiltel ~. 'alina , •llll\'a nilla, 1rauco, .uayama, nta ll!llbel, Aibonlto, BarranqllitiU', nnd 1Arroyo. • 5. The jmlicial dil!lrirt of )Jayngucz will ipri ze th fo, ,·ing municipalitiee: )la~·ajl'uez •.•\i\R!«'o, Rincon , A~ll(la, A!ftUltlilla ~l o<'n Il'libe San. . •bastian lJ88 llariai< :\lari '80, Son. Getman, 8ahttna ~;nmde, >Lnj!U!, nbd Ro . . ' 6. Th judic·ial •dietri('t f AreciiJo will <· mprl! th e f llo wi rnunicivalitiee: ~ cibo )lanati, )loroYi , 'at ~. pu r :el n ta , t' alto, Hal ill , 'amll\·, Quebradi ancl Laret!. · ·

PUERTO RIC •

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Gent'ml Onlcr!!,} ·. HEAD\1UARTERS D•:J'A ~~~.NT oF PuERTO RJCo, ·o. 118. • • rn Juan, Auuust .za, 1899. . Upon the recommt"ndnt i, n of the jn.tiriol bonrd , tho ollo \cing reorganization and fun tion a of the jntHl'iury of thi" i~luml were npprovc I on August 10 1899 and ore · publi~hed for the inforr11otirn,J und guitlunc • uf a ll con e ned: ' ' 1. The orp:n n i7~\ti o n oml f11n Ctinns of tho cou'rts of j stice of this island will from · • the lOth inslant, undergo rdorms in uccurdanc with he following dispoe . ition's ·: I 2. Th 're ~ hull be u • npreme <'0111'1 of justice, with ll.l'l.t re.•idence in the city of San Junn, compot'<'ll of a dud jn~ti re rtnd fuur ussociotc j1 st \'cc~. who jointly will constitute a ju~lidul bem·h for all ch ·il and t.'riminul busint the court shall a leo have- a prosecutmg attorney, one f!Cc•rotnr,, ·, t wo court cletks, o 1 fil e clerk und taxer of costs ix clerks, one jnnitor( and two bn.iliff•. ' e re.~pecti\·e sea.te ehall be 3. The it!land is d~ndcd into fh•u judicial districts, · ~an Ju1111, P OI\Ce, Mayug_uez, Ar cii)01 und Humllf·uo.$ , \ . 4. The judicial riistrict nf Run .Ttum will <.'O mpri t he fo lowing municipalitiee: The CJty of nn Juan, \"!'gn·b11ju, VCJ~:~~-nlta , Coro7.ul, Naranji o Ton-alta, Toa-baja ' Dorado Bayumon, Uio-pi :dru.•, Tmjillo·ulto, Curolina, Riode, ~iza Cagua~ A~ bucnrur, Comcl'io,' Caycy, ond Cidm. · ' ' 5. _The htdi<'i.nl distri:t o.f Arecii)O will omt;>r·ise ,h following mm iclpalitiee: Arec•bo, l\Ianall , Moron~. Crnles, Bnrcelonettl, tuado, H tillo, Camuy, Qt bmdillll8 and LRJ'('J!. ' 6. The judicial distri t of Humacao will compri ~ the foll owing munlcipolitiee: Humacao,_ Piedi'IU!, N~1abo, Fajardo, Yabucou, )[aunabo, Juncof!, G rabo San Lorenzo, .t"atillll8, and Viequt!s. '' ' ~

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r.r 10'

OOVERNXF1NT FORe THE £8L ND OF J'UEHT

00\'.:HN.~IENT FoH TR•: !~LAND 0~~ PU}:RTII. Hllll.

Rl 0.

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11.

In l't·i minul nlllll<'l'l' 111nnid pul jrul)!t'l! • Imil hn ·c 'Jl)tnizun .,. in ull 1 j,.t,• n~t'tllltlr~ hy th u r111inl( jlt•nul tell It•, 11:< \\'\'II 11~ 1)(lt y thdt~, fntwl:<, uno! nfft·n~e~

e~hll)li~ht'l

~~~~1in~t protll'rt~· in ''""'"' wlwl'l.' tlw tllnunnt uf tht• o h t.'\'t of tho t•fft•n • "'' 1l11nut)!l' t)('t't.l~iout~l ·dtl<':' tl\lt t' . <'l't'll ~ \'nitL"I Stilt\'" t•nrl'l'l 1'\' whit·h offen,...,•!< h11ll he l'lln·

l!iilert•ll mi,...ll•t\lt'lllllll':' ; with tht• CXt'<'l'tion uf thu:< i· mpl'i,...,~l fn 11rti le 1\:l!! nf tht• l"'nlll eO<It•, whidt :<h11ll lie jlltl)!t~l hy the I'O l'l'<'"l~ tulm)C <li:<trkt t•nm·t. Th,•y :<lmll 11 1~ htl\'e l'Cl)tni1JIIH'l' in tl:'."'ntlt:< wht•f'l' the lw111in)! i "l"'""'~ ellit:<<"l "htl lul\'1' ht•t•n t•omplt•t.-1 in llllt nlnl't' thun tlflt't'n till\.,., ln11ll th '...._. t·n.....· 1lwy ~h ll npply tho '~'"l'''''ti\'l' puni,.hnwnt~ ~tult••l h,, . tht• ,.,,,\e. · <!tl. ln l'ixilmuttt'~'~' nn111il'ip11l jwl)!t'" "hull hu\'1' COjll of ull lit1 utiun wlwrc till' 11mu1111t Ut ~hlkt • ll<•tWl't'n liti)!llnt" tit!<•:< nnt t'l<Cl~'ll '~()() l'nit"l !itut(•" l'll~l't'IH'\' . ::?i: It "hull iii"'' he thl' tlnty <'f munidpnl jutlb"'J tn l'~'~'j'"l'<' till' pn•lirninnrit.,.· in t•ritnilmlt·u,..L'>! within tht• limit" t>f inw,..ti~'lltiun, ~ull!!tnntin jt\••f t>i pu i,.huJ,It• n(•t,., thl'ir lllltlll'l', )!1,1\'it'y, 1\lltl l':'."t'ntinl dl't•um .. tlllll'e", ~·lll'l'h fur the llnthll' Ill' nuthnt':', tlwir tll'lt'lltion itnprio<unn~t•nt in lll'(.'nrtltllll'l' with ofhu luw, lind the l·iw • nf th. in,.trlln~t•nt~ of the 1·rmr.- or nhjl'l'l ~ wlril'lt ntilo(ht l'<lndl'l , in I'""''" wht• t' "'"It t•xi~t . The"''/'rt'lilllinllrit• 11111:<! l~t• pntl'lkt~l fJy mnnil'ip11l jllll-(l'~ within tht• ll'l'il lnf ~ix tllln< n tt•t· thl'\' 1'\.'l't'i\' • fl11• infumuttion thnt nt·rinw lm lwt'n t'ntntnittt• . · ~t'l. Tlw t>Ufi,..:• fnrn• "" 11 wht•lt• urul indh·illually i,.. ul"<> nhliJ.."'' tn ttllt•n•l tn the prt•liminllt'\' im·,·-ti~~ttion nf nllt·r·illlt'>' uutil tlw llpj)t'o lnlllt'l' t•f tl11f nn11 il'ip!ll jwl~t·, 1\> wiHJIIt t!.t•y will )lin• lll>tkt• itnllll'tliutt•l,,·. ' . ~'II. A,.. "Vl'" 11,. nulltidpul judi-"'" h11n: ''"'"l'lt•tetl tl11• pn•litnintll'\' it · ~tih~ltinnM in t•rinrinlll \':'"''" withitl tht• jll'l'il~l prt•\'itlll"h· lix.l•l, tht·~ ~hull ...._.lllf tht•o 1 • 11 l" llil· o llit•l'r without tlt'luy tutlw t!ltt~I'III'Y<•f thc 'n;~l"'''ti\'t'<lr•h·i,·t ,,·nlll't tn)!t' ht•l: ' · h til • pf'i:<tHiel'l!, II> ""l'l"'"t'tl·ulltlllll':' of lht• l'l'inll', if any hit" l ~•t•ll nullll'. :Ill. Tht• dt·~ i)!HIItinn nf !Ill' ""'"•ll'i:ttA'" "h:tlll~t• tntll1l' ll\· lnt in tht• fnllnwilt)! n1111 llt'l': Ellt'h IIIUIIil'ipu\ jud)!t' "h:tll rt''llll'"l till' l't'"lll't'lh't• II l'lllj tt• In ftll'fli:<h hi II ,With II li ~t t•f' t'tllllll<'lt•nt jll' ,.,.Vn~. nr . n•,.iolt•nt" with llt'lltlt•tllit· II' \''"ft'""i"nul olipl lllll"l h111l vf •m·h !"'"'""" 11,.. huw l~t•ltl tht• t••:<itiPII ,,f u1,:11lt1t•, (•olttn~ilnr, '"' lllllllietp I ju•t)!l', un•l un~>tlH• r ~~" ! L~f till <:l \11:11 l\llllllll'l' pf IHUIIil'ipn}, tiiXpll~'t'lf' in ~Ill' Prtlt•r nf the \11,111\lllll puHI. "'')!11111111)! wrt 1 tlw· ltll')!<'"t untol\1111. I ht•"(' lt~t~ , wiHI'it ,.hull I l'l'dtlwtl <)l' :tthlt'fl tu t'lleh Y<':ll', ,.hull ilh'lwle nn ly l't''"'""" of 11111 t' t 11111 <!I yt•llr" nf 11 I' who know how to rt•tul and wl'itt.'. . · :n . On tht• llt'l't ""'' .. f t':tt·h qtutrh'r·. nr I'I'<'I'Y tlti·,.,. '"" nth,., the '""'il'ip:il jwl)!IJ ,..hllll<·llll u "'"''till)!,,( tlw I"''"'''"" i""' 'ril>t 1 in tht• twn j li -,t~ unci p11hlidy 111111 in the pn·~l' llt 'L' nf tho:-:t.• Utll'lldiu}!' will dntw ~~~· lut out.• f1 tiH put'lt lil'l1 ~~~n~ tn f1H'Iil pni~ until l ~tllh li "t" tll'l.' t•xh:ttt,..lt'll. Thi" will 1'1111"<' t•m·l puir· tn l1<• fnt'llll'ol nf onl' t'llll tp~tt•nt \"''" ""uno! nnt• !tlxpnyt•t·. Pn till' t'nlll 'lu•inn " · thl' olmwin)! 11 li,.l "h111l lot• pri:pnrt'l ,,f tht• """''''i:th'" w.hu turn • ~"~,.,.. ,. ,.,~durin)! lit• •lnnt'lel·, whidt ~h 111 ho I'""' •I Ill tlw t•ourr t'l) •t)l duh· !-11)-rlll'd hy tlH' jwlg-l', :O:t't' l'l'fllt'(, u~Hintht•l':-t JH 'l':-tcnf.. ,3:!. Tht• ll&~odntt'i-1 . in tht• n1·•U.•r· t•f t tl'it· l'l':-tl 't'li\"lj h• '1111'1 nwl wit hunt prcjwlit· • to tht' pal'tit·nlul' uhli!!'tli<•n uf <'Ill'), wht•n hi,. pt'tlj>t'l' lilt' 1 :HTin·"· Imil 1'1 "" """~ti­ tntt•:ot one t'nr tht• utlwr·. 3:t Tlw lllllllil'ipnl jnol)!<\ "hnll ll•ll'i"t' th1• n'""''illll'" ·ht•n tllt'io· turn mi\'u,., "tilt· ing tho dtl\' 1111tl hlllll' 11 '!ltlkll•nt tit11e lwiut·t•hun\ 1. \\'i j h thi,. uhjl' ·t lltlltoidpnl jml,.rt':oil'lhHil llf\UH' tJill' , two, til' lt~«tl'l' tl:t n ·:, if ll t!,'l':-tl"HI'Y· in uu·h wcl'k fu · tht• pt'otupt tllttlt•rdel'l\' tl •t•i,.inn of lon~int'"" in h:lll\1. ~ ' :1-1. )lmiil'ipul ju(l)!t'>' :!httll rt't't'i\'l' IIIHIL•r nut h. "nJojt• t ltJ th • l'l'llltltic of pe1·jnry, Shllcntllllt,.. fro111 tht• "'""'i"lt• jml)!<'" thot't ""!nOt in: nl'jll,.l unrllt')!ttl impcol inrl'nt pn!· Y~ntin~ th~111 t'nun l'li ttinl! on tht." t·a:.:t• \ 't) lttll'l't:-t thc111 w"11t the liti)!Hill:o~. J · 3.5. The ""~Ot· iutc jmllo( '"•·" :""'e '"""it i,., ""'Y hun~ , . )!llizlltll'<'"f 1111 ~ tit. mi·ait.ing I' d cl'i,.itlll on thl' <ltty t'O rt\'~l'""' li">C to sndt turn, whkh 11it~ • hull nut I • ""*~ •• I o n for I h t•ugni1.tlllt't' o f ut hl'r "''ul'i111t:•. ln the nt•t o f the tl'iul ~hall l~t• "tutt••l the tkei~inn , wh dt s hull e•mtuit th 'l'l'"ult of the \'Ui ing 1111\l the l't.':'Ohtti n nf thl' tll'ntling \'II"C~, ·ithvut th · [unt known 118 "Re~ultnmlo v 'o n ~idenm Lio ." 36. Aguin~t'th~J dl'l:i$ion f municipul u111l ~~~,.odnte j 11lge. , fl'ee app(.'ltl w,illli to the re~ pcctil·e tli ~triet . t•ourt. · Hct'Olll'l' oi npp •ul 1mu t he hud wrth ' 1 fii'O days, t'Ounting from the tlur following th e no tifit'nti on of ft(l nt •nre. · 3i. An uppeumncc' must l~ put in hdorc the tli~tricl conrt within n )ot·iod of ten duys uft~r·noti.: • hcing "''rn!!:l. · 38. B th p11rtic>i luwin)C pnt in 1111 uppeumu ·e, th tli~ l'ict court shu II eta rlay un~ h our lor the pul.>li · heuring, ut which eithe r tltll liti lint~, th •ir ll'glll I' •pre •ltttllil·e or thei r law\'IJt'l!, ma,··apt:>en t·. 39. ~o up{>elll of 11in· sort shtlll lie ugninst the dtJcis ons f the district court in ch·il or crimmul \'CrbOI suit ~. 40. As 11 recotnJ:>ense for the in ·reuse<! work whi<ih ho forejloing im :>OSC on the mtmicip~~l conn~, 1111 am nnt shu II be upp'ropriuted it! th insulnr budge or the bene•

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Hf:.~l t() ·~ ttltl . l1' \" .

16. Till' mlmini inttion t•f ju:'tit'l' :'hall 1,., t•:lrri.-1 ~·n with t•nti~·~· .il.' lt1lt'll.<lt·n~· ami without tun' otlll'r lirnitutitHl thnn tht• d,·il .,,r <'l'innnul ,...,.I >U n~ duhty wlud1 l'l"lo!'' or f't.Hirtl" 11 lav inl'Ur h,· r ·u~..m uf tluAr ttl'tiun~ ft'l' whkh tlu.~y will '"'-' hn:-~w~ thle ns pnwith_"\l in li\'Jwrttl Ot'\1\•nr, Xo. \l, . l'UTJ'\•nt . 'rh.•:-l. tht~t" lwmlquarh.·t~. 17: Th inn'>'li!!'tlitln t•f dull)."'" in''""''" to •u tinl( <>i jn<.lil'iulr '" l "m~i,hil~ty may b . ._.;wn ioi dull'!(<' nf judkiul flllh'ti mury .•lf <~lh')!u~· ~"l":nnl' !'' tht' llt'<'ll:'l'\1, hu~ o n I~ tht: o'llpl'l'Uil' l'ntlrl l\1 huH' ~ hullunth•li'IZt' ~hu t''''"''!lhllto ~n t>l till' rlull)rl'. · 1 . C'i\'il ,...,.,,.,n~ihilit\' of ju.•ll(<'"· ju,li ·ml hllh'llllllUrJ<'"· un•l ut Ol'lli'Y" "'·"'II he inr 11 m~l (nr th fnllowili)! rt•U:<tlll" ' ~laniit;' l. nfnl<'!itlll (>i th~ luw,yor.rup.t ,'lll "'jtll~ e­ n~t•nt ,,f fal'l:'. Ulhl nt')!li~"·n t'l' ,,. want ,,f thh 'IW<' "' l'tHnpl~· m~t \\'lth Jlllhl'lnl tlull llntl huwtit>n>'. · , 111. Cil'il rt'>'l""'~ihility mny II\' •h•mnnolt'l l : fnr:e t,ht• ~lll'l'l.'lllt' <'Olll't .an• I lll!dt·~ the. n1le, h1hli"h"l f~>rd\'il nml•11it" l)do ro.• tlw dt>lrll'lt't>un" hy tht•ptll'llt':! prl'~lllliced. ~'(}. ~o lljljl\.'111 lil':' u~•uin :'t .tlt't'i"itlll:! t•f tht' ~bprt'lll<'. t'<llll'_t. . . . · . :!l . l'i ·ilnr <'rinoiuul ,...,.1 \Q ll "ibilit~· itwuri'\C I ~'Y !Ill nor tmll: tt.t•n:m.~~ nt the lltlmm· i tnttion of jlL"tit'l' ~ hull ' l>t.• t'X>ll't t~ l hdL>I't' till •h~n·r,·t tll'tllllllletpult•L>llrt t•urre~poml· llll(, tlllll in the ll:!llal 'ft>rt,n l'l'tuhli_h,,l hy ruh11' 'li"!"'.~it i,llt~ . . . . • :!".!. It h11ll r11•t l>t• llL'<'l'""'~~''' It> )lin• e•tu >h~ h a prt•lunmury ~~~ in order to lo<l!!t• R<'l'tt:<utinn ,,. t'\HOptn'int u.r:tin>t jutlit•ru) fun,·tit nnrit; ~(attorney~ . . 23. \\'1¥"11 till'""'"''"'"' t>i tht• '"'l'l'l'llll'<''.llll llll'llr n••t>t>n~tbtht~· thl'' _~h rll he tned lw a J){'<'lul trihn11ul ~ t'>'t:tbli:!ht'tl i11 pant)!ntph 1:1 of Ut•n ' ' 1 nl~r'l!. ~ . 9 , eurrent

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'rieoa,th~ht>lldqrt.rnt•f'l'.

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!?4. Tht>re ~!;all l>t.' a nmnidpul nun il~ t>adt munil'ipal st rit-t .. ,Eiil'h tnl~idp11i' ~rt' i!ha llt'flr~io1 of''"" jlllll( tut•lt" u ~~ ·iutt' jthl!l~"'· whb shu!' J mtly de..' e.and i~ all tht' <1\1! ~ thllt han• bl.'t•n pr •tlt'rly h nght bt•t rl' the •·ourt nnd dete mned by the rne. . . L

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12

GOVERNMENT }' R THE l'LA· D

OOV.F.RNM:Jo:NT !fOR THE I. I,ANJ>

1'' PUERTO RI 0.

di~tri

fit of the :T\'tari of !lllitl c urt~ l)ot h for JW nal i!Crvi nnd mnteri11l ~. For this plti'J)Qtle diff •rent <'1\t ric shall be fornu;.'( ll takin11 into con~i<l efli iPo n · tho greater amouht of work whkh may f11ll to the hnre of th., c urt~in nmnidpnlitic8containing tbe' n1 I u\ hahillmt ~. CRIMi!<nL PR 41. Th attorney f thc. tli!'lrirt ronrt on h·ing th Ptnnmnry l!<'nt by the munlcipe judfi'C hall i ue tln order forth dctL•nt¥,>n f th 1lri>'O IICJ'!I, if nny, in th corre@{)Ondi~ pri u , and within tht' J)I'CI'i>«' pe~tod of ten 1lays.shnll dntw np n \Jill of cha~ or ))rei!!'llt R 1 titi n for 'j""·•hinj!. ln Cl\."t•ti o( woundin11, th • ret'O\' ·~y of the pen!Oil' womuled shall be nwu t l, •whi ·I recoVl'ry hall bo <"erti(i(•<l to IJ tho phy~rian in ru t udalu untl r hi~ exdn~h·e T\'!'pon~ibili~y arul without nL'ell of rnti6 tJ n . 42. n pret«•ntation of th hill f dull)(CS I"· the pro cuting utt nrncy thl' court will infonn tht> acc.·n 1 th 'rLoOf, ~'<• lhtll he can ·~till ' wht• her or n t h • ugT\:ei! t.o the penalty l"eqtll'l!ted, and if not,f h • •luiiJ h<.· retjllire. l imm ldiut<'ly to ·1UIIllu hi~ hi'YY. r for th dt'fen,.... If the law,·cr nam('(l refu!'e!' to <1•ft•ntl, th · fiJ'!It luwvl'r 01 th liHt ·ill be appointed, and th • accu ~I will l"ltl infonncd tht•rt:;of to enable him (o give Ul@tmdion8 a(•rordinjdy. -l:t A n M th' d ft•n!<e fll~ n I ill {I{ t•onclu~ionP in writing wit hili li\'l;'tlay~, the <:<'UJ"t will .tleddc upon th e athnii<.~i••n of the t<'l'timom · )>ro po~l..-1, nntl 8hafl lrnmccliat ly t a day ani\ hou r f r tht> hc•uri~l)l of lh oml trit\l. 44. In th e I"(.'<"Om of th e oml triul tht• JW iiti on~ of th proRecutinlo( IIII Orll()f aml lawyer f r th d fen , , T\')lllrding th poi nt ~ which tlw may <:on ~ider l~ ntud to uring the •x.l\l'titud f th e,· idem~· of witn~ , os o( ex. pert~, shull h•• ~u cihtly tat 1. Th · quostion "n ;•x minati on or crO!'•-cxrunhmtion ruled out h_v th<,l court !!hall 'al!!O IJC T\lt'<i. 45. In C'll!!eS pr ,·idl>~l for by th ··l!tw of <·ri minal procednrc,Rp)X•ul in Cll""ation will !ie against •n t n ~cs pronomiCC<l by tht• di~trkt court for infm •lion of lnw .or f'll"I"Or m procedure. · · 46. Aguin · t writ or .o!;'linancc~ of th • •li~tqet courts 1 w,hit·h ure nut of nw r J) rolurl', appeal alwny li . to. tl• . un ~-uurt f!>r recon 1dcrntl n o r mi1en•lment.

1

EOI"UE. ' 47. All ci\"1 1 litignt~ons bdwet>n pnrtit.os wllcn tile au1ouJt exceed~ , ~00 U nited tat currcn y shall be originnl h · henl"(l uncf d~"Cid ed ' l.Jcfore th rc~peeth·e distri t court in the form •tapli~h~l b\" ih foll owi ng article : , · 4 . Th e litigant muHt be ath-i xl ,by l~twyhs rcgi ~t crt.'<lllt the bur of thi island, and may RJ pear peri'Onally or by Jll"(ICtmlto r, • th ey <'h uo, . of9. Thl' laim· mu~t l,>e lodged w"th thetii.s tri t court , ,,· hi ~ h ~hull fi~td ~·i< l e wh eth er to admit it , and it hall immediat('h· nRm" in o rder of pre<'ed •nC(', R jud~:o o~;.,mem­ ber f .th c<·ottrtwh o~I)Rlfcon (lu c tth ep~ limin11ri aofth suitupto th eorul he'ar,ing. · id iud~ will n11tk all the oT\I er~ m •re Jl ·l'tl nre, and the d1~trit't conrl the writs and lution8 nnt f thlll chamcter. 50. n tho n1\111ittal of the claiui it hall I tiH for him to reply wjthln a periOfl of tl\"l'lll y rlny, •·hich (~Ill not be extcr,ded ,nnd wilbin whi b tim h nm~t ul~ put in an apJ ' llmnc in the suit. PI PM o( c·ount ercluim ~v iii . be all wed, and ' in ~uch tl1e douiandant will a\· th ~ .drt\'8 to answer the com1ter01\" I L PH

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On n:•pl~· l.Jc ing ma•l totl1e dai.'n,nnd t 1e pln.intiff J?ei n~:. furni s hed w.i tl of u ·h n:•l)ly, or n th dl!f~ndant 1 'Ill!( acc11~l rul(f dcclart>d m default th • . inary jml!l" • Imil dt th!' litigant ~ for a ,·crba. henrin!(, ~ · • lt!n~tn d11y and hon for, wirh .nvti ~ f not le,.,. ti\Rn fift •n n r m re than tw nty days. "2. Both liti~'llnt" o r ·their lcy:n r r p .. nt th·ee, uccompanied by lh ir re ~wyel'!' ~ha ll appear Ill this hearing, a111l ba Jlrl'~nt il'l writing 11 notice of timony f en•n· de:«'riptl n whicl1 each in"l nd o call f r. At this meet la~i·eno'on boti1 ~ide llllt_v amplifv or a.•lr\ to .h d ·mn lltR they h.ad drawn oo. Th preliminar~· ju,lg , hall t'Onfine bit !<elf t .b enrill'g the petition of gant ·, n od~1g d0\n1 briefl'y and &u:cint:tly the I"{I'Ument preJ1tcd by aft r ordcnn11 that~~~ d ·um nt~ pi'C!!ented f nn part of t1 re<.'Orrt~ tb hearin~t tennin&tt•l, and hall rt'<lure to "~"ti n11 th e minu . thereof, sri to the Nurt, at it tin:ot ~~ ion of the notit~ f te!ltimo ny flented , for to re@O)\" therl'in aA i8 proper. \' · 04 . .If neither qf tb litigant/! ha\"e.lll'k '-l f hearing' of tt~<timony in thei u1en! of <"laim. and repl~· the eourt !i~Mtll"im. m liate ly -eta day and hour for bean~, at whJ ·h the law•·el'l! for 'Me m ainant Rnd defense shall client C81!C. ·j • · I

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a .P.Y. re •mtb,erc-

tive h · tesng the 1p. he liti-

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PU~:H'l'O RI 0. • t.

po~ucl

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. 1\5. The •tcourtRhr!ll ex uli_u e tho t•·•tiluonylp ·c tc; IHJ snluuillt;d,tuhuittmg :that wine!•. t!1 •y ron~~·h·r t>t•rtlnt•ut, und ut ''" ~ • ·!ling n •lny unci honr for th e ht~t rmg olthe c1v1l orul mt. 50. H t~·Mti1nqny is to' IJIJ tnkun nnt~id<· f)[ till' tcni nr. of this IPiuud, he nc<:t•lfli!lry ro~lllfJ ry l et~urH tr~nl tdllllllX! g~nted int h · J•I"OJ!Cr f< ~~~~ 1t11d IIIIYIIIJ!h the J>r<JJICr chnnnc_l, ruul th~ hcur.m~ of the ~111t Mhull he 1'11! off 1111 II In• <<x tn~•mli11ur~• st.11y b. ter111111~1~'<1, or th I!!Hll_m ony t!'ke1! l?Y t••JIIIllli"""JII llC 1 •turn •d. hor til<', "'"JiariHon of pnh_hc dO<•ument~ With tht!lr oriJ!IIIUI" tl)<' •·onl'l wlt•n d< ·ridiiiJ! 1111 tb t: udmis~ion of t •IJIIII,1011Y 1 sh~~~ 1>'1:1110 let~O.fH lll!lllflntMy f'llllht!liil!g th • ll< 'lll', ;qu·y dUIIfo!O>!c•n~ ferring ntlic10nt po \1 ron munw1pul JUtl)!c~ of tht• diHtrwt• , ·here the l"ftiiiJIUri•oll is tc 1 he nuule. Shoul~ . tho l'fiiiiJIRI"I"U" hun, to l~t· 111:1du 111 't•i lc of hiM juri~di.'·ti•m, , hu will gmut th e rt.'l!llln..• l lutlt:rs of ,.,_>!!Utiou. .. \ o7. On th ·rlul: of the_ henrtng _th e tt•stllllnlly pro ""'"1 shull '"' I'XIUiduu•i l~·fore !he.oourt,_und With tho mtcrn•nt11111 ••f th •luwyul'!'cif,.l,.,th purtic.", wh•) •lmli<•Juunmc,th w1tue ~~or •xperts iu tur1i bl: qn ·~tiuu•, ,. '"· -l'XIIIIIinution ol) dP<·Iantlion~:~ wh1 ·h they co~181der n lCe. "ttry for th• :lr t•u•c withiu hf} 1nutter 11 111lu;. d\H''""· lo 1t nnd ~llllt Pf<l(IO~>d 111. lhcd~umont of_ttllltunony . 'Cht• f"Hirt IIIIIV th1''"' o11t uur IIJ:J!U!!tJ Y~· capi!OIIR1 o r nnpcrtmcut fjliCi!hon or < ' r"""·'IIIL'l'!~ i·, !· J·:,_ u,), wit II~'!!.~ or PX.IH rl shull I exannnt..'ll, flrHIJ. hy _the lu\\;Y r for th o t•u•c [lfl'>'l'll 1ng hnn, aft •rJo\·urd~ hv th e lawyer for, the other 81~1' 1f he WIMI)!lf!, 11!111 l~"tly by thu <· urt if wi~hi111{ lp 1i111kt• r·lcRr or llllk for oxplnnnl.lon of uny pmnt~ 1t tlnukii lit. , • • li · Tl!e f't!Crelmy of the •:ol'lrt Mhull rlruw up th n iuut nf the u 1 r 1;•1rriing sull!:!tanllully the result of v11lenee a1ul th cro~s-extvulnin)! of the IIIW\"Cffl 5!). On th l•nnh.ut~ion of ·h 'fl!illlo lf,Y offer ·•1 the lu\vyerH ol both partlt*! ~~Ill\" ·rm1 rn ~ nt on the quo"IHJI! unrl cr rl!scu""1 011 and th e ri htl! of th •ir client-"!. Th<• are nl)owt..'ll on ' o pp•JI"Iumty to rect1fy tl\t• ~II •gntionH 11d</u ·ell in their pi c~. Til ·'~uit sl11.11l theu ~ d ·•·lured clol!C< l, 111111 d~'CiHion IIIUI!t be~: \"On within llflt mor · limn t •n dt\yH, <'otmt.mg ·frolu th r~uy fo!l owin~: til e t•m1inutirm <Jf the Huit. Raid i!,cutence n1ust I • <lnl_wn UJl an!l ll'rl~l •n 111 the fonu establl~hc I y the lttw of ch·il procedure Wlll'll rl'fcrrmg to lllllJOr SUI_t~. , 60. ~h ~ uppeu111nco w1tnc~s an<l ex1 •rt. slmll cnm pul~•Jry •xccpt wl 1c11 in th • opnuon of. th_e cou_rt they cun ullege und pro\" • )n. t cuu~. Any ·will or •xp~ rt not nppcurmg w1th out just cnu. e shull he flue·· 1 nt exec~" ling $50 ut t \e rlisrrtlon of th e co.urt.. . .. rc ' tll. l~u · l.1 c~pe rt or w!tn e~~ ~hr!ulrl_ he inclcmnifi !)< I y th e J'llrh" he appeal'l! for, nn~ for th~H purpo~.• o~1 the teru11nntum of "'"' h !!tnt the comtwilllix the a111ount of 111d~1n111ty and will 1mm ~ liut •ly infonn cu·h of th • litigant~ ol" their legal represun.ta~IVCS the '!1nounts tl~ ey nrc. Clllk..-1 !"'1.' !O pRy tn ~rll1. witn cl!.~ cxc •pt wh 11 litigu~mg ~ p11\IJ>effl. In th1s cuse uul e 1un11.1 ~ l!hnll he p ml1n the.MUIIIC muunor Rl! th ose pa•tl. to w1tn _ ~or experts in criminal Cit-;·. . · 62. hnu lrl the defendunt pr e~1t a rlil11tory) len in u Jill nl ent , e \"id ·nee ~hull he taken thc~n, and ut the oonchtSion of the e\"ldence he law,·el'l! on hot! ~irlt.'ll !!hall ~r08Cnt tl' mr argument verbully, the 1~ain Puit !.>eing ll)e.nn\~:hilu ~U~J!'il d erl for, th e lim e purell: nt..'<."el!.":trY fo: the court togl\·ea uccm·td c1~ 1 0 n 111 tl\e tncl< le 1tulmatter. If the .Jl!cn IH s!•stamed, 1t ~hall_of OU1'1! huv ' effect a. 1111ain~t th e rlaim; if ovtJrruled 9 the orlg11111l mt hall ·ontmue 1ts cuurRe. , · 03. C08t shullulways tJC pu.id by th e litigant who I . hiii CIISO on all points. In other cases the court shall s;1ve.an equital.Jio tie ·ision i 1 b.., niRtte r of costil. 04. By CO!!t are undel'l!tOOd: Lawy r' s fee~,· procurnto 's fe<..'!l, indemnities for wit-nlll!8ell and. ex~rt~, and the legal expe nse n ect~sllll rll) incurred a.~ a rlire t ·consequence of hUgabon. I OEXERAL PR0\"1, IOXS,

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05. Both in civil. and in rimlnal matters judge!' sllll\ dil'Cu their deci ions privately, ~~~t the votmg ~h ereon must be held at a public henring anti in the presence of th~ htiganta <?r .. their I~ I rcpresentnth·e~. The l"'*'irling judge shall put the question or questions ?n wh1ch ~ Clllle turn s eeparntely ~o , the \"ote, and shall endea\"or to 8epuntte duly the dJ_ff,erent pomts (~ bated_. Euch or the judges ~ hall reply simply 1 yes or noi'nan~ ~he dec1s1on shall -~ umuedu1tely recorded accord ing to m.al"ority of VOles. CIVI\ m.at~el'l! _the dCCISIOll rh.all be reduc!lct to fonn by the jn( ge who I 1cond_ucted the prelumnarres, unleee be d1 nt from t e deci ion. In l'riminal mattel'l! 1t shall be done by the judses by tu~. ' The dis~nting judge, sl:iall wnte hfs opinion at the f o of the tled•io1i. · 66. ~II the attril.Juten conceded t judges of fil'l!t l~edu_re m proc~iinge relating to meetin!!f! of •rcditors,

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GOVEJL"''OENT FOR TH}; I

GUVERN~ENT

.\ND OF • I

and otl\ r uu\ttef'!l relat in• t d!.'donuion suit~ m~d 8nits iu

remain in f1H'{'(' 11ntl hall IX' •x ercil'!!'ll .hy the dt ~trtct rourts_; t~eve rt·h c caee'ari that in any •o1 .th , • prol'<'<'lllll~'i! co nt<·~t oecnf'!l wttho~l th< . the dist ri<'l C11Ur1. ~hall ·h enr tlw t•,lnin\ a n l reljntt.alnnd th!' :n~c~wu m yre ·i n~l v e~hthli~hed , lltld 8ball proc• •d to tle•·•de thPN' n 111 con\ om! 6i. Th~ nttribute8 in ftwor of judjle8 of fir8~ il.•~tanrt• I· m the pnx~lure. RIJII th!' p ro•i@i n~ relatir~g to Jll'\.'eRtll oonary ·. h.,.n •.· in,al.>P<•iuri for p !>t'f'l'rt\' llllitittntipn , th!' ex e.·ution f juilgm •nt~, volnntary l di pot'ilion~ relatin)l t judidaJ '1'"\~~ion ~ o f 11 ent•t;nl e h a nt<'IH ~hall ali!O f n: and bl• ·tmn ~ leTl'C<.l to the dt triN<'OUrt •., . In all' 811\.'h <'11~'1! the jtHI!l'"' ol tlw di ~t •·t. eonrt by turo~ s hall lim.ina'ry J>N"Il't'('<lin!l", but the court it, •If !!lu I 1-•u e ~nd1 wrll8 and m e rely I prtll't'tlnrc. · . till. 'In ~ nit~ of li1 J1ti<ll11 ~< 1 dain! ~ the 1li8tri I r~u~t~ f'l'l'Sen ·e the attr1ht1te8 b'' j' nd~ o f fl~t in~tlll,t ce, follo wm!l tlw lnw f I'" '!I pl'<>cl'tlure up !O~ur h rep,. tu the dttilll or fui)urc tO l'l'JIIY thl'I'CI O, II whoch ea. ' th1• prdum cit<• 'tl)e liti!lllnt '" upp!.'ll r 11nd ~n\imit the p opo~l of 1Witl~n~·e to be. . nite r , birh the ~nit ~ h1tll ,. ntinue undt•r the no I<'!' • tahh,.heo.l for c·tnl oml ~ tnts Ill gctl c r;nl . 1 10. Tht- pr<wi ~ i n ~ pf tht' law of dvil prO<' ln.rl' ,... h~th:l' to> th ' form 'Of pi'(''!'! 1tmg <'lllim• und N• pli e~, l'l'\'l lll ! Jll'\10 f~ n1 11l It; I hlt'lllllla~ 111 !lt' ne ml. ~ hull <'ontmllt> I (>Xi~ t an 1l 'ht• ,ll)lpli{'l) . ])l!l'UIIIt'lltlll'\" )11';"1\\1~ IIIli ~· 1.'<' )ll'~' llll'l l OpllOIIIIlly , logt'lhl!r .with th~ o·fuim nr l'l'ply , t•r lit the lwu'tlll)!_ ~1-~~~1 !••r tl~t' pn>p~><al. \'f p~<•of~: Th~ ntt cmlimt• '>IIHI,>t<h'it'l.' of u luwy .. r for ""'·h h 1)1:1111 •~ nhh~'tll ory m ~1\'ll <•ml ~mt und othe r tubli. h l'll hy >'IIi<I law of .1' ~'~"'" ""'· . il : llll• ,. ,-~1\' 111 ni t•r<OC<'I II1re e• tnhh ~h l'll ,. tlw luw l)f hypot.h e~at o on unci ? thor ,pe('ialla w,.· ~ hnll r~nuMit in fOI'l't', it IX'in1;1 111 ,) c•J'!'t()()(l thnt the tll ~ l~lfl yonrt ~ .1\SI'I~me the juril'(l ktio•~ mul facultic>S of tlw ~~~>hP!• 1 .""l?'~me c·o11rt , l t·~ntoru!lllllthcn~··a~, and t·ou rt ~ o hr~t im•l nn~t·, nll l'll"e 111 who<' 1 Jl1<ht•oal c• nll·~t urost>l:' hc mg ~l'ttlcd m ~i nl!le inl'llll~~t• 111111 hy ,l'~\· il Ortl >'II iI .. . , . . . '~ · i l?. ll I<'[ "• ,.,.,.,•pt1on:<, u mlpr ~t" 111 th m n o.11s dal'i'l'• of ~mt • ~hul.l he "ttell M ' req uired I"· the lu\\' of ·.:h ·il 1 ro<'l'<hll't' a mi wur.long_ to whe ther tlw ~till l u •·.nrati n~, li<jtt l.la teo.l d11im . i njnl wti <~ n. e ,·k tion. or ! ••tlll'r ch ~ ljl~ <'t!'r. _Dolo\lnry t'Xl'l' pti 11 ~, w~ 1 e n unthori Zl'll by tlw •lnw ~h n ll J:'l'l.',.t•nt !'ll ~OIIJ I!mtl~· w1th JX'''t•nopt o ry e.xception• ilml in t'(l rrt"'iX''hlin!( o o'l.\ ...r, owco hng to the11· re~pt'<'ll~·l! nat11re. Jh th e nme fom1 ttohl in one \1·ri tt e n d<X•mne nt p r pc•nl of p root'l! \rchltll·e tu hot • da~~c oi ext'<'pt ion 11111~1 \,le onaolt•. • , , ' . .1 ;:~. Pl/titi ••n ~ for a n nulme nt mui!l 1.w pi(' tll'd t ht~·m~: tht' on l h enrmg, . nd the "-"~"rt 1n ll pf..,·i<~u~l~· t1 t>j:·id!'. i!l tlw fom• <;'t h li • h ell fM dilA.t nrY ex,•t'ption~ \,-~1\>thcr thl'\' nffeN the p;o;.endal \'fl lHht,· ,,[ the ~IH t. Tlw h1w~·,,.,. !or 'b oth 81de:> mit~ n.te r th · protl'>'t th,,,. think tit for the p urrl( ::e of ppenl ng:un ~t <'rror in . p r edt II •, ' ·hwh prot rs • lmlll.ie n'l· >l'll l'\l in the mi nutt'!'. '

l,..,. ,

ClE~ERAL

4 •

c·1v 1L

\llpro\'i~i.~n~ o f the lnw8 of

-"~o

en ) tJ:\ .\ L

P RO\' t ~t o :s-s.

cl'in~i11nl

~a

FOR THE

HI C

,

'

...\I' I' E.I 1J! TO TH E Sl "l'llE )I.E C'O rJtT.

.

,Ill'

pl'\'llll' 1'\lllrt • 1~:~11 )tin' it s \'l't'llil'llll• yote i 1 pnhlit• in thl' fnn ~ \'revion ly thi~ o rd t'l' for oli~to·il'l an~ nnmidpul t'OI rtfl nnd within lin! ' uv~ of he Afl t' l' !!iviot)! tlc<·i"i' "' tlw o l'iginal ,~ J<Junll'llt~ ~hull he rl'li1mt.'fl to with. n ,,.,.,.tit\,•• I l'Op v of "ll<' h 1\ • l tr i~ ion. ,\11 s nt<J o ~·c. pf tloe oi jn~tice "hull be puh li~lll•(l in th't• Ottil'i hl Gur.cttc. , of till' luw <• i l'il'il and <'rinoinn .1 rO<'L'llnrc rc l11tiv to th • Rllhof :tppl':tl~ whit· h nr.., in OJ'IXl"iti on to 'the pl'ol· i ~ i o n s o f th !B order ure

.

.

C"(.))II'I. F.)l t: XT.\ RY

fJ

'

I

I

.

. .

io1i" ,,f jml)!t' o,. il l)! att l1l'nt•,· r the suprcm • cou ·t o f jn~ticc rt • hull lw' tHlt'll " ' 1:111'\''''" o nh·. · lt•!!nl diplonm t h (• no>u'iinat itm ; •f judi i ~l ft11wl in nnri e~ "1\nll bo mud c. o :tt•t•onnt ~l'r l'i l'<'~ h•ndt'l'l' I, ~<· ni nrity nt the har, :11111 k1 o wn tibility

\,.""''''Ill

nr~o(o>oo i n ll

I

registe red at th ~ bnr of this Substitute JUdges shall ii-servi11g in 1e supreme

'

; . Apperu to th F\1Prem e rourt will .lie in ,m ci\'il suits e rror -in p rocedure, in the c·nSe8 which tile' law of cil'il pr ced e d efin es for the latter, but not for ~uit ~ heurd ' heforc mnniripttlt·o trt~. . . . i 9. lk»'itl~ the~ d l.'fin ed hy the law ( c ili l p n ced t\r~ su ch appeal 1nll lao he f r e rror in the ('Q n~ itl l'rati on of pr I•. I ' criminal trit.l appe11l may I 'ta k ~11 f r infractio n of Jaw and e rrot I procedure in ('11.:! defined qy the law of criminal p lure. . . ~1

· . In

I

Jllt 0 \"1 1" 10 ~8 o

r

I

,.1 infraction of law and 1 .

15

of nppcnl ~ hnll he giwn " ' tlw Pt•ntl'n cio !! !'li ~tril ·t t•om·t n t lnt c o· thnn fwr the .1>1\" of notitirntion of "t'llll'n<·c . di~tri!'l 1'oitrt ><hllll <l!'l·itle "'. h1•!he1· to·.nllo\ · RJIJII'IIl nly ' ·lwn ""''" is for error in )ll'<ll,'t.'< litrt•, mul it~ ,l ,~· i "i.\11 IIIII" .,.,e mny IJl• npt'<~tk'll R)!ltinst ~llpt't'lllt' t'll\lrt with ill tiilP\'11 •IllY"· Fo~ hi" purl"'~'' tho 1li~tri1·t l'nllrt ri)!hl uf npJ"Il'nl ~hull !!111111 11 litl'nll nul l'<•rtil "I · l'opy of tht• no ling "j' P•~•l wn, ~nuJ.(ht to the pnrtv np)l<'lt!inJ.(, within ' thl'\.'ll l.hw~ ut the lx·~ i. ''" •hull or1h•r ho ih 8 i<ll·~ to n-rip~ur hcf<>~t· the •npren11• t'lllt'l. · · hu tetrninntion of tft c time nlhrw<•<l fnr "\'1"11 1111'<' 111111 on th np\lllltnlnce 11 thl' ~ 11)'1'\' 1111' Cll,lll'l :tfl<•r puhlil' ICjlr IIJ.( l!hllll inliiWillll\' I' J.(ii'U II. the •ipp<'lllll!(Uinl!l thl' r11lin!l o f tlw lvw ' ,. IIH't.ll'\ntninJ.( l'i)!hl ,;f I'IJ>IIIlllnln· e~ fnr bo th ~ i"'"' may he p l·l'~nt , 111 (I tho nolllt cr 11111" h • <lt•l'iolcd ""'r .nn"'"""" in hanil. •·nnrt nllow ·~Jl)l<.'nl , tlw tllig .111).1 olot'llllll' IIIM 11111 t ht t'l'nt to nft<•r l'itill~t tlw pnrto ~>;~ tn npJll'llr ,rl riloJ.( 11 pc rio•l nf II' 1 olny•. he n e '<1!111nr.'· t(l gin• lUll' ho n•l un npJW~~ IIJ tlw "uprt•mt• en 1rt. • 1ce of the npp!•flnllt bcfnrt' 1ho ~ ~ prcme court o f ' "'''ntion the )!il·en him to e nabh• him to bn>Jl' 11lt1 t'l'lllbliMh hiM up >Clll in writtw!'nty <lny~. Hi ~ n)•penl in writill)! ~hnll l.,. luuulod to tfoc o ht!l' litigtmt rho~·8 nl><o, nml on tlw l'l' hlrn to tlw I'Onrt of 11th • tlol'umc nt it ~!hltlr set for n pnhlk hearil i!(, nt whi1·h tlw prnt l'lllin)! uttorne y I tltc htw"idt'8 "hull l!lntc th~ir Cllljt'l! D\'\'t)\'tliug t ,\·hcth •r fhe mntt'l•r • a civil

·i vil iln,l prorctlu c r('!erring l C' .t t;l; tm<r ept'<·iull~' to· io,rm e or 11111111ll'l' of prO(.'('(h re ·h f(qrent or contrury to the Jr cr1p· tion~ of th i• Ol'\!t' r nr nbr.-.gnh~ l. . . . . . . · · 1;•. \\•rhal m u un1l prott'!'thn p lX'!ore 111 111('1pnleot111F, both ll1<'1\"ll an 1 rt n11utl• Jntttlel'!'. , h a ll r t'tain the 11ne fonn n~ tht> p . nt luw ordef'!l. . ~ 16. Thq Jn..lkttl ·Board cr ented . b y G.c11e . I Onl el'!', X . ~8, current ser1e ... Iead·q unrtcl'!' JNpartmt')lt f Pue rto H1co, 1nll p r eed ns .i;OOn ns. P?~~ 1bl to cO( 11 s uch . lli ll<,'· ~t i n~ (1\"erning ('i\·i l an~ ~riminnl . r. l'du re !IS ~lll!lln Ill force. Th ~ .ehnll be <hl'l ~I CI.I mto two ,. lt1111l'8 con] ttllll ('rtllll 1Rl, I'Cl')WCII tcly, nml shnll IX' pI I hed in the II<' nHOm l'tl manne r for the iniormati n I alt con erned . · . ; ;. All lli8put ~ or iliff •renl'Cf! beh~'l'l'n jmlicinl a nd gube,rnuto rial a~ttho ri . }~all be 1l i<le<l · b,· the <'O illmnnde r m dioef of the d purtmcttt afte r h earmg the o uuon ! the \lp reni l"~ourt and 'its a tto rne y. ·

- · 14 . •

I

the <'OUrt nml ntto rn e~·s d o n ot ~ hall receio.·t no &~ lury during the ir r pluces. pr f to.the entire snti. facti on of a jndge or atto rn y whe n sick , be allowed . , ,.;,.•• ; •.1ino<l judge of each court shall give

' '·

of which h forms part period o ly one-half

po aibillty, to


.

j.

t

'

GOVERNKENT · FOR ~ THE

16

G'Jts.&R

L Oao&n. • 0 • 1 2.

;}

II

I

ADQt:AI\1

AND OF PUERTO

HOVJ.;RN•M:J<~N'l' ~'OR THl<~ IS f.AND

h<oal'(l, a rtuartcrly return o( a ll propert y pertaining ti> hi>< o tti c~, tol!cth er wi th u li t 1 ,)( hi ~ ~lllll'lovl!t!H und the l'!lllarie o each . Ylll. 1 Questi o n ~ requiring inn•stigatio n, I Jgttl opin1o nK, fl r teport frwn the <lcpll1't1u~nl. of !l.tHtie.c• w.ill he trnn•mitt t•d to th esolit>itor-ge c tl throng h fhejtH li<·iul honn l, un<l 1·etu tied through the !!lime t•hmm cl. , \ 1X. T 1c solidtor-gcncrn l will act 11.~ "t..-cretury of tl e ' tulidal h<>!H'<l of the <ll'partllll'lll of u~t.i ct•. J n ctl>!e of h i. ulmenet• through "ick1 t.'lis .,,. othe r -unswoi<luhle cuuHo, hi ~ t·hicf l'l crk will MU m·t. ' ! · X . T l\t judidul IJOill'fl will lll !et on • olny in cal'lt w •It in I he nll\l'c of th • "olid to r!!CII CI'lll, jl lul 'ut., Huch oth ~r l_imes llH tl_wy may oleum!' cJHHnry. 'J'hrc~: }'lcmhCI Him II t ~>nHtitutc a quorum. It w1ll be the1r <lut v to re<·etv • from the "''ht•ltor-!w ncrnlull rcJ M >rt~ lJpimo n", ami n :cnmtn •rulatinllH l':h idt he n tv Hubrni\, 111111 tmnHnlit tll\nn , w1th tl;c/' r I'CtlliJ rk~, to t!1 '• go,·ernor-gt·n~!- They \\ 'l11!!1Ho_pml>oHC to tile govcrno rgt•n!'ra l rom tune · to tun c Huch reform!! 111 the law _.no\ 111 t ' " prot•t•dul·e of tht• r-ou1·ts us they 111uy rll't!ln wi.e. · ·! XI. It 'will \p i h c- rlnt y of th • jwlidal bourd to p1~c n t to th e •uprmi1c ,<·ourt , 1hmngh it" tiHt·al, urtidefl of impeadunent againHt any judge of >Ill. lllHulur court (t•.· t·cpt al juHti<'c of the "uprem.c t·ourt ) ~gu in st wh.o n, ~h ey uaay_ rc<'OI\}' c-lta.rgc~ '.'f ,..,,.,.upti o n o r mulfmu;unce 111 offwe, or of lllliiiOrnl o r vu:rous lu~lntM <! llllJCcollllllJl hr ~

;ns DFJPA.RT~EST o•· PcERTO AN JuAs, November

Upon the recommendation of U1e judicia board, pam~raph 82, Ge.neml urrcnt !!Cries, th headquart 1'8, is a uende I to reat'( 1\f.! follows: Th dil!trict c 11rt shall decid 'll'h 1ther t a llow the appeal not 01,11 to be mad on account of an error in lh p . u re, but nlso. becnuse law . and its decLoion ady•rse th •reto may! be appcu led al!lllllSt tirl within fifteen day For this pur~ the di~trict court when of appesl··~hall grant a lite ral n(l certibed <·opy of the ruling nguinst •11'111! made to th J)Qrty appealing, with n t H ua~·s at the lat t , and order both par.ties to appear before th supreme rourt. By mmand·of Brigudier-Gen raJ Davi~

11

l'ltntion. . . ·. XU . 'lihtlli~cul of the nprcm • court @hull prose<: 1:t a ll ~lll' h t·aHca of impcut·h -· 1111lnt ~o. prcscmtl~t l , and ~ hull l'lU m••istell in thiH<luty y the soli · itvr-gcn~

XIII. "Where complaints ure />resentt.'li ugnintit a nembcr pf the su reme

X !\'. Th e llOlic-it or-gencnll shall pr c!'ute un pcat• m'entil lllo(alll8t nlClljbCI'8 of h • >'npt'emc court. .H e Hhallul o fi le info_rlnation_M uml pr &ll'ntc t h!l Hum,e, o r cml~ th en1 1u l11• pro~<.'f•utcd , before' the proper trthunals 111 1111 cu c of offi cmltm"cond uct _lm th e part of other olfke r><, :<<.ocretarics, clerk:<, ail iff~, n11d other employucs of th u 111MU lur •·•)lll'tH, o r of the in. ulnnulministrnt.ive t;lerariiii OntH; nt nlPmbcrs of th e insuh1r po li< ~X \'. lt shall u l ~o he tli • rluty of the JUclicial b 11 . tn nonainat c t•> the ~oro ,·e rnor­ )!<'ncrnl uitablc person ~ for appointment as jwlgcs lUI I fi8t"ltls of 111l th c .c<J\II'ts whcn-

phlc of _th . "';nini;te1: ?~f fusti,c · , who_ ht~d this wide contr 1 th r ts now ~~ ]Ud1Cta1 boai-d. con:<I tmg of three y r !\~~ · two _Amel'ican Jnwy ~ ~ne of the h~~ter a n th presiding ]ndg _of th _pt·on s i Ot.t~LI co_urt (whtch ,I al and tb thre n !ltl \' law~er:. E tabhsh d by ~h e fol

in

Gen

ral Oro

rs,}

1-I EAD<lt:ABT

No.-9 ,

ru

cn•t· \ 'HCl\ ll('i es O(.'l'U I',

R Juan, July

D EP.\ RTltE:<T 'oF P u s1rro

In o rder to furth r re<iure p\tbli expendi res, a nd in recomm ndati .ns of <.-ommittees .comPOSed of hJ;,._."; ,-;t, .-t -whOI!Il advi and coun I hn.~ been .. licite<j, tmd jwrtice, it is h >reb)' ordered as follows: ' I. Th department of justit'e will hereaft exf,!rci~ no control O\'~r the co11ry.s, and the judiciAry will be entirely independent. Jurlges, h owev_er, wt)l be uhJeet. to impeacllment, and ubordinate court officer!! ll~td employ<.>es be hable t9 p'tysecution lor olficial misconduct as h rei~after J>ruvtded. . . . . , . . II. T!t ' d partment , ·ill hereaft er be, cha'lted .onl ~ w1th ·duttes smul ~ to thCJ!!C whjch pertain to th Department of-Ju !Ice and th o_ffiqc of tile Attome~•-...,en~l'l!l m · th mted tates-and in the Be-\' ml tales Of th' mon, such as rendenng opm1ons on contracts tu·whi ·h the ihsulat _governrl!ent is a I>l!-rty~ investigate clait,b s againllt the imrular v m m nt, prosecuting offiCJals of the '!tS\llar go\'~mment f r mallea. Mn. ce .in offi ce investigllting titles to public land. , ml rpretallon of Ia s for th.e guidan of th e'xec11th- departments, ~pen·i!!i ng pr sccuting attorn s in th'e . . . . · \·ariolll! insular courts, etc. . Ill. The d partment of justic • y;·ill be nn er the d irech OD and ontrol o ·a. tndtctal board f five tuembers, all of the legal pro '!:!Sion, ~" h o are willing to se e " 'Hhout alary f t such sen;ces. · _The office of the d partment.<_>f i tll!'ti will be un(ler !he irnmcdiat c har.ge_of a ·soh<:itor-general, who, under tlw dtr 'ti_o ~ f the ~rd, w1ll pcrfonn aU the duties appropriate)" pertaining to th office, as m JCIIted 111 Paragraph II. V. The offi ce of th() secretary of jllSti<.-e is h ereby discolitiliucd. · T!te retary of jln!ti will tum over to th suhcitor-generalall the book!!, re<JQrdM, furmt and ?ther pror,rty pertainin to his office, togeth r w' li a list of emph.1yees and the Mlanes _of

'"II

.IV:-

·,

~ri: the n

sol~-~r-gen~ml

til

ubj t to the appro. val of the judicia board, the e. m,ploy -I:'Y leri<'81 force for the proper performance of h1s dubefl, d wtll be . reeponsible fo r the l!llfe keeping of all bo ·ks, r<.'Cords, o <.'tl furnitUTC, nd(<lther (lrope'rty which may be intru ted to him. . ) , .. vn. The licitOri!'Cnj>ral " 'ill render to go\'ernor-geneml, th~ugh I e JU(itCial~

.I

I

urt ,

1h ~ judiC'iit l l>?u!-rl s hul~ . ~ nl?m it t t • maltcr tu I he go_v rr \or-1-(encrnl, who viii nun • n "P~t· utl c'OIIIIl11t<l:HOn of h\· • Jtulgcs to trY, a nd <l!Jieruun • th e c:nse ..

l

X \' J. Anv resident of rlw i~l antl ca n lilu info mmtio1 s agui n ~t Rliy mugi ~trnt c, ju<l~ort·, or jnclidnl ottieer for tHiS<· ndnct in ofH•·• 6 r iuu nornl'tic iu prinUc life unheco nain~or hi:< "1ation 1 suhjeHt to the n ~uul p •rmltics for ftl lse un< nmlicionHnt·cu~nt i ?n M. X\'ll. In CIIS<l of <'011\'it'liou of uny juclg!!, or othc c•)lll't ofli<-cr or cnlploycc, tlu · :<~:nlence shall in ·lmk rli"u i""a l frim1 oflke . . X !.II. All jml)(eH 11ncl jndic-i11l o ffkt•rl! nre enjoined t ) 1 bstnin ft:c)ll l nc-t ive Jlfll'tit'iplltiun i 1 part isnn pi>liti t·~· • • 1 XJX. The fn llow i n~-1111111 ••I ~~· ntl c t ll<'ll hawin)£ l' 11 M 'll h•d ,to ot·n·c, tare h l·n·b~­ nnnou ll l'~'flllM t•nnHtitut ing th • jmlkiu l l ~•a rd : lf or1. 11'. 11l ilnrio ('nc\'i ll n~ ll t'l'llllndt·z ; ll o11. :"\ . B. K . Pettinl(ill, jml)!e · nited StatcH pro,·isi!Jnnl t·nurt · )lnj. :A. C. . 'hal'pe, i~>Hpct·t ol'-g •nentl , ul'ting jwl;ic-n<h·oc11t •; Ho11 . .Tunn ll erllllllll c7. Lopt'z; l·l•u1. ~lnnnd F. Hos;;y. · XX. ' llon. Unfacl Xicto .\ I •illc i~ hereby 11ppoin tc<. " lidt o;--~orc n crnl. The ruregoi ll!(a/>p!lilltllWntR ~rill take cffect,thiHcln l'. H,· conunarul u Brigndi 'l'·l'cn<'t'lll Du,··i><:

.

.

W.

. II A!.I., ..ttljlllrtl>f-(;,., , ,·rtl .

To th t~t hOLu·d lre.f er ttll q u m~ti o n:; t httt ;nn, · r eCJuire Pxceutivc d<'tPI'ntinntion nnd aetion sueh as the appointrn 11~of di:itt1l't judgr:< n11d tiHtlliJ:I, and eHtplovces, the a rrahg •mc nt of ut-te r. fo r courts. and ntriou. attri"utc. 'thnt would full unde r a 11~11 ><.tcr of justi<· ·. ThrsP an• ull BOW ndmi.nistercd bv t hi jtldiciul ho r ' t ht·ough t he. soli<·itm·g 11e rnl , who hu:s ontrol of t h l'<'cord and ffi ·e of the former mini ><trr of justice ttnd who bu:s the 1.-mne f un ct~ 1 s tq\vu rd the t.nilitnr_,. gon'rn or thnt the Attorncy-Gen ml of.th UJtt ted St!tte:; hold:; townrd th e Preside11t ttBd - his Ctthinet, lega l ndvbet npon n.ll questions pn•."t• nt d. ' wh o ndministe t·s t he · tll'uir:; of tl\e oflie • atte h<b to tiH'. approml of requests fo r fu11ds but bn:.; 11o lp wer to diret:t the p roeedu re o t· to con><tt·aill the court . vVhcn the. ~court:< wpre c· n:<tituted th ,: w re informed ln· lne thnt they wer e tor n t~ ider thl:'m·rh· ,. ind pe1iden L of exf'cuti,·e ;.ontrol: thnt t ~-< h oukl lte -p,· int<•rft• n• ~\'ith thrm 1 S. Doc.l47-2

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.1· :;0

u o v•: RNM.E r T FOR TH £ I

AND UJ.' P UERTO R IOO.j

• ht and ju :;t~t·e Iund lon.g tl~ th e ir pml'tie • t·o nfol'lll d lwitb .rig

law

11nd l bu\'!l uph Id th e m in 1111 indeJW nde ne tb _,. tle\'t'l' t.19fq re J?OS' ,;c:;,.ied, a tld which i ~· like th indcpetldcn ce of tbt• eourts of tb l11tted ' tute . The ' 1 JH;\IAN. H o \'' lo11g hns it t <•e n in opomtio n I Gc ueml.DA\'18. I t w ru; in tailed 1 think, i11 Aug u. t lu. t. ;wr. •;r.~ N. You tated vou bad Fed<'n~l eo 11r~ thl•re ! Ot'~c~l.DAVI . Y~>i!, ::;it·.· · The rt'AIU;\I.AN. \Vbat bus ht•en th ~ Ul'Ct>:<:s of that'/ .Ge h nll DAnS. Entirely :snti fa to n ·. Tb P ·ondi~i~fl df_ thi'1 ' · wh •n it was c:;tabli. hed , so far n. pr ('l•durc and exped1tmg t~ utiF; ltnd th condition o f the jails are t·one m ed , wu had. The jd.ils w re t'Ongt'sted by u lurgf' numbe r o f per ns confined who had I en the l'(l a lon~ time; 11om who hllcl bee n tri e . nnd :<ome wlio bad not tnd .we re awaiting t~ml , nnd :<orn e who:s trial had n t be n compl d or t:om m nl:cd. 'l'he jails w r ove n·rowd d , in :t dr aclftLI snn•.tn ·.v condition, and· th e re wa:s 11 grea ne •d of c nnge in almo:st evrry r ' Jikct. Mr. PERKIN . ' r,. it tl'lle that d ie r we re many pe r ·o n:; co tined ht jltil;; for mine r off n:sc. · wh o had ht>c r th e re fo r y en1·::; witho ut tria·U <1 ne roi'D n • . Ye:<,><ir. l\11-. FA-IRI\A ' K • ..Jtow tlo<•:s th(• ('O.:<t eompnre with th<' Spttni s~;;_v :;,h> m I 'e nc-ral D A\' 1 . . It i ~< \'('1',\' mu'e h I :;::;. l t•ottld not <Ti\'(' t , <'Xll('e tig ure,.:, but it is ,·en · muuh le:<>< . . I t\\' a. pnp ' I' in pl'int :sho vi!w the E: ntire ~~pcnR s of ti r militnry go\·e lllllr nt f or th e fir:;t fiv e },ontt's of th \' CRI', l t is all ;.:tn.ted in fig ur s fo ewn · bnmeh of th e <YO \' l'lll11l' t'tt. The· xpe n:s i. ,. t·~· mueh I :Ss. Th ~<alai·i e~< of jt~lgr. nr • It• .,., The numhel' is \'C' r,\· mue h le::;;; itnd th e e. C' nse:s are le. 1~. The nt llllJl' r of. jail ~ ht . · b e n redul'('d f 1· m 11 to 5, nnd ttt ('.\' ll!l\' bct•n clr t ned and put in or lrr. Thrrl' wn~ n ce ntml ~ Jil un dr r , th e Spani ~h :; ·;;tPI)I in th capita l ·ttlll•d th e pl'('lliclio. kn o w in o ur eouuttly h.\· th e nuwe of . tute pl'i:<on . . That hn. bee n tb o rou• ly r non1tccf and clc:\11 d. The -!00 odd })J'i;;on i·s ure t'mpl o,,·ed in 'it! ti:;trial work, mnkin~ nt:;, nnd 1 ·h(){' ·. nnd ·el thiug nnd bu. ket:<, an ~ th e~· ttl' tit work o n tn . tre ts doing what th ,v 11 ,- r w r hf• fo re kee ping busy. This ' •us "~,l o n e nnd 1: this o rd r:

I.

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n,.:_nd · _nl ""•} li EAHQUA RTE ll! D E;'A Un t E:<T o~· Pn; u To Rr t"u, ~ o. Jo:l. . · Sou .faau, ' •p l!•mber 9, 1899. (jpou tho rec ' mm n lutio~1 of I he judicia l ard th tl following i8 publi~l ed fo r the . informution und ~uid ancc fa ll c·hm· rued: I. ln Kll ciules wl rl!in , und •r the pe nul c e now in fore<', tribunulHof j sti l'e ma~ llll J?O<'Il ronl:inemcnt as a punish ment fu'l' crin , th f'e \'Cra l court~ luwi.pg j rif<d iution to llllf'O'!e ~nr h punisbm nt ar • her •by aut 1ogz~ l lv a<l(l the impositio of htm:l · ·lubor to su ·h punishnte nt during the t rm o im r.ri:;onm •nt; wh ~o: r ver in boil' judgment the ini)>O~ i!i n of ~u ·h labo r m:\y I ad ·isable .. 11. Th · court sha ll jJ J ·Iurie in i t~ F nt •nt·e I he cl e~i!tn atio n of th ' jail wherein the pri>'O nerio !!eJtt ellt'ell for h· rm ~ of 1 <~ :tl um six nonth s ~ haU ~c n·e th eir impr~~o nm ent, btit thq ph1' ofyonflnemt"llt of su ·h pri!:!!me . may I cha hge< l by th ·board of pl'i >'O n · :on t rot 1 'hc ne,·cr thejnH ~·cro wded, or fo r t her ~t,ood cmL"t'. JJI. A ll .J'Cl'ii<lll~ herea ft er sen t •need by t P "(; rul e.! , ta t ·~ provi ~ i on u l r insular ('OUrl ~ tC.. i rupri SO!llllClll f r a long ' l' l C l'!ll tba~ ~ix III Onth S il~i~llllli~llliiC!It for •rim e ball be im pri>'O llL'(l )l·ilh in the 1>enite ntiary th ·San .J ua n, a w 11111 he ~ubj~t dnring •ueh c nflnement to a ll the rul e~ !lll<i rt1-''lllatio ns l'ltil l peni ntiurv. 11 I\' . Atllaws, on! 1'8, r rl t'CI'e('~, or pu rl~ in co nsi~ t wit11 the t'o \· i ~ i o n s of th iH o rd •r sro hcrel:ly rt'peal •d . ' . · \ ( Jly :on oma nd of Brigmlicr-G ueml :OUvi": .

·

.llojot, h l•}JI!dor·

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C. H. H

. A. 1 Acting . ltljtttant-

RICO. I

OOV:J.;RNMJ<:NT FOR THI<:

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19

Before tha t th ey \vore almost alway::; in id!e e s. Th CHAIRMAN. W e re th ov cohfined at htt rd labod G e neral DAvJ . sir; that wns unknow1~1. Tho RAIRMAN. You· h1we introduced tha~~ ' Grn e rttl DAVI .. Yo;~, . il·; they are all ri work. The sy s tem has hcen xtcnded tind w 1U'e putting up ndditio uti huildi'ngs nnd onlarg- . ing th.e pr. esidio, so ns to n · ommodt.t te a larger n~tmb~r1 and better n ·cQmmodate th m. lt wnli i nf:lpected l)y uri Ame t'lcan wnol hncl been tbrou"'b nil tb ~;>ri. ons in Cubn, and who kn ew 1sO'metbing about p.ri. on. in ~h~ n_1ted· ' tnte . . H e ~~ted in lh'. r eport to th~ Department that 1t wn::r m ve ry good eon'd1t10n. 1... I Mr . .EArRBANI\S. 1. the jucli eh~'~'· compose~ chi ef!.~ of native~~ · Ge neml DAVIS. · Altogeth •t·. I here ttre n<? Amertcttn/.:1 holdmg· nny office· in Pue rto. H.ico, cxc pt in th e provi: iorinl court. 'l'hr CHArmrA N. L et mo n:sk yon one or two s pncific .. question. to undt•rt! tnnd b ttet· tht• prcl:lent ~ystem. I ~ nde rst!tnd , yo~• have the ·. snm c number of munit' ipttl judges ~~ before. ' th e oneml DAVIS. yp,.., :sir· exre pt th1tt '"Jo l:ttWl' consolic;ltt · di fl triet.'l liomewhat. . · Tht• C HA.JRi\JAN . H o w 111 !\11\'~ (~ f'il eml DAVI S. Fi ve. · 1 • , The C IIAJHM;\N. Y ou• hnv a munieipiil judge for each mun)cipality1 G ne ml DAVI!'. Y es, sir. · The C HAIR~fAN. H e hns n re.· tl'ic ted jbris ic ion n:s comphr ed with h for ~ · Gcncml DA VIi'. Ye. , :-iir. . · ·· 1 Tho C IIAIRMA·N. The n, in t end of t be.'· e eourt:s of fit· -t in.· a nce and th l' nudif' neia, yo u hn,·e h\' 0 di>stf ict ·ouJ•t: , c11 ·h •(jmpo. ed of · o ne . jt~dgo nn e! tw_o n~souintc jud res, n~d tt! e r'l !1- . •w ·cmc court, ·onlJ:losed · of o ne l' hlef JUSti ce a nd folll'·n:·soc mt Jnstt cc O r rwml J.)A VI A. Y P><, :sit', · Mr. P1mKnJs. You tt)JJ?Ointcd tho judgc:; '1 Gonc rnl DA VJi'. Ye><, :sn·. ~Jr.' PEHKINS. With th e appro val of he Pue idc nt 1 . Geneml DAVI A. No, sit·; by virtue of th e nr h01·ity' drl og n d t o me as l'Onnmmde r .of th e militltl'y fo rc!'s in Pu r to Ri co, and · s acting <YOVel·nor. . I , "' 'l\Jto. PEHKINfl, Did ,\'Oil t:ontinue .th e form t· judges~ G e ne l'tl.l DAVI S. y s, s ir ; 1\ great 11lllll,Y of ~h e m. The C HAIHMAN. Tb • pt·o ·ceding. in the in. liAr courts n•·c in ::lpani. h , J pl'<'. ·ume? 1 G c ne ntl DAV.IS. Y es, l'l ir.J Thr no d of s JO C <'Oill't hcfo ·c which could be hcurd <'llSC~' imihu to tho ·e whieh nri .. c in the }'rd ra.l court her e wn:s t.tppare nt in l'u 1'to Rieo. It watt p · ·~. ing t hat the ·· should he some such tribmml, to whil'h eases in whi ·H citizens of tl e U 1iited tuteA and citize n. of' othe r ' comitri · we re pnrti S- l'!l.'l s of v i Inti on of th e p ostullrtws nnd s mtwgling and vnriotis oth r rrime of thn nrttt.u:r.could he !lf'nt.. The 11ece.·. it· fo1· 1\ trihun rtl of thnt natut· VIIS very pres,.;ing. The innttcr was ens ily handled s on~ ns n . tn ~e of wnr exis ted, durin g th o continwtnce of a ·tuttl h ~stili tws, or eve~ during the. continunnet' of t'ee hnicnl ho tiliti e><- tha t l S to ny, bcfo r the 11th of April l !}9, it was legnl for th e military t·ommand >t' to l'.Onvc nc a militnrv rommjsRion wher e th e re wa.· 11 violrutibn of th e ln,w of WtH'i

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No

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~?0

(10\'ER~MKN'I' ~'1' 1~ 'L'FH: 18l.A.ND tn' PU ~:RTO

D I ' 1'1T}JR'I'O RH'tl

11fter- thl' tt•rminntion of ho.- tilitit· ~, <in thl' promnlj..•llt Pt·p,.:,i(l\'llt uf tlu• treaty of 1'11ri;:, tht.;t 11nthorit.'· t'l'll"<'<l.. . • Thr qt{l',.:ti n " fts a,.:kt•d hy my prrdl't'"""or of tlw 11.uth \\'a:<h ing-ton lww h<• ,.:hnttl>tl <l.i,.:pos<•l of ~<lldt lll:tttt'r><. lit' qtit':~tion .wlwthl't' it woultllw t'Otttprtt•nt for liin) to <'l'l'lltl' n would h11n• jttl'isdktioll, tt" th1• loml t•ourt:< hucl 110111!. t'i'neht•d i.>'t~t•rto Hi<·tl twth()rity huJ ht•t•n J.ff\'1'11 hy th1• th1·uugh th l" ~·rrl'tnr~· of War, for thr. nppolntnwllt of 11 tril wnuld hn\,.1' jm"'~dil'tinn in :<ndl nmttl.' r": nmi ~itnr~· ,·•·rrttiun, But tu,,· ·pt'l't!t•t't'"'"''r did ltl)l 111·t ttpon thnt antHol'ity. II<' hitp,.., tinw, ot· htul uut n ·adu•d thl' til't tr wh<•n I' wi,.:lwd to l ' ndrt· it I \)t'lWI't'< I'd lu <'rt•ntt• 11 t •·i htmal. I appointt•d n and two ....~,..Ot·mtto.~, tt t·lr rk of tlw t·onrt, a pro:o<Pt·nting 11ttorn nmr;~hnL nud ;~l't tbnt t· ~nttt 011 it,; fr,•t, wi tlh · powt•r~< tmd n'n·· dl•:o<l'l\· tulltlo•'<'"" to tho,.:t• wbit•h Ft•d<'ml l'IHtrt:.; ~~~~l-t'" 1111d 'I'PtTitorll':o<, and it hn>~ ht'<' n . inn• lti.-,·hnrgittg it t!dl!tini>•t •ritw ju,.:t'it·<' . AJid I ft•rl ·un• tim~ ;.rn•nt lwnl'lit .Ri.1·o lt:t:<lw<·t~ tht• r<'-<t llt. (~n<':o<ti on;~ 1 f jmi:<dil·tion han• ttri or ni:J-t'lllpt.~ t•l tnkt• nppl'a.l.-, to th(' ~~ pn•mt• Court of tlw l n h11n• h<'l' n ·madt•. hut tll('rr ha,.; ))('pn noth ing- to impt:'dt• if.~ and nothing- to l'liJ!I'itH·\' Ill<' tha.t i~ wa.~ unwi:;l' or int'XIWrl p,· ,~r\'tbinj! to :,~ how thnt it , wa':o< li~nl'lit·ial l nd niiYnt "'' ht•nu• i" fulh· . "d out in tlw"'P orrlp '·,;. th.'ll ·ntl.Onler.,... t ll ~: .lnqt ·.itrr· ~~~ IJEP.III'J'fiEST oF l'n: uTn Ht lt11l

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.'\tw ./11on , .!Hnt '

1

ht•r,•inufh•r

~J)t.•t' ifil'(L

·

, /8!1!'1 .

'

Ill. · Xrti••lt· Ill , >'WI ion :!, t•mt)lntp h I, n th1• o n ~(i tulion I• "" fullow>' : .. ' 1. Th,• jwlic•ial l~"n' r • lut ll l'XI t'ntl to n 1 ,., """in law ntH I " lnity ul'i"itl' nntl c r tlti~ ( '• '""litntiu11 . tlw law• f tlw l'nih•l . h ,.,., nnd tn•atit•>' tnacl ~ o r whit-h lUll ht· " " " ''' nncl<•t· tlu•tr nnth,rity; tt all ('UFl'" uff Nin)! arnl )n:<."l1tlol'>', o,l h<·t· pnhli\· mini F:

t•· r":-1 tutt i <·tu,~ ul~ : h• alll'u .~•·:o~ uf wlutir;llty: ntl tnnritimt• juri:-=d id iun ; ln t•nn r'O\'l'l'r ·it'l'l I• ) whid) thl' l"nitPfl :--lhttP:o~ :o~hall lJ\• a •art~· ; '" ('fm tr•wt•n-:il l~twocu wu ot iu (lt't• :--!tntt~ ; 1>t • twt~· n n !'-ttatt• and l' iti:~.t•n ;-~ t~f anntlwr- Htntc; 1 ·'l\\' 0l' tt f'itizcn~ v f 11ii- .

.f,.,·.. nt

:'tat· •• ; lwtll'l'\!11 dtiZ<'Il nf thl' ""m :'btl<• l'lllitu it t)! lrnHI>' lllltlct· ll nl >' of oliff1•1 •111 . 'hth•F, un•l ltl'lll't't' lt a :'lute or th e ·itizt•n• tl~n·nf, uud fnt'l.'i~nt R.1t ~, t•iti1.\'HJol nr to:nhj,"t·t:o:. ' ' · . . .1\' . Tht• •k><•i•i<Ht• vf ·~uirl ~onrt ~ha ll fulluw thtl prind\>1<.•,. o f t·ommon h w uutl t'q11it~·. uF i_o,ltat.li,.h.-1 hy th•• eourl >~t>f tlw l' uit ...-1 F:ttllt'F, 1in, it,. prtK:t.'< lnre, r ~ ur!rl ,.,.,.""'" hall d111ftmn n.• IIC'urly "" Jll11l'lil'n~lt•. to th o~ oh~ t'Vl'<.l Rllll kept n I!IUtl. F.-l l'ntl •·ourt... lL" tl!n11:i anti plat·c.• nf Hi t iJII!! • hull Ill' lixl'tl by th tJ court 1 t ~ uch linrL"'' """ pill<' '" u,• 11\ll.' be 111~1 l'Otll·eui •u t Jor lh • partie>' litjganlnnd to rn~tre lhe t'XIM.lfliti,H.l:" tr.ln:-4ldion ._.r hntotil l (;ot~. . , 1 \' . Th e prOI·i•. iom{lenurl ~hu'll ···m-i:<l o f t h .,. • jn<l)!c~ , 011' wbo m ~hull hi!,known 11:• th t•' l:~W judf.(<', and ] l11• othl' r t1n> :L~ t~"'<~ia l c jwl jt<'•, <11 \ "uitL'fl .'talc~ tlistriN :lito "'Y· "" • llltl~'>'hnl, uti\' der'k, three <ll'J!UI · dcrkJ', nc ,.,,. IJ!!mph •r nnrl nl1.JOrler, . ulfl• illh' l'j\rt:l •r: <llll' huillff "'"' jauitnt•, nnd <)Ill' Ill ~ . l'llgct\1 The law· jndgtl~ hull I''' ,;.I(. .:tntl • hull dt•tcrntint• niT•~ dt'l'iHt' ~•ll , ..·h nkul qnl'i'tin11~ c;>f luw. ,\ 111 'uri!~· 1'ot,. of tlw lll',lldl ~hull d,•lt'nl11nt• all qnt'l'll"ns of fuet. The Jury ~~·stem n) ~· · IJil inll\flhll·,~l or di"J)I.'Il"'-><1 •·ith in•n1'' vurtkular t•Ul' i11 th e tli8erctiou ·o£ the cc> trt. · I.

J

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,\'1. Till' jmlKt'" q f 11~ pt'l•~· i•it!nult·our\ •hnll!IK• t'!j·•fh tl with the powc ·~ ':l·~lt•cl in tlw jtulf.."''" nf tlw t•trt•tut or <h•lncl •·•mriA o f th ' l111 ,.,, Hlnlc~. \' 11. .'Tht• \li~tril'f ultoruey •hull '"' nntlwril.t'jl lo tirt•Ht•lll In I Ill' 't•ont•l it fot·llull iu11,. u~till>'t ull punit~ for vlnlntiou• of Pniii.J .'tnlc~ "lnt:nt<• nutl rt'Jelllutinn>' lit• >'hull "'"" ill lik11 lltllllllCi' pr,•t~t•ut iuforu111tion• fb r l'iolatlo11~ of ord<•n> hi' llfl• clt •pnt·t• 1111•u t t'l)lllllllllltlt•r rclutill)l tot'il·iltunlt c t.,.. whi •h 11111;\ · h n·fcrt't'l .ln hilio lft•our lht·"'· lw:ulqnurh•n>. It shallult~n IX' hiH <lttly hi "'1111'"''"' tlw I uih•d Hlrllt·"· iu n.ll •nil• to whi<'h it i~ a purt~, ·11n<l In pe~fnrut ~tw'h otlH'r tJn1ioH u~ 1 Htmlly tot•rtuin to t·ht• tli ~ trit •l altlll'nt•l·~ itrthc Fcdl'mlt•t mri Mof lht• I uit"l ~tnte~. \'JLt: In •mlt;r to d c llm• tn nm cl~nl'ly t:erluin hmn ·ht• of lht•t•ri tnil1n1 jnl'i~clil'liou ,,f th';' prnvi•inun) •·o url, iliM IJl• t·~by l"'"'·idt•d !hut i . Hh til ihdtuk ntt•l '"' t•ltt•ln•iw in the fo llowin)C elm•."<'~ uf <'n~e~: Fil'>'l. All nff<·n~t'>' ptllli Mhnhl<• nndt•t· lh1• •hitnlory n.w,. nf til( Pniltotl Htul1·•, >'llt•h " " thn"e intlit•nt ed ill t•mt)lnlpl.t I of thi~< <>rtler. ~ ' 1 f:t•<·On <l. Offell>'l'~ t:nllltllittctl hy or :t!{nin•l 1'~~' '"'" >', rl'i~tllt'l'l:! or Anwrit·nn>~, not n•>'itlt•ut~ o f I hiM •lepltrtllll'lll, lml who u'lll)' Ill) tn11· •lin .,,. lt'IIIJHlntrily ~ojonrnin)l thl'n'in, Ol' ll~uinMI 1111'. P'"flllrly of nnlll''~~clc nl~· Thit'f~. Off<·ll~t'>' (l)!llint~t tlw I"'~'~'"" o r propt•rty i>f pi• nn>l lll•lq n!(iii)C lo th1• i\rtu.1· nl' ;\un·, 11r thu • ('OimnllttoO hv pcl'>'nn~ l.ll•louj.nng I • tlw Arnt~· or Nn1·y, uot pmp•·•·ly trlnl ~lt· h v tuilllrtr~· or.nuvul ' •·unrl~<; lp.nl nol it~t·l\tdilllf utiti!Jr p11lif..o offct.'~""· . Fourth . Offcm•cH comtutttctl h. ut· II!!JllllMI ft)I'UI)!IItol'l' \' r ''Y or JIJ(IUIIHt c tltr.c tt~< vi ;lltt>llfl•r Stnh•, l>i~lrid, Ill' T e rrit o ry of tlw l l nit<'l Hllltc~ r/l'l'i<IJII)! in tloi~ trllt!l'nl . IX . . ('IIIII!M ttri ~i n~; nntl ur Artit·lo XI of thu , tr..ut~· .,f t~t•nt •t• hotln•t•u l1c nih•l ~lith'>' untl ~pni11 wtll llll tllllorntin~< ln>~ the n•in prvvi k•t. 1 • X . In t• ivilncliun ~ wh"t•n till' muonnt in •·outrm•t• y i" $1;0 or 11\'t•r, un<l iu whit h :til l ' 11f the 1'111"" '"of Jl('l'>lllll~ ol~ttl'<! Cllllllll'nth'ti in l'lti'II)(Miph VJJ IIII'IJ pnrtit••, Ill' f11 ,dii,;h the pnrtioM llti'-"mt hy •lipttlnti .. n Invoke it>~ Jul'i~lillliou, Mhilll he hrqngJ•t 111 1111• prtwi•ionul t•unrt": l 'r•ll'itlml, ~hut ill the , < l•lt·~ ninati o n of 1.1 ~1 ~<niiH to \l'hidt l'n 1•rto Hit~1n ~ nrc pnrli<·•, nr nf ~ nit~< uri~<ing fn•lu c:nt t.rlu:IM whit:h hnvo bccu or · t~lmll , r.,. ntu.tle uutltll' tltt• prol'it~ion~< of Rpnni•h o r l'nc rlo ) icutlluw~, t.he •·unrt. ~<hull,"" fut· "" pml'lit·nhle, confortu 111 th e prt'llt.•l<• ut s ;111cl tlct'it~intH u( th e I nill'<l S tutes t•onrt~< ih "im ilur •·•~" '" wllit·h htwt• ht.'IJII tried mul<letenninct i1 te rritory fonn erly llCljllirCI'l Ill' till' Unlll:tl ' tul c~ front Spnill w· lll·exi ..... lit ull •tl, <+ t'ivilu•liiiUH the citl<l' shall Iii· withiu the jnri"'lil'lio u o f tlw 1'"'\'er. ilt~<nhl~ t•onr IL" llt1W prol'i<le<l h y loc:ullaw. X 1. If uuy pnrt)' liliJ.,'IIIll shall fee n'-~r~e\•t'\'1 hy h u jtlll)lnt c ut, or dct·_r. •c of .•nit! ~ ·otn·t, 11>'111." of niqe t.v dn.y. sl11!l! ll<! )lMIIltA•it Mil ·h (Ill ·t,y. Hl!furel,lll• ~J xocntum of Htwh ,Jilll)!Uielll 01' d t.'t'I'Cl', II(JIIII I he him' of II hond t· y h111 With Rllrctl 'H 111 llll'lliiiOUII! 1111<1 with ,.neh •·on<litions :L~ tlll• t'tlltrl, n111 y tlul crno ~w, f< r tht• purpo. • o f ullowin!C ••u·h ,l':tri.Y In .mn.k e . !Lppli<?tlinn lo lht' Snprct!IC (' o rt ~f thtJ 11 uitetl :<;tnlt·~ for~ writ of ··•·rhtll'lll'l o r othor-tmtnhl e pr<wP~S to rt·l·tew ~ u ·h Jilt )!IIJP.Ill or tlc•·rco. But tf ul t h1• t•nol of'AAitluinetv tluys Hnt·h P~'~ "'L'll." '"'" uo t lt•t•t iK 11.!11 hy tho Hnpret11el'onrt cxc· o·ntioll • hull fortliwilh it~•nc. X IJ . Th • d<•purhlll'lll <'tJillllllllltl<:ir will nxm·•·i.e l It~ pow •r of lllll'tlon , cp11111111futio u , ot· ntilil!llli>111 of puniMhlltcnt in erlm inult:U."CM.. I . XIII. All ft.'<'"• fine~, untlt•Ot~l ~ paitl t.o th ' l'i crk o t I eonrt ~ hull be lllt'lll' l on•r by hilt\ nt th e ·e111lof undt <'nlmular 1111111 h trcn" urct· nf th • i•lmut . with a Mtntcme ut o f th e ~<un ri•t•~< (rom whit:h lh ~y ore: . XIV. )lcmbcl'!l of the hur o f l'uerl.o H190 w 11 be ll"l In prnl'li!•t• iJI lin• pro· l'i"iounl t•uurt upon prcmm tntiwi of a t'U rtifit,ate liy th e prc~itlt•ltl of tho >' uprctn(' uo ut1, o f Pue rto Hi ·o ecrlifyiu~e to their prt>l\!i•>~i(>(IRI ~Iandin)(. X\'. Alllttwy '1'>1 pml'licing in the are unfumiliur with the En~t.lit~h lnng unge Mhull bu pe nnitf,c tl , upo11 up]liC:nt mie their owu i.l tl<•rpret~r wh~urultlrt..,.,.inll tho court. . ·' X\' J.. The court "hall urlopt un uppro pl'iuto a(!j\1, tt·~n•nn•r of the is luud . Tho dt!rk o f the conrl shull """ in ntteliti ug k'jl:nl <locmu •nts in th e nHmll XVIl. In lll't'Orrlatice with the provi"ions o f r:-alrlll!ntl~ll l in~euppoinhuentH amannoutH'l'f to take cfft·c~ To he law jutlgtJ, Nouh Bruo kMK e nt Pe tting i To 1 • provlaiounl ultl'll Stutet~ attorney, J. -•u•n"'""" The fo llo wing t)m 'el'!l arc hereby rlctaill\\1 on l't'ftpl•ctive tuunel-': I )luj. Eu~t • n e D. Dimnrick, .Pifth United 'tatllf! Fifth nitLod , tuttJB Cavalry, lli!80Ciate jutlgeR of, First J,imtt. Rohe rt A le xomler, Elev ' nth niter! l:itut e~> 'provisi0 11111 t'OUrt. . Prh·ate Samuel . Bothwell, Troop D, Fift "llllciul duty w•r ~nal'!lhnl of 'the U nited State)! o.n:lV II~IQ:nal

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l. .l11 1·iew of t•Xi>'t'iii)C UIHI l'lt•rlclilv illl'n·a~ill)! lt'):'i~l lmifll':<." l'<''lllirin)! j~~tlidul dNerrui111lliun whi<·h d o •>' 11111 filii within thl• jnr·i"< lil'liOn of lh t• lot•n l in ~ nhl <'lllll'l>'. l!lt,·h "-" @lllll!-'!11i"!! )lU{I\1>' in t'HL"i<m of n.•1·~· "'' luw•, lt\.1'<'<'11~· ,,[ I ' nitL'l ~tuf ,: 1"•'1>' e rh·. ""ltltrun_•t":""i ·~ ht.\f\\·et'll eiti;wn~ (lf •lirf,•J •ut ~hllt~ and nf f.un·i~n :-.:.tnh.•:-~, \ 'nlution of th lnill'\1 ~t:th.,. p<>~ lltl ln'\1·>'. l'k .. and 11'>'1111111 111 mthor)t.'·. fr·orn thl' P .,.. icl l'lll of tht• l'nit!<'tl ""'''"'• "'"''''·'·"! hy iu•lol'>'<'' Jl•nt of .l prll 14, 1$\~1. fr(llll th1• ,\c ·tiu~ •"l'l' l'l'htr~· nf ·\\'ar, llll(lrtfll'l' fnll c·onfl'l\'111'<' 1·it h lht• >'11prt•n•l• 1\0 IIrtnud tnetJlll'l'" n t the• hur n( · lht• i>'lnucl , a l'uit ..d :'laic '' ' pm ·i. innu l 1'0111~ i• ·ht' l'l.'hy t••lnhli>'ht•• t\w till' I ·partllll'lll nf Ptu.•t·to Hh·u. II .• Th1· jticlidal 1 ~11n•r of th • !l ''"'·i• itllllll ·nnt·t hl'n·h~· e•ln hl i•hL• l • lutlll•. te n• I. to ullt ~l"''" whi< ·h wnnlcl lll• ·pt•ntllll' y l'll)!lli1.ah • h.1· till' t!in·nlt m· clit~lt'it'l • t·onrt ~ f th o l ' uit ;;t ~tlth..,. n~~>l,• r the t \ •n• l ilnli t•n untl o nil cn nnllou lnw offt· ll ~t:'•, 11' i tin .lh !'. I'P:-ttrktion:-:

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GOVJ..:RNllENT FO~ THE

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Tl~ n ry d p uties will bo detail I iu ul.l!lc<lu nt o rd enr. . The ffi rs named will proceed to n J uan uni:l repo rt to the adjntant·l('t) ral "of the 11, partment. rdcu. Th tm ·el enj in is n 1ry for the p up li By c mn ~tutd f ·n ~ign li ~r-li .ncrul Vnr is: W . 1:'. ll ALL, A (ljlllrmt-Gcl) mi .

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.Qenel',ll l Orde.rs, } lh:.IOQUA ICTF: 8 Df:PART)H:NT •· l' l' t-:ttTO Rtc"d No. 103, n J uan, July 40, JQ09. I. F or l he purpo!!e of fRci litatinj( prelim inu y inquiri es into criminal chut')C made again t pen<on who wonld be tried before th nited Rtat R pro risionul court, mder Gen ml Orden!, •o. ,- ('ll r rcnt •ri s, t h . headq ua rt rs, it is hereby 6rd that , the mmanding offi cers of thl' tnilitury posts 1~ ithin this tle pnrtno nt ~ hull n t o fficio l nitcd tat pro1·i ionnl nrt t·ommi, •ion!!f'>l, and that t1A such they shall ha tlic powe r t aolnoini ter oathP, i u wnrmnts of arl'08t, an• I hqld p reliminary h l.lrtttgs for tl)e nurposcs hereinaJt ~ro virloo . ·· •' II. 1\thener r any pci'!!On hall appl y to an · post rommttmler, or other court t'Olll· mi ion er fir a w rmnt of ·st, and shall 'n ke oath in writ in!( befo -e him , tting forth the I'Oilltni ion by 1111) ' ra rt y Of an Off I " which COI1ll'8 Within the jurisd ction f the nlte<l tat pro 1·i~ o nlfl court , um le the terms of •en ral Orders N . 88, current ri · , th · ll L'Rtlquart ef'>l , it Phull I t h duty of su ch post ·om man~ r, or other t.:ourt rou nni. i ner, to ta ke th e nth of snch pet'l!On und forthwith to i ue a Wll!Tilnt to arl'08t ttnd bring tl\e party so d tllt')C bt1 fore him for a preliminary int uiry into' the fact<' of th • ha ~o !b noarle. ueh Inc uiry shall be mud at us early, day 81! th ' witnCS8(]>4 ~'&n l~t'Onn!niently brought belore •nch rommi ion r, and t•ft •r an examinatio n of all th witnCA 'S produ' :ed 1 ·~re him , said o:onnni ~<Si on l) r sha!·l ~ •cide from th ,·ideu ce whether t ~re afl!X-'~'nl prol IJI • cnu~ • of the guilt of th e def •n !ant. If h tindel!llch prob&bl t11ll , the commissi n r 8hull binol the rlcfendnnt.to a~peur for triat before Mid nit ed t tes pi'OI'i8ional c urt at it~ noxt te rm to ho h ld' t..the place m Oilt conv nie nt·to th place of hearing a nd fi x sueh hail as in hi~ judg uent th caee d mand ~. lf th cominiilsioner finds no pro babl •i:au 6f the rl • fen~nt' guHt tb def ndan t 8hall d if'Cha rged tu d the complaining witncs::!CS shal be Bdjudged to pay a ll the t'OSts whi h such d e ndnnt n1ay Jll'ov • he luld in c n~ · by such h earing. · ,, ill. ln caee any commi •id . er hall adjml costs a in ~t , a. c·om >laininjl wi nt.'88 und rthe ,p.reoc>d ing ·ti connnissiotF.::. to the cle ·k of . the Mid U nited Rtat />rovtsi nal court a rti flt'R te settiniZ forth that uch a he ring hM I n ·had, an•l· su 1 adju ication made, • nd npon thu recordiltg of Ruch certifl· cat in th • jud!(ment •docket, it sha ll hanl uU the foree anti ~effcds of u judgm Itt of Mid · ' nit I' ta i pro1·i!!.ional c'On rt. I n;, Th cottrt t'Omm i ion rt< a f re!<!l id shall han~ the furth er nnthority to a~o ve bon•ts ·of defenda nts lkmnd o1·er tlnd •r t h ph>V isio ns of Puragrn th H h e'roo : ro, vidrd, That in earh t'lll • th e bontl m'u ~<t be ~ignt><.l py two f!"od alu/ suflk icrit. Mil ties. J n all cailoCA wb rt• !'>cr1'ons are ~und over nn 1 r the provtsiun of t hi order, tbJ om· Jni!!;.ione r Phall ltpon th 1• c nchL•ion of th pn ~l i ngs befor hi no lmn•mit all 1 pers in ea h t'!l!! mrd r 11 to 1he pro8ec:nting 11tiorn ey of sa id nitl.'d tatcs provo 'onal court . . I Y . In a dcflhdant i~ lx u;md owr at a prelim inary heJtring and is unable tp gi l"!) bo~t~l , o r th t1 t· mn ii~one r tlllfl ~ that the o ff.t'' l'"" i~ not 11 builahln one, he shall fc rtlf· 'wi th ·• no! tht• pri n r, ml ol ur roper gnurtl , t ) hu delil"ert' l int o the custody of the . . lllllf'>lhal of th • 81Ud nit ('(! tat lll IJI'OI"i"iOnll l fOUrt. 1 ... \.J. ~aie l court <'Ollllll iAAionur " halJ ul . kLoe(l u d qt·ket c·ont11ining a noento run hnn of ('llc·h p-reHminury h lftritog hcl< l before him , ~ h e num ber nf witne88e!l •xamin · on each , irle, the anooun t ol l>ond reqtLircd if d e~ ' ndunt was hounrl ver, und the ctll'po· !itiun Juatfe of the def\'11 lant. A II <'o1ttmL iJ.I Cl'l' will ~ubnoi t at the em! of each quarter to the c·l rk' of Paid L'n iterl <tateR pi'OI'i~ic al cnurt a dul y certifit-'<1 cot>Y of•this rlocket . When I'Cr ll t)()fit <'Olsi noand er, ac!i1 as commi!l.• io ner, i~· tmn sferrad from hi. ~tati o n , he wi11 1imm ~Ha te ly submit to thf! ll8id clerk of ~<Rid nitC!I t_atL'fl ~ro­ vil!io nal <.'Ourt, a certi flt,. l copy of hi!' d ock t ci:ll" ring the <'tl s hcnrd by him.! ~ ing the po rti ou or th qiltlrt •r in which hi tran~ r r take~ plucu. YH. .P t commllitc~ ·rs will e xen.•ifle llt:ea care in th ir nquiries to d ten ine whether the CIU,!08 broujlht befor • tht'm IaH c1 rl y within t provi io11 ol e1 era! . Orders1 No. , current · rit'!', these beadquaiterP. I n c118C\ ny doubt sh ul~riee regardmg the que ion of jurif:Od i tio n; the rrjmissioner 11 ill uspend the heari1 and J'eport the ma\t I' tO the J>t'O I" i ~i onaJ ('OUrt fo r tnstrnction". . . ~

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GOVERNMli:NT' FOR TifF. I LAND

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1 Y£11. All corrCRllOIHicm·t• r luting t~ theolufic•s h rei.n H'UJ!('rihed will I u n<lul'lcd di rec·tly I •tween t 1e provi"iotml court und thlJ !'011 missi nors. By command of Brogudior· iencml D111"is: 1 \\'. I . 1!At.t., . l <(ittl alll f UNII'I'"' ·

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I tirnernl OnlcrR, } . H•MIIIll1 .,RTF.td< D•: 'ARTM•:NT m· l;'uEnTn l co, 8.1N Jl'A:s, .Ttlly 1, 189.'1. . No. 10'.\ Tho U nit t~ ! 'tut os pro vi sionul court, instituted h;y Ge1 ml Ord ct'R , ~ o. , !'nrront, ~ •riL'"• th cs • hectdquart r~~ , having been v ·st •rl witl,\ jur!!Kiictiot~ ov •r. cn!lC uris ing in Puerto Hi •o nnd •r nited talL'!! tntut es, the fullowm~t MCCtlon of !helle Mtatut ~ will apply to thiR militnry dc purtm ent (in ttrlditi n to [the c iMting lcx:n luw , Ul'lt· cl ';! 150 Ull(l 2~\), l'ennl C'od ·) and arc puhlis h •I r tho Information IUHI tidnnce o r 111l ('OllCCrlll.'d : ' ,

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"H•x-. 53::1tl. If two nr no oro persons (in any Lie or Territory) conspire to ver hro w, put tlown , o r to d estroy hy fo rce the G overnmont; nf the JJnit •d 't11tes, or to levy Wtlr u~-o'ilin Ht them or to o ppo>:~e. by foro·e th nntbont~~ t~o e n<o,f ; or by force ~o provunt, hint.ler, o r rtelay t he exe •uto on 'of any law of ,t h e .'r..'nte<l Stat csh· or >by Jo~e to tnke, PciY.c or JlOI<Sel'll un y pr t.crt y of the UnitC!I States~·o ntmry to t e. uutlwrtty thereof!· l'llC'h 'of thent shall 'be punish~'<! by a tine of not l!l!ti than fi ve bundr dollars am not '!lO,r e t hun fh·e th ou~aml doll!ll'li i or by, iu~pri sOlllll •nt, w!th or wtt ut lu~rd lnbnr, for a period not l es.~ tbau ~tx monthH nor mo r' t hur aox year~~, r > th Much fin e nnrl imprif'O nment ." ", ' F:c. 528:.-1. E w ry person who, within the limit of t1 o nited tntes, b:! out atul llrttlS, Ol' uttemptJ! to .Ht .out "!I arm , ~r J,>rO<'ll 'eM,to he I~ ted Qlltand arme. '· Ol)~llQW· in!(h · iH <'Olll'ernecl in the furm hm~, flttmg o t, or amlmg, of any velll!el ·tth· mtent thut such vesRel shall ho employerlm th service of any foreign prince or tate, or of an y colony , distri t, or peo'ple, _to c n~i se or comnut lt?s'tilities again s~ t e subjects, t•ittzenP, or property of an y foretgn pnnre or state, io~ of any colo~y, ch t ~t, o~ J>!!O· pi c with whom the nit.ed tntes are atJleliC'e or tt<f!U • or d ehvers s ~mnn881on within th e territory or jurisdiction of tJ1e nit ;;I •'tates for any -vessel, to the intent tllltt ~htJ may oo· f'O c mployt-'{1, .8hall ~ <:teenot!Cij guil ~y of a. pil(!t mi letntlllnor, !lltd ~ hull be lin~ not m'ore t han ten thouMand d ollanl, anrl nnprtsone not more thnn three years. Ami ·1·cry sur h VCA."cl, he r tack!~ npnarel, and furnitu ~, toJ.,<ethor with nil mitt crinls, Rrm~, nnnolun.itimr, tmrl sto re~, w~i cb may have l:lee procured for the builrling an<l equiponont th ereof Mhall '00 fo feit1; one-half to the use of th e inforoner and th ·other hnlf to Uw usc f th e nitoo o.c' ta es." ·

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The follo wing ure nuthrorit.ativ opinio ns relating to the foregoing statu : " I t is also a well-esta blished phnciple of ~m eri can ltll\" that if 11 pub icnti on b • '''!lculttt lf.l to ulienate the affc~ti on of the pe pi ' .bx br~ tg ing the govert m ~n t into di S(>. teem, wh ether th e expe hent resortt.'{l to be rtdi cul or o~loq uy , the w~oto r an!l 1ubliMhe r at· pufl ishable; awl whether th defendant r ally mtcn ~l ed b h.ts ,rubh· cation to ali nate the afft.oction. of the pcopl • f rom th e ovenunent or no , ts tmmutcrinl ; if tlw publicntion he !'ttl culaterl to .havlj tlmt effec i ~ is serlitious." " D prad11tion by our l'i ti1.en ~ upo n na ti on ~ 11t peace with the l nitC!\ tates, ~r . t.'O tnhinntionM for o mno itting th •tn, btwe at ~~~ tioliJ!l I ··n re~r~l erl l~y t he. Ant rJ· Clln GOI''rnnocnt unc i pe pie with the greatt~.~l uhl1orrm ce. Mthta.r y .me trsto ns by our citi1.enH into l'Ountri •>i HO "ituaterl, nml the comlnissi n of nctMof not~ ' ·eon the mcmlJUrs tlwr.e of, in Ol'<ler. to nffuct a chnnge i1l i. t ~r·o.vcr uncnt 01' mul •r I I Y. pretext whatc rcr have from the c mmcncement of ur li<JI' rmnent, been h d <.'qunlly crimirtlll ~n the 'part of th .. ' cngagC!l in _them , an f'O 1 nw h d t'!!erving J> .mi.shment a~ woulol be the di ~turbtuu • of the pubhc pe~~ce I ' bbc perp •tmtion of umlar acts within our own territory." . . , . . " No indivitluuls bavo· a ri~tht, to hazard th '! pea ·e f he country or to n olate tts laws upo n vague notion~ of alte ring o r r forming p v r1 ~uents in other ate~. " By comml\tl(l of Brign<lier·G •neml Dl\vis : 1 I · · ¥ . P fLILt,, Adjnumt 0 f ii('J'al.

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Mr. P•:nKINS. Then: rule of pra •tice b fore in the i land prior to your General DAvi . No, !!(ir; their rule of practice of the lnited tate courv·. ' (


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:\Jr. P•:uKtN . . Tlw ni111innl nmll'i illuw>< of lht• l'nih•d ~lt11t•. · lh•JH.'l111 DA \'1 . Till'\' llikP l'llJ:ni;o:n ,,f till' t•r·imiuul hew:< of l'tt•rlo Hi~'\), wht•rp a pt'l'"lln lll ht•iuj!" trit•d. I' II ju(J~IIII'IIJ i>< jll'ill):' l't'llll• .,;d, t~l ' I'OUJ't tuk~·:< 1'1~1'1; that 1~1' j t~~~~llll'll or "''ll(l' lll't'.:<hull not l11• in It olu· ltun uf tlh• l,wnllllw: th11t i:<, th11t it II l11.• in I'IIHfot·mill' hi it. · Th,• lll'th•r 1h • tinin~ thP:<l' thiu~t:< i" 1111 in p 111. und l tl lll ph•n"''lj ll> "'"'"" I if. Tht• ( '11 .\IIC~I AN. Tl111t ordt•t· whil'h •u hn n• ''''1111 is ( h•lll't'ul ( )r·th• :oil'\ I ~ .iuwml lh \'1.. y .,,., :<ir. :\lr. ~ t·l t .'·~O'N. A,.,. IIt,• tJI'III.'l'l'<l ilw:< n E;1!!1i"h I Ot•tu•ml llA\'II<. \' 1• . • :<tt·: hut 1~11 1'1' lu w.' .""" 1':111 pt·ul'l i,.,. JIJi,. ~·uurt thr·nu~th 1111 intl'l'(ll'l'lt•r. :\Jr. ~•:t ."'l!\ . .\itil it i:< III'I'OI'II i1w lolntt· F1•tlt•ml "' '"11'111 I 01'111'1111 J)'AI 1>'. ) 1':<. :<i l', ,... . Tht• Cn 111~1 !\. \\'Ito i till' j111h•1' 1f th11t l'lllll'tl · (l,•m•ml DAn :<.• \ :\lr. l'l'ilin).rill. I think It,• Wll>' hor·u iu :\ln1n1'. uno luull ~t•t•n li1· in~t for ~<lllllt' Iiiii<' in Florid11: nhoul 4;, nnr~> of tJ.!'I'. "!"~· I thiitk. ndtui~ll·d '"· ll11tl'th·,• I •fon• . t)ll' ~nr.n:III,.'Conrl ,,f·! tlu• l 111h•<l ~tnh•:<. lit>< n. "'ll'llth'" '""' lll'tn· olht'''""· 'I ht>< :<lnh•nu•nt . with lht• nid of thP writh•u nud priuh•d th•,. .'r iptinn of I It,• 11111 in•11ml J.\•th•m l ,·our·t,., wi.ll 't:ir~,• you n fair idt•n of tht• "·''"'''Ill. ' 1\lr. l\)\'Ktn:t.t .. Ar1• tht'lll'lll\' ntti'f' ''" ,•dul'nh•d lnwn•r><! OA•twmllhn,.. , 'o, sit·: tlw iuw jniJ:t' i" :\~t·. l't•lliti}.!'ill, 1111<111111 two III'IIIY ofti,•l'l'" 111'1' •nmjot'>', 'wi 1, I thi1 k. tif.t1· \'t'llt':<' >'<'1'\'il't'. l ·sht nld hn \'<' l~t:'l'l~ )!hill to hn \'1' h11il1·h·i I j u~l!!t•,.t i 11'-'h:1id: hut till' 'I Ul'~tion of. 'ny:< nud 111 ft!r th<'. )!ll\'l'l'llllh'nl .of l'm•l·t,.' H11·n hns not 111'1'11 1111 t'll:<.\1 1111• to~'"' ''· \\ lwu r.t wn:< n IJ!ll':<tlou of' XJ:>t.'ll:<t' nud of lll'l':<llll:< to Jll' rf rm 1lut!''" tlWt'(', "~'l.t>t•tiou wns nh,·n~· ,.. 111 rh• of am lll't~y ntli,.,.,.., if Ill' I'll:< nntJinhl1• nud '-'llt lnhl •. uud thu~< l'X\ll' 1s1• wn:< >'lln•d. · :\lr. OAI.I.t!\ta:R. · You timl ~Jr. l ,.~ iuj!ill1111 t'XI •ll,•nl otli''''r( . 01'lll'1111 DAI'I>'. y,.,., ~it·: it is my impr1'><:•in1 II;RI lu• i~< wn· rlltl'h t't'~<pt•t·h'll 1,\' t lw nn.tin• ""''-'""''"· · . · :\lr. <!A r.tNtnill. ' Ill' wu:< fm·m1•t:h· 1 (H'UI'titiutu•r of luw al~< 11 put· tu•t· of ~Jr. ()din! · . (~·hl't1tllhr.t:<. Y~:": "ir: I think ..-o _Ill' lu~~in:<titl.lll'tl tri!ll h. · jl r:y. nnd lw "I •r·ut1on ul I hut hn:< l11•.t•n 1 uttl' 1111 tlltl'l'l'"ttnj! uhjl'l t IP: on · for tht• 11 t n· t•ourt:<. I dir''''ll•rl -in t H' :<t·ht•m(' for I'I'OI'I!U.Ili;o:n1ion hut. '.'": writ of huiM'Il>< '''ll'll""."lwultl l11• 11 ·nih;d of hy ttro:<1• who';:huuW "''" hi to ""'' tl lir . • ·tilt' fol .OWHW ,... orth•r: .

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I't••nll•.••'n~·o>nntt•ntluti"n • f tlw :«~·n•1:1f~ ,,( jn~tio~· lht• followin)! i~ ,;ttllnnl)..'111l't : . I. .\n~: JIIJ<Ih'\'. t>f tlw '")'rt!nw <'t•nrr. 111 I' tt•rh• w,.,.. ••r of nny tllhliCill'il\, o r ~ ~~~.. · Jllll)..'< ' uf "'~'"''''"'" · ~lu\11 1.-•n<• 1lw wrl! ••f h 11Jl'lt~ •:nrpiL" nn tl11• p<•tilkm nf "'n' '<'l'"' '11 "'"" i~ n-;o lmiu~• l •.•f hi. lih,· rt~· within 1lwir "'"'J"'' 'tiw ju 1 h ~iul tli~tl'irt~ .' Hut "'·"·n 1'11<'1 >·~rl! ""' 1. .'lllfl ,Cn•n• ~<lll'h ·~•urt i ~ !'(•rn><l upon 1111~· J"'.'N•nn who hol jl~< u prl"'""'r u.hJ"'' to .l nllt'l l~"<tut,, lln,lhnrl!\' tl1• ht•ly ••f thl' prii<t,• n •r will not' he 1•ro· .to.~~t. hnl· "'"'l''"'tinl n.'turn wtll l>t• mnolt• ·, •11in)! iurth thnt thll pri. nl'r i• I ell •lll<l,•r ,.,,1.,r ••f th,• nufht<rity 11f th•• l ' niu~ l ~lnl,.,., nntl lhtlt then•fol't! the ('OUrt i niiiJlllw." rit i ~ wilhon't jnri:<tli<·tknt , untl pn1~· in)! Ihut tlw nil l>t• tht•n•fvl'l' li•miP 'II. II._' I I""' lli'l'l'rt:~nn> nt hy ·~t<'h Ju•l)..'l.' or qm rt i. >'~lin)! lla,;·rit tlulf "'"'h retu 1 ie . . Irut• Ill r...... till• wn •hlllll..... ·h•mt 'l'fl. Ill .. Tht• "'"'rt•tury of ju•ti<'l' will i'l'<'llin,l '"I"onll?r i• d 1h· ""' n·~,t. Ju•trut·tl "" "1'1'~"·,~1 h~· tlw l'l•mmlln,linll .fl\'"!'rn!. nn.L p int..•tl hlant ·r" u8 will be ~npplie. ,,1; "'1'hmlhlll tn lht• 'f•n.•tan· ,,f juFII<"<'· · . · , I~· r"m nuu11l of Bri)..'lltli,•r·l''''wral ,on,·i•: · \ Ill

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P. I-Ll""• . ldiutant-

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\ 1\•w dun• l11•for'• I ldt tlu• i~<lnud n I tll•l' ~o Hi1'llll 11'11 " ouril'l d "j·. umn><ln.ughh•l' nml hi >< "''1111'111'<' of fl•11 '11'1'1\ ,\'1'111'1< in 111 i~<illl II' I ~< :lllirnwtl. Ill' ,·ltlim,•d tlmt 111<'1'1' "'""' n full I \'1'1'111' iu I hi' pro 'l'l'dinJ!><. tlmt lw luuluol huc\n fui1· ll'i1d: """"'1111 "j'lli1·a iou fot• f111 i WI il !,..f... ,. 1lu• >'lllll't'llll' 1'11111'1. 111111 i~< ntnr o11l 1111 11 il. · I thiul;, tlml I tis is the· tir,< l in~<IUIH'I' ll'l)i1·h hn>< o<'l 'lll'l'l'd, n11d I 1111• 1l1io1 l.hnl Ill' 11o11 iu '111111'1' of Jli'O!!l'l'""· ;\It·. ( '111'1\llt:t.t .. luI hi' illfl•riol' 1 ' 1\Url .~ d1 t.(u y ltn.\'1' jtll'i"" 111111 1 . 1 ·~· 1'11"1'>'1 : i• . lil'tH'I'III llA\' t~<. llio. >< if'. . I \ 1 :\Jr. Nt:t.1<11N. Thl't'l'l\1'1' no juri1•,; iu Pilh1 r l·irilol' l'l'itllinnl 1'11><1',..( !11'111'1'111 n :\\'11". 1\ol in ""; 1111'111 1'0111'11< noi. IIIII it will 1'01111' in lim•·· J. hPiit•\'1' IIH't'l' i>< 110 iu:<llttll'l' of n. j'\1 ·:r i11 ~~ lol'tli •·oilr1. Th1• ( 'II AIICM A!\. · ~li >' jm,r is iu lh1• di~<lri ·t ,., 111'1 i (tl'ilt'l'td llAI' t:<. l'\o, :<ir: iu tlu• FPdl't'n,! 1'1>111' 1. :\It·. t'llt'Kin:t.t .. Tlml J•:""'' l'n l <'OIIt'l hn; 1 j11ri~<ttidio11 "1 1\'<'1' <'IIU I'I><I I ! . 111'111'1'111 DA\'11<. No. >' II': it lm~< 110 mot'\' niulrol 0\'1'1' l1lt'll( I'OIII'f>' th1111 Jill' Jt'l'<flll'lll I'OIIJ'f,,. 'II'I'U(rf l1 1.\'1' 0\'1'1' t'IIUI'l of n ~Inti'. . . · ~ ' :\I 1'. FAtiiiiA!\K,.., It hus 1111 ll)l(ll'llttll• jlll'i~<t id.iolll 0.1'111'1'11 1 J),\\'11<. No, :tir. Tlw ""111'1'1' of I ~ml \ till"" iu l'lll't'l~l lti•·o i:<. of 1'11111'>'1', 'th1• ('row 1 of Sp11i11. Tiw t.i J,.,. t'l'fl'l' htU'k t'o thr: di~ 1'111'1'1'\' of U11• i><ln11d. ( imut.:< 11'1'1'1' thc•11 llllulc• 1 ~1 iudiridun.l" aud Nll'porntiolls. 111111 i11 tim!' till' i,.ln11d lms h1wlltlt• alllro:<l. 1'111 il'l'l_,. n.pp1'oprinh•ll. Of tlu• ltllul~<· tHit :<ulrl o1· n:<:<ij!IH'd II' alil'llttll'd h,v till' Ct·owu .,f Sp11i11 nnd .' '"t l'l'lllllilliug- ·II>' puhltl' donmir11i.lw ttl'l'lt .i~ quill•. liriliiAitl, ·' " fur n:< I hnn• lll•t•n ahll' totL~I'I'I'tHin. I lml'l' Hl'lu•dllll':t of nhout l:!ti,IIIIOn,·t'l'" of lnnds· thn titll' of vhirh i>< . till iu tiii'. CI'Own, !''' 'wu~< 1 hr >'ltl'l'l'l<~<ion . in tlw Crown unci i:< uow iu tlw l nib•d Stull'>' 'f'III':<C' lund:< 1'\'lllllilling- in t(ll' .lliiSIII~I<I<iqn of , tJ'it• :<OVI'l'llij.{ll Ill'\' Pitht•t' ~and dtltll':-1 !II' !I)IU':<hy ll'lll'l:t Oil t, 11' 1'01\.l<t, (II ' ~lt1• tops c ~f IIIOUntuilll< ltnd l'l'ttloh• nncl inm'l'l'>'1'ihh• plm·t•:< in 'llw int4•rior. Thnt'l' tll'l' 11 f<•w t.nu:ts uf lnnd of limitl'd lll't•n, thl' t.itll' to whit·h i. n/1\v in thn Ht.ntl' ltv tax ~alP Ol' ><I'IIIH'>~I'I'ntiou, hut almo><t all titll's 1 l o lnnd>< now hd~l h:r .thn l ' uitt•d Htnt.l':< tWl' hr ril;t.ul' of ""''''""sion fro n thl' Crown . The: lund tit II•>< f~H' inrli~· i.lunl~ or fOl' ,.,,rpom~ion~ lll'l' l'l'in•d ft·om .thos<: g'l'!tnt"" I llll'ntwm•d, 111 tlw ><till II' \I'll.)' thl' ::;patnl:<h g~ant:-~ If"\' I'll gtv<HI 111 ~lor­ ida. with whi,•h \ ' Oil lll'l' uo. douht ftUnilinr', unci iu ~lt·xic·o nnd Louisialla, ,;nnw in 1ew ~lt·xi ;·u, ""d a grPttt 'nuul ,\' in Califomia. Mr. ( Ol'Ktn:t.t .. Homt• nl.~u in M i.-;,.:ouri. (·h·nrml lh vt~. Ye:<,_><ir: .""~ nlsu in ,;\lli~<.; uri: nnd thi'Olll;{hout the wholl' t'OIIIltl'\' or •t' wludt Spntu furmm·h• c ·crtt.·<1d sul'l'l'C t<Tntv und whi1·h now !.~lung. to tht' nited , 'tat!':;. · T c t itlf'. ot·igimlt~(l ln th. sa~u<' wn.v bot·e tlmt they or.iginatcd in the. • 'ti!L ·s of our own c·ountr.r. A gmnt would l11• gircn t9 some of the ·onqui tndores of 11 greRt art•n of ln11ds, ~tnd . he \vo.uld he giren the nati ~ ihhabitnnt:s, practicalh· a~ ,.Jtwc • to wot·k them. But it wn:; only 11 fe\v v ar.· after Pue1'to Hi,•o wn:s di~t·m·e rcd thnt nil thP nutive. had i ~;Jiippean•d. The land. were h •ld by the~;e g mntee.. ti el;l pl\l:lsed nnd l'C,)I\>;~ecl. town>{ w I' ·' .sbtbli. hed nnd built up on tbe e ~·tm u,; in Cu ifo ·niu and :Mexil'o, and the 'r e. ult ha been th .snme in u 1·to Rito 'as in t o.·e plnl' ·, except thnt in Mexico und California bere were uumereu" still ungmuted; in Puerto l"l,ico t~ere 1 n~e almost none. llhe

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(I()VKRN"Mt: Nl' ~'OR

populat!on j,. dl'll>'l', tht• "l~·ugg-h•

.... 1'1 t<:WI'O lttcO.

IIX i~t~nt'l',ndin. ~l'tJPmtiolJ tftli r

~l'mjrnt10n htt>' ><ttt•crt•dt•d "' Pm•l'to for four hundt·t•d ,\'I'JH'r' nml tbt~"" ~1imt. hnn•. ht•Pn t•ut up nnd !iwidl'd nnd "ithdi,·iclt•rl and " g-rr-

J.,"')lNI until tl.w ltt!lllht•t' M ',.;i•p1t111tl' owtt_,.,.,. i_n l'm• t·to ltit•tt i ~ n•t·_,. lar~t·. lu thts t•,.hmntu I :1111 not <1ounttng- nty lot>' or nnyth1 g of thllt 'kind .. HiLt tht•t'l' an• 11 few r>'tltt{'" thnt n• ) t'l':st• nt thou~antl:< of llt'I'NI 1Utcl tht:n; tH't' thou:<nnd>< nnd prrh:tp>' lt•n:< hf tltousnmls of lll'l'l'" in 1'1 uotl' rt•g-i{~ns . lillf~ on mountuin t. op~ tlmt U.l't in pt:int.~t· _owm•r:-<hip . . '1'1 tH't:n of tht• bol<lmg' of tlw nn•t'IWI' t'lllfN• t'O)ll'll'l.Ot' tl< 10. :W. or ;Ill. po:-<.:-<t 1!1~- -4-0m·rl'": n ~reat mnny hnn•only ll,o l'. :i,o t•t•n•nonly IUI'I,'t'•· '~'h" ' hountllu·it•:< to tht·.~~· •:< tntt•..; nrl' tilt' 1 o,.:t ll'l't')!ulnt· .""" CIUI 111111).!'1111'. Tht'l'l' nr1' no ""'"'''·"''· no dl•!inih' <11'>'1 ription:-<. I'XI'_t·p~ h.i· tht• 1111'1\ ntlering,.. of ft•nt·r Ol' . trcnm. Ol' fl·om ,.: ul'l n 1'01'111'1' to t.lll)-1 t.l't't ttt d t,u t,hnt · hu. h ot' :<tom•. ·Ji hnd. tt pit'l't', o n whil'h i:< ht•ing' 1 ·tuhli,.hcd 11 not'111111 :<dlOt!l nt till' pt't ~·nt tinJt', flut'Y!',n'd. .Jt I'On:<i.<t{•t of nh ntt. IIIII tll't'P:< ·m·~(ln,.,tt,. tht'\' l'tlll it in l'nl'l'to ltit·o (n t'lll't't!n ifl an llt'l'l' nmln fort.i!•th)-'-nnd I fou.nd :3:! l'ig-ht lim•" t'I'Pt'l'>'l'lltin_!! t11l houndnrit•;~. Tlu•rt' t\.l't' t\o hn. . . l' lin(;~, no itll'ritlin)J:<. to wftit•h :11'1' t'l'ftlrrl'tl. 'I'hl'l't'. hn11 m•n•r IK•I'n n trig-onoml'h<iml :<111'\'1'.' ' of Ptit• to ltit·o, no llt't'lll'atl• dtllimi.tution of it.. phv><ical ft•lltllt'l'"· Ont• ot tht• • n•tttl';~t Pmhnt:rtt.":-<ml'nt;~ t.hntt•onfront:i tlio m•w gon• t·nm nt ,; ill ht.• to l'Ontrin• ;~onw hn><il-1 of ltnpr,ai;.rmt•nt of lund for tnxntion purpo.'l'"• ltnd t.o ni·l'i n• at ttmt lw 1 l'l'tl. a grt'llt dl'nllll'ttN inftn·nmtion than any hing- I know \)f now for th.-tlt•tt'l'mination of tU't'll · to lettrn what i;~ en h nmn's nt·r< \!;"· 1'1'1-. • Mr: CocKR)~r.r.• 1lpw t~1 tl<•;~t·t·ihl' 1t. nnd nst'l't' ' un wht'thl't' 'nll tht• ··ronnd htL-< tl!'t•n tnkl'n? • Gt•neml DAVI . Yri!<, ~ir. , ··, . Mr. C 'K.JlF.I.L. You "imply dt'><rri\)1' no w h)' 1\t,t•tr:< nntl hound:<! Gt'nl'rnl DAnS :-~ir; h11t I do not know how- ~h. l!K itKIN ~. ~'11'1'1' mu::<t imn~ I . e n n t!'inngul:u· ;~m·ve.v in order to :'ltnhH:<h flw t•oa:•t ehnrt.:! I • Gerwntl DAVI • . The n iiiX'I'intrndP~t of o ur Coast Hm·vt•.r wi'l) t.ell you 'thl\t nt mw pln<·r whl'rr .thl' C'bnl-t>< ('llll for -4-0 milt•:< it .if< rcnlly on h· .&'3. • • i\(r. l'•;ltr\'1 •:,;. H hP wn" rt11111ing h_,. dist~tnt't' n.tld dl'partm:e, he would ht• T ·milt•s , in h rot·. 1tt1d h 1 ·n,· inshot't' whl' n hi' thought hl' Wtl." in g-QO<i Ul'l'P wntt•rl · (wtwml DA\11$. Y""· :<ir. l · )lr. tX'Kln~).l .. H ow hnw you dl'ijncd the houndaric~< and jnrisdir-. . tion of th""" ('o urt,.:. hrginnin r with t.bl' low<·s~ o nt•! .. Ornl'.ml n .\\'1 $. Encb 11lllllldpnlit bn,;. It drtinitP nren. displayed qpon mup,; that cxi: t nil through Pu!'·to Rit·o. The mullicipulity, for exaunplt•: of Ponet• hu;~ elent:l.~- dt>tinc limit of. a crrtnin nurnhet· of barrio:<. tmcf l'ndl '" nio has n cert tin tlt'tilllj~ _limit upon the map, whil.'h il'! not mt a ti:<olutl' lnlt'(' UI'ntt• 1111 p, but . ntl:i eit' ntly · ·o for ,this purpo;~t< \\\• kno'W, fot' rn'><t:anl'C, thut tiJH' tin e ofinirtain hnrrtO ~tau·ts nlon~ the l'Otl.-lf and nwnnder:.< !!If ~ong It l'l'l' n buy and np thi littlt• totrenm. whkh didd(•:< i ~ from rtnotb .t· bn io, until it r eac hes a t•t•rtnin point. wbt're it turns t an bN· place, ~ d o on back tj> the· pilw!' of ll!'~inning. It i;~ dcsorihed s t he boundaries of a far~ are 1 oft('o ·dcs<:rJbed in the older portions !of this (•ountt·y, ~vhere they have lll'\·er bad the heneti of an ~act ur ey-~

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,]

. "27

, i\lr . .Cm•Kltr·:r.r •. H111·h Ill! in Nt•w l•~ ng'lmul, h hm·e they do hot; hnr11 1 tht• \\' rstl'i· u town,.:hip "·'· :-~tt•ml (lpm•t•td lhvH•. y,.,., :-~it·. 1 i'H r. l'm·1uu:r.r .. Wlmt. i:< tht' ""miiP;~t diri Aion '! 0 1•m•t·nl llAYI K. Thnt into hnt·t·io><. M,., {'1WK1n:r.1:. \>Vhat IWI' t.l~t•v 'I Ot'lll't'nl lh v t:<. 1\llu·h l.ike t.ltt·· WILrd>< iu om·' it.ic:-~. 1\lr. l'cwKrn:r.r .. Ahnut what. :<i:.ml Ot•nt•t·nl DA\;11:'. J\nywhPrc; fmm I '.''' ~ ;~quluc mil,,. to !i o ·H. i\1•·· l'oc.K1u:r.1.. Thr •wxt a.ho'·"! Ot'IH'l'll.l D ~\\' tfl: ThP lllllllil·ipttlit,,;• l 1 ' Mt', l'Ot'Kin:r.r .. I low doNI thnt t'IH'rl'o<)IOtttl' i ~h om·nvm·n~t 1\fl llni.Y I (lpm•ml DAn s. Thl'l'l' lli'P 70 in PuPL'OO •o to ll)lllllt a,m Httl11ti'O 11iil •:; of tonitt11:y; t,lmt i;~ ahout !iO :-~qunr·n mil.tl:-1 1 011 th11 nv l'tt~tl , to enl· h lllllllidpu.lit.y . · 4 .1\lr. Unt' Kin:p .. Wlmt i" tlw 11\'xtnhovn tl!t~t'j Ot'ni•ml DAVIS. At prn;~mt t I I11Wt' judinittldi. tl'ieiJ.o;- i\lr. CocK Jn:r.r.. What do t.l ey t'Oili]Jl'ise 'l (iennml l>AVII:'. A .1 wtni·n nmnhor ohhe:;n nh 1 tilliptilit,ics 1 ttll of t.ho hPi n~ inl'lmll'd in tlw tin• judiei1tl district:<. ·I Tl'.!o C11 AIHMA N. 'l'hl'rn wm·t·. origi unlly snvep )oliticnl d i v i :; ion:-~ '~ <lmwml DAVII-1 • .Yt'"• "ir; h11t tltt• o)d. pu litit~t divisionslmv no.rcfrn•twr to th<'l:!l' j'udil'ittl .< u IKii\'i:<ion,.. Th~•·o wns t division of Mnynguez and Poll\'('. ttm ~ttn .J unn nnd U mtyn11m, 'tttuil l otherA which I cun not now rrmrmtx•t·, and thorP w :rr elt•vrn judit·ia~l d1:;t•·iut1-1 in whi !(court'! of lir:-~t in,.tnne wcr·o locntctl. · Mr. NF:LsoN. 'FherC' tU'I' now ti''" · . · ·· <lt'tll'l'ttl DA\'1!-1. Yl'tl ~:<i t·. ( . Mt·. eooKitEI.L You folloWI'II thl':-<1' hotlnda ·il" in lllttking t C!'!O tlh;tril't.. l o~·•wrnl :-<, ,.jl·. r . , ;\fr .. Co 'KRt-:i.'L. I want to ~l't at how 't h11 'iotmtt-.v •·an he divided; bow thPy mn luwe loml !J!li .. ~rfl and tlctPrntiiHI i't. Th e C HAIRMAN. Js t.h<•rn any objnution., it :the rmturo .o things tlwrt~, to the ndopt.io n fo't· politiml purj:x>:-<1\>o , f the ... urne di trioting that you han• mndr for judici~tl purpo;~Ps '~ , Ot\IIC!'\tl DAVIS. I think \t would he vet·.v de 'J t ·nhle that the · s hould he the snme. The:;c live t'O!lrt-; l'ttn .hnndle l c~a matters wit pel'fect fnt•ilit.r ' yith tt littlt• mori• pt'lll'tit·l'. ln. tctLd df holding cou1tin on.e )\ace exl\lus h ·oly throughout the year, ther m ~: bold them in nnother plat·c n plut of the tinro ~t nd in another 1.t t tmoth ,,. time, nnd s trmke n ·ot·t of <'~n·ui t t'Olll't -of j t. • -;\It·. COOKI!Y.Lr.. How long i. · the i:<landl~ · Ot•neml DAVIS. It i.· n.bout .HU hy 40 mi1les. Mt· . .FkmBANK . Are the jutlicinl distrietS · 1 ivided u ·co ding to )Opu lntid n I . · , Ocneml DAvts. Approximately. • . 1 ~h·. F IIWANK • :So n to g h ·e t>ncb one a pmportionatc pa t of the lsh~td? ' . I heneral DAVIS. Yc.·t·:;n·. Mr. NELSON. Are · there many huge r large ttttes·? 1 · '· Gl'nerl\1 DAVIS. There are no ven·, lnrge lan d estates; th re nre a llumhcr of large plnt·e owned hy a'single pro net.or.

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u""'"· ......

I

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OOVERNME T.

}o'

P ERT

i: n.bout 3 -! acr~ 1 of llu·ge trite!'.::! in refarm ar d:ddi.•d into mn\Jcr as to th'e e -pt·opri r. lnt r 1\nd COl'!' t't it. ·omrth ing about th prod u ·t:-: ul~IUu'""' of th h;land. for it. futui· , if. an industrinl of importl\nc ·otf e, : ugar. th vnlue of the tht·ee commoditl . Th i>~land htL" nlwtL\', ahno. t from it earlie t infancy. been ., d<',·ot d to the;~e thr crop:,~; it bns 1 \'er had llny others f mag:ni tudc. l might, p<>s.;ibly, includ en tie mising as a fourtH, h rding and tock ratsing but tha~ i ve ry in ig_nifiet~nt a · C?mparedhto c.otfe · ~fr. P•; RKllil . bo n t ettms and . 1111troptcal fnut.'l rro.w 1 Gencnu D v 1 . Th .r grow, and I think mig ht I . nutde pn~litable . but they. never have been. Th om gl' g_ro·wt!, hut 1:; mwerl exported uolc. sa nuin happens to b on the d .·k wtth a load wh n a ,·e sel happen:< to oo th rc and the man dum s hi. orang in to th .' ·• s:cl and . nd. th IJ1 1\ WI\\'. )Jr. PEHKIN~: AJ· th t•e no xt nsin• ornnge g ro,·e:s? . Oen<'ral DAVlR. Th rc n1·o none. Th •re hj not 1111 orang orchard or a banana o rchard 'thut is \J. ·d· for an · purpo xc pt for hom,e .P~"?· ductioo . . I know f w thousand orange have he n export d, bu~ It ba." b<'' n don in a .haphazard way. lJr . .PERKu'i .. Ar trot the ben b s, or mesa I .nds, adapted to tb cultivation of g m pes I G n.ernl DAVJR. I do not know of countrv below httitud :W wh re ~rntpe: ar grown. . • · . ·, •' . . , )lr. PKHKINS. That 1 t1·u • · but I houg ht the altJ t nd m1g ht allow .it h . I · G n l'al DAvt . '\\ b n you g~t tlie 1 titude .vou get dmnpn i_}S::!. The~· i n9 hope whatev r that g ·ape.-i mn e gr own in Puerto Rito for a~y kind. of u..;e, dom ti o t· for tgn . T e orang is g rown ther 1 for~ome con- UID,Ption; lim nr g row11 ; I n: n ar unknown hut li,ine>< nre grown 10 suffi<•i nt n1.1mber;;; for hom u:; nnd mango . are grow~1. l1r'. CooKJUJ~L. An~· peacl1 '>s? G n ral D VJ,. No,· 1r. · Th CHAlRM.A • An.v apples? G n ra! DAVI . No, sir. " . l\lr. GALLD!GER. Will you plrfL"'e g h·e us a "tutemc>nt !L'I to lJUO.tity of th •ofree, tobacc , and su r, and IL"l to the mark ts1. ' G n ral DA IS. For the fir y 81' rce><Jing 1 97, which is the last year fo~ whi ·h pan ish stuti ~ties se m to he ·omplete;. th avet·age productton of~·}'~ ~VIL'i, quot~1~g fr~ 1 memor.v ag1un, ~~ h.ttl short of ,200 .tons- oo, , perhaps o 1, . J.h re w!L~ one year it r nched 61, ton. . Tb ugur i~ of two ·I that made in improv d mills where the.r~ h • modern maehin· ry and vacuum •If'ns, turn in, ou~ a grad' of ugar, ~larizing ns high as that of any c untr>·; th musco\ o, boiled ifl open k ttl . At th i: nt ttme th • · m be about · q~l of th two cl8i'de;;;. ugar pr vio.u ly be n sold ' th UnitRd te and Europe, ai1d np to 1 97 mor half in Europe. The i. and form rly produced a. mch larg r 'ty of ugar. num~r

29

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·to

ln 1 th<' output wn.. 170,000 ton><, hut the s ugtw landB iJl Pum:to ,.e been l'UittYnted for Hil'O are hugely worl5 · d out. Lnrge ll't·ens 31!0 \'Cill'l', otf tLnd· on , without fertilizing of nn.v kind, until nll\11,\' of tlH!Iit h1w~ c ased to bq prolitnble with o(d jw.'Pplinnce,8. The,,· }uw' ne\'Pl' f •l·tilized the lund , nnd the c-ountn· ha•.., !Wen worked oht. Yon will tind all ore1: the lowland. of PuertO Rico ~h e~:~<.' 1~bnndonrd Hugar of buildings r~pi'Cf!e nt111 ill!:l, with rh.imne.v8 tnudi~ g and the wree in"' former nulls gone to nun. · \ · "[r. l<'AmBANI<.A. Whnt i8 the p1·ese1)t ('npuclt~ of t~ e >~ugur hmd 1 General DAYJ. . Tho:t t•ould be al?plied to sug r ? · ;\(r. FAIRBANK,. Whnt is the (\nntml cap,t\city f the eultivatM lnnd. ? General DAns. The usual bt~sj,. ·of estimation is 2 ton H to l ho Ul'r , hut I think it av mgel Irs: than that. ! ')Jr. FAJRBANKS. You ~lty th y htwe been hl:i·ge,ly worked out. I und rstood .vou.to . a~y thnt ·in 1 T», twenty-one y ear>111go,~h p1·mlul't wu:< 170,·000 tons: in 1 HH, 01;000 tons. 'l'hnt i. Ill pr ttv mpid-r.rtrelll'f'. 1 wnnt to get nt th pt· . rnt nunuul pro<;lut'tion of the . . ugnM eli- ns th u . tand to-day. clrn 'rltl DAVIS. Ln:-1t .n•t\.r tlw e xports of u nr front l:'ue ·to Hi e \1"\'l'l' -!T.I)oO .ton ·. ns :<hown b,· the rN·ordr; of th eustom-house:< undc · _,. liontt·ol. . ·. · 1 . . :\I r. ( 'ooKur-:r:t.. W·hat I'! th£' home con. umpt1 n ! · '. (lpn('l'al DAn . 1 ·tut not . ny, but there 'are ~~ million inhlthitnnt.o;, h ntlmnn,v of ·them are \"'et'y r oor. ' ( ~Jr. PEHKIN'~. Th ar r1t o hmd awailah fo)· sugar hn.· beeu g rcntl.r

,,,.,.... "'""t I

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.I '

{l>neml DAn -: The 1~ren d rot d ' tp .·ugltr: y ~:s. ·• . ~[r. P•:ltKIN .. Is it nut true that the f1~rms Me ve ry lnrge ! . (i euPI'tl.l DAvt-·. Many of them have t\vo or thre thon. ·nnd 11er f! l':tl'h . c>ithe1· owned ot· len" d; ·wi th It·:<;; t hlln tht\t it i:s uot prolitabl •, lntl' there aro a <rreat nmn,, ·smallcr 'i'tnteR having old-style machirw ry . ~lr .. (.Lu.r.tNnJ·: n. ' Viii \·nu tt•U u:s abon ·offe and tobnc<:o '! lkncm) DAVIR. Coffet~ i :-~ the p1:ineipnl r0li lll'C of Ptwrto Hieo. For th-e ·'·en1·s it has r£'pre,.e nt£'d sr \·eu-teltth>; of rw ry t hin15 I' X] orted. at·t·o rdiucr to the .·tnt i. t it=,. nvaihtbl u}:l to 1 !)j'land fo1· tile h e prctwling yt•au·.-. · ~he g rudr of l'OH'rt> produued iu Puerto l{ico i. about · th e ;<llllle (ked in 'Onll' othl'r ('O Untri o. - the kind of tl'Cl} n,nd henr- but tbr gl'lldl.' mrie;; with th • clinmte nnd soil. Thr .gmde of co':tfee in Pu1·1:to ~i c<;> is mort' ucai l'ly like thnt d~ Co'!J_tn iRit·tt n~d (]hutt ma.l a, hut IS t:On. tdl? l'll bl_r . tront:rl?l' thun tho;:' cO O '!'.' . Jt IS Vel',Y I!IU('h lt':<ired and e:<teem din Europe. It comnumds hr re n pt·ice equal to • tlap IJe.-t gmdes of ~Jochu and Jan1. old thm·e. 1 l '.p to the wut·, while it had pr f rcutinl dntie>; in Spnin,' it wn.; ver.r largely l'On um d in pnin- alld llll'o in rr1111tn~ and France, in Eng· laud nnd in Be l~iu1 n . But .u great dt•nl of thr eoffec before [the ·wau· \\'l'nt to ' uhat, Cultn not he ing n eoffcc-pl·odudng c?tmtry . ~lut the ;tl'lldr:s d :sit· d in 'uba n I'C the (' hcnper 1grade. ; .-o, egrPgt tiug tlw two. the II :-~'t w nt to ~UI'ope and the poore t tp 'uhn, 1~ ve y largP paat to the lnst naincd. Th e l'hnng in th ci tmde <·oudition toQk t~Wil,\' ~he mark t fot· Pue t·~o Ri c·o Ol' prt'tty nN1 l'ly :!0. The Pt'(ll$id<'nt h11" tnt!•ITened in bohttlf of Pue tto Ric-o Rnd reopondd thP Cuhnn nmrke t. hut P~terto Ril-o h~~ no l'Oifee to " II to anyon~ th.i» yen1-. )1r. PETTIGUF.w. Whut i the mlue of the c<>ffr e output?

(;,,.,., Om•.

e,.,;n,· '"'"'" o•·

•ight millior


I

1

ao · :\h·. (.'<){lKRt1J.t•. 'Vhv 'i,; thnn• 11 ~1 l'olft•t' to t<l' ll uow I •

u:\tely,. the climnte is mlld1 and the sufttll11ng .t'ro n n. Jack of ·sh Ire•· wnl! 1 slight. · Jt 'wtls only th.~ s•ck who •·eally sutf'er •c,l, for they bncl no pro· teotion from tb.e ~:~ummo•· raiua. Medilml se•·vice wnM defldent n.nd . medicines uuoutathmule •~t first. 'rhere arc n~ llospitals nml l:onld be 1 uouo save thos~ tlmt the board of charities imp ovised. · The dl•struotton to roads was rather mo•·e tlmu 1 roportccl nbove ll!lOO,OOO ofi insn.lat· revom~es bnvln.g ueennl re~•tl~ speut iu t•ep~i'•·s, n.ml , n.s mnob mrll:e wtll he reiJu•red to t·ccollstruot and rebuild. Bone impor· tant bridges mn~:~t wait until next year. • t Tobacco antlered very little, but the lol:ll:l of the Oubnn lmu·ket hud alrcnt~y di'l!llrmnged. planting, mul ~~ the croll. hnd b •en hnrvc~Jtcd there wus no growiug crop to injur ; but•the to"bn.cco laborers sullercJ to tho anine extent in loss of buts, provit~ion d·ops, etc., as ·~~H · other Jl00116!:\. . • Sn~ar cane \V~ greatly injnrcd by overtlows Jnd sedimentation, but wn.s·uen~tlted-i. c., fe•·tili:~.ed-by the Mame for future crotis. r ·I '!'here wu.s extensive injury. to sugar mills, SQIDO of wliicb, ·bciug old nnd obsolet-e, will never uc rebuilt. · The mme .". hich ~e gfound next !1)1riitg mn produce :~bout4u, Jon)! tons of sugar, agmnst 1111 o.vcr~ge of li8 1Ull5 loug tous for the last II year!' of Spanish domination. . , ·' .'L'I~eac llgur~s. of ~n.ue. ~otluct~ n.~e outuined b 1.tnking actua~oxports ol sng1~!'• n.s g1vcn m olhcmJ fltnttsttcs, •atul· s!Lme )or molnsscM, ountiug l J ton of uga.r fo•· :.l tous of molasses. 'rhis is dbne so ns to b ing the 1· IDOIIISSCS to a basis Of 8Ug"l\l' vnJttc. · I , , The Cl'OP for export forth~ cnlcmhw year ·' HOCJ s closely ~l'proximate. Ihc oustom-houii~ ligures for exports (otncml) from Amertc:\il oceupatiou (which vnri.cs at different ports . from J Yt 2~ to Uctobm· 18) to Septot uber show, of S!lg:t.r and mdins cs, 44, ItO long tons, the latter ~mp,ntt• d , o.t 1 tou sugar fi>r 2 of mola~:~ses, I Tho ope11ing of 01_10 01: two new &';'gar .Ill ill_~;, wl 't-~t were building before the storm, may m:un tmn next sprmg' tommge at the nggregnte of' the conditio11s of Puerto Rico l last y n.r's crop ·fm· export, or, say, at 45,0p0 to '~· 1 . 'rho very £fistre sed situThis crop of sugar at: this yea. . 1·'s pric.cs-ab t1t 8Q pesos' per tono of In t ummer, and itlj n'eed ltould therefore IJri~g at\ iueomc to the isla l of a,uoo,ooo pesos, or oct of Ro special repq'rt, dated us a maxmtum. • .. uty report of Scpte1111Jer 5 I stated this • 5,000,000 peso , aud in uce that po..ver was sent otl' hRoa .ueeda of the Island, and I' have report of. Septe~ber 30 at 00,000 tous; but revised npd better studied · present these further remarks figures g•ve but t2,1GO,OOO u the value of the ~ugar for export. a they may deserve. · 1 In eptember I nlso esti111ated thiil year's coffee crop at 33 pe•· cent tho ref~rred-to report Wfi:S of a normal one, or, say, 18,000,000 pounds, p about one-third of. a As the.n stated, full norm~! outpu~ but it 1.\ppcnrs tbat this estim~te is n t borne out by ttesta··nctlon ltnd auftering ~as not perJence, what the tornado . spared has noW/ been harvested, and careful n.nd clo e iuqairy."reveals the fact that the yield varies 0 to 33 per cent of an ordiiJary erop. I c~ find tjo well-informed - ~"- ""'""'Aft who believes that the tot.al yield for expo'r t will exceed 10 per a normal crop, the aterage having been for last live years of ·•Hn<~.nil .. t. domination :.&3, 732,07 kilos, official figrtres. ·1 crop harvested last winter and exported thili! year, the cus........., . m~utitl officers report 29,487,329 kilos, which 1is somewhat above the export. It is conservative to cstiJ.9ate t}je tota~ of this year's nA.Irtflr•mt·owth available for f!ale abroad at uot more than 3,Ci001000 kilpa. average of prices obtaiued for coffee doting the five 'years re· to was 51.9 centavoR per kilo, or 23.6 centavba per pound, which is __...., .. ,., l4i cen~s gold. The loss of ~arkets, aqd especially the Co ban, the value of coffee to the producer to apout 9 cents gold· but

.Orm·ml f) VJI'l. Tht." ~<tot'lll (lr,.:lt'l yt•d th1' I'I'OP for thi,.: ,VI'lll'. i\lr. t'onun:J.J .. ·Tbi.' h 't'''" I Ot'lll'l'ltl o ·AVI!I. Not(•lltird~ tilt' t 'l'l'"·lllthour:-r• it iujun•d tlu:m l'l'ry J.l'l'l'atl,,·, hut it impl~· dr>' trod•d tlu I'I'OJl for tlli>< .\·Pat'. Tlw ht•tTil's wrt·l' umturing, nnd tt heat, th •m of , 111111 >< witl'ht•d tlwm otf, 111111 hrok w tlt.; ·\rt'l'" clowu ~~~ tin• ~<luuh w ,. dt·.· To.n•o • .a11d wlmt h1•1'1'i1' Wl'n•lllft th•• 1111 hnnwc!Rnd lu·in•IPd . o tlw · \H't;. pnll'til'nllv worth It•""· :Mr . .M('COMA:-1. " 1s I hat nt tht' tlnll' of tlw hat'\' ·~t I Gent't"l\ll>lwi~<. Yt• . • ~<ir: it lll.').!ink in ~ph•Jllhl'rntHlt nmtinul•s ulltil Dl'l'l'lll'll.'l'. . I Tht• CIIAIHIIIA . lit w lo11g \Viii it takt• for tlu' lll to II\' t'l't-~ton•d I Grm·J~I OA n ,. :Fi ·r .P'III'>~ l' mol'l or It•,:,.:, dl'j)(~ tulinJ.( 011 th1• dt•gTI'I of dt•strnl'tioll . I "''"t to thr ht•pn tllll'llt 011 ttl' lf> th of 111'rl'llllll.•t' :1 l'PJ)Ort .on th • i •cl'ustl·iltl 1'0 II~itio11 · of P1wrto ltit·o whi ·h I'OIIhtim~ mort' _nlli1·i,.:l' ,..h ~(' llll'nt thnn I 1'1111 Jilt !11to wo•·d,.: i11 all>l\\'~t· to vt•J·hn qm•st1011, .. 1 tlmk .n )u hnn' 11ot ""I' ll tt .n•t. hut I hun• 1t ht-l'l' 1101\ nltd will rt•ttd it. 11).! tin• ."l'lll'>' to I'I'JIIIil'. ))o ,\ ' 011 ~lr. 'ocl\ ut:t.J•. You ,.:pt•ak o f t hi' tn•t•"' for thPm to g-row I nH•n11 tin• .\'l'ltr,. from the plalltill).! · Oi•m•t·nl ll .\\' Ji-1:~· Y1•s,' ,:it·. Mr. l'IXKnt:u .. It inkt'" tin1 \'I'll fn>lll thl' plnlltillj.! to ~r•·ow l'ol~·~·~· ~ I 01'11l'1111 )),\\"Jk. Y1"'. ~ir. · o t· not. lllllh•r thP )I'I'~<C;tt ·'\1'111<' Mr. l'i.A UK. m Wlllll to a,.:k wl . tll'llt ton' pla11t l'offl'l'. or wlwt hl't' of prit·c>~ . thPI'l' oul cl h1• tlltll'h i ltl 110t ht• '- u'l't'~<"III'Y in orOI' l' It• n >~nh,.:tuntinl illt' i·rn~<P i11 thl' p•·ii'P mnk1.' it hu·mt ir1•l 0Pn•rnl DAI'l l\. Yl'>'. ,.:i r; you n quitr ri~ht . . Thr pricl' j,. n••·.r low all 0\'1'1' l'ht• world. 'tnd i11 thi,.: 1 m•l'liou 1 d1•>< irP to plHI'l' l.!dol't' .' ·on n po rtion of m,,l •·rpo rt to tlu• Ut•pat'tn it•nt dntl•o DPt'l'llllwr

I

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'l

. l !1!1.

.

U pon the it\'d have pre'viousl.y re110t:t ea ation of the ish~ud for· .ll.uancial help 'Bep~em her I} In t. been devoted to felt coustrained for IIOCh COI~ I!I l•Ue11UIIO In the' early · writt.eu, I was in . data respecting the available. Doring the · per110nal in propri torsr ""'-'t"'~.. • data\ for a parti conclo ions thqn nr........ t ...l A respects tl.le· all, but their lives, to say~ the of a million. Nor In one particular, ·were I~ without the mstLenlla buts, for the tornad• dec:api.ted

\VIII

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Vlm.NMEN'l' FOR nn; r ·

),AN~

01<'

I

r n:wro

Rico

.I

33

isl_s•ulmsy raise the total iu~me for the soldl"d to b~ sold 11i. e., the · wlrole Qrop of 1899, with residue from 1898, to perhaps 1400,000. . Ju my co.blelo(ram of August 2 I saicl tlmt n xt year's cr p woul(l IJe less than for ~his y<il.lr; but the hopes of free ltr,ade witl1 the ,U nited · t:ltatcs ami other causes; }ll·eviously ad et·ted fAl, have so stimulated ·phtnting' th1~t account. may re380nably be tak'eu \of a hnr.vest equal to · the normal. The foregoing M respects the reasonably certain output for this year nf the three· Jlrel\t staples, and giving 1•lt1o the average e~port under Spain for tlve years ending 1897, we hl\ve tho fi lowing: \ .Jo:l"l nu'ltc•l t Aclunl vftuc fur 1\\'Arngo

' l~tJll l'. '

c~ ) IUrl , Hill - 1000.

I

-'

I

'oll'e<• .. ..... .. .......... . .............. . .. ... : .. .. .. • .. . .. .. .. •

s u~nr RtHI ru oluHes .................... , . .• •••••• ••• • .•• ...• ·"' . . .

-

I

'H ~tlu c llnn .

_... ~. 480, 40U

11600, UIIO .6, 080, 400 2, 100. OfiO 2, 40!l.,D6a

:.:;~;::::::::::::: ::::::::::::::::::::~:::::::::::::: :::::: ~.

To ,.,..

--------- --- -' - - -

OXJ.HJrl,

18113-1897.

I

:JOO. 013

1:::: ~. :::: . .~~~~~~~~

-~-·-

Here, the n, is a IH'Ol!imtatit. of tlie fllc~s,·a!l I ibtet·pret them, regar ing. trade conditions. The principl\1 falling ott: i' in cott'ee, which, as commodity tor considerable exJiort, will not exist. This year's output of the three great product~:~, compared wi-ti.Lexports or the lru~t five y~r!! of pl\nisb control, shows a falling ott' of ,very nelwl.Y ut.i per cent or the Insular wealth llvailable for ourr~nt need!!. · 1 The island jhas a lew minor resources, but the nggregate of all e!'ports other than llhe three taples amount to but a ·few hundred ·thousand dollars, and som~ of them 1\l'e showh1g greatly 'dimirliSbetl quantities ami values. ( . Tile most important of' these are live stock, but the exportation ot l>eef brings another evil an enhancement in tbe local value of fresh beef, so that it i1:1 quite too costly a food sa'\7e for t.he well·to·do classes. · But ~he appal'Hug diminution in exportable g£dds iii not the ,voret feature ofl the existing situation. Oredi€ is n.b1solutely gone tor all, save the sugat· and tobacco · producers, wbo have visible security. While the present price 9f sugar yield !! a mar~ih of profit, tb~re is little confidence tbat the ruling price will be permanent, unle.'is the trade conditions ~re changed for tbe better. The best gr.ades of centrifugal sugar t~ell for about. i50 per ton net to the producer, but not more than half the cane product~ are of. this grade. The muscavado SUjrar commands but about t40 per ton', or a lft~le less and at tl;lis pnce there is1Iittle or no margin of profit. It is 011lY the Iarge1 central establishments that are now prospering. . The sugf.u output touched its maximum in 187!!, 1701000 tons, while. last year it fell to lells than 4510001 or but a littl~more than one·fourth of the maximum. Very lar~e expenditures i new- plants and . in ret~toring cultivation must b.e mo.u rred before th sugar output can be i creased and this can not be made for .tlie present. . The cofi·~e fields, now smothered in weeds,·uprooted trees, and debriR Qr the stor~, ca1;1 not be cleaned and rebabilitated ~ithout tJapital, and this can not be secured. This year's sales of home productions in these · bring ·returns of but about 000,000, whereas the commodities islancl is accustomed' to receive almost' !101 ,000 for the e same Products, and there is nothing to replace them. · The Condition of more than ho.lf the inhabitants bas always been one I S.I>oc.147----3 I· · .

1

I

wil

,3

I


~'I GO VEI~NMEN 'l'

ERTO lU

F R THE l i:> LAND

o~·

P UERTO IU O.

35

there are some figures that may be taken as app;oximate only., 'rhe · declared valuation of all the lande<l property in the islaml is there given .at :!8,_867,929 pesos; bat this is not believecl to repre~:~eut more than ooe-e1ghth of the real value of the agricultuml venlth of the i11land . . · . (See record of mortgages herewith. •) ( · The records of tb~ registers of propel'ty sho~ 1 tbat on. country propof the.islanq's trade, but the erty the mortgage md •btedness at the end of lS!la amounted to over cent of that value-the aver21l,liOO,OOO pe Oil, but I hav uot yet qeen able to a stue inyself if these been over sixteen and a half figures do not iuclude a large numbe'r of iucumtfances that lHtve been exnorts uf the three principal lifted. I believe that this i the fact, l>utc:w no yet positively a sert it. est upon agri •ulture, for the Baukers and otber iuv!llltors have told me that the tqtal iudol>tedness ome extent this pr s~:~es upon of the cotfee · proprietors, iuclutling 's ecured 1i ~.tull n'nsec;ured debts, becau e iu many case they · amount uow to not I ss tban $81000,000 and u~rly n.ll a1 o deiJt~:~ overdu . The sugat· land~:~ which aro in the ame <;ouditiou, will, it is estition, and, second, because the mated, amouut to two millious more. I nm quite !williug to accept t)JeHe the h avie t" depression is re. 1t is a mehincholy fact figures· us liudica~ing the volnme of the obligo.t~o\ 1s of the a.griou.ltural · 1 ~ prorierties, all of which are in jeopardy. wc,hdt•'e <l-·tl•ere i · not on coffee fl.pca proprietor in twenty, ,who is The year of the wat· wa , necessarily, oue of u certainty :Lud (hazo.rd. Oapitnl· which is proverbially timid was wi,hheld ft·orn tl•ose wiJO n:s tlle pre11e11t situation is the cofl'ee bushes are not so ueecle<;J it most, or, if giveu , tiJ ' C011ditiot•s w~ e oueraus. ·tonsiou o•· increafle of loamo~ were then secrired tb,e bond were tighte · yet tb~ power of. redemption uu, hes rema.iu, much of the by the g1·autor and tlie grantee's liberty of action was col'l'espondingl rest1:icted and curtailed: 1 • au abundance of Jabor an and clamoring for employDd'riug t!1e periorl of J10stile oper:ttiou s and following, bandits and outlaws raided the. island. Ureat f!UlLneities cofl'ee were forcibly "n'"n'"'·" paralysis exists; and thi~:~ is .tnkeu, houses aud unlls b.n med, anti, th e people ~qrritled. 'l'!Je sutf'erers modern con11net·ce-i totally could not ecn1·e tinancial help, nnd thee ·ohotbical ituatiou of these few wt.>ll,-to-do owners. • 61'S WIJO are Chargedi\Yit!J the people. became d e~perate, rw 1 so cont.inued :tf'ter lpeace and order. were estab!JsheLl. . ' · · • the nitM States and after was c nceived that it wali By the disturbance of trade coud'tiom;, and '4Y the "'ar its~lf, comth · destitnte but at the ame rn~reial and t~ocial coudrtiou were greatly di~c~tur'L~d. Laborers :ludj proare t'h cus tomary employers prietors were so tet-ritled that industrial work was curtailed or toP,ped. The currency of the i land was disc~:edited, exchange was high~and fully installed and executed, it trade all(l ag••ic~l.ture lrtngui ·hed. It followed, ~ d. natural cons~u nee, nee sitie demand. Tile prothat the accustomed voln111 • of coffee, sug· r, an<l ltobacco were not pro<hlced. ' tati tics of xport f'rom and after Jun~ 0, 18!>7, to thl .A1 orige numbers with appeaJs for can occupatiolf have not been compiled, ;;o it i1:1 kuow.n wl..t!lt va. the each case is imperative,8o 1 ~ exte~1t of the red.uctiou of export::~, but the falli~g oft' must have een 11 and the statements ·veriftea: paying wages, a.ud can oUtd.iu comnderable. 4 part of the exports reported alil<>jv e for the period1 snce than they would he if a cull the American occupation induded cou.uvoc.li tics ~ tJbat .would lm.ve , een · Affi~"~ivA.nA••A of the labor is much exi)Ortetl' and reported before June 3!), 18!1 • bad there beeu no ~var . Coupled with this soci~l aud econom ~e cli stulttlance <;arne the Jo. s of of clt.>aring up the coft'ee small areas can be, cleaned. ~mvortant markets, e pecially Cuba a.uii Spaill,/ which circun~~ ta ces pa1d until quite n. year bas. Increased the commercial depre siou. '11be milit ry governme1it did all nr.n nrl"'h""' whose· llrop •rty is ah'eady possi!Jie to relieve the situation. Tnul,e was tu de mnch freer than u<:l taxes t!iat the owners of before. The' free list was largely extended, local·CODSllmption taxes soon as they ha e the power, \Vere removed , tonuage taxes were uo lqnger ceii~Qcted, and the duties on several impor aut article · of insular use ~~~ d consu.mpti6n were that they will to-morrow grel\tly lowered. The local military expenditures were larg~ which very little confldeuce or,hope when there ts no hope there PLlt muc~ .money in circulation, an~. loctLl purch~~es or engagemeuts of commodtttes and services for m1htary, use so~ewbat relieved the ' they sa}"of trying' to fight depression, bnt· the enouomic situation after six montbl'l or a year of will 0011 • ave the land. Let rAI.r.n.r!l.lr.lnll .American occupation was much worse tl.l'a n befor the troops la ded. This i my conception of the industrial situ.a~i u as it exi ted at' the mber and tent of ~oft'ee prop~,~>ud tb data. at b d do not giv! the by the Dl'lrlllflrtl,llA. Includ d in the census returns o.f)l~7 foretell the consequence of the s of sub istence. It is doubt;.: a million 8ouls ha , in ...... ~"'"'"n ' as was Puerto Rico

r

11'~f

·.

~

.

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PUKR1'

I

oov.~.;RNMJ<lN'I' ~·tn

RICO.

lose of the fiscal year 1 was at\iusting itself to tile n w contlition , a few ' ill were go.i ug liJ rger areas or .clu ~·er~ being plunt , and the otl' e pro<lm·m·t! ltad coutldence · tlu t the crop .of 1 till wou d esc ell O) 7,0CHI,UOO kilos the oro1r Qf 1897, wh idl old lOt' over i,l (l()tl · l.>u t n I this Wl\11 cbnuged in ·One day for on the tb of August a~t this •ot fltlcnt hope was cht~uged to the mo t gloomy <li ·oumgeme tt.or !limo t despnir. The growing provision croJi' . ?f .half a million pe I were de t1·oyec), the shelters of 1\ qntnter of a unllaou w r b'lown nw y. the rontl wel·e \\'nshetl out nnd obst1·ucted wit.b lani.lslides .a.ml d•'b s, · 2 700 p 1ple Wl're killed , lx>>~i<ie ' mnny tboo ands of cattle aud. tltully the t' rr •e crop for 1~911, worth probn · bly l:i,OOO,IJOO JK'S ; wn~ ncticnlly 1J own o\.tt .o f existeuce. " .d. bout OJte year ago the lomuy >~itutltiou of the proprietor~:~ whu were 110 heavily iu deb wu .l>r ught to tlt~ attention of the military JtOV· eruor, the ln.te G n rnl 1 eury.. Th l•xteut of · their indebtedn •ss which eousit~ted of mnture loaut! and h ot~e; oo11 to mature, was Mtated to him ns .\'ery la•·t"•'· Jt' ~~ al~o poil tell out that a. gt·ea mauy fore910,s l1re proce •diug-11 of af!i icultuml p optll'ti ·~ were then in progress. .A ll milit< t·y j.(o\' ·ruor or J terto t.:in•, rhil'lt \\'lit! tht•u held ns tenitory cun•t••m·ed fi,'Illll 8pnin bet ~· ee n which power nncl the 11ite1l Stat :; a 11tute or wm· till exi::<wu, en ra.l ll e1 ry wn asketl to fothid the foreclmiore of mortgage foro c ye1n, so hat the disturba11ce in economic aut~ · fmlustrit~l,:onCTiti o u 8 .ulu ta\' O t n~t· ~u pass away aucl disappear, which all b lteved would e he cas • ~· 1tlnn t he period named. · 'l'bey counted •!11011 a rood lmrv •t~t nu~i bo Jed li•r n11d expected that .v ery soon t h tnul~ cond,ition f the i. lau l wou itl have l>ecn adjusted, 1!0 that bett r prt ces.could u ~'<\Xured. The im·estorR, c eel it in~t itntions, a d mer •nnti16 houses r epresented to tlJ 'ge11eml tbat w.hile t ose iu tem s could probably be so adjusted tbat tb propo ed ii turl> uoo of conlract ouligt tiou would not very, serioo ly embarrnas tbeill, et t'..ey a~ pointed O\].t that the gent>ral eft'ect upon the borrower onld not e au tnlmixed 'bles ing, tor the ·a.rbitrary int r~er. nee of t e 8 ~J1l'lllll e overument' with the validity of contr11ct.>~ re p ctin.,. secur rl louns w nl<l tend to so unsettle and distur b tit relatiou b twee 1 the borr wers ami i.enders that the lat.ter wonld hesitat or refu:,oe nmk tit fur ther advancet~ which ould certainly he at~kerl. After full eon id rntion f nil the f cts. and cii·cum~;~tauces 'the geu·· era! decitled.t~ prorogue t e foredo ute.of mortgages, and 011 Jan·uary 1!1 signed a•• order to thnt . tl'ect. lt a immediately published in the Olflchtl Ga1.ette of the isln d, ami a p1 ears nl11o as Oenernl Orders, No. 1 , under date of Febru ry 1~, 1 , Headquarters DepArtment of Puerto Rico. I · The or<lel' w:\s t ltOrouglly re pecte . u.ud the result has been that · !Iince jt promnlgatil"ll no orecloeure. have tnkeu place and tb'e equitie of nll pnrties in.t erest have rem ined' undisturbed, .but the year's ·iut re t \U mnuy ~.:ases re111 ins uupai . . Tb publi ntion of-this o er ls und tood have been nn arbitrary exerei' of th 'JX\Wer.of t military mmaurler and w~rranted by the ' law . of Wl\r, l>qt at the ti e of this ran action commissioners repre· S!3n ~mg the l nt~e~ tates nnd Spain •ere siUinJ.'n Pa~i and nego· t1at1pg n. treat.y of peace tween ,t he wo ovet·u · ent s. · 'fh treaty wat~. it.\'Ded b the commi siouers ou ecember 10, or more thnn a ·mou t h before Oeu ral Henry rdered su nsion of mor~age· .for •lo,..ure , bot the ex lJ ng~ Qf ra 'ticatious o i tbe treaty b~ both

l ,

to

I ·

4

'I'HJ•: I SLAND

oF

l.. lr~:nTo ~troo.

1

,37

(loverlllllCUts Wll not em~ctetl IIIII i1 April 1,1, • II, Oil which tn.te Utili t.rcnt.y ·b ec~me the h~w of the IniH!. 1 ' A. p~trase_of the secoud pam;rrnph of Arti clt•IV111 of the t ea't y of l'artt! 11:1 as followt!: . · , · ·''"! it, id.IUII'oh,\· ol11~lnrotl t lmt tho. roli•!•Jn i,. lun un t vr J,.•si~>n,. n" tho """ •m•.Y

I I

I

Itt•, _nn not 111 nuy_r~po•·t IIIIJU ~ Ir t hu IH'UJII'I' I · ur riJ,thl-4 wh ic· 1 Uv lnw ho•lun~ to t he l "'ncel'nl pos~t'K81lHJ ut' prupcrly uf' ril k\nrlH ut' /'m vlnl!c& 1 mnnicip,.li · tit 'tl 1 J,H11 !Jic! tUH l f.u·h·n,tn t'HtnbJi~!IIHI U ltt, ()(W )tu~i :u'4tit•u,J ur 'it 1Hdiol'4, or of otJmr · ·~ "7~".C'nt~ullij l• ·,~<r~l "'IJ•:•·c•l;y ~ ~~~~~· •1nh:•~ nu.ol JI"M8t'~ij in 1.110 nl(u·c•,.i•l II 1 r 1t~,r.' r~mnntut;tl 01 t(t.lucl , or ut )11'1\'ULn IIHlt\ 1 lt loniM,, 1 w 1ateuo\'l:H' uu.tiona.lit;v •ncb mtli\'ltlunl ~ IIIII \ ' he. ·

ri

'"'"'."A'

1'""/"'!'tY

'""Y

. It ~>eOins to Jltl.clear 'tlmt h;~d th~ t.reat~·l~m} JH'omul~aletlat dati', \H' ou :til.\' ditto ant(lt'tor to t he tilnc of'1ltulication hy t:en oml ll•mrr of. the lu.ort~l~l;'rl, onl .,., t holl t.l11· m·tl ·1· iu •ptestion woultl have bet•n tlh•g-al,, :t8 111 ,·wlatton o.r a hlw of' t.lw ln,llfl , i ., t.lm tn•aty nclmitl'ed anti, re1·o;.nu ;, ll by l>oth Spain nud the l nitt•d St ttc:o~, ami lJy its terms •n:ulc upplienlJ!t• to l'uerto ltico. .. . A.t~ berht·e st~1tetl , t hu o.nlcr was a waw •nen:o~ur•l a uti related to*· pe.riod of. r.tme wh en, '!' a..tc ·h lll?al :;t llt~e, a state c)f' w:•l· between the <fHUII· tn •s '~a t! co!ttll!.t~tug. :\o •.Jill' tiuu Ita~:~ . lJeeu rai11ed, so far as j ~w, 111\'0lvmg a .lll~ll cml. tl ternuuatiou a~:~ to q•e ,. ,~lidit.v Of the order af r tilt• prmnulg1ttum of the treaty, l>ut, it ~eem1:1 to lno a matter of oubt f tlJc ta~mrt s would have 11pheltl th • order after Ap~illl. . It 18, .h~\\'':VOJ', clenr -that whether 01' pot tlie vitality o f tl~ . order :suspeudutg forecl~s ures was cout inuHd after the d:tte last given it •ll'OIIId l>e clea.rly tllt•gnl now to cxteud it:s pmvikioii S. j h••t,e u~en appealed to tn ma"Ke n.. l'urth e1· prorogatio11 an~l nh10 not to , ake . it. lu or~ler that the~e ~:~honld he n clear ku()wJc«.lt.t f'my t:ouce tiou of du ty Ill t he Jll'elllli:ICS, L have made pulJiic antiOUI cemt'llt of he fact that there will be no cxtensio11 of t !J q jJrovi~:~iout~ of the omer re&.P.ectin g nu:~tgage which t.he niilitn.t·y goveruor is~ued in ;Jamtary of 18r9. · , Ihe tlt'plomblc •.ndu s~1·ial ~ouditiOI! iu which' ~he island i t~, and the release ~rom restram t or tho e who ha tl power td tilteclose and take the }lropertteS I'Cpr !'lOUtin g man y milliOil S Jnfll'e va.iue tJran the $e'!ured debts,·aud. whit?l• S~11· pln s of vn~ue tit 0\(' 11 'r M c:1~ udt protect, will bring nll~n~ a S} htattou 111 Puerto H11·o comr)ared to whiuh the present, bad ns 1t IS, w11l he ea y nnd comfortable. A large part nf th.e met'·cantile a111l ex p(lrting house!! are owned and CO I~dt~cted b,Y S.l.t\m:ml , men who, unde1· the treaty, preserve their . Jl.lllt h nationality. A A't:ll}t.t mau y of t he nath·e~;~ who iue in debtnut! almost every oue wl!o ~oul<l secure \' t·edit i:s iu dcht-ar at the nto1·cy, 1:11~ to speak, of these creditors. 'l' he seid m.l of tb •se 1: 1·ms by th.e n~ou ey leu.ders, '~ Ito are ofteu hated only becau e they ttre Spat1iards, ~nil , 111 the, mm~ s of some, be reg:uded. as coufl,s.~atious, althou dh doue II~ .t he 111\DI!' or ll';ld .under . the !:lllDCtiOII of tiLel law. The rbbber)' Jllll,t~e, and mcendtai'I m wh1ch have been adver~1l to a.s accomr,anying :ll ul ,tollowjllg the militt~r·y operntions wet:e 1arg~ly ba;sed on t his ~atred ~· IMil told. J hope. the. forel'l.oAUI'OS 0011 to deem• IIOt. C!\U, 'e a r evivai :md recnrreuceof thP former lawlt•ssue:ss. Of course it will ht' reP. ·essed If t.her • should be a u attempt to rob, bu i·u and destroy. · I merel allud~ to I t 11 tt pos~:~ ible occurr~.mce. :1 • . Lhave no doli bt· that tlJe alat·m in uute ca es is grouudless · certainly 1 · 11 ma_ny t·ases the cretl.it.ors )Viii make arrangement~:~ with toru:er qwuers, ~b•d .slllce the properttes will be valuele!JS unless worked, it· will be to . e IU~rest of the new owuers, or those haviu~ the power to secure t• tles, to nrrange for a1lvances, either n ndditional loans o as ~orkiug

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F.RTO Rl 0 .

ll\nds which now are rapidly w ed alill tra· •· already overmortgage~< · as comparetf to the 'l'h trouul i>~ that now the Ini1ds at any p,ric , nut! n great tnany fiOI!ICtilllO;"' not l'08Uited ill a

itself. ' oon a vermanent.gov-. powers! to legish\te and govern; ,..,,.,,,,.....,., regularly coustituted. authority. uu••m"""'" will tak the plac~e of clouht and or re tuned, capitalist will find if with the legislntioJ• establish· grant 1ol free trade witli the will oo extended.• Fruit cull! pe.rhap:-~ agriculture cRn be ted profitably in otller lands; can now b initiated through 1"ith the lliflicnlties adverted :~t the n'mui ·ipulities, the colfee without cr •dit. They nre '1.\bSoassistance from iusul11r or •xte' tlecay1 nnd clisa;,~ter m•le help no:~sl'MS(Idi tlf

by the receipt of the custom· uly 1 the rt1ceipts from cu tom~ ti ve wee}"' the total was$ 4,828,· the second period. perh~p r"'J"''"'~"' m.ay be d,ne to the exteJ)slOD ceJ'tlLinly tlie' Jargest part of

G 'EJUIID,

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{i\:J I Puer·td I:ico of

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o.

I

If the clu~nge in ·tatus involves the application t~ . t~e United St~tes revenue ln.ws-inte~nal and c~stoms-then he pr1nc•pnl sourc~ ot r~':enue that P.uerto H1co has te ied on wHl be lacking. A thorough !'eYJSIOn of ~be present sysfum of itxation is de uandctl. ·The ncecl of 1t 1s mo t mgent, bn t a this h~ a mittter of the greatest il!lportauce ~ haye not ielt that it wa" •1•Y dut all a teiuporary cnstodmn of. the •sland to _e nter upon such ar uud taking.' 1 have, b'owever, g1ven .to the ub.Jcct very earnest thoug-ht, and b~we lltudied it as OJJI ortunity permitted. ' . . 1 lf the islanr~' is to receive no direct b~u~lit.fr01p customt~ aiiCl jnternalrevenne tn.xatJOil then the lo aJ CX)Iellditu'rel' niust lJ'e provided for by 11l'O)Ier.ty and luce!n. taxefl, a in t he States ~.j;, the lin ion; but under the ex1sttng cond1t10n.s not ouo-quarter. o_f the ,revenne needed to carry 011 local gove~ument, msnlar an.d !HUlliCJpal, c~ln h collectecl tllrqngh law:< lllU"'t be re\'ised preseJJt mac hm ry n.nd mul r ex1stmg Inw . 'Jlhe 1 1 nud the machinery ~et in n)otion. The combined inl.'lular an<\ mnuieipal Puer~o 1 Hican lmllgets for the current ' year aggregate about ~::1,5UU,UOO. Qertainly, if the million , peo~1l.e h~•·e ~re to bav~ the ~dmn~ges :J.ntl jJrivilege, whic habitaut of t;pe tate of the .Umon enjoy, the re enue . •must be tlou'b~d or trebled . . The prelieut tnx. rate per capita i.,s' about $J.7:j while t. e smallc.>st! ta.x rate per. capita for pnpulatiou ill ny West I~dia isla• d (ex ·~pt 'u.ba, for 'YhiC dabL ·.are Jacking) i ~ $4.:i0, aud the highest ".!11 .• 8, winch appl~es to the 1 land Of •Trin 'Aad. Otl'1er rates •.are: . Cnra~·o~, $4.111; .St. Tho~n:u~. nod Sll:uta Cruz, iii tl4a; <.tuadaloupe, 87.24; ~~rtm1que, ~!Ui6; J :~IT_Iaica, ~4.li!l; B~::rua'dosl 84. i:.l; ~he Leeward hl,~mls,_ $-!. 7~, aud ~11bsh Gmana. 8 ·""· T~ese figures mclude taxes of all ku~ds, mcl~llmg cns~~m a!1d ~xp~n·t taf ,s, et~. . · .As un:j•.n~ a ta.x mte of l:!o per cag1ta. tor PnPrto lhco, ancl popuhltion of ?ne ululhon, the levy should anlount to li.ve milliohs two•flfths of ·Which would ue required by nm11i ipalities n.IJ~ the , rem:~iuder by the central government; on ~- million of. t_be lattler ~·m.ount would go to schools, anoth~~ to public works, le:wmg on mlllion for the insular gover!lmeot proper.. But it will be sev.eral years before a sy tem of . taxa~wn can be clcv•sed ,and ap.plierl which, wi~hout coun ting cnstQms and toterual revenue, such a: in the U nited States i11ure to the Gen~ral G?vernme':lt, will ~·i eld. any uch retur1i~ ns the. e. Wheu the tsh~J~d ·~ export.;ng twe~ty ~~~Ii~ofl or more in ~al'?-e of ~ome production WhiCh It shduld be domg Ill five years( the teCOUOJili C condltioiiS wili ~.a ily permit the rn.h1ing · of a local revenue of S:i 000 OUO bnt the mtcrvnl of time will be one 'of great. fimwcial di icnlti~s f~r tl;e govern· ment, a_nd tl!e only remedy l can sugge:;t.is a oa.n witlt which to .t ide · over th1s period. Jn my report_of September 5, 1 indicated tl1e pro~>allu deficit ba e<l on the a sumptwn that the expenfle~ be limited to 81 ,7.}0 000 and that there ~e no income from customs nml ex(;ises,l tc. 'r he ~mo'nut· above ~tated u1clnded qothing for municipalities al'ld iwas the lea ·t with which 1t seemed to me that. the government proper could be carried on unless ~llowanc~s for public work !I and ·cbool s were cut oil' or reduced.' Those fi_gnres s_ttll _stand l\8 an expression of 1by best juclp;meut of the situatiOn,, ~h10h 1t sho?ld be understood take!! note of the supposition that mtm•c•~al exl>end1tun;s woulc:l be .covered by 1ocal and town taxation •. . ~he toregomg set tort:h my conception of t)lb present ftnafJCin.l conthtiou and_ .in_d~ent regarlli!'~ industrial • affairs, but iii tespect to thb tatter 1~ 1s d1~cult to cooce1ve of a more uu n.tisfactory situation. By a c~l~m1tons meident the i land of Puert{o ltico upon th~ morning

mr

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40

OVERN10:

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ltl l:KT J

IJOV.ImN11£EN1' b' OR THl!:

OF

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UERTO RTOO.

:H

. ita! and labor uo'v availll.ble tflr reparation of 1\e dnm~ge, ue ·t year's crop could ~ot reach beyond -10 per ceut of' n rio~mal one. I · In my report of September 5, I stated that tti} only eJrective remedy t.he Nati na.J .LegiRiature is confor the situation· was an insulrtr loan of say ti ,ooo,ooo. · The papet·s ·then snllmitted contained several projects by isiuterel\te(l afid interof governnieut for Puerto Rico. authol'ized conformested pnrtitl81 out!ioing plans for the raising of 1 ~he mou~y autt placing. it. I favored the issue of paper money, o secured by real state ot to ome other form such a.s be~n ple~ed to reco~mend, ampJe.vulue .tbat the bills could and would be ~tLintaiued at Pflo!· The d be the economical and indus· motlt conservative SO\llld·money advocate could! hot oppose th~ssue of fiat · money mote strongly than does the writer. I know t 1at this no vrovision included in the · diflicultyt '('h answer must island hns uueucumbel!ed resources sufficient to maiu aiu $1 ,000,000 """~·""''"it:\J! b slow, and the difficulties and ofp . apf!r at par with gold, and do this as certaitl~ as the Unite States itt! greet1j:lllCks and national-bank . bills. But it matters very little what method be adopted.for rai iug the moue , so it be rllE.e<l a.nd · eoon available. .Unless fluaucial h1l1P be giv<'n to Puerto R co very soou·, the prez:~eut · temporary difficulties will, I fear, becomeJ>et anent, involviug the lo sofa busines!! worth six or seven million ~ollars, which surely is worth an effort to preserve. · As to the ability of Puerto Rico to secur~ tbo!tgbly such a on say for ten' or fifteen mllliops, I . think it capable of , sy demoustr~t~on. if remaiuirig UDilirled, The real estate of the island is worth $150,0 Q,OOO. The island ha the we >tis aud tmsb i11 the no debt-a very fortunate circumstance. 'fhe unicipttlities haye cu bushes will be mothered' and rent obligation~, ttbout tme-half of wbich ar~~~cured, amoupt~ng ~ must be uprooted and others abot\t t1,500,000 in ·an; but the town gove mente are nearly'. all e islaud will retrograde. · . l;>ad'ly administered and have been Jor a long ti . These corpPrations are administered by men who, iu a great many aoses, have not the COD· obliged to borrow in order to •lemsndiug immediate action; fldence of the people. The town coultciJs can n 't float loans a d lar$:e , it will, not be in time to snms of money 8h.onld not be·intrusted to therli, if they_could raise 1t. the close of the session : ·Eiectious have been or are being 'heJd all ovel: the island fo 1municiall this time will be ~la.yB of pal officers, but the re ults so far sl!cured, in aome twenty towns, do ·ouRtautly aiding in the relapse not encourage the belief that, the elected coun itmen will be more eftl. cient and reliable than the men they replo.~e. ' J C'\. 1 will give a · stimulus to agri. Any money raised, or lonns plo.eed, should be! i the name of he goveruroent of Puerto Rico, and, if duly au tho ized 1by Congress, sl ould be ; bnt this will not atlect. stimulus to other cultivaplaced at 5 per cent or even l'ess iuterest. , npou co1f (1, If a la']'ely As showi'ug what bas oeen . done lor other \1 opical islan!f m the for which free ttade .is . West Jndies by the supn•me governments of hese colonie , I will for labor, which wil\ be meutiou some fig,ures of official origin: wberecofl'econly iR riow 'fhe total population of tlie Hriti. h West Itiuies .is, according to re. nit , a,n increase of wage l!ltest accessible figure ·, 1, 7W,978, and the debt of these colonie com· ·b sugar producers can wen · ,biued it( $23,o33,862, or the per capita debt is 8!1B.7ii. This pel: capita to· present se11ing price ! for British Gniaua is $16.53, and for Triuidad is $17.56; while Jlanmiea;, Cl~stows duties, i. e., say $35 with popul;~.ti.on of 700 oou, owes 8!1:).0!) per c pita. 'fhe J nlaican illlports in 1898 were 88,0~H,9l::i, while the ~xp rts were 8!7,0~UJ,089, he as r~ch and prosp~ons as high wage · ·an well be atli:irded makiug a total exterior trade of $15,131,00.2. J · t •;Ofiee cau not be ·ultivate!l I have sbowu that the annual exports of Pue~to Rico were, f?r five than nre now pn.itl-tbat is, yeat·s before 18!)S, . ~bove 811,000,000 anuually, aud that the 'mports for women. If the current 1 were about the sa.me, <,>r a total of -~~.ooo,uuu exltel'ior trade. ::>urely, ·oftee culture. at pr sent priclllr if Jamaica can sustain a. borden of 13.75 per capita, !l per cent of The res~llt here suggested as her inha.b itants being negroeR, then Puerto Ric , uearly two-rinls of no."'-."" ' iu Uuba whei, fifty years ago, whose population i.s white, can carry a debt of $10 per capita. 1. In 1892 the island of Mauritius, iu the Indilljll Oce!tn, wa tl'Uck , but wlai ·h~nnt now because is much mo profitable. aud wrecked by a bur~·icane, just as wns tltis island last AugtJs . This colony of England has a population of 370,000, about 70 per cent of is on f greatjooparfty; )vhom ·are "coolies" and other East ludians. , I s area is 711ii s nare that were •abundauce of er~· t of its resources. The propria. temporary government is unable


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OOVERNME ,~T

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I' ERTO Rl

milea, or less than oue-tlft.h the ize W!la i41,104, or over 1 per ct~pi The CY,Cione of l 02 brought un havoc 1u1d di. tresa to the sugar industry in Iau!'tins, whieb . tfi sole reliance for the inhabitant.<~. 1fhe Uov rnine1it of tain ·came to the rescue, and guaranteed th itt r st at cent on an nsular lo1m of IO,~,UOO - rupees (or nearly local cqrr ncy), and this money u ' •pplied to th r palr of -the loan to t!•e proprietors; but •the aCtoW,)o frOm the hurri •nne exports Of tbe island Will< Jess than 00 J)er cent. a factl proven by trade statistic~'~, ' hich show no greater ratio than that pf fulling the sugar produc .ion, while the 108 in Po rto Rico· from a i was 05 per cent, as abov . This tlnauci I to Jt.u, ... ,.l, ... ,l.,,set all the wheels of industry in sugar ,crop, which in 1892 fell to motion, repair d the aboqt 00,000 tons, normal of 100,000 tons the. next year, and in the yMr I its maximum of 180,000 tons. I think I am ju tifi~ by the le to all who seek 1em and by the teachings of hi11tor , i,tt that the same splendid result would follow a similar to Puerto mco, but that the ~~~~d~to th:~~cu appli~d. immediately. EJvery I' do n«?t recomu~ud by the United States of a oau for th island. It for nearly 4,000 square mH s rich soil, inl1abi who have lHtd an exterior trade averaging over a guarantee. The pledge :or the island alone be d J am 1\!1 ured by iiuanciers that inve tors wQtild ift!m.edi for tbis loan at low in.tere t the moment it wa simply< by the U\tited States. I will not d scrib . tile mncbi applying the credit thn.t would then beavaiJa,ble. Theteare ghlyrespec~ble banking houses here whose facilities - ~6Jd be of, or comml. siOJlers appointed . under Oo-1,1gressioua! n 1t tbe matter in charge, and dictated by la.w and prudence · they wop.ld ee. tliat t e were fully obeerv d; l>nt if can be done before a new govern· ment is autliorized and e tal1lis I fear that the diseases already very grave will become chrome. the remedial mea~ur¥ will be much le effective Inter U~ the 11th iu tant I cati.on to the Det1a.rtwent, 19 Of the )argest coffee which bad bCiln eemed to me, justified growers. Its impor~indu its peedy pr entation to although I do not fully sub ribe: to all the tatemeu e0 ltnd his associates. jl . hav to ask that in auy be accorded to this letter . my former couimunicatious of and :30 be referred to al relevaut. ·· 1

re wrts tb market hefore

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OOVF.RNM!tNT FOR THE T LAND OF l'UJ.:RTO RICO .

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mttn\: cign.r:; nmd inl:'u ' rto Uico hut I do not rJdmit·o them, a;1d fo und .no o'nc,who did. Th y do not begin to compar~ with ubnn. nlt·hougb the tobncco wn.· cnt to 'ubtt ttiiCl tuixi'Cl 1 ith H~thnll tt ~tm1 · :did a: 1 1 I · 'ulmn. The CHAIIDIAN. The tohucco wn<s. nt to tho nit d \ .'tate.· aud u:;Nl [L,~ II· filled Hem' rnl DAVIS. If t! nt, it would he i<o ww\1. Th CHAinMAN. :b'or iw;tmll'c, tht1,\' w;r 'onn ticut tolracco for ,l'l'ap· pcr nnd thi:; fo-r filll'l'; tbo_y do not eomp •t . Ge nernl Dt\VJ.'. 0 sir ; r do not hc·ll('I'O thcll'p WOI.\1<'\ be any('( ITI\) tition. J be lil'l' ~ the 'onnc ·ticut wmpprr;o; woLtl1l go to l:'u >rto ltteo and there be u.-ed with udmntltj!C ~o both intef'\':<ti<. The CJ1AIIIMAK. You lmvo made lUI e,.;tilimto tq tho df ct tha . tlH tot!Ll •xport would mnonnt to !thout •ight million dolhtrs for uti prodt~~ . l:-: . Gencml DAvi'. Yes, ;o;ir. Mr. ~ET.TIOHEW. That h;', tL II that ha:-~ hccn •xpurtcd I " G 11 •ml DAvrs. 1o, :;ir; about $ll,OOIJ,Ouq<dr li\12,000,000 \YIL:o the nornml ox rt. 'L'h1• 'IIA tMAK. How much of thnt do ·_,·ou c:;timt~te will Unit<.•tl ~tat s I , nde r pr ·e t (11-nrral DAVI • lt dcp 11ds on ' th tmdo eol'tditi6ns. <'Onditions nearly ali th :;twnr, none of tho ·otl'~e, ami no toba · •o. If tmdo restrictions b • remo1· ·d thr ·-fourth.· of n I cxporL ·, if not nl.ore, . would go to the l nitcd ~tl\t .-. ~Jr. GA),LINGF:n. Is it not po. :<ible-indced hicrhlv probn.blr- that under Am rican nJaTHwem nt, with !t mttrket. $ produqtion .of to hac ·o in l:'u •rto Rico will be enoi·mou ·ly ' incr •ased, bven beyond any ·ea.r unci ,. Sptinish rult>~ < • G n mfDAVJ '. I th'iflk not. Tho Ill' n thltt hn.- h e n found tp be ' ndnptcd i Pnerto Ri co fo r ~obne ·o is v ry limit1,1tl. There aro bnly two or th · e littl di.-tril'k wh •r an-y tohacco i g rown R.t all. f am .·om wha fam.liar with th tobacco di -tl'i<·t-s in Pinrtr del Rio in 'ubathr ,., Vuf ltn .Abnjo. ' 1 was stationc{l there somo months. The tohncto I nels in Cuha are extr m ly limited·-thc Juons ndapt U to 'ul t\11 to )lltco-thm·e i:< not one- tiftee ~ttl~ pu1't of , ub11. · on . wh_ich tobatco ~b~tld oo grown. In Puerto R1co th Plntlt Is one/ chstrJCt, nrou11d Cdguns'~:; another, nnd in th re~ion ttr und Jajuya i:; 1tnot11er.· I do not believe nnv ,. n · (' Xten. iv (•u lt•vn.tion willl)c undertaken. Th CRAJR)IAN. ·' ffe' - and sugnt•? Geneva] DA '? . Cofl'e ' ·ould hr extended. 1 The CHAUDJAN. How about. ugf\r. · : G n ra·l DAVJ . Th r nrc great limitations on ~ •gar. Tho lnnd ba bl.'cn ltu·geh• W<jlrkcd out. They would htwo ~ 1\dopt new systems, and ferti lize, arid bnv now nntl iinp•·oy;d ~1nchm ery. iTbe.y"can uttlize the abandoned 'fi.eld. ;;om " ihnt, J ~uppose. ''he.1· might 'r n 'h the Dlt\ximum, th ir former maximum, po. ·ihly •x ·cocL it. 11.fter s v rnl rear:,~ . . Mr. PETTIGREW. Two c nt.~ a pound hounty ~ou{d certainly stimu· ta'tc it imrnon ly. Geuel'l~l DA IS. It cpuld not stimulatQ bey01 d the nnturn.l cnpnpity of the i ·land. · . · )Ir. F ALRBA.i;KS. Can you grow another crop when the land i exhausted for one of these ·rop ~ I

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GOVERNM:E:t'f1' }'OR THE l SLAND OF /PUll:RTO RiOO.

Ok' PuERTO • RIOO.

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. cultivation tributary to thi:s f1~ ·tory, nnd they m· • ju:st p.bout ·eady to G ne1 l DAvt. 1' rh1Lp:s .th ~ t•otdd, but the. do not· th y turn it . ~tJtrt now; but the land:s 1\re old field , fot·mcl'l~· cultivated. 1 out' to 111 adow and ptl:lture. · • · Mr. · LARK. Can tho e land:s, depl t d now l)r these superior meth:\J ·. 'P · KL'I • \ \ hnt i:~ th (' IHIU l'<·iaJ ,·nlue of th tobo.e o ·lnnd. , od of cultinttion n · U::!Uitily in ,·oguc in tb lJ,iited tntes, the u.;e of the . ub., · lnnd"' tbe.t;off e ll}ll(l . 1t11d. the hnit lhnd..;-'1 · f rtiliz r , tc. - ean the.· land!'! he utili~cd nnd inureo.sc their ·ultiva0\•11 •r I lhn~. Th!' fruit Inn h! do not PXi<~t. The ~; u gur lands- the tion larg ly. : be. t Wfl~ to nn,.;wt•r thnt qnt'stiou i:o t<> ,.,t .. te on what hn. i:s the mone:r G nem.l DA VI • Y CIS, ,.;ir; l think :so. Any other t·c: ult would be l lendt•r,-; will · lonn monr~· . Thi' Agl'i(·u tlll'al Bunk wn;. orgah iz d for almo t in con~pr h n:;iblc. . tbt• purpo-:p f I ndin~ 111 Ill'." on agJ·it·ult)n·nl htnd... , and- t.h y luwe 'L'b HAU!~IAN. Will you give u:; ~<o mr iden of the ehnru ·tor of lut out 1war ly ':l:OOO.OOO on ;;u(·h hmd · r!'nl r;~tnte and ngrieultuml governl}l nt tb~t islnnd needs, in ,vom <,~pinion bn cd qn .'·our ob ·erva- . nnd:-t . . Tl)(' dirl'l·t r of thn.t hank, tht' ndministmtor of the l1n.nk, told · tions and expcr• · nee there, ttnd ttl o om • ide of wl\at revenues 111re .nll' ·of th1 ba i;.; for eo.ffl't' land>'. Th ." IPnd to n.n c -timntcd value up n rce:;~;ury , in th ' ·nggreO'I\t.e; to ~efm,r t e •xpen ·r,.: of .·ucb 1govc ·nt · :2 an 1Wrc M a mnxinuun. · mcnt, and. how it should be J,"ai ed ~ · Tit CJJAJl!M.AN. In ·, lei o1' ,. , ~,· e •·l Mr. Co Kln:r.L. Before ,vou go nt thttt, whn orgltnizution lia,·e you GenertLl D n . ln sos. in r gal·d to ~<chool:-t, · tc. '! . Tht•· HAIUM.A •. A bout 'HO p •r lll'l't' ~ Generul DAVJ Perbap. !bad hcttc•· 11mke a .-tntciHent.ocolll' rning epl'ml PAn . \hout '1:::!0. In r 1'." t'Xl't•ptionnl I'll=' ''l •hey tixed tb • fonn r condition of S('hool.;. Under pnin ai;wut 300,UO.Q pe o:; a a ,·u1u • of.;·: UU n t·u111• lund~. ,rettl', npproximately- 1 CUll not quote the nglfl'e exuctly I~ ·onie'Mt·. P•~Ji I ·~ · Th mlm• f th' n ,.:o i:;"' te n · I Ol•m•ml DAVI S. l:h order of the Pr :sident it i~ 60 t' nts. tbing ov r 300,000 peso · n year wer xp nded by the in ·uJar ~­ !'rmn •nt oh ·chools. . T he rnunieipal iti •:s exp ndcd IH:on. idcn~ble ·m ~h. l'EnKn~ . Tb~y mlup th land:s in tb ir loans nt iii:WO p r llt'l't' I ul. ·o. P1trt of the exv.ense WI! to th mnnioipality ~tnd par to th Gl•neml DA\' I fl. Yl• . ... ir; und in l'Xl'eptionn l l'll>' " thr.r would put I' •ntl'a.l government. l'bi s gave edueatio n to ahout 12,000 of ea b.· x. ·on th m the ,·uhte of' :2 (} to ~'l\J\1 pN· uer!'. · Ahout 25,000, ot· pel'lutf.>s 2'7,00( I think n.bout thttt nrunbe ·- were Mr. PERK LN • • Thr e hund•:ed dollar,.:! · ret· iving in truction. , or ttt lea,·t were 1·egi:stered tor in ·tntctwp. · Gen ml pAvJ • P P><o><. The.'' ru.u down from that to nnything. y.ou · Th number actmtlly attending, IllS tnted- in the Sp~tnish . t!Ltistics· pi IL"' but tt ba:-ti · of :!00 pPso · i;; not n ' n · infrequt' llt hut the gt·eat mnjorit.\· of I an tt~· ou ndue.~ of ltlo. · · ,• for t~e lust Y.el\1' of Sp~nisb rule, wa. · 19,0£0. l'n ttnl:!wer t.o n {n~. vious 'JHetitJO n I 1\Jd fiQilleth1ng ttbout the ·hur ·t · I' of the teach I'ls 11 d the · The ' IIAlRl\IAN . How nhuut t hn1·eo~ / permanency of their oftices. The. e tene t rs were ns igned to s bool::~, ~ieneral JIAn s. l do not 1'<' 11\l~ mlwr to han hetml thi. g ntl mnu : urban and rum!. The uttendnn ·e nt<the school wns votunfury n the ty wba the nppmii<<'d mlnf• would lw. hut I "uppo:;r a . omewhnt im iJar rul untion. • part of tb scholar; there wns no eompul ion requil'ing at~n~ance, nnd in tru ·tion wu g-iven in the Sp~tnish lnnguage, in ncb subj uts as · Mr. fl.AU,INGt~H. U ndl'r fr e tntdl'. (:i('nernl, the 'pr . umption is thnt ~ bildren are taught 111 all conntrie ·. lt nccomplf heel 1·ery littl , and Pue•·t Rioun tohne ·o will 1·om . ahn0:st exdu ·h ·el.r to tliis country. You :<ny it d · not l' 111 in <·ompetitio.n with Com1!'eticut tobn ·co '1. · r€1\ched but a portion of the whole mn . r quinng intitruction. · Tbre hundrrd thousal)d c.hildren r quired inst.rtwtion ~tnd 7,000 . If it d(W~; l·om hrrr and il" <·on"~lllll'd. what tolllt<'l'O will it di plat· l l'11 ml DAYI.. Tbe'toha<·t·o tbnt i,: now w;ed for tillt•r. to the extent ~lnssifie? for in:;t!·uction. . Tht1re w •re oM or two in~titute. for lligbe~· m tt·u ·t1on-,-J thmk thre<i' m nll- suppoTtcd h~· tho Stntc. One, nder of th importntiou. the chiuge of 11n 8,rd r of Cathol i<! toucher;.: ~It lied the B.·colapian ~, son,e~h . .NEr..._" ' ·. That kiucl of lo hm·l'll will l-om . Ill it hn :; eom in t he what resembling the Cbri~:J~i!ln Brother.· m Olll' eo11ntry, ha\·ing help past: und!'r t~ .· goui:<·e of . :nhnu tl)hn t·<·o.Hn'd hr ,.old to pPopl who faucy f.t·om the tate. There Wllti ~l. o nn in:;titute r 'ceiving aSJ i:stan · frolu thr~· nrc~ tttntr \t~)[lll t'~K'tl.'"· · . Gen nu DAn~. \ e.... s1r. the Stat , l\lld a normal : chool receiving help from the Stllltc nls6. ~I r. GALLI OJ.:lt. l>< it Ol' i :~ it uot.Jj>o>dhle by bPttHL' management l Jnstruction wn. ~·~ttTied to the extent thnt · .vouths gradu~tting cotiid receive degrees in m dicine 1\nd in the !U't.-;, and the y.-tem w ts ~;irrl.i­ 1'i1d t be enril'bme ut of th l'u Ril·iln soil· I ,. method:; .·u ·h as we u,.; in tbj,. eountry to ilnpi'O\'C h qti:'tlity of .'bat tobn<·co nnd ,. •nlly lar to th on xi:stin'g in Cuha, ttlthou~rh not 1-10 well s upporte 1\:l the runk<' it' come in l'OIII tiEon wi hour tte1· g ·nde,.:! · ·~•ban-th y hnd largPr resourc s thm·c- hut it :oufficed for Puerto· ~~ I .(Ten<'ro'! DAn~<. l ·tan n t .t n;;wl'L' that. e~l'cpt that ·the Puet·to Rit'llns ha, ..e import cl ( '11hnn ~ t l'Hitinttl' thl'ir · toha<'l'O. pt•rsotl:s who There wa not tmtil lu~t month a. ingl .·<'hoolbou ·c in Puerto Rico know all uhout thtl pr(l{'l'. :;: th ." lm\·<' ·importrd workn)en from the : built a a 1•hoolbou . There wus on building, fmmerly occupied V ut>lta A lmjo. a!ld tlwy hn \'l' fltm ewrything tlwy elm . hit\' intro. ns a church,!I believe, 1\:l igned for that purpo e hut there wns not any building that 1 lllll uwtwe of er ·ted for that purpo e. Lu.st month I dul'ed l'lt'ed and do.n' en••·ythi ng po:<,.;ibli'. and b:w jlil(•d. )h·. 'LARK. t' tb n• mnn,v n •ril'lln::< down th e opernting su~:,ro.r ~ ueceeded in g tti itg one complet d in ' tn ,Juan where grad,ed sebool!:i ltu1U.-< thnt bn,· formerh· I ·en uudcr ·eultimtion ! · can be held h n~111fter. ·A nomulJ ISthoo l is now hcing ereoted where ~ench rs cun be fitted 'for thei.r work. To n.pply a11 cdu('ation'aiiSyiStem ~T. nenil D , ., . Tb re' i:o Ol!l.r Ol!e . nterpri (' 1 kn \\' of of Ain ri~n .In Puerto Ri o ,:ucb u the HtLwaiiam; have applied in Hawnii, und Ol'lgm: . One ucb company 1 · uildmg a large ugnr f1L ·tory on be I!Outh ide of . the i;;land and expect:; to bring some 5,000 u.cres un eT IIIS8uming an expendi.tlll'e equaling hqrs p,er eapitiL would re 1 uire ov r

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OOVERNl\lENT Jo'OR THE 1 LAND OE' P ER1:,

fo r Pu rto Rico, nn4 that j UJ 1 tbu.n d oubl e the ntit·e 'o you ·an · · bow r m ote the tjme is when gen 1 I r unh· rsal education c m I atta in d. A. 1 peds l'ivil. govemmentt Th.t• lll!ttt~ l·. i:< o n ~bnt bn gi\r n me :L good drn l of nuxi~u :< thotlgll. . 1 htw' apphed to tt . ut·b tud) tts 1 bnw 1)(-ru abl to gn· - . h. Pt:TTIO RJo: w. How about the c hurch . (' hool. i • (l<•itt•ml lJA IS. T l1 r t·e wn,.; ~mlv o ne thn~ I I'Ccull: 11. p 1·ivnt pt't.J' ,; h~)of tnught Jry tb .Mother ,; o~ th' • \w i'Pd Hrurt. · lh-. Pt:'M'lGitF}W. o re ligion. ordP t'. hold tnuch propert.'· / · (lc riem l DAn:<. Tht• o rth odo · dHtrch - thnt is to ""'·' ' the se uln.r · prit•:;t:-~ a,.: di:<ti nct · f]·om. th e nJnuas tit· o rdCI':<- hnvr yo!) trol o,f, tile cbmch · ~throughou t t lw J,.;latld t~nd o m or two oth I' buildmo :>. I h r nrt• dn im:< nutd<' by tlw t•hun·h f I' propNt,r tha t fo rm erly be loug d to th moml...,tit· onlci-t< uud c laims to t·t•t·taiu r ,·ennt's now t•o llel'tl' by th t'\tatt• aud wbi< h lm n' ht•t•u tmtt~f nrd t t h nitcd ' tate · by , ' )J(Iin. with the dllll' ·h(:-~, foi· w~il'h tlwy t•lrt.im n•,.;titutiou. . Mr. J'E1·rwu mr. H <)\1' 'm u~· h 1,0P:< that amou nt to/ l'llemll)L\\'1..:. lt hns not ,·ot e n n,:\·e t·tnin •d. I wu,.; collet t in tb duta wh en 1 I ft. · Mr. C K.m:T. L. On what <'l'O nd d o tbry l)n:<o tht•ir daim I G(•n •rnl DAYI ..~ nth~ g t·ou?d ~b: ~t tho ;~eq u s.tmtion of tb IV:operty of the III0111tl'l ti • ordet·. l>y pn.m Ill 1 43 wns tll <'ga l nd ~ lt;j l t pt~· t io n of pow r. nnd that hy ·uf),.:t ft.u 11 t l'O,I'Itl {irl're of t~ ~mg: r ti· tuti 11 of this propcrt\· wa pr mr:>ed but wa · not ~ttL'I'! d mto C<'t for :<om r a:O<on, nnd tlw.' · wi:-;}1 to have thntl\l'tof r :<tttutwn tnmpl ted. I think thut is the 'hn,.: j,.. of lhr cln.im . ' )Jr . .Pt:TTIGnEw. How nl out ~be 111 na. ti c ord r. I . Ul' ll m l D AV L . 'fhc mOIJill'lti(' ordl'l's bt\H' disappea r d con1 p l • l'l.r: th 1·e tH" noue iu P ucl·to•Ri<"o. Tho:; who wo•t·e t be t·e wc r ', 1 th nk. the Frnm·i,..t'flll:<, th Hecletr1ptor st:<. :1nd oth ~ 1\;; of ~v l1i ch l for.,.et tbr b!un '· Tht·~· W\"' l'C nU c xp Ll d f:me ~·e:u·. ngo. ' ~lr. PKITIORt:w. \\'hn t was d ne with thl' pro~erty? G r nt'l'l I' n ,\\' 1 . 1t \\'H:< "'eir.t•d '·' ' th :-ipnrli h (tO \'('l' nlll f' llt. ~lr . .Pt:TTI HF:W. Lnud" I \ (;er1eml D;\Vl . Laud~< nnd IHII!di n g-~. ::\lr, :PKITIGut;w. And tb r,r n r1• :<till lw lcl hy th e 'ptlui sh :oo\ ru 11) itt I . 0 'neml I)· , . , , . y.,,.: ~i r: o;· w rr until th tmn,.;fPI' wu-; made. , )h. PETTI I!E\\'. "'the l'hl)l't'h h ld nnr property the re 11 0 1\' . t Cn rltl: DAy s. The dlllt'l'h 01\' 11 d nothi ug- In it-; ow n right tlwrc I undrr>~tllnd. . \.. prie:<t of th <' ''a,tb ~ie 'hur l'h ~vu · n pnt't of t~w . .Q ,·,•rmm' nt, and 110 landed pr pe rty tn PuPt'to Hte? wr,ts cn;t:.r1•gu;· tc t·ed in tht> name of tb • Go ··• rnme nt; th c r • wa,.; noth mg at tdl 111 . hllp!' of I'l'«i,..t•·r!'d rl ds t "how that the rnme nt ow ned nn ineh of Inn.;!. · ~It~ PF:tTm tn: w. ·~·b • la ud i:< wned In· i n(li,•idulllsl r •n 11\l DAV ! . ,.enemlh·. , . .... ,..il:: c xc 'pt th. public domaiu, whi ·h th ' tnt<'.fla." n<' \' ' r pitrted \,•ith . · ~fr. NELSON. •Jt Is :'!. "P~'t i <':> o ' tate propcrty,clet· ,tb pi·ot cti.op of thl' ' tutc. hdd n:< a :sort of tr t in 'the na me o th e tnt for r c hg· iow; purpo" ,, whit•h ha com t th e ni ted :::ltut by tran fer '! O('fJet"l\1 DA\' I . Yc . . f; ir: tbtitl j · m.'' under,.tan ng. . Mr. (.' KRFJLL. How QJuch i · tber of ill · · Gen ml J;>AYI ln very town; every munidpaiity, there i at e~

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one ehurcb, nnd th rc nmy be more; . o me luwe t luec or fo ·, !but th . chlll'l'h ,propcrtie.\1 IU'C not COO id ' l'ttbfe. lUl1 0Untln 6' 1 W!tirtJir to, imp) y ·the <' I'O':'nd ·on wbi b th huildin , stancl. with n. 1~1nll plot f ground around tt. · :i\lt·. N t;t.liON . Tht> c'mc tcr y? 1 Ot•m•t·al DAVI S. No, sir: tb1\t i us ually d<'tneh od,'n nd 11ot ·onn cetrd 1dtb th e <·h•m·h. The e 111 ter ir .· nr u"tmlh· owned hv tb lllllnil'i· pnlity nlt,hough ·ou. l'<'l'lltPd h,v the 1·hut· ·J•. ai1t~ LtndOL· tli • :<t. porvh-;iOn of th ' pl'ic:<t. H11t th.- prop rty in i:<!'I LII' of lllo,;t )IOilt c nt . :;o fur ns it l'll n I • Hllid to· h • lUI i.·sul• by th l' ·lnim of tht>11'1'p/·r:-;e uta t · r:o~ of th • dlllrl'h, i:< tho ·Pl'opl'rtv iu :::lan J 11nn wl't iuh fo n 1'1'1.' b •lougl' 1 tv t hPt:H' mo.tut-.ti l' ordrr: ll O \ known ns the 'nu Frrull'~<·au B11t'l'llt' ·:-; 111111 th ' 111 .J o.; r .Bnt' l'tWki<, whit·b UL" of . con~<idrmhlp <'Xtt•ut, uc upyimr It hlot·k of l' lt.)' lnnt 111111 wo r th prohahly HPIIII' bu1 d t·N·I,; of tb1 u :snnd ~ of dollat·,., clleiJ . T~ ey lll'l' hoLh t'111 inr!'d us lti• incr 1'(! 1 \e:-~t l'll trd 1,\' Spuin . !Ill t.il't .of "J?oli ntio ll. uud th ey I'O ill C to thr l ,nit cl ' tats'. t mak rr,.;tttuttou. , i\l1·. ()oc tumr.L. "\\' p hn,·r po"'""""iou of t lwu1, ho11! t••·rwml D,\\·t,... Y~'"· "i r. . ' :\lr. :\It CmtA8. Th t• 't' i,.,. he r th • "'""" coil iti on :1:-~. in tn h ·- t Uo l.l'l'l llllt' nt:<eqm' ;;tt·ltt ·d tlwu:. nud thL· ..;\.•·my. oo l~h l' III . HS lt~~iT:u ·k,; (~<·pr t'lll DA\'I I'. Y ~'"· s ir. Tht't't• i~< nuothe1· d .~:;of proper .'·, l\110 11'1 :t-< eanull:<. Th,.,. ll't'l'l~ l ~ :secl 011 lwqul',.; t,; lllllrll' 1 h1· imlh·tcllll I'; f1ir th e hL' Il Pii t of lll ? nn.,..tie ordt· •:"· a ud .the pa,.vtile ut tl•;td' t? t h h ·ad;· of til""~' mo uu:<tte o rdP I'" dtl·l'llt{! th e ,. to ut lllliHIIt'l' 111 th • ts lnu cl aud then ~pp ropl'iatrd to the ( ro\'Pl'limc nt. aft<' r th e .·up!\>rrs::'iou of .t c o rcll't:s. I ho,.;e l'HilOil l< nre II OW ,.;()JII'l'I' S o f I' '\' (' 1111(' to tJlC J:~tat •. r e'h nr(lh nl.-<o daims them·. Tlwi r rXIII't nm ouut I t'tlll nut ,.;tatt•. 1 1 'uba 1 ha 1·r sP u a puht'i . h d :<,tllt<' tilcnt, fo t the prod w e of ~Knti: ro 11l on,e , . wbkh an1 onuted to ~1.000,000. lou t wl111t th ~ ' mnouu t to 11 l 1uc r to Hioo 1 do not yet k llOII' . tD · :i\lt'. NF.r.soN. Tho" ' aro,.;t' fro m pt··,·ntr j!l'rtnt,.. fot· th P he n ti t of the

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Gt• m' ml l)A \'1 • Thr,· nre-11 riL·HltHrj,,t.• . Thr ' HAlii~IAl'i. T hr'r i,.. no nmuuf:wtul'iug ! . GPneml DAV!~. Onl.r a llttle. Tl~crP III'P n mun ufa ·tt1r ~ of u~a tthes nnd rum. nnd a tnnrier.\· Ot' two . .find p dtrtp>< a littl o'f o th ct· kmd:<, hut nothing to con iderab le nmouut. . · :\Jr. ' KJU~LJ.. AI'I' thrr trees oTowinu· all hrong-h th e i ·hllld / Oc neral DAYI. '. The re nt'P senttt•riug t~e,.:. ~bt· no fo rP. t><. Tli mouutain nre nenrh- nil hn n' . nnd th •n• n rc IH) f r •st.~ of u,· mng-·· · £ · nitud . 1 • Mr. Co KRELL. No timbrr of an\' value I G ' neml D v IS. otne f n o·ood 'tl aL of nth , httt fo r eX! none. ns it co. t. . 6 much tog t it out, :llld th tr 'C. :ire .·o ~ .... H,,.., .. :tou will find a tree in thi::~ l't\llcy. n. nd an othe r it ~h,e nex t, Ill. nuotb e r . · • Mr. Cocxin:LL. How. do thev s hnd their col trees. Ge ne ml DAVIS. Tire.'· p la u.t tree" for that pu po ·e. Mr .• CocKm:u. What kind ? . Ge neral DAvis. Different kind a~ong them being

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of tb acadn>~ : I do not r m m ber .th • name, and if J ;~hould give ,it Mr. FAIIIDANK . Ar they employed much of tbc urn rwitk ing of tbis fow r ci!LSs. it w uld prol)ltbiJ• t an imfamilinr on . • wba do tb ,. b uild thE-ir houses I .' Gc n ral DA VJS. Usut\lly they mn get fairly . teudy .. mn•nvrn :Mr. COCKlu-; r.r.. (h• nl'li tl DJ\Vli'. There llt'C thr<'l' cLns:O:('SOf hOU>!I'>! in Pllt' l't<l Rico. Onr no'Vi indu~:~try is in n st.H.tc of prostl'l\tion a nd 'marry it~·e il'l·of nm>'onn·, of stone or bdek. with 11 flat.r of oi· 1~ ti l roof;· the next . ~11'. FAIRBANK . What· do they do with the)!· 'inoney ~ i of wood, tlw mor importAnt of tht•m lx•in•'r :<hi ngled or pitdt roofl•tl. G lll'm.l DAVIS. Tbe amount i: not v t·y ltu·gc; it i ~ nnd lnt r lv tht'\' tn· tti'li ng J,t'ltlvani7.rd iron on nmnv how;cs, both of to :;pend Jt. ma.~(mr·y 'an 1 of \VOod. ~~ l;t of th • fornH\1' U.l'(l l)ti.ilt Oli the pJnn Of · i\'~r. ~~AiRU.AN·KS. Their hnbitl tion:s nrc n'ot vm•y lu~ ul'ious. th•· llltt'mi .. ·i n b u~<t'~< in 'n!i fo1· ni:t 1111u M.dil'o. Tlw wooden hou,;u" General DAvr . No; hut the. npport of ten 01: twc)vc in a Wl\ge of 30 c r'rt.':ln dtly, oven w1th the aid of a : IU'l' huilt of pinl' from the taU•>~. nnd Ill'<' siu1'd nnd bonr·ded tho >'llllfl' involve mut· h ffort ·to di>:lpo. ·e of )t,'a.nd not 1 :<til·h hou!!Cs n1· • in this ·ountry . Tbev nr' 1:1 mrtimc:o~~Jbi.ngll'd nnd on and liul liivl\tion of tho mind. ' . t.r onwtinws t·on•t·cd ;with tin or g:'~lmnizcd ir.On. . Tb1• third d1tl's 1u 'e hutt<. Polt•>:1 arc N<'ct •d. and ~>mltll er pol~>>~ used FAtuHANK . You t hink 't heir 1111ltivt\tion t '! for ti(·~ ahd J'il ftt•t· · an' fw<ten d to tht• uprights . by tlio n~~. 1\ntl thi."' franlt' is t •on~n·ll. :roof nnd idet<, with a thatdt o.f palm h•IWl'S, witb om DAvr ., No, s it· ; [think 011 th • htLSi~of 11\ln dny, room. nn<l oc<"n,..ionully t wo rooms. 1\1111 prrhnp>~ 1\ do?.<•n I f'Ople living d, they could be mueh improved. But on " Jn~ i;.' th~r . Oftf'n not_n p~rtil'l of f ur nitlll'l' .. n t 1t twneh ~r 1t tnble or :t and too .littl of thttt, 1 do not. ce mnch bop • fo ~ uni ·tJCJ . ll<'t']lll.Jl" notb m~r 111 thl' Wrt)' of ult•n;;1 l. lwyond 1111 1ron pot. 1.m d u lf duldr n arc mtked habitually their etlucution i. · mtteht' te. und the. would he tl\'' l'ntirP prorK· rt.v of t h family, not rt .CHATRMAN . That iR one d nss. Onn you fm\thct· ~'~""''" ·h· ''t'h on I · fork or· n ~-<f)oo n . 1 ml DA v 1 . In .th next ·ln.: · ' n.re th mull Mr. 't.ic KII EI.l" How do thrr ~:ook ? ' •nernl DA\'1 ~ ....111 th'c iron k •ttl. Tht>y li n~ innlmo. t a. pt·iruitin! C!\ttlo ranch o wne r~, the men cn~aO'ed ' in ~,..,,.n..,·h ntt•t'nhm , the clerks i11 .th O' l:!torel:i, the servtmts ill' t h st~tt . . , Mr. OCKREU.. ' k 'Ov rytb~ng i11 thl' kettl or cat the fn~it )Vi ~h mcu·emtJJtr..' lllnd tt·adcrs, a11d ::;tm\11 nmnnfnd ur •r.·, shop and lllltnufu ·ture.':l 1.\ few cil,rnrs· nnd sells out I' king f . , n rnl D v1 .. · Y <'8 s ir· t·i · , a ll8, cod fi ·)l, rptd _rum ; they v ry That r present: nnotber par·t. TbP. oth' l' ''""~''"'Q" ''t..! (ltor d as~, ltu·g. 1' rnordmnts, and prof . ~ ionnl men, ct<-. oft n u.,;e th ~:bm; •oal. fire. . / Th RAJRMAN. What degr of int lligen ·e b~t ve thuy ~ The C tiAIUMAN. Thi. middle ln. .·-how 1\l'e th 'Y fp1· in tell prtred with th low t ch11 ~ < • Gcnernl QA v r. . ·About th sam ru · the clu ·s of poor· peopl you se 'in ~ ew 1\1 xko or A ri'Zona to-day . We wok GO 0 of them with •ml DAvi . . Thet·e is tt great improvement o·f l'(mtliti " ew M x ieo. and we hnve 70,0t)O of them nov. We do not ttppoor to · ·h\Ss 1 but there are u g rcnt rna!l.v people in yucrto ha,· mad nny imprf' ·sion on th m in th way of cduc1\tion or ocial I to do who cun not read and write. In th Qle ·tion . were about '30,000 v.otcr polled in 1.\, population of a progre · in ov r fifty y 1\1' . . Mr. · xtu:u •. Wh rtt d th y rai . t• in Puerto Rico 1 . llron , 1tnd nbout half ol them could t'Pnd and writo nnd (;t n t·a.l DAvt . .Ric , bean , yam , sweet potatoes, corn , ba)janns, . C VOtes were CI.L':It on a bas is of property qnalificatio~. and ugar · · ne. Bannn1tS c nslitute 75 pe r · nt of tbe food of. the The C I{AIHl\IAN. Wba.t is their 111 tellectunl e ndowment? poor peopl • of Pu r to Rico. •. Genornl DAvr The P_uertb Ri '!~n i · quick to learn, hns 'l'be ' HAIRJ\IAN. What per · ntnge of · the people do you put in that and ~ood per epttve ftlcultte . Th y I nrn r 1 atli ly. ln · ~ · • m <!~r s ·hools ~vli.o pi ·ked up geography nnd e n rnl D'Avi About one-third, o1· one·httlffa.ethty. [ hnve known n.o mO'r apt pupi Is nn Mr. l<~AIRR NKS. Wbat do th y do: work on the plantation 1 m\tive Puerto Ri ·an , both white and blnck. en ral DAVI . Ye , · ir ; th yare the laborers of the country. . The CuAmMAN. At·e they do ·ile or oth t·wi::;c ~ Mr. FAmH NK . What at· th ir wage 1 .• G neml DAVIS. Tbe inhnbitants of Pu ' J'to Rico have 11 Ueh ral DAVI . Th customary wag is .considerabl)' higher than in rebellion again t authority; they have been p aebab any oth •r of th . i lands of th ?V e t Indie , except Cttba. Tbe rate ha.':! . poken g nerally very well of them . 1f iR 50 l'e.ritavo;; per d ty for a good trong man · I\ bout 30 entl\vo f or a been officially desig nated ns the "Ever·fnitllful i:sl nppo.rently i:!lttisfied with' th Spanish rul un ti l the A . · woman orb ·. '(he HAUOIA;. .Ar th · people white or blttck 1 . _,.,....~ ... Grnornl DA ,11 • Both. ~ Tht• 'HAlR)IAN. A hout the . nfrle per c ntngc ot .ncb ~ <t'enerlll D.An . . Th • proportion .of white~ i. Ia r in Puerto Rico. Th. HA11UI N. ram spea.k mg of thi particu r ·las . . ( G •n ml DAn.. A gr nt many. of them nr wb1 . \ ·

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I

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g-t·1•11t, 1md t hcrr wrt't' n gT at 111 ny ,·,atin·~ w}w fl'lt in enn~m! nt Uu•st' · u11(l ""'"" now lu•ing- I'On:-;tl·tu:tncl tho l'OIUis :it'll as had as I opJn't' siun,..,- 1111d wlwn the rule• a" •·ei1LXNI a nd our Army lnm!erl .t hn ·'l'hl• " "ual tiH•n.t l>' of I'OI)IIIHlllit•:ttion ru·o t. r·rti ls, winding- :tr~ll ot·t·n.s ion wns ~t· i zrtl. upon to 1 :q 1 utf o ld st·ot:l's, 1tn(l tll'tli of l~tnrllt.r,\· till hill:-!, whidt i11 clt·y W<'athi'I'IH'Il pas,.al1ll·, hu t in Wl l w.c unci. pillngt• wPi't mot't q t· lc'. .,.. ·,nlnrl' t'ou,... nnd . ::CJIIltYp.r o].ll'l't,\' m1d :;on11 · .t'X J'tllllt'I,Y diflit·nlt:. Houlllt imt'l'! tlu :so t mils IU'I·l 1workt·d i11 to lin·.~ wrt· dt•stroy •d hy JWoplt• who 1'0.'1' ag-n111::t. tht•IJ' fol'llllll' nlltl'i ll' l'll untl in 1'11it·ly good Wl'atiH•r tlu ·.' · g'l't a t·art ovt1 J' it· and t ht •1 CH' tht• rulit ;; l'la::i". t • nlltnit·ipal pffort 'i" din:,·tt•d toward it , 11.1111 I lu•y wi ll w'idt• l I :-;oiitt•lillll'"' tiJt•>:(' I'J'i ll ll'"' \1'1'1'1' nof din•t·h:tl }"'0 ~11111' 1~ llg'UIII"t tiJt• """ ht'lll'fit. it ll li t.tlt• , ' ;-; )lllti..ih rtdl' n-: uguiu,.;t iHtl ivitlu (,.. whn hntlt•xl'llt'tl t·ht.' IL't' null wrn th i\h. Coi ' K.lt~-: r.r .. llo tht·:<o )IPoplt: ustmll.y lmvn a gm·Hou oJ lht•,lp pt•op(C•. UJld It f! 't•a(. II \i ll )" Hlll~:tlt•l'" \\'1 '1'41 t•onlllllt.f!'l(, 1\lll( I ht•~·p (l pn nml I> AVJK \' ~""· .~i 1'. . 1 , · i" moi·t• or It•,..,.. t't'int.t' now iu l'u rto Hlt·o. uot mon•. hoWI'Vt'r, t hn•.• 111 Mr. OI('K HP. LI .. Any dti t·kc•11s and l'ig-s '! \ · our m ·u t·ou utt·.v--th l.: ratio is 111 t 111111'11 larg-t• r. Mut·tlt•t· Ill' 11 "':-:n.~<:< lll ll · (~ •nt• t•td I>A\; lll.· y ,.,., si r ; yo u st•ti t 11'111 ahou.l..:d 111os~ a ll tio11 from JX'I':<otml mot.\n·:< i:< tot llllt'on llnoll . Dt'IIIIKt'llllt's" 1>4 _Hot ~It·. Co(' l\tn:u .. llo t h\',\' ha\'1 \ 1111:'' ho r,;l•" ot· 1111111\s! l 11111·onmont tht•J't' j,.. 11 ••'l'l'a.t, II •al of liquor dtullk i11 L'tll'l't.tl ltH·ol ( <'111' 1'11 1 DA VII'!. Yt •><, :<ir; hol':-lt'" 1111d a J'ow 11111lt•s; 1 tl~n 111111 wht'll tilt• Hali Vt'. hhL~\ o t· ' hitt•. is iHioximtt•d, hi' i:< 11 g-ood .tll':t po11i.''"· ' I likt· lilt• Allll'l'it·11u i11 ,..am r• t'ollditioH . . Mr. CoeKHEI.t .. A11 y hutTos ! ,\It·. l'LAHK. Whut propo rtio11 of till' middlt• 1'111::" is whi te '! (h•neml I>A \'1~. o•.,:a,..iwml h· ll fi'W. Ot•llt'r:t I.hv• "· ::\t•arl y loll. l'h o,.:t• di:<ti HI'II ,\ t•ol'o rl'd ltl'n ,llll'g'l'ly ~II'. ('ol I< IU:LL. II ow a l1o11t t'OW"! ( lallm·r·r,... Tl 11• rt• 111'1' ::oil II ' 11n11 11).! tlw t·olol'l'd ' who ILI'll pn•·tu·ul:u·l,' r ( t'1IOI'al DAV I:<. Th1 • t'ILttlt· a t·c· a g-ood 1.:-l~tdl', Ll:r111g-h s umll illtl' lli <'t'llt Ill •11: tl l'l'l' llll't' ':'lllllt' lawyt'l'" :111cJ dlld ~>l'>l-r"l'lld U:tt't'll ph_r><l· a•· .. 1 no 1uild1 ''""'"· 1111t l t.lrt ·y 111ak1' '!o l1 rttc r; l111 t t' i1u1.·- :muiug tIll' t•olorrrl Jli'"Jlh : I l't' llll'lll ht•r :<t'\'1'1':1 . 0\l'l)t'l'" of t·uttlt· o 1· ltor:<t•><. • · . :\Jr. ~II 'I~IM~. ].... thN't' :my I ' H't' pn•j urlit·t•! ,\~C,. Cr OKIU:LL. Any goat>-; or· :<lu•t1p '! 1 0l'llt' l':tl J>AVII'l. l't'Y littll' . t 1." "~"1'11. 1 I lA V I >~ . Bot h. • Tlu g'l'lult: of C'ltWe i. g-ootl, .\-Jr. l't:1•n n HEW. Jh'nr do you thi11k lht•y would f.(l't alo11g- ru:nn illl.( Mr. 'Ot'KHI·:r.r.. I lo tlu•.\' lu ~\' t \, any Wllg'011s! 1 a ""'"·nrn)llt 'llt ol' tlw 1' ow n ! ' <lt•tm m l l'lAn s. l'io, ,..ir: tht'l'<• i.~ not a fo t '· wll nt:lt•d \'(:hi1• CiPIIr.ntl DHI ~<. Vt•n· hudly . Hi~'\'' PXI'l')lt. plt•a:< un• l':u· t·iag-e>< :Lilcl tim w; ,.,"011 ~·. t ho :u·m Jv • Mr. ' ('KIIEI.t .. ll o1i• do 'tfu• qllt'·th ird who :11'1' 11' t hl' lom•,.;t c · l i1 "~ i\ 1'. OCI ltt-:1.1... A II,\' l'lll't:< ! i ' . .~ lt· Pp; \1•bnt 111'1' th ·ir lmhi t~< I 1 ( lt•Hm;al I lAv IS. A g'l'I':Lt man\', w lw.t·o t he m lp·c; road~. , (il'lltll'ld I> A n ~. 'j:h p p otH't'"t l' l a~<:<! :\h. CocKBt-:1.1.. llo tl H' \' " "'' horse: Ul' mules \Vtt h thnl n l Mr. 'K ' KI!Eu •.' Y1•. , ,.;tr.. , . <te nPml l>.w~l!. Oxt•n. · , Ut•m•t·nl DA\'Ito:. Tlw hu t i;,; u:<l'd for :<hPitPr, and ~h ey •·otl up on the Mr. Cooi{.B tu.r.. \-\ hat kind ·of yuki's clo th uy us(:! 1 1 tiom·- solll\' han• 1 ht'll l'h- or t h<'.' ' :<J11'Pad a hull':< ht de out for 1t c·ot. ( {t•tu•r·rd ))A VIS. , Yokl'::'fn,;tt•nnd to tho hot'lls, not tho. ho w Mr. CocK lt ~: rj .. ,' I<•Pp 'on thr ' ro'imd 'l ' ' :\]"· .Co 'K.In:r:r:. Thl'\' do not havt: th ' I ow? , 1 Ot•uPra~ ·J)A'\'t". Y!'s . ir ; \'l'l'." often. ( l'lll'l'ld l>A VIf!. J 11ci•!'t' ,.::tw it tlwre. ;\h·. '0<'K1n:1.1 .. Th('y lm,-c n t1oor:; I 1', 'o 'K HELr.. Wherl' dot h •v fa:<t• n these ,·okcsl Ut•1icml DAvi ;~. &>tut•lmn·, )l~lt. u,.;u,ally. or a g-rcnt m:ury n o~. &>,ne. Pncml DAVIf'!.•Tul:l t b:tek of the horn ~<, aud 1 1~t~h cd ~o t he lmn• ~~ floor l or 2 1or·a fPl'tn.ho\'1' t he gr~lHld , lmt thnt •·. no~ v >t:.Y ~om · r. l'~:l"l'lllln~v. Al'l' tlHJ rP not a gTm~t muhy inte) l' \uot1. In the· poon•st ·In;~· of houses w the,..c lllOUilbtm d1st•·• ·t:l. or 1 ~ 1:1\ 'l' t's, dootor:<, IIHll't•hnnt:<, etc. there ! huJTios. therr is not 11 . ingl fram e house. •uet·nl DAvrs. Yt•s, s ir ; - ,~ considcmhiP number. 1 :\It·. CocKu LL. Arc till'. · lil'ftttert•d likt' til t• W e t •·n fnrmer~:~ . h er~. :\~r. P.ETTJOH~:w . Arc tfJC.); citiz ns, or· Spani ~h c itizens~ 01'tWl1tl:J)An R, Yc,., ,..ir ; .wa..'· up o n thP _top of tho m ountnms, ·~ Goncml DAvr . Both. · I n ·•·y li ttll' ntll ~y ,or uook or t' , rrwi· you ~;a ll find n hut, or pe rhnp~ M.r. P1·:1"JlJUREW. A rc th~'l'C not enotlgh of t1hat cln.·s of .two ul' thrCl'. · 1 • • co~~ net n govcl'llmcnt? ~It·. 'OCKit.Et.l:. Do t brv haY any eook111g' utens tl" I G nernl DAn . I do not think so. I ti<'nl'ti tl DAns. Very often nothing lmt nn _iron k •ttlc. :\h. McCoMAS. ndc r th e lections that ha · · l\1r. l'l.)t'KUELI•. W'1u t do th ry u .for hmttng I t·c• n~ge ha,·e be •n ·found cupabl c of exm·ci ·ing · 01'111 ml D >wifl. " ' ood nnd charcoal. · ·. G neml DAVIS. Thi 30,0{)0 of' \'Otcs . polled ,.,..',"'"'o nn~o Mr. ' ' KJn:J.L. · 'Vflcrr do they get tlt •ir eha~;conll . of tL little less tbari 500,000 and tbcre wa a general {h' nentl DAvit. Burn it th <'ll1"'r1P ·. clec ion and no fa ilure to regi ·tc t·. ' Mr. lli' KR~:w. 'nn thPy go t that en,.ily '! , . GALUNGEn: And hnlf couJd not 1:ead or ~ rit 1 Geheral DAVI . Yes, ,..i r ; it i"l bit~· ncd in thr n!o tams nod brouO"bt DAVIS. Yes, ·ir ; about halfl as l recall the out 011 pru-k hori!t' . · . · . Wb11t are the qualifications? J . Mr. COI.' KHET.L. H ow do the.\· h1t\·el throug-h t e cou11try; on ·bn~ DAVIS. To r ead from a book or newspaper at ruad"!. 1 G ' t e ntence, or the man must have paid at fea:t ~1 of U n ntl DAVIS. E.·t·ept th.e l'Ql\d built b.'· the Spa.ni:;b. overnmen and a half from the date of election. •

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t ,


62 .

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OOVERNXEN'f

I

ISLAND· OF PUERTO RICO. GOVJ>:RNMl<:: NT Jo'On THl<:: fSLAND, .Qll'

I

an ducational or property quali- . The HAIRMA . That i , you b fication t Gep 'ral D VI . YP ir. lr KRELr.. Hav th y any y tem of taxation getting down to th · barrio ~ · 0 oeral 'DAVI . "¥ , si.r; p1~in had a v ry l ompl t y. tem of &mlent and taxation. • Mr. ' · OCKRELl.. Any poll ta · o'r p r onal tax~ .. General DAVIS. Not a poll tux· th r vas 'a tax on provi ion ~. Mr. NELSON. W ther any land tax 1 . ,-enerafDAVl . Yes ir. Th land tax wa a. e ·ed in ome'wbat tbi mann r: Th tax gath rcn,; ' er ver,vwherc; nod th y k pt watch ·o f everrth ing; thev kft w what ~tch man produced; they knew the number' of quintal~ of ugar th~t CRme out of cvQry mill, tmd they ignro a part of thnt as l'O t of pr duct.ion. In ·ugar it Wil 75 per nt, and the t· maind r wru; in om ·at the market value, whatever it migbt be. · if ·a man produ d 1 • quintal. of colT 2 500 was J'rofit,' aud on that an a s ·m nt of tax f r the muni ipality was laid which r uch d· u ually 7 p r ent for th municipality and 5 per cent was coli t d fOl' th insular government, which made a tax of 12 perc nt in all. · Ml'. .PETIIOREW. What tni nl' rl\ls ha.,·e they? Gen raJ DAn . Non . Mr. ·PJo;TIIGREW. No tin I . General DAn~ . Ther WI\S tal~ · of it but it was based on Sl'h Ill of promot rs. Mr. LARK. Ko · pper ~ · / G neral DAVl ', No; .color bit e been found, nna pit: hnvl' hecn urik. but· nobody ha ev r ~orked any coppet· or tin ·or I ltd mines. Iron ore in gr at abund'an~ xi · t -, but .none bali ve~ been worked _ J\11·. 0ALMNGEH. What ahout th wat r upply for dom Rtic u. e 'l 'General DAVI .. It · a lim to11e ountr\· and the watet· i impr gusted with lim . Th i land i,; niiles wid , and the tream can not . .ther fore I.>C mu ·h mor tban ·2 mile in fength, and you can ,not hav~ a greltt . wat r pow r a:lthougb ther are a f• w Qf orne valu . ~no river ti e neur th outh nd of th island and traverses its . entir~ width about 40 mile per hap more than · 40 mile in length in ~t: windings and. tnrning . On that there i a Witter power at pr nt not uti liz d which could d velop about 1,5 bor power, and to this there a.r two riva,l claimant , tell,. trh·ing to gain it .but theTe bas b en no fran hi granted inc tb • military occupation by the retury of War. . · .. · Mr. GALu:NoJo;R. 'Vhat about railway in th i land1 Genel'nl DAVI . Th 1' ·a re fowr 1\11 ambitious -chcm which might perhaps be call d u rnilw_a y, but the otb rs m· m r · tramway. Mr. ~ic ' ll . You tated that about 6 perc ht of th peopl were found qualifi d to ,·ote nd that th y aJI .want d to regist r. Dm·ing the lt}Ctions w rc th ~ pr ding ord rly 'l ·· General DAvts. 1 1?erfectly ord rly, if J. maintaine" ord r. Mr. CocKRUL. 'What about th borne. of the ·rople and their babits- th great bulk of tb . ommon people-a to obriety and

ne

~00~ ~

.

Gen t:al DAVI . The low r-cl p,eopl in P.u rto i oar very m~h li){e tb >.!RUJ , cia~< c in aU den ly populated tropieal caunt1·ie . Th

53

· trligS"I for exi"!tence goe on tho tune as in othor countrie., ut the elimat 1s mild' r and they do not have to contend with ·old s wo do in lothing i of I R impot·tunco thnn wh t•e we bnve northern cou ntri c . z ro wetttber; nakcdne. sis ·ommon among children up to 4 or 5 years • of uge, especially mnong the boys. · 1 Children nre wry often . een entirely nnkcd. Mnny thou nci(l-,-perhups tens of t~ousand. ·-do not, as a matter of htlbit, wear cl thing; but thnt is common tLII over th world in tropical countrie . A~ to the li1tbit: of obri tr, the common intoxiCRting liquor nvtde )I' distilled in Puerto Rico is rum, the produ •t of the s ugnr .cune, lBde from molu.sse i and it is ·habitually u~ed by almost nll--"lasses, es ecially the pow· rca. scs, and is sold at 11 voi·y low price: but drunke ness is not . n eommon tmit ttmong the people, although there tlte m~ 1y <J(I..':Ies of di. orders growing out of intoxication. · 'l'h' lower clas. when they get intoxicated do a othe~ people do when they nre drunk, their nmitie and per onal anim ). i.tie: are excited and thor nre stabbings and shootings ~~~ in other Ia :As r gnrd inunorality, I tlhould ~:~ay that it .is-not more comnon tha 'n ot11 r tropicnl countrie ,and many temperate regionB. Tber is a ~rea deul of prostitution in the citie. , but among the poor people ery httle. Th IQtUTiage relntion is a vei·y unstable ~ one there; tl:iei: are many who do not contruct marriuge. They live tQgetller and trea each other a: fnithfullv llS wives und hu band.. The ratio of illegiti tes to the wbolt• uumi101' of birthtl i8 not higher than it i.· in the Brit ·h i lands • The mtio in 13n.rhrtdos and TliQidad and' Jamnica i. nenrly ·om a half to two-thit·ds in tho. e Briti h islands whd e stil.tistics I h 'P 1ru3d to look up. In Puerto Rico the ~utio is tlhorlt half. The CHAIRMAN. How are tHes cbi lGren ctu·ed for? .Gen ' l'!ll DAVIS.' ually by the mother, un le · the mothe · di~s or is disabled? when they become waif·. Thor i. only one refug . in Puerto Uit·o ana that is maintained by the central government . . · :Mr. PETIIGnE\V. The fathet· gen 'mtly l,h·c. with the oth r, and they support the family together, although not married~ . General. DA y1s. Yes . ir; but if. the father neglects his a,n~ily, or 1Litreats hts mistress, be d'eset·ts htm tlnd takeR UJ? with n:n thei· man. ~Ir. PETIIORJo:\y. What is the rea on gh·en for 11legitima .r? G neral DAvi , I think it gr.ow. out of habit. I do not· hink you co~tld as ign nr(r p1trticulur -r~al-. on for it. fhe 9H~ut:\IAN. Is it not IIi fa t that cbur h marriage. ure VOI'Y •xpen tve ~ 1 · ' I · G neral DAVI . Thnt bas been a erU¥]., l;lut think the st tement is not supported by the fa.ct. . 1The co. t l of mat·riage de pet ds oh the nbilitv of the man to pay. tt may cost .31100 or $1. T e <\<>· t of a wedding depends on the hoQI!. at which it occ\1rs. The hOur is n~idnight, and. re ·koning back from midnight, ~ t i Ie. . tve, until you g t ~ dttylight. The priest: tell me P •rson hns no menn no charg1 are made. There are bo,yever, for .· ucp things as registration tt1ld license, ""''";,,;,..., winch have to be paid, but are not very heavy. Mr. Nieto e. a tly what the law tate. as to th li ·ense fees cxRct;(:d <'ontract matrimony. . Mr. NIETO. It i ~1.50 in municipal court~:~ . Mr. PERKIN . Are not the very indo~ent 1 I

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54

OOVli:RN~l',

T '

~'O R '1

1-: I T.ANP OF 'Pl ~RTO RJ 0.

'

"Gent'nLt DAVI . No, sit;; no · mor . o than other people who inhabit the tro~L'. · uch 1 ('Ople-tho~c in tropictti clim1tte .-.!.g en mlly Mr. ,P"f;HKI BI'C

I ·

.

Gen raJ DAV1. Th .r ltr no ns .n rgetic in di ·positi on Rnd ~nn r as th ' Angl -Saxon in tempemte dtmate ·. but the Anglo- axon who g ' do:wn there lose hi "! en . rgr. Th Tropics have not been th e he t phu.•e .for the A ng lo- ttxo n to r>'bow hi energy. n sueh climatrs they ar u~ually the OV"t: •r . • th mnnag r~ . . tt. . · The 'nALTtM N. You hav• .'J>Okl'n. of nm1. 'Vdl ~·ou te l~ us ~on,l ~­ thlng about that, it . t t of prodm·tron fLII~ ~ow .prod~1te~ 1 I lll!k tin . witli r ef r nc parti LLlarly to th<' prop?s1t1on 1.11 this ~~~~ to x~~.n~ · our·intet·nal-r venue l1\W ~ th r e. Rmu 1:1 tt qunllty of d1stdled sprrrt I · n ral DAYI . Y ,' ir; from the molafl "l' or ~,v-prod u ·t!! of t~ug1u. It i manufa ·tured th r bv two clr 'l of di ti ll ri • One ~ondu ted "!>y th large ugnr manufacturer, who w~rks up the hy-products- th was~ and dripping:, and . cree.ning::; a1!d skimnungs of th · t.8l.1ks- and oonv(\rts th. ~11 , by mean.· of ,s nnpl ~ ·till · kn~\\; 11 by the local nan1e of alambiqu . Into I'llllJ . ~here i · another ch't,; of manu fa ·turers who buy molR · ·es nnd C~)n ­ duet the buo:~in ~:>s indep ndentl.,r, but mot·e t han half of the rilm, I . uppo e t\v.o -thirds, is 'fol!nufa~tu,red b): the stwll.l' m ~ke rs n ,; rt part of the procesr fot' com· •rttng s u mr .ean m to a mat·kctahlo product. 1 1ll.m onJ:v gin ,. u . uth .'tatisti in -th matt 1' as I wa able to colle t m SOID what. of. a hurry3 tmd . not \"er;y sati fa tory, d01iv~d from• ~he repo r~ oi the alcald · of town as to the number of retail hquor d ~al e r'.l n.n th number oi distill •l'ies.. Tb' number of distil~ cri 'S as r •ported b th stati tics coli cted in .the manner I hitve staU#, wn about 200. :rh . number of l' ~i) dealel'i4 i " 'O~le!-hi ng Jik,e 2,000 a AhOWn by ·th r :ord . Th produ'"t of the d!Sbllerre:s, and ·I am not abl to di rimirmt b tw n th stHI conduct" d by the.sugnr maker and the till coodu ted ns a t?arate bilsine ·;;.for th year 1897, was 1,500,000 gallon . 1 'do not thmk these tigure n~ry reliable, .but. they rept·ent fl_lirly , th .amqtu1t of r~!J-1 produ e~ Jn Pu .rto R1co ,m that year. · a nd t)j.a.t ww aJmo. t . ·clusn· l,v U .' d 111 the 1 land. The a\· I' ge t~e lling pric is a.bot'lt ..,5 to 40 cen per gallon. Mr. FAJJ,tBANK . Hn.· that bor)l a tax I . .Gcn DAVI . No other tax th!tn th lotrtl one imposed by th e· insular O\"Cl'llUle'nt on tbe in omo f the ri1anufacturm. The in ·omcs ar ta.xed, and vha ve1· income th manufnctlll'er d rives from the manufo.etur of rum he pa~·:; tux upon. .· . . Xhe HAiinrAN. What would he th effect of 1mpo '111 0' a tux of jj\~.20 per gnllon ~ · · n r:al DAvt. I think it would ell' ·troy, for he time b inlt at ·I t, the indu UT. I think it would rai ~e tli pdee beyond the t'ltpo.city of the . ople "to pti.y. In ot,h I' word!'!, th r~uu would. hnYe to be sold at whole~ale for tthout ill .50 per· gttllon anrJ. at r etml for three ti.me wliat they pn.y 11 w. . Omduully th _,. woLild n~lapt them,sel-:es, and in time they{ would do as pcopl .do h!'re, but 10 ~he mennt.1me moon hining wou d a pre,·alent as It wn. fo~m~Jy )n the mted

raJ

tate._.

Mr. GALLINGER: . 1· noti c~d in

·It

r cent nrtic:le i

stated •thnt ther e 1 I a tnx 1n Sau Jmm on h1·cad •

t~e Fonu:n they h1ch amount.':! o

GOV J.:RN~ENT

~·0 1~

THJ<:

l'UJo:RTO

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,aoiooo.a ye11r, one. upon moat·

IL }j • nsc nmoun ing to fi\l:l3,()0f> on iquors of 161,800 n .rear. .· · . General DAVI . Thct·o i~ no tnx upon r ead oi· upon men.t· nu: qlutcly non . .That is untru . There j,. no tax upon them. man who 1 brinO'S IL steer into the market to be ,.(a ghtercd ha to pay slaughter fcc of 161 or 161.50. There is no tax up n hr·end. A man O\ "" an von . anc1 oporatc1:dt 11ndmnke. 11 .p rofit upon 't; be pnyHa bl.XJ OA. ifl inc: . me1 but 110 other tax. "\>Vho vor made tho. statement bu•.,~d 1 on an old law, but thtlt <:onstunption tax ha,'l be •n lbsolutcly remo\•ed :om every artide of food and bevemg nnd fuel c n. umed bY' the poo . Mr. GALLINGF.:Lt. Do you mean it wt\l · r enwved prio to m· occtlpationl . · I Genei'!l.l DAVI . No, ,;ir ; since then.. "' Mr. GALtiNOER. l. think the tater cnt wa that ·uch a tax ·was "imRo ed .under pani;;h rule~ 6 •ner'!l.l DAvr . Thnt i. very likely. Ther e i ~:~ IL tax on li ~or owheavy lic~n s~ fee. 1 1 I The C1IAinMAN. Of whnt !Lmount '! < General DAVI . Varyin$ froin %30 t ;i;36Q. The CHAUtMAN. What r.; the bnsi of the variation~ General DAvl . Tlie · ill of. the city a d tile needs of th e in which the ou. ines:s i ::~ done. 1 · Mr. 'CooKuEu. A municipal tJl.x ? General DAVIS. Yes; sir. . .Mr. CooKUEr,L. It doe . not go to whol~ i~;land , bu where the saloon i ~; lo ·at~d ~ ' · I I · · 1· General DAVIS. Yes, 1r. The CHAiRMAN. Do they have reguJ r saloons there 1 . General DAvrs. "Not in the sen e own in this coun y . I.Liquor oiling at r etail is carried on thor il connection with a groc~ry or 'Solnc other bu iness. There ar~ sepnr te place. , b\tt in ni e ~s put of ten they sell their rum in connectio · wit~ other things, uch lls groeries, perhaps ll.· littlc ha1·dware or dr good~. . · Mr. DEPEW. In other words, our co mtr ·tore. · General DAvi . Yes, sir. Tho CHAIRJ\IAN. Have th y other in xicantl ~ General DAVIS. Yqs, sir; but not to ny 1greltt· extent. The CHAIRJ\JAN.' "\>V:hat aoout beer? General DAVIS. ·A very lal'ge amou of beer i · no\v i orteU into the i ·land; in fa t , b9er drinkmg i be' omjng the r.ule. The CHklRMAN. Displacing rum ~ . • 1 Geneml DAVIS. Ndt so much as imp rted win ·, such as •laret!! tlind light wines from Spain and Fran e. 1 con nection with t e matter of rum , 1 ~vant to say that fee ntly, by n ilitat:.' · order, a tax bf 3 cen a liter-tlbont 11 cent':! It gallon- Is b i <r impo. d ~tnd col lected now, bc1ng for the b ncfit af the island, thi. und ,,. military orderi4 which ·! 1 have i sued. . I . • • · Mr .. D~;PEW. How ahout drunkenn •ss und 'r th1~ com;umptwn of 1 rum! / I · Gcn raJ DAVI.. Tlie1· is more or e. s of it, much a: in our own (·o untr~· , but the peoplo. arc not a ·unkcn p oplc. The chrorlic drunlmrcls ar ,. ry fbw: :; ·ut·cel.r rvet· ~ec one. But th peoplc- tpe poor nnd lal o1·ing pdoplc- are all im~ ovid •nt; they have no conce.p-

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I tion (If thrift 1', ('{ nomy. ' ' vhtgH' IJI\nk 1\1' unknown. One Will! tsb(i hi'd thl'l'(', nut ,i t \\'I'll( tO pi l'('>!- faileu, tlrok dOWn- and th re .i no tdngs hnnk. ' ThP pc pi nr ,. i·y improvident. When a man gc>tl hi,; pay lw d()('s tt<4 tL lnhoret· i11 thi~:~ . eountry does- spend i ~ n·• ti1n •s in aL propt>r, but nmn.v tinws in nn improper wl\ty. Mr! Pt.TJ'Iotn:w. \\' ho mr the people who own the lo.r •o ~;tate~;; art' lbc~· pcopl~ bo~:n· in th island ' .. 0 nN'Ill DA''lS. m of thc111- l would not he o.bl to AAY defi. nitel.v- ar nativ Pu rto Ri ·nnR, and a larg r proportion paniards. 1 ThPrt' 1tr '' few large u~'l\r e tat · owned by F1·encb, and one or two by American~:~ and a few hy Englishm n. . Mr. · PETTIORF.W. Th paniard,.; of \Vhoin you peak w r born in Spain t Oericrnl DAvt . I think more thnn half of tb . ugnr proprietors imd manufactureno may ·!j ' pnniards: not hnlf of. the c·offe produ ·er . Mr. PETTJORF.W. Tb mo!it of tho,; . nrc nattv s~ Oencrnl DAVIS. Y '"• sir. • Mr. P~to REW. '\ haLt kind of people nrc th y ~ .,an th y rend· and · write~ G ·nel'81 DAV.J m <!tLn, n good many can not. Mr. PltTJ'lOREW.. What of th m I' ·mtile ell\.""? 0 nerat'DAYI . The_v· ar largely paniards. Mr. Ptt'I'l'IOUF.W. Not citiz n , really, of th • i!lland 'i G n rnl DAVI. No, ir; pr . n ·ingtheir pani.·b mLtionality. ,They bu until April t&- d t nnin whether they will r main punish or becom Puerto Ricans. Mr. PKTTIOREW. -W hnt ·per c nt of the husines. men. lawyQr, judge ·, .d tors and merchants a1·e' nu.ti,·es of the i land ~ G ncral DAVI . Nearly a ll of them. .Mr. PRTTIOREW. · All nati've? nernl DAVI . Ye . ir. 'Mr. Pm-rtGREW. A cnl>.nhl • dnss of peopl r~ Gene n•l DAVIS. Y · 1t. • , , Mr. Pt1TTJOREW. Hav you 1\11.\ ' id<'a bow mnny tb re are~ Gencrnl DAVl .. Tb r ar abqut <'Vcnty .lawyet· ' in the i land. Mr. PETTWREW. Any doctors? Ornern) DAVI . I do 'not know the ex1u.:t numl.ler but l suppo they · are in abOut th ~me_prop rtion:; ail in other plaees. \ Mr: "PETTIGREW. Who is regard 'd as the t~bl st law.\·cr in the .i land ~ Oen raJ DAvr. A ingle indhridunl I Mr. PETI'roRE>w. Y sir. Oenel'lll DA'v1 . I should hardly I able to tell. The chief ~ustice . . tan!J.s at tb,e h d of the I gal profe."'. ion; the president of the Coll ~ge of Da.wrer i o. very abl man, nam d- l · Mr. PETI'lGRF.W. Nath· Pu rto Ri nn. ~ General DAn . Ye · ir·. · Mr. PJ7ITIGREW. W II· <'ducated! n 1'81 DAn . Y , ir; he i o. uni\· rsity man. Mr. P~IGREW. nsider d a capt\ble mane · · General DA;vts. ;yes ir· entirely o, .in their own law. They nre not familiar with our law. . Mr: DEPEW. Hoe th civil law go,·em tb r ~ ~ Genel'lll DAns: Ye ~:~ir; th rOdigo ch· il and be codigo penal, . . based on ~e old Roman law. . . #

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Mr. PERKINS. Wn!l thil:! man du at d in' the Unh·cr~:~ity of Ctt a~ Gl'neral DAVl . Ye , sir; or in Malirid. A. great man); were edu. cut d in tb U niver ·ity of Habann, almanr more- in Spnin. ' . . ~r. DF.l'JoJW. The law does not ditfe m eh fl·om th!' old Lou s io.na law ! . · G neva! DAvlR. Np, 'r- it i . th 88 e law to all i tents and pm·poscs thR.t t•xistt'd when we purchuil aLouil:!iann; pntcticttlly the sa.me lnw i. now in for ·e in the island of P erto Rjoo, and the English are admini~;terirlg now the . ame law. T e criminal htwj of tb islands been adapted to ' the criminal tnken hy tb English from Spain h cod we .a.re familiar witb1 but the civ law now administered in her ~,:o loni e that were ta.k n trorn Spain is the snme n. that of Spuin. Mr·. PERKINs. 'The writ of habeas co us is in cx i ~t~we1 General DAvrs. Yes1 ir. · ' Mr. PERKIN~: Till\~ IS not the eJISe in the ch·i .Jaw~Geneml.DAvrs. No, sir. · The CHAIRMAN. What is the sy. tell of gavernment you would . recotpmend 1 Genel'81 DAViS. Some time since, in jobedience to order from the Depa~ent I submitted some views o . civil ~over\11 ent. Without tlttemptmg-,~ The CHAHU\fAN. Tbnt was your repo t 1 wus iH eneml DAVIS. Yes, sir. · ,. The CHAJRMA . Of whnt date ~ (iebernl DAVI . eptember 30, 1 99. The print you have here i a preliminary print,- and I • have found a ronny error in it. It is being- repnrtted, wit!:. seveml oniissions The s ubject\vas one df very great gmvity, and I entered a go d deal of hesitation. Fir · t of all an offic of the asl:no t of u hav.e b Qn, bas bad v ry little op~rtun i familiar wlti1 matters of civil government, political; civics, apt!: it was a difficult question; but I nddres ed witn• such ~ndustry as was p.o~sible, and in this 1' port of civi l ~overnmen which seemed to me likely to ·prove At the t1rnk I WI'Ote this I Wt~'l not awat·e that Americans an experient·e of a similar •nature before. · · • I . 1 [ refer to Louis iana. I had no to an)[ statute. when I wrote thi, paper., and I wn,; not then aware the gqvcrnment of Louisian11: and a legi Jatnre consisting \Was conductl}d for eight year by a go,·e of thirteen p r on aP.pointed by the The government I recommended ww similar to that. It a governor appointed by the Pre idcnt with the ad.v ice and tlie Senate, a cabinet or ndmini trotive council, bolding to th~ go,-ernpr as is held in the tates by the ' retary of auditor, attorney-~· ner~l, commissioners of education and· interior po t and t elcgrap , making even in all. 1 I also ugge ted that there be incl in thi. executh·e ouncil, · whi ·h was tli name I gnve it, four Puerto Rica s of chluacter and respectability, whp could be in this body and form, with :others, !lin ex cuti\-f> cbuncil,·to powers.such nsl~ legis 1 to be subje i to the lnture exerci e in the United v to of the gov rnor and hi in the same mahner as with u . I al. o ugge ted a · an the introduction of ~ legislative as embly, nil the member. elected by lt be peopl . ·1

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OOVli;R li.J<~NT FOH eTHt: 1/'ll, t\NO 0 1•' ' J>UEWl'O J,tl 0.

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IJ OWPV r, '~• ith' hn,t 1'(\t'OillliWndattion tiHn •u"g:('. t~d condition tlmt Ul tiJ ml lrgi~lnti otl :<hould f)(•, i.ni tittt xl in the 0~\:l'lll lti vo I'OUII Cil , tmd thnt the furu:fon" of th • l q~i~ lttti vo a:<l'!rmhlr ,.,hould lm limiwd to ~~ r~l t•ti,tn. o f rl'!t~mtb'" · that tlw lrg-i,.,ln.tiv!l n....st•mhl y ·~<hould ·not lu• mpahlt• of m_,·r.ra"mg tl l(l ~l,low!~m:t' proposed hy tbl' exo ·uti.,·o l'oum·il for· the n~lmnll strll.tt otl of tbt• l:'! lllnd, hut that thrv should lirwc thu JlOWl'l' of geno ml legi~lation out.~idr of that. · · In th11t }1'0po:~rc1 form of g(J,·e t·nmcllt I wat~< keepilw, in hu·tre degree in ruiqd th t•on><ti tuti o" " of the "" ''i'J~d British colot~.cs uond'ul'tocl ina~ :•nt!"f"dory m.n~n qr, and _whi.~.h hn vP g iwn to theit· p oplc ull. the Iii~- . ertlt•,.. , ul\d prJnleg(•s whal'b th • law · of anr t'Otmtrv :;ocure tot· t heu· . people. But l't't't'ntly I have drrot~·d mu(' h· mo · tiine to thr ma,ttc r than when 1 wrotn the report und 1 .l mn• I'OIIIP th t•ondu ion thnt it would 1)1• wi~l' to omit the r,..tnhli,..hmcnt of IL le«i Riativc nssemblv. until ~<Oill(' ' timl' h1ts pa.~,..,·d. and until. h_,. netuitl d~nonktmtiun, it {~ , bqwn that thl' proplc o f l'u rto ltko l'ltn eondud munit'i{ml go\' •rn . nu•nt "'ltisfadoril r. • Tli.- <'XpCl'illlt'llt i,.. now he.ing trit>d: r leeti.ons nre hning b >ld, ahno:;t toru'pl c.'t •\J, fo r th e ehoi1'l' of munit·ipal o flkial ;,, ,vbo atro to be plneed in Offil'c through th e CXl'l'l'i"o of the fram·hi,..e- n limitl'd ft'l.tnehi;;r. 1 think it wo.nli:l he Wl'll to wait nnd C!' what >JilcCos.' attends tho ffort.~ of th o:;o peopl to govern mtmil'ipalitic.· w •II. In the pll:st t hey hnvc l · been g m·ern d extr'mnel.v' b1idly. a nd arc now being governed. badly. Mr. PJo~TTJO Ju;w.l \Vot•,.; tl1an ou r ('iti . · ~ Grneral DAVJI'. Yl!il, "i'1'. . . )!r. PETTIGUEW. Wor~e than , ,;·,·ago or Ne w Ym·k I , ~en ml, DAvt.. · thin~ ·o;. I thi?k th e.r i ahno~t everything to h e de:sn·e~ : Th troubl' w1th. th e Lat!n m e', th • ed ulj\\ted l?eople u. we ll . ns th 1g n6mnt, or at .least the Latm mcc ·o fnr a:; 1 httvc had a n op- · portunit~· to ohs n 'e it in M x ico. ~l'w Mexico, Q•nt ml America, uba,and Pucrto;Rko, is•thatth willlngne. ·. of .. the minority tottc •ept · t_h e will of ·.th majority seE'mi< to be ntircl y lacking . The nmjority lieret for.e hn · al~vay·s b .en in . ,rm Lthy with the Crown or King~ l\lr. N.:u N. You mcun ilie' minorit,·? G l1E'rnl D ,wJ , 1 m an th'e m ~tjor itv . It could not h1we bcm\. the majo\'it.,,. unl e>Js with th rown. 'lcalliborty of nction was unkn own. T~ pc~~~- g n cra~J }!n.y~ ~o eon <'<',P~i on ~f politiml rig.hts combin·cd · Wit~ politl('al r spon>S tbllltt "· Pnnleg ,,.. th y t\ll de 1ro, but they 8eem to han• 5·ery little. eoneeption of politieal re pon,.ihi'lit.y and the obligution of ~~II to lbow to the will Of th - majo t·it.\'. · . M~r. PEITIGJtEW. Do y ou think there i. un~· prosp d of ueq uir1 mg tt l · . G•neml DAVI r do . . ::\1 r. l'Fl'ITIGltEW. Without it~ X('l'l'iSe ·? Grm' ml DAVII". They will hn,·c it.,; exerci:-<e in tht • m unil·ipalities and. in_a .c.c rtuin d •fcc. !n thi;: lcgi~ lati ve •·otuv·il. I wish to r e{>l?at a c.'Crt.um per" tml <'XfX' t'IC'nl' •. ThP .d uty wn. de,·oh·cd UJ?,<?n m to rxen·1r«" the govt' r,nm rnt of thi" i,.Jand", cid l us well fl>i mllitury. I f~und my:-<elf llJhtu·t:ns:<<'tl . in many l'nse,; b.'· lllf htl'k of ~tcqwbintnnec w1th th pcoJ?IC. tllctr lnwt~. custom:<. f.lntl inst1tuii n.. I d l'ided to bring to my u1d ni1 ath·i,..or.r t'Outwi l, and laRkl'd • I ad( r of each of the two p n•dominunt politil·a.I parti<'" to nmn th l' men to lue who 1 uld mnkc p:tt·t of "ul·h a\ •·oum·i l. and I a"krd a p r mine nt p ei·r•On(.'lot 0

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l't'ICl:lj lll • :tn ~I Way t0. nm te t h I"() 0 th Cl'li, lila llJg' II IIIII l'l)llnC •t' d W..l th poI jn ull. They WN'e ·nanled, and 1 constitu(Pd thPm an n~vi. ory cbtln ·il, ulltirLtiv s of the island cxcl'pt, porhap,.., otto, who was OOl'll in A1ltNit11, that who ·hud' lived thc t·c..for~O ,yt•ur,... I . Thi council h1r:; be rr .of ·cnt ILI!Hi:-<tnt~l:e to me. wlhcn n q ~esLi1 n !L::! to whtLt would h e l'ig tt and hcst ~br th~ •intot:CS .t h e i~>~hLIIH, . 1 hnv 1·ef rrccl thcm 2 'pcrhn . ~< many hundred>< in numhtir, to thi" ntlri~ory coun cil, tt1id 1t has !'<'ported and nmtio suggo;jtion. Jn one n~btn ·e 1 wa~ mllcd .upon hy the Dcpautmcnt to nominnto om11 m on .for :;upervi:so rs of th e ccn::~u~< :;even me n,' with th n oomlition ttmt they ~h ould bc mtth·l's· and re::~ ide 1 t:; of the seveml di~>~tl'ict.':! whPre th{l c .,;. su" was to bo tn kcn. Lncking neqmLi1itance )vith p e t· on~; in eal'h nf these eli. tricts 1 1 us ked the ~o uncil · to 11 s ist mp, and to ~-Jugg •st the 1111111el:i of 1:11 ven p er sons for t ·esc positio1lH. 1 · Aft'r two or thr c ilays' '· onsid.cmtjon o_f ~h.e JntL~t. t•l_ wus wititcc\ npon .ll. three m c.ml iCr::~ of tHe ndvt,..ot·,v t\()Unetl, ttll b01pg 111 mbPt's of oM politicnl pnrty, who tol~ me they htLd ~~m e to l'CIHlA mce th :it· uppomtin nt.<:~ · that they l'OU!· not :;crvc.'. why They .·ni d lit wlls becausn the nmjo1·ity lm . cen tit to . tl1e names of...p ·sons not in y rnpnth,r with t~cma had . th(\Jnand wm·e unwi · 1 , to g iv'> to then· ptLrty •th e I? ·omi cy thought lt de. c t·vcd , tm thm~efore they wi heel to reR 1~n , . followed !1.':!. 'e rtion. of inju,H· tic-c ttiJd wrong trentme nt by e . r inquired of the majQr.i ty us to this nmtter nnd fo tu1d t tLt the ~ u bstu:ntiaHy us shLWO , ulthohgh they gtwc ttnother v~·:sion of r : But 1 !:!aw there \VI\S n'o u. e uttemptmg to obtain a y useful lt.~, from th eir t·oeommend . tL· tion, and r . ettled tho matter hy ng-it· ft·om thoir consideration and settled i~ nty own ' y. As as ttli!i hone of eant c'n tion wns removed they went on as smoothl y. before. · ,The CHAinMAN. Do you think th ·f lea ned any irnportiLIIt or , useful I Si<O ll ~ . • Geneml DAvts. I think tha ·wns one most useful instructions Rico, 'sjtuntcd 'as it 'is they could r el'eivl' , and any governor in he as. nmed ftc would h r;ituated, do ju. t ns I <,lid, and he would be l'Ontinuallv doing that. He rn ~k e us~ of thcir 1ud vice und . profit by it. ife would! ig nore th atdnt·c if it was bit sed or

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The CHAlHMAl\'o What I ' a. · trying to ng ut was thnt it \fll · due ., to their htlving l?articination · n IJ'n'vP.•·· h rrui n thtLt they. wet·e able to have tbis le son, nnd tf we er-xclud d not they then be dut off~ Geneml DAVIS. I think if they hnve c6ntrol in th e ·' trt uni cipaliti arid full legttl r epro. entation in executive counei~, with uch power of consultation us I have MUI~m~sL•Ba . they wouf<i have excellent mettns of tutoring. Mr. PETTIOru:w. Hn~e yo of \'Olll'S ~ . Geneml DAVIS. With a go tlnmny;· all , and pei·hap::~ not a very huge num ber. -, · /· I Mr. PEITIGREW. Did it m et with tho approval 'I _j General DAVl . I thfuk it ~id ; of. all leading business m.en and tbo.-e m n who did' not have politicul ' Mr. PETTIGREW. By llhat yo u mean General DA VI Y cs,; sir.

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Mr. Pl~TTH.ttfl\ j . Did you tulk w.ith tho nlttive 'born or paninrd:~l · flt•nernl DA\'1!'1. 13oth. · Th<•t'l' ru·. d lcgntion8 in th • ity who can enlightl'n ,-ou on thut «uhjt•<•t. ::\l'r. lh:i•f:w. I suppos tltt' l'l'lll ><trength of Ute 1 ~vcrnn; nt yo 11 propo"l' willlll• that whih< in til tho ooutlt AmcriCtLn Llltin · ·ountrie thP mino ity gO<'~ into rl'\'Olution if they do not g t their way.· h rea r ,·olutiou would I . utterly hopei ><. and th y would have to ttppeal to . . • . thl' pcoplt• b.\' Anlel'l('l\11 mcth()(L<; I lifineml D V. tll. Th~· re could not he a ·u · ful revolution. The pet pit> a!'l.' not nr.t 1 •d nor helligrrent, nor hn,· th ,. m· r lx•en i1r revolution agttin t thl'ir former so,·e rl'ign. and l think there i. no tendon " to revolution or o(x'n r istmw . · \hr H ffi:IIA ·. 'Fhcy 1\1'<' kindly -dispos d people, genornlly~ · Grn rat DA " ' ~'~· Y s. flir. · 1\lr. }Jc ' MAli. " rhat i" .\'OIIT CXp<'l'tation COncerning th ptLni:;h bu ine~ . m~n~ . A!'l' they 1~pt tor main with th local commumty, ·or apt' to retain p8Jllsh allegmnce I · Ucncml .DAVJ . I think tb latter. forth • J,Jre.·ent, and wnit to ee what l'Oili'!'IC events will takt• and then d • ·id )f they wish to b ·orne nntuntlizcd.· Hut mo. t of thr hu:i~ne,.;,.. men. IH~ti\'C:< of the peninsula, will t·rtain their ' ptLni sh 1\Jlf'l,riiLill'Ci for the pr sent. Nr. J.'AliiRANK Did · you state thr numoor of ~panitu·ds i.n th. ·i sland I Gen rnl DAn. Merl'h' nppmximateh·: it would be impo ibl fpr mr to giw any I' ·ntt fig'ur s. The de 'tamtion. t\re now bcing ·tLI)<on und r ordt•rs of the Depttrtru nt, u:nd until April it will not b known how mnny that nrtubor rei~rb . hn.\'e hnd • ti t~ate. lml<l to me all •pttnisb nnd tht' way fmm 50, J to 150.000 1\1'1 the num r of th th ir eh iJdr n bor~ · in pain. Iunder tund thut children of paniard~ born in Pu rto Hi co 1\re• Puerto Hi an ·, follqwing .the d •ci ion o.f the Unitt•d ~.tnte Supreme ' urt in ' imilar cu es. T&ero are a large ·numl)('r f or. ican who t\re, of our e, French 'ubJects. They may or rnny no£ wi h to pre"' rve th it· nationality o1· r tam their allegianc'o to Enme •; I · T.b HAlRMAN . I · tmdet·.;btnd you renew your recommends .ion ·, t'xc· pt with the modifimtion of th I gislativ bmnch ~ · . .. . Ger rnl DAvt . . Y • ·• ir. •. Th H IR~N. Your rl'I'OIIIIIIendntion in this re ·peet commence at ptlge Ui of vour r port of ' pt •mb r 3 th? . G oeml b VIS. Yes, ir; tbi wa reprintcd.ft·om n dmft nt to the .D partment and ~~~ the Ia t pttge of it there wt\>J a paragraph omitted, but tht' pag o.f the c01·r ct d editioh may be diff rent. . . Thf' ~~" ". A ' ·uming, for P~' nt purpo. ·, that your .Itecomm ndat\on hould be sub tnntiall~· adopted, what nmount of revenue would be nee :-!1\IT to maintain that o\·ernmentand meet·the necessary eipen ·the•· ~ ' · · · Gl'n raJ DAY18. Tlie i,.lnnd has 1\ PoPUlation (•lo ely afpl'Oximatin, a million. The rhte ta:xation. in th Unit d tate ; o~rved bjr t·onsi.t.lting ,.tuti tics ye:;terday, is mething OY~t'5 pe . r capita. If that rnt of blxntion were appl' ~ to Puerto I· o we wowd need •000. . but I do not expect ::;u~h r ovenu ca rnised in Puerto Ri<.'O atprl'se.nt. Thl' bn~g t for th.i year, prqp din May · or~ne, contemplated t.tn :\:penditurt'> of $.,000.000 for e in uJar go -ern': m nt. That d not includ m'u ni i""'' -expenditure . Two uses

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OOV;J!:RNM~:N~' FOR TH~: I SLAN D o~· J'UERTO R£ O.

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J'l'dttcej thnt tigu;·e. One, th cont(JIIULI . of ltrtid • . to t ft•e• lii:!t on~:~ to ht·mg the neees tw i so~ life to the <·onaum •rs at le s co~t. . The '.RAlitl\tA . Who hnH been nutking thoi'!C nrlditions 'l Oenernl DAvit~. Th' ·retnry of War. by ordot· of, thl' Pre;~i< Pnt, in to chet\pen th ne. 'i!!iaries of lif for the poor. Anothnl· l'alll;e hru rcdut•cd the income iH th • intlul:!triitl dcprt'H. ion , int •nsified . 1t cahlmity wh it:h ot·eu tTcd in A~u t , lw ith whi<·h .vou· ltt·n famili1tr. 11\CCOtlllt of thm;c reduction' tho c;xpcc ·d incotho from uw•tm ns nlonc of ono and on -h1tlf millions will pl'Ohuhly vm·y little oxt·4wd ~~ tltillion; it nmr reach n tllillion two hundt·ed thou. tnd. I do not th\nk it l'!Ln rxt·ecd thnt. Hnlf n. million wus expect d fmn~ int 1 nul tnxntion of vuriout~ kind • indud •d in whil·h if:! It hunthcd tj).ou,..1md of hac·k tnx s owed dnriJ•g·diffel'l\nt ~·f'IU'" '1mk1· SptLni~h I'Ontt·ql. But t.h1• d Ji<tt'III'tiun l'lt.used hy the ~<torm, a nd thr indu,s h·inl d.upt·cHsi<~n, hu,; nuid n !t i111p0~~11Jio for It gl·c•nt lllllllY of the people to filLY theu· btXl'l'l. ft IS not fikcly that oo that itf'm .moro than ~::.!fiO,OOIJ mn be l'ojll'l'lfd thi. · Judging from the l'ILJ:lacity of thl' islnnd to puy taxc~, ILml on of pn•,.;ent btrilf mte~< and the eondition of theit· 4nd · l'ics, [ '"'""'"· suy 1t would I e impt·udi'!Jt; to I~XJWet to obtnin ntnt·c t 1 1\ Ilion ttnd 1L half from allsont'l'l':<. 1 i\lr. Pt:TTlVIU<lW. siqJpose \vt• ~hould l' p(•ltl .t h. tnriff', l'j() us fl'l'l' mdo with the ntt•d ~tiLt(',; '! UPneml DAVI . Thnt ' ·ottld l'ut it ,;till 11101'1!. Mr. Pt;TI'Win.:w. How nmc;h! Ornr,ml DAvt><. [t would I'Ut it JLI·1out in two. ~ Jr. Nt;t.SON. W' lmt dpPH ,VOIII' plnn cdntemplatu in t•egaml (t o cu.~tom>~ ILnd intcmHLI-I·nv~·nuc ti~X.l'S. .An• thl'y to go into tho *'' noml fund; or be dl'\'Qti•d xelusi,·el.r to that t:ountry1 · Urn •t·nl DAvts. It i>~. of eout .· , intnmt Hal whem th •money c·ontc. hut th<'." llJU>'t ha,· ~~ larg ro\·enu to ltd ministe r the 1tlf11irs gove rnment. ;\ly ,.uggrstion is tlmt nil eoJie('tion.; inut·e to tllo but lmu looking to ·ro theso·ur~Ps ft·om wbith 1L re \·on lll' mn ovt1 A' gent•rnJ s.r><tC)m of taxlttioll to pr.·odul'C r •von uP no11gh l'lti'IT on the govot•nm nt would amollllt to t'OI)Iisl'lttion. ),(r. PET'l'JOiu.:w. Cnn you (·oil <:t rm·en.ue enough to nminl1fin the t•nment? 0 nerul DAVJ ot fo ·two or thr•o yeat·s o uny bnsi,... ~h-. PETTIGJU:w. H w mu ·h is th sbtnding a ·my t . Grneral DAVIs. It wouli:l 'I e v •ry . mal~; It r4 ular fon·e ,;01 JCwhnt · than we hnve there now.' · I Mr. PE'ITIOltEW. How much is there now:! G nend DAVIS. Two rc~iments. i\lr. PETTIGREW. Two tnolLS!lnd 111 n 1 U neral DAVI . Perhaps a little more t in that. The pros n,t for ·e· of two regiment'!, .one of cava lr~· nnil one. of in.fantl}Y, ~Tid they would comnst·of ttbout 2,500 men, mdudm~; o. prtal m~!'· In ndditioh to this ther 'i. !l force Qf nntl\'0 troop in IU'O i rand. t·. CocKRELL. How many are there of them~ Oen rul DAvl· . ·Ahout 400 or uOO• ~Ir. CooKRELL. Of:licered by nntive ·? H~:n t·al DAvi . In 'part. ~lt· .. PErrtORJo.:w. Any urtiU t•y '!

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Ot'lll'l111 Jlo\n. Two ~·ompn nit•. : · ~h. P•:TTHHu-;w. How 1111111." m n in It I'OIIIJ111m· 'I . ( h••u•rul .lh n>~. .Th1• Pntil·t• n~g-1 l'g"llk for1't' 1111 (Jut\· now. pt'PSPnt am[ nh"'l'llt. thl' nh><l•nt hPing- . on : futlt u~h, in ho,;pi.Cnl:;: Pte., lt!liOtmt"' to nlH.IUt ;uJt>o. n>h,Jnh•t•t· nnd I'Pi-tuln . · :\!r. I-'AIIIIIA110K8.' t'ndt•t• ~pani,..h nuthorit.y wi•rp tit• 1'1'\'('lllll' dt'l'in from th1• ' taritf nml intt•nml taxi'" in tlll' i,..Jnu<l tlt'\'ott•tl to thP ~on•ru1114'1lt of tht• i:;lnnd t•ntit•t•h· ! · · (~l!llt'l'lll I1A\' t\'l . Jliot t•n'tit:t•·ly. ·\hout. half n million Wt'l't' "" nt .t 1 Spnin .to pny tlw I'XPt'll"'''" of lu•t· tnini,.:tr.r df tlu• t•olonit•:;: n)>out. i11ill ion w •nt to th~· 111'111\" in till' i limd. and llitl.UOO 01.· I iti,OOO to lht• ~'UPJllll"t of t I)I' l'h;t·g-_,.. :\It-. l<MIIIIA110J\,.:. Art• tlw rl' .ny lnttnil'iJ;nl oh lig~tt ion,;, dl'ht,.., ll()nd,., I'll-. I ni'IW111.1 D.wt;. Tht'\' 111'1' \'t'l'\" . nl:dl. Tlw \· itr o.f ~an .IIHUi lm,.: hondl'd i,mh•h.tt•diJ,.,.,.. ,;f tiOII.t)(lti 1 ;~o,.., tlw lo:1n 'ht•ing- plnt·Pcl for tilt' pt,n·po"'\' of'''!"· l,l'llt'ting- ~\' lttt•l'\\'lll' ·,.;, whit•h hun• ht•t•n t•on,..trul'tl'd and 111'1' Ill or,'1·ntwn. ,h. 1.:-n'liHu-;w. ll ow larg-t• a ,.l'ty i" il:! . <ii'H<'ml I) A\'I !,I. Tlw •uti l't• pop1 lation i,.: ahout +11,000. i rll'lucl ing- tlr1• old town nnd ,.:ulurh:-:. I ·Mr. lh:l'•:w. llow m'ul'ir i,.::~pto. 1 o~ Ot•nt'l111 11An,.t. It i.- (iO ,. nt.~ of our mont'\'. :\Jr. l'E'rrtl :u.:w. It w;t,. a dolb11 ~ · (l('nl'l.;t I DA \'1"'- l l'lw wort! .. JW~o .. llll'an,.: (lollttt', hut. tlw pn .·t•ul p iet• in "iln•r ! ~\\Ilion i."· -:1-1 n•nt. rl lrut t.ht• ntltt • liwtl II\· Ext•t·utin ot•c1t• •· is tiO I'Pilt,.:, · )'ti:. I'E1"rt1Ht~:w. That i" tlw t'll ~l'l' lll'\' of tht• t'Otttltn· ! Gru·<'t'al DAYt::<. · Yt'"'·•"ir. · · ;\l:r:. PF:rn ouEw. Then• is no l'nit('d Statrs moner then• I Gt•nl'ml D,\\·t:.... Ye:-:. ,.:it·; tht• in,.:ul:u lll'l'OUnt. nn,-1tl l k pt in Uit.iwd :-ltah•!:! nwnP\'. · . : '!'lw ~JIAL IDrAN . \nyhody wil:!hiug- to htty cxdmngt':> fot· Uni tetl :-;t:ttl'" lliOill'\' ~ I I _l.Pm•ml ~)An~. Y""'· "ir. 'l_'h_• ti'~" ·o pn"'""~ for (~0 t'l'nt,.:,• ltncrth_e~P wn." n!JOLtt h\'P nnd om•-hnlf nnlhon,.: l'Oill'd 111 ._ pam for Ptu>rto Rico. ar1d .!Utlllpt't! .. l'ql't·to Hit·o·... nnd hp:-:idl'.'-' thi tht' t'l' is u.bout n luillion of !Junk not.P:<: ""~' lllwe nhont :-:ix Hnd'one-hn11millions .of t•ir ·ttlntion. )1r. McC ~rAS. You hnr(' nhont n million o.f people, with no publit· · . tll'ht and -no l'On ·tdemhle Htunit·ipn dehtl 1 Gcnenll DA\'t. Y(',o, ... ir; thP ntir(' munitipal indebt cine. mth· anwunt to p<' t·hnp!:! n. million nnd 11 hnlf. · · )Jr. ' 'KRt-:LL. P ::oo"' o1· dollar. ! ' · fh•i• t'ltl .DAvt . PeHO:l. : Mr. l\):r~ 110. You :sui_d th1~t ) 'Ol thoug-ht _f.oo· the next _ycnr o1· two thl• t·e.'·cn_lll~:-< would ·be J_nHllflict('~tt to 1111\lltt::tlll the go,·emment. · Did. .' ·ou tnke lllto lll'eount tht.- fnct: uJ)po,. _we.nppl,v th intcmn!-t•evenue law :111d thr flL tom!:! h~w:s of th'l> 111ted t11tc to that 1!:!land as 1~pplied b.('t·e, n tht• :sumc:> rate. n.ud gh·e it th' p~ce d of verytb'ing c·olleett•d; would not th1tt IK' !:!ttffi ·· nt! . (lt•rieml Lhns. · I nm obliged to eonfes m_v in ility to an w r thnt quc:<lion IJt'f't\11:<(' of 111~· unfnmilia.rit_,, with the te applied py the' .Cnited State ti1rilf. I kno\\' the lmte:s now ap lied, but that "ould nut lK' tb nm . · r ~

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.Mr. ~:r .. o '. lnd('r thl' Hfl•uri,.:h tmitr~ Ut•n mi . DA\'IR. Y1•:-:, :;ir; with a gTPnb lllllll,\' dmlll-(1'" at t.lu• I;!JIIt' I :llil.t•d :-illjtll'>< 111 1opl't•'d :uul ,.:i nt'l' thnt tl!ttl'; h11t with rdt •t't' ll ·p to tht• _ (:rl'itl', r \VtJtl ltl not hlil ltbk to ILII"\\'1'1' ofl'lu~ll(l. ' I ;\lr·. l't•:'t"t'IIIHt•:\\·. Yon (hilll\ it would ht•t•ut.down onP-.Irnlf o1 ll<'t'Otllrt of fn•l' trntlt• with thl'. l•litPd Hta tp,.: I , .(it•llt'l':tl DAn,.:. YP:-:, ,.:ir. 1 TIH' l'n ,qr:~i A!I: . You third; tltt•T'I' would ht• l'oiiPdt•d on ot.h" · impor(atioll" from o(.,ll'l' I"Ountrit•s Llrmt tlu• l i11itt•d t;lt~tlt•s Ull·t·t• "fou ·tlrs pf a 11rill ion 'l \ ( lt•nt• t·nl J),\,v ts. YP~. :\lr'. N•:t.soN . ll1t\'t'. \'(lit nnr "rstl'll of t:txa.,;oll akiu to filii' inh•nml n•rPillll' tnxnt ion I · · · · (lPIII'I.'n.l llA \'1,.., 011ly o11 two artit·IPs. Ont•.' tlll' liquo.r lax, ~f whit· lr I h:tn• ,.:poiH'II, of H t'l'nt,.: :t litPr, and l'lu• otht•,t· It l:t!-1 on nttttl~ll'~<, t·ltn lllilltllfnl'l'lll'l' of llmtt"lw:-:. · " I 'J'hl' "II ALICMAN . ·l)o VIlli lt<n· tht• ta x n~n.di}y, Ill' wit.h·tliiJit•uJt;y '! UPIH'ntl L)Avts 1 \Vit'lr diflit·t'rlt_,·; 110 rua.11 p:-i~·,; Iris tax r·mdi . · ~II·. (l A J.r.t u EH. If WI' h:t\'1' frPo tmtl!• with l'ut• ·to Wt·o i,.: r ,if,Jt· tha.t you wm1ld h:t\:1' n,.: l n •x~" a r·p\·l'iHII' u,.: t·hl'llll·fou rtlr:-: 111illio11 '! :· I ('tl• npr·a l DAn,.:. <JIIu.llnl'ls of tmdP ltl'P tliflil'ltlt. lotli"I'Hpt ot·tli,.;turh. \\'111•n Jll'Oplt• lr:tnl · ht•t~ n · tmdinJ! for lllrlldrt•tl,.: of . ·par·" in a t'llt;tTLill rn:r\'l;pt it i. not I'll"" {()l•lrnnJ!I' tlr~· m to :11rothl'r. Tl11• tmdn of l'ut•r-to l:it•o with Spnin h:t~ ht\l'n nw'n tha.n half tl11 tir t mdC' with all tho wot· d. ThP t·h nng-1' of that i11to anothPr dtallltPI will 110 doubt 1:onw with linw. liut it will . not t•onrP ill,.t:tnth-, a11d .I t'XJ?t't'.t Lht:r·.n will mit,i\tut: to "" a larg-1' tn\dc with thP t••mtuiP~t't of l<:urop\'. ' 1 ;'\lt·.l't-:~tl\1110~, This l'eport ,.:how:-: that of thn impm·ts.of Puerto lti•·o · +tl P~"' ' t'l'nt wa,.: furnishI'd ''-" l:;pai11, ·hut thnt of tllll r evrmw,.: ,.Jill . pnitl only ahout._ + per t•t•nt: ~he · 1:•n·nh:h ed L :u:I~OI'tlinl-) to valt1P I +o JWI' t·Pnt of ' th,11 tmport,.:, tuHl p:ml lcs,.: t han .J. p(:t· t'Pnt of the eu:;t; llll"' t'OJ-IPI.'t.cd j · • ()pn(•rnl I> A\'h . Hrr ,. IIIIIIOtlitit•:; t':lllll'l in under pre f ·rcntial mtP,.:. (;ood. importt·d into Pu_'t'to Rit·o from ~pain p:tid only 10 pPt' I'Pilt .o f tht• nomml tal'i tf c-ollPetcd on fm·l'ig-n g-ood fl . ' ~J r. Coc.KrtEr.T.. ls tlmt bn.nk of whit·h vou spok Q maintaining it:-:. paper'~ · ·' · I. (~l'lleml DAVIS. J-41 hn. authority, I. thi'nk, to i ·sttll ;;omcthing like three mill io11~ of paprt·. hut it ba;: to keep dolln.r for dollar of ,.: i l ~-H hchind it, nno it has now :t l'in·ulntion o1' ltUOtLt a million. . ':\'h. 'ooKm•a-r.. When was it e:-:tablishod! Ornernl DAvr.. I t.IJink in the yt•at· 1 'H. ).t(; concc~-Jsion, J think, ha~ twenty-three year to mh . I hnd r1ot Qotnplctcd "'Y _ltll.-;WN' in l'l'~nrd to resources nnd exp rH.litures. Whn.t ,is' n 'cdctl i:s $~,()0tJ 000 1 f01·. municipnl cxj>enditm· 1 fot: the uppo'r:t o~ ' muni ci palitie.-, p1w111g, wnterworks, snmtation, polic , orphanages alm hopsc.• and thl' Hlllllt> ob), cto;: to which municipal taxe are applied in the United 'tate!'. The CnAIIUI'AN.. You hnv now a sy:-;tcm of municipal taxtttioll l!lldc:> t' your order ~ I General DA vr . Yie:i, ir. 1 • • ~he CHAUtMAN. Will that yield o. uffici >nt revenue ·~ Genera.! DAVIS. It must. I do not expect thnt there would need to be more than a temi>oro.t·y ussistnnce g h·en to muni ·ipo.litie.., . I .

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n DAVI . Yes, sir. .Mr. McCoMAS. What is ~be ave rag height of the niountains General DAVIS. A bout 3,000 feet, maximum elevation; in the Ill:! e , where traver s d by the road , about 2,000 fe t. • . Mr. CocKRELL. 1n what direction do they run 1 · Gcn rat DAY.I . The mountain syst m, from ea t to we t. A milLion dollar for rojid a million dollar. for chool , and a million dolltus for administration and expense of maintaining th goYernoient, pri on , court:, ahd other ' branches nece ary to be k pt up. Sanitation ./nnd qmLrantine tatibn mu t be mainttiined. H !We are to ke p yellow fev rout, we hav.e to be on gua1:d and constalnt patrol. We have not had the yellow fever yet, but we have to constantly be on watch. Mr. J>F,RKINS. Have th y had if-in former year 1 G neral DAvis. Yes, ir; three years ago they had 600 or~OO cases in nJut\1'1. , . Mr. FAIRBANK . Wher e is it imported from 'I G. neml DAVIS. From Cuba, V ra ruz, a rlum ~er of Jllac,es in Sou and Central AmeHca; it 'is ne'vel' !\b. ent fr6ln some ports in the Antillc , and has not been for a hundred year . I ru:il told that there are orer 50:,.ca es in Ianbana to-day . .:.. . Mr. D EPEW. W'hat i tlie dispo ition of the people to learn th'e En~li ·h language 1 G n ra.l DAVIS. They all wish to learn ; every Puerto Rican bdy and girl is anxious to get a knowledge of En&;li· h. . 1 . · Tho CHAIRllfAN. Wht\t is their aptitude! Gen m l DAVIS. A good as that of apy boys and g irl. 'in the orld. · They mtLy not have the tay ing qualiti . or persistence but the htwc the.n.ptitude, cerminly . :Mr. GALLINGF.R. It ha. b on stiLted tom that the Am rican no roth >•cbildrt>n of th' .Ani rican negro- will , in many ca e. ,· outstr p the whi te children until they reach the renso n ~ng . tagc. When i is a more matter of memorizing t hey. will ret 11ldng \·cry satiflfactoril , but wb n they r each a roge wher e they hav to reason and ball in pi y t he higher mental facnltie. they th n Ill' ontii·ely deficient. Ha~ you noti d anything of that kind ~ G n raJ DAvis. I hav oh. erved thnt in the Southern tates somewhut but I have not b n irt Puerto Rico long enough to rna ·' any ob. ervation. in re~rd to it there. The CHAJJUfAN.I ~'he <'clu n.tcd .Puerto Rican.; are very able me 1 ~ General DAvis. Ye~:~, ir. , The CHAI11MAN. In tLll the btanche of knowledge ? , · G nert\1 DAVI. Ye. , s ir. . If the comlnitte will permit ·w e, I wi. h to again ref r to the p esent 1ndu t1·ial condition 'of Puerto Rico. I !<b.\rted to read a rep rt in \\·h i ·hI tated the fa ts very fully , and I uncler:;tnnd from the hairDian thnt it \~ill IJ~ printed, b'ut there are •ertain ~~tet th1Lt J ougJ:It hot ~o omit to tty to y.Ou_. . The conditioh of th ~·otfe crop in Puerto Rico IS rro t lumentablc- 1 m enn the co ndition of the coffe indu try. The di. turbance of tmpe condition. du to th ·onquest, th Jo,.s of former tnnrkets nnd fail~re to obmin ·another-all had a dctrim ·uml effect on .trade and corum rce. On top of that, in Augn t, came thi terrible storm.

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Th coff cr p of Pu rto Rico for .th hl t fiye .Y. Itt'. hn sold for nn bnd no mon y to pay and he l'Ottld not borr w, " nd notbin·g wu · don •. a.\'e·rage amount of ·· T.OOU;t . In ·om year" H,OOO,t;>QO bn be n 1;he rubbi h nn<L d61n·is lies th •1' fo-du,\'. ·Nntllre hn b 'en a.t work r {' h •' d fo it nnd it r p1· s nt · ve n -t~nth · of e,·eryth111g th<>y lllld 11 11 thi time,' and up thr~mgh this mas· of tr e. lund l m.;hc there ha~ to sel l. N' v 'in on ·da,· in August .that off ,crop wus derstroycdcom a tungle of lenve and vinc:< thut rompletc· 1n. jungle nlmo1-1t in xim{>IY bl out of xist 'n : I thought at th . time, going ~bout h;icnbl and imp nrfrable.' You rould not g t throu"'h without 11 th 1 laud Oln.t n third of it might he :>1\\' d. It wns on th · pomt of mnt·h tc or ax. In n ,·ery frw cn>:<c;;o thc }Jroprietor hn;; imtnagrd to nultm;iug~th bel'l'i w r just ri ni!1g- wh n th tonu {:am . ~t 'clear IL pnrt of bi . place. n man told m thht out of ;}()\.) nere he 1 wa hud nmnaged tp cl nr 50. That s ituation i one of \'cry great gmvit,r. appar~t that th r w r nnun- t'l'J ,; 0!1 tb bu ~ :;, and 1t ·e m d that some ng could be .,:aYed. But th croll h . now b n gath r d I t'i\11 not oYerstl\tc it. · and to th ports f J' nt. Th entlr p, which onght. to ~lr. D};p}:W. Hh\· YOU any :sug;<Ye,.;tion or any m 11$1 rc to .· uggct~t .bn. I n • .000,000 pound,.;. '"' not o,· '1' 3,000.0tlo, and ll poor quqhty In- which tinancinlmwlstn:ner eoulcl b rmid J' d I · Gcnernl DAVI : T1mt i.- n domain of ,. n · gnttAi.fficulh·.. leonfrss atthat: it' illnot ·elffcrmor thnnn. t nthofwhatth cropformrly .Jll\' innhilit\·.to mnk n satisfn •ton · "ll"'g{'i'tlon . I know thtl.t in1 89~ thc l)rought. Here, th n, i ' nn i;;.lnnd which ,·cry hwgc,l~- dcp _ll(led ·on on <'l'Op isiont.l of )lruaritiu,.; was ,·isited hr' ~ueh a stot·mnf< 1 hi -. lt mnde u \\TN·k nnd ba · los it. Th sugar industr.' · wn mJured nl:;o. hut not to · the out. o£ , tho il;lnnd o.f , ·Iamitiu~;,· whil'h is a >.< U!fnr \~latnd. It rc<lll\'C'U ·IStunc .ext('n~. Th(' t bnt•t~o bu. ines bud b. e.n di. ·tmbed h,\· the~c t•ht\ng d that pt·oclmlt ft·om 4t 00.01)0 to n:; to 5U,OOO or l>lt,OOQ. tuns fo~ tb 'n l'xt . trod t•ond tion . and no grrnt amount f tobaeco wa:; avn!lnbl . A year. Englund tmnc to it:; relirf and h lped thrm fiou ~ n loan.. jThr good d('nl f . tb • f rmcr t hn ·co crop wa in s.to1·e, ,.;o that doc not colonial gO\·ernment borrowl'd thl' suuJ of 10, 06;00 rupees. ' nnd ht r into h , qursti n to nny grea~ dcgr of l'!'po~·tnnt'e. It nenr guamnteein<Y 3 pr1· e ~ nt int •rc:;t. and it wn>< !tppli d to thr n,.;:-~i . tance nmount u fJ)ore than It mean of li\T5 I.OUO, wl II •, m u no1·nml ,\'('llr, thr proprietors nnd i 1 r -lie1·i11g th e lo;;o;:e:-:. I t'lln not 11tntc the detailti Puerto Ri o had ~l2,000,000 of export.;. Thi: ~·enr it hn. not onr of th manner in wh it-h it \I'll'! npplircl, bnt tb .r nre at\'!\ilahle. l hnve , .·. u ,000 Thnt i:rt!Je eonditi01~ wh it-h ·on front · Put?rt? Bieo. writtcrl to our eonsul in Mauritiu~<. foL' th • details, but although tbn.t ~lr. P~:t~t~ ' . 1 und · r~t od yon to "II." that th<•:;c ·oil e tr e arr wn·~ ,.;om two or tb re month:; n~o 1 h:we no l'CI'C!h· d n repl_,.. I .hllJoo n t niY drstn•,·ed for thi • yenr. hut fur th·e ~· enr,.; to eome. . . ul~o IITittcn to Londqn to I tn111 the detni\,.; of th nmnn J' in 1vbieh Genrml DA\' L. • y~ ... ,.;ir, unles:< i11 an;,: nrc taken to e;,:tabli,.;h h:!<}c the loan wns ohtniaH'tlnnd applied, but I hrw not ·et obtninrd thrm. tr es, mni1ltnin th~ plant~. e_u t down th we cis nnd undergrowth wl11\'h 1lr. 11F:PEW. Hn\·1' You anY idea how c. ·ten.-ivo a loan would hawP · to IH' mnclr to an·o1ppii;:h th i.: purpo:-:r? · · · j lli'C d1oking th e cofl'('l' hu"~.r~<. rtc . . Gt·nPral DAY! . . I lind thong-ht'it ' ould bJ nrt·r"'"· IT for ' Purrto H.it·o ~[r . .PF.tiKJ. ' S. It tal· " h\·r 1·rnr,.;? ~l'n em l D n:<. Y ·. sir. to ~row from thr youhg- -plant,.;. Butagrl'at tn horrow- an I it mwht .to he donr ,<c n · :>oon- t< haYr 1\uthoritr to nuu1 · of th m tn·c ,.;till ':mtilahlr if tht• dchris l'nr he rt'liiO\'NI ancl .thc ho~nm up to :ill).Ouo.LI0\1. Tlmt i"' 810 rie1· l'npita f populntion: 'and thl' <lon•a'nluc•ut oug-ht to e,-tuhli,.;h, m· h:t\'l' thi s mont'\' plnl'ed in thr 1-wr •ds cut cl wn: :llld the\· w ulcl bt• if thr plnn'tt· r~ t·ould get lllOIIl'.'. 1 U:nd l'l' clit in a m~ w:w. If th p' · .conld do ,-o, th 11y l'ould denr up tlw,.;e 111\ntl ~ of. a t·omlni>'>'ion o J' ,.:omc bonrd. witl1nnlhori t.'· to HJ'\)1_,. it. A gron•s und ;.tml<Yhteil things oi.at and mt~ ke p et·?aP"'. n 4-0 l cr <·t•nt l'I'OP. purt of tlw pro<·t;,·,d .~ of thi,- lonn will tl'l' nini.V IJc nccdl'( to aid in nrxt 'I· tlr: and, on: hut unlr,:,.; :;omrthlllg' mdacnl '"don' atonl'c thL'Y mn.rinrr on tlw in,.;ulnr g OI't'l'lllllent for th l1 nt•xt two o r thn•e .n•a t'.', will ~~ t makt' 111 re th:an 15 pPr ·('nt n •xt v n1·. 1 douht \'<'1'\' mm·h \i·h th e r lUI\' l'on,.;idrmhlr I'Oile ·tion,.; of inh•t'mtl Mr. ' KRELL. 'Vhnt wtt" th -dl'ed of tl1 ,-torm! How bay tho.-<c tnxe:< will l)r prudienhlr. '.\ rinrt should he :tppl ~d in-rhnt way. a port to •red ,.,·huolbon,.;r:.: and e mplo~· lnhor on ro 1d,.., nnd a part to we d,.; "'I' wn up~ •. · o:'rn DAvt ·. To ,, t a l'Om·rption of a t•otl' e plantation in Pu rto nid in .'Ollie wn,r tbes proprie.tor,.;. ThC>'l' pro{>ri ct 1'"" nrc neul'ly a ll Rito ,·ou wilf hn,·e to"' lllHI!-:ine a woodland in 'i\lii:i::o ui'i- n i<l · PP hill· blank trd with moatg:a ,.c,... wb\t'h nrc almo,.;t unl\·e1·s. 1. , ~<ide. ~ ,-rred ,\·ith what nppi•ar;: to I ' ·from n t.lj:;h~n ·r, lt drn"'t' thit·~et i\ir. ' C KREl.l .. \\'h r re br(tl! of tr and bu,.;hr ·. u.sunlh· not ,·rn· tnU tr es. l 011 would not tbmk G n rnl DAVI .• In Purrto Hit·o. I do no,t hl'lir,· hnt 10 prr er nt nin·thin r c uld .gr w th i·c except ehnpnrrul nnd tm,.;h: hut wlwn nr hell ont,.;id' t f Puerto Hit· . hut the proprietor: nrc nt thc mere,· Jo,.: rexamjn d. yon wi.ll tind that in hi':< fllltrhe · all the undrrgt'Owth f the monc~· lender,.; und . th ert• ought to he ;:ome wH.\[ in whieh the.\. ha becu t'al' fulh· d nJ) •d out 1u1d plnntcd \\lith eotfc tre(' , their lonns can b t' funtl or rc'n •wcd- ,.;onar :-:ol't of ns.~i:4.t~nt·c. It sf'l• ms I tl,·c:; nnd lruncb ':; :shad d h\· th ::e ltu·gc nnd .·mnll ti'C(':.f nnd bu:shr:<. to 111 tb ' l'e t'Oilld he flOme ;.:o ·t of . vrrferentisd i<Cl'tll'l ty given to t.~p Th' . ~hnd' trre:'! w nt down: l.tpr oted by the 'thousand,.;. Some did Go,· rnment :;o that the proprietor"' jntrrpst in the t111d would l:t' n t g d wn. but t,heir limb. wer broken and . mllShrd nn.d th eotft•' eJ:t.ual to thnt ht' no": htrs llllde r tb cxi ·tin r mortg1w •s. Tlwre l't'l'bu:<h · wrr cru:;h d to th ground, nnd ' th trunk:; und hmb · of the tnmly ought to b :<om \nt~· to ,.;oh·c that problem. .~ 11-. DEPEW. role. >~ yon enn r ,.i,· ~h j ndu try; th ' Govt•rnm nt tre cr . d h f· and th r • makin~ .n dens . I •: trees !n very I ~ire ~~on. bmnclies erossing and· . miX d up Ill ·. ry po:>,.;lbl and will hare no rr1· nu '1 Ocn rnl DAVI • rtainiy not. l'bc mpndty of thc iorcrnmcnt t Jmagmahle wav. . The couutl'\-\m pnmlYzrd b\· thi · ,:t rm · di ·cou 'Ill nt wn nlmo,;t tollt•l't rc,·enue i depc1id nt on th condition of the industt·ies. Tlw ~- rywh r . • Tb rolfe· plan~ r ~n w h ' wo~tld httv no coff e t~ rll N~tj!ttJ' iridn,.;try <·nn take car of its lf with ueh impt·o,·~d tmdc ·ono xt ,·enr : b could not pu,r h1s labor r>' nor wduc them to work, he dltions n. Congr' s llliLY be willing to a<;cord i't, and I think it de. crv li

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6

OOV"ERNKENT .},' R 'l'HE T LAN.O. OF P ERT

GOVERNMENT l!'OR THE I L~ND <,1W P ERTO RlCO.

RT 0.

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inn berry n.nd sold for nbout 5 cents ·n pound, th I~uer~o Ricnn ·otfcc tiie same condition. rt Hawaii, but dlg'1\l' i ' a minor pnxluct ns com. hit:> n xery gloomy o'u tlook. 1 r· pared with coffee. The coffee p'rodlll't wn8 two nnd one-half tim ilidot up~ ' . 'offec i:s nowhere in tho world produc d on th lm ·i of more thn.n 30 t•e nt... IL. dny for htbor. and in Bmzil th£>y do not pay mor than ::!0 Th 'H tRM x. H w mm·h of that coff prorlu t '!lm · to th United ,·rnt:< n dn~-, nnd thllt ,eountr_,. produce:< ncnrh· th1·ee-fomth:< of all that tnt.,. nnd ho\\" mm·h Wl'nt 'pain 1'.' . 0 n •ml DAn . It pmcticnJ\y nil went to ' pain 1\nd Germany; 10, 00 i~ jJrodm·t•d. Th' only thiug that ••an san th • Puerto H.it•un t·otfe<' i:< pound:< went. to L" nitcd ' tute. o,.nd tht• 1' :;t to Emope and 'ubn. thnt !t ~hn ll b t•omc. kno~m _iu th e .l' nit~d Stnt£>s rmd that peoplr ,;bnll 1 The CHAtHMAN. 'fhnt wns undPr tmd(' l'O nditi tm ~ not now l'xistingl ln• wllltng to pn_,. more. f r 1t. ThP_,. mil han~ to get a hi~Th e r price i:t: General DAn · Yt•;.;. sir. It i"' a ll'tT\' thnt ·Hs ' r become very fond 'tht•,· nr ' to pn_v 50 l'eltt:< ada~· for lnhot·. 'th ' JJ AlR).I N . . .You hnn• in tbut island n t rritol'ial and .g-rinllof but Am 1·imns nt home kno' · nothing'ahout. E,· r~· Americun thnt tHI'III bnnk I . \ I b~vc , ecn 'in l'uet~to Ri ·o i11 exceed ingly fond of it, nnd n ,. r would , (lpneml DAni" .. Ye11. :<il·. u any th •t·. The l'IIAIIOJA:'\. That i:< a hunk for thP p111'J.>O:;t•'f>l' loaniu ,. IIIOIIl'\' to ~lr.'NEu ·. In Eu ·o1 , in many plnce:; th y du · it with Mochu furntr r:; I . . coff e I ' Clenernl DA \' li'l Y (';.:, :-~it·. \ Gcnet'lll DAn . In Emop it is cln,; · d abo\· :Mocha. Till' IIAIIOIAl\. J·;;. th rc an\· wn,· thnt H>':<i:<hwc • could hr r cnderctl Mr. l>ERKJ . You tnt tb p1· due~ of ugnr a liU,UOO tons 1 through that hnuk I ·. · .. General DAVI : Y ·• sil·; tiftv to ,;ixt\· thousand. · 1 Clenrml DAni'. I think :;o. • I ~h. PERKIN . I s tb reno uti urea of land nd pted to thi:,~ culth'lltion The 11.\IR)IAl\. I wi;.;h ,·on would ,;u•n:re:<t it! < which can be i1ti lized und h~· which t:his output can be Jar rely increa ' ed! Oen ntl DAn. . The re is lUI m·en that could be re tor d to itl culti(.1enerttl DAl' l., Thl'l lmi1k wn, c1·rnt "d for· the purpo...c of lottni n vation po ·sihl_,. by mod rn m£>tbods and the use of fertilizers. but it !non'." on r al e. · b~te, .nn e:;pecinll.\· on n.p-rit:nltu ·ul _land. It hn~l fo · It:< P!l\11 of _orgnmznt~on th ,._,·stelfl whtch Is b£> t lllu trnt'd by the woul~ . tak n h1rg .,.111nount. of cupitnl and n gooa denl of titn~ to. n•d•t Font•ter of Pnl'l.·. nnfl the :<y::;tcm p1trsuetl hy that in:;tihltion dev lop. 1\lr. Pt; nKI . If the vi ld i, onlv 2 ton · to th e acre. th ro i' no hn~ ~~ en_tlpJ?Ii t~ \:>.v !nrc'r . tl'llt~t nnd im·e,..ft!l nt couip1111i nttd thnn.v inducement-to d o. Tb ,·irld in : H.'lwaii is 5 or 6 ton to th t\ct•c. lea_ltng tn:<tJ~nt1on>< 111 tb1:; _counh·~·. Our lll~<U}'Rn~c compnn ie:< 111'e, 1 i it not . · heh.e \'e, loamng on real estat . et·ur tl b.r mort aCT and is ·uing n ncntl DAn, . y ,., :;i r: !\lid r lind that l ha\'C t~ l'OI'l'CCt my pr. ngom,;t the· nwrtgnge$ dr b~ntuN~ ·• whit·h. Ill' ·old vith. tb gun.rl,ntee · d us stat m nt. Th number of ac1·es eultinttcd. accord ing- to cen n ~ of the com puny nnd -the secui-it,\' of th mortgage ·. Th~.r ndop~d the mport , wus 61.000, ontl th number of to·n,. e ·pprtcd in 1 ' Hi wn · ~nmc plan to tc:nn monry on reul e;.;qtfe nt IJ per cent 01' :t higher\ 57 I. I stutt.>d that tbe •tll\te of production wns nliont :3 to ns to th' lllterc!<t nnd tb l ~<::;u c deb ntmrs ngnin. t tho mortgage& r epresenting acr . Thut i:; th output u n th bett('r cJu;.;~ of 'e ·tnte. • and tht.>y tho. r loan!'<, drn wing i pet· t' nt ~r ' p<'r cent. nnd to sell tho · dlbenOcca,;i nully nul ail high ll>l a or 4 tons. but there •nr many e tate~ hu·p,; thrmwbou the cou ntr J. TI]J',· hrtxe fnil ed to float th d be nwhich do not produce nt th£> rntc ·of 1 ton to th ncr£>. tu;- ·,..nne~ the rllicin ney of the h:lnk hit" been great)_,. impair d h,· heir ~lr .. PERKHi, . In Hnwuii the II\' ragE productiou wn 15 tons, nnd fniiHro to ~<·II th ei-<e de benture • n cle ht•nhu· . •cm'(•tl on land in i'1 rto many f the plantation ·· prodm· as hi<!'b n 10 ton . · Hil'O b~· uwnns oi mot·tgntTe: pa-ying !I pe r 1 nt o1· 11101'1'. thr am unt G netal DAn . Th I' is no such crop in Pnerto Ri ·o. Three q ·:! lonn c~ on the lan d b¢!ng- up ~u 40 p e1· een of i s ap.p1·niH d vlllifC 11~ ton to th ac1· on the be · t e tn{e i tb maximum. Th r i no f~r­ appnu · •d h.'· hnnk XJ)et·t.... f ~0111 • mcuns t·n n haU to li~<t I:IH':<e tiliziag 'done, ·cept tbnt p rh·ap n littl tnbl munur is hauled O)Jt deh ntnr " ;oo th y 'cnn he retidil.y di,;po. d bf tl}nt bunk alone t• 1mld if .th y happen· to' sa" it; but there 111; no \)ho ph at and no f rtilizo· YN'Y grently hrlp the ' itnnti 1.. tion ucb a vott n.r fnmiliat· .\\;th in Hnwn1i nod Loui ~> in.na. . )J~. Pt:nKil\., If the far !lli' · i.'Ou ld g t thr money to 1:lut hi:< plantaTh HAI~MA ·. Tb impetus gh·en b_,. the introdu tion of fr e trade tion 111 ord t· h cot~d I' udll~· pu~· th e interet( Oeneml DAVI .. lc. :sir. . 1 with th i land would,. n· gr atly help tb c·Qff ~nd oth t· industrie · I Gen ml DAVI : Y s, slr. On othe · featur' of the coffe situation · ::\1r. P.t:HK IN ·. The fnrmer ·'OI 'Je.; in nnd mnt.~ to 1, tTow 5il OU niust n be- ovel'look d ond that i:'. that thi:; imp 'tu~ which \vould unci otr~r:; n~ :secm·it_,, tb' land h own:<. Th _,. apprni~e th land .I nnd be giv n u,\· fr trnd with th ii<land, to tb · culth·ati n of "ugu.r nnd the,,· ofter h1m ~ per nt of 1it:o~ apprai:<ed ndur and if thnt 40 p er tobacc und coffee probably will hn,·o it. £>ffcct upon th wage. of the. ~ nt n!uo~lllt. to~l.OO.: l' th~.,· nuik )1i111 the loa n. un~ put the ir 1110r~~uge i. land. It i :,~ \'CIT difticult to make a Pu 1'to Ricnn tmd r:stund that the th u tp•. box. and :~gn)n:-~t t.l~ttt mortgagt- th c.1· l:<:<u n drb ntu ·e ut 1 Wlt~re h hus 1 e'n 1 cei\"ing of 50 c ntn,·o p r day ·bould not be 50 p~r ~ nt l!ltere;<t. '.J_'hry l'<'C 11 e_O P''!' <·ent on th i!· niortgage, uncl · t·ent. gold a dtty: in othe r words. he will d mnnd~ niiH'I'('a. o of two· thc1c 1:s n ddferetwe of :! perc nt 111 th 1r fn\.·or 'l n nemJ DAn . y . :;ir. I fifth· in hi. f01:m v wo~; ·.and h i:< 1 ginnintT to s nd out for it and 1 bopt' h will get it. rh ugnr and tobuc 0 p 0 will be able to :\Ir. F AIIHIANK . . Diif th ..'· In,·c un1· difti't•nlty in dispo:<ing of t 1c:se · pay 1t. hut the ,('offe peopl' can n t tin I :;;; th ir co can be .place<i ?t'hcnture!l prior to th ~ornn~o l <lllll fuotin~ witb Jant nnd nto(:bn, If it is to eompe with tb'e Bnt il· G n rnl DAns. Yes 1r; th bank wa · not n great ucc . fron the t:u't.

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.. \lr. FAU:li .\NK~. Wl'mi1 wu~ it org-ani:r.t•d! ot'Jil'rnl ll.\\' t:<. It \\tl:< lll')!'lllli:r.l'd ~t> nw tir,• Ill' :-:ix )lr. l\)(' 1\Ht:t.r .. Bdon• l'hl' wur~

th•• J><>l<'~. nmkin)! h 'l\111 1l>r l"•in)! in ~~~"'' t>f "n id pol··-, llmt i", 111 tht• !1111 1111111 ur. l:uukn• "tylt•, with )!rt•llh'l' thnn l,tlll() ('11111111>'. 1 1 'nrl" .tnm 11 hy 11 yt~kt• uf ••x••n ~hull o•nny ""' t'Xl't•t•dinj.( :!ii hnnth·.,lwl•i)!l t wlu•11

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Ot•rll;ml 1),\\' t:<. Y ~""· ~ir. Till' ' tl lll'tAS. TIW\' ,: turi N !,. II:< I Hndt·r~taml , with 1111 llltlliori:r.t•d •'apitlll of two :lntl o'ut• -)1111( millil'rr,.:. ami tht•y 111-l- u11thol'i i~i't l ti>l't'/ll'at tlll'ir l':lpital. Tht•.1· hun• lliUih'd :<\IIIli' 1wo mi)litlll:<, :tg1tin>"t w lit·h lht•y H,,,k 11)\ll'lg'llg'i'" nml i.~"lli'd dt'hi'llllll'l'" whid1 ht•y ha n• ,.,, lcl to n • ,.,,n .. itl\•mhh· ''xh•nt. , .\lr. l 'll(' I\HE ,1. ll an• 1111'1' >"old tlh'il' dl'i>I'Hilll'l'~! . 1 , Uo•rwml· h.\\'"· ~ut all 'or tlwnt. Tlwr huw llllldt• h•nn~ !1> tiH' :tlnt>llnt 11f nhout orw 1>1' IW1l nl illi,,n,:. hut da· \\ :11' l'tiiiW t>n uml tht•ir · ~·•·,,tli t w : 1~ impnin•ct. und thl'y an• now inn had 1)'11_\'. Th1• t'tt.\11111.\S. I 11~ 1111 t o a>'k n>11 if 1·ou d id n't•t t•mit n •l' l'l'lll'l' to tht' p11li1 '1' l' llll't in ,1' \1111' ,.: tnli'na•n't lwftll:,,! Ut•m•t·a l P.\\ 1". ,;ir. Th,• t.'II ,\II Dt.\s . Tlmt i" a t'\llll'l l'>' tnhli,;h,•d h1· (h•ra•1·nl Ot·tll'r« U1;1,. dnlt•ll :\01'1'11ll>t'l' :!\1, ll'll!ol, :llllithnt al,;o :< ht>trld ht• l'lllhl'llt'l'd ' n lht• :< l'>' lt' lll t>l ·l'l'lll'l:< 1'1111 1'\'l'lllltlllt'tlll ! ·. Ut•nt•t·al n ·.\\' t:<.' Y 1'"· >'ir. Tht• ftllttti, ·ipn l t'OII I't>'. whit·h lmtl j11ri:<· tli1 ·tiun in nil :< HI'h I'll"''" pt'l'l' illlt:< II> that. Wt't'<' >'II ol·t•rwln•luwd with work. aud ,:(\ h•l:rn•d that it wn:< dt'l'ith•d In· th l' j1tdi1·iul ht>ard II• t'OIIll' t' tlwir rt'li •f an;l il.l<l'l':' l tJH'4rll'aldt• of ••ndtt tnni with tla• nlltla•l'itl' 1•f a poli1'1.' judgt•. Tl)t' ft>lhnring- j,. lht• onh• r : •

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fl t-: .\ll\1 1 ' \I:Tt-: u.oo~; J )t\1' .\IIT~I t-:~ ·r tl t-' l' t· t-:Jrl\'1 l~ l("t '.,

•t'llt'r.tl t)nlt' f':il,

,

trt . 'tl. .\ ny t"'""'' n wl\ll :<lmll 1111'1>11' nptlll ··nrh•. •·ani:t)!<'"· !•r h !ll~ll" ~lll'h ••hit'd~ '"

IIlli\' •~nl • •l:n11:t)!l'. uml till•. • wh o. " ·itlwnt h.n·ill)! th•· ri)!lll to ·to O<o. :'hn llt•nt~·r th1• . iti \ \•hkl, .... ,,r ~ it ,,r han~ HU th,• 1uwk t.lf th ~ :-tHillt'. . ' j , Th,,,.. l"'""" "" wh,, ".hall rid,• hi,•y•·l··• witlw nt n,<ill)! u lrtlllllll'l. hl'll. or whi•tl•·· ''r rid· :tt ;t .~l"\'~1 l'Xt.'t :'\lin~~ ntilt•t-t , ,r t :i kilt'lll t' h' l ~ ~~· r h u ur within ''"'· u~ :\ntl \'Ill !\.':'. . . ~ . Th o>-~' 1 ' r>'t n~ wh•' • hall tlrin• n·hi\'1,•:< t hron~:h tnln.- u11d \'illu r '" in •ul'lt ll

nh&Unt._•r ~t o t• rHl:.uu.:t~ ... p:l! · ·~by. ' II. Tht • 1"-' l'&>llo 'fllcl ,hall :IJ'IW!Ir i11 pnbli,· illl j'r(l!ll'rly t'lllll. · 10. Tht ·' pen'{ 11• I)'"'' ohull publidy protlt>lll\<'l' hla .. p lwmit'~ fuulwor•l~, or l'UJ"ill':', ,.r t~ ol :'\"\rtt' hliiL"'U:.ur •

II. Th · • J>t'n'> 11~ '~h., hunll'n nnill\:tl:' "ith hl'!ll'it:or lou.!~ t n lhl' fo llowit~g: >:mall two-wb,ocl '!lrt•. tlmwu hy one hoJW lll•twl'('ll tw po ~. "ith greater wtti~.Chl than po.>uml•. · 1.ary,; ' 'llru whkh are tlmwn by on h?""" l.Jetwi.'\'n 1 les, :lnd an the.r outsi~e ~~

I.

,. ,.,.,•d :!ll hllthlr"lwt•ight. rPIII'• \\'ht •t•l w:IJftiU dt1l-Wtt hy h 'H ilt:-1 111' yokt·~of ''"II :-thnll t'UI'I'." in)!•W hnllth't'thn•t)!hl. · llll tilt' 1~1\'k : .\ ""1':<1' 111'1111111' 111•1 •.. ···~·dill)!:!.",(\ I'"IIIHI>'. . I

.

,\

•xt•t•t•d -

H '""" 11111

.

1:!. 'l'lh• drin·r~ td ~nthlh· t'Ht't'ill).!P:-t dt11\\'11 h~· :lllltlud :o~ wlu• t'tll'l'." intlu•il ' )' · hit · lt ·~ I IHill thl't'l' ntlult pd':-1011!'( \\ itt·lt I Ill' t'lll't'in._:t• i ~ t I'H\\ II hy II l"'illg'h• llttit Ill : · IIIII I'li rhn11 >'ix wht•n •l.rawn l.Jy I \I'll a11itmd. ~ "" '"' 1lmn h•fl if llH' l'l'lli..lt• i>~ n ~111nll nllllliniP I'''

\lu~.

nnd tllot't' tlwn t'nurth·n if it i~ n hll'g't' 1111111i lm ~. l 'hiloln•n llllolt•t· I ~ · Y<'III'" ol1 II)!<' ~ hnll l1<.• l't'< 'kt•ll<'d 111 tiH• mit• n(

)lt' I .P il .

\

(WI•

ft.>\' niH ' ltdull

1:;, Tht'::t• }'P I':-ln ll~ "liP t ' XI :t'~"~h· t·lyulut~l' PI' ht:ut llltinmli'i innny tUIIIIH ' t' : l'l·uridrd, Thai lht• tint':-! illtftPl'll'\ 1· 1 ·~· \'il'tlh' of dt'IHIIH 'iittiPII:-1 11111th• 11, ng-t•llbol of tltt• Ht'uht'l\' ro t• rlh' p,.,,h •t•titttt ttl' .\ nitttal rc, on th't'ttllllt n( tlu• n£r, • t h"t'~'~ t ' 1111JIIt.'r:l h •d undt••· p:11 ):titph1'4

1:!, nnd 1:: .. r tid" •ll'do•r, "lntll h1• IIII'IH 'd inlo th 11 ll't'IIMIII'I' nf 1111id "'"'it•lr. ' II. Tht•:'<' pt ·r~t'll~ wh o> • hnll til·•• pl'lnl'oh< Ill' lil'l ':lrlll~ (wili11111t l'llll:!il't).( di111111..tt•) 11ithoHII allth ul'i l,\', 1

~. II ,

1 ,~, , ' l'IH':O:t' J'PI':-lt lU:-t wlut :o~lmll without nutlutt·il ,\' puhlit·ly IIIHkt• nnil-lt !., \\'i,t l ' hot' fl/'1 1 lk • ll ~ . tlf tllht•t·wi:o:t•, PI' hultltUIItlllfllP,I1 :oC 11H'l'liii,L.":ot1 tl' tli:otllll' h tiH' ol'tlt•f' ill f(tt •tJ il'f'S lty kttt~t • kitt)! wit h !'(th-k:o~ or olltt•t• nhjt•t •l:-t "lth·h umy t iHII~' dt~11111J!t' n1· diHilll'lt' IIH'l'liii._,'H iiH ' t't•in, if tit,• dt'l'd dtll':-t not t'lllt l"' litult• dnn•:-~1'1 or otlu•r t•t'illll'. Itt Th\':-:t' ) tt.'t'l'tlll:l whu lltllkt• lntttl t•ukrh·~. t•akatl:-~. or· ttt )i:-!t '~'~ nfh•t' H n't lnt• tt 11 i):ht tu tlh' UIIIH1YUI1t't' :lllll t li~tlll'l!:tltt'l' of tiH'ir llt'i)rhhot'l'l. •

l i. Tlw••· I"'''~"~~ " wlu•. "·'' tl,..il· .rnmk.·n•u·"" •II· li"u1·•h·l'ly ··•llullu·t, o<hu I m11"0 1 ol~•tlll'l~llll 't' \II' IIIIIH•YIIIH't' In lht• pnhlit-. I I:'. ' l'l111~U ('<'l'i<PII" whu "hull l'lll'l'~· :11'111" wit h1111t hn\'ill).(llll' pt'O(I\'r nul hol'it \' l hurl'fur

t ht' pt•n\'i::iulll'l pf \ hr'~ ln• t•tll ( h:dt'l'l"' , ~~~ . l ~lk ('lt l'l't•llt tit' l 'il·~ , IIH·~t· ltt ·ndq{llll'leti'M. l\1. llt•nlt•l':< wh" "111111 111'1' wt •i).( ht~ 1111d Ill<'""'"'' '" nl'tilil'inlly l\1'11111)!1'1 , in 'nit·•' lo

1111tlt•l'

X,,, Hl;,, . • . . . ' !; .l wtll. St wd. ll~t r '!'. JSP!I. I. On :n ol nft,•r Po.••·••m l"' l' ~'ll. l~\111, tlw•v :'hall 1.,. in "''"'' ..it\' nnol ll•wn t>f tl ;i, 1~lnnol. "lwn• th.•n• ""'I' <''<i,t~ n in nni d t"ltrihnnal. n P••li•·•· <i<•nrt whidt "hull hn\,• Jn rL lit•l illn <tl l' l' l ht• it•lhndn •-d,:t• ril>t'o ll lt'r>'•H I ~ and ••fi,•nl'l'>: f · . Tl h':o-\' P\'~'ll:-1 ' lh• :-:hull tht'\ •W i-hHtt·~ at. :-t:dn . ,,,. \'HII:Il' :un· dntll:l\!\' wlmtl•y,•r h' :-tntUt • p.aiiH in\.":oo. l) r ''tht•r nhj\•t· t.~ "h it·h ;hhtrll tlw 1\tt1 1h- ~I IH1ft'.: ~t rl't' t ::. ,,r n~ul ... o>r ' '' pnhlk light:', l••lt').!l,l (>)l Pr tt•lt•pht•tl•"'· f1\•n1~ l'l' hnih lilll.'\1. pn blk t't>nt.l:< ••r t l"\'t.\ool, Hhlhm~h tilt' t hl tt Uh!t'\1 t lhj\'1.'1:-&i lll:\_\' })t.•h ' H~ h' p1'i\':lll' t l(• r::iHt~. j( thl• tlnii Hh!'l' d ~\ 1hlt t't11l~tittth• H l..'fiiHt '. ' • :!. Th t~· '1'1.'1":¢\'ti:O: wh 'l"hall oh:-tr·u,·t t1w Hthl k trnllh· tt~vl pazo~:-tn ).:t' in tlw ~ tt'\'t' l :ot nr l"'tllhb· in 'lU\' 111:\1111\'1' \\ h:th' \'t•r Wit h Yt.• hid\•~. lltlt t'lHH IU\'tiU)! till' Kl.\IHt' t.I U tlw l'i,,ht it I\• \\ itt•n f •i'n~ ahh• ' " th• ~). t"•r " it h aniutal~ ,,r,•lh,•r ,,hjt ·t:o~,tl HU\' kitH I wh:HP\:t-•r. · ,.lr hy {,tnu in): 'l't•np~ nn t Itt• ~itl,•w:llk.... · ::. Thh:"\' l "'l'"l.ll1~ " lh•. "lwu l'tll lthtt•t i111! ,·,•hh·l\0:: t.'f any kind" hatt.•\'\'1' thr •tt.Yl th~ ,.t 't.'t.• or n~•d~. ,h.dl ntH .. t.-ur th,• t'll \' ft• r l i~: ht,• r u n.llll~>r,• mphl \'t'lti\'1,•:< wh\•n ' •nru,"l1ri :t prtlJlt'r uut n tt•r. · · • '· · -1 . 'rh,• dri\·,•..,. . .,( Ina 1,, 1 o·urt ,. •lmw n h ,· nnilual,. wh ,.' ,.hull ,.it or :'tnml 1m th•• ~8111l'. in ~h\:t• l ,,i 'rnl kin1! nt•;tr thr• tn imnl.:. ~ ;,, Th,• •· •n, h~t·tu l . ,,(tntn l \\':1~ o:nn< ,.f nil ki nd,. wlw ,.tu ~l l ~<.•ior•• nil th pa:<,.cnl!t'l'i' h U.\'t.' t•n t,•r, l· th~ t-:tr, ,,r :iii •ltt,'\1 fntttt tht.• stua'. ,,r h\'1' I t\ tlh• titu\' llXt.'tl fur t ht• ~1

ilu • lt1Ut!'( portuthm ioo~ 11111 h • on t'llf't rt•nd:o~, tuldttJI hp!'(idt•!'( :~nulht•t \'okt• nf t Xt ' 11 f~·r· hj•lp l tht~::t• ,·ullt•d t'IHII'tH. ): in l'tilh l:-t IIPI , ., .,·u,:uiz,•lu~ t'lll'l t·oudi-', 11;" I11Ud i" 1'4 udl 111•1

t•Ht.•:tl. I r ~0. ThiiH<' I"''" '·"'" "'"'' "hull "''II 1\l'li ..l··" of f, ""· IIIII. )!il'ill).( ('1'11(11'1' w lj.(ilt or flll 'il1'1111't'. ~1.

TIIMt'

1" ' 1':<1111 ~

wht> "hull

).~ llnhl ••

i11 p11bli•· \'il'\1', if llwil'

1lui11~

"r' :<1111111.1

11.-adqlllll'll'l':<. < • ~~ . Tlw"'' /,..,.,..,11 ~ wh" "hull' 1,.. f111111d loaqh in j.!, Ill' lonthin).( nuiuml "• dio<l'l'J.:Itrlling

l'lllt•:ot nt' t t'('l'lll' \' til' :o~nfl'l\', r :!:;, Tho::,• pl'I':O:Oil~ wlh•l'fluill d,,Jatt•tlw ~ ~~lit• • rt ')rlllutit~ n ~ in t't 'j..{Ht·d to pru:-~ ti tutiou. ~-L Thn:o:t• pt.• t·~,H\~ whn ~hall tlt1·nw dt•HI :u,iuutl!'l, pt •t• l:o~ , 1'1 \\'l'l')liflJ...,'J'I, dit·ty \\ th·•·, or C'llhhil'\lt 'n to tht.• ~tj-l:,, t~. :.zq uan ·~ .~ ~:~tUIIH~) . hnllt-lt• (•IIII'HIIt'l\1'! 1 Of'IIJIUil IJH : 'tH 1f1 Ul'

til\•

.wh" "hull :<t>il 111· 1-'llllh' tin• •111111' 111 1111y 111111111\'1'. :!.i . Tlw t' l"!'( ttf wild nt· du nJ:t'l'< 'll:ot nnitual~, l""'> :-:lmll kt'l'P lh l' fo>H IHC it a co u, litiull liuhlt• t11 tit.' d1tttu1g-(• tn 1"-' l':-tnn~ u ut ~ idl' tiH• ynr·d ut• indn!"lll'l' uf tlu· n\\'11 ·•·. :!li. Tht•"<' )I<.'I':<Pn" wh11 in poihlit· I'J II'I'ill)!t'" d<'"iiiiL'< l fur the ll~l' nf /11.'1'!11'11 "• ~hull

l'"''

witl a-

••n t inllnt, liutl'ly uft,•r di ~i nft•\'lin).! die 111lid •·•nTia).([•:<. ~; . Th <1~•· l''' '"'""~ .wlw :<ball t 't~ ndm·t hml -:<lll ~· llin)! nutltl'l' lhruu).(h tb c ~tn•ct,., whh tu1t t'O\'l't'iti).! tlw :-~nut •, tu tl w ''nnoyn •wt~ vf flit\ Jnblic·. :!$. Tho~l' l'<'n<nh~ whu "hull II •ht in th e :<ln·N~ and p111Jiic pin•· ~. ind ·cuutly t ' Xf'\1:-t • thl'ir )l\' 11-- •n~, nr l'IHl~l' ~·nn cl ul in may o th l'l' llnlllllt'r. · ~·n. Tho"'' )li'I':<OII ~ whu :<hull iuflit-t wouml" llll"" l"t}")L' which tlu not {!revent th,•nt fn11n .,lilt).( th e n l~t· h·,.,. lu illl'lr l'n,.tullnu·y dt·t ·npati o n ~, nor r •q uir a:" i~t­ :ull'o•, t>r who ~houltl l~<.•tlt utht•t':< without in flirt ill)! wuu1l•l•. :;o, Tho~o perso n ~ who \lhnll lhl'cH h•n ot lwr~ wi,h · uh11 ~, or drn.w arm~ in a unrrel, · I il' tlwir tloi11)1 ~~~ tl oc~ 11ot cOII8titntc u crinw. , :!I. ThO!' • Jlt'I'SOH~ wl o ~hall ~tenln11ythin~t of l'lthll' not •xcct'<li ng th e vulue of $5 . .11. The nlt·llltlc of <!nch dly tuld ·t wn .~ hall net ~H 1he police tourt h •rei n pro1·idctl f, r. and ~ hull l.Je :~ ·"i8tutl u\· tbl' t!<.'<'l'l'htn· of the to wn t·ouncil. ln l'll.-"0 of ablrence ur ~kkn e~:< of l'ithct· of tl) •i11, the ub:< •ntoo "hull bu substjtut •tl l.Jy tho Jlei'I!On who > Uh~tituiL'S him i11 hi:< munidpnl office. . Th • l>olie • t•ourt i.hall !!it tlaily, except umlay and legal holidays, and hall try 111111 d 'tt•n nine, in 11 ~ ummary lllllnner, nil C!lll(.'S which may be brought before it. • Thtlre shnll 'Ue no appeal, against the decislons of the police court. III. Any pci'!'On arrested for a violation f any of the provisions of 'thi~ order !tall he a rnugnlld before the J>olice court at its first meeting after the arrest is made:

,!,.,.

t

I

11nt

t'oll!'ltit utt• n t' l'iun• a ~ l''' :- ·t·ih,•d in (it 'lll'hll {)l'd l• t 'l"~ ~~~- Iii, c·urTl•nt. ~t· r·il· , tlt OHU

rtHHinl't l'nl'p. t•:-t, ft11hJ:-:uh:o~tHII ~t·~, Hr pt' r~o n!'( ~urft·t· in;.r ' ft·utn t•v nht).ti o n ~ t itteH~L·,

\

\ \. .I


72

'

GOV.I£RNMEN'J.1 FOR THE ISLAND OF P ERTO RICO.

GOVERNJlENT Jo'OR ':fHE I f,A,NJ) OF P ERTO RICO. ~

,

1

I

Prot-tdffl, That in C8l!e th residenc of th persQti arrested i known and within th BlUnil'ipalitr in which th am tis made, h or she shall be· releiii!Cd on his or h r own reoognJr.Rn<--e to appear at such first meeting f the <'OUrt. The polic officer making the rre t sha. II also sei1.e tho inst.rmn ·nts ul.!<)d in mltti.ng ,thc . ffen and ull lb er mltt•riaf proof which it 111ay be pos~~ibl to sc •uri' an<l ball al summo n tb witn · . U t.h n.osirlcnce of th e person arrested is n !cnowl! h or 8he ,h all b ' d tained in th municipal jailatft•E)·disnoMI of thearrcstmg oJfic-er. · · . 1 ~-. E\'erv poliet• oflker ~ hull ap •at· dai!y before th e eot•rt, in rder to fil e infor!nah n of the , ffen. ~ that han• eon1 to. in kn.owk'<lg on the n ext prec·edinp: day, 11f tlwl'l' . hould IJt> an~· . and shall al 1• hnng he! r the ('Ourt <'nch day th • prisoner" wh~nn h• may htw • lll'rest :<1 durinp: the preced ing t\~cnty-four bon!'!'.· \ . l>ereon~ .wh o are accu l of any of the dff n~;.o;; cmunerat xl in PartljOtmph I !lfld rei~"(!(! ·under th.~ pro\'i ion of J>nraJ:~ra h II~, '!lust arr ar at the first. succeed: · mg 1on of the pohcecourt,un l~ rn "r to:..'<! hy sr cknCH.~. lnc111.!eofsickr'tessth mutii i~l phy~il'ian , tm~~.r th e clir. •tio n f b • al~a l de, hnll vi~it them and report the probilble dat n whl('h th y w I be nhl to appoor. flhould th y fail to appelll' on r bt;forc• t~e ~iat I'I'.Jl0t1 d by t 1e .11mni ·ipal phy8icinn , th e alcnlcle will <'ansa a furth r m,·~trgahon to oo made lli'H drspo.; of tho <'il~e w justice may demand. · P rson• ll<'CU- 1 of off u and' itn .-;; ,·ho, without AAtisfactorv ru l 'IIM' fail to appear before the <'Ourt ~hull btl ptmi•hl'<l for ~nch nonuppeamn; with 1; firie of '$3, or in defuult th reo! imprisonnw nt nt the mt ' of one day for eacl haJJ dollar of fine: · . VI. The term of th n ·lion for, tl e p<misl nent f an off · n~e expires at t1te close of. th dav f 11 \\'iJJg the on on which the o ense was committed. . . Any po1ke officer who fail s to fl1 (1 infonn ion of any ff nse which has come to hia k~owlcdg , !!Hall ~punished by the poli ·e court , if th time for the pro ution of 88Jd.oHe!' ha.~ xp1red, by o. fiJI~ twice e amount of that whil'h mrght lO!!Ril y ,hav been tmpo;!(ld forth said off n ~. u h tine, if not paid within th l'(.>e qay~ hall lh !I .l:x..'come a lien on th~ saln y of· th poli ·e ofticer Rnd shall be deducted by the mume1pal treasurer·fropl has mrcnt m o thly pay und turned over to the t><>lice u~ . • . V~J. A.l)y persons com1 of t 6e o ffen ~ a e numerated in PnmJlnlph J shall 1 c Pl!mshed by a fin~ m:ot ex ~ ing 15 or b y 1ard ln.l.>Or not ;"•·ecclin~ thirty da,, ·s, ·wath gangs or partres o n t h hrghwayto, road8, r ~treet• , sw >pinf,! or p..,,·mg the ffilllC, or at Pu 1:1 oth r labor forth ben fit f th • ublic Ill! the,. urt nuw dir ·t . Tho•e who h1w · ·n sent enced more than three nnes in one year for th smn , offens' elutll 8Uffe .d uble pcnalt~· in ell<'h ~UCCCt!(lin new t'IU'C. Default of. paym~t of .an · fi~te or portion hereof im P,OSxl unde r this pumgJ1Lph shall) ptmashal by unpnfiO nment at th rnt e f on day for ea · h dollar which r1•mrun UUJ)IUd . ' . Ylll. In I'll ' h ~a&l . a reco nl shall be kept !' ' a boo k pro,·idc;.l for the purpose, set· tinp: forth th nam e f the nccu~ •. lh oHen , th ~nten • irnpo: 1, ami the do.te~ . . f th cvmmenccm ent nnd tennmat o n of th e nail~·. No o ther <lntrt will be entered 111 th t;eeord. After !her'\' rd bo k ha be • (iJie I it will be fli ed in the mu¥-Or' flh. . '" \ JX. The eo~t of r h trial Phall not exc I .. 2. One hnlf of the same ~ hall be equally <\ivided betw. n the mayor ltn(l th "" retart: pro\'i<le<.l•thnt th e total nmol)nt for enelr of them durmJl the ~·e1u· d dtos not cxt·eec l $S:J.33 JWr m onth 1 in which case the e.xce;;s hal! . t ; tum~l into the muni ·~nl trl'n~ury; the othe r .half rna~· be pendcd for ofiH' ' mnterml ru1d t.hc expen of th • prOcc<'l.linj.'l' whjch ruay be n~ . •ary. A<;cu ~ 1 part reA who 1tre nrquitt Phall p>t~' ·liO eost•. Any con,·•cteol f'I?TI'Ol\ who does n t pay th ('0 ts ~ ull sufft• on ' du" in1prisonrncnt fo r curh hali dollar iu default. · .. X. All fin c<?lle ·f t Pl.ta ll be tumcd i!1t~ ~he municipa l . trea~nry to defmy th xpen ' of fe<.>d uag the p n ~o u rs whb ure rn Jill I. Any bttlance not req uired for such expenses rfuall be turned in Ill nth I ~ to munil'ipal tren ury the llllm • Ill.! th oth r revenu of th to wn counci l. .. · · Tli .!!CCretar:ies ~hull lteep an ace q l of th ' fin . collect ,JJ verifyi nJl 81lid account w~th. ~he t;eeeipts .of th tl ni.ur)icipal l tJ·•asur r: Th t•oml'mtt !e on finance of thu muniCipal eorpomtron ball JJI8])0Ct all ace unts Knd ther busin ~ r.clati ng to fin and COilt~ and shall auclit all sul'h.'ac ounts. . • • ~1. The. J?Oiiec couh ~~a ll hne the authority t e ntence pe~ons to the payment of mdemmta~ for lo~l'e!l and damag(.'l! ('aiJ-1, ahd the eh t •1 l ·person who does not pay the mdemnity shall f!uffer one da5' of imprisomn nt each half dollar: l'roridcd, that I!Uch indel)lnity wall not exceed 15. X~I. Geneml Orders, ·o. 11 curjm~. ri , th beadqua rs, is hereby m~i-

•om-. t

by

78

fled so as to provide that mun icipal courts shall not have cogniv.unce of the offenses· enumerated m thi order. Thefts of property of the value of not les !hun $5 nor more thll"n $30, and also violations of •1meral Orders, No. 151, current sc ri<·~, thcl!O bcndqnartcl'!l, · shall (subjoot to the ,Provi ion of Geperal Orders, ·No. 88, 'lilT •nt ~ric~, th l!e headq uarters) lie withm th e excl us ive ":juri~ictioh of the muqidlml courts, who shall proceed in su h cru . a in the ~ummnry l)lanner prescribed in t 1is ol'\1 •r, and shnll impose the penalty est:nhllahed I r said offense:; by he code .uup (jJ'() •rs in force. · · I · 'XIII. A.llmu niripal p lice officials will be fnmi~hed ' ·ith tHopy of.thi s o r·dcr, anti aru hereby charged with th stri ·test ob r\·ance .of its pro,·isions. . Jly conllllflnd of Brigali •r-Ger1eral Davia: ! · j \V. P. HALL, :'ldjutmii·Geurml.

Mr. Pt~RKIN . .Ha\ <' ~r ou read th biiJ pr par d by ' · nator'lfomk r~ · Geneml DAvis. Ye:; ~ ir. · 1 .I \ ll'lr. PEUKlNS .. I po notrmpi o ·e the chu it·man '.)ill ohj ct if )' On huve nnY critici ·m · to mnke. ' 1 J'he 0HAinMAN. 1 s~rtll be very g lad if G neml D1t' i. will do :;o . Geneml DAVI . In r .'pect to the internnl revenm01, ;;ec ion 7; thnt , would apply th · ' var tax, a. ~ underr.~tnnd, to .the i ·land- tho pre. nt wnt··revenne tax1 , I .. The CnAm~tAN . Ye , sir. General DAvi . That includes tax on bank checks, . · · telegrams, and o on ~ The CHAIRMAN. Ye., sir. ' General DA'vis. Would it be n · ce:'. tu·y to include in this pro,·i~; ion thttt st1unps nmd and prepared by the C01nmis. ioner 'of Intern ttl lleVenue could be .·ecur d h.v the i land for th · use of the i ·land, or \vodld the island hafe to get ·t;t s t~unp for itB. own use3 The CHAinMAN. No,rsir; 1 suppo. e the island wottld use the same tnmp. I am a little ·oni: •rned bout the extension of the i.nt!'-rnnl. rr1·enue tax of i\1.10 a gtd lon on rum, etc. "'What ' woul~ b' the ef:tect of that~ (· . • .' G n ml DAVI •. I 'think it would h a "'I' t\t hw:den to impose .thnt , (a. · now. .. The HAmMAN. Htwe \ 'Oit nti v brewer:; there now ? 'General DA"\·Is, . 'o, sii· ; hut brcwrt·ies wi ll prohahly b' estnhJj,;h <.l. The CHAJUMAN. You say they will be ? · • Geneml DAVI . Ye:;, ~:~ ir ; there ttro now one or two in Cuhtt. The CHAIIlMA '. Is thor . now any ki11d of distill d spirits mrmufn·· tur d except rum 1 Geneml DAVIS. Bn.~ rum ; tb'ey u. e alcohol in the nHtnufacturolof bnv rum. · ' ~rhe CnA m~rA N. From wbut do they mn.kc it ~ Gle n •ral ·DAVIS. Th .' extm t fi·om th h~f pf n phtnt; 1 do not no~v I'CCttJI its n111m0. Mr . .McCoMA . Do they make curncort,· or an y liquo1· ~ Genernl DAvt.. No,. it'. They mtt ke:;ometh ing they cllllmaln .nota, !lttt it i bu:sed on rum. Tb r ninke certafn deco ·tions from ,,.· 10, :ts 111 France; but not tp any con. ·idemblo extent. The CHAinMAN. Rea.ly, then, the tax on di tilled spirits io; th only one that would benr heqvily; ther would lje no trouble nbout the colI ction of the r vcnu pn tohacco, etc. ? Gcnerttl DAvi . It would b very difficu.Lt to collect it. I :t pose there are 2,900 or 3,000. hops in Puerto Rico. A man ha.-; a ut, in whi(·h he lives in one room, and in another ells a little rwn rolls uigarettes nnd sells them, ana . sells tobacco and cigars, and . fru t ar1d

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'JH: 18LANO OE' Plf1o:KTO R.l 0.

ll(>nn,.: nntl eodti,.:h,nnd h11."~ :t g nem.l ,.:ton•. nnd h • i:< in him;~ If tohnt'I'O umnll~ll<'tl!l't•r .nnd rl'litilt• t'.. "'tloonkt•t>prr unrl ~I'Ol't'l', l'Oinhining- tht•,.1•· fund IOil" 111 h~rn -.l'lf: and tht•l'<' an~ otlll' l.'" who nnti nP th<'IIISt• h ·r,.. to rollin~ 11 f •w t•ig-:trl'ttt•t< ai1d c lli1w what thnr nmkt• 0 \'1'1' tlu I'\JIIIIt1•r wht•m it wonltl bt• n·i·,· dilli~·uJ( i1i"ie~·d to rc:i.l'h. · ' Mr. l\k<.\mA·:'I. Tlw' intt•rnul-r \'CIIliC prm·i,.:io1\ rPI(IIirin~ tbt) nu·tnn· f1it·h1n' h• Itt• .~Ppamtt•d from th • rl'tuiling of toh:tl'l'O, with n l'l'rtain 1 t<J)IIt't' ami I' om . would l'lo:<t' ~ 1i 111 up I . (.l'lll.'mJ J);\~' ~1<. 'ft'>': ,:<ir: IJWy Wllllld ha\:1' to nd,ju.-t, tht'llll<l'l\'1•:; , to thtlt•rt•.u.t t'l)ndtlltlr . I ht'l't • 1.· o ne otht•r lltattt•l' I thotwht of mil in" to your nllt•ul ion. nml tlm.t i,.: in rr••anl to th<• fund ion" of ~'O \'t'l'lllllt'nt': 'I' Iw (' IIAIIDIAN. ' •.nu . . I t I1c .,mlernal-n' \'CIIIIl' l:tx, """ Wl'll a,; th • t I11n, t.u:itf. ,;Jwuld ~o to tht• in,..ula1· trea:-<u n · ~ (km·l:d D.\\'.18. yp;, ,:ir. r lo not' "~'I' h ~nr th~· i>'l:tll(l i~< to kt•t•p fwu:;c w1tb~ut 1t. 1 ,.:ugg-e,;t tbttt tiH• tir:-<t t·our l11u:s on ~ho top of . png : -!. ~vhu·h 11ppcar,.: n:s p:u· of ><t•t·tion G. i<houl(l bt• h1·ou~ht dowi1 to t<<' ·t11n 1. IL!lU t11 l't'nd that nlll'ollcdibn:s made undl't' :;t•l'tio s li aud '7 h.a ll .he pnid into th e trl'l sul·y of l'u<'rto Rico ttnd Pxpcudcd for it~ ' bt:•1ll'lit: In rehttrd to tlw 11 tl'ti ou,.: of g-on•rnnu•ut. Ou page ll, cud Of t<'!'tiOII 14:

b1,1ion\. The ~m· <lt'nm· of Trinidllllah~o nmcle ,;l)me collllllllllimtion t'm ... u<'h :mhJI't't,: ' In K<wtioJt. L5, aml I .hnlim·p in 11 fnw oUu1r 1 l:tl'l'li, " \Vho, tog-utlhJI' ivil h tlu g'O \'!' I'nol' 11nd : th·t• oUH·t· por:mn :; of g'll()(l rnputti, to lu1 ~tl:;o l'rN!itlt•nt. hy ami with tho advi1·n itntl <icHI:;I:nt 11 ppointl•tl hy lh of the ::;t' tmto, fi'OIII" th< nativl' iulmhihmt:; IJI1 t.lm il'llnntl, :-<hall 1'()11stit ut·p 1111 I'Xt'<mth·o I'OIIItl'll.' Th!' g'Q\'I'I'nol' i:; 1a p:u·t o( that t'OIIIII'i l, :tt•t·ording- to thnt. Hl'dion. In :;nn11• vthnt· :<l'<·tiot I t)tink it is • Hl!t~t·<l fhat it is 1'4t1p:tl'll:to fi'OIII t.h11 gll \ ' t'rno r~ l f.hink ill l'Pg'ILI'tl to fmnl'hi .~l'i'l, Th t• I'Ollllci I nu\.y, g-~m 1 t fn11111h i.-n,.. ''with l111 n.ppi'0\'111of t.lw ~on l'nor." Om• to }H'P:;uptio:;c that th1 g-o\'.<'l'n u· 1s a par of I hn t'otuu;il, ::uti t hl'l othl'r t..i11t lw 1k. tl11• !'Xl'!'nt i n J anti it< l'lP JIHI'IItl' f ·om thn \'IJunt il. ThP 'CHAIUMAN. · That i,.; <IIH1 of tl1e dPtaib \\~i<·h ma,v n >1-.d 1,:o rrc ·tion. 1\ lr. Nt:r.~oN. l n;ttit'e, uudor :;P<·.tion Jt, · t lmt, al l t hP o 1 1'odd ·lt(l nppo iu t~·ci f1oll 1 thi" t·ouutry. {i lll\l'tl.l DA VIH. ' l'hny IIHL.r lm. :tl'l'tll'ding to tlti:; tnxt. Mt·. Nu,.'\oN. ))o \ ' 011 dt• •m ·tltat. au\• is~tltlnl 'Would it not bn hn,·<· som of tlwm ;Lppointl'!l from tbc n11tivos ~ Tho CHAIHI\UN. It dol': not ;.;ay th11.t Ut . :<cl·rct:wy 1or govmuo thn eouneif may not. bu' Pm•rto ltil'an:;. · l'rm:illt'd, Thl' Prc~klcnt nm~·. in ti~ <li'<'n' li n, ,1 d cl(n to HlHln~~i).!n tn tiH'I(0 \'<'1'110r l , of Puert o Hi(•n ~u •h ex ~utiVl1 f.unt: ill ll:-t n..~o~ II Jay, in pnr~um'tl'(' uf luw, 1u.' ~o Ul"l"i)!Jwd ' 0t' !ll'l'al D~\\' 1 >'. Tlu• 1 eiti;r.eu:;ltip that is qont't•t'l'<•<l upon tl1c 'L1ort and d It mtcd. "" Hit·nn~ would pl'rmit thPIII to <!t)IIW to tlw t nite< l 'tate:; uud e ·n.r!'isc all th riO"htr< of' eiti?.(' lli<liip, I :;uppo:e '! The r•a.~on for tliat it<. t.4c g ,·c rnor of tha.t i:;lu.ml. 1,4011 mih•s from , Th '11 ,\IIDIA N. No the l'ight to ,·otc, hllt. th other right:, ii uc h as the ~~~·ar~ ·t.ae.t'':l iul . port iu thr nitcd ' tat1•s. dr1wndtnt for it:<'1•mn·· ilmnigTation, t'tt' .. nnd rp:isspor s .if he ciosi ., ;~ to go abl'Ottd . ··~ mun•cntton wttb the .l' utral ~overnm<'nt hy ca.hlo, i" inn ciitr'l' •ut :<it~I r. 1 tl'I.~ON. Is t.ht• !'ll :1ny pro babil ity lmt t hey will come i11 uny . unti 11 to that of nn~r go,·crn I' of nn.v ' t.ntc or T cn\tol'\'. Tho worll. gr~:at nJtmhpr:; '~ . · · · th fo1· Jg.u world, will I'N'O uizc that go\·emor n:; ftiP' I'CPI'C ·tmtntinl (ll'nt'rnl DAYIH. si r: tbnm is ?ot It Puerto Himn' of any mcJUIS of . t~l' I) Ited tate jn· th.at f1.1o.ud. a nd of it" so\·N:cig-nt,,·; it will look 1 \\'holm:; t•hilth·pu gmw in:; up who has not nn in te ntion otw: ndin r them to hun ;11< th(' I' 'PI'e:-<en tatlrc of the Pn,,..id<'ut of tht• l nited ' tatp,;· h, ' hl' l't' to he l'dltl'lllt•tl. rou know how lllltn:V C nh:tll.' thPI'II 111'0 in N w will :stand tb r in the e. tiufn.tion of all forefO'It P<' pic for the P1:. :;i· Yo~k City nnct in oth<' r p:u'l!'! o . th e l .nitl'd ::;tate:;, an([ thc 1SIIll1ll will <l~ut: h(• will be c·ontimmll.': ,· i ~itcd h,,. fo•· ig:•~er 1 foreign . wn1· \' e,.:. e h• . Ill' tho. m sc with l'ur rtp H.imns. · w til ·om c -to tlw port. nnd fo1·cw u ebn:sul wtll ho o:<to.hl i ·hed tlwrc. ' )It·. 'l<'Allt'IIA · Kl'!. Tl'lnpol':lt'ily o r pernm 1 •ntly ·~ Ol·q.,.r,. :!nnomlt'ing tlw:::t• q>n:sular ftit·rr;; must ho p u blished iu the · · Ot•nPI'ILI I> An:;. Both wttv,;. ·Ottiei 1l Gazette. Tln . g-oH•rnor holdt< toward th' world' a some •hat 'i\lr. Nt:LSOK. Youlli!'an'hy tl11tt the white ]WupiP. not the (•olon•d ~ diifll' •nt r lation to that of tl\c ·~on' rnor of nn )' 't4lt ot· Terri ton in Gt•nel·:!l D~\YIH. Y<':;< "ii'. It might. be we ll ot· the '1 Ia111tiinn!i to the l' nit.c tl 'tutcs: nntl it ::<t' L'm,ilo me that. if not nnt·on titntion:\1 'it look to Put•rto .ltil'o fo ~· th it· h~bur. ' will bt• ' wi:<' to . ~h· th Pl'<'"i.tlentof the l .nit<'d "' tntcs 11nthority to ,~c.-t 1 M 1·. GALLlNta:tt. \V~at a)Jout Kcction 241 Did l ·· under'ita nd that in the govcrnot· imeh funl'tions 1\.' the ~P'' •inlm•t'l'. :;itie:< r 'q.uire. That ~· on do not ngn' <' to tln\t '! . . w llld fa ·ilitat the tmnsn ·tion of l iu :< im·s~. Bnt \ ' 0111' wisdom will · G net•nl DAYJK. Y r · " it" I h:wc ;;tatcu m y gcneml co ndusion: on t~g<r ,.t nJ: chanO'• that mi~ht I e m•t· ""Ill'\'. It st•r rn:; to me tbat it tlmt uujet:t. 1 think it would be well to le't tliat wai t' a whil ' . 'c ·· WJII be \'<'~.v u:s f ul both t tb go,·crno l' and to the t'cntml Go>ern· tiun 31 provides fot· the Fedotal court. J would . ·ugu· •st to acid, "u nd n.1 nt nt" a~hington. it>< J,JI'O!·ccdin!fls s hall b • condu· ·ted in the El•glish ln.ngtmgc, ' n.t the e nd The ' H LRMAN. H ougbt ~o be IL loenl ollieial to whom foreig ti'( on· of lme Hi. '.t.tw Fed ·t~tl procc dings of th ·~ provi sional ·ourt arc now' uls s hould I diredly ne<'rcd) ted~ · . co nducted in th' English ln1w.ungc. It i~; a question, p crhap , wh ~thor {~ ncrn l DAns. Th lllt>thdd:would 1~ that ou~· crctnrv of tn.te th proceedings of the s up.rem . coul't sho uld not ttltimate ly be co nwould in,f onn the go,· t·nw· of the i -land that Con. ' I oo·and-So hn pr . du ·ted in tb e 1;ngli. ·h lnnguu~e, but tbtlt could be left for future lcgi &'nt d. hi,; cr •de n.ttals :and ; cei,·ed hi ' ~x qmtt t·, nnd thnt the go>lntio n to d terminc. In ectton 33 ther i. some thing out of joint, of rnor 1 to":' c g_rnze h1m. l'be con u~ w11l como to, be governbr with wliich I thjuk I · h t~ ,· ~ already :spok,e n to tbe cht\(rman . nny ~omplrunt H L r gnrd to 1nny !or tO'Il matter 11t may come up. · Mr. NELSON. I!:i the~e nny provision i11 the bill for nppettl Ho111 tho For m stance, th e ao,· ruor of ::St. J1bomn . e nt ove to me requ~stin~r highest courts tbcr tpi the ~ upreme Court of the nited Sta.tefl ' where m to arre:st <?nt t•riminal n fugitiv · from justic · t . Thoma>!!, nnd .l l'edeml case nr iin·olved 1 · wanted him "' nt hnck th r 1 ~ant d him an-e te a n default , I

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ir- in s ction 32. in the

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GOVERNMENT !!'OR THE I LAND O;Jl' 1; UERTO RlCO .

J:o'

General DAVl . I approve of th m. The onlv thought I ha cis o~ to Wt.LY and menus 'to 111 t th m. . • . . Mr. DJ.: J'EW. Of. co(u·se tho go.vernor could 110t hve on $19,000 a yrnr and ·do whnt 1s expected of hnn. 1 · . G neral DAVl. . Thnt is !1 tu-ly twice what I receive now. ·Mr. McCoMA . Am I to onclud thnt bccnui'Jo you must hu\'o the tariff rm·enUN! for . om years to com for the support of the isln11d · pmcti~l free tmde betw en the Unit d Stat s and Puerto Rico would · be doltn•ed 1 . G n 'rnl DAVIA, I would ·ny that tho i land, so far a. trade ii:! concerned ··bould en)oy tho Humc privileges a. Hu.wuii n w enjoy , and thnt it hould tj.e put upon tho ulti•r111to bn is of lf- upport. The amount coli cted th the form of cu toms r ovoll"(tos nnd u. ed in the if'l:tnd may b rcgnrc;lcd n an ud\'1\n· ·c, if you plea. e, by the United · tnte>< or some other m thod d •d !<ed by which the iHiand can obtain· a sufficient r evenue to carry on its opcmtionl';l fot· •~ f w years. The HAIJUIJAN. Yom· r comm ndation is that we nave f ree trade between the nited tates and ·Puerto Rico ? Mr. McCoMAS. You said that free •trade with the Unite would reduc· your ·ustoms revenues bv one-half ~ GenemllJAVI . Ye ; siT; 1 think o.' Mr . . M Co~rAs . And you need more r evenue ~ban yo u now have¥ Genom] DAVI . Ye , 8ir ; one of the mo t pressing things that eonfront . me now, and will confront my u c ssor , whoever he may I:J.e, is,to dev ise a concreto and ·olid and thorough system of taxation out of th e pro:sm~t !:!)'Stem of taxation throughou t: the iRian d. 'N e ou ht to luwe immedmtoly o. tnx on property, tb • i:!I\III H a, in the Uni ed State· . · · · The CHA1R~IAN. 'I Ut;ld rstnnd ther ~ · 0. pros ing necessity for us to lcgislnt in some \VI~Y · • I · Gene ral DAvJs. It i of the utmo~'t jmpo rtanc . If we wait u til !'ext u~m er the ·otr e erop will be lo t a nd the industry very g roa Iy J,eopardtzed. .. · I

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WJmNESDAY, Jcemtary 17,· 1900 General Dnvi :1 ] ' ing r •call d and a. ked in r egard to certai ~ stntem nts made by Nn·. H enry G. ' mti , made th e fo llowing . tateme t. ir. o KJU:LL. You have· ·heard the stntemcnt of · M1·. Cw·tis in regard to pei · on. <"onfined in jail in Puer~o Rico. Have those [peo le been confined a tn.ted by h im~ . . General DAVI . Mr. Curtis r forr d to a date some fo ur or ix month. ago. That nmttor ha b en Ol'J' ct d, th courts reorganiz d, the jail emptied out. The number of prisoners in the jnil wn. abbot ,..,,000; thoro nre now perho.p , 700 OJ' 8( 0 or 9 >0 in all the j1\il . Mr. CooKRELL. How many ' vhon yo u took charge~ .' Genom] DAn . Abot,~t 1,600, 1\i' r·tlOW ]' member. ·T he numbelj of Jai.L' wos then eleven and one pri on. Th ro are now ti\·e abd one pn. on. Tho nggregb.te nnmber of p >l'HOns no\y ·confined i. nol mor~ thnn two-fifths, or p rhap. thr -fifth s u. great as when 1 e ntereH upon . tny dutie~:~i Pri. on r. Ill', now brought into the jail and tried nOd son. t need or acquitted within fift n day · j th p1·ocedure bas been bd.<;tened und expedited, so that most of ·those oxtm.ordinarydelays to whi .h Mr. Curtis advert are prevented. That th re a re persons still in jdil who

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(h'nm:1~l DAVI t~. ::io Itt' n:< n•:<ult:< n.n t'OIII\I'I'nl'd . bii.\'1' ht'<'ll tiH 1'(' .fo•· :t n m><irl ••·abl<' tillll' i>< trm•. I know of n. lnw>~nit . ~lr, Coc Jud·:J ,t.. Ul'l oml llt•nt•y'.s 'ordt•r wn>< i:<>-~ lll'fl dlll'illg' 1t t Ill<' of that . hn,o lli't'n 1wnding- in P,u,rto Rieo for tiftv V<'IIJ'><, 11nd I think t.ht•J·r Rl't' SOl ll' in Cllliflll'llill whidi hll\'{' 11\'t'n Pl' ltd'in~ II>' lclll<', . r do IIOt •1w:ll't I . . (it•m•rnl IHYtH. No, .sir; hl'fore tl11• rntilit· :~tion of tlw t•·t•a .\'· I think ·thP PJ'(}('l'thlr di tfel'>~ lltnh•rinlly from thnt of th • Unit<'d ' tntc• now. · · · n~ · rn nl tht• t(lll':<lion of llllU'I'iug-t• ami di vo l't'l' a.s ont• of tht• 1i1o>-~t. Jli'<'>'S illf ont•:< thut t•tmft·ont,.: tl11• gon' l'nOI', whl'lhtll' nilitar,\· or t•i,·il. M1;. 'ocKH•:1.1 ... \ l'l' thl'y i1 tpl'i:<onl'd in eon,;eqnt'111'1' of t,IJi,.. ><nit ·1 Gl'm•ml lhn:<. :\o. ><il'. ' · .\notht•J' i>< tlw tnx . rL•ri><ion. Wlmt. l\lt·. <.'nrti H hn:< :<:tid i.11 l't•gul'll to 'tho• inju,.:Lin• ot' tl11• pn•:<t•nt ><y:<lelll 1 ltg'l'l'l' with hun t•ntin•ly ahout. 1 1\lr. J.' uniANK:<. l111pl'i..:onlll<'nt i:< for :<tlllll' l'l'iminnl olfl'll><l' I It i" u ''(dng- . hnHil' tlat Lht• t•ondit.iou ~< 111'1' " "' t,hP,V l ll'l'. Gt•nt•ntl DAn:'l. Yt'"· "i r. n l't'>'Jlt' d to t.hr •iun'l'htg-<' 1tnrl dinll't't' Tl11• CllAIHMi\N • .. Thnt t'IUI ht dl'nlt with al:;o h,r .lul'a.l lt•j.l'i. lnt.ivl' IRw:<, I think it i>< dnt' to tiH• n)l mnn· of a ,.,,n· <'1tll11nt oflic•t•J', Gt•m•J'III nnthorit.r '( . \· Hl'nr\·, . . .who rnn not he ht•ard. tbat l ',:honld nu1kg 11 ><tnb•nwnt in 1'!'"111'11 .... (km·l·a.l DAn:;, YP:<. ,;il·. to thnt. Altbon:,rh l .wn >< not JH'l'>'t'nt whl'n tht• n.uti'J'ing-t• :llld tlinm·p The 'IIAIHMAN. l'wonltlliku to a"k your <>piui on of t.h r. llll:<i:; - you1· lnw. W!'l't' pr6mnlg-ntl•tl hy him. yt•t in nn oflil'illlt·npllt'ity I h11n• ht't'll opi11ion "" ·to tht• fp l><ihilit,y of Hu hstit.ut.ing- nt on<·t•, hy 1wt of ll'g'ikohhgt•d tot'lll'l',\' on ht• g"O \'l' l'llllll:'llt 1 1dl.' r it. nntl h11\'l' ht't•n 1thle It> lation. t.hl' l'l>t:unon-lJt\Y~<r><tt! lll of jnri~JJI'IIllhll't ·for tho eiv ~l law. inform 111,\':it•lf ><Oni\'wh nt in l't': It'd to t hl.' nntt•t·~ d ('n t :< wltit•h n•,;nltt•tl Cl<'m! l'ltlllA\'1~. IL :;(•t•liJ:.; to 1111' t:lmt.lhl' niril 't•txlh of any ::ipaniiih • in tht• t nnl'tllH•nt of thnt l11w . 1 t•onntn· Olll!ht not to bt• mdi(·all\' l'lmng••tl. It >'1'1'111!< to 1110 that it .\ ,.. I r. 'u1·ti"' :<tate:<. it wn,.: pr(ll'mhl.'· ill)t th l' WOI'k ot' ( i<' lll'l' I ll t>nt'L •lwul(!' hl' dunt• :<tPp h,r ><I<'JI anti' dPJ.!I'l't' hy l[t'J.!I'tw. I ><l'l no j.!l'('at h~~~. of hi:< nch·i><t'l'"· nidt•tl. r.~·rh11p:<. h.\' ~lr. Cnnoll: hut thr n•;.pnn~i­ ndmn!IIJ.!l' J.!nint•d h,r :t mdit·al (' hiiii)!P, and I thin~ I t'IUJ ~'<r.o t hn:t1g ·c1~t lllhl\· of rn ·lr I 11111 not nhlt• to :ltatt' tldiniteh·. llowt'\'l'l'. Gt•no•ral 1-lmfu,.:iou and disllolnllltaj.!t' 111ig:h t l't'><ll lt fro1i1an ul'l>itl'l••·. rn vision · lit n'r.\· lll'lit' \'1'<! that in promnlg-nt ing- l hat ordt•i· ht• wn:< lt•g-itimllti )linJ.! tho><t' l:m,.. 1111d tlwir hl'i11J.! >'11Jipla1Jtt'd at a g-ivt•n da,\'. I th i11l' it woult.l th r t•hiltlrt•n who Wl'l'l' without IHIIIIt'. Ht• IIIII \ ' han• ht•t•n nii:<h•d. hnt ho• wi ~ 1 :>< t 1"11 pi'Ot'l't'd "tt•p hy :4t•p in tlli >< J't•v i:<ion of tlw ri'ril law. ~ ~'h ad nn h o m·~t and lw nr lic't•nt pnrpo,.;p, nntl that lnw. n>< nnH•nth•d l1\' I hn.l'l' hud :<01111' littlt•. I'X'jll' l'it'IH't' in thl' 111atl ~ 1 l' Jli,Y:<Pil', -a11d I hav him n'nd )1,.: l'XPl't•:-,.;l'tl nll'l'l', is li dt•l'id,,d iliiJ11'01'('111Pilt- llot II hmnd oin;. not n g'l't•:tt ><ll'p in :ul\·:lll l'I'.JW11h.1p:<. hut a t•ou:.;irlPmhl<• impl·m·t'llll'llt- . found how ditlit·ult it i,..· to~ l'lll with t.ht• rig-ht " 1111d 'riv:tlri u>< of a 111il upon tlw ~pani,.:h t'Ot.l' in rq.rnrd to nl:ll'l'ingp and di,·ol'l'l'. BtJ t. ·il liop jwopiP on \'1'1',1' i"lllltll qm•,;tion:<. (~III'><Lioll>< of t•hallg'l\ 1'011111 1111 and I 11',1' urt• o·oll sidt•I'Prlallil l't'l't)IJ,.:idt•l't•d, nml hn 'ordrr i>< made whit· 1 nowh r rP 'nt•nr I'OI'l'o'>< pond,.: to our idt•:t. .\:< to that. it fail >< fur anct i. o'X JI<'l'lt•d t{l hring- ll <'t•rtain n •sult·.• ltnd 'lllddl'Jil.l· I tint! 111,\'><l'lf. ll.fl' um1y to r''nl' h our t'llllt'l'Jlti cm n:; to whnt thl' 1'1':11 lnw ,.:lwuld h1•. ll g'll ill~t . 11 :<lont• wall. IIMwith><tnndillg' tht•. atll'io·t•ufl g'(){l(l l:tl\'t'I'S, ·J•nnrLo In r>>'JWl't to the :u hnini :<~ l'ltion whil'h I hnn1 h t' n t•ondnl'ting- in .Hi1'11n,.. and !\nwri l'H.II~, hl't'lllls.o of lll,'fl)olllilia l'it,r h11 th !' plt}'t of 011". Ol' th11t l'l'g':ll'd. thn•p III(Hit h,.: IIJ.!t n n •,·i><iou of tht• Jilltn:ing·t· nnd c\i,·ort·t• thl' otlll'r Wlt.h tht• ,nltmmtl' l'll t•d" of t l11• o·lmll j!t'. In r\'gnrd to o'l'l111 · law wn:< !•i't' Jl:ll'l'O undt•r 111.• din•dion hy th r judi<· iul ho:ll'<lof Pm•rt o i11n·l 111attt' l':< t hi' llt'<'d is gn•att·~ t. But 11.-< l't':<lH'l 't:< a tr ial by j11ry t R i1·o, l' )IUJIO:<t•d l>f tln·o•t• nati1r nnd two Auwri1'11h lawyt'l':< - :\!1·. 1'1-t:IJ.!Tt't' t•ntin•l.\' with what i\Jr. Ct11'li" ><It,\'>', tlmt. tho tttlP111pL to utilize tirij!ill. :'llnjor 'harp. tl w p n •,.:idPnt of thl' t·ollrg't' Ill' lawyt•r><. :\lr. Cn1'· ,·iiJH..,, :\Jr. ll t'l'll:t ndrz Lop z. ftll'lllt'tly mini ,.:tt•r of ju, tio·t•. nnd :\lr. tho• jur.'· "'·""tt•m il1.l'u r rto lt it·o ,.Jw ultl 11ot uow hP r11adP.· Th ey lmvc Ho .....:y. ,nn t'tnilw nt lawy,•r in Purrto Hio·o. TIH'y pn•p:ll'l'd 11 1'1' \·i,.:ioll lll>ft·.om·t,•)>tiollof it. ~~IHi l'an h:~n· 11om fo r ll llii.'Y .'· ":~r .. it sl' •n1. to .m o. J· t 1111k It would l1t' llllj)l'lld •nt to attl'11111t.l:o t•:<t:uhh:-;b t he• g-rand Jill'.)' of th1• JllR I'I'I:lg'(' auJ dir pn't' la\1':<: that n•,.:ulted in :1 lH'oj,•t•t for lit' dt• 1111d 1wt it jlll'y 1111tl t1·ia hy jury tiH'OIIJ.! 1011t t.hl'i<C 1111111ic·ipali t iw; allCI that 'tJll ld hi' n •t·og- niz •d n,.: :<Hti:.;fador.' · h.'· any .Stat\> in tlw l ' nio 1. rt'IIJOtl• cJi,.trid .~ in that ig 11om11 · populatiwL It. scCIIJS to nw that no 'l'hn dr:1ft \I'll " :<llhm ittl'd to Ill<', nnrl In· nil' to thl' :::'' l'l'l'l:ll' \ ' of " 'ni· f.{Oud l'OUJd J'l':; IJit. ' f r hi.,: :ippwnt! lll' fon' ]JI'Oillfll~:llion. ' I t llllllg>ht it 111\' uilh . a:; '·it' In l'l':<pt't·t ot' one of 'i\lr. Ctu'tis':< I'Cnmrli:< l'lllll'Crning-acllni nistmtion im·ol\'<'d properi.'' ri.!!'ht..:. to :<ubmit it to t'he ::;t'\'l'l'tary. · It h;1,.. hcrn .ro n:>idl' r d b~· tbr DC'p:Htn u•Ht, \) nt nt'tion hn:< not n:; ~· c t 1J ' n tnkcn. and l'X)Jl' IIC!itui'I':S. I tl1ink lt may 11ot ·II' d.u•nwd im.pi'OJWL' i'o 1· n•o to makl• one ··tat n1cnl'. The nu1l1b r of otfkiitl:; Mr. Curt1s 1:cfcr. ton nn d l h:n·c not n~ n ' t bt•t•n atl,-i,..ed in re:<pel't of' it:< i,.::<m• . I under· grcnh•t· than , Ht'l' ., Ntry and larger : nlJwi c. tha:u nN·cs: :u·y . H o r •fer~ . ~t:111d. bowe\'o·r. uii ttit'·inlly. tlmt. it i. : q n(•:<tion in the miud.· of ' the to thl' Vl'l'Y grmt exp •lise nttcncling tho hoard of publi c works a:; he ln.w ttd\· i~e r;. of the Dt•pai'IIIH' HL wh r tlw r the titilibt'.' ' t'Olllllllu~dcr ha>< fouud it in J>uerto.Ricb. H e mentions lii.J. 000 u.s tho administrative 11 1 gal r.ig nt to ebnng-P n .~ tat tr of tlw i:,lla.nd without ll'"'i><latioii in XI,)Cn:; of th oftic of tbe directo1· of publi work: . I think if h had thut pnrtit-ulur. and for thnt r ,,.. n it i.· held i1p until :<OIIl ~l eg i " latin looked ntor ' l'ttrefu lly he would h1we hc;;itut t.l to m:tke th~tt , tutement, uuth. rity m·1~· 1 xist in thP i:<land;. s tba t that ::uhjel'l of mnrrmg • an I dh·oree 11~11,. he pr e"d d with . · uot n" respect. th ninount, but ru; rcsp t't.'l the xce. · of th amount or th propl'i ty of that amount. 1 think I nmd in n new; paper nn I d n t know tha ~ th 'Vnt· D p:utm nt int nds to ..:u,.;pcnd action nb;~tm~t of the ,Prclim!mtry rei><?rt of th ' in~ul ar , ·o~1mi:. ion, where I permunently. It !)my oo that they intend to instrut't me to go on nml th111k 1t wns 111d thu,t M the poh( y of omo of o11r Sllt.tc govcrnrn ntl; pr mulgnte it. but . itt' rtuinl~· . will re ·tilt that Um~ subj ec t will u<' r e,·i.:- d if le ri ~ hlti,·c uuthorit,,·l i ' gi r n to ~om bod in tb i lund to WtJs imitated ~~ gt· nt p l·ofit would result. I have been at some pains ~~ . . . to investigate that, and. have looked into the r. cport of the Massnchu.. ~ ·t~~:~ h.igliw1ty ·omruis~Jion, which is r ?ogni.zed as having a ·. y~nl ~Ir .. ~ KR:EJ.L. Th r ult 9f th .nonac:tion ,6f t e Wnr Depn Wblch 1 ·• n. well ·onducted n.s anywhere 111 tb1 country, m nt 1 to confirni whnt G neral Henry did? .

t:

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0

OOVE RN11ENT ~'OR

HE I LAl'fJ? O!i' ,P ERT

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· Tha rommi:~-.,ion c pcndc~ y ur J:>efor lllf!t ju!lt about tb amc ttruount ILS is being cx(>cnd d in Puerto Uico thi." yetu·, but MMI!ll bu. ~tti! hJLS an udmini.•trnt i\· f · · olmo t 100 per (•ent mor ~o tly than that .referr.cd to by ~tr. n is in Pu rt Rico, at lcn.-t 75 pm· cent gr •uter thun tb ' CXJ)('Il>'t' in Puerto .Ri-ro. rn that i land tb 1\lliO\IIIt i. ubotlt '50.000, thP twttml t•xtwnditurc being nJ?plied in Puerto kid > to road:;, und it ha nn ndmini:;tra tiv fort· tbnt 1nvoi\'C:,J t\11 expenditure of about f-5\),000. In Mn><>'tle1nv ctt.o.; that ~~mount would hn\'o b en 0,000 or IKI,O()O. Th nunibt>r of engincrrs -itnd their Mlu.rie. urc much gJ:' at •r, 1\nd the =-nlnl'i s and numbt>r of o\·ers • •r>< nrc g reater. Mr. ' K Luo:J.L. Mn ><ttt·hu,.:ctt:; is n mueh htr y r eountn·. (n•nernl DAVJ . lt. i ~< tlw nuwunt of money cxpentle(i to which J'(•ft•r. Mr. GALLll'iOl:R. Tli , ,. t'O\'Cl' th entire tttt nnd nrc IJU1king mugnitit·cnt roads. · General DAvJ . )J'e , i1·; hut of th nmount expend<'d mor<' go s into ton<Ll nnd 1 into ltdmjnistmtiori i11 Puerto Rit·o th ttn in Mn ll· chu tt . · " ... ' Th HAJRMAN. Htl\'ing ih \'icw .nil the. ='Y · tams of It giM intion thnt mu t l looked after pcedily, do you think it fr n,oihle or not to 'intru:lt it t on man , 11l'tin~ undt•r th e ad,·it• of the Pre><id13nt, or . hould thcr oo :;om legisltLflv 1\utbority I · Gcnr ral DA vt . Tlii r . botlkl me lc ,i,.Jnth' o nuthorit\·. The 'HAtruiAN. J)l th islntid ! · tl-rncral DAVt . Y "' ir. . The ' uAiUMAN. Your opinion ill th1\t leg i ,o lt~tiv n.uthority should he .nppointed rntb t' than 'c hosen 1by cl ·tion 'l ' · Oem•ml DAvt . Y ' , sit·; .for som ,·curt< to <·omo./ 'l'h iulllMAN. I und .,. tood you i.o Slt,V thnt tile ~ uffrugc n now I' :<trict<'<l' to in temgenr 0~ property qunlilil'lltion is limit a to 1\hout ti or 10 J;?<'l' c nt of tb votm,. populnt10n, und tb. poop! who Ill' l'o)n· pt~mth· I~· ;.:1\fo to be intru~:~t ~ w1th it! · Ornerul n VI . ·l think the\ lllll-\' l intru:<tcd with the PI' sent limited s u.ffn,~c. 'Yl' can tr~· th e~ riin nt at nil ,. nt:l to the xt~ nt I bn,·o ' mentioucd.,'A"i\'ing thcml' ntl I of th munieipnlitie nnd partieipa ion in tb \· ntmladminiiltt1lti on throug h nppointm nt:s. Mr. ·c KltEJ.L. Do you mako·:tn. · di ' tine ion i:n qtmlitication of i1 YOter, r· do ,\·our quit· bot~ i ntr ll lgl'n c und prop rty qualification r ouc or th Qth r l ' n ral D v "'· I t i altem11ti\· , one or th other. The HAtRl\IA ·. ~r ll u - w ha,·e it lwfor ·u only inn tentative way, an~ no n lin un~· pr judice bout it, I . uppo e : ! cm·tainly huve not. althou ,b I prr pllred th bill: in tb ' biiJ w pr()\·ide for n lcgishtti\' rn bl~:- th r uppet· hous to be appoint d nnd the lower hou e to b I d ed b~·· th qualili d ,·o te r~.- would you think thllt nn .impo,o ihlr ~·:lt m, or. ~l you me:in it i8 "· ;.:ati fnctor.r th1u1 to btn· • 0\·er~r bod_r ll\)pOiUt('d ( ' . &-n nil D n s. ! .think it" ouJd mu h l "" :llltisfactorr. The ' U AIHJ\IAN. ~ Y u do n t think it impradicnble or impos ihle I Gcncrnl DA\'J. J. think tb ~ rc lllll\' oo35 Ill n or ~porhnp · nlargcr numbe r. who nrc qunlificd td Jcgi l1lte. but there no certainty of th >'(> m n bein j,r ch n at an I dion. I think the bnnce of . CUT· ing_the hest m n ar much gr ter by appointment , nn b.v electio . '..t;be CILurutMI. l:ou would ha\·e both bodi appointe~ I

l

1

. RIOO.

Ci<'IWml DA\'1,;. I would; o1· th o mnjor\t,· nt len><t in hoth hodic,; ntliwintl'CL ~ · ' , The :, (A11DI A ·. II a \'P \ ' Oil <·On,oidPI'('(] that to h:wl' I' IP..tcd nml 111;pointl'd. u1Pillhi'I'S sittin~ 11idt• hy ,oidP mi:rht <'I 'PIIh• hil'tioJJ! .(l('lll'l'lll llA\' Ik l think .if WI' :11'1' to h: \'1' IL)l)lOilltl'rf hodil'f<, 0111' hoit,;l' i,o ""g-ood as two: hut u.ppointPd und l'll'I'INlnH•Iulll'l'>' ><it in tht• ;<UIIIl' Jp~rj,.;l.ttin • I'OI~tH'il ,; of 1111\11,\' I'O)oniP>'. · ThP aiiAJHM .IN. You think it 1\'0IIIrl hi' 111'1'1'>'>'111')' to hun· only ()II('

'"''h·l

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( il'n •ml OA ,.,,., ..\' ""' :<i r; mueh pn•f't •rahl <•. Th<' CIIAII!~IAN. \\'ith wlmt numhl'l' of·u1 mhl'l '>' ~ \ (it•npJ'ttl DA\'11-1, 'l'l11 IH:nd,o ~·f admini,..tl'llth·p ofH<'""· n:<,..oeiatt•d with fonr or fin• nntin•" (,f tl11• i><land. I " Thl' CH A lll~l ,l \'1. Ar th1• fli'O \'i,oion,.. ·o f tltP hill in that n·~al'(lampl c ! (irnC'I'III DA\'1!'< . """· sit·; quitt• >'ltti,.fndot,\'. ·The 'II AII!M i\ N. Would it nnt hi' a g-ood idm to g"i,·n th o pnolllo prrtty g'<'lll'l'nll,r, ll." · t'u1· a,o ,..nft•, n. p:irtit·ipation in ll'g·h;I!Ltion , uml hPtt r to appoint n. lt'n r(•l' hou"<' tltnn to rio without it l'ntil'fly! OPnPrnl · 1),\Vl >'. I think if tlwt'l' wu,o prori ,. ion for :-ud1 a 0 1 'I', ' a!1d till' lii<'IUh<:l'>' ll'<'t'l' nppojn.tPd iu,.tc:nd· of l'lt•<·~t:cl .. it would ~;e in I'I SI' to l'ontl•nt1on" lll]<t ml >'lllldt•r,..tancllng·,.. and fndwn. 1 should think otm houi<P >' uflit ·iPnt. J lo1o'w, Ill-' a mnttPI' of fad, thnt tht• rolonin l' ".' '"tl'UI o f thP IHH' d whN<' lt>g-i,.]atin• hod ics arr allowed; in Lfu• l'olonic" IH' nl'ly all tht• c·a:'l'>' of I'I'OWil t·oloni r~< of Eng-l!l.nd; nn!l ll nllnnd , and J) l' lllltar~ - thl'ro i" hut <1111' kg-i ,..lati.\'1' hotly ; a fnw han• two hodir,., hut mn,ot of thc·m hut 01w: and :\ majo1·i ty s:>f th <> mrmhl'r>' appointr d. "onu•tim<'" all. · Tht• '11 .\liDI.I!'>. El! g' lt ~ n d ha,o d itl'rt'l' nt. <·oloni<'"• . (i r nrrnl D.\\· 1 ~: I d0 n t rt' f1•1' to ' '<I'P:<pon.-ihlc 'col onu•,o, >'lll'h a" <.i111nda • •\ u:<trnlin , and )'ipw ~ l':l. luml: lrd t·r to <· rown r·olonil "· ,.:o-c·nll ed. ,.: ul'!1 :t>' 7\lauritiu:<. Bnrhaclo:<, TL'f,J1idad 1 .Jam:tiea, 1tnd many other . . .\lr. COt'I\ HI·: J.l .. \\'hu t nltout fh o" d h;trid,o; how lllllll\' jutlieial eli ... tri•!t,; arc> tlwl'l ~ · · ' (i l'nPI'a) I>AI'l :<. ',Q11• lll'l'llllg'P IIII' ll t of thP I' ITit OI'.\' into j udi l'in) di,.:tj·jd,o unclr r 1-ipain W:t>' fJ< fih• d ill' 'l'l' nt to what now t•xi"t". End1 I'Olll't of tit·,..t in.-tam·p had a judi.l'ial cli,;trid l.uwi ng· tho o t• ,oi · n1' :;cl·t•n lllllnic·ipaliti e,; trihutar; to it. and 1111'1'1' Wt'l'l' II jt' di t ial di .t t·id,; in all. c:u·h lu\\· in ~ ~~ judg'e of tir~ t in;.:taiH 'I' and in:<t 1·u ·tion. . That mnp of Pn<'l'to ltieo ha" no rr "<'mhlan • whntt·,·pr- it <lor ,.; not r<'prl',.:c•n t at all th t• politi('n] Ol' judi<·ial did sion of th • i:-;lnnd a:; 1 k:now 1t, not at nil. )lr. <.'OC K·IH: Lr .. \\'h1tt do .· it l'OJ)l'C"l' ll t ~ 1 • (; •n ml DAVI :<. I t·an not tell: I C':tn not g-ii·p th e pndi"T<'e of thu t map at nil. · ~lr. 'o KJU:I.I .. How many di,otr il't" h1wc ~· ou '! Grncml DAv t ~·t There arr ti v distt·i<:t court:<, nnd at the bead of eneh n cli ~;tri ct juclg • rmd two lt".:JOl·iat jftdgc,~. 1 . Mr. ' oCJan:Lr.. And ,·ou hn,. , nmdc cu ·h one <H tho:so di r;trict,.: comprch ntl or mbrnec cxi ·ting subtlh·ision:s of th o island ( G n ml DAYJ ~. Yc>'. ~o~ iJ·. . ~It·. C ocKRELL. · J!~ollowin g the ~<tunc line.· n:< h fore? 1 • G ncrnl DAVIS. Ye" ;:ir. Mr. CooKREJ, L. What i ~ the proportion of popnlation in tho. e? U neml DAvi . About qual: a nearly :so a · prn ticabl . , Mr. C ooKitELT.. Is there any orgunizution from which, for example, 8. Doc. 147-6 1 1


2

OOVERN11E.NT

J8LA. D

o~·

oov~:JtNMl>~NT ~·ou 'J'HJ<: 15\J,AND o~· l'UJ£RTO RlOO.

PUE}lTO . R10u.

oo

reJ)r ntath· s could .be Ill' th t·o houndttries whi ·h woulu known I .ent>rol DAVIS. By adopting the judirinl suhdivh;ion of the tcl'l'itory and l'ftl)ing them pol~ticul divi lsion , and announcing that . atlh of th O:,!' • t~bouki hav uch and ·uch r pre ntntivc>< iu th l1 gi:ilature, it·could bed I I , l\fr. 'KRELl .. You hn.ve nl · live? en ml DAv.ts. Yes, sir. Mr. ' Kiu:u.. Bcfoi'C the were dC\~en 'I Uent>ml DAVIs. Thl'l'C we1· elcvcu judicinJ di\itricts, lmt thoro w r >~ev n dvil. 'd partment:; 1tt he tim nutonomic.al govcrnm nt wu

c

oro

~.

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· Mr. ' ' KRELL. We..r tho ·c chr n qtutlly dh·ided in popultttion and A't nt of territorv I G neml DAn . W{thout being able to pcnk po itiv ly I should >~ay ye ; abOut qually divid p. That i:; my opinion. It .would b per-fectly compct •nt for the legi t~ laturo to subdivid the islt\nd intO as many .BS~~embi,Y di tri ·ts n.."' it nw tit 'to. There at·e to-do. but five political st~l:><lkision of th island, nnd thos 1.u· the judi ial divisions, h~Virtg about·equal popitlrltion. Mr. ~ KR~LL. What nr th ,PI'Opel·ty qunlific.ation 'I Gen raJ DA¥ 1 . Th property qualitic.ation for voting in the , municipal el ·tions now goin on and ahno><t complet d n1· • that the VOt I' DIU t ha\· pai<f nt f 1\. t $1. of hlXCS :;ub eq uent to th l iSt of July, 1 9 must hlw pnid ut . least 1\1 of tnxc;; suh ·equcnt to that ' date, and ~ ttble to t~bow by 11 c ipt or record that that 1tmounll bus · be n pBid. • · Th RAJRMAN. Di>e not th t leave it op n for an mnl>itiou ~ candidate to P,llY the ti\XO:,! for t~cnl anQ hav th' Ill vot 1 n ml DAvl . That w11l not work for the future, fot· the very r n that h will anti ·i~ate it. me nmn will pay the taxe. for oth r , and wh n th I l'tJOn ·om · uround they will march up with th ir tax r ceipts to vote. Before th next munioipul election this defect mu t be ·ur d. Th RAIRMAN. 1 uppos th.at the man mu t have 'owned .;ome prop- . -erty i~ .h.i 'own right Oll whic~ he paid to.~e , and not that men shQ_uld be qu~ltfied voter for som candidate who' should advance the money. G e n ~I DA VI . Th t'e w r ome· wi.Jo hrl.<j no real shlt , or changed ftom .on municipality to rmotb r, and that was why I was anxiou '·to guard again t .it:. Th ord r lstated that' he, hould have ,po.id i\1 of taXi 11ubs qu ot to the d11te . m ntion >d and prior to the date of th ord r. I understand thr\t an ~ttempt was mnd1 ·by orne to de feat i p1·~wit<i nl4. ti.nd t1i r suit wru thnt som thirty or forty w re arrested and tri d by the nited tates provisioJlal ou'r t und are now in pri on, and , ~oo, is the man w~o r\dvnnced the money fo'r these men. ·· Th H l&"AN. Do ,you thi k that \'Oting i a good thing ? ~~~ rsi):>Avt . 1 · do; and ~a~ is the r on.-1 set ,it on foot. .J t~ink l ~ight . mention on int;id nt as iiJustrativ , perhaps, of their tendenci . In thi ord r, whjch W1l8 publi bed regardiog election · in orde r that the~ might alway be mmority ntattons in each town council, a rep ntation of both polaj al · n,t ade thil5 addi. tion. For example. where there were to be elected-aldennen a~r you might call them- I each politi:al party should nom mate tlie w~ole number, . their no\i:

3

to th' hourd of ~·cg i><tmtiou -th c Au:;tmlitin hallot l>emg u. d~ tlmt etu·h voter :;houlrl vote fo1· the wholr rntmbc l' vf l'IUtdillrttcs on hi:; .or hotli ti1·kct:<. He might votu the :<tmig-ht ti(·ket, ,or ~C I'I\tch, n>< he r.Jcnsccl. Ott ; o1· thl' other ptut.v would, of l'OIIr:;c•, pn•vtlil. J :;tntcd thnt th pn1·ty pollin~ tht• nmjurity of votc:o shoultl tmv' ton of tho:;c It u· ·omplil'! hed 1·ouneihtu' n in><tnlll'rl 111 oflicc mtd the minority fi\'!!. one l'csul thut is, it guv'c minority rcp1· •,;c•ntntiun, wlmt L wu.s ufte r, to teach nnd furni,:;h cxperil'lll'll, · · Tn one towu, 01111 f th' lttrge:;t iu the i::Jlnnd, whcr • three 01· fou1· thOUi!lmd VOt ::; were polJ cJ OUt of 1\ popult\tion of a0 00\J, 1\ CIUldicJatc or'ono pnrty wn ·peciltlly ohnoxiou::; to tho othe•· ptu't.y. · H wu,; I\ IC'ndcr <H' hoss iu ' th1\t conmnmity but he hnd It g•·cnt 1 umy enemi es in the oth 'I' ptu·ty who d tcrmined thathoshould bo d e~ 1 ted if po~< ·ibl '· It wn. ·well kit owit th1tt thi. mun '15' ptwty woul.tl I' C'cin1 the hu·gc~:~t number of vot •. , .so the ruinol'i t,r could afford to wustc, ot· mthct· x. pend, om of their "votes. J.n 1u·cornplishing it HOIIIQ twenty or thit•ty of tho inino1·ity votbd the nmjol'ity ticket; :;cmWhing, however the n~nne of thit~ o6je -tionnhle mun, tmd throwiug him dqwn the list, ieuving him out of the eligibl . . · ~o, when the vot(!:i wcl:e c.anvtt sed thi~; mun wa not indudcd or in:;tnlled in ollie~. Uut hi>< pow r in h' rty wn. gi'Cttt, nnd he l'l'm·kcd tit • whip ovrr·tlro hetlds of three or fo f the;.ucce:;sful cnndidate. and mad • th mre~ ign . Intermediate betwec him. If and the lowc:;t of the ten uc ·es. ful mudidatcs who resig ned! w: One in his OWII uJufl. whO Jmd not VOtes enoug h to h .eJe •ted, and' .' ·rt wnF< uhovc him, nnd liP mtu.lc tht\t umti rcs ig~ tti !:JO. I11 tlmt Wtl,)-. hC lp·ought him;.clf into the li t~t of eligible , 1\nd then procee-ded to 'take po:;scs><ion of the officp. 'Thnt re ultcd in ju. t whnt might h1\ e hccn CXJ1l' •ted, th1\t i:;, the whole minol'ity l'Csignccl, the whole fiv Q men rc ·ig"n cd, l cndn~ .the minority without repro. entat ion, Md . ·a id they would not suhnut to the indig nity, 1111d they went horne.' Mt·. o ' KttB t. r .. What did you do ?' • · Gcn ml DAVIS. I would not permit it; l .-aid thnt et\ch mun had ·worn to do hi:; duty and 1 would not tpiCt:atc :such an n ·t of childishnN;s subterfu ge ... The local lnw of Spain prol'idl'd thnt no mnn ·ould ' v!tet\tc hi. office un le ·::; h e wn~ ov I' 60 .}'CI)-t:s of ng or phy. icnlly inca. pttdtuteu, nnd hi. pllysical in ·npacity e videnced l).r j•t physician's cet·tificnte. A · neithet·1 condition wn fulfilled I re fu.·ell to permit thciJ! to go out, nnd ;;o they continued in their dutiCJ. !n l'l'l{lll'd to 1·eal state tmn. fc t·::; I- pt bli:<hed the followin g order: 11 cc><

Onmms,} II RAI>Q .\RTEI18 DEPART~IEliT ov l'n:rrro Rrco, No. 190. Srm .Tmw , \ 'oremiJC!' !27, 1899. Upon th&rec.·omrnendation of the judicial board , th e fr~ll owi n g is published for the infonnation 1111(1 guirlnnce of all rnncernerl : · · .-\sit uppcal'l! to the adYruitagc of all purties that tmnsfcr!l "! real estate should be 111urle clll!y and ijimple, ru1d 11/j som • of the provisipns of thl' •ldating law tel to hin•lur such- simple tmnsfer!, the following rules are adopted: . I. P owcl'l! of attorney executed and acknowled~oo in tille U rtitt.'(l States o foreign <'fltmtries shall he ae<:epted by the ·onrts. Notanes an<l rcgjstml'l! of propetty when executed ami ~knowll!dged in1he numne r req uired by the law of the State ?r county ' where so executed or ack.nowledgil<l. II. Wbere real estate is purchMcrl hy or com·eyed to pel'!!<lns who are nonresidenta und act through agents it shall not be necessary for su ·h agent to l.lOI!I!el!8 any po"•er of attontcy in orrler to present and record titles !aken in the name of hie principal, provided m eu<"h Clll!e8 there be no ohlifllllione impoeerl upon the principal. III. All laws and regulatioll8 in conflict herewith are hereby annulled. By command of Brigadier-Gene':!'! Davis: · · P. HAilL, Adjut~nl-G~al. GENERAL

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I 4

OOYERNl\IF..NT F R

TJ:J:i.:

I. t.ANf> OF J,>U EBTO RICO.

OOVEllNMENT FO it THE ISLAND

i

Th ' CnA IIIM AN. Will you 1 h·n:<P "'tntt• .r olll' f~t ll un). t1 1 ~Jr. 'UiiTI .. 11 1' 111' \" 0. l'mtik. Tht' CIIAtll tAN. \\' ftpn• rlo .\'Ou rr,..tdt•! I :'llr. 'l..' ttTh. \tlautit·. Iowa. . • . . Tbt; C\1 ltUt . .Stlltt• wlwtlwr ot· not \ ' OU htwe tl't't'ntl.r ,.,,..,t<:d Pm•t·to Rit•o; nml if "o· iu what, t•:tp:tt•i t\'. if in tpt otlit·i llt·aptwity ~ ~Jr. ~l' tt1'H~. Ou what i>< t·nllt•d tht• t'u,..ular 'onnuis. iou, whkh was t·(mtpo:~ed of UP twm l ·Kt' ntH•dy, of Ohio, Mr. )Vatkiu . • of ~Jidtigtru , 1tnd mn;clf. · • Thc.Cu tR~IAN. H ow t'l't'nh•dl 7\lr. 'UHTI:'I. Om uppoiutllu•nt:< Wt'n' frm11 tht ~N·ret u·r of :Wttr, ~mt i· undt't·,.toot.l tht! t tht•. ~'l'l'>'idP nt, . madr .tlw "''"' ttou:<. Our !t,t~tb or tty to )!O -tlwn·.wn:: 111 \\Tltllw nud d~t·~·~·tt•tl u><-;-.1 l)an• :1 \i;.l'·'· of tt h .''l', hut .J ~·nn )!1'\'e rou tb 'I'IUh:<tant' of tt- to n :<tt .Puerto u,u·o to exttullnc ttnd It >k into ant\ report as to all tna.ttcr,., frant•hise><, I'll' .. tbnt :<bould ))(' rl'fenwl to t·t><. I · Th•• Ctutn~IAJ>i. P lcn::<r gi ,· ' lw ptu'til'ul:u·::~, if t·om·l'ltient. · ~ J r .. ' nrn :s. I hn,·t•>41t' l't' n l'OP.'' of the orig-i nnl ordl't' >I' till' apJiOi)tt· lll<'nt. and ht'L'l' i:< :t t' P'' of th · ordt'l'" m1d 'I' whieh Wl' Wl'nt t~> l'ut•tto Hieo. · l'h1' <..'11 11 . tAl\. P IP:t><t' rrad it. th:tt thP rommittt•r tlln.' · ht• prop<.'l'l\ iniorttted. · Mr. C · nn~. It i>< :1" fo llowi-: t

1

Rol~•tt 1'. Kt>il n,,l~· . l'h:wh.,. }\'. \\'ut ~i""• · 'lll<l ll t•nt·y tl . Ct;rli~, <'lllltmi><.•it?'"''"• nnd ll nmt io :0:. Bnl ~·n". ''""""''1. ,.,... lll'n•h\' din••·l.-1 tu p ~•wc.- •t l'th•t·to H11•o '" n.•port U('<~llul j mnttnl' thut IIHI\' he •tthmiti,-.1 tn tlll' lll h.r th <• :-;,""·•·tm·y o f \\'ur, • ·~· I tin(! h• ~·(Hl 4!('. ~i•l ll:OC nmi ft"O l11,l'hl_:;t·~. !1 111~ l.t' i n,·t~1iJ.."!1lt'. :tnd l"t' J>Ort upon all . rnat lL'I':-c . rt•lnfllt,lr ft.l,t'U fl\.'lll' \', law~. ta xn t mn. Jthlh •J : u·~·. puhht· HHJWO \'elll\.'1 ft-t. t~lul'nh o n , u}Jtl d\'il affui l':' l!l'lll' ntlh·. , , , · Th ~· will tl!>o )'rt);., .,~ l to, :mti:t)o(n t inn . ti)..~ll•• :tll<l 1'<'1' t·t upo t\ milro:td fn iliti}'" orult'\.'1111llltnh"tliH' H:-: in tht• JII''U \' iuct' of . ·a nt itt)!ll tiL• 't~b:a. · (d:.ll..] · H. A. A 1.111m.

'!l IVo r.

·I n r ~nrd t:O the l:t:~t part. tbat wa:< g-i,·<'n llcfq t·~ tb<' tdoption of tho ·r :<blutio n of ' ng-J'l'""· I wi!l al,;o rPad u eopy of til,\' npp intmcnt:

..

\r ,\ll ])~: 1'.\I!T)It:ST, 1J'<t.~h illffiOll, Jo~/n•tftll'!/ .20, 1899.

H(•Jlr\' G. l trt i ~ i" II rdi . l'lll/110\ l'tlllntl •r thl' W nr n e p.u·ttncnt II:' l'tlllllllil:l!!ionet• to im'. ,·,i~"'lll' ·IIJtd r~pO!'' .ul~"' a I ~h·il tlll\th•t.' whid• I • rcfel'l'cd t.o him I:J~· tlw '>;·retar~· o ( War )J!.•rtaunng 1'1.> C'ttl•a :iml Pm•rtn Rteo. , I fl!' 'dll b<• p:titl a t·o mnen ~tJi u n ut the r:th' "t ;3.').000 1 r at)num, anti in uddi(ioni when trnwlinl! lllllh-r n lt>n!, will t'\!('1.'iW till' mile:tg' paid to oHicel'l! ·of the . nite< tllt , .\rin~·-all to lle4pai.l ir 111 the 111 propriati c~n f r nuti onal,elcn.8~.' • .

""'r

G.

.

. )h.tKI.t::JO itSl

A ttin ." •t·rl'ldty uj II w·. I

\

PUERTO

ltrco. l

85

Tho l:llAIIlMAN. HCll that tho ol'ig-im~l n.t' pc!Jiutmuut wltit"h . cnt p;t t itt ovid<' tH'll is tl!~~od Feht·ww y. llO ;~~ve tt dny d tdi t' thml yo tll'jo rder:;, · :tttd ttl>'o iitduclct l l:tt lnt ns tL ti •ld of' opomtl1 11. Mr. 'Uttl'IM. Yo:< Hi t· ; t ha t wns tho tit·:;t thow,{ht, ttncl tho PrP:;ident ~~~ id tlmt tl!' Wltnt!'d til'\ to aet n>< ttdvi:;t't'l'l 0 11 ttll thc ~so umttP t'S thnt Wl'l'tl · ·tli'W n.ml lpok up tut~ 1 t'Ppt)rt full.v on n11. IIi p 1·,,mrioioliti.oul" eo'rm ~t;f,cd witlt thn tslntu!s; lp·><t a,; tA> l~umto Htt·u 1111 :tftet'Witl'd>J .t. ulnL. Nothiug w.''" "'tid t~ho u t tho, ~'h.ilippinP:< ot· nn,r otht• t• ' i ~< lnnd , hu t in til<' II W IIIl t lllll' IUtot lt PI' l'OIIIIIII SH I OII Wll>< Htmt thOt'(l ltltd thn lltllttt•r of (.'ulu~ wn>< nt;ver nl'ted upon Pxt·opt in this I'P~<flt•et. Thm·t~. wn. a •·ompnn\' owning- t~ 'fuiu rwnr· Mnnr.n~tilllt in ,.~h t: Snnting-o prvvint·c:· 1 ~h. l<'AIItiiA'NI\i'l. ~ du no t know t ltni 1tt IH lltlt'tl:;~<a i':V to ~o ~tto the Cuhau CJUPHtioit. · • , 1\lt·. Ul ' IITt:<. I si mply wn11t to Mnnr.anilla aful >'tayt•d th em n day m· two looking- in'tu thl, 'nmt ttw, hut umd P nQ n•po1·t on it. Thn other''""' · tlli>':<ioupt•,; did not. •ro to 'uha. 'l'lu• l' IIAII!M AN. 1·, II II >< wlwn yo u dirt go l·o J'u~rt o Hit:.~: >, h I' OII l l'l'l'l' t lll•rt•, aud what you did. · thn 1st · i\ lr. ' 1 llTt><. \\' ,, wt•ut t~ PuPt'to H.icn, IPavifiJ.I.' 1\mv York of J lan·h lty ~< f l't tlllt ! r, aud we Wl'l'P tltPt'!' Rnt, l)ll it • two lllout . . \ Vn ,!!OI ltm·k ht•rt; t h · (i t IJ of :\I a.r . tb >'OOI I a>< ~"'I "ot. to' Puc•·to i{it·o ~ o l't'po t•tpd tn ( tl'IH'I'a( J It•til',\' With ,our or lcn<~ . J1t· I>'>< Ut!d an Ol[dlll' l·c,1t· 1l11• ci.tlit·ial>- nnd P\'PI',Yho4y 0 11 the islnud t.o g ivP .liS all th ~l fm:iiHit:l-1 w'o mhrht llt'l'd nud fut·ui"lt '"nil tltt> iu formatio u wt• might l't'f(llire. ,We ·d~~ i>':< u!'d tt ><tntt•nH• nt, uot, :t prodntnation , hut, a notit·tl to the )IP6ple \l'ht•l't' out· olli<·t• h:~ d ht>t'll pro1·idrtl for tf>S, nnd t hat we would bolt.l lltl•l'ti ng·,.. Padt dny i1n Stu I ,J wut and i nl'itc·rl t' \'1' ryo nn to conte nncl.lay ht>fOl'l' ,H:< IL II ,I' p :pH<~ t lt ll,l' tllight lmVI', :11111 infOI'III UH ItS to tttty g't'lt:V:ttll't' :< thP \' mi u·h.t. thi nk tlwv wt•rp· tlllt.lt•t• and gi\'l' us IL 'g' 'll(' l'al knowl cclg-o of th~ sihtat.iou; tlmt 'all peop~· would he n~eeh· ~. offi cial>< and vthr t'"· Tlw III Ptllhf'r:; of t.lw supremo cour t taMIIt', all t:he scct·rtaritls ' at rliiJ'('t'Pnt t i iiii'S dmc, t~nrl proplt· ftoo111 nil ovur ,t he i,;latuls crunc to us, hut not as i'ully a:; wt• w:mt!'d to hear from them, and after that • in\·estig-ation ri\>< owt• WI' wrnt O\'<'r tht ·:<land. )V o went to Arc ·ibo · and lllltdl' 1111 inwstigntion, and th('n to Camuy, \.guadilla, Ma~agucr., San Gernut.n, i:iallt:trm Grande, Yaul'o, at~d Poneo. T.he CHAmMAl)l. ~n th ><P plntes ru·c in' thew~ tei·n end of th i lun d~ Mr. l:unTts. Ye><; >li t·. ·we we11 t l1y mil atn~ hy stuge. Whm· •ver there wa:; n hrt>nk in th,~t Fr •ncb rnilroad wo hnd to .~:; tug it or go in am lmlnnl'e:;. Then ~rom l~on co we went by hottt to ,Jobo:; Iand to ..r\ tToyo t~nd to G u1tynnm, and fro.m there we wr.~t to Ca~rey li n crtr rtnge:;, and then to Cnguus, and f1·orn there to San ,J mtn, where ·we ~p nt n few dltJ8, nhd went on tb Oypxwu, J(ing to the othet end of tho i land to Fujard,o and Virque · and Humdcao . The CHAIHJIIAN . That i:; at t he ca:;tern end 'e · Mr. CuttTl8. Yes ir ; and .then IJy rail tb At'<lcibo. and on hor:;e· bn('k to Utuado and] ove\' oro Adjuntn:s an 1 out into, the coif e di:std ·ts to Mame. i · · The CHAIDJIIAN . That is in the C<'ntml portion? :\Ir. ConTI . .Ye:; . it" nnd into th monntltins. The CHAlUllfA N. · Y o,n pr tty well covct:ed the i"lttnd I Mr. CmtTIS. Ye><, Jir. There were n ,few , mnl). town.· ~pn' on the militarv' road thnt we did net travol 'dver. Th CHAlmiA.N. Hqw long wero you oc •upicd in thut invc:sti

STAT~BT KADE BY KR.·HEBRY 0: CURTIS, A DillE' OF THE ' I:RSULAR COIIIIISSIOB, O:R JAinJARY 17, 1900.

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86

OOVBRltMENT FOR

HE ISLAND OF PUERTO RJOO.

, RTl . 1 can' n.ot say, oxa tly, as bet~een the time of traveling m tmg~, . but th whole ttme there wa ~:~ix week . . Th re,wl\ll ~;ear el · a ingl day w did not bold me tings. It took about two .w eks to go and return. · The ,a tRMAN. Yo~• u~ t .th.e :pe ~le wh er~v13r y u w.ent~ Mr. URTIS. Y · , ~:< lr; m th.e.- · tr1p out mto th count1·y that is n Junn. w notified them in advttn , and tb~ peopl~ awRy from 1eRm from 1~0 to 1,500 or "'.'~ _peopl at ncb pltl ·e, and they finally cam to ll ktng what our .sltl,lt,twn wrt;, what· lthe 1\Jnericnn law·wM and re!J..lly. 'Of t•oorse. th r wnut d u to :ommit our lve , or rather' the QV rnmcnt. hut w bnd no authority to do so and did not· 'but -we · de ·crlbed th situ~ttion here anq talked with th e people genet!ally we inter: · General K;cnuedy an'd .m.r · If, ttnd th y talked \vlth us. <·hang_e? \'I .w"' and bad t' pr tty fn~r idea of the conditiQn of thing-·. W v1 1ted all th ~ebool s tmd pra timllr n,ll the jail;;. The· HAIRMAN. T II n · wlhtt conditi'on:-; vou found it1 're"'ard to 'school. · · " J.tTI .. W e. found not rt :-;i ng lc . ehoolhou~e on the i land ~li~~~ had l~e n bmlt f r a ~cl:ioolh,ou · ' nnd but one owned by a school d1 tr1ct. 1br schoolhouse" lused were r nted ILlld w re generallY s~ack which l10long ~. mau~· time. , to th ten her~<, and wer <X'cupled t y th m ns a ftumly r 1d nc . or in ·ome <·as . ns a sto re. · Th CHAtRJ'\IA . .l!r e scbools or publie school:;, or how maintained 1 Mr. C. RTI . Th y wet· pub ic sebools. y t wlith the under:standingof th r1~~t of th e t adi r to chtug or collect from tho,..e able. to pav, a twtion ft-f'. · . · 'rh CHAIRMAN. 'lo ·what ext nt did the childr n nttend ~ Mr. CURTI . Ver y few of the children attended Tho e that did and. tho ' we found in the s boo\ wer e br'ght littl fellows anxious to ~ arn·. · Each had · tQ fqrnish. hi own et\t--little ·bits of boxes and cbatrS brought by themseh·e . The t'hool books were very scant but al!n t every di tri t bus a map of Puerto Rico in its schoolhouse: Tb CHAiRMAN• What i tb~ir. condition M to. aptitude ~ . Mr.. Cu~T.J. . . Ou1· obs~rmt~~n wall that.it wn. ver~· good. W ~some- . . time~ . talked to ~e ~ildr ~· I had a Little Spalllsli, and somet~mes tb .mterpret I' did the talktng and ometime . I did. They ar.e very anxious ~ 1 arn Engli. h a~d very quic.k to . atch a point, but they had n.o ~xt--books ~xcept oocasJOnally a pruner and a catechism and od'caIona~ly a.. m. ntn.i-philo ophy, ~ntl onoq in a while a.rl aritbmeti '. Their tea.chmg 1 m tlte manner of !tjl r epeating n.t once. The I · on is read · by the teacher, a~1d. they- . a': tt o\·er after hi~n. • The. boys and girls a.l'. . epara~d. I d1d not ~t><co,·er a-ny partJCulat• dlfferen e in the I a.pt1tud~ of the bo~· nnd g1rl , and th .'- are· very bright, both black and white. ·· The CHAIRMAN. In wluit co clition did rou ·tind the population of the island ~ . . . . . . ~r. C. W found the J)op~l!lti01.1 o~ the 'islnnd, orne of tbet~. qutte wealthy llnd W<'ll .to do and hnng m fin e st~·le , . Mr.. NEL.'IQN. I tho~<f' ,..d1oblA do the whitr arid eolored t·hildren go tosretbed • ' . ·~ ldr. CURTI . Y :;. :-;ir. ' The CiiA1RMAN .. I ther nn ' race rejudi<·e1 Mr. Cuntis.' Very little. ~ou wilf lind a. black' man with a w!>-ite ~n. and "whit4' woman with a · blnck man and d!U-k baby. It~~ ·· Mr.

a.n~ holdmg th

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GOVERNMENT FOR THE ISLANO OF' PUERTO RICO.

87

not create the disturbance it would in thi. cou'tttrv, but . till ther 1 i~ 1 • ome prejudice. . 1 Mr. NELSON. In establi bing any scho l . ystem there, would -it be 11e ·e ary to make a doulle ~y tem-onQ for the colored people nd one for the whites~ , · ·. Mr. CultTI . Oh, 11o, sh" not at aU. • Mr. NELSON. A has been the ·ase in some of the Southern tat s ! Mr. uuTIS. I do not think they would requir that at all. We . id '. debate the fi.UC tion hs to whether it was , necessar.)l to keep thb se .e.~ ts 11pnrt. ·T hey claimed thnt the " devil of the sun," ns they 9UU lt, out so early thltt the ptt sion. come, and it is. ~tlmost impo. ~ ble to keep th two s xe. together thet· , eveh ih childhood.\ I do no~ kn w what General D1~1 i '~ .¢ xpel'ience hn,; been, O!' b~w the s ·hool~ nre c nducted now, nnd we d1d not mak'e anv defimte ' recommendatJ .on~ l!lut 1 think to keep · th.e·. people ·atisfi .d it would be ne e sary to keep the ·ex s o:p~trt-tlmt 1s, after•n certa1n age. ., Ml-. NELSON. The b xes, not the race ~ Mr. UunTI . Ye:s sir. Th other portion of the pe~pfe are very poor- , · . The. CHAIRMAN. Y~u did not finish yo.ul:. ans~yer to the quos o ~lr. ,unTls. Some.dre v~· wealthy arid well to da. The CHJ\lRMA.N. How lar e a pToportiOJI ~ 1 M~;. CunT1 . A very mn..l proportion. There are .·Qme, uch a · merch1\nts, coffee and tobacco plnnters sugar grower. , etc. know where\'er we went thvough the i land tber 'were a niunber of invitat{'Ons ILl ways for our entertainment, and no people .c ould be more hos*itable,. nor could we be better e.ntertained anywhere than we were the~e. Of 1 course there is a difference in. tropical style; the houses are not.furni bed a are our ·, though fairly well. . Tliose people are very ealthy and well to do. < • The CHAIRMAN. Are they educated ~ .· · ~r. CuRT~s. 'f es, sil·. Only a ve1·y few of tb·e m speak English, but thell' educat10n IS good. However, the most of them have giV n very • little attention to the subject of government, a very small per~entage . of them. They looll: after their busine s enterprises, but b v.e not 1 given much attention to governmental affairs. The other P.? tion of the _people perha.p. might be clMsified .in two parts1 the small pwners of httle patches pf la~td and·.tlie teamsters1, who 'do freighting antl such, and keepers of small storesr and then tnose who sjmply de~nd on · d_ay labor. They are mostl~ ignora!l~ of everythin~ except th1 ir partw.u lar work. You can not.get them 111to conversatiOn about a. y pub~ic .matters, for they 'd b not know anything .about_them. All ey say 1 that they want to baye such a government as will afford them work nnd security; they do n9t care wliat it is nor ta.)(e any concern in it. . The CHAIRMAN. What propm·tion of · t~e populatipn would Y,ou put 111 that class? Mr. CURTIS. We put it at 10 per cent who could read or wri . · The CHAIRMAN. Who cll.n not'l'ead or write ¥ Mr. CuRTIS. Who •ciLn read and write. But 1 think General iDavis's test is better t~a.n our guess; probably 3 per cent is correct. T4e third clBl!s is entirely ignorant. · Mr. CocKRELL. I" your report you say front 10 to 20 per ceht. 1 Mr. CURTIS. Ten 6r 20 ~r cent who can rea.4 and write a~d who . own property. 1

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GOVERNllE~T

GOVERNUEN'l' FOR

OF PUE"RTO R.ICO•

. · ~h. C'OCKREJ,J,. On' pttgl.' i you :<ay "l.':<timnt d at 10 or 20 1 out atftl.'t' inquhT you put it at 10 pet· l'l'llt '! .M r. ' JtTl . 'l'h l'~timnt i< wrn• \'itriou;.; n.ud we rr giver\ to 1ts from all owl· thr i lund. \V 1.' 1u it at 10 •r l'l.'nt a:o~' a~ bout th·e right !igur . l\lT. · F: N. " 'nut p •t'l' nhlg'l', ot· proportion hl'ioug to that ·so<'nlh ' 1 hl'tt<'l' l'lm•:'l o'f whil'h . ' Olr ' \) nk, out of tl)e r1ggn1g-nto 'l :Mr. C nTtl'l. 'l'<'n J:X' r l't'll wou d il(•'a:< w e,: tinmtl'd tt: hut tlmt i too high from G<'n ml Dndto':< te.4 . I Mr.- N•n.~ '. The lmlnnl' ,\iOll di\'idl• iltto two other I' In:<:<<'~', at middle nnd a lo\n't'! ~Jr. ·'nnr •. .·ir: "mil' of tlal' fol'llll'l' l'lllt not re:11l Ot' write, but ow'' onw propNty. }lr. }' IIIIIANK . In th1• l'l'l'Om \ l'hl:<:</ Mr. ' KTJ:<. Yl' . • ·ir. Th :<l' of tlw third dn:<:s l':ln not ~:ead or writr nnd til l not own nn.''t pliUJll't'ly, oa· ~n· r ha\'C nn~' hop<' of' it. )lr. ~h:r.. ~"· Whatlwoport ionaa·r in tlw third l'la,.,.l 1 l\lr.' Ct.:nTtl'l. )lot'l' t 1:111 hnlf. po:<:< ihl~- two-third,.. a,. llllll'h m; the othl'r:<. )Jr. FAllliiANI(:<. Who o·o r~titut\• thi ,.; tit·,.;t l'ln ~,.l ·) lr. 'n fr r':<. ~onu• ~p:ruiunl:<, :<onu• J'u (' rto Hit·nn,.. >~onu• ICngli:shml'll, und ~ 111 1' (h• r,lllltn>~. Tht• Enj!lish ami (~rr · nHIII:-! own 11. g-ood' 111nny uf the ""J!'III' ph11atatio11,:. Thl'l' i,. lllll' llullanth r wlw own:< a ltu·g-<' coli\ . plnntatio11, aho11t tl)£ h,•,.t o n tlw i,.(und. ot· it will br wh e n h1 ge,t-1l it ,.;hn]letl11p. lt ha,. ht'l'll n•r.r dillinrl t for ""to da,-:<if,r the pcopl n. to who are ::Pu,•rto 'Ril'llll" ami Spaniard,. and negrot'"· The ilt•O'rcws• all daim tn. lw l'll<' rto Hil':lll:<. · )lr. ~t:t . N. Ar . tht'l'l' tllany lll')!I'<K'" itmlrullhttlor:< in that UPP\:r da "'"· ~lr. ' ' RTtll. Tht:'rr :11·r ·o1111\, Tht>l'l' i,. 1t Ia' ' \' l'l', o•· :t doctor, mthrt·, ~1111 .J 11afl wlio is a. g"()( d a. '"'·'· of them , Dr. V e rhosn. ~Ir. !>\ t:L."''N. Are then-.an: nmong tlw phmter:; ~ . . Mr. C ' RTt .. \\\,d id n t lltel' t nny amo11g til plantrr;;a. There nrc 'n ot mnn.v. although pi'Obahl_y "01111' among th e ~Uoi'l'hant..... 1 ,.hould• think the proportion w11,. prllbabl~· 'itbout us with us j111:1t a few who . ha,·e ronu . up to tht• higher ,;tnndnrd. llr, 0ALLINm:a. Pc rhnp:< it would fat'ilitnte Oil I' wot·k on ilii br~u: h of tb ·inquit·,, ; if I 11hould II"~ )it-. 'urtil' if h heard the testin1ony of ~ n rnl Dtn-i:< 011 thr. point>'. nml if, on ~h whole, h e nt·urs w.ith him on th e poi.nt.-s mndr. · , l\lr. 't:RTI ' h tll'd lUO~t Qf O e nl'ml Dtwis':; tN•tituony, nnd I think it ogr <':< with ur xpcri m· cxt·t:'pt on th te t n to literacy, wh re I think hi:' judgment wns better tban o t·;;. as lie hns hud e;\-pericnce and our e;;tiumtc vu~ but gue~;owork. . f co.ur thet·c nro some nll~t­ t . rs wher our ob ermtion Wlt:s tt littl differ nt from hi , though I ould not partit·ulurl.'· . pcl'if~· now. . _A to q'uttlit~· , I um . ~ grcttt ·moker of l'i.J;,rnr nnd I like·the Puert.Q Rrt'IUl (good l'l !'lu·) qmte as well n th Habnna. l under tnnd tbilt only in n prO\-in · in ubtt. Pinar del Rio, do th y grown better qnality than m Puert~ Rico. . The urea of that i v ry mall. There are two or thre ·igar fa ·tori ~ ther now which turn o14t a fine cigft.r, but generall.r thry mo.ke de cigars- ju t ntude out o)Eb tobacco as it rome:;, without mu<'h selel'tion. This l'lln nnd will n be remedied. &ddl.'s. th ir methods of ·uring' thi leuf ar ver.r ll rude and eapsble of mueh impro,·ement. . Th y w. r not aUowed to ~1nke cigar un~er

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'l'Hl~

ISLAND OJ.' PUlm'l'O RICO.

:_-lpnnish rule, but th e' produ ·t uti went to 'ubtt twd wn.'3 there pmnufatdm:ed nnd cxportc~ ,(not t•on llllll\cl by. Unht~n~:~) '"'" H1tbnnn ~halt·co ·ri1cl cigltl'l'l. Thev 81W ln Hn.hnnaL they IIIIXCd tt, hut [ htwc no dm,ht ;,"'rh d Itt' Pum:to liit'IU1 tohncco Wit~ nmdn into lin Ht~hn.tm dgnr;o. While th Puet·to Ril·ttn prodtwt is mostly Ul'!ecl in Cubit nnd· Nmv York fOl' ".tillet·s, '' tb t't' .i~:~ IL cotl!'lid •mbl tJl!nnti~,v of wrltppl't' hmf g~·mvn tb 1•re that is "" d for that pmpo!! whwh, tf nmdn duty frel', will he · u~Pcl in th~-.. l'OIIntrv for wmp])('l'ti ttnd for '' hjnding. · 1 ~ tlmt th e proMent ,000 11crcs cnn' (th pl'Opct· induccn~cnt kiven) will he int' l'<'a:sN{ two or thrl'C tint<'!'! or morr· nncl then you lind ILII :u·cn in l'ul'rto H.il'l,l in 'tohlli'<'O (if tbnt i~ t.he h~·tter crop) ~~qm•l tom· exnw,cling 1nw ~ngl and',. lil,l)00 ILl'l' '1'!. JlowCYI r f think [ wb11 ld not atgt•nc with ' him on th1' pt>>~,.ihility of irwnnsirw the 1\l.ll'l'llg'C in ~o~ugrw and tohntl'O. Th~n· i,. l'On,.idet:nhlc sugttt' l.atnd which lm.':! hPcn ah!tn~loned for tlmt pmpo,.;p and·. put ruto. g-r11ss for p11>~tuJ1l~~··. But tl1rs 1,.; the 11'11\' thl'\' t'l't'tlpPrn.fl' tlw lamd "'"triHI of h.\' fl't·tilrr.mg. Aftl•r thrnc or ·rorir'yl'lll':-! i11 ~··us:< it i>~ u>~ good 11" l'\'l't' for· >-~tt~ILJ,'· Each ~'!ttau· plnntntion il~'' d,. ""'"" g-t·n,.,. lnnd fot' p11>~tumgt' fot· thnrr oxen . . 1' h 1y rut front tht'l't' to thr l't'op,.; of 'maw from nnl' ~lnnting (:;om~, rt for ninl' .nau·,.). ami tlwn plow up a tirld awd ·pull in pushu·,·, and, pltllt, P tl11• pa,.;trll'l' to :<llg'lll', :n1cl ,.o nltPr·nate tlu l't'op:;. 1 'nUll' han• h<'l'll ahnndolll'tl ill'l'ltll~' t.he old lllltl'hiJwry l'Cllll~l npt ronq)('li\:l with tlw 11101'1' uwd1•t·rr, nnd tlw I'Cntn~l ful·tory i<,\'strnt ,,. upt ~o fully opemtl'd 11>~ to he :evailnblc• to nil th' sumll plahtl'l'"· :t~tL l'lte.y t'tHdd not put in I'Xfll'llkin' modl'rn llllll'hinl'r.'·, >'0 tut·nl'd then· lands to ',.;onwthing p(,..eor ll't. thl'lll li<• itiiP. Sol'!ugat·plturtinj!l'ltll he larg-ely in1'1:ra:<NI. . . . . ,, I . .· 'I ohlll'I:O t·an l11.• llll'l'l'll"l'd 111 >~till rrr·p:~tl·t· proportron!'l. [ohm·t·n 1s gmwn CVl't'.'Twht•n•_.owr th • islnnd, i~7 smnllp:tt.~·.hc,.., ~ome· plm·l•si of rtn llt'l'o' or le!-<s. It writ rrttow on nil ntnl'llil':-! of.thnr,r :;uri. On tho ynJicy lnn,d,. all Hll"':tl' luntl i~ good for tolmel'o, 1tt1d nfter it' hn.: · L»cn l'l' pp d in sugtw und wom out it will mi::~l' tobtll'I'O. It grow>~ on the l'!<'<·ontl atnd third da~,;; Jnnds, nhd I haw • ,., 011 it growing frmu the vnllo.v dmtr t0 tb • m unt:nin oojJ, m\d on idrs o steep t.lut to eultivntt it one neetl-s to hold on to om t.hing. B el'lidl•. , Mr. Hl'nnn, ou1· eonsul th e t·e, ~·lnims ilittt only 10 p J: cent of 'the nmble lunP.. of the island : i.. now 111 l'ultinttion . Dr. UntTolhunke;;a th sn.me csttmatc. W e put 1t 1tt 25 pet· l' nt, or one, fourth of t.he tilhtble lund it ·ultivation. ' Mr. FAllUJANK~. HttS your work beeh conrplet d ~ 1 Mr. CunTIS. Yc , s ir; nnd \vc htLvc .suhmitted our ropol't, tog ther with a bri f m· at·gument, su taining our positions. The CHAiRMAN. We have your report here. · Mr. CunTr • Yes, ill; that is you hnve ot.U· first report, which I brought wiili m this morning. · ' tl'he CHAIRMAN. You have filed lL fiMI report ~ L ' Mr. Cu&Tts. Y s, sir '; which hn:; not been printed, and n.ccoml:'nn ing it are argument · u tainin~ there ·ommendntions we mnke nd a ' l'~le of laws. · · Mr. CocKRELL. Ai·e bose recommendations in that report~ Mr. CURTIS. Y ~~ ir; and others in thi other one-the lnst r po11t. The CHAIRMAN. w heh was that report filed~ 1 Mr. CuRTIS. The 7th day of June. The CRAIRliiAN. The last one.~ .Mr. CuRTIS. That wo filed the 30th of August.

I


90

.

OO~ENT. FOR THE ISLAND OF PUER_TO RICO. '

RAIRMAN. •In th '\Var D partiDent~ lfr. RTI . Y , ir. . Tb Cru.IRMAN. N ver- print d' · Mr. CuRT . No ir. fr. GALJ.INGER. Did your . ommi ion dra£t a ~ode of law ' for the i Jand which ·you · ubmitt d ith that r port or at orne other ti.me ? :Mr. URTt . Y " ir · under and by the per onal direction of the :Prt>&ident. • " r. GmiNGER. WhatkllS come of thaU . . lr. CmfTJ . It Wll.i! fil with th cr tai·y of War for hi exf!.nii· nation, and WI\!! th r for ·month or two, in the Se retary's .offic' , a.nd i now .in the room o<· upi d by the in ·ular division of the W r Dejlftrtm nt. }fr. GAJ.LlNGER. nd ha. n ver be¢n printed' Mr. URTI . N6, sir; I do not think anybody ha~ ev r exam ined it fullY. They have not had time perhap , or the cr tary of War ha~ not thought the tim ha om . It i in typewriting, and only one cop~· w matiE a fuU and compl t code of law civtl and ·imina!, and . xtending u h of th law_. of th nited tate ru w thouglit ought to be exterid d tb r and i on uniform and complete y tem1 . embn~· cing much of th pani h ·od as w thought ought tope lett in and 11.l>Qli bing th rest. It tak · up-the chool y ~m, the tax system all co~upl with the-official to carry it out, the courts, at1d a comple~ judi ial 1.}'1 tem. .'\\ gav a great deal of care and. attention to lt, and Gen ral Kenn dy and I gay "tt our pet· onalattentlon. . 1 The RAIRMAN. Your r port i very voluminous ~ · ' · ' Mr.' CuRTI . Nat .v ry · the r eport is about 20 pag s. The at'gument i probably 40 pagei!, but the cod embraces about 5,000 ections. · }lr.CooKRELL. How much larger than thi preliminary report is it.I Mr' CuRTIS. It i a. big od . Mr. OOKRELL. Abo11t what ize ~ I Mr. CURTI8. It would pt>obably be a book like ~e Code of Mi · ouri ·or Ohio, though not quite as lar![e ll.i! the Ohio Code. It is without annotation or anything of that Kind and po ibly not quite as large as thORe.volum . It .i a tack of manuscript of three or four pile ·. tion or subjects, covered 'with pas~ll.rd possibly a foot high in covets· about 700 printed pag perhaps. . , The. CHAIRMAN. What you pre~red would amount to a ul)sti\utiol) of·the common law for th pamsh lawj · Mr. CURTI .' Ye ir; with all it details. We took . the view th~t· if our Constitution was to ·go ther it was necessary to have the com. mon law go with it to on t11ue it. There is a radical difference betwe~ ·the Roman or ivil law a;n~ tbe conimon law. }lr. F AmBANx . You fo mulated 1a general y,s tem of gever,Qment t Mr. CURTIS. Yes, ir.. und r tood th~ reason our last ·report and the law's were not printed was for lack of fund for pl'inting for tb ·war Department: That was given as the reason at the time. I understood th 'reason the laws were not promulgated or som modification of them; was they ere not ready till shortly before Con· gre would meet, and it was thought best to o.w~· the action of Con{ gress, as Congre might prefer to enact law of ts own, as it would have the right to ~o, and which would displace se. if promulgate~ · and if not, Uten a civil governmet;~t could be la ched by the Prest· ~ent as Commander in (,'hie£; .and we opposed · ,that ~ourse w~ pur·

GOVERNMENT FOR. THE ISLAND 'OF PUERTO RICO.

91

eued the law we hnd formulated would be submitted to Congre for it use. · . The CRAmMAN. I have under tood the renson the code vas not printed .was that the recommendation· that the common law hould mke the place ot. the panish lawns a basis wlis not ltpproved by the ·Secretary of Wlt.r. · · · Mr. FAIRBANk . Tl;u~t co~ is in con~pact form 1u~d bt·i f s~ce~ Mr. CURTI. A bnef ll8' lt ,wa posstble to mnke ~t. ' I Mr. FAIRBANKS. About bow IDitny pages, .leaving out ~h e coae~ Mr. CtlnTrs. i[ should so.y thtlt the typewrttt'ljn report t:o~ tJOtlover 20 pnges. l have n·cop,'l' of it. , \ · 1 Mr. FAIRBANK. With you~ · " I M1'. . URTI . ·No., i11; it i in my room. I ',!;lid not brin~ it i\ · I thou~ht p rhnps I hnd not the right, a· it is on, fil e with the l::)ecretary

of "a.r.

Mr. NEL ON. You •tn g i,· u the substance of thor;e t• co mendation ' uow ~ . ~ Mr. C RTt . Ye , ir. ub to.ntially theY. will he founc;l it~. ~he fir. t report and then I cnn o-ive you ome·detatl. !lnd ~:~om e add nat m fimll r 'port and sQme change or modifica.tianr; 1 jotted down In t n · ht. We thought, and I ~bought that it would be v~ry· unwise if ~ impossible. f~n·. t~e Uniteq. tnte to govenl'! th~.·a tslnndf-1 <?n tbe prm eipl f ,the ' pnm. h lnw wtthout o-reat moi'hfi ·ntton ~ ~aktng on~ I~ ne e ;;ita~s another, ahd o on. f do no.t know how thts countl'Y co,uld manao-e without the writs ·o f injun ·tion tuid m~ndumus and certiorari, a•nd those writs are not known to the S~nisll law. I do not know . how we ~n get nlong' ttt aU with the pre11ent :ystem of criminal law as operat d by Spain ilt her colonies. !1. can tind no instanc in any country e htLve.had to do with,. e r tl~at any English·S{>eaking nation hns taken pos es ion of, . where there~!! not as the firf-lt thtflg prQclaimed t~e com 10n law. in its i slo..nd~ or colonies ~v~ich were . couquere.d e pecially R? ~pph<?Sble to cr:tmmnl la.wl and gtymg the wrtt of .habeas corpus and tnJunctwn : I thmk the ctvtl p\·oceq.ure of t~e pantsh lnw is diJatory and defective. . • Mr. Is not that establishment of a civil and criminal c·ode for act that ought to be initiated I by the in ular legislnth·e of course to ratification by Congre ~ It if . a proper and legitimate way to do it, e\ther by hy Cong~ when CongreSl! determme. to legi lhte, but Gen rar ·Davi ' very JX?l:litively- perhaps even my tden than his-that rio legi lature is IJ9S!!ible or · pro~flble in PuertQ Rico now. They do not l<~ow anything aoout ob.r nevet; have studied it, and aU that the people ask is that our laws "-nd plenty of Arhericnq offioinls to mny them. to control them and teach. t~rb our methods. . · · They request that ~ . Yes, si:r. ' We asked then'! this que. tion tLlmost everyyou be t~ati fied if the United State gives you the tonmc ·under which it ha been living for a hundred year!!," I IJtl,QW.AI'I>rt without obje ·tion everywhere, "Yes''4xcept IL to run the go,·ernment for the~elv ~:~, and exp cted th y had heen undrr for yet~rs past. We had some Gen t1\l H em}'· dire tion, of attempts lly them to m~•ru'"'" laws-the marrtage and dh·m· e law:-~ for in:o~tance .

all

. ·I


94

ISLAND OF PuER'rO

OOVERN fEN'r

urco.

··Tht' t'nAIIL\f •. H~ wat~ nte<..l b' tb PrQsidonU llr. ' HTI~. No, !lir; l nk not .. . }{ ·Wt\1 ILII t•mployc of t Troft.tolur.'· Depnt·tnwnt, :<1•nt Puerto lti ·o for thi:-~. :-~pe ·ifio purpose, and r ~rt-1. to them. H e h1wc hcl'n nl ~ appomt d hy th< Prt•si. dent •1th oth,'qmw 1':< : I dq no:t kpo~'· · .· . Mr. ' ' Kiu;u.. You ,.. em to luw h1ld 1\ good nmny 8poon lll the kettle of lt•gi:<ltltion dowl th n•; · your l'Oillmi ion Wil l! 1\t it, and he 1wato at jt. nnd he :<t't'nt>' to hn~ got hi>~ in. .Mr. -lAu .tsm:lt. SupJlOIIe o ]JI'OO<'Uti, 'Yith yom· 1 rmis8ion, of l'Our:,;t•. Mr .. ChRil'llU\n, and 11 lh'"" othe r , 'nt\t r>J luw • que>~tion,.. to AAk, with tht• JCOVernm •nt o f ht i,;land. . )It·. (' RTI!l. I would lik t• o M\' onr wo'l·d in l't'J.,'1trd to Ollll law. l on I.'· )JI'C:<t'nted thi:< njatlt'l: to ~<how how ncar, wb •n they opportunity to do :<0, tlip~· t'tll tome to nmking a law to :<uit tb Anu•r. itan id<'n of \\'hut on ,;houkt 1e- · Mr. (.'()('Kitf:l.r•. Thnt i ~< no nn .~nuwit •ftt lnw. · · }h. CuRTI>'. I do uot thin Or. 'mTol know>! of tho:< • in that law. ~h. l' ·kuEu .. Th<'ll wll\' d(){'~ he uttP ~ utb thin ,,.·e 'Mr. RTts. I think he 1ly gnvr tlwm a memomndum of ot\(Cht to l.x- ~lo'm•, 1md tl1u p ·q:mrcd thi.- thom,;elve11. · . .Mr. J:o' IRII K~. You. t~.in ~ 1t i,.; u.n . impi'O\rcmc nt on the R1ean .-~· t in, hut th'1tt 1t I ~< not Amerlt'IUI lttw I Mr. RTI:<. J do ·not think t 1cre i,; mUt·h improvc mc ut anywhe1· , .:\fr. FAIRBANK~. Y II mild I' COUIII1elldl\tion , On pngc 6 o f · r (:fort filed 'J unu H, l . )(l, in ~'\'G"trd to llltlrriag 1t11d di\'OI'tc, 1 oh>< 1'\'e, 1\Jr. RTJS. Y o><. 1)'. . . . Mr. FAtRJJA~K . H1tv0 y oh lllodificd thi by~~ :<ub:tcquent, rrport '! ~lr. ' RTI . \\' h1 ,.e t1UTi d it out in hw in our cod'· )(r. J:o"' lBRANK . lri de tail I )Jr. CuRTIS. Y ~, :<ir; \ve found a ta sy tc m th t't•, opemti-ng under our tt\tth9rity ju.;t Ill!! t hnd been under · th e~ rauthority of the <'rown of Spain. .'l'hnt wn n oditied .undcr G n rat n nry by the tmg· gr,otion and prt•Jmrntion of 1\ 11x ".""U' lll I y :M r. Cull y To::~ti, who wus .the n :<N·rrtilr\' of fimtnt:e und now (•iyiJ :<t'cretnn·, and he came lu< and •xplaln d it untl ar;p ' d fo~· it. The~· put the land cl~ and coll<'ct d a i'p<'t'itit tnx of a dollar au acre o n the l:>e!lt--tna~ in th~ Y-alleys ttnd fe r ile part f 50 t•ents itn ncr on th next, and•.of 25 n an acre on the poo1· s the f'ter il •htnd. and th mountain top ; and then prm·ided that all oonre. id nt" should pay twice a:; inuch llS r.e id nt . To that w obj<'ckd, but it w nt on. l\lr. GAUlNGER. lio1 that tb sy ·tem. now I Ar. RTIS. Y • sit·; unl G neraJ Da,·i ba. repealed it. · }Jr. GALLINGF.R. That i in dir d coriflit:t with our American system. llr. UBTIS. Yc • !lir; it i 'that whieh wM · provided again t in the ordlltance .o f 1i 'i, and in C\' Cr~· Te rritorial a ·t . inc . It works again ~t the ·Americim . M w U as th 'ptuijarw. · · The CHAIRMAN. J that on real estate l )Jr. Cmms. Y , . ir; and all property as well. · Mr. '(Jall . v. To8ti eall .it th Henry 0 orge ~y t.eru, and I :tbink it is. '·\ · )lr. CocKRELL. :000 he call that ,an Amerk-an vtm I )Jr. · RTl8. Y , 1.1ir; the Henry George system. The JUlBllAN. You found the sy tern of taxatio unsatisfactory I ~Jr. Culm. Ye ir.: the poor man was in the edtire power of ~be taxgatberer. .

e

I ·

'o

QOV.b:RNMgNT .1? ,It '!'}IE lBLANO OJ!' PUERTO RICO. T~ e

CHAlltMAN. lt

vnry burd n. omo 'l EI\Ch municipality i>J loft untrmmneletl nnd mt'ontrolled. The v nu~k theit· own tnx e~; 1\nd tix thoit· own >ll~ lnri c~ . M:t·. Ntr.t..t!ON. ' The vtllulltjon h~ n mo1·o ~~rllltt·nry onc 'l M.1·. CURTI!:!. Y e11, ,;ir. , :\-h·. N•;I.SON. 18 it not po>'ilil)le to tLdopt n. ".Yi'itcm 8uch 11:-1 Wt} htwc bcr with 1\n ll.':!~<es~<m nt of th e pmpc rty , nntl hnso the tax ' ,; on ,;m·h an n{i>l '118UtOnt, nmdo · v -• ry yea1· Ol' two .VotU'I' Ol' throe y01t~'li'l . M:r. CuRTI I:!. Just '"' Cl\sily n..~ h t·e, and Ul' t:od' pro.vttl1'.8 thnt tn detnil. I · 1\lr. N•:t.'ION. Yoii work 'd i out 'l 1 Mr. CuuTIS. Y c);, ·:o~it· i nnd we ILl ~So pi'Ovidt', wnich ha;~\ ncvot· bron dhn• th I' bet· >tofom, tnat th fund levied for IL ]JI:l4•ific pm·~ c mu,;t ~. 111! d for thttt put'po!:!o 1md none' othm·. Th 'Y. hi\VO lev1ed n very l)ieo ffiX for the I!ChOOII' ltnd I'OI.ld>t u.nd poOl', 1md It ho..-; all g.om• I:!Uh· tnntin:ll y t:o pay .;nh~rii' S . ' I The CnAIRMAN. Whnt is vour ft1llllowork~ 4 Mt·. CmtTI . W e nmke two 1· 't'ommendtLtioM. Om fit·s t 1~nd pri!nat·y ~bought wn,; thnt th cx(;'cutivo ~-thou ld be liko thllt of the Dis tr' · of ~lumbitt, with tln·ee t:Onllni><siOf!Ol'i'!, o ne Puot·~o Uiclln tmd t Amerirt\11>'. . ' · The CHAIItMAN. No governol"' . , Mr. " . RTIS. No, ~< ir; t hey would he th o govnrnirlg PO\~or, but fenr· · tbnt prohnhly wou ld 110 b(' th' thou~ht (Jf th e l'ros1de nt nnd .th e, ry of War, or, mther , unde r tmtdmg thut it wn.-:~ not, we recon1 1enaod thnt n eiv il governor ' ho ~-thouM he tt ci·viljt\n wollneqtminted ith 1\lt'l.~ir."., und ~httt he . hould htwc ~uch n~~ i >Jtunt!l!~ . ~vns n ecc~:~. I\I'Y 1 ut nbolts h 1n.g th I ~< grmt l'ro~vd of .-e~rettlrle8 nnd. the'lr cle rk!!. · We · ound tho officer:; of the prov tnce t•ostmg. for !!nltme. !1;310;000 n ycat· (or thttt little island. w, . found 011 subdeptu·tment, thnt• of public work!S, costing ~,000 n y<'ar for it'! clerk:; ttnd chi f, tmd we thought tliut th :;e thin.g s ought to he p.•·acti u~\lly w!ped out, nnd G~noral Davis hns ·hanged that. How much he bu. r edu ·ed the . !tlat'l()ll I am not &d\ti::~ed. ·We thought thtLt twit:e tl.'l mucli, if' ~tot thJ·ee time,; 11.8 much, Lo; Wl\.8 n ce l:ll\ry wa:; pnid for l:ll\lttt·ie,;. In the town of 'an Juan we found that they co,;t $362,000 b:r 't h e lo..<;t budget, that for yen.r endi ng ·June, 1 fl!). By our plnn we Will ave ~14 , a ~eat' and ·gtve them a hotter governmen~. The to~n of Caguas,' htwing 5,000 population1 :osti:! ~5 ,000 to run it for salarie alone, and not to e xceed n thousand dollar~:> is ,;pent onti:!ide of toot. They. include in their li t~t:s at San J 111111 pay ~or 1·oya:l mRce bea~rs . ome of whom are dead and some. of \vhom are li vi ng, nnd for I?enili'fm::~ and expenses of "fell.8t days," etc. · f Mr. FAIRBANKS. A >.~poole of .favoritism 1 Mr. CuRTIS. Yes 1 ~::~ir; kept up becausQ •of th d \official class. In tuado we found tnem appropr1atin~ money to ~e nd three boys to ll<'hool, and we Mked on what a.uthor1ty that whs dbne, and they said they had aut}Jority fr'om Gene~l Henry, but could not show it, I:;IUt thnt they were good b.o ys·, and so they sent them. . Juan, '363,000, Mr. GALLINGER. Do you mean that amouht for San 1 1 is for salaries~ W.bat is the population ~ ' •1 I ~Ir. CURTIS. Yes, '~::~ir; mostly. The J?Opulation is not to exceed 25,000 in the city, and in the whole muniCipality not more than 40,000. We dispense with '148,000 of it. · · The CHAIR,MAN. What e1Be1 WI\S

~rr. CuRTIS. Yes, t~ir.

~


96

GOVERNMENT. FOR THE ISLAND OF ~UERTO RICO .

•ave $35,oo0 a ~·ear b,v our code.

~ir. . URTI . At 'ag'tu\s \v We thought uch t·ednction would h ' lp v I'Y much .in b netitiniJ the finan c . of the i lamd. Th v will amount to mor than all the dutt s polle ted. )lr. . KRELL. Youm anth'IS.)' t m·,,·our commended. lth~U~not ~ n 11~opted ~ · . . . . Mr. RTJ . Yl' si r; th 011 1 w •·eeommendcd. ·It ba not been adopt«l. . · . Th OH: m~t N. What oth r depnrtmcnt:< of ~overnm nt did y ou r (' more.n d! How would th ma ·hi ncry ope r1~~ I ~ir. 'CURTI . By r_md IUitinl~· through th go\' crnor nni:l. tho municipal gon' rnm nt; . Th , ll IR.'\I.AN. Did you htt\'' t\ le<Yi lnth·e d partm e nt ~ 'Mr. ' RTI . No, ir. · Thr ' uAtnMAN. J.n tan arbithtry one-mtm p9wed Mr. RTh. 'i e. 'ir: just the llll ' !\S the T rritory except thnt thert- w~'l no I gi lation. · · Th llAlRMAN. Who would do the I gi. lating- wo~tld Cong ·e s have to do it! :Mr. · RTi . No, siT. 'l:h HAIRMAN. Who would do it )lr. ltTJ . Th Pr ·id nt of the nited tates. as commander in rhipf. • .The . ,HAJHMAN. Tho..Pr id nU . Mr. UTI" H w uld igu nnd promulgat the lnws as we have prepard th m,"aft r approval of them and u ·h change a. h decided 011 . Th n~IRM.AN. Hm would he do· in the ft,ttu·e, 1\S from tim · to time it will be nece:<sal'Y to lecri lat ~ ' · Mr. UTI . Th<·n th"r gonol·afor woul d r •ron mend/ such I gi. lntio11 · a he thoug ht ad\"i:;nbl t-, and th Pt· ::~ ide nt woutd ma~e th ' hnv. The :M.\JJGIAN . Do. ·ou n t think it would he imposing n1good dent uf labor on th · Presid nt, \\oi·•Lrh he would not he, nble to m{)et ~ .Mr. , RTl . odoubtedly ; he would ha,·e to ha\· s nie help. ~Phe HAlRAtAN. Did .y u pro\'ide any additior\ nl hel'p 'l . Mr. ltTI . ~o: fliT; Xt'ept tliat t h go,· rnor ~ou ld know what chang . should 1)1-) nmd , and l\ow the. law Wll.il ope~·ating, rtnd would ~· · p<irt . urh ·hangc,; ns he thou rrht for th o best nhd they could be mn'd,c · at uce~ · Th 'I;I AIR~. Th Pre id l}t ·,~ould appoint the goYet·nod • Mr. Cmm . YOJ , sir ; and th Presid nt would nppoi~•t the . upreme cour two Mtive · and three Ameri ·an - and tbe Fetleml judge, which i not r aJJy a F ml court, h cause we thought theY could not have n fpll F d ml court, but as nCI\1' a we could get it, witb authority to try e ,.. betwe n Puerto Ricans and citiz n of other coul)'trie and citizen;; of the United State and oth r F ederal ~ uestio11 1 , alJowin~ ap.Peal . to run in all ~e to th supretn ('Otlrt. \\ · l · t th e court of tir t Instance tand,, giving them power 11 ·on'lmittinO" maai. tn~te;; with authority to try mall . and to" 11c~ as eo · of pt:obate. · · Th CHAIRMAN. JJ.ow appointed I . Mr. Cuuns. By th gov rnor. Weal ~ left tho c~urt of audiencin . . They ha·v g nernJ jul'isdi tion Of matter <;ivil and cr~ninal. ' Th HAlRMAN. How .many of tho · ? .· · Mr. C RTI . W I th di tricts ·a w under they wereven, according. to ·that map-with thre judge. . . . . M~. CocKBELL. Do th~ r d lines on that map i·ep~e ent munici~ distncts 1 , . n

«.

+

GOVERNMENT FOR tHE ISLAND OJo' PUERTO RICO. I

97

Mr. CuRTIS. I believe they 1·epresent judicial di~t1icts. The CHAIRMAN. How mariy ·oml:l; of'the first in lnnce ? 'Mr: Cuun . W e left th m as before-twelve. The CHA1RMAN. The n xt court would be the H~preme court1 Mr. CURTIS. No sir; the M;tdiencitl. ~· ~'be CnAl.RMAN. 'i m nh the next abov . Thero would be the court tmdien ·ia and then the up eme court~ . 1 Mr. CuRTI . Ye. ,· ir; and .th n the supreme court, and independent' ~of that, with conc~m·ent juri..di ction ~, the Federal court, but unless the iHland · is made a pat·t of the United ;:,tnte:; no ap~~al can be had to the npreme Comt of ·the nited tntes. No appeat,except to the President, who may take adviqe from the Atto1·ney-General. \ . . , , The CI;IAIRMAN: Did .you t>rocecd on the theor:t that the tsland JS a ·j part of the lJnited State~ 1 · . ,, . Mr. C nTIS. No, . ir· that it i; merely a military pos~ession. The CHAIUMAN. ~t helong:s to u . Mr. CunTr . Yes, ·ir; nH t() all the wo5}d- like Tampico-bdt, a. b tween ow·. >)ves, it is 1\lOt a p~rt of th e tp nited States. T~at is our theory. · ' < ,, · · The C~AIRl\IAN. All your recommendations ,for lrgi Jation were . d on that idea 1 · Mr. CuRTI . . Yes] sir ;' yet with a few mo incatio s . uitable for,Congres te en!L ·t into nw. I I 1 Tho CHAIRMAN. You did not extend the Constitution 11nd laws· of the nited ' tnte 1 . · · • , Mr. CURTI . Only as loCillly ~ppli cable ther~. We did not extend 1 the ~·igh t of trial- by jnr.Y for th"is t'eason, thnt we, thought the J!COple. were not r eady for it. W e found that if ColtgrE\Ss higislated tnal by jury mu ·t take pi~ , even before justi rs of the peace, where $20 or mo1;e wn.s ·involved. We.found that fare lgners were' not put on j,urie. in th is country . To mnke,'n jury of twelve p er. ons out of those i~no ­ mrit peon , who have lived in a country wher e bribe1~y is at a premmm nnd favoritism is a good thing ompellirrg t:jt·ial by jury, as the SuJ.lreme Court hn.d held' noc'Cs. ary in th c.n,;e of tH• District of Columbia. and iu all Territories, in uch court.'.! would Make a trirtl in the <\ourts of ju tice a frtrce. But in tb' F edeml cou ~t we_provided for a j9ry•to , h elected largely in the manu r I uud rstjtnd General Davis 'elects a · jury now in the one provi. ional •otut. The marshal and the ·1 rkr; of • th court prepnre fi. k of 200 or 300 men from all over _the iHiand, who ar . qualified, 1mu they are drawn from a bdx:. · ,Jn that way , taking the wh ole island in, ·you cou)d g t ·one jury · bdt to ;get juries in all cases i. I think, -without any 'po ibility of being mistaken making a. farce of ju tice on the island p,nd the people so regard it. 1 You can not find · a man, hardly, who wih not Hny that they jare 1 not ready for the jury system. If that be true. ·you have to leave qut some of the provisio'ns of the Constitution of the United Stnte . If COngress legislat~s fot the i land or prodd a. legislature thi can not be done. ' Mr. NELSON. You mdst modify ·some~ ' ¥r. CuuTIS. Yes, sir. In Louisiana. all hat was wiped out-that iH, all Spanjsh methods in ·crimiuallaw. Mr: NELSON. The Spanish system is in puttjng the criminal through ll Ourse of ~xarhinations·, considering him gUilty when arrested and 1 • 1 • I . en eavoring to make him conf,ess 1 . B. Doo.U7-7

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ISLAND OF l'tJlo: RTO RI CO. .

I

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otht'l' tinH'Ii he dew,. uot pnr~ie:; al o tutxiou to inve,.:t in mih·o11d building- iu l'um·to Ui(:o. No , · 1 It wonmn in tim dt.v of twPd for · ~uh:<idit•~<. . 1 • • ' m.,Jt(nn who hn:; l~c n in jt il , unit'"" Gt' ncr1il Dari;. hn,. lil)\' l'lth•d lwr, ·Mr: Nt-:t~ON. You 1'11\illl thi,; l n~ i,.lzttiun i,.: IH't'~'""ll·I'.V, but yoJir id4U\ for four ycnrt! nnd olllt' nwntho<. without 1111~· l'hiLJ'~I'"n~rttin~t lwn\' hut. ill ttmt it i~ n<:lt IL part, of tlw Uuitt•d :::\14\tl•,; in n.n,v "" n >~P, nnd wh1LUlVPl' C\'t•r."nnd Olll' llllllt hn:< l ~t•P n tin• n•nr,.. 1wd otht•l'" who hn\'t' l~t·n' tJil'r• lcgi$1Rt ion i:< nct:t'l<l:!ati'Y ilhoultl he promulj..\'lttcci hy jtho l't'e:iid< nt ~ int l~t•fon• tlt ~pn'ni "h ll'ft-. ::i.· of ,\•hom 111'1' l'hnr~1·d with killin~ R Mr. 'UttTt,;. YP~, ~ i1·. In onu ~<en"<' tlw iHhuul i,.: :t part of tlu 1111111. und th • witnt't'" "'nrc nll j!UIIl' und nohod." kttoW ~<ttnytltin~ JLhout Un'itcd tatt•:< ~~~ IIJ~ninl"t nil U111 world, hut 1\" to t\11 l nion it, is not IL · it. WI.' mil~ tht• ~~tt•ntion of thl' "UPI.'I'IIII' t•umt to thut jui1-h~· Ill!' pnrt of it. ftit·inl'r·cport Hwre Ill'<' U+ 011t of I+H innntt<•,.: who huw n<'n•t' lwt>n . Mr. NF:t.soN. Tlmt m•iHwr Co n~J'I ' "" no1' any IOtllll 14·~i ,. ln.tmo 1-'houlrl trit>tl: :\\ t' yi .. ih•d tht• jnilund fo und it in n.mo~ t tilth_\· t•ondition. w,. btwe pOWI'I' t.o 'd o iU ~ · • II Wt'nt to Ot'lll'nll Ht>lll'\' nnd ht 1'11111'<1 tlw nttt•ntion of t lw llliniMtm: of Mr. Cu ttTt ~. 'ongrr,;"" hu;~ th!l powc•· t.o do i ,, jhu t 1ny jucli,pnnnt is jul!tit•t• ·to 'it, und ht' dt;ni<'d till' mutter. nnd wt' t hl' n 1•nlled the ltl.tt•ntion tlmt it l:lhoukl IH t do "o now. Tlmre il" 110 4lliO,.:t; on of \tho powm· of of tilt' ,.:upt·emt• t•om·t jn,.:tit'''" und tlw judg;t• of .ti r"t in,.bmt'P to it. ,(}mgtt•"" t.o lr~i littt•, hut, unthll' th tn·nty, t,hc i,.:lan tl:< am simply thl' nk'llldt' o.f H11n Jun n. Thut i.,; thc t•ontlition uf J 1-! mcn tlwrt> out pul't'hlt.~Pd )XJ""I'.·><iou" under 111ilitm·,v !.'O ntt·ol , tLJHrUIIl peupl11nro sunof UH who hn w nt•wr llt'cn tt·ied. Thi :~ ottit•iull't•()l)rl i:; d1ttcd .lttno ti, ply " inh1thihwt," of thr hdand ,' and if nmdo dtil'-t n,.: Congl'rss mm1t nnd rt't't•in•ci h,· " " lwr<'. . do_ \t. . Th ir lttw i~ tlmt 11 judg-1• or li"'t:al nm~· order nn~· l,liXIY umlt•r ,Mr. 'GAt.t.INm: n. 1.. tlmt 11•1'1)1 in the t1·cnt.y dill't•t·i·nt fi'OIII t hj phm~(\· nrre t whom ht• dwo"c"- tlw sn mc a::: th<' I< r n('h "Y"t.e nl 111 ILIIIIIIu ology of oth<' l' tt'4•atil':< Y . . 'fo ~\)\'C ilto\'•O nt• year ~wh •tll t• r g-uilt.,v or !Hit. ~uiity. Thi'I'P -.,. 110 '~fr. Cuil.'rts. Y1•s. ><ir: it i,.: ditl'crPnt from t'VPI1y otlw•• trcnty · in(\uin·. Y1)u mn~· ,:et·u rt• .'·our writ of hnl)('IJ,.: t·orpu:s n ~nr , hut the Mr. 0At.1.1Nm:n. I 1111'1\n in r fct·cn ·n to .thi k pa•·til·n1J11· it wt•tt ,.;,II only .t't'lut:<C a ·111:111 illq.."nlly I'Oillilll'd and l~t•fol'l' ~·o n\· ktion. l'itil'.CIII•Uip. . . • und h ' r<' tb,,,. Ill'<' nil It• "lllh· t·onlilwci. lit• hold,. It 1111111 th ' I' ' until lw Mt·. 'Ult'l'l,., In Lo ui ~ i111m anci N1•w MPxit·o, llnd ' n nil thn <:Ps ion,.: .gt't~ . tht• c ·idt'lll'l'. Q1: n" ~111~ "" hi' plt'a:<t':<. l'Prhnp"' thl' lll'l'I.'Mt i. fr0111 U11• Stnfp,.:, of I'OUI''"l , it i,. pnl\'id1·d that 1'.11 • ·otnttl·i rii !ihl\11 he mad<' from pul't• l' ll!ltit~· 01' j!l'Ow:<· out of ,.onu• hu><illl'"" t.l'tu\,.:ndlon. parts o t-111' uited tit.n(;4';: ltnd the poopiP t·itil'.lln>< of the I,J nitcd HbttHs. untllw want" him out of tlw wuy. And tla·y dl'ft'nd it to-dn,,·, ~o mr In th t• trl'llt\' with Mnxin> it. sim ply liXI\41' th11 houndnrio..; hPt\vno'n of thl'm. n><·ltt'i rw hPth•r th un our :::n:tpm hPI'Illl><l'. thl' \' :<ay . l · rimiru\1 ~ I nit.1•d Stnt,1;,. and MPxit-o, and in· t hat, i" a ))1'41\'ision. whi1·h is 1:opied l':<t'li(X' ht•rr. If th t'. 1'rimi11al t'HII . t·ommunit·nh• witli hi,." lawyl'l'" ht• in lwrP in Jll~l't, whit-h J?myidt•>< t.lmt i11 ~1 n 1 • ,\'1'111' tlu iu;opln IYI!t.Y have.,. ·will ~et t'lt•arPd. Th r.'· do 110t ·:t il ow 11 m1111 to >11'1' n ~tw,rrr Ill' to knoil' 1111 ?Pf.'OI'tuu•t,v t.o s~att\ wllf'thPI' thPy wd! \> i'l'>il'l'\'t' I ~11·1 r allngmru;11 t·o wh •1i IH·· i:< to l~t• trirtlu11til_t\\'l' llty -four hour:< hdotc hi,. trial ht•gitl>', thr1r for nH•r ;:m·l'l'~·lgu . In tht• tn•:Lt._y w1t r MPxu·o 1t wa>~ ;;tatcd t.lmt i11 ·mam· t•a,.;c:<. llc11n> if· \'tlll HI'<' to do awn ,. with thnt \ ' O il 1111\' l' tu if t.lll'\' did not •· th .. ,· "hould Itt• dt•I'IIH'll i:itil'.P n>< of thn l ni.ti•d Sbttcii," pr ,·itlt; ·,.omc oth r Ia\\· alkw1•t ht'r. · · nnt~ iit t~r ]Jl'PSI'IIt t rl':\tY IIH·.\· 111'.<1 inlmhitant"' of .~~~~ i:<lnm.l, bt~in~ With rt'~"'.ll'd to thi >< 1·idl ~'"'· :<01111' pt•oplc luin• said it ought to he nntionnh t,\· of tht' gmnt of th~ 1sl11nd (hut not l'ltll'.CI)S of ln11'4•d it>ft: thnt it i" u good t'IIOu~h In w. I m n't agt't'l' with thPIII . ln tho Stnto:<). tit·:::t plat'<', tht•n• 'ntg-ht to ht• n new milroud luw. If ~· o u will. pH>'~< a . Mt·. N t:I,SON , Ttmt is :t nmt't'P I' I'or Congn'""! gent"rtl 11 ilrond law ,.:imilar to tbt• lnw i11 ~lidli"'llll O L' ]own ur . Mr. UHTI " Yes, sir. . · Jndirnm . 1 do not likr the \ pw Hmnp><hil·e or ':\ln><~<Hl'hul:'lett..; l;tw; Mr. Nt:t.SON. Thr trcntv wus n grun t on I'OIIllitioll, and unde r t hat where tht• lt•gi,.hlturr !!l'llltt" fmm·hi"""'· I would tnk • th wholt• ~r~· gmnt the i ~< lnn d,.: W('l' g r~llltt•d to us with th·is p1·ovif<u. that tbu dvil tem of fn uwl1i"r" nwa~· : I woultlnot lmw .it pcddled o\·rr thc' i"hi1;d right'! 1tnd politknl tnt11" of th1• i1,1 h1thitants ,;hou ld ht• li'XPII hy Con 'l'nl'ls, for ftL \.-01' or hnrtcr. E."'tahli~l1 t•o•·pomtion law"1 nnd IPt them build ·o thut th who I matt r iii left to the di,.;t'l'lltion of Congrr;;.-;, \' ou their rond:s nnd 'eompetr with ead1 otliCI'. nnd he ':suhjt• ·t tu gen ml 1\1' . mi btk ' II in \'0111' t•@ntPntiOII tltnt Cong i'C, S hfl.' '1l0 1\ttthority to !l ·t. JJO \'<'t'lllll ' lttnl t nt rol nnd ht•·l.llxrtl lilw othrr prope rty . Mr. URTI!'I. l do not l'lnilh that; 'you . misUII(h t·.-tnnd lllr. r do The rrAUOIAN. T hnt it!. Hlll would hun' th 'ill e:;tllbu:sh d tmdrr n ~hink th1tt <::Jon[;\'t'c:; hns the.c.xcluf< ive pownr '.~to ti ~ stat~1s," bl!t .af~c l: · gent>m l ,;tntut ' 1 1t bas fi xed the•r bttus as t'ltll'.en" of the n1 tcd S ntc:; 1ts legt. h,t tw n .Mr. Cvnn~. 1 <' • ><i r. I wmdd 11 t hn.Y<' th1> legilslatm·' bottJ,en•d mu t confor1l1 to all co~~:;titu timm l provision. : noll •, cnu. be left out Ol' ~·ith it. ·Or l'OIIJ!I'(','S hothen'd with it. Tht>t:r Is notbi ng, in my JUdg· m~h~ · ' k, men t. to ',.:ell. W <• WI" I'<' hothr rrd with tlmt: wc Wl'l'e u. ked If we '.Che CuAtRli!AN. What il'l .'·ou•· opinion as to nut it~g them l'iti7. n;; of ;~h'ou l d put up tht• 'fnu1rhi" " tt puhlir ~uJr. ~\"hut would w ·elll th ni tcd tntes ? . W t' t>x:unint>d t~rir i1ppliention,.:. m[tn~· of th 111 wbirh bud heen Mr. unT t . I think it would hen ctllami tv to u:; tlnd to them 11l >~o ut refern'<l to lk. nnd· we · rcl' mmt> nded t'<'rtnin route!! that ought to IJc pre ent. 1 think thero .·hou ld he 1t probation of li ve yeti.t·;; at lrast, a. huilt ttt n<.'t'. \\' r fou nd th r(' wer e "l'n'ral . t•t. · ~f men n:sklng for 111 California 1tn1l rcw'Mexico. thE',. fnuwhise~ . · l know of one lmck1:tl hy nhuntft cupi tul, ont• hy ' he CHAUUIAN.' Suppa e 1\ Puerto Ri('llll WIUlt~d to tnn·cl uhronll; th(' \ 'alldet·hilt,.:, ano~ht•J' h~· Bo:<ton ' t11l'll I know Ill' l.'tlpnhle of build· · ' how wou..ld be get It pa,sport 1 ing root!,. ull Q\·er th it~ht nd . nnd om' hadng behi it a s~· ndi<·at4• in Mr. CunTt . The gov rnor of the isln.nd might ~ ~,-e him a pa.·wort Pbilfldclpbin nn<:). other .town,; eon trolling *:200,000. , and :K w Y rk as lll1 inbabitnnt of the i. land of Puerto Rit·o 1111d ~1 mle r the Juri~dil'· tion 1tnd cont rol of theUnited tate;;. 1

I


' 100 .

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OOVKR MKNT F OH 'l',lU; · t ' L ND

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G O V .RHN~I .KNT ~:on 'nil~ t ~ T.AN .l1 \W 1'1 EUr l I~I Cil.

10.1

u~·l' · a~vnn

NF.! .SOl'(. Yuh t;,!,t th t> t{' l'Jnl'itizl' n i1n" 11. douhll' mru 11 , 1·un hc•c·omc n eitiY.l' ll ouly h.' ' t•omplyiug with thl' laws of t'ongt'('"" "" to whnt we t•nll IIIII' IUllturnlizntion lnw>' : till tht•n hP lmM all olhPr it! "· ~ly wifl' nud m.' ' titiu m· childn•n nn• l' iliY.<'n>~ of the l nitl'ci ~hltl'" hut nQt in tlw "nmc "l'n"l' thnt I um. 1 am it. ,·oh~ t·nnd n. dtizl'n of th~ ri ••hf>'. nil right" not l':lll'hlsin•h· ln•long-ing- to 1·i iz••n:<. ~..,illl'\' tlrl' tn•nt,r with :-ipniu <lm•>< 110t. g'l'lllll tlr t'~l' fot'l111'1' :-uhjl't'l>' of l nit1•d Stntt•,; nnrl h:t\'{' other prh·ill'lte,;. '" ould \ ' Oil tlpprin' Hu•s~ ~m·1to •Hihtn" of nil tlH'"" ri ~ h t.1 nnJ pt·i\'ilt>gt•>~. iitdt>pl'nurnt of th~ , 'paju l'it iY.l ll:<hip, hut h•lt\'1 :< nil this 111IIIIP1' to ( 'ong'l'l'""· tlrP\' t'IMl not rt~ht uf :outFt·n!.!'l' I ' · ln' I'C~ll ll' t• it i·zi'H:< •xt·Ppt in "llllH' mnnm·•· <.'ong rt•,.;s :<hnll pn"·id1•. Con .;'\Lt:. mm, .. I· wou1 .Inot: in. the lit'>"t phu·t•. ~h:e diiY.t' n"hip to tlw lll ern•:<:-< t'H n g'l'llnt thi,.o nllnt, om·p 1"· tixinJ! thdr stnltts ~~~ thnt of ·' c·it.i;,l'n>l of tlu• luitt•ct ~tllll'i" , .. ·or iti 1-'0illt' othc•r· \\1ny it IIIII." l't•quiro nn now. 11?1' tlw n~ht to "It on.Jurt c>' ; tht>y hu n• t-lw ,., rht to ht' protct·tPd oath of ltll<•g'innt'l'. or n t'l'rtnin l)l' l'iod of l'<':<idt•lw<'. ol' it mity riP<·lirlll do lm>'lftt' " a,11tl mu>' t ohl'." our h~w,..-tl ll' >':IIIII' a,o l'itiY.I'Il>'. 1 Mr . • ' F.t ~Ol'(. Thnt ,;utfl':lj!l' ;,.. not a r h! hl of 1· iti~e n:<hip: thnt i" 1tl01'11I :<<• long "" it plPH:<P:< lo pn:<;: It lnw or clo 11ny nl'l whi1·l ,.;hull tix t.lu•i1· pri\'ilt•gt'. • . · · ,ijntu:<. :tnd in tlw llH'Hnl'inu• Ht;•y will l'l'lllllin nml ><imply tho Mr. l ' tiiTI, . 'fht Con:<titut l'on dot'" not m11kt• ,·otin).!' 1\ r ij.!'ht: in .th•nty h•nvc'l-l tlaon i,, " inlmhitnnt:< of thl' i,.olnntl.'' hut \Vhill' :<o L'f'lllninother wm· J,.. it p1·ohihit" di:<nimlnlltion on Hl't' unt of l'llt'e l'olm·. l'k ing- thl'." will not Ill' 'within tht• jmi,..didion pf l'ong'l'<'""ioru~l h•gi:<lrttlio n. Dut th r 'on:<titution dtJP:< not " lltll':l ntr'l' tb1• riO'ht t{) vott>. ' Tht',\' will ht• stil\ ' 1 :<t'mifort'ig'IH' I':< " on Jll'ohntion nnd l'on~t·r><:<ionnl 1'1w <..'IUJI(~IAl'( . You. woulrl ~lt• in· thPm thl' rwht:'< 11nd pl'idlegP" u( lliw,.: do not Pxtl•nu bi•vond o11r ndnnl honndnl'it':< .~tnt! om· l'itiY.onl:l of tht> hill nf rig ht:'<! · "' . th11 l ln itl'rl HtMc•:<. · Th o lnw:< nnd l'iril g-on' l'nnu nt th r n • 11111,..t. hn lr~lltlt'lwd hy th11 uottl . .Mr: . ' l'ltTI. . 1\o. ,"it·: I \I'Ol{ld fl'l.'at th r rl.' II:< p~1 l'llllfll('n t re..id.t•nt,.o ~~~ mhnh1tnnts. Th1' t\11Jll't'll11' llttl't .·ny:< w1th l't' ft•n•nl'l' to 'hillllllll'n nmndl'l' ·in 't·hid. ft, will In• a 1'1111 t•idl g-m·t•l·nmPnt, nnd 1nilitnr.v oltly thnt tlw~· 11111 not II\• nntumli zl'tl. Tlwy nn• do mrd lcd in the nitNI in nl\1111'. ~m·h It g'lll'l'l'lllllt' llt. Will hi' j11:<t II:< :<:Lfi,.;fn\'1{11'." f{) ti ..IHC\ pl'O· .• StlltP>'. hut . they <'lin not lw t' itizrn:<. Tlw:-lc JX'oplr <'nn lw Pnt' rlo plt' J!l'lll'l'nll.\· n>~ Ill' h.'' CongTt':<. . Tht•y only wnn.t to he rid <f tho Ni~un ... pm l'i'tl'tl i.n tht' ir ri~).''" o f )J l'O/ll' rt.~· nne\ l' i"i.l nnd,l'l'illlinnl militn ry IJ.'O \'t•rnol'. nnd \'llt't' n u t.h~ng nhout onr t'Oii:<Lit,lltionl\1 eli tlit• tt~ lll. 'PIH' l'IIAIIDIA!\. llo \'oil "J7'1't't' wit.h '(lprwl·nl· Davi,;',. l'l llt.tcmont tL'! 1\l~d ~·~· 1' 1'.\' othO!' l'lg'ht 11,.. n·~~~h·nt:< of II<' ll'l land hnnng- pt•rm:trH' nt donut•tlt•,. th <>n' ln . tlw 'pt'l'"l'nt inclu"t r·inl ~·o1-1 tli t ron ,; ! · . ~Jr, :'-iEI ..-:OS. Do . ' Ill I'll\,\' \\'t• ha\'l' till' l'l llllll' rig-ht to :~:dude th t• :\lr. l'nn1s. Th1' ' ' nl'l' a,; hnd ni-l hr ""''"· 'l'tw.l ;ot iAIIDI Al'( . \Yh!t t j ,.. .~'O IIl' opinion' in l'<•g-nr<t to nllowing-) mpo t;l.'l Pn(' rto Him n ~ 11. Wt' ha \'\' in l'l'•!'llrd to l hi m•,..t'/ · T~t' ' u JJI)I A:o> . ·,.II:< we h11 r'f in n•ganl to J'nerto Hil'nn:< h •forr tl w of'th<•ll' protlud>' jo t.ht>' 't'OIIntl',\' h t>l\ of .dut,, ;, nnd ottl':< thl'l~t· l l. , l '(\ t! IOlll · · ' · i\!t·. 'U t!TI>'. I thinl' l tht rPJ.\' IIln.tion>< n.nd rl',..tri · ~ion :< qng·ht, not ult l to' lw tal"•n nwny. I ht'lit•,·p thNt' tll't' ituln,..t.rit•:< on t hn is lnml tlmt qught 1 ~lr. Cl!llTI:'I; , ~o. fnr.n:< tlw <)l.l':<tiou of p . WH i t'Oncl'med n,.o ll of lnw. y r,.o. lukm ~ thr d ('t'l~ llll of til t> UJ11'Pme ' nrt of the l ' ni fl'd to l)p pmtt'dt•d fll!llin ,..~ t he li ni~P<l Htnt<'>< for th e hm1l'tit ol' t ho i~luml. · S tull•, in . th <• I'll.~(' of W on/! Kim Ark ( LUll. l ' . ~. 1 nrl 3d .Petr r,., In I think dnl.it•:s o11ght . t~ 1 he lllnditit•d, no t aho li shl'~l. The l'HAIIDIA N. \rllil'h an• th t' \' ~ · ":h i<·h lhl''' rdr r). it i:< nmw mwt'd tha t the lnitt>d S.trth•:< hull a pl'rfct·t 11•·. C t u.Tis. Thc' l'l' i,.: th<' hat tiuuHifl dt,.,,., and n g-ood nmn.v dtb cr n g ht to dt•l'hlrl' any 1'Jn."" ~,f Jll'oplc ritizPn" o r not/ t•itizl'n:s who nrt• not. nlrrndy l'itizcll:< . that. ~ may dwo:<l'. H : "'~ mny krep the,..e fnl'i.ori c:<- 1 hnn• a' liHt of lht•nl. hut did not thin){ to put it in my bmt•sp ft'?n~ PHI' 11\•rng- l'! tl zl'n,... n lt~ongl;l pt' l'lntttlnJ! tlwm to l'e:<idt• ptx·kl't thi:< mm·ninl!- whil'h th P,\ Pl11i111 IH't'd p1·ott'dion . Th ere t.ti'O 1·lotbing- ntnn11fadqr,il':<. :<OIIH' t':IITing-t' 111111111 fndo ri <•><. nnd t·anncd good'!, h~rr und g-t nn:.r th r m p,·er.' · otlH .r "'¥"h.t. you can ket'p thi.':;P pl'oplt• ~oltp· fttl'tol'il'" l'hcll'olatu fm·tol'i1'"• ,..ho<• fn1· ol'ics, pil rctint'ry, l:!oupOn pt·o)lllfHUl· fo r 11. fr w y<•n r,:. wlulc ~n· mg th •m oth l' l' l'ig hts. and tix p:i:<tc fnt·toric,.., solt• lca thrr. l'ig-nt':< and t'i g-nn•t.tt•:<, 1U\cl otht'l'" r epdr tcd hc1r politit·nl ,:tntu" lntA'I' nnd mnkl' th t>m 1·itizrn,:. 1 onh· :spenk 1 1w br th indu:;trittl t'lllllllli:<sion of l>onl'c nnd printed by Dr. 0 li'J'Oll in of the .pbWl't'. nnd n t to cia >~:< PlH' rto Ril'lln!l with Cbinr:<e. ' . . 'l:he IIAIR.'IAN. Yon on rl ook th r' n1 ><t di ... tinction that in the 01ie ca~c . h'i:< fir:<t l'I' )JOL't. II A IIiM~ . Y ou t.hink Wl oug ht to lt' \'.Y tuxes to protcd t ose Th the P!'~pl r r,om.e .from 1\ tl'l:rrt~ry that i, not il! nny sen ~ ll part tlw l "mtcd ~tatei', who II~· a f l'l'lgn onntr~· , nnd 111 the oth r ca e it i:' i1utu><t l'it'" ? ?!It•. . RTi i". yp,.., :< i r ; Ul' H ~)IIIJ' of tht•nr . A nu 1 b <' li l' l' (' th e i:<lam mn ~ople from n t rrito1·.' · which is in "'Oill " n:sc n part of the U nited ta te . : . !lo J.!'l't nltllll! witJwu t ,.;om1 ~ 1'\'\'<'11111' from t•tt ,.; to m :o~, un lu, :; w furni Rh 1t t'r om t lw l ' nited ~tntr:-<. I do not lll'li<·\· • it wise• to honow m noy · 'i\Ir. 0t.'RT1 .. I do uot ~ee that thnt chan • s th legal rule. No douht tb. i.-land "~rtliin ~;~ to thr l' nited Stat s, ., 'the nm n the Gun no ·to pn,· \'lll'l'l'llt PXpt' ll:<(\ ', hut I t hink thl',\' O il rht to havP l'cvenu ·ttnd taxntlon. l ditfl' r f 1·om Grn pr·al D:L\·L., iu n •gnru to his sta tement nH to \~ lands (lr ~~~~~lpi<'O. white in th militar.' · po 'ion of the Uriht>d t•htmgc of the mark l' t to out:;idt• l'Otmtl'ie>!. The f ree P llt~y from nitcd tat s. but 1t 1 not : part of th . United tat . 'rh re j that di '· ' ta te::~ would tur11 ebun11cl of trade. tinction made throug h ti ll our pr1.w ti e. and I think it i n ce sary to II(' The CHAIIOIAN. Y ou tqink .th • truc\e wo uld b • ~tthn . t cxdustvcly . kept up . . The~- c9me t · u from n for · ign country without t.his right 1 . W·ith the ' ni ted ~tu t-::!1 b,". treaty. I tliink ·the· 1·ea~<ll! t~e treaty did not make these people llr. ' URT I • 1 bl"li VC th dift'CL'Cill' between hig h duti p;: nnu 110 <'lhzen, w becau of these 'l'fti'IOU que~tion w fa e diSCtA..."8ing- no dutie::~ would be SH('h as to turn the trade to the U nitcu 'tatc:s allnoHt :00 mo~h f~r Pm;rto Rico•.but 'a the ~m .~u .tion ht be disc~ ·ed entirely. ·, m eonne<'tton ~th ot.her t s~nds-th Philippmes a Sulu -and nU are E.'mbnu·ed 1,11 om pron slon : Wben a foreign comes here be

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of

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102

TRE ' 1

T~AND

10,3

(lk' · P )o;RTO RI 0.-

l~sidrs, lw JWo/'1lc. wis.h to ~id them~ h;e o{ th .' pani h peopl an~ t~de lln~ ey wi, It· lllf' i~1t th l'nited tates to qo so. lf you will !4't. the t'!llh nd.~, {~t:> n 1'111. to nr and the,; .her g ntlemen who are lntA•rusb'd, ·ro s th • puh!Je la nd nnd pas:; OYer the bighwnysiLndoxer1 llil'l th rig lt Of elll_il~(•nt dornn.in, they· will build rn.iJroads t h01'C and rnpl~y ew ·y lallOI'Ihg nmn, o! ' tb~ isl!~nd jn doing it,. nnd emplo.v men u!' th<• r wb •n donr. lh1s wtll · gl\· nnpetu" t hu in ss. Then g•wl th( P<' pie full <'t' dit nnd remo,·e thr ditfe J''1.ncc hetwe nGO .- nts und 1 by wthorizing the ' I'J'eta.J·.v of ilw Trl'nsm·.r to 1·oin s ilver in n~'J f,or ISl' th<•re. and tnk up the !llOhe~· t.h •1·e nnd eventun.Uy l t tho .•sland ~- the <.h tr<.•rt• n<·e. L would establish =-omo kind of credit. I dttf r w tl1 somr othel'=' 1 s to tho ntusc of thl) di. cr dit of' the s.ugJ\r plun· e1·s .. "' c had son eOJ_nplnint=- the J:h: t thino- in reb'tlrd to Ocneml Hcnry_s onJet-. su,.; '!Jdmg the eollett1pn _of mortgn~e on ' ftmns. It w:.ts '!l f.u.~·o~· of th . fttl'!JlCr ml.'·, ~lut it wns wrong 10 that respel't,--n dl:<l'I'IIIIIIHttJon, w 1eh I>' un -Amcr1can. It said tJmt they should no t he c·ollr ·ted fo1· o l <l year, and these people said · if it wa tL~peud d ,for . II{' )'PilL' why n t for tw year or for fiv or altog( tller. I hat 11> Oil I' mus' f poor t l' dit. Y r commeud d that lh •. mm·tgag-c~ be J: speded r d th right of ptopert~· maintained and r '. ped d. Lc t the mortgu es he foredo.·cd nnd lrtnd sold at twoth•rds_appraise 1 pric , and th't'n'gi,· n .r a r'>i redemption a n.d you will tabltsh lo:st"<·Pdit; otht"l':<- primtc pnrties-will th loanmon v. I und l,"ta~d f r m H •wml Duds that thl'y now u:<k the ·e xt n' i9n. may ~ gn·en f t' tw.o Jl'III'S longer. ' uha has b n given two yenr. ten. tOn. und t~r.~· t'xpect tl,e ·samr, thing. Tb 'ir property i · g~ enot~gh and p•·otit ts g od cnotwb. · The" :<u(rar IP d 1·offee men ai·e making thousand of dollars pro tit annually, 1111'a M they enn also do out f banana and pin upplc,.; lll1d other fruits. n.· thl'y nl,.:o 'llll out of toba co undrr prope1· llldust.tial <·onditi n nnd if th y <·an o-pt money to work their plnnts. . '=' . Mr. GuLt ·oF.n. Are .ro• ~I nr in your .mind- ! think you su$ge ~d l!J your report tbrtt thrs p op.l ftl'l' not fitt d at· the prc:<imt tnne for . ~f-gov' rnment, ~ild that it would I nnw~" to gi'' them n legislative bodv. ~r. , · Rn . Ah,olu t.<ol.\·. I think it would be unwi. e for t~ ami for th m. . )J · Th~ RAmM N. ,And .rou t· OP.i!li 11 woul(i .be the .·nme even witH a r triCted uffrn..,. I • • · Mr: lJ,RTI • Y. s. sir. 1f you r :<t1·i ·t. th ·ttffmg you put the gC:vrnm _nt 10 th bands of G _perc nt of th peopl whi :h i. not an Am ~Jean g~,. J'llment ot· Ulll\' r&tl ttffl'Rg . If ;'OU g ive it to all you giv tt to a 1 ople who !II' swayed by nil sorts o~ pn . ions-bv rum . som of them nnd hr bril n '. I do not think eleetions could be held at. on time on the' i land without som for ·e at 1the poll who would . mpel r ognition by the minority of th " rj.ll of th majority. · Tile CaA.rn~IAN. Ar th ,. !<0 xcit ble? · · Mr. RTIS. Y ·, '::;ir.: tlie~· O'ct xrited ov t' nothing, all nt once. Th yare . not Wtuijk , but th v get xdt d. Th r do not kill people except as G n rnl vi:i ~a id ln regard to . ome fights. · ' . Mr. GALLTNGEB-. You l<tly you r omm nded tb common law ns 4 mt _rp~t~d b,r our courts to be ext nd d o1·er Pfrto Rico a the hw1. , m · l'&d of the Romnn law now there. 'Wba 1·e your rellf:!ons as a lawy r for thi:< rc<·ontm ndntioul ·

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Mr. CURTIS. Tbi q~e tion w~.. not answered fully, the til1}.e h ing . 1\bollt exhan>~tcd . nnd it· bas be n ·ugg . ted that I ubmlt my nn. ~v or fullr in writing, which I now pr sent n. my nn wet· to tttat rptc. twn nnd w will ;;11 ,·e th time of the committee.

I

l'ANI!lH LAW OR COMMON LAW.

Irl pr paring law. for oui· new po:ilessions, wh ther by .Uontr~es:, 1 ('Il l leg1shtture, 01' hy' th <·ommandcr in <~hief, tb bnsis .shot~(\ be the lOm,.rnon lnw ns int01·pt·eted by our court< rnth r thnn th Spa\Ji:;h

or •iri l htw.

.'

1

1

If w nrc to gov rn th .- island. and make them a part of ou1.·:e vcs, th prime ohject will he to pur. ue . uth. n com':e ns l'iiL h :;t nnd

quil·ke;t a><s imilat them to ou1· wa.'·:'· uc ·u.-tom thl'l~l o our lltw .1 lnngtmg , and wny of tpinking llnd .tcu.('h them re. ~ctfor our lnwli and otu' flag, nnd ·then \VJ II .follow lo,·c for it nnd dPvotwn to our cou;try. Th y m· • now n.li<'lll:l in l'llee, thought, habits, custom;;, t~nd lttnt" age. • E,·ei· ·irwe ••o,·e rnm~nhl lm ,. _existed, nt least sine the d!tt'k ng•_. , we hrtve hnd t}vo sy tem struggl111g fo1· thP mn. tery. produemg tt d1 ·c t·se nne! widely ditf ring_ci,·ilhmtion .' On i~ l tl~e ol? Romun or ·<·h·i1 I!Lw, th other th En dtsh eommon law. pnm. :F rtin ·e, Italy, Nl ·o, and nil South Amcrictt hold to the first sy.rtem . Englnnd nnd t nited ' tatcs to the latter. The diffHcnee in the two' ci\'ilizntion , in th progre:s ··and udmnc<'n.Jent i.n sd 11c of government and prospl'dty, il< trru:e nhl~ to th n~chcnl dltft'l'cnce. . hetwc . n the ~wo :,r:t 01 of lnw.. Th' one t<onds to de,·clopment of · th l:1gh~'l of the p opl~ tnd. rcspeet for the will of the mns:;es · the other enrichment of the g-oyer ning cln. ti and proteetion forth rights otth few , regat·dle.-·s of th YOil·e of the people. · . , 'l:h common law· wn:s u growth from .the demnnc!·, of. th people agnm t the encronohment of the gov'?rn mg clu:;. ] h b . t of tb.e Roman law wu ·elected, t~ncl on it wa::~ engmfted, fir. t, by tile '' ::\Iagnn ' hftrta, " the right Of ·trinl h.r jury 1 t he•.' the Writ ?f hab~us coq:!us ltnd release from illegal nrr t ahd unpn:onment w1thout JU ·t cau ·e, nnQ.' n peed\· triuL unci right to h<' ·onfronted with the witne es against th tlccu. eel; tb n, prohibition of x po t facto laws, none of whi ·h were known to the older ystem. ' Wh n our fathm·. lilll.me here, the1· being no civilized lnw;;, tl y · brought with t hem the ·o1nmon law, and soo.i1 · ngrnfted 1othei· t~nd mor progre:11ivo 1prln ·iJ?.le : No tnxation wit!iout r pre ·entntion, fr dom of consci nee, ana no union with church and . tate, and mnny ot~er things ,now h ld d ar. to u , including equal taxation and umforin ustom Ciutic. , all prjnciples not yet acco;rded to the people livin!f under the old system. vVe AmeriCans k•lp_w and renlize that · oul.·s JS the truest . ystem, nnd all the world acknowledges our superiority, and that we enjoy gr ater comforts nnd happine.. among the mtt. s than nny other people under th un. Why, then, . hould we h itate in giving our new po. . !on the Q nefit 1of iU . All c~cede·thnt our Con. titution i .the fine. t charter of liberty e\-el' . :Wt!tten r enjoyed by an'y people, and thiLt it mu. t of cour:se be applied 111 1ts g eral f ature in whatever go,·ernment 1. to be ndov.ted. The ~tpreme lll't in nited tate v. Wong Kim Ark (169 U . . 1 6-J;9) sa : "Th language of the Constitution, as hllf:! be n well said . (Kent, 'ol. 1, 336), could · not he und~r tood without reference to the

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104

0 )Vl-;RNMENT ~·oR Tl;IJ: I LA D o~· l'UlRTO Rl O• .

OOVF.HN}l'KNT ,Jl'OR THE HILAND o~· PUERTO RIOO.

.1·ommon htw.' Jn ~L W!lflttl'<', tlHi. 'hiof ,Jw;ticc \Vnitc procood(•d to re~tt.t~ th1~ I'O~nmon la~v in nil~ (?f tb .rQii~~!·uetion of tiH provi l! io 11 ' of lht' (. un:<tituhon .rc:lnttng to c:tttz n~:~btp. 1 h c·ourt nlso :<tty~, in th formt•r cn.~l':

Lot~situm till,

jHl,5

'on>~ul,

tbmugh ,r !tpolron L · Fi-..st it wns eedcd tol tho l'nit d !:)tn.tc><, nud t'ol'lltnl po:o~,;('s:;ion wu..'! no sutTondorrd h.v 'pnin to ' nutc· till it hnd b '('II cedl'd to th o Unit d :-itutrs, nnd only thirty d111r • he fore fol'llml ><llrl'l\ndl•r wn. mad · to the United Htntl's in 1~03. Tl~•<inl ~r.:·tntion o.f till' n~titut ion iM ~~~ !'*"trily inttucnr •<I hy lilt• fu..t. tlmt it R ' ; ~lmt ju. t p ·ior to (,lut· oecupatiora tipttiu lmtl hold .Loui:;inam for f Jl'ty JI'\WII'H>II~ Ill'\' fl'llllll'tl Ill l hU.III.II!(U:I!(t of till' Engli8h C llllll LHI law IIIH( UI\J t· ' r 'U< ) n•u r;; (th rc6 yonr,; n<. t 11 • o~v IH't', hut hy t•out·tl•sy of Ft·atnr·c),. o thu ; wo 111 lht• 1~111 of ill! hil'Jor~·. . · ' .' found it popnlntion of lft'l'llt"la and , 'pat ni:o~h nnd half - hlood:~, with tt mixttji'O of htw,; nnd cut<tonts. And, as wl' have ~ce n, w lcof.t but littl Tbi:o~, tht•n ; \wing true, wbllt i. the .ufl • of t•xtendifl" tb 0mstitution of th1 H.omnn sy:Jtctn in fot·co-:o~implv civil fornu; nnd pt'ht· dllre, 0\'1'1' ~ht•l<l' }X':Oplr nnd withhqlding- tha~t l!.r and t~rough which its with .nil th ' ir dih~tory method.-. Y <·t thi'! wu:; hnough, to keep 'llivo m lllllll!(' •nn he nnd<•rstood, nnd h.r wbtc:h -at mu,;~ l.~e int<'t'pr'tcd ? l the two s.v:st •rats. 'tlvo ltHtg'lii~~Ps, a111l two ~ot:; of cu.4toms, LUI I to ·,do not :<d•hO\~ !" l'ltudt•nt of th , H.on.mn_lnw, ~~· jtidgP, ot· htw,yPr, ·Otald .('nl•hle them tor bli,n their nu·ml tli:; titwtionH; and we fiud mueh o the undt'n!tnnd or tnh•rprt•t thr <.on:<tttutwn w1th o ut nl:Jo knowing tbo 1 old still iu PXi::;t'tH' • nml :<till ll'ttrling to nml'h ('()llfu:Jioil. \ t'Qlllli!On ·hw. fh•nerul Dn,·!,; l~n~ g-inn you n. ,;~mple of .tlai:<. IT • is J~owet· Carmela hats not n'mdt• ,;ueh pr~1gt'l'SI'l iu ndmuct•d t·avilization, not" law~· rr.. He ""Y:t ·tli<: ]Udll'ml ".~·strm n~w 111 opcrnt•.o•! wns pt· •· !'~mpnt•t•d with like p o rtiou s of the .United "tntrs,-ns to om·oul'llgfl u. Pl'l'<'d h~· rutttvc .Put•t·to . Rtt•nn,;, and tt pr \' ldl'>< for ll \VI'tt of hnbcu:~ in following tho t-:ystPn) udoptcd th oro: ~Ia·. HntTicau, in his Hi. tory corpus, und tL few dtty:o~ hdorl h left th o is lnnd It nntiv . judgr on of (Jnmtdn~ wl'ittPn in 1 U6, su,vs the law llholishing "feu5ial tHnua· " in halwn. ('~tpus v•lt'tll'lcd a priso ter \V.ho had 11\•t•n eondt·trd in the· l'~u,rt Carmela 'Will:! pa><setl in 1 54, ut which tim tht•rt} wrr 220 "fi •fri or aod "l'nt(•nerd to penit~ntuit'\' or fourtren n•nrw thttt' this wn,; th o fi1·st feudttl t'>itntc:;, po. S<'l'>'<'d hy 160 l't'ignior. , rmbl'lll'ing- 12, 2:& ~Jl3 rtl're. in tani'C in a : ' Rnni,;h countr.'·• Ptt·. Crrhiinh· no :o~nt'h instlt 1·r O\'er of laud, nhoitt onP-hnlf of whidi wn. n•utPd to i2,.,ooo tc uant.o; (v~l. 1, <X'l'l\rr,.d in thr l ' !li~r<l ~tnt\>. In or J<:nglnnd. f.al)(•ns '''!rJ?nH is not 1111 npp.<'nl nftcr t'<}nnl'twn. It opl~· opt•rut1•:o~ hdot'l' t·oan·tetton. If tbn p. ( 4}. l'ho Ft'l'll\'h ..... ,b·m, r•·ior to l:kiti.' h 6ccttpnnt·.v, this IL . l' stL.\ .·, wns vpr·y simple a 1d ~trhltl'tu·.v. Tho O t"n •ornot·-Go 10ml ILm .the nmkct':l of thi~ lo.w 01' the judg~ hnrl JX>!<SI',;setltt knowll' dcrp of tho <"OUI· intt1ndnn.t t'Xet· · i;wd nil tlw t·il'il and militnr~· tJowe r;l of govct•nmcnt mon lnw this would not hnppt'n. "' nlong wJth . tht :<PiguiOt'>', who lmd justil'oshtp~ in thcit· dom in. , . ' it would :;erm tojollow · witJtout further urgumrnt thnt wh n w<• nnd x t't·i:-<ed j tricli calnchniuiHtl'lltion with ,J s uit prirsts n. law '1'8. extt•nd the Constitution onr hw&>· peopl w IIIO>'t nl~o dedare titr con;nn n latw lk! applit' d in Am •a:it·at nnd intt•rprrted hy our t·ourtH to· Thi;; wus tbr :o~y -tPm ado]jtecl' nt thu out.~rt irr atlmo. tttll Fruueh r·o lo ~e:;.~ Tht:, award of tho dtil'f o1· hi s lioute uunt wns' 1111 omclo thnt none l~ til forec tlwr~ <'Xt'.Ppt ns we llllt." m~ify it h.v ;:tutut1•. Tltis of it~olf wtpc::! out;' the pnnt>'l) lnw llH IL hat.~i s for thr law.· of the i~lnnd for • ~ho uJcJ qu ct-:tiot - 11 r edoubtithlt' tlCt"l'CO to h obeyed, not 'XUilli I d. tb two s,v:o~tem:-~ cn n not s uct'"""full~· xist togt•thrt·. jlt hn. her n 'Hnid · Tlu:st• fuut•tioratrir,; lmd th p wrw to in.fli1·t ot· remit, lo pami:;~ .or rrwnrd, th o ri ~ht to -impri>'OII 1111'11 ll'ithout thr s hadow of .culp1Lh'lity .thnt tl1 Spnni,.b law i:< not hntl in it:,clf but onh· in it., r nf(H't'('Ull'nt. on th ei r part, md <'lniming t'C' I'OI'llfll' :~<; :ut IH't of juiitic • for e ro t·y Tho, wh<;> .rcnlly ht'li w · the ~··pnni:Jh In w hcttl'..r 'thnn ~he t•ontmon lnw i11:<tunc of t· h ~ir ,.,~price . { )outc:-<tant rthu" pr f l'l'<'d to itlmt be it· ugbt to ,;e k to hn,·r it t' lll:f'1lftcd on our l~tws ltnrl di:o~plm·t th e comri<r,bt mtb c r than g·o tol law. : · mon lnw. 1\1'1 Am 'l'il'tL l't'rtuml \- d S('rH'l< tlw hest : nut th cxecutio'n A ,. ry s imih L'eontlitlon. <':-<p<•l'inll.'· as to impri.-onmrnt of me n' ·itbf' th htw is a pnrt f. th t• litw it:< •If, as it always provides how it out d111rgr ot· .t :<badow of guilt, wns found to exist in P -ue rto Hieo ~ hould lx' exN·uted: 'tlbu, und the Philippines, nnd doubt! ::!S xi ·t.-; in all ·otmtrics rovLoni:<inmt .nnd · Lower Unnndn hn\'<' hceh rPf<'tT<'d to n:< xmupl s, criwd b~· panish law. rgnall.': ><UCt't :,:;.ful undrr thr Rornnn law. ndopted nnd enforced ~y peopl> tb m .. rh·r:l lidtw nndt' r thr ·ommon lnw. ln th( lir::.t phtet• l'n lmlioll wu" h~,-~ •o ll 1y tho will ni th • Kinl{, nrul· nmulu was nt·1· .,. •yHtcnmt(•nlly :'to. kt'<'P !1i,.;to.ry Htmig~t" nml uot fo d(•:<tt'll:l' n l'Qmfortnhlt illu' io'l: · tnx01l while Fr'l!nch do1~i nuti o 11 ln •L~• I (p. l!ll ). tt "li .uld ' h(• kn~)\' n t~ttt the ru'nhling at't by 'ongrc:-:" for Loui iani1 ' wns tb punish ;;~':J tem of taxation in ' ubtt and Purrto ·Rico. Pr<?nded fo r ~1al h)· Jl.try nnd for thr ~r e rn!orl'~ment of nil th pr . n"ton:< of o ur Olll!tttutton. Tht ,·rr.\· tir,;t lrgt:o~lattre n:<s mhly ndopted It/<.~~·n liur sy~t(!nt "'""' i'<''·hat ~~ 111 best to ~tril' > ltjlai n•t th • m· ' l'·j:(rowinl( ifor • of llnti~h coloni8t". Enon in om · 1lny (t866} it iM owin~ to 11- (lh · Fr •11ch )~that and .~'>xtr n<l d :th q :>nmt n lnw of England to nil 'pro<"l't'ding: for thu 'a nmln i. ll'Jt a par-t of the · 'nil e<! . 'tal ·~. Jt iH 11·e 1\·ho prc1·enteo l it becominll · .pum:<.hm nt of ninw;; uud otfruse>', nnu· that at.ll rule:< of ev id nee and .Amcricun in n1nnncn<, lunj:(UUj!C, ntl(J in 8tit 'uii o n ~. n ~·•utl'(! of our language, law. , und pr~e.!lurr mu,;t be ·al'tordjn(J' to thr ruJc of thr ·ommon l:tw provic\ed r ligion, our !X'Ople hnn) not b~n deprh·c•l of th ·ir irl ·11tity. for writs of injlllwtion nnd l;nben>< ·oqJu.· nnd trials' lw jm·v nJJ con· trary to tb(• Fre nc:h or 'pnnish ,..~· :o~tem. · · ·. It is n well-known fnd: that a Frcn ·h nnnctian is n. much n :Fren ·h· lll(l!l n~ h wn; one hundr d nnd forty .''CIH'.· rwo, 1\nd bus but ittJe Fli;tn~ uee.!tpir~ ,t!li. trtTit?r~· :ft-om lHtd, wl~eu: it fit·s.t took fo~·muJ · ~ol.·e intor tin or :l,,=mputhy for ltoytbing B1·iti. h or Americnn ban . po~ l'l:<ton, hll ·11~, when tt wu. c ded t pam 1111 11 reward for bt nnce tor · had in th pa ·t. · a isting l!'t'ltnl' again:<t England, a pel'iod of eightr-one year. . At Tbe nme author ny. : tbj tim<' France c ded anadn. l\. · a re.'ult of tbe ·*nr, to England and pain r ded Floridn to Englund in_excban~ fot· uba, wbicn bnd . The Engli h went to' Arh raca to enjoy cil·it an I religious liberty. The pa iurds been conquer d and Ol·rupied by England. pain r ·oced d Loui i· ln ~ " h of gold; the French to prenl the Catholi religion am ng the It dians ,(p. 246). I ana to France b · :; c:t· t treaty in 1 00 but Pl'lll eon u d to .o ccupy

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106

G OVERNM}~

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'l'RlC JSJ,

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l'rok•:•or Hin:ldal•< in his 1 1 ·~to r~· of 't\H' •·om J th,n·~t. ·· :<tt)'ll: • ,Engli"h ('ttlnnic~ ill .\11ll't'it•tl ht•)fllll with . ~•illnl(l'" n11tl on tly injl funn s; the

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Fi't•nr·h ,.,,li rnil!" with 1ni. " i tnt n t·~· Mtltti n n ~. fnrti tl ,•d pMt,.., m· l r. Hiin)! . hnn><e~, or with th • \'<m thilll'll . 'l'lw t •·ipt•• nl!innt'\' ,,r . p•·i••"t, ....,,J ,Iit•t·, nml tmdt•l' ~o ntinttt'tl th l\11f!!h tbl' Jll.'l'iot l nf <'l>ln11i 7.utio ui.

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Sl)l'nkin ~ . of tlw :-~mull populati on in t hr n~ I'.Y ~n.t•tlt•n of the \\'Pst, h

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llttl .wt' rn11"t t'l'nll'11•hl! r th1• id un q11 wh h·h "'''"' Fmm·p w:t ~ fomui P•I. 'l' ht>Jnic h•r " 'Ill! <>ppu I h> ~t>tl'l l! nt l! nt ~. ht•<'U 11:'0 th l!\' t11l.'ttltl tlw til-fltt·iwti on ,,r hi" trutf1.• ; th ~ ~ •.,.uit w OpJ H;il<'1 1 tn thl!t n , ht•o':t\1. l thcy' mt•tm t tht• dc"lrtll\tion of hi " 1\li""inn lh>ld ; tlw n•y~·r "1'1"'"'"' tlt<!nt , ""'""" t lw)· inl t• rf,• t'l•d with hi" ftl\'oritl! modl' of life. Onl r thl' lltlit•r wu;o l •ft , nntl h i• "'l~ine:~..• wn• not t•nl\mi zation. · In fnet, nttc tlw 'FI'l•tw lmu\tl ll••t· o n ,.., h a p pil~· wt t I the India n \l'rt" hl' r arlil\· ht•c:um• 1111 him, •If. . T hi• l '<'l'lllitt ~' cle\·el!lptn ''!' nf willt•t·m•. " lif!'. is. pt•.rtl tten t· In Dr. El pl\')l:thUtt 1\lltlnrk, tha t lnr l! l'l'I'Y ln.tmn d m1· •rtt•ol h• Cht·t>lth"tty, hllt ll ll't.ld ~ of wh m<·n. ltaw fllll t•n to tht.• Jc,'d ni hnl'l ~•riun~ (pp. :lti-:iO). 1

· But l'auntlit i:< not to' hp t•it •tla a. t'OiltJUPrt'd ~·~ un t.ry g-~n·ct•t\t>d hr it:< fm·nu•t· law,.., as for tbl' ti 'j t fn rrtet•n \'Pal':< of )~l' i ti >l h ou·upntion It wa. go\·t•rnl'd (•xdu~<in'l.'· un'l'' '' Bt·ith•h l a w:-~ . As 1m... hl•t•n thr Bhg-· li:<h prndivt> . with hl'r ,·olonie ·• '• 'fh ' Kin}! of )'~n l-rl:tnd wi~l out sntH·· tion of Pnrlirlllll'llt llboli>"hed I 11 the law,; ol' o ]tlpn .Ft':tlll'l' t~ l :< llh;~t.i tut for' them tli J·ul'i,..prndi'Ul'l' Engl~md ·• (P· (~ ,, ,~1.. :1 •. UruTit·nw• hi!!· torv of Orttu\ It). [t) an onl11 Hllt'l.' Sl'ph•mh l' c. le i•+, tl \Il lS n:-~;:o una•tl thttt in ~I.' supi'l'llll' court >'itti 't! :.tt. Qu~· IWI' J li ~ Brihtnnit· ~laje.;t.y wa" p~e ent m. t~l' ])I'I'SO !!..,C~f th!' l'~lt l'f Jllto tll'l'. h:m ng full P~ '\('1' to tletrl'· nun ·all <'tnl nntl c rtmtnnl t'tt. <'" a~ n· a hlt• to th e la w>' of Eughnd :tml to the 01·rlimuw ,,. of tbi:-~ pr ,.i w e. All 'anadin.n >< Wl' t'l' t' ' qHi n•tl to take tut oat~ of ttl.leg'iJ,nt•t.• to Bri taju or len,·n t be t·ouu tt~\· . 'our.t~ of .. King 's Jwneh '' nnd· •· ommou Plrn:-~ •· wrro e · tabli,.hrd. with ;.;rim ~ powe1· n... t'OUI't." of ., 'nil' nu.ne in En.-dantlr.md h und . to l'l' ntler tl ' C'i · ion bru ed on tb law:o of En~lr1nd exrept:-~ 111t b.'· Oun~d trtn " t·ommen<· ' d bl'fo r e 11G.J. (p. H6). The o rdin unl·e of 116-! wa>'ttbout Li i± nodificd :;o .that It· '~irindi:ln w~s :i ll w._d to :;it on :t jnry a~d Ft'l' n~· hn n allowf'd to pmctt e law . . :SOme attc n~pt '~a.· made rn .l ,lj;! to g'J\'<' Cmmdn ~ cr O\ •n law., and tht · was promr ~ed. JUSt before the A m e l'I t'ltn 1R e,·olutton to prevcut-Cnmtdrt joiliing them , bnt it wn:; not enfo H·cd. !:lome judges h ld th Frt•neh law w ,; 111 fore nnd ;.om judge rr pudiated it except beh'v~ n ·Frenchmen. . liT i i M a ehrwtc r wn~ g runt d Cttnnda g i,·ing th em legi lnth·e ~V· rnment nud thrn the Fn>nth lnw· was te$tOl'l'd in ch· ilnit\..~ter . . Tbi. CQn;.;titutlon di,·id d Canadn int<:> two prm·iiiec . g mnted H ee exer cl of religion, r eti:lined Eno·li:;h jurisprudr nce il1 criminal n'mtter s, and prodded that L1 offic r· · hp uld b appo inted b.'· the ' 1·om1. The nlt- .auth01·; sper:tking of thi eonfu"ion arising f r om the two · y tems op.eratillg tog ther, sa.'·":

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1

Before British d omlnation th ere were not h !'O coexi~ting cod e~ struggling for the m R.stery, or li o nt~ add rei!l!ing th msc.h ·es by turnP t.o thi ~ or that tl'i bnnal, F~erti:b or Engli h, aroorrling 118 they fou'nd one or th ot h r wo ul d best serve their interests without rejlQrd to the equity f the chLim p ul forwam or re isted. (P.194, Yol.l. )

· we . ·I' pnwtically for th:irt;-one ; ear Cnnada was crov rn .d through ~h Englf h s,,:;:,tem. for the fir,.:t fourteen y ear . . exclush · ly, and fo.r th bnlal)ce n mix d y stem of doubtful J,e gality, and niter thi1·tr-on year . b · a mixture of two et:; of Jaw8 nfid two classes of court . . A' in Loui iana. b.'· a mix d ' sy. t 'm in fiyi I matters, yet enough o·f the Fre nch to k p aliYe the identi~· fld language and ~w.toms and hope of t~e alien ~ee in .en{'h cou~tryl; . \

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In N11w J\11 >xit:o wn gave th n 70,000. Mrxit·:t.ltli, tJllltll' bodil y ~~~I, the tr<·_n.ty into fulJ-tl edgn(l Am m·icnn oitizons, A. nwrit·tm ltnvl'l nnJ of\ em'~:~ · f(H' tiv(' Y!'l\rM tmd thmr turned th o gov1 r·nm<mt ovn1· to th nm. antlt.h l.Y nt '.om·o went bl\ck to the ir lir>-~t lovo·antl tu·n not ltftl•t• fifty-fom y nn 11 'o f ~r lf- edutl~t;on .Jm~t·h . in.tprtH:rd, at ll'tt: t nrc rtot e t t'l\J.,"'U'tled ti . for . 1 8 lairhood; ·wJule 111 Cnltfl? t'ntn, g owr11cd from tlu 1:<tm't. untl t Will' • uwe hr .Anwrit·nn law nnd mo:-~tl,y by AIIHH'it•mtli t\>i ehid olti oin],.,, wn ~nd a rh·y clilf'erent 11:1btte of thin/?'"' exi,;ting- n:; goo<ln 1 ivilizntion a. eun 1Jo found in t\lli)' Sb\tp. ~:rthfornin w:~.~< not irltt'ttlltcd with t.)ro go crntltent' for itself till it bad n population tltbu.: twd to our Am •rieun M.v:-~tcmtl M gonwnrnen . . Compnre th e eivilizu~ion of 'nlifomirt with th1tt of. Lo ui~<tuut, New M >xieo, ttnd. lowt•r 'rumdn, and th en dceidt whi .: h hr the bettt•t· plttr for t.he new t:otmtl'iPs nntl11.CW.pnoplc now ~ n om h nds. ) lf th ~Htl div rg-i.ng t·i~dlhmt,ions ar·o ~l he hlend.od, nnd if th c11o pconln II I'll t(J ho 1\SSIJlli ltitl•tlrl.ntl wetldnd tO Oil!' ,fOI'Ill 8'f 'gOV! l'llllHlllt und tf th e,v mn nv r be, it mukt he ln•gttn nt thfl ktm·t and bur ,v>~tcm nust dominate nntl eontrol. No tole rant·c to tho t•fl'etc l'Ule of' kings nur;t he nllowed. ~ o httlf-aml-hrtlf m e:u urcs will ~u ct· eod. ' lltc people of tho nitcd Sb~te. a J!e rrspon. ible for wlmtever go.vc l'llmcrltt i. ndopted nnd not 'tho inhabitant:; of thc ·.iHhmds. " Thl) world wil,l hold.. m1 to tlliil l'l'i4pon>'ihllity. If vo cxpm·imcnt hy plucing con~rol in 1 it hands and fail it will he no mwuse to !:!tty the people were not c fnl' dtt t it•;.; of O'OVCl'lliiiOnt that we must decide noW for Our. clve!!r Th e~· .ttl' not · y r t ·iti:~.on s oi; the United tutcs nnd will not be till Congre. ;>~ :<o determine~'< t\Qtl voilunbuily ext!)lld~:~ them thi ~ hoon. I Our ttprcme Cotn·t held in l'ngh:o~ 1J. Snug Hnrhol! (3 P eters, 167) that cnc~ Go, e rnm ent hn.d n right to decide for it.'!elf who shttll he admit d or docm('d eiti:~.en s. Thr:-~ is quoted with approvltl in U nitotl , 'btt s v. "ong- Kim \rk (10!) U. .·, p. 66 ), and th o <·ourt ,;ay ·: , · Nor ~:an it be do ubiAJ<l' that it is the inh erent righ t of every indcpen\l ent nntron to dctC)rmine fo r itself a nd ut:uording to itcl own !ftlstit\Jtion and la ws what cln.'j!!CS of person shall be entitled to itH cit izenship. •

It i::; tnttl that n Chiruinmn born in Chinn cnn ·not be naturnllized una. r o.ur laws.. But thi.' is for . want of- a 8tnt ute or treaty aut~oriz­ ing it. ' tatutes etmctcd hy Cong r e.. and treatie. mnde liy the .1:1resident and S nate mu:<t y ield to the paramoun nnd uprem ' law of the Con titution {p. 701). The treaty, th er efor , which gran t.~ u~ the ishtpds 1\nd leaves th em ·simp,ly our property nnd the p ooJlle s ijnply '' irlhnbitants of tq e isla~dt.~, ' does not amerid our Constit~tion and authorize u. to legt ·lute for them unless oul' legislation conforms to the Constitution. I n the sun1e case Justice Harlan and Chief J stice Ful er di!,'lsent, and they say , speaking of th treaty between th e U nited State a nd 0 hina, r ef rred to in the opinion of the majority, which . admits Chines~ to r e. ide her e, obtain permanent domicile and e~gage in busine s, and to b e protected by and subjected to our Jaws the ~arne a our own citizen., but which for.b ids their being naturalized say: This Government nmy make 1a t~ty with another ·ountry thnt ,will excl11de the citizens of th other count •·y who come h ere from becomi.ng citizens of this co ntry, or their children born h ere frprr1 becomit;~g citizens.

If, th en, this count~·y can make'. uch !\treaty legnlly , a treaty l hich letwe the question of citizen hii? and political status open for the Congr~ss to determine j Surely Within the r ule! and legal. If W Can _exclude p eople I,>Crmanently domiciled here ft·om ever enjoy~ng the

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109

OOVERl'(XE T FOR THE I!'\LA .0 OF J> ERTO RI 0.

GOVEl~NME.NT FOR THE ISLAND 0.1!' PUERTO RlOO.

P.r~vil~ge. of t'itiz ''s~i-p, Wl'. s~t~l'l:l \'II H t!lke our own •time it~ l1~. towing

· tt;nt. are wholesome nnd heue~cial to yonr 'people o long w they conform to th rules of 111ilitany ttdmiui~tmtion of order an1l ju~tice. This is not 11 war of dcvllll 1tion, bnt One tO give tO all Within tl\o COntrol Of its milih1ry and LliiVtll forceS th' llrlVIIil· hlge nnrl hlessings of onlightcnccl •i,·ilization. '

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and 1 t finnlnrtwn de ' nd on· futuro doYelopm nts. · ..J:A't· t!li quo tion rc' t for the prcsrnt 'l ea,·r :::0)11 ·thin~ for tho pen. pi to.look forwtll'd .to. t~nd hope for, !tnd it~ th nl('antnn gi\TO the111 ~DI('~tCI\Jl la~v nn~ etnl ,g \'c mn~cnt.p.r nuulgnt d hy the c·onunaud( I' m c~t.ci, ~·l~t~b wtll n t t·m;r.r wtth tt n~l tht•. tef~lllien.J. provisiQn:s of tb on:::tltuhon nor d t rm11w the qu,estwn of tltt7.en::;htp.

NF. I.MON A.

~ln.•:.«,

.lfajor·General, Conllllfflldiuy Fnilrcl :Sialtf/1 lnny.

l 'hi:; w~ tho invitation ·of ·Genoral Mile. to tho P erto Rican pc ople. The CHAIRMAN. That is hi pi'Oclamation you were rending~ Dr. HE:l'I'NA. Y !'! , :-~ir; and these wet·o th promi ·cs to the people of 1' KADB BY DR. J. JULIO . HENNA, OF NEW YORK CITY Puerto Rico, un~ nndor th . promjses the Puerto Rican:s ralhod undor · . WEDNESDAY:, JANUARY 17, 1900. . ' .the Am ric1\ll flag, abandoned the Spaniards, left them jsolatcd to 1their own fate, and 'fought together with tho American Army to he 4elivThe 'u u~tAN. W hnt i:s Yom full mune 1 ered and to receh· the blessing. of enughtenod civi ization, a · General Dr. HE, . J. Ji.tlio Het1nn. . · \ Miles had off ,red. · 'fli Cu"m~IAN.. ''he r do You r side ! 1 Tho CaAIRMAN; D id any of tho Puo.rto Uican ~bt~ Dr. IIE~NA. ln N 'W .York· 'ity. · · D,r. HENN,t f YeH, Ai r; tfe.v served as.guides, intoqirctcr~:~, ~cout:, otc. The 'rum~tAN. H w I ng- ha\·e you re ided in New Yor~ 'I The CHAinMAN. For our Army~ · Dr. liENN . For tbirt_,. year.,;. Dr. HENNA. Ye . . ir. The RAUtMAN. You tu· n nnth· of wbnt ·otmtr~· ! l 'h ' CnAIR~rAN. ·Thet· WI\. no military force of Puerto Ricans Dr. JiE '·N • f Pu rt Hico. o rganized ~. · .. 1.'h~ H HhtAN. How l ot~ clid you re:sidr iu Puerto Rieo be£or • Dr. HF.NNA. Not hrfowe th o i·;tva;;ion.,.. cop.th•g to the· uited ' tnte" I 'l'he 'JfA !IUIA~. Be~or~ P?t~<:~) wn.· de hu~ec\'1 · Dr. HEJNA . . Eight ' On yca.t·,;. . .Dr. fhJNNA. Y s, Slr i wbtl war wn:s gomg on. The illAIBMAN. This t•ommitte ' ha:s now uud •r eon · idc~·lition n bill T,h HAJJnr~N. Befo re th protocol wn. s1gned j ' provi~j•.•g •~ .form of .,ti\·i l gon~ rnme nt for Pu •rto R.ico. ]if you bar Dr. lh:NNA. Ye . . ir. 1 any ug"'_e tJOn:< tba~}· ou wou~d like to g:i,·e tb committe tho bc nblit Th 'HA IRMA N. Jn. tho pani h service ~ 1' of we w1ll. be ·glad J.f you .wll.~ proeeea in.your own way to make Dr. HENNA. No, ;~ ir. I 1 think it wn 'G'c neml orga · i:>:e'd th n!, an~ 1f ~ere .nr any po111t upon whwh we wnnt y 11 to tout'h t.ho m. , •• 1 spooially ' e will lmoS" th 111 up by du·ect qu tions. Tho CHAIRMAN. Aft · r the landing and n t1·uce n.greed upon;. Mr. 'LA~IK . "bat. 1 yonr ·pt:of ssion ( nfter th' ce. :s:~.tion of ho t1liti s ~ • · 1 Dr. ~ NA. I tun n ~h •si ' inn- n practicincr phn:iJinn. Dr. H..:NNA. No · ~ir; lis abo,· 'tated. 1 'f.he C t.t~IRN'A.N. I n .:N w York~ · I The CHAIRMAN. Did t h.c y lig ht n b~ttitt'c there? Dr. HE •. kA. Ycs,, ~ir. . legi Inti ~g a<S to th fo!·i:p of governm nt • Dr. HENNA. Ye ·, sir . . to ooapphed to the 1 :5 1tt~d of Puerto Rt,t·o, th foii?WIIlg tnn~i n g [lCTl'O • '.li'hc CHA1UMA . But we did not ha,·c nny troop nn Juan u tii m nt betw n th mted tnt '· nnd the nutn·e:s · of Pn rto "'Rico af~r the ce,;~ation of ho.iti litit ~. . · should, in m.v. opinjon, be tnken ·into on id mtion. On th lnndincr , Or. RENNA. 'l'hf,; wa> in Hormiguet·o. of GenerntM•le:s at Pon<"e 0 1.1 ,J ul y 2 , 1 () , b · issued th foiJowiiW • . Mr. CI,ARK. Did they 1havc any engagell)enM " invjtat)OII t tho nil.tive!l and inhabitan ts of Pu rto Rieo: :Ot·. HENNA. I think ther wn.'l ono at Hqrmiguet· . \ T~o CKAIU~rAN . I wn . .no awn.r\3 t!ia thEll' was a •Y forco ot·gani ed 11EADQL' A itT EII8 OF THE AIUII' , . consisting of Puerto Rican. tha.t operated offensive y to the Spania ds Po11ce, l'uerto Rim, Jtlly 28, 189

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To tile Tnllallihmt~ o.f Puerto Rico: 1!1 the pro . ·ution of the w~r all!lin.st tl.l<' J-;iug,lom of . 'pa!n by. t.h pcopie of th Umted tat m th. <'ll.lk ' .f ~JtJCJty, lu ~ tl cl', nuf! hmll!ll llty, 1t~ nnhta(v ~o r es luwe !'Om~ to <X'C 11 )~ th e 1s l.and ol 1 uerto R1 00. The~· <'OJII ' bearln)! the ban •r of freedom, IMpll''ed by 11 noble purpose to. ~k th n ~ nn e.;; of onr com~try ami yours, and to de8trov ur <~I ture all. who are m am1ed rest~tan · . l'h y hnng y u the fos1ering

f~~ . . pie, whow greate~t · ~wc r is in it:;. jnl'tJce ml humanity thoet'. hvmg wuhm 1ts fold . Hence, the hrl't c f~ed of tbi ~ oc npation willl !C the unrnetl.ui~e r ·leAc fl'on yom· form r political .re lation ~, and it is hojjed 11 cheerful acct'J!!~~ :e of !]'I o~·enun nt f the mt.ed 'tat . Th ~hid ohject of the Am ri· can r:i:libtar~· fo r~e~ wtll be.t oy rtbrow the armed authority oi Spain unci to ¢veto lb. J>e?ple· f your J:!eautlful tsland the htl')lest m ure of liberty c(msistent with ' lh mtlilllry occupatiOn. \V • ha\·e not e me to make war upon the people of a count:r); "that f r ('t!llturil'!l ha,·c been opp~l , but, on the 'tmry, to bring ~·ou

arm

to

ol a uati.OJ? f

a~l

prolectt n not only to f01LJ'11CI\'eS lJttt to your f?rl>pertv to pror ole your prospentr, and bel!t? W upon ~· ou tne immunitiel! and bl, uli!!' or' the Jibe I institutions of oUr Go,·ernment. It~~ not our purpoee t i_nterfere witb any !!xis . g lawe and custoJO!

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' of ,PuBrto Itico peen~ean accomp is ed I ~w~~ Dr. HJ<~NNA. Th annexatiOll

fact the very sanleo., dny of · the ratificati01l of tho reaty of peace, on the 11th day of April, 1 99. Bnsccl on the e pro 'sc. to the ~ople of Puerto Rico I appeal to you, a.r; a commi sioner 1rom the peo le of Puerto Rico..?...'to a k that 't~ese engagements betwoe tho United to.tos and Puerto .ttico aball b fulfilled, . 1 1 · The CHAIRMAN. Whet vou.speak of ·pn;~.ing i a roprosen tive I character, what credentia1s, if any, have you to how that y u do represent anybody1 ' · Dr. H~NNA. I have been a commi. :sioiter df Puer R1co, repr sooting the district of Pon e~! since December, 1898. Th CHAIRMA ·. Appomted by tho people of Po

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' 110 ,

. Ioov~BNKEN~ F~

GOVERNlfENT FOR THE I LAND OF PUERTO RICO.

LA~D

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'·111 ·

THE '. o• uER.!o o. . ' .Dr. HENNA. Yi ir· theA~ were even dele~te from the island Pr ident would ttppomt from outside1 If h wanted jto}. tx ·req nng pd l was on from that 'di trict, and th r were t~o others who came hi"' on~y to appoint five from the island, the 1idea peing, to b~ p r- · with me ftom oth r district . fect)y tmnk with you td let tho PresiP,ent give ' to the native inbabitTh HAIRMA'N. n from the whole i lantl ~ 11nt<j of 1 tho island only a minority in that pody. THere 'lvonld he.six Dr. •HENN . X s, ir. · · appointed, poi:i ibly, from hero, olthou~h b might take them all from

v

Th

RAIRMAN. Wher at·e the other ix ?

nr. HENNA. ·Only thre

qualm d two have gone back, and I remain, repret!entiQg them all. B ides that, the Republican party on the 2d day of July, indorsed unanimously my r pre entation of the people 1 and •in on the 2d or 3d of this month. I have ]ust received a rern.ti· ficatiori of t.hose pow J; by th same party. · The · ' H:AIRMAN . . In what way did th people of the i land make these sel tion · of repr ntativ , m luding yoursel£ 1 · Dr. HEN · A. By public me ting . Th HAIJUUN . Mas meetingl:i, a we call them 1 . Dr. HENNA. Ye , sir; ther wn. · very little · orgn.nization there. Now, .w come to the point of the bill which ha been pt· pared by:tbi' . committee Th 'HAfRMA . Qf which bill do y ou "'peak now 1 · .Dr. HE;NN . Bill No. 226.4:. If I may be allowed to make some su"gestion 11.\i to ani ndments, te. 'J will .b gin by Cltlling attention ction 3, pag.c 2, lin 12. · . Tb ' HA1Rl\IAN. l s it all rig ht <;!own to tb re 1 Dr. HEn> A. Y s.,..uir. -I would ub titutc "T rritory of Pu. rto Rico instead of "island of Puetto Rico. " Mr. CLARK. Whitt lin ~ . Dr. HE '·.·A. L in 12; rtnd the r t to stn.nd Its it i ~ . Mr. 1LARK. JrH~ J:t:•Tcrri to t·y ' m>~tead of " Hnnd ?' Dr . H E:-i NA. Y :<; s ir. · · 1 Tb 'ttAUUJA.N. I b:wc in tended to ·ugg . t to tb commi tt o to ·trike J.l t th e word · ~ i sland " 1tnd I ave it ~ •m ply " J!ue rto l{ico, but I · have n t put in any ucb wo rd , · "T rritory" or "distt·i ·t ' b cnu.·c I did not tQink it was nece .'tll'V· ' ' · cti n U! hould in ·ludo tb ·ame 'ub titute, " Terri· · Dr. HE.NNA. tory· for · i ·land. ' · The 'nAIRM AN. Jn otb r words you think we oug ht to create · Rico a Territorv, and put th e word in wher ever n ce sn.ry 3 \ Dr, l:IF.NNA. _Ye .. ;;ir. ecti~n 15, lin e. 5 to 12, to read, ttf.t or the w ord" ~" srwdtv Jr'~

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ahd who, togelhcl' with the go\'ernor and seven-other persons of good standing, to be cb n by th holll'C f d l~t £rom the nnti\'e inhabitants, one (rom each of the v n anny di triets of th i£land, s hall constitut the executive counci l and, in addition t tlw ltlgisiati v duties hereinafter imposed upon them 08 a body, exercise such Jli?w I'll anti !)()rform ' u b dutie 081\re hereinafter provided f()r them, respectively.

. Th ' HAmMAN·. !n other words, you would giv tbe mn.jority <;>! ·the executi >e <·oun •il to th l:Uttiv inhabitants of tD i land ~ Dr. Hi~XNA. [n the original bUt th r e w r ;;even. T do not know wh' th r tb roar · v n appo,inted by th Pr ident- . Tb C'HAIR.'ILA Onfy ix. On of tho ·e provided for in the originul bill, wbkh p1·oyided ' \'en head::! of bureau . wa: a ·ommi ion or of po. tl! and tel graph , who wa · solely .a nited tA.tes ofli, . I and would hnve no dutie.· exc •pt under th • law of. the .United ta and could not IJC gi\· n an~· dutie11 f>y Jhe in sula~; go,'e.rnment, so I uck him out and cut down th . number of native· repro ntath·es fiv , so. that ~be .

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the j land, and he wouJd ·have to tnke Ji\·e from there so thnt it would alway have a fnll' minority r epresentation. ·n . ~NNA. :My iden. i to give to each di trict ?f the i. Inn one • • ·memh r of the upper bou. e. 1 T. be CHAIR~IA.'II.~. . The r~a. on for mt\king (ml~: five is th1tt by this bill is adopted the 'plan of districting adopted by ~elterdl Davi . 1-:Jfe has divid d the islnnd·into five judicml di tri ·t , !Utd be haS tn.tod' tbat. that ubdivi ion will .an wor a. well for politic1tl as judicial p,ur{>oses. 1 D1•. HENNA. It w.ould amount to .tho 11ame thing, provided !there w re n.n equ~tl numb'r of American::l(Lnd nativl:l ."' · Tho HAUtMAN. I do riot know how the Pr . iden~ would fix it. · ~f he wants to, under. this bill he mn.y give to the 1natives iivo and · to t~e peopl appointed !rom the nit d tn.tes six . Dr. fu.NNA. · The gov rnor' will be the pre. ident of tb • .. xecutive council. , 1 . ·I . The CHAIRMAN.! H e might b , of eourse,, mn.do Iii memb r he council 'in the seos > thnt be could <·ontrort.he tnajOI 'ty. vote, hut the adju:<t thn.t us he really n ed · i~ beads of bnr au:s. Tb Pr ;~ident muv . e fit. · , Dr. liENNA. 1 would, tbeu, nutke the - · u gge>~tion thut th re :sboul'd br an CI'Jlllll numbe r of Bnmto Ricans ~tncl Jtm m·imn in t he ·onn'cil. '. ·Nlr. CLARK. To be ~tppointed , .v ou :Sit~'' by .t)1e ho .·e of dol irutes~ Dr. HEN NA. To he r hoseu bv th ' house of d lc.gntes from tho native inhabitnnk . You will :<cc fnrth ' r on what is mr idea of that. · ec~ tion 23, pnge 9. lil)'C 1, ·' \th:;titut ' '>;even" mcmlJcr in,;teado'f ' '.fiv e." < · • 'eetio n ::!5 hould' r end:

can

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That for the purro~~H of ~·l·h ei cction ~, nnrl for judi<·inl u.n~l other go,•ermn >ntt~l purpose., the island ~hull continue to · be <li v id t.~l illt o seven l\i. tri ·tP, 1111 heretofore, anu each di. trict. ~hall b • •ntitled tu the choice of one delegate for every 25, 000 iJihabitantMthereof. · · I ·

· Thn.t is more in neeordanco with Amerie1~n cu:stottJ) ·, b -eau. o otherwis; 11 ve ry small d i stri o~ would brwe equalr pre entation witb a very hu·ge one. Thttt would ?e \·e r_v good forth' upt)Ol' ouso, ·but ve t·y bad for the lower boWl . . 1 The tuui~tAJ\. That would !;!L\'e four m mbprs for .car b lUO,OUO of population, nnd ±0 memb~ r~ tor th whole • ~land , if they ban! tt million inbabitn·nt ·. · · 1 Dr. H~JN.NA. I am tryhtg to make it as mHth 1 n AI 1erican in.titmtio·n ll\ JlOid bl ·. . I ' . 11bo CHAimlAN. You must ob:;c n ·e tb!tt th o tcqmrcn1e nt of tho bill is that the i ·land J;ltt~t b~ divid cl into fh tli. tri ·t11 nettrl y equal in POHulation a · pos.-ihl . I 26, page 10, Dr. lli;NNA. It u nount.-; to t he :snnH' tbinO', line · 12 to 25, and p~tg '11, line: 1 to Hi, : hou\U

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Tl!mt the lil'llt ell" tion ford ' l<?gut e shu II be h ld thirt)• tho paS!!&!!c of thisjl•act, autd unde1· ,'tll'h rcg1~ati o n s us to ballots anu \'Ot1'ng actin)! )!O\'(•rnor or the sland may pre~cr il.ie, und llt ~ u ch •lcetion th e ,·otcl'l! of l egi ~luti\'\J <li ~tri ct shall chooi!C one del •ute for v\·er y 25,000 inhabjtunts to r ... nrt><l.•nt. tll'l tl in th e hou . or deleglltes until two yenl'!:! from it~~d niter the til'llt duy nex t en11uing, of

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OOVERN~U:NT FOR THE I LAND

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GOVERNMENT. F6R THE T LAND O.b'

F P ERTO JU 0.

whk•h thirty clays' nOli ball bo ,. n l)y publicali n in the fficlal Gazette, avd by' printecl n tic di tri1ll1tro · and poi!tecl th tuibout th district as th e gov rnor may 11 ril . At n h clt:'Cti ns alll'itizcns of th i ~land boll I allowed to vote tb qoalilicati n~ of vot e~ umlt'r the lttws and milita ry ord rs now in , 11•ho 1 f in the i~hmd, ubj ~~ t sueh rL>gulution'. ami l'('Stri lions 118 to 11J!fistrntion 11.1 may be, provided or pre ' ribed by th e l cgi~ lathe 118. t'lnbl y. The h uAtJ ol delegatee

Tb HAIRMA •. You would n t b1w any I gi lnth·e u. after thi8 el ·tion bad b n h ld I Dr. llE~A. Of co tr .

mbly l!nti!

Th,~t h ,OII EI!l of del €'gil let! eo cbo~n ·~ hall c nve nl' at th CJlpital. and organize by ~he electl n 'of a peaker a clerk, a I'Cryrean t -nt-arm~, and such oth r oHicors and 11~ 1 •t· ant.!! Ill! may IJe l'L'(Juired, at uch tin e ru: may be d ignated by th governor and proceed. t the cl ti n of the I'Cvcn (or fivtJ) members of the xecutive coundl .af ~id, who ano to n" from the ela te of their clt'Ction a11d qua lification unt il fonr yea~ from and of the t ill day of January 11 ' Xt Emsuin~t, bnt the o mbl)· @hall not {'OntiJm in l'e!'i!iou I n~~Cr thnn sixty days in tlll)' one year, unle call Kllw U1 $t()Ycm or t.o lnt'et in xtmordinary !'e ion. 'l'he enactin~t cluu • of the laws shah be," .&• it cnactetllw th • legislat'lv 1~ mbly of the T rritory of Puert Rico, nit e~l 'talc of Am rk'8 ;"· and Cll{'b m mt r of the h on80 of delcgatC8 ~ hall be pai<l for · his rvi atthe mteof . -, nited tat <·urrency--"

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Dr.

nAiRMA •. We do not liE · .NA

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"day for eal'h t111 's utte ndaurc \rhil c th e h oue is in ~ sion , untl 111ileage nt the rate of :!o cent~ f ' r mil . All fntnr · l' l ecti on ~ of d elt'i,'Rte8 unrl 111 einbo~ of the e:<e<·utin• l'OULwil ~hull I gm· rn I h~· th p ro ,;8 i o n ~ he reof, . fttr us they nrc •appli"ubl , until th ' 1~i!lati\·e· n. embly ~hall oth crwi e pro,·idc.

ction _i, pag 8 11 and .12.1ine. · 24 and 1 rtnd 2; ubstitute "ot· has not be 1 a t·e ideut of th district for the year prm·iou to hi tion. ' · Mr. . AUK.. ul .·titute it .for what ? Dt·. llE ' NA. tFor th word.-; ' r who i:; not po._ essed in hi own right of property , rcjtl· or p rsonnl , ilitnated in the i)nnd , of the value ofat lea.: t t w tbou:s~md 4ollur . ' Add "or who has not been a r ·id nt of tb district forth ) ear la.'!t pa:<t nnd ptt v.iou to hi I ction. ' . :Mr. LARK. You wonJd not make any pt·opert~· qualifi cation ~ Dr. HE'NNA. In thi:-; en r . unfortunat ly th - l'(' are peopl who hnn mean ~ wh n.r not lit rat , {\nl f do not think th y should have mor · rig__bt than tbos who lll'e not litemte and own no prop I't,-. '\. Tb HAIRMAN. o ~rou think th r i any risk to run of our gettling peopl tor thi I ' gis l th·e ass 'ni b I~· if' w .do not have this qt.lalifit·ittion .w e JH'O\rid,t• wli· ar n t mpet nt 1 · '· Dr. HENNA. T beli ,. you will rnn mor ri k if tb tand than otherwise. . Tb HAmMAN. D you think the peopl who can not ither read or wri and tho who do not own property are le ufe to be in trw t with 1 gislation than tb other cia · · of peopl 1 · Dr. l!ENNA. I think o. ' I know a !rreat many 'prof ional rii npby iciatt and lawyers- that hav no property whate\· r, no property q~lificatiQn. · . · . Th C,HAIRMAN1 Do you think a man would make a good member of a parlitnentary bOdy w·ho can not ither r ad or write ~ . Dr. . HENNA. No, sir; I believe b bould be a~lr read and• writeTh HAIRMAN .. You would retain the education qualification hut not han tb property qualification ~ ' Dr. HENNA. Yes, · ir; that i wha£ I meant.

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That would . till further r ~tri ·t the suffrage ? Yes, ~it" but it wonld put it into the intellectual and 1 ibtellig nt band · not th illiterat . · Tb CHAlRllfAN. You w nld not a.tllow a matt who ld not read and write to become n. momb ·of tbi. hody no umtt.er h much property he 'mig})t own? . ection 20, page 13, lines Dr. fu;NNA. No, ir. The

HAmMAN.

D~. HE NA.

p;.

g~mt~

·iaed, homer•e1·1 That all nf fmn chi BC!l of 1t public or quas1-publl • nnthrei ~hnll be mttd' a..~ the .right 1.<) gmnt HIIOh fmn ·h~, ri!! ht<;~ 1 and covered by th ir 1:cswctive 111unicrpahtiesi to -grant such fran •hi,ses, rigbtR, nnd privileges municipality' nnd within th ' Hmit of the territory J... i.htt•v" coun 11 to .h!l\' tho right to gmnt fro 1chi ae~, rigllts, when vcr tl · ~hall oextend from O)le diMtri •t to whenllver a concession sliul!'e: tend O\'Cr oue district or ject tO lh a(lrr{)VIll of th goVjlTUOr, und lliSO Sllhj<.'Ct to the of the U nitC< tate .

You under tand m.y iJen. :My id<'a i · to follow to be th rul in tJn. countr_\·. ll1unicipnliti . nffuir~:~, the tnt.e gO\· e t·nm~ ll to th 'tate, and the mc11t to interstttte anti otqer mn;tters. ' The CHAIRMAN. J get _your -iden. very clearly. mind i that the:; • Jllllllirlpatl fmn ·hi. e:s nre of n · till)' hn~ maty lrc grnntrd- tho e for street ligh tc. E. p ciitlly Hnpo rtu:n nrc they, as they wi throtwh the town ot· eit,v !Prop 1·, but through tlll the torr bclon<Tina to the IIJUJfi cipt~lity, something l~kc ou and J thoug-ht thut, l'R' in~r so importtlllt, if tbe t· wn:s dation on th pMt of the muni ·ipality it wu.· well to th loeal governot· for hi · npprovaJ and then benefit of tb kn oWl<'dge that the g'O\'~tnor is ~u,nn.r.~···n which \'Ould, in conjuneti bn with the executive to tbem. Dr. Hf: NA. On the other hand, the,v oug ht to action; they ou)5ht. to luwo .·muc privileges. Jf "'''" l'l.rr.n ta'k('n uwlty from them- . 'Mt·. Cr.AUK. Hrwe th ) had tho:<c privilcg s 1 ·h ml 'I Dr. HJo:NNA. Ye:s, :;ir; unci you en.n not ltfford to government than thev hawe hnd nndH Spani h The CHAIRMAN. Dld nOt the- captain-genet·al Dr. HENNA. Yell, ir; but it -wn. under~:~~od approved by the munimpn.litie. would be . The CHAIRMAN. It is the . arne rule we :u·c ""''"""'" Dt·. HENNA. Yes; hut \ve want to better the . . The CHAIBMAN. Y ·; but i · it betted The of having the municipality go to th &'overnor before its franchi WI\ valid wa that they should be kept from inconsiderate ttction. only idea is to g!ve the peopl in 'a little municipaLity the benefit supposed ~tter knowledge of , the1exe ·utive council and the O'O'ITArlnm• Of the I land· not to restri ct them, but to see that they the full value when tb y grant a franchi . e that tbey ought to such as the reserration of a per entag on gros .earning . W be pardoned, in the light of experience, for thinking in "'"•a.u•,u,u thi~ government I S. _Doc. 147-8

.'


1 1-l

1

GOVERNMENT r R TR,E · y' L.A ND OF . J' :ERTO Rl 0."

GOVERNMENT l'OR THJo: ISLANJ) OF I

that · ut·h matt r · ot;_ght to b' looked aft-er <'ttrefully. nnd the idea in dl'afti'flg tbi in s uch n manner was to t<ectu" to th em a nd mnke s m e it w~ . ccur d to tb m th full benefit theY ought to hu\· . • :MT. C,LAIUL W htw had ~o man~· ' !ltt<>mpt>~ to foi,..t, in ,OUJ' cities a perfectly ,·iciou ·y iltrm f fmm·hi,..(• for :<trr •t ra ilwa~·s and 'YJlt\or. work.', etc.; gn~ntin g t lw1!1 l onp-~tim.<· . fra n c~i >~e~<-f~r tifty year,;, per. baps- rsutbhshuig :t tl' t'tlllll 1'nt' of fares wbu:h pl·obably would .t,,' t•nt in two in ten or twe nty ~· nr · from th tim grante d, 1111d w htt\· hnd II!O mm•h experi nt·e in thi. din'(·tion that th rll1~irman naturally fe\'ls that ~ll' . r' ><hould be ·orne safeguard thrOW I\ t~roul}d the.·<' people. Hav you many cities inl'orpomtrtll · Dr. HEN 'A. Yc. ,..ir ; I thjnk ,;om ·e,·ent.r municip!tlitie.·. . Th (,'uAJJtltAN. An tl1 r thOtwht. u~· her¢ i,.. a municipalit~·. They may grant a fnrn"rhi~; • if th y ·nn net inc.lcpcndently, to tt ·trrct railway to gG through ·th town nnd to th' limit,.. of th e territory of tb municipttlity in th e ir contro l, nnd nnothcr mun icipnlit:> may gru nt omething 111 the sam lin , and the. two mi lwny!< wot11d not fi t tog •thcr and make a continuou · line, and if th t> mntte r wns under u •nision tb y · : uld mnk th u tit and muk n r omplr tr . y:stem of trrct ruil~sy . or rontl"! 0~ highwn.-':"• a nd that he '011~ (',.. imrol'tnnt when ~:ou c~n ld r th n cc ~<:s 1ty for bl'ldg r ,.,, t l'. The ·1,.dnnd 11< rt ,.mall onr 111 ·p owt of ur •a and it '0 11 rht to !I(' cu;;i l.\' :snp•' tTised hy a t'entml uutl10 rity, ~o ru to muk !i ll tbe!'ic frnneh i.·r:s tit in- of o nr nHmic ipallt\· with tho:< that might h<' nuthO'I'izr d · in an nthr r- to muk t' . a l'Ompl tc ~'<y :<t('m. where~ if eud1 o uc .wa,; ind •pPnd r nt thf' ro:uls an d mihm.1·!< mi g ht lw zi vznrrrr d und altocrrtlwr u•n,.;nti;.,fud o r\'. h~Cr,,utK. Yot~· towns will he utldonht r dh·. a,.. in th r l'ni ed · t;t tr~. conn cted b\· mPan. of t roll c \· road:s ~ · ' Dr. 1-h:l'ONA. Y " · ·,..ir; tliat is what we want and 1n Nl ,·c ry bud ly'. lt would· b' ,·e t'\' ens,· to hu,· a clnu;;e in,; rtr d : ··Prodded it"' n• d rie iu ttl'l'OI'Chu1re with th • p lnn.- of th ' nginc I'« of t h ' i,.;land,' nud 'thut would not tnke nwrty l'hc ri ght of t·once:-:,.: ioJI I . . The 'HAIJ!)I AN. t •nt r:<:-: th xet·uth·c l'OIIIH:il o i· :<OIJle l'entrnl authorit.' ' ,. uld ba\· jurisdi ·t1 11 the_,.. COlJid 110t eontrol It :so n;; to mak it a sy tem that wo uld I' OI'k on part with anoth er . I onl.'· g i q~ yon th idea i tl' my rn'incf, thillking it might po,.;:<ih l~- hrl\' not ot· ·n l'!'ed to your~. and (l.-<. ure ,YOU that it W U:S not do ne to d rprh·c th ese muni cipa li ~i c. of anv ri crbt". . .. t'.'HE~!\A. In the hill a" it s tan ~" no\l· th xecuti ,·e couucil bn. tb ab. olute rig ht of g ranting nil th " fran chi-<e:<. · · Th HAllOI'AN. 'Cnle:<>< som ·entml authority ba,.; it you might hare · ~i s unsati s~nct ry re:<ult. !tis with a dew to · ~rttin g the \·e ry be;! r ul from th <' I a,..t mo n e~· . with a "·'·· t em n.· t'.Omplct a: po. :sib Ic. R ad ought to b c n,..tructed nil tbro ug b th e j,..J'and, and thnt cc r· mini~- ou1•ht to b<> do n n<TOrding to ,.. m gen ml "-"s te m. to b adrj,..ed b.'· th ccqtrnl n.utbol'it.1·, nxniling- it,:clf. of l'Olll'. e, of the knowled<re of .i.t 'l en(J'inee ring· a.nd e 1·cr y qtltl' l' d · partm nt that mi g ht htt\'e to "';th it. . . . . . . _Jr. CDARX. The law urior to the O< 't'Upnti 11 granted to th go\·ernor the right of npprO\'nl/ · ·. Dr. liE:sN,\. Ye·s , ''II'. ·.! ::\lr. LARK. :Fmbehi::;c;; w I' ' gnmt!i'd ' b.\· the mm~l'ipu l coun cil nnd ubmitt d for his appro\·al. Did h : x r ·i,;e that r· ht oftcn ? Dr. HENNA. lt wus only n que ~ti n ot' dolla r. nne~ · · ntfl. and in thnt wa~· w were d prind of a great mhny iliings w need d . \

3?

115

Mr. C1 RK. How W<?uld it be to have these h\ s passed by th . municipal council . 'ubr.Qitted for approval to the xc ·utivc eou ncil. 1 It i 11ot very prohahle that e lcve.n .men would ho vc mi. 'l~he.v would pr<?bably lpo k v 'I'.Y eur cf ully into tho e matte rs un I give· tho stu mp ofV.their approval only to nn,vthjng thnt . cem ec.l t he equibthlc or ri g ht. How would..t hat_sil it Y?U and yom· ~opl~~ . .Q1:. H•; NNA. MF 1.d~al 1s to g tve to the mum ctpultt es tho ;;until c ngt · ncenng works, to gtve to th e assembly omewhtit It ·gcr ohc . • and to th ex ·uth·e rou nt·i l the hu-gest o ne.·. so n;; to div' <' them h •tween tile thre . It ·eruts to me th1tt thRt would work vc• ,. nicelv tmd har· moniou. ly . !;tippo~ • a lnrge compan y . hould go to .l?ucrto' Hko with · c·apibtl to build th ·tra nsportation fac ilitios of the . lund, and WtLtcrwo~k;;, and ga>~ und clectl'ic· lig ht work. ; th e~· wouk go to th, munic.:ipt ht,\· un<;l get con:<cnt, a nd go to th o n,..,.;crnbl.v a'JP get co ns nt, and wind up witq th • exc uti.\'e counci L To brgin with the ~:~rrmll conces. ion b fore ~ett ing- to t~C oth er . ·would gi\•e R fnir •Vi. ion, SO that all would hencfit bv H. : 1 1 Mr. CLA HK. '1 tui d r :stood vou th:tt the muni c i n·l coumj l would btwc rxdu.·ivc juri~<didion. it seems to Ill<' that yc m· idea would be r en· dnnger ous. · ~,· · . 1 . '1 he t ~AIR~IA N . 1 ~ on ly a. ,·m a ll . t rritor~:. ·,It i · no gt•eat tn1~t · for an~: body I'IIJ!agdl 111 !t,n,v e ntrrprt.·e to ~o to ~~~ ,J unlt und ~f'l<' the authonty. rn that wny th e re would. be ,..omc u ':<Ul'l 1 'l' that anything done W()!lld h done in a "·' ·,.temat i!' mnnnrr. . ~h-. t.~nx. Do the~· c lr l' g ood 111 n in .d!o"c 111. nif'ipalitiP:<. tbo's P, C'lt~· t'OII Ilqil;; ~ f l j1.. If~: ' l"A. I t hi_11k tlwy ~·ompa/r \'."r.\' ' facvomll,ll with out· me n her 1. I ~a1·e ~«'I'll 1r1 • el\: ) o rk nldN'IlH'n whc1 1\'( n lrl no t ha\· hnd thl• :<mnll r ." t ehau t·P of brinrr c lt•ded th!'rr. The CIIA IIDI A< I ' did n&t wish to hf' cont ron• t·. inl at· al l: I onh· • • · wi ~ lu•d to g i,·e you m.r ldC'n in thr mntt.~t:. 1 Df·· 11EXN A. 'petion 81i. pngc 1 '.linP:< 21 t~J~ 5 . ,..h. uld lw as fo l w,..: ,

!s

.' P•·9rided, That 110 Jll'li<un ~ hull IJC c li~ iblt: to >'tu·h aleelio n ' ho i ~ not u bo na ficle l!le i,.laru l,, nn~l wh o j,. not thirty yean< nf age, nn I cl u(!~ 11,01 ' IK'U.k :uul

ml~n ~ilant of

wnt • th Ettl)'h8h and kpum~h language,.,

r o qunlifiuntion e x1·cpt tbi.·. The CI.f,\lmiAN. You put .iri an cdn ·tttionul pro •rty · qualifi ation ~ Dt'. HEN.l>iA. Ye:.' :i r: e \·en· t ime. I . Th CHAllOJ.AN. I rntl:i c r n~: u m c that they 1would ot think of ;;e ndmg ·~~; man a,'! D~l grltc Jto Cong re:ss who eQ uid not I' ad or write the Spain. h or E 1\g lt .·h languag e. I }f:r. LARK. Engli ·h o r Span ish! , · Dr. HENNA, Engli: h and 'pan i:h. In th originrl biLr it ,..11y:: . Pro~ided, That f!O persbr shall b~ cligil l : to ~ n ch ,election wl o j,. not 11 hon 1 tide !nhabrtunt o! the .1 ~lunrl\ ~ncj 1\'l!o 18 nat. th1rty yt·n~ of age and )OSEe~~e<l oi pr pert.v ,n h18 own rrght s1tuntct 1,11 1!!lund r the m luc, of at leust t vo thousand d llnrn.

pw

.Mr. Cr.AnK. You wpt,ld cut out the property q unl fi cntion? Di·. HENNA. Yes, m 1 The CHAIR~IA>I . ..r\it·e there plenty of r od men do vn there who t•cad and write both lang uitge:s ~ I· ' Dr. HEN::>< A. e:<. ·ir. Iti. ,·cry s urpri ing that th Am ri cun · · o uld go to Puerto Rl<'o and do not learn pani:;h nlthoug th ey ur the

X


t16

(lOVJo;R,N~Il': 'I' ~'()I{ THE ft'l.AND IIF PlT ~l ltTO HIC'O. ·

(~ \lV~:RN~IEN'l' FOR TRE I!:II.ANII O F' I'I T'Illlt'l'O 1{1 0 0.

'JJ7

a n'> ' two •p01ut... tAJ •h.(\ ('OIIHicl -

Or. Hl<:l"NA. r hl•lit•'\"(' tlmt. lu•rp. thPtfl' ('l'l'li. OuP is thC' IPtr:tlit\· of tlu• tnritf. nud tlu otlwr \HIP th e HnnLi J;.nKh"h' n r\' fu t. ' lfr. ' 1 tiK . An Anu•t·i,.an would not b: n~ mm·h "how to hr t•lt•eh•d tt JP nt:tl p1trt. LPg'l\lfv. I' am lit'lllh· t'Otll' iiH'Pd lilmt, PV\'1'\' dol11U' that 1\(1 [X.~('~VJ\t(•/ . Jtn,.: hnP II J>U id 011 cJ lit.\· 011 IIIP l'dHtt~iJi:-41' iIIIJlOI'h•d to fit i~< t'OIIII t,f'\' fi'O ill l'll!'l'to H.li·o n.ud imp•)rtPd iuto l'tu;l'to lti• ·o ft•um t ht U ui t•·d · :-{t llf~ lM Dr. Hil\1\A. y,.,., ,oir: I think ht• lm><u n ' ry good ··hunt'!' httt .l think ·brought to hun• rtn ••qwtl t·ham·•• .with tlw Ptwrto Hit'!tlt ><. fr~·~n \\1ril 11. l l\!l;l,- wil.lltan• t~• ht ·rdtll'twd . . .llt r CIL\IIDIA ' . I hat· H< YPIII' uh•a of the htw of thP •·n... P.; yo u Unuk Tht-.t'IIAIIIMAJS: Lt•t Ill\' n><k 1'nn :1" In ,·our iden tr hont 11 howw nf dolr~·11h• to Ill' l'il'l'IPd. whdlwr'ot· not tlmt i>< tt ,.t,th• pro1·i><io n, lull'iti).( nil HutiP>< Jmid ,..i u•·•· l'itl' d1th• of tlw mt ifimtiou o f thll t t'Pat.y ~-<ho11ld ho · rPfuudt'cl I in \'lt'W ttw ).rOOd ~O\' Prn nwn t nf lht• i>'land. ot· wh,•tlu•r thr houst'' of I )to. J h :N A. y l''l. ,..b·. dciC'gtlh · . "hould m•l l11.• dropp<. d nut Pntirdy 1111~ tlw I P~i ~lutil'l' }'lOWPr :Mr. CL,\IIK. Aud lht•t·,•afh•l'l' \' l'l',l'thin~,.. ttonld htl.ltdmitted fl'co into '·be' t·onfl'l'r,•d :;o h· l~· UJII.llt tht• t'Xl'l'ntin' l'nn nl' rl. nn 11pp(>intin hod,,· I . Dr·. lh: "'·' · \\',•11 , I hl'lil'l"l' tlmt tht' Anwrimn" "honld hr the lllNt · . Ollt' ports I Or. llflNNA. ·Y!'"• :; ir . . . , · ' \ . !· to.r11 yf t1w Pul'tto Hi\'1111,.. ftH' >'O IIH' tinu•: hut w~Pu u t·hild ~or~< to ::«·hool bt• :<honld ht• taltg ht all tlu• thing-s thut lw t•un knrn in th,• , 7\1J·. CLAitK. ll t~w )l\tout g-ood,.; impo1·tt·d from llth•·t· ~ ~ouutl'i< ~>~~ Dt·. ll~Jl"N A. · 1 thiu ~ tlw ll ui tt•d 'httP:-; tm·ilf ou·~·llt to))() applied to borte:;:t M · "ihlt• "J)tll't' •of tinu• without injuring- hi" lwu lth. If w • Pmt'to U.it·o II" it :<httt(l" iu tlw hill. · • han• two lcl!!i>'luti n hodit•" thr.1· will lu11·r tlw opportunity -of prcpnr· Till' <.'11 ,\IUM AN. To what Pxh•ut to roll think fl'l'tl t1·ad with tbn ing lhl'IU"l'h·t•>< in tlu• knl't•r o nP for th l• npJwt· om• lntt' t' on. and I tnli•: luitr d ' 'httl'::c would iutPrft'l'l' with tht.' impm'tntil)u of ~ood:; of othe r it- ju><t II>' i.~ 11 "~' h oo l. tlw lwinuu·,, · depurtnu•nt wmtltl ht• tlw h•gi:<ln.tin; l'Q UII trit•:; iuto Puerto H.il'o, ,.;o' a" to t·ut down the 1'\'VliiiU il N·om thtLt ~t· m uiY. '\'H'' ,..,.,•ondt\1'1' 't•prtrtnwnt wou ld II(' tht• l'x•••·ntin' •·outwil. :o\onrel'1 · · . und -W·tt~bit rt~ n wonl ci'lll' th, hi~h :<d wol. ' . Th~ t'HA )IAl\. The ultimntr amb'tion o f all would ht> '\'n ,..hi n ~t~u • ! nr. 11m• ' A. I hdil'\'1' that, lU'l'ot'diug to lilY kt~(l\v h·dg', SpiLl L.'i thl' lnrg-P~t t•xporll' t' to Pm·•·to lti•·o dttl'iug- 11Pr domiuion, t hou t\llmc Dr. lh:s '·' · l '""· >'ir : nnd JWrhn p::< Prl•~<idP nt whrn tlu•y ~Pt to hC' a ta . lnt('r on. tltl' T l ' uitt•d tnt.·"· Hpll111 hnd +0 JWt' <' •ut :wd t.hn U ui tcd States 20 )11' 1' l'l'llt. · :;\l!· .. Cr"\ K. J wu'ulcl.likt• ·to :t:'k. with rPgnrd to "''\'lion !!(), p1wr lO. Mr. ('' rw\1!1\. Prl'l'iou" to t.lu• war '! WhC I'l' h\' t'l'OIIIllll' ll 1... " a" the ).!'0\'l'l'llOr may prP:<I'I'ihr.'' inl'tead J1r. If ~1 1\l"A. r ""· ,..iJ·: . ] in. ' "lbr rx•'t't tin' t·oum·il." tlwn'h.' · g-hi ng- plPnnr.' · powl' t' to tlw go1·· ~J;tw CIIAIImJIN. Oh 1• .u" tht> ng-gTeJ.,:atn f rom tho two • ~o untrie..,., if l'r nor- nnd l: think in ·"r '·rm l otht•t• l'H"""'· on })11"" l L. that h1• ,..iJ)I'. tituh'" tht' sr n·C'm ol' fo r thP l'Xl'l'nti n ' t•o nnl'il- wll,l' do yon d1•ll'g:t tl• • ,\'Ott lllln' thP II~UI'l':'l hdot'(' }'011. f tttldl'l'"tn.ml you ILl'C : peak ing of import:< iuto Pjurrto Hit·ol · · '. thi" po11't'l' tO till' g'0 \ \'1' 11 0 1' t'Xi.'ht:'in~ Jy! Dr. 1-h:Nl\A. Bt'l'llii:'P I thiitk I ht>re i" a fmthrt· p o1·i"ion tl111t i" · Dr. lh:Nl"A. YP:<,- .-ir. Fon•ig-u t•ontmr •'tr with Pnrl,'to liii.J<? in until tht• ll"-"l'mhh· dt>l'idl'>< otht' t'wi:<l'. ' . · .· I fl7; import:< f ront . _' paiu , 7.152.010 pp:-lo:-; : import-; from,thc Uni ted tltat""· :,. 7-1-\l.~l i'i JW~<o.~. ThP CII AIH)JM-i. I undC'I'IttUJid hi" id a to hr thnt the t'xccuti n• c unti l willuot ht> l'Omplett•d ~wtil th,• lr.,. i:Jhtti,\~ ll>':>C nihly hn>' ht'rn 'l'ht• ' II AIII MA I". Cau you ~i l'<' us all of it, if r on have it t hnrc 'l Dr. I 11-:l"JS A. Eug-laud, 1, 751i, 75±. · ·, or·g~cmiz d. wf1rn tlwv :ire to :<rh•d tltr nwmhrt'>< df tht• exrt·utin• oolml'i l. nnd' until tift; r t hi;; ,,l,•t·tion tnrn• would ht• oul.'· th e goyr rnor i\h. C r~A ltK. Tho"'' 1i rl' peso:< ! ' · to xt•r ·L <' t·bi8 po1n•r. 'nr. tTt:NJSA. Y""• "i1·. British po.-:-;P~<I!i Onlil . l ,445,li00. · Dr. HEJSl\A. y,,,., ><ir. · Thl't'r wn" ll ::<tntC'mrnt mnde h<'rr lw M..r. 'Thr CIIAtn~JAl". Arc tho:c thr :uljnl'rut British po.-;.o ssions- t ho . · WP;;t Tndit•s et.c·! Curtis ~·hieh .I would not likt• to hun f!O iuto prin without l'Orrcc·tiOtt . H ~pok ' ·nhont thr mnnuf:wtme of nnt" in- Ptwrto Ril'o. I beg to D t·. HF:N111A. YP:< • . i1·; a ud ()n nadn nnd N 1v.foundlnnd. Germany 1 differ \l'ith him a nsi l nm :<ttl'<' thnt all t he~ •ntlem ' II from Puet·tp Ri,:il 1,314:.603: ;,british J n ia, IJ13,000; CtthJt, 6!)2,7 U; l<'rll!lce, 215 47 will tllso differ ·with him. In Purrto Htro tlw\' nmke n r n,Ho:sih· \;m·~· li ttlt/. ~ot· Fmu<. t'. .. r • · ' }Jr. .r \IlK. Win h;, pl'i u l' ipn·ll~·, I :;uppo>jH ·whirh thr1· l'nll .t PuNto R.il'an hnt. nnd whirh l. ~<o ld to nil who go tberr. and. oine bC'r~ JX'l'ha · , more a. n memen'to. thun n a umnu· Dr. H NJSA. ~o: th ." l'ltl11(' l'hi rfly h om ' r~.tin. BPlgium, Hi3 675· ·facturing indnstr~· ~follnnd~ .155,3H3 : Dt•~tmnrk. U.~•.J: .J:OH. Th • othP .,. nrc ·1cr.'· ·mttd · · ltt• m :,~. . . The HAlRliAN. \\hat i. the t>:\tC'nt f'that industr.1·? • Dr. H E'N~A. I do not suppo ·e it 11111 unt" to U)ore thnn a.few hundt· d The IIAIJ{~I Al\. \\' hnt hr th !!mnd n•.,.!!rPmtto, if rou hnv it? I . ~ .. e~ "' • dollar . . Dr. I ~:Nl\A. 'r ht' ·f oretgn ·ornmCI'l'll thnt' ~' t'IW wus, in value Mr. LARK. And would not he the s1,1hject of ~· mpetition ~ · nnpor ntion>', 17;1':i5 .!Ju3.21) pc o.-. aud th • duty produced fl'Om wu. ·• H,Oti2.57 p<':o::o . Dr. HENN . A.biolutch· non , l>e nus· mad of natil· . trnw. ome· what lik the ,..tntw 'hnts u:::ed her , hut of a partil'ular traw· it i,; n . The ' HAIRMAN. Do you know how th,, tnrilf duti ps· eoll curio 1t1·. · . · · lnlpcntation:< from pujn uud t' tb C' luwK of ipuiu thr n in fore<', Mr. ·,L RK. PI ase _gi ,·e your id n;. . a· to the ir,~o t placed on t·ompnr with th dutic11 I d d by t h Un ited Stat • lnw on th lll'oduct1 Is our tnritf hig her Ol' lowed importt~ int PnC'rt Rito. and al o n to admittin the product. of . . "Rr. H..:NNA. )luch hjg her· e vC'n hig her than dming tho .,.,..,..,n,rn.r·i Puerto Riro into tbe Unit d tate' ~ o~ duty. . 1 t101e. of ~r. Bluine. t . I' l~ino!·it~· . und tlw P'm' rto· Hil·:ut . who ll l't' in thr majorit~· . Ill'<' ll•arning

of


11 '

GOVERNMENT ~'(I R THE fSLAND OF

>( E RTO Rl 0.

OOVEUNMENT lb'UR

TH ~

f

I LAND 0}'

1'U ~JR'l'O

UIOO.

119

v. Ht:Nl'\A. 1 U1ink ro fl'ce w uld be the great product. of Pn rto Thl' · ' tlAlltMA!'i. " ' bnt would . I ~ the effct·t, 'in r om· opinion, upon ' thllt ~neml rewnm' f f1 e ttpdl• 1vith t he nit'd ' tnt s l Hi co. .M r. ' I.A itK. lt i>' \'l' l'\' low no v. Dr. IlE~ NA. I IK'Iie n' tbnt mstl•nd of impottlng fro m th l nitcll· 8tA~'" il;500, JW l' .n~ut· we will import 12.000,000. · l)r. H~:NNA. Y c,.:, "ir·: lmt the: will pay mor • attenti()n to the pt·o· 1 du ' li on of <·offer. Thl' lWoduetion of ug1u· js \'C~'Y little, only nmountTh CHAII!M~~ · \.nd \vhut. wi~l they .imJ??l't ft·om other c:ount•·i s 'l D~. HE~~ . llw hnhmn• to 11.000.000. tf we ~~erP to hnn• ~ u ·h good ing; to ·ubout 55.000 ton:;. :Mr. (;LA.RK. ·Oenoml D1n·i,. stuted the maxinlurn, under fa\ OJtn.hle erops f n.nerl,, ·: hut this ~· 'Ill' thr importntion will not \unotmt. to a total < { mon'. thun i:l,'/'i ,000. . ro rldition~ , wns 1 iO.OOQ toll>!, hcfot·c thr I'!Oil b CIUllo d1 pi te.d. W.ith Th Cn II!~IA ;_ Bt•t·nu. e th i• r 1i·ill han• nothin g to huy with l . fr ·~ ug1Ll' nnd bett •r n1 t hod:s l'OtJid not this soil be ·f ' rt llil'.ed l n.nd . r;>r. Ht:~l'\ . They lm1·e nothlng to xport. Th t• ,-;tonn and b1ld ron - hrgught up, ~ . IJ•·· HJo:NNA. Of co nr~< ; but not to injure the Angar of tho ni ~ d l l1on,; ~"'' • left thl'll'l nothing . ta't<.'s. . ~h· .. ' . AIlK. " . onld not th11.t 1'l',;ult in .n. larg • .d etidt_in their r ,·enuo .Mr. LAUK. To It c·ot pi c 9f h,mdrr d thou. n.nd ton::; 'I · l'(l('t•ipt,.:, "o 11/'1 to nutk(• it rliflil'nlt to su.-tltin the gon• •·nmcnt 'l H E ' 1'\A. I h\'li(•\'(' tlww would Lie sufli cient f o r that plll'pO e . Dr. HENNA. J do uht it 1'\'t'\' mud1. I h:we :-;omc . tnth,;ties. The . Tire ~JIAIIL'I 1'\. Whut do yo u nllow for g-on t·nmt' ntnl purpof< . { unhunl co n umption in th e r•1ited 'tnte!l ·is 2,100,000 to,ns, of wliich Dr. Ht:~ 'A. l thinU if th ,. hud ' 1.500.000 it would b ,.:ntJh·ient. .l?m• •·to Hic:o fmni h s 35.000 to n.-;. 'I;he ' u A'J R~JAl'o". Wlwre do .'·uu get t.hol'le figure;(! The H IR~I Al'\. T o }Jl\,r the expent'c,: of thc o ffidnbund the diffe•·ent dcpnrtment-; nnd of t' ut·t nnd jnib I · J)r. lh:NNA. l g-t•t thPm out of th e new pnpe t· fig m cs I lmv ere, Dr. H •:xl'\,,, Yr><, ><ir: heettuf' during pnni:;h do1i1inion tll' nrmy from th NPw York ' un of Deto mht' J' JO, 1 !JH. Mr. Cr., \HK. 'Youltl no t t()lllt\'('0 ltiHo be nn important· product if took o~t of till' t·c,·enurs l.::W\1.000 pc$0:'1, and out of thri r bu g · t thtLt amounted to ::J: • .3oo.ono in nil. :tdtl) itted f t·ce to tlw nil •d Sbtt'. ; wo uld not that pl'Odut: tioh be la•·•rc h· inC'I'C!Ii:>Cd, if ntlmitted ft· 'e '! < · Th ' ILAIH~L\1'\ . Do younu kP un_y a llow:uwc for >it' hool:<. or huildiug n~:NNA. N '\'( r: 11{'\'l' l' to do ltll\' hurm. I"'ff:d,:. or nn1· ,·nltmhle impt'O\'t'mrnt"'! Dr. H•:l'\ :,, , o, . ir. l think w ought to :<p nd nt lea:<t '' ' OU,OOO 1hl' C u:Alll..'IAl'\. ll1wo y ou trn~· ohj ~·ti o n · to leav ing tb is stnteroen & year fo t· cdm·ntion. with the l'OIIIDlitt 'C! . · The- ltA IHM Al\0. ln 1tddi tio n to thnt $1.501),()()\l ~ Dr. liEl'\NA . 1 ~ hnll he ,. I'Y g-llld. The to~nceo production in P rto Dr. H•:~N ,\ . ' \ •.-, ><ir. ' Hil'o nmmm ~r d to 2,84H,I.i50 ' J;.i.lo~mm s , 'nluqd at 3,1i<l8,UOO p n~ o:; . The The ' HAUUI AN . }low wotLid \ ' OU rai"c tbnt lllOnl'\' ! l1iltl'tl :-;tntc ... ~rot fron\ Puc1·to Hit·o 11 ·1 ' aid lwfore, 35,000 ton~ Dr. H&..,.l'\A.· H1· dirr'd taxati'on. · ol' ugnr: of tof,ut·t·o, X0,7UO kilo~.:Tnm:;, vnlued .nt 33,!1011 pesos, which Th I~AII!~I N: Y <?II w ould. tnx all p rope rty a. it i,.: herP. :Wl'Ord ing,' in lnitrcl ' tatrs l' UI'I'I'll '." would h ~20,3-l:B, a vc t·,v ·mn.ll item, \\!hich would not injm·p nnyhod,r: of nw Ja,.,,e:;, ' ,i!l2,40fl kilogmms, or 3P ,734 to va lunt10n tixt•d hr a""~'""o"" ( . 1' Dr. HE, ' l'OA. Y r,:: :-~ ir. . [ ddf •r from G eJH' I'nl Dlll'i,J in recrnrd t tho . pe~o. ·, i_n U•.•itcd ~.tntc. <·urreul.·," ~ I .J.,ii~O. The ~of?l imp~t;ta by th ' l Trntccl tntc!l from Puerto ltu:o 111 l 'lh 1wer ~1,616,38,') . Ihat 11:1 land tax; I· think t hat ·dil'i,..ion o f Ge nrm l llt' nt·y "' ·\'It>~ a ,. J'Y happy on - to p11,1· on t hr hwd n1!t11'"· , . . ll very linmll ite m. Tho <· u ;;torn~ duti~. on llhnt in tbi;; ountry ' vould ·Mr. CLA IIK. Do you rec lie t under th rPciprol'it_v trent;1· the r·ela· ntnount to \'CI'.' ' li ttl ~· . only :l ft' ' . hun r d tHou ancl dolhn:-;. I sa: v· it tiv · uumlX'r o f importnn nrtil'l ~f<-,. ot littlr thirw~. but importnnt tnt d i'n one pnpl'l' t hnt it Wll.' :112.000 00 at the custom-house. flow eould t he t' venues· a moun t to that w en tho total import were only product.< und impOt'tant arti C'I<'" o f c n ·umpti n- ttat wer o admitted (rc and xport ~ d rrc ! $1 UOO,O 0. That t•ou ld not produc:' 2,000 000. Or. H,t:Xl'\A. l think it i in till' pnmphlrt that 1 bad the plea U\'O· ~lr. ' LARK. t u do not l'lllse nn.1· c tnt h·ui t'l, . ncb u. lemon and , ofi ndln~ to the chnirmnn. I wiH l.l• ,·cr.'· l(hld to """d ~·ou on~. It. . ornng s1 WllS pubiJ:Sh d h1· Ill\',: ' If. . ~ I D1·. HF1NNA. Ver y fin ones. Th o' Cu AUOI AN . . Cnn you t'e nd to th t'Oinrnittec tweh·e of th m, :so Mr. CLAnK. ln littg' quantities~ that ach lllt' ml"'''' of. the t•ommittct' I'!Ul hn1· on ~ I>r. HENNA. W e hl\\'e not grown tb m ve1·y largely! a nd thttt ould ' Dr. 1:-h::-ol'\ ,\. 1\•,:, "ir. I wl'ote nn artic.:l ' abo~rt the Puerto Uicnn ll f' \ ' r injure the mising of omno-e inll'oridu.. Tli climate of Fl9,rida tAriff. whi ·h ·I prt• t' nh'tl ,t the ' hamqer of 'ommc•·cc of Ne w York, hn chtLnged in th lust few y etLr nn they CI\.Jl not rnis efwugh to . ·and it i in thnt pnmphl t 1·e r·hntim. You will tind there a com pari on . funti h th o mn,rket of the U ni tcd ta :; ILJJcl they h{l.v to import from of-t.h Amr•·it·nn tnriff with the •·e ·iprol'ity tariff promulgated hy Mr. ubtt nnd Africtt and othe r p1nces. A ll that is in embryo; w have no Rlame. · plantntion of small fruit . . · The I:IAIHM •IN. " "n, :su rnr uclmitted ft·e ' I l\Ir. CT.ARK. I untl -rstood nera DavijS to say that lemon arc Dr. HESNA. ln thi·,. <'O ttntt·,· ! · hardly pJ·oduced nt 'aU in the i · l~nds. Th CJrAJJtMA·x. f' .. · ir. · b1·. HENNA. Th t' nr a 1·ery f w mon . Dr. IU:xl'\ . r\o, ne1·cr : hut the duties w r r dttl't'd . .Mr. McCoMA . Dd you think tbn fre port. for tobaC"co would ttmulate tobncco rroduq_tion ? A r re land. e nough uitable for Th HAlR~t AN. · o ~· ou think free ugnr- if ~u, . r wns ndn'r ittt•d fr. frO!Jl Puerto UlcO to th rnit d·. tntes. do ,\'~>U t nkthnt it would tobacco to largely ex·tend the cu,lth·at on of that pt·oduct ~ 1 ttmulate its produ,•tion ,·ery larg , ly ?

o.·.

n. :

.

.

(


120

'GOVERNMENT ll' R THE I LAND O.F' P !J.:RTO RIOO.

.

Dr: H~:~NA. Ye><, ir; tohat•t•o r'flising in Pu rto Rieo is · done nil m·t•r tht' i:>latnd on 8fllnil plot oi'ground. of t•our 1. On'l_v Oil<'-twentieth part of th e prodtwth: zo uc of Puerto H.ico i:; cultimtcd, and it p1·0: duc'" ' tlt~ ili ·ient for the m'c<':s~<ities ·of the Is la nd nno fo rth exportntion of t ', ,001.1 p1·0<lm·t. , .' ·ou cnn cal t•u lat~ th o.~ if th twe ntieth pnrt prodm·t•" tbnt, there wi ll lx- 1\ produ 'ti n oi $360,000,000 a year in th 11 Teni o'r y. ~on "i~ti n g. of o uly les thnn .J-, 500 ~qtut'e milcH. · :Mr. C r..AnK. l~ tb faud no.t ~:ttlti '1\tcd ly ing id o 1: Dr. liEN!'/A. ome of it i · pastun' laud, whit• can be utilized · in oth 'r thin~"'· · , ~Ir. ,Cr..ARR. ] ,.. not th e interi r n'rY mountnino u t~? Dr·~ Ht:.N.NA. Very. · Mr. 'r.A nK. Youar:e uot iuelud in:; th1it ~ Dr. Jli-;JSNA. Of oou ~c You t•n u r1t1" thi ug:s o n th mountuin ; coffc i::~ miS<'d on the high lll;nd~. llr. I.A.HK.. l :suppo c the twe nti th pnrt comprisE's the mo:st des irable lc.x-ntion~-the choicc:st lu.nd,; nnd most t'n~<i h· culti vlltcd; tho"c · · ' neat""'t tlw por t>i, eb·. ~ D1·. HE~~A. I mcu u the twe nti E' th part of t h prod ul'tive zone·: I did not mrnu th e c utir ' ter ri ton. )[r. · ' I.A nK. Tlwr i,; 1t wide tlE' ld for c nterpris th e re '! Dr. lh:N~·A. Yt'S, ,; ir. T ltl' people art' wry clo ilt'; thev hn,·e i!toO<I four 'hundred ~' l'III'S Of ' pnnish ,dominion, and thn ,..how,; t lmt they nrc docil . No tlh'r nution would hn\· ,..tood it. )h. Cr~-\RK. A I"<' ~·ou ,:uhjc~..·t to cnt·thqunke:s I ' . Dr .. 1-!t::NNA. Yt':.:, il'tr; bt.it n ~ ~·e r·. to clo nny damnge to th i >-~ lnn d. · Mr. (LARK. H o w ·ahout hui'I'J.<'I\nc:< n.nd en·l o iW!'I Dr. 1-hN.N_A. Wo gee nc mll y huYe pne e,-cry twenty yen 1·s t.h nt dot·~ :some damt~l!e. · 1 • d 1'. :-..ARK. Whu~ i,..· thr he,:t map of Puerto }{,i •o' of whid1 you hn\'C knowl edw: I Tbi,.. is tt Spnni,..h map hrrl' nppt\re nrt,,·,lfrom th ' Spttni,..h unl,l<'"' on .tt. . Dr. HE ," l"A. Thi:; i: t!w 0W nv D epartm ut mn p of 1 ' H8. Mr. 'LAHK. Tbu.t i · tiJ1' hc t we hn1·e; do nm know of any other better/ . · , · . r. HE:N.NA. There i:s a ~ pnni .·h mnp. hnt that is \'1:'1'\' un reliable. Th • n~t>n who " ·t nt tb C' rc from Spn'iu to do th11t work dld not know l}n~·thl ~~of tb c 1r rork. Th{'i'l' i>-~ n harbor t'ltlll'd ,l obos on th<' outh e<>rt:<t de ' p e noug-h to admit t:'lw lnrJre"t mau of wnr in tb i eounttl'. In ·onir wn\· thP\" lo ' t tht• ,·hanne l, G(' n. HoY "toue. I und('rstnnd; w tit th 1'c ii1 1t littl1• rowho1tt and found the dmun e l in two tuinut<"· ~1r: CLARK . .-\. ·,:pnr iou,.: hnrhor c Dr·. HENJ\A. ·y !'><. :<ir : :1 \'en· spnt'iou harbor . , Th<' CnA IR:\IAN. Whut phH·e· i - tbntc Dr. llK:N~A. ,J oho,;. in the ::;outh part of th r i,.htnd. Thl' CH AIR)!.\~. · You hn\' <' uot res ided in :PuN'to Hiee for ~hirt,\' \'

1'$!

•'

· Dr. HENNA. Xo. ;~i r. The ru .nuiA:S. Htl,' e .'- n. du ring this period. fro m tiine to time ,;:>ited thcr · : and if so •. ho ,. fti>n? . · ·Dr. HE-sNA. 'I Mt\; a Jit le yolitienl hi ·torv thnt perlmp:; mig ht be int resting to ·'·o~1 . Whe n wa: quite a· bo~· . 1 y eat:s of age. I W&$ on of th(' men attempting to d u·oy tb palli ·h gov rnmrnt there, a.nd I wa ptit ~n jail a.nd w_.)ttld have been .1h~t, had not.a p~r: I

'

121

l'l J<:nTO Rl<' O.

.

.

~

don for nil politit'ltl pris(>npr,.. IIITi thre< 01Ws hefon t b sl' n tin, wns hitilisbcd n.nd 1 c·anw Wl'n. Wfl."' to br pronolllll'<'U o 1 n;.:. l'he C IIAutMAN. As a o udil'ion of t' p·tt•don you 1v"nro l)itu i.. hod ~ . I I ·I · I Dr. H•'N.NA. Y c~, ::~ it·. t Tbt' Ci-IArHMA N. H1we you lll'\"1'1' l n nllowNI to mt.mn '1 .1 ·Dt·. HJo;N.NA. NeYer. ·r hun• 1\l t l'il'd to ~g-ht tbo 'pan i,..h"1\lld bring ttbout tho unn exn.Li~n of tlmt to thn lnited t:)tlttcs ltwer ~ ine(' .

'.l'ho HAl.HMA N.· J:fu\'<' .roil vi><itt'd t'l'('. im·c tho war 'l Dr. Hl';NNA. No, s ir: fot· n \'c t·~· ,.. r Pu,..o u. \ \'hr n· I c·n P to Wn::~hington fot· th i- tit· t tilu e lK' fo thl.) Wil l', to ofl'N' to t.hc W1tr ·D'pltrtment th r piau:; I llltd for tht• •lutiomti'Y IIIO V«'IlH~ n in P e rto u .ieo, of whit:b I wns t hl' pn•:side nt, .l tht> lil with t ho llndP J:I:! nndiug thllt the P uei·to H.i(·an people c> uj oy 1tll th \• ium1tmltics, puivil<'ge,., nncllih •ttir>< thnt 1 bud ed in this couhtry . S uiJ;.:oq ue nt. cyc n ~ h1wi• ~ho\\: 11 to me t hat promi:-~oo; th1tt wp're made to mt:, 1tnd whwb ~ tmn;;r111ttl'd to my '"·"'''"t.-'"lllPll, buvc not been ful-tlll~d. :t:h CHAlRMAN . 'L'he,:ol wen . prom nutdc by wbom 'l Or. Ht!NNA. · By dilt'Pt'l'ut pPoplc ln thu propc1' tiruo will .openk nhout it. in n ne w iJ:>n mphl t. The C II AIII..'fA N. By g-oV\'tl1 tn e ntal Dr. Jh:NNA. Y\':<, ~< ir ; hy twopiP ')'h<' ' IIAlR)IAN. 'J'hi,.. p am phlet thi:.: ( . Dr. T-h:Nl\A. ~o. ,..ir: thnt i,.. 1.1·. ·'t.A HK. Did I un dPrsbtnd (;t•uc>rnl 1\<liJe,.. iu hi,.. pret·lft,ntttiOti Dr. H 1·: ' NA. Th.-·,· ha\· not hrru 1 Tlw C n AIIOJA.N. '1 hc.'· t•on•rpcJ n, w ,;cope>, a ucly ou eoulu not ex po ·t innnc-dintl' mrryi ng- ont M.tht'l\1. · Dr. H F.l\1\A. Tht•re Itt' otht•l·s 1 wil nf:tk c puhlit, but un ti l I gr fullilliue nt of th o><L' pNmi"'e"' 1 ,.. hou ld. n t <•"A l hnt·k tht' I.'P, l:r t:ltns • tltclpco1 plc would "'II.'" to 111c: ' ' \r,h<• l'l:' arc. th >~' promii'!P I' •

.

ATU itDAY,

S~ATE~NT

OFIGEN.

.frtlllltlt'Y

!0.

j.Q

0.

R~Y STQNE.

The .,HAllm AN . Pl eas~) g i,·e us yo ur nnm c i.n full. ( <en<' I'll I 'To~•:. Hov 'tone. . . The 'HAIRMAN. '\TJlert> do ,·ou r eside? (lenl'rnl SToN•:. ,Tn W l.l hiugton. •· · T h CHAUnJA .N . Vhttt lhu:; ine::;s Ul'Q ~'Oil e ngngcd in ? Genernl STO.NF.. I httnj hee n for a [, ng ti m · in ·hllrge of tb B renu of ood R ond.· of the Dcpnrtme nt of Agri ·ltlture, but huve l te ly , re. ig ned. The CHAlR)IAN. tate whet}:ler OF not you hll!ve visited Pu General ~TONE. I hnv , f-o ur ti.me . .,T he BAlR)lA '. Wb.en 'l ' . Genernl TONE .. I wa. there ou Geneml Miles 1:1 staff during 'the HAIRMAN. And hav you been there since~


122

OOVJo~RNMENT

l' OR THE I LAND

F' P ERTO RIO •

GOVERNMENT l<'OR THE I LAND OF PUERTO iRICO;

128

G n ral 'T NE. Tbr time , .in· conn tion 'vith privat affairs. h 1wily s ubsidized by the i land government. They ha\10 tried a nuruThe CuAlJUIAN. :What opp.o ttu ni.tie 'have you ht\d for s eing the ber of times to start other roads, but the di:ffi'culty has . Iways be n so · pe pi' of tb i:,~lund and' the c ndition of · th industria of 'the island f great that they gave it .up. There is one littlo •line of less tl:ran 2il feet ·G nernl TONE. I bQ.,- :,~pent aJI th tih1e, wh n 1 bav~ been there ~,13 uge that extend.. po ibly 10 miles-(the I ' t time I was tb r om four or five weeks, the e ond and third, .Tpe CkA1RMAN. Plea ·o proce~ to the question ~f legislation. two or three w eks each). ridiug through tho i land north and south Gerieml STONE. Th. e p ople there .are very anxtous that we euld and ca.st and we~ t, Md con ulting witb a gr at number 'of the prin,bui~d the e roads- and by '•' we" I do not mean only the people !With whom I am a ·ocia.ted; there are several parties besides my elf and ipal Pe<>vt : . . . Th CHALR.I.L-.. PI as tllll}{e ·ucli statem nt a. you de ire to ·make n sociate who are anxious1to build. When I found that interior ~ines to tho committee, making it tt1bri fa. you can to do justi e to yourself. were pos ible I pll(t two or three engineering parties at work suljveying 1 and I find it entirely fQasible to make a svstem of milroads through 1 G neral STONE. lt is not nece ·sary for me to go into tlie condition of the. iidnnd- the interior an~ all parts of the island, and l have a general tern Th HMR~IAN. You beard th tatem nt of . Gen 1~\l Davi in that laW!. down hero on one of my ma.ps. . 'Mr. DEPEW. What would be the length 9f the railroads? connection/' . . G n r'al TONE. lr ·nd it. G neral STo!o:. About·300 miles wollld niaKe the four\dation 0 th6l T~e HAJIDIAN. Yoll 'agre 1with him ? . ' ystem, but nltim'a tely tho~e hould be' about 2,00Q..miles. General TOJS~' · y ,· ir. The thing I pecilllly wi h to speak to Mr. DEPE.W. At 'what co U · 1 th comm itte about is th importance of hadng SOJ1?e leghllation for Qeneml STONE. Suppo. ing the road!:! to be natTOW gauge (thejohly rsilroads in the i>;land at on e. When tho war was over Genetul Miles gauge in use ther now), 1'the cost would be; for steam roads, about told m I might to~ th re a qouple of week or months if 1 cessary :1\15 000 a milo at the pre::! nt lo.w cost of labor ~ el(:)ctrically ~ui~ped, and go 'th1·ough the 1 hu~d and eo what could be don fo1· th imJ?rovethe co t would run to pothap!i. $20,000 a mile, and they 'VOuld natum nt of roatj .and th de,· lopm ntof a railwaj syst m, with a v1ew to mlly be e. le.ctl'i~tl , because wate.i' power is rery abundant and t~e is th def n e of the i land in the future. I pont two month:; thet·e, and no ~oal on the r land. · I . . . . we~t o,·er th . i ·land r~ther tih,orourrhly, and I b came ·ati fi d that :Mr. PERKtN . You dp not recommend t at the Government uil whil tn r n r er had be n any surveys for.· railroads and while they these roadd . bad had the idea that- th could only build a belt road O!round tho Qen [l·nl TONE. Not at ltll. . I it!land, ther wa an 'X· ll nt op oi·tuni(r to buil<;l railroad!~ through· Mr. PERKINS. They tueit o bel built by ptj ,v ate enterprise 1 ~ ' ·, out th in riot'. Th island· i \' ry mountair1ous, but there i a&.)'.·. Qen ral STONE. Y e.·, sir. A 1 we want 1. a general raih·oad law to t m of ,·all . '· whi ·h an be conn cted, mainly running north and enable anybody to build milroads. I t and we t, connected Jargely by.' sputh but with branche runninfl' Mr. Plm.KTNS. What kiqd of logUation do you want us to provide1 pas or om ing o· close togeth r that there i · a lmere }cnife edge General SToNl-:. Nothing more than to ~ake one of tho n~w ~bl:te betw en, :·o narrow that. there 1 · b!Lrely room for n hors path on .top 1 rai li·ond .Jaws, l:l uch.ns that' of North Dakota or any of the recent rnil· but 'not w.ide nongh for culti,·ation . Th e~< ridges ·cnn be tunnele~ . road lnw , and appl,v it to fuerto Rico 1. at a depth of ·om nundi· >d~ of feet below th ummit wit.l llittle diffiMr. PERKIN . Giv(' them a franchise1 . culty nnd exP.On c. In on ca e I r caU and I ha,· no doubt th~re Geuernl STONE. Yes, sir. The luw give · 1 the .fran ·hisc. are· mar1y other , 1\ tunn I can h . cu.t through at1n depth of 300 feet Mr. PERKINS. You think private cnpi~d, i)l'ivat.e enterpri se, ' I ould from th ummit and h only 1,0 0 feet long. When I found that develope· th em ~ · · • !J9m thing cou ld' h don in the wny of mili·oad building I made ap-eli- . · Gen ral STONE. Yel:l, . ir ; I know they would. catior.r u~d er th old pani h law- in fart I made appli<:attion b~fo~e Mr. DEPEW. You want ·a geneml railroad law. Where would you the formal trant!fer of tho i land- for the privilege of constructing a· locate the powot· to grant ~ranclli ·es1 · ! '· . · y tern of nilrond in th interior. • •. Gen ml STONE. would copy j ome State law a4llost exactly, in that Regarding th road now oMtructed i11 Puerto Rico I will say respect, and designnte which one of the pr ·e nt officials should exerthat th r i oinparativ ly littl n d of n railway around the coa:;t; ci the neces ary fun ·tions, for iustarwe, tho Secretary of tate -'tb~ traffic th~r can be llC Ominodated b ' ,·teame11,·: there is but littll) Mr. PERKINS. Subject to 'the approval of the P1·esident1 n ce 'ity for-coastv.ri ·e railroad tran portation, but what is required i General TONE. Y e , si ~·. · · · ·tralisportation throughout the int rior, conn cting it from end to end, . Th CHAIR~iAN. W e ha~e provided in the,bill thu.t franchise Tllfl'Y be and from th c nt r to th eaports. Aft r making· application l had granted by the exc ·utive eouncU..l ubject tq the approval of the govt~e pani. ~ law tran lated; an~ ~ ~ound th~t it w11s ~uliarly obstruc. ernor and the Prefi! ident of the IJ nited Stat~. • · General STONE. What we ai;k fori. this: That legislation in r gard tive.• .and, 11~ fact, alll}o t J~rohtbr~n' of mil road h\nlding; there were o many obSt.acl thrown m the way that could only apparently be got to railroads to which ther~ should be no opposi,t ion be put in ad t\nce · out of th.e: way by p,nni h method . It appear to be the purpose of <if that legislation to. whi h th'e re is o~p9sition;. ~at a good railroad their la~ to make dffiicultie in th wa.y of railroad ~uildirig; and the law be enacted directlv b. Congre. w1thou~ wa1tmg for the passage . effect of that I.Rw has been that there nev r has been allv railroad built • of a genom! bill for . the government .of the 1sland or for free trade. in the island ere pt'a portion of the <;Oil t line or belfoad, which Wlli!

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OOVER~MENT J:i'OR THE I LA 'D OE'

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u ~n~AN. I b1w an, JS _'dr~~; thllt ,. l'Ould ~et throngh Lho g<'u· . · ·1 • . Ge-n . ml TdNE. Y u mig-ht. t_hrough 'this l'Ommitt <', but pot~sihiy not throu~h ttl 'etmt' nnd House. · The .''!All!~ AN. I:> then' li n,\· otht'r J~int i;, thi • propos d,legi:;llltion about hwh J u wi:~h to KJ:>\'nk I . t:W:neml ;N•~- There is on thing I would lik~ to.ha,·c don . I. ·re a bill hi!-"})(' ·n introdue •d in· tU Hou~e making Pue1·to H.i(~o tt part. of the [ mtt'll ' t tes l'U><t?l~l,. yst m tut<;l op. ning' eertain port , nnd 1 want to 1\Sk f r th oddttlOn of 11, poo·t t that li:;t. 1 • M~:·NEk'ION. That i~:~ simp~.v to appl,r th 11ited ~~nt l'ustom. and mtcrnalt·e,· nu law,; to tb . 1 ·land I · Gen rnl 'To, E. .Ye:-~. sir; ana Spel'ifying l'erbtin pol·t~ of entry. Mr. NEL..-.oN, Making rNtain cu:::tom~; and intormtl r evenue distt·icts 1 General &ro E. Y , ,.ir. · . · llr. NELSON. And spN·if,ving cN·tain po1·t,. in lih i,.lllnd ~ General ' .:· 1-~. Yl'"'· ,.it·. · · The . "H.AIKMAN. \Vbat is thl' name of thi. port/ General H ' E. The onP (•ailed Port Ameriea o n thi s map, Mr: ::\1 OMAI'I. Whnt Wll" the old nnnw I General · 'T.ONf:. It h11,d, a a whole. no nn.me. j .lt ill fonul.'d of two or: three htu·IJOr,.. OJ' hn_v,.., ThPre hn.d I e n thqe ' htws known which an.' now l'Onnedl•d to.,l'thrr: T was fortunn,te nougli to find 11, nmv entrnnc to 'them. whit·h open,· up one of thl' fin est hnrhor,; in the world. and ont' not Jm wn to th ~ ' ( nni1trds. :rhe of .T obos, n~ Onlc' of thr><e hit,\'>' wa-s mlled, wn,'! stud to he biO" encl.ugh to floa t tl11• whol~.J~riti,..,h 1111\'~· , hut th ... eufrant·e to it wns m{i11ed .' 'Th e Mouth ~,f Hrll; ·~ was only 12·f et delc'p, 1wd full of rocks. T studied th e nmtter. and a,;krd qul.'~tions of thlc' fi:<herm n,.and found that thlc' B1w o.f Joho.. conm. dPd with th,. B1t:,· of Aguil'l'r. and thn.t ,.;th ttnother 'bn,r and then w1th th e cwrnn, nni.l I ~ounded out n l'Onne ·ting th e thrl'e. wbil.'h mn.klc's nl·~o"'rthor n hay mil in tho•·ou"'hly pro· ·tec~rd b.': n. l'lllll!t' of 1slnnt'l>< Jlnd. a coral r eef. vict~n·e is a vie w of 1t looknw lll'ros;; from tlw s~':l>'Jdr. 1 have (, PortAmericl\.' There it~ iO fert of WIJ,ter at th e entn\nce. ltnlf a mile widr with a chunnrl ('oimed ing with tb e olher tt mile wide and feet d rp. · :A.Ito)!l.'ther it mu kr" mile,; of harbor with -:1-0 'f t of water at the ent·l'lllll'C. T re1 o1"ted to Genet~! .Milfs · and th 'n to th Co!l.l t ·un e."- .whkh ·pent n.ll of la"'t wintc~· making,souncijnl!s thl.'t"e. nnd thlc'y ·o1,1lirmed . ngs. Duru)u t~ gt'ellt hunict1ne hl.;t Angu ·t th ttt wn,;· thr v btw on the out~ coa t in whi<-h ve,... Is were san •d. · · Mr. Pl~ HKIN".' How i:-5 th • · ·nrroundin<T • from an ng•·icul· turnl :::b.urd]>Ointl " . Gen ml tiTma~. Ven· ri h. Th eoa>~tal plni is C\'l.'rul miles wid aud good :-<ugnr htnd,;;. and bal'k of thn in th e Is. it i: VOlT rich. Mi. 'P f:-rrrout;w. How man,\· miJe,. 'in I ngth thnt stt·ip 'of , urrur land. ! ~en rnJ · T Nf~. All t}long th e ·outh. eoa ·t. Gunnica to Punto Vi nto. po::<><ihly 00 mile:<. me of onr fri in Bo ton and N •w Yo~k ~rc hui~ding oh ttii l'! hnrhor the hll'g :<t r mill on the i land. whwh YOn w.dl l'l'e 01\ th(• f:we of th h1ll i p~turc. We shnll as.k later on th pri\·ileg~> of clo:<ing up' th ssages that lend The.

~l · lnll Qlllcki'r thant,· spel'll~ b1ll.

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THE T LAND OF PUERTO RICO.

iJito the buy hetwren tho jsll\n<l,., whil'h nre ,ch~lllllging the ~n.rhor. nt~d doing no good to nnYouc. ·we wnnt tho ']Jl'ln lego of runnurg n. railroad 1tlung th • :;eft Aid' i.1f the hn.rbor to th e Pt·op 'I' ontmnee nnd l'Oill- 1 1,letoh· lundloeking tb(' lmrhor. A" it is no' tho wlwt's wash th • s1md thi·ough b~: twl'~'n the i>!lancls in to th e h:u·hot· and te 1d to fill it. ;\!r. FAlHBANK8. You >< pe~tk of 1 ' we;'' whom do ,rou lll('ttnl Oeneml 'TONJ·:. ',L'Iw pt 't'son,. intrrP ted with me. Mi· . .FAIJWANK8. Wh<, :n·«~ thev~ , · (i •neml STONE. ?1'11·. v\'. B. l{nnkino, of Ni:tg'tU'Il lfnll" who iM the r·i<'e·pt'C!!id nt of th' · ing1tt'11 Pow(H· 'ompany, is thll prcsitlcnt. There nrl' othrr,.. intel·c:-~t.ecl. hut Mr. R11nkin e i,.. pre><id •nt. Mr. DEPEW. 'You httvr for med n. t•on::!tl'udion t'Ompnn,v I• . Gem•t·nl 'ToNt;. ·Yc•:;, l'!il'. .1• ·Mr. DEPEw. A~1d 'you ~vant to €J:Ct lc~:,ri . ll'ltion for Ptle rto Ril'O 1:10 1 ~iutt ' Vou l "ILil th m·e o1·g·nni ;w a r:ulroucl t·omptmv. nnd then this con· strll(:tion l'On)pan_v will.lmild forth<> rl)ilroad l'onij)il!ly I Geneml 'To 1-:. YP~. l'ir. P1trt of our p1·ojet't i.-1 to bl'ing the La Plnht Riwr f•·om tiw north side of thP mountain to the . outh !l id - to irribrntO this piain , .tl nd throug~ the sam cut Wt would hl'ing om· rnilrond; nnd tue watt>t' f1tlh; 1.:300 f:cot 1tftPr pa,;:<ing through the ·ut, so thut it gh·r,; us uhout LO.OOO horlit'powf'l' for e intltfjl'it,r. · · "i\fr. P~1"rtGJmw. How nnll'h hllld would tbj:-~ pr&j •ot open to l'll ·· I mtiqnl Geuern.l ~TONE. Ahou't 20.000 nc r r,;. ).lr. l . KL"T!nm;w. ;tou ~v<;mld l'Cl'lnim that nmounU Grnt'ml '!'ONE. ll's. , n·. · M}. P~:Tno rmw. Whnt good a•·o thoy 1 · I 1 n nornl STON~: .. Till'." arc CXl'ell nt :<ugnr lnnd::!. )1;:. C GKI! """· Whnt would hcl'omo of the p opl on the . other ~drl ' (knrml 'TONE. Thry do not' ncPd the wnte"r thcrf'. They hn1·c a \' CI')' large minfnll on thnt :;ide ·wd clo rro't nerd tbo water. ~ Thoro. was . :t roynl gmnt, gi,·en :;ome fort.~or tift.y ymrs ngo to the p eople on the ·outh ~ idP to tnke this wah•1·. lut th r luwc nP\'(ll' ntiliicd it - .M)·. Co ' IOlF.L~. Th rx lll'Pcl t · nt wttte r on the ~;o uth "ide! · .Oeneml ::;-ro ·r-: . .Ye:. :'!i r; the minfnll is only Vi inehe:; there, while 011 tbo uth r side. it is a hundr ,d inl·h ;sor nior :\tlr. PETT!Ultl':W. Tho ,..outh con.:.;t is dt·ierl Grnot'lt' :-iTON1•:. sir; c. pe(·illlly towtwd th enst cndL There is one thing morelthu.t f sh1lli ui.k tho committee, nrtd while I nm hm·e I ma.,r' ns well spenk of it. I h ve ·been studying a plnn fqr the relief of the . offee industry, not immc i~te li lief, but to mnke a tnl\rket for the futtll' product, and I hn.ve fo nd n great many p eople who will tn.ke it up. It i propo,.ed to orgnn · e n hencvolent sodety to in rod nee the. coff~e, _not to mak money. ,vjJl hand in a rough draft of thc l bill

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The CHAIRMAN. We wilf ive it.considernt(ion If you wil send it in. )i[r. l,ERKIN . Coff o i. f e, of. uom"e, in the !United States3 Geneml TONE. Y ir. T ere j. nothing the Government can do toward making l\ market. fo' colfee; OXC pt to organize a beneYoJent n~en y that sha1I.do it, out f interest in behalf ·of the people of Puerto R1co. . ~r. PETTIGREw: W ol)lt{ not the 1 e. t thing be to le,·y a 1duty on iU

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GOV~RNM~NT ,lW~l THE

GOVERN~O:NT FOR THE . I LAND OF

TONE. . Olltside of u rto Ri o ~ Y, · ir. "0 n rat TONE. Ye ir; thtLt would be a help of course, but ] don't think it i n · t·y. . Mr. ~ LLINOER. Did yo u state tb . po. sibi ' tip· of t~c. ugo.r tobtL\' •o lttnds und r b tt r ·mano.g mont ~ · G nernl STON.E. I .bal tho.~ q,u. t'on in view n cop. id ring pos~:~ihlc ~it~ tn .Hict and pecio.Uy th matter of .b inging cane ft•o'm mtcnor to mtll n ar th ashore. I thm tho ('an produ tioo n OOJ!mc~ · in ·re~d. I hotdd ay it might be brought tO 100, Rere, .wtthont .any diffienlt.v. The 'HAlRMAN. A r or ton ~ nciiLI . TONE. Acre ·; thoro o.r now o.bou 60,000 ncre~:~ and tb production i about th ~ snmc number of tons. · Mr. NET~ l'i. Tbttt' i n.bont n. ton tm 1\cre~ Gen rat TONE. Y ,.; . ir; but all thtlt ground doc not produ 'e cnnc for grinding ~' l'ly. From that 60, acre I uppo e they get ome ~r 40,000 n r s of cnne yearly fo~ gr.it~di 1g . 1\h. . GALT.INGEI.~. Whnt about the po stbtl.ttte of tl.Crcnge fO't' tobncto and the incnia ed production under better man emcn U · G tlcrt:tl TQNE. They nol do v rv thol'Ou" wot·k in the cnltivntian of t bnrco and get ood crops, 'but I can 10t · why th r.m~n may not II<' iJtC'r d nmt rin.lly. Tb y were a rting in to· cultivate n w pntch ~ on th Jop<>s of the mou ntnins, wb 11 1 crossed th\} i land II. f w day::; ago; tbcy41tld :ome hot of gctti11" re tntde and a b ttcr market. or of g tting th ubM market r e to ~1 to them, nnd th ,. w re tr,,· in~ to mcrca · tb ii"cultinltion. I thin · the production mig lit btl d nl>l ro or quadrur>l •d. · • • :Mr. t:I .'~ON. hit. h t n. fa~t thn.t th y h:we t im ort th e ir hrend· tuff~ und mo,.:t of tb ir mcnt,s I Q n nil ~TONK Yrs . .,.:ir; they rai ' a g ren.t many en.ttle, but th ·ommon p oplc do not u c meat. M1·. N I·:I:.SON. Flour and • orn ~ · Gcn rat S1;0 ' E. A littl e of these. and fish. l)ev' do not rui e much coi·u. The1·e is no !anti fit for com u. . we ru.ise i h. r o. It i · too steep and rou rh . . 1\Ir. ·~F. ·N. F whent bread they have to 1 .Jy on importation 1 • n till 'TONE. Y c.,' ir ; but th tnriff has en .'o bigh thev colllld not afford it. .. . · ~fr: P.F!~!GREW. ~\ bat did they enll ~ . . G n rnl To~·E.· Gr n banana boi l d , tind tt b t·:s, root!!. . )h .. r~L.."'N. )f w g i,· them fr c tmd wi J ~t increase their ·on· :sumpt1 n I . y. n ra! ' TONE. nque ~ionably- if you gi,· th 111 ome 'm ean of · mukmgm ncy to ·Pit}' for tt. · • ~Jr. PETTIORJ::W. if th commoditic n.r not t er , how can they ·bm· • what wr '!>bip th m ~ · 1 Genru~l . '~'?NJo;. If t'hc -people. ar t•mploy d . n~ paid, they can buy aJI wr w11l shtp them. . · '}fr. DEPEW.. Th'e pe pte, you l:!lt..Y hav been nting thei<e tuber and banan · do th y g:row wild 1 . · . G neraJ TONE. ~o, ir; they cultivate the e ba.n2ns and th root tb y ~t--culti,vate th('n~ .In small . patches throuJout the i. land. General

Mr. PE'M'JOREw.

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AND Oil' l'UEltTO !RICO.

B1tnanas !tnd plu.ntnin. n1· the pecuii ,. food of the p ople of th e i. lu!"d. '\\hen I had two or thr c thousand twi} ttt work on the roads durrng thr Will', th mnn 'w ho cm~1e to wo J, with a snmll hard dry !'ILl' of ('01'11 for his dinner wns n pl'iuee ; be co uld put it ,!in the fit; and 1·oru t it rwd' h1wc a Jllf!ltl. The other · Ill' ugh.t gr en bo.nunns or plantninl! . I \ 11 ncJ boilcd ·thcm. :Mr. D.EJ•J-:w. Whe n it tt~krs so lit 1I exertion will thoy lwo 1·k t og t bl'tter food ~ · • G nm·n.l TON F.. Y e,;, ,.:ir ; the\· nr very industrious people. llmvc never ecn h •tter I:i.borcrs nn~:whct·c, nnd l have emplojy'ed nwu in mnny plnee ·. . M'r. PJo:'M'w tu; w. At·c tht>y in t,lligcn~ ·~ . qenoml STONJ-;. ·y c:;, sir; of couz;:;e, t~!C common peqp!o are .very iO'Itornnt, but th f ·wmltb y ·pHople wh have hrtd opportu1tl t cs nrc vory f~t •lli<?('flt, .. ,., Mr. DF;t•Ew. There i~< no middle cln. s~ Gen ml 'TONE. o si r ; onh7 th dul'nted nnd lmltivn.tecl p oplc and th fX'on:;. • I !I.r. PJo;'rTlGR}~W . no nn,\· of -th e loweJ• etas. 'CIS heeom dnCAte anc1 cul tin1td ? · . I .1 Gcn<'ml RTONE. Tlwy hnve no cb:lnl'C. < t i\~r. PF.'ITIOm::w. \\hat do you think of their pos. il')iliti s1 G('n rnl 'T :Nf:. I find be l·hildren n.t·c ve ry quic·k to lcarn ·nnd very hrig ht . . The Pldl'r p<'opll' ttL' ve ry \\\i llin!S unci. would I 1u:n if they hll:d a.n oppo.r tunit,\· , but· the .voungl' l' gc neratron wtll ben:; bnght ns any. tf thry han~ lllt oppol·t unity t tea m. , , Mr. PETTIOKEW. WhzLt do you think of their nbili~y• to lltltiHtnin ll 0'0 \:l'l'IIIDl'nt of their 0 \\'11 '! · '• " Qe ueml TONE: I thin k .it would h better no to hnve that hlll'~lcn put upon thrmnt pn~ seut. Th e Jr . " trouhl<' of tl:iat kind the.\' huve for thr next fin~ \'CfU'S t he hl'tter it would h .for them . 1 tbi1ik th ir fi1·:st need li · ltn opportut:tity to hett<'r tlwit· tb1't1111e.'>; . '• Mt·. P~:·rrrwt;Ew. Do yoy thi uk that would tit th ~ Ill for · e~f-go, ·e mlllf' nt'l · ·· Cleneml STON-E. Ye"; it ,wot!ld help. .l ' L'he HAIUMAN. 'they tu· a do ·it , woll-di posed p •ople~ I ·G neml TONl:. Extr mely .·o, Mr. PETTWRJ}\v. How mn.ny edlll';O.t d people n.re t h e r~ '· ) Qeneml TONE. G encrnl Dr.t vis tmd l){'ttPr opportunities to )udge thnn I , nnd I ~hi ? k he enlculated t.h v w .r e npout 7 per~ 1 ~ who could )'enc't nnd wt'ltr, but the gr l!t nm. · of the people 1tl· m ab. olute ignomnce. · 1

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STATEMENT OF JllBI. LUCAS AMADEO. .

'.J:b CHAIRllt;AN. What i ' your :full mtrn ? . Nh. AMADEP. Lu<'ns A m;1cleo, pr '· id nt of the1 ngricpltuml society of Pue rto IUco. ' '1 h tiAIRl\JAN. Where do yo n tf,., idc 1 :.\lr. AlltADEO. 'I n .aarr·o;;, P .' R., 111 the .. intcrior of the .i land. I 'J)be CHAm~tAN. Plensc mnke nn~' stntem nt you wi .. h to nrak . . :.\Jr. AllfAD~;o. I. begin by lumenting not be ing abl to cxpres myse lf 111 ;English to ~ i :s ' b0110~tLble b'f~· , nnd thus make myself better

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12

OVERNXE 'I' FPR 'l' HE

I~LANJ)

OF l'

~:RTO

RI

129

0.

Thl' 'II AiltM,\N. l'h•nsc gin• 11s yon1· opinion tL:< lo tht• eap1Wity of nndt•r,;tood i11 l'l'gRI'd to tl1 • ><ihintio11 of the roHntr,1' wbieh I I'OlllO to. tin• p1•oph• of tlw i:<land fot' J.rOI'Prnmcnt, 1tml n,.j to tlu•ir illtl\llig'PIII't' · ropt:l',l'llt nnd dd1'nd. t·ontidt•J\t thnt I would h~ li ,;h~ lwd · to br th• with rr>~JWI't to tlw mntf1• 1· of 1· otin~ ~~~~~l~m.r til·ipatinJt in g'OI'I't'IIIIH'nt. l'('Jll'l'" •11tnth·e,; of tl11• • nntion to wb :::1• ho,.om l•' ntl' bns brought it. ;'\lr. AMAnt:o. I lm\'1' not t.lw ll'nst don 1t, that thP l'nt'l'to Wl'lln:< nn• Limitin,!! m,, ·,;df to ,!!t'llt'rnl iden:<. I dt•,.irl' thl' g-l'ntl ' HII'n of this I'Olll· t•npuhl t• of gm·l'rning- thPmsPIYPs; nnd in s11ppm·t pf that) hri1w fm·mitt('!' to ht• fully IIW:II'I' of tlw t'lliHiit ioh" in thP islnnd of Pn~Jrto !tiro, ll'lll:d thl' histm•y of Pnt•t·to ltit·o·-tlmt t.ht• l'm•t'to H.it'lllts ml·«', rl7u·inganti thut. it i"' n•ry lll')!t' nt thnt llll'll:<lll'l'" of rt•lid shu II ht• tnke n illlllll'· thP ~pnnish tlominio11. and dmin~ that. tinH' nf oppt'tl~. i01, lll'tllnn· diatt>l~··, ns mnttt•r>~ 111'1' i11qwrntir('. "o n,; to pn•nont .tlw furthl'r 'r uin ~ t'tltN I· till' ~l't'llt1•st. 'g-ood sr n:<e -in g-m·pt·ning- thPlllkPln•:<, · of th1• \'OilllhT. . · 1Tht• C11 11 ~IAN. \\' ht•t't' W<'l'l' nm llOt'n. tlllll of whnt t'Oilllh'\' IU' ,n;n '~' lw CHAIRMAN. llow nn• thlc' )Woplt> snt.istit•d with tht• Jli'P:<rnt g-ov t•rtllltPnt l'ondtll'tl'd hv Ot>nt'l'ttl Dnn ~<! ' · 11 nutin•. nnd 1'·but i>~ ~· lHII' on·11i1 1tio11! · 1 :\lr. AM.\m:o. l'1•t·~onalh· . tiH·\· nt't• \'1'1'\' w<·ll snt.i:<fi1•tl with Gnllt'rtd ~lr . • ·~t.\ln:o . ltml a 1111tin• of J>nt•rto Hit·o. Dnri><, hl'l'lutst' Ill' i~< n \'Pt'.': t•nutiillt~< g-m·PI:nm·. n11ti thP t·ouiltt·y Pl'lt\l<'m~< ·. Tht• 'ri ,\11{~1 N. ll.mt tht'rl'! . him nt his wo1·th. hut us to t hl' for111 of g'lh·<•t·titMt''nt., it t'<'Jll:l'sl• ll t. nn 'l lr. A IAt>•:i.). \\:,., "ir: 1111d I :1111 n t•otft•l' pllllttl•r. ulu\ot·nmlt•ondititill litH! Hit' t•otmtt·y a:<pit'l'l< t.o hn\'1' n JWI'bmm•nt form 'fb ' IIA1H~IAN. How lmw IHtn• ,\'Oil ht'l'll prt•:<idt• llt of tlw ugril·ul of g'OVI'I'nnmnt. · . ' t·ltl'lll "lll'it•l \' I 'l:lh I' 'nAtuMAN. Tlwy 111'1' not su ti:<tit•.1l to lun·1· t:TiP pr<'~<Pnt form of . )Jr . . bi A'm:o. 'l'hl' n~rit'l lturul :<ol'it•ty wn,; foumh·d on ly 11 :::hort mil tnt',\' g'O\'I;I'IIllll'llt I'OIItilllti'Cf! tin11• tlj.!O. 1tnd >'illt'l' it :< foun 11tion 1 hun• ht'<'ll it s pr<'~<idt• llt; ~J1·. AMADF:o. No: tht• militat'\' g-m•t•l·nnH•nli i" alWtL\'s lUI ahnot·nu\1 Tht• ' lt.\IIUIA:S. In \11mt npnt·it_,. did \'Oil t'Oillt ti~< n metulwr of u , · l'tlllditioll, prejudi1·i1tl to tht• l'l'l'fllt of nat.ion:<. 1.' llltlli~<:<ton or l'l'l11'l'>'l'lltillg' my body I .\\'Jw s •nt ~·ou! 4 Mr. l't:1·qmn:w. no .\'1111 think .1'011 I'Otdd l t'tllldut•t 11.11 tndcprndl'nt ~lr. A~l •\1 Et . t·tum• "" ~~ t• lt·:~nt•• from thr ng-rit·ulturi~<t:> of Puet·to g"lll'l'l'nnH'IIt 1\{ Olll't' ~ , . R.il'o, >'!' ll'l'tl•d t.,· :111 :l ~<>'l ;lllhl ·, t·bat was lwld i11 t'a11 .Jnn.11 n few d'a\· ~ Mr. A~L\ln:o . l't>rft•t •tly; hut WI' ,..houl<l pn:fer to lun-tl n joiut. go ud l'l' Ill~· deptii·turr. and ;\1 ·. Gon?.ll ll'" i~< IIIOtht'l' d<•IPg-ntc. ' t•rmuent iit wbil'h t.hP l'tu•rto Hi1·nn:< Hhould Jm,·c n mn.jol'tt\'. Mr. L't:'ITH: u~; w . ll uw 111:1 '-" p!'oplt' \n-re in tht• ll::<>'l' lll hly that ·pnt Mr. PF:1·nont:w. 'Why ' n joint gm·l'l'llllll'ntl · ' n111! :\lr. A~IAm:o. · BI"<'IIU~I of thP inPxJ:wl'iem·p of tlw l'tu ~ rto Rimm; ~~ ~ · .l\lr. ,All u•:o. Tht•r;.:..wt•n frmn ;,11 to till dPleg-at!':' to that a~<:<<•mhly. n•gnrd:< •A !ru:rimn . h-g!"!nth·l' ,sp<tPlll , nnd l thllt thPy migftt d 'l'i\'e, l'I' PI't':<~' nting- :d10nt :?.\)1111 pin 1tPt':<. ~o nH• hem•tit 111 hunt'}; tt tbat \vav. rh<' Cll ,\lli)IAN. How lnrg · a l'tl!'t•t• plantation htl\'(' yon~ . Mr. PETTIORF.w. \'\'hat kind of hc•nl'tit~ , · ~It· . ...\)tAD ·o. .Fi,·e hnndr d and ftmrtt•t•n llt't't':; of t·otri'P, nnd ~ t tl . i\lr. AMADEO. Lttr~l'ly moml, nnd hlll'lll'llill th('.Y would lw hon ' ted Ul'rt'~< of l':ti·ao. timll('r •. IUtd o lwr I'I'OP"· hy thr cxpPri enl'<' of thl' 111e'11 who htL\' alrt>ady b~oJe n in tbo;;e pJ '<'~"' · Tht• l'll .\llt)l N. Plt•n~<l' pr t·~·Ni with yonr st:ltPIIH' n . and lwsidP~<, sueh n gon•mtllout wo 1ld hette;r r •pt'e:< •nt th • two lll)lr. A)IADJ,;O. I wn~< d1•lt•g' tt'd to c·onw ht•n• nnd ~ tall thP admn · • tnge, wt• t'tl.nld for the g-t:IH't' I ngrit•nltnral intPl'I':St:< of l'uPrto Hil'o. ·nu nt.~, the nitcd 'tt~tl'" nnd thP n v t1•1'1~itorr . ' M1·. D,t:l't:w. Your poi11t 'h•, ttmt , hile youf poopln hn\·c tho intelli· nHd fon•mo~<t among- tht•m i. fn'l' t md1• with thP l nit >d St<tt<'"'· • gP.nre for clf-govt' l'nHu•nt. tlwy h,n:v not hnd tho oxpori oneo; but if The ' IIAIIDI ;\N . Art• nm n 1t a\{nrc that n1n hn\·p ft·!•t• rradt' nln~ad\· n:> 't.1 et,tfl•t• with tlw l ! 1.1 ih•d ' tnh• I · ' n~,;ot;intl•d with AmPrit·an><, who hrtH' t.be· !'xperion '!', thev would be mp,ahle of tt\king 1'1~ 1'1' of tlwm:<l'lrrs hut. thl'.y nPN'I the edl~ent ion 'I )lr.. but t:o . Yr . . ~<ir: I 'mn nwiu· of that: hut J nl>'n <'O llll' to rep· ~lr. ~'\IAm:o .. YPs, :<ir: thPt'l' !'xi. t,; in Puot'to lli1·o '\' PI'.)' dPnlcnt n•:<~• nt tht• ,.li,Q':lt' nnd otht•l' in'tlw<tl'i<':< of the t'Otmtr,r. for ,;clf-go,·m·l nwnt, hut of <'Ont·. l' .hey wou1d pro for to han Home\ ·Tb!' 'IIMU~I )(. l~l!'ll~<t'. prOI'P!'d in y Ill' own w:t~· . llr. · .\_~l,\OEO. Om• of ou1· ohjPl't" i" to ,;I'I'Ul'l! n loan, in ord r 1'11 . body morl' U<'<'ttl'tOmPd to it .to initi 1t • th em- to ~<how them nnd g ive th\'111 th11 hen \'lit of t hPir <'Xpt•ril'n '!'- and t hclt thl' Puerto Hit·ans u"'"itot th<• n.gri!' ultuml i11tP 't'ft" mid puhlil' werk,:~ of tl1e i:slnml, " ;hil'l1 c·o ~1}d V<'l',l' well gon•r n tlwllt:;c h·l's. · • nr u~littl'h· in .n('NI of it. · · J h HAII!MAN. \VJ\Ilt hn~< hl'l'n t H \ t'C':<ttlt of th I'('<'C il cl c<·tion ~ ( ThE' ' HA1RMAN. \\' e nrl' now t'Ont'ernl'll with the I gh•lntion of the .\ ,.,, th1•y :snti:<fit·d o1· noU · · . ~l11nd and the e,:~t blishnH.'nt of·ll d\'il gon>rnment th re, nnd what w waht i. _,. m \·iew ll" to the kind of go,·e mment th .' · hould ha\·l'. ~.h. A.MAtn;o. Yt•:s, sir ; w Ill' pt' ·f d ly well.a · ti ·li d wi b th. Ul. I hl' IIAUOIAN I 'Vht\t would bn th' l'hllrn ·ter 0 • Ill 11 ole ·ted 1f VOU . llr. AliA DE • I ,;ball h ,. 1'." g lnd to nn,;wer .any qu i<tion • . w~·~·~ llllowl'd to Pll'1't tin, :; ix, or::<('\ 1•n represent! tikl's fl'OJ each dil'· 'I:hl' IIAIR.'\IAN. H11n> ~· u gin•n nm· thou rht to that uhject: at,\d. lrH·~ to ;;it i 1 rL ll'g-i:;lntiro ·as:smthl I ·what would he th chance of if :!0, h1w ~· ou nny :;u • •csti n · to make n:;· to tbe kind of go1·erm\wnt grtti ng good nwt; ~ .. to be prodded I . · ~[, .. AMADEO. Very O'OO<l: on ly I vould 1 oppo:<ed to n. ,·cry 1:\rgc )Jr . ..\)IADEO. We a~'<pir t th t nitorial fol'm of go1·ernment II'!! · . it i applied b r t tb Territoriet<. · • a~~rmhly. I fhe 'HAilUIAN. · How hug would you ugge U · The Cu LRM •• Htl\'e f u _,ee n tb hilluuder con;;iderntion bv thi · i\tr. AMADEO. About tweHty-five 1 oDI' IS ntativc~. •~mmitUle ! • · •· The lliAIRMAN. Two houses 01' on lh. AloADEO. I hm ..ot. ~ S. Doc! 1~7-0

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80

00\'ERNl[K:NT

~'OR

Hl<:

l:'I, AND

llF f'UKRT\l

Rlf'l.

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)Jr. A:MAm: . I thin-k on h~ul'lt' of n\ pn•,..rntnth·(',; of ~5 m emb1~t'l< M 1'. DEl'~:,~· - You would han• tht\t money lonm\tl to indi:vV,lunl fnrm'and a. higbPr housr of 10' memher. . · ur , ~1'.1 ' g1nnJ{ m~rtg1tgc•, OJ' (•xpcct th Gon1'mnrnt,. in l' itiw of thiH Mr. HAJ.LINOl':n. no' ,\ '011 think nil ottght to l'«ttl' 01' thnt l'llltf111!.(~ l'tlln.nut,l·, to t~pportton nm'!ng- the- ftu•tn_ers n l't~l'b\in ,-um f monl'y to • ,.hould lw l't' t1·h-t~d I · . t>n~thlc tht>Ml to 1'Cdt•t>m tht•n·ln111l,.., le wmg thr t,.Jnntl. hnwt'l't't'. to meet .M 1'. A~ n•~o. That is 11 1 m•stion of ·j>rinciph· wbich ha:s ,not l>et•n th~ debt >~!l~equontly out of gt> nl'r~l 1'1'\·enup,..! ' ..oln•d ,',•{ in tlw unh·rrsnl ·on,..t•it•nt'l', mt 1 brliel'l' in unive1·...al . uf. )Jr. A~IAm:o. I wnnt thut moni'Y to ''0 to the hnnk which will make fmgt' nin•eJf. although 'th!'n il'l no l'I\IC~ thing' Ill< nnil'l'l'lllll suft'mgl'. , ""'n" to agrit•ulturi t.~ on '5(1 p r t·ent of the vnhtl' of thl'. t'Mhttl•>~. Mt·.· Pt:runN . ·no v u I li!'n; in thl' property ·q ualitimtion for ~~ ~-- l<'AIJUIANK~. \ 1'1' t~o · ln.nd1< m·tn·ed h_v mortg-ngl':< now to any \'oting only tho:<t•.wh? own propt'1:ty IH'ittg- all~WII(l to·_,·otd . t•on:< tdl'mbiP ~·xtl' n t j nml tf l'lo, to \1 hnt t'Xlent~ · :\Jr. AMAI>t:o. \\ t' d1d hav • that 111 PttPrto l{t<'p durmg on • pt•rtod Mr. Al\IAt>t:o. On ·_thy t•otf'Nl t'tltnf.~'" the 111ol-t,gllgt•>< t•xil!ting now do of tht• , 'pnnil'lh dominion. til I lntl'r WI' hurl unrt• trictt•tl :<uffmgt•. I not nm.ount to ~·n mtlltu!•". of dol,lt~ ·s 1Ltttl tht• vnlm• of thP propm-ty i~< ·. !>.•Iii' I ' (: that ,.,.,,1·.\'1-.ody ough to han- till' rigl'tt to l'olt; who i:< t'll'))Rhlt• fr 1111 >~txt,v to >'1'\'l'llt,l' mtUton" o? I liar,., "o thl' mnrt<.,a<.,.l'tl tmtount to · nhQut 7 ,nt• H JW1' l'!'nt of tht• ml11r f the J?rdptwty. "' "' h• ro~ a,nd ~f llg't'. . . .Tlw CHAIIOtAN. Do \'Ott tltuk 11 man ha,.. the cii(JIII'tt.' · who l'tln not . Mr. _liAJJIIIANKs .. _J,. lhl't'l' a _lnrgr •amount Qf munidpttl li ttiPhtlldne:,~::~ 1't'tul ot· writ • in tun· hin'g-uag' ami hn>< llt'tplirl'rl no. prop1'1't.1· 1 .tn hi' t~<lund; twthf ><o, whnt t~< the ttruouut! t , · Mr. AMAOF. . I lm1·r ·nwt with :1 I!I'Pllt many pt•oplt> who t•ould nul · Srr. AMAnt:o. ·.1 t·tut not !!in• you n stlti:,~ftu·tot',l' nnsw~· ·· to that, but rend or writl'. hut htl\'t' \'Pry good t·ommon ><en:<t', and.undt•r,-tund g'~\' ­ t'lltl nftt•rwnrd,.. g-t\'1' you 11 l'ltntl' m!'nt: hut it j,.. Vt'1'V \'l' t'V . ll !.~tl l. Thcentml'n~ a j!r(•at d1•al hettt•t· t tilt n ~n-~·at ttUIIJI' who l'lln n·ud t~ud \l'l'ttt•. lnr)!l',..t _muuun.t i:< in titu t .Junu. on1 t'l't'Otmt of w;~tl't'wt)rk:s, nm.l tlmt · :\lr. DF.I't:w. Hf•prl'llrtttin• fhr agTtcultura\ proplr of the t ·Lnnd. or l'l'()l't'l'lt'Jtt>< nn .tnd1•htt•cln '~-'"of :Lhout ~OO,fiOil, whieh w111'e huUt ht foro !?.l\0\.l produl'i'r>< tn('re. if y u t•tm g-rt tlw rt:l'ipr~_>t·ity or free t~·acl~ tlu \ml'rit·tw 1Wt'IIJ1n.tiou . · ' whi It th ,. \rant. t'Otdd th '.'· •tht-n work 1111t o1' thl'll' pt'l'"l'nt trnuhle~. ;\_lr. ~ !·:t.~<o~ .. I uud!'t':<t:mtl _l'tH!I' it_lt•u. ahout lwlpr:i>< thttt the he · ·ott t1\tt:~r(( b,-· thr hurril'nnr. t•t1·. without :111_1' other lwlp ~ dP. m•. tu,ntltlttll)ll to what _I'Of.! l'ttl l fL'PI' tradt•, i ~< authority of tho (}o ~Jr. Alii\OEO: I do n t tl iuk the t>lfl't't of thnt llll'llllll1'1' •.nlthough rnhnl'nt ~ ~ ~ hotTow a t'l't'l_aiu amount of mom•y , to he loau ~ I out through u >'OI't of ~tntt • l1nnk to the f:u·nH•t·,.. on ,;l'l'Hrity! . highly belietit·inl. would of i ""\!' Ill' a 1'1'111t'tl.'· for thl' ll'OubJe,.. wt• nre ;\h. AMADEO. Exal'tlv. IJ88 ing . throu~h. ..... · . Mr. D't:l't: w. \\'hat do I'Ot ' mrun ~ :\Jr. t:t.:-<oi\' . lltll'l' _,:t.Ht . tll'h a lmnk uow~- ,.. udt n. Ktate iu,.; tituti~n Mr. AMAOl': . That woilld not"t>e :mltkil• ttt to n•><tort.' tht• lo,.;t l'itn!it.r tht'ou;.th whil'h the loau ·,·ould ht' di:;trihutPtH of the l'Ounth·. whit·h htt>< llti 'II tlrnint•d I~· ><o many t'lliH'IIlT nt l'llttl-!1';. .?llr. A~IADEO. Tltt•rp i,- th r Tl'tTitorinl Bunk- thH Tcl'l'itorial and ~ir. DEPt:\\:, " · but ·kind o h lp do ,I'Oll wnnU . .-\gTit·ttltuml Bnuli of .Put· rto Wt·o- whil'h ha:< cion thut h ' t'rtofo1'1'. ~Jr. AMAJ)t;o. I think it L nh:<olutdy lll'l'l'l'l><llr_l· toll# tnin the llllthor;\·!!;,..Nt:1."Q,i\'. A Oon•t·untent ot· primtc bank 'l · ization iil"t'l' for a lonn. ~Jl·. :AMADEO. It i:~ not a Clovt•rnnwnt. hank. but WP wduld lik1• to Mr. DEt>t-: w . How trtlll'h f n loan/ huvc ito; t·apib~ l i~u ·t'l n><t•cl t.y thP ( tov ' 1't{ment hct·ominj! a :-dltu·e bolder · ~lr. A~tAnt: . At lt-a,..t $1 .OOU.OOO. . . to t.ho ox tent of tlw nnunmt of tlw lonn dr~tinod fM ~ I P ndin g to farmer . . . ~fr. PERK!"' . " hat i,- t i:; lonn for- dtl' authoritil's. ot· plnHtl'r". . Mr. Nt: t.so.,.. J,. ita t't>:<puns iblt- hank ? · or inuniciptJI goHrmnent. o how! .Mr. A.'\JADt:o. F r all: fo th(• plnnh' t':< and mullil'.ipalitil'" and puh~!r. rbtAnt:o. Yt• . . :<ir: it i:< a ,._l'1'.Y good }m!tk, hut th~.r htL\'11 110t Jic work,.. · tlw menm• to t•xtt•nd thP help 1'Pqutn1d; hut tt t:; n hank in whidt we ' )j r. ':\fc ' ~tA . . \\'ba t· i:< t t' pre,.t• nt t·nnditioH of tiH' growi ng co~c b:w n 0'1'Pnt ch•u l of confidener. 1 l'l'Ol? I , . · . .?lit-. ]'AtniiANK:<. ),; tht• indc htt•dn\',<s ug·ain><t the fnl'lllt't'>< hPid in Puerto Ui 'I) Ol' in s.1llin! • )(r .. A~IAD)~ . Tb(' total l' ·op for thi:< _,. ur will not nmoun_t to 7 p~~ I' ut of that of ht. t y ear. l'lhould htll'l' gnthered 1.500 IJUIIItnl. thto Mr. A)IAlH·;o. A g1·rut cJpa( i>< iu tltr hund:< of the 'pu.niurd><. nur. nnd I onh' ban· gntht'1' d 60. J al:<o I'XJ retrd to gl't ~00 qumtnl · ;\lr. GALLINta:n. 1n r!'gurd lo thr nJen conn cted with thi" hunk th t•apitnli. ts, are the,v 'ptuiittt:d,.. ot· Purrto ' Ri<'ttn:s ~ . ' of 1'01' • nnd 1 nun• not llll, tit nil. \ . . . . . Tht' HAlR:MAN. How ,..ho tid thi,.; loan lw "Cl'lll'cd: h,r legt:;httwn 111 M1·. AMADEO. The nmjorit~· are Spnnif;b. They would. how(iver · · ,.. tit wlll· to rmthl thl'jl'O ((• to grt it! a -cqpt Governhtent i'nt('1Tention m1J t'ttpit\tl, 'which' would make of th~ · )lr. AMADEO. I wuul li I' to ha1·e I'Oll uutb¢riz • thl' l'Ountry to hnuk •t,powerful _ins~rumt'n~ in th t'l'~onstrm:tion of tlgrit;mltuml interrsi • th<' ·Joan. · t. fh l'On:<tltttt10n of thl\t bank I>; nOW ltke tho l'l'Cdtt fonci I' but Tb • C'H.AIIL" N. Th ~· i.luni! thny have not cttpitnl nough fot; thl' neeqs of the countrv. ' I • lll'. A:~tAOt~o. Y :s·. ,.i_r. Mr. GALLIN,GER. W.ht~t rate of interest i. paid on mortgag . in P~~ruoo~ . • . ·The C'HAIIL\IAN. ITo i. :;< lie 10nds ~ llr. A:~tADEO. Yc~; nnd egotiatP them. di>'t1·i!)utiltg . uch nlpOt_tnl Mr. Allt~DEO. &>me mot·tgage~:~ p~y 25 per cent per an~um. muv l)l' et ttside for ngric 1lture through nn ugnculttural ban~,, wbtch ~r. GAT..LINGER. . Giv us tln idea as ~ how low it de:·eends; vou say would make prudent ad1·a1 ces on long t rm,.. and , u. mob1hze the ll>; high ttl! 25 per conti--llli low us \vllnt ~ . · immen~ c·apital "unk in


13:l

1111\' EHN M ~: NT

"HE I

J:;I.A:>il)

OF

I'I ' Eki"O

Mr. AMAD~~o. Thl' dwapl'"t r:~tl' thl'." )mn· P\'1'1' hi'Pu ahll' t(J g-Pl i ~ HI }l\'t'·t•e•uf iu tlw t·itit·~. a rid iu ( lll' iniNioy of thP i><fnud tb\'." prly I . :hl,_ ,nirtl. :!i1 1wr t'l'Ut, ln.'t tht> lowP~t .i,. I (I }ll'l' t'l'llt. '.'otmti11g th • t•oJ\! .

mi,.><imr. l11 tlw iHb'l'll!l' o~ tht• '"laud tll'oplr lon.lttrtg- llllollll'.''. lon11 rt nt :!.) l"''' t'l'llt. tlillt'Olllltlllg 111 t' l'l'"·'·:. _ In thnt wny tf tlw lon11 '" mndl' for ltiO, itt ~r pt•r c·PHt, th".'J gl't ~Jr. Pt:HKI·NI'. 'l'ht•n• U.l't' hiXt'"- 1111 u:;.~"""lll''" t" upou tlw la11ill )Jr. A IAil~:o. y,., , :-ir: till'S hn:n· tlw lllllllil'ipll,l'•xt"' ll"'""• n11d tht•,r hltvt•, too. tht• pro\'i111·inl tax. . I l\lr. l't:RKINI'I. l.t' \'i1•d IIJlHII tlw lnud I · l )lt· . . ~• m:t~. Wt• pnid 1111 tlw lll't prudud of tlw ln11d. ~h . Pt:ttKIN"· All illt'OIIIP tax, hut no lixrd .tn.· 1upuH.thl' renlty I ~h·. hMm:iJ. No, l'il·. 0PIIl'l'lll llt•UI'Y modili ~d that. n11d they 11\!W pew llft'ot'tlin~ to th1• · ~~~hit' of ~hl' ln.11d. • . . ·~h. Pt:TTtmu:w. \\hut purtw11 of tht• IU'PI~ of ~ht• lnnd will pr<'ldtu·p ugar if thf•\· hun• frl'l' jmdt• with tlw l111itl'd Sht •><I l\h.. \M t)t:o. You ·ould 1ft•nor Hutkr it nwrP flum doublt> tlw prodlll·tioH of t1;-chw, l~t•t·uust• tbl' lnud lnl'k" wah r·, nud thion1 i:< not .;uftident lttnrl ,.uftuhll' tel nmkP it mon• thnu douhl('. Mr.. N t:r.IION . Awut UHI,OO() to L~O,OOO ton:< I Mr. A:\IAUEO. y.,,.., ·,.il' . . ?th. Pt:TT~tll!t:w. Ttw" did 'l'lli"'' L!n.ooo tou><. Mr. AMAot:o.. :-lo, :<it;: ti5,tiU\) tou ><. :Mr. Pt:TTuan:w. \\·hnt j,.. tht• gTl'at\•4 nutnbt•l· of tou,.. Pn•r mi,.rd ~ . l\lr. A~tAU.t:o. ft tm" nl'H,I' l'PIIl'hPd 7n.ooo ton><. Tb ' IIAIU~IA ·. Tll;:"otlil'illl :<.t ati:ottil':< ,..bow tlmt iu I S7!1 th"·'· J'l'lll'hl'CI 1 70,0{)() ton,.., H:< WI' uiJdpr~hl. ncl it. ~flo . AMAnt:o. No.... ir : tlmt is a ud ,..h ~kt•. Th l·y Jm,.,. produ<·Pd. ~~ ~ high u:< 1.0\.ll!,tlOO llOt'o~· t>:;, hut tht•y do not wPig-h 11 ton. Thl' Cn IlL'!'' ·. 'Vhat nrl' tho~" I . , ~It·. A~LAIIJo:o. A hot·o.'· i:< 11 lwg-,..hmd. amotllltinj...Mto nhout l. utiO pound:<. · · Thf' 'HA.IR.MAX. J,.. th11t tijP utmn;;t c-ap1wit.y of th l:' ' i"lnnrl now aud for tht• futme I 'Mr. AMAm:o. Tlw mo:;t it t·ntdd do would hp to douhlt• it· pl'f'SI'IIl <'Hpllt'it.'·· 1t i:< tnrP tht'." d:ndd <"nltimtl' It gl'l'llt dent of Inn~ in sugnr wbirh is no now u:<l'd fur tbnt purpu"(', hu.t tht•.'· l'Ottld eult1mtl' thut in otht• ·. thing:< t bar wou,ld proout·<' mort' th:tn sugar·. · · ~It· . .Pf:TTIOm:w. What j,.. th t• III'PII of land that <·otdd pr·ochtt'<' ,..ug11'11? ~h. A~I.Am: . \•\'t•nty -four tlrtiu. and nt·rs>< is 1tll that, is l'Ulti\•tttPrl · now. · · '· )lr. PF:rru :Ht:w: How mueb more• l'liU\d produt't' ><Ug1u· proYidPd it was tb<• 1110st pr~tituhlr l'l'OJJ.I . . . _ · ~It· .. \M ot . l do uot tlr1nk .' ·ou t·tm ld <·ultm ~tt· mol'l' than ~~.Ottt ) .arn':< undrr ,..·ugn r; it eould uot lw po,..,.iblt' . . . ~Jr. l't:TI'WHEw: How llltll'b lll OI'l' land eotdd he madr nn~llabl lor suwn· if ull tht• Wt~tCI' thatyuuld Ill' ll:<l'd for ini~•ntiO!I \I'll" utilized·! ~Jr. AM nF. . In the.soutbrm par.t tlwrr ronld ht• r•ght .,,. ten thou· :sand::ll're:s 11s d br DteiW~< of i rrigt~tiun. •. · . ~lr. Pt:.TTHlH£\\· Anotb('r gentll'lllllll hrts just stut d that b.'· the turning of on(' strl'am they .t·ould r d n) 20 000 urres hx .tbe u of thl' wut r. f th J..a PlutiL Rn· r. . . )1,. AMAoEO. Tb; xpe';"""' m;gbt "". ,,;,d, do ""' thh•k ;t

ny

li'"·'· ·

bn1 \

flllVJ<:RNMJo~NT t'IIR ·'CHJo: I

HWO. •

1:-II,A N I)

OJo'

1'11 ~:lt'I'O HWO.

1aa

,.

w~l~t'ld be sut'l'~"'l!.ful, n.nd 1 th;ink t.ha~ l5,00.Q lll'l'~:s wo11~d ho.tho lmt lst .

tlu~t could he IITigtltcd.

[do not th 111k. that. · p11 ~11·to Rwo w1ll p1w Ill'! llllll'h ILttontion to thn ·ultivlltion of SIIJ..'lU', cve.u with free t11td." ivith the l nited ~tntt>. , ~~~~to . tho produetion of other things IIIOl'tl vnhuLhlo to tho i l thnn ~ugnr, I!IH'h ns omngo:;, hnru~nns, :;ottu• tnh1Ua1o, I.LJH1 grc nn I ' (; tlthh•s. · • 1 r. P•:1''l'lllin:w. Am you intercl<tnd in t.Hn Jll'~ldtJl' tion of l'! llgnd Mr. AMAI>t:o. l h1~v<1 nJ'I,..olutelr no int.l't·n~o~t. in 1t. ~h. Pt:TTHmJo;w. Wlmt is tb t~ 'nl·c•n uow iu toi!IU't'o, ttllll how IIIIWh ·. t·:u• th1Lt he i nt·reu,..l'd if yo11 h1w11 fl' '«' tmd(l 'e · ~h. AMAm:o. Tlu' rl' 1~1'1\ L-!,O(HJ l~t· t· s of t.oh!Lt't'o ph~ntl'd, and the ai'I'IL .thnt t•mJI~ h<• disposc•d Qf fo1· fmthPt' pu•·pn"'"" of the indust1·y . would be prohnhlv ahout 7,0()0 ILI'I'I'>< mol't•. M"1•. l't:TTIO(U:\v; · ~l'\'1111 thoiJsltii(J IU'rt•s ll~O rc ( ~r·. A1t1AIH:u. ~'''"· si 1·;;. in tht intt•J·iol' i1f thn islnncl. \ ' :\h. l't:·t•J•wrn:\~. How nmn.'· IH'I'C:< IH'f'. tlwt'l' i!,l th11 tallti\'ution of t·olft•o I . ~1r. AMAUt:o. Two huudrl'd t~ousaud 1\l't·e~"'· ,)'Jr. I'E'I'1'11Hit:W. How nmch 1'1111 that ll\1 inN'Pit,..t•d I ~h. :·biAn~:o: ln .th1tt thcrc ,i,.. ~~ . "'":-" ln~·~c ~~x'ten:;ion.tio:;:;jblc; we t·ould ,t•xtl'nd ,It \'\•ry IJ~r~t~ l.v . H 1,.. rnl><lld 111 the mouubtlll><. ~h. l'r·:1·rrmn:w. Will t•ofi'Pn bind proclut+ s ugn4·~ ~h . A ~1 .\l~t:o. ll would not. pn.v to plaut .it .i n · ~·off~·p. Mr. P..:T'l'llntEW. If >;~ ugnr will pay hettcr· thlln tohllt'I'O', will th e land· pi'OducP iU , ~Jr. 4-MAo~:o. E\·t·p if they WPrl· to try it, tht PXJWnse woulu hn su J.!T~I'Ilt. t.hnt it would rwt . prt. ' 1~:; wc•!l a>< to l'iJ}lti n\Hl the eul t ivtttio.u 'of t'o l'l'. I havP sl'l'll nntny hrilliunt llt't'flltnts M thn p1·odui'tion of :<li:.,nt· that ILI'l' nil illu,..ot·.v. · . · Mr. I'•:TTIOIIEW. How IIJIII'h sngur do tlwy produee po r·nt'I'P~ 1 Mr. A;\1,\l>~:o. Ahuut a,ooo pqund .. pl't'llCI'('- two hog:;hflo.dl'!. · . )/fr·. P•::rrrmu:w . .Cun the.,· iwodnl'l' ol'lplgf',.. nnQ hnm~mts- in t'OIIt Ul'l' t'iltl quanti tic><!' . < 1 • Mr. AMAJ>Eo. Tfw.v would pay hPttor, pol·hnps t lmn thP pl'Odtt ·tion of lsugn.r, hl'UlUI:SI' thev lll't\ of ~~ tine IJIUthtv. ~h. PE1'Twru:w. How 11mny llt're,.. 1\I'P. there fit for th1~ production ·· of r·nuge,..! · Mr. A~tAo~:o. A grf'nt!' l' umoun t of tPnitor\' in thl' i:sln11d eould he 11Jipi'O})I'illh•d to t~r l'llltinttio n of 01'11111(1'>< .th1i11 for ltll,\' other things, · :\'h·. l'•:1"l'H:Itt:w. How 11111\'h t·onld ht• uppl·op)·in.tPd to other; l'itl'lls f1·uH:; 'j I' . I · jll'. AMA'In:o. All thP tPtTitol',,. t•tm ld lw llpj1I'OJ>I'intcd. XJr. J>g·rruan:w. How uhotit hananns! ':\Jr. A~IAOt:o. Of hnnanns' tht' Y hnw .l'!t'nrnl qunlitie:s. Mr. P•:TTlGJtEW. , Uu n they JH't)(.lll cl' in g'l'l'll l, qnnntitit•s! :\'h. AMArn:o. YP;., .;il'. · · PF::rnGREW. Uu n the pr<i<lut;tion of ' m1wes, lt•llJon:;: anti •1thct· 1· it~ul'! huit. he prulitnhl.'· cxtende.d '! • I I Mr. A~IADf; . Th • hn.;il'! of my hcliPf i~ thu~ if thi:< fl-u it would gin: tht>}u a better rl'n•m w tht>y wotild pay 111orr attention to it. Ml'. CooKru: u .. How nhouflf'mon:; nul) lime><! ~1r. AMADF..O. W c ·hi\\'(' the tinPst quuliti""· btt thl',\' hlt\'l.l lll'\'l't'l),t•cn nlltivnted.

:yr.

I

I•


184

00\' EHNMENT

FOR TB)!;

l~f,AND

tW P.l .• :ltTO

J\11·. 11t:TTIOIIEW. lin .,, )'nu Pvfir tril'd tlw prorlue•tion of lliiY. I'Ili~<ills ancl gmJW. I · • · ~lr

.. \~1

1n:o.

y,.,., ~<ir.

ltiOO. l·

Mr. l't:rru:HEW. Plc•nt ,. of th ~ m! J\11-... biAnt:o. Tlw llllt~t·ntl•~ g<I'HJll' of · Spni11 i" pl'lldu<·t•d i11 Puerto Rit·o l'fJttlll to tht• ::-lpnrti~<h. hut it~< pmdtldiott hn" nlwn''" hPt~n ttllilll · portn11t: · J\lr. Pt:1'Ttollt:w..J\111\· wnlrtttt. tt~td H.lt)tortcl~<! 1\Jr. AMAI>t·:t). i\o, ,. ii·. :\11·. Pt:T'I'I!ll$t:w. linn• you 1'\'1'1' pi'Odttt·Pd Znrttt• t:ttt'l':tllt>', m· g'111JW~< tu1nmkc••!·m·mnt$! . Mr .. ~i nt:o. " ' •• tH'\'t' r hnn• tri<'d it. )I r. Pr.TTII tit:w. Hun• lht• PtwTto Hic·nrt~< ol'g'HIIi;wrl n politic•td ptu·h· 4'111lt•d .thc• R<-ptthli~11n' J~IIJ't)· of l'uPrlo HiC"o! · 1\J•:· A~1 nr.o. '\''"·"II: thnt hn,. '"'I'll th<' "'"'''"""fttl pttt'ty irt thr ln><t C'let•twn. . . Mr. PF:rncHn:w. \\'hut wn~< it orgnnil'. d for! . lh. A~Ain:o. Whert tht• Antt•ri<·aw innt iort took plnl't>. th<'.t'O W<'l'l' !\ ·o ptu·tle~<, otw eat!lt>d. the• Atttortomi,.t. tmd thP othe1· thl' Puro~<. 1t ' '-' th111 Pu1·o,.. O·rgnmzatwrt th11t thl',\' eall thl' IU>puhlienn ptu·ty: 1wd thr otbt'l' 1 trty . .whwh wtl~< tht• 011 • of ' tgn:<tn. hn:< al"o l'hnng-rd it:< munr nne! j,. now l'lfll<'d tlw F dt•1·ttl. ~lr. Pt:TI'WRF.l\"; \ Vhat dew~ thP FPdeml pnrty adrol'ntc>! l\lr. 4~1ADEO. ~ht• two pnrlH'" hun• nhuo"t UJP :<1\1111' Anw ril'an phttf~J'lll ":1tb "Olllt' dlffP1'~1'P:< 1" to clPtnil. hut I imng-itw that th'• pnrtir" wil I fn,.l' when Uw tww gm·l'rnntt•nt ·i,.. implantt>d. althmwh lntr1· thp\· ma.'· difft>t· ou pe•ouomi1· qHPstiou:nts thr.' · ari~<r . '"' · J\lr. Pt:-r:r uo~{i-:w: ),. i~ uot n quP:.:tion of nwu- of IPadPr,;IJip! Mr. AM DEO. \ "" :<11'. • )It·. PETTJ{lRE~\·, \\'.tmt do tlw part it>:< nd ,·oe·att'! ) · . )It·. Al!ADF. . Both pn.rtit•:< tl>!ptr now to thP fultillm!'ut of thP pmm· '" "ntttdl' !t,\' GPJWI'Ill ~lll<'s wh1•tt lw lttudt'tl. . )Jr. PETTIOHt:w. " "'hat- wvrP tb '"" promi"~'"! · . ~h. ~MAUEO. :\lm·nl and mnt~ 1·it\l progr"""· wlii(·h w'ould h<' fouml 111 fot' lllllll{ n par of the l ' uitrd Sbttr:<. )h. PETTI'I·IIIF:w. 'I)id hl' p romi,.;r frl•l' tmde 1 )flo. J\M_.o\1>)':0. J·Jp I'OUJtluot l)illll'll'lf pi'0111i:<l' thi:s. hut' it WitS Ull<IPI'· stood th • J"land would ht n• thnt fl-om t.br momPnt tlw Con,.titutiou f thl' l'uitC'd tnte" WtL" to c·on-1· tiH' i ~< land. )J1•. l't:TTWHF:w. 1 th r priueiptil plank. 1111d nlmost tlw ti1·,.t otie irt · tho~ • plllffol·m,., .tbn l'nP1'to Rii·ntts >'hnll hqld thP ofii<'~'"! •. ~Jr. AMAnt:o. · ~ ·,. "ir .. thrrl' i,. no::•t,'r h thing. Pxistjng iu thP pintform~< of tho:<~· pnrtu•s. 1'.\' JUP w111111g nnd d1 ~po:;ed nnd o·lnd to hr ahl'e to :<hnn• (ho:se plal'es '' ith thei1· lweth1'P n. thl' ·Anll'rimt;;,, . )h·. Pt:TTWREW. Of'li Puerto Rit·o mll>nHftwturP ('i<rn1·,.! 1\:lr. AMAJJF.O. Ttic nmnnf'ndun· i,. a littl<• lni·gpr Snc·r thc> markPt~ of 'u ha hnn• lweu do,.Pd. ·• )Jr. PETI'JOIU·:w. Tbr.\· do mnn11fa tm·e l'i<TttJ::s ! )h-. Ax o.-o. Yr~<. ,'ir: si ut'P the .nuukrt ~f 'ul a bun• heen eJm;ed. . Thr_quuutity of · t<?l~ttt't·o 'pro<!tll'ed in Pl1rrto Ri1·u would nen~t· irtjure thl' mtl'r<':<t>' of tb1.s t-ountl'\' 111 tOINtl'l' . bt>t·nu.sl' it i" :;mnU nnd of n . ditJt•rt nt qtmlit)· to .thr oue' pl'Odueed berl'. ·. · )[r. Pt:TI'WIIF.W. Yow ubout thl' produeti n of cignt". thr nmking of thrm- h w 111011.'· fnd~ri('>' 111'1' thrt·r! · •

OOVERNM.KNT l!' OR 1'H}: ISLAND

OJ<'

PU11:H'l'O RICO.

1~5

I of tohlll''t·o

\>Jr. AMAtn;o. Thrre tu·e not more tbun H 01' .14 ftwtodP~< in P·ul'1'to Hi<·o, hut 1 1'1\11 not ><tL,\' how· mut>h thew pl'Odut•l•. :\Jr. Pt:TTtnnF:w. Do.thP,\' JUtutttfuc•tlf1'<' th<'m in thl'i1' homr;..! Mr. AMADt:O. No, ~<it·: in th<• ftll'toricos. .Mr .. Pt:TTWHt:w. Do .n111 low,. how man,\· pl'oph• 111'1' employ d in tlw1fnt'torie,.. '! N,1 r. AMi\JJF:i1. I c·ould qot tllt~'<Wl'l' thtlt !(ll<'>~tiou . ~h. l't:rnoHJo:W.· Whnt do .n m ultinmwl.'· c·oltt<'111pltttt•; admi.'l><ion intc} th.- lnion '""' :~ Htat.f' ~ · I N.h. Al\tAOt:<l· W•: ILI'I' not ~<o prP~cntiou~< tlli tfutt. )1'or Uw monwnt we wiHh to hc•e·onJt' tL Trl'l'itot',\', nruJ tlftl•t;wnrdM, wlwn w·e lm1·e tho !'apt_u-it\', to h1• ·om It Hbttt•. 1 Mr. Pt:TI'IIIIIf: w. Do ,vou rtow hu,·..- l'tlpacit,r for ' :;plf-gon•.rnnw nt '! ~h. AMAJ>WJ. \1\ ith att Anwrit·nn govPrno1'- tL good' g,o,·~·l·n or- -llrtd with other Amr1·icnn fum·t.ionlll'iP.'I to help dircl't U11• {-hief hranche... ~~ f thl' ndmini~<l.1'titiott thf' J't ', th1• Amci'iclllt l ' ni011r would uot habP to rPprnt ha\inl{ put thr Purrto Himn~o~ i11to thl' plttl'C of ~owrning t emsel\'<'li, or· t1')1JIIg tO.govl'l'll t.hc>m!mlns. We wmJid ltk;c to haP tht' I~:; gun·hwt· wc• cmtld g( t ft·om tbi~o~ t~o untry. M1·. CocK nJo;T.J .. If you htn·c· nny other fn1·t.... til' ' dntn. w· fi~ut'<'" wbid1 you t·1~11 writt• out for tht"I'Om mitt<•t' in ,. •gaml to othrt· proposition!:!, will.vott plcttl'l' furnil'h them? < Mr. Ai'\tAJ>t:o. 1 will do ~<O. . · ' 'l'ho CHAJUMAN. Wr 11 " , . 'I',\' mueh obliged to you, Mr. Am deo, fur tb •.wstimoity _you hun• gi\'l•n, ttnd \'('1'.'' mtwlt inb•l'l'iitl~d in ,·out· ><ttttj'llll'llt~<. . . ~.Jr. AMAilf:o. l' nm \'l' l'.\· 'g lnd to he nble to furniiih thc• informn.tio11, and tu g ivr nrty further ,.itatrml' rtt whi<"h I t·nrt. · '1'Jw CHAw~iAN. I hnn- b1•rp 11 lt•tter from the nttot·ney,.. of· the !Nrw Y01jk nnd Porto Ric·o Steam. hip Compan,v. whic·h I · will ht~\·e incorporatt:d iu thP tworcl. Tht> ll'ttt>r i~ tt~< follows: · ,) A:<l'; IIY 20, IIJOO . Silt: On behalf or our· dient , :.; •w Yol'k IIIII I l'or'lo l~it·o !'tl'UIIr:hip Corn pall\' we be)t It) prl'~ent to your o·onrrrrittl'o· >•orue fuel• with rll).'ltrl.l to e·<orrrmerL'tl und na,:i: ' IJKAR

jllltiun lwtWtle n pori~ or till' l ' rritcrl S tnt c~ pro[,,. llllol t h o~u or lir e i~lun rl of l'uerto kiCOj 11110 hetWl.'l'll port" nf th. i ~hrrul. The lifth 1pllrugraph or lh t• hill (S. 2264}, 'l'lrioh your conr nrit,L('C ruJw h u rrnokr o·un"irle mtion , pro ,·iolc" .for th ' ex ten~\ om oi Ihe l1w~ ol th nit e1l. 'ttLl<·~ rel11ting tn olur cou"tir!k• tmolt•; In o·onrrnc r·o·e aurl l llll\'i· g:itio11· hetween o rrr port ~ mrtl tho cor 1hu i~ l un<l. I ' · Your c·ommitlet• i• ulreaol y informtJ<l thut the onl y inrportunl inrlrr•lry of 'n erto Ri<:o iH agrkulturr. Tht• ngril'ultuml prCJihll'tion nf-lhe i~luud i~ lnr·g•, anrl i~ t'illahlt• or great illl'retl."l', hut lhl' pru<lu<·t- lire linlitt.'fl in mricty.' )funuflll'lllring i" pnu·timlly unknown . Th •refore the Prll'rtO Hjl'an~ nrmrt be "npplil'<l with 11111n ,· n~C!!>'i· tieR and mo"t lnxrrril'>! thron)!h the (rop<Jrtation or gorJ<l" through th e l'nit'i_.,.t ,' tat e~ RIHI· foreign C' untril!!'. The t•xt••rtntiun anrl . tic of thPir ugrio·ultnntl Jll'n<htc·l" i~ th~ c)n ly f!Ourre from wbio•h th ey mn ' ohi11in mroncy to yay for irirportulioll~ . Heo9e nil · l'nerto Hi cun , whult•,·er their A1utiw 1 in ' lifl•, anol nr wjmlm·c r· hn. in'"" th y rhay he 1'111-'llgt.'tl, uro vilull y intere~tf'ol in hu\·ingl udcquute lll£'1111:! fnr· tlr · pdurrpt , "" ',., ur11l . l~'lJTIOIIli(-8) tnur•porlutinn of ~l)oH J :!'tn lllltl frn111 their i"JtlnrJ. ' 1 \Xe have yet IOflnll anyont· .wh o tloo·~ nut be lieve that 1111• l'niteo l i'ltutc", ·ill be ~ \ , bi!nofll<.'ll by J!t!l•uring th wholo• of J?lr ·r·to Hicu1r trull •, unrl will ret·ei \'c a c rre· ~ponolingly im·reu.'led benefit Ill' · i~ d •\·elQped in the frrtun:. l·len<'C il i~ rtunt lo c rw umge the l'tll'rtn n ' their 11111rk >tM ,,r pun·ha 'anrl ~all' to the nilt'll HtatL'l': ~othing t<: 1110re MUrely unol Ht~c<lil~· \o thi~ ( thnn the enl'nnrup:o>nrent ·o r t•omr unolm\\'rgution 1 •hn-en thi" r·nn11trv anrl Puerto Hi o. · · · ·, Prior to the <'C••ion or the nitt.• l State~ pmetir ·ully rLII o f it~ e.•qlo r·t ~ nnrl irnpurta werl! t1ttrit'll b\' Sprmi~h, anol Non\'egiunrfor ,11,\'!'e could be muintainerl ni u or the nit<•• I . tntt·~.

'"'l

""'!

l

..


t86

• GOVERNXEN

FOR THE I LAND OF I' RRTO RI 0.

110Vl': R.NMt~NT

I For maJI\' Vl'lll't' Uw New York and P.uerto Rit•o At<•a1nship ('ontJ'IIlny .hBii lx'l•n t•nlltljt('d 1n th~· l'ul'rto Rit'tlll trade. &>!ore the pan ish war itM Vl •Is had Briti•l• 1'\'l{i trv and C'llrrit'<l the Briti~h -flag. During th war they wurilllthuitt.ed to Ameri ·t'lln 1'\'lii~trv . At th t.> d()l!(l of · th1• wa., in tmticipation of an impro\'L'<l ' t•nnrlition of• thin!liJ in Pn ·rto Hit'O llllll •lhe tie•· lopment f ('Olllllel'\'t' lk•twL'(!Il the i•lantl IIIlo! mait1land f till' Fnited 8tat~. the company set ahnut the imptovem nt of its line. Ou J)e(<e1nbt·r :m, 189 , it en I(~ !'('< I into It <'On tract with tho l'o~t-Oftko Department for thl' tnm~portttti .. n of thLI l'uill'<l Sfatl.'>' malls !x>tWL'<'Il New York and Sau Juan ami lx>tween 1 ii~ of 1 he islamI. Jt Will! j>rovhk'<l h~· this t'Onlntct that all ve8Hels !'mpfoyed •hnuld lx> of . \ltll'rit1m gis~ryltmr that sailin~ ~ h ould tukc flal'll from •it.lter cml t•l' thl' rtllllt' ut intt•n·lll ~ of .tent uys. . •:Jru,uary 20, IR99, tht> I re~ident, in the exor,.;,... of tht' auth •ritv \'E'!'It'<.l in hin1 lli' Commumler in hi •f of th A nny and Navy 'Of the nit"'-t 'hllo'>', 1il!'ll ~I a P""'lantation !'eltinjl forth "Rl'(CIJ.Iation• fur the lfUidau(:1• "f oftlt~..,. t'01H'\.'rlling thl' c•ollt'1'tiou of tluties on ilnport~, tax; <•hargc~. llnfl the CJCil('· ti n to !!(' lt>•·i,:.t an•l t"OIIe<·t!'ll a~ a milit•n· t•ontrihution nt port• an I pla('llil in P\1t>rto Jiio , " · ·, Tht l'l!jellllltilll1•, 111ll11Jl otil t'r thiugM, pro•· itl<~~l : '' Nt\Vijll&tiun ht•lwt.>en l!te Ifni !t-tl titles ru1d Puerto .Hit·o t•unfinCII to A1nerican VCI!· ...,1~. (2) Tnult• hetwt't•n port~ t•f tlw Unitt.., I . tut ('l; allll ports o 1· piHt'{'t< in Puerto ~iro llllcltmdt• l ~twt'<'n I "I~IK lllld phwc in l'nert u Hit•n • l11tlllw ,·urritJd on in regi~­ h•l'('(i \'l'O<!'t' l~ of th"' l ' nit;,d tate>', untl inn o tht"r." Th reupt•n thi~ mU1JXln~·. m de 1\ tt'mpo mry inrl'CI\1'0 of it.• fleet hy t•hartl.'ring Vt!l'· •I@ of higher·~ •I and grL'ttt!'r L'llf)llCity tlmn th o~ fnnnc rl~· •wut..fi antlnscd uy it . 1-\ >r th pt'1'11Utnent impn: •·ement of it~ >~t•n·icc, it urriL•r !d fro111 Ame rii'Rn ~ hipbuiiLi en<, thl'l'<' t('('t· ~iug \'l'&"<'l>', euch nf ubont :~,000 ton• hun len , tltt~ with all the late~~t inipro•·e1Ht'nt~ fur tht• tran>'lllJrt utiu n uf pa.~n~r. uucl frci~rht. lt. pur hllSl'<l 811 A111t' rit'tlll. \'C ...,1 i•f ~1 !{ t on~ Ill"'~~ re,£i>'tt•r forth - c•ou~tiug tr1~t' of tho i ~ Lun<l propl'r, w11l t:'ntcl'\-..1 imu n 1 \>ntn~<:t for the e o ustmction of um•the r VC>'~PI to 1x> of 000 tou" 1'\'\(U;fer nil'<' 1l~i!inCII fo'r th t.> t'llll>'tiug tmd\'. Thl' fonr •·es<e l~ ordCJ'l'{l hl\ve now I •u •·ompl tCII 1111ol han• lx't•u put in th t> conH/ llln~· ·~ •en· i~e, together with oth r .\n wri 'HJI hip•• l'JIJ,-ilj:t'tl in tht• Puerto Hir.m tm< e; they Ul'l' rapablc of supply injr8ll tlemHIHii< f •r tmu>' po rtatioJ1 whirh uo w exiEt or are iu uny wi~ lik •ly to he 1111ltle foe uumy YL'Uf'!' to t-t11ue . ..a'he t'01Up811Y only await~ 1111 int·reu•t.• l <lc1nun•l hdorc int•l'l'R:iing 'th •" n ·it•e on it~ main line to wt'i!kly Mi l in~(>' llt'tween Nt>w York und n .Juan . Tbi• wnul'tl l!i\'1' thl' islund tt !11 lx>tter mail . ·n·it-e llnd wonlrl ht• of jlrCat >toh'11ntllg(' tn ull hn>'l11Cl'." irll~l'l'·t~, bnt th e ~0111(Jll11Y '~ expcrienl'll flnrin)( the p\ll!t · yt•llr htuo l>l't'u n10o<t •li~cnm1ljl111)( .• Th llXport~ uf tlw i•lmul 111'1' ~nmll·•· to-da:v -tltn'n , th •y wei'\' wlwn Puerto Hil'') w~ under Spuni"h rule, untl the ubility o f the people to.. tn e iln]Klrt i" proportion te lr olimini~ht'<l . ~'nrth r thAn thi~, :r.<nne lo;<;j o f bu~i n and a l'On~id • nthiNii~turOOn !'e in freight rat e~~ ww t'llllf<t'll on !\ltty I, 1!!119, by 1111 l"'l(•r of tht• 'F:ecr('ta1·v o f War, whereh~· he "1L•pcncle<l the nognhttion of January 20, (mpru) , whit•h l'X l'incl!'ll f reign \' Is from th tmtit•. Tltl' le)!l1htti n 1'1 '11l1lin I ~n•J'Icmted uniil.Tunuan· 1 of thi• ye11r. , The &.ocretary'• onleruf )Jny I, 18911, WtL~ mlld "llllin~t til protest of thi"L'Oi npnny and 1n11ny A1ncri•·an' 8)1ipowneJ'>o, upo n the ap lication of a few •mall produL'UI'8 of •ug<.tr i n Puerto Hi<-o, who l'Onld hurrlly .be o·on8idel'l'<l l'l"'pon•ihlt> pt>n!On~ and c<lrtainly not repre!!<'1\tuti'·" nwn. Thev " ' i•hed to 11\'ail thenu!cln'i' nf l'Xt'l>t!l'ively low freillhl l'llt~J" offer~'() by .. ·onb~'Otlru, fi @hin~r ""'ad<~, wbil'h , h :n·in~ made catch lll:! of eorl on tlw (intnd &pk , pro<• l'<led to PJW11 1• Hieo, >ld thdr tkoh , ~tncl, mthc r tlllln retun1 ho • in halla.ot, • hxJol renrly to tnke c·argoes o( anyt~injl llt almost any price. Whil th rt').'Uiation ' hu" lx-en reins tated ami th <' ~de· '" RjCilin -onfi m.,.l to Ame rican vei!sel•, thl' ll()o!@ihi llt \' it• bein,: o.pt'1W<I to f1 ijlll ~hi1 . at any time is regarded by 'thi>'•'IJmtllln)' R1uf other " hi1•Pilll int ·I'Cl't8 al' a 1 n ~n1U't' te1111in)( to di"l'nnn~ 811(1 prev •ut · tlwir furthL' I' ·ff••rt•. · Tht•\· itt•l thnt lh ,. win not IX' ~<to· nrt' until a law ·js e nacteo l w.hil-h will pla<'C the. Pu •rtu Hit1tn tm · wher•· it belui1J!S-i11 theL·ua.•tin~or trade of the l'nit!'lll'tlltt':'. Thi• i• thl' •1ul ro nt · nphit L'I I h~· th • fifth ·j;lllragmph uf \'Our bill. To l'X t •nrl on•· law~ rt•luting to c·wnmcrct umlnu•·iiCiltion to tmdl• b twel'11 ihiscountry ami J>u rtu Hi,·o Wo1)11 ht' 110 tll'(Jllrtun• fmm hut i11 ,lt'ronlnm·t• with all pr!'l't'· lll'nt fuund ill uur hi-tory. ,, W her• fl'\11\n O i"londs haw bL'l' 1 oli""''"'~ red h.v dti1. 11 ~ of l h e l:nited .'tlllCSIIIlil prud~timl'<l h_ ,.. th~ """"iLient 11 nppl'rtainin;:r to till' l ' 1iit lll . taiL'!', trade betwl'<'ll them ~rytl tbi~ .~mmry has l>t-<: u treated R• part of ~hl' (•oa; tins tnul•. In a cirt·ulur of the TreMur.•·· Bepnrtmenl. •lor "I February 12. ~8ti9, it wu.~ •uicl: . " The . \'t'rnl · ;~land@ p:un t ' und tlt'f'Crilx•l in ~irl. li•t ha•·injl lJt.'(!Jl duly bonciL• I anclt'On•idett.•l by the Pre,.jdo>nt o f tltl' l:nited !'tat 'M appt•rlllinin~ to th · l'nitt.<l 'tat~' in mllnner and forlll pref!(·rihed by Mi<l at·t ( Augu~t 18, and as 11 COJl!il'· quencc thereflf bruu~rht 'under the law~ l'l')tulatinll tlte coa•ti njt t , your attentioll i 1lirecte<l to the 1'11111e with a,.; w to tht: proper en for< ment of • lawMl'(•gulatilllr "''ith •aid i land _. " intt>rcou

,,r

185tl,,

~

FOR TRJ<: 1 LAND OF l'lfl<:RTO Rl 0.

I137.

Th •l'il'<·ular llll'l with apflroval by th uprcme C'.ou l't . (Jonlll:! ·r . U. '., l:li ,,'1 ., Jud Jt.'ll, tllc S upreme Court went further, a)1d h uld that th o l~twH o f the i tnltQd !:~taws relating to crimes 111111 their puni~hment. were of nOCIJSMity cx to1ulerl tn ~ 1 11' h !~lands by reaMon of their ll'1nporary acqni•ition nn<l nct·npnnl' by oi1r dt'zcnH. Tmlle betwt:.•n Al~kuancl ports of onr PncJtk datl.'l' i~ troott..,.l as pnrt of our Oll8t· ;1111 t11uie. ~u, too, iH the tran•portation of g()()(IH bchn,'tln our Atlantic ami l')tcifi1: ~>rtsJalthough while in' tmn~it lh cv aT!' unlood t.'l l at 11 port. of P~tmunu , 11 fo ign 1 1·cllmtry, throujlh whkh tlll'y are t'l\rrit.>d by mil, lln<l reshippe<l to their final •l<'!'ti'nation . . · , \\'o append ll nmnhl'r of h1bl es giving Htatisti<'H with 1'cg1\1'1~ to l'ue rfAI Uknn t ali , JilL'!! ~tnd pi'Cl!Cnt, whio·li muy Jxo n! I!On-it·c to your t'0111111iltec. Tuhle A s hows th •·argous carrie<! by teamel'l'of thist'Oin (li\11y u11 voy)II(CS butweun ~ cw York and 'an .hum ma1le during the HIJ111Ull'r m~d early fall of thel•Mt yea.\ It \\'ill 110 flCUn that half t·nl'goes w~re 'CIIrri I. O_n their return trip~ the V('ljl•ule uJ:mally ,1,me in ballast. Thb Puerto HH'am, hrui notbl!l(.t to export tn tine country. Ta~le B giveH tho 1'111')(0 c·apncity of HtCI\111 ra employt.~l in th e l'n•rto Rican tm•le hr this t·omp~tuy dul'i11!1' tho YCI\rM 18!li, 18!)8, llllll l891l. · ' T•IIl' C show~ the car<,:v capadtr of tho Htcttnll'l'!lno w employe<l. \ D1triJt~~; thllfirMt lmlf f the year, kn nw n as the ' Hll)(l\1' f't!IU!On ," th t;Y will be 111Jie to CtiiTV !!4,000 • t1 m~ r nearly twit-e th u ~mount of MUgllr thllt will he exportu_JI from Puorto 1{icv. ' T~l It• D ~howM thl' sugar t·rop nf Puerto ltico fur tho Ylll\1'1' T8!14 fo I 91J, l~oth inclu•iw. Exportation~ to thtJ l luitetl tutrs have i'lln~Ct.'fl lro1n tn ~5,000 ton~ per •!II:! 2'.l:t)

:m,ooo

IUllltllll.

T11l It• E J(tVIJf! tho rutl'l! c h•rg"l l'n1· t h • t nm~portatio11 of (.tOOtiM from Puerto ic(l to thi~ l'uuntrv llt the pru>~Cnt tin• • mnl for !'<une YCIIn< prior to the ec~vm of tho i:<huul to th u' l nitt.• l Htlltes. It will l ie, "'n that tftere hw been but a •light. inc • U\'C1' ~he 1'lllt!l' chl\rjtt.•l whon _forci~orn •hi)ll< werl' l'1nplnycd. It iH '·' Wl'll.-kn~·wn fact tlmt frl'ight rates h~tve heen m o:re>~m.• l t hroughout tht) worlct; 11ntl n1 most 111 !0!1 1unr • than ba,·e tho~c nf the Puerto Rit'1111 tnule. .• · 1 \\\ 8Uhmit thnt th e intcrc~t~ of Pue rto Hit•o nucl it" people, unci ~hoHU ol' thc, l'iti7.1'11" f the l ' nitL'<I i'<tutC!! a~ \~l'll , will bt•tulnuu·col h.v th11 unu.-!111 •nt of >!<'l'liUI~ 5 of your hill, and rt'"(le<:tfully 111)(<' thn.t it ho.• )lin~ n purly ,m ul f1i\'Un1hiP •·n11~i•lenttion by 1

\'llllt" t'UIHi.H itt 'tl.

' Thit< L'omp.aany uml uther Amurh~u• "hippinjl int.,rd<t• nre .-itully i11tl're:<tcd in tltll ll'l·lfutc of PtJl'rto ltico. Rein!( wl'll 11\.'<IUlllnt.e<l wit.h tho nc•~<I H of th • i8 l~tnd unrl· thl' '' ' despl'Ciul <li~tre~• prcvuiling au'''"ll if • . lx•opi ~J, t hrough the to~~ of • JlllliHh 11111rk •1>:1 which they fonu crly pos:;cl:!licd, tln<l believillg th'11t tho cono.lition~ md~tin~ 011n l>tJ relie.-ed in no wav except. hy th e· aoln'1it!.~ion of Puerto l~it'lln productH to l t.bi~ o'!lnntry without rh_1ty, ~"" Cllrlll.'l'tly '!"lici~ your f1~\'omhle. o•onsirlomtion 11nrl_<~rly IIC'tionnpon th tJ 1lnt1rc b1ll. Puerto R1co wJil, reuuun p11tet1cally bailk.n1plunt1l [lt IR · achuittetl to thu priviluj( · whid1 ~II\'~ been enh1•till hy our othe1· ucfluisitionR of l~!r· ritory. Thelon~t punrlent·y nf hJIIH m Conw<"*' nnly ndcls In IIH' 1l11~1'ttl•~l R1111 "'"' tre"" •I <:and ilion nf nff11i"". ' 1 Vpry ,reHpL•t·tfully, . • )kC .D1~1os & II.• Yll•:s, . lft(Jrnt'!JH.fot· llw .\",.,,. l"ol·k "'''' l'w •i'ftJ Nir•tJ ,\,'lf'flJH.~th'iJ' Uom,,w 'I· (ton . .1. H. FnRAK•:u, . ( 'ltairmou ( }Jiumilfp;·· Oil ,,ttl't"I J R it·u rw(l /'arUit• l K/twt{.'f, c,,;,t!d ,'-,'to/PH .'Vtltl/e. 1

~<ico

1

· A.-.lf rmurwulum of 'W''f'l' '" r·mTicri b•tlhe JJIW<III cr• •ll' t/w l.\',,,. }'(Jrk m .. l f'w' rto Slr'OIIi>ltip (,'omprt;l!f, (IWJIII .fld!fll, JIJ99,to {)cJrilf'l' Jl ,•I S.?.?,.frtJm t/w Jl•rr tr!( .YP/J' ' ork . t•• tile rariou• port• t!/ 1'11r rM flir·u. . U1trrt:l~

~lCiln1.01 hlp .

t·n rrh..t<l.

I :h: J.~~ ij:i

I

~!{hh:: :: h-ir .

.

l'ntot .... ...... ... :.. .. .. ...... . .... .. . .. .. ....... .. .......... .... . . .. . . .. ..

t:t.J,O'!•;

:t.l ,000


OOV~:ItNM.I•:N'I'

18 B.-C'nrgo rap(! ity o.f •teamn-s employe~· by tht 1¥_e1" rork •m<l /'un to Nim ,"<;Yew,•ltiJJ .

. Com}Kili!f rf(<rfl!l 7ll'llt •ugcrr oeo..,n . , .•

THI•: 11-'I.AND

.1\'A II .AIIJ.I·: I=" AI'I!IL. 1

.Jomlltr,-tll . .'..... .. ~llvln

•·•b""''Y ....... ,: *[,~.~;~~~~;~~~:rW

· · ··· · ·· · ·

::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: >::: :::::::1

~cbni:";r 16 ....... ~·lllul' . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

~. OW

· ~:m 1~

~ij~f '" ' t\\~~~~k1b..:,• · · · .· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · i ~~

. ~y 1~

•• : ..•:••.... ,

Th~n•l• (1rlj•3l · ··· ·· ·····'·"············:· · ····· · ················· ..... ,

2• ~

· ~~i~~~~::::::~:;:l ~r.~-~~:::·~~~~:)::.:::::::·::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::1=;.:: Janua.r~· ~i) j· 11 ..• ..• .. Arko.d ltt (trlv ....... . .... . ... .. ... ... ..... . ... .. . ...... . .. ... . . ... .. .. Febn1AT!'9 ... r .... rkll<lll\ (trip lK) .......................... .. ..... .... ................. . , Ycbmo:1'2.~ ....... JtunnlrotiJl l~ .......... ........ .... .............................. ; . .. . l

111911. JnUllllTy '21J ........ WluiCT<.• l(trljl 'l)

t

~~j1·· · · : ~t~g;·. ·:: ·: :·:· · · · · · · :·:·: ·· ·: ·: :·::··:·. ;l ~~ J

Aj)ril 10 ...........

I

Extr1 1 . h.'8m 'n<~ .(goi ~Rf1t h,dln~tn(tl.'r !!llgtlr): \\'ln1!T<.~l !trill 41 ............. ,

~:~

t

,.~::

1

i- - -

...... .. · · · · · .. • ..... · · .. • .. · · · · .. · · ·

;:;:

i

Totul ....... . ... ..... .. ...... ... . .......... . ...... . .............. .

10,._'00

' I'

T<>t"ll l<\19 ....................... .. .......... .... _.. ...... ........

Ut;, :IW

~~:l~\l~~ :~ll! i::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

J:.;ri;.~~:: ::: : ::::::j· •

::::::::::.~ ::::::~:

I

0 1 ~·rutton,- of l'Omrt~ IIIY ... wppcd owing to WRr with ~ IJUill.

r,..J.-

the

M W .l l' ="'"· .l l< lt: XTII ,\ HT"AMt:IIS. •

I

Sll'nic ,.,. ' ll'i ~tif•·rd, t ill'l!<' triJI;!, mpucity 3,300 tAm" ... ... .... .............. .. Sh·ttnl'r '''n•lm•, thl'l'<' tripk, c·upul'ity:.! iOO tnn" .. ... . . ...... . ... ... . .. .. .. . Total .......... .. .. . ...... .·...... .. .... . .. .. ... .. : .... ........ .... I ,000 Totulu\·uiluhll' lonnt ICe, l\c w :'\·,,·k und l'twrto Rit:o btc;un><hip <; ... . .. ' 8.JI, 000 tottttUJ.!l' of lt\'nilnhle Anwril'llll ~n-ilin~t V('""''l>< ' r~·JCrtlurly <'UJ.!IIJCl'< l iJ till' Prl!'rtl. Hi• ·•u• tnt<lt•,' l2,00tl to lii.ii(.)O tun". . 1 ·~-tinmt ctl I

.... '1"()11~.

Crop of IH»~ .... : ....... ,, ............ ........ ... .. ...... ............ r,a, adt. :-lli Crop pf 11!!1.1 _ . . ..... . .......... ... . : .. . .. . ...... . .. . ... ........ .. . .. . 96, o7:tl.l4 Crop of 189H .. : .. . ....... ~ ............·........... ,.1. ............ ..... 01 , ~7:!. li

;:i 8~f. dI!t~.: :::::::::::::::::::.:::::: ~ :::::::::::.:::: :~:~::: ::: !::::· ·~ooo :J, .JW

........... .

t~~t:.: ~ ~ ~~~ ~ f.i:~~i~r~:t?~ ;;::~:: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~;; ~; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~; ~:;; ~;:::;;; ~: : ~ ·:. ~. ~: ~ ~ ~ ~: ~: ~ ~ ~r:~~ ~::: :::::::::1~~~!f~~:~~~~~? :~

~ 1.\\' .

*'GOO -,000 2 :\

~;:nh.~-. :::.:::::::1 ~~~~~.• ~~~.~l·:·:·:·:·:· :·:·:· :·::.::.:.:_:_:. :_ :.: :_ :·:·:· :· :· :·:·:·:·:· :·:·:·:·:·:· :·:·:·:·:·;·:·:·:· :·:·:· :·:· :·:·:· : :·' .~::

I'IJh:H'I'O .ltr ' 0.

hytht• "''''""''r.• of l 11rk um) / 1he,.lu Rir'(j '"'fn tn!RidJJ ( ;owpou!I- Cuntinth•flo .

tn tun".

lll\!7. •

~~~·

C.-Ar·ctilnNn •:arp" et.tfJtl<"il!l f•·o"' Puel'/11 lli<"u '" .\'ew

Cotpndtr

X t111w •

Dill~.

~'Oit

a.400

\

' Non~....,.. A t'UrtHi<lcmhl c pllrti•f till' t·rnp is ulway" ronHrtltl•l in Pncrtv Rico. Son• • of it i8 exportc<l to c<'lltntril'¥ oth er thun I he l'llitc-·<1 Ht.nt!l>'. 'From fin•·t ·i~ththt~ to twn· lhird f(o f nw crop hat~ rt ~ rmll~· hwn t~ hipt x• l tori"• I njh•<l. tutc". IIPnN• ~tll'h ~ hip· . m en!~ hll\'1-' l'ltlt!.(l'" fr·on'c :l:j,OOO '" llii,()('j() fon t~ . ,

Jo:, ~f'rtJi{lhf 1 no: ,1

'l'ftlf' ...

I ) /I

/

11Wt" flt /:inot .'f ll!fO t' flllt(

,..

11111/~"XI'k

t"/111 1'(/f',/ h.t/

. J1111'/";l~ftl~

x/tijtjll' '1'4 .

,~.~-;~~'~t.

.

::: ~~::,,;.;,;1~: ::: :::: :: ::: ::::::: :: ~: :::::::::::::::::::::::::: ::::::::!: :~

1 811~ , ·

,

·

1

)~J~;:;~;::••· · · · · · · · · · · · •·••••· ·'·········;··········l ~: 18!1\): •

::i~~::~;~,;;1~::: : : :~ : :::::::::;::;: :::::::::::::::: ::.:::::: ::~·:: ::::::::,: ~~

Tttll" .

teamer Puntv tnt!w), unt' trip mQlt!hly, t'll[ltlcity :~,000 tnn" . . . • ••... . •.. .• • l,.,llOO ·~nwr . ·,,. J tum .(tk \i·), une trip monthl y, ~J)jle J~Y :!,000 tuM . ..... •.• .• . l , 000 't{'llmer Jfu (new) on trip monthly, cupactty 2,500 t un~ ................. lli, ~ll f'tCltm er . l rlw/io lll<'W), une triti tttottthl y, capad t~· 2,500 loti~ ............. ~

.

: Totul. .'. ·......... .'.... . ...... ............. .. . ..... . ............... f.W, 000 .

.

I

·,

,. \.I

I. 'Thl~ doe8 nut

incl\111 ufhl'J' Aruel'ic·11n tonn;rg" th~;. HillY th;:;;; tJ.d• or;.e of cir('tlll'l · etnnl'e he dmwn into the frndt• to "111'1'1)' ill \'l'l'<l"l'd dt'11 HIIlrl fo~ 111111>'1'0rtuti<•l1 . · ' \'ery Hnlllll , I!Ccutt"' Qf wut· with Spalu. ' Lil ntl c, titnute. ' · , 'In ompdition with f n·ciJ.!'II ,.,.,.,"<'1 ~, 1>·inc· to lh<•!'<':'>'inn of !'nl'rto Hir ·u tn tht> l ' nit<·•l ~~ ' I


(HlVIo:RN~RNl'

~'(I R

STATBDn

THJ.: h-ILAND IW Pllli. RTO RICO .

of

BBDY 'r. OXlUB.D.

' ' The l'IIAIIt.'JAJ;. Pll•u:;e giw u:; rom full nntm•. Mr: Ox.N 110. Ht>nr.' · '1. 0 . nun\. . Th<> C11 IR:\IA . \\ h ' ''"do ,·ou rc.~ide! ~Ir. OxN RD. At Oxn:u·d, (.J.tl. Tht• l'H . I liMA~ : Wtint i:; \'0(11' htL><im\,.;:; ~ Mr. 0 . liD. ~.lltnufltl'llt.l'l'r of ht•et ><ugnr. Thr CHAIRMAN. How long h1wt• \ ' Oil hcrn engngccl in it, and how 1 t•xtrn:;h'(•. i>< \'OUJ' lm:;ine.~"! · ~Jr. ·oxNARD. Ahout twl'ln n ' nr,.;. I· 1111i p•·ol'lirll'ilt of two fm·· torir in · ,.;outhem ' 1lifor niu. t\vo in Nf'bm: k11. and one we nre ju t l'l'.t 'dj.ng: ·~ l,OUO-ton ful'lory. in ,.;outhwr,.;t(' J'n ' lomdo. 'l'hr CH IRMAN. What is thr totul prod111·t M heet sugnrl Mi·. OxNAJU>. It is 110011t 100,0011,000 po'u nds. Thl· CnAJilMA •. Of bert "uh., ... ~ · :\lr. O."NAJU>. Yes, ><ir. ·Thl' CIIAII!.\IAN. \Vhut i,; the JH' duct •f 'lllll' >illg'!\1'1 :\I r. ·Ox NARl>. A bout 300.000 ton~<, mon• or '"""· The Cn lllM~~. )(It king II wtal pmdm·t of nh<~ut ~OO.IHJO ~ :\lr. O~NAJU>. Not quito ~()().()111'1. Th<' l'nAut~IAN .' To n:; ~ :\Jr. OxsARi). Y'. . s ir. ·'fht• . 'HAIKMA!'i. \\' Rtlt i,.:· tht' totu) I'OII,.H1111ptio n of >1 11~'111' in t~ C l ' nit d Stnt1•>~! . ~h. Ox ,· Aim. About 2,000.00(1 tcin~<. Tlw · ·u JR . IAN. You- ~<JX'nk of th l ' nitl'd ~tat1•s prnp1•r in th At eonn t•tion ~ :\1r. OxNAIID. Yl·~ 1 ·,..ir; I do not inclm.J tht• Hnwniiuu l ~:~hwd :; . )lr. FArlliiANK . How man\· ton /. Mi·. Ox 'AKl>. Ahout 2,000,000 tons of consumption, and l>etwern :, ,000 11nd ~1)1). ..pe~lia~ ~5~, 1)()1), tonr< of pro5'netiqn in th l nite~ Sblt . p~opt•r-;-thltt as, If fA>uJ . 1ana hu a good .Y•e lcl. Mr. fAIRUAkK. You do not und er~:~tnnd me ; what is tht• corl~< llluptioul · • · · ~I r. · · :-.Aifl> . .-\bout :.:!. 000.000 tons. . Th' . UAIR:\IAN. ~ ~ it not trne thnt our homt l'OU...IIIIIption hns nC\ r .n.•t t·eadied Its high a figm ' u ±(lji.O(I\1 tom; I . ~lr. 0 · 'ARD. Will you plrn>'r I'Xl'll.'l' me if I ask thr repr .;entatiw of the Loui,.iana ·suga•· int n•>it~ whnt thl' .\'it>ld of 'th1tt , 'tltt<' h; 'l · ~lr. Hu.t .. About 320,000. ·M r. XNAI~O. 'It i:; not qnitl' 400.0()\ 011,... . Thr <.'HAIR IAN. Four huud1·<'d thou, 1 i~< ahout co n ·eetl llr. OxNAHD. \V:r h1 ,.<' ineren.srd from noth·ing in ))('et·. ugar Juunw factU J'I' in I no to 50,000 ton~ thiil .\ ' ('Itt. und r most trying l'irqun· ,.;tnnl'e:<. · . )Jr. Cocion:Lt•. How man\· tons of eu ne ,;ugnr u1·e thPrel · )Jr. OxNARD. Al10i1t · 0\),0oo tu 350.000: this ·pu•· in Louilii:tmt 1 · uudl••·sta nd th \'i ltd i>~ about 27U.OIX) ton. . • · }h. PEHKL'I .' \\' ilf not Califomitt produe 40,(100 ton:; of het>t ,.:uj!ur thi~<' ~·ear ~

· :~ · llr. Oxx nn. Y <'~<, sir; ju ·t ubout fom·:fifth . of th production i:- in ( 'aliforn in. •

RI()CI.

Hl

. Tht·

'HA IIIMAI\. You ~<IW fom-fifth,; of all th!' beet ~<ugut· of tlli,.; ·ount..y is produi:Pd iu Cuiifomi!L I ~J . · OxNAJU>. Y ~'"· :;ir : thi" \'I'll I', hut h1'r11 ttl~!' 11 do.r.rn Stlltl'~< , intet•f•:;ted. Catlifornia is thP li•udin~ onl'. Michiguu I'OIIII'~< IH'Xt: 'tilt'\-' htwe just . tn•·ted thP industa·y: at is thrir li•·~t reur, und U11•y • h:l\;e. nim• fltt•tm·il'>< whil'h W('nt up la,.:t .n'lll" . . Tlwu Nc•bmsku, l ' tah. L'olo 'lldo, New i\IPxico, Ot•ego n, \\'iscon ~ in ..-th1tt l'netor.v i ~ _11ot run ning in Wiseovs in: tlu1_r trit•d a f1u·tory tht•t·p, nnd ,i t Wtl>l huilt wron/{ unrl he,\' gun• it up, ~o J will withdmw \\'i.;t·mi:<in. Minn r..~otu. Illi nois, Nf'w Y 01·k: tl111tr i~ nil. T~c· CHAIIIMA!'i. How nnwh :<ugur i,; proch Mt·. OXNARD. ·A l10ut 300,000 tons. in The t'HAIItMAX. O.r about thrN -fo urth~'! Its tlw wholl• of tlw l !1iitPd ~tnJp;;, of both 1'11111' ,~1 . Oxr:;Atm. Yrl!, .~ir. . Ml·. <.:ooKm;J.J.. Thnw hund'rl·l thou:s~md ~Ir. OxNAHi>. Yr>i. ~ir. · OWII Wit,\' to IIUlkl• 'tHe CHAIRMAN. 1\ow, \'OU nut\' Jli'Ol"l't'd in uny !ltat IIICIIt \'Oll dc,.;iJ·e to the t'Oillhlittee. · Mr. OxNARD. I would like tu ·li!,' ll you, in n tion with the ugnrindu. try of the l ' uited ~ ug1w t•oli)ler - my brothPr,.. nud lllys If hnd. sugur tmst. \V P we re origihnlllll'lllll!'l'.; of thP ~ niLCo111puuy. now knowl1 ns the ~ugnr tnt:;t. 111 Umukl y n to thl' tml'!t nnd were out of l1wd so 1 \\'ent to Europr, .und it oct·u1T1'd t1 U nifed Stnte~ ught to mi >Jf' it~< own'· tb1• lnr~e 1111101111t nbrond- u .hundred ~ idf' th1 C'OIIIth·~· for ~<omt>thing I hnd ·;, l went nhrond and :;pent n.n~ll l' in in .and..Aw·ltl'ht, u:; I ka1ew quite It good dt>nl of pnrdeulnt· tud_v of 'It, ttnd bemmc c·om' i\lt:ecl the U nited ' tntR:-l hnd the soll1111d the t·l•lll!tll', IUtd the hmin~<, to 1'1\i:-lf' its own :-:ugttr with the had ~ e n gmntPr! for thl' pu>~t thirty yrar:-l to the nt .tbut ti111e I I'!Uw· no r •n><u n fur holi ' \'ing thnt · Jli'O el'tion, unci a nry high pnttel·tion to :;uf{nr for the benPiit of Loui,. iunu- 1 hud no rf'ltson to )Votdd he contimwd wht•n thl\ 1'<' WI\.' u po :;ibili frou1 11 pl1111t whit·h ~·o uld g row adlllirnhly iu at th r muu. The tnri It' wns thl'n about ~H· . ~ ugttr, nnd I 111nde up lll,Y min d th.nt thut wus n, .f01· moncv, us well u.; o wortln·· tl1nw to do. &nd Jnmehini'I;.Y from Europl'. · . I wns told that th e ~h· lir:,~t in w~tignti ons lt>d 111e to Cnlifomiu, Ita nnd thut vr a·r Htatk of Neht'll~<kn hnd 11 \'<'IT largP <iem11111 on to t)lllt, til" t'xtrlle nt te:;ts hnd bee•\ mni:\e thrrP, and i11 rny !if I 'tat(\ wu offm·ing 11 hounty of a e nt t\ there and ace pt hought a bounty was.t\ good thing, dedded As a matter of lb11t 1bounty, other eondltions :-;e ·ming ve ry one· year, und I fa,·-t the Stltte did not pay the bounty for do not think any tnte:;. wiiJ e \· r pay bountiet!; not r •ly upon and the moment them. vern! bite~ have off reel small c·apital ls inv t~ted it is withdrnw11. The l:!llme be ~id of Michi-

I

.

..


OIIVJ•:ItNM~: N'I'

)..'llll. 't'lll'y olfl'l'l'd 11 houuty of uhntt 111'1'111 11 pouml, uud 1~ g-olid IIIII III' .Jll'll\111'. Wl'lll ill Ulllhll' f'hp hll'll 4h11t it wit>~ II )!IHXI iill'l'~<tlll~'n~ hu t '1 dou rt it. :\l.1· """'"''ju •nk illl'l'><tig-n.tiou" hn 'I' imli1·nkd thnt ( '1difo1'nilt i,o fur ><III'H'l'ior to :"\(• •m:-~ku. \\' t' huilt n fill't.nl'l' th1•1'1', nucl. "" I :-~nid \\I' hnd 11 tzu·iff nl lhut tinw o~ uhout :!t A'l'n l" ou' ><U)!III'. ' lu I !l.uud L !10, wlwu I 1'111111' to UoU)!I'I'""· tht'l'l' luul 111'1'11 ~~ )!l'l'lll dPnlof .hllk "'"'"'" "h'l'l' hnlukfn>'t tuhh•,"lllHII fouud thnt 'tlw RPpllh• li1·nn 1 u·t,· hnd dl'll't'lllinl'd to clo· H\\'11\' with th i• tnritr on .-<IIJ.rlll' nnd "uh,otitut1;n hounh·. I clid not'likr th'ut'. l~t•l·nu><l' 11.ttluit tinw IIH•Iii'VI·rl tht• htnmh· wn. 11 't~·l'lll ' lll'riHI>' thin)!. "" I hud ,..l:,.n· th1• Htntl' hounll' t'llfllldi" t•tl. hut thut wn" th1• ,,..,.., thing' WI' l'llllltl do und I III'I'I'Pll'd ii: . hnt thKt b~td >~otlll'lhiug to do " 'ith rl'l:u ling' th~· tlt·rdopnu•nt of tilt' hl'l'l ·"llj!l!l: iruhr><l '."· In I , !II till' :\lt-1\inlt•,l' (,iJI 1\ll'nl into l'lfl'd, and Wt tuok 1.1 hounty of ·:! l'l' nl>< 11 pound. In I :-i!l+. wl11•n thl' lll'llllll'l'ttts 1'111111' 'in. thut hount .r w11." takt•n oil'. and in tlw pl'l'iod of ng'itution 1tnd 11111'1'. I from 11{!11 to li\!11 not 11 "iltg-h' hl'l't·>'ll).l'nl' fadory wn>< huilt: 11nt 11 orw. I tlln >< tnt in)!' thl'"'' mult1'r" ttl ,.;how tlw n•u,.;on II' I' hnn• not Jll'll)!l'l'""l'd f:l>'lt'l' thun mig'hl hun • IH'I'n l'XPI't'lt•d. l<:n•r.diody kill'\\' thnt IHllllll\' would I'Ollll' ntf. and it did . Th1•n :t :<nurll 1lutr wn" Jilt ori ttnd~·r i·ht• .\\'iJ,..on hill. a pmtl't'tin• tnritr of niHJUt 11 l't;n • That did uol itHhll'l' Jll'opl" to g-t• iu. hut· wh1•n tlw lkpuhlimu pn1't.1' iu it>< plntfiH'III d1•ti llllll'l'd {Ill' Dt'UII l't'nt i1· party for not kt'I'IJing- faith with tilt• i<u1.rnr prociUI't' t'"· unci ,;nit! thl',l'. wnut<•d t'u pnHhtt·l' 11 I t.lw ,;ugnr tlw Alllt'l'lt11tt lll'opl't• I'OII>'Illlll'll. WI' took it in g-ood fnith. nud ful'torit'.< ,;tnl'll•cl rig-ht in. nml tlwn• hn,. ltt<l'll an immen"l' dt<l'l' lopttu•nt: nnd then l'll'llle tlw :-\pn11i~h ~ntr.ilmltlw l_lawtJ.iiall tpw:<tion t'llllH' up. :<o th!tt '~" h111'1' ht•1•n ~·ontttlnou,.;h· . 1'\'t'l' ""A'' ' th1• tmll' I Pntt'l'l'tl t·lll' hu.-<llll'>'><. thrt•att•m•d i11 lliH' \\'11\' 'or Ullbtht'l'. That i>< OIH' rt<n><on wh1· the lw •t : "UJ.."ttr imlu:<tr.\· i!' on I_,: phKlm·ing- :'iO,Ill.lll ton,; to-dn.1·. My jirdgnu•nt i. · that if \\'t' hnd l'Ontin~ti•d with . till' ><!IIlli' protl'l'!ion from I HIJ to 1!1110 th~t WI' bt\d from L ro tq ISHO "'': WOl~ld hiLl:" hti'P n P!'Odltl·ing IIIII'· thu·d .• ut \('ll>~t. of tlw ,;ug~IJ' tht• l lllt!'d ::-;tnlt'" I>' t'OII:Illllllllg'. )h·. Pt:t RIN:<. Wlmt ),. th1~ I'O><t. pt<r 1tt·re. of thP 1·nltivnt.ion of lw •t ""J-'111'! ?\h. Ox:SAI!O. rOil 1'1111 t'Uitil· '"' for ahottt ~II toll. I I. l'O>'L:! l~lxlllt · :! u· ton to eultiratt•. the rn'l'h<. 111111 to han· '"' thl'm, ,;ny. nlHmt 511 cc11t:<

more.

.)h·. P•:JlKt'N-<. Tlw produdiolt pt<r nt'l'P. i11 ton:<. i" how llllll'h 1 ,)Jr. o.· NARIJ. Tht• proiiudion pt<r 1!1'1'1' i,.; on I,\' ahout a.ooo p01lll(b-\

thttt i:;, ti.bo ut 11 ton and a half. )Jr. J>F.-HKIN~. How mtt fh1• ht>l't-sugtu· i1fdu:;tr~· t'()lli!Jt'te aguins• · thf' Huwuiitw inqil~tJ·.• wht<n• tlw~· rai,:t' f1· m 6 to 10 toll>' p •r ac1~.! )lr. Ox:sAHU. -ou mi rht "'"' LL on :<Oilll' of the plnntation . On ,;ome uf theru.tht•.'· prodm 1• u~.'bigh n,o 1L ton per tlt'l'l'. W P l.'!~n not t·ompct . .All thnt ·J ban ·nid ml'un:s thi,o: The l nitcd ' tutel!! could hot pnKlui.'P it,.; own :ougt r })(•fore 1 !:10. for the implt• reason thttt -the~· mndl' ntt mpt,; to do >'U "" f:u· htwk u:s 18HI' tbl• suga1· I !et w~ n t ilie -, ub~n·-produei11 ·, plnttt of th wol'ld in tb enrly days, but it w devel.o ped up in ' F 'ltncr 11nd Germnny, 11nd developed up hy rnomiou, bounti.~'" · and 9. the.-e 'bounti(-8 and bv 'prohihitory tariffs · thl·~· pren•hted nn.1 1 i!!Uglll: from going into Germahy 1md }ranee nnd Au tria, nod gl\\·e immen::~e · bountie,; in its rl · !jtages; and ,tbnt · re ultt'li in th ir pr~ul'ing, in 1 1 • two-;tblrd:s oi t~ sugar of tho rea:s i.n 1 0 world frQm tb sugar beet in te1,1d of· the :-~ugar l'lln~,

r

<

I•'Oit

TtJiol I ~ LA N I)

OF I'l l ~: 1no IUt lC 1.

1413

two•thirds of it wn>~Jll'ochll'cd frollt lht• 1'11111' nut! unt tlw IJt•l'l. Tlmt. wn.~ hrought nlJtHII ~~ >~o hy tht< fnl'l that. tl11• ht•Pt it,;df wn:-~ dt•I'C"Iopl'd tllllt'~t II>~ you would tm !'rl hol'~l':< ol' t'tttt.h• .. It iH n nttt uml HI hll'tiou , nntl Ill>< IHwn lm•clup, tLutlup, aud up, ILIHi f1·(nu t\ouhtiuing o11l,r (i pm· , · . t'l'n of >'llJ.:111' iu thl' ol'llinal'.l' n•d tnhlt' hl'l'l, in t.hl' whitt• >~llg'tl l' fn·nt (thi• ,.;Umdttrd .t."PI' of ""1-"~tl' IH•I't of to-<111,1') thl't'l' i~ ILil ltllt'l'tll.(l' of I Ii pt'l'•t•t•nt• ~~ d1ff1'1'~'lll 'l' of !I pointk ou tlw tt\'1'111g'l'. Tbl' IWI'I'IIg'l' Mllg'ltl' lot•t•t of to-dn,r 1·ontninM Li1 pt'l' t'l'tit wiH·r·o, a hitndn•d ,1'1'1~1'" ago, it t ·untt~itwd h11t. ii ]ll\t' l'l'llt. W1th t:h11"'tllll' t•api t:tlltlld MILIIII' in\'I'Mfllll'lll )'011 1\Xll'lll't that ltllll'h ll'tol'l' MUW~l','llncJ it ltn,_. n•ndl'l't•tl it Jl"""'ihlt•1·o dt' \'l'lop thl' hl'l't-,.;ug-nl' illdiiMtl',\' of tJw world . If vo11 wnut Ill\' ri""'" iu tlli,.; mntlt•r I will g-ivt• tht•lll ft-nuklv and plulul,r. l \'to' IH~H lluwnii. C11lnt ttll t.IH)MI' i,..lmrd,;, Wl'l'l' Jl\'l'fl'l'tlV ,;at.i. tit•cl. 'I ht•y ,..111\: tltnt Loui,..itumt·uulcluot ~~·othll'l' ~lw 'HI~It.''of' this_ t·ountry. nut! tlwy·dtd not uutl\1• a tty effort :=;. I h1•y "'""" . nt.1sftPd tl11·y lfl'l'l' g'OiiJg' to I'Oil'timu• to hold t'IJi,. lllltl'kl'l. ,,.,t I IH•Iil'l't' tht• tttlvnnt of hl'!'t SUg'lll' in tht•l'uitt•1l Stlltl'>< hroul{ht allottt .tl7n WILl' wi1lr lluwaii anti tlu· wnr with Hl'nin. I hl'lit'\'1' tht• llu w:~iinns "aw that. "'oonlll' u1· ln!t'l', tlwy \\'1' 1'1' gultlg' to lo:<P thi:<Jtlttt'kPt: th:tt thl' l'uitPd Htntl's bad rlt•tt rmi iu•c,l to grow it:-~ ow11 ,;ug-r~r, ttttd tltt•y :-!:tiel "wn mttst ,;top it or lost• it; WP Httt>'t ht•l·cirttt' u. pu1·t of tin• l'OUtlt~,r or dtcok t.lu· tlnv!llopIIH'nt tlf thl' hPI't.-><ugnr itldu>'try.'' Thny wt ln llt~t ahln tiJ 1'111 t' th1~ ciPrcloptttt•ut of tht\ iud1.1,..try. and !Itt· war 1:a1Ltt' lthou t ill ll nwai i, ttl tht•y Wt'l'l' nthttiltt•tl to t.hi,.; t·ountry. a11d tlwir sttgar,; Wt' t'l' ttdmittc•d. ('uha >'tlW th1• ,;unit' lhittg. I lmvt• not, th1• ,.Jightl'st, douht th1tt the l'llll~n o( t'hl' Cuhuu wn r wa" hOt'ntiSI' t.bny t•ould Mt\11 · thnt t.lu•y were 1 ;ru ing- to 'lww tht• nmrkl't" of tho lluit.ed Htt~tl is . • • :\Jr. GAr.T.JNG.:H. l>o l'ou nu•ttn th1• n•volut.lon thcwe ~ :\fr. (hl"AHD. Y1'"• ,..(r; I .thi11k tlw l'lltim l'l'l'.o lutiolt c'onld l111 writll•n in tlw om• WIJ6'd ":-~ugat·.'' ;\h. <iAJ.J.Jl"ta:n. I. th i11k you are ull wru11g thor·e. ~(r . Oxrmrd. 1 . Mr. N •:1 .:-ION. W(• l'lltl >' tlllll', 011 ILV!)l'ltg'l', OV ' l' lil.fJOO;OOO ton,.; ll

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· i\fr. OxNAtW. Yc. , ~; ir. Mr. N•:r .so •. How t.lo you :ti.'I.'Otmt for tb • ful't thut it wu,.; so ahmnitlg ~vhen wt' WI'J'C only prodnt'ing- l!5 000 tot1s, and tho highe~St prorlllt' ion WIU; only 7n;ooo ton. . How do _you nmk n. little· production of . ~5,000 or 30,000 ton:< o nlal'l11ing to thcs ·other produ ·ers '! Mt·. OxNARD. RPt't\UF!Il the.v !-'1~\V we were go! ng Ollltnll ju. t beginning .to develop it. 1 · The CHAinMAN. L undet·~od yon to i!!U.)' that th 1'1' was no develop· ment in the ugar i11du tt·y from 1 91 to 1896. The \ 1\.r began when . tb indu~try was at n .·tnndstill: Doc. that chang ,v our opinion~ Mil'. OXNARD. They tLW thltt i.hu·ing tho. o .yenrs we ·~ad a low tariff, l hut jn 1896- ·. Tb CHAinMAN. But they had ·ommenced the war more th!m a vear before that-in ]<' bruary, ;1.895. But proceed. · OxNARD. Tho e are my firm conviction . I may be wron~, and do not say that I am right, but- it i my idea, from conver:-~a.ttons I hnv~ had with severlllt planter in Cuba and elsewh .~r. J<'AtRBANKS. How much ·can we produde ~ Mr. OxNARD. Two 'million tom. MT. FAIRBANKS. All we require for home con~Sumption1 M;r. OxNARD. Every pound of it. I The CuAmM'AN. How does the cost of the production of the beet

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OOVER:NM.l-_:N'f FOR TH.R l LA D

RI CO.

ugar in' thr lnitPd !Sta~e~ compm· . with t.he co.s t of . prod11ei ng ean~

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e

, M_r: 0 •. ' A~O. That i. th<' point I nm cotlt'ing to now.

GOVERNM.E:NT FOR THE ISLAND OF PUERTO RICO. I

I

145 •

Mr. OxNAUD. That would make all the dillerence in the workl. . I wouJd put money in ~uerto Ri o now, where I would not . in past

We "' nt to year . . and Pt!rrto .~_{t eO' nn ngent of the A~rienltuntl Depart . Mr. MeCol\tAS. Do. you ndher ' to that statement that there are !tU' ttt. ~lr. - - - , to ttwe"ttgM.e the cost, and · .1 . gtve yon his figure~ ·'ll,OOO ,OOO 11crc of land . uitablel tn my ,..t~.b~mr nt. H e t't'I,lo rt::< thnt they ca.n produce ·ugu.r, on ut 1 Mr. OxN.AUD: Of amble Iandt~. I have ne.'ver been to Puerto Rico, . 1\\"l'r!lgf'. rtght through, \tt tt eent an u. hnlf 1wr po md, and the sttnw and am r lying on the tatements of othe rs . . Agneulturnl D epartnti'nt t'epot:ts t hnt "ugar l'tHl l)OJ prpduced b r e fo1· ~r. ~cOOMA: There are . ':m ly about 3,690 square miJ , making · 3 to 3t 't-ent,., JeM·ing It halnnee ngninst thl' prodtjcrr · of th riitrd 2,~,000 acr s m all, ·mountatns and evet·ything. . 'tatt'Hof ~.to . H ee nt~ . on 2 l·ent,o: and n:; to the · plant r~< of Cuba .Ml\ 0XNAUD. I was told by a planter. l>erhaps you are right, Senaand lla un, tlit' Hawnnun plnntl> t'" htl\'t' dec·lru·ed profit,. of n~ high . tor, •and I mu t h~~ove been mi info1·med. P erhaps be referred to the ~ ban• hPtll'd, tL"~ pt>r eent. total area of h\tid, but he said there were from three to four hundred l\1. PKR.IU • s: Ot>n •ml l>t\Yis ;;tl\ted b for thi · eommitt r that tht· ·thouso.nd ncr of ugar land in the Hnwuiinn Islands. an·~ prodm·tion of l'UtH' ugar in Pu!'rto Rico wa: 2 ton to the nct•t• ·. M CoMA . ltun SJ*uking of Puerto Rico . . .Mr. Ox.x HJ). l cun !lOt , refute. that, t>xc pt from the ttl.tement of 1 •• OxNAtm. I ·mean .Puerto Rico. :M~-. -. -.-. • tht' ug nt of .the D epu.rtnwnt of Agt•iculture, who reports ·. MoCJ<?~ A . T?at couJd not be; of. course, wi~ only that number that tt t:; from 3 to i tons <fn th he,;t plnntntiotlfl nnd from H to 2t 011 of. square tmles. . . tbt' IJO<?l'(' t'. :But ~h~' ftwt remn!n" thnt ,YOII CUll P. ·od.t.tl'f' ugrtr fl'Oill Mr. OxNARD. There are here SOl\IC gentlemen fl'Om Puet·to Rico who «'lUll' Wlth the cond ttlOn ~< that ext st th t' to-drw for about n t•erit nnd Q can tell 'wheth r I nrit right or not. My information was from n plo.riter ~aif ar~d nttempt to produee the S~nu e :;ugar i'n the United State nnd from Puer.tQ Rico, and he aid there wouJd be between three ltnd four tt cos.t,o 3 ct>n~:s . I nm pt:e j:>nred to AA,\' thnt thut statement i" l'Orreet hundred thou nnd acre: uitit.ble to. ugar prdducti?n . • · fr?n! my figm·e · f C'O ur .-. to n1nnufn ·ture- nnd that th t'se peopl<' l\if.'r. A:LLINGE H. H e probttbly meant the entire aren. ha\·e that mueh ndvantngt> o\·er u;;. M1·. OxNARD. Probabl.v he did, and that · tnero were three or four The RAlR~rA:oi. Whnt do you under,..trutd the total production in hundred thou. nnd acres s uitnble for . ugnr cuJture. Now, we have ns :Uba and Pu rto Rico to amount to nnn'uaJiy ~ I ay, in. the be?t busin.ess to contend with high-priced labor-we pay Mr. OxNARD. ~Fiftv to " ixt)· thowsand ton.·, rts I undet·stnnd in Puerto our 'ln;bor Ul:i htg~ a .. 3Q ce tts nn hour, nnd iL uncJ.erstand you can get Ri1·o. Tht> tot.I\.J prodtrction in Hi:.. \'aii when we mndl• thP tret~tY in 18·i 5 laboi· m Puerto Hteo for 30 cent<; a dny . · ·· -, · '. Wll.'-~ about -:I:O,QOO. • · ~lr. PETIIOREW. How much is the productiop in Puerto Rico per Tht' liA.IRMAN. In1 15'1 ncre1 . . :;\lr. Ox..,..ARD. Thl'n JliX1Ut 35 OOP, nnd in thi ~ \'1'1~ ~ 300,000 tons. Mr. OxNARD. All the way from J to -:1: ton .. Mr. NELS N. It i mot· than that. · ~ Mr. PETIIO nEw. ·w hat is tho avera<Ye ~ Mr. OXN·,u~o. M t·e than 300.000 '! Mr. OxNA RD. I &ouJd th ink about 2 ~on ·. )Jr. NELSON. Ye,., sit;. Mr. PETIJGREW. What is· the produ tion of the ugll.t' be~t? Mr. OxNAHD. In Hawni n • Mr. OxNAJW. About n. ton and a half. .Mr. NELSON .. Yt>, si r. T~e CHAt'mtA.N. You b~tse yoin· tatementl:i as to Puerto R.ico on Mr. OxNAitD. H ow muth il:i it ? wbat •som body hn. •reported ? · ~h. NEr.'lO ·, Auot1t .J-00 000. Mr. OxNAIW. l<'rom the report of the ageth of the Departn~etlt of Mr. ~NARD . . 1 think ~·ou are mi ,;taken ; [ thin the exnl·t tigur s Agt•icu.lture of th Governm ' lit, who went t~ ere fot• the expt·e:ss are ahon~ -310,000 . .po e of. finding whtl.t it wot1ld <lQ. t, corroborated by what I htwe· heard . Mr. P.KR!\ 1~ . . ln P~t t:to H.ico it'i · clnit.ued ~ho.t tht> rtrea for produr· from dtfferent p op)e from there. I· have never been to Puerto Rico. tton of ugnr 1 ,·er · lumted ; tbat-th p'l'lndpal J?rodu ·t for export i~'. But the um and · ub. tance of my contention i thi ·: Thnt with the low ' coif • and that ugar would not comt' in ·on1petitron with om· pl'oduct. , pric.e of lnuor down there we can not expect to develop a beet -sugar Mt:- OXNARD.. undrr~>tand tl;lere nre nllout 3, 00,000 ncres of ambit' tndu try in the United Stutes in competitiou · it is impo s ible. land Ill Puerto· Hu: .adnpte l to sugar , and if you took 10 per c nt of l Mr. PETil'GREW. How many a ·rc:; do you say there are which co.n ~hat, 300,rX>0 thnt would J)H' bubly- yott do not want to "'row UO'fil' 1 _g row sugad . . ; · on tht- sum!' land ' r.'' yelt.t·- if yon we!·e to put the pr~ductior·i "' of Mr. OxN&RD. Betwe.en ~P.ree a.nd four . bpndt:etl thdusand. As a that !and 11;t two to.ns, that :,yo uJd ~ive you 600,000 tons, and I think more complete expressiOn of my VIews, I desire to make the following th.at t~ tl com~er,· a~w 'tt~ten~ e nt of •w.bat will be .produced in Puert o statement, in which will ~e found tho statement of the Gove nment Rrco ·t!l the n .xt 1h'o year s tf su~r i lldmitt d ft·e.e. '· . agent: . 1 • . Mr. NEt-: N. [n tb mo. t pro perous tint the be t record they C\·er In pite of .denial, this .bill, if~nacted intO law w:ouJd, carry o. probmade, the amount Wll:! on~y about 170,000 ton · nod now the Iundt~ ru·<• abl~ precedent of n vel'y erious economic and industrial character, and worn out nnd worke.d out. ' , · . I will be pardoned for the remark that to make haste slow~y in matters · Mr. 0XNABD. Did,th y have free · trade :with the Uiited States in pertaining to our i'nsular possessions wouJd be 'the part of wisdom, the those years ~ truth of which i well exhibited pcrhu.ps. by the .fact that from the Mr. NELSON. I do ·not rememberJ . ' S. Doc. 147-10 I I

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14

147

OOVERNJIENT FOR THE I LAND OF PUERTO RI 0.

OOVltRNllENT FOR THE ISLAND OF PUERTO RIOO.

bands of it~~ v ry ahle tCuthor t_l\is m ui·e r iv d 'material amend. ment8 aft r tho 'Japs 0( , V ri\J <lays, evinCing eriOUI.l thought, doubt, and ·consrderntion. Leading features of th bill ~'~<' m to be: 1. A gon•rnment of a somiei\"il tLnd militury character; n. colonial rather than proposed for Hawaii- a tenitorit\1 sy~tem. Na~ural­ ization of all th tnhabitants of Puerto Rico continuing. to be r id nt. who w re SJl!mi h ubjed>~ Api-il il, 1 99, cxc•pt surh ~ hall elect, prior to Aprilll, 1000, to pt:l':<ct·ve th •ir tlll gitlnt to pain. Such tn)labit&lltt! 1\re ront~tituted n bod: politic witli l' rtllin powet·, inolud.ing th . right to !!UC and lw surd in nny of th court.s .of the United tl\tes havin~ ·jurit'<iiction whet'• .th' pnrt.) uing. m· sued il:! I\ State of th Uni.t<id ::Stutcil or· (ml'r ) tcn·.itot)· -not .IL Territory belons-ing to th U mted 8tnte ·ph~ ology '!'~end d pt•obtt~l>" to rc ogmz ~nd presern>, SO fnr Ill:! tb4 otbpr rrOVI 1011>< of th ' lull Cnn, tho I!OVqrOJgn r ronstitutional power 'of ngr<'"" m·er and th' rerognized duiitinction lx>tw n a Tcrrit<>ry of the nited 'tnt t! givrn organic law looking to futur l'tutehood, tmd the inhnbitnnt:; o.f tt·opicnl coloninl pOst!l'8.':1ion thnt the Unit d tutc..~ mtLy tH'quire by wttr n' in emnity or otherwi:<c. · But doubt xi t whether th court mn.y not in sQm <' · fail t i:c ogniz the in ntion of Congrc:>S espeeinlly 1\S s otions 20 a'nd 36 f th bill giv ull ,·oter:; qualified under pre ent lnw ami militllry ord I;' 'th right to el •ct tL D legate to our Congrc , whi b i e. t nding a right on ly to tL (fulh· constituted) Terrttory of th 'nited tall'.. etiOfl 10 t.ilt~o ext~ nd our Con,;titution to the i ltLml, which may form tL 1:! •riouf! prcc dt>ut nnd bcl'Oille very obje 'tionab.lc. \Vhat ver is gh·e~t t;o uJd nlore l'tLfl'l_y be dou by s~;>ec iti · laws or a. g II raJ prm·i;. j II tOO plain to ttdmit of llli>'interpr >tn.ttOn ItS to int nt and xtent. It i al · to I not (I tlmt b\r sectiou 15 th-e of eleten of the ex · cuth:e coui1ri l muy be' nativ inhnbit:unts und w ee no rea on why the may not Brit! h or . Plllli h plant I'"• g iving the six in the ouncil a om what' pt·ectiriott . dir ting -power and control. . Th hou. <>f delegnt i. to be el ted by ' ·itizens," but only by tho ·e who pos,< s. the qualitiCiltion of ,-ot r under pre nt laws and military orders, with 1\ch power ,·er th ir r gi tration nnd their qualification · ti mny be prescri d by th ' ex cutive council," whi ·it i int n<I d to ontroll d by th Pre id nt, but which body, 1 tat d i. to contain five nati\· inhabitants. .• We !lrc hot ti fi d ho far th g neral ·}1rovi ion of the bill, o~ th · omission of · 11r prope~ on may legaliz or permit "contra t 'abor (or peon) ltl.W in tho i land of Puc rto Rico but we ·will take this ocm~tOn to state what i p'r obably known , that the injection of 11 proper claus in tl1 Hawniiun annexation r olution and the rofu~11l ·o f the nat to pas th Hou e anti ontra t-labor law in the last n· gre ha enabled the foreign planter · th 1·e to fl<>od Hawaii w.ith ''contract . labor. The committ e wilf probabfy recall the fa t th11t in th case t;>f New Me.-tico Congr b.r expre enactment'aboli bed peonage th r , ~nd that ever in 'the i uan of the famou emnn· · cipation ptoclamatloq it ha be n th p1·etended policy of this Govern· ment .to.rid thi nation of very form of liLbor s rvi~ude, carrie<) on howe,·er, it J" tis-to the disgrn of qumanity-in Hawaii. There. ar at len. 't five, if nqt mor, distinct poin1 involved in the contro\'er~y which this bill will do.ubtle;r precip1tate. :

1. Lost~ of revenue to Puerto Rico and to the United State!!. 2. Tho rel:!ult:; which .an ,erroneous pi'eeedent may prgduco, not so mucb immedh\te!l a. in the near or di!!tnnt futuro, when other men nhd ome·other Congress and President shnll be in power. a. 'Ihe qang r that court:; may ' decide the revortse of whi1t even the friend!! of this 'bill maY. think is being aocomJ>Ii!!hed by it, becBUI~e of it:s dual cbanLctel·--dv tltmd militnry- r cogmzing Puerto Ui<·o ~ mere tertitory belonging to the United ~tntet~, pcrht1p1:1, and yet le~i t~ lating ll8 it it wet·e a Tcl'l'itory; endeavoring to nvoid o·r nting it tr 'I!)rritory and yet !10 aegi lnting Ill! to po ~:~ibly re ·ogni?,e the island~ 'Such. 4. Tho .otfect of .tho lot~~:~ of rovcnue .on Puerto ltictm interoats which the 'f1·ce " \ import:; of Olll' p1·oduct.':l nmy dntnil (see 110ction. 6), the · theor,r of sootim\ 9 being thut the i lund shall be lnrgcly self-supporting. 1 5. The gt'etLt inju:;tic to our cornpcth1g "home indu!!trie " and ~rhnp to our Inhot: whi ·h the "fl'eo" tu.l,misHion of Puerto Rican pmduct.~ into tbe United Stllte woutd entail, violative of "protectipn," tho gmver dnnget· lying in Cong1·e. setting a pt·eccdent for other nnd •far more llm!tt'uctivo demundl:! from ·Cuba nnd other tropieal countric seeking _ cnpture Qtll' uuu·ket.~ dnd ·eventually· dc§troying the ~rodm:tion of produ 'ts at ho.me th11t ~ve have l<?n~ fm1te.r ed. The fact 1 that the,re IS more or lei:! ·contrarwty of Ol)llllon, even limQng friends of th Admini. tmtion, ·oncerning the P,Ohcy which t~hould'b purt~u d, nnd the people huv not hecn henrd. l'hi difference ·o n s i t~t.~ of . om thing more thun 'mere dotnil, nud hn te will only u.dmoni!!lh the cou ntry~thnt there i:s nothing to be ~ttined by precipitation in so gmve n mnttc1· wh · re ctTor may 0 ·cur, mthcr th~·~ugh the application of cl'l'oneou:; principle and the . ctting of a precedent, working unlooked: for •and probnhly perni ·ioul:! ret~ult:;. A 01M evidence of the. truth of our ~:~tat mont that opinions differ allow m to quote a few wot·d: fmm the opinion of Hon. H. G. urtis, a member of the lns.ulnr Commi ion, who, in an article on !'The tatus of Puerto Rico," say:;: < ·

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an

When California wn8 wrest •u from Mexico by our troops, in 1846, the military authorities orgunizcd 11 provisional ~ov rnment, which continued in supreme force until 1850, when California was adm1tted as a State. The courts of the United States upheld tho power and.authority of this military government, sustaining, especially, its'laws And acta in their relation to purely civil affail'!l. , The case of New Mexico furni shes nnbther instance of the administration of civil a part of New Spain· and when it passed government by military officers. lt . mlo the po ion of our army, in 1846, the Mexican depart;! and all semblance of govomlllcnt simuUnneously dumppenred. General Kearny, the commanding gen· ern! of the army 3f o¢euJ?Rtion proclaimed himself governor and prepared a full code of laws, civil and cnminal ; tahli~hed a new judicial system, wtth trial and . arpellate courts; prescribed new Ill Oious of taxatiOI) and appointed a complete set o officers and tudges. He acted witli the approval o/ tho Presidqrit a.~ Commander 1 iu Chief, but without the dirt.'Ct sanction of Congr . The consen~ of the latter bodr. was, however, implied through continued silence. '.11hi8 military a.ssumption of civtl' . powers continued nearly five years-long after the war ended and until Congress C!lnsidercd the people of New }Jexico ready for Tdrritorial government. Then an enabling net wll8 passed and a Terril rit.l .lcgislaturc autborize<i , * * The decision respecting ·ew Iexice affords the moat ample, but by no means the I!Oiitary, precedent for the continunn«e of military authonty in Puerto Rice. All through the war of the re'bellion, an~ after its close, ihe military establi~hed govern· mjlt'tB in the Southern States, a_ppointed courts 1yhi,::h exercised civil and criminal juriadlction, exercised every grn<lo and cla.."8 of sovereign power, disposed of public ~o~ain, and, fllllllly, l~cd ior ten years the privilege of building wharves-a peiiod wh•ch extended far beyopd the clo of the war, and even after the States in question ~nd been fully restored to their own governments. The acts of thC!<O military admint !rations have been repeatec.lly ·upheld by the nited tates Supreme Court.

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R 'JlHE I LAND OF l'(JERTO RI 0.

GOVERNMENT FOR THE ISLAND OF PUERTO RrOO. I

149

It llli\Y be J d thtl.t om;· lo:;s of r e\·enne ft· 111 I>uo,r to 1tican products Mr. theh proc d~:~ t llhow th dnngm· · of xt nding power WOl~d b 1:!1111\11 1 but evel·y 1!1illion given .n.wtty to Briti~h ttnd ~pn tisb to pi.'Ople in m· tropicnl pos:; >~io n too. fu.r. . sugtw plantu1· HI Puerto R1co must be lmd upon ~m t'tl'ttt.l ·tnxpnyl:ra. He .furthe AA)' thtlt Piu rt~Uict\11::! at . " not rendy for ·th ballot, . Nor i it clettr that if tbi" i ltmd i ~:~ to ho li ubstnntmlly self-,.uppo1·tmg nor 'for jurv trials in <aH it (• mt:<, nor to sur!," nder nil it.:; cu toms tbut th gift of th cu:;tom r ,. nue uri ing from om· produ ·t.'l going dtiti 'n nd t r ,·enue 4 ri,· •d th refrom. Tho l? ople of the nited tbPre l'Ollld well b tonceded. It i:s nid Dr. Carroll t'l'J>Orll:! Pum~to tate , fot· t ir pnrt. at· not yet r ctrdy to r cmv nil Puerto Uico.n l~ico eollc<·tl'! from om· products nearly u million.·~ year (:t1V45,677). produc "fre of dut~· ." . ' 'fo l egi ~:~lnto in nny d!rel'tion l'nleul!ttrfl to i nd!<'!tte fu~m·e stutchood The , impl truth i thl.\t the1 is tl ~:~e riou conflict going on b t\veen for infolular J?O seslli<,m 1. tt p1'obl nmt10nl pt·opo 1t10n, w1th tlto cbnnces opposing force:; · o\·er thi~ cp c,.;lion and it can v i·y profitab,ly bo in ftwor of tt.s unwi dom. · e te nded fm· months nnd unt1l 'ongr{~S is nble tq. di ·ov r wbnt tho '\ itb thef<C brief r mnrk::;-not intended for nol' r eaching the dignity ttled or better judgment of th Amet·tmn pcopl 1s. of n <'l'iti ·ism of th bill- we beg lcn\' e to turn OUI' nt!'Cntion ~o .tho pt·oTh<' uestio'n of I'C\' nu cot1fi'Ont" th countrY. W e htwe p nc Yi:lion~:~ contain d in ::; ctiono u, 7, nnd 1:! of tbe lnll, prond1ng :;ub· with pain, but a wnr on brwi.l in th e Philippine"'; tbc r cnl end of which .sta n~in.lly n:; fol'lows : . 'can not be fot;l'sccn, nnd C\'(,'n if it d<'G' nemt ,. into inegulnt· wnrftw , Gh·ing Puerto 1{il'o th honetit of the Rl\lliC mt.('ll of rev nne tmd and 'YO Qo.!~umc the bl.trdt•n f li!rot. ct1ng peopl: nnd P!'Opct·t~i it will duti :; on foreign g?od:; e nt.ering tho i lttnd as~ o bt~ve in the oo xpcn!!I\'C for many. r n~on~:~ whtch the commttte ~vtll rendi y com- prot.ecti1·o lJnited 't;ntc. -nl~ goods entormg t~e tH~ttna f1·?m the Untt.cd ::ltn~ , or p.rehend. Our bond::!' fqt· th e ~panish war will b com du , intere t ,·ice ,·er>!ll, to be fro •; tho ' free lt. t ' . m the t t~ll\n<l, not mnpphcnble, account mu t l k pt up nnd w htw plu ·ed n pr tty h •twy burden to be the proyi,.iont~ of th Dingley lnw, nnd our intcrnnl·t·evenue tnx by way of tl wnr-revcnu tux upon th co untr~· ·om r.m·bs of wbjqh lnw:s to oo nppli d. . are a~ ''er drain on the middle nnd poorer clns ·c:s, ltk th o tu..'\: on 1 am 'n itlt r prepared nor cQmpctcn~ not· do I nppr ho t~d !he ~om tobacco-and beer a nd th tnmp tnxe,.. " ' c need economicttl publi mittee det>ir.cl:l to now hear any qt. cu ton of th grtwe const1tnt1pna bujJ<Jin,g" ull o\· r th .count T thut would gi,· employment to vury qu :;tion thnt mtl.r he im·oh·ed, uch u. whether b~ tho treuty of · nc JllRQ~- luhoriug ·peopl : out· Nl\\'." i11 not u:s .lnrgp probnbl~r n: it f<honld with ' pn\n, the i lnnd of 1~um·to iB.ico hey!\rl) tt pu·t. of .the m. or will lw : out· rin~ r nnd hnrbor imprO\'Ciil<' nt.... ,bould not h cntirel:Y Stntell, ot· whtlthcr the "t,mtfonn " claws' 111 tbe Con:stttutwn relatm ignor d.• bccatl · of th e injury thnt policy would intlict upon not only to dutie:s npplie:;; hut I iun r clin.bly ndvi :scd tht~t it hn~:~ been deci~e Ol,lr Jarg nnd iucr siJ:lg tn,t ernnJ t•ommen· but On existing ULlCOillthnt,tb " unif01;m ' cltwse n.pplic only t~ forctgn produc ente 1 ~1g pJet('d \1' ork, nnd if we nrc to 1wild t b Nicnrngnn Cnnnlnnrl l:lnbsidjzc th e United Stntd,;. ' • . . . , n men· hunt mnrine, I' run m nbl t ·' why-fr6m n r venue tmld1 {v iii however, v ntnre to tr -apn. :s upon th • tunc of thts cormmttee point alon .we "houl(l ju:;t rtt thi,. .juncture embark on tt policy' of long cn~ugh to qnoto 011 this pnrti uhtr _ubject the following from the ei th e r rrdprOl·ity or f.urth r tbnn we ulready do on th sen of "free Nmv York Tl'ihunc of Jnllti!U'\' 17. 'pcnkitw of the nrnval of the tnld ." ' third or fourth ~· delegatioi1 • f1;om Pn •rto Hi ·o, it. :say:;: . ut· ft·l' • (nrt import" for, Thpy have come to pi!!ltrl for the establishment of au oh1te frOO> trade between l~u wen; only lot p~r cent f otu· total. Puerto Rico and the Un it e~! tates. That i ~ pra ·tical and legitimate rnt\tter of 1 ' tH: uhout tb same. • desire. Whether it is to be granted to them is another thing. There is much to ~ l~t).') the\· were :! per l't'nt of our totnl. !!aid · in favor of it from their point f view; but there is much also to be eatd against it from another point of view, oand it nmy .be t hat other points of view will in 1 66 th e\· were neru· h· 1-1: per l'e nt of out· total. the end be deemed . ptfnunount tu theirs. · . Forth 'nl'xt ' ix · .n•iu·,., or until · l 13, th rwemc:r of our free n That however is not: the ~i nt of present consirltration, but may he left for mature import .wns ,onl,r· a trifl r O\·er · pPr cn nt; for the fo llowinc• ix y ttr ¥overn~nental judg~1cnt. What is at this moment t btl observed, and to oo regretted, IS 'that a fal se note seems to hav been struck in 'nformally stating the case. The the,· rtltl up to 27 p r ce)lt in 1 ' 73. to 32! in 1 ' i , nnd to ttbout th...o comrpissioners are reported to have !!aid that ther. ric ire "the adopli?n. of the sani rn l In i !)() tht> · wer 3-! per cent, jmhping to 45 p r ent . tates t.ariff Jaws in Puerto Ei o," and that they " 'ant Puerto Rtco "to be 1· nited. in 1 91 br .an nJarO'cment of tb frc li ·t unrlcr t!h~ McKinley lriwput on the aame llasi~ jn regard to tmde as arc,the present tates and Territories .of i bori't ugar t·~achjng 50 p r c nt in 1· .9i. '· the United 'tates.''\ t/ they did say that, they spoke injudiciously and ~xpresaed a doore for that which certain ly hould .never be granted. That is not to say that free Our t tal free imports i~ 1 97 .... _. -- .... - .. · - ·- .... ·- - , ___ .. -- ... $317,329,110 ' tradQ should not be gmnted. It is to say that if i~ be granted it is to be on other A.ugain ta 'duti~ble · tof -:·-·- .. --.- .... - ... ---- .. -- .. T .. - .... 365,302,2~0 grotmds than those stated. The hws of the United S~tef! are n<?t to be appli~ to Th a1· rnge burden of int rnnl-r ,. nn taxation, 1 91-1 97, both any place outSide of the Unitt'<! States; and. Puertp Uteo ts ?utat~e o~ the Umted . Stata~, and therefore they a!'O not to be .ll:pphed to It; A law tdenh.cal m te;ms and yean inclush- , wn o\·cr 149 , and it fell almo t entirely on ·purport with one of the Umted S~utes mtght be made for ;puerto RtC<!, bu~ ~~ wquld our .~wn pcopl . It can not fl\11 anywhere el· be a Puerto Rican and not a mted 'tales law. There IS an essenttal dtstmcb'>n, with a difference, bet ·een the laws of the United tates and the rules and regulaFor tb fu!cai year endjng June 30, l 99, our internal taxation was over. 273,400,000

Our e;r;pen<litures were over_:.--- .. -·-·--.- --.----.---- -- •• ---.---- 700;000, 000 The d .6cit_ __ . ·-~---- ,_ .. __, ___ .. ___ .... ---· -· __ .. ------ . : ____ ---- 89, llO,OOO .Our .total receipt!, inclu<}ing 11,000,000 from Central Pacific Railroad. 610,000, 000

Better li,ft orne of tbe burden from our own people before ex~nd­ ·!ng ftwors to the tobacc<?, ugar, und coff e :of foreign (¥anters. Tbnt 1 what our taxpayer· wlll expe t and~ mand.

tions made by Congresa {or the control· of the outlying property.of the United States. That distincbon should b.e recognjzed ·by Puerto Ricans. It celjl&inly should never for a mmnent be lost eight of by officers and citi~s of the United States, not even In.infomlnl diecuse.ions. . ' • f \ ·

Assuming then thu.t the "uniform" clause does n.ot. govern the •'


150

GOVERNln:NT FOR THE I LAND OF PUERTO RIOO.

' the idea n well if not better Th qn~ion .of th advisul?ility o~ U1king away th e marke f? r Americnn beet sugar be@tO'IIIOg I , Or &ny ['OrllOII of If thn~ taken 1\WUy from merican mainland ca)lprodu<'t'fl! of Puerto Rican sugar, is t\ queetion of entiruly too l!"""'t Pll."fi~can • I the broad mterest~ of th oldw- Unite<)' State to be settled with-.~~tda ~!Jfl!('t a.p~J to th,e people. th ' l,ni!eh'C!!. When th tl i8ion of qnCI'tiOIIH of thi m !11\'0lv the pi'S('tlcal ~nhl!l·ntlon f the pr perty of e group of r itiz n as, a fret: ~t~ft_ t another group, 1t cun not be tn1•tt'd to th m<'te ex{'('Utive head of the ::11~n 1 It l!honld be left t t~ sound di8Cn'tion of th cptire JlL'Opl ~peaking at th

rd

.!f..an~ l~bor, upon

Pue~ Ricans ~nd .A~teri<'8n 8JlC<'u lutol'l' in th!' i•land should unden>tnml t.hnt ho lnduetna l ~nd ('Ofll~!'erclal buhtnt-e of th~ oltl_e_r nited. t!ll e8<'1lll not be 1criflced by IW!h expcnrn nt8 ~ 1th regunl l.o th ·~cii·IAAbllltl· of hrm!fmg the j>rod ucel'!l nnd producte of a mparatlvely cold dnohtte 11110 nukt'() competition wit 1 the prod'ucel'!l nnd product of countries within the Tropica.

GOVERNMENT FOR THE ISLAND Ob' PUERTO RICO.

51 .

dn the dispatch would plRCo the crop 1~t ovet· 753,000,000 pounds, to' one- ixth of our total consumption. And we are told, Reptiblicans, p~ sumably protectionists, that uch an incren.se ing 1a country free of duty, tht~t would d pletc. om· revenues to the extent of ovct· '12 000,000 annually, can htwc no elf ·t upon Ul' dotne tic spgnr industry. · And hone we pr ume it is propos d to add the Puerto Rican p11oduct of 100,000\00Q" round , thnt will likcwi~:~o inm·ca 0 vor.r mp~dly und, r the stimu us o free trude. . Will you nlso 11pply it to wool1 · Will you 11pply it to. ·cotton or woolen good~:~, to thq production~:~ of iron and steel, to the grcttt army of t·oducl:io in the Dingley bil11 If not why not~ I do not think an)' word of wait•ning from m i neces ·ary to oldot· tutd wi ct· men on · thts particular bend. · · therefore, to . what may be ·enll d the 'hunw.niturhm" \Ve pn point, whit•h is nothing more nor le:,;s than 11 confc sion o1· un ~~. tunption that in wan·ing for humanity we l)avo caused It people irreparable lqs thnt in trying t;o. hotter a eondition we hawo nuule it worse. ·If tha is true, nnd wo )Y ill tt·y and show th11t it is not, we had better l:inve loft Puic>rto Ri1•o with Spain. , Why nll this uddgn n,nd pt·et01.1dod solicitude for lll'iti. h and'Spn 1ish planters it1 ttn i lnnd who probn.hly will never nvail themselvc. o£ 1the provi · iotl of autiele 9 of the ptmish treat~ j:.O hceome dtizen , e · erially us mnny of them m:e nonre:;idents ~ The public consci nee, · 1 cnn be aid to npprove "fr tt·udo" with Puerto Ri ·o in products hat compete with our ·own 1 might readily and more tcndru·ly conside~ its effeet or1 home indu$trte.s wl1ich employ labor awd hnvo tlttrncted ~i t ­ lions of cnpitnl under tho implied guamntee 'of tho Amoricnn· mtuJ!tot:, with uch prices nnd fncilit10s of di tribution, of their goods ns ~ reo competition within Am i-ican borders will p1 rmit. It i1:1 ~~very grave qu01:1tion thi , that affect the m m of livelihood offrent ma sos o~ our citizen~:~ nt homo an~ the good faith of Congre in romulgnting lnw. under the opemtion of which Americau labor and pit!tl btwe n right to feel them elves ecure for an indefinite period. • · Nor is it any an wer to sny th(l.t we hnve not, fn the cu:;e of fo~mer acqhi~:~ition , wi~hhold froe-tmde relntions. Th'oso acqujsitions did not p1·qduce 1\IIY article ~hut seriously, if nt all, competed with our ow'n. . The Protectioni t 1:11\YI:!: •

It it~ 8om ~vhttt slgn_ificnnt t~nt thu fnr Republicnn journals, for th mo .t pi\rt, h~t\' refrnm~d ft'Olll _th expre ><ion of clcfinit Yi ew on the obJect nud om b1w tgnor d 1t ultogether in their editorial coJumn . Fre -trad. papet· ~enet:n lly t•ommend th propo ·nl for fre tmd with Pu .r~o R1c : but m domg ~o th ey app at· to b I M~:~ 1wtuat d by the eqmti of th ca ·. ~ltl1 b.v th hope thu,t ft· e trade with thi fsland will mark the· begmmng of th Pnd with tho whole protectiv '-tariff y tem. . I~ may _be l:!i~i~ th_n t _tll volum of pr_odu •t;. from Pu rto Ri o c01i1~ , pettng wtth om o" n ! too :sn1all to lllJur th lntter, or inve tm nt . that produc th same. Now, I ubmit to thi ('Oilmtitl.ee whether that h. .. \' r befor be n uppli d by uny man profe:ss in~ to b a protecti.om t ~ \Vh ~ and when ~f~ro now was nn.r ut·h 1d a admneod by etth r ~h \\ htg or th It pub~tcan party I It can only be ijkened to the.. mruden and her bnby, wht·ch lnttcr was too small to he of nny sertou account. If thu:t i:s to b announced ns tho new dopat·turo' the great principl of "prot ction" is here and now forever buried ' .But a.sid from that it sc 111 to u we have b fore heard th~ ar~ _ tnent th t th ,-olnme of products i too ~<mall to affect home indu t 1e 1. The oppo!!ition to "free t.rru\e" with Puerto Rico is not inspired so much by a feeling of apprehension that the f admi ion of products from that island 1vill mateIt i th 'old Hawaiian s~~t mont remin d to do duty for Puerto Rico. · rially injure our sugar and tobac<:o industries as that it will establish a pn-'<!edent for In ~ 7~, when the Hawauan promoter· af tha nation treaty with the the application of the Arone policy ev ntually to Cuba and the Philippines. Though · Umt d ~t wits ·agr ed to. 'Ye ~ve~e told · tbnt the ugu.r output of the advocates of fn."C trade with Puerto Rico are giving out certain-aseurances that a ~e ndwtch I l!'qds was ~ .tn agmficnnt to warrant apprehon ion, different policy will be adopted for' the PhiliP.pines, and aleo for Cuba should that island ever come under our permanent eovereignty, ita opponents urge that 1if we much l any. fear. and th Job went throug-h. To-day that product takll the flnrt.'l!tep in this direction it will be only a question of time when th same amo.un~ toO\ r 633,000! pound. nnd i mcrensin.g r~pidly-about recommendation will be made in respect to the other islands. · one- ' nth of our. tota ·on umptwn. A Honolulu dispntcb under dat of NO\·ember 23 say : ' .. · In other words, the friends of the proposed legislation say, ' We . will stop at Puerto Rico." Gen~le~en, you will not be here; o hers -<Jomp~e ret~ from all island sugar plantations, 'as made to the Hawaiian will sooner or Inter occupy your htgh plnces. One Congress may Planter!! .AJ!eoc1~t~n, how that th erop for the year ending with September 30 amounted to 282,~1 ton , l'alued. at 01:er 22,500,000. This i~ an increase of 63,393 not bind another in an attempt ·to erect any such bo.rrier. -tone ~l'er.th . prev~<rus ;>~e&r. El!tJmatee for the corning crop ind.icate that there will We come, then, to the point advanced by the President and Seer tary be a hke mcrea.ee m thll! year's crop. . Root-that Puerto Rico has lost her markets and that we are bou d to . Th~t would be 633,,i 7,6 0 pound ' and tho· incre..e (53 393 iong r- find others for her. • , tons) J equal to p9;600,000 pounds. .A like incre, fore~hadowed A remark or two •will shed a ray of light on the Puerto Rico p opo-

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152

I

GOVERNMENT F'OR .THE I LAND 01-' I'UJ<;RTO RICO.

OOVERNMl<::;fT !fOR 'l'HE I LAND OJ<' II·UERT9 RICO. ;;;' ~ . I

itioo to allow the prodn lt.'l f that islnnd to ente.- nr. ports fn•e of dutr nnd· tJCI·haps go flu· to cxpleickl the '' humn.nitl\ria n" theory. Tfw .11111 rt~ of prindpnl nrticles into .th nitPd Stutes from Puerto H.ieo in 1 !H (th _ycnr before our wn1· wit!~ "'pain) w r in nlue :?.1 l,OU, of whidr ugtw and molu:.'lst•s rcintt·ihuted ~l,H4:ll,443. Thnt ulon(l cxpluim~ 'u gn•nt deul in ronn!'l'tion with the fnet .thlt.t fre tmdc in . ugar m •nns Lt c\'nt>~ n pou,nd on, suy, 100,0()0, pounds of sugnr JX'r' annum- :-luv $t.500,000 pe-t· nnntun. : · ~- 'J1u~· Ame1•imn Sugar RPtining Corupnny, othr rw6:;;e knqw n n::~ the " ·u~rur trul'lt," Wttnts nil thr mw ><ugur it etur get dt~ y free, the mte on if::~ retin~·d produl.'t. ll('ing nutintmnPd. ·:I'he Pt~1·to Hil'Rn plnint nbout lwr Jo,.,.. of mnrkets :-~rems to I • btltoed on th~· hoJX' thut we will ll><><tlllll' tlutt ' p:tin trruted her and he1· produl't kindh·· nnd thnt ~<~intge t-c ,.. ult~.< hn,·c or will follow the ce:<. ion of th(' .ii<lntid 'to the l nitcd 8tutcs unlt.>><s w~· intt•recde. 'l'he r('"ult!! of n burrk'lln(' thnt pu~:scd on · portion>< of tbc iillnlrd hn.Yc he •tr u:co d to pirturr ·• honor~'' in mo"t ><l'n:stltional nncl minute detail t . rtttrttc.t :srmpnthr. hut rlid we ent· hrn.r of likP di><n:<tt•r:< wbl'tr Spain o.wned the J><lrt1id ?' And wbut nhout om· own l'.n ;louc,., drotwht.-., nnd other p1·o,·identiul ,·h•itntion!l ( Takl'. tbi:< ,.ide of the pirturr Jll'l'><entecl in n g'l'lleml wny hy Mr. urti,.., of Purrto 'Hil·o. undt.>t' ' pani><h ntl •:

the 1 vernge Puerto Rican ough't to feel th11t he hn!! been trnnspot· cd' to b II\ en, tltHi como. out of the mve of Adu Umn, to whiob he wi:'IIICS u~ t b lim·e h hns retired, nwniting '' f1·ec tmde" with the Unit •d tntq><. Th11t of cou r . would be an cnsy wny to the"'n.IJ olution whl·b we all c. m to dc!!irc to t·enub. I I it not pt•obttulo tb1tt the ('Urr<mev question in Puerto Uiuo ha8 n grent(.r b ·nri'ng on eontlition:; thtft nll eh ? Time wil·l not permit me to refer to thttt nt 1t11y' gt·cttt l n~th; tho mutter i fully treated' in r. Fort 1'11:! report to · out! ' (lt'l' •l;ltrv of t.ho 'l'l·en:;ut·}·. Mt·. nllllmr, of :Now York, to whom Mr. Porter'npplicd for infl'mlmtion, :;nys, nmoltg othe thing:<: , · I

1:

Th ' 1

pit• of the htland

lin"

Tho only dnrk apnf in tile whol e nurth•r is the 8U!(llr /'Ianter. OwinJl to the low if tllC' ~tn l•l Mtnndanl is linall ~ ~ tahlishc•l\ ns on ucconnt of the inntkqnato .rnnchinery, th o l~ck o £ prop(lr · to iniwtt e t ro most fertil e zone of the i•llln(l, und~ nbovo nil, duo to th · t•nornrol'l nntluu ~JUIII taxe• 'thut thi• i1ulu•try hu• hud tn lx.~tr in rcjptinn to other industries, ilw n•8ult. is prat the nctunl o wnul'li of 8rlgnr, phmtntit>n~ luwu n o~ been nbl q to enrry bn th o wnrks rt•gularl • bl!cnuae df the <lt•prct•m!.otl currC)roy tlmt grvea thom he bene· 't of· tho e,xdrnng•·· • •· . I

Th:i>~ i ~< the t~mllc old'1story told )1y JaHmica ~<ngtw plu11ter::~ nnd oth rs · in tho.ll·it.i:;h ·" 'r:<t Indie. --l:wk of umchinm·y, 111 ults to inigtt(o, n'nd !'norl'ltOII~< tnxntion! Must our dome:<tie :;ngar p)IIJltCI'I:i 'pny fol ' aU that ~ , . : . We ban• nh·Pad.r eliminntcrl the ' pnnish l:ii:tem of "uonsulll.ption ' tnxe. , likt•w.isc th pttym{'nt of )i\9~,000 to :coupport tho pri •:;thood in · Pn •rto Rit·o. Tlic insulnr uonnn is:;ion repot·t.-~ thnt the nu mbm· of oflil' holde·,.,. nnd mun.ii·ipa! ofli ·inl>~ . (undcr :::lpiuli ,.h l'ule) wns so hu~e·· that It \'CI',\' l'Oil. idernblc IUIH)II tl t of t•eueiptS .j f i'OIJl onCl'OU btXUtion ' wa:< ·onsunHld fot· fees for l'Oll l'tion nnd sultLt·i cH oflieio:ls, th • cost of ,''lru11ning" tho t'it~· of 'an ul1n, n eity of on ly 25,000, heing ~33!) Hl, ot· $13.50 pl'l' cnpitl't. · .. T o "111110 ('Oilltnis!!ion nl:so stt.n; hnt-:

not w('(ldt><l to tlwir ~y~tl'm ~; tlwy tlo not, in their

. lf tb · ' nitcd tntrs for It :<tn1'tcr reform ~ nll this it will ati ·fy . our hligntion. IL'l ft ought to sn.ti:;fy the people of tihe ishurd, nlbc1t pe{'i~l interc>iltl'l .be1·e and in Pul'l•to Hico llllt~- want mpre. From ":bnt we; bt.>nr·frorn th !mportt.>r,.; of N_ \\1Yo~k ,(free tmd~rl!), the <·ol1mnttec nught he led to thmk that the ex 1:;tenc :Of the Amer1can metropolil'l d<'_pendcd on •' fl'cl' trade" with Put>rto Hi co. But that i . · th usmtl howl from tb Battet'Y to Fomte nth tr et when tariff enter~ into' ron!lid ration. · · · We do n t belie,-t.> that ithe1· tlii" com.mitt or ·Congre. will be led a ay by ~ n,oati'on or selfjsh plen. W do beli \'('~hut our dome tic intel'(' ts wjllnot be aske<i toe,- n risk a sn.crifice. 011 idering Spaii)'B rul in ubR and in Pu@rto Ril'o frolll any tundJlOinLi ' d comparing it with the in Yitable tefOI111S that IJlU.St ensue unde11 1ericao rule, '

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.

~tke ut whil'l1 he would· .he' t'Olllpelleol tn •t•ll hi ~ proo net

Pro)"-' r chwotion to their c untry inl'lu<lc IO\'l' t•i th cr fo r >~pain <r fnr the luws by whrch thf'y luwl' l>een oppr~, hd~l in iJ.!nomm·e untl "''rmb<mlngc, rutd l>rmlmrt>tl

with exC\'t!l!lW taxatio n. Former ··ondition811' \ ' C l:x>cn, to t)r . Puerto Hicnn , exccetl- . ingly orwrou.. . · . The •hool ~ ,., t(•m in Pul'rll> Hi<'o h!IB been ntt e rl ,. worth lc ~~. With few ~drool s and n o l.>(• h oollion>'e~, ltml with th e Homan Cntholic ,:uh•c hi ~ nr ns th e principal toxt-' . book , it i not. slrim re that not exc 'l lin~t 10 per ;•en of Hr. po!Jil lntion t•nn rend or rit .· . Taxution unolt'r Rpani8h rnll' Wllll8imply ontntgeOnP, while th4 ex'pemlitures were aln o t bey nol ·1 •dil'f. In th e l'ity of ~a n Juan , " -ith u p<'pnlntion o f about 20,000, the t'(lnsnnrption. tax on !qrl et! of r'm•nt hu<t yt•ar Wllll .:l::l,OOO; on h~e{rcl , , :{0,000; htit on ir o imtin,: ' liquol'l' nly , 1,000. Accord in,: to uctnnl ll~tttri's furni•h etl by the !'!>lllllli ion 0 th • t' XJlt>nditu i'!' in" n lnan 11lon • cou1<11 •un nunll~ <lccrCW!<od $1-10,000 bv the introolnetion of Amerimn methods. In othe r t o wn~ , hayinl.( a popul11t'ion of about 5,1)()0, 111'8\'ing o f , .3b,OOO·a yllllr could be df(>t•lt.'<l. Tho Jnsulur Commi •iom reports 2.000 nll'ri ('On fined In tho jnll~ nnd J:.Cniti' ntiaric~ of Pmlrto Rico. 11I11ny of th unfortunah'l< hu.i:l lx)()n inrarrl'MIIL'll for moirth• und yenr$ without trinl· and Qn(' rlrlln haof lan)!'lii shed for six ye11r8 nnU nine months in 11 drcR'ry edl, tho bdv.less \~rfim of nfel, fol\·e. In on' iuil 1-19 pris ners w~re anxiously awniting I rial, lhf?ir \ nght ue ~em11ncls for o hoorrng lurnng lx'Cn . ignon:.'\1. Alnroet nil of theso Wl]re chat'!!'''-' wrth J?UHY offen, ~. .

153 '

.f.f

Th ~sy tern o f tnxntio11 \~lrit·h h;r~ pr· •vnilt.•l i11 Puerto Hic:Q Wllll, briefly, to coli ct nil th t wus poflliihle fro m the l"'ople uno Ito expend all thut could be collected. The

m liercr wns lh u m·er·prc.onl C\•il , untl his Hlrudo w Will! nlwnys present over the poo rc~ un,d hnnrbl ~ t horne. Thu ,:rent\ lnnnber o( offl,ci.aiH the ncceRMry amount of ex ' lldrtnre ruqmred to kcop up th e J.!UllCI'Ill nnclmumcrpn\ ~;ovcrnmentH, :m•l the cxpor se o f ·o)lcdions nul.Tc!! burden nh uost overwbelm\ng iilrta nrngnitud e. 1

U\!(

·

T1is sy::~tem and thi. burden are l!Lrgely to f~ll ii under our governmen . I · Ht ve our taxpny rs not don e' nough, for n little \vhile at least 3 We h:w gh·cn our on:; a a .1u:rilice ill tbo cnu:;o of humnnity· we h'ave incu~red milUonl:l of d ebt; we will Jlft the oppt·e :;i ~·e burdens of' unjust taxu ion ; w will eduuate tho IJlllS. . und nd tlle people of despotism ~ it hn. mnni~ested itself in o man ways. · ' T~rc i::~ no p.t·~ssing nece : ity fdr tendering, ~lms to a ,peoplr- who htwe b.een thu s1tuated for 111nny yei~rs, when 1 tt s a. ked to l}e done at th ex.pen:;e of our home indu"tl,'ic~. · · Ta-dn.r we find in Puerto Rico-if',1ot in Wnsbitigton- two faction~:~ fighting for political rna tery, which only the firm hand· of the military power for a time cail ~ . afely ~mst~d .t o control. The Latin race, !Lftoriyears of the rule of despoti m, suddenly given too much power, 1 a trouble ome if not n .dnngerous factor with which to deal. The exteqsion of. too muoh ~.rm~thy ·an readily be· lo t. Ac ording to Dr. Carrolls report-Mr. M(\Kinley's special a.gent'

1

,

1I

'

\

I I

,

I


154

OOVItRmlltNT F08 THE I LAND OF PUE8TO RICO.

GOVERNMENT FOR THE 1 LAND O.J.o' l,"UERT

RICO.

155

tb

policy whi h has governed in Puerto Rico hitherto eem to have been to put all its nergy into th pmduotion of sugar, offee, tobacco, and tt!e "!ld import most of .it fOO& upply . ·Its cr6p , und r a y tem of cult ~"&tio.n n t ~ mo t' adynntag ou hav be n o large that it could pay Its h avy bill for f r tgn g ds, me t enormou mter t charg on it ·W . r~ing capital, and have g nemlly a profit !left. It is of tho utmost nt~portauc to th {utur of Ptierto Ri o that i~· iridu'stri s · hou ld mere ~- Wh n. ,. r .<:?ff . ~•gar and tot>acc·o rop il.t·o . de!ltrosed by ~urru•an "'• whwh n 1t tb t t~land three· or four tm1 s I) n~r)·. or brmg ~; mall retmns on !Lecount of low pric , th masse are m dang<'r .o f star\'ation; not quickt dir d tarmtion, which i hahlly J~ ibl in a la_nd wh .''e nntuml frui nre so abundant, but tarn~twu· of the i:ilow kmd, whl t' h g rndunll'!' :sup tb stt·eng th , weak n th w11l power, and p repares th wn~· for cf, ellS . 'b cr y of labor is fo:r, m. r work, pa~tlculul'ly i~ the citi~ . The hu·ting of new indn . tru.; 1 an economical ·n ece>~~n t~· , nnd 1t hould be t.h policy of th mt d ' tatet~ to en ·oumg it. Th pro perity of th i 1l1Lnd must be built on thi ba .is. Whe n htb r i · re:sp ct d and well employed th ma....-.se c 111 l&rge r consum I'll, and nil dnssc. of bu ' ine. t~ o.re ben . ~ted. ' ~?Bin n y r nrot!rng d tb Pu rto H.icl\1'1 t er!tlthli h 11ny mdlk!tr.r 111 th 1 lnnd wh1ch would unfrLvomhl y nff ct thos of th P nin _uln. :F ~~ this re.ason it resourre hrw r be n d ,. loped. . Agrl<'ultu.'' IR thl' chtef, ttlmo ·t th e· only , oun' qf indu trin.l wea lth 1~ Puerto l~ll'O .. . Mo~:~t of th ltu.d:<, ev n th' mountains, IU'O. I:!U ·cep· tibl to cultn·ntion or l!" for ~,.tumg .. On ma y e, on ·the militm·y r~d n ar 11yey , IL tollu<·c ti ,Id t'O\' nng the wl10le sid of n moun· tl\111 from. th ; ba . t9 , the ummit; proportion of l11nd undei· at•ttml cultivutwn 1::1 d1fficnlt to detel'llune. It It! n0t known · rmilily how m~ch .tb r is th arett of. th island hn not b e n d tin it 'ly · ~ rta111ed nor th mfac occupied by water a nd by ite. of cit i and town . Th r turn of th prO\-incinl board of t~txlltion made in 1 96 for ruml 1:.1\t .may, bo w ,·er be tnken a 11 ba is fot· nn e ti· mat : Tb retum mdteat d that 2'94,073 acr }":ere d voted to can , coff , tobacco und oili I' rop,.., Tnking 3 60 ·quare miles qi_Uil to 2,46 ,.roo !cr as r nr enting the area ~f Pu rto H.ico it would foll?w ~hat. a .Iittl, I 11 thttn on -..eighth of the entire surface '~ns und r cultt\'atwn 111 1 96. Of pa t u't·e Ilind;; ther e were 1 116 262 act· s and off re L.! a~d oth r ·imilur.a.'' a 657,631, making~ to~l of rural p_r'opert - ~~ 2 0~ 66 act·e . Tht would only I ave 391 ,534 acres- £~ c1ty and ·tOwn Ites, trenms and hlk s, road , etc. The common esti· mate -of ~u rto Rican i that only on -t nth of the cultivable land . are in II tuaJ c ulti.v~tion at any One tim . '· What g~ound exi ts f r thi · insi t ntd mand fot· "free" ugu.r from Pu . ~o Rtco 1. ~wn to a ver y late dnt (1 4) Puerto Rtco pnid pam a ~uty on Its , uga:, and would to-day , probably a a war tiL:<, bad the L land been r ta111ed by that nation. The fact is that ince pain I t uba. and Pu rto Ri o he h ·begun the work of producil)g her own ugar from the ·beet, and ha already e~:e ted several factoric . h ~ . ther~fore'fully }u tifi d in f~tering a home industry . . Puerto RICo has not I .t th pam h m~rket. pain simply imposes .a duty. on th mall per _cent of the prOducts of the i lands that ~b~ may. mce 1 -!, haY 'let m ' fr e. That i not the "lo of a mar· . ket; it is imply th deprivation of an ~vantfLge. :~ What wiiS its

n ,.

:l'h

~~j

.

,

Vn1uc. I

'

~~·, · · ·: · · · · · ·L · · · · · · · · ·: · · ·: · · < ~~~·

Quilflllty. l"otmd1.

11h, l>'>1, 809 ~ 1 ,1140,

7•17

7(i,O'lfl, 774

110 4i4,M7 II(), Ol ll, li62

ll9, 017,Dll 7.\, MH, 080 (J4),ll52,ff.!2

fti,M'l.fliO

811,W1, 312

What do thefl figure , eontrar<ted · how1 · S imply hi that Puerto Rit•o found in 'pnin (heforo the wru·) 11 sm11ll per cent of he r sug11r mai·ket. pnin could not ttnd did not nbi:!OI'b her ~ ugttr, and this was . ·o notwit~ stnnding slig nr.wen " free': to Sp.!tin nnd. pnict the l}nited , tate ·. a duty, extept_ durtng: the }\'lcKinley lnw. Tnkc Puerto Rico's 8 Uj..f1\l' I}Xpoi~ts to . pam for b v~ year , 1 92 to 1 96. T~ e average wns ahout i\1,3 1,000 m value, while ~b e nverage to the mted State wns il2r H2,000, making SP.~tin 's market 11 36 pet· ·ent affah· compared witli our own. , W e in i t- First. That Puerto H.i o hns lost ·no ugar rrrn.rket in pain ; the for ign ·ugar planter in that island will only need to pay duty on the small pet· cent of producttl which they send there, which will be mo~·e th11n ·ott:i!et by the lowe•· tnxeli impo.sed, the b et te r government gtven them a well ru th ir development. econd. That . pain' market for Puerto H.ican pr_oducts ha been a small aff11ir compared with our own, which ltttter rirarke.ts they sought even with c;luty rates impo ed as 1!-gain~t a free' (n market. in 8p11in. Now ~ke our l:nde-+-m p11rt oiily C?f this controversy. What s~ys · our pe •ml agentr- ent to Puer~o l~ICO by our Department of Agriculture, about tJ~e cost,, and tpe_.advantages which the foreign p1·o~uceJ'S of suga,r m that 1sland enJoy- · Over one-half of the inhabitants of Puerto Rico live on 5 cents a day or 1688 estimated in American money, and in this cla88 are to be found the people who perlorm the daily toiJ of the island. Indeed, there are many who live from one week's end another on 80 simple an article as sugar cane, and thie ,cane is sold 'n the markets or that very purpoee. CoCoanuts can be bought for 1 cent aJ?Iece. I investigated the wage scale of the sugar i!ldlU!trV, a cb,i13f one of the island. A great many boys lro m .10 to 15 years of age are employe<). ~hey get 'from 15 to 85 cents a day only, SJllll?.18h money, or from 9 to ,IS cents Amenc&n money. The unskilled .adult laborer ~1ves from 35 to 63 cents, or an average over the island of 50 cents Spanish money • II! equals 30.cents American money. It is estimated by those most familiar witli

lo

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156

00\'ERNliENT E R THE I LAND OJ.' 1' ERTO Rl 0.

OOVERNMF.NT ~'OR TID: I LAND OF PUERTO RlOO.

th l"fttiUn ' of Pucrt.o Ri<:o, ami o n thi. point tl1o n rccmcnt i ~ gcn ml, that the e portali .n of •ltl'r could · be tncncial>e<l. ~ per cent . The ·t<Blm 'uthont,· nft r cnrt>fu] s iumt. :i bnsed upon ti~m·c fm-

ni bed "" ~II·. Findliw llriti:,:h ,·ic -con ul nt un .h:mn t>t~tnnutes tho ro..t of . 'nJ,"fll' in Put>t:lo ltico nt 2 Ct>nts and It ,olnnll fl'llction n pound: if w ndd attty l.tl c nt11 it ennhles the Engli ·b nnd pt\ni~h rl'ou'r e. i.dent ilugtlr plant r in tht j:<htnd to put his H5 ttnd flU tt>st 1:! 11 m.r on tho New Yqrk lutrket ·1tt AA,\' 3r1 ci'n tt pound. Mr. M4tl'l', of Pu .rto 'Rico, ~c~n~· i ~ ~<u~rttr can I pln.c •d on th New Yot·~ mark t n~ 1. .2 · cent~< per Jl() nd plu~ dut.r (l.68), !!qllltls at c nts pt'J• pound, which lS nO\ the n ·c lg'l' cost of ugnr nm~le b~· the Amcl'imn produl·or. Pt·of sor Rilc~· .l f otu· Agril:ultuml De1 :utmeut. plnt'e!< tht> twern~: cost. of making d lll<'t<tic ~Uglll'ltt at {' nts IL pound. So thnt Pu 'l'to n.icnns . to-dtw are Qllllll en'n kee l with our donu:.-,..til· produl'C'I'A indcp ndenth· of lt\bor or~- cld udn111tage , which nrc mo1· imporl\111t fnctor than nil else. • , pedal A~ nt 'ty lor to Puerto l~il- o s:\ys: Acc<u•tlin t the lx'st in! nnntio n j.!lE'11ned from th e lX'i'l l'lln )CroWCI'!!, the II ·t . cro1 on the bel-t land yield from 35 to 40 ton~ of C!ln • per a ·n•, on 1111 11\'l'rt\J.!C. 1\lr. ~1arr, f 1\11 Vftlll • • " that th . fil'!!t l'rop 0 11 gtl.)4\ gronnd ~),'ukl ltt' 40 l 118 r ~"'• with mttoon mngin!l from 20 to 25 ton~. )Jr. Findlay tnukl"M the followmg et!timat : loot! ground , fll'l!t <'rop, -tO to 45 ; fir.<t 111ttl P<.'i'O'l'l mttoon , 20 to 25; eecond-d gromul, fil'l't <'rop, 40, nml infe rior rntt oon ~, 12 to 5.

r

.

In Loui:;innn the ttwrugc cnnc tonnngc pe r nc r • i not O\' r 1 '.- This wbn,t a d1'cidcd ndmntngc th , Engli,;h and ~ptwish plnnter~ htw umply ,ollftici nt. m·cn tindl'r th ir indol nt nnd primitiv ><lll,'ltl'·· ml\king mcthOlhl, to mo n' th1\n otr t th ' dut.'·, be 'IUJ"c the n,·cmg ' yi ld pet• t II of CUll io< 0\'CI' t)• p ' l' C >nt. Of the weight of t}1' Cltll ·' gi\~ , mg them about 200 pounds of "ugnr })1?1' ton of Cl\nc. o that 1f we· .,\"1' t pln· th nvcm>' _yi ld .o f <'lllle p t· ncre in Puerto Hico at 1.1s low ll figure n>< 30 tons ther \Vould I > 3 ton>< of ugil.r p r ncre n agaiw:~.t 1 t<i 1t ton:,~ in Loui>•innu. und. :my, 2,400 p<?llnd of ~omesti · ' beet s ll~'lll' J' 11 'I'' und 'r th mo"t fn,·ot·uul · I'OndJtion::!. Tht ~:~how be.\·ond nil Aort of ..:otttr ,. r".'' that the Puerto Hicnn planter. hn,·e no . ground whnter J' t n,;.k for, much I'..: demand. •· fr ' ugn.r. If wo add the grent ndmntuge f Yi eld of .l'lllle per .ncr to the lower cost of ugar in Pu rto Ri co th id II of g i\'ing Puerto m nns "free' ugnr .. m ab8'urd. · 'Th '• ugnr tru · ma~- want th mw product ' frc · or at r .~uc.'d mt t~, nnd th foreign nom-e ident plnntct· n~av ~oin) hands .w1th 1t. but om own people do not want thnt ort of I ut lntwn. Di put ·h s from P n and ' n .Juan. ll · e:irl~· n•.;; la·t ' ptember id: • · * * •"T·her is big mon y in sugnl' h re and a great man~· P~terto Rican gro\wr nr w nlthy, with fnt bnnk nccounts in London.'' how~

* • *

. .

.

.

Jn this r nn etiorr we defy t\ny ordinn.r.'· intellect• to dif!cove r from Tariffs of F r ign uqtries, i sued by th tate Dcpnt·tm nt in 18UO, what duti s. tmd mor pnrticulurly what tax , regi du~i '>~, tmn itor,y · charg • c it"umption xncti'on ·, export tax s, traffic tux !l and ur· charge pai11 impo d .o11 Pu rto nicnn product . · . · If w w r fo tnt it a . the tate Departm ut doe in an wer to a cominunication for irifqrmation, w would : imply nd tile ntire book to Congre with th genernl tntement that • th maximum in tenc\ of the minimum tariff n~w applie · to products ~f uba and~uerto Rico

I

157

directing dngrr;os to pnge 657 of Foreign Tariffs for . p oinl tt·c•~t­ Ul ut of tho:s ' pro<.lul'tl. 1.\.('('0I'diug to the·doc um ut.mfl'l'l' d tmill()vo, png U55, tho!' hu~:~ l)cen 11n export .tnx of a± cents 220 ponud on 8Ugnr from l'u t'to Rico. ' too, ~:~n~~.lll;.ft·om th ot·o to pnm nppcm· to b1 pnid •~ tmflic tnx for be nefit of the N'nvy of 3 t t•ents It ton (iu., p. U31), ltlld thct·o lsel' lll'! nlso to htwo uccn It ·onkumption tnx in li en of tmn><itory 1tnd u;umicipnl dut_ics (ib., p. (i25). Of l'oun; nnu:h of this willuow fall in. · Tho Bu-rcnn of tn,tistics hns issued n. stntcm nt' intouded to !:!how the ·jn •i' •nso of ·hot•t dv<'l' cntlU·flllgnr production in tho wol'ld, ttnd rednution in cost 1\lld prieo of sugm·. Jb inj cl't>.~ th thl'or_v tlmt "the fttrmm· of the tompt·n~te ;-.on hn;~ ;~hown hi:; 1tbilit_v not ouly to fO I~­ pete with thl' low-pril·'ed la.h or of tho Tropic:<, hut to reduoo 'I.Y om:-h1\l the cost of th ltrti ·le pt·oduced.' Without' rxvhumtioJ), tl is g 'llCI r •niark would h nccopwd hy Congres,; Ill:! evtdl'uo(l, thnt hPct-!lugnl.· prodnct•rs w rl' nhl' to ·omp, t<', under 'tik~ conditionii, with t•nne-su~ttr produt· ' r:s in the Tl'Opil·s. J'lmt would mttumlly l\reat tb impJ'OS!:!IOn tbnt no t:tp·iff on ><U Yl\l' to proto ·t and develop tHe domeStic .-ugat· industrv is nN· et:~"'ll l'~·. lt i=- only n.noth.or w1~y of ex pn•s><inij Mr. Havemeycr's ·• trn>'t nrgumrnt. The Bnrenu of 'tntlstics nmJ. or mny not know mul'h nbout . ugnr.. lf, bow vcr, it imd dc:<ire<l t f:tir it would hn,·o ,o h~tcd tho rcnsons which lmve ontlblcd h 'Ot-sugnt· production (ahr nd) to J'cm-dl It 6li per l'ent p1·oportion of th o tottl} wol'ld's produet of :<ugar. And. . those. reasons, plttinly iitatnd, would hrt,·e d moiiAtmtccl tho fore' of the argume nt fo1· '"protection" for . homo indu><tric:; to wbioh we •b:td I:Hlppo.·ed th party in pow 'I' wus fnllv cominitted. (j£ cour::;c, without .-tnting tho reasons, the avc mge cnntor m· Rep, rc.--entntivp, who oldom hn. time to thorotwhly investignto n subject would be npt to jump t_o an m·•·onco{ts conclus io n. .)\'by didn't the Burrmt of Htati><ties extoud . it.-; work f1u· enough t~ show that lw 't ,.;ugar ltbroad .hnd for man.· y :u·s b rn enconrngod b lib _ral bountic. ? And wlty didn't it say thnt thi!-1 poli•·y- i'_) fll\'01' o ngl'lcu1tm;e.:...had led to the derolopmcnt of th b1gh t ~S kill , to th installation of the mo.-t improved mal'hin r)r for extm<"tion )tnd crys tnllizntion, 11;nd to the 'ri10:t xt ns ive :ystcm of farming that the worl .er r · n.w ~ 'Vhy wer e tb r •1d fnl't.~-a. th hald ::;tntcment . o unflw ombly bears UpOn r dul'tion of dt\t,\r :wd "fr e tmd ' in ('llll O ug~r not fullv und int lligcntly stat t1 ~ "Why wn it not snitl thnt the reduc tion of itearly liO p r oont in th pt·ice of : ugnr Wns bec~uso of ~ountie. and cheap lnbor ltbrond- two tmportnnt factor. ngam.·t . whiCh our dome tic !'Iugar pt·oducerii mu. t" ~:on tend . in their effort to givp farmer ono-hnlf of ·t ho gro.. receip);.';, while th producer here is ching our fanner~:~ ho'v to grow the best quality ·nnd lurge t qunlnti

"CI'

v

ti1

othcets~

If American capital, intelligence, and energy had not shown able.di position to push the ugar industry in 'the tates fo t.ering care of the McKinley and. Dingley tariff acts there mi !!ODJe ort of excuse fot ·a propo al to extend our revenue laws 1n ·ular po es ions, but the ·reverse is "true, a the following ,...,, ...,,.,~'"1 will prove:


1~

OOV.KRlOIKNT FOR THE I LAJD OF PUERTO RIOO.

hodudion of btd

f1'90~.

by fadori , frorn 1888-89 to

OOVERNMENX FOR THR I LAND OF PUERTO RICO.

1~-.99.

of 2,~-10 round•.]

l..oc'tl t lou, ·Ah·aro.d o, <'oll ...... .... . . .WatoOnvlllt•, <'oil. ••• ••••• Orand I land . Sebr.... .. 'orfollt. )\t•br ...... ... . .. Lehl. l'tah ....... . ..... .. Chlnf. <'a I. .. . .. .... .. ..

f!d~'l.i;;.~~ . <i:l·::::::: ROm~. s .

Y .... . ....... ..

k<'lt.<'oll ........ .. .. nd~. l~ , ....... ..

~n.

t'Uib ...... .... .. 1lll1Amton. S. Y ...... .

:.~.~\!·.~~~~ Miuii: :::

The .('-"timnt for 1~99-1900 i 9" .000 ton :~ f 2.:?!0 pounds eu'h, or 21:?.•8\X\ )t)i) pounds. ' . lul::o pre nt t<.> th committ('C n stntcm nt lio";ng the number (3 ) '1Uld dail~· t'Rpudty f bcct-~ugnr ful'toric:> in :wtunl opemtion · in the l'nitcd \'tnte~ In t y nr: .,..

~~!:ri':ill~~,..3.~?: .~~~ ::::: :~ : : ::::::::::::::~: ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: i(:::::::

.Arueri.C"a-u ,

bin<t,

7b••·

al ••.•• •• • • •••••.••.. .•• ••.• • .•.•... •• , ...• ••.• ..•.... . ....••.•••••.•••

~itil~~\~ H· ; ·

·. :

Amerlclw. Sorfolk, S ebr ..... ...... ................................. ... ... .. ..... .... .... . 1. LoW. l'ark. :lllnll .... ..... : ......... ..................... ... .. .... . . .. ..... . .......... .

:. ~~.0~~~~~: ~:·....~:·: .~·.~~::::: ::::::::::::::::::: :: :: :::::: : : :::::::: :: : :: :::::

· i;~4~.j~;c~;~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~:~ ~ ~ ~~ ~:~ ~ ~ ~: ~:::::::: ~:: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

~!.l~~#k· c.; t.;, . · .< · .: ~~b r .....•. ... . .. ... ...

TQW dally .

..' •

. . .•... .. .. . .. ...... . ...... . .. , ... ........... . ....

Jtll )lOt'ts into' the Unit ed tMc : E'ouutis. HF~ {tltttinl.Jlc). ___ . __ --· .... . .. _.•.• : _. : _........... . . __ -· - - • ••• 98,871,000 1 93 (frt.'<') . .. . ... ......... . .............. . ...................... 99,578,000 .

he :~c nt us as hig h us llii,G 2,316 pountl:s, howevor, in 1872, 1\nd · thn t ·ugnr wn worth.' (pricc>< of ug•u· l>cing . high) i(\8,71'6, 2 , ns ngRinst l) ',000,000 pounCfs in ,1 81)8, ~rorth only ~1 1 1)13,,000, so .that we can not nmke IUIV tmtle comp1wisons on the btl::!t:; of totnl vnlue. of exportS from the island. H r co f}' •c trnd seems to have ought the better umrket, nltbough it hn long been "free to enter our ports. 1 ' .- Her total 'X"Jlort to u were $2,41-4,356 of which li\1,912,965 w·ns ugnr, len,·ing n ,. ry snmll bnlnnce for oth ~r export product.'!!. · Our exports to Pu ~·to Rico ban'l been fnil'l y lm·el, bu. ns in the .ca e of ugnr- ntlue bave fallon down, so thnt n eompnn on of total Yalue prdves \itt\ . for instance, we sent the i land:

·--·--· ~ --·-----1--- ~

· ~·~\~':,'~·J!~.~J 'ii.iri>O'r:·hue·.; :::::: :: ::::: ::::~::: ::: ::::: ::::::::::::::::::::::::: :: lli:>llan,J. :llkb .. ...................... ................. . ..................... . ......... . . . tandard .•\m

Winona, in Minn otn; at CctTO Gordo, Clear Lake, and Council J3\uft's, in Iowa; tlt 1\l rilltm, Wat rtownltmd J3 loit, in Wisconsin; at ]Alcro ', Gal •sburg, and 'Quincy, in II inois; ILt Ham lot ILIId Not·th ,Jhdson1 in Indinnn; nt Grtma Rnpidi.!, Port Hm·on, PonthLc, Jnckson, J<'\'int, · Ludington, W•~rne. G1wlord: Menominee, Alpena, Monroe. 1\Iouut. ' \cmei) , ~ginaw Lro~~ . turgi , Detroit, Vn~!lnr, imd TnwtLs, in 1\lit•hignn: at Clen•lnlll\. Fremont, tmd nntlu k,·, in Ohio; n~ Lancaster ·l).nd Carli81e. in ·P >nn:<y lnmitL: nt Butfnlo, hving, WtLte t·town, Penn Ynn, :Fredoniu, uml LYon:;, in Nt•w York ; ILt ·Bo~:~ton, in .Mni'!SILdmt~tltt~ : nntlnt Fr ' llc,·ickslnu·g, in Virginin. . Jt would lw ~ uidclnl, if not dt :,~ hont>:<t. nt thi:; 'riticnl junctur(\ in the dorric,.tit• :<u~;~u· produl'tion to opl'n our port:< to eithet· ·• fre ' :<ugnr or .to reduction:< of duty thPrcon. Ancl ~f on one comprting produot why not. onnlll If phllanthr.opY i:< to hl' t•xtPndt•d to forcig•\ plan tel' , why; not let ~he men ure. run fu\11 Why not fmnkly ~<ny "We hnve turned out· buck" on '}~ rott•t·tion, ' 1t11d now MPt•k only~ :<trong'then tho 'trust 'tuitl conil.>innt10n fo r the e xport 'tmd'' there i1:1 in it." .:And what of our trnde with P11e1'to Hil'o l 18U5.- 0f th e 110 i7 \-e~J::;c\ cntel'ing Puerto Uico only HlO, or . ny 11 pur ct•nt. w~ t·e Am ricun. Of 't he 1.070 n:;::~ols thnt cle•u· •d 'from her ports 2 '4. m· onlv 2ll per cent, \vcre Amel'imn. Our import~! of eolf'P, nondutitLhlc, from l'u ···to i~ico htwe ftLI· en · · from ~1.873."000 in 1 U to ~:2-1-.217 in 1 !l8. And ju:<t lwrt> nllow lll l' to mil ILttcntion to tlw fn ·t th1lt "f t·e·' sugur hu:; not ::eem· d to l' mudt .of u lmit for the lh'itiMh 1\nd ' pnnish plunter:<. '

....-..,,.....------

.-'lma, :lllcl\ ........................... .............. .. ...................... . .... . ....... ..

P kln. lll ....... ...... ..... ............ ... .... ............... . .... ....................... .. D. . · rbln,. Wa~erl)'. W h ... .. ...................... . ..... ... ........... .... .......... .

!- --:::

copo~lty . .... ...... ... ........ .... .................. .. ·: .. ........ .. .

I

Th following t- uga'r compnnie ' nr whollv or partially orrrnn· izl'd. t -wit: At Fe suo. al.; Gunni on. Utah: LOfland, D&lta. •rnnd .Junction. P ow-er unty, and Ordwa,·. in olo do; nt Siou:< Falls. ·. Dak. · nt Fort ott, in Knosa ; at ~Yinthrop :Mankato, nnd

.

159

.

Qunntlt)".

Valul -

PouJillr. Wll,liOO G02, •11u

a;9,129 60,911

3,1>1G.OOO 3,006, iOO

226,31t liG, 219

3,f>ll1, Zl5 3, t;()!J, 130

270, 0!18 1\JO, (l30

And ~o w e mi~ht proceed to illu ~trnte the m w; of om export. to Puerto Ri o fnlhn.., from, :my. 1!12,0 0.000 in 1 3 ' 4 to an M'ernge of ~1. ' 40 during th yenr 1 9G-9i nnd 1 9 ' .

.

I


16

00\".;IUUI:KNT FOR THE ISLAND OF l"UERTO Rl o.

161

OOVJmNMENT • 1!' R THJ<~ ISLA NlJ OF PUERTO Rl O.

Nebtaskn th Do.kotnk, · Montnhn, ~V voming, Colorado, N w Mexico · Oregon, nnd 'tlifornia. AI o nu·i01i:. ~br p hre'rdel'li' n!'. ori1ttion. . ' 'tton GJ'Owcrs' A!'. ocintion tnte nnd' loNtl · Ootton. - Anl(ll'icnn plnnter:-~ orgnni:r.ntionl'!. ' . Phtit,~. ~Fruit growet·i'l' uniow;, fruit flhippm·s' nssol'intion Stnte lt~td l~al 'orgn~li:r.~t~on$ of t'?llllllerl'iat fruit g1:ower ·' indutling Fioridn, W1• 1'11llh•u 11 lh ' pi'C!'l•nt (Th.•m mtic) .\dministn11io11 fol' 11ot kl'cpi11g' fnith with Geot·gu, the C.uolmn , Olno, New lork, Mll'l>~ouri Arknnf!n~ \\'n.:;h~be 11!(11r pn~hw •r';t of tht• t1 nitt~l tnh'~. Th • Re\'11hlioo11 pa•·t,· fni'OI'>! •nl'h protecington, Ort•gon, Cnlift?rnin\ A•·i:r.onn, nnd Texnl;l. ' ' tion 1111 will l1'llll lo the pml11<'ti 11 on Amel'i<onn •oi' of nllllll' s ni,~u· .,\·hich th o A11111r· ican pt.•oplt' 1uot•, 111111 for whid1 we nro sending abrom\ nmaunlly more llum !!HOO,OOO,OOO . I tgetplJI '8.- Lol'o.l •t.nd du:~tl'ii·t orgnni:r.ations of tnwk fltrmers nnd to forei11n <'011111 ri•'~. • · grct•nhouse gnl'tlt•nm·s in 1tll ~rctions of the <'Ountn< Rice.- The rit• grO\v'rr:~ ~tnd d nlers of outh Cnrolinn. · T he.-tow the · Dingley bill (duty) favor to domol!t il' ~ ugnr with one Mtt.~. -Th ns. o:inted nut grower~ n.nd ~hippers of C1tlifornitt Al'ib nd in (Jl'clt•t· to enl'ourngr it~ tJp,·elopnll'nt and ·\)lll'nly:r. ·tho intended zOJm, New l\1 •xico, '[\xu.~, Lou.i>~iR.Illl, and :Fioridn. '. prott'din' ht•m•fit of ·thut lnw hy indired ion would hr. :<tteh 1t p:tlpnble .dtlW;,ting with the Frtti'Oil>l of Hu~<l.lllndry, including nn.tior1tl State hrcnth 9f good fuith ""' to de ·troy thl' contidrn1·r of mpitrtl to embat'k distJ;ictJ nnd loml g1~tnges: the .Pn.tronil of 1ndustry, tmtiorml ' Stnte' and illso tht' <' ntidcne of .the people in politienl p~ofe:<sion . · nnd4~ll.odges; th .Amm·imnl''edemtion of Ln.bor, n.1J,d n.lln.lli jnter~ c:st.~ thnt n.re threntened by th!\ po~!libility of fr tmde b tween the STATED:RT OF · JIIR. HERBERT )IY\}llCX. .mted tate~; on th one hnnd ttnd ' ubn., Puerto Rieo, nnd the >hili pI pmcl'l on t~e thrr; ttl. o thc!oi or other domestic 'int r , b ndnngered . Thr ' n ,\llm N. G'n' ""Your fullnnnH'. by "re •iprm·ity' with the Briti. h West Indies or outh Am rica . .Mr. )h' III<'K. H r rhr rt ~fni~· k. The ,lll'pos ·of this t'Oitlition is to provide rt medium through whi •h The, CllAII\~1 ·N: " 'h 1·c do ,·oit re1<id( ( t!te Vl\l'lons inte re:;t~< in the produ ·tioit , mn.nufrwtur , IUtd nle of dom :Mr. )lvmcK. -;\ly honw i ln ~pringtirl<i. ~Ia:<:< . t~c ugnr, d g1u· lmtf, tobnl't'o, dgru· , fmit.'l,· vegetubl<!j!, wool. cotton, Thr ('MAtn~t N. 'Whnt i:< \'0\11' hu~inr"" I nee ct<·., prodm' d within the United Stnte. , llli~Y cooperate fot· their ~lr. ~Lnn ' K. I ant pt· ,.idr nt of th Orangr .Judd 'ontpnnr. whi~· h mntunl bcnctit. · · publi;;hl'~ t he ~cw Eng'tnud llot,n r:>t~nd, of ' pl'ingti ld, ~lilt'><.; th e· . Tho imnf dinto object. ought hy the Lcngue of stie l'roducers . _Anwrirnn A <'l'it·ultul'i ~t; of Nrw Y rk; th r Omng .Judd F:mncr, of I>< to pre,·~ nt ltny unjul-lt leg.iRhttion hy Congres. ngninr;t the intet·csts birngo, nncf thl' .Fnt·m f!nd Home. publi;;hrd in hit·ngo nnd New . of domt~ . tw proclncor>< or hibo1·er for the henefit of the c industries in rlcun. - whkh t• prrse nt nnd reach n. t•on:;titnency f 500 UOO rend r:<. · t he tro~w~<, and to prtwe nt furtherj fnvors to refittel'li in thi r; country 1 nl o han:- tlw honor to. l~ chairman 'Of tht• L eng-ue of p me:<tic Pro- .of imp<jl'tPtl mw f<Ugl~r,.. dt!Cer:'l, whit'}t e llt•c ti,· 1.'· r pr ,.;.nt · at len"t two millf ns nntl proh~~~ hrtef, ottl' pttrpo:-~r. is to put into the po('.k et of the farm r. , eapitnl.ist., nntl lnhot·crs of thPiiC l nitPd Stnt.P.· th 111100,000 000 now llbh· threr milli n;. of ,·ott r:<. and ha. r n:;idembl indirr ·t influ ncc UJ · n :<hupini< l(')!i:<latinn tn th~~ l'Ottntn·. and al>'o indirl'ctl,r influ ncrs . exported :umut1.ll.r to pn,r for imp<>rted (ugar, n.nd tbu. 1dso ,·astly proh:tl~l.'- tht'l'l' .mi.llion mor ,·otero>. thi:" Jpncru<• ·. composed of tho benefit .the g nc).'nl wclfn1: of th • who! ~ people without injury to nny. foll<iwmg """OI.'Httt on": ~lso to I.?romoto the contmurd pt·ospertty and successful dcv lopment Btt t llff'II'. ~Th Am l'il'llll BPet ~ugnr )lnnufat•tltt•r r~< A:!:< l'iation, Ill thes . nited 'tates of l'ignr lcnf to bar ·o cultm 'cigat'llll\nllfuctnre, the Am ril'un ~u<rnr G ,. wt' r:<' ~oeiety. the ' tate ~ u•.,n •· Bert Grower ·' the <'ttl ut·e of :;rmitropicnl and other fruit , ru1 of vegetable for the liS;' ·inti !'~ of' '~ n;;hlngton. Oreg-on. 'nlifornia . .New ~J ex ico tab \\ll.rly ·mnrk. t.'.l, sheep . and wool growing, ri ce ·ultur , te., thus mainlomd . - ~, hm,..kn. ' ' il'{·on:sin. ~linn rsota . lllinoi::. lndinnu. Oh ·o, tmning pt·otitrtble hom indw~t1·ie fo;r vast number of om peopl and · l\Ji ·hig-nn. and.\ w Y rk. and all di ... trictn nd loNJI orgauizntion · forh1 d ·tnxpaver , and for mnny rnilliot) of capital. · to pr mote the IX' .t-. u~r indu:::tr~· . Puhlic_rotppor~. -Tb gt·ent mns. Of public opinion i. favorahle to . ( 't'lllt' littg(II·. - Tb ' lnit d tat'::> Canl' Grow I'~ A~~ociation, the t~e patnotte obje t:s of the J.ieng:ue of DomestiC Produc .rs, but the Loui sinn1~ ugur Elnnt rs' As:so.dntion. the Flori<,ln ugar Gi.·ow rs' ntal point is to cnrthle tbi:; opiniol} tb be b.enrd and to mr.t ke it.':! power Sodet~· . th T('xa" •lln .Planters' A::<~ f'inti011, tb Krtu ·a Sugar felt in Congt· s:; within the limited time availn.ble. ·Grow r · Sor it·f~· . th ; ' ugnt· ' hemi ·ts' .As,•o' iation, and all distt·ict und lrhis is to be the immediate work df the league. · S nntors and Replocal orgunizntion>' fO'rmed to promot the cn n - t'tgnr indu try. rn entntive:; should l?C kept informed a. to the merits ofi the whole case, 1(..00cc.~l. -;-~tttionu1 igt".ll' :Y.nf Tobneeo Growel1i A o iati.on the· w to the views of their conlitituents in thi matter, and as to the va t N w Englund~ N w Y r~. Penn ..ylrnnia. Ohio,· Wi on in, :floridn, good to Ameri a that will follow the ucces of thi:; poli y. and T ~a. tot~ ·o g row r ·' organizqtions. Affiliatjng also with tbe . ,D m.a11dll of tlte leaglte.- 1. That. the United State nate defeat the Gign.r )lak. t: ·' ~ ni n, and . undr,y ·ocintion of dom tic manufuc· ' ~nding treatie of r iprocity with' t~e Briti8h v\ est Indic. , whereby tnrer of rJ.Wlr . . · . ugn.r. and other produc~ from those tslands .n.re to be adm.itted into Wool.- Th1 'a tiona] Wool Growe1 ' As ociatiou; the tate org-ani· tb United tnt at n. reduction in tariff rates. I zation of w I grower in ~cw York, Penn ylvania O,o, M.ichtgun, 2. \Ve oppo ether ·omm ndntion that Cubnn ugnr, tobacco, cignr , Wjt;COn in. Iniliana, Dlinoi Minnesota Iowa Missouri, exa , Kansa e~., bEl admitted at a like reduction in duty. We also oppo. e the ·S. Doc. 147-11 ugh to go low 8<-nlltot· Alii. on i>< :!l~g~ ' iou · wh it he :-<~w:s, "\V in ·th(':<(' lllllth• 1·~ . " · • · Th<'t~ i ~~ ,·cry grrw 1 rint'iplo rtt :;t:tk in thi:-~ in::!ulur fmc tmd propo,..ition. At n l'Onnntion h ld :tt ' t. Loui in 1 tl!l th pat'ty in powrt· udop~l'd thi:; t' ,..olution: ·. ,

d

D01J

a


t. I.

162

GOVl:RNM.ENT FOR ;J'H.E 1 LAND 0~' P 1-:RTO RI 0.

G VE RNM.El!iT J<' OR THE I L AND OE'

l'UE~TO

RICO.

Hi3

which it ha · ttttain d it r.roud go. ition during :~o :~hort a hi tory. Thi1:1. plea "for humanity ake is urged more loudly by . certain ·pe in.l interest!:! on the island, that would • be enormously profited thereby, than by tho ,n111:1 es who apparently moMt need help. It is not · tl'Ue thut the conquc 't depriv d Puerto Rico of itl:! lllttrkot, nnd that ther!fore Puerto Rican product!:! arc morally entitled to fr e admis·ion' tnto the United tate • OOicial stati ti · . how that, und<>:_r normal conditionH, Puerto Ri ·o has . bought alme t 11 much from the Un ited tate as from pain nnd has al o sold quite as much to thi!oi country R she did tp pain. Only 25 to 30 per c nt of her fo•· ign commerce has been w1th Spain, and this was largely due to enforc ~d conditions. Even if Pllerto Rico ontinu · to xwrt 11 much to pain as heretofor , the moderate 4uty on thttt . mall proportion of her xports will be many times o~set by ~he refcrm in taxati<?n and ot or reforms il}augumted on th is and under the new government. Again the U ni ted tates already admits duty fr~ nearly two-thirds in value of Pue1·to Ri o' export!:!. Tlius out of total xports from Pu~rto Rico in 1 94:, valued Itt . om thing ov.er $16,000,000t nearly thr e-qunrter1:1 wru offee, or ~12,000,000, which is admitted to the market: of the United tntes duty free. A number of other ..Puerto Ricnn products arc ttl~;o on om· fl~ e list. Thttt we 'h ave not·deprived u roo Rico of her mttrkct is further emphasiz d 1-.fy this fact. Furth r; it hru b en tthundantly demon trated that th fertility o ·oil and climate and the clieapne ·. of labor will enable Puerto Rico to produ :mg!Lr nnd tobacco, or to manufacture cigai·s, and lay' them down in t he U nited tate market ttfter paying present rates of duty, . and s ill.undersell our domestic producers. · Oonsidernble investments'. have. utely been made in ugar-cane plantations and sugar mill in Puerto Rico on the distinct calc ulation that, under nverage conditions, Puerto Rican sugar will pay tt profit when laid dmyn in -New Y.~rk at nboulllt cents per pound, which,,c(vith the present duty nd!;led, would 1nake. its wholesale pric on the New Y Ql'k market 3t to St. cents per J>Ound. Thi. is about the average co. t of sugar mad by the American producer , and i rather under the mttrket value of . ucb uga1·. The e recent inv tments in the Puerto Rican industry have been made ith the idea .that H cents per pound at New York ·will pay a ·'very C(Oitlfbrtable dividend on tho investment-, with the pos· ibibty of R bonu or bounty of 1t to H cents per pound by r emission of duty. Jn ot er words, ~be ugar bu iness in Puerto Rico is a paying propo· · ition even if present duties are maintained, which is why four-fifths of its ugar bas beerl sent to th United State . Now, if by " working the h mu.nity cau e ' these dut~ can be aboli~:~ h ed, thel'i will be an 'added bonus of li\30 to ~35 a ton. · A oniy one-tenth of Puerto Rico's !agricultural land is now cultivated, there is almost as big a gamble in •this duty-free . Puerto Rican ugar idea as there w:a.'> in tile case of Hawaii. . We 1are told that Pu rto Rico only produce 50,000 or 60,000 tons of . ugar at the outsid , and that he can not nmterially increase her produCtion. In like nmnner th as urance was solemnly given Congress les:~ than two years ago that Hawaii's product of f!Orne 225,000 lon was the limit of ,·her sugo.r production, but the past· yettr's crop already exceeds 300 000 tons and in four year mor«;l will probably each 500,000 tons. · l'hat there~ would b'e a similar increW:Ie in Puerto I


164

OVERNXENT FOR :I',HE I LAND Oto' P ERTO RI O.

Ri und r tho enormou . timulu of 1 • bonuo< of~ or ~0 t\ ton goe with ut !!11.\:ing. . ".For httmnnity _AAk ," t m. '<·nn peopl .ha':enlr tLdy r~ponded gt>nerou:h· f r rclwf of tll'rl 'tlll :<uffer r:< 111 Puerto ~~1co. If more 81d i. nred d it wil he fortht·oming with equnl gc!tero:,~~ty . Tho late t oOkial r~timut i~ that tthout 1 p r '('Cnt of tne mhllbJtants nrc till in wnnt, · • . lt is doubtle . true., bo v \'1'1', that a gn•ntN· number _of p - op~ are in gl'l'8ter m'Cd in the. froud ·it:r o.f N' w York than on tho whol.c i ilnnd of l>u rto Rico~ f thl're wns t.L nu of faO or 140 tL ton to tie obtained b\· "working th \nunnnity tuts " in the' name of tho depeltdcnt ·11\Sl es in the gret\t m tl'Opoli,;, no .clo_u b~ ~ere 'yould be ns mUfb " houtiug for th o~d Ong and nppropnnt1 n u1 thy· behalf ns h! now mad . for Puerto Ri co.• L<>t us hl'lp th :f!uerto Rtcn.ns out of the dL t l'lt cau d by th hurricnnc. n~ wclln gl\·e the!D n f!Lr bett. r gon~l"nmcnt and lightc•· t3xation than tw~r _befor • hut 11! domg this ret Uil not 0\'Crthrow th fm dtuuent.ILI prmt•Jple of AtllCI'Il'all go\· I'll· ment. · . Nor b uld thi>~ be mt\d an l'X us for compelling out· .farmer and oth r. w rker:l to compete with th Puerto Ricun , who. priml\t·y and inl'A'J>Cillli\· m th.od of lif . is thu de ·rib d in the r port of tho pe.cialaget.l t. nt to Pu rto Ri<·o b • t\1 l nited t.ILtos Depltt'tm nt of Agrirult~re:

0" r o11e-hall of th i nlmbitn11t~ ol Pnrrto Ric• li\' 011 5 c• •nts a cluy or less, esti· titatcd in Amcrit~m money and in thi clMR nre h I found the people who p<lr!onn the tlnilv toil ' or the i lund: h1tl ••I. th •rl' are muny who lin• from one week' s end t anullicr on ·s·o l!imple llll urti~e o;o ~il!,'llr cu ne and thlti l'IIUO i~ ~ lrl in ~he tn~rkcts for that \'e n · purpoi'O. lK'OIUlUt~ CBn be· bou~tht for l ·cnt uplet·e. 1 mvcsttgat~ tb wage scjl le of th e snl!llT, tohu<•c , nrl <' fkoe itullll'tries, nn•l thes• arc the clue£ · ones of th i;olunrl . . A ~treat many hoy from 10. to 15 years of ng' nro employee!. · Th y get from 15 t\) 35 ~'tmls1t tiny nly , ptmi~h money, .o! from ~ to 18 •·ent;o, Amer1: can 1n nl'y. The un. kdled udulr Inborer rt.'t'l'l\'00 from .lh to 63 cnts, o~ nn •werngc O\'Or th e ii!lantl of liO t-ent~, Rpimi~h 111011 . y. This qua is 30 COI~t;o , A111er•cnn ~on~y. It i e:otimnt :1 ~- th · • fumiliur with the rc~urc!'!' ol Put>rt o Rwo-.nntl on tlus pomt tb agreem ntis ne rnl-thut Pt exportut10n f 8UgRr I'Ollltl bo mcreMcd 100 per nt.

~a king for th e f~tt't'n r ,; of th

(

lnit d tate:;, I sl\y that our fundamentai·Ob] rtion t free trnd with Puerto Hiro i t~nt, iti al\ probn· bility, it will in Yitabl)· I foliowed hy fr e tmd wr.th uba and the Philippine. nnd l11ter withal\ th countl'i ~ to th outh of~ . AU .th~e • ttoplml co mtri s are grt>at ngri ulturnl producer . Thl'tr ca1 n •tty Ill that direction i Blm t unhmited. Th v nr ~mall con. um r of manufi\Ctured.product . Fr trnd with tbeTropic. would thu introdu entirel,~ new conomic ondition . D m tic fnrm r s CO';'ld n?t c0mpet with the Tropi · in producing ugur, tobacco, em~troptc · frujt~, l'llrly ,. g tabl . t . Our cigar make r ';tnd mannfactu~1·s c uld n t compete with that indu str~· in th Troptc ope!'ated by J.ts cheap labor. Under such a policy. ther fo re, th . Am r t<;a!l farm er would .be_ ubjected 'th. I w t f?rm. of fre. -trnd competttJO~. Thnt .. would rum ht mo t profitabl pe mitt . , whtl h . would be obhged to pa,· protection· pric ,; f r all th mnnufiU'tur he con umeQ. . . . '.rlie cli8 thus . pre~ nt · entit· l.r ne:w phll!le in our ·on~mtc pohcy. H retofore protecti If and 'tariff ha,·e been de igned t~uLmly to pro· teet the Am rican workingman and th runnufa.cturer ngamst the cheap

lai>O• of Ehrope. But Europe, iududiug tho Uuit drngdom, '

GOVERNMENT Io'Olt THE I

AND Oto' :PUERTO .RICO.

1G5

forced to buy henvily 'of out fam1 roducts, wh eth r .they wh;h to or not. Now 1 in th Tropics th Ctlll i xnctly tb opposite. The. trop- . icnl countrtc htwo or 'viii htwe un unlimit d ugt•tcultuml urplus for .export while JLffording a comp!Lmti·v ly 1'11111111 mnrk t for food· or manunteturcs. In view of thcs n w condition. tho Amerimn fm·mcr r new 1md ><fund more firmh· than 'cn r in th position tlmt hu:; be n 'I!O often t-eittlrated by'. th ·Nntiotml Omnge of Putt·on~; of H~t><lmndry-~hat o long a th r e i'i a tnri~ th~ farm~r :;hould h!"vo htll shnr.e o~ _tt, an.d pnrtic~•lat·l.'' when• protccttv dut~eli would du·r ·tly brnefit hun, _n-s t the m with twnr, tohtlt'('O, fnn ~, wgctnhle , ctt'. lf thl're IS to be nnv tm;itf r'du~tion ·let it appl y to tunnuflll·tur·t'llCQtmlly wi.th tLgricultuiul produ ·t,;. J f · ,·ou arc to r •chtt·' by :l(l prr c nt tho dutiell on wool htde suwlr, ft:uit ' tobnc ·o, ete .. from the \\ l'St Indies the Philif'pinc , ~r outh·Atucriea th n reduce hy 20 pot· t·cnt tho duties on nJ it.numt fnl'turc:; .o f wool iron. and oth t• good!l. \ I)on't dceein' yoar~< If into thinking thnt. ) 1ou t•t•n tnke nwn,y the fn.nncJ·:.;' protr~tiim " lhilc lrn,·ir_g ~~ upon the m!Lrl'!•facturcr. 9ur ftu·nu•r·,; hnv<'n't tlw moll( y to ma1nttttn tnlentcd lohhyt. ·t. nt 'Vn~hlllg· · ton hut thl' .' hnn tb yotes with whit·h to nmi11tai11 th it· in tcr c.·ts. t El:etioll ot'18!)ti l'itc.J Tr(fnt our f"rmt•r·s j11~;;t n:dnir·ly nntH10nestlv n · you trcrtt t)w man\rfnetuJ'<'l', 6t· ."'' will <'I t· ~ a Uongr·cs:; thrtt will ~tive •1 ~ ~ ueh trcntnt<'llt. " ' c• hrwe. CY rv nmlidmu·u, howov<'r, th t 0 "l once this whole t•n,;c• is fully undl'rstood h.r., t I1e hc.mom( II > o. ' ennton; a}' J,lf'pre.bt· n~ttlvr>< i11 th q P!'~'· 011~ Uong-~:<'""' tbc ~wtu he~"'· of both pru·tws will vtt' wtth l'neh othr •· tn ·,..,tfl'guat·clmg th o frmu •t·:; r11tcro:st:s. E.igh~y -th·e pt' l' c:e n.t of Pu ttl~ lti<·o ",expo!'~S llt'l) uoU'ce and. ,.;ugatl'. Cotlt•c a:; afreadr nclllllttccl dut r fr·e '. l<ot\r-liftb s of hl'r >~ugru· · nnd rtll · of her mulns"t'~ hnn\ hprn eoining to tho lnill'tl Ht:tt«'s, hecnuso evC"n ' :iftcr pn\"ing om d11til':< this i,; a much hcttcr mnrk,ct thrm ~pain, wh' ·h ' took onir Ollr-tclll"ll of lwt· "H"'tu·and non • of h >t·nw.ln:;ses. Shnll we · jeopnrdize AmPricnn principl~" to din•rt to thi" t.rmrltrt ~hr. onc-t~nth, of P•.:erto Rico'll stwat .. expurts that h:w bct'll g-olllg to pntn I ·The UHAJRi\IAN . "'Till y o11 plcnsc gh·c n~ a\ :;tntt•fhe llt ns to 'yhnt you de. ·ire? • ' . . . . . I 1\'Ir.: MYRJCl<. The :o~twnr hu;; IIH'" , 110w, fov 111:<t.ILnor, 111 the '"land of Pu.erto ltico, is alrcnd.r 1 rofibtlilc, so nHt ~h .so that fum-lifthll ~f thnt ,sugn.r rome. ~o · this ma rket now, :tml tt t>< _lll'l'l'.'>'n ry · .t? wmrt duti son Pu rto Hu·n11 ,.: ugnr to ully d ,- t'~op the •ndu,.;try. llwn we WE:'re also a: ur d that tht• Pu rto Rimn su~ar pt•oduut l'IUl 110t he incrensfltl. The lli\IIH' thing wa.:· said of Hawllti. · ·The ~HAIRMA . On th e contmry cv rybodv hns f<atitl it would he increased up to perhaps 1"70,000 tons·, it:; mitximiun _Poiut of pmduetion. Mr :Mnn K. Th stntc ment hru: bt• u made tn th11 pnper., ,. ry widel ~ that jt c uld not be inm· rr.:· d. J Mr. bEl'BW. 'l'h b<' t- ngar fau1nrr must r co.i\ what, in the Now York nmrket, to rcmuncmt him for mising ;; •gtLr ; l<ir1 MYRICK. 'L'h llttgar should n,· rtl'-! t'eut:; ILbout-! c nt.<; .at th e fa ·torr I shotlld . ~Y· We ar al~o a~kcd to , help the:e ~co ~e becnu ·e of the destnt ttOn du to th hnrntanc. Our contcntron 1: tbnt we hould denl ver,v {l' nrrou,..ly with them nnd help them out <?f that disaster, but iu . o dotllg w do not n , d to ovel'lo?k our cconomte policy- and I quot her to llhow you: "'Ih'e p opl ltve for 5 cent a duy a~d the 'vag s t~r .hom 10 to 30 eent n dny. ' In conclu. i@n,


1(\ti

OO\'Jo:RNM~:N1'

~·oR .'fB~:

I ~J.AND

o~·

I'U~: RTO

RlOO.

OOV~: IUOU;N•r

~'OR

'l'IIE IHI,ANil 0' I'IJl.:H'l'O RIOO.

Hi7

Mr. Mt ' ~JAR. Tlmt ill tnu; hut, wh\11'(' ll'O your joul'rrahoJ '! and . J)t'ft~ing for thl:' furml:'r:< n•pl'(i:<{' nt{'d h.v ollr o1·gnnizntiolt, W<' prott•, t primnril.r tlgnin~l frl:' • tmtlt; with PtJ<'rto Ri •o, hccJLUso w fcm· Mr. MntH'K. You t'llll look llt thnit· fih•:< llmf find jw. t wlur·~l t.h1 .v that it will ll(' int•,· itt~lily followl:'d'h.r t.·,•c tmde wi ~h th .Philippint>s • w••ro crPry dlly in th< Yl'l r. · ol\lt-. M.tUoM·A~. I mn' fm uililll' with •~ l'Oupl 3 of thom 1 hut whcro wcr·e and l'~•hn , Although tl1r • U·opit•ttl countrit•:-o JU'{I f.(rl'n.t ngt·i(•ultuml prodt.tt'l'r><. nnd tlwi1· ,·upuc\t.\l i:< Jthno:<t unlimitnp, tJ1!1y nr :;trmll t'mttlm"'e in th11 South 'I ~ Mt;. M'YIIHJK. Tho)· wore on th · Hl"'l(l hrL."'i . Our f1·iondl'4 fmm Now lllll\' r:< vf nmnufll!'hlrl:'d nrth•lt•><. Fr 'I'· tt:udr wtth ~ht•m would, introOrlt•nll"' cnn tl'!iti tv to our i n4li'Ciit in thoi r lleetion r.~li wollns tho growers dm·(' ahno~t iww rconomk· condition:<. Oui· dgnr m~kl•r:,; can ltot com· 1)'.'11' with ·thnt ltl.hor. and th~ fnrlll('l' would li uhj •l't1•d .to tlu IOW''.!t in tho North n11d \V 'l'lt. l_ form of fret>-tmdc t•ompetition, whi1•h would ruin h\1! m6l:lt pi'Oductive Mr~ . PJ-:nKJNI'I. But th qumltion hctw •rtr H11wnii llnd l'ucr.to l~i~ ~o : crop. llt•n•toforo bu·itf h~w:< hlWl' hl'l' n de ign d to J>r.otcct tho AmorHow ~~"' we put·:<u • •~ difform\t 1 ~0111'1:1 in Puert.o Ri co ttu~n 1\ll to i('an workingnm•lHnwr\i~~ , M.-. l'E1'TlOIU;w. Did rou mnkn any figure~ of .tho powor of uonMr·; MYIUUK. T)lt\t involve:-~ very line c~ ~~~titutiomd questions on l 1 whioh T mu not t'Olllptltcnt to •xpro. san Opijllon. u,uptimt ·of JX't>Jll(' in the trbpit·ul I'Ountric~ n>~· to tho 'people with i.M r. !'.:IlKINS. 1 mit l tnlking nbout xpcd~cuoy nnd juati ·o and ft\ii' whom thr~· .wou-ld t•OntV,\'tc I 1\lr. MYRICK'. No, "'ir. plnv. , · ;t'>ho 'IIALIIMAN. U.•rwing out conat.itutional question~:~, would you ~lr. P 'ETTIOH•;w. Englan-d ~r lls to ht' l' ti'Opit·al c untric. .J:l cents per t.rct\t it ns 1\ foreign \'OIIntry ot' n. helonging to tho Upited tate!!~ ('!\pita JX'r ~· l'ftr. whilr :-oh dl:< to Au:stmlm ~:J cent:~ per C~tp ita. It would he int('rt•l:lting t~ in\'('stignll• th(' quP:<tion of th t•onsmuption of M.r. D•~•·~:w. Could rmy goY rmnt•nt suatnl n itilolf in hnvin~M kind of poli11y in tlw r •lntio rs of Alnskn to tho Ujlitcd Stutes and . ~wn:ii to 1\ortht•rn produc~ b.'· these pt•oplc. and tht• distin<"tion its to the t•onth U nited Stntcs, nnd rmother kind jn tho rbh\tiori of Puerto l~oo to t<IUilptimr li,· the fnrmrr·~ of 'onm•l'ti('l t of >Jut•h prodm·ts. I. tink tb United Stnt<•s, thos nil hoing pun·ht\S ~hwos 'l yon would ·find it· ~o to 60 to ont• in faro 6f tlw Connecticut fnrmrr. . Mr. MYRI. 'K. 1 npprl•cintl' the ninguitud and tl1il dclicncy oft Mr. ~hiUCK .. I :<bat·c that opit ion. . questions r 11 rdl'r t6; hut you 11JUst remombm·, fot• instance, th11t Mr. l'EKKIN . You ~ptmk to 500, on of your :<uh:<('l'ioors, through Englnud i1itpo~e;. the ~'<IUne u i·iff on impor~ rom her coloitie. that she ~·o ur J?Ublit>tltion:<, l' \' C I'~- \noek . , Ttu.• qu :<tion i:< tl'Oultliitg 1111'. Tl:ii:< romnuttt>e .hn ~ hdorr it a bi ll fm· th • ~OHI'ntnrnt of P uerto Ri<·o. lt doc:; from fo1·cign l'ottntriPs. belol]gs to the l nitPd ' tiLt<':< to-duv- is as mut·h rt pm't of the nitcd Mr. l'JoJIQO~~. Then, if ti;l Puerto Hi co, w y .not to Hnw11ii ~ ~ ' tnks. n:>· t'cl'ritor~·. a t)le Hrt\\:unnn ·J ~Lnntlt< and Aln:skn. How <'llll . Mt·. MnucK. Wh /tot ~ we. in justic<' to this people and to •thH honor of our country, hnv.e n , Mr. l'•:nKIN . I rni1 Rllking yotl. ditfl:'n'nt law fot· .tht• peopl of Pur1·to Rrco than for tho e of HtLwnii ? Mr. 'MvmcK. 1 mn nnsworing you uud '"king yim th question. On \ ho grouud of expcdicn<'y. Arc vo uot bringing Puerto lllico vast. 1 •r th foree of your nrgument. and r :sbnll I v ry g lad if you can blcssiugs hy om poli ·ic.s 'l Ju closir% l . ho~ld like to ca llnt~ntion to bo' u:< tt wnr ut. ·, . .:\Lr. ~lYRtcic J kn w om thin·.... of the dodrin of agriculture, but th ~act thnt M•:· ,Diugley .fully shnr •tl mu· V,l~WI:! ll..'i to the dnngers of tropwul ·ompetltJOn, nhd tn h1 t':! letter to tile Speaker, of date iJ uly 14, in th ' mutter~ .o f "' ·i~tl ceo nom~· f 11111 n t po'.!ted. ~1·. NEu N. Ar • ,-ou oppot~ d to fr'e trade ill nn~· . form with , . 1898 Ito concll.\ded by 'sny ing' thnt. , . . M'r . NEr..SoN.I Would not 1t be w1so,. 1f ypur v te: v's arc correCt, to P-tu rto Hico I · 1\Jt-: h-RJCK. (':<. :<in. abnndon Puot·t Rico to her own fntc, so a.':f to proteut our tobtlcco artd ugm.• mi~:~c r8 ~ l\lr. N•;t~~N. ThPn ~' u rtr in frwor' of'Pu rto Rico placing a turiff ·· on our wheJlt an.d flour and mcnt- 'xport d from thi1:1 eou ntry ~ · M•'· MYRJCK. Not not·o 1:1nrily. · Mr. 1\IYJU K. y(',., ;.ir; ns.ther nhmy htw . · Mr. NELSON. Why pould we keep it a a · ource of clanged ~Jr. NEu; :-;. You want to han• th m put a' tnriff on it. Mr. MYRICK.1 I11 tho Cl\80 of Fum·to Rico they are not yet capable of )It·. ~bRI K. Ye .... :;ir. ' • self-goyernm nt, but inn few years . they will be ·o il~ suoh- porha's fi\·e ton, or twi nty-fh·e yenr - ltf!d suppo o you c 1tt11m c -them un 1! . )lr. ~F.J..s6N. And. t,b at is the way you repro,: nt th Northwe tot•n · fnhner,./ th£n as at pres nt. . Mr. NELSON. That is a kiudergut·tcn method. That does not relio e · ~h. lhRICK. Let {hom put a tl~riff n nil exports t~ c~- can not prodU<'(' a';l eheapl~· t( thr~ •nn impor·t from the Northwe t. ttdi economic ue:stion. · · · Mr. MYRI K. Give us th •n, if ) ou please, in r 11gard to aU the. e ~r. 1-'AIRB NK . Would it n t dimini~h their ·pt>w r· to produc 1 l\lr. )IYRICK. I que tion it. .. troi,>ic;nl countnes, a r~asom1ble length of time tqtll't we may prote t )Jr. )J OliA •. Ha,·e the~ joumal~ which ,-our pr :sent'eon i tontly nrnmst competition, n, d then at the proper time we will be willing o and <·ontinucdl_,, upported a tariff l'!.vstcrll ? · · · g'O on a freo-ir~· e basi. if th nmnnfacturcrs 11re. I · Mr. FAIRDAN . Do you regal'l;l the comparative! ·mall production )Jr. lfrRICK. ·The lu8t. ·Pr·csideMial lection- not 01tly in a political of ugar and t bacco in~l'uerto Rico tis ~y real soUrce of menace to 11:!<'. but~ d mon tr~tmg th fa~n r ntimen~. )Jr. McColl . I~ not'W!k'you about th faTmcrs, but your journal ~ the ugar and t btlcco i.ndustl')' of the mted States1 1 llr. ::\IYRrc K. I wtll an wcr that. 1f you will analyze ~ose return Mr. MYRICK. lnd\t:ectly, it i· . · Mr. FALRBAN s. Directly how is iU yoit will find that it i th ngri ultuml ,-ot · ~

I

I


168

VJm~MENT

OOVERNllENT FOR TB:E I L-AND OE' PUERTO R£00.

l!'OR !HE I J,AN]) tH'

PU~HTO

RICd.

169

Mr: MYRI x. Din' ·tly, it i"' be~tut. e 9f it"' ff c't qn tho gen~ml sent j. l'ht- ,~,·· mg~t ('ttpitali~t. will sny, Puerto Rican u~nr (' Otfle,. 1n fre o, now uhn will l><' the t)ext top, nnd the Philipp1no I lands· will be brought in in time, and th rr will be no pt•ofit in be tugnr ntising, and I will no~ put my n1one~· in it. Mr. }~AJRRANK • It i,. :o~('ntiment mther thnn ot.b rwi:-~o. • 1\lr h-R;JCK. I would lik • to l!!lt,V to the committe' in behnlf of tho bet•t-. u !'IU phli." of th1"' whol • :qu :o~tion. thnt I will·tnko plen~ure in pt'C8t ntillg mt·h mt•mbt'l' of the ('ommitt!'e with niy book on the Ame ri t•nn 'u~"'lr 1ndwstr\', whid1 gives nil tl:ir fuet... , in '('·o nrwdion with thttt 'n)!l'CIJ~ dt•tnil. · 1 ' Mr. ~.JHnANKS. B1·ought dbwn t n'C!'nt timN; I . J\,k ~I ~tJt'K. Brough~ down to ht:o~t yriu·. Olll'l;' l' 1.111g Pur1 to Rlt'O tohat'('O I d(•:<ire to :-fUhmit th o follow in~

tlivil goycrt~ ent in th ishmda a'hd withdnLw ull tr<,>OllR except enough to preserve and, mamta• order. . He may a 80 if directed by Oong~, re<iuce the duties on cert&in i\rticllll! a "~:iflc<l, . w)lere m:h erlnetion wonld not serinuMly cripple AJ'neri ·an inrlustriea. 'fhls for the pfeeent a.t I t , is the elll!iest, 1:1implc~t, and only safe conrao for Con!(I'Cf<S to fiJll ow; 1.\ot the ~tn~L <Ianger, 118 I 1 have repeatedly stated, 1 ow is, tlmt. 1:10111e bungling "act of Ooilgrel'l!' :willlllltablish a PPlltldent in the C118e f Puertlo Rico Jthnt will, us' you · !ORr, rend uniler lln<l d ct!troy nil protection to !\mcri<'nn prudncta likl) ulo(llr, tohncco ntul cign~, 1utrl smriit.ropi<~Ll fmits, tho c:Onlpet'tion of whi h frolu th ese i!!lanrls woull insure swift 11ncl titter rnin to all enJ.'IIJO!<:d l'cl'll in tho pro•luctiol' of tho Mine. lint onuRk, d cnn ('A>ngret!l! he indue ·•I to 1ulopt this plnn 9r polit-y?" Yllll; pro v idt.~ l thuru intct'l'StL"I will net prompt.ly nnd in the right. <lir llltit•n. Grtunuling ·at home, h o <ling conr cntion~, nndfirculnting pditi"n", th ough, will nm•cr ulone bo ~uftici ent I know it, i ~ th e ortlimtyY and' flnct tht~IIJ;ht,-nf my of infhuJncinK on• (ll'lll!l!, bu t.' in hiRemilrl{cncy it. will prov • an uttorfuilure. l<lnt1h of all tllllltll threatened mt<JI'Illlts sho 1lrlat om provicle nll.lllllH fo have IIIHl keep here at len tone revl'lll!cntn6ve, anrl t at roprc>ocntatiw the most t:UI,Jitulu, ·xpCI·imlt:etl, nn1l influt•ntu•l th&t · ~n oo fomu ; th ·~e rdpl'lltlc ntntivc~ to he mntR nr a h·g i><lulivc cmmllittcll\1\ll working lett r: . "' t{)J(<'t her to hat nnQ p,urpp" • urul e n<l , nnmt•ly, thl,l !Uloption of tho n ~·vu bri ' fly outlinecl 'po h•y hy CpnKre""· This •~m be clune, hnt \vtfl it.'/ I fbnr not, for the . Th" folio ·in)! ktt cr f1·nm ,I L ~. Fr."<' . JWe•hl••nt nf tht• <'it• w EnJ:(Inntl Tohn<'<'O Grow- ' one C."Stmtiul t hing to 1111 th e~e inlcrc::~t~ ~('CII'I to nthp·ly ij!lu)ru; 111CIU1 8 nutst he . pro~no' A~~·in ion ,- Wa• hinJ:ton , 0 . l'. , to A. F..\n•tin, of l'nllidd, Co nn. , i~ of h'l'ne nll :vi<l ~'<l , Cllllll h to a t JeUMt 'rcaHonahly l\<)niJl'IIAAtC nnrl JliiY th Ul<Jl0118CH of thcllO 111en lllh'l\' t tot 1lm ·en lfl\lWl'N> und tl,.. tohnl'<'O tmde : . nntl J 11111 w1 ling ro "t'n kt• CI'Cl'Y thulj.r 'on tho U><Merti rfn tlllll nnlu~H thi ~ iH d•m e ull Y ur l.d t r of I he ll!th i• nt lunul. Yonr f'nu<•ln• ion• nrc in cwn· in ~tniH:c ,.1,rred •vii s you fm r mul l"'L~ lkt will ""onu•· or luh•r lllai.Priuliw. Novcr huforo lm u t.heso ( lin:n fl'l'l' tjl'llclt• with Pnt' rto Hil'n, thl' rt•:<nlt to ll"af tnhm·clo nn•l i·ij..<:lr intere•t~ wili intl'r '"t" heln l'"nfrmiflo<l with dung.,. ~" g ignntic·, untl n •v<•r 'lJllfnro fnw 1. ltllcn in this nounlry .l ~<•:tpnthy anti ntliffl'l'l.'IH' • Rn Jll'on o ttiH'<~•l , th (• lll tJral of which i", unlcSfl the;; • fll•oplc FiN>t ,,th•'. Rf'l'l'UJ." ' nf h>lia '<'0 on ·that i• la1ul 1i·ill ,nt """!: l}l' inl'r<'ll;<t••l ~ ~ J,•c r <'Cnt , 1\1\ll!Se them ·oii'C:< lllltl IIIL'Ilt, th e i, II U Jike • IIICn, th uy IJIUjiMt llllol will H !It the &nd ·eal) lx• 1111'1""''~'1'1 mnrc than tl nt. Tlw l'U"t nf J:(I'\J inng tnhncco tlwr•• IHonl y 5 incvituhll) l'l II HCqlll'lk~H of tht•ir tJ oreJilltion t f th,1ty. to tJu)UI>'cl\'t':<, ·Lhllir f1d nfl.' '8, ~'('nt ~ !\ Jll •urul. ~u li'Ol"l i" .tiH' tlt•mnn ~l f r it now ill thi• •·nuntr." that l it i ~ bcmg and their fcl iJII'· IIll'n. , • . 1111 Jlllrh•d•n• ul •ol•lnt ~ · p1" tit afll·~ J'IIYIII!f :~·, ,·e nt ~ J>t'r ponn ll cln.ty. Y on .will readil y . ', tlwrd""t' . t.hnt w~th ~h l' al l! >hllon nf !hut clnt y \\'l' 1\'nnlti """ <'1'<'1'1' pound (either l l~lf or •hnnnfa<'lllrL'll 111 OJ.'tl~) thnt th u ' "ln ntl ··nn prodtH' . Thcrdon•, n~ tt 1h!H'c'n would" lllll'l' h<.' <'nllll' thi+lno~t f•rnlihthll' <'rt>p •rown on tht• i~luncl , ""'~~,. nmihthlf' STATE!Q:NT OF IIR. H .. FRYE. 1\l" l'l' nf lnutl wunltl >'<'lO n , l ~t• plnnll..'l l i n tol""'''"• nn nn•a nlml\· tim''" !urger thou tlw 1::1,000 m·r •" f!rll\1'11 in Nl"ll' J~nf!l :tnd th1:< n •ar. · :rh c Cu, IRI\IAN. ,J'IC'I;,.P g ive u;; your m:m;l,.in lftill. &'<'<.llltl , it i" Jl ~t trnu thn (. "onl y fillc·•· )ca f" i8 I!''~' \I'll tl~c·rc 1 and i~ i ~ tl'IIC ' thilt Am l' rl ~'ftn ~ nnd b ~mmn ~, w1th thl'•r • nJ >t'n nr 11 \l'thod • of l'nltn·ntu)n, <'llrlll *~ hnnllingj ~. J<'n•(•. Mr. et ·., \I'III I'OIJII • 1mpr0 \'~ 1h e ehnn\l'll•r of th at t o l ~H'I'<' "" to protlUL'l' 1t lul')(l' 1,..,~ Th e Cn , IItMAN. \Vhc· l'll do V<llt J'P;;idc? ~n lllj!t' of \\'rnpp<'r J, nf. lndt• '< I, th,.,,. •·untitl ently <'l<Jll'•·t In d ~ tbi~, imd nncler th • ~lr. l~m E. In thP tow1~ vf 'Winds'?r, C? ntl. I' stmmlu~ nf . llO>'>'Ihle free tm•lt' , tlw)' nrc bu ying up Iantis und plnntntion" for thnt ,~l' rv. purpu~~ . , ,. . I he Cu. II!MAN : · \\'hnt IIi .vonr hu!illl.C· >;! 1 Th• !"'l -.,1\~w,•r to ,qu\f.tion. Yt·~. On<'e the pr<'•·•••l •nt of h ee trade i~ Mr . .Ftt ;, A tolnwco f armer. ' 1 e:!labh~ht'tl w1lh Pu •rto l;l~<·t> b~· '!1 ~·t Co nJO!n!R' ," thnt . pP~edt• nt nu1st •.md will ·lll' The C H , mMAN. How long· h:we you been engttged in that hu;; iness ? fc?llmn I !ll'.' eh• nlllnlly 111. \h e Plnh pplll t'l< ami uha, too, whenevl'r th u ,Jntt C\r Mhnll Mr. :Fm!K For ><ome thit·ty-fin' j'l'ar . . 0C'<'0111e lmi L'II d nt t'l' H• rr• to r~·. Tht' l\'fore I'OIIr t•om·h•.•iuh" thut ultimute ruin to . The CHAllt~fAN • • Now y ou may procc d and n ako such statement 11::1 t~e t!"btl~l in(t'l\'8t ~, no1 o n)y of Xt•w En l!'lnhtl hnt all uth ur tobt~t·eo-1 •nf sccli on8, is \\'lthm "'f!ht tlf~ II IQIH,•nt ( 'Oil)!l'l'l!." n•h11ih• Pu,.rto Rimn produl'tH into tl'li t•ountry ~ud~m • fr< of dut,·, n ' •·on w ·t. . · Mr. F1t ·,.; . l ha,·c bePn fo r ~n yC'ars prel'!ident of th e ow Euglnnd ' After ·lui,·in l'l"l' mntelldt><t. Conf!rt••P to ut Olll't' c"tn hh•h ci\·il ~o,·ernmcn t\ill Tobucco G ·owrr ·' As:;ociat[on . . 1 will beg you1· kind indu,l genco 'w hile •.\ln8kll , l11wn 1 i, untl l'nl'l1 <1 .Hi <"o, tlw l'n'l'ill<'nt , f< pt•ukin!! the l'hilippinc J ~ lnnrl•, I nutke n .·i ort ::~tntem ent, u~ I feel sur thall I c n g et through qn~cker My~, " It d\)'~ n ot 1'1'<'111 •ll'. l.rahlc th•~t 1 •honld,' l'l'<'OI11111t'IHI nt this tin\e a . pecitk or final. fciTln f g n ·crnnw nt lor th t'!«' '"l ~lnll< l • . .. "hen pellet' :<hull I~ ''<'"f.ort'l l it wtll in tl!itt m nner, ttl'ld then I ' iJ.t answer stwh 11 stions ns you ~nmy he !he ! Jut~· o Cun)o!r< t e n ~trul'l a plan lrOWrhn•t•nt , whi ch slmll C8llibli"h aJlll choose to nt. • , 1 • I : 1 • mamtam fl\'l'\ 1•1•1 llJill nrtl rand JX':w • in ti ll' PhilippinCl'." Repre. e ting directly the kl!,l.f-toh~tceo i1.1tor e. 't · of New Engln~ , an · Cl ..arh· thl' nly i"tinl'tinn in the Prl'~ i• l •m 's 11ind th¢n het.wt.'Cn tl1e r..Jntion ngricultur~l indu tn upon whitTh depend. the pi,' . pcrity and Impp neli, w~.ich .tlw Ph iJ ~pinl' ~ ~land" h<'ar t ~ th~ t'"nit L'Ii •. t!lt~ und'pur .rel.ution " ·ith Puerto Rll ? \\ Ill' .thl' x••t ~ lll't' of tb • re b•~ lh o n !"the .Ph1hpp111 C!'. Tim 18 no w' pra·tit"'llly of manv thousands of American citizen.·, nnd a V\lue in the c1·o of · ow r nn•l•t d e rl v loiiOI\'8 that whntcl'er •• now d one wit h l'u('rto Rico ma.\· he carri,, J 1899 approximate ly e. tlnmted in cash of !M, ~JO,OOO, !tnd 1speu dng out. with rhe hilippill L'll, UIHI, if 8(1, th e •nul'ket of thi~ eountry \l'ill be dclugt.>ti .,·ith also in the i'ntere::~t of the vastly gi·enter out ut of the cigar eu~the1r pm lu.<'l of cheup !IIHl ~ la w labo r. . tobacco Stlate of New York, P cnnsy lvnnin, hio, ·wisconsin and No w. 118 trt 1,·our liN>l <tllt'l'tio n, What l'nn we do to a crt tit> tl1reatened . e,· il ~'! YotL~11!11-'Cl"t, an ' t ) <' ll tbe ielnn<l~?" AnswE'r, Xo ! We can not ~rh·e awav sell: Floridn, w~tb i:!tnaller arens in o.t h r Stnte>:l, I de. "r to en tot· my enrnest nor @ nrren? . cont ~ol of tb islands ; ' t!•e ~OU?J'Y 11·ill n~,·cr <'On~ nt to this being protest agdin t any fegi ·lation that sbttll nclmit of the ft·ee importation d ne, no r l@ ol nt~'C>'!Iflt~:. to P.rotect the m~ei'C!!ts of .A,me~!Cilll8. t: n ler tbe tn11t y of leaf tobacco from P~Jerto Ri co into the United tntcs, for th folthe;>c peopll' 1111Jll\' 1t1hahttants of the l8land and the •~landl! areti0 \1' "militurv lowing redsons : .Fir:·t, we t·cghrd tho pri.nciplil thw e:stl\hlbhod ' by ~i• 11• " nly and. will remain :~ until C{)nJ:(re,s declare;~,t erwi or legislate for them ; th remed y · ~clear and plain. Induce :C ng re8 to I e them as they art!, "act of C 1pgre ·s·" of free tmde with n her qtofore foreign i lttnd peculunder contro of the C mmander m hief, wbo may, and dou Jes wiU, establi~h iarly adapted to the prod.uction of leaf toi:Jacco and cigat·s in th light

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170

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G VERNllENT 1!' R THE T LAND OF PUERTO RI O.

GOVJ.:R~NT

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of a 1'110 t dang rou r den .; ru~ng rou becau uch lt•gi lation by ngJ't' s .-clath· to our fitttu· r lation. with thnt i land now will be th initiaton t p leading: to imiln.r l gislatiou lllt'r on rt>lath· t th Pbilippln , rmd po 1bly ub1t; therefor in that Ught w I' g-ard th work of your·b nombl committe in shaping · th 'futur r lations of that i land with our homo ount1·y 1\s 1\ matter for tbf mo t riou l,lnd wi n,;id ration upon th on ummation of whft·h may d pond th futur · ci nc ven of .one of tho largest and most vafuabl agricultural industri in tho United tates. ' Moreover, we r ~rd th propo ition of fr trad .with any of our insular J>OS."!C&Sion (if there be uch befor yottr honorabl body) to be, to n large e. ·tent, .t he abandonmen't of th prin ipl of proto tion to our hom in~u~tries, a breach in th wall of protection that, once opc[\ed threate.n thl' ultimate di olution 1\nd d tru tion of an American S)'S· !em' of political econ91)lY upon whi h mor than any other on thing 1 founded t?-da_y th . magnificent grandeur and pro. pet'ity of thi~ greRt Repuhhc, ngJ'<'~'~S and 111\tor may for a ttm stand ~ a proteeth· p1utition wall between u and our oth r insular posse sions, bu what guarnnt\· haYe w that omc futur Congr ss will not follow lh tl1\il bfn?!Cd b,: the Fifty- ixth 'l On th other baud , establish now the l?.rcced nt that Puc 1-to Ri o shall not be •ome commercially and politl<"nlly 'an · integ1'tll part Of th l nited States, with all the <"t>n'stituti mil right inherent in citizenship of th ame, and 1 believe this one act of the _Fift' ·_- ixth ngre"s will go down in history ns an exnmpl · ?f ,~ :g!~latm~ WI don~ th1tt .a~ I _futur Congre:;sos nms~ follo1v. . D11·e t ret~ult of l' mpcttt1~n of I nf tobacco nnd c •~r~ from Puerto R1co. ' I ba,·e ncvcT ~en _abl 'tog'( t nn.r rolinbl. s. tatJst.kn~ tate~ent of th norm!tl pr?duct.ton o~ .I ' nf toone o on tb 1. land of Pu~rto R~ o, and doubt ·much 1f neb ' XI t ·• th rcfo1·e htwo o11ly tho nt)pmximate e tinmto of .Am ril~tt'n deuler.s, which 1weruge abou 60,oo0 bal , or, say, (). • pounds; not n, \'a:;t amount, 1md not quito on -third the osti~t f _0,000 . poun~,. £o•· ~ w England. But I am told given tb stJmnlu of fr c tmd \v1tb th1 country and tho product would ut onc be multiplied 1tt least four timel'l, or 4,000,()00 pound more tb'an tho pbenome.nnlly lttrg 1 1.)9 <' rop of Ncw Englnnd. l>uert 1lic1\n toba co is being sol!;Hn thi country now in qual1titie a.s lr1rgc as 1, bnl s in 1\ s ingl importation. If, a I am told,• there · .a f~r J?r ' tit on it b r. , afte'r payi_n~ 35 c nt: per pound duty, ~ou· W1.11. r .a.dily ~ thnt w1th tb abolitiOn of 35 c nts duty on tobadco ' or1gmally · still"' to produce about 5. c n per pound tho demand h r ~r uld be gr Itt 1\S to timulnte tb larg t po ibl production there. :Moreo): r, th fact that th tobacco, or c•ga•·~ ma~o thereof, cam from Pue.;to Rico woulq add larg lr to tho fopular demand for Puerto Riean lenf-not nee · ril_r hecnu it i o better quality but . f!'l?m ~b in01·dinat ? ·ir of om· peopl t? try omething now, ~ ipecmlly 1f that s methmg com fr m a fore1gn laud. pronoun ed i tiJ:i tmi~ that million. of cigars <'.laim d to be mnrnrla tured of Puerto RJ<'ftn leaf· are now on tb Am J'lcan mark t; nnd the demand seem· increasing~,- nom10ui!. . Another · rious injury to our peopl from fr Puerto Rican leaf (which ould m n .thut tbi countrY would tak every pound eit,her a.s leaf or cigars,. Pu rto llico could produc ) would be the morn I effe<·t. In othEr ":ord , th powerful le.r .e r it woul.flive the packer of dom tic l af to bear pri of th m while irJ"e bands of the

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THF. I T,AND O}' PU"ER'L'O RTCO .

171

farmer. No man who hns not hnd n I if 'tim .oxpe•·i •nc on tho tohnct\O f11rlll and in dealing with un,.crupulou pttcko•·:s can hav 111 ' t•onroption of tho nrgnm •r1t1:1 tbt~t will b us d to depre price. , nnd tho · morally disal!trous effe t of th • Ull · thu provided hy '' 1tct of Congress.' in permitt-ing free tmdo in leaf tobn co with J?ue~·to H.ico. . J t dging from pust oxp rienco during the 'igbties, or oru·l.r (·ompotition from Sumntro. tobnc ·o, when the packer wet·o nble by this moans to dopres p1·ic o us to p,urchn tho N. E. w1'appor crop. nt binder prices I should t!ll.Y thnt from thia cnu alone price would be dopro..~ed from 15 to 25 per cent, wbieh would b equivalent to all tho ·profit in good sonsons. Again, I am c•·edjbly informed tbnt ft·eo trade iri leaf . tobacco is not n <'e sary to restor pro parity to tho tobacco intere ts . of Pu rto Rico· th1tt a rodu ·tion in dutil':; of not more than 25 per cent would bo amply suffi.ei nt. This would se<lm to be true, o.s Puert.o Rico to barco now commandt~ a price m thi~ eonntry thl\t enables it,; lnrge iinportation under tho full,~ 35 cents, ?uty ·If this i so, why, then, ,go to tho· xtn~me of ft·co tt·ndo n n. remedy, when bv so doin,g grent injurY to our fllrff\ors i. sm·o to result, tho protection p•·in '1plo is demolished, and a pr~cedont mlblbli bod that ~y ultiumtoly ov rthrow nhd .sw~op nwt\y nl[ gunrnntoo ~f ~utu~·o ba\)pine s 'and prosperity, not onl~r of tho to btl <:o fnrmors,. but of mi hons of other American citizen!' hesid 'S t '1 • Ag1\ili, e,·or sincp its government by tho Vnitod tutps, tho tqbne planters of Cu bn have ell\imed, nnd the United Stnte:; Government hn~:~ supported the eontention bv It prohibitive duty on ' Puerto Ri<·t~n tobncco, thnt they (tb tobn · · o plnntcrs of Culm) mu~St bnve ll pl:ohibitive d~1ty plnced on Puerto Ri<"an tobneco itilports to save th.e tobacf)O inliustry of Cub1t from being rninod by tb<~ competition df Pt erto Rhm tOU!LCCO, ll~Jd this, too, in fr\0 of t~o fnet thltt for tbr~~ bun~rod years Puerto RICan toba~· ·o wm~t to CnlJII, u · freely a. Connoctlcut tobacco pn ·c.; from one State in th Union to an6ther. . .Nd,v, if the Cubar~ plante~·, with the en~mnons proqntt of quba compll}'Cd l? wh~ch th Puerto Rtmn product ·Is hut a :snmll frnl'tJOn, and much 1of wbt$ product ht\ no equal in the whole w?t·ld _for ~~quality ~v_ith which no other tobnceo cnn compote, cun 1iot ex• ·t w1tb tho oompotttron of Pue rto Riban tobacco · wbnt be om e. of the n..-;s rtion in so1hc qunrter tim the tobacco interest>:~ of our conn tTy need no protection at nll fronl the com. petition of Puerto H.icnn tobn ·co, tho output of ~vhich rnn oc;m be made to equnl or exl' od tbnt of all New .F.-ngland I In c-oMlu · ~on, I . submit the o arc question that not only de en·e tho erious on idcration of your hono\'!tble body but arc problem of deepest tbou.,.ht and anxiety for thow•and of Am,e.l'ican furmors who,;e fuiurc tJfo. p erit.y 1 and hapr.ine. depend whoUr on their· wi. solution. Mr. NEI.SON. Lot me call :y,om· attention to th' e figures ~r6m the report of the Bureau of Stai.~tics M to tho exports from Pue1·to Ric.O for 1895, o that you cnn sec the alarming condition of thi tmde. Tho total exports of coffee amount d to $8,789,000; tho total1of s ugar was $3,347,000, and tho total. of .tobacco wo.s ~646,000. Tb · total amount of toba co exported n·om Puerto Ri o in 1 95, a normal year, wns a little o,·er a h'a lf millio.n dollars, compared with the coffee crop of nearly nino millions,· and a sugnt crop of nearly four millions. Mr. FRn:. I that amount 1'eported a being exported directly from Puerto Rico to tais.countJ'.Y or•to foreign c_ountnes1 , Mr. NELSON. The total export::! fi'Om the 1 land.

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172 MT.

l ooVERNXENT · FOR

GOVERlfMENT FOR THE I SJ,AND OJ:o' PU]):RTO

FRYE. To ~uba al o ~ .

1\fr. JE N. Y • sir. , .1\:lr. Fnn~. I hav · tinder tood it wn:; :hard to get ut tho expc rt 'of

-Pu('rt ~Hi<·o; thnt !L larg portion went 'to ' ubu ltnd Wt\ then !hipped to th nit d 'tate:; and old a th Cuh,ln p~:oduct, I.Lnd also th1Lt pan-. ish tatJstic:-~ are not nt 1\ll 'r('linble. . T~ HAlRMAN. W e have nl. o n n'llOrt from Mr. ari·oll , appo inted & 1ped I c nm,1i"sioner to d ~; it · th i. nnd. I hnve,l->e n going o\·er it, and he vs the total prodtil·t ii1 pounds wa.~ 2,2:35,000 m,;tcad of si x million~ il \ '011 stnted- (p:;,; tlu\11 two and one-fourth lnilJion . . }Jr. nn;: J hare seen it stilted many times th1Lt the normnl prodtll·t • of Pt1~• o Ri<·o wa >'~tid to he only tiO~OOO hnles 1 and thi i b)' people who nr c ntendi-ng w will n t suffe r. . :Mt·.' rtlLSON. I it not n. fnl't that the only thing Connettil'nt ' nnd · . \Viiic.:On!'i n tolmcc.: 1 ha,=e 11. littl farm on~r in \Visconsin wh re I nm raj ing tohllt'('O,nnd 'i t i, ><hipp d e11::<t and :so ld u:; onrwctic.·ut tobncco. Rnd m;i· und n•tundin,... of the ' nn rdit<nt and r orthern tobncro i thnt it i:; mninl_,. vn.hmblc.• fm· wmppr rs nnd bindPrs. . .M r. ~KYE. Yc>'. ::<i t·: it wo uld not br protitnhle for nnything el ~e. ~h . N EI~ N. ' hi tty for wl'llpp r. and binders on the ·ommoncr cigars 1 1 · 1 -~h. lj'RYt~. \" ,•:<. ~<ir . 1 · :Mr. NEL~N. ThP hig h-pric d c.·igar:< haw the S mnat.rn. wmppers? ~ r. ]j"nn:. · Yc.' . , ::<i r: although not n eC'l':<.~n rily -Mr. NT·:L~ON. Th • Puerto Rwan tohnl'c.'o is no n wTnppc•· tobncco 'l

Fun:. ~ . ,.;.,., · i\lr. ~ F;Lsox. Jt i.- gcne rall,v known nnd u,-rd II" a fill er tobneC'o ~ Mr. FuY):. Yt•:<. ,-ir. ~Jr. N..:r: ox. ltd< " not l'Olllpete with the Connrdil·ut to]1UrC'o·1 • ~lr. ~Ill' E. ~o. ~ ir: I am .not afmid of the pl'eilent t•ompetition, but ~h.

I am nfrnitL of th e i>rel·cdPn,t i mig ht ~.et.

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Th •u,\l!UIAN. Your ehiPf obj •l'tion i:; tJ1nt it is the prot• d nt you · f · r? }lr. .Fnn~. Y<'"• s it·: anti that i:< rt s Tion>< fctu·. Amd nl·o th moml .effe t. I know what th eft'rct will b . The,· will tell our people thnt the t bttcl'O i:< :::o .l'henp. nud thcs will ·et sm·h and such prices thnt we mu t ntel't- Mr. P.t-:rit GnF.w. Are .'·on IL Hepu hi ic.:n.n ~ Mr. ,FRn,:. Yc><, .;ir: \ ~I r: Pt;TTJGRF: w . 1 ou nre nfq1id th Rrpuhli can:-; will quit the·pnrtJr I . " b-. ,JtYE. I nnt rrot h re on a politil'n[ du npnin·n. , •. ~ft·. GALLJN .sn. Let me nilk, thi ~o~ que:stion: there nm.'· not b anything in it. hu't 1 think it i:s worthy of {·o n >~idehttio n in tbi · conncc- : ti n: A: lUll!' tbnt ,Purrto l~ieo is ~i ,·e n fr c tmde in tobncto, would it I not he ,.~ib l e . if not J?I'Obahle. tnat .tb re would he nnll'h :>muggling ft' m ub1t to Pu.crt Rt C'o, und in that wtty thQ uban tol.lllCeo would rom in ft'<" of duh·! llr. YB.YE. The Puct·to Rimn. I 11111 told. i. n.hlc to carry 200 pound. o( sugnr. or ·om ltl'b thing . on hi hnl'k to th , t~ horo f•·om ti ,.c sci. ~ow. the1;$ i~ n profitjn thr :<peci ti ·duty nlon :if it cottld be tn·cd, n a hundred· p~upd.,; f ci~us of $4511' in oth r wor~~, ~.50 per pound.. I nppreheJ:~d that a "L' at deal of Cuban h:~f and cignr would get int Pnert Rico : I d no · bow jt could b !Woidecl.

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1-73

The CHAIR~IAN. They could 'ust a· >asily come to the Unit d S~te dire_ct ? · , •I . Mr. FRYE. 1 htu·dlv think so, nlthough ·there 1s more s~ugglmg · into tb nited tatf'; thnn Undc Stun i t~ t\Witr of. L . Mr. NJ-:r..soN. If \vc l'O.n get th(1 Puerto Ric!'ns t~ use our tlo~r ttnd w~1eat, would. it not be fttir that we should l'how thetr tobt\CCO' wtthout duty ~ . . 1 • • . Mr. FRYE. Po tbly, a 1\ que:st~on of fnn·ne!'l. . . . ·M r. PEnKINS. You,lttid .crr 11t ~;;tress on the prec~dent estn.bllt~he~. m thls matter. 'W hel' i:s the differe nce between th1 Rnd the liiRwatl!\o ·Islands; hRve we. not nlrendy estn.~tli hod. iU .. Mr. FuYE. PerbtLpt! so. I ti'tn not up 111 pohtJcnl. ~couomy. Mr. PEUKlN . Wher 1\l'e we going to dt'tl.W the ltne ~ · . Mr. Fun;. Thttt is wlint om yeopie want to know, at d t~er ":lint 1t dmwn right hl'l: , a~nd tboy wit feel very much ~lRrmed If It H.l not 'dmwn bot . . , "' . I 1l Mr. M CoMAS. 'tV ar at thi ~tile now-Puerto R•co-:-Rnd t_ ,e others a,·e f1uth et· nlong. Are you 111formed that the IRnd Ill Puer.~o R~co---it i IL sm!tll i:sland- cnpRble of tobacco culture twe quu.e limited¥ · 1 • ~ Mr. FRYE. I unclc r:;tnnd tht\.t the .·o-<·tllled sug-nr lund. cun grow to\>ttcco 1tnd will grow tobncco when the pt·oduct 'h"' valunule. Mr. ~leCoMA . The infornmtiqn givetr ds is t. ttt tpe ug11r Inn might br :;omc wlm_t extended. J.n:tJthe tohnc ,o lnnds, alrendy sbrnewhat limiteo by nature m t~n.t :<nmll•s.lnnd, can r!ot be. · Mr. •Fnn;. I oply grvc ~h e 01;tnnate us glven to me by people w?<> I htw • heen there. · ' · · . , Mr. ~1 'CoMAS. Your r stinmte is t.hn.t they could quadruple the1r p1: duct.: they tnn not quadruple t.he hnd. ' ' 1 Mr. Fun;.' No sir but it ts R crop that represents a great d~l of mqn y mlue to n' very :snmll a•reage. :For instance, in ~ew Er!glti.nd the arrenge i;.. only 13,000, which w uld not _count for }nll h til the cornfields of Iowa or Ka'nsas. ' ·M r. FAIRBANKS. 'Whnt is th' p1:oduct~ Mr. FRYE. I do not know. · . • 1 Mr. NEr..so~. I:s it not a fa ·t that it requ1res rtch land , whiCh bnve io JJ £ ttilized? . 1 · Mr. FRYE. lt depends on th ~>lind you nrc trying to rmsc. If y,ou n.re trying to ru.i. ·e . outh Q!trolinn plug- - . Mr. NF;L ON. lnm pcai{mg ·o f• New Enl;{'nnd.. . I .. Mr. FRYE. Ye . ir· you h1we to hnve r1 ch sotl, henvtly fertthzed. Mr. NET,SON. And you could., not raise much tobncco on e:Xhnusted, · · wo,r ked-out sugtu· lnnJs 1 Mr. FuY.E. I do not kno.w btit the qualitY, .<_>f the tobacc:o ight be . better. The strong ugnt· lands Would pe ·hap grow too xnnk and coar e at fi11 t , nnd p erhnps it 'vould grow etter R~ter !J- ~ew wears. The CnAmMAN. What ·kind of tobacco i jgrown m 9h10 ? . Mr. FuY.E. What is commonlY! called seetl leaf, W~lC~ goe~ mto the lllllnufaeture of cigars. Ther ·are three or four var!et1e there. . Mr. NET..SON. I~:~ 'the~·e not a good denl ef wh~J.t 1 called burle1gh tobacco~ I · Mr. ll'RYE. What is called .' hogshead" tobacco; that is in the ~;outhern pnrt of the State. I

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GOVERNMENT .. F R TBE I LAND OF PUERTO RICO.

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GOVERNMENT FOR '.11BE ISLAND. ; pF PUERTO RICO.

The ' HAJB iAN. What i thaf u d fod Mr. .FnYE. H<:>gsh ad toba·· ·o,. :su ·h as white bur leigh, i · 'used fo r p.lug _tobo;c o, and su. ·h. of ~he ci~ar leaf toba~co a is g'row[\ in Ohio ..1:s g.r<;>wn 11l the nor hem part of tn . tate. 'l'h ' HAmMAN. W.ou~d that ompete with Puerto Rican tobacco ~ . Mr... ~YE. ~or than with N w .Efngland tobacco· that is u ed fo~ fille~.· Ihe Obi? fillers, ~u h n. z bra, Dutch, e~c., ~~;re rec~gnized ns th best grown 111 the Umted tates, except pos tbly m Florida. The 'HAmMAN. Puerto •Ric-o toba. 0 would com'pe.te with ·that tobfu..'CO, i:f with a~y, and not with ~·ours, which .i a w-rapper ltobacco ' and not used for filled 1 ~:_. FRYE. Ye~, ir; unle. · · they improve .the q~;~ality, which they wdf tr'· to do. · · Th ·cruiRMAN .. It ha been. tated here that for years tb~y have · . been trying to ~prove the quality of their tobacco, but are unable to · ~o so, and tha~ rt wa something perhap in the climate which stands m the w~~oy of tt. Mr. FRYE. I do not know how much they have tried. · 1\ir, McCoMA .• If it should h!tppen, as Mr. Carroll tates tO be the · ~act, that th_ rear only 4 1000' acres fit for the cultivation of tobacco tn Puerto Rtco, you '!'oulct not be much alarmed, would you~ ._Mr. Fn'YE: I a~ not m,ucb alarmed over tbe competition of Puerto RJCo tobaCco, but m regard to whnt may ~ollow. ·

1175 ,

I· I . · · . Louisiana should be fr~m 300 000 to 350,000 tons with ~e amount 'of l9:pd we have .now cul~tvated for that put\pose. Of cou11se, there are

h\rge tra ·ts ttllnnm;tltlVnted that cobld be devel6ped. · . Mr. NELSON. Is there any cultivation oq ··ide of Louisiana ~ Mr. Hn,L. Ther~ _is some ip Texa~,. sonie in :Florid~, and recent~y 1 ·thet·e h.ave been \'lStts made to Lomstana by persons f om Georgm ~vith the intention of introducing the cultrlre in Georgia. 1 Mr. NELSON. :ro what extent in these other Stntes, il:! ' t cultivuted ~ .. Mr. HILL. The extent is smttli, but its exact quantity r tlo not know. I think there are' probably not more than four or five planter in the State of Texa8, and about ·the s~me in Florida. , · The CrurnMAN.• You confirm what Mr. Oxnard said~ Mr. HILL: Except that I know nothing about Puerto. Rico; the q~antity of arable lands, or what c.an be produced there. I hi\-Ye seen a statement that 60,000. acres have been· uaed for the cdltivation of cane

"'1Mr. fd:::·HILL. P~llKIN~.WeWhat is the avetag.e yield of cane sugar in your State 1 make from 3,000 to 4,000 pounds where the planta·

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ti n is in $'ood condition. · \MI.·. PERKINS. And what is the cosU .. Mr. Hn.L. From 3 to 3t cents a pound . Mr. PERKINS. Nearly as much as beet sugnr1 ' · Mr . .HILL. I think a little more, but I .d o not know the price o 1 eet • , sugar. • . · · ¥r. PERKINS. Why is the cost ~o much gre~ter than in the Hawaiin ST.UE~.T OF D. JAJOS D. HILL. Islands~ • Mr. HILL. I presume t he labor que tio1,1 has a much to with' i,t !1.1:\ The CHAJRlUAN. klease ·state your nam~ in full: nnything else. · . · Mr. Hn.L. Jame D. Hill. · Mr. PERKINS. There is as much difference in the Hawaiian Islands The CRAmM AN. Whm·e do you re ide~ · nnd Puerto Rico and Cuba. Mr. HILL. I wa .. not awarE) of that. ·Mr. Hn.L. In Ni w Orleans; La. The CHAIRMA?f: What wages do the.J pay in Louisiana 1 The GB:AJRMAN. W~at is 'your bu ine s1 . ·Mr. Rn.L. I am engaged in ugar planting. •M r. HILL. We are p11ying 80 cents and 1:10 cents for.goood plowmen, The CHAIRMAN. In LottisittnO: ~ , . graded, and 75 <ients for the women able to hoe · ~nd assist in the plant. Mr. Hn.L. Yes, ir. ) mg of cane. · . . Mr. NELSON. Are those wages through 'the en ire yead · The CHAiRMAN. How long haye y,ou been o engag-ed~ Mr .. HriL. I have been connected with the sugar mdustry, *10re or. , Mr. .'HILL. No, sir. Du1·ing the grinding s~son · the wages llil'e I , mce .the war. . inpreased, and we pay ill a dlly for the people employed in the cane house, and also have w use: s~ lled labor costin1g- from $2 to ili5 a day. Th CrumMAN. Now, Mr. Hill , proceed in your own way ahdS'tate to th committee what you desire. : , ' .. Mr. NELSON. What do ,you J>SY the hands cut~mg the .cane1 Mr. HILL. Ot\~ dollar, and In some portions of Louisiana they pay M.r. Jin;.L. I corroborate wh~t bas been aid by Mr. Oxnard 'in conmbre than in .the parish i~ which I am situated, w4icb is below New · nection wtth the development of th~ sugar inaustry in the !United · . Orleans. . ~t s. Of course, by reason of the ugar J?roduced in Louisiana . •Mr. GALLINGER. Is the' at'ea f cultivation being enlarged or cur~tug prod';lced fro'!! ca~ehand the small quan~~_ty of land that can be u ed !or can gro'Wlng, tt a been u~terly impossible to develop the l tailed~ · 1 · · Mr. HILL. It is being enlarged, and for this reason: In Louisian'l cane mdustry to furm h the sugar demand of.the Unit.ed States which exceeds now, I believ , 2,000 000 ton • . ' · .• th~ system has changed .so far as the manufacture of the sugar is, concerned~ The old system was tllat every'pJantation that raised its own· The G~AIR~AN. How rapidly is that d,emand growin<T' for in'stance ca'ne ground its own cane, but. they have recently established the cenw~at was the con umption in the United tate ten ye~~ ligo1 ' Mr. H~L; I can hot. tell you; . · 1 • tral factory system, and they buy. from the several plantntious and : grind in these central .factol•ies, and' th~ truck f4rmers who have here· Mr. ~·ELSON. What i. tho production of Louisiana~ 'totore been i'Bising for the market at New' Orleans and have failed. are l\1r. ,l;ln.L. It i 'about 270,000 ton this year; b!!t this· has been an beginning, and now are, putting their places into sugar cane, and at aboonnaUy a waa al o la•t y~'· The prodootioo of tluit they can make a much better living than in truck farming.

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VERNMENT

F R THE I LAND OF PUERTO RI 0. .

Oo VK RNMENT FOR TITE IRLAND

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PUERTO RI CO.

1'77

i\tr. LAIUUNAGA. Y(•>~, ir. 'fht> CHAIRMAN. You ngree with t he tatement:; mud ' ! of"thst1 ·· Mr. LAJUUNAOA. 1\'>~, >.~i r ; in some r ~o~pe 'U!; in other>~ I differ. · l\lr. Hn.1.. Th y llr pr eeding thi 1 9 w had an abnormally wet The ' HAIRMAY\. ln what r t>. per.t.'l do ~'Oll differ ~ . n. Th r u'lt WI th t th cnn g r W very larg nnd contained · · Mr. LARRINAOA. I ht>nrd th opinion l'x:pre&"!ed, whi<·h I consid r 11'4 1 nothing hut water, or was htrg ly wat r, o thut the y ield pe1 ton 1 which not so, tli.at the treaty with !;pain had not stopp d n.ll the markets ~OI' ought t ba\' be n larg ly ov r ,1 pound , in om cas reach1bg 1 0 .Puerto Ri<·o, and that it Wl'L'I only one-tenth of our expprt:; whwh Spain and that we e uld tind no markets now, and that ou1· pounds per ton 1 f II off o that mnnr plac mad n·o more thu.r 80 or we nt 00 pound per ton. Last yenr, owmg to a fearfu l freeze, when · the planter>J had t:Cen doing very well hefore wh~n th y could s nd their th rmometl'r f<'ll as low as 6° abov zero in Ne~ Orlean. , omething . ugnr to th(l United State . I do not agree w1th thoR ~:~tatements. The C RAIKMAN. What is the truth Ill-! to the markets ~; in ce the' war~ mnhea.r.d o! bl'fore the t uub! cane, f rom wh i ·h a large ~rtion of th ugar 1 produc d wa:; almost d ttoyed, ·and thu re ult i1:1 that u 1\ir. LARUIN'AGA. The truth is this: Although we ha\'e an oppor · l1ng~ · put f th crop wn urtnil d. tunity to sell our ·sugars to the U ni ted. 'tn.te1:1, our pltmterl'.l at; ru!ned; Mr. PE'I.'TlOREw.l How often do you planU ejght out of every ten nr rnined mf' n. There are .gentl(\men here who · Mr. Hu.L. En~ry th r ~' ar. In om exceptional ca es, on very , are, happily for thQm, not in that eoudition, hut they are planters and carl tel[ themsel·ves. Mr. GonznlPY. and his fello~ plnnte i'S know· thnt .good landl'.l, we got a · ond y ar ' tuuble, but that doe not average 10 per nt of the an h\nd ul tivat d that year. the term " 'ugnr planter " Wal:l sy nonymom; with men who ·ould ·not fodt n. bill fo1· a few hundred do!Jar . ' The' CHAIRMAN. Are you a sugar plant • ~ :t.h. LA~IUNAGA. No, ~:~_ir; r aJll the p~·opttietor .~ ~ ~;om ~ l~utd outside nf San .J nan , and I pl'll<:tJce my ·professiOn as a CJ<V!l engmeer. · JANUARY 20, 1900. The CHAIRMAN. What, in your opinion, woula be the e ffect on the p1·oduction of 11ugar and tobaeco in that'i~;land to g,i\·e f1·ee tra s:rATEDNT OF Jm. TULlO LARRINAGA. to tbese produets 'l · . Th CHAIRM AN. What i. your full nam · ~ Mr . . LARRIN.AOA. The immediate effect will he, to in crea::~e producMt. LAUUINAGA. 1\tlio Ltr~;ina . tion. ~l'he hope .o.f gettin.g f~·ee tnule nn~ th ~ ·o~fidence we htwe b~d. Th HAIBMAN. Wh re c;lo your . ide? in t he :-~ense of nght and JUStice of the Amimcan }J ople htLV(j alt·eady Mr. LAn~lNAOA. A~ an J nan, Puer to Rico. in~ ren ed it largely, hut l do not beli ve ·it will be 1ncr en1:1ed 1nore th~11 Th RAIHMAN. Of whttt country n.r you a n a:tive~ 40 to 50 per cent. Mr. LAJtRINAGA. f an ,lwtn , Pu 'rto Rico. J The CR AJJtl\IAN. You me1tn 4:0 or llO per cent i!l · t·ea,':!e ~ . Th lfAIRMAN . .Born in Fiwr to Ri o~ Mr. LARUTNAGA. · Yes, ~Sir. I have heard here t~at t he lands capab.1t' Mr. LARntN A. Y sir. of producing fmit.'oj were lnrge tmcts qf'·land. It 1 not ~o much so, ui Th lUMAN. You ba" li ved ther all you I if ~ my opinion. 1 have go ne, in my profe. -. io·~ all ove ·the u:~la1~di ~ h.av Mr. LAJtRlNAOA. Ye , ir; ex pt four or fi v . yea1ls I spent in the studied railroads and common r oads and bmit them, and stud1ect llTigtl Up ited tnt . tion and have been, llO to speak, over every in h of ground on the island, Th H~IR~JAN. · 1-Vh I' did you li ve in ilie U nited States~ a,nd 'I do not believe thnt the i ruit-producing capacity of the island Mr. LARRlNAOA. In Troy, N. Y., a nd Philadelphia. \YOuld ~ ex~raordinary at all , as_jlt\ted here~ I be1ieve thl\t the coffeeprQducing capaeity of the islandlcan be incr eased hu·gely, becnuse '!e . 'fb , ' HAiRMAN. ~~ ~ha~ time1 \ Mr. LARRDIAGA. F r m 1 65 to 1 70. can cut down our woods a.od l?lnnt. coif e. W e take tLW!l:Y the mnm t h . ~AIRMAN. '\fhat i yolll''O Ctipation ~ patts' of the trees 'tnd leave there cei·tain trees whose shade ts go<;~d fqr 1\ir. I:. RRINA!)A. l am a civii ngi n r. that pnlture, and pltLnt coffee, and I believe th~t coff~e is. about the Th HAl RMA : Where have you pra t iced 1 . only product that can be increased to any considerable amount. A~; 1\ft·. LuRINAOA. ln th nit d ' tat a nd in Puerto Rico for twentyto ·sugar, it is m ' idea that ·it can be increo.sed orne, but almo t ever y nin y a t . · "ood·piece ·of ~:~ugar land has been cultivated., t\nd thoRr not n. ed for 'l'he HAIRMAN. You ar fam iliar with th i. land and with the poput hat are u ed fo r cattle rai in~ . lation of th island ? The CHAIRMAN. Cattle do ·weiH 'M r. L~RINAOA. Y ir· I know very pia e in the island. Mr. LARRrNAOA. Yes, sir; splend idly. Th HAIBMAN. W r you th re duri ng the wad . the CHAI;UMAN. What kind of a goverm:rtent do you think w ought ir. . .Mr. LARRIJ!IAOA. Y to provide for th i ~land of Puerto Rico? .Tiie <-~mMA~ . 1 You 'W .re th re whe·n the troop came1 Mr. LARRlNAGA. I cop cur 'in the opinion of the oth ' 1' gentlemen who Mr. LARuJ~AGA. Y · . 1r. . · liave preceded me. Th Cu IBMAli . . When th upation commenced·, and since1 ' The CHAIRMAN. Those .who. have 1118t pr ceded you : the lnst two or · 1 Mr. LARRINA A. . Ye , ir· I form d a par,t of th f . l government. tb1 ee ~ ~ IBMAN. You have h ard the tatemenU! m e here as to the S. Doc. 147-12 . indW!trial cond ition 1' • Mr. G LUNGER. You aid tl1at th production of. ugar in Louisiana· h&(' been low th a,; rage fol th I t two year . What was theca e

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17

OOVF.RNMJO:NT 'Jo'OR THJo; I LA ND m · P ERTO Rl 0.

' ll'lLAND OF' PUERTO Rl 0. GOVERNMENT FOR TJ:H;

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)lr'. l~RRIN .A. Y e • . ir ; t '11111 o f the opinion of all th e re t of mv countryme n. I belie ,· ' that 1l>thin_g 11hor~ of a T e rritorial gove rnm iit "';11 full~· snti~< fr th ' ople of th e iiiland . Yo u htw e hen rd from Mr. GonZill'ez thnt th<'y htw bud r<elf-~ove mm nt, tJt~t it Wl\11 g i\·cn too lnte. \Vhr n m~· politicnl fri <' nds l'lllll'<l m to till the office 1 held- the oflil· of a88i tant 1!Cer r tnry of th r intt•ri ot·-'-1 th o ug ht tht\t it .wus too lu.tt• and that it .would ,on·ly serve 1\S 1\ tra ining. · The CIIAIKM AN. You W P1'P rip int d n..'l,.istant · ·sN·retllqr of th1 interiod · • Mr. LARRJ.NAil.'\. Ye:;, ir: of th in,.ulnr gove r rmwnt. The M tUM N. f this IUtlo no mi, tic fo rm of gO\· rnm ntl )Jr. LARKI N nA. Y C':;, <'l it'. I th o g bt. it wn · mther too ' h~te, ns th1 thing WI\~'< gl)ing w l'Olll('. l\l.v fri l' nd" kn e w wht~t my opinions '~e re. wh~t l.alway ~o~ thotig ht o n the nmtt(• t', und th ey <!!Ltd that wa all rtght, but we mu t edul·nt .th J~oplt'; if JOlt do not turt you will n \'et· g l' tbe t·e. In i ' 73 and 1 i-! we hnd uffrugc. No" , T do no t prete nd to I'll\~' that our people nre f ully I'OIIIJ !'te nt. Tmnt~ memhc r of. th F d e m\ party, and in our progrumnH• we btl'· • luid do wn the hu.'! il! of whnt.w11 .wi b. · " 'c do nQt >bje ·t to uni v{ t'l'n.l :mffmg e, but we wil n.ccept whllt \'Ct' tire U ni d ' tate Oo n •l.' ll 11; nt will cfo in thP ma e r, 11s w1 f elt~ I!Ut'PP th<•G(>V ' rmnc nt, will do s ju><tice. I h{:lie r c w{' hlln\ do rw W!)ll :<O fur, u11d 11 0 11 i;; di ssuti:<tie witb it 1~:s it i :-~. · The CHAUlM,AN. You think thN'I' •o ula he uo troubi P if wt' g in• uui H ' l'l'ttl s utl'mgel • . ~h.' t.Ar!liiNAOA, l..,_do npt thiuk ht• n would be nu~· mot· dnn_gt•r· than 'ir) nu~· the r T (' rrito ry 'of th l nited ' tntq:-~ . 1 The 'llAutMAN.J ~ uppo:;e wp p r ov d for th P 1:-IN:tion of nwmhc i·s o ~ th e legislatire u. mllly und :<hould. 1llo w e \·e r,v body aho,·e the ug\' uf 21 year s ·t o votc- tw t·y tnnl e, witho tt r g ru·d td vh ctbe r he could rPad or write or· owned! propt• r·ty- do ~·o think tha~ would be It :<nfe thin jt to d o~ . Mr. 1-'!' RRI NAOA• [will n k y o u' hnt lati t ude you giw to thc ·wonl "dnng<' r l" • Th 'H.AU!J\IAN. llltCilll, would tHat be nttci1detl with··g ood I'CI!Ui l.s ~ Wo11ld tbnt be n. wi ·c thiug to do, ~Hi w uld it be hette r to r N!ti'it:.t I!Uffrage to tho. lt.ul to r end und wnt ·· unci wh o o wn prope rty I 1\lr. .f.MR,lU 'AC<A. 1 do not think tber is un,v dange r at nil. Tht• · ·peopl' ha \· u,.;cd :<uffq tge tw it· befo re. At th > tim<', the Repu~li l' wa; p ocluim d in 'pain we hnd nni\' r<!tll s uffmg ul o. T h iHATRMAN. It n:; uni,·e t':;nl-for n11 ~· e r ~51 Mr. LARKIN GA. For all o\<t~r 21 year'\. That i!S the n •it ·on we 'do not o hj ·t to it; 'hut we will ttcc pt whl\te \·e r th U nited S tlltt.> . · will give 1111. • . Tb 'uALHMAN. Und t• th lust form of r V<'rnm c nt it wa. ull ow•r 25. y ear of ag(), ,\·llS it not ? .Mr. LARRIJSA i. . I do n t think !SO. ' The Cn JRMAN. W e r th I ctio n o rde rl.' : l Mr. LAJuuNAGA. Y , ir. T.b HAIRliAN. W re ~ood m n . I ted to til the offi ·e. \'oted fot·l Mr. L . RRINAG Y , tr. · Th 'HAlRMAN. What i y our id 1\ a · to -having a legi lat'lve a~;: em· bly in -conn ·tion with this g ove rnm nt; -wbe ther hould ha\'e one. and if ~ , hall it con i t of one ot· two hous 1 .

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Mr. LARR£NAGA. Two house!! would be a much more ·ompletc form of govemme nt, n.nd I beli ve mos t of th Pti 'rto Rican. nrc of the sumo opinion. Tho CHAIR!IIAN. How man\' mmnber1.1 would \'OU have? -Mr. LARRINAGA. l think that be tw e n 20 n.i1d 30 woutd he about rigbtfot· the population of t he i:;h\nd, whic h tunount to netwly 1,0001000 just now. · · .The CHAIRMAN. :For the lowe r hou. e 20 or 30 me mhcrs '~ · Mr. LARJtlNAOA. Y es, :sir. The VHATRMAN. And for the uppe.r house how muny I i Mr. L NRJtiNAOA. I think f1·om to 12 would be nbout right. Mr. N'F:u;oN : How would y ou t·rgtu·d tl I 'gislaturc whe r th o uppe r hom:;e wa.s ltppointed in some nutnne r and the low r bou c elected hy the people? , 'Mr. LAnRINAO . ')'brtt ' migh._t he done, hut we woul p ·c f 1· both hou. es elected. "' !Mr. NF.T. b N. ' Have . 1~ lower logi lntive body of 30 momper. ot· o elected fl:om di:;tl'i ·t.-< hy t he p1~oule nnd the u.pp r bou t~e tlpf>oint d 1 Mr. ·LARIUNAnA. It wns el ·tdil hefore, pnrt, nnd pnrt np ointed by the ' pllnillh Gove t·nm nt. I'h hink for the tirst time it 1hlght btl rtppoin tcd , 'u.nd in tha t re:-~p d U: l(Hestio n ha. arillpn- 'l'hc C HAIIt~IAN. '\Vould th o pt' oplcof PucrtoUteo be:;n.ti>~ ' ed 1 e · w t'C nof g iven n cha nce to :<cl l't o fti uial · in (·o nn cl't ion .wit this gor ernmt.> nt to hP estnhli ·hecl'l Mr. LARRIN AOA. It would lte n gf'cut dill1lppointm nt to be p eople I mw.;t ·o nfe ~s . · , 1 'J'ne ' HAIRMAN. lt would ue a di:sappoil'ttlllett H 'Mr. l .u\HRINAGA. Yl':s, sir. Mr. N~: r.soN . What do );Ou think of th e idea of electing ~~e judiciul ofti1·ers~ Do y ou think tb ey oug ht to be el ·ted ol· appo m~od '( . :Mr. LAJUtJN.AGA. ·According to th Anlet·it-nn sy ... tcm. .I partake of the nmc ot>inion ri11 some of my fri e n~~, thnt t hrrc mig h he a colll hin •d 1:1 yst em , some eleded and some a ppointed. W c do not make thut 1t p'oint. The judil·iarr mig ht hnve "ome offi ce:; npp intt•d ; foe in;;tlln ue nttot'n!'ys. M r. N~:r. ON. fn -Ame ric1t th a t i:-~ an ind p e nde nt profcs ion. Tho Govcrnn1CJit doc. not hllv them, e xcrpt pt·o.· cuting attorn c. ·:; to pt·oser itte criminal Otv es, such t\S y ou· call " ti. cnls." ;Mr. LARRINAGA. Ye, 11it.. l think the~ mi~ ht be appointed in th'e beginning; ther e might be some modtficatwn, n.nd somb of those appointed . Mr. PERKINS. What effect· do y ou think th e applicat'on of our in tema~-rev~n.uc laws to tho,ll:il\t!'d would have~ We have n. tax up<?n al¢obolic Sf>trtts, and y ou make a great deal. of rum , I.Ln the r e w1ll probably be bre weries establ ished th r , and the r e i. 1~ prop ·ie tu.ry and · tllmp tllx. Do you think th p eople would lik that ystem ~ Mr. LARRINAGA. Yes, ir; we would accept it. Our people arc con·ioul! of their dutio , llS wellltl! of th eir rig hts and they would only think it fair. . . · Mr. PERKlNS. Do you. now impo. e a ny tax on d' tilleri es? Mr. LARRINAGA. Y es sir; there i. a tax levied. Mr. PERKINS. Do you r emembe r what it is 1 }Ir- T •lffiiNAG.<. I could not t ell you.


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oon:RNILKNT

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R 'l'Fn~ 1

t.AND

m· 1PUERT

GOVERNMENT .E'OR Tl:l.E l LAND OF PUERTO RICO.

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wide range in that field a: th .Y Ctln get, but J. know v •ry well that in tlie matter of . uffrage the propi'C of Puet·to Rico ut·e willing ·to o.ceept the American system. · , · · , l'he CHAIRMAN. They will be sati fi d if we do not give them any .-ulfrage at Mr. LARRINAGA. I don t think they will. The CHAIRMAN. Will they be perf ctly :;atistied if we give them onh· one house, and appoint thaU ~r. LARRlNAOA'. I don't think they will, although theY. do-not expect everything will be given th ni<l\t on ·e; yet they are willing to try it. J do not think 1 frilly under. tund your quel tions. Do you mean if toms 1"0venues~ we tne to have no uffrage at all~ Mi. I'..uRl=NAOA, Undoubtedly. 'J.'he CHAUL'UAN. ·If we give them no' uffrage, will you be satisfied~ Mr. NELSON. Th\lt i all you· xped l Mr. LARRINAO"'. Oh, no, sir that would go again t e\rerything we Mr. LARRINA . A. Ye!'l, 1>1it'. bave been saying· here. Mr. Nt:LSO . And -that is all you dl'sir Mr. LARRJ.NAGA. Ye,;, sir. ;rhe CH:AmMAN. Do the poop! • of Pt)erto ).l.ico want to vote and ~ect , Mr. P.ERJUN . Would t~ y be ati lied if w' "houla give th~m only someone ~ Mr. LARRINAOA. They do. 1 thou~ht you ·meant to restrict i one-baU of fre trad and tmpo><e e n th m on I. on -lialf of th mter.nal The CHAIRMAN. They will lle Ratistied with a restt·icted or..qualified revenue . . . ~ 1 . Mr.· LARRlNAG . They w•ll nee pt whnte\ er wtll come from the suffrage? . Mr. LARRlNAGA, Yes,. ir ; if ~h American Go.vernnient see: t to United tate , provid tl. it bowed th way to justi e and right. I do .not think our peopl wtmt to have ev ry.thin given at once. Their gite it, qut as to having no :;ufl't~lg , they .do. npt wi. h that at all . Mr. D};t•.,;w. Were the inspectot·s of elec~ion$ all Spanish? idea is to hav .the territerial form of govern ent as a basis., altl1ougb Mr. LARHTNAOA . They were not always,! but njainly were Spanili!h some light n1odification ould b mad when ound convenient. . MI:. COcKRELl,. Ho.w Stto.ny of the inhabitan wilhdecline to becqmc pepple ·ontmr rcial m 11 who hlld It very :;tronk power in the Jslandi and the great power w.e had to fight ttgtl'nst. They were very wei citizen of Puerto ni 0 ? Mr. LARRINAOA. Not a ingl native, and good many of the for· · orgnnized. nnd we had to fight them t\11 he time. Sorhellimes the rn m ber:; of the cornm i ttees~upervj sors 1 , , eli eve you cnll them eigners t:esiding in the i land will become citi ,ew;. · · Mr. ;ocxRELL. W.h· n is that to tak place · . ' ' her - and• the (•anvasser. of"lllth pnt·ties, whtchever party bttd the · Mr. LARRINAOA. In April ·n xt. · • gr~atey numher of voter., wou d nppoint the g•·eatcr numl:>cr of these . comnHttee:;. · • The HAIRMAN. Th11t only apflie,. to pani rd ~; born in Spain. Mr. FAUlBANKS. What ofiic•er.; were feeted 1ndrr ,·our.; stem~ Mr. CocKRELL. How man o thos born if pain will ·remain citi · Mr. LARRINAGA. Depu tie to tho panish Co ·trrJ. · · zens of Puerto Rico after t!h 11th of Apt·il n x~f .. Mr. FAIRBANK . What other ~ . . Mr. LARRINAGAI 1 could hardly tell. Th e are quite a number of ¥r. LAnRJNAGA. Municipal ·otmcillot'lS; onhl at some period· the them, but I beli ve the gr at majority will n t. election of mayot'. wt~.:· taken awttv from us, am\ tho ~puni · h governo1t Mr. CocKRELL.' You think the' large majot· ty of the citizens to-day g~neml .nppointed them. • ' 1 &re nativ born1 Mr. ]fAIRBANK. Did you clett nnyhody, or l11ny officials, who had t~ ir 5 per nt ar tativ born. The nat\ve' · Mr.. LARRINAGA. Y I paniar'ds are a small proportion. . Th ,. ar c mmercial men, and were . power to impo e tax , und grant ·orporp.te fJ'Ilnchise. , etc.~ Mr. LARRINAOA. Certainly; 7 and at th differ periods we bad selfinftuential men with pain b!Jt th y ~r til small t amount t,be populatton-a m,all minority . · goverl,!ment the chumhers had full powers. The CHAIRMAN. You sp eak ·of your legishttlll'c? The CHAIRMAN. You say that the hu·g :It ,. te was cast in 1 9 ? Mr. LARRINAGA. Ye,. it-. · I Mr. LARRINAGA. Yes, r. · The CHAI'IUJAN. They le<rislatl'd ahout tnxutiou and finan ce and Th C'n UlMAN That was whe n you h ld eciion under the autoeverything el 1 · nomi governm nt ~ Mr. LARRJNAGA. Yc , ir; with th right of veto bv the governot. .Mr. LABRINAOA. Y , ir. . MrdDEPEW. With what ? • The CHAIRMAN. What was th chamC'te t· of that election· peaceable Mr. LABRJNAOA. With the veto of th g~>Vemor, and the right of and orderly ? apJ)eal on our part to the Government at Madrid. Mr. LAB.RINAGA- Ye~, sir. . · Mr. F 1RRANKSi Do vou think th r i.s an.v particular desire among ' Mr. McCoMAS. Did the ·hnmher grunt frnncbiscs, privilege · about railroads, and such matter ··~ · , · the people of the i rand' to have more than on legislative· house ? • Mr. LARRINAOA. They did not have time to u.ct, hut they had th Mr. 'LARm AOA,: It would be very hard to •nswer:at question. I power to do sp. ' know th general feeling of the i land is' that they s uld like to bare The GnAIBMAN. ut· t11x i" l\1.10 JX'r' gallot. Yo·u·r t•um would he · ta ed at that rat i'f our intl'n&l-t'<l\'l'illte .n•t 111 were applied as here ' uld ·i.t stand that hv ~· Mr. L RRINAO . Thl' ft• ling 'o f thl' ~opll', IHJlic\· , is that it woultl be r.ight. · •. The CHAIR~t . •We nt' d not nmkP niw char g in the l't\tc on account of yo'ur IOL1\l c·ondition:<l · . · Mr. LABRI ' A(:A. Perhap" it might be don . . Mr. NELSON. Your peopl would ~ willintto .acce\'t the burdens of our internal-rcvl'nue "Y"tem if th y httd abolitton of our cus-

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OOV}:RNMJo:N1' b'Oit

OOV.Jo;RN'MENT FOR TRJo; 1. LAND 0

~lr: l'•1RKINS. W et·e not tb · elel'tion boa ds go,vm:nm nt. official!! . many of tb1 m, 11nd nrm,v 'offil•-.1 ~ · ' Mr. LARIIINMlA. No, "it·; the.v wen• nppoit ted by tho 1wople. · ":Mr. PERKI •s. And thl• peopl 11 wr qul' tion tlmt t.h e ir votes ns d •po,.itro Wl•re properly returned ~ · 1 , M~. ~AtUUNAuA. Sonwtutw" the.' · did: ,..omrtimes tho)· tl'tought tho ~))IUJ~b pn ·t.' · hnt! 110~ trt uted them fair!,,·. Mr. DEt•t:w. ·"hi e~ piu·t~· . bad tlw nutJCll'ity I Mt. L RIU ·AliA. WI' wr.v ~<r ldom hnd tlw nmj01·itc someti mes WI' clrl'ted onr m· tw11. I · · . , Mr. ~:h;!•EW. Tho e dl'l'tl'd wt•rt> g-enrl'llll.v ·et·.r fri 11dly to tho o in, the mnJ tH'th 1 · · Mr. L,ARius ( l.\. Ye~. ,..ir.

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.fANUARY· ~~,

Hit)().

STATBJDNT OF lii;R. ARTURO BRAVO. I

Th .CHM IPIA N, Plm1 ·e gi ,·e 11" \ ' 0111' full nmn e. ~1r. BaAvo. Arun·o Bra\'0. · 1 The 'uAiu.MAl". Whert> do you re,.idP! ' Mr. BRAYO . . At "M1~yaguez. 1 • Th HAIRM N. Are ,·ou a nutin of Pue t·t H,ieo! Mr. ' BRAvo. Y(•s. ir: Th R JR)I~ ,· I~"';~ha~ · ~\t ine · · .ur ~·ou e tgngrd! Mr. BRA YO . .Lbe commtsston ·bu>;tne""· The 'n'AilJ~A :- At.lllt~·nguez? MT. BRAvo. ) es 1 sn'. Tb HAllmAN. Wbnt i. th, populntiou of ·he l'it.'l ! Mr. BJlAYO . .Fourte n tbmtsand. T.he CHAIIDL\~ . l,.: i.t not situnted on the co11st! ~Ir. Bli.A YO. Y l'~ . l'ir: Ol\ the wf',.:t l'Ofi,.:t. Th H IUrA.!.-.. At thr Wl',..t cnd of the i:;ln hdt . . ~lr. BR \ ' 0. Yt-::o. ,.:it·. ' 'Th H IIDIAN. · oti hnH' u pro,· in ' f' called l!t\':t<rnez. thnt extend.~ into tb int~rior! .. \ · "' · • • ~r. }:JRA' 0. \ ('N, • II.. 1 fhe O«AtRMA ·. D1d .r 11 come hPJ'(' n. !t mf' 1be r of the bnmber · Commerc tOmlni s ion' ~lr. BliAYO. Ye:<, l"ir. The 'HAJH)JA.l.~. · Yon hn,·e heard th e ><tnton e rltl" of tho,;e. who have .preced d you I • -. Mr. BRAYo. Ye:;, sir. ~ ·. Tb ~HAtJi)J N. · Are you in Ul'tord ' ·ith the 1/ ~lr. BRAY . y l'.. ;.ir; I indor~c C\'\'t',rthi ng r said. . The IfAJHllAl". Htl\' y u anything additionnl tQ·. tty? ·· Mr. ~RA·vo. In r :rn.rd to tt . l'Cilltlrk made~· n Senator •. :I believe t plettng th.e eoffee.- wbethet· w~ r quit·e tl. hi b~,r price on our coffrr btlc&~ .of tb '(.'"ritj,cnl po:;ition in wb1cb the il'!and ts, I want to make that .pomt .clear. tbat w • do not d mane! a bi he1· pt·ice becnm.1e we requn ·a btgher valu du' to the cond itions in which we now nr but '-"" wo do;m .ou< '""" d.,.>"·' · ;. fa< h;gb' p<io th.,; th•

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'I'H}~ ISLAND

· I<' l'iJJ;lliTO RICO.

timziHttll coffee on ueco unt of it" qmtlity~tmd we lmve henn . g~;~t 111g prie whieh ut·e ftu' higher from Europe; tid t~or •fore we ehtitl \VO ::~IJOulrl g1•t n..'i good prtee" het;p 11< fwtn tltci• countrie:;. · It b on . iU:COUnt. of tho quality of the coffee it.'-1 If that w ' clnim higher prii'C. ! . Mt:. lh:t'KI~' · Whnt d01~~ .vour 1~oft'eo ln·ing 1 yon now. 1tt Bttr1·ol lilt or Und iz 1 for in c tanc<• '~ .l 'Mr. BltAVO. ShippingyoJfce on ltl'l'Otlllt of tbe. :<hipp~ll's~ J . Mr. Dt.:t•F.w. W·h1tt i.i thl' net prh;c in Bnn·ol01tn nnd Un liz, or nn~ otho1· :Spuni h port 'l · Mr. BHA.VO. Wh~n we. Wt'1t'O s hipJ?in g tb~cll'e~of <·nur:;c. eollditiOJII" tmv1• eh1mgPd <·onsidemhly mt in tmtes when wo we.r1~ mirl n1· Spani~;h · admini,..trntion I would tig-um it thttt nhout $ 10 to $12 were t•equired fl;lr "hipping and .e.x prn:<PI" of tdl kindl"·-·dutiPs n.tld ev•rythi ng. So, if coffee wn,; worth nhout ~5 (·ont:;, it.· '''ould menn It !tOt o.f 1:& to 13 l' •nt."! pur pmu.trl:. lill.~ or ll\1:3 pc1· tmndred- -whe.n I "n.Y dollnt•,;, J menn 1 pe,;u,.. ,_. " Ij Th~ 'IIAmMA~ .• Fo,r.•t hundr ,dwf'ight! . 1 Mt. BII;\VQ. "\'( ,,;, 1:! 11. • J I Mt· .. O't:l't:w. Ahout ll\7 of our mun •v l Mr. ltnAVO. YcH, ,;i1· : it would he tihout ii·7. lW; hotw<'Cn '7 and l11 . Mr. lh:t>t;w. What doo:; Wo ~· II for in New York ·~ . Mr. BHAVO. Ahout eP.nt.o; nfiw: I think from <7t to 8 cents n nd. 1 Mr. McCOMAs. Your;; i>~ thei'!N\ond eoffo ·porti in tho is'lund '~ ~h. BrtAVO. YPs, sil" the fir,;t j,.. c·onf<idcrcd to he Porwc 1 1lnd 1 I • , 1 :\'lnyltgupz i,.. the~ I"I\Cond. ~It·. ·McCoMAS. The l'uffPll j,. ahout th' . •tnt • quality ttt the two pol·t..,1 Mr. BnAvo. Y1~S 1 s i1·. ' ! · 1 '! ,Mr. McUmtAR. At what pt:in• c·ould you :;ell in NPw York ttnd mnRe a profit{ .., . , ' . . 1 I Mr. HHA\'0. l :mppo::H' ·W ·\muld l''quirc 'from14- to 15 c• nts. Mr. McCoMM!. In pr:-:o,.:. · · · Mt·. BHA\'0. ln "old. . The .UHAIHMAN . Htt\'C , .,>11 morl' thu1 one qmtlitr of <·ofi'e~>l .Mr. BRAVo. Y r ><, ,..ir; 'four or tivo gt·udoKl · Thr C JI ,\IHMAN. Whitt drtl'rmin ::1 th (} gr~dc:-: : i;; it 11 diffPrcnt kind u'·tuw rv 'l .. . , ' Mr. l~HAVO. Th d.ift'ct·mwc in 1-'izr of tl;ln he rry, the difft•renri: in I.Dpent·nncc of tlw coffee, th h\li'I'.Y, and the clcunliness. · Tho CnA tlOI A •. A n• there diff<'l'l'nt name>~ for these d i fl'erent.grnc1cs 'l Mt·. BJtAVO. Yc. 1 sir: ttt '•y nre. for n quic·k d seription , the pi ked 1\lltlltion unpidtted phllltafiot). u11d unpolish d giv1~" the;oe gmdeb. he firHt spoken of 111'0 nil no.li. hed. Wluit w mil ·i unpiuk ed R_laption 'ltt'O unpoli::~hed. nnd . nut pickecL1 nnd th e .lower grndPs of tpo$•' I ttet· de Tiptto·n:; nre f;hipp •d to th i:slmid of C uhn. Mr. DEPJ<:w. If I under:;tnnd your clailll ,•it i:hhat Amerif'all uk. imi l tion bus doubt d your wage~", doubled th e c st of production, and 1 t at you btwc us yot rel·eived no l'eciprocnl ben fit~ Mr. BRAVO. Y .·, s ir. • M.r. JGAU,INGEH. Do yo u mn.ke the brond <':ltntem'nt thnt wuges and t \n portution- frelght:s- hnye dqubl.c d ~....S: Mr. l31tAVO. It d pehds on th~ kind · of l wnges. In. the matter 0f seashore wages I agr e entire! . I but in the interior-the amount 'pnid tb the .Jnbot·m: gt:b'Ying s ugnt· ctwe nnd coffee.-!..I Jytrdly think it bas ne so. ~· j

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OOVERNlfEN'f "?O R 1'BE '18J,AND OF I'UERTO RJ ro.

GOVERNMJo:NT

~·oR THF. ISI.AND OF FUlJR'ro RICO.

Th~ CHAiRMAN. L under tond l\lr. Arm tr ng to ~tty that 'tht> y had ' Mr. .P~;nKL" . You think that wiU apply thq ~gricultural district:!l1 advanred at th town~ on. th I'Ot t. •· · ¥r. FINLAY. Not altogether, except m th arti an ·lass. :Mr. P•:TTJUREW; Do .I und~rsbtnd t bat.thP rold :<tandut•d btus he<'n Mr. P•:rriOREW. HI'S there been any chtmge in the holll'S of labor . intfoctu(-ed I :unong the laoorers o~ the plantation ~ ,· · ~r. BRAVO. No, sir. 'Mr. BRAVO. Ye:;; s rr; eight qourM. 1 M)·. DFJ l'F~ W. I 1\lllll ~ing for informlttion. ' r under tund ~bat whet·e . · Mt. 'PETTtGRJoJW. In the agricultural districts 1 they hn.\'t> paid at the mte of 60 cente< before, u tder this 1tdnuni st~tiv1 1 ·Mr. BRAVO The result will be that they will onl.Y work eight hour . ord r · of General H enry, indor ed by Gene t· I Davjs, they arc now Mr. PETTIGR•)W.. On t:be plantation!:! 'l payi'!g at the rate •of' U · · · · .M r. BRAVO. Yes, sir. · ~lr. AR111 TRONG. At the se11;hore the lal r1•r • wages have been Mr. PErrwm;w. How is it in you.1· h:~cality 'l doubl d where tht1y cnme in contnct with th Americnn troopM. In 1 Mr. BRAVO. They only work uhout e1ghtl hour. . the country they ·an not double, becau · th.'ey have not the work. . Mr. ]!J.;rriGREW. The saml' u:< otbers1 · There b only been perhap>~ 5.0 per cent ·im-r<'hRe. · · Mr. BRAvo: Y s, sir. 1u our IOl'ltlity, llll in n'l.ostof the ocean towns 1 more thau any other part of the itlland , bbt in the pr\)Vi!lce we. have · :Mr. DEPI'lW. If th v bad tb work, with tb~ in •rCJlSe of 50 per cen and ~e ·reduction e ight hours of work, WOl d that double the I'O!:!t I · not ~:~ ucb hnrd work to deal with the laborer s ; they acc0pt whatever is ' 1\Ir. ARM TRONO. It would tthout IUIIOUnt to tlmt. J l!-lve. i1 them iu l\'Jay1tguez an~ work a,os long as w~ wis~. In .the to-.yn . Mr. PETriQRF.W. 1 under. tu nd th{• te.stint n)• develops this fttet. \Ve are supposed to have tut etgbt-hour day,, but we 4o not sttck t<? Ltj that the wag •s of agril'ultuml ltt horers hav<' d ubled I · • nnd it hats been r enlly decided th1tt the hours of labor should not exce <1 eight hours, ltnd we agree on that bn.CJis, b·ut in our p"rt they work The CHAUUIAN. I do not underst-and any wil1e::~: to :say that. . . Mr. GALUNOtJR. · I would like to u ·k. tbh; di el't quesdon : Htwn tbe eight 'hou1·s and perhaps an .hom o~· two more, n)Qre or leSPJ. .It hn.'l wa.Ke1 ·i n the .ag.ricultmtllregion inerea:<ed 'l · not been disewssed so nrueh the.re us 111 some other part.'! of th~ Island. 1 ~.ARM TRONG. Y e., "ir· b l'Ru;;p the~· or IJ wo rk 1•ight. hours u, Mr. PETrii'lREW. 'Vhat hus itless nre you eng aged in 1 ~ 4av, und get a' little mor·c pay. 1Mr. llRAVO. The g1meml ('OlnJHi. ·sidn husi.ne:;s. Mr. GAl.UNI E.R. As h twren th e diffe rPm·t• in Pigbt. hour·s nnd t'lw Mr. PETTIHREW. Ar!'' you n plunted . form x: hours·, hn,· -the wag s im·t·eus d I , Mr. BnAvo .. No. sir. · , Mr .. Aa:~t TRONO. · , , ><il" "lightly. . . , Th<'·.CuAnl.NAN . Whnt i.- -:'·6m opinion n:; to allowing the peop\c to Mr. DEPE~v. 'Vbu.t 1 amt tr:nng to nn·rw t re<, of t•our ·c we, nil vOtP a nd elect 't heir ofHn~ I. s and repr esentttt:Jve;;? , reco~rnize tht at pre.t<ent thP i lund i:< dl'nd : 't is like un exbau!:!ted Mr. JhAvO. As tl ml're p Prsi:mnl opinion 1 think the 'P,';O~le of ~be re n·er, hut if tbe,\· r·ould g-<'t th P a:,:ii!<buw • which the.)· wnnt · t.b'e i!:!land ought to be eduentcd; tbut t h<'y wnnt to be familiarized wrtb i land woitl'd imm edirttlll~-, or rn u. shoi·t time, r :,'tune its uormal condi -' the wnys of governin g th tmwl've. : hu ~ 1t~ink th11t !l ~ery 1msy m":tter, tion of U..•ing on of th nro:;t · produetin~ spots n eur:tb . . Of cour~:~e it bt>cltlli:!EI thP peopiP have a V!'I':V g ood fee hng and wtlhngness tQ , learn 1 . i pertitwnt to thi;; quP. tion, hPI'IIHS<' tlw que~tl~n is nl.iscd lwr~ tll:! 'to and my opinion w<iuld be thtLt a t<' ITitor inl form of government Hhou let the e lf ct ,qf wn~e;o; a nd tabo r, etl'. whnt bus l ~ n the e ffect, so far, of b~ granted to the islnnd of PttJrto B.ic~i. . • American ll>':;imr h1tion uport thl' I'O>'t of produe iqn. '~b t• ·e 111 e n·han~s . ;M r. McCo~fA!'~. With nninf8al :< uff'ruge~ state that on tlw :JI"llshor it hus do uhled. I ~·nde r,;tood 'the ag ri cul - · Mr. BRAVO. Yes, sir. . · . 1 t~ral ~ent!l'llll.'ll w~o Wf' rl' P.l'rc to :bt~ that, '' ' th tbe eig ht hours and Mr. DEPJo~w. 'Vith e\·eryhody nllowcCI to vote~. . . . WJth the lll'l'rl"u •d ,·ulue gn ·l'n to the peso. t e ~os t to the produce r · !~h. BRAVO. Y'e's, :sir ; thr ~1\ml' as· w<l exerCI. ed under :Spam b · administration. had bel'n dOJJbled. t ow, if I nnr wrong I want to be cor'l'ected. . . ~· . i . · , 1 · The ' HAIRMAN. I think we nil undl'r:stn nd y u a~:~ to the effect up~ n .Mr. DEPKW. wrrth no q'uahficntwns of e~umttlon or.pt·opert!y_ ! . ' labor at tb hal' bot· anc\ ports. What bas be n the effect;: if ni1r ~t Mr. BRAVO. Ye.- sir; the verv :Jnme ·thmg as dnrmg the :Spam b aU in in tea.'!ing the pric or co. t of lilbor in the interior/ · ·, admini trntion; tli~ same thing autonomy during· the Spanish Gov·Biuvo. ' far a:; I t•nn :;ee: it hn>~ not.go n up except on lu:cour1t ernment. of the ig ht hour : 'Mr. DEPEW. Did you elect a loe~tl l.e gislature ~ Mr. .F IRBA N~ . What w r e tbe hours he for this I Mt·. BRAvo. Ye:sl.sir. · · . ~. BRAVO:. T n., el ven, twelve. and someti 1e.'.; by the jou. 'The CHAIRMAN. What wus the cham.c ter ef tho;;c election. , peaceM.r. F AIJWAN.Ks. WherE' ttrey wcr w'orking y the houd al)le and orderly ? · Mr. BRAVO. From un to ~:~ un. 'Mr. BttAVO. Yes sir ; 1 think they were peaceable. Mr. GALLINGER. Thi ig ht-hour ply It matter of u;itiThe CHAIR:\lAN. Wa. ther e any diffi('ulty experi enced in holding · tary order ?' . election ~:~ 1 . . . . M~. BRAY • Y "• sir. Mr. BRAVO. No ir. You .know, of com·se, the diffet·ence tn td~as l\lr. GAl-LINGER. , Which i~:~ not like lY to eonti ue ufter you get .-onw and in politics, and sotHe pal·ty claimed that things. WE!I'C n?t C!lrrt(ld form of governrnent1·i it1 · on correctly, and others claimed they were, b\lt my tmpre.~:~ron IS that Mr. FINLAY. It wtll continue !:!ir. they were quite peaceable. · ,. Mr. DEPEW. Were the officials all Spapis h officials ~ Mt·. BRAVO. 1 do not know.

w

to

a.

·Mr.

·I

·.

·~


1

HO\"l•: RN¥1':1'11'

'OR l'HJo:

BTATEDB

18L NO llJo' IP J<:RTO RIQO. .

I

OOVJo:RNMEN'J' FOK 'J'H~: J•. LANJ) ~~F PUJt:RTO RICO.

,J ~N ARY !?0, 1!100.

OF IAJ. AZEL AJDB. I

·' Tht• · ' 11 JJDI •. Plt'l'-"l' g in• II>' .'·our full n!\1111'. ~lajor Am: . ~ly nllllll' i$ \:r.t•l Am b~ . · 1 Thl' H tRMAN. Wht•rp do ,·on I'l'><idt' I l\lnjor .'b n:s. For lht• pa:-~t .\·l'nl' nnd a hnlf n ,. l't•><i~lelH'C hni<. ht;t>n in Pu!'rto Hit•t•. hut nn' fomwr ·•· ,,.idt' lll't' in thr l ' rit •d 'bttl•>< Will:! Hu,..ton, Ma,.,.. . I Th!' ('H ,\IIOtAN. How did ~· o n lutppl'll to gt~ to Pm•1·tu Rip> nnd hnt hnn• ~· 1m IH•t•n Pn~•ngPII i 1 th\•rt• I ~J!Ijor A)t~; .. With till' \J'Ill,\', II>' "nnit~u·.\' il'"lll't'tcir, undt'l' "JWdal ordt'r" of tlw Surgt•on -(h•m•rnl. ThP {'11 mM ,\N. 'rith wlmt rnnk I m,... ><oou prumot!'d to · :MRjor .bn::o;.. \diug n:s:o1i,.tnut ... urgl'on. Jlllljor nnd hrigt,dt• .' Ill' !'on of \·olunt '<'I'"· nnd wn~ plaN•d in ehal'gt' of th!' orgnni1.ntion of tht• nwl'inntion of Uw islttml- tlw lll'odul'tion ·of ,·irn: nnd tht• nwt•inntiun of tht' i:4nnd. I hncl onmlnnd of tlw lnited 'tatt•:i \'Jll'l'im• t'OI'P· nnd tlw Unitt•d 'tntP,. ntt• ·ilu• ><tnt ion nnd fann,. nt Cc~~mo ~pl·ing.;,'.od was direl'tor of \'IH'I'irm~on. Th!' C11 llt:\1 N. ~Yht n <lit ,·on lPtW<' tlw militnn· >'PI'\' it·l' I · :Mujor AmJil. Th~l><t of ,h.il,, ·'lnst. The 'IIAlHM N. n<.l ~· on hun• \'Ontimll'cl ttll' I' ,.:im·t• thnt time I Mnj9r Am;s. Ex Ppt a>< I \'lllllt' north 011 at d it. The ()tAJRMA •. iJ..I You h•,.t t·omr from Pul' 'to Ril'o dh·cod I .1\lnJot· Am::-1. Yt'"· :;ii·. Tht• ' llAIRMAN. \\"ith the>:~c t•ommi:;:<ionc•J':< \'ho hu\'1' ht•t•n lwnrd hcrc l . . Majo1· AM.:~. Y P>'. ,.ir: my po,.ition ;,.. aw 11111 mnlou,; om•. ~~." l'ol! I aguPatnd lure th j int n pre Plltntin•,., nomina Ptl h.~ what-is known. !\~ the Ft'd ·~111 party of Ptu' rto ·Iti.t·o, nlthough I h~no no affiliation with an.\·· pqlit\t:nl paut.r th!'.r<'. nnd tht• no!llinn.tion t'l\111\l to me n,. n ""I'J:i ri s~1. J wa t~kt•d h\· a t•ommittt•(•.if T would r 'Pl't',.Pnt the intrre:;t~< of Puerto Ri<"o for the J:.'rdcr11l part\· on at wholly ncmptu·tf till htl,..iil M 'Wu:!hir•g tbo nnd without in ~tructlun><. I r!'plied th;t.t u 1 ,.ut·h n hn"i" I would gladly do ,..o, nnd ~''1\S th11" ~<Put. · Tb' . 'IIAI,R)IAN. \Vhnt luwP yu11 btot•n doing ,.; H'l' thf' wnr t•loserland ·ou w nt out of the militnr~: "''t'\'it·P! \ .1\Jujo•· .-\Mt:~< . I Wil li at tir:'lt, und hun' ht•rn nil nlong. in t"h:trg(i of. eertnin «nnitar,\· mnttPI' in which th!'l't' i,.:u ltwgr lill\·C:... tm(1nt uf enpit"'l. ancltuu illh' rt' ·t d in t::tttlc. nnd' l lllll a :o~pednln}.)JJOintl't' of the Depnrtm!'nt of LJI~w •. dinrg d with obtuining t·!'rtnin Information ·Whieh tht• D!'pnrtm nt desiorr>:~ conrl'l'lling labor t· ndition:; wngPs, ett-. Th l'IIAI~AN . . HaY you mnde n rep01·t ~·e t I · .Jajor AME!l. No. sir: but it i:,~ to he' >mhmittetl immediutely. )Jr. GALt.lNGEn: Did ,·ou R\' ,·ou hnd mad a reportl )lajor Aln:.. ~o. sir:· it wit[ J)e made in n ': li.'" ><hort time. The ' n 'lRliAN. PI a e ~<tnte wh ther or not \'Ou htn·e vi Aited tlw Uanj.l. htl\·etraPI do,·erit.and beeom aequaint •dwith the populntion: ,1\lajor AME , I 1 beli \·e I ha,·e beeri in n arJr ,.e,..,. town in the i land. J ~a,· e <:ro, d it thil'ty-two time:; nnd omps! ed ·it b~· ~vater

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j

1 7

The CnAJHMAN. Whnt i.- tlw indu,.triul l"undition of tho i~<lnnd I · Do yO.u 1\~rce with 'wlmt lu~~< l.ecn ~nid h(•ro I . .. . ~11t]or A !Ill'.!'. Ye , . ~11'; 11nd 111 !'Ollie rN~pcl't.... my op1.111011 I>< l'V. •n. strongel' th11n h"" lK'PII !'~tt!'d. J h~wP 11('\'('.1' ,.et•n ltnythu.•g lltore ><lg'· mtlly pro,.t,mtn th1111 llgl'li'Ultnl"t' h11~< hePn ,.llll'\' thco lnliTil'ltlll', 11 ~·on· ·dition, 11~< it "1:'!'111>' to lw, athllol't without h'?JW. l p t'_l thnt ti111C, trlthough ti1iu;o ,. h11d hrc•n hurd, whpn thP huiTI\'1~11\' t"lllllt' 1t took tn~ny evcrythi11g t'X Ppt tlw h1~n· ln11d nml hro~1ght wuh :<Jll'l'n~l rlc:r<trul'tloll \vith it. \\"lwn tlw :tg'l'H'ultul'lll ~·onnmtwn ll~'"l'.mhl •cl ~n Han .hum, Dct'l'lllhl'l' 5. it w11" ,,,.,.n douhtt'd 1f ttw:v l'onld ml"l' moll\',\' t•nongh to . nd three ddt•gllti'>~ lw•·c·, although n·preKPhting,rliJ·pl't,ly 2,01111 pPoplc, und JtlUwugh. :;onw of. tht•m. lik<' !i4•iior A•n.ndPo, own hundred-thou· ::!llnd-dollnr plnnhtlio11:;. Y<•L thPy wPre ,.:o d.u4.r<'Hk<'d for l'l'tul.\' 111ou('y thnt ><0111<' of tht;rn clicl not kuow wlwn; thc•1r lli'X~ 111\'al Wll~< lc> 1'01110 from, 11otwith><huuling thc•y IU'E' lnrgl' llwded Jll'OJll'IPtol·,., Tbc• 'IIAtnliiA"N. ·You ht"nrd l'lw ~<tlltC'HIPllt,.ll:-~,.to :<IIJ!IIr 11ncl tohllt·co . . . . , nnd the t•xpcol't\•d Plf'PI't of hN• tmdt•·l M11jor AME><. l tliink thP l'OIIc't'n~<n" nf ofmuou It~< 1-(1\' llll 111 tho~:~o stnh•111Piit,. ;,.. V\'1'.\ ' nr.nl'l\' t"ni'I'C't\t , Jn rognrcl to tlw llll'l'HII ~cltll'(lllH nnd 1\mount,.: th11t c'llll l;co pt'~llc'('O, t'attl.tl now. cwtlllpy .c'U!1~<1C!ornlltl t\ICII,. that rPnlly ht'long- to ,..llh'-111', nnd 1 d.o r~ ot.thmk the hnutpf l'nttln rni><inrr l'IUI hi' t)IIH'h i lll'l'l'll~<l'rl. , The hll~<IIH':<K l"<vcryJu:ofltnblt~-~.l w ou nul'UU~t of the l'hippiug- to Cuhn of workiug ~lXtm nu beQf c·1~ttl~ . 1 reprr:<l•ut ('~<Pt'eialh th • t"J\ttlo iutm·,.,.t, 111 the lllllttl'l' of dl~<c'IISC 1Jccr~u .'· 1 • WP 111:1' fl•ttdnl t!mt, 1111ll'~<>' protec·tc•d hy. t,h'c Uuited :-!tate>~ Oovermu •ut. jhP iutt'l'c•:;t nmy be• out of tiXi,.b~uc·t• h.v ,'I'ex11:< ~~wei fronfVoner.lw ln. Thl'· Agriuultmn DcpnrtJlH'nt hnK nmde grPnt dlortH to,prtn·c>nt it,. intt·mhu·tion, hn\'iug- ~opt.t~ nmn thtlre Ht'\'~~·nlnwuth Hi to n:..c•t•rtttin whetht•r thn Trxn:< fnn•1· tn·k '" l't'ltH,r tht•rt'. I hc•y 1111\'C\ 1 ot found it a,. yPt, hut Vt'newl'hloll c·n~tlco ltl'l' no~,. t'(llllill~ iu au~d if ..thc.y hriug- the fl'\'<'r with thrm tht' mttlr 1ndu><ti'V will. ht• :< I'IOW;ly 1111p1tll'Cd,, if not ruilH"cl. Ttw all't'll fur :lUI-{111' t•uuld onl~· hC' lnl'l"c•tt.«C'O h.v th~· 11~<1' of surh lnucb "" wo11ld ht' tnkl'n from tJK•1r pt·t•st•ut ll"~'• hut- c:t•rbtln pn!•.t..,; of, the c·ntth• 1"11111,e au·p proht~hl.'· wn~·th IIIOI'P fur .~uwu·. Thl' ILI't'll for coffep l'nn Ill' ,·pn· lnrgPly nllg'IIH'nb•cl. . hc•dtll"P. that t'llll lw g'I'OWII on the mo11ntnin . l:~uck TobRl'l'O l'llll he augmPnt.-cl :;omP.w hnt-·-tolnu·t·o 1:her .t'llll culth·atft; l'lPa~• tu tht' mo11ntn1n to >>'- -hut tlw ltl't'l~~< 111'1' pretty ·wPil o.b:;orhed iu somE' sel'tion,.. Tlw pmhll'nl tlmt hn" cl1 >-~ t11rhrd m more than 11ny other thing i:-o. how thrre c·atn lJC' rrcnt!'d an.' · n•r.' · eon sid. erable iul'l/Cil!'e of the nlnrgin hPtween the fo.o d ~;npply au.d th e ulntion. Th y bil\'e ,·rr.'· nr1trl.'· thr .'IIIIH' 11ren. n,. Comu•t·tl("llt m• n population n littl grentl•r t~nn t)mt of Connt'l'tlellt hut th t•y hn\· • mt fe~v huge towns, 1:10 that ,\'0\1 l':J n seP they mus.t h1w~· ~~ mul'h. mrn:o .' vtdrly ditl'used/opulntion , )wr au. c the P1P'~IntJOn uf onnt•l'tll'Ut H; largely ~enter<• in th cities ~nd mnnufnctm·1ng town><. . .· Geneml Da,·il! ><Rid to nlc the other da~· , whl'n I wns c·om·cr · u~g wtth him on the h~bur work, "ThP thing that trouble 1111' the most 1s, h~?w you nrP e\·c~· to much improve tlt e t•ond.ition of thr~ • p<·oplc wb1lc ~;ugnr. coffee, nnd tobncco arc the taplc v.rodu<itfl n.nd thry rnn o!•ly ptty some 50 centa o per dn~· wage,' to wlit h, wnen re}JC'I!'t~d to htn~, .Captain McComb of the Fifth Oimll!'Y a man of grea~ 1tb1hty, who IS now in charge of determining wh11t ort of re\'enuc ""st m ::~hal! be introduced in th~ island, repliM, very aptly, I think " t do not behove

""'"ft

1

PfP·


1

OUVF:KNliJo:NT ~· R TH~: l:-lLAND

Ji'

J?

ERTO RJOO.

OOV~:Jnon:NT

FOR THE 18LAND OJ<'

J>U~lltl'O

HICO.

189

' that lit ~ 11oil and ,·Jimnt thnt ca·n mille nlmo;t ti.nvthing that ca~ he of, becnuse he is uot Mo much of n bo,v. Tl\e Exeter boy Wits witb'(Jte grown Ill tho world. und . mi. t it 3t:5 day in the ,-har there are not ' tl long time in Puerto H.ico; he wants to he n·docto1·. aJI(l c1m, T think, ~~C · crop t~a~ Will gi·~· It ~1\!1 'n, dec nt wnge' and' emtble )lim to become a good one. . (').J,mb u_p and unprm· ' ' h1:-1 t•ondJtiOn and that of his . family. ' And I The CHAiRMAN. Pht-"f' c·omi¥,11to your stuh'meut. th.mk th_e tu ~ent wa nmd by ii01: Almu:le01th1tt many of the lands Major AM•~;;. I have rhnngetlmv miud in regnrd to their mpn!'ity. will go ·~to fnut andY •g tnblet~, and thmgs of that kind a.nd give the I 'helieve J wonl<t 1\ srent deal quicker ti'U]:!t these men with the hallot ~borer. them eh·e a bettPr ~~h~~ · of cli mbin~ up, and ·at the same tbtm the 60,000 Zum · n.nd othet· , emibnJ'l)R.I' il ~ people of New Mexico ~1111 • brm~ 1t lurger general. 'al·mug f01: th other . I have great faith and Arizontt1• to whom w ; J,'m·e it without n IIH11'111UI', though they were 1n th frmt nnd \T b'Cbtble mdn:{h:,r development and in the l'e.'!ult.'! ·of worship. ing tire 1 ns some m'l:• yet doing. The>Je people nre·miJm; ahead mall fannit1g, poultry rai ing. Ph·. of them, and lllM·e not eou cine of them mel 1 think lmtLy l:iii,Y thi Th HAJ.R~. What about tb population~ What is it<:~ general carefully and deliberately 10t one of them t.btLt with five· yetlrl:i edu<'ha~te! 1\8 to pcaceabl nrils nnd 11 to intell ctpal CRP.acit.r, etc. ~ cation w.ould not be a credit to thi Governmrnt as on of it'i citizen~:~. ·. MaJor· AltES. Jf , ·on hlld a;ok d ru tha questton IL vear ago I would There are n fe,v, of cour that are stupid and a few vi.cious _; but the ba,,e unhe itatingly, tLn wcn•d 'thtlt I did no thi1ik they were iit ma&; of them o.re · ext·eedingly docile, ea'rnest. people1• nlways faithful for ~~~ lf-governm nt; that then' was !l t•onsid ra , le perc ntage of them in their work, in m.v opinion, JLnd i'iOJ'LtlriJftl.dtL teu \me the san;te, ·who rould not be trust d; but as I htn·e come o -know them better 1 !lind lie ho.."' en~ployed hu·ge numbe r~:< of IRbol'OJ'S. Thot~o I h11.ve had to have !.X' n g.re~~:tty flllPpl"isf'~ b.~ omr things about th m and have employ htLve ahvav:; been ft1.itbful tQ their task8wb n they were i! t l'C\'Cr ed my opmwn. ns1denn • tht\t they ' tWO b en lmder four them. They mtLy 'not haYe beJ:ln very enterpri l:ling i~1 finding thdr wor)< hu~~re~ ,\'f'ai'IS of oppr S><iOn, thf'_r t>xhibit R em1u;kabJe degre ·o f to do, but thPy htwe ttl ways b en fa1thful when then· task bus been ~:~et. !C:<llt nt>y. or "r bound," a. most rf'maJ·kabl ihdivid.uality, •onsider The' CHAIRMAN. If you were to unde1·tnke to provide a govomment mg tb .v have be 'n pnd I' the he l of a bl'lltttl ttl kma ter a.ll these for the island would you give t)lcm some participation in it ( yeats. The-y ~1\V a v r,v high •om mer •i1tl instinct, like that of the · Major 'AMES. The largest. ThtLt is ll thmg in ~gard to whtc hdvo ,J:ew-,. Lam not sure that I would b ton the .Jew in '' nmtter of trade, undergQne m,ore chnnge than rtny othe~. J believed, up to some 1:11. or and they h1we 1\ vel',\' grf'nt dNtire to le.am. I hav e n iR the ltL~t eight months ago, whe~ my ~o ntuct with the peopl~ beetu~e much mo~ , ! w mQntbs what:; 'Ill d to lllP a.... putbeth· n thi g 11.s l'Onld be imag- intin,ate through my travelmg 11bout througbotlt the 1Sh1.nd1 that 1t JJJed. • I ~av s en tb\,.('O<>_;k · i1~ th kitt-hcn itt ng on the hard' stone was w~ll to continue milittu·y government for a year or two, out now ft r tnkmg lC."'SOll S . Ill Eng]J:;b fi'Om 1\ St. T omas negl'O, wn<f wa;; I can not conceiv anything thtLt would be a ~re'ater miatake. :Fi'r~t, tLbl t_o ~ J>l'l!k the lnngunge, ~~ lnoilt. of th .m r , 1md p11..ving ·hiru ~ beeause I know the people better, and see their fitl)ess for oelf-govet·ne n~L\ ~·~ lesson . An~ tba~ Js a typJCul thmg of tb Mrnestness i n, ment and second, because- and from m,v bther .a~d former obserr~­ th • ~>•lnnd-to bct·ome .Amei'H•ano>'. . · · tion l ought to have kno1"n it- if you hiLve !\ .m1htary ~overnn~en , .1~ Tb. 'u IR~rA '-. Is t~11.t 11piri~ geneml thl'Oug the i8land 1 . is never IL progrel.lllive government; the most tt can do IS to mnmtam MllJOr A~~-:. ~e,., :m. 1 thmk fi'OmiJO to_9,5 1·cent of the people' the status quo. If! WILS asked what I t~ink we need most;.in the island, are ard n~ )II thPll' nttlwbmt>nt for. and umh1t10 to be 1t"part of the over free trade, over evt::ryth ing, l s!tobld sny "Law," because there 1 Americun Republit-. • 1, i no law there. The deci ion of the higHest ·ou~·t there wus thut the, .Th. H,\IH,\1 ,\N. And anxiOIIii to let\rn ant! .. t nn edumtion! ·pebple.of Puerto Rico did not exist, in .a :proceeding in quo wa~'l'ai~to .MilJ rAm; . ve,..,r . If you l'Otdd 'f!e tbp :-;fght$ in tb i:ichools there m.which it was endeavored to ou t certau1 officit~ls1 and the ~•gh ~t you would '*' mo,·ed u~ we all wer·e on on · m·,·nsibn when th ~ecretary C!Ourt, and very good officer ' l held that the people ot Puerto Rteo 1d of .'VIll' ,wu:-; .dowu tber!'. I had .him und his pa ty in ch1trge and in not exist us an entity entitl d to sue. • I gomg t\ 10ut I took h!m to >'f'P the. "Am ric·an ·hool ''at Po~ce anp · The CHAIRMAN. As a body pt>litic~ y r,r oni' f u wus !n t nr><- f k,no'~ I WR!!. an<J I aw the , teurs .run-Major AMEs. Ye., sir; .w.e need !l 1:1table government moro than ~ny · m~g-dow[l . l hr others ehi'Pks-- ~t~ the pntb tic tmd patriotic ightof those thing else. If w~ have a tenitorial.g~vernmentthere ·~II o~her t.huws chlldr u, who, It ft~w months. lwfore. hurd!-'' kn~e 'the name of deanliwill follow. We want free t.rade-1t 1 n part of terptorml govel'Dne n.nd were under tb nurt·ow aud h?pele~ rul of ::Spain, Mingi ngtho ment. We want exchnnge ·of cul'l:e.ncy- it i. !l ptlrt of terr!tor~al . tor·. pongle~ U:um ra welliL'Iour ·htldr n coul , ~nd with a degree of government. We want repre enttttlon !lor 1t IS n·part of terrtto•·ml mtelhgent· . ll t, tlnd purpo:;e that would not .~ m po::dbl . I know government. We want nuthority for the negotiation of n loan. " ;ro aU the pt'Rkf'r:; IJroke dowu, and [ ~ad a furt~ e wip tLt my own whom are you going to 15ive the authority?' I .a ke.~, in con;;ultnt~o n ye,s 1\8 the peetade, aud bow much 1t m ant pre. ented it'ielf. .• with my friends here, w1_th whop1 I agree entn·ely m mo t rn~tteJ', . Th~ u ~Jut AN. The,· leam readily I · It is not in the provin ·e of the President of the United Sttttcs; It cerMa)Or AME • Xes ; ~bough I ~ppo , of cour 1:'1, it i largely 11. matter tainly is not in hi authority to delegate that; neither can Congt•et~s of per:;~nal equatwn. , [ .hav w1th m ~~? bo~s whom! brought north delegate to a commanding geneml in ad prtrtmentof the Governm.ent . and ha' nt to·, ·laool on at th Ph1ll1p Ex ter Academy and the JiUthority to negotiate 1\ loan: You mu . t ha,·e somebody to author•z ; oth.er. is g-oing .to t~· Maryland Agrit:ultuml Collrge. Tile o~;~e at and you must have · pecific conditions to authorize to. How are you going to have th~ e, and law 'establi hed to protect and regulate !HJ.Ch . PbHhf" """'"doug ,-o.y woU' the ·I do mooh matters, unless you ha,·e a !!table government¥

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OOVXRNMKNT FOR TBF. IRI.AND OF PUERTO RlCO.

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Th N. Ar . thiuking of. IL loop fot' ment>~, or one to reli vo the Rgticultuntll'li~uRt,onl ~fajm· ~\ME$. BotJ1. , 1 do not think thr Ill ·w •t·~:~

puhlil· improv '• giv •n ht•r• lmvc been ll" full ll:< th ,. might hiW{' been. I wo~ld like to hnvo hPnrd tht•m. in ~gul'(l to ":hut thr monl'\' wn:<' for 1tri< wht\t, tbcw wrro ~oing to do l'ith it. l'ul•t·to Hic·o nePd:< nothing f ·om the ( ' nitcd · ~tat " exti'pt· that . tc! whidT it _ natu.ml!y hn:< 1t rig1 t.:. it i_::~ no~ n pn.itpet· depc•ndl'nt'.". fb!'. mtderml. llll:<furtunus of th 18lnnd, owlllg to WI\ I' condifiont-~nnd th<' hunicnnP, Ill'(' nil thttt put PuPt'to Uit•o in thil! l'lf'emingl~· PftUp<'r t•ondition to-rln.y. nnd it is only st"titing, not rt'ltl. If Ruc•t·to Htt·o hnd n :'ltablt• g-o,·prnmt•nt r<hr ir< IJJ· to go Rht•nd. ho .. nt't'd. ·money hel'tlU <' ><h<' i. p1·~t:-ltt:at~•; mon. ~- t.o lt~lp tht; publi<· work:<. lmd at:<o to h<'lp that whwh 11:1 thr bn»l · th111g- 111 the ll'lh\nd ....... ngrit·ulturt•. That iis tlif' bu:-ii:< in Pnt•rto U.i eo, , nmltmle:~.- th1\t l'l\11 he pt1t cin it" fl't't it t·nn oul_,. nt tht• IK•st l'l'lltnin in .-tatu quo. Th Agl'i t'Ult~tnll l~nk i :< IIIII~J:<t •xt•('llc•nt in:4,it~lt!orr .• ht t. it c·ould bf' impro\·od I th111k n httlt•. It li' hn:<ed orr tlw ll'l'dlt fun 'let' """tem Hf .Fmncc nnd tb(' :-<light moditil'ntioh>< Sll)(g'~"tc•d l ' l'l'ntl~ wouirl impi'O\'t' it fQt~ t~l'>'~ ptil'po:<c:-< :<omt·":hnt, hut if th r t1:rritori1 ~ ~on>rnnwnt l'Xi'>it d 1tnd 1t could· bl' 1tuthonzrcl thl'l'l'tt>. •then a l'CI'tl Ill numbet· of ho mil lion.• whit·h thl' trnitorinl ~owrnml'nl 111iorht h authorir.rrl to nf'rroti n~' ~~ lOIII! fol' (nntl th f'.Y l'OH~d ' rrt•gotiate it~Yit.hir~ t.lwir own horde~:" if l'Oilhdl'll\'l' wn:< t,h t• n• - 1 hl'hl'\' <' tlw who)(' tt•n 11 dlt o n:-< \'oulrl hl• 1':11:-<cd rig~t thl't'{') \'ould he d,•,·ott•d throug-h it to tht nt' •rl:< of th' ag-l'ieul tUJ'I>it:-<. 'Th 'l~~tnk l' uld wi,oe1y 1111 i well n ·t in the nulttcr , and thl' int 'I' ,,.t_,; of tht•.l1o,·errlln t> nt t'Oitld 111., co n~,t·mth·r.-ly glllt~ded b.' · having rer,i-c··e ntntn· r::~ of . thr 00\· tllllf'nt 111 tb r d1r ,·tor of the hunk. 'llirn· tho n•pr ·r ntnth· p~ of thl' Gor rnnl('n t, n.- w , 11t O ovNnmrnt dit· 1·t- • m·,. into ~ d.in· ~·tor_v of the -l'nion Pa1·itic· R~ ih·oad 4 t·onld he kept · tbl'rl' untt~ IL sm kmg fund bud H'en t'l'rated nnd the loan nmtur d and had bel'n gmdunlly pni~ off. I l'lpenk of the Bn k of .Ag-ri1·ttltm , ·not 1'1\llil<' "ohif' other bankmi~Jtt not do it. hut beu:1u it IS 11n old, wellf'iltn~lli,.bed, and ."Olllld. iJt,.tJtuti?n nnrl know:-< ev~'t'.f (', fntf' and '}'OI'J mau,:-< t·burRct •r 111 th · ll'land.nnd could g-et at th1s nmtter much moro =-1J_eedi_ly nnd. I ttcr than nn,,· n w instittttwn, an.tllif gmwd d in the distnhutwn of ~bt• fund in the tmmner r hun· ::Ill g<'.;ted it would belt mo"'t helpful in:<titution. \ Thr •tAmMAN. That mig ht be uttendrd. to )),· 1t locnl lrgislaturc. . l\laj~r -'\~£~ . _Yes, ~ ir. I th}nk th · ud of' . ngr · givi!tg · thq 1tutl~ot~ tOn nugbt WI ·ely outh'n some of .the nes along whtch the · t rr1torllll government would ttd, but bow fnr tht\t bould . be dono might be a mnttec f r your con. id rution, and i. · ono on the d tail of whll'h l e uld :not xpre s a Sllti:F<fnctory ?Pinion. . Th. f!. I~AN . "ottld you m. pr<?v1dmg th t\~ overnment~ provide a leg1.latn·e SS<'n~bly ~nd author1zc 1t to h lee d by popular ,-o~ ~ MRJOr A.MES. l e • :~ 1r. Th HAIRM N. Hare. ,·ou on nough f the ople to be of tho opini~n that .(bnt .wou~ be perf •ctly ::Jnfe ~. ' .j · · . ~!aJor A~s. l e ::nr: · th ·.r ba,· don · tt twJC 1before, and, 1\8 you ba\· beard tnt d to-iluy, th last lection wa the be~ they haveevor bad. I ba'' seen nothing .in the cbamder of the people to f d me to !iup- ' 'poo:IC that, a.sid from little local ambition · and ~rty rifes, there is any need of ot· harm in tw() partie . The partiei,j ar organiz d, the

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one to cnt'l'y out tb o view:< of certnin ubi m n, t\nd tho other by tho: e who pt·efcr to F<ee the •· iw; '' out. nnd thrre i~ nothing for party lin ~ to •ndm·e on; there i ' no ol'C'lt..~ion for parti'es xcept . l'lf-sceking and · contt·ol of patt·ona~o . · Tho CHAIRMAN. lllere h1wc he •n. omr t•lretion" rct•ently he.ld t.hor .~lajor AMJ-;s. Yt•:<, ~:<ir: they ure just tini>~hing them now. The CHAIKMAN. How rlid t'he~· g t along~ •. . · .M1\jor AMJ-:R. With lthout tlte w:~unl amount of tulk 1tnd nOUJI', whiCh · roitllv nmount.~ to nothing. · Th CHAlltMAN. Woulrl \'OU l'Ci'ltrict tho ::~uffrngo to pl'Operty ot· ed 1· <'1\tional qm\litit•ations ~ · . . · . Mnjor A~n:.. Y 1'1'1, :<II" 1 thmk 1tn 1Litet'111ttlv' cducnt10nnl or property qulllitil'ution i>~ n·.g-ood one. Thm· hnl! been n mi.;h\ke nui le in the :-~tntcment nmdo .to thi::~ t•ommittt•e with rcfererwc to th nb\•re of , illitrrncy: it is nothing like :-<o hu:ge u hit::< ht'l'~ :<httll< to you, nnd th P r eturns of thP rcl·cnt \'Cn"u~ wrU . bow tbttt owr iO p r ecnt of the rwopl e are lt.hlc to r ead 01' writ~l . ' • ~1r. C 'Ktn:u .. Owr ~0 (1(' 1' l'f'nt of thf' l'lltii'C popult\tion ? ~ln]or A~JF: s. Y~'"· :<ir . .Mr. Co ' K 1n:r.r•. What c·ln>'~ of thP popltlntiorr dol'>' tbnt 2ll per ul:' nt ~·111 hrucP 'I • < · , . glnd .~·~m n:;ked. t!'!ltt qil~·stio.n, bpci\USO· . id 1Mnjor Am:,;. I :tm n•r_ not :<ll\' fulh· whnt I int1•ndPd. I hr edumh01ml nuwhJUc hnl'l got 111 :;m:h opl'l·ation tbnt it 'i:-< only n qne.;tion ot' It short time until it will mnkP thi" p l' ri·r ntngt' mul'h }Jight•t:. Th~tr. irrdudPd the weulthy lllld PUlll'ltti-d pt•ople, :<Ul'h "" Mr . .Finlttv ~tnd hi:< dn.;:J. Then thor is mwtht'l' elm::;; and I mit rceognir.l' a1i1iddle 'cia:;:-<. I thi1~k tho liiJCs bf , d<;nmrention nmy ht• l'll>~il.\: dm~~n. Uut down , to tbe urt1; nn eJu,.s, u~d inl'ludi1w nmll\' of th em, ther<. IH 1t pretty rent~ml Hnmll knowl edge qf rendil{g ~utd w'riting, in. u: ff'Phll' w~t,v. pr\-lmps, ~ut ::~till. AOIIIf' knowJcd•rl'. Tho,;r 1\I'O the l'lll">J~'"· The mrruhnnt c·htts, prnctrmlly, nil rend and writr, "OiliPthiH'" irr 0111~, ono lang(llnge, hut ftcn in t.wo 01.· thre~.. Mr. N ~: r oN. How ~thout thP :;mull fnnilers I Major Am:!'!. Not wry nmn,v .o f tbom rcntl:wd write-t·.on1pnmtive~y few of thrm rend ltntl wi·itt'. ~ometime~ they will do the one nnd not t.llf' othu. The chilpren hn\'(', 1111\IIY of theni, picked up n little, pn~­ ticulnrl~' wh 'l'C they bnve b~cn nenr the ci ie!! nnd brw ' hnd !i ~hnnce to 1\ttend tb H.omnn Cntboh,c cboolf!, but our ii<'hooJ,.. nrc rmstng- the proportion of them very rQ.pidly. I .Mr. N•:LSON. 'J;ea ·bing English 'l ~ajor Am; . Iri 1110 ·t of them; y ·, . . 1 The CHAmMAN. If allowed* re:stri ·ted utfrnge, do you think tbel!e w nld h !Ln,v difficulty in · eli!l'ting by dU;triet:s, good men to 1\ legi lath·e as. emhly~ . . . . . 'M ajor A:\IF; • Not the least. J. have ba~ too much ItS ocu~t10n wtth men whom \'ou would like to ~ee 111 the I gt::~lature to doubt 1t. I The CHAinMAN. Good inen ~ Mitjor Am: . Yel'l, ir ; m~n wbo would r prel!ent tb ir district:! !IS w~ll llS any in New .liampsbtre or Ma snchn ett:!l :Mr. DEPEW. What proportion is 1regro~ Major AMES. Quite small. This censu~:~ will give it very nccut·a~h~ lmt it bus be n sup~ ed from tbe c~n u of ~ 97 1 the last one t~e t:lptlniard:! took, that 1t wns . ornewh_ere m the. netgh borh?Od .of. 60 pq~ cent native blood; but that ts, I tbmk, not r1ght. I thmk tt ts muoli

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(HIVE RN;MENT Jo'OR TEI'F: Hel LAND IW

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It• m\·tc~• lf. I think it. will. II\• m'IU'I'I', to 301J:>t'l' 1:t'nt. I il;dudt• in that Rl) U.•rl.x>r, . ..,ontfl'Rn,.., t'tl-_ '" who . htWI' ~·oiOI'. }Jr.' DF.t•t; w. lmrtu A frit·un~<. Major AM.:s. Wr htwr ulnw:;t no purr Afrinn:c~, Rnd wht't we hnw thc rr Rrr from tb(• nitt•d ' tt1tl•s or . St. Th mn V> l'\' ltugolv. I bo ultJ . I)' from 50. to ' ll,li()t.l po.•oph• would l'o~·rr th e di ~ti ntttl,\' ncgt·u populR,l io n. but wr htw '"' t•normout~ mnn ber f tho~e who t'ppetu· to be nr)fl"<ll'>l, b nt .who, if you .wit~ t-xam in d o ' l,r. ~-.ou will find 11r1• not. hut an• from the &root',\' t•Otl:o&t, and often imes tb~· peopl ' ~< tU't' in ntriou ~<hadC' s of tlolor. J we nt into ttmt q1~te t'arefully in a' serit'.-< of tlrtid\',. for ·tbt• Nrw York M i t~tl Pt·r:o;o. I found the B erber dtl:•s W&! \'CfV· large and a g rt-1\t nu)nbt•r of i\Jtlhtv OJ'igin .und '<001' Cor ·. iat.nt~. · Sonu of the e werr brought thor Y ~~tr Qllrly in its history. a nd thrr'r wilt! 11 mi,xture of th &1rb11ry cotl."'lt man 11nd the .F·re nclt rsair and thot!t' deal,ing nlong the ' pani h main , 11nd the Spani"!h C'onti.nu d thr mjxtur~ , and tht-n ('tlll1e the "mtsum 11nd jetsam ' of Hawkin 'sand· Drake':,~ ai1d Morgun',. ft et.'l who r Dl!'ined th. re, and in that way Wt' fllwe got. e thnol g ku.lly , th mo~ t · ni xed .mat!S J ever ll!IW in the l!llm e Rrell. ·Mr. 0ALI.lNOEB. Thi matte r of re:<trided utrn,ge- wouhl it be r our opinion that gi ving ~uffmg(• upon the edu ·ntiott~LI bns i would bt• an incenHve Jo.them to a 1qui c •dul~ti on l . Major AME . 1 think so. Dr. 'arroll goe l other way. 1 do not under tand qu,itc why. 1 think he t\l'~ue thats~tffruge-unive t·sul uffrag is a lK'nefil·ent tili ng tmd b.'· g n ·ing ,it t thf'lll, and then tnkingit·away if the,y are not'" duca~d to g h ·en ~ tan u-d by a e('rtain tim\'. would be in the natur of an inc 'tl..tive : but I thjt k i.f it i:< g ive n to them on th t>dm·ationKI bi\Si:< it 'w ould timulat(' tl e other:< who hnd not urquired it to' stud,·. ' · . The CHA IRMAN. · Yo.LI think jt only a hort ti ue un il pe rhnp:; htllf · of them will able to r ad notl write '/ MRjor X)t£11. 1 b<ili4." \'e it fulh·. I do not brl eve thR.t five vetu ·s will t'ltl pse before the maj otit~· o.f tb e ,roun~ter gen rn.tioi1 at len'' t will br abl to r ead and writ . lr. CocK RELL. Ar th e re mo r men o r mor " :ome11 who et\n renrl and ·writt> ~ .· .. Major A."ES. I think it i:< llbout e \·en ; pro~1bly more m ' 11 than wprnen. · I do ' not think th r e i an~· dl\ta other b11n the r ecent ce ns u~. hut, judking from my o"' n obs rmti n in the 8C ools and those I havt• m t in t>usiru:~ "'"' I hould St\~· th re i not a \er · great disparity; but · th women· fewe t. '· Mr. DEPEW. The own rship of th e land- th industry being agril'Uitural- ill that ·<'ont-entrated or di~:~pe rsed I • ' ~iajor A~n:, . Th 'owne r>~hip' ha been in pret ,. ·large ureas, but le"" <'() in late year . The teudenc~· hll<f be I! to dh·i u p , lind I think th e hopeful outlook i · in thi11. If they ro n g t the i li t tle fanus and raisr frui-t and veg tn blc.'!! for the ~ortbern market ·ou ho\· begun thei•· moral com'al scence. 1 think. · ~lr. DEPE~-- Ar tratisfe r 1\:!1~- nnd imple I . · Major AMES. )~e . . ir: . rather easy now. Th ir registt-.rs ore ye ry ·good; their real e tJt . Ia\\:'~ are ,·err good, aud h ,. been rnt.her bette r carried out than mo t thers : but_ a naturally ht have . xpected, 1 think th ir title:,~ ar not al ay ~~rv r dily followed. There are not many of what ar called "crown hand There are II

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f~w little n•·cus, c::tpc •it~llv in th west e nd of thr i ~<lnnd. A l'onclition of thing \'1'1'.\' eommon Is. thrt·t- will hr n eon~<idemhl ~;rmnt of lund mad(', Knd tlwn the~· will d1•1'd f1·om it to' ditTo•· nt p:u·tu•:<, nnd tlu· ~· forget iu so111o ct t,..e>~ wh1tt thry luwc donr, aud J hii\'P >~ro n tL ~<qtmn• of lal,\d left t•ight in thl' l' ntl• r of dt'cdcd g rounrl without •·ig ht:< of wn_,l, otf~ , 1111d tlu• ti.tlt• O l' know·l<'dgo of it ;;N' III ~< ~~thno>~t lnp>~l'cl, ~I'IH't'l' tho h\.~t dt•ed runs htu·k nt'nt·ly to thP urtgnml gm nt. J.\t on111o , 'prin.,'~<, n minPml' >~tll'in~ \' ·•·.r popnlnr t lwt·e, t ht' l'l' nrr ti n• pil'l'l'" nf land which nobod.Y pnll'tlt•tdly :< I' m>~ to ow n o r , l'XI't'pt on. ~< ntfe mm'l, i Ol'l'Uf:ying. .. . tr. )~a·F.W. Is :u1~· portion of th e l11nd th e ~ropt•rty of rl'li:.dou,.: • . ,I OloOe r:<l M11jor A~n;~. 'l'.l:mt is 11 mooted CJlll'.'!!tion. 'I'Iw h• wn.-< 11 l'onili tll•t·llhl • amount of pl'OJ'X' I'tv held nmuinnll.' · h~· th o C11tholil' Chu f\t ·h, nnd it h11.~ hcc n claimed thiat'll gor)(l llt•nl of it Wll>< di :o~tinet J,,- l'hlll'l'h propPrty 1 1~hid1 ~ts 11Jlpt~rcntly ~tnb• prolll'l't.L nntl nothinJ!. hnrt of,ll t'ol11111i + JQn wtll, 1· tlunk, h(' uhlr to 1wtunlly l:'ll'ltll' tit• fttl't>'. Iherr wn,.; nndou. hll~dl~ a good th•ttl of tli,..tit!l'tl.'· t·hmdt. 11111 t:el·lt•:<in:;tit·nl J)I'OJ1c rt.v ~~~~l.fo r sucb lH d'JJMt'" 11.nd lwld hy t hl'm tUt fur tlwm, hut tiH' I'<' wa.~" good rlrnl of im·onu• prope rty. in th1• t•itip. , nmini,,·. tlhotrd tp till:' it' ' ~"~' · \vhi l' h :<l't• mk t? han• h~·t• tt , wlwn t l'llt'l' o ut l'ttn'fnl.I.r,_ pt•~ • Imp:< , tJttl' propPrt\·. ::-iollll' of 1t wa:< nmt :<01111' not. hut I thmKil 1.' <~d11w to tnk r n t·onnili. :<ion to d ct(•t·mino thM ',;nti. twtm·iJr; :;omt>thin ~f tl71tt kind . will hl• 1IPI'll d. M,,. I'OIII'tt~uc•, SPii l ' LtllT.itmi{O, thinks m('nl't':<hiJl i.- tL~nnll .y ca:; II tlw •·itthtfnl ,.. . ilr • a:<l'l'l'tlLin •d., fl' hn '' IIAIIDI AN .. J,; not 1'1 n \'Ol'I UlCin~ Vl' r.)' l'Xpt•n.HII'o! , , , Mnjo t· Am::<. It hn:; lieNI. 1'j,ot1tl'it~l fntis vrrt' l< nHpl y il't~~tfnl, l ~ut, U nc ntl I h•nn· rPthtl'l'd tht• m.tl',.; nncl Jnl 'l't' ll>'l'd tlu• numhe r of n ot:ti' J P~ rt-l·r t·o n:<icl.Pnihh·. 1U1cl I think t ht•r lui,·c lll'c n hrou~ht ton not un•·cn.,.:o 1itble lm,;is. 'i'lw hP.-<t '~'l' t•o ultt' do for th l'm in t hnt rt•spl'd wpul ~ · he to g in• tlwm soml'lhing likP tht• T o.J' t'l' tH< sy:<trm nnd tbtt:< :< impliiJ thing>' SOilll'Whnt. . · ( '• • 'ffip ' tiAIHi'II AN. You ttiinl< .-onw imi1ro n •nil• nt t·o uld ht• mnd1•l Mnjol' AM E~. Yl'"• s ir ; uml o t ~ht NII y . . iMr. i\kCOliJA...:. J:; t he land in ;.mull lw ltln w>< OJ' lnrgl' ! . ' Mnjor _AME,. .. rn•tty lnrgP, us n l'l.'h·, l:iut it'htlil h<'c n dhrided IIJl :<0111 0 111 rt.h c ln:;t few Veltl'i< and lllll:<t co nt tnll<' tQ b IIIOl'e so . . ' 'rho nMtt~J ,\N. You ;;pok of· 'n.ptnin Mt· ' omh. Whnti :< hrd? ing ~ Mo.jo•· ;bn:~. He i.-an o fti ce1· of the Fifth nvnlry , of l'xtmord tna t·.r · alrili t ie:<, nml hn l ~~;rn dPs igiu~ted by G cne rnl Dswi. to rlotcrminr what re yennr l'H n he r:ll·ed by tttxation (intcrnnl) us ide. from th ' l ni ~e :t State:; in tN nnl -r e vrnne .·ystrm ; de vise JL :-~y . tom of ~hom<' tn.xn.tton to ·1111kr good for. in><nlnr ptti'JlO· es the.· to;.,.; of th . cut'l to m-hou. re,·c,· nue~, if free tmdc 11hnll uholish them . Of fO IIl' whe n freo tl'lldc. ,·omcs in tb et· will be bu littl revenu e from tho ·ustom-hou e. The C n ATJDfAN. Th er e would be none from th nitcd ' tute:< but wquld not ther be from other eou ntrie. 3 Major Ai\tE •. . Not llllll'h . The UAIIUIAN. How mueh ~ Mo.jor AlmS. I con no.t tell. . pain still bas 11. li ttle vantnll'e, b ut it Would not be o. g r eat· while befor e the c ustom. re' enue8' wotTid get uearly nothing. . The CHATR!IIAN. · That is, you think all the trade ~vould he with th e United States '! S. Doc. 147- 13

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OOVERN.MEN'l' ~'OR

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. Major A~m•. P1icthtll~r o. ·At tht> . prc,.e .t tit\1f: they p~y ~00 for taXI'" on a rllt'ring<"- -· • , 11 The CHAIRMAN. ~llflll!llly ? · .· l\lajo1·· Am;R. Cu><tom-hon:sc dutie><. W l' ·onl<l IWl :;ending and ought to '"' ::;~> ndiu~ in hundred::< of enninge;;. l Sugar mnchinery has been ahno:;t pl'Ohi luted. . • The , ' nAtRMAN. l:s tlutt th<• lnited Stat\' " ttu it!' I · )laj0r AlliES. Yc~ . .. rr. . . . . The ('u lrutAN. Wn:< not thnt origi nnll\' t r ::;pani h tariff' arid Jmph· moditit-d I · · 1 Ma]ot: AM•: . Thry moditit•d it th wrong w1 y. The . l,fAIRMAN. Jnrren~cd itt . · . l\iajor.AME . Yel'l, ;,jil'. Th1tt )\' liS done hy n~ Executh·e order. Th' 'HM K~IAN. That WitS don br 1111 Exl'c:ut~v order? .Major 'AME. . Y I'><; >~i1·; it wa:; a jiwJ• JXI·'· Mr. MoCoMA •. "·ho i·Pt·onmwrlded thnt; wn that on of Robert P. Porter'i! &'hl?ditlcs1 l\lajor ~·;s. I t~ink :so. . Mr: M OMA$ . •1ha~ bns ~rndrmlly hn~Tcd ut nhwlt>s~ . · .MtlJor A~n;~. l cs, 1r. trnngr to t!ll)', there 1\l'l' 1\ few g01 rg down there ·but I do not ~;ee bow n man can do it wl n they pny more than the nll'ue ofthe CIU'I•inge in m'to;toms dutit•:,s . . . "Mr. FAIRllA.NKS. "'nat i . tbr mt(' I Major AME~ . 'Three hundred dollar~ on au avemgl'. The E:nAIHMAN. Ar' other turiff duties on tbnt muc geneml plan e~ . Maj ,, 'AME8. Not ll uad; •e t w hi\\' ' don whttt to all of us will em au a.sto ni bing thing, wedded to th belief, as we ltre, that luxurie. , und not ·the nere ·>< iti e~ of life, hould pa}· the duties, viz, placed th dntiCo' · o1i food~ . \\' haw nctuRJII.r .con~ ~ nued one of the n.t ost • . burden::;ome of th tm:lffs, thought not a · bad a it wa ~ bef01:e-tbnt on · rice, one of the tnp!e t1l'ticles. M consum£tion t! ere. · . ThP 'HAIR!IAN. J;i.ow much i that tarJff 1 · l\iitjor A IE . I cnn rio~ telJ; but the chedule of et·l·ors of' that kind i · a.stoni bing. nnd n. the cretary of \Var ail to me' the. other day, ''we htwe a('tt,nlly '\)ut tlwm in n, bole " tber , ii d mn.de the conditions ""' tind, if not wor::;e, thitn when we took chat·ge. I 11hould 'sun up the admntnge>< w . g.h·e them there ns much hop (which hn . 10t been ll\&terially 1etlllzed), it;r•pro,·ed ~>anitn.tion, n d ~<omc educatio~ll 1\dmntnge. . · • '> Mr: DEI:~: w. And c~ttlblhshed n·prohibiti,· . ta ·~If! MaJor . ::wE, . Ye , n·. Mr. 'FAIRBANK~. · You found no indi.·po:<ition o c·on:<idet· and n.dju; t nnr inequnlitics i · Mnjor AME . _. o, >~ir. The Clu.lRMAN. The ·e things tu·e accidCo'ntal- hat you Cit II fnux pus I · Major A~JE . Y Co' ir ; just ' lip-up ' you n ig)lt .-ay. ~Jr. FAIRBANKS. I am hnnded a memorandtun ali fo t'hc population of Pu rto ' Rico, and I ::;ee it stated in it that th re are 'TO,OQO f>lack,... 240.000 mixed, und 100:000 white. . Major AMi . .Thi)Se 8r figur · roughly g!''r r~ lately by ColonPJ · · Dingman 'in charge Qf t~ ceni!us and at·e prooobly as accurate as we can get.. "Mixed '. is a very nriable t rm , apd I confess I could · hardly know where to draw the line of demarcation ~tween "black., l,lDd "m~ed. I . uppose they went 'by their r.e turns.

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· trhe 0HAIRMAN. Ha:; the een:;us been comr,.Ieted ~ I l\bjor AME-. So far n::; tbCo' retHrns-7the ~ling of the l'etums. 'The. h\bulation~ are on th ir WI\V now. Of t•atil·sc, u ' is th ' caf:le in e ver \· · 'l, nsus, thttt i:,s very un:,satisfactory. Offijllnd, we vnccinn.t ed nqot~t 800,000 people, ttnd judging from th nulnber we knm thn.t '~er~ ' X:empted · or escaped-of cot1rse it is a littilc in tb • 1mture of " den re6koning·"-tboso who had previou:;ly hnd t~e smallpox, an<} the numbru· o( thot~e too old or too feebl e to be VllC<Iilmted; ttnd 11llowing t\ tea1!0111\hle porcentnge of those who e caped, from their nomadi~t character, I think this must be very n.e arl y aceumte{ I o;hould suy it cottldJot fall more than 1\ few thousand $hort of a tmllion people. · Mr. CbOKREJ.L. Did you yourself vnccinRte that number '/ Major AMES. O.h, no; I wns nt the head of the VI\Ccine c<irpt~ nd director of vaeeination. We vaccinate d th~ ca~tlc to oh~tin the. vi us . ·wedi.vided the i ~land into ·ti\'e di::;trict#l~ such n.s you hn\'e on th1tt .. a~. "We took' the old Spn111 h nmp IUld rc<tuce~ theit'seven judicial IS· tricts to fiv!i llnd had J5 vaccinator ni:td 75 nssi tantO! at work simt .t;a;. neou~ly. w c sent out . ],5,000 f.re h poin Uj eac)l day b,,. mn:il_, . o bat the VIrus wus ne_vef' more than four days o)d. 1 Mr. PJoJRKINS. Did you find ' an~r rf's istan e? .. 1 , Major A~n;s. Not a particle. · 1 Tbe ·CHAIRJIIAN. All willing to he vneeinalted ~ , Mn.jor · Ai\I.ES. " c perhnps phtyed sometlii nB". in th nature o' n trick on them. The wa); it eame about wa tht ·. ·w e induced encml HeJ1ry to i. sue an order, known asCi,· ·ult1r ·No. 3, whkb did f ot, toll thern that they must b vaccinated, but we tqld them th11t no no could row n ho11t';' or go to clmrch, or d~·ive a 11.vagon, or llttcn ~ s!'hpol, or go to market or work il-t a shop, etc., m11 ~tss ~ e hll.d·n v'acci• ~~~~ion certih(\ate. . Wben they found it \\liS a swestion of hrend nnd . I utter they tumbled over ach othet· to get acq1natcrl. . .· , The CHAIRMAN. Hnd they nl'\' f'r hPPn Yu9einnUld I . . )Jajor AMEll. rrb(' rp hnd .'heen de:<ultl\l'. , ~~ ~.tempt.>; : hut \v~ hnd uhon 13 1000 t•nseo; of smullpox in ' lw i:<h~nd thr d:~. · we hegnn. 1 The CHA IRMAN . How mnn,· now! I Major Al\n:S. Not one. · ·' • Mr. G.ALr,INnEn .Of t•our. e, impro\·ed >Jii~itnt~on 111ight llt'eount in :<orbe d gi:ee for that c:onditi n of thing.-, Hot I have nev.er :seen nn)[ record. nor hn.,·e I nny knowledge, of such whole$nle vnct.~inatingns you hll.,·e done in I~u et'to :weo. .pid you get lt!lYI hnd! ~e,..ult~< in Rny considi · Pmble num be r of Cl\se;; ?. ' , Major A l\flo1S. N<f, s ir ; we bad · ll moJ;t interc1ting experien(·P. qf course my first idea wn:;, when. this thing wa. ortlered to be done, that if we were to compel them to be vaccinated. wholesal e they were entir tied to ever y precaution, nnd w~ hll.d ent us p!cpty of tuberculine and . mall~in, and we tested e \·ei'Y animal before it wns vaccinated, nnd '~~ ·kept them in ~roups, and we moved them ur:> from day to day, nnd ba<l their born. pam ted, nnd ke-pt the dll.s es sepjlrnl,· and we never found n case of tuberculosis. \Ve found one or ·two oubtful eases among th~ cattle ar1d killed . them irnn1ediately. We id liave this happen: The .soil is more or less infected ,with tetanus. (loc~jp.w), and there wa~ 1 one fatal case of a chi·ld \vbo laid on tetanic groun a and contracted tb9 disease, but the same thi.ng would have happened if it bad been merelYj an open wound of .'any kind. We bad som,e vel.·y sore arms, becaus, they were o~en very dir~,y. people-the ab.sen e1of abundant wate ~lllkes the lower class very d1rty. ' lr , •

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GOVERN.M:ENT E'OR

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Th<' ' 'IIAIRMAN. Thl' \' bu.r r inlpr n·d .thl'ir h bit ~ Major Am:!l. Y<'>'. ~l r ; · illl·lt wntt't' l'lllll<: int~ \It Junn it i a ton, ishiitg, t

'Th<'

noh• the l'hnnged <' ndition of tbrit· f cl't;.

' II A III~IAN . Did the~· not httY<' 11 ""pph· wfor

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:M!ljor Am:s. No, :<ir: o nly. ft·om \n'll and elrJ t•n : IIIO>'tlv th e lo.ttl'r. ir. , . r.t.tNOf:n. Y ur I'Xpr rien ·e in \'ll!'t'inn ion in the l l!!l~tnd lend>~ you t the c JH•h~>~i o n. l tnkl' it. thnt the hnd t'l'l'ults ft·om mccinn'tion. which unqn,·~tionnhl.'· ht~\· c· Olll.'lll'i· d hnn• )l(' •n due to impur d ,r u or want of l'ftl"! Major AMt:,.. Wnnt of earc 1'\'1'1'.\- tim <'. unl,l'c · :o:ontl' impure dt·(t. i,. 118ed. 1'hl'rl' i:< no nP<·f'><>'it,·. if th e rit·u:o i:; b roiJ<'rh· procured and . propt'rl,\1 )!lllll't~l'll, of till,\' chingcr whnte \· •r . · .Elgbt hrindrecl thousantl · vaceination,. 1 'nnd not n :<ingle tll'lll nmpututl•d o a flr riou~< slougbin~ . in any 1~\~<o. I hnn• sel' n f' Jill' prPU.r goocf-,.. iv.e ' loughR which mwht han." Ol'I'Ul'l't'd un.nvhcr~·, hut none ut nil impni ing o1· lu><t.ing in their fl'eet: nnd ft•w thut with l'll'nnlirte><" might not hh lll'cn prevented. 1\Jr. 0At.r.tl'iOF.II. I llH'tlll in Ylll'l'inntion.- thtt ,l,·r reud of. nnd I'IOIIH of u hun• . o me knvwlt•dgo of I . M·nj i~ \m;:o:. En•r·y tinw. . :Mr. (•At.I.I.'OEJI. l hun• lll'rn· hnnd!'d bv ~Ir. Finlu\· a r· rtiticnt P whirh rl'ud. n" followl'l : • I ··

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brnsros, , ...,,,, ,J, fill, P. R., April J.J, 1s.qr1.

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h •I'('! I\· \' •rtiflt•l th ut - - - - of - - , ~('X " - - ; II!(C, - - ; l'O IM . lwcll duly \ ' H\' •i llnh•l , ill ('t\Jtfnrmity ~· ith ( \meral Ortl r No. i tilt• gcnt•rn t'0rnmuml in~r th e D<.•partrnult of l'u ~rto Hit.,.,, l R. A. , and the ore! n< und• ~lurinn~ of th u d>i<•f •u')letm ,f t.hl' <1<-pnrt nwllt, th e d rclilor or thi. divisio11, nml. the nknl<k nf thi" juril'llii•twn n1ud<• in pun<ullll<'l' thereof. , Jt

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· • - - - - , Prtb/ic T'archwtm·. Tbi,.; i~< 1h<' kind of ,:!' rtili~ah' \'Ott i"'stH'd l I .1\Injor A~tt:>'. Y""'· l'!i r . ff it \,·<'n' de><ir d to tbli:<li it. II' hnrc tlw dst!lull o n hnJtd itt reg-nrd to thnt whole ttndt rt ki11~, whi!·h wo uld , if puhli><hed h. l'ongre:<!i. to "'·' · mind , 1·ontrilm n Knockdown argument ngn in,.t .thr opr · >'itio n to ntrt·inntion. . .1\It·. AJ.t:tx Ot:ll. H ow t Xp<'it><ire ad t•um c nt to print l \ . Mn.jor.Am: . . \ \,n· l'xprn,: h ·r. . .1\lr. L\LJ .t~ oF.H. \\'h hn:< it! Mnj,or ~tF.:<. lt i.: in th • ha nd>l o f tlw honi·d lf heulth at ' un Ju:ut but it n•all~· ought to be g in•n to th worfd a" proof po>~ith· of th e effit'ft('\' of 1)0\·in nt 'l' intttro n. Tht; ' 11 JR~tAN. o uld ,. u ~l'nd us n c py I )Jujor .bn.s. lt i;;: n of mn ttr r- 1h 'UA1B)tAN. · ' ould y u not · nd for it? . Major .~~IE • • 1t i. n l!trge mn~ · of matl'rinl. \Ye '<•tmld true ,en'r.'· \' tru pomt t th nrm tt went 'into a nd bnt·k ·t wh r it cqmo from: we rould te ll whctb r it'w: from a run I nnimal r .wh th r it wns from. a 1 or a 2 ,·enr .ol animal, wh ther Aft·icnn o A.ndalusinnt or ligh t · or' dark <'ofor. th r al eft' ct.-; of tbi or th tor any kind of vir11 • is hown there, and the r s uit. ~<bow perf ·tly in connection with th e method. and if it equid go into th hands of the. mrcnl prof ·ion ~t would con. titute a on lu ive rgument again oppo ition to 1 vaccimation.

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197

M1·. GAI.LlNm:n. I think it i the mo. t ' fo nd rf11l eontribution to tb ·efficacv of this method. Mr. eoCKnt;LL. rOll i~pokc nl)Out the;.p Pu •rto Hi can. di:;plny ing B wonqel'{ul indi\·idnnlit,,·. Hn,·Q ~Illy their hmm•,; in little ,·illng<'., or nr' they li\·ing !!Cpnmte ly n>~ fnmili ,;, indl'pt•ndP.nt~ Mrtjor AME • Both. fn thr ngricultnml rrgions it is n mountainous e ilntt·v- it is tb' mo:-<t ru ro e ·ountrr ron t•ould lind, with n :;c t·ics of ric\Jre. 'thnt touch ut point,; 1111d arc t!'t:ri.hly hroken nnd nil O\'l'l' those hiJf8 yo.n will find the little :<hnrk.~ f?f the poor )Wop11', 'l'h II th •re 11f4l th' hn,·• e ndti>:~ of th plnnt t'>~, nnd rn the towns you get :;tree~ rl'guln,·l~· lnid out nnd nry fin e liou:~ s, sp<•<·inll.r in Agundillatttnd Ponce ·and Mnyn..,.nev., · Mnynguev. i1-1 luid out with tlctndwd and iil'lltidl'btl'hcd. bnildin..,.:s and hn:-; .tb • only s trc >t ruilwny in tlw i81nnd. 'l'br prople lip• wry much n in otlrl'l' tropi<·tll <·otmt.r·io. • with htl'" nnnrbrt· in a fn,ni I v. . · "' ~11:. lli~t't~w. Ar·c 'the huck~< huilt of "od I "' . :Mujor Am;$. 'o, "'.ii·: they tll'fi tmilt of poh'. lu. ht'cl tog<•ther amd cove red 'Yitb thatch o1· the uppor· pnrt of the ·oynl pnlru hOJnul tightly togetht>t·. · Mr. Dt:t'~~ w . Ant! the whole n~nil,,· lidng in or\<' room I • Matjor A~n~ .. Yc~<, :;it·: ~:~hut 1 p ti ~ htly in <HH' room. · It i no won~ tl ~ they hrwc eon:;umption: th ',1 hal'l; th(• fou~1 produl'th·e {'Jut. poor food, pqor uir,. poor cloth in~,. and r •ht·l'athed i •·, h1'11idt>:; lwt·t'dity. 1 l\lt'. Dt:t>t:w. What is· ho ebal'l\l'tPr of thl' pn:cit~trl' 'l Mnio.t' Am: : On the so11th "ide it is muuh drit)r. \\ e tl'i<'d to get into th<• cputer o.f the enttl!' t'<'gion 1 so II.' not to h\we to dt'i\'C too fttr for nwciuntion. th e t1i•o grPnt fodd •r· gml-!Hrc" grow tl:~ere~th e Guine!l gt't\s. · rtnd the Bel·nwdn gt·r~:ci, wUich 111'1' hoth ,linlt gm:;:;es- nnd I saw no rcuf'on wh.'· the nlfa.lftt should not J!t'ow thl'l'l\ on till' mounb~in , idq nrtd them •:<ns s loping down ft·oni tbc bilk Th.c dP(·Ih·ity to ~he fieri · i:; very rit·h , nnd ou~.'· needl'l, a~; t~e nl'ro.l StonP su~~;P:st.~, i rrig11tion to make vpr·.v t;nul'h ·rnd rP of it. Th tpountnin siCIP is a. 'l'l'tnc ·•Ou!f uphenml and ril-b, )ight1•t·~ eolor d soil- mo re likl' tho tohal'eo lnnd. of No th <;Jnrolirm~hut tb<•re is q~ti ~c.n: littl1• ':nrle~.~- , tt•cordiitg t~, th~ pn:t of th!' t lund. I be wr:-~t end '"' rwhet· :;oa l. I he enHt <•nd t>< rr ·h tn SP,!)t:, but, on the . vhol<·, thl' .west if< ridter. Tlr' en~tet·n end wou ld not coiDpure u:-; fn,·o mbly wrtb the. othpr·. for , ngt·u·ultuml n:< for "h\zing put·poso.. l\JI'. PETIIGttF; w. Are tho e pa\:<hu·e lunch; 6t for l'ttltimtion! Mnjor AMF; ·• Quite n littlt• lan d thatt i:; wmd for cnttle mngos could be U!;,'l11' lnnds, but I do not know how nnu·h of it could h ini.,ated anfl r eclaim d: but there i wnt r e nough. Th .y hrn c np\·er nmde res~ n'o ir><, but th ey undoubtedly ·ottld· do ~o. Mt'. PETTJom:w. I meun not for t; ll~,''ltr nlon~, hut for other ·rop ~ . Mnjor'AMF: . Almost 1\,l,\' lund ' gOod th qr e, non to the mountnin ·top ·, for som • crop or other, exco~t whe re it i.. o rugg<'d or rooky or wqOded, nnd Hen in the wood.-; t <'Y cut out the tt·ec to make the ~bade for th roffct'. Mr. PETIJOREW. ~rom figur· g h · n h r , it nppen1· thnt th er is but u mnll portion of the aren urt~• t' ultivation. Major AME . . There i · a pr tty good p e reentnge undm· cultivatioJil or used for gmzing. I I Mr. PErriOREW: Ther i a million or mor R<'t·es u. d for gl'llzing, more than one-half of the .whole1 •

a


19

OOVlo: RNME.NT

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R 1'HE J LAND

0~'

Rl 0.

OOVERNMENT FOR THK .1 LAND OF' 1'U1.:RTO RJ 0.

Major AMt:s. Tb land down thr r i,.., :;om f 't, on tho ~:~tc p hillid , appt~r ntly ' . :;tu<'k ·on,'' 1tnd :;omc of it i so pt• uipitou tbnt · the · {'an not cuJti\·at ,it, althoagh they do· r ul ivat wh r you would' not suppo,;r it po, s ihl~ to do :;o. :Mr. DEl EW. How mur h would you, lllt.r w eultiva\ted, mountain id and aJI that ~ .Major ' AMES. It is diffienlt to approxinmt , but you ee a .crop growing th 're uvon plaee:< yo u do n t s it g owing. upon anywher lse and then• i. nlwa :! som · l'rop "ivhirh can g1·own on th mountain side. :Mr. PETTIGREW. Yon rr~,rn rd it "'" 11 rkh irda }lajo'f .AMJ:. Yt>,;, ,;il·: ,·ery. ·. llr.' PJ.:TTJOREW. Wbatdo tl1ry mi el ' ug1~ · s• m. tobRceo i aliro limit~ but no limit to th toff• . . Major' AilE . offe ('lln he mi d int·r n:<in .Y; omnge>~ and pineapple are the tinest ] · hav l' \'<'1' :<ern. Bud the orange:; with tho I-ndian Rh·e1· or ' nlifornia orang :; and y u mn not h gin to compare any with them. Th .v nr growing wild. The lemop · 1\l'C poor and fewi· they nc d 1\ n w \'llriet.'' i but tlw lime ar aunndltnt and fin . · } r. Pt:TIH.Jtt: w. You think limes mn b mi. d. . Majo'1· AME . Th y .arr, hu·geh·. And the r ' lis the gwwa. There n v r ~ltv t • .n llll.'' gra}X'f< r o)h; s grown th re; it was intrrdidetl · by ' ptllll.

·Mr. PETTIORJo: w. Gmpo;; n111 br mi:setll Major Ai\n:s. Y e:s, :sir; a: Wtts stated to-dn,r, r 1u ·mtel gmpe~ n. tine ~ auy. . ee n an,vwhr•·e-I:Jnv ' hecn g rown in prh tte gtwden., but none for geneml n:se or for export. Mr. PETIJGRt:w. W.bnt nbout Znntt' cnn·nnts tnd raisins ? .Major A.i\tF. . The re ~ave ix'rn soni r of then:, hut npparently they , w1ll not grow us well n the ,· do abro1td. · Mr. PETilORF.W. Thi' Y wlll .<Yrow! . 1 Major A~JF;~. Yes. si1: ; theyhn.ve g rown a f > , but not ,·cry nmny . Thet'e is ha.rdly an ything th1tt will not g r w xce t the ce reals. Indian ct>rn, f 1\.'l tlley cull it, n'1ai1.c. will not row w I. It docs grow, but it .ha.'!l to be snn dri.ed. If w htw fr· ' tnill• a I the com will come from the Northwe t. Th(' r i. o lll!J ·h humi it\· thnt corn will not grow the re, tmd the eed hail run' out. Jn fac . there has hl'Cn too mm•b and t ·tong lw ding " in and in" o f l'l'l' '.\·thing.

\

;r Al'i ARY 22, 1000. The 1:1 IR~IA l'i. ·o,·. A.Jnl's, yf.m hnw benrd t e questions pnt to the gentl m n who bft \' mad stnt m nt>i heforr thi. t'Onnnitt nod hen rei tb1 ir an w ril: 'nn \ ' OU t II us what th l'ffrct tis been on lnhor- to incr.e or diminish 'it- <' l!!t l ~fajor A:\n:s. Th' . tatemPnt made hy the gl'n r men from th cham · ber of eommercr in regnrd to ilhore lnhor is corr ·t. (Tpon th arrinrl of th arm.'; the chief qmut rma.~te r being in n d of immedjnte labor . and only an .in><uffi ·ie'nt supply IX> ing a,vnilnbll' h· tixrd a very high . price, and that di'd t't11Ve an Ll11111 dint find on tin Jing-off ct upon lnbor 10 that locality; but in the inte1·ior not only is th ~upply in -excess bnt there i almost no work to do, o that th pri · of (except for · the horter hours) i 1iot materinll,v incr IL'S<'d. f · r .. e the shor:cr

1JOr

.

<" .

199 •

I

day has httd 1\ tendon y to im·rc11 ·e th co t·. somowhat in som. ca ·o. , · the price being about the i'llLDle fl>t' tho eight-hom d1ty as for .the lon&'or one heretofore, whereve1· th1tt day is obs r.vod, but I think the pr1oo · ,. pBid per day hal!! not been incr alicd. , Mr. DEPEW. The point th y .rhado wns thnt by some OJ•tlm· of tho Exeeutive a . punish coin, p o o1· whttt not, which wns paid fo1· a day'::~ lAbor had been rais d in. vt,luo 80111 25 to 33 per nt, and the laborer demanded th . am in nnm , although it Wilt! increni'Jed in \rulue. I · ~ Majo1· AME . That involves on or twQ qu tion. in fil)anc . .AJ ·a matter of fa t the 60-e nt pe. d i.· not n more mluablo po. o- it does not now represent a lurg r value than forme1·ly, hut th ym·chusing power hu.s not chunged mat riall •. The only really materia differ nee that hn. been made at llll, nnd th1tt hus not been genernl; is in the shorter hours. fo): th o p ?" hLbol;' !of t~e island, nnd th e~ht-hour day. is I)Ot genernlly o!J er v d ·m the 1 ter10r. A tho ln. t gentleman smd, ' the work is so S<'lll' • and lab010; nbundunt that--they n•·e glnd to get work at nn y rate, tmd, although i•i ~omc en c. net~re 1· tho <·itie the eighthour irrfluen e hn xtend d , on th plantatiqns pratticnll'Qilditions nre the 81\ntC and tho pavment j ' ILbO~lt 30 cent':!, gold. ~ JMr. M cCoMAS. What i;; the d' e1· n ·o in hours~ , Major A~IE • It e ntirely de~ • w 'on th work ~o !J' don . · lf th.~y a~c cutting cnne, ru · long n. th ~· can w01·k, ttnd H It ts pretty n 111 ' and th y are beginning to grin Itt th o works, they work leiS. til some of them, anti wheh they nr grinding they work i'n '' . hift..;," d .' and ·night, working nll night. h men 111'' ,;o· ltt;txious for work that they work' without much regnrd to hours., . ' The UHAIRMAN. P lcasc 't ,JI th committee whnt, oxpcril'm·e, if nn.~', the Pum·to Rictm. h1tve hlld in t nmttcr of \'oting. ' Major A~tES. In reg1trd to voting, if Ill\' o'llen!JUO will hand lllQ t e paper:; which he drew up this. norning · I cnn gin· it more deti.n'it y than from my reeollection. lt 1 as follow:;: 1

Puerto Rico \I' M r pr •scntl!d hy 12' l!pllti \"J ILl CortcHof c.uliz in ., l 8 ~2 1 when the SJ?&nifih constitution wa~ fmlhL'<l. Thi ~ •pr •senlllllun. onl y lu"tc• l <lt!rmg tfle con· stttutiom1l pcriorl. In 186;{ ~OD I C •lt'J!IIIC. wen• uppo1nte<l hy.thr (ro,·crn!nent to represent the i~luntl~ in th e . {'uni~h 'ort ~ . Fro m 187:3 to 18ifll2 <l ep~tllca wo~e elected by limitetl "nffm~e • •in11lnr tn the prl'l'ent one, und ~ "enato~. hom H.!t6 j.o' 1897 su{frugo \vn. limitctl to tnxpnye r~ of '10, or by Cllnr·ntionnt qn>tlilimtions 01 station. •

· Men of ·crtuin r cognil'.ed sjl'inl . tntu -yro~ '"Si?!'lll m ~ n, m ~ n holding po:sitions, und th .~ of atknowl dget ~('I nttfit ntttunment . etc. - wet· ullow tl the. uffmge r tty fully. Mr. DEPEW. It wa quasi edu ·ational! ~ 1 Major 1Utt: . Ye. , ·ir ; and o ten wrn t hc,,·ond. thut, hecuus ~he eduoatiorml te:<t wu..o; not imposcki on' mu· ·ow limit.;; but the sup rtor standing of mnny wns r togniz d nsitle from tl1 ~ t·dinnry reg uir · ment.':! of edutution. In 1 !I selif- ronrnmcnt wns gl\·en to th 1. lahd with a legislntu1·e of two housW- n lower hou,;r, w~th 30 d pt!ties, elected by full . uffmgc , and un u , pe r hon:so, of 7 t·ounclllors, .nupom~ed · by th governor. The goYecnn nt wns fQrm d of It p1·estdent wrth four se ·r ta.rie. . Tw (y deputf~s wer elected . also lJy full suffrage to the 'punish Congr . s. Abou the tinnn ·in I mutt r- Thc CnAIRatAN. B efor yon nke up thnt matter , 'did they hn,·o qualified. uffrqg from 1 76 tQ 1 07! ,Major AllES. Y e., ir.


.

200

OOVJo~H MEN'!' FOR THJo

I ··

Tht> . 'IIAlltMMil. Aud hy tbnt q·ualitied sutfr1 g~> they elect'i-d their to U1 .Hpnni11b rte:.~~ .M ajor Al'~t: . Yr·.~ ~< ir ' . Tbr ' 11 HI :\IAN. 1\,. h·r dr pulirs to thr lowrr hou,;r nnd fou1· to thl' 1 :;t'llllh•! ~< ir. • Mnjor AMF.s. Ttw (.,'itA I R~IA • no ,\ ' 011 know whelh !' thnt IIIII 1111'1' of tbt>osing them wns snh:<fnd~>n· l ' )Jujor AME : The 1 ' iU l'IN·ti<\nnnd the ln,;t 1•l (·tiOt·, just be fore the wnr lln' .~<~~irl hy l'\'l'r,rhod,y to hnro ber n snti:<fnl'tory- the he. t nnd mo t snt1sfndor.'· tht' ." wr hnd pnrlil'ulnrly tile on in 1 1)7, when fhlJ _,.UffnJ~C Wll>l <'XI'l'<'iRl'd. l .\h-. DEI't:w. l 'nn ,·ou tt•llus, in PI'OJ)() I'ti ori t the totnl nmulJC I' of )JI'r ons of fullnJtl', h w mum· ,·otcd I .\luj01· · A~n; . . 1\o. 'sir: it niri1•rl eonsidt••·nhh· 1 t thrLt time und from ~' t'lll' to ~' ('81'. Thl'l' WllS quill'.!\ liltlt• \'lll'inn(·c. owing to tlw pmctier o! pt.'Oplc p111<s.i ng. f.rom ·the ishUJd. o f thl' t>duc·1 ted l'ln:;:<, tho,;c e pe· cutll.r wb wert' gn·rn honol'>': hut for thr I iH" O<'ti n 1 t:>rhnJls ' iior LuTinngn l'llll\ll' ll you tht• tigul'l':<. Th P I'Pturn. Ill' 1iut in of th )a;st ('o ll'ction. .\lr .. Dt: Pt:w. AJ JH'u~imntt•l.'· thrrc ought to hl soniP ~on.ooo n>ter. ? )IJI)Qr A ~l. t: i-1. 1t'. 1 s1r. . )!r. DEI't:w.' Do you knqw how lliiiii,Y \'Otrd 'n th1• lurgP"t \·ut.ing p<> rwd I . )Jnjor A~n; . . l de not: p rhnp:< 'eiior Luniru •m e·ru1 tdl \'OU . .)h. )... AJ!IIINAC;A. I l'UJI not ~i\·p the t•xnet muul '?rs, hut [ k·11ow who11 i< uffmge Wlll'l R('l' rdrc( the \'Oll'l\~ un1otmtl'd to .000 or 90 OUO and it wa. consid<•l·ed 110t tho total at11ount of \'Utf' l's wh wen• nllo,~·ed to vote. :Mr. l<'AlRHANKS. I 11 ' hat rend · · Tbe HAII~tAN. I thi11'k dint wn~ iu FelH'IIIU'\'. )Jr. L RJUNAOA. Y ~ . sir. · ' The ' HAJitMAN. You ha,·c h 'I' ll th er some time What do .'·ou think of tb<> ir d{':<j1·r to yofc ~ :Mnjor AME~<. I 11 .,·er hun• hrard hut Oil<' Pxp c""i un, xer'pt on tbe pll~t of !'lome of t11r. 'pnniltrds or fOJ:Pi g n rr,.;idl'n "'· l think 1t :snfe to SB)' tbnt tiO JX'I' ernt. of thr PuPI'to ~{ll'n, n~ propl'l' rc> anxiou uot only for gt:>neml •.hut pmrtl('nll,,· unqtinl~fird. suthngt>. lll'RU ·e they have bad rt aud r ·en ·t ro 1t n11d d Ill' Wf' ll w1th rt, :llld thf' · mn sc yo r ason by. (' uin~ us tb<•y do UIHif'r our (To,·rrllllll'llt, lwy should hrwe le · tbnn u11d ·r tb t> le:<s lil)('ml Go,·cr)llll!' llt of ~ pni 1. · They de ·ire . two . ~:<ii!IY th '." I' ill ue~:ept without ·gre ~~ disnppoi11tm nt !\ hou. " : . pnrtl~· !lP[>OIIILI\· up])\' 1' h o u~<l', If they must, liut 1t dues not s m to them ~1ght: ~nd th ." frl'l- und I thil.1k with :<omc right- that· they ar not l)('111g gi\'NI ' h1tt th ry tm n.rlght to l'Xpcc fr·om us :spedaUy nf~er thf' rh·dgps gi\' {' 11 IJy GPn t'lll ..\lil .~ 's pr ·I mntiou. , They certamL~· ,fPc .tha~ th<>.' : ,.;h.ould 110t be gn·en .1 .· th~r \vhnt. W (\ hfl\'e gi\•en otbt:r frn.1tor·1 r,... (Jili'LI~tlla~ly tbo;;e. hunng ser!11l '.·hnt'IC' people, 11ueb a the Zum .. and. oth('l'" Ill .. w )'J.exi.<'O and .Anzo m, or le:s thnn they ha\· ~~re~d.~· .f'nJ?."Od 1'\·en from pill II. Jt I I.! ~,;k 11g IL JX'OpJ . with 40() yean! of <·n·I!I~~IOII l!ftck .of them to go tQeond1tio · ht•low thos freely .granted th Zunr Imhan ond lower ond mo1· bn boric inhnbitnnts of the uthwe t Tcrritok'i . ~Jr. Pt:R.KJJti . Do ,·o.u think th I' hould be pr or edu('nti~nnl qualification I · · ~prr.t•utnth·r.

y,.,..,

lf!J,AND m

1

l'UJo:HTO Rl 0.

2ol

MnjorA.J,n:s. I thi11k hud.1. 1t wa fldmii'ILhly oxpl'l'l:!sCd h.\· • iiot· Amnd o whr11 hi' l'!ltirl thl'l·e Wl' l' pl 11t~· M 111011 with good common · 1:! n. c but without mueh edu('lltiou, and it i,; in,poH::~ihle t hnt lh('~' .~ hould have tho rduet~tio1111l qtmlitil·ntioll~ n. with \Is; but tb r lll'l' plenty of men like · iiur Anl!ldco, who ifl h hnd 110 edul'fltioll, would l1e a snfe legi'slfltOI'. J b1n·e :;nt i11 the ~Ifl:<:;ncJm,.;clt:< legi. latui'P with ju~t ~>mch ttlCII , who l'Ould do, and did do, mo""t rxtdl<>llt work, wh 11 probnhly the.r did not know the ~· rule o· thi'(' P,' and some•ti11u•s l'Otdd hnrdly \vrite ol· figun• at nll. · . .. . . , :Mr. PJo:nKI ' A. 'Vllllt t>dutntlolal qnublklltlon would von . uggr . tl ~lujur AM~:~. l h lil'\'C myse•lf here ought to~~~ and l k11ow thnt wnr; th VICW of the Jut o~ne ml HP li'Y- 11 suffr:wr ~0\' l' l'lll'd only hy th minimum of educntionul qunlitie·ution, if youni'P g-oirw to put.onn quulificntioll ut ull. 'It ~<hould he tl111 t the,· :<hull hP nhlP t1 read nml write in English ot· Sp1.uli,.;h, hut 11ot w~ t~ .too' .mueh e·~udion u. to h'!w well, or b:n: ' ult(•rniltJ ve property qt \nhtil·ntwn, wh¥-h I sn w put 111 f<?rco for' the 1il'st time in my li~ hy 0('111'1'111 Duns in the ln:<t c>leet10n when t:hc.r mnde• an 1tlti•rnntive' propl'l'f,\' qunlitimtion to Pdlll'lltidllni requirementl'l, l111t !t work •d \'l'l', · well , npJ ur~ntl,r. . ., 'Mr. PERKIN~. "hut should h thl' ntltH 1 ol th1• )JI'OIJPI'~ qualllwntion ~ . Major Am:;.~. I do not kuow \\hnt i:s n·just thi••l;;, I t,hink. tl mght to be ""'' •rtn.i11<•d, hut :;hould nut lll' hurdl'.n:omP . I h · • pm11. h tho Tht the flll\'lll l'llt of u )!<.to. t nx wn:; nt lllll' nt onl' tinu•;"l111t' thnt wu:; i11 t~ curly timr , u]l(l iu the lnh•!' ti1111' tIP~· llllt<)<l it $1. e·oHiilll;{ clown to.lth bn:;is:vf the Mn,.:,.m·hu,..;elt>< luw,' hl'rP thr !!\1 poll tux u.dllu.ts_to tlw 1''eh of sutl'n'f!'~'· I ~el' no l'l'n.soll w ." wr ~he,ulcl mukc> Jt cllflrn•,nt f1:,0111 the to nd1tio11" of other TPITitoril'"· <·~~et·i•!ll.\ 1 '."" tile·"~ \)~·opl." e·~ !liiO i'r0111 the l"llllll' :;to(·k "" thc>,"iou·th \\j(•:<t('l'll l't>ITitoriPS unci lnh fomm<ll!:ithe f:ipn11isb :stock. . . Mr. FAIHII,\NKS. If \\'P :<hunld crin• tlwm 11 ~< lnj!h• lwu:;P. <'OIIIJ1dl'lcd of memhl' l'" 11pp(.iintPcl by so11u• ~~~~hot;ity, unci WI' "~~nlld. ~c;;ignntc ll 11\rge mrn,.urc of .·utl'nwP to he "1\·t• n to the> lllllnll''llflltll'S. do .r m think thnt would suti,.;fy tlw pr ·~t•ut wi ,. ; he" of th" pt•opl.l• of Put to Uico, .nnd ullow thl' iusulur ,.,ntfr tg'l' to ,hN·oml' g mrlunll.'· llll'I'I'Usc>d u:; C>XJX'I'ICIIt'e l'llll \' de<• Ill h1•st ~ , · Mnjor AME~. · J do not think :<0. hP('IIII :S they lnt\'t' lind th.e. ,..utfm •e · nud l'xrrri:ed it. nnd hehn,·cd n•ll. und IN·ted nhuo,..;t mllfOI'IIIlj· liS goo? repr :scnht~in? nwn n:; we ' 'ould .wi,..h: .\m.d •.w t only tha~! thc>re is a dtsnd,·nlltugl' 111 the :bt r-ehn11 hrr. JlllPI'I'HthstH· 11! rtl~od o~ the old po.nish regime.• You mi gh~ p er utp:< hnn: n ft·w uppo1nt 1n. othc~r~, 11ot many, b11t w willmnkc n 11~1 . tnJ.i to l'Ontmm· tlmt "·' ·"t<'lllllldPiillltely . The c·urse of the i,.;ln11d hn~ he 11 n)togetber ~011 !llllt'h .b~ll'l'ltuc r~ ·y. \Vhcn w took it from f:ipuin th y hnd live or s1x l11gh ofhemls- n httle islaud with about the nren of 'o mN·ti ·ut--nnd u11der Gene!'lll Brooke we continurd thi:< n. 1111 nutQl'l'li<'L for thnt i~ \Vhnt it nmouuted to; nud th n cnm Gruerul Henrv':< ad'mini:<tl·ntioll. 1111d th littl<' nutoel'll<'.V ?{ ecretJu~it's, ('t~., which l'e\·oJy e~ lll'OUIId tb t> p!llrll'l', l'OIItillUed, 1111d· rt• has continued 1n Grneml D1H''is:; day, nnd they hn,·r hnd. too much of tbtlt. As Olh· r W r11dcll .H lmrR ;;ny:<, "If we urr gomg to got the1·e we mu t mnke tt :;ttu;t. ' ' How ure we to educate th <> m hcher than IJ\' putting the re pon.;i uili ,. upon thrm. Mr. 'I<~AIHBAN!< . " 7 hy appoin t' nn.r member,;~ . Mnjo1· A~JF... I iun opposed to it dt:>l'idedl.r ; 1t npprurs to mr objet'-


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tion11~1l~· impt'rinli:;tk .. 1~he onl,\··objt•d i.n nplloi tting rl ft•w is~ T :mgII' ormntiw pt•riod- Jn onler .to g•~·,. tht:m tlw ,n&~ i htm·e nnd di ,.,, ·tion f \WII-tmi nod Amrri- · t'fln· n~Jn<i 111 lnym~ down tl~t· lint'~< nt lir>:<t and ~<t 1·ting- thr mndtinrry. T~Ht J. . tht• >:<olt• ."dvnnht~l' I )1111 nwnJ·c-of, IIJtd h11t t•nn Ill' d i :~p!'nsed w1Ut w1th.o ut "l'l'lllllil dt•trnnt•nt. • Tbto" rh 11!.\1.\S. Yon would ft•l'l Jll' l'fl't'th· l<Hf~ to intrn"t tht•m with full !l~ttfl'll~l'! . · . " · ~I'.'Jur .-bit;~<.. \b:::olntrly: although l wu~< fol'l h'l'ly of till' eontrllt'y opmton. · · .Mr. J.' . IIUIAXK!I. llow lon~ hll\'1' \'1111 IX't' ll in t 1' i"lllllll l . 1\latjt.U' Ail~t:l'l. Sixh•t•n Jnonth,.. · . · M~. )[('(\l)J· s. linn• .n~u. any upprt•ht•nsion that n pmdil'lll ~<n•tcn1, 11pph1'1l n_'xt ~- 1'111' b.'· ·l'lt•l'hng- two b u"''"· with n rt•stmint us to' inl'lll'· r•og dt•!Jt, t•ll• .. might l~'nd to tlw uuthori?.ntior of g'l't•nt t!Pht:< nnd opprl,'.. ""'" of thl' /"'OIII't·ty and indu,.tri(•,. of thl' i><l11nd 1 · ~JIIjlll' AM~::<. I 111\' 1' 1iot. for thi:< l'l'ason : In till' lit·,.t plnt·r. they know. Hntl wtll kn'!"'· of 1'11111'"1'. thnt th1•y 1'1111 n 1t P""" any 11\'t without t~t· ••PPI't~nd of tlw )ttl\:e•·rull', nnd thnt in nr hw to ""''lll't' it:< pu ·• tf !•~· f:ul_,. to ~tppt'0\' 1' •t. th1•y mu:<t P""" ito ·p•· hi:< n-to. :fnd that HI nl't. will l~t• "llhjl'd ·to thl' nppro vnl nf till' l'o WI'!'"'-" of thl' l ' nit •d ' t~lt . '. wh1•rt• h.v \ ' 1111 hnH two' ,.nfl•gtt.nl·tl,.: nnd. "·~omlh·. tht•\· nn• not gomg to wrt•t•k tlll'ir own :<hip OJ' >:<aw off tlu• lim( of th;• tJ't'l' whieh thry ><it. tl" th~·y ·~,·11ul~ do if lhl'y t'all lwmllnn~t in oth•ht IIJ't·ort·uptiou. 1\lr. lh;l't:w. ~llttl'· IHth" of tltt'"'" n>h'J':-< would l>1• without Jll'llpt•rtv Or' ~ltll~ ll IIIII! ~ 'I

_gc t ·~ yo~• mn~<t d.o 1t. It' :~bo14ld t'!mte in t

""F''·

on

~lnjt>r .\m:"'. y,.,., . il·. :\It·. lh:l't:w . Ex~·N• lilwlv i.ruoJ1tllt . l~t'\':ltt"l' th ,. h:tn• uot hnd the · opp~n-~t~uiti~·~ 'to h•ar11 . ·:'flit• t_t•t<timor~,. i:< tuti~·,•r. it that they .han- tho all•ht.' 1f It" ~· 11 the UI.Ji>ortttllttl'. "hut . a" 111" m~· < out· South ' I'll Stnh•:; i11 t~l.l' _l'l't'tl ll ::<tJ'ttl'tioll 1 .;.iod. i>:< to pre\·en johhrr:-< a11rl "l't'ettllltor. of ubll•t.' ·· h,v prOt'<'"-""" wt•ll know n. frum t·ollariaw that wnom.nt. vutt•. nnd on•rwhi.•lm tJte i<'lniHI with taxa ion · a11d pt•nl'fically ~·onti~1tt 1' th~· prope rty .! . . [• ' · · )I!•Jor .bi_F::- ~ h~n· '" 11 ntlllllllllltt of dnug-t•r I" that. It hu., nut Wl'l'l'kl•d tt~< tu tl11" l'll!mt'ry. nlthottg'h it· ha::: dunua:p·rl u" "01111'. but you bnw to !1:1.': :;o!u • prll.'l' to rd ul'lth' J~'ople to tht• AmPrim11 :;la11dnrd, an~ thut pr11· 1. thl' l'l<'k you run wlu l' .' ·uu arr e, ttt·a tillg thl'm . Uut th 'IX' _pit• nn• !lot.nuuu\g-Pd l!kP that: thry nr·e 1 nt ch·i,·l·nlikl' ,.heep~ the_,. do :<Onll' tlmtkmg- 011 tlll' ll' own nt't'tlunt· they nre g-oi1w to ·nspeyt- and. fh".': nre_ naturnlly "Oilll? w~nt ':<u,.:pitiot :<- too: nnd if amy-'· -tbtnJ! ~t thnt ku!d ';'! rl'ttempted. whid1 will atr 'l' the it· pol'k~t>~, I (l 0 !-'?t thuyk you w•fl. ti1~d th_P :1\·en.•l!e Purrto Rienn ery :<low in pet·1·ci\·mg .whJt•h way. the Wlltd 1· hlow11w. unci the l'har ,. • will be I :;s nft r ten o_r t~,·l'ln• _,·t•ar:< f edut•u tiou . '\r e <' I 11 not do t g-reat dt•al for thi · gc!'l't'lltron. All_thnt WI' ::<hall 01' a hi to do i11 thi wa_,. i" through the t•hlldren a~d Objt•t·t lt•,.:;o""·. I wa.... s:\nibu·y in" >el'tor. uutl I four\Cl that thrt· w11 ~ uot nttt1·h h,ope of doin~ au,·thin·, , in th • in,.ide of ·the homr:<. X1'ept whnt of th m ><t priman_. t·har~t tcr drifted through the 1·hildl'(•ll t · the h()me:;:, . · · T~r pre. ' nt genemti n i" not "Oing- to O'et 111ueb I netlt out of this and tf ,·ou tnkc tit llll'an of tiftrrn \'eat'" fot· t•clul'lttion, why ,·oulllu t wuit liftl•t•n ,. 'ill'" hd!)t' • ,\'011 do ui1~'thing for them: I fot:e 'you feel f to do "1tnt hn>~ be 'II done IX'lore f r them b~- 'pni • 1111d wa" dono

1

without dn1111;Ct' or hlu·m. Tl.w,r lle~<in• to pron. whnt till',\' t'llll do, n.nd they nrl' nnxwu..: to l10 Allll'l'll'ltl'o". . Ii1 U11• lllllttPr of tlwil· timmt·t•, till' i~<lnnd h11~ a~lw:t_r>~ 111'1'11 s •ll'·>~llp• pot·ting-. The \'l'ttrl,r htulg' t wn:< four n\illion:<. IIIOI'l' ol' h•s::< . Tho .ll'l'll.ty, nnv_r, rtntl l'lerg-,\· in th1• i l11nd Wll~< p11id out uf thi~<. All pension of ' l")llllish offi1'N's n11d l'lllplo,\'1'1,. Wl'l'l' pttid hy till' ~<IIIII lot·nl hudgl't. '(he J;.&laincl h'ell~m·.r oftl'n ,lo~11rd llllllll',\' to tho Ct•uw11 trrll~<lll'\' , ll><l for .in~hllll'l', ftll' tho· Will' in 1Vt'll'll in Hili:!, for tho Will' i11 ~tuitu ho11ungo in 1 til. for thP wn.r in ('ulm in 18till. Th!' ln!lt, >~tllll~< uf thi:-< mom•y w!'re pnid hrll'k , onl~· at ft•w ,\'1'111'. ng-o, wl11'11 II.'!' >~ugat· plnnhtt.ioll~< \~l'l'O ruined by tht• low pl'it'l'" of "" •au· whl'n the h·t•ll.ty with tht• l!n1ted Stntp~; Wll>~ t•nd('d. ,, 'I 'r'

STAT!MEBT OF

,JANL'AIIY l!:l, Ult •

~R.· .TO~B D. H. LUCE. ~

Thl' l'IIAII!MAN. l'h•n:<t' gh·l' ""your llllllll' in 'full. :\Jr. LLTt:. ,John ll. II. Lut'l'. Till' l'IIAIIDIAN. " ' hl'l'l' th• \'0\1 ..,... id!'/ ;\It·. Lt· t·~-:. In San ,J 111111. l'iJOtlto l{il•o.Tht• l'II AIIDIAS. lit~ ,. lotw h11v n vou l'l'~<idl•d tlwrl' I i\lr. Lt•n :.- Ei~thlt•t•n llllll;!h,.. · Tl ~· l 'll ,\ltDIAX. " ' hat i" your lll'l'lljllllion! i\11·. LtTE. · I um 11. lm11'k!'1:. I Tht• l'IIAIIDIAN. Of wlmt t·ountl'\' urn \'111111 111ttin•l ~I r. LtT~:. Of tht• l ' n·itt•d ~tatt··~. · ' Tht• l.'II AIIDIAN. In wh11t 1111rt >f tin• l'nhl•d •1tntl'" Wl'l't' ,rou lx>rn·! i\lr. Lvn :. I m1" hol'll in \\'11shin~ton, D. C. Till' CIIAtH~IA-N. Did ,·ou lh·e ht•n• until vou ,trnt to l'uerto Hit· d M1·. LtTJ-:. i'-11!, ,.iJ·; I hnn' lin•d ift i\la:<~au: hur-ct.t" f01rnhout tw1• rty veur.... ,. · Tht• l'IIAIIDIA!'i. \\'hut i" nrur hu;.in<'" · in PnHto Ril'o ~ ~~ r. Lt:n:.- Thut of u hnrik r r. · . Tbc ·Cn.\IJUIA·N. \\'hut house do you t'l'l~''""" nt l ' ~II·. Ln·.,;. The bunking ho.n - l of De Ford &.Co, Tlw CIIAttOTAN. I>~ it :tn irworpqmtt•d IH' n pt·imtn hunk in~ in,.titnti 111 J ::\h. L un:. It is rl r,rini.tc in:-\t1'tntion. · ' The CIIAIIDJA, . \\ben wn. th t hou..:e Pstuhli:<lwd in Sun,Junn! Mr. L 'C E. Tt w11s c"btbli,.ttCtl n Puel'to l{it·o the .L'llt of ·t:),•ptl'mhcr, ·1 ' !) , und in ' ttn Jnnn th • 18th of Q~·tohPr , thn d1ly tht' tl11g- WIIS mi. •d. The CJ~AJUM'AN. I your fil'ln tfo Gov 't•mnl'nt ti:;enlngcnt'l Mr. Lt:cE. "Y es, sir. 1 · • 1 Th C nAtH~IAN. In what mpnj·ity do you uppeur hdore this l'9111· mittce ! · Mr. Lt:cE. As a nwml.)er of eomm ,rci11.l l conutti>'sion from the' i lnnd of Puerto Rico. . Tho CHAJR~rA:N. · As one qf th~ si.x delegates ,who }uwe hccn tttlcntioned I · . 1\Ir. L ·c.,;. YE':s sir. ' · The CHAIR~IA '. You htwh he rei th, . tntement of 1\'ll-. FinlnY._; do you agree with hi. smu:me* j~ indot• e whitt he r;aid throughout 1 1

th

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204

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OOVE~NM~:NT · l!'OR 11f.l ; l fl J.AND

M ,., L n:. l' ""'· :;it·. . Thl.' (,.'uAJJUIAN. lltm.S yoit anlthing adt!itionu to ~·onllnHnicute 'to Jlw ''ommittt'l.' in l'<'b'lllxi. to intlu:;tJ·ial t•ondition,.., r wlmt is dcsit·ed hy Ptwrto IHt•tm:; 11~ to t'()lllutcr~· inl rrlu.tion>~ with th l nitt'd Stnh•:; ~ 1\1 r. L •n :. I clo not know t~nt I lul\·c .nnytbin :ilpet'inl. li'rom our own t•.' pt•l'i,•nt•t Wl' lui\· lK•t•n for the ht:;t n•nr tl:;tnhli;.hi!tg'n su<nu . fnt'lor.~· .. ilt whjt·~• Wl' hu v~ put 1t l~t of lllOIH'.':O '•uu.l vt• feel ':cry :;trongly thut Wtlh .\IIIN'II'IIIl (,tptln( t'O I\ IIIJg" to t(w 1"'11111d tho C'lltlt'l' tone 1md · th 1 Jll'o: pt•rih· of tlw i;.lnntl wbnld lK• rer,\· mneh im l't'll"'''cl. Thl' di>~t•·iut in whit·h we hti\'C ""tahli,.ht>tl out· fndot·y hn>' hN mit• pt'W<perons - 'l'lll' t'Ht\lll"tA'N. Wht't'C i .~ \ ' tllll' faetm·r e:;l!Rhli:<h •d- in whn.t di:strit'tl . .AJr. Lt·~:· •:. In tht> nuuynt.nn-Stilinn"' di:;tri~·t. .. . . The CH~!IIM,IIN ..... thl'.l'llsh• t'n purt of u.·, i><laml '/ l\Jr. Lt-r•: .. In tht• :;tlullwn part. 'J:lw Cu IRMA ', linn•. .ron 11 S\1)!111' pluntulionl 1\fr. Lt"n:. y,.,.., :;ir; ''onnt•dt•d " ·ith it. Tilt' t'u .u H~t ,\N . How ltirgt• is it I Mr. L un:. AlKJut ~.iiOil IU'l'l'.•. 'l'lw ' lh\IRMAN. Do \'till know wh:tt is tin that plaittntio1•! . · J\lr. l.trn:. A \'l'l'.\' littl~· of that lund hn:; hPt•n llatt>h· in t•nnt•, nnrl on tbnt J ·th'ink tiw ;rh•lcl ·hn>< ht•nn t< li~orhtl v m· ,. ~ tor~· tti tlw nt'l'l'. '.l'h,, t'IIAIIIMAN. Do you know anything- uhouJ, w n•:;ult of fPrtilb:• ing tb o:<t' lund><. o'1: ~!WI' .nm oqwrimented in thu wny! .Mr. Len:. No, "'"'· 1 'fht•(~tAIJUIAN. You "'\'ll nt ' fn•P tndl' with thr l ' rrit<•d Stntl•s fot' su~nrl · I . · • J lr. LtTF;. Wt' do: ."<'~. :;i1·. . · Tb(' 'IIAJIDI AN. Cnrr rint h' ll " "' nn,·thing nhou thl' kind of "0\'N n·mrnt tbt•,,· "'"'!t,-th~ Ptil·r~o l"tit'lln::! ·,!.\\'hut kinct fhl'y ,pug ht hun '! 1\lr. Ll'n:. lbnt '"' out>'ldc our pronnt'l' nt nil. 1 ThP,CJtAI.IINAN. You do -not ('fll'e to ~<pt'nk upo n 1 ~hnt! ~lr. Ll'n~: No, "'ir. In .thc_mnttt•r of tb t' wngl' pnid in thr i:slnnds. ·"!'J. ('"pt:l'iu ll_,. tho:;r pnid to ,;tt•,·c~orr'$ nnd nt tij~ xnrious port ·, thr · ln!t(.d ~tnh'"' qunrtt'l·nrn~t~r ~ tnhlts~t·<~ u r:~t(' oi Wll<TC,' to he pnid, wh1d1 wa.~ tlw ><H url.' 11,. pntd In tb t 111trd tut('., n.nd' pnid them the me nmonnt in. )!old t1urt thl.' Army HPgulntio ns 1 rl'f<t'l'ihed fot· ln.hor . Jllltl thut 'hns al'l110l'llliz d luhor \nl)!l'>' ut the pOl' "\of Pont'e nnd Ill' Junn. · I

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J>\INl'ARY :22. 1900.

STA~BD.NT

OF KR: CHARLES ARM frRONG.

'The 11 IR~IAN. 'Vhnt i" \'OUI' full lllllll(' ? 1\lr. A R)ISTliONG. hnrles' .;\.rmo<tron<T. The CH N. You resid in Puerto Rico! :;\Jr·.. ARMiiTRQNO. t C!'l, ·,.i,·. The CHAIRMAN .. A n tltuln ? · 1\fr. A1ur i:-a NG. At .Ponce. I The CHURMAN. How long hare you re id d thett;'! · Mr. AlUI TR NG. All mv life: fifty-two vears. ' )'be CH IRliAN. Wrre.-'=ou born i'n Puerto Rieo. l,

uu

..

l'~ ~ir;

I'Ulll'l~tl'd,

l'I.IF.RTO FtiOO.

·2'05

Mr. A liM TIIONO. y l.Jd in u.· United 8tntl',... I . CHAJJt~IAN. An•, ) 011 a "''~>jl'l't of i::)pnin ~ . .. 1 . Mr. Anlll81'1t0NU. ·No, sit·; r VII,. horn ·ltn l~ ng-ltshman , nnd I '" . oept Uui.t right 11p to now. . Tht• 'IIAIIIMAN. · Yo11 HI ill l't' •arcl )'011l'>'l'if :t:; 1111 ~~ngli:hmnn. Mr. Auiii>~TilONu. Yt·~, ,.i,·. · Tlw ''IIAIU~l •\N . Yo11 .hn.v1' co1tc lwr' hy nppointml'nt of tlu• Ch:~m­ 'l' of Conum•n't' of Pawrto li ·o 'I Mr. AJtiiiSTilONil. y t':S, :;il·. . . Thtl CIIAIIIMAN ... Do y011:wt'<'< with Mr. Fiullty',. ;~tntl•,uwnt I Mr. AuM:sTitONo. Yt>,., ~il·'; h1 t in ont' point I wi:;h to mn.kr n :;b~~ll ­ ment. lit' lm:s hdnn ;;p('nki-ng ! f ,.;ngn•· rtnd the 11111011nt ht• pn,rs for lahor- . , · Tht' CIIAIUMAN. \\' hat i" ro'u ot·t·11pu.tion '? \ Mi·. AnM,..TH~)N<l. I :im uir 1'>-]PPI't 111itl import 111\'l't•lrnnt. \\'e 1'''0 ' ' nrt\'ing to-dt~.r :i\2 goltlat q:ty for long-,.hol'll lrthOI'\"1'" n.ntl tlro~n who wtrrk 011. honrtl ~hiplig-ht~·ring-. Tht> Oml(•l'nmPnt hn,.. t'OI)Il' tn tlrl' ,.;r.aports with tlrl'ir n'"""'"'• tlwir tmn><po ·t·•1'11111l in the di,..l'full·gc of thr l'Hrg >I'H of thl'..;~· tl'llnsportl< tht•,v ha\'1' hi 't'clmen f,o d1) Uu: work rtml paid t,hi•m very high wagt•s nnd tht• IIH11\•hn tt"~ hawl' het•n ohhgl'cl to pary tlw :illll~ • .131'siclt•,., \n' hnvo uln•ady tho 'ln v t.lmt WI' 1'1111 not 11!:!1' n.uy hut A.m. •:•cnn hottoms in our l'Xl>oa'l,-1, an I th:tt hu:; l'atl~l'<ln Vl'l',V g•y~~~ m 5t,11r fr(•igh.t~, nnd atl,.;o t 1e ~lny's n.hm· hn:;. bi•ru l't'd}lt'e~l to ~·•ght holl-~ s. . Con"l'lfliPntly thl' prit·c of laho: ~m th11 p:;tatf'!:l w:llnl,;o •:'"'', nntl ~~~ :i\.1.60 Ol' ~L.$0 dnt,y on !'I Hgnr·, 'h~t·h would Ill'· takl-n otf, IK not ;:-o111 to l11 11 honnty .t o t.h~· phurtC'l'H, ]nat assu!:f•dl,v tht• gTctttl'l' pn~·~ wa~ll _f5o tb tlw lahm·t•r,., 1111<1 :t wall not J.!l' 11 proh,t•to tlw plnntt_'l'i<, I heJ ~ :ll. bl' "t'ttin.r t.hnt bounty and pn_, tng 1t to th ~ l:tho:·cr·,; m tlw .-lmpc1 of 1 hh•ht'l' Wllg'l'"'· 'iJ'ho CIIAIH~l :\N. 'L~hn luhol'l.' r ~~~· ill dt'm111~d ".'' 1 dnuttl' in h.is .wn.,l'"• nnd the rrchu·t1an of thn dnt,\' '' 1ll go to.,l "!" 111 that ft~ 1·m! Mr. AnM"THONt). YP><; >lit-. am <hurldang how<l'S t~l'l'l', nnd !he HillSOn,. and cu.rpt>nll' r"' h t\\' • l'lli>:il'd their wngP><. • Th" CHAiliMA N. Thn ntn><on.s atnd t·nrpPnters l Mr. AnMi<TnON«) . Yl':<. ;.ir. · 1· 1 .1 Tho CHAili~IA• . Whnt kind fl!t\:1.' they in ~ nPrto Hieo; of a g<ocl ·• lnssnltd quality I .. ~[I·. AHMSTHONG. y' N< . .·i'r. . . Tht' HAIIIM ,t'N .. T nsk ~hf' q~'. ,:;tion hP,rnu~<c; I lmn·. lr i'Hrd j or I'Pjtd, thnt tlw masons 111 Pu rl:o H1 o nr l'X<·epbonnll.r hnP, hott(' t' CJ'CII nitM Statps. · ; 1 tpnn i11 the Mr. t\rm:sTH01'G. ThPy a ·c g od HH}i'Ons; t hey mak 'H ll ou r hou. O!<. Xwnnt to >~It\' nlso. that the- fact th:tt wt• lmn~ to ,wnd all our cx:p rts in Amcrirnr1 bottm1a. hn. inCli«'l sed our 'ft·ni!:lht mtP:s; in fad, we ~1111 not get ft·eights. t.t t nil; they _ht vo not :suffic1 '!'t vcsRcls to t:~rry tJ1o goods 1 ns there 11:1 only one 1111 of vrs. ols gomg thf're_, "'!d that ha c. tauh:;hcd a high mte. · Thn.t , of cotJrsc, mcrtn. the bogmnmg of free. trade, but only the beginning. 1 . Tho CH.AIR¥AN . . Did you evo. pay s uch wrtglfj before the Amcr1 ·ru1 occupation as now ~ . .. Mr. AnliSTRONG. o, tr. · The crr~mMAN. How much higher a. e they1 Mr. ARMSTR(iNo. Double. The CHAIRMAN. Tho.~ is at P_nce 1 1 The

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OOVER101.ENT Jo'OR . THE I LAND t ll•' J>

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f:r. ARMSTRO o . In all th islnnd; not on th e p Antation ~, hut wher ev('r it i nN.' e Si\1'\' to. lol\d and u ~tload ve se). . 'The ~ IR~r .'At th har.bor" 1n1d seaports? Mr. ARM TRONO. Ye sir. . meri • Mr. DEl'EW. Are ~·ou for ed to tmn p rt yom products in A ('ftn bottom ? Mr. AJ.tMSTllONO. Y es ir. :Mr. DEl'EW. · By nrmy. orders ~. . Mr. A'RMSTRONO. Bv Executin~ ord t:."· Thnt v~ ~u ponded, but · , inc January i it hRS'oo n restored . Mr. PE:f.l'IORJ:w . If wages nre doubled th y mu. he in 1\ prosperou <'<?nditionl : . . Mr. ARM!lTRONO. Ther ' i no ht.bor f orth m in tb (' interior. Mr. PEti"ioln:w. Y on ~;poke of it in connecti n with tb co. t of l'lllg&r. ' 1\fr. PERKIN!'!. Your bi t' mont only bad r f01·en ·c to tevedores? 1\fr. A:Rlll TR NO. Yes sir ; nud lig btering nt tb . wharves. . The H IRM N. Plea:~ g iv, u your opinion u·· o nllowjng tbt: p eopl to vote -nod elect thetr officers ttnd r epro entat \'eti. ~b·. A~ TR.O 1. belong to the comfui · ion f th e clmmb'cr o.f commerc , nnd w are not se nt here with r fer en ·o to th e nll\tte r of · go'fernnt ' nt; t iutt is in ·tbe lin Of politic . · Th · H IRMA ·. Y ou do no't wnnt·to mnk • lt.n\· ut ment n:s to that ? · • Mr. Aaru, TR ~o: No, s ir. The H IRMAN. Cnn not y ou g h• u,.: y out· per o ml opinion us to .i t? Mr. ARM. TRONO. I n"'rt>e wi tli' l!lttn: of th poi ts ,Mtt.jor A me ha: tated, but tf th e peop1 ar 'to b ull owed to g o ern th emsolve · if' ~ y ar. to on:~n ab olu~ely-th~y hav.e ~nd no portnnit~· to pmc-· tice durmg patH>lh control nnd tf th ey <lid pmc 1 'e nnythtng it wn mid r th ~ pnni h !'l t\· le; which ~vas not th b t in tb' world and cQnseq uently, th e.v : o hould he mixr'd in th e fonn o ft government· but wi t h i~OIIIt>On ~ to tut or th em, to direct th c> m in th wa\· th~tt hns 'been done in' the U nited 8 tnte;:, n o~ left . cntireh · to t c ir' own way they 11·i I J'then do \ ' CI'\' well. · • ' · ~ The . ~HAiltliiAN. w~~~~ d'?l y ou .kn ow in r egnrd Ioumu~<thn,·e bee n hnng' 111 th e 1slnnd whe n th e.' w rc voting. Mr. ARi\hTROl" . I ncv(•r ,·otr d o r mixed in po itics becnuse [ wns 1111 Eng li h · r itiz~ il. '

'l'be CHAIHMAN. You nre now i ~Ir. l!'INLAY. Yt'"• si1·. ' . :rbe ' HAIRMAN. Aud h1we bern for h w ong 'l Mr. l!'INr.AY. ApJ?.ointPd, 1 hel )1•\·e, i 1 1 5. J re~ignyd to go into the t•Qunt•·y 1t fl•w y1•ar. nftrr, but on th e de tth of the nctmg eon :::~ ul , in Oatobo•·, ·.L Sno, thP 1M1trqui. of 'nli:sl>pry trl ogmphed u><king mr to thke chnrg e of th e t· o n >:~ ulat e, nnd T b1w e ht•en there e\' r >~irw •. 1 Jfhe ' IIAIItlltAN. J n what .l 'ttpaetty do you t•omt' hero'/ Mr. .FtNt.AY. A :s ll dl' h•gat fi'O i m thr 'hamher of Commen:e of Puerto Ri co. . . 'l'he CuAIIlM.AN. A~;e th ere other dele 1\trr; on the nme mi ::~"ion h rr !Mr. Ji'INJ.AY.· Ye"? siJ" th1wr Ill'<' fiv e nor drleg1tte. here at pre >.~e nt. IL'he ' HAIIIMA ' .. .. ix altogethe•, n.nd npp' intrd h.r th Cluimhor of Commrt·cc of Hnr~ Jum.•? . ' j 1 Mr. ~'rNr.AY. l e:<, l'lll'. ' Tho CnAmMAN. What i.. thr llll'tllht•rship of yottr Chamber of Con]m r c· ~ H ow lllllll y nn• the re of you 'i11 th•t or~nilmtlon ~ · Mr . .FI)'i t.A Y. lt ls ]u.-t nl'wl.' 'on,;tituted .. Genom) H enry mn!fe ~ 11 que:;t to u:.; to tiee if th e me relu nts \v.ould g et together 1\nd form n. 4 st~o11 g <'hnmber of eoiHmen ·r. On ~h e 11th of Mny lnst the merehnnt:s met' in n:-<scmhl.'' in ~1u1 J ilnn , nnlll hnd tbr honor 'to be 1\)JP.<>intcd president of thl' emnmittee to oro:nnir. tlH' l'hnmfwr of eommer~ ·<>. ' The CIIAJTtMAN. Mny of lnst .rJ'n r1 · · I 1 :Mr. 1!'rNJ.AY. Yei<, ;;it·. The CHAIItMAN. UlHWI Mr. io'INT.AY. Y e,;, "ir. , The C RAJUMA N. 'Vhe'n tlld you orgn dzd i t- th on ? ' :M.r. :FINt.AY. On the 1 5 ~h of J)ec·l'. th r we. orgn.nW.cd it, ~tml Mr. Andres Cro><ns wn. mnde president. . The HAIRMA N. I thoug ht you 1.aid hnt you wore the pre. ident.- .I Mr. FINLAY. No,· sit· ; I was presi!f~nt of th or gnuilmtion committe , but when it came to th e elec~ion . ' vorked to g et in M·r. Crosn. , nn Amori oon citizen , nnd 'he wn.· llamt pre>~ idPnt; and 1\vo n,n• .some of th membrrti. H ern nrc thl' 1· r·rllrn t itll. of m,v ,'~,Ppointmcnt • ns dl' h•r· gnte. I . · The · HAIHM AN.. ~J'h e t•n•dt?ntial ar ' a · fo)l owl'l: '

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R1c•o.

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'UAIRlltAK. Pleit e ~ive u. y our name in ful . FINLAY. rr org I 1dore Fmln.y . HAIR~AN; Wher do .r.o u r esld ? FINLAY.· n .Tuan, Pu rto Rico. HAIR.M • . How Iorig have· y qu. r e ided th e FiNLAv. ln th i ]and for nearly thirty- ix ear.·. The' HAIRMA.N. Of what country ar you a nath ~ . Mr. FrNLAY. Of England. The CHAIRMAN. Ar you still an English ci-tizenj Mr. FlNUY.. Ye~: il" and. a~ Briti li vi e-cons. at ~ Juan . .

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C ;IM .III A

.T NUARY 22, 1900.

Th Mr. The lr. The Mr.

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STATEPNT ·OF D. GEORGE I. Fl

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The board of <lired~ vf Cham her ~f.9o nml (!rc·c of Pue rto Rieo, nt nm coling hell! Dl.occmber 22, 1899, dect<IL•l to commult11011 ~[<.'8.~1'!!. T. D. H . J.uc , J orge I. F mla)!, Oarlos Annst rong, Julio J . ll~nn a, ' Art 11ro Brnvo, y ~ lunuol F emundez Juncos to r·eprescnt eaid chamber in Washington, they p\Jing at.tthori?.etl to Uije t heh- best exertions in its name and behalf nnd to 'CStalJii~l near the Qlfil'inl centers at the national ClliJital a perm~nent re~resentntion of tlle hamber of Commerce of Puerto Rico. 1 . J,n witness w •er of 1 '[r. J orge J . F inldy is furni sh C. I 'wit!t the pr •r;ent 'credentinla. , N .JuAN o•· Pn:RTo R ICo, Jcmrtm·ylf, 1900. 1 A N DRES chtoSAs, '

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President of the Chamber· of

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Comme~·ce.

li'LINum. ]/'ERNANDEZ JuNcos,

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princ~pal.ptlrposo

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Secretary.

commi~siol1

The CI:tAIRMA . i the of your in coming before t he committee ~t th~ . time 'I , Mr. l!'INT~AY. If you wi.ll p ermit me to read a little memorandum

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tllat ha>~, ll(·~n lll!tde h~: nll t,lw meufllt' 1· o f th • committee, pcrhn,p, it would he th<' >~h o rtt·~t ' ·rty f . info rming .:ou. .]h i is sig ned by :Mr. .John ,D. Luct>, )lr. ('al'los A rm trong . Dr. J .•Julio He·nna , Mr. lai),U<'I .f l' l'nnndl'z .Junt•o:<, 1\lr. Arturo lln ,-o, ~thd my self, the nwm~rll of thl' t•ommi:<:<ion, and ;i>; 1\S follow": ~· Pu!'rto. Hi ~:o il'! . :"!' ntiall~· .a t•omme n,.~n.l nnd n~ri.t·ultut1ll. cpu~ltt·,v. Jt 1" 10\'111 •d l wtwl'~ n two <:ont ml'nt,., nnd 1:'1 ••cogm hwnlly f1worcd for . !'n ·ing ·a.. tt nnhlm l11tlli-ng pht ·e tv tmns-Atlanti\· vrs>\e ls, and 11doed . to this ndntntnge f g11-n ~~mmc t1· inl• ,-fi luc there 's the fuct thttt .th :OIIIltl',\' prndm·~>s mudllllOI' thnn it 1'1111 (•on"mne, 111 d that in exohn,ngo it ha.. to htl,\' i11 ouL<idt• 111111' ·et:< it:< food, it" dres.-, t · m:whincry, nml c,· 11 i~ implcmt•nt:< of luh01. . 1 ' Jlm•' ta thl• niH"a'C-Illl'ntiOI I'd l'il'l'llllll:'hlllt'(' th t'l'l' s lln CXti'UOrdinnt·y ', commcl·,·inl· tH•tl\'it.v, i.nfw<ink g rPat lifo in the oe nln.ntl economicnl· ~pbl'l't'"· . • Agri,·ulhu·p itsl' l£ wnull not pxi"t in the cot ntry without tho powl'l'fulnid th11t it hns 111 \'IIJ" rN·ein•d from the ~:o nm• e rl'inl in ten'. t~. •· Wh,•n thl'l't' \V\'1'(' no bu~" in Ptll'rto Hil'O the ntcrl'hnnt•n mppliou thil'l wn11t _to thr ng ri tu ltumlund indt·tstrinl ho rli e~. · . 1 •:Tilr g<n· r·nmt• ut f Puer· o Hi t•o lm,: ll<'\'(' 1' had nn,r more po vol'ful coworkct':j tht(n ·tlw IIH' r~·hant,..;, 1111<1 to tht•sr i" dm•, in a ~ t ·t• n.t mca:;ure_1 ~bat tb1• is Jnnd i" k11myn t\l'ltl'l,\; 1111 0 \' (' 1' thl' WOt'ld, nne\ thnt soml' Ot ltl'l .produd ...;, "lll'h :1" l'Offt•P and tolmtTo. ,.Jwu.kl.h:wo a ~:q uil'l'<l the un l\' CI'IIUI fame tht• ,· dt•set'\'1'. . ' •Thi;o !"ti'<Htg':t.omnrl'l't'ial l1od.' ·· due to it" jmwtirul ,:pirit nncl tb o . oli.dit~· ~ f it:~ l'l'l'dit. h:~. nt . ~ h I'I'!'J IIlSt amlrm•ibttion of it. form •r, Go,·m·nor-0 rwrul Jfcnr v. <' n ~<ti-tutr'd in Puerto Hi<·o n dmml)(li' of . ronmu.•n•p, orgnniz •d o;1·th< "lillie line,; a" tho~l' oxi,;ting in tho Un ited 'tnte..: whil'h !H ' not onI · n. eful to ~:omn wn· i al intcrc.t .· hut nlso to . tht' <fO\'C' L'nlt'rent. •. 1 , ' ~'his l'hamlK"r of <'Ollmtc ~1<'1' · i1s t·o nfPrre I upon u"' th honor of ~<'PI'(" ntin<r it in th(' Fnit. Stntt•s nnd ln_,·ing bdoro Co n gre t~. · tho .I)Jea ·m·e,.; whkh it t•on,.. id l· r~ r b:;olutch· nrt'l'""an· to b •tt t· the·eeonomknl c·o11diti1 11,.. of th i,..Jnncl . ' • • · , · ' 'Thl' Ull:<l'tti Pd ,..t~t P thnt )Jl'l'l'l'dl'd tlw at HH'xnti on of tlic i,.;Jnnd to thr 'U11itNI ::ltutt',. 1111d 'th1' fl l't.of d1nn ~ring it,; tm tiom1li ty enn_sed grent disturhnn<'l'-". from wllieh th e <'O UIItr\· 1:i nut \'Ct l'l't:O\'<' l'Cd and whi ·h . is ;;till 1·;~u~i11g. g reat di,..tre>~"·l . · : , . · " It wtll , oo11 hr twv _,·rar:< "1111'1' l'ucrto Hteo Jo,..t 1t" mark rb; wrth\ pnin nn<L 'u htt , with which it had (t'l'<'. tmdl' r elatio r\s !tlt ~l whil'h c<;>n:-~ um!'d nml .put·l'hllst••l l'Otl' '<\ ·ugar, nud tohnct·o to th e nmount of , 10 1 (11)0. ~H)I) a11nttaU.1·.: that is, i!l5,or)(),OOO fo r Bpai11 1tnd 3 500,000 for · 'u ha. Th i:< l'tH)I'I"IIOU· Jo,..,.. hn:< not. fl"'l y<'t br 11 ~:o m pr n ><n trd, 11 11d bns ~Jrougbt ttbout ·~ t1· m cndou · r rh;i. in nil tho prod ut<~llg ·enter.· of tho rsland . . "~J c rd1nnt" ha1·p ~~ r for be n ·ompo11rd to limit th oh· oporntions, a11k. hr"·e :'l u>' pvllded lllnki11g ndmncl's, n!!l.·ic ultural. p ropo rtie nr ~ca1·ily mor't mg('d, nnd i11 111 \11)' wn1· th e work . hns b en ·uspondedi labon'r arc out f cmplo.rm 11t, who·J fa milie nrc in mi. cry, and unge·r ·. thr ~te n.s e,· • rr\,• h ~· ~· th . poo1· f~t· nt laborer. being in such tate. of d trtutron u 1they n ,. r· ha1· n befo1·e in th hi tory of the i land. · · " I The Un it d tat (Joy rriment with a zeal and intre s t worthy'of aU praii!C, i nding ration and upplie to relieve the r, bt~t this

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is in. uflil' ient. A' IIIOI't> ht>roi~: rc1ucdy bt'('Olltrs ir11p1•mtive, rtnd this 'l'tlll orlly be found in ju~tl.r appl,ving~ nncl with all lll'genc.,\', fret' tmt\e wi th the nited ' tntPH, tht!~< gtvmg tiho eoun t1·y tho hf' ncfit" of 'thl' intt•t·- . chnng.- of eommtwt·e with the Not·th Amerit•ttn •Republie, of whi<:h Ptwrto ·Uieo i:< nn .inb•gral partJ ThiH reform, \t hi<'h we 111'1' g lnd to "' l:le that .tho Athnilli,.trn.tion fa,·ot'li an.d eohsidl'l', ju;;t nti<ln!'l' •, , ary, atul whit·h should be <rl'tmted nil n <·on. tit\utionnl right, 1:1111 not nird IUU::lt 11ot he dPitt,Y!'d, uni'P~s th<• l nitod Stntt's wi,.lhr~:~ to ,..bouldt•r· tile l'e;"POnsihility of the sPrious, gm ' t' . and <li,;ttstrous~:oll ,.ie qurn<'t:'S whitlh 1 1 · shall rwi.;e therPfrom. • " ThP "llgt\1' t'l'Op is II OW t'OUtr IPIIeing. rtnd will he ~<hot'tl,r foiiO\n•d h,v th1tt .o f tobn~:co, 1111d tlw~; . ~:- ~·oh,.. will h VI' I',\' protituhlc to the islmld if It fr o mtu-kht he opc1wcl fot· tlwm Itt onel' . The tim<' for .renewing our dr·y-goods .-tock is ('IO'lO 11t hand, nnd it must bp taken into co n>~i€1orntion tbttt if tho prog.t·es,;inl impn>n'nwnt. in Amdt i1·ttn lllllliufnt·' turm·. 1~re unkrro\nt in Puerto ~{it·v ' it i ~; on ly <!,lm to the fnc.t of it:< probihiti,·e.tmHI'. Now, mo1·e thfm C \' 1'1', it. is urgt>nt that ehenp unci t~nhstttntirtl food frmn thP 1l nitccl ~tate~; .-hould epte r in almntlnnei• i.n the il'lhtnd. , 1 · ~Thel'l' i,; not ttiP Jpn,;t dou.ht that tree tmdP·wo uld hring 11)1 irwrea~c in tho vnlue of ~tgril· ulturn.l properties, unci thet·ofore ~; implif." the p1·e. · ent straiul'fl and ohnoxious tju ~on o£ mortgng~"· and. thus in\.:.i. th e influx of t·:tpitnl fo r protitnb e mw ·tmPnt, . · ' 'The Cham lwi· of 0ommerce M Puerto I{ico ,>itlgge~t,.. thu t the pronmlgt~ti o n of fren tmdf. h<• fo ll o~l·ed b~- tlw uQifi~:1ttio n of the l'it·<·u llllting ·monetary "·'·,..tent in sm·h ~ ondi tion. n ~; 11ot t injltrl' tho nnti<:> nnl t t'<'n,;ury, nor the ohligntion» eo11tmot d <;> n1lmsh; of th~ prer;cnt tn.np!tlid, more ,..o rt..; the b;lrtnd hm• 1tlre11dy sustained l os~;c~< 1tt different t imes when 1\ new monetnr.v .;~·stem wn,; i11troducod to the <'xtent of. 1~11 nggrcgnte reduetion o~ about 0 per ~:e n t on it. pr<'\'inus enpitnl. . " Wo nl · o consider of the utmpst irnportnnce. that in ot·der to o\·el:ome tho misfortu_iiCS that btl\'~ l:lefalh~l) Puerto Rieo, ttnd 'pending tl \l b neti ts expN·tocl from the f rc · c·on'uiwr •ittl rolnt ions ~o li l' ited. thP i. land should be authorized to do ntmct a lonn. U'hc amount of th):; Lorin would be applied townrcl I'CliPving th nhno!it helpless ngricul tur isl;s, who were .th o ntOI'\t severe !~, puni ~h (!~l H~r the disnstron8 hnrrim ne. mid toward ropnirin"' tho destro~· ed r ond,; r.o n ~;tructinS?' now ones, nnd . placing the islnnd in n g ncmlly Rntisfno~ory nnd ~nnibtry ~:o11dition . "Tho ben tit:; which, l)y 'th e •r ~mo \'t\.1 of dutie. • will he o l~tn in ed by the sugar-cane !tnd tobucco gro vrr:s brwe nlre11dy been pornted out, ·· but so far R our ~ofl'pe phtnters t·e concor?ed they wijll not dmw any ttd,•autage ·while the ~oocl'n e,..;~ Of our eoff re m~tin s l.t nknow n to tllc A01 eri ~:nn people, unu we w6tiM I tber.e fore bog th<' Q,o,·crnment 1111d Con~ress not only to mrtintn_ iri th._n pre;' nt educed tarl. tl' in tho i. ·ln,rld 1 o~ Cuhn on P~terto Hico. coffe import4d th~·e, b~tt to 1~ll o.w tho Pu?rto R1co productron to enJOY tho 1Jenefit.'3 whtch, li t the future, nng ht 1 Qome through th <·omnu•:rcint trc•lnties betw n this CO\lntry nnd oth~t· nations. I "These nrc tho m ens ure r.~ of relief which we hrn· been instl'uctod to submit to your kind onsidemtioh\ and we have.'th n::~surtt n ec that the J;D. emh_ e. r of the (lifferen commi~sJon. ~t·orrt the i land _now in Wnshington will glndly nnd cqeerfull.~ indorse the snmo. 'We feel, thet'('fore, confident t~o.~, in ;;peaking for the Chamber of Commm·cl' of S. Doc. 147-·-14 · '

I ·


210 l'urrtn Rit·o, wr u r 1\l><o intN11mting the wi><ht•:< and_ l'XJwdution>< of • Put•rto Uit'IH .:· · 4 )fr.. 'P•:rrwK•:w. Ho ,. mm·h ><ugar hnw ~· ou ht>t•n ,;hipping to tlw 'I l'nitt>tl ::ittttr hrrrtofon• I )Jr. l"tNI Y. Thi>< i>< the tir:<t timt> in Ill\" lift> that I hun• hud to tf'li!if~· IM'fol"t!.l"'lll"h u<li,.;t!ngui><hl'tl """l'lllhl_v.~lnd you will t_hl'l"t'fl)rt' not find 1t ><tmnf~ 1f J Rill '' httll' ner\"ou:<, und I u:<k \ "Oil to kmdh· t'Xt"U~<t' mt•. I wi.•h wa." i~ ~ood omfor. hut 1\lrfortunah•ly J tun nQt, i111t tht• t•nllMP Wt' t"tlllll' to l"t>pn·~l'nt i:< ,oo >'IIA"I:Pd "tl:mt I will" tJ·~· to gin• nil the ilifol'· mntion I mn. The fatr of 11 h'ITitMy IIJIJK'I"tninihg to tht• l ' nitt'CI ~tptt•. i:< guin)t· to '"' dl't"idt•d. The fute of 11 111illion peoplt•.luHl prohuhl~· th\' ' J.h·r,. of Jt, grPnt mAn_,. fhou::<nnd>< of tJw ..,, JH'U}lll', dt'J:H' lll~ 011 thf' Ul"tion htkt'n. 1lwrl'fon•. gt•nt lt•nll'll. 1 ll><k .nlu to tnkt• 1tll mto t.Ou,.idt•nation Jtnd mukt• \ "Oill" \"PI"\" 11(>:4 t•lfnrl:< to 1<11\"1' tl111t i:<lund. I "; h to ,.j,,. tlmt frt.•t• tn1th• witft tlll' l ' nih•tl :-ltutt•s will in no wuy injun- thr ~-lrodm•t'l":< of ~U)..'llr. or of nny othr1· J.H"odm·t in tlw llnitr(l ' tatt• . ttnc I "'" ~oing tb dt n1on:<tmtt• thllt. Durinr tlw thn•P ,\"~>Ill">' tbnt WI' hRd frt•t• t"tllllDit'l"l"iul rPlntion:< with the n.itt>d titnt!'>' tlw l ' nited Sbttt'>< ~'ltinl'd t"Oil>'irll'rnhh· in th!'ir import,o into Pnl'l"tO liil"_o: wbih• tht• expt•rt" from Puerto Hit•o to · tlw l"nitNI 'tutP:< in l"!'IIMI'd n'r'· ,;lighth•. · Th nottr; 1 !li. 1 II~. ttnd L:-1!1~ wrrl' tlw thrrt• \" Cttt">~ when thP L' uitrd 'tate"· bad fr e tmde with Put•t·to Rii"O, or 1:uth r fht' comnl\' l"cia\1 _ • tN•Rt\·. wbit:h t•otnment"t'U 0 11 the 1 t of • pteml~t'l". t~'<\12.und t •rmi nah>t\ on the:! 'tJl of August. 1 'll4. In thoto thn•t• ~-l'nr>< tht~ import~< from tb~ United Stute,oi\ggregated l!IH. - t<:!.H:!o. und th r r xport" to th(' l' nit d tntt' wuountt"d to .7 'll !)2 . )fr. Al.J.INOER. Will ,-on 'piPil"' r '.Pl'llt tho><c tigmcsl . )lr. :FtNl.-w : Duri11~ the thrt>e yenr:s of th!' l"OIIImet•t•iul trraLty the x.port~ fr m the l n,tcd 'bt~ s to Puerto Rit·o w ~t'' it+. 7 ' :!,3:!5. ThE.' arr oflh·ittl figure:< wr t"AII ,-ouch for. :\lr. Pr.rtwlu:w. Tht' n~grl'gnh•? ~[r. Ft~l'. ·\". Y e", ~ ir : )Jr . .F IRK .NK •• \Yhnt were thr tom! importto ! ' .lr. FtNl.AY. *L4.oj":!.3:!5 . . The xport" from the i.;\11nd whit·h ·t"IIIIIC to the l' nited. "tatl' .an1uunted to , I ~ . tl2 . :\Jr. rAU,INI~ F.It . l'ndcr the r t•iprocity tr('nty! 'llr. ·Ft "L.\l' : Y e:-~, ir. \\'ht'n tht• reeipr01.·it~· tr at~· wu uholi"h d. m· U>'[X'il<)\'d. from tht> yt•nr 1 115 to 1 tiT. the onl:r r t"Ord:< we han~ (bet"tluo;.E.' after that euniP the Amrril"nn 0\.TUJ>Il!ion) :;how tbllt we bud llllJ>OI"t, fll"om tht• l'nitt"d. ' btte~ to the umount of ll\11. 09,051, antl '· xporto:!' to the ' nited State:-~. '.607.3 fl. Jt thl'r fore d mqn~t.mtc,.. . tbRtduring thP th-~et' ~-cui·:; thut the trenfy t'xi"t d. th r~ were imported :?.IH3.:!74 mor.l' tlinn in the three ,·rnr>< that smT eded 1t 11fter the coulmen-iul tri'Rt\" WR:i nboli~hed. whih• tht;> ~l?ort ,;. or ruther the imports . into fht• l" nit~! 8tnte:-~, t•xportl:'d from that 1 lnnd~ only ht.td u diffe1·encc . of ~:1. :?.5-H: so ~-ou e the~ tigu1·es d '111 nstrat that, however much w ma\· prOOIIl"e in Pl.lt'rto Rico, witb fr~E.' tmdc· we l"llll never. come to injun> :Rn~· of. the PI"<.Mhu:ers of this count1·c in fa·~. it is my opinion if ,·ou ·get tb~ w~ol i.o<land and pitt-hit- into the U nited 'tates you \\"ou1d not e\·en know that .it Wll8 there. it i>' sm·h R little bit of 8 pJnc · The~ figun> Are ,. rv eloquent. They bow tbat during tbe tbree p·a~ 91·e wen> able to,ha,·t' nearly fre ttad · with the U ited State wc C\"C'n·

00\"ERNM.~:NT

}"OR THE I LAND o~· I'UJo:RTCI Rl l"CI.

211

0

·onh· I'Xpo1·tt•d Ill ~.IHI 11101"1' t)11111 in tht• tln-cc .FII·I"" following, whiln wl!"took f1·om thl• l'nitl'tl ::-it11tc~< vt· n · .ut•nrh· th1· •e mill io n~ rnon•. A fcw dn.Y>< 11go I hitp[>I'IH'd to g-o" i,lto n \·cry huw• dry g-ood.~ t'><tllh-· li:-~huwut in ~~·w r ork· -~W\'I'l><l'l". p,lmhrok(• & Co.·,., BroJtdWll.\"- ILIId ~ ll>'SIII"(' .n111 it Willi IJI.Iitl' 11 n·~t·!ntion: I hurl llil i ~h·.n thnt :<u\"h mnnll fi~·tnl"l's ·. wt'l'l' mnd.- 111 tlu• l ,'J itl'd tutt•:<. • ~·ly frii'IHk Mr . .Junl"oi . to 1111': 1 ·' It •il' 11 ,.hlllll<' th11t WI' <"1111 11111 hll\'l' llill'"" nuumfut•lnr••" in l'twrt o Hi.-11. Why

"'''d

~lionld Wl' •ll'I'I<H"" ht11il~· whl"n tht•t·u 11rtl ~twh hctutlifnl i<tnff~ lll'n-'1 i'litHply hl"l"IUit!t• w, hu.,.,. 11 pro hi hili\' • lllrilf. .\II t hn>'t· thin!(~ now iiHJW>rt.-1 lro111 · Jo:nrnpt• ~ h otild l"OIIIt' fnmo tlw l nit'\•1 i'llult••.

The ('nitt•cl·::.;tntl',.; i>" g-oing" lo g-nin mon• in tllt'.mnnllfuell n:l~ ol' theist' goorl>< >'l'llt tlwn•-.tl_llln w.- in thP t•.xport" fr~nn th~· ,,.(anti. I th1nk tho~1' I{Cntil'lll!'ll who .tlunk WI' 111"1' <romg- t1 nun thc•u· :<Ug"llr\trnth•. or thf'n· , tohtH·t·o tmdl'. o1· v.:lmtt'\"<'1" it· f.... :11"1' n•1·y llllll"h mistukt• n. I 11111 willing to un,.wt•r 1111\' qiH'"lion:< \" 011 IIIII\" clt•,.ii"P to u~ . .)[ r. :\Il-l 'mtA~<: In 1hi,. foin"ll'l'll "lilillion"' .' ·o11 ,.;pokt• of. whnt \Vl'l"l' tht' 11111i1.' ;u·til"il',. of ii~•J.WI" tnl ion into Pm·r~~ ~ Hit•o 111 thnt Jll'l:iod! )Jr: l<tNI .AY. l't1H"tllu lh· food ~<tllffll. 'ao11 ·had no nmnufnt"llll"l' of dry ~roods"" ,·ou lmn to:dtt\:. I 11111h•r"t1ind it i>< onlJ witliin tht•ltt.4 ilii·!'~ o1· fi,ur·,·.,nr>< thut th11t ilidH,.tn hu>< 11111d" <~1u·h l"llpiclj.!l"( h. 1 :M1·. ).Jcl'miA><. ~lninlr flour! · . 'Mr. FINLAY. Flour 111id pol"" 11mll: rd. 'nnd nil kin1lk ·of food ..tuff><, und IHmht•l". Dn· ..·,uo'cl:< \\'11 hnn• hl'\)11 <rcttJing" mninly fmn1 Eul'opt•, h11t thl'l"\' i:< no ri•11;on wh,· tht•,· ><houlrlllflt t·omt• from thl' l"uit•d Htntl'>' ~ •· · . · ).Jr. :\k('oM A:<. \\"h,it >'tupl.-" ure i1 t·ludPo in the cil{ht mil_liou.:s'l ,) 1h·. FINLAY. ::.;ug-_•_u· IIIHI.t·otTt~l' :ind l)whls:<es-;-t•off•e \'l' l",\' ilttlt•. .Mr. :\leCoMA~. Mo:<tl_,. :<ugn l" u111l llwln,;sc. I . Mr. Pt:TTitln•:w. :->illl'·ll'Jith" of .\"Cll\1" >'Ug'l\1: l"lllliC horl'. 111111 JIIOi<t of the nioln"""" 'I 1 Mr ...YNJ.AY. Yl':<. ,.:ir. <· ~.... n.u.l.ll'O(;t:n. An· you intt•J"P>'tl'd in ngril"ultt.md J1111'>'11it:< in tbt\ isllmd I . ~ Mr. FtNJ.AY. I um: I hun•: >'ugur 'propt•Tty. : lr. GAl.r.l~n•:n An• .' ·ou intf:'rl',.ted in tolin1·eo or l"oti'l'l'! l\lr. }INLAY. No. "i •·: lum not int•1·c 'let in th!'lll. · Mr. l-lAr.J.tM-:t:n. Hun \"tHau· lllr ....e ."Hgnr plnntution~ Mr.- FINLAY. Fuirh· l11i·g.- for th~tt l"Ountr.r . ,' mull if t·ompltrrcl with any of the liu·g(• propNti_e" in Lo11i ~i11na 0.1· Cuhn. hut it i" In reality on 'of thl' good plrtntnt)On!i of the 1:;land. The ··rrAmMAN. How 11111n,· nt·l·es haYe 'o11 l · Mr. FLNT.AY. Of :sugnr·t"l\li<! lnnd, tthout 1,500 lll"I"I'S'. I han• oth 'I" bad lunds and pnsture:-~nml hill" nmounting in ttll .to nbout 5,000 lll"l" "Mr. PETTIORt~w. How 1111111\" n •J"P~< hn,·e \'Ott in . ug-•nl Mr. FtNJ.AY\ Ont' thow;and" fi\·c hm d1wi. , Mr. P•:TIIOK~:w. AIIHildl'r rultimtlionl ' 1 .Mr. 'FINr;AY Ye.~. :<it·. I Mr. PE:rTiokEw. }:{ow muth ;.u ur do yoti get to th<' IH"I"e I Mr. FtNUY. About :15 to -:l:d qumtal:i (.3 500 to 4,oo0 pound:;); IL ton and tbree-qunrt n; to two ton,;. f• · · , Mr. GALI.INGEU. ndet· normalt"ondition:! whnt profit do you.Jllltkc per ft(.'re1 ·

..


...

....

21.

)lr. l'na .AY. lt'd~'\X'ntl-; t> ntirely ·upon tlw p1·ih• of :<ugnr. ~h . 0AI.l,JM1t:R. ndt•r normnlt•Oil<litiun" ( ' ~lr.. FINI. Y. IIIIIH' mnrl.- frofn twent,,·-fht• to thirty thou:<nnd pt>:<o>< pront. . Thi:< ~· t>n •· is ll poor on(', nnd 1 do Hot know how llllll'h 1 ><hnll 11111kl'. l'rohnhlr thHI' will lw no los><. I hun' >~ollll of thf' h<':<t mat·hillt'l'\' thM i·nn ht• found 1 1111d that >'l~\'(':< nu•. • ~Jr. 0 · i.J.INm~tt. It hn.-; ll(•t•n ... tnted to HH' thnt umiPI' \vlmt I ('ttll nurnutl l.'ondition,., with 1t nol'lnnlt·t·op and p•·i1'1' fo\' ""WU'. tlw farmer:< . of Put•rto Hi(•o hn\'(' nindl' S(llllf' \\'hf'l'l f't·o m l!lliO to roo p•·otit on' 1111 Ill' I'('. )h·. Fb I.AY. 1 think thut mu:<t hnn ht• ·u <lPIWml Kenn('dy, who w tlow 1 tht•re, llnd lundcr:<tllud thnt h • hnd mn.dto ><ul'l1 nn u"sertion. i\ntl I W('tit t him tmd hnd nn intl'rdew. f told him ttint 1 should he n•ry g lad· to he nbl ~o do it. and :<ugge:<tetl thnt hr ought to ~'<top in Puerto Rico, buy R ubrar t•stntl.'. and mnk ' hi:< fortun('. The 'HAJRMAN. " 'htrt·i th<' truth nhout it! ~h. h1 1, l ' . \\' ithgoodmnehjnery.nslhan•.nndN·onumimlwot·king- 1 han• good administmtion and I know th bu~<ine.~,., ht\ring hnd manv .n• r~:~' XJX't'ient· there i"' no lo ~. nnd p<-rhnp:i u·:-unnll· pt·otit: butt narc .000 ilwe.·t d, nnd thnt is .no iutl'l'l'. t for tbt' l'll ttnl. 'fht• 'n IRM N. Yott mnke nopmfitntn ll! Mr. FlNt v. No • . ir. 1 hn · :>aid tbnt 1 han• nmd1' i 5.nuo to 3U.OOU. M . pot< ibly 3o 000 pe · o:; prolit nnmmii,L The H tii~AN, With il.n ~.0011 im·e:<tl nentl Mr. J.'JNr.A~l Y(':<. ',.i r: hut if thi:; .nnr l eonid mak1• :lo,ooo pr>~o" I would l>c. ,·e r·yl g la~ . ..... 1\h. Pt;RKIN . 1 ou ·tnkd that iti per· 1·rnt of the Pxpo rt ~ of tbr islund i:; i 11 t·o l'l'! . Mr. F1Nt,AY No, sir; ·1 thin!): thnt wn.-; one of thr othe r gcutl('meu: · , ~Jr. PF.KKIN . Well, pt>rhnp~ one of thr• oth er ge ntlemen ~tnted it O\' r ti Y.,L' l'l' t. \\' ith ,000' 0 )O iu l'OffN•. in normul t imes, c·oming to thr lnitt>d ' tnt " frrr. would thl' JWOplr uf Pn('rto Hi('o hr ~nti s. fied- ~it'. FIN I.AY. Exeu m • tmw much~ , ~Jr. PERKIN . \tl'l' GO per l'rut of thl' import:< in mlue iu dollat·s coming t th l nit >d tate:< h-l'(', inl'otf~<' . what I wnut to a~k i:;, ·w ould thr pe pit' of u r·t<) Ril·o he ,:uti:<fl'ed if. in l'OH:<idcrntion of the fat·t ' that yon Ill' • ow II Territory -of the r ·~ited tat 1'1, we gi ,· ,\' OU II · l'('fJOt o~ Olll'- tlf of th •reg-ttlar dutie:< impo ·ed on othl' t' good~< nnil, impose only on '-hnlf of the rnternnl-r ,·er ue duties upou you/ , )Jr. Fn.~" Y. I do n t tl1ink thP,,. w uld. · 1 thi nk h ' p('opl(' of •. .Puerto Ric hn ·r rnl\de up their mind ~< thnt · thry nn: \.merren n:<, unci that the~· ough to htwr the adnt ntngt s of Anre•·jl'itn . Th1tt i" m.'· opinion. fi'Om ' hut 1 henr nround then'. lt i~ uot -pfti eial. h ut I think th('s<' gl' ntll"lne• will <"OI'I'oi.JOt'lltr whnt I :s:t~·. . )It·. l:'t:KKJN:< Th ." wnnt th <' full hem-'tits. nnd 'l'i ll not h<• ~nti:<ti rd witl1 nn,\·thing lci"i! thu.n whnt i,.; fcrh·en ·A rizonn. Alu::~kn, nnd othN T rritorie ·oft c nited ' tate:;~ hr objed of. m,r _gueKtion i:< :<implr thi>~ : .1Vr foltt\'nd ILl'' ·(o fnt·r. with tll.I',Prohlenr. iu th Pl!il_ippiu.c I hull(,. that thr prod~1e. of t ho. c. tslands wtll COlli 111 eont[ <ttt•on wtth _ro111'" a>~ wrll a with 1u . 'l f we. e~tahlish the prel' dent · that the produl't>~ will l'Olllr in fr froui Puerto Rieo. tb n ,·ou mu01t have the hlll'~le n jm~ of th int rnai-J·c,·enue tnx. Can not we g h somr eon,..id-

'.

'

c•~~tion

GOVERNMENT FOR THE !'LAND

PU:Jo:RTO RlCO .

2.1:3

thttt will r •li vo you of . 01110 of tho intcrnnl-rovenuc duHcs tuKi impo11o 11. duty of 50 per cent of our }U'Csent tm·iff aud .htwo ~·ou 1 :<alisfied 'I · · · M r. Fnii.AY. No, ~ir ; I do not co n>~ itle t· that Puerto Hico i:; in tho sa u eondition n..o; the Phili.Ppin e~. · 1·. PERKINS. The J.'ilipmos do. The 1<-.ilipino>~ clnim thr.v :;ho\Jid h~vu the >~ti.IIIC advnntngl's a:; Puerto Uico. , Mr. FtNJ.AY. Wt~ ttt'C t'l'!ld,' to ll.l'l'cpt th ~ ros pon>~ihilit.'' of Amot·iC:· " tl:< well n. the nch·nntl'tg :o~. ~ r. l:'F:Tl'IO tu;w. Whr~t d()('. it I'U t 11. ))Ouncl to pr·odltt·u :<ugttr in

G

~-our ph~ntntio n I

,

·

.Mr. Jo tNt.AY. hout.ilt eonts or at l'entls. Mr. l:'F:TTWHt:w. Cent u pound. ).h·. F1'N1,AY. Yt•:i, sir. ~It·. Pt;TTJGttt:w. A nd· you !'1011 in Now' Yl\rk for -1: t\l' l ts I ~lr. h'INI.AY. ' mct1mes wr do, with dut • paid., but wo hn\'1' 11. duty of t.ti8! ('Cnt:,;, gold, prr pound. When om· invoiecs ttl'<' :; nt up herr ni1d wr get th1•m hnek th.-.r nrc ju:lt nhout cut in httlf and w get uoout . ~,· l'l'llts gold. Mr. P.t:TTIORt:w. What i,; t'II.W :mgnr worth 1 ~lr. FINLAY. Ahout 4t l'l'nts, gold 1 duty paid. In the.·p ><tntl'llll' nt.'l I 11111 :;pruki ng of ~i h· (' r JWiiOs 1\; hl'H I t~u:•ntion c~nt,..., . . )Jto. Pt:T'l'tmu:w. In onl1•r to rrdtll'll tt to dollnr,.., what do yo u fi g ·c 1t pe:sol . ·· )[r. :Ftl'it.AY . At HO l'l'nt" gold fur l'll.l'h pt•><o, the mt<: tlw (-lon~.rnmont tin" P:<tnhli ;;hed. . . ~Jr. Pt-:TTt o tu:w.' It l'O,...t>~ ahout Ht p<•:;o;. to prodUl'l' 100 pouncJ,.. ,Hf :<lWUr! , ·~lr. FtNt.AY . It mriP>< in dill't> rcn t lomliti c:;. 'l'hr litti P p r•otwrtil'>< t·an not prodUl't' nt n protit nt til, nncl thP.Y go ovm·hottrd. ,. ;\>lr. PF:RKtNf<. ' l~h • Hnwniinn land:; prodtwe at one 11.nd orw-hnlf. .Mr. F'tNI.AY. Thr,v gPt ti, H. or· 1 ~·1 torJH.J?Ir 111'1'~. · ,'\!Jr. Pt; t{Kil\1'<. It i~< IWI'Il\l:i • the\· f'{.r tlltl'.C. nn not .~· ou produe tlutt wny I . · ~fr. F INLAY. I think not. l · importl·~l th.e ,-nhtl' o.f 300 pounds ~tcr­ ling of cht•mi<·u l mnnurl' nnd put it or1 my lund, and tt mud(' ,·r ry ltttl' tl.iffet·em·r. Our· imtuml frrti lir.r t· in thl' ,.. ur land:< (hrt·nu. o thnr arll Jimitl•d nnd rou l'lllt nn't plnnt l':l lll' on thl' i:<Jaud hut to n rPdttl' d r ·tent)' i:< tht• !loud of tlw t·inw:<. Wi th l'Xl'l'""\Vl' 'mit1,.; t.tH•,r I'Otttc d wn und !loot! thP whol<' i·ulll'\'. ~Jr. l:'t:HKIN~. l' ou :;tate• thnt hthor i:; :.15 tPnt:< 11 dar. )lr. FtXI.AY. ~o, :<ir; I .httvl' mndl' ·no statt•nrl'nt, nhout it. Out· lnhor is I'O::!tiug II" iiO l'l' lltl!':O":-it.• nty .d il'tt'il't fmnt .Ho ~.o iO t'lll.ttlt\'o, and WI' ghy them cmp t'!ttHm hysrdt'>o~. and ·wlll'n g t'lltdrng I ~ In' two. Mr. Pt:HKJNS. \\ hat t." tlutt 111 gold ! · :\It·. FINLAY. Thi•·t,··two Ot' 33 l'Pnt:;. 1 'l'hP Cl·tAIIOtAN. \itd \'Oil gin mtillns Ill•" ide:;! , ~lr. F'lNLA'' · Yl•s, . . ir: thut w~tgc uf ;~;& ('I' Hts, gtild, is on I.'' for lnl lor in the ti('ld. ull(l for l':t nP 1·11tting hn.vl' to pa,\' rt l·ittlt• mor·e, nud ttl:,~o to those empJO,\'('cJ in thl' fudori ~s . f IIIII , IX' t'hup:< to-dn~· C! lll' of t~ O ltugest ( rxl'ept JW~·hnp:< ~Jr. LtH'l') PmployPrs of lnhor 111 Pur to Hit·o. ~11'. Pt:HKtN~< . . \\'hut i,.; the tt\'l'l'ttgc wa~' iu tho tield fot].lrtborq t's who l'lllth·atP :<11).,"1\1' and tohatl'O! 1

I

I

"I'


21!

UOYJi;RN1<11o:N1' ~'O R ' THE

I

li'IJ.ANO IW

.

1'1 Ji: RT~I

RICO.

.

· )lr. :FtNI. Y. j'l'birt~·- tht'l'l' l'Pill>< JWr d11y. . }fr. PF.HKIS>' In go! I~ ' , )lr. ·F1sL Y. YP>' • . ir: ,wt.• pu,\· om'· h:tlf 11 di•lll11· uf on•· doll11r, whit·h i. 30 l'l'lltJ , ~old, 1111d WI' )('i\' thrm mt ion" WOrth from 'j to 1\ l'enh~\'0>'. ~lr . DF.t•F.w. Nin<' to II 11 mpnth! )lr. ~INt. Y. j\\',, hnr<' 1111 montbh· ,·ontnwt><: WI' lu n• no nudtot·it\' m·••r tht•m:' 1111~ not hold tht'm . )\'p pay thl'lll ft· 111 duy to dn.t . ·rht>l'l' i>< nu t·on nwt lulKlr 11t 1111. . · ~Jr. F IRK N .. Wbnt i>< tHt• nunui:IJmlllnl't of." m· ·olfl'r t·rop 1 :\h-. FINI. L I 11111 unt in uo tfrr, nn I 11111 not w"l n'l'1<t'd in th11t. hut 11 thin"' it h11>< IM•I'n >'httrd 11t nhout .UIHl.llUO }W>'tl. . )lr. F lll.tiA 'KI<. \ ' t' r\' litth• of thnt 1'1111 1'01111' tu th • l'·nitl'd ~tllll'><, I imdt•..,.tlmd. · · I )h. F1 1. · Y. Y .-.~ • . ir: till',\ ' h11\'l' 111'1'11 }!l'ttiug- }!IK.td prin•>< iu Spniu. :\J1·. F IRU NK>'. 111 it I! I(Ood q1mlity! · )h. F1 1 L l'un>'i\ll'l'l'd, thr IK'>~t iu th1• worl1l. ot· a>< gouda>< nny. )lr. F um l'iKi.-1. I~ th t• rt> 1111~· l't'II><Oil wh.r th11t l'l'up ~<houlcl not l~t• markl't d mort• lut')!t'l~· in th1• l'nitt'd Stnt1•~<! )lr. 1-'ll'ii.AY. I du nut know lillY l'l'l\>'011 whah'\'l' l'. Om:r th1• 11rtil'lr i~< known 1•.'· pt' r.-•on>< who ttppre ;iatr good' l'Otfrr tb11\' will p11y f-bi' it. I han' 1!01111' hi1•nd>< in Hu:;ton to whom J :;pncJ tlu• ('OtfPt' . 11nd th.•y will · not hll\'1' nny othl'r. I'Oiit wb11t it mn,·. lt i~< tlllll'h ><HJWrior to tlw I'Oifee of Bnlzil . • ":\h-. FAJUiiANKI'. · If fl'PI' t'(lllllllt'l'l'ial inii' I'I'OIIl'><P h11IWt'P n till' l'nit d Stntt•,. 11nd· Ptwrto l{i '·v i hnd. whut will l11• ,·our opinion of tlw plfel't to in'<'t't'll.~' · tht' I'On!<ttlll)ltlOn cw'uin•·kpfng- o( Ptu•t'to .k il'o •·o ff'pp iii the ' U nitt'd ~tutP>~ ~ · · · .Mr. FtNJ.AY. I think it wottld int'l'r,II,.P. IWI 'Illl"~' thl' inh•rt·our~<l" llt't\n•pn tlw tw1i 1111tl'kl't>< \vould h(• ~l'l'atrr. nnrl :<o mm·h would 1'01111' · from hPrl': nnd th r .'· w luld I'Oillt' lwn• to mnkt• a 1111LJ'~Pt for thrit· t'Otft't'. und gmdunlly it will h1• getting- into this mnrkrt. Bttt until tht'tt tin,u• 1\l'i'i\'t'~< thP t•uffl't' plallltl?l'>< 111'1' g-oing' to he.> \ ' <11'." h1t<ll.'· oil: hut ,tht' t'P i~< no 1'1'1\.~0nl.wh .'· thP,c'lltirl' t•rop >< houlcl uot, t'OIIIP ht'l't', onl'l' . ·ou apprN:iutt' thr l'OH1•r in• tht>~ t•onntt·_,.. • )lr. O•w£w. \"on wnut 11 hig'hl?l' p•·it•r thnn tlw Bmzil I'Oift'r in ordpr tv en11hlt' ,·on to lin·! · . llr. Ftst. l' . (,.'uffl' l' pl1wtrr.- l'otdd uot lh·r at thP Ptit·t• ~;~f Bmzilian t:offee . \ llt'. Pt:ti.Kt~~. Do y n not mi><t' n. c·hu tply II>' in l o:<ta Hi1·u nnd 'RI\'Udor! • · )fl-. F1 .,, \'. I think not . ur ·lal)l)l'" t'lll" low_: thirt\· odd ct'nt>< t1 •, ~'·:- hut wh1•n ,\' OI! t•onH• to tnk 1' 1'1'1'_\' thing into yop~<icl~t'll~iOI! lubor . u; }ugh. :\Iy lnl101' t'l'utlllt on OIJI' of my propt' t'tH•:< 1tlonl' '"' 120.000 pb<t1 n .n'fll'. and I ><pPnd ou my lnhor nt·t·ounts 011 nil pt'Opt"l'tiP~< 1111 aggrt>gntt> of o1·rr t:w:ooo pe~<o,... Tlw lnhor i~< not HH'Itp. ttlthoug h it i.. :<o uprm·ntl,\'. . Thr·t.:u IR;\1 N. Wh~· i:< it IIOt lll'lttullya" 11'!'11 111-1 npp•it·rntly <·ht>ap!'' \\That i tb.-ri:• ·in tlti" luhor itunti 11 wt> do uot ><l't>' fmm tb!' statpment~< \ 'OU lllRkl' ~ . . . · llr. FI ,' LAL 'fht::o~e I'!' it•di~t·nt. Tht>~" bnn' nothin~. Th!•r fttll ~ick ai1d tbl' propril'tor bn" to tiud th 111 food nnd llwdit·tne, tllld c1·en mont'\'. 1'0 thnt the\' nul\· not >'tat·n•- ·Tb~ CH.\IRll ~- 'Wh11t .' ·ou t• f<' r to n>< I ' in , hijlh. no ith~tnnding tb . prk-e pR.id. hn~< ref~'l'('ltt't' to tht> infet.i or quAlity uf In t'!

OoVl<;RNl\U:NT

,I"Oit

TRl<:

ISI.ANO

P l';RTO Rl ll.

215

Mr. FtNLAY. I will not ~<II\' th11t. I l'RU><<' I t·on~:~ider our lahorer 1\ renl11tk1Lhl v good 1111111. • • • The Cn.\m~IAN. Ht' i~< n good htbor!'r! M1·. FINLAY. Ye;c, ,.iJ·. Pedmp~< he will \wt turn oLtt n:; n11u·h wot·k n · :;ontl' othl'l'><- -' :J'he ' HAIR~IAN . Hut. hPing indigl'nt. ~·on h1WI' to t11ke 1'111' of him iH \'I.Ll'iOil1< Wll -Mr. F1Ni.AY. """• sir. . Mr. o.:.. •:w. I ~<IIJlPll"l' tlw l'O::!t. of li\' i!tg, l'Ol~l}Jili'NI with tb!' ('O"t of livintr in n. t•old<'l' dunntt•, mnk1'" 1t r~httn· l.v h•ghet·. · . M~. FINLH. I think tho"" ]Wopl. ought to he Ul~lfht to drl'~<>' h\;.n del'ent people.and e11t well: nnd thnt 1:1 whnt the Allll'l'll'lllls hR\'1' to o--to Pdllt'llfA' tlwm to thl' ho1w ?f l~tte t· thin!(:;· . ,', I , Th(' CHAIIl:\IA ·. no \'qll thmk thttt hot'(' ,,. WP11 found •d! I hnt thp~· , l'nn ,,.. taught tO·PIIt 1uid cln's" ht'ttrr l . ·I Mr. F1 'LAY. 1 heli!'\'t' if you st•nd: to Pu<'rto ftH·o n•1tl good. ~<tql'· ritll' men \'OU will find thnt {'\'ervbodY Htl'n:, not on I,\· tlw lowet•t·ln..~" "• hut t' \·en 'thl' hettrr dni-<>'P~<. will wnitt to ht• · in~<trud('d in .'·onr wn~:..; 11nd gO\'I'rnnwnt. · . I Mr. PE]fKIN8. If thi>< (ion' rmnent ltllow .'·ou th~ rt>ve1mr of H t·rnt.~ now i1itpo~<cd upon sug1u-; will it go to tht> ,workmgmnn! · M 1' . .FtNJ.AY. Tht• g'l'I'IIIP!o!t p1U't. . . . .Mr. Pt:R'Kil'il'l. You tl1ink thr waw~" Will ttpprl'l'ln.tl ,11\'lll''·'' 100 p' d•ntl · , . . ~ir . .}'IN J.A Y. \' ~'"': sit·: ""'J?CI'ially i ~ \~I' g1•t tlw c·hnngr of I nom·.~· ko thnt wi' 1·ould pny hun gol.s:i tnstl.'nd ot sth·rt·. , M 1'. n~: I'EW. You would }JII,\' .ahout till' i<llllll' IIIIIOUIIt.1 • .Mr. F1NJ.AL Yt>s. ,.iJ·. , Mr. Dt:J>t:w. In other w.orcl>'. you ouhl!' thrir wngP><. )h. FtNT.AY . !::linn• Ut•tieml Ht'nry promulg1t •d tho orrh•r th1tt 1i dny'. hti.Jor ,.J10uld ·ht' Pight. hour. ,·on l'lln not get thPm . t.o work mo ·e thiut eight hour~<. Thl' Atllt>ri<·tul 'clo'(el·mnent i~< paying- hi~h "'"1!"".._ higher thun l'\'1'1' hdor<' 'pn id tlwn•- nnd th1: <·onsl'lJlll'llt'l' '" wt• hn'i·e · 'to 'pn,· high wngP~<. nnd WI' ><hn~! hun• to pa~· m gf1lcl. . . M1:. Pl:TTton.:w. 'Vhnt nrP your ~<ng<'PSttml~< ll~< to th<• I'Xl><tlllg dl'hl>' pnnthle in this . iln r! Mr. FINLAY. Th11t i>< (or thl' l nitNj ~tntP>< Govt•rnnwnt to >;tudy . . Mr. Pf:TTJORt:w. no \ '011 think thr drlitl!! Ollght to hl' ·l<l'IIIL•tldowt~! Mr. }<'INLAY. At whnt<'\' 'I' nttio tlw mon<'~· is chnn"l'tl. in m~· oplll· ion tht'\' :;hould h >R'ttll'd clown. Wh n WI' hnd tlw t1tllllg'!' of IIIOIH'Y • n:; ill 1 · !)5 I wrotP off my hook>~ nnd Ill,\' llt:\'Onnt:; 5 p1:r t'l'l(t. Mr. P•~TTJGRt:w. Fur in .;tnnet', her(. i~< 1t 11111n who_o~~'~'" n mott~ngP of' '10 000. nnd von uclopt ou1· l'llt' 1cne_r, nnd thl'l'l'forf' th11t <JI'ht. ll('cording to ~·our' ~<b.ttt•mt•nt. ~hould h ' :scalrd to $fi,OO I. I~< thnt wh1~t you meun I . Mr. FI.NI..AY. Yc~<. sir: if the l'hnnge from 60 l'l'nt>< to ~I. lw would owe~ 000 in gold. Mt·. P•;rrw.n•~w. Th1lt i ~< thl' 1·hnngt:' ~·on sug~t>><t! Mr. FtNI.AY. Yes, ,oir: hut wl' Ill' ' not nmkltJ{ nn,r dmng'l'"· hnt allowing \ '011 tO lllllkC. '0111' (}Wn suggt;.tiOlll'. Mr. HAt.I.tNIH:R. 'l'ht•t'l' is on!' sngg ~<tion ,\'OU IIIIUII' ~hnt puzzl1•~ '."~' a littl<'. You 1tt.;e the Rl'iti~<h \'il'e-e msul , n•prt'><l•n.ting- th1• Br.ttt:,ih Oo,·ernmrnt. nn(l _vl't .nm nmkr n plt•n tl) bun• H.ll th1• trndP ol thl•

""I


2H1

CIO\"KHNliU:NT

~'OR TH~;

I~J.A

D OF l'l F:RTO HJC'O.

i land l'tiUlC to thl' l nitl'<i St11t1:•s. \rill not ,·ou~ homP Govern.m ent lind fault with .vuul . · . . • · :\lr. I<)NJ.\Y. I tun l>leadtttg for thl' t•haml)('t' of t'OIIIIIIt't't'l' of Puerto Rit•n . .. I told lhost' stunt> ' munuftll'tm·l'l's hr New York: •·1 nm only I'Orr.' · for om• thin~(. und thut is thnt ,·ou t~l't' going t t•ut u:< English out of tht' tnnrkpt.. of thP islmid; ·· hut I 11111 nut "ent here to t(efcnd Rriti>'h inh1rt•,..ts: I lUll ,;;•nt ,,,. tlw t•humht•t' of t'OIIIIIH'l't'(' to defcnrl Pm•rt{l Rt.t'l\n hih•t't•>'t.o~. · · · . .\h-. PlnTiullt:w. tf WI' ndmit lhPi't· >'Uj,"'ll' f't'Pt' of tlttt\· it doe>~ no gi\·(• u. n t't•nt, hut it gin•s tlwm n honn of 'lti u hm. · · ~I ·. FtNI: ,.. I wish Wt' I'IHtld gpt· thttt honus. ~h. Pt.::rTIIlHt:w. I know ,·ou rio~ thM i" whnt. ,·ou t\Fe aftt•r. . 'l'h1• l'n tiuuN, Whut ir< .\· o~ar opinion ""to th1~ tmth of thP >'ugg••sttons 1111\dt• h\· fht• :-ll•tmt.oa·l _)It:. FtNI. \~· . WI' t'l'l'tuin)~· >'hnll not gpt tlw honui<. ''" tlw propriPtor wtlt not 1Jo(t't tt uti. hut tht• mm;t of it wtll ~o to thP ln tl'<ll'l' t'. 'J.'ht• l UAIIUI N. ~OIW ••HI I hun• toft! U" ahout >'U}-."111', tohHt'l'O, I'll'., t'UII you ll•ll u" u.n.nhing- tthout wbut kind of a ~ovt'l'lllllPnt thr· pPoplc M Purrto Hit'll wtutt. ut· outrht t11 hun•: or han• von . turlied thad :'\lr. 1-'n~~.Al': Tht• duunllt:;.Of I'OIIIII1l'l'l'l' hn>'tm(v instnu·tt•d mt• tll rep,... ,.t'nl them wtth' r~·ft•t't't.wl' to ~·~:onomi1·al pi'Ohll'lll><. I mnn fot•t•igner · nnd hun~ 'IIP\' 1'1" lll!Xt'tl 111 pHitltl'>', nnd do not wn.nt to and hnn• not t'Ollh' hl'l'l" to f('stih· in 1111\' WU\'Il>' to whnt "''''PI'II Illl'nt th .. ,· 11111\' dt>sirl' th1 rt•. · · · "' · · ' :'\h·: lltll't:w. I do nt;J t know hut that it i" ht•.nmd your >'tltd.' · of tl11• qw::<tton. hut han• .nllt tltou,~rht if l'm•.rto Hi1·n ht'I'Oillt'~< a part of tlw l ntt<•d ~lllf1•s. ll>H'on >'II v. and va tn·atNI pt't'l'i,..~· h· .~.. out· otlwt· Tt>r· ••itot'il'"· with inttli'I'Ollllll.llnit·nti ln ll'tWI't'H tlw two ;.ountril'>' n.nrl intt' t'- . t'tlllllllunil'lltitll df id(·ll~ on ',indu:<tril's, mid lnhot· qm•><tioll>', nncl wnge><. nntl,d 110t ""1'h lluttll'l1' lw t.uijn:4. cl i11 PuPt'to Hico >'O thnt n•lntin•lv thl 1,\' .Wtl~~~~~ I~• II f!olll t tu; "!IIIII' w[th l'l'ft'l't'IH't' to WU~(>:<, ~:.tt• .. :1>' ~~~rt,'! )It. 1- 11"t.A'. !\ot l'XIll'IIY I thmk. hl't'ltll"'' tlw dinmttt· l'nndttton:s :n·p diffl;l.('llt. Tlw i>'lnnd 1,. n•t'\' dl''1""1.'· J>OJ?UlrttNI lw>~i'tlt>>': hut tbet·c ·~ n•i douht thnt all t ht• l11horingf dn:<s tt.nd 111 t·t:<~tns would pro tit hy thi" lllt'n>~urt•. nnd would ,l!t't a J!l'l'llt tlt•nl big-hl'r wng-P>' and dre"" nnd t.>nt hettt•t·. · . . 1 :\lr. lh:t•t:w. Tht• islnh1l is mon• dl'll>'l'h· ponulatt•d thnn ""'. l'it,,· i11 thl' l'nion! · · · · . :\It:. Ft:H..',Y . Y1•~<. sit·. \ :'\lr. Pt:lll\1:'(>'. It i:< ""' d1' H>'I'Iy popnlat!'d a>' BPigium. :'\It·. :'\k('o.,rA:<. Do .' ·ou •xp d to ltPt•ohw an ,\"merit'llll t·itir.en! )fr. :FtNI .. \Y. :\u. ,..iJ·: I 11111 nn Etwlir<hnutn. I athpin• \'PIT mud1 .th1• .\llll'l'i1·nn untiur't. a11d I had tilt' plt•:t>'UI'l' of :<a\·itw >'0 tn tli1• othct• I'Olllm!th't'. aud I.wot'tld like to ><1'1' tlw 1 wo tl:w: uriitt•d : hut nn· fn.ther ,~··.• · nn Engli,..hm:tn. If I !i~·~·rl i!' tbl' Stnte,..~perhnp. th.- t~tltpbttion · nn,~tht lw' \'l't·y jll'l':tt. lltt hn11g 111 Pm•t'to Hteo. althonl!h 1t ma\· he .\n)t•ri 1111. or i" .\nH•ri<11n-;-tutd t~!'I'P i" no kllo\\;11~ ~,· hat imty hnppen\ ' t't u.t prt',..('llt I rio not thtnk T Will. llllll'h II>' r :tdllltl'l' \ ' 0111' nutton. I h,nn' l~t'l',l~ n.~kt~ I ~hi' qu•,..~ion. wh _,. I was n::king f01;. frr tmde for llH'r!o Rtl'O. I lwu~g •n J<.uj!h:;hmnn. and .1 ht>,l! to >'11." tbnt ut the Dtl't•tmg of tht dumther ~f <·nmmPn't.', wbPn T"'""' nominutcd ~~~ n del\'~,.h· to t'Oill . bt•t'(', J pt'Otl'stPd nnd did not wish to t'ODll'. f >'ttid that I WR" 1111 Enj.!li,..hmnn 1111~ r did not wunt ""·':thing to do '"ith lUI~- of

tiOVKRNM~:NT

~·oR

THl<:

ISLAJ)fD

OJ!'

I'II~:R'J'O,

Rl 0 .

217

t\1• c t•ommi:; ·io11t<; tlmt thar should ~-<Pnd n Pnm'to Hil'!ln mth1 r thtttt !IIY>lcl f. Bt!t tp"." ::<ttid the,: had >'t'l1\\'t'llt'rl out U11• wo•·cl " frm•igm•t·"

Ill the t•tmstltutton of thP t•hmnh<'r of I'Oilllll('l't'P. n11rln>~ wP w1•n• only t•oming to rept·e~cnt the I'OIInnet·t'i!ll inh•t•t•"t" of thP iMhwd th<·,· W\'1:1: Kind to St'nd lilt' her<• und I <111111' und 'I' prot""''· ~till. I tttu ~htd to l'Ppre>'cnt th 'Ill ht'l'l'. '

,JANUAIIY : ~o, [1100.

STATEMENT OF IIR. ENRIQUE GONZALEZ .

. Till' t'itAIItMA:s.' ' l'lt•n>'l' g-in• ,.\'0111' tiiii\H', stnte 'whPr\' \.\·ou li\'1', nnrl yom· Ug'l'. · 'f ' ~lr. lioN;r.At.t; ~. Enl'iquP <1onr.!IIPY.; hot·n in ~. io ( •mndP. Ptu•t·to Hit·o: il-l- \'l'lll's of :1"1'. · · Thl' CtiAIICMAN. \\•hut is your 11\'I'II!JUtion I 1 )Jr . .OONr.,(u::r.. I 11111 11 lnwn•r. an n •rit·ultumlist. nrul n mir<<'l' uf ntttlt• nnd l'OtfPI'. " 4 1 The CIINWMAN. linn you hnd ttny~hmg to do with thP prodtwtion 1 < <>f ~<Uglll'( :'\lr. OoN:r.A t.t:;r.. Y""· >'i r: I ttl so hnn• >'Otll!'' >'U~nt• plnntntions. ThP t'IIAIIiMAN. 1I1m: 4arg-t• nt:P .' ·out• plnlttntimt" of ~•ig-n r! :'\It·. 00N7.At.E7.. I II\\"1T Ulllll UI'I'P,... iu rl jtlO mon• I hn\'t' h•nsPti, M "'hi<·h ;wo an· umiJ·r '''"'"'· 'Fiw l'IIAIHMAN. linn• you a t•ofh•t• plahtnti.on: ami if so, how lut'g'l' i.s that! . :\Jr. rloN;r.At.t:;r.. I hu,· p~Oo Ht'I'P><.of \vhidt ~Uitat• I 'C>' tll'i• in t·ultinttion . Tlw l~ IIAIHM AN. l~o .'·'?u 'pr:u•t il·t• yo\11· pl'trfr~~ion "" 11 luw,,·l'rl . ~II'. (1oN7.AU:~. (\o, >' II'. . Tb' UIIAIItMAN. ·ll an• \'OU t'\'\'1' held ltn\' ofH1·~tl positl1in: nml if~~~. whnt twd wht>nl · · < ·· • ~lr. UON7.At.t:;r.. :'\o: unh•,.;,- \'ou so t•ml,..idt•t' du• on1• I lu'. lcJ wn~ wlwn I Wlli< eh't\tl'rl to tht\ Spuni:<h (.'(rrtP~. in' •hlch I i<!'rrl'<l n 1wrio<l of two year,., from Lt'H5 to I IJ!l7, lrPi ng- t•h•t·tP<I In· tlw l'llpital of .l'uPrto ltit'l), whi .. b i· ·an houoritt'\' po~ition .' . • · ThP CIIAIIIMAN . '\'ou I'I')JI'l':<Pntl•d San .Juan in tlw Spani>~h Corte,; at :\lndrid I ~ . rlr. GoNZAt.t::r.. Yt>~<. :<ir. ·. l'bt•l'HAIIOIAN. •Did you ><o t'PIH'I'SPntj::-inn .Junn during thut Jll'l'iorl! r lr. GONZAJ.~;z. YP>~. >'ir. > !'he CttAmMAN. That is tl,u• mtly otH1·inl po,.ition ,\ ' 1111 ban• pn•r hHd! :\lr. OoNZALt·:z. Yl's, "it·. I t'l'lll'l'~<l' tit~ld ,'an .Juan and fiftt•••n othm: tOW IIi<. . ~l'he CtHIIOI AN. How many 1'1'\)l'I'~<PntutiH>' wt•t'l' thPt'l' in tlu• l'ol'tt.:s frOI!J the i:slnntl of Pm•t·ro Hit'O. I. :Mt·. Go:>zA-u:z. Tberr WPI'P Lli in tlw lmn't' hous\' and il sPnatot'><. J'he UHAIII~IAN. You wPr it~ tb .. lower hou>'l'! i\lr. fiONUt.t:r.. Yi',.., ,..i ... The Ctutu~tAN. You bPal'd 'the :;tut•ment mndl' h,· ~II'. Aumrl1·o~ }lr. GoNUt.E;r.. Y""· sil': und 1 onl\· wish to mltl u >'tlltl'lllt'nl ·on l'CI'Uillg the t~llgnl'. industry of Puerto .kieo. The <..'IIAtn~IAN. A t'l' you thP pl'esidellt of thl' sug-at· ll~>'tll'iation . 1


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.Mr. (MNz r.F.z. No. ~'lit·: nil thr .agt·it·ulturhot>< hn\'1~ t\nitl'd nnd 1nm vi~-e-prt', idl'nt. · · · ~ ' · . ·• Thl' t'IU.lRMAN. YonJUl<' ·\'il·e-pl'l':sidl'n t of thl' ilmm' I!OI.'il't\· of whi<"h Mr. A.Jnadt>o i"" pr<'.,.id!,ntl · )h.f'rO.NZAr,•:z. Y<'. ,><it·. · •1 The :u IitMAN. Do ~· ou t·ome n.~ tlw rt'prr><enl~.tiy of nn,\'hody I )lr. (TONZAr.t:z. A,. onl'. of tlit• rept'<'>'entath·<',. of the u •r•~ultut·i~tl-1. Th<' CHAIRMAN. Prt/<'l't'd nnd tt-11 :m< .whnt. \'Oll wnnt t(l in. •·eg1u·d to · · trw "ll~l" indw;try. )Jr. HONZAU:z. Tht• wiJOll' i"lund of Put>rto Hil'o eompri,.Ps nhout t"·o~ milli u llt'r('>< of land, of whii·h .· fot· nu;ioU>< purpo>'r" l,ll!I-!,H3J 1\t:n•" Rt't' nuw in ""t'. Tht'liC n1·e offi~ ial tigur ;;, · :I'ht>l'l' tue in the i,.l.a nd -W.~l r..tatt·"· pt'tbltp:<. 1tnd the' n~renjC of thr islnnd j,.. clM::~i­ tit>d in thP foll.owing tignre:~: Hugnr t•nne. 76.1-!5 tU'l'C.: t•ofJee. L81,8~.J. . R('J:CS: tohat·t·o, 1+.057 aert•:<: minot· ~rops. 1 4.7±5 t\cre:~; otlwr >~mRll 'wm,. of t•nltimti•m. IIi, j'U) tl<'l't'l'l: p!l"tnre • .l.H8 aO!I nt•rf's: undrr· hru~b. lcW.:350 1\t'l't'":• woo&.. lH5,057 llnt•:s. u.nd other t,hin~ nvt dnl'!~:~i­ ti.-d. ti-!,624 lll'l'.;,.., lllRking the totnl tt.~ Rhow. 1 With tbe"e ligtlt'e:s l war;tt tl..l dl'mon trn.h• the in•pos:Jibilit,· thnt tb nuttl't:inl intere)<tl!! of tbe island .could .1 lffrd in 1tny w•~Y the 'mntl'dal intere:;ts of the nited · tate:<. ' Thi>~ i8 the offil'iRI · dll>~sitit·ation madt' hy tbr <towrnnwnt thi>< ,·ear. 'Thl' im:r<•tt><t' of cultinttion of . ubl'!ll' c1tnl> t.hi ,-cnr wnM nmdt' ln tht; hopt• tbRt thP nltUkt't>< of tbP l'llitl'd Sin.te>< wouid ht• opened to u.'!; hut a further ' inaen"t' l'Ould not ~,..,..jlJly pn"" twit'l' tht• pre:sl'nt amount, "" hut u, limitrll..J>nrt of tht• t:<htnd ill ><uitahlr fot· the l'nlti,·ntion' of tbi · phlllt. , · · lJy t'Xff rwm·e of tlw fnnnl< 1 l 'Jt. 'd, pnyiJtg It \'t'l',\' high mtP of l e1l.~l' ·~c•m"t' tboug,bt t.lwrt• iy.ould lw n gr1•J\t futme for :<ugn.t·. ·h n..~ heen tQRt I bnn• only \wen 1\ble -to utililw of it 30 pt'r ct'nt notwith,..tnmling the .Jnnd" wl'r" t•on id •red thr ,·nry he~t ground for . ubi'!)I' enm~ on the i,..Jnnd . All ,t hr t•nltimtion or nll'thi'><C land~ . nll thr prodtwt, tnking'an !lvrmg • from l, '3 to~t~, ·and putting th pril)C at nn 1\\'l'l'llg'l' of '3t pt.':<tlt~ (>('1' ohi• hundt·('d po.uJHJ" of .,..ugar, ttnd l'offrr · ~u pe~o><, 1tnd tol111~~o at :?1.1 JWS0!-1, tlir rnoht"'~"" prodm·cd frmu the .~<ugu.t· tLt· (i pt'::!O,.., ' tht• t'XJlOrtation onJy I~IIIOUntfd to' l.,l,'()(){),()()O pC!<o;;; 1\lld f would Jikl' to n><k whethrr-if the pnxlul't · 1f Puet'to Rico muounting to 1-!.000,001.1 ~~" ut prt>>:'C'nt.dJltt',lllld l'\'~n if douhling th11m for tht> futut'f', eould ·In tun· wu ,. Hffet·t tht> indu:,~td so( the lJ nited :Stnte,.., wheren>< tht> bene· tit' th'P\' w'ou ld derin• froni ht>l' trndl' would in ptu't help the 1\lrl'it·ul- \ turi:,~t,.· ou~ of. tbedlffit·ultir" in whit·hthf'y lind th n:sclves nt prt's;ntnttd woul(lrd•t- ·"the po,·ertr nuwng thf' poor e ht,..t~t•s "" the,· rxist now. who. f,~. finding woik; wo'utd end-en\'01: to rl'lie,:t, them~;eln~o;. A,t ·o ther tin.le>< thf• Puerto J.lit11n h1ul frer tmdt- with 'pnih, nnd. in :;pite of lw-ing bnrdrn('d with taxation, enjoyt-d genet1tl wrlfr~Tt>, lwmu,;r nt lt•ll>it .tht•\' h11d onP nu(rk rt. ' whct'P to-.dll\' ttH of tbt•m dre rloRed. 'thr' CnAtR)IAN. TO'whatcxtent: in- yom· .opinion, would the pl'Odm·tion of ,..ubra•: lw im·t'('l\..;ed if .':ou wen• "in•n free tmde 'ivitb tht> Unitl'd'

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)Jr. .(:J l'iZAr.~:z. 1 hnve already ~id th1tt nt tb<' utside and under t~e u.w:<'t fn,·~rn.hle r ih:·umfltanre" twi<" the pt·e:;ent nrea of lnnll mi~ht IM' douhlt'l.l hut tbnt Pn•nt would also entail thE> E>mplovment.of twl{'C thP pl'l' •nt plnnt tmd . n large .qunntity of grazing" landfor the l'llttlP u~d in plowinj!. ete .. , tlw proportion of gi·nzing l~~;nd et·e snry for •~•• eultu., h<>mg ."' P<'~ ,..,, ot '"'"· ,you ~11a•t ,"''" ke from tho \

1tlllount of t•xportnhl.l' M!tgnr tht'lqtutntit.y l't'Quirt>d for l'Onslllll}1tio;, in tlw i,..Jnnd - :20.000 ton::; 1\t thl' lowt-st ~,..timntl•. . Tht> CH~IUMAN. Wlmt would hi' th~ IWI'l'llg'P p1·odtu'tiou in to1io~ p~ I' · n rt' of thl>< 10.1101.1 IWI'l:s . . Mr. OolliZAt.•:z. I' ;;Rid thnt lO,~IOO nd·l's wn:< thr iuct'<'""~' l'ot· tbi" yt•nt·. Thi~ wiH pl'Oduet' 2 bog~:~hl'IUb pet· ltl'l'l' of 1,500 pound"' enl·h. · ·Mr. Pf:HKtNs. Hnn• y.ou .en•t· ust>d nm· nrtilil'i1tl ft•rtilhwrl Mr. GOlliZAU:z. · Tlw only thing )Yt' hn\·t• P\'t:l' u:o~t•d t.hl'l·~ fot· I'Prt.ili;,ing i~< tlw •mtuml ft>t•tili:.mti'on hy tlw o\·t;>rtlowing- of tlw. l'int·,.., and on It ,.mull ,.,.nit• th(• pho,;plmtP l'Ot·k of tlw i"lnnd. I pt>P~onnil\' )111 ·p nt>\'N' U:<l'd nrtitiein.l fprtili:r.~l'>~. t · Tht> CHAIHMAN. I undHr::~tnnd you to ><•tY thnt 10.1100 IWI';.,.. wa:1 tilt> utmo:<t thnt eoulct lw profitnhly Ptnpl ~yt>d in thP prodtlt'tion of :;ug-nl·. n .Jd tJmt thnt would .vwhl ~ hog~hmtd:< pt'l' IU'l'l'. m· ::ll,,~ll)1'1 ho!.(:<lit•ml>< -ft;>l' thl' wholl' i:;l,illld. · 1 • ' M 1'. GoNz ,\l .~:z. (\ tlditionl\1, n:s l ~<~tid hcfot•t•. "' 1 Tlw CHAIItMAlli. ln. nddi.tio n to ttw ·~o.ooo? ~h. OoNzALt.:r.. I do not know to whnt iiO ooo \'Oil rl•f1'l'. Tht Ciu mMAN. ·Thnt would nmkl' in nil -!tl.ooil .at·t·t·"· · How umnr 11 ·rt•:; in "llhrtu· lmn• \ 'Oil I · ' <• 'J~h P ti' gul't:> s fU'\' -to, • wo r. • 1\.l'l't'><. I M 1·. Iuor<;~JAI.~:z. Th.- CHAIHMAN. Mnking eighty-six 1thol1Hnilcl t~dd nl'l'l'><! ~t·. Go~;.:,\I.EZ. No. "ir: my ' tigurP:; int'lu<it' thf' inn·cn><l' thnt wn. <·nlttmtrd 111 thl' hopP tl\nt tht>y would tilld 1t mnrkPt . • The CHAutMA!\. Thnt might ht> · itH'l'l'U><t•d hi·· to.ntlo. How 1111111\' phunds to n hog><lwnd.' ~ · · . . Mr. ·l~olli:r.Al.l·: z: ~ llo·u.t l.oOO\Jou•:'~"· j ,Mr. 1 •:HKI:o>S. It I" ::!Hitl hy ><('ll'lltllit• llg'l'll'lllhll'l:<t:< thM hr tht> II~P of proprt· ft-l'tili;,PI' on "uel1 f<oi l it>< t'ltf>ll\'ity ·,:nn hn tlouhh•ti- in,.tt>nd of two tOll" it enuld ht• illt'rl'l\l<('tl to fiiUI' 01' fin• lon:<. [,.. that, t'tii'I'N•t i.! \'0111' opi 11 ion I . . · . · · Mr. GoN:r.Au:z. Expl'rimt>nt~ hnn' hl•P n t'IMTit'tl ou in. mu• of tht> ~JIIgli :<h WP:<t Tmlir>< of 1'\lltint.tiug on ><ingle 111'1'1' of hind with ft>t'l'illi ~ .z !r, nnd tlw :;ugnt· produl't wns im·rl'll ·pd to •iglJt .hog.i ht>nd:< )lt'l' 111'1'1-. but ouly on that one .pnt:tit'uhu· 'm•t'P. You might lind om• partil'ulnr 1\(l't' iu Ptu•rto l~ko lhnt wo11ld do n:; mudt 41;; thnt, 'lmt tnki1w into c'Ot! idel'ntion tht>. difl!t·ulty of tt'IUI:<pot·tiug t h1• ft>l'tili;,~ 1', tu!d .th~ ,t•nkt of 1t, I do not Hunk tt l'oul(l ht• .,miU~I' to p•·ndm·l', "''"" ntlmtttmg- 1t to he douhlt>d, l'IIOngh to do Ill).\' iujlll'_r t thP iutPI'n:o~t>< ofl th i:< I'Ountry. 1 Th1• CHAII!MAN. How mui·h would fn•t; tmdP iut•t'l'lt><t' thP pmdudiou df tobnc<'o! • . M 1'. ·GONZALEZ. I t•ould uot n~l'\' Wf lJ ltn,..wer that q1rt•><tiou. In• '1111"1\ 1 lo not know m; llllll'h nhout toh1ie<'O II>< nhout ><ugnr. I 1The CHAJIIMAN. Wlmt kiud of 11 g-<1\:f' uinPut ought l'urrto ltit'o o 1 he given h,· thP l nited t:;tatR" I · · · . ' · · , Mr. GoN:r.Au:z. I hnw not \'f't lll('t a ><invl~ Pul•t·to ltit•nu whd dot" n9t wi'sh fo1· ~hf' ,;nme ·thing I' wi:;h fot·, and thut. i" a 1!P1Titw·iul 1foi'IU o~. go\·PrnnJ('nt. The CHAIIUIAN. In whut wn.l:'nnd t wlmt extc ut O\tght tlw l''m•rto Ricllnt~1 to p1util'ipate in th1tt gonn:um nt, if. at all '! Mr~ GONZALEZ. In thl• :<ntlle Wit\' nnd to tbt• "mtit' cxh•nt thnt t•itizi'n;; o~ the l.TnitPd Stnte:< p1.11'tieipntq ln trtTitorinl go,·crnment. undt 1r tlw htw~:~ gm·oming T<>'rritOJ'i tJ~:~ _n,o ( thiuk w1• ~ltn• men just II>' t'Olll}l'tr•lt to bl' mtru:<ted with olll' ntfni•·"· ,


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UO\'KRNllENT Jo'OR 'fHJo; . l!<LAN"D Oli P Jo:R'£0 Rl 0.

The u · tRMA N. \ Vould it not I . better to restt;ict . nffrag to tho~c who at1' tthle to rettd and writ ttn~ who owil J?roperty 1' .dr. OoNZALF.Z. In Puerto Rico w tried uinversal ~uffmge proviou~ to th An\e rll.'an ()('cupatlon and we h1we see n that our 1111 dum~ted· <·~ ' kn<>w lbow to us this/rivil ge. . )Jr. CocKRELl .. It r :mit well/ . • .Mr. Oq~~Au:z. Tn previou:s ·<ll<'t·tion:s, ye. : in th la ·twe did not have timl' to ju"dgt} .of tb pmctil.'ttl · res ults, a:s the itwru;ion followed inuuediate lv after. · · · The 'H IDAN. What kind of a n el d io n wus iU :\~1'. Oo ,.z LE~. :Forth • P u rto' Ri can 1\ ' emhly . whe n ' pain t•on~.-tded t'OJUp.!etc autonomy to P ue r to Ril·o. . . 1fh(• Cu IIUI A . How miurv mem bers of th • n.... ·emhlv wt•t·e there und r that ili.ttonomi ti~· go,·rrnmcntl • )h. GoNZALEZ. Thirty-two. The <.:u tRMAN. \V n• tliert> two hou><e.,;, or o nly om• I )tr...oNzAu;z, Two bo l!<l'><, ealled th e in~<nlnr ohmnlJCt' und the l'Otmdl of adruirri.;tration. . Thr ( 'HAut:ll N. How mam· nwmhe t·;; in t.hl• t·on nl'il of nd ltlin'iRtm· .

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:\lr. OoNZA I, t:i. If l da not 1'1', :<eno n. Th<• ('n' HOl AN .. ' ,. n m •mbel'>' in the uppt>l' hon:<e, u.nd :1~ in the lnw t'.' and hoth hou:;e · elected I • :M r. G NZAr.t;;r,. ·Yl' , ;jit·: the elcl'tiot~>' for the uppP-r houso wem 1111\d(' In- dircd ,·ute. "" the Pr • idcnt iul t•lection:< are held in thi" t'OIIl fh·.v~ oh,y d legate:<- spertki tlg f1·om. Ul ' tu.ory. , Th(' ' HAIRJ\IAN. D legntr:< w re ·fir:<t elN·t<>d who dwse tlw llH' lllh •t·s u f the nr.per hou:<r I )(r. {.ONZAl, t:z. Y CIS, :;it , · 'Tbe l'n IRM AN. How w t'C ltJ<> d l egate.~ elet·tcd; did th Y ,·otr hy 1 • di.;trkt:; or th who! islimd I · ::\lr. Go z.lu;z. Ry populllr ,·otc in the di:<trid,:. · · Th 'UAUOIAN. How muny n>pn•sentutin:•:< we t·e t he re from each . • , -· dl:;ti-il't I · )fa·. ('70 ZAI.t:7._. Th numlwt· wn;; d itfet't> nt, ttl'l'Ord m ~ to t he numbe r of inbit.hi tants. I hn\·. not the exact . figure:<, hut l contd a:sc rta!n . The ~ II AIR:IIAN. Did they g·et good me n or oth envi:;E~ ~ .. )~r. Go iAr.t-:z. Th<>y w rc ex<· !len t , a nd all of , 'm nn.tivc>l o f Ptlerto Ui · . \ Th If lR:IIAN. Did thl'y ele,·t any other oftit·ial.~ exl'e pt tho:<e oo lor~gi~g .. -tb~~ l e~i i<lll~i.ve ll:l>i mhl,,· ? • · )It. {. NZALEZ. l 0, >l!r. Tht> Cu IR>" A~. ·rhry did not <> IN·t judge. ·, o r thP g-o,·ernor, o1· uny IIO(ly •l"'t> I . · · . · )} t·. G ' ZAU;z . No; :<i t" hct·tnt:st' thl' auto nomou:s cuw;titution "'''a nteCl hr :-;pain did not allow t~ The ' HAHDI AN. Do rou think en'ryhod.'· in the i:jluml oug ht to hellllm\'('d to \"i:>t 11ow. ull llll'll f fu ll ag • ~ · :\Ir. .Go 'ZAI~ •:z. Yes, it'; I mn in fa,·or of lllll'l'st r~l'tl'd :<nthiwP. )ft-. l~ l.UN<i•; n. ln. thllt cledie r\ whieb Wll:'! held w •t'l' tbey pt> t'ntittN I to ,·otr without l) n~· .undue inlhte nl.'e on tb e part of thr men who were edtwa ted an,d ow ned la rg pr perties I .

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Mr: Nt;r.soN .· Did t he,v ,·otu by ec ret hnllot or \·h·n voc·e in olf'ctio n ~ You know how Wf' ,·otl..' b •t·e in Amerit·n-Mr. hoNzAJ.Ez. B\: set'rl't hallot. · · Mt·. FAlR1JAN K. . '\\ h<>n did tbe,,· first l..'xen· i:<e the elel'tin~ frdm·hise! M t·. 'GoNzAu:z. Autonomy wn:< impiRntt>d in Purt-to R't·o in ~.lnrl'h. ~7, . h~~ th,~t wn~ th e ~Nio nd ~inw w~ ~ud exerci::!ed thl' sitt,l r fl'nn d118C. the ti1·:;t tm1e w_n,; tn 1860. dnr1ng thE• Spuni ·b revo lu tion . Mr. :FAJRUANKS. The :st•t·ond tinw 1VI\!'I nftrt· tht> t r·rut\· of pt•!l('l'! ·. Mr. GoNzAu:z. No, :sir; before the Wilt'. .. · 1TheCHAIIIMAN. Autonon1.'· u:<'grl't.nte<'Li.tll8~i. Wll>< it'not! ~Jr . GoNzAu:z. 'Yt>.. · The CHA lll~IAN : l)o y ou think we· ' ould lw snfc now in r~;tnl·,n,..hiirg dvil gO\'I't'lllll<'n.t in ~nrrto Rit·o a nd pro,·idjng for 11 lAgi:<ln ti,·e n . emTJiy I · Mr. (~ONZAI.f!Z. I would think th11tJ 111i ndmimblt> id(•t}. The CHA IRMAN. ·Would you ba\'1' onl' hou:~c o1:Awo holt><<'>'! Mr. GoNZALEz. Two hou. e. ·. · · The CHA UUIAN.. A rt> nil thr JWoplc of Pnertd Ui<'o tlxpeding .tl-1 t th ey )Vill ~~given th is pn rtidpltti oll in ~o\· emme nt, stwh Ill'< yon t-<1\\' they o ught to h1·n:e I, • · • • , ~ • .· 1 M.r. GONZALEZ. 1 t·~, :-o rr ; wtth n.•r.r few e xl.'ept!on:s.. l;be 4m~o~· ~ty , nr 111 fayor of that, hemu;:r tbr,· hn\·t> a h:eadv tr1 ed Jt und it~k'ed ve1·.v well . The lejfo'i.;latme of Put>rto Uic~·h1id th e right to tak1 -t in t bt> distu:;~ion of th<'l tr 11tie;: t hn t hm ld he 11pplied to the isla 11. I Mr. PETTIGHEW. Would the peopl<> he :<ati:;tied with thr form of govennne nt th11t • pnin gtwe them ~ ' . Mr. GoNzAu~z. Ye:;, i ·. · 'IIw la;:t ~m; ' rnme nt it gnve them th ,. we re prett~· we U sl\ti:sfi ed witb that, "" tl: npproximntl's ve t'\' elo. eh- 't o tbr Ameri t·an for tn of tel'l'itorinl go,· c rnm,c nt: · · M r .. NF.L..'!ON. The,· exJ?ed it ? • M r. GoNZAJ.EZ. Y es :;1r. . Mt. GALT;INGRtl: Yon :m.v tney w · r·e .well t-~lltistied witfr t he governrnent that Spai n gnv th m- 1 tnke it thi,; tim e when the,• ,·otcd. Did th,at rt'li e\·1' von 'of t hr om•ron>< a nd odi6n:< tnxatio n t hPY hu e! h ef'Il unde r to ltm· · oxtl'nt! · ~ · Mr. GONZAl,t-:z. No, sir : thf'Y bad JOt t un e. The ,..,·:;tem wh:< not n bad an hitt it,; ai)J?,Jit•ntion in 't:jpnni;; httns:\s Wll, COl'l:llpt. · Th CHAIH1\IAN .1 l'bt\t i,; if they hnd htH' Il nl!owecl to go on. th e \· mi$bt ba,·e l'elie ,·ed_thrn~:seh-es? · ' · •''[r. GoNZA u :z. l es. os1r': The HAlRJ\[AN./ I'I!ey h 1~d fftlltegislative l~Owl'rfbrdoinc t i<· contrrn:· ~ Mr. Go'NzAr,.:z. ltos, :;n·: th<'n the wnr <'nml' o n a nd--of t'OUJ'$1' th<'re wn.· t\11 ~ nd Qf it. , . ·, . . j • .1 , I nvarl ·~~ .' ·· e.lf of t ho permts to n of tb e ' (•omt~ut u•e tf~ pre:sc11t to ·~ n statement, wbtth hus bee11 pt·epared hy ijw . r Amadeo a nd my elf ih r gn rd to condi t io ns in Puet'to Rico, and wfiich is IllS follows: The delegateH r pt·(•:;enting the ng•.·icultur.ist of Pu rto Ri<'o, in fulfillme nt of their mission, ha\· t b bon l' of layi ng before rou llll account of ·the·critical con.dition of fimnirl~ in~Testl! in that tsland. The:; inter13>ttl!, in respe ·t to eoffee plantati10ns at lenst1 ILre alrendy ~t the lust throo and .if n: remedy i · not quicldr provided. will di apJ>ehr e ntirely, e ntuiling nil the conseque ntoes of a diminution of 60 p()r eent of th , totnl wetLl~b of the island, and the responsibili ty will re t upon

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nov.~<:~NKJo::NT Jo'oR. 'I'HJ>: 1"'\ANO oJo· l'l Jo:R1'1 ' Rl o.

OOVJo:R:NUNT }'OR 1'HJo: ISLAND tiJo' PlllmT I RICO. 1

th(. .\m~r.it'lln ni1tion. whil'h morr thtm 11 .' ·cnr 11go wn>~ implor~d to pro. \'id<' ll l'l'lll('d,·. . . . . · ~int·~ tht• b'ul'l'il1lll(': \II) {X'l' l'l'l" of th e t•otfet• (' tntl'>~ hnv(' hnd to rn' "httn~on~l (fot' oflid$1 \'onthmntion ,.;tw l'Cports of l'nitNi Stntr~ \\.eathr1· 1d l'1·op Hurt'tut). 11nd. n>~ tt t' n>~e<JU<'nl·r, tht> n<'gl<'l'ted pl11nt,.. urc 1 1idh· d~1 lng undt' l'· the tropi~·ttl wt>cd:<. whieh t'llllt~\' 1!101' dnllllll(l' thllil t• hurrlt'lllle it.o;clf. · .. Othrr t·rop>~ ·tU'(' nl,oo i-luff('ring g~·t•ttth· owinj!' tp t)u· ·!·ont.ml'tion c)f t'l't•dit l'!•fort• the wnr ahd it:< tutnl• :<top}'>tlgt> 1\nd olht>T t'llll"f'" >~in~:e . 'tbllt JWriotl The l'irl'ulating nu•tHum. ttlwlly>< in>~ufJil'it•nt. hn~ heen further 1'\'llun·tl .by tht' l't•alization nml remitbuwt• of fort>ign f'npitnl~:~ " to F.m"(lpt: Thi>~ hll>~ ttlwtt.n• ht•c 11 o1w of tlw >~eoui·g('>< of the i>~htnd; thl.' t•hfln~· i:•f m•.tiomll.it.'· hrought nhout h.' ' the wnt: haYing hut intl'n>~i ­ tit•d thr llt•<"il't' · to l't·t~~rn on ' t:hr ptlt't of 111111iy t·npitnli>~ti<. who, now . h1•ing nli1'nl'. \'ill not ll.i·n•pt the 11\'W l'Ondition>~. Tli1• rl'nl grtn· it~· ofJ tht• ><ittmtion. ""' wt• ><aiel hdo.n.•, gt•nl:leHil'n, j,.. thllt plnntt•r>< do not,. IWO\ · to whom to' tHI'n to obtnin thr fld\'lllll'l'S n l'('>~>~nr.v to t·qmir tht•i1· d"mngrd hlllding~. \\ lmt littll' hns hct n doni.' in th~tt rlil·t>dion i>~ lk•ing pniu fol' with tlw f 'Kl :-~tlpplh~:< :;o gen- . l'rousl. :<t'nt hy thi>< nntion.ttnd whit·ht hr lop tl hoanl of ~·11nrit.ies di,.;tl'ibutes tunon~ th1• cpluntl•l'>< to >~<·n· e in,..tl•ud o f wagp:-~ fol' thl'ir tidd lttnds. Thi.- IHI.'Il"'tll'l' i,... and "honh:l '"' .. only tc mpw·al'.c hut nt it<" t•undusion wr t<ht\11 lul\'l' to ful'l' a >~ituation of romplPh' uhnndonHH'nt of wol'k fo1· lat·k of fund,... all 111~'''-"Ul'l'" fot· mobilizin~ our mluahle pl'Oprrtie:; 'l~in~ withht•ld fruln tt:-< hy wnnt of lt>~i>~lntln~ lll'tion . Tht• t·quntl·~· hns ntinl ~ sought. up to th r prrsl' nt, reli<'f whit•b only, 111n lit' afJordt'd hY 1111 in>~ulat· lo1tn. \r e·han found tbttt mu nnon ... .'ttlou>~ po ition dui·ing tlir lu>~t two ,\'etu·s hit · pr , ,· ' nted us from enjoying thr llttthorit~· or !Jtandinj! nl'l'!':;SSl',\' ·fot· :-~m·b Ill 'ltitll'C to he tnk<'n ~ ,while llt. thl' i<amt• time it hll prrv ~nted fot·l'ign t•ttpitnl from l'Oming to ·r k mw:;tnH' nt aruo11g u,... 'It 1:; useless to expe ·t tht~t with a p er 111pita cir!'ulation of~ onl.'·· ttny rent l'eml'd.v l'IUI be looked for in the jt<lttnd. . Ani .01' nil uftit'llllltion to thl' l'Olltl'lll'." 1\I'C either· im·o'n ect or nmHdous. Tht• TrntedY tuu:'lfobe ought out,..ide. : · · The minimum mtc of intere,..t pttid to-duy in Puerto Hid) i 12 per t'l'nt; with the intPr('st di ~:>t'O tmted from the :-<tllll udmm·ed. The maxinnun- b<>lll·ing 011 thr mnjority of mo rt mg d properties- i from · h to :15 Jl!-!1' ,. ' nL vith the ohligntion of ,. pnynwnt in t•rops, whieh \ · r 'll:<UilliF l'l'el' h·ed utI<''='" thlln nuuket pri ·e hy the et·ctlitor. Th<'re i · unother phlll;e. gentlrmrn. whirb require. .vour earnc t attention. Owing to tbr mpid spi·end of eoffec phlnting dul'ing tho , la,..t dt ('1\de.' mut·h t~pitaJ ba heen >~ttnk in them, nnd mo t of the plan- · tillion" nre IIIOI'tgagrd. Thi ~< i · fi'Rsil.'· explain d h~' tha fad thllt ~otfe require t'ix .n•llr" ~<',ulth·Rtion be fore lln~· ret!_lrn are obmined. The totat · mortgagt' :de bt .qn coffee holdings, however. i:s not mor than 'li!lO.OOO.OIIO. wher<'ll.-1 the mlue of th e bofdings t.hem:;eh·es ealeull\ted n a l.tMis of fivr ye~ £' xpo1·mtion, i>~ at lea t iii60.0QO,OOO. • In 11pite of. the small amount of this de bt, and b~·. l'el\,~on 'of the limited amount of eu'rrenl·,·L held in a still more limited number of hand. 'then' 1' no frpe Jita k 't for plantAtion ' thu. enabling creditors to pot!:! themselve of the properties in gmistion at forced sales fo~ the amount of tlie mo~ deht ulone. whll un:recured t•r ditors ar left

enl;.rety uriprote<.te<f. ' Thet,...,fo•dng of • plantaHon

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itor's to tlw. ch,bt01: " ·hnnd:; for. thr third pnrt of it,. mlm• i>~ u l'?mlnpn · Ot't'lll'l'l'lll'l' .•n om· t><htnd~, t\nd mthl' pn'I'!'PiJ.t "t"h' oflt·ril'lis \Vot\ld hn\·o l~·eome. 111~1\'Pl'>'ttl th~ rcm unles" Gt>IH'I.'lll R ent·.' hl\d not int<' ·fr1wl, . w1th h1s tnuol_y or~l'l' of .ramuwy 11!~ of I >~t .n• ,r. ~l'llnting 11 : < tn\' of foreolo~<urP prol'et>dn)g>i for one \'eh1·. · · Wht•n thi~ det'l"t'l' Wtls j,..,.uod o'•w l't' •dito · nlon~ wu.~ forrdo>~ilw on f~rty csf:tltl':t, whieh. in thl' term .of tbi1·t.r dny>~-unclt•r the ' p1~ 1 i::<h . mor~gagt' .h~w-- ,~mtld ht~\"(\ f!dlen to ,himnh>;olutt•ly. thN·r lwing tlo pos.~1blc btddt•r,.; among the dr'htor>~. Tbt•>~~• fad>~ l'IUI he \'l'l'ilird nnd •~:re hut t•xnmplc:; _of what happt•ned ~ttily, gidng- rist• to n t·ont·PntdttJOn of propPI'ty 111 thl' h11n.d" of t•uplfnli>~t,.. who li,•e in forpicrn coun tl'ir>~ ttnd dmin tht• i:lh~nd of its l'irrtthtting lllTf'n~·'' h,· t'l'mittlng tlwir fortune" to the ·lnnd of th<'ir hirth. ,. · .In vit>1~ of thf-. ge ncml t·rith:nt t'O\tditio 1 of agrkulturc ·in P1wrto H.ti'O thl' ~·,t·t:l'rtLry of Wll!' has )U"t gmntl'd n fmtht•t' t• ·tt-n>~ion of >~lx , month... I hts 1!1<'1\Slli.'O wtll, fm· the numt •nt, hold otf th1• n\•nlmwhe of fo~·~~··toslll't'."· but docs. nut fundnm.untall.~ prm~dt• 1.~ rPlitlf for ,;uJ h COII.ctltlOI.I,IlS It dOl'!'l. ll{)t leavf. plnn I'S 0<'1' t,? pled~r thrir ('I'OJ!;!, wh!eh w.tll no~ be .g~tltrreu unttl ll-ft.l'tl thak pl'l'lod, for udmn1· :s w1th whteh t!-' .l't'ptur tlic•y smtt·~.. If no ~mth ' I' l't> medinl:;tep.;;tl:e tnken om po>~ttl ~lll ln ftcr S IX month:; _wtll lui. d'Jo·•·•ihle: e\·cn lllOI'l' l'l'itid tl thun nt prt':< nt. ~ · 'rhr foreg ~ng l'f't_mll'k:s t~1·c 'qunll~· ttpp\icable to th e .other l'l' ~ grown. 111 the t:sl!l'nd. 'pgnr lo.:t its market.<:~ in &pain, tht• hunicun t•oumntt •d honthle m vng<'s whtch tu'~ to-dtw beir1g further felt in tb . po~r :lnn·hnl'iile qtutlity. of t.h e 'mne , nmltt:etttt~d lJ_v' wind und flood, whllt> ~h r tohtwco t•rop~ for th.e ln::~t .two y~nrl!! have been sold at tt. rt1ipou:; pl'II'C for want of murk •t. ·. Mm9r erop>~ we re wiped out ~tl1d ('l~ttle killed in (nrge numoor::~. , I . This, genU men i:.; our sud condition to-day. A ll we hnYe said we cait pron~, t\11 we do not douht but tha y onr honomhle t•onnnittee hn>< alrP~td~· h ard th e . 1\lliCj detltil. from ' other sources. ·· i I ·, 1 • \Ye ~hull m;nv take th e' l'iberty, gentilemen, of t;dcom1nencling o you wlm~ 111 OUI' JUd(pnent, are 111Cl\Sttre tht~t l!!hoHld 1!Je tnken to ext1·imto mv: I 1 ltmd fl'OI~lll>.~ pre · e~t t<'rrible eondition ~_Lnd to put it on t.hf- high 1;ond to· ~n era of · r>ro~:~penty never h fore attnmed I · ; These mca.:;w· s ttre: • · First. :rbe eR~thlishment· .of ._u Terrlt.Orinl form of. -govm·umellt for Puerto Rtco, whl<'h wonld g •vc o. full mensure of ,;p(f-govcrmeilt to it.<~ inhabitant.~. ' - [ Se1·ond. Tht• extension of the ni f~d 'tntr~< tttritf Jttws to Puerto Rico tmd Rdjaccnt islapds. · I Third. The authorizing of th · in ular government to eontmct 11.loan for 1\n amount of Itt lei\St sixteen millionS Of .doiltmi, to be !tppJied in the con tru tion of public work , namely, ro11d mtd s •hoolhouse.~ the tt8$istan'ce of the insulnr and lmunicipnl tr usm~es, which are 'now· mpty and can not be ~lied until .agrj?ultmfj a~in begins to flourish , tmd, la~:~tly, .for the asstslllncc o~ the ngrioultururts ~be~tsclves. Fourth. The advn,ncing of a sum of t\1,500,000 from the Natiomtl Trei\Sury, to be repaid 3.fl soon ftlj the loan is e.ffected, and to be advanced by thp insu~r govemm.ent to planter~ tO tide them over· their imtn~di­ ate dtffimtlttes bY. allowmg them to clean up their planllltions, whjeh in a few months w111 be utterly ruined if unattended to.

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UO\"KKNMJol NT ~·ott THE t:;t,ANO tlF PI Jo~ RTP R! O.

OOVERNONT FOR THE IS;L.AND Ol!' PUERTO RIOO.

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· Fifth. In nrth•r to put "nid plrtnlt't':< inn po,.ition to tnkr ndntntng- • ()f fm·p..Joi<nt'l' JWO· t'fi•dinJ..~ fm ::lnl'h pe•r1ocf "-"~ · 'on~'~'"" mny . think ~ttin~. umking' tlw pewnu•nt of inh•t·t•:-~t lln at•t·umulrtt.in• ohligntion. 'rtlr fir,. of tht'"'' nWII"IIl'i'"• gt•ntiPnwn. j,.. n•quirl'd hoth h_r t'C)nity Rnd puhlil' polit·y. It would he unjust to dt•n~- Pu~t·to H.i,·o t!w right to i'lm<lm· ,,,. t•wn ntt'nir.... In urdt•t· to n•fu"l' ll>' that t1ight, tt \Vould I)(' nl'l'l'. r_,. t 1 pn'. t•ind .lKJth with jn,.tit'l' nnd out1 hi,.torit·nl l'l'l'ord. ' l'u<'rto ltit'IUI" "" n 1 oplr hnn• nH"n . .,.. .,.hown tlw g-rl'lltt•"t ch•gn'<' of · ddt• ,·irtu!' nml11 J.tl't'llt t•nplll·il\· for ,.,,lf-~m· l't'nment. Tht• tir,..t nth•mpt nt dl•t·cntmlb:rd ~O\'<'l'llllll'nt. '' hkh took plrwr in th wnr l 1:?. :<howl'li eHn at thnt Pnl'lv dntl' thnt till' Pu!'rto .Hit·nn:< wt•r;, l'llt>l\hll' 11dmini>~trntot'" of thPir · owu inh•1· t,., nnd thit! wn" t'ittlm,.in,.tit:nll~·· "'l'O),rnizt•d hy tlw PPnin,;nlnt· Oo\· r~nn<'nt.. At th_i,. pt'riod , th~· · i... lund wn" nl~o . honol'l.thl~· rl'pt't':<t>nt<'tl hv tt::~ nntl\'l'. ,.on" · 111 th~· · Corh•,.:. 'l)w l'l'IU'hon whu·h lntt'r nffl'l'tl'd thl' mtl•rmtl politit~tl t•ontlition:< of Snnin tlt•lwin•d Pm•t·to Him of ·sudt t·ight of rt>prl'ilt>ntntion. Th,,. did not utft•t•t thl' nllrgium·<' of tlw i"laud to thr motht>r t•ountn·. in "pite of t·on~<tnnt inl'iting- to 1'1'\'olution b)· tht• ,.:urro \lltlin~t ·dl'}JI:ndcm·tl'><. whit'h Wl'l'l' tlwn ><truggli tg to ohtnin tlwir fr<~<>rlom from ·' p1111.i h rulc. In the ~· l'iu· t ' oil Wl' Wl'l'l' ugn.tn eon<'ro<'ll th<' rigiJl to >'l'nd om rl'prl'~<<'ntntin•:< to th<' bonH' pnl'linnwnt. und tlie t:<lnnd wu... t•ndO\wd wilh 11 ".':"tNII of insul:w uml munieipnl Ia":" whit•h W<'rt' h:t,;l-d on thl' p ·indpiN• of ,.:rlf-~o\' l't'nHH!nt. "'I' • Wl'Tl' nl,..o nllowntl 'to rnjo.'· tb ' 'r nnish t•on><titution to it:< fnll<':<t I'Xtl'nt. nnd Wl' l'l' gnmtl'rl tlu' rno:<t l.iht•t·nl nt<'ll"ll''''"· JWrmittin~ ft·t•Pdom of thf,' pt'l':<~ lUll I thl' right pl'llt'efUJ II.' 'l'lllhly. ' Tlw i,.:lnnd Ol').."'tnized • it~ udminl><tmtion undrr tht• ipt·otPl'tion of thr><tluw,.:. whidt w<'J'l' adminilly l'lll'rit>d out hr its inhahitnnt:<. More thnu om·e Pnl't'IO Hit•o wu;; t'l'ft~ IT d to on publie ot·en;~i n" in pain ns it" · m<Xklt•olom·. If th e~· fac·t,.: w.f'rl' not ufficil' ton whjdt to bn>'l' our dttim todd(' ,·irtur:< twd t·npndt,· to direct our m\·n ltffl\ir,.. we c·ould qiwtl' .tht• l'tllllneipntion of thr :<Ia·,.!',. in om i:<land. whi ch wn trret d hollt di:<tltrhnrwe . of nn,\· I'Jn,.,:,.:, <'ithl'l' brfore or ltft<'l' tlw nholition . .nnd without lrn,·ing th l' lll f!'l'ling nnd di turiX'd t•ondition:< whil'h · ebanwtt'rized thl' nt·t in mnn\· otb r l'Otmtri<':<. Mort' than thR.t. thl' r!'lntion:< ht>tWl'l n "'"W<'~ nnd o\rm•r~>~ Wl'I'P hnrdlv RitE-red. Thl' fonit c r. nlmo:<t with011t .l'XC1'pti9n. l'OntinHI'd to work .on tbe plnntntion:< whore ·· tht ,. hnd )it·:<t ~c<' n thE' light. whil<• tht' ir old run:<lN's <·ontimt<'d to t.ren ' tli<'in wit~ -the AAnu• constde.mtion that thp~- hnd t>njoyt:'d durincr their ['('ITitHcl<•. .L'ntil thr beginning of thl' lnh• wn · bet\\'N•n pain and thl' r nitt'd ::-ltt h'><. stnti,.tks 111 Pt)('rto Hil' ,.:how!'d a >!1111111f1l' pt·oportion •. of t' riminnlih· to u'un1~1· of inhnhitnnts than nm· countl'\· of th world. In 1 ' IIH Ptirrto ico wn.s agujn gt'llnt d pr(n·im:inl 'and munidpnl law. of thr mo"t expntt- in• chnmct r. nnd th (' Ameri ·an innts ion found it in njuymt'nt' of tui ample nu.tonomnl c n. titution. whit·h g1w to the i,.:land eomt~l t.l' J:>t'''"on_nl. politi,·nl • .and. a~ministt'll~in• libet·~~- for th1• 1·ondi.tct of ttl'\ own affnn·. nnd ~<·ulu11· tnter<':st ·. Undet· tbt. :;y sten' th i. h1nd continued to :<end 16 r pre,;entnti,·cs· llnd 3 :;enator to th Cort('. i nil of..whom were IN:ted, b.r nn unrestri~,ted umnhood suffntgt' and enjoyed bOth ,·oiee and \'Ot . In view of the>~l' antecrdent>~ f. it 'admissiblt:' e\·en to.,..uppose that tb nation whos flag ha::~ ulwny:i "tood for tb embl m of the :<~~cr d right of · elf-gm·erJment can uow

of thi" loon it i" m't'l'. ,.nn· to ot·cl!'r u. furthl't' >'tiL\'

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Your oxpon~ntt! c\an not he brought to belio.v that the A me iean' 'ongr<'fiS could eommit th inju>~til'o of ,..etting Puorto Hieo b1wk tifty ymr" in it>~ politio ·al lti:-;t.ory and of 4<•nying to a p eopl,e whiuh joyfully i· 'l'oivo'cl tho ·ILd\'tlJlt. M n now ·mLtiomLiity tHe rights whieh it hn..'i pre-· '' ion::~lv t'Oilt'l'th•<l to 'l'm'l'itcll·ic" whp ' elaim,.. to iut~tice worn not "o .we ll fotwdt•<l ur who: • mpnl'it.r for !;p lf-govo mment wt\11' not nom·ly o l'lf-l'v idPnt <lo nol t.hink th1\t many argnn1ent.~ n.ro neee~r~>tary to l'!tnhli~h 1tho rig-ht~ of l'ul't'to H.ic·o to frl'l' C\Oll1111l'l'l'( with the Unitt·d 'tall' . The till' I'!' f1u-t of it~ l'l'""ion, mtifit•d by t.h trqiLt.y of Pal'i , .ginl::! it thnt right hy nil t.lu .m11ons of logio 1t11d justiel. Tho fulfillment of it.s duty h_,; the l nitt•d l 'tnt11s t'lLII in no po,.s iulo wuy be pt· •judic.it I to it.':! intm·t•st.... Th output, in .Puor.~.H.ico of :-;ug-ltt•, tobncco, omn~c:-;, ~tt't~ ~ILIII\Illl.'i CILit tHWt'l' n~<Htll.n o i!tllltc!cnt pmport, ton~ to l\Oillp(ltc wt'h smu h~r PI'Odut·tt! mi;;t•d in Uu IJ liitl'tl Htittl)~. ' Yom t'otllltry, ;vhit·h is fat• ~t·om hnving relfched tbo limi of itt! pow r of t•on:.umption inqxu·tti outH'tnous t(UILntiti c:; of tho. o trtil:lo. from fqn ign Iandt!. W·hy not tLIIO\v thoir importlt ion from the newly acquired is land, "the 'I itt! ' "i t •r, 1 ns PrP~;tJ,• nt M ·Kinl<ly atfnctiouatdy tylcl'! it ~ B s idl's. g nt.lpnwu, tbi,.: is nu l;. t~n mont >nt to ~udy Jlltt'timtlnr · dJ\Ht! inU' l'l'st..~. Th o mo.·t t!i mpl o di utntct! of ju.·ti ;, dt•Hmnd th1tt P l'to Rico h' tLIIowod to tak e tho phlt' • lLfHOng A mcl'ii'(UI T ' ITitorics wilt . I h long to h<'r. · • ~ Tlw nolit·)l of expan,..ion lngjtimatdy und •rtakl'n by t,ho Un cl Stitt·~ ln·itw. t,hi " 1\wit~tl eo uscc!'toncll in iL~ lnt.i n, :md tho nceoptanoo of the f:u-C uf xpa~siun implic:; the n · ·optnnco of the ohligt~tion:; in{nllTcd tlwrohy. ; 'Holicvo u,., g'tlntl om c n, tlmt n loan i!< tbn only nwn,..m·c which will l'tmbln Put>rto lti ·o t.o nirain cnt I' on tho pnth of prospm·ity., nncj, It::! th • i land i: fully 1thlc "to sttp ort t! Ueh lil\hility, we confide in the authority to co ntra·t a publi c debt hc i'ng- gmutR.d "" inuucdiatoly. ' L'ho ndvnnco of !i\1,500,000 from nntionltl funds would be of :-mch ihc·:tll:uhtblt• and in :;tinmhl o IJonofil to our i:<lnnd, n,.. preve nting tho di turbed co nditiou_which the tot~1 d e,.;tru ctio•! of coffee P.luntntiot~ll , would he urc t().. hrtn!{_nbQut1 that }VO are cortmn ~hrtt hut littlo ~~ ~~d• ­ tn ion on yom· pnrt wtU couv1m·e you of tlle expedwncy of :;ueh n.l!~tst. anc b •ing ox te nded to u." US ltn urgent m os.t::~ure of t•clief. ' ·we nrc well 1\Wnrc th~t puhl i · bpit.t ion di ~count~um:e~ tho it\tct·ventiou of th Governm nt in contru.ct: botwcen tudtvtdtmls, ovou going o Jar us tb affirm thnt it iii not v tQd with authority ·o to do. Tbi. affimmtion Cll.n nqt .-tnud >'(·iont.Hic anttly.·is, it bomg a bt\Sic principl(' of lnw thllt the nme ~orovel'llni nt ' hie~ guamntee by i loai · lation nud make po ihle the fulfillment of eontimct,.: cau in c·n:;~ s 9f cmergen('Y interve ne bctwe n tho partie. to a contract wb n _the exocutiou of th same i r,uinou to pu!Jlic J?olicy. If twy occn. ton Qvcr Cll.lls for ::~uch intervention the pr ut 18 t;urely ono. As we IJcfore . rerruu·ked, th '1'0 exi. ttl tt mortgsige iudoht<'dncs~:~ '":hic·h is p1LYil!g fro!n 11! to 25 pot··,. nt t}nnmtl intc·L'e.- t, t~nd which, nltoougb contr1;wthu .m the infonor silvor currency ·of tho is land, bn boon conv •rtotlm some in tltnec:; into United 'tatc:l currmwy (t\ ditr ·renee of '40 por cont) by rcu ·on of tho oxigoney of tho ct• •ditor 1tud the powerlOl:!o:~IIC.-,j of tho debtor to oppo b these usurious preten!lions.

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S. Doc. 147-15 I

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Jo:R"NMJ!:"NT FOR tfAE lHJ,ANO 01'' I'Ul!:R!):O RIOO.

'l'ht• "u"t)('n,.io n of furedosUI'c pn.~t•ceding" whirti we requc"'t hrl1t•fit.~ mtJWJ' than pn•judit•es ,the l'I'NiilO~ t•llt"" h.\· gi\'i ng lin opportunity tQ th, <lt•htliJ' tt• rt•lmhilitnt(• thl} nlim•tl JH'OJ>Cl't,\' o n w'hit·h th • litn i" • ,.tuhli lwd. lu nddit iuu to tiJi,. it i,; IL na,•asul: • uf simph• ju ... tit• • to th • unst't'lll'l'd t•re<litor. who. undPt'IH't'>ll'nt t·o nditi m:;, would he aLh ·olutely maprottl'ft•d jf fon•l'lo,..ut•t• wt•t·e itllowetl. ll<'kin r thut a • ('OIIIUJi ::<::~ion b• llllllll'd to !!tudy " '"will Ullldud and adopt 11 mifrood lnw ndt•qunt' for tlw ·"IX't·ial I'I'IJUil'\'lll!'llt" of th e i:~limd. Tbi ... lllt'IU!UI' • "11uld pln:,r nit iiuvo rtnnt fentmc in it.~ l'ltpltl llt•\'l'lopm\•nt, und th(\ t·on,..tnll't ion of works would gin} imm •diatc i'nlplo\'nwnt to tL lnrJ:l' nuntlwr of itllt• hun d:;. ' · \ ' e1·\: J'C:i('ll'dfull" . .

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L 'cAs AI\IIADEO,

I<~NmQm: Oo.NZAu~~:~,

..(lgl'i •ttltal'al Delt'(Jfltec•Ji·om 1'11.:/'lo Rico.

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