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n. 60 - March 2010 ISSN 1590-6515


bottling & packaging


Supplemento al n. 2, marzo/aprile 2010 di Industrie delle Bevande - Sped. in A.P. - D.L. 353/2003 (Conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n° 46) art. 1 comma 1 DCB TO - n. 60 anno 2010 - IP



There are machines and machines. Whoever chooses a Tosa machine knows to assure the very highest levels of reliability, resistance, robustness, and technological innovation. All qualities that characterise the Tosa

automatic double-reel wrapping machine with automatic transmission, which is ideal to stretch-wrap palletised loads. Your products will never have been so safe: because they are wrapped in the quality of a great name.

Pallet stretch wrapping machines Loc. San Bovo - Via Statale, 3212054 Cossano Belbo (CN) Italy Phone. +39 0141 88285-6 • fax +39 0141 88550 • P









CHIRIOTTI EDITORI - 10064 PINEROLO - ITALIA - Tel. +039 0121393127 - Fax +039 0121794480 -

THE VALUE OF YOUR TIME. The filtration goes on... Der wert ihrer zeit. Die Filtration geht weiter...

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Velo Acciai Srl › Via S. Lorenzo, 42 › Ca’ Rainati 31020 S. Zenone degli Ezzelini (TV) ITALY tel. +39 0423 968966 › fax +39 0423 968982 ›

Maintenance costs, system efficiency, easy management, investment return: These are the parameters we uphold in order to reach your targets.

LITA works daily, striving to guarantee your results.

LITA srl

Strada Provinciale Chieri, 19/3 10046 Poirino (To) - Italy Tel.+39 011 94.31.004 Fax+39 011 94.31.900 web: - e-mail:

AD: Š 2010 Costacurta S.p.A.-VICO

SINCE 1921... AND WE STILL LOVE IT For more than eighty years, we at Costacurta have been constantly and resolutely committed to the development and manufacture of special steel wire and plate components used in many different industrial processes. Every day at Costacurta, we work to improve the quality of our products and services and the safety of all our collaborators, paying ever-greater attention to the protection of the environment. Within the wide range of Costacurta products you will


also find METAL WIRE AND FLAT WIRE CONVEYOR BELTS, some of which are used specifically in the "beverage" sector in continuous bottling, shrink-on wrapping and vacuum packing lines. For more information visit our website or contact the division 'B' conveyor belts at


Costacurta S.p.A.-VICO via Grazioli, 30 20161 Milano, Italy tel. +39 fax: +39

Management systems certified by LRQA: ISO 9001:2008 ISO 14001:2004 OHSAS 18001:2007



Stability of the sensory quality of virgin olive oil during storage: an overview

A. Bendini L. Cerretani M.D. Salvador G. Fregapane G. Lercker

Supplemento al n. 2, marzo/aprile 2010 di Industrie delle Bevande - Sped. in A.P. - D.L. 353/2003 (Conv. in L. 27/02/2004 n째 46) art. 1 comma 1 DCB TO - n. 60 anno 2010 - IP

bottling & packaging


n. 60 - March 2010 ISSN 1590-6515


There are machines and machines. Whoever chooses a Tosa machine knows to assure the very highest levels of reliability, resistance, robustness, and technological innovation. All qualities that characterise the Tosa

automatic double-reel wrapping machine with automatic transmission, which is ideal to stretch-wrap palletised loads. Your products will never have been so safe: because they are wrapped in the quality of a great name.

Pallet stretch wrapping machines Loc. San Bovo - Via Statale, 3212054 Cossano Belbo (CN) Italy Phone. +39 0141 88285-6 .fax +39 0141 88550 P









CHIRIOTTI EDITORI - 10064 PINEROLO - ITALIA - Tel. +039 0121393127 - Fax +039 0121794480 -

19 - WINE Evaluation of fining efficiency of corn zeins in red wine. A preliminary study

B. Simonato F. Mainente I. Suglia A. Curione G. Pasini

DEPARTMENTS 26 - BEVERAGE PROCESSING Soft drink production - Automatic micro-filtration plant - Equipment for thermal treatment - Edible oil production - Soft drink analysis

32 - OENOLOGICAL MACHINERY Destemmer-crusher - Soft press - Technology and design for great wines - Crossflow filtration for musts and wines - Desulphuriser - Disgorging, dosing and topping

36 - FILLERS AND CAPPERS Rinsing, filling and closing monobloc - Aseptic technology for bag-in-box - Filling monoblocs Bottling line for beverages - Linear filling machine Automatic de-capping - Capping heads - Universal capping unit

42 - LABELLING AND CODING Labelling and identification systems - Modular labelling - Wine labelling machine - In-line and semi-rotary labelling machines

48 - MARKETING REPORTS West Europe drink consumptions in 2010 - Restaurant and packaged foods can have more calories than nutrition labelling indicates - Recession boots private label

52 - PACKAGING TRENDS Achieve the competitive edge in specialty beverages with new shrink film - Aluminium cans, the perfect packaging solution for the outdoor lifestyle The beverage can celebrates its 75th anniversary

58 - NEWS Sacmi Labelling at Coca-Cola Edmonton - New screening tool identifies high prevalence of malnutrition in elderly - Beer and bone health - The packaging industry regains confidence in the Russian market - International events in Italy


64 - COMPANY INDEX 46 - PACKAGING EQUIPMENT Depalletizer with film remover - Carton forming and cartoning machine - Linear orienting machine

March 2010 number 60









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ISSN 1590-6515



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March 2010 number 60



Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti - Università di Bologna P.zza Goidanich 60 - 47023 Cesena - FC - Italy Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos - Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha Avda Camilo José Cela 10 - 13071 Ciudad Real - Spain 2 Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti - Università di Bologna V.le Fanin 40 - 40127 Bologna - Italy *e-mail:


STABILITY OF THE SENSORY QUALITY OF VIRGIN OLIVE OIL DURING STORAGE AN OVERVIEW Key words: minor compounds, oil storage, phenols, sensory stability, virgin olive oil, volatiles

INTRODUCTION The assurance of the stability and quality of food products is a matter of great concern for producers and sellers. In the case of fats and oils, oxidation (one of the most fundamental reactions in lipid chemistry) is the main cause of quality deterioration and its reaction rate determines the shelf life of this type of food product. To maintain the phenol and volatile molecule content responsible for the highly appreciated organoleptic and nutritional properties in newly produced virgin olive oil during storage, it is absolutely essential to control all the factors that promote lipid oxidation. The high oxidative stability of virgin olive oil with respect to other vegetable oils is mainly due to its fatty acid composition, in particular, to the high monounsaturated-to-polyunsaturated ratio, and to the presence of minor

compounds that play a major role in preventing oxidation. In spite of its high stability, virgin olive oil is also susceptible to oxidative processes, such as enzymatic oxidation, which occurs when the oil is in the fruit and during the extraction process, photo-oxidation, when the oil is exposed to light, and autoxidation which mainly occurs during processing and storage when the oil is in contact with oxygen (Frankel, 1985). This review is mainly concerned with the autoxidation process, the main cause of deterioration of virgin olive oil during its shelf life. Lipid oxidation occurs through the interaction of the triacylglycerol fatty acids with molecular oxygen which yields hydroperoxides by a free radical mechanism. The activation energy of this reaction is high and the initiation of lipid oxidation requires traces of transition metals or exposure to light; the reaction is accelerat-

ABSTRACT The storage conditions of bottled or tank-stored virgin olive oil, as well as all the agronomical and technological variables of the processing stages, are particularly relevant for preserving the highly valued organoleptic quality of this product. All the efforts made in the olive grove and in the oil mill to produce virgin olive oil with good sensory characteristics can be undermined if improper storage conditions are used. In particular, it is necessary to protect the oil against lipid oxidation which can have many deleterious effects on the quality of virgin olive oil, including the formation of unpleasant organoleptic characteristics, the drastic reduction of the bouquet and taste notes as well as the reduction of naturallyoccurring antioxidant compounds and therefore shortening of its the shelf life. The oxidation process during storage is known and involves changes to both the major and minor components of virgin olive oil. To slow down the oxidation rate during storage, certain factors such as the presence of oxygen and traces of metals, exposure to light and the binomial storage time/temperature, must be kept under control. This overview will present the importance of reducing these pro-oxidizing effects, as well as the main changes which may occur during the storage of virgin olive oil at the expense of the minor constituents that are more relevant for the olfactive and gustative characteristics and its impact on the aroma and taste of the oil, particularly the phenolic and volatile compounds.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



ed by an increase in temperature. These factors can catalyse the decomposition of hydroperoxides, the primary oxidation products. The unstable hydroperoxides decompose to produce a range of volatile and non-volatile products. Some volatile components, mainly aldehydes, are the major cause of the sensory perception

of the rancid defect in vegetable oils (Angerosa, 2000). During the autoxidation reaction, a series of compounds are formed in virgin olive oil (VOO), while minor components are degraded, causing rancidity and off-flavours, loss of nutritional value and finally consumer rejection. Some major factors influencing

Table 1 Key points of major external factors and olive oil constituents influencing lipid oxidation.


Key points


Oxygen availability

- Partial pressure and diffusion - Permeability of packaging materials - Use of inert gases in the container

Gutiérrez et al., 1988 Yanishlieva, 2001 Di Giovacchino et al., 2002 Sacchi et al., 2008

Storage temperature - Increases the reaction constant - Improves the formation and decomposition rates of hydroperoxides - Decreases oxygen solubility

Ragnarsson and Labuza, 1977 Frankel, 1998 Velasco and Dobarganes, 2002 Gómez-Alonso et al., 2004

Exposure to light

- Initiates auto-oxidation - Produces photo-oxidation - The oil must contain photosensitizers - Opacity to light of packaging material - Unsaturation degree of their fatty acids

Gutiérrez et al., 1988 Jadhav et al., 1996 Caponio et al., 2005 Méndez and Falqué, 2007 Holman and Elmer, 1947

Free fatty acids

- Pro-oxidant effect exercised by carboxylic group

Miyashita and Takagi, 1986 Kiritsakis et al., 1992 Frega et al., 1999

Traces of metals

- Catalyze the decomposition of hydroperoxides

Benjelloun et al., 1991 Angerosa et al., 1993


- Direct relationship between content and oxidative stability - Hydroxytyrosol and its secoiridoid derivatives are the most active antioxidants - Tyrosol and its derivatives show a very low or no antioxidant activity

Vázquez-Roncero et al., 1973 Gutiérrez et al., 1977 Montedoro et al., 1992 Baldioli et al., 1996 Salvador et al., 1999 Mateos et al., 2002 Carrasco-Pancorbo et al., 2005


- Lower antioxidant activity than hydroxytyrosol - Antioxidant polarity paradox

Porter et al., 1989 Frankel et al., 1994 Baldioli et al., 1996 Mateos, 2002


- Carotenoids: efficient protectors against photo-oxidation - Chlorophylls: very active in lipid photo-oxidation but also low antioxidants during oxidation in dark

Cuppett et al., 1997 Rahmani et al., 1998 Endo et al., 1984 Gutiérrez et al., 1992 Psomiadou and Tsimidou, 2002


6 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

lipid oxidation are: the amount of oxygen dissolved in the oil that cannot be removed, the oxygen permeability of the packaging materials, the storage temperature, exposure to light and the fatty acid composition. Lipid oxidation is accelerated by the presence of free fatty acids, mono- and diacylglycerols, thermally-oxidized compounds and metals such as iron. In contrast, phenolic compounds and carotenoids decrease autoxidation in oil, while tocopherols, chlorophylls and phospholipids demonstrate both antioxidant and prooxidant activity depending on the oil system and storage conditions (Choe and Min, 2006).

THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTROLLING THE PRO-OXIDIZING FACTORS Key facts regarding the major external factors and olive oil constituents that influence lipid oxidation are shown in Table 1. Physical factors As mentioned above, several physical factors play a key role in controlling oxidation in virgin olive oil during storage. All of these must be carefully monitored to prevent alterations in the oil and to extend the shelf life. Oxygen availability The great effect that oxygen availability has on the oxidation reaction rate is directly related to its partial pressure. The level of oxygen in the oil depends on the conditions used in some technological operations such as


centrifugation, and/or decanting and filtration. In the case of bottled or tank-stored olive oil, in which the surface-volume ratio in contact with the atmosphere is relatively small, the diffusion of oxygen into the bulk oil is a limiting parameter, and therefore the oxidation rate is controlled by diffusion (Yanishlieva, 2001). The head-space in the container and the oxygen permeability of the packaging material are two variables to be considered since they play a major role in oil stability during storage (Gutiérrez et al., 1988). The basic factors that affect the shelf life of olive oil in different packaging systems and the main oxidative degradation mechanisms for them have been reported. Published results on plastic packaging material permeability show the following ranking of oil sample stability: PVC (polyvinyl chloride) ≥ PET (polyethyleneterephthalate) > PP (polypropylene) ≥ PS (polystyrene) (Tawfik and Huyghebaert, 1999). Moreover, the differences in the shelf life observed in oils bottled in PET or in glass are attributable to differences in the initial dissolved oxygen content in the oils (Sacchi et al., 2008). While the decay kinetics of bottled virgin olive oil depend on the shape and size of the bottle, it mainly depends on the material used to make the bottle, and on the initial value of the oxygen partial pressure in the headspace (Del Nobile et al., 2003). The shelf life of packaged olive oil under various storage conditions can be predicted by applying mathematical modeling and simulations (Kanavouras and Coutelieris, 2006a; Kanavouras et al., 2006b). The feasibility of im-

proving the stability of extra virgin olive oil by using inert gases, mainly nitrogen or argon in the head-space of the container, as a conditioner gas during storage to reduce dissolved oxygen, has been studied. The use of nitrogen as conditioner gas helped to avoid the risk of oxidation during storage (Di Giovacchino et al., 2002). Storage temperature It is well known that storage temperature is one of the most relevant factors affecting lipid oxidation. A kinetic study of the autoxidation reaction in olive oil triacylglycerols stored in darkness at different temperatures (25°, 40°, 50°, 60° and 75ºC), in the absence of pro- and antioxidant compounds to avoid confounding effects, confirmed that the reaction constant increases exponentially with temperature (GómezAlonso et al., 2004). The effect of temperature on the oxidation rate is quite complex; it increases the oxidation rate improving the formation rate of hydroperoxides, while it decreases the oxygen solubility in the bulk oil and increases the decomposition of hydroperoxides, changing the profile of the products formed (Ragnarsson and Labuza, 1977; Frankel; 1998; Velasco and Dobarganes, 2002). Therefore, it is very relevant to establish the relationship between storage temperature and VOO oxidation rate. The temperature-dependent kinetics of the oxidation indices and the unsaturated fatty acids are described well by the linear Arrhenius equation between 25° and 60°C (0.960 ≤ R2 ≤ 0.999, p≤0.05). The time required to reach the upper limits for PV, K232 and K270 established for the extra

virgin olive oil category in the current EU legislation, correlated well with temperature using an exponential equation (ManceboCampos et al., 2008). Exposure to light Luminous radiation is another external factor to be considered in the lipid oxidation process during storage, since it initiates autooxidation and produces photo-oxidation. To observe these effects, the oil must contain photosensitizers, like chlorophylls, that are excited by light absorption. Prevention of light exposure during storage of virgin olive oil is absolutely necessary to extend its shelf life (Jadhav et al., 1996); oils exposed to light are less stable than those kept in the dark (Caponio et al., 2005). However, VOO is usually protected from exposure to light radiation from the time of its production until it is exposed as bottled oil on the supermarket shelves. From that time onwards the opacity to light of the packaging material is of fundamental importance for its preservation (Gutiérrez et al., 1988; Méndez and Falqué, 2007). It has been observed that even small doses of UV radiation can induce oxidation in virgin olive oil (Luna et al., 2006). Chemical factors Apart from the external physical factors described above, the susceptibility of fats and oils to oxidation is influenced by their chemical composition, both major and minor constituents, including the oxidation products formed during the oxidation reaction itself, all of which can possess pro- or antioxidant activities. The well known high oxidative

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



stability of VOO is related not only to the high monounsaturated/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of its lipid matrix, but also to the presence of minor components that have great antioxidant activity, particularly the phenolic compounds. Triacylglycerols (TAG) The susceptibility of lipids to oxidation increases as the unsaturation level of its fatty acids increases. As shown in a previous study (Holman and Elmer, 1947), linoleate is 40 times more reactive than oleate, whereas linolenate is 2.4 times more reactive than linoleate. The stability of the triacylglycerol matrix of olive oil has been demonstrated in experiments conducted in the presence of different antioxidants and compared to a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) with the same composition (Marinova and Yanishlieva, 1996). The position of the fatty acid within the triacylglycerol moiety also affects its susceptibility to oxidation (Miyashita et al., 1990; Mateos, 2002); they are slightly less stable to oxidation when linoleate is in the 1,2- rather than the 1,3-triacylglycerol position. It has also been reported that the presence of mono- and diacylglycerols and of oxidized triacylglycerols has only a low pro-oxidant effect (Mistry and Min, 1988). Free fatty acids (FFA) Free fatty acids have a pro-oxidant effect when they are added to a purified lipid substrate (Miyashita and Takagi, 1986; Mistry and Min, 1987). Therefore, it is very important to have low levels of free fatty acids and hydroperoxides in newly produced

oil as they may accelerate the oxidation of fats. The pro-oxidant action of free fatty acids seems to be exercised by a carboxylic group, which speeds up the decomposition rate of hydroperoxides (Miyashita and Takagi, 1986; Kiritsakis, 1992; Frega et al., 1999). In a recent work Scarpellini et al. (2005) confirmed the pro-oxidant effect shown by free fatty acids (FFA) added to refined peanut oil, as previously reported by other authors using different vegetable oils (Catalano and DE Felice, 1970; Miyashita and Takagi, 1986; Frega et al., 1999). In fact, the oxidative stability values of a neutralized oil decreased in proportion to increasing percentages of oleic acid. They already observed a substantial reduction of stability of oil samples at concentrations lower than 0.5% oleic acid. Traces of metals Transition metals, mainly iron and copper, can catalyze the decomposition of hydroperoxides according to their oxidation-reduction potential to yield lipid peroxyl and alkoxyl radicals that initiate free radical chain oxidation (Benjelloun et al. 1991; Angerosa and Di Giacinto, 1993). Angerosa and Di Giacinto (1993) studied the catalytic effect of Mn and Ni on the oxidation of VOO. They measured the peroxide value (PV) and the K232 as indices of primary oxidation compounds and E-2-pentenal and E-2-heptenal as markers of secondary oxidation products and showed a significant increase in the oxidation of VOO in the presence of metals. In the experiments carried out by Polvillo et al. (1994), contamination with iron was detected in ol-

8 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

ive oil that had been in contact with carbon steel. The stability of VOO measured through the peroxide, K270, and p-anisidine values was less after storage for one month in contact with a carbon steel sheet than when stored in the absence of the metal. Bendini et al. (2006) measured the primary and secondary oxidation products in VOOs stored in the presence and absence of copper; drastic increases of these products were observed in samples with traces of metal. These results clearly demonstrate the ability of copper to promote autoxidation. Phenols The direct relationship between the content in phenolic compounds in VOO and its oxidative stability has been well known for a long time (VĂĄzquez-Roncero et al., 1973; GutiĂŠrrez et al., 1977; Gutfinger, 1981; Montedoro et al., 1992; Baldioli et al., 1996; Litridou et al., 1997; Salvador et al., 1999). In the case of hydroxytyrosol and its secoiridoid derivatives, which show a similar antioxidant activity (Baldioli et al., 1996; Mateos et al., 2002; Carrasco-Pancorbo et al., 2005), the formation of a stable radical has been proposed to explain their antioxidant activity (Visioli and Galli, 1998). In contrast, tyrosol and its derivatives show a very low or non antioxidant activity (Baldioli et al., 1996; Mateos et al., 2002; Carrasco-Pancorbo et al., 2005), due to the absence of an electron donor group that has a high transition energy and a limitation in the formation of the phenoxyl radical. The presence of phenolic compounds in VOO is therefore extremely important, because they combat li-


pid oxidation in its initial stages. However, they cannot block the autocatalytic mechanism. This effect is clearly visible from the data described by Bendini et al. (2006) for an accelerated oxidation test (60°C) on virgin olive oils which differed only with respect to phenol contents. During the six weeks of tEsting, the peroxide and oxidized fatty acid (OFA) values increased in all the oils. There was a contemporary decrease of oxidative stability (OSI time), but with different rates that were proportional to the initial content in phenolic antioxidants. This effect was amplified when copper was added as a catalyst of lipid oxidation. Mancebo-Campos et al. (2007) studied the oxidation process of several virgin olive oils with different contents of natural antioxidants under accelerated oxidation conditions (Rancimat) and compared to long-term storage at room temperature. All the samples reached the peroxide number limit (20 meq O2 kg-1) but in very different times (28-56 hours vs 96-167 weeks) depending on the temperature (100°C for the Rancimat test and 25°C for the prolonged storage) and the initial content in antioxidants. Tocopherols Although α-tocopherol is considered to be the most relevant antioxidant in vegetable oils, as well as in the protection of the lipid structures in vivo, several researchers have reported a lower antioxidant activity than hydroxytyrosol (Le Tutour and Guedon, 1992; Baldioli et al., 1996; Mateos, 2002). This may be explained by the “antioxidant polarity paradox” which states

that hydrophilic antioxidants are often less effective in oil-in-water emulsions than lipophilic antioxidants, whereas lipophilic antioxidants are less effective in bulk oils than hydrophilic antioxidants (Porter et al., 1989; Frankel et al., 1994). Moreover, it has also been reported that in the presence of o-diphenols, α-tocopherol gives rise to a synergic effect (Servili et al., 1996). Pigments Carotenoids, especially β-carotene are efficient VOO protectors against photo-oxidation, since they are capable of deactivating the oxygen singlet giving back its triplet status (Cuppett et al., 1997; Wagner and Elmafda, 1999). On the other hand, the capacity of the chlorophyll molecule to absorb light energy and transfer it to chemical substances, makes it very active in lipid photo-oxidation in VOO (Rahmani and Saari-Csallany, 1998). Chlorophylls may also act as low antioxidants during oxidation in the dark – absence of light – probably due to its capacity to donate hydrogen (Endo et al., 1984; Gutiérrez et al., 1992; Psomiadou and Tsimidou, 2002). Filtered vs. unfiltered VOO The results of some studies have hown a gradual loss in stability during the storage of filtered oils mainly due to a significant decrease in the phenolic components. When unfiltered and the corresponding filtered virgin olive oils were stored for nine months at ambient temperature in the dark, a loss in oxidative stability in the latter was observed due to a lower total phenolic content (Tsimidou et al., 2005). Other

researchers (Gómez-Caravaca et al., 2007) have reported that eight virgin olive oils after filtration through cotton in the laboratory showed a significant loss of hydroxytyrosol, a simple phenol Endowed with high antioxidant activity. Consequently there was lower oxidative stability of the filtered oils than of the unfiltered ones. Generally, the formation of simple phenols, such as hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, was greater in unfiltered olive oils due to the hydrolysis rate of their secoiridoid derivatives. These reactions appear linked to the presence of a higher content of dispersed water droplets that maintain a partial enzymatic activity. On the other hand, it is well known that the filtration step which removes the organic sediments, prevents anaerobic fermentation which produces unpleasant volatile components responsible for the muddy defect. At the same time it has also been reported that filtration and dehydration decrease the hydrolysis rate of the triacylglycerol matrix, especially during storage at the higher temperature (40°C) and in oils with a higher initial free acidity (e.g. free acidity > 0.6%). Moreover, the formation rate of simple phenols due to hydrolysis of their secoiridoid derivatives was also greater in unfiltered olive oils. Thus, from this point of view, filtration and especially dehydration could help prolong the shelf life of some high-quality but less stable virgin olive oils, (e.g. Arbequina and Colombaia varieties) (Fregapane et al., 2006). Degradation of minor constituents in VOO Another consequence of the

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autoxidation reaction is the degradation of the naturallyoccurring minor components in VOO (Gómez-Alonso et al., 2007). The rates of degradation of α-tocopherol, squalene and phenolics in olive oil under different storage conditions have been reported. The main changes in the concentrations of these compounds are associated with the higher oxygen level in the empty portion of the glass bottles. α-tocopherol is the first molecule to be oxidized, whereas squalene and o-diphenols are protected in the first months due to the presence of α-tocopherol and their content decreases significantly only after 6 and 8 months, respectively (Rastrelli et al., 2002). The secoiridoid aglycones, namely, the oleuropein and ligstroside derivatives, and α-tocopherol decreased following pseudo-firstorder kinetics during 8 months of storage in closed bottles in the dark, at 40 and 25ºC. In all VOOs, the oleuropein derivatives were consumed faster than the corresponding ligstroside derivatives and α-tocopherol (Lavelli et al., 2006). Moreover, the α-tocopherol content decreased slightly and apparently linearly during its shelf life, although there may be a lag phase at the beginning of storage (GómezAlonso et al., 2007). Recently, there has been an increased interest in oxidized minor compounds (e.g. phenols, sterols, pigments), especially in relation to determining the freshness/aging status of VOO. The natural antioxidants in VOO are important not only for their in vitro protection against rancidity, and therefore the shelf life of the product, but also for their in vivo biological activity

which enhances the nutritional value of this oil. Moreover, some individual phenolic compounds play an important role in positive sensory attributes, like bitterness, and hence in consumer preference.

EFFECTS OF OIL STORAGE ON VOLATILE COMPOUNDS: IMPACT ON AROMA Oxidation, an inevitable process that may start after the harvEsting of the olives but certainly during the extraction of the virgin olive oil leads to a progressive deterioration of the product that becomes more serious during oil storage. Initially, lipids are oxidised to hydroperoxides, which are odourless and tasteless (Frankel, 1982) and do not account for sensor y changes. However, they are susceptible to further oxidation or decomposition into products of secondary reactions, which, are responsible for the typical unpleasant sensory characteristics, identified on the whole as a rancid defect. This disagreeable sensory note is especially perceptible in oils that are strongly oxidized due to incorrect or excessively long storage. Decomposition occurs through a homolytic cleavage of the hydroperoxide group which produces various compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, hydrocarbons, lactones, furans and esters (Frankel, 1985). The C6 and C5 compounds are enzymatically produced from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the so-called lipoxygenase (LOX)

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pathway. Quantitatively, linear C6 unsaturated and saturated aldehydes are the most important fraction of volatile compounds in high quality virgin olive oils (Angerosa et al., 2004). The qualiquantitative profiles of these volatile compounds depend on the level and activity of each enzyme involved in this LOX pathway (Aparicio and Morales, 1998; Angerosa et al., 2001). The main contributors to virgin olive oil aroma are not necessarily the volatile compounds present in the highest concentrations. In fact, several factors, such as volatility, hydrophobicity, conformational structure of the molecules and type and position of functional groups may affect the odour intensity more than the concentration due to their capacity to establish bonds with olfactory receptor proteins. Therefore, the contribution of each volatile compound to the whole aroma and flavour is related to their concentration in the oil with respect to their sensory threshold (Morales et al., 1997). The concentration and odour threshold of the volatile compounds are indeed crucial to virgin olive oil quality. Several researchers (Solinas et al., 1987; Angerosa, 2000; 2002) have reported that during oxidation the drastic reduction of the C6 aldehydes, alcohols and esters from the LOX pathway and the increase of many saturated and unsaturated aldehydes (C5-C11) from chemical oxidation, including hexanal, reduces the perception of the positive attributes and pleasant sensory notes leading to the kind of off-flavour in virgin olive oil recognized as a rancid defect by assessors. In a recent


paper, Cerretani et al. (2008) discussed the results relative to correlations between the chemical and sensory analysis. Assessors belonging to four panels (two Italian and two Spanish) analyzed 16 monocultivar VOOs produced in Italy and Spain. They assessed pleasant flavours related to different perception routes (orthonasal, retronasal and gustative) such as green and ripe notes from olive and other fruits as well as negative attributes. The four panels were in agreement on the presence of a slight rancid defect in only two samples characterized by a higher content of saturated aldehydes such as heptanal, nonanal and decanal. The most advanced oxidation stages were characterised by the complete disappearance of compounds arising from the LOX cascade and by very high concentrations of the above-mentioned aldehydes. They contribute mainly to the undesirable defect perceptions due to their low odour thresholds (Guth and Grosch, 1990). Other contributors are the unsaturated hydrocarbons, furans and ketones. It should be noted that although the E-2-hexenal content, which gives the typical “green note” to extra virgin olive oil, is by far the major C 6 aldehyde compound in all fresh oils, hexanal seems to contribute more to the green odour than E-2-hexenal because of its lower odour threshold (75300 vs. 420-1,125 µg kg-1) (Reiners and Grosch, 1998; Angerosa, 2002; Aparicio and Luna, 2002; Morales et al., 2005; Kalua et al., 2007). In addition to fruity, the “green” sensation reminiscent of freshly cut grass, leaf, tomato, artichoke,

walnut husk, apple or other fruits generally contribute to the aroma of high quality oil. “Green” notes include Z-3-hexenal, and Z-3hexenyl acetate whereas alcohols such as E-2-hexen-1-ol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol and hexan-1-ol have less sensory significance than aldehydes due to their higher odour threshold values. Their sensory descriptions are associated with ripe fruity, soft green and aromatic sensory notes (Luna et al., 2006; Bendini et al., 2007). Esters are compounds associated with fruity nuances (Aparicio and Luna, 2002; Luna et al., 2006). Hexyl acetate and Z-3-hexenyl acetate, are present in the aroma of all fresh virgin olive oils but are minor components compared with aldehydes or alcohols. Different authors (Reiners and Grosch, 1998; Aparicio and Luna, 2002) indicate that Z-3-hexenyl acetate is linked to the pleasant green and banana notes (odour threshold 200-750 µg kg-1). Among the C 5 compounds, 1-penten-3-one has been mostly associated with fruity, sweet and pleasant attributes such as tomato and strawberry (Angerosa, 2000; Aparicio and Luna, 2002; Luna et al., 2006; Morales et al., 1995). It has a very low odour threshold (0.7-50 µg kg-1) so its contribution to the whole aroma can be considered important. Solinas et al.(1987) found that the concentrations of the aldehydes E-2-pentenal, hexanal and E-2-heptenal increase considerably in the oxidised oils. The authors suggested using E-2-heptenal as a marker for oxidation rather than E-2-pentenal and hexanal, since these two compounds are already present in the aroma of extra virgin olive oils.

Morales et al. (1997) monitored the oxidation stages of a virgin olive oil during an accelerated thermoxidation process by determining the concentration of nonanal. The hexanal/nonanal ratio was found to be an appropriate way to detect the beginning of oxidation and follow its evolution, even if the hexanal is present in the original flavour (Morales et al. 1997). In an interEsting work Vichi et al. (2003) invEstigated the oxidative changes in virgin olive oil headspace by using SPME/GC-MS technique to select some compounds as possible markers of the oxidation process. Samples, analyzed weekly, were oxidized at 60°C for 4 months. The peaks corresponding to nonanal and hexanal increased most rapidly during oxidation. This demonstrated that whereas the amount of hexanal is due to both autoxidation and the lipoxygenase cascade (through the formation of 13-LOOH), the concentration of nonanal may be solely attributed to the autoxidation of oleic acid. 2-Alkenals, such as E-2-pentenal, E-2-heptenal and E-2-decenal were also formed. These unsaturated aldehydes originate from secondary reactions of the primar y autoxidation products (13-LnOOH, 9-LOOH and 9-OOOH, respectively). Moreover, the concentrations of 2,4-heptadienal isomers and E,E2,4-decadienal (from 12-LnOOH and 9-LOOH decomposition, respectively) were positively correlated with the time of oxidation. Among the alkanes, octane (formed from 10-OOOH) increased the fatest. The hexanoic acid content also increased and was due to the secondary decomposition of hexanal and 2,4-deca-

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dienal from fatty acid oxidation. During the oxidation process, 2-pentylfuran and 2-ethylfuran are formed due to the degradation reactions of linoleate and linolenate hydroperoxides, respectively. These substituted furan compounds, in particular 2-pentylfuran, increased rapidly from traces to considerable amounts during oxidation. Vichi et al. (2003) proposed using them as markers for distinguishing oils in the late stages of oxidation. Kanavouras et al. (2004) carried out a storage study based on three major contributors to the oxidative degradation in packaged olive oil: temperature, availability of light, and presence of oxygen. They selected a group of volatiles such as hexanal, 2-pentyl furan, E-2-heptenal, nonanal, and E-2decenal, highly correlated with oxidation in packaged extra virgin olive oil under various storage conditions for one year (glass/ PET/PVC bottles; 15°/30°/40°C temperature; light or dark conditions). Kalua et al. (2006) carried out a real-time shelf life study for one year; virgin olive oil samples were stored under different conditions: in the light at ambient temperature, in the dark at ambient temperature, at low temperature in the dark, with or without headspace. All volatile compounds found in fresh oil decreased during storage in the light in the presence of oxygen, particularly E-2-hexenal. Under the non-accelerated conditions used in this study, neither nonanal nor 2-pentenal or 2-heptenal were identified as oxidation markers. Octane was the marker for storage in the light, whereas hexanal discriminated virgin olive

oil stored in the light in the presence of oxygen. Only pentanal discriminated low-temperature storage. The major difference between oils stored with or without headspace was the appearance of longer chain volatile compounds, such as octanal and E-2-nonen1-ol. Luna et al. (2006) evaluated the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the production of off-flavours in bottled virgin olive oil. This study showed that it is possible to predict the value of the rancid attribute of a sample submitted to UV radiation based on its nonanal concentration. The intensity of positive attributes (green, fruity, bitter, and pungent) decreased along the process in both varieties under study (Arbequina and Picual), while the intensity of the rancid attribute increased greatly. During irradiation treatment with UV lamp for 12 days, E-2-hexenal was the volatile that decreased the most. On the other hand, 2-butenal, and 2-pentenal formed from hydroperoxides of linoleic acid and octane, octanal, nonanal, and 2-decenal formed from hydroperoxides of oleic acid were the compounds that showed the greatest variation. The major compounds indicated by different researchers as markers of virgin olive oil oxidation, their sensory characteristics and odour thresholds are reported in Table 2. In conclusion, E-2-heptenal, nonanal and 2-decenal are the most frequently used volatile markers of oxidation of virgin olive oil during storage. These three compounds are characterized by low odour threshold (5, 150 and 100 µg kg-1, respectively) and by negative off-flavours namely oxi-

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dized, fatty and fish, that strongly contribute to the rancid defect perceived by assessors.

THE EFFECTS OF OIL STORAGE ON PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS: THE IMPACT ON TASTE Virgin olive oil contains minor compounds that are of great sensory and biological importance; the molecules that have a phenolic structure are noted for their antioxidant properties. Among these the tocopherols are related to lipids due to the presence of a hydrophobic side chain in the molecule and the hydrophilic phenols characterised by greater polarity. The former are important for the antiradical and nutritional (vitamin E) properties, whereas the latter greatly influence the taste quality (bitter and pungency attributes) as well as the beneficial biological activity and oxidative stability of virgin olive oil (Servili, 2004; Bendini et al., 2007). Few individuals, except for trained tasters of VOO, know that bitterness and pungency perceived by taste are positive attributes of VOO. These two sensory characteristics are strictly connected by the quali-quantitative phenolic profile of the product. Some phenols mainly elicit the taste perception of bitterness, while other phenolic molecules stimulate the free endings of the trigeminal nerve located in the palate and in the gustative buds giving rise to the chemesthetic perceptions of pungency and astringency attributes.


The major phenolic compounds identified and quantified in olive oil belong to five different classes: phenolic acids (especially derivatives of benzoic and cinnamic acids), flavons (luteolin and apigenin), lignans ((+)-pinoresinol and (+)-acetoxypinoresinol), phenyl-ethyl alcohols (hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol) and secoiridoids (aglycon derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside) the latter are peculiar to virgin olive oil. Several authors have associated some phenols with bitterness and have obtained models and determined relationships between individual phenols and bitterness intensity measured by a panel test or calculated from spectrophotometric absorbance at 225 nm known as the bitterness index (Gutiérrez et al., 1989; Gutiérrez-Rosales et al., 2003; Mateos et al., 2004). A clear example of the different sensory properties of secoiridoid derivatives was reported by Andrewes et al. (2003). They assessed the relationship between phenols and olive oil pungency; the dialdehydic form

of ligstroside aglycon was found to be responsible for the burning sensation present in many olive oils. In contrast, the dialdehydic form of the oleuropein aglycon, tasted at an equivalent concentration, produced very little burning sensation. Another study confirmed that the dialdehydic form of ligstroside aglycon is the principal agent in VOO responsible for throat irritation. Andrewes et al. (2003) deduced that the pungent intensity could be measured by isolating this molecule from different VOO. Starting from this last work Beauchamp et al. (2005) compared the effect of the synthetic form (named “oleocanthal”, with oleo- for olive, -canthfor sting, and -al for aldehyde) to that of the purified compound from VOO. Regarding bitterness, after isolation and water solubilization of the major peaks of the phenolic profile of VOO separated by preparative HPLC and purified, Gutiérrez-Rosales et al. (2003) concluded that aldehydic and dialdehydic forms of oleuropein

Table 2 Compounds indicated as markers of virgin olive oil oxidation, their sensory characteristics, odour thresholds and related references. Compounds

Sensory characteristics

Odor threshold (mg kg-1)

octane octanal nonanal

sweet fatty, soapy waxy, paint, soapy

0.940 0.320 0.150


paint, apple


E-2-heptenal E-2-decenal 2,4-heptadienal

oxydized, tallowy paint, fishy, fatty fatty, nutty, rancid

0.050 0.010 3.62

E,E-2,4-decadienal 2-ethylfuran hexanoic acid

fatty, deep-fried sweet, rancid sweaty, rancid

0.180 n.d. 0.700


Morales et al., 2005 Morales et al., 2005 Guth and Grosch, 1991; Morales et al., 2005 Servili et al., 2001; Morales et al., 2005 Morales et al., 2005 Morales et al., 2005 Ullrich and Grosch, 1988; Morales et al., 2005 Reiners and Grosch, 1998 Morales et al., 1997 Morales et al., 1997

were mainly responsible for the bitter taste of VOO. One year later, Mateos et al. (2004) reported a better correlation between the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycon and bitterness. Using a trained olive oil sensory panel SINESIO et al. (2005) studied the temporal perception of bitterness and pungency utilizing a time-intensity (TI) evaluation technique. They showed that the bitterness curves had a faster rate of rising and declining than the pungency curves. The different kinetic perception is linked to the slower (230 m/sec) signal transmission of thermal nociceptors compared to other neurones (up to 100 m/s). During oil storage secoiridoids undergo modifications (decomposition such as hydrolysis and oxidation reactions) that result in their decline and, consequently, to a reduced intensity of the typical bitter taste and pungent note. Esti et al. (2009) recently carried out a study on intensity changes of bitterness and pungency perception over time in seven samples stored up to 18 months under two different temperature conditions (10° and 28°C). The results showed that all of the oleuropein and ligstroside derivatives considered, except for hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, were relevant predictors of the static and dynamic analysis for bitterness and pungency. In contrast, the dialdehydic form of the ligstroside aglycon was only effective for predicting the pungency decrease in relation to storage time and temperature, but it was not correlated to changes in bitterness. Even in small quantities, phenols in virgin olive oil are fundamental for protecting glycerides from oxidation; in fact, by virtue of their

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favourable oxidation potential, they exert an intense protective action by exposing themselves to oxidation in the place of the lipid substrate. Phenolic compounds can inhibit oxidation through a variety of mechanisms based on radical scavenging, hydrogen atom transfer and metal-chelating. As chain breakers, they act by donating a hydrogen radical to alkylperoxyl radicals that are formed during the initiation step of lipid oxidation. The important role that phenolic compounds play particularly the o-diphenol structure, in protecting lipids from autoxidation, also when catalysed by metal such as copper, was evidenced in several works that, in particular, even when catalysed by metal such as copper has been reported in several works that, in particular, deal with antioxidant activity of phenols in bulk oil and in oil-inwater emulsion. Paiva-Martins et al.(2006) studied the antioxidant activity and interactions with copper of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, monoaldehydic and dialdehydic forms of oleuropein, in virgin olive oil and oil-in-water emulsions stored at 60째C (Bonoli-Carbognin et al., 2008). They concluded that the formation of a copper complex with radical scavenging activity is a key step in the antioxidant action of the olive oil phenolic compounds in an emulsion containing copper ions. On the other hand, Bendini et al. (2006) working with a bulk oil system, reported a more rapid consumption of the tocopherols in samples that had the lowest o-diphenols content and these latter were able to chelate copper. The storage of virgin olive oils at

low temperature may have a positive effect by slowing the kinetics of the oxidative reactions; even if at the same time it decreases the solubility of the phenolic fraction that combats the lipid oxidation. The effects of storage at incorrect temperatures, whether too high or too low, may have significant repercussions on phenolic substances and indirectly on both shelf life and sensory characteristics of virgin olive oils. These excesses in temperatures may occur during the winter or summer and lead to changes in the quality of the oil stored in tanks without a temperature regulator or in bottles kept in warehouses. Data obtained in a study by Cerretani et al. (2005) and Bonoli et al. (2005), illustrate an important technological consequence related to the storage conditions of virgin olive oils. If the storage temperature is subjected to a marked temperature decreasing (e.g. close to 0째C), the oil will change its physical state due to the crystallization of more saturated triacylglycerols and waxes. This could result in a destabilization of both micro-droplets of water and polar phenolic molecules and a loss of the total availability of the antioxidant compounds which would reduce its natural protection against lipid oxidation. Some interEsting changes were found in defrosted oils after the freezing process. The oils showed a significant decrease in the oxidative stability value (by OSI test) that corresponded to the loss in the phenolic fraction. The loss of phenols, particularly the o-diphenols which are known to be the most active compounds for the shelf life of the oil, depends on their structure-activity relationship. A certain fraction

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of phenols, solubilised into the micro-droplets of water in the oil probably precipitated during the freezing/defrosting processes with a proportionate reduction in its oxidative resistance. Destabilization and precipitation of phenols also cause an unavoidable loss in positive taste attributes of the virgin olive oil. The main effects observed in the phenolic fraction during oil storage are: hydrolysis of secoiridoids and oxidation of some phenolic molecules. The first mechanism, due to enzymatic or chemical reactions, leads to a breaking of ester bonds into molecules of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycons and to an increase in the amounts of elenolic acid, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Furthermore, the oleuropein and ligstroside aglycons in their monoaldehydic forms generally lose the carboxymethyl group that causes an increase in concentrations of the respective dialdehydic forms. These trends have been well documented in several studies. Cinquanta et al. (1997) studied the evolution of simple phenols during 18 months of storage in the dark. The tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol contents increased notably due to hydrolysis of their complex derivatives in a first stage, and a rapid loss of hydroxytyrosol compared with that of tyrosol at the end of the storage period, due to a higher antioxidant activity of the former. The partial transformation of secoiridoid derivatives into simple forms such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and elenolic acid, leads to a decrease in bitterness and pungent intensity. The formation of new compounds due to phenol oxidation has been proposed by some researchers.


Table 3 Correlations between phenolic compounds and taste perceptions and related references. Short name

Common name

Sensory description



decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon oleuropein aglycon decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon

Kiritsakis, 1998; Garcia et al., 2001 Tovar et al., 2001


decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon oleuropein aglycon decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon


oleuropein aglycon


oleuropein aglycon

main compound responsible for bitter taste main compound responsible for bitter taste main compound responsible for bitter and pungent notes high positive correlation between these compounds and bitterness intensity of olive oil main compound responsible for the pungent sensation on back of the tongue a highly significant correlation with bitter taste of olive oil positive correlation between this compound and bitterness and pungency intensity of several Spanish and Italian olive oils relevant predictors of the static and dynamic analysis for bitterness and pungency effective only for predicting pungency



all oleuropein and ligstroside derivatives considered except for hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon

According to Armaforte et al. (2007) it may be feasible to use the ratio of fresh phenols/oxidized phenols to determine the freshness/aging ratio of a virgin olive oil. This ratio appeared to decrease rapidly in samples that had an increased content of oxidized phenols. Oxidized phenols are produced by thermic and forced oxidative stress, as in the case of extended conservation (Rovellini and Cortesi, 2002; Ríos et al. 2005; Carrasco-Pancorbo et al., 2007). Table 3 shows the major compounds reported by different researchers to be the major components responsible for taste perceptions such as bitterness and pungency. In conclusion, phenols, particularly secoiridoids generally decrease during VOO storage, due to the hydrolysis of secoiridoid derivatives in the hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and elenolic acid and formation of oxidized phenols.

These reactions lead to a decrease in bitterness and pungent intensity, positive attributes that are characteristic of a fresh VOO. From “Italian Journal of Food Science” nr. 4/2009

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from Tunisian and Sicilian monovarietal virgin olive oils. Food Chem. 111: 322. Baldioli M., Servili M., Perretti G. and Montedoro G.F. 1996. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols and phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73: 1589. Beauchamp G.K., Keast R.S.J., Morel D., Lin J., Pika J., Han Q., Lee C-H., Smith A. B. and Breslin P.A.S. 2005. Ibuprofenlike activity in extra-virgin olive oil. Nature 437: 45. Bendini A., Cerretani L., Vecchi S., Carrasco-Pancorbo A. and Lercker G. 2006. Protective effects of extra virgin olive oil phenolics on oxidative stability in the presence or absence of copper ions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54: 4880. Bendini A., Cerretani L. and Lercker G. 2007. Panoramica sulla qualità degli oli vergini di oliva prodotti in Romagna. Riv. It. Sost. Grasse. 84: 191. Bendini A., Cerretani L., Carrasco-Pancorbo A., Gómez-Caravaca A.M., Segura-Carretero A., Fernández-Gutiérrez A. and Lercker G. 2007. Phenolic molecules in virgin olive oils: a survey of their sensory properties, health effects, antioxidant activity and analytical methods. An overview of the last decade. Molecules, 12: 1679. Benjelloun B., Talou T., Delmas M. and Gaset A. 1991. Oxidation of rapeseed oil: Effect of metal traces. J. Am. Oil Chem Soc. 68: 210. Bonoli-Carbognin M., Cerretani L., Bendini A., Gallina Toschi T. and Lercker G. 2005. The case of monovarietal olive oil: storage test at different temperature. Ind. Alim. 44: 1135. Bonoli-Carbognin M., Cerretani L., Bendini A., Pilar Almajano M. and Gordon M.H. 2008. Bovine serum albumin produces a synergistic increase in the antioxidant activity of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in oil-in-water emulsions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 56: 7076. Caponio F., Bilancia M.T., Pasqualone A., Sikorska E. and Gomes T. 2005. Influence of the exposure to light on extra virgin olive oil quality during storage. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 221: 92. Carrasco-Pancorbo A., Cerretani L., Bendini

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B. SIMONATO1, F. MAINENTE1, I. SUGLIA2, A. CURIONI2 and G. PASINI2,* Dipartimento di Scienze - Tecnologie e Mercati della Vite e del Vino Università di Verona - Via della Pieve 70 - 37029 San Floriano (VR) - Italy 1 Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Agrarie - Università degli Studi di Padova Viale dell’Università 16 - 35020 Legnaro (PD) - Italy *e-mail:

EVALUATION OF FINING EFFICIENCY OF CORN ZEINS IN RED WINE A PRELIMINARY STUDY Key words: corn, fining, plant proteins, polyphenols, wine, zeins

INTRODUCTION Clarification treatments (fining) are often necessary in red wines to prevent colloidal precipitation which involves phenolic substances. The purpose of fining is to clarify the wine and make it stable by lowering the polyphenol content (Yokosuka and Singleton, 1995). This is commonly done by adding proteins such as gelatin, isinglass, albumin or casein to the wine (Boulton et al., 1996). These proteins interact with polyphenols and cause their flocculation which clarifies and stabilizes the red wine (Yokosuka and Singleton, 1995; Versari et al., 1999; Marchal et al., 2002). Fining treatments also improve the organoleptic characteristics of the wine by lowering the tannin concentration (Maury et al., 2003). Animal gelatins are the most widely used fining agents due to their low cost, ability to clarify

wine and reduce its astringency. However there is now great concern about using these products because of the cases of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). It has become necessary to find other fining agents that could replace animal proteins and these substitutes are being sought among plant proteins (Marchal et al., 2002; Maury et al., 2003). The Food Standards of Australia and New Zealand (Fsanz, 2004), the agency responsible for health protection and food safety in Australia and New Zealand, permits the use of plant proteins obtained from wheat, rice, peas, lupins and maize as wine fining agents. EC Regulation N. 2165 (2005), which concerns the organization of the viticultural and enological market, has authorized the use of plant proteins for wine treatment. A previous study showed that hydrolized and deaminated glutens have a good clarification ef-

ABSTRACT The use of corn zeins, extracted from commercial maize flour under both reducing (RZ) and non-reducing (NRZ) conditions, in fining a red wine was investigated and compared with two commercial animal gelatins (G1, non-hydrolyzed and G3, hydrolyzed). RZ, but not NRZ, showed a good fining action in terms of decreasing turbidity and removing phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, indicating that protein reduction is needed for fining ability. The results indicate that zeins, if extracted from corn under reducing conditions, could be a good substitute for animal proteins in red wine fining.

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ficiency, but the gluten clarification rates were lower than those obtained with egg proteins (Marchal et al., 2002). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that wheat gluten and a protein preparation made from white lupin selectively precipitated condensed tannins from red wine and from a model one (Maury et al., 2003). It has also been shown that the molecular weight of the proteins is an important factor in tannin precipitation which has a significant effect on fining efficiency (SarniManchado et al., 1999; Maury et al., 2003). Among the proteins derived from plant seeds, the alcohol-soluble storage proteins of maize (zeins) could be potentially useful in wine fining. Zeins have some chemical-physical characteristics that make them suitable for the interactions with phenolic compounds, including a high content of non-polar amino acids (Shukla and Cheryan, 2001). Zeins, constituting about 60-70% of the maize endosperm proteins (Landry et al., 2000), occur in the seed as a heterogeneous protein mixture, made up of various polypeptides that differ in molecular weight, isoelectric point (Wilson et al., 1981) and aggregation state (Shukla and Cheryan, 2001). Moreover, commercial corn gluten meal, which contains the storage proteins of the maize kernel, is produced in large quantities as the main by-product of the starch industry and can be purchased at a very low price. In this preliminary study, the use of maize zeins, extracted from commercial maize flour under both reducing and non-reducing conditions was investigated for use in fining a red wine and the

results were compared with those obtained with two commercial animal gelatins.

MATERIAL AND METHODS Materials The red wine (cv. Merlot) used for the fining experiments was produced during the 2006 vintage. The wine was obtained before fining. The analytical characteristics of the wine are reported in Table 1. The fining agents used in the experiments were two commercial porcine powdered gelatins (G1 and G3) (Enologica Vason S.r.l., Verona, Italy) and two different protein extracts prepared in our laboratory from a commercial maize flour and commercial corn gluten (Cargill Div. Cerestar, Castelmassa, RO, Italy). Protein extraction from maize flour and commercial corn gluten Maize flour (250g) was extracted with 1 L of 0.5 M NaCl by stirring for 2 h at 4째C. After centrifugation, the supernatant containing the salt-soluble compounds was discarded. The residue was washed with 500 mL of 0.5 M NaCl and centrifuged again. This procedure was repeated and

followed by a final wash with distilled water. The residue was extracted overnight, at room temperature with continuous stirring, with three different solvents: 1 L of 70% (v/v) ethanol, 70% (v/v) ethanol containing 40 mM Na2SO3 and 70% (v/v) ethanol containing 20 mM dithiothreitol (DTT). The suspensions obtained were then centrifuged at 12,000 g for 20 min at 4째C. Corn gluten (250 g) was directly extracted overnight with 1 L of 70% (v/v) ethanol at room temperature and centrifuged as above. In all cases, the supernatants were treated with 6 volumes of cold acetone. After standing for 2 h at room temperature, the precipitated proteins were collected by centrifugation and dried under a N2 stream. Nitrogen quantification Samples were mineralized according to the method of HACH et al. (1985) and nitrogen was quantified by the AOAC method 33.056 (1984). Electrophoresis Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed according to LAEMMLI (1970) in a Mini Protean II cell (Bio-Rad, Milan, Italy) with a gel containing

Table 1 Analytical characteristics of the Merlot red wine before fining.

Total acidity (g/L tartaric acid) Volatile acidity (g/L acetic acid) pH Alcohol content (% v/v) Free SO2 (mg/L) Total SO2 (mg/L) Turbidity (NTU) Anthocyanins (mg/L) Proanthocyanidins (mg/L)

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5.25 0.42 3.50

12.9 20 31 60 345 1,895


a total polyacrylamide concentration of 16%. Ten mg of each sample were solubilized in 1 mL of 0.3 M Tris-HCl, pH 7.4, containing 2% (w/v) SDS and 8% (w/v) glycerol and 15 µL of the resulting protein solution were loaded on the gels. Electrophoresis was run at 50 mA constant current until the tracking dye bromophenol blue, reached the bottom of the gel. Gels were stained with Comassie Brilliant Blue and de-stained with 7.5% acetic acid. Molecular weight standard proteins (Bio-Rad, Milan, Italy) were phosphorylase B (97.4 kDa), bovine serum albumin (66.2 kDa), ovoalbumin (45 kDa), carbonic anhydrase (31 kDa), soy trypsin inhibitor (21.5 kDa) and lysozyme (14.4 kDa). Fining experiments The two powdered preparations, obtained from the maize flour derived from ethanol (non-reduced zeins, NRZ) and ethanol/Na2SO3 extraction (reduced zeins, RZ), were used in wine fining experiments. Each fining agent (G1, G3, NRZ and RZ) was suspended in water at a final concentration of 5% (w/v) and stirred for 12 h at room temperature before use. The suspensions were added to 500 mL of wine to a final concentration of 5, 10 and 15 g/hL. After settling for 48 h at 20°C, wine samples were centrifuged at 1,900 g for 10 min (Maury et al., 2003). The turbidity of the samples was measured before and after the fining treatment, using a Hach 2100N turbidimeter (Hach Company, Loveland, Colorado, USA) calibrated with Formazin turbidity standard 4000 NTU (Hach

Company, Loveland, Colorado, USA). Turbidity was expressed in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). Anthocyanin quantification Anthocyanins were determined with a method based on their discoloration in the presence of SO2. One mL of wine was added to 1 mL of a solution made up of 96% ethanol and 37% HCl (99:1 v/v). Twenty mL of 2% HCl were then added and 5 mL of the resulting solution were put in flasks A and B. Two mL of water were added to flask A and 2 mL of 15% NaHSO3 to flask B. After 30 min in the dark, the absorbance at 520 nm was measured. The anthocyanin concentration (mg/L) was calculated with the following formula: C (mg/L)= DA · 875, where DA is the difference between the absorbance values of the solutions in flasks A and B, (RiberEau-Gayon and Stonestreet, 1965). Proanthocyanidin quantification Proanthocyanidins were determined after their conversion to anthocyanidins in a hot, acid environment. Briefly, 20 mL of wine (diluted 50-fold with water) were placed in a flask with 0.2 g of polyvinylpolypyrrolidine (PVPP). After mixing for 5 min, the suspension was filtered with Whatman n° 1 filter paper under vacuum. The filter was put in a flask and 25 mL of a solution made up of 150 mg/L ferrous sulphate in n-butanol and 37% HCl (50:50 v/v) (sol A) were added. The flask was put in a boiling water bath for 50 min and then rapidly cooled under running tap water. The absorbance of the solution was then read at 550 nm, using the absorb-

ance of sol A as the blank. The concentration of proanthocyanidins in mg/L was calculated with the following formula: C (mg/L)= A · d · 1.217 · 50, where A is the absorbance at 550 nm, and d is the dilution factor of the wine (Pompei et al., 1971). Wine hue and color Wine sample hue was quantified as the ratio of absorbances at 420 and 520 nm (Glories, 1984). Wine color was quantified as the addition of absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm (Glories, 1984). Wine analyses Alcohol, pH, titratable acidity, volatile acidity and SO2 content were determined using the OIV methods (1990).

RESULTS Characterization of the fining agents Zeins were extracted from both the maize flour, previously treated for the removal of water/salt-soluble compounds (essentially starch and water/salt-soluble proteins), and directly from a commercial corn gluten, whose main component is the maize prolamine fraction. Corn gluten is a by-product of wet corn milling. It contains (on a dry basis): 67-71% proteins, 21-26% carbohydrates of which 12-15% is starch, 3-7% fat, 1-2% fiber and 1-2% ash (DombrinkKurtzman and Bietz, 1993). The main protein fractions of corn gluten consist of approximately 65% zein and 30% glutelin. The zein fraction can be extracted with aqueous aliphatic alcohols of low molecular weight, leaving an insoluble residue mainly consisting

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of starch and glutelin. A glutenrich fraction can then be prepared by removing the starch by enzymatic digestion with α-amylase (Cao et al., 1996). In order to recover the zein fraction from the flour, which is typically water/saltinsoluble (Esen, 1987), the water/ salt-soluble components (starch and water/salt soluble proteins) had to be removed by pre-treating the flour with a salt solution. In contrast, the commercial corn gluten, whose main component is the water-salt-insoluble zein fraction, was directly extracted for zeins. The extraction with 70% ethanol (alone or containing a reducing agent) allowed a solution to be obtained from which zeins were recovered by acetone precipitation. In this way it was possible to obtain a dry powder, which, in all cases, was made up of 100% protein, as were both gelatin samples (G1 and G3) (not shown). The protein composition of the zein samples extracted in nonreducing (70% ethanol alone)

Fig. 1 - SDS-PAGE analysis of the proteins used in the fining experiments. a: Maize flour (lane 1) and commercial corn gluten (lane 2) proteins extracted with 70% ethanol under non-reducing conditions. b: Maize flour extracted with 70% ethanol in the presence of Na2SO3 (lane 1) and DTT (lane 2). c: Non-hydrolyzed G1 (lane 1) and hydrolyzed G3 (lane 2) gelatins. Molecular weight standard proteins are on the left.

and reducing (70% ethanol plus reducing agent) conditions was analyzed by SDS PAGE. Samples extracted with 70% ethanol from both the maize flour (NRZ) and corn gluten, showed the same protein pattern, which is typical of native zein (Fig. 1a) (Shewry and Tatham, 1990). In addition to the resolved bands, a major protein fraction blocked at the top of the gel was observed. This fraction was comprised of protein aggregates with a molecular weight that was too high to enter the gel pores. The components with an electrophoretic mobility corresponding to ~24 and ~22 kDa were identified as α-zeins (Paulis, 1981). Dimers of ~50 kDa and trimers of ~75 kDa, formed by α-zein monomers (PAULIS, 1981), were also evident. The SDS PAGE analysis of proteins obtained from maize flour with a reducing agent (i.e. from 70% ethanol containing Na2SO3 or DTT) followed by acetone precipitation, revealed a pattern in which the high-molecular-weight aggregates were absent (Fig. 1b), which confirmed that they are stabilized by S-S bonds. In addition to the heavy stained bands with molecular weights of ~17 kDa (β-zein), ~22 - 25 kDa (α-zeins) and ~27 kDa (γ-zein), which derive from the reduction of the aggregates (PAULIS, 1981), a 50 kDa protein band appeared, which was identified as ReducedSoluble-Protein (RSP), a protein that can be extracted from maize only in the presence of a reducing agent (Vitale et al., 1982; Pasini et al., 2002). Since treatments with DTT and Na2SO3 gave almost identical protein patterns and taking into account the toxicity

22 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

of DTT versus the possibility of using Na2SO3 in enology, Na2SO3 was used to prepare the samples for the fining experiments. The electrophoretic patterns of the two porcine gelatins (G1 and G3) were also analyzed. G1, a commercial gelatin derived from non-hydrolyzed collagen, showed poorly resolved protein bands with molecular weights that were greater than 31 kDa, most of which were located at the top of the gel (Fig.1c, lane 1). In contrast, G3, which was obtained by hydrolysis of porcine collagen, showed unresolved protein bands of molecular weights less than 31 kDa (Fig.1c, lane 2). Fining treatments Experimental wine fining treatments were performed with the non-reduced (NRZ) and reduced (RZ) zeins extracted from the maize flour. This material was chosen, instead of the commercial gluten meal, in order to use a standardized material (the maize flour), and avoid using commercial corn products that could have been subjected to different industrial treatments. The wine fining properties of RZ and NRZ at 5, 10 and 15 g/hL, in comparison with G1 and G3 at the same concentrations, were evaluated 48 h after the addition (Fig. 2). The turbidity of the original wine (before fining) was around 60 NTU, while after centrifugation the turbidity of the same wine was reduced to 36 NTU. About 40% of the turbidity was due to suspended material which could be physically removed by centrifugation. This centrifuged wine was then used as the control wine for the fining experiments. Treatments with NRZ resulted in


Table 2 Anthocyanin quantification (mg/L) after fining treatment. Means of three determinations. Standard Deviation <0.4%. C: centrifuged (control) wine. Treatment RZ G1 G3 C

Fig. 2 - Effect of different fining treatments on the turbidity of Merlot red wine expressed as Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU). O: original wine; C: centrifuged (control) wine; NRZ: non-reduced zeins; RZ: reducedzeins; G3: hydrolyzed gelatin; G1: nonhydrolyzed gelatin.

low wine clarification. The best result obtained with this protein preparation was a reduction in wine turbidity of only about 22%. In contrast, the use of the reduced protein preparation (RZ) reduced the turbidity by 88.2% (Fig. 2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 10 g/hL). This value was similar to that obtained for the wine processed with gelatin G1 at the same dose (87.7%). Treatment with gelatin G3 gave the best result at 5 g/hL, with a turbidity decrease of 85%; higher concentrations resulted in increased turbidity, which could have been due to an unfavorable protein/phenolic ratio (Siebert et al., 1996). Since RZ performed better than NRZ, with respect to decreasing wine turbidity, only RZ was used for the characterization of the maize zein as a wine fining agent. Effects on phenolic compounds The effect of the anthocyanin content on the wine derived from fining with RZ was evaluated in comparison to that of the G1 and G3 treatments (Table 2). For all the fining agents tested, the per-

0 g/hL

5 g/hL

10 g/hL

15 g/hL

335 333 331

325 318 328

305 307 316


centage of anthocyanins removed increased with the dose of fining agent used. Depending on the quantity added to the wine, RZ removed from 4 to 11.6% of the anthocyanins; these values are very similar to those obtained with G1 (from 3.5 to 11%). G3 was the least effective, with 4 to 8.4% of the anthocyanins being removed. Proanthocyanidins, which are responsible for wine astrigency and haze, can interact with fining proteins leading to co-precipitation (Sarni-Manchado et al., 1999; Maury et al., 2003). The quantities of proanthocyanidins before and after the fining treatments with RZ, G1 and G3 are reported in Table 3. Depending on the dose used, RZ removed from 12.8 to 19.3% of the proanthocyanidins. These values are intermediate between those obtained using G1 (from 6.3 to 11.7%) and those using G3 (from 19.5 to 23.7%).

Effect on wine hue and color Wine hue and color values were unaffected by RZ fining at all the concentrations used and were similar to the values obtained after treatments with G1 and G3, around 0.62 and 1.2 for hue and color, respectively (data not shown). These data are in accord with those observed in a previous study on wine fining with plant proteins (Lefebvre et al., 1999). The wine used in these fining experiments was quite young and most of the color was due to free anthocyanins.

DISCUSSION After alcoholic fermentation, wine contains many particles in suspension. Since the density of these particles is close to that of wine, spontaneous clarification, due to physical sedimentation, would probably take a very long time and would be insufficient to

Table 3 Proanthocyanidin quantification (mg/L) after fining treatment. Means of three determinations. Standard Deviation <0.4%. C: centrifuged (control) wine. Treatment RZ G1 G3 C

0 g/hL

5 g/hL

10 g/hL

15 g/hL

1,654 1,777 1,527

1,592 1,702 1,509

1,530 1,674 1,447


Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



make the wine stable. Therefore, it is necessary to fine the wine by adding proteins that interact with substances that are responsible for instability and cause their precipitation (Marchal et al., 2002). In this paper, the wine fining ability of corn zeins was studied. These proteins are particularly rich in glutamic acid (21-26%), leucine (20%), proline (10%) and alanine (10%) (Shukla and Cheryan, 2001). The high proportion of non-polar amino acids makes zeins relatively hydrophobic (Kojima et al., 1997) and this property could determine the effectiveness of these plant proteins in fining red wine, as previously shown for animal gelatin (SarniManchado et al., 1999). The data here reported indicate that only the zeins prepared in the presence of a reducing agent were effective in fining wine. Native zeins occur as a heterogeneous protein mixture that also contains disulfide-linked aggregates. Under reducing conditions, the disulfidebonds in the aggregates are broken which induces the release of protein monomers with molecular weights of 17 kDa (corresponding to β-zein), 22 (α-zein) and 27 kDa (γ-zein) (ESEN, 1987). Since wine fining ability of proteins seems to depend mainly on their molecular weight and conformation (Maury et al., 2003), the good fining effectiveness of RZ could be due to the presence of proteins with a relatively low molecular weight (<32 kDa), which could be obtained by treating corn flour with a reducing agent. In contrast, the low fining ability of the native zein (non-reduced) may be due to the inaccessibility of the phenol-binding sites, which

are buried inside the disulfide bond-stabilized protein structure. Therefore, the reduction of disulfide bonds by opening the protein structure would improve the binding site accessibility by favoring polyphenol-protein interactions through hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds. The best results in reducing turbidity were obtained with 10 g/ hL of RZ; the turbidity values were similar to those measured in the wine treated with G1 at the same concentration. The decrease in anthocyanin concentration after RZ treatment was also similar to that observed with G1. These results were also confirmed for zeins, indicating that their behavior is similar to that of other protein fining agents (Sarni-Manchado et al., 1999). The hue and color of RZ-treated wine was unaffected by the fining treatment as was previously observed using other plant proteins (Lefebvre et al., 1999). In summary, corn zeins extracted under reducing conditions show a good fining action in term of decreasing turbidity, removing phenolic compounds and preserving red wine color. The clarifying ability of zeins is similar to that of animal gelatin so this plant protein could be a good substitute for animal proteins in winemaking. To complete this study, more compositional and sensory analyses are needed to evaluate what impact the use of RZ as fining agent has on wine aroma. Due to the chemical-physical properties of corn zeins they have many industrial applications such as in the production of fiber, adhesives, coatings, ceramics, inks, cosmetics, textiles, chewing gum and degradable

24 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

plastics (Shukla and Cheryan, 2001). The use of corn zeins as a wine-fining agent could be another application for these proteins. In the present study, RZ was extracted from the residue remaining after the water/salt-soluble components were removed from maize flour. The direct extraction of zeins from a commercial corn gluten sample gave exactly the same SDS-PAGE protein pattern as the zeins extracted from maize flour. Therefore corn gluten, the residual by-product produced in very large quantities by the corn processing (starch) industry, could probably be used to produce a low-cost fining agent that could be successfully employed in wine making. Finally, zeins are designated as “Generally Recognized As Safe” (GRAS) by the American Federal Drug Administration and, unlike wheat gluten, are safe for consumers suffering from celiac disease. The risk for allergic patients is also rather low, since allergies to corn seem to be rarer than those to other protein materials of plant and animal origin that are used or have been proposed for use as wine-fining agents (Mills and Breiteneder, 2005). From “Italian Journal of Food Science” nr. 1/2009

REFERENCES AOAC. 1984. “Official Methods of Analysis”, 14th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington. VA. Boulton R., Singleton V., Bisson L. and Kunkee R. 1996. “Principles and Practices of Winemaking”. Chapman & Hall, New York. Cao N.G., Xu Q., Ni J. and Chen L.F. 1996. Enzymatic hydrolysis of corn starch after


extraction of corn oil with ethanol. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 57/58: 39. Dombrink-Kurtzman A. and Bietz J.A. 1993. Zein composition in hard and soft endosperm of maize. Cereal Chem. 70: 105. EC Regulation, 2005. N° 2165, Official Journal of the European Union. Bruxelles, Belgium. Esen A. 1987. A proposed nomenclature for the alcohol-soluble proteins (zeins) of maize (Zea mays L.). J. Cereal Sci. 5: 117. FSANZ (Food Standards Australia New Zealand). 2004. Final assessment report. Februar y, 2004. Application A482Plant proteins as wine processing aids. Canberra. Glories Y. 1984. La Couleur des Vins Rouges. 2a Partie. Mésure Origine et Interprétation. Connaissance de la Vigne et du Vin. 18: 252. Hach C.C., Brayton S.V. and Kopelove A.B. 1985. A powerful Kjeldahl nitrogen method using peroxymonosulfuric acid. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33: 1117. Kojima M., Hanna M.A. and Gennadios A. 1997. Water solubility and macromolecular properties of corn meal extrudates as affected by epichlorohydrin. Cereal Chem. 74: 526. Laemmli I.K. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 227: 680. Landry J., Delhaye S. and Damerval C. 2000. Improved method for isolating and quantitating α-amino nitrogen as nonprotein, true protein, salt-soluble proteins, zeins and true glutelins in maize endosperm. Cereal Chem. 77: 620.

Lefebvre S., Maury C., Poinsaut P., Gerland C., Gazzola M. and Sacillotto R. 1999. Le collage de vins: influence du poids moleculaire des gelatines et premiers essais de colles d’origine vegetale. Revue des Œnologues. 94: 37.

S., Cheynier V. and Moutounet M. 1999. Analysis and characterization of wine condensed tannins precipitated by proteins used as fining agent in enology. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 50: 81.

Marchal R., Marchal-Delahaut L., Lallement A. and Jeandet P. 2002. Wheat gluten used as a clarifying agent of red wines. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 177.

Shewry P.R. and Tatham A.S. 1990. The prolamin storage proteins of cereal seeds: structure and evolution. Biochem. J. 267: 1.

Maury C., Sarni-Manchado P., Lefebvre S., Cheynier V. and Moutounet M. 2003. Influence of fining with plant proteins on proanthocyanidin composition of red wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 54: 105.

Shukla R. and Cheryan M. 2001. Zein: the industrial protein from corn. Ind. Crops and Prod. 13: 171.

Mills E.N.C. and Breiteneder H. 2005. Food allergy and its relevance to industrial food proteins. Biotechnol. Advances. 23: 409. OIV. 1990. Office Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin. Recueil des Méthodes Internationales d’Analyse des Vins et des Moûts, Paris. Pasini G., Simonato B., Curioni A., Vincenti S., Cristaudo A., Cantucci B., Dal Belin Peruffo A. and Giannattasio M. 2002. IgEmediated allergy to corn: a 50 kDa protein, belonging to the Reduced Soluble Proteins, is a major allergen. Allergy. 57: 98. Paulis J.W. 1981. Disulfide structures of zein proteins from corn endosperm. Cereal Chem. 58: 542. Pompei C., Peri C. and Montedoro G. 1971. Le dosage des leucoanthocyanes dans les vins blancs. Ann. Technol. Agric. 20: 21. Ribéreau-Gayon P. and Stonestreet E. 1965. Le Dosage des Anthocyanines dans le Vin Rouge. Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de France: 2469, Paris. Sarni-Manchado P., Deleris A., Avallone

Siebert K.J., Carrasco A. and Lynn P. 1996. Formation of protein-polyphenol haze in beverages. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 1997. Versari A ., Barbanti D., Potentini G., Parpinello G.P. and Galassi S. 1999. Preliminary study of the interaction of gelatin red wine. Ital. J. Food Sci. 11: 231. Vitale A., Smaniotto E., Longhi R. and Galante E. 1982. Reduced soluble proteins associated with maize endosperm protein bodies. J. Exp. Bot. 33: 439. Wilson C.M., Shewry P.R. and Miflin B.J. 1981. Maize endosperm proteins compared by sodium dodecyl sulphate gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Cereal Chem. 58: 275. Yokosuka K. and Singleton V.L. 1995. Interactive precipitation between phenolic fractions and peptides in wine-like model solution: turbidity, particle size and residual content as influenced by pH, temperature and peptide concentration. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 46: 329.

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -




At the end of the three-year period of work during which Water Systems has strengthened the relations with both market and customers, manufacturing products expressly conceived for fluid treatment in the beverage industry, the firm has now taken the most important step in drink production process. It has produced the first automatic – massic

controlled – blending system, the Blendsystem M. The production of this kind of device is, on the one hand, the positive result of the technologic growing process planned by the management of the company since it was founded and, on the other hand, it lays the foundations for a further business growth of the firm itself: Water Systems

is actually one of the few firms able to offer turnkey solutions including all the necessary devices to prepare the product, from water treatment – that is the main ingredient of every drink – to syrup room design and realization. The Blendsystem M is an equipment for preparing beverages, completely preassembled on a skid for an easy and

Blendsystem 330 M (Water Systems).

26 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

quick shipment and installation, conceived mostly for the production of carbonated soft drinks (CSD), but also carbonated mineral water (CMW), and still water (charged with nitrogen in order to increase the mechanical resistance of the bottle). The required quantity of ingredients (water, syrup, and CO2) is carefully measured and dosed in an electronically controlled continuous process. The whole system, manufactured to guarantee the highest qualitative standards and a qualitatively constant production, also running in conditions of considerable format change, is completely preassembled on stainless steel circular-section skid for an easy and efficacious cleaning. A vacuum pump removes incondensable gas; the pump is conceived to maintain the dissolved oxygen level below 1 ppm values. A modulating valve with a flow rate transmitter inject carbon dioxide in a quantity that is proportional to the water quantity loaded into the deaeration tank; the water flow rate is usually measured by a magnetic flow rate transmitter,

Syrup flow regulating valve in detail (Water Systems).

which may be replaced with a massic flow rate transmitter in case water presents a very low electrical conductivity level. A special gas injecting and mixing system – specifically developed by Water Systems – performs a careful mixing with the water to be treated and, hence, best results in

terms of product perlage; the carbon dioxide content is maintained constant in the product receiving tank by a supervising software, which checks possible fluctuations in feeding water temperature and product buffer temperature; the effective dissolved carbon dioxide content in the product is checked using a carbometric unit, installed in by-pass on the filling machine feeding line; At first syrup is stored in a small buffer tank, whose atmosphere is modified and enriched with carbon dioxide, in order to avoid oxidation occurrence. Syrup injection is made by a sanitary design modulating valve and a massic flow rate transmitter in a quantity which is proportional to the water amount fed from the deaeration tank; furthermore using the massic flow rate transmitter, it is possible to check constantly the effective density of

the inlet syrup and therefore to compensate immediately for the dosing and to stabilize the sugar concentration in the end product within established bounds (usually ±0,05°Bx). A specific refractometer installed in by-pass on the filling machine feeding line, allows the constant check of the product and, if necessary, its adjustment; similarly the instruments minimize waste of both syrup and product during transitory phases of production, such as start and stop. Furthermore, customized solutions for water and syrup cooling are available; they are custom-made, i.e. designed depending on the environmental conditions of the system installation. The supervising software loaded on the massic premix unit – Blendsystem M – is conceived to guarantee the best results in terms of dosing, offering at the same time an easy control by

AUTOMATIC MICRO-FILTRATION PLANT Velo Acciai has over 20-years experience in the stainless steel industry. It was born from the entrepreneurial spirit of its founder Mr Giovanni Velo, with the aim to design, test and propose new products for the wine making and agro-food sectors in general. Over the years the company made a name for itself thanks to its growth as a company and in the market.

Both the company and its sales distribution network have seen considerable growth. Attention to product quality has always remained a constant at Velo Acciai, and despite the largescale production methods, its products have always stood out for the customised work made to meet specific client requirements using state-of-the-art technologies and methods.

Velo Acciai proposes an innovative automatic micro-filtration plant, which works with an easy software through a touchscreen display. This system is completely automatic and it has been studied to work 24 hours ensuring the advantage of no lead time in the filtration process: one part filters the wine meanwhile the other one washes the other filter; the two

a friendly user interface; this software enables, on the one hand, to set the main production parameters and visualize their state graphically and, on the other hand, to set the static parameters (ca, cp e cpk) connected to that kind of production. Using a more advanced version of this software, associated with specific instruments, it is also possible to control automatically saccharose inversion, so that the need of intervention by laboratory technicians is reduced. The machine is equipped with field buses (MPI, Profibus or Ethernet) for a complete integration in the bottling line and the control of production, cleaning and sanitizing processes. (Water Systems - Località Piana 55/D - 12060 Verduno - CN Italy - Tel. +39 0173 615636 Fax +39 0173 615633 e-mail:

big tanks are full of hot water and the water comes inside the filters with air pressure. The automatic micro-filtration plant works in 3 principal phases: micro-filtration of liquid, out of liquid with nitrogen, and washing with water and detergent or with only water. (Velo Acciai - Via San Lorenzo 42 - 31020 S. Zenone degli Ezzelini - TV - Italy - Tel. +39 0423 968966 - Fax +39 0423 968982 - e-mail: info@

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



EQUIPMENT FOR THERMAL TREATMENT Astepo and Simaco present the D.S.R. (Double Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger) unit with a very large surface capable of processing product with pieces and viscous products. The new vertical design, which takes up minimum space, is userfriendly in order to easily carry out maintenance and replace the ryton scrapers; the motor is remotely driven by an inverter. The unit has a self-balancing rotor with a mechanical seal, which makes it very simple despite its great flexibility for product range/capacity. Simohot is a horizontal blancher designed for the treatment of fruit and vegetables and is made with different diameters/lengths. Heating is by means of the circulation of hot water outside the jacket and through the internal spiral coil. The main difference compared to other models is that these units can be used under vacuum to obtain a soft deareation

while blanching/cooking the products pieces. Astepo and Simaco also propose an ohmic exchanger, 60 kWh high frequency for carrying out experimental tests or for low capacity applications with diced fruit and vegetables in syrup or brine, or sauces and soups with composites. The unit grants a high efficiency (96%) with a linear power supply controlled by the line’s PLC or thermo-regulator. There are several electrodes and pipes according to the application/ product from ¼” to 3” which grant flash treatment of liquids, viscous products and containing pieces. New developments such as smoothies, FSOJ orange juices or thermosensitive products such as artificial sauces can be treated with nutritional/organoleptic enhancing fragrances to the tradition heating technologies, in combination with the scraped surface model for browning-

EDIBLE OIL PRODUCTION Andreotti Impianti is active in the design, manufacture, and start-up of plants for the production of edible oils and fats, oleochemicals (fatty acids, glycerine, and derivatives), and special related products. This Extraction Division covers all the necessary equipment for

oil extraction from oily seeds, from seed preparation and, when required, pre-pressing, to solvent extraction and desolventised meal treatment. As regards the solvent extraction section, the right type of plant is selected according to the nature of raw material to be proc-

28 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

sensitive products such as carrots etc. With regards to filling, Astepo and Simaco propose a pilot stand-alone mod. PT.A.F. for trials and small manual operations and for small or 1,000 L bags together with a high performance bag in box filler mod.

HS-LA, for the filling of bag in box with dispenser caps such as vitop, press tap and flextap. (Astepo - Via Martiri della Liberazione 12 - 43126 Parma Italy - Tel. +39 0521 302811 Fax +39 0521 302812 e-mail: (Simaco - Via Bertolini Donnino 9/11 - 29100 Piacenza Italy - Tel. +39 0523 578292 Fax +39 0523 606070 e-mail:

60 kW/h ohmic module mod. Sterilohm (Astepo-Simaco).

essed. For oilseeds processing the slow solvent percolation system is used, with self-filtering continuous belt, while for slaughterhouse by-products processing, the fat is extracted in sequential stages of solvent immersion and miscella dripping using multistage screw extractors. Both plant types include meal desolventisirig and oil-solvent miscella distil-

lation sections; these sections are designed to guarantee the production of crude oils or fats and meals completely desolventized and to the highest standards. As for all the plants of Andreotti Impianti’s production line, particular care is devoted to this division, too, for the design and for the process parameters optimizing in order to reach the best quality

results with the lowest possible consumption and in conformity with the strictest pollution prevention rules. The Refining Division includes all the plants and equipment that constitute the production lines for vegetable oils and animal fat transformation into finished products. The conventional vegetable oils or fat refining process is based on three main stages: neutralizing, bleaching, and deodorizing. For products with particular characteristics the use of additional, or alternative processes is required as, for example, bleaching with acid degumming, winterizing or dewaxing, dry fractionation, physical refining. In the bleaching plants, the removal of bleach-

The extraction plant (Andreotti Impianti).

ing earths from the product is realized in self-cleaning filters, with or without oil recovery from spent filtration cake. The modular deodorizing or physical refining plant, successfully installed and operating at so

SOFT DRINK ANALYSIS The Maselli DR10 Easy-Diet laboratory analyzer is a new, high performance, differential refractometer by Maselli Misure that measures the concentration of any diet or no added sugar beverages, including carbonated soft drinks, flavored waters, and functional drinks. It combines Maselli’s unrivalled experience in quality control equipment with the most advanced technology available, putting it at the forefront of laboratory measurement of diet beverages. The DR10 Easy-Diet is a standalone unit that replaces HPLC,

spectrophotometers, titrators and all other manual testing methods. It displays the results in % diet, total acidity, refractometric degree and other preferred measurement ranges tailored to specific manufacturing environments. The Easy-Diet is fast, just 5 minutes for a complete analysis; it is easy, there is no need for sample preparation or skilled operators; automatic, the operator simply pushes a button and go; and safe, because no chemical reagents are required. The Maselli analyzer can even be used for measuring the con-

many factories the world over, is characterized by the following main advantages: separated vapours suction from each stage, very high efficiency of direct steam injection system, high efficiency vapour scrub-

centration of diet syrups and solids content of process water. Ensuring that all beverage components are kept under strict control. The user-friendly interface, clear touch-screen display and waterproof construction make it easy and safe to operate, even directly on the production line. The Easy-Diet incorporates an embedded PC with familiar Windows operating software and a standard Ethernet interface for simple integration with external networks. (Maselli Misure - Via Baganza 4/3 - 43100 Parma - Italy Tel. +39 0521 257411 - Fax +39 0521 250484 - e-mail:

bing, easy and rational plant layout configuration. The use of modules allows for a very high flexibility in case of future capacity extensions. “Traditional” single column deodorizing plants are also part of the company’s production range and can be seen in operation at very modern factories, where specific production needs (for example the fully automatic semi-continuous deodorizing for very frequent stock changeovers) or other specific requirements helped develop this kind of application. (Andreotti Impianti - Via Petrosa 8 - 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - FI - Italy - Tel. +39 055 44870 - Fax +39 055 4491735 - e-mail: info@

The new patented method to measure diet beverages concentration in laboratory (Maselli Misure).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -


Scriba Studio / ph Paolo Marchisio


we design it, we build it,

fraz. Cappelli, 33/b - 12040 Ceresole dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Alba (Cn) tel. +39 0172 574416 fax +39 0172 574088, e-mail: - internet:


we bottle it




IVega 5S/6S destemmercrusher by Puleo is particularly suitable for small and medium sized wineries and it has been designed for the soft pressing of the product. The machine is of modern conception and has special details such as the speed adjuster (through pulley) of the cage and destemmer shaft. Moreover it is equipped with a special device for distance adjustment between the cage and destemmer shaft group. The interchangeability of this group, that revolves in the same direction, allows to obtain several opportunities of working according to

the several kinds of grapes: destemming and crushing, destemming and not crushing, crushing and not destemming. The Vega destemmer-crusher is characterized by a sliding crusher with adjustable and alimentary rubber rollers. It allows to use an elliptic rotor pump, for whole, destemmed or crushed grapes, a mono pump, for whole, destemmed or crushed grapes, or a rotative pump, for destemmed grapes. (Puleo - Fraz. Bosco 479 91025 Marsala - TP - Italy Tel. +39 0923 968284 - Fax +39 0923 968920 - e-mail:

The Vega 6S destemmer-crusher by Puleo.

the tank (introduced by rectangular doors or by an axial duct), it is pressed, against the punched channels fixed on the internal surface of tank, by a waterproof bladder. The obtained must comes out from the tank by the draining slots on the cylindrical body and is collected in the proper vat which is under the press. The

soft draining of the must, by marc or grapes, in a very delicate way reduces the growth of dregs to the minimum quantity; the draining of the must takes place before the pressing thanks to the slot surfaces. Techno-press is currently equipped with an axial horizontal loading system for grapes (without stalk) and for fermented marc. It is a very useful system which saves a lot of time during filling and

SOFT PRESS Industrie Fracchiolla has designed and built the TechnoPress according to the requirements of winemaking experts, in order to obtain a very refined quality product. The press allows to develop a delicate and soft pressing of all entire or pressed grapes and fermented marc. Once the product is inside

32 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

dynamic draining. Loading by the doors (with pneumatic opening) is advised for grapes bunches. The doors are air-proof thanks to the particular pneumatic gaskets. All the programming and control operations of TechnoPress can be developed by a touch-screen display. Alarms are emphasized by acoustic and visual signals which can be recognized at a short distance.

TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN FOR GREAT WINES Specialising in the design and construction of control systems and high technology equipment, Parsec is at the cutting edge of the enological industry. The transformation processes and increasingly demanding requirements of the wine production sector call for highly effective and efficient techniques, capable of supporting developments in an increasingly competitive

industry. Thanks to its experience in the wine production sector, Parsec has developed products combining technology and elegant design, both in terms of their individual features and overall systems. Parsec is a young and dynamic company based in Tuscany and has managed to make its mark not only on the national and European markets but also worldwide,

Techno-Press grape press unit (Industrie Fracchiolla).

Draining is performed by the punched channels (wide surface) fixed into the tank and conveyed to the collecting vat by which is automatically sucked by a flexible impeller pump. The collecting vat is equipped with sliding wheels which makes washing very simple. Marc unloading is done by pneumatic opening doors during tank rotation. Door opening can be adjusted by choosing the proper position according to the type of product to be unloaded (grape bunches, pressed grapes, mare, and so on) to synchronize the machinery with the eventual conveyor belt. The particular shape of the supporting structure allows the installation of it to bring away the marc. With reference to the pressing process, the machine can

be set with two different programs, both defined by the user: automatic and sequential. In automatic pressing program, the press can be set with 6 different routines, already available, but anyway they can be changed by the user; in sequential pressing program 3 different routines are available on the machinery and again they can be changed by the user. In sequential pressing program the press allows to set variable cycles according to 3 parameters: working pressure, duration of top pressure set inside the bladder, and rounds number of the tank for product crumbling. (Industrie Fracchiolla - Strada Prov. Per Valenzano Km 1,200 70010 Adelfia - BA - Italy Tel. +39 080 4596944 - Fax +39 080 4596810 - e-mail:

OxyBUS micro-oxygenator for wine (Parsec).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



thanks to its combination of enological know-how, innovative skills, competent plant engineering, and extremely high-level electronics. Its product strategy is geared to efficiency and quality, simplifying its plants and systems by sensibly rescaling the equipment it has installed in terms

of both quantity and size. Parsecâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s innovative solutions for air-conditioning winemaking premises have enabled it to achieve notable performances in terms of respect for the environment and energy saving. Efficiency, design and optimum financial investments in terms of cutting edge tech-

nology, a drastic reduction in the number of electronic cables used, and the modular flexibility of its overall system, are the real strengths behind the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s success. Its most avant-garde products include the SAEN 5000 system, the first network system combining micro-oxygena

lion, air-conditioning of tanks, and all the other functions required of a wine-production plant, in one single apparatus. (Parsec - Via Tevere 54 50019 Sesto Fiorentino - FI Italy - Tel. +39 055 310533 Fax +39 055 3022597 e-mail:

CROSSFLOW FILTRATION FOR MUSTS AND WINES State-of-the-art crossflow microfiltration systems using hollowfibre membranes offer numerous advantages in the clarifi-

cation and polishing phases of grape musts and wines. Retaining solid contaminants, micro-organisms and undesired

particles allows for a considerable reduction of the filterability index in a single work phase, while keeping the proteinous structure unaltered and colloidal. Thanks to the increase in minimum temperatures during the work phases, all the organoleptic characteristics of the wine are maintained. DDue presents the innovative crossflow micro-filtration D.Dual.Flow 12 system. The principal advantages of the system are: low energy consumption; total retention of suspended solids, wine yeasts, colloids and particles; low volume of residue with product yield above 99% (depending on quality of wine);

capacity and constant flow of membranes thanks to an efficient regeneration system, easy to operate; improvement of product in terms of sensory analysis. Polyphenols, anthocyanins, alcohol, sugars, ashes, net, and total dry extract remain unchanged, the filtered wine is polished and of excellent quality. The D.Flow Evolution Model systems have a clarified (permeate) nominal capacity ranging from 50 to 250 hL/h. (DDue - Via Marco Biagi s/n - 37050 Vallese di Oppeano - VR - Italy - Tel. +39 045 8751414 - Fax +39 045 8777813 - email: ddue@


The crossflow micro-filtration D.Dual.Flow 12 system (DDue).

34 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

The vacuum operating C 37 Desulphuriser designed by Cadalpe is based on studies into specific operational needs

and gives high technological performance. The technical solutions adopted are designed to achieve the best results in

The C 37 Desulphuriser (Cadalpe).

eliminating sulphur dioxide from mute must, avoiding sulphite pollution of outlet water, limiting energy consumption

and conserving the chemical, physical and organoleptic characteristics of the product. Distinguishing the system: a descending veil ensures brief contact times, excellent heat output and reduces contamination from dirt; a stripping column with plates specially shaped to be extremely flexible in output of both process liquids and steam; a sulphur dioxide absorption and neutralizing chamber with special patented devices which limit consumption of lime and ensure reduced quantities of disposable solids such as calcium sulphite, which are insoluble and easily disposed of. The washing system, using chemicals or water, makes possible the periodically wash of the parts involved without removing them. A centralized control panel with electronic instruments assures the automatic running of the main stages of the process. (Cadalpe - Via C. Battisti 87 31028 Vazzola - TV - Italy Tel. +39 0438 441570 - Fax +39 0438 441577 - e-mail:

DISGORGING, DOSING AND TOPPING Poker 700 is an automatic monobloc designed by Barida for Champagne processing: it performs the disgorging (removal of crown cap), the addition of the “liqueur d’expedition”,

and the levelling the bottle with wine. The monobloc is mainly composed of two turrets, one with a continuous rotation and the second one with an intermittent rotation.

The Poker 700 automatic monobloc for Champagne (Barida).

The first turret is designed for the disgorging operation; it is equipped with 3 groups to seize and close the bottle. During the workflow, it reverses the bottle by approximately 65° and then it removes the crown cap. The bottle without the cap remains raking and is closed in order to limit the quantity of wine coming out. Before the end of the rotation process, the bottle returns to a vertical position, so that it can be positioned on the conveyor belt. The first turret is also equipped with a device for the discharge of caps into a tray located inside the chassis. The tray is extractible to allow the periodical emptying. The upper part has a belt conveyor and a device for loading and discharging the bottles: these are called inlet and discharge starwheels and guide conveyors.

The second turret has 6 working stations, each one equipped with grippers, and it carries out 3 operations during one rotation: the disgorging, the addition of the liqueur, and the levelling. The bottle is again reversed for the liqueur dosing, while the levelling is made when the bottle is again in a vertical position. Between the first and the second turret there is a device detecting the presence of the cap. The bottles are transported over run surfaces from the belt conveyor to the turrets. All parts that are in direct contact with the product are made of stainless steel Aisi 304 approved for alimentary use. (Barida - Strada Antica Fornace 7/c - 14053 Canelli AT - Italy - Tel. +39 0141 832092 - Fax +39 0141 825466 - e-mail: info@

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -




Compactness, synchronism, and cost savings are three of the great benefits of the SRTRT Monobloc series proposed by Fimer. The monobloc size is smaller than the one of the separated machines, a single electric equipment controls the operations of the whole monobloc, and maintenance costs are significantly reduced, thanks to the unified functions of the machine. Fimer has chosen the materials with extreme care and guarantees a long durability: the parts in contact with the product are made of stainless steel Aisi 304 (or Aisi 316 on request) and self-lubricating plastic materials suitable for foods, which enable an easier cleaning, sterilization and maintenance process. The bottle lifting pistons are mechanical devices featuring spring lift and cam return. The supply of the filler is automatically controlled by a solenoid valve with pneumatically actuated stainless steel throttle. The user can choose the filling method used by the filling valves: gravity, slight depression or vacuum (for oils, thick fluids, etc.). They can be easily removed and are pro-

vided with an opening device for sterilization. The filling level can be adjusted from 30 to 80 mm from the top of the bottle. The corking head includes 4 stainless steel jaws (RAE 3), tempered and rectified with centesimal tolerance, and can be easily removed for easy cleaning and lubrication. In the rinsing machine, the grippers slide onto the fixed helical guide, allowing radial bottle overturning. The bottles are perfectly centered on the spraying nozzle, which injects water or detergent solution for a pre-set time. When spraying ends, the dripping cycle begins, prior to the bottle being placed in its initial upright position. The rinsing fluid is collected in a tray to avoid it being spilled onto the machine table. To the same effect, a â&#x20AC;&#x153;no bottle-no sprayâ&#x20AC;? device has been included in the construction of the machine. Treatment times are set at the time of manufacturing with the customer needs in mind. Helical-guide rinsers can be equipped with double rinse and/or mobile nozzle, penetrating in the bottle to perform the injection. The deaeration is recommended for those products, which are particu-

36 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

The SRT Monobloc (Fimer).

larly subject to the oxidation, such as wine. The operation is divided into two phases, each one made by the same station. The first phase consists of removing the air from the bottle through high vacuum pump, the second operation saturates the bottle through inert gas. During the filling, the inert gas goes inside the filler tank and thus reduces the wine oxidation. The SRT-RT monobloc provides a gravity and low vacuum filling, an ideal system for

still and thin products, such as non-carbonated water wine, spirits (vodka, whisky, brandy, etc.), clear fruit juices, vinegar, chemicals and food products in general. The product in-flow is automatically adjusted by a stainless steel butterfly pneumatic valve with modulating motorization to avoid hammering. In the case of gravity filling, each filling valve, which is directly connected to the product tank, opens when the bottle rim presses against its spe-

cial airtight seal as controlled by the mechanical bottle-lifting cylinders with spring thrust and cam-operated return. The product, coming from the tank, flows through the four holes on the tip of the filling valve and down the container walls. Simultaneously, the air leaves the bottle via the upper hole and goes up into the tank, or, in the case that the filler is equipped with separate air return, is evacuated externally. This hole allows for an exact levelling of the product in the containers without resorting to additional levelling devices. When low vacuum filling is adopted, the special pump pulls a vacuum into the tank, so that, as soon as the filling valve opens, the low vacuum condition is transferred to the container through the air return hole. As a result, should a container have a leak, or a chipped mouth, it will not be filled, thus avoiding spilling on the machine bed. All types of filling valves are designed to prevent any exchange of the gases contained in the tank and the ambient air. The SRT-RT Monobloc provides high vacuum filling. High vacuum fillers are used for dense, viscous fluids (edible oils, syrups, etc.) in containers made of hard materials. Unlike gravity and low vacuum fillers, here filling begins by creating a vacuum in the bottle, so that the product is sucked into it very quickly. Once the right level is achieved, any excess product is collected in a small

tank, before going back into the main product tank. The level of vacuum can be adjusted based on the product thickness and on the desired output within the speed limits individual machines can reach. Upon request, SRT-RT monobloc can be completed with single-head turret for natural straight corks, single-head turret for RO, ROPP, and no-refillable aluminum screw caps, single-head turret for mushroom corks, T-shaped corks or press-on no-refillable plastic closures, single-head turret suitable to apply metal crown corks, and double-closure automatic turret for corks/aluminum screw caps. Fimer offers several options: rinsing fluid recycling system, water filtration on rinser turrets, air filtration for air cleaners, deaeration station, filler feeder pump, mirror-polished filler tank, millimetric regulation of filling level, separate air and wine return for levelling fillers, neck supports for soft containers on gravity fillers, dummy bottles for filler cleaning, vacuum corking with flat-headed straight corks, inert gas injection before corking, sterilization of cork compression jaws, pick and place for continuous thread plastic closures, total monobloc guarding, Aisi 316 applications for aggressive products. (Fimer - Via Pierino Testore 39 - 14053 Canelli - AT Italy - Tel. +39 0141 823404 Fax +39 0141 834504 e-mail:

ASEPTIC TECHNOLOGY FOR BAG-IN-BOX Astepo proposes C.F. Upgrade, the new, high performance bag-in-box filler for the filling of bag-in-box with dispenser caps such as Vitop, Presstap, and Flextap. The machine has been completely redesigned: all controls are now external so as to facilitate the maintenance and the CIP washing can be selected from the screen without the necessity to introduce external pipes. The movement of the web bags is guaranteed by a cylinder without rod, which have mechanical regulations for the selection of the volume type. The device for cap removal

is synchronized with the filling valve so as to avoid wastage of time. The clamp and the cap presence sensor have been simplified for replacement during operations without having to stop production. The separation of the bag is carried out by a new horizontal blade, which is less violent than the V shaped type used in most machines in the industry. All these features allow a format change with less time wasting, also by non-specialized personnel. The filler volumetrically doses 3 to 20 L, both bags with spouts in the centre or in one of the

C.F. bag-in-box filler (Astepo).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



two corners. The ejection of the filled bag is carried out by a motorized system, adjustable in height, which favors the automatic and guided insertion into a carton box without having to lift the machine off the floor, with the advantage

of reduced costs and space. Astepo can also complete the line with surge tanks made in accordance to PED regulations under sterile inert gas pressure and cleanable in a closed circuit, and with carton box and automatic lines. The single

FILLING MONOBLOCS MBF company designs and manufactures a range of machines for the bottling sector that have been developed from the vast experience and intensive cooperation with the most important producers worldwide. At present, it offers single or modular monoblock machines for rinsing, filling, corking and capping wines, spirits, beer, water and fruit juices. MBF proposes Rinsmatic, the rinsing or blowing machine; Fillmatic, the low vacuum, gravity or isobaric filling machine equipped also with Tronic technology that guarantees the final user maximum operational immediacy and extremely reduced training periods for

the operators; Corkmatic, the corking machine for straight or mushroom corks; Capmatic, the capping machine that allows the perfect application

head version is managed by a PLC and can be externally monitored by means of a modem; its hourly capacity is 700 bags 3-5 L size, 600 bags 10 L size, and 500 bags 20 L size. The same machine can be installed under a hood with

a 100 Class laminar flow for sweet wine and must applications. (Astepo - Via Martiri della Liberazione 12 - 43126 Parma Italy - Tel. +39 0521 302811 Fax +39 0521 302812 e-mail:

of screw, pressure or crown caps, as well as complex closures in a single turret. Other solutions such as the automatic management of the machine, the Easy Fitting accessories, the Universal fittings and the heads with quick

connection guarantee an easy and quick change of the product, bottle and closure format. (MBF - Via Nuova Padovana 3/A - 37040 Veronella - VR Italy - Tel. +39 0442 450450 Fax +39 0442 450451 e-mail:

A monobloc by MBF.

BOTTLING LINE FOR BEVERAGES PolarisAutomazioni proposes the 100% automatic bottling line mod. B5 in four versions: oil, vinegar, wine and spirits. It requires just a small

investment and is able to bottle any size of bottle, be it cylindrical, square, triangular, small jar, flask, etc. from 0.100 to 2 litres (diameter

38 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

or width from 35 to 120 mm and height from 150 to 380 mm). It works without star drives or dispensers, plus size changing is done rapidly by

just a few simple adjustments without having to replace any parts of the machine. The main technical features of the B5 line are the only 20/30-min time for the size change, a production rate of 800 bottles/hour, and

the complete structure made of stainless steel Aisi 304. Furthermore it is ideal also for the service industry. The B5 line oil and vinegar versions consist of vacuum filler directly in bottle, leveller, screw-on or press-on copper, heat-shrink and tin capsule dispenser, labeller for self-adhesive body and back labels, and thermal printer for legal details and batch numbers. In particular, all parts in contact with the

vinegar are made of stainless steel Aisi 316. A lightvacuum filler and a corker for flush wine characterise the standard composition for wine, and a sealer for applying tax seals the spirits version. (PolarisAutomazioni - Via Guido Dorso 13 - 42100 Reggio Emilia - Italy - Tel. +39 0522 308873 - Fax +39 0522 791300 - e-mail: info@

LINEAR FILLING MACHINE A.Esse Service works in the bottling and packaging sector, specialised in satisfying the diversified needs of customers, thanks to a skilled team. The main aim of the company is to offer the best customer service, solving any kind of problem. Competence and reliability make A. Esse Service the company able to supply completely checked machineries or single equipment with warranty on any model and mark, also with the use of new technologies increasing production and savings. It deals also with after-

sales assistance, construction tapes to check machines, maintenance service, machine assembly and setting-up of whole automatic lines, electrical system, air system, product stainless steel pipes. Besides, A.Esse Service presents the bottle filler machine Esse 4, designed for small and medium companies which bottle for champagne magnum. It is built on a base of adjustable supports; all the components are easily reachable to simplify the cleaning and maintenance processes. The rectangular flange, where the

AUTOMATIC DE-CAPPING With over twenty years of experience, Siem has established itself as one of

the most qualified industrial companies operating in the vast landscape of machine

The bottling line B5 series (PolarisAutomazioni).

isobaric basins are placed, is on the base of the machine, through stakes with balancing bushings. Filling valves are fixed to the isobaric basin by bolts, in order to make them easy to be dismantled, and to guarantee a perfect sterilisation and full reliability. The isobaric basin is built in stainless steel Aisi 304 and works with a maximum pressure of 8 bar; the devices to control the liquid crossing are on the basin cap, while the device for the internal check is on the frontal wall. (A.Esse Service - Via G. Ramazzini 1-3 - 42010 Rio Saliceto - RE - Italy - Tel./Fax +39 0522 647272 - e-mail:

manufacturers for wines, oils, liqueurs, drinks, soft-drinks, foods, beers and beverage industries. As a result of the experience gained through years of

Side view of the linear filling machine (A.Esse Service).

collaboration with a large number of well established companies throughout the world, the company is now able to meet any requirement, from providing customers with

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



small semi-automatic machines to designing, building, assembling and testing complete “turnkey” systems with a production capacity of up to 15,000 bottles/hour. The process and production cycles are secured from a self-certificate quality system, which starts form traceability of raw materials used in processing until final machine testing. Meeting daily customer requirements, where clients ask for equipments always more flexible, reliable and adaptable to their requirements and specifications, Siem has developed solutions to the preservation of the products

with high risk of oxygenation, the preservation of the product from possible contamination arising from the environment and the processing, reduction of maintenance and easy cleanable systems and fast changeovers. Siem manufactures systems for rinsing, filling, capping and corking in single or combined solutions, designed to allow a high flexibility for the processing of any size of bottle and cap. Collaboration with other partners, gives the company the chance to also supply complete bottling lines at competitive prices.

CAPPING HEADS Founded in 1997, TecnomaxDue boasts 40 years of experience in the bottling, cosmetics and pharmaceutical business. The founding partners combined their knowhow and experience in order to face the bottling market and the wide variety of closures with a global approach. Overtime, Tecnomax-Due has become one of the most important leaders of the world bottling market, in capping head, magnetic torque head and bench SIA machine production in small quantities and/or for laboratory tests. The high quality of the workmanship, the reliable and punctual service, the constant updating of the fleet of

machines and the professional skills of company’s team have made Tecnomax-Due an entrepreneurial success whose sales, and not only, are continually growing. Tecnomax-Due offers a range of services for final users, resellers, specialized mechanics in the sector and capping machine manufacturers: personalized solutions, processing, turning, milling, and dimension control. The company, following continued aesthetic innovation as well as development of both the materials and technology used, has created the capping head M2009, which has originated from the improvement of the M2000

40 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

In particular, Siem has designed the DE-CAPPER of DTP series in order to solve the need for automating the de-capping process in bottling lines where recycled bottles are used. These systems are available from 3 to 6 heads. The body of the machine is completely made of stainless steel Aisi 304 – all parts that could be in contact with the product and/or washing liquids too – and is mounted on height adjustable feet in order to get easy assembling with the rest of the bottling line. It is equipped with safety guarding with front and back

capping head. The M2009 is made entirely of stainless steel available with two, three or four independent rollers equipped with the NoCap No-Roll safety device for the closure of aluminium caps and special closure types. It has been designed to satisfy any aluminium cap capping requirement in many sectors such as the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and beverage. The M2009 can be installed on any existing semi-automatic or automatic capping machine and can separately manage aluminium cap closure sizes from 18 to 38 mm and other special closures. (Tecnomax-Due - Via Vigentina 138/140 - 27100 Pavia - Italy Tel. +39 0382 577378 - Fax +39 0382 570961 - e-mail:

doors, built in accordance to EEC laws and in case of door opening the machine stops. The DE-CAPPER of DTP series presents double in-feed screw in machine in-let and de-capping heads of hardened steel to ensure maximum durability. Furthermore, simple, but highly functional and secure, the cap removal is made by complete mechanical system, and cap ejection is made by a collector with compressed air. (Siem - Via Mulinello 28 20033 Desio - MB - Italy - Tel. +39 0362 305233 - Fax +39 0362 622956 - e-mail:

M2009 Capping head (Tecnomax-Due).

UNIVERSAL CAPPING UNIT 2004A-MDC/10 is the universal arrangement capping monobloc unit designed by O.M.B.F. for the distribution and closure of: laminated, lead, tin and aluminium caps, through rolling head, with or without pre-pleating (1,500 b/h capacity); sparkling wine capsules, with or without

optical centering (1,500 b/h capacity); and heatshrinking PVC capsules, through thermal head (3,000 b/h capacity). (O.M.B.F. - Reg. San Giovanni 57 - 14053 Canelli - AT - Italy Tel. +39 0141 831252 - Fax +39 0141 831252 - e-mail:

The 2004A-MDC/10 capping monobloc unit (O.M.B.F.).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -




At last November’s Simei, the international enological and bottling equipment exhibition, Altech presented an articulated range of self-adhesive, sleeve and linerless systems, for product decoration and identification. In the specific sector of product identification and traceability, Altech presented: the ranges of print/apply ALcodeTS (Touch-Screen) and ALstepT, both new products; a pallet labelling system, ALcodeP, onto two adjacent faces at over 120 pallets/hour; ALcode LT, a compact and low-cost print/ apply unit fitted with the SATO LT 408; finally some TT desk-

top label printers SATO, distributed by Altech. The linerless technology is a new feature for Altech, represented by a print/apply ALcode LL which offers the great advantages of adhesive material without silicon backing paper: lower cost per label, no paper waste, and increased length of the work runs. ALsleeve is an applicator of plastic heat-shrink sleeves providing both tamper evident protection of food, cosmetic and chemical products and high-speed decoration of the products themselves. But the ALritmaX has been the innovative proposal: the

The Altech mixed labelling system.

42 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

The new ALritma X (Altech).

X emphasizes and highlights its exceptional performances regarding the self-adhesive system, particularly suitable for rotary labelling systems. The entry version of the new ALritma X is equipped with an enlarged 400 mm diameter unwind unit and an oversized rewinder unit for the silicon paper, for increased range and reduced downtime. It can reach label feed speed of up to 40 m/min (thanks to a new, powerful stepper motor driver board) and is available for label widths of 100 and 200 mm. The advanced version of the ALritma X is fitted with an HP (high performance) kit made up of a motorized rewinder unit for the silicon paper as well as an innovative “push-pull” label web

drive system. In this configuration the unit can reach 90 m/ min at a cruising rate of 900 labels/min, with high positioning accuracy even when the product transit speed varies. This version is particularly suited to huge workloads, such as on rotary labellers, especially in applications using printers/ markers with their checking devices. The ALritma X includes numerous technological innovations, the result of Altech experience in manufacturing over 5,000 ALritma units. Among these are: the facilitated paper insertion system (with cantilevered rollers); the compact size (albeit with a 400 mm unwind unit); the double-effect preunwinding system; the push-

pull drive system; the compact rewinder unit for the silicon paper with brushless motor and gearmotor buried in the unwind plate; the silicone pa-

per removal system integrated into the paper driving disc; the checking device for near endof-reel and rewinder full, with new ultrasound sensors; the

reel blocking system through an expansion mandrel; the IP55 rated machine body, and the compact control box with a touch-screen interface.

(Altech - Viale De Gasperi 72 - 20010 Bareggio - MI - Italy Tel. +39 02 90363464 - Fax +39 02 90363481 - e-mail:

MODULAR LABELLING Kosme presents the new Flexa labeller whose modular characteristic allows the possibility of connecting only units required in combined cold glue/adhesive mode processing according to production requirements; this makes it possible to considerably reduce the overall dimensions of the machine and its positioning in the production line, thus providing excellent accessibility both for format change operations and maintenance-cleaning. Flexa’s innovative dimensions, with its compact lowered work surface, make it suitable for all

applications in the bottling line. Another important innovation is the new Kosme patent for hooking together the modules. The company has revolutionized the traditional concept of permanent locations for modules, the new-patented system allows to move the various applications (front label, back label, seal, etc.), allowing the customer to change them over time according to specific needs. (Kosme - Via dell’Artigianato 5 46048 Roverbella - MN - Italy Tel. +39 0376 751011 Fax +39 0376 751012 e-mail:

Flexa modular labeller (Kosme).


The EnosPiù labeller for DOCG wines (Enos).

The labelling machine EnosPiù, equipped with Enos patented system for DOCG, is designed to apply labels and counterlabels on a round bottle, and self-adhesive stickers around the neck or vertically. The machine is delivered complete with: system for the cap closure with rolling system equipped with a special cam device for perfect rolling; thermal head capsule closing system with double air vent; and a capsule tray distributor

system with excellent performance. EnosPiù is characterized by an automatic system for positioning the centering mark on bottles with personalized labels and a 20% decreasing hourly production rate. Extra equipment with worm screw for different bottle sizes is also offered. (Enos - Via Pierino Testore 1933 - 14053 Canelli - AT - Italy Tel. +39 0141 831194 - Fax +39 0141 824463 - e-mail:

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



IN-LINE AND SEMI-ROTARY LABELLING MACHINES OMAR proposes a range of in-line and semi-rotary labelling machines for throughputs up to 2,000 b/h with singlecup capsule dispensing and closing unit: the Syncro, Spin, and Stone model. All machines are equipped with a conveyor belt with adjustable rails and return idler with accumulation board at the outlet, cork detector, emergency microswitches on the doors, safety systems on the starwheels and worms, and shrink-head lifting system operating in case of line stop. The cladding of the chassis, the safety guards, and the switchboard are made of A304 stainless steel. A PLC and touch-screen display allow to store up to 30 different formats. On request, the machines can be fitted with a labelling station for adhesive appellation strip, labelling station for medal, and hot transfer printer for the lot number on the label.

One of the labelling machines proposed by O.M.A.R.

Syncro is a semi-rotary labelling machine for champagne bottles with maximum throughput of 1,200 b/h, equipped

44 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

with single-head capsule dispenser for the application of foils with medal, optical orientation of the foil with stepper

motors, closing system with double pneumatic head, application of front and back labels and wrap-around collar. The bottles are conveyed to the working stations by means of an innovative gripper system. Spin and Stone are 2-station in-line labelling machines for cylindrical bottles with maximum throughput of 2,000 b/h, equipped with singlehead capsule dispenser suitable for the distribution and application of PVC, aluminium, polylaminate, and tinfoil caps, closing turrets with heads of the same type or alternated heads, depending on the type of caps and the production speed rate. (O.M.A.R. - Via Rita A. Dellapiana 23 - 14053 Canelli AT - Italy - Tel. +39 0141 823058 - Fax +39 0141 832640 - e-mail: info@

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Bortolin Kemo presents the depalletizer with film remover for pallets wrapped in heat-shrink plastic film which is suitable for depalletizing bottles/cans/ pots which have already been palletized with plastic or hardcardboard layer pads. At first sight, the depalletizer with film remover is very similar to a sweep-off depalletizer with stationary pallet, whose unloading belt can be adapted to any height, without stairways or platforms. In fact, the machine can also be used without the unwrapping system. The machine has been designed with special features in order to enable the implementation of the new invention on depalletizers, which were previously delivered to the customer. The Bortolin Kemo depalletizer with film remover consists of a conveyor for the introduction of pallets, which is made up of two motorized chains and a central idle roller belt. This conveyor is suitably sized so as to receive a pallet during the film removal/depalletizing phase with another waiting. It is equipped with a pallet outfeed and stacking section made up of two motorized

chains (perpendicular to the above described ones) and by a pallet stacking storage unit. The machine is also supplied with a compacting unit, fitted with motorized pack pressers and grippers to hold the layer pads; the complete unit is assembled on a portal structure with vertical motion system. A bottle transportation table is used to receive and sustain the bottle layer and a movable connection platform ensures a perfect passage of the bottle layer from the pallet. The machine is also equipped with a conveyor for bottle unloading, which is composed of a stainless steel frame and

chains in stainless steel or plastic material. The operation of the device for film removal, which is installed on the depalletizer, consists of the consecutive depalletization of the bottle layers and, at the same time, the progressive elimination of that part of film which covers the layer, while the rest of the pallet remains wrapped. The layer pads are separated and stacked in the traditional way, so that they can be returned to the glassworks. The cardboard cover layer pad, which covers the pallet is stored in a separated storage unit. A mechanical system extracts the film, layer by layer,

Depalletizer with film remover (Bortolin Kemo).

46 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

and a pneumatic conveyor transports it into a container or on the hopper of a compacting arm. The main advantage is that the possibility of bottles falling from the pallet does not exist, because they remain wrapped and held together till they are laid on the chain transport table. With this system, the bottle layer strapping would also be useless and its cost may be spared, because the containers (bottles or pots) are always be wrapped in the film. The depalletizer will be supplied by Bortolin Kemo with an electrical board with control panel, equipped with programmable logic controller (PLC) and with all control devices and remote-assistance connections. (Bortolin Kemo - Corso Zanussi 34/b - 33080 Porcia - PN Italy - Tel. +39 0434 922010 - Fax +39 0434 921733 e-mail:

CARTON FORMING AND CARTONING MACHINE Fipal presents Mini Combi, the technical solution characterized by compactness and modular for packaging with glue or tape seal. The basic machine is a very compact carton forming/cartoning machine to which divider inserting and glue or tape seal carton closing units maybe added. The machine is easy to run and size change is performed in a few steps without the use of wrenches;

the pick-up head works in continuous movement and it is easy-to-replace for size change. Mini Combi operates on a mechanical basis ensuring easy-running and high-level reliability, precision and working life. The main structure is made of powder painted steel and as an option in stainless steel; all safety guards are made of transparent plexiglass with safety microwitches on the

The compact packaging combo unit Mini Combi with glue or tape seal (Fipal).

doors. All PLC functions are assisted by safety devices for each movement. (Fipal - Via Cisa 67 - 43040

LINEAR ORIENTING MACHINE Cosmo-Twist 400 is the new concept machine of Cosmopack, suitable for turning 90째/180째 every type of empty or filled container with or without handle, plastic, glass or other kind of material. Cosmo-Twist 400 can be installed directly along the line by means of an electrical axis system and as an alternative on a stand-alone basis. In both cases, the machine can be cut out when its use is not necessary by raising the main head above the container transport area, using the special motorized system. Unlike the other rotating machines currently marketed, using this system it is possible to obtain a very high production speed (up to 400

pieces/minute). The precision of the Cosmo-Twist 400 rotation system is guaranteed by the mechanical gripping in combination with the rotation and releasing of the container. This ensures avoiding any kind of damage to the container during the entire work cycle. On demand, the machine can be fitted with a Vision System to identify the transparent products or those with a particular shape. In these cases there is the possibility to memorize up to 50 kinds of formats and to optimize the change size over and when the machine is in electrical axis system the intervention of the operator will be not necessary. The great reliability of Cos-

mo-Twist 400 makes it the ideal choice in the most diverse fields of application: from detergents to liqueurs,

Felegara - PR - Italy - Tel. +39 0525 431199 - Fax +39 0525 4314 60 - e-mail:

from nutritive oils to wine or cosmetics. (Cosmopack - Via Pastore 5 - 40056 Crespellano - BO Italy - Tel. +39 051 969504 Fax +39 051 6721175 e-mail:

The linear orienting machine Cosmo-Twist 400 (Cosmopack).

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -




Canadean points to a marginal improvement in the prospects for commercial beverage consumption volumes in 2010. It anticipates that the West European beverage market will see the smallest of contractions in 2010; this compares to the 0.4% decline seen in 2009. According to Canadean, the mood on the ground remains subdued, with industry confidence levels in most markets remaining uncertain or deteriorating, with the exception of just Austria, Finland, Italy, the UK and perhaps surprisingly Greece. What little improvement there will be, can be traced to a projected slowdown in the rate of decline of the alcoholic soft drinks sector. In 2009 alcoholic drink volumes dropped by more than 2%, a figure that is forecast to slow down to a 1% loss in 2010. Beer in particular was hit by the sharp drop in onpremise footfall last year and sales across West Europe fell by nearly 3%. The economic climate meant West Europeans spent a lot less on eat and drinking out last year. On a brighter note, some markets were beginning to show signs

of Horeca improvement in the last quarter of the year. Soft drink volumes recorded a small rise last year, but Canadean is not anticipating demand to accelerate as markets emerge from the gloom of the downturn. The summer of 2009 was actually notably hotter than 2008 in certain key markets and this was responsible for much of the upswing. In 2010, water is set to record another loss, while carbonates are predicted to increase again. The regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s biggest category with more than 30% of volumes has been helped by the shift from on to off premise, with consumers buying bigger unit sizes to take home and drink than they would if they were eating or drinking out. Squashes may be small in some markets but these drinks are generally considered the most economic form of refreshment and it was noticeable that volumes increased by 3% in 2009, a figure that is predicted to shrink to less than 1% in 2010. The rate of decline for dairy drinks will slow marginally, mainly due to white milk, whose performance is often more related to birth rates and

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other demographics than the economic environment. Meanwhile Canadean is forecasting a very similar performance this year for hot drinks. As with white milk, hot drink consumption is not as influenced by economics as some other categories. There is, however, some evidence that consumers will drink more hot drinks if they stay at home and this is probably responsible for the small increase being seen in this mature sector. What will be encouraging to the industry is that only two markets in the region are fore-

cast not to register an improved volume performance in 2010: France and Sweden, and even then the variances are insignificant, say the Canadean specialists. The market does seem to be going in the right direction if only slowly. The challenge for the industry will be to reinstate some value into the market. (Canadean - 12 Faraday Court - Rankine Road Basingstoke - RG24 8PF England - Tel. +44 (0) 1256 394210 - Fax +44 (0) 1256 394201 - e-mail: sales@

West Europe forecast consumption growth by category in 2010 (Canadean).

RESTAURANT AND PACKAGED FOODS CAN HAVE MORE CALORIES THAN NUTRITION LABELING INDICATES With obesity rising markedly, reliance on the accuracy of food labeling is an important weight management strategy. Since people who are trying to reduce their weight are encouraged to choose meals labeled as “lower in calories” or “reduced-energy” in restaurants and supermarkets, it is essential that the listed data are accurate. In a study published in the January 2010 in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association (vol. 110, 1), researchers from Tufts University found that some commercially prepared foods contained more calories

than indicated in nutritional labeling. Measured energy values of 29 quick-serve and sit-down restaurant foods averaged 18% more calories than the stated values. Likewise, measured energy values of 10 frozen meals purchased from supermarkets averaged 8% more calories than stated on the label. The commercially prepared restaurant foods and supermarket frozen convenience meals were obtained in the Boston, MA, area. The energy content was measured and compared with nutrition data stated by

the vendor or manufacturer. The restaurant chains included both quick-serve and sit-down establishments with broad distribution throughout the United States. Because the goal of the study was to examine the accuracy of stated energy content of foods typically selected for weight control, specific restaurant menu items were chosen based on three criteria. Selected foods were less than 500 kcal/serving as stated on the label, typical American foods and among those with the lowest stated energy contents on the menu.

Supermarket purchases were focused on frozen complete meals that would be alternative choices to eating out. The Authors found a further complication with some restaurant meals. Five restaurants provided side dishes at no extra cost. The average energy provided by these items was 471 kcal, which was greater than the 443 kcal for the entrées they accompanied. Furthermore, some individual foods had discrepancies that were extreme, including three supermarket-purchased complete meals and seven restaurant foods that containing up to twice their stated energy contents. The Authors also note that the US Food and Drug Administration allows up to 20% excess energy content but weight must be no less than 99% of the stated value. This might lead manufacturers to add more food to the package to insure compliance with the weight standards and thereby exceed the stated energy content. Lead investigator Susan B. Roberts, PhD, director, Energy Metabolism Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, USA, et al. write, “These findings suggest that stated energy contents of reduced-energy meals obtained from restaurants and supermarkets are not consistently accurate, and in this study averaged more than measured values, especially when free side dishes were taken into account,

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



which on average contained more energy than the entrees alone. For example, positive energy balance of only 5% per

day for an individual requiring 2,000 kcal/day could lead to a 10-lb weight gain in a single year. If widespread, this phe-

nomenon could hamper efforts to self-monitor energy intake to control weight, and could also reduce the potential benefit of

recent policy initiatives to disseminate information on food energy content at the point of purchase.”

RECESSION BOOSTS PRIVATE LABEL According to a new report from leading beverage research agency Canadean, the global economic downturn is providing the perfect conditions for private label products to flourish. Private label products in the total soft drink sector now account for over 1 in every 10 Litres traded in the global marketplace; if you discount the on-premise sector, where private label use is marginal, then private label’s share of the market rises yet further. The rise of private label is proving to be a considerable threat to branded soft drinks. The dramatic financial turbulence of recent times has undoubtedly provided a major opportunity for private label. Apart from the obvious factor that consumers are more inclined to seek out the value that private label products represent in a downturn, there has been another factor that has boosted the private label segment; the shift from on- to off-premise sales. In many markets the footfall in bars and restaurants has fallen back sharply but consumers are compensating for this by drinking more at home and buying soft drinks in the off-

premise, where the bulk of private label products are found. In Europe the recession has also provided the ideal environment for the “discount retailers” to expand rapidly and they have invested heavily in widening their net across Europe. Feedback from across the region points to the success of these outlets and there is now even a “hard discounter” in the Canary Islands. Although some discounters do stock branded products, many choose to exclusively stock their own low cost “pseudo” brands and inevitably as their sales prosper, so too does the private label segment. As the modern retail channel develops, B brand operators in particular are vulnerable to the expansion of private label ranges; both compete against A brands on price. A brands are also losing out, as the quality of private label offerings improves and private label products take up a wider range of price positioning to now incorporate value, discount, mainstream and premium price positions. There is also a trend for other on-premise or convenience retailers to adopt their own pri-

50 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

Global soft drink growth index (Canadean).

vate label. Fast Food chains, sandwich stores and even garage forecourt chains are now increasingly doing so. How vulnerable a soft drink category is to private label alternatives hinges on a number of factors, which have resulted in varying levels of private label penetration across the soft drinks spectrum. Juice in particular has proved more susceptible than other categories because it is a relatively mature category; with ambient juices in particular difficult to differentiate in terms of taste and there is also a retail bias to purchase. Consequently private label products make up nearly a quarter of all juice volumes. The importance for branded

players to develop defensive strategies cannot be understated. Differentiating from private label rivals and justifying the price gap based on their equity is the key to any successful defensive strategy. Private label products will continue to make headway but brands can be reassured that private label will always struggle to compete with brand heritage and ultimately consumers want retailers to provide them with the choice that brands provide. (Canadean - 12 Faraday Court - Rankine Road - Basingstoke - RG24 8PF - England Tel. +44 (0) 1256 394210 Fax +44 (0) 1256 394201 e-mail:

9 0




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In an age of increased customization across almost all market sectors and industries, product differentiation for consumer packaging companies can come just as easily from the shape of a bottle as from its contents, leaving brandowners challenged to find inventive ways to stand apart from competitors. Shelf appeal is one important way to stand out from the crowd. Packaging that enhances the product using eye catching colors and graphics or innovative shapes and designs more often than not comes out on top at the first moment of truth. And as plastic and glass bottle shapes become more romantically contoured to connect emotionally with consumers, so too must the labels that fit them. Increasingly, advanced shrink films have emerged as the goto labeling option. Over the last five years, new products using shrink film labeling have exploded. In 2003, just over 2,000 new products were launched using shrink film labeling globally; by 2008, that number more than tripled, reaching 7,000. To meet this need, Eastman

has introduced two advanced resins for use in shrink film applications: Eastman Embrace copolyester, the flagship resin, and Eastman Embrace LV, a new choice offering low shrink force and versatility within the shrink curve. These two innovative brands of copolyester resins for shrink body labels are recognized for their enhanced clarity, printability, toughness and reliable seaming and shrinkage. These qualities have helped them become the world’s leading shrink films that are now used for a wide variety of beverage products, including dairy, water, juice, liquor and sports and soft drinks. USING CREATIVITY FOR PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION Vibrant colors, eye-popping

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graphics and unique package design are all characteristics that make packages jump off the shelves. And these winning attributes can be achieved using Eastman Embrace and Eastman Embrace LV. The Eastman Embrace copolyester line is an ideal solution for flexible packaging and high contour containers of all shapes and sizes. With maximum readability and printability, Embrace and Embrace LV resins for shrink film enable brand owners to shed the costs and bulk of secondary packaging and maximize shelf appeal. Aesthetically, shrink film made with Embrace and Embrace LV resins can be printed using thermochromatic, metallic and glow-in-the-dark inks and can be used with spot var-

nishing and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) for a frosty-cold look. The shrink films are also more squeezable and have a soft and natural feel. With a shrink rate of up to 80%, film generated with Eastman Embrace and Eastman Embrace LV resins contour more closely to complex surfaces for additional aesthetic benefits. Eastman Embrace and Eastman Embrace LV resins for shrink film also offer a 360º billboard for packages. This enables designers to use the entire package surface to communicate with the consumer, helping the product to stand out on store shelves. Embrace LV offers a consistent film edge at the top and bottom of the package for fewer “smiley faces” on oval, square and oblong containers. Embrace’s high-quality printability delivers reverse printing that gives unmatched clarity, gloss and presence. Its surface printing can be done with existing technology and without pretreatment of any kind. The Eastman Embrace resins for shrink film line also offers very different levels of shrink force. Embrace resins offer

high shrink force, and for added versatility, Embrace LV resins deliver several low shrink force options, ideal for thinwalled containers with high ultimate shrink. Under normal stretching conditions, Embrace LV resin offers a 30% lower shrink force while maintaining the same performance characteristics as Embrace. It can be produced with up to 40% lower shrink force versus the flagship brand, with a shrink curve comparable to PVC and OPS, while still maintaining a shrink level above 70%. Plus, film generated with Embrace LV still delivers high gloss, clarity, toughness and easy processability. All in all, Embrace LV offers a reduced shrink force of roughly 50% compared with the most advanced copolyesters on the market. EMBRACING SUSTAINABILITY The advantages for Embrace and Embrace LV resins for shrink film go beyond their aesthetics. The product line has sustainability advantages that have undeniable benefits to the bottom line. Both shrink film resins have exceptionally high film strength and good tolerance to downgauging, key attributes that allow users to reduce material consumption by as much as 10% compared to other copolyesters. These unique properties enable fabricators to make more labels from the same

amount of material. And given the inherent strength properties found in both Embrace and Embrace LV, their popularity will only grow in tandem with the trend to get more with less. Embrace and Embrace LV’s 80% maximum shrinkage also allows for full container body labeling (the container’s widest point) and also a tamper indicating device at the neck of the container (the narrowest point). Other materials require the use of an additional neck band as well as a second pass through a shrink tunnel, increasing attendant production line time and creating potential quality issues. Like all shrink film labels, those manufactured using Embrace and Embrace LV resins can be fully removed from containers with no glue residue, allowing for cleaner input to reclamation streams and easing the burden on recyclers. Eastman Embrace LV resins for shrink film also deliver material savings because there is no machine direction shrinkage. In fact, it actually grows, which allows brand owners and converters to use smaller labels that still cover the entire bottle.

on secondary packaging costs, they can be used on a variety of sized and contoured package designs, clearly differentiating products from their neighbors. These advantages, coupled with new sustainability benefits, make Eastman’s line of resins for shrink

film the clear choice for shrink labels – a market leader today and an innovator for tomorrow. Michael Hartmann Market Development Manager Eastman Chemical Company

CONCLUSION Shelf appeal is a key consideration for brand owners and the differentiation offered by Eastman Embrace and Eastman Embrace LV resins for shrink film helps set products apart. Not only do they save Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



ALUMINIUM CANS, THE PERFECT PACKAGING SOLUTION FOR THE OUTDOOR LIFESTYLE Sprizzerol, the Italian drink that says so much about the glamour of those who drink it, is synonymous with the jet-set lifestyle of the rich and famous. Find yourself at any event that oozes style and glamour such as celebrity charity events, open air opera, motor racing meetings or film premieres and you are likely to find this Italian aperitif that is produced with high-quality Italian wine, selected aromatic herbs, and natural ingredients to a secret family recipe. When Paolo De Martin, grandson of Edoardo, the 1930’s Italian socialite who invented the Sprizzerol, was looking for a way to package the aperitif to suit the lifestyle of its modernday consumers, he looked no further than the aluminium can. The company wanted a convenient, cost-effective packaging that would reflect all that the Sprizzerol brand stands for and that would serve its product in the best possible way. By teaming up with Rexam, the world’s largest beverage can producer, the makers of Sprizzerol were able to produce a packaging that fitted perfectly with its brand and the ease of consumption for which it was looking. “Sprizzerol’s glamorous events and sensational performances at shows and fairs are legendary,” said Paolo de Martin of

De Martin Sprizzerol Paolo de Martin, who is the owner of De Martin Sprizzerol, is well known for exceptional and extravagant product presentations. For example it is not unusual for the whole of the Sprizzerol-Bar to be decorated in animal-prints and with glamorous girls wearing feather boas serving the aperitif. By working with Rexam, at its factory in Enzesfeld, Austria, the two companies came up with a solution that would not only fit the sophisticated brand but that would provide an easy way to serve, transport and store the drink, as well as being cost-effective. Paolo de Martin continued: “The know-how of a leading global consumer packaging company enables us to optimize our product and to meet the requirements of our customers. This is an aperitif for all people who enjoy living and also want to show this to others. This drink is the life-style drink for fans of the Italian way of life and who are cool and beautiful. Sprizzerol is synonym for Mediterranean awareness of life, urbanity and eccentricity. Using the 25 cl slim aluminium can fits perfectly with this philosophy.” Harald Moser of Rexam explained further: “As consumers’ lifestyles change, so do their needs and drinks packaging

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must meet these needs. Consumers are demanding more sophisticated packaging solutions that will give them the drink they want, when they want it and how they want it. On-the-go consumption is increasing and so is occasion drinking such as outdoor events and festivals. “This is a core market for Sprizzerol and the can fits this profile perfectly. Metal cans are unbreakable, making them suitable where, glass, for example, would pose a safety risk and of course the single serve can makes portion control much easier. With a product like Sprizzerol an aluminium can also allows the product to be served under perfect conditions as it is already mixed in the can and is easy and quick to chill. “The can is also well suited to premium brands such as Sprizzerol and Rexam often work with customers to create the perfect packaging solu-

tion to differentiate a premium brand from the mainstream. By developing the right combination of size, shape and design we can help brands like these create the unique positioning for which they are looking.” In addition, for events and festivals practical considerations come into effect. Aluminium is light making transport easier, cheaper and more environmentally friendly and the shape of the can makes it easy to stack and store. Additionally, cans are 100% recyclable and can be repeatedly recycled with no reduction in the integrity of the metal. As well as at any self-respecting event, the 25 cl single serve can of Sprizzerol is available from retailers in Austria and Germany and in bars and pubs throughout Italy, Austria, Germany, Belgium, Slovenia, and Croatia.

THE BEVERAGE CAN CELEBRATES ITS 75TH ANNIVERSARY Whether beer, cola, energy drinks, coffee-mix drinks, green tea, exotic cocktails or wine, there is hardly a drink which is not sold in cans today. Seventy-five years ago, however, the news that a beverage such as beer was being offered in “tin containers” was positively revolutionary. Since then the beverage can has captured a fan community which grows year by year worldwide. In 2008 some 53 billion beverage cans were sold in Europe alone, 5% more than in the previous year. Since it was invented, research into how to improve the cylindrical packaging even further has been carried out right up to the present day. And it is primarily the environment which benefits from the innovations of the past 75 years.

the Englishman Peter Durand was granted a patent for the use of tinplate to produce cans. The tinplate packaging was born. Canned food subsequently preserved the vitamins urgently needed by sailors and members of expeditions. The period of prohibition in America in the 1930s finally gave manufacturers the idea of filling beverages in cans. In 1933 the Gottfried Krueger Brewery in New Jersey signed a contract with the American Can Company which had in the meantime developed a practical beer can. Finally 24th January 1935 was the big day, world premiere for the first canned beer: “Krueger’s beer” was launched in a cylindrical tinplate can in Richmond, Virginia, and in the same year

200 million cans were sold. The “original can” weighed 100 g at the time. “EASY LIFE - WITH BEER FROM CANS” The German packaging producer Schmalbach-Lubeca which was taken over by Ball Corporation in 2002 was involved right from the start when it came to developing can enhancements. The first beer can produced by the company, a three-piece bottle can with crown cork seal, didn’t take hold because it was too complicated to produce. Things were different for the threepiece black-plate can with which Schmalbach-Lubeca restarted production in 1951 after the war years. The simpler design comprising base,

FROM ZERO TO 200 MILLION IN THE FIRST YEAR The discovery of heat sterilisation first made it possible to use steel as packaging material: In the year 1810, exactly 200 years ago, the Frenchman Nicholas Appert was granted a patent by Napoleon. He had recognised that the lack of a means to preserve food for his soldiers posed a problem and he offered a prize for an appropriate solution. In the same year,

Historical cans from the USA which are now collector’s items. They used to be opened with so-calles “church key” which punched a triangular hole in the can end.

body and end only weighed 83 g and was the first beer can to be launched on the market in Germany. “Easy life with beer from cans” was the slogan which the Henninger Brewery used to promote its product. Two years later tin-plate was used, being less susceptible to corrosion but just as recyclable. In 1958 the first aluminium cans appeared in the shops. These could be produced in just two pieces: the base and the body were made from one piece using the extrusion process and the end was seamed on later. PRESS INSTEAD OF TEAR The breakthrough came at the beginning of the 1960s: The development of the so-called lift-tab - a metal strip integrated in the can end – made it possible to open beverage cans without any additional aid. The American, Ermal Fraze, had the technique patented in 1963. Since then research in the can making industry has been constantly focused on improving the closure technology. An invention from the year 1974 represented first significant progress: Dan Cudzik designed the stay-ontab, also called ring-pull tab. In this case the opening tab was not torn off but pressed inside. This process is still usual today and it ensures that the small opening tab is recycled together with the can. The

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



and constantly rising recycling rates for steel and aluminium, today it is possible to produce around three times more cans than it was 30 years ago from the same amount of primary material. RESEARCH SURROUNDING THE BEVERAGE CAN

Digital printing can now also be used to design the rounded outer surface of beverage can with the advantage: individual design for each and every beverage can in brilliant photo quality with a resolution of 600 dpi.

Falls City Brewing Company from Louisville in Kentucky was the first to use this technology.

the two developments led to material savings of 10% (at the time the can only weighed 38 g).

NECK IN AND APPLY END Parallel to the more environmentally friendly design of the opening mechanism, the true environmental revolution surrounding the beverage can was, however, the continual light-weighting of both can and end. Since 1971 the diameter of the cylindrical can was reduced from 66 to 62 mm in the top section using a new type of necking process. As a result the can end diameter also decreased leading to significant savings in the amount of material used. The two-piece tin-plate can which had been developed in England in the meantime was presented on time for the Interbrau in Munich in 1971. Overall

LIGHTWEIGHTS WITH GOOD ECO-BALANCE On its 75th anniversary, a 330 mL tinplate can weighs around 21 g, an aluminium can just 10 g. The 0.097 mm thick can walls are even thinner than a human hair. Just as important for the ecobalance of cans: the can is the most recycled packaging in the world. In Germany the recycling quota is now as high as 90%. As it is possible to recycle cans infinitely without quality deterioration, the use of recycled material today saves up to 95% of the energy which would be required to produce virgin material. Due to continual light-weighting

56 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

Even in its 75th year, the beverage can has by no means lost its fascination as an object for research and development. The beverage can maker Ball Packaging Europe has its own research and development centre where some 70 experts are constantly working to enhance the can. For instance, the world’s first resealable can with the Ball Resealable End which was launched in 2008 was one of the most important inventions of the innovation

specialists from Ball. Cans are already on the market which, thanks to thermochromic ink coating, indicate to consumers when the contents have reached the optimal drinking temperature of 5 to 6 degrees in the refrigerator. In future cans will exude appetising aromas, if required. Digital printing techniques are also being researched in order to provide cans with individual and pin-sharp designs. And even the “communicating” can may not be just dreams of the future at some point in time: The can will then with the aid of loadable items and mobile phones be able to identify the consumer passing the supermarket shelf. The text “Good day John Q. Public - please buy me!” will then appear on the can wall.

The beverage can looses more and more weight: standard 330 mL.



Just successfully ended, inside the Coca-Cola Edmonton UK Plant, the testing of two Opera 200 Roll Fed 18T S1/E1 labelling machines signed by Sacmi Labelling. Coca-Cola Edmonton represents an important reference to the beverage world. It is one of the 7 Coca-Cola En-

terprise plants in Great Britain, the main producer, outside the Usa, of products signed by Coca-Cola. With 4,650 workers, 7 production plants and 8 distribution centres, it produces more or less 260 millions Coca- Cola packs per year and 650,000 per day. In Great Britain, the product portfolio

One of two Opera 200 Roll Fed labelling machines by Sacmi Labelling installed at the Coca-Cola Edmonton plant.

58 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

includes soft fizzy drinks, such as the classic Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Coke Zero, Fanta, Sprite, Oasis and other non fizzy fruit juices, isotonics like Powered and Abbey Well Water. However inside the UK market, it produces and distributes even Schweppes, Appletiser, Monster, and Capri Sun. The Edmonton plant started its activity on 1975, has 6 complete working lines producing both small and large Coca-Cola products format, and distributing in Edmonton and in Enfield (to the north of London). Opera 200 Roll Fed represents a high-advanced technology that made Sacmi Labelling a famous company all over the world. In this case it is an automatic-rotative labelling machine for 2L PET bottles using a speed production of 40,000 bottles per hour. Safe, reliable, and easy to be used, Opera Roll Fed can work both cylindrical and shaped containers made by PET, glass or metal, and is also able to apply both partial or rolling labels made by different materials. Opera Roll Fed has several advantages. The labelling station is equipped with two self contained coil supports, supplied

with both a film tension control system and an automatic rectification system that assures the vertical position. It is supplied with a motor positioned on the film driving roller, which rectifies the feed speed. The first labelling group has no pliers. The film is transferred from the roll to the bottle by an “empty” technology. This makes the labelling process less critic. Easy to be used and with very few maintenance needs, this machine can be equipped with a coil automatic junction system, in order to work continuously. In the Coca-Cola Edmonton plant, two equal labelling machines for labelling 2 L PET bottles using a roll plastic film label at a production speed of 40,000 bott./hour has been installed. Edmonton staff are really satisfied with the machine performance, and also with the service offered during both the design and the installation steps, developed together with the local service support. (Sacmi Labelling Via Dell’Industria 2/a - 37060 Mozzecane - VR - Italy Tel. +39 045 6347511 Fax +39 045 6347559 e-mail: sacmilabelling@

NEW SCREENING TOOL IDENTIFIES HIGH PREVALENCE OF MALNUTRITION IN ELDERLY At a symposium taking place at the ESPEN 2009 congress in Vienna at the end of August, experts gathered to highlight the important relationship between nutrition and functionality in the elderly. Chaired by Professor Cornel Sieber from University of Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany, and President of the European Academy for Medicine of Ageing (EAMA), the symposium brought together leading experts who discussed the importance of an effective and flexible screening tool for the measurement of nutritional status, the impact of nutritional status on fall and fracture risk, and the role physical exercise plays in maintaining nutritional status. The aim of the interdisciplinary symposium was to strengthen the awareness of the importance of good nutritional status in the elderly and the impact it has on functionality. Juergen Bauer, assistant medical director at the Department of Geriatric Medicine, University of Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany, presented global data pooling of over 6,000 elderly persons which showed the high prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition in the elderly. Prevalence in both hospital and rehabilitation settings was 86 and 91% respectively, as compared to nursing home and community settings

with 67 and 38% respectively. These data highlighted the importance of screening the elderly population for malnutrition. Bauer presented the new short form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-SF) tool, which this database strongly validated as a stand-alone tool. The new short form allows the identification of three nutritional status categories: well nourished, at risk and malnourished. Previously, the screening of nutritional status required the completion of the full MNA form, which took 10-15 minutes to complete versus 4 minutes for the new short form. Data were presented showing these three MNA-SF categories to be as valid as those from the full MNA form for as-

sessment of nutritional status in the elderly. In clinical settings it can be difficult to get a valid height and weight thus to calculate body mass index (BMI), a necessary parameter for the MNA. To enhance the usefulness of the MNA-SF, the data showed that calf circumference (CC) could be used as a valid alternative to BMI when the latter is not available. Professor Cornel Sieber stated that the use of the MNA-SF allows the screening of nutritional status to become standard practice in the care of elderly. Heike Bischoff-Ferrari, director at the Centre on Aging and Mobility, University of Zurich, Switzerland, presented the results of a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trails,

which showed that non-vertebral fracture prevention with Vitamin D is dose dependent. A dose greater than 480 IU per day reduces fractures by at least 20% for individuals aged 65 years and older. Non-vertebral fracture reduction was significant among community-dwelling older individuals (-29%) and hip fracture reduction was also significant for this group (-21%). Professor Bischoff-Ferrari noted that strategies for maintaining functionality must address strength and risk of fall and fracture reduction as well as focusing on bone strength. She also commented how the number of specific vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) receptors (VDRs) present in human muscle tissue decreases with age 5 and hypothesised that the number of these receptors could correlate with muscle mass. In a recently published metaanalysis, Bischoff-Ferrari et al. summarized the results of eight fall prevention trials to assess the effectiveness of vitamin D in preventing falls among older individuals (aged 65 or more). The pooled results showed that benefit from supplemental vitamin D on fall prevention depended on treatment dose, similar to the findings for nonvertebral fracture prevention with vitamin D. 700-1,000 IU supplemental vitamin D per day reduced falls by 19% and up to 26% with vitamin D3. This effect was independent of age and type of dwelling. The effect was significant within two to five months of starting treat-

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



ment and extended beyond 12 months. Both falls and non-vertebral/ hip fractures occur frequently in elderly individuals and lead to substantial morbidity and mortality, as well as additional cost to the healthcare system. The structure and composition of muscle were further discussed by Luc van Loon, associate professor at the Department of Human Movement Sciences at Maastricht Univer-

sity Medical Centre. He noted that lean muscle mass generally contributes up to -50% of total body weight in young adults but declines with aging to 25% when reaching an age of 75-80 years. Furthermore, muscle characteristics change with aging, with a reduction in the number of muscle fibres, specific type 2 muscle fibre atrophy, and a decline in satellite cell content. Van Loon added that the inges-

BEER AND BONE HEALTH Beer often seems to be outdone in the health benefit stakes compared to red wine. A new study reported in the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture suggests that beer may be good for bone health. Scientific evidence has indicated that silicon is important in bone health, although the biological mechanisms involved in this beneficial effect have not been fully elucidated. In an article in 2007 on silicon and bone health by Ravin Jugdaohsingh from Kings College London, it was suggested that silicon might be involved in the synthesis of collagen and its stabilisation and in bone matrix mineralisation. The US National Institutes of Health also suggest that dietary silicon, as orthosilicic acid (OSA), may be important for the growth and develop-

ment of bones and connective tissue. Although beer has been known as a source of silicon, what has not been studied is the effect of beer raw materials and processing methods on the levels of silicon in different types of beer. To fill this knowledge gap, Charles Bamforth and Troy Casey from the University of California Davis analysed 100 commercial beers for silicon content. They also analysed the silicon content of the raw materials used to make beer, and the changing levels of the element during the malting and roasting processes. The possibility that silicon was picked up from the silica hydrogel used to stabilise the beer or from filtering through the diatomaceous earth was also examined. Results showed that there was a very wide variation in the sil-

60 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

tion of protein after exercise reduces protein breakdown and stimulates muscle protein synthetic rate, a process which is believed to be impaired in the elderly. Van Loon et al are continuing their research efforts to identify factors responsible for anabolic resistance in ageing muscle and to define more effective nutrition and exercise interventional strategies to counteract the loss of muscle mass with aging.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;No therapy without diagnosis,â&#x20AC;? was how Sieber summed up this thought-provoking educational session. He concluded that good nutritional status is a cornerstone for an adequate age-adjusted functionality, maintenance of independence and finally a higher quality of life. The symposium was sponsored by the NestlĂŠ Nutrition Institute and was a part of the ESPEN Conference programme.

icon content of the beers ranging from 6.4 to 56.5 mg/L. Products derived from a grist of barley tended to contain

more silicon than those from a wheat-based grist, due to the high levels of silica in the husk layer of the barley. Hops,

which are used for flavouring purposes, contained high levels of silicon but since these are present in much smaller quantities than the grain they made a proportionately smaller contribution to the silicon content of the beer. Nevertheless, the Authors said that highly hopped beers might be expected to contain higher silicon levels. The malts with the higher silicon contents were pale coloured, having

had less heat stress during the malting process. The darker products, such as the chocolate, roasted barley and black malts had all had substantial roasting and consequently contained less silicon contents than the other malts, for reasons which the authors say are not yet known. According to the Authors’ summary, during brewing the vast majority of the silicon remains in the spent grains. However,

aggressive treatment during the production of wort in the brewhouse can lead to the increased extraction of silicon into the wort, much of which is carried over into the beer. Even after 24 hours, no silicon was picked up from the silicon hydrogel or the diatomaceous earth. The study’s findings have received a rather cool response from Claire Bowring of the National Osteoporosis Society

THE PACKAGING INDUSTRY REGAINS CONFIDENCE IN THE RUSSIAN MARKET Following difficult months as a result of the international economic crisis, there is renewed confidence in Russia, with increased demand for innovative packaging solutions from food & beverage producers, confectionery manufacturers and companies in the cosmetics as well as pharmaceutical industries. Although it’s still a long way from returning to the dynamic market of bygone days, there is a positive mood in the air. This became very apparent at Upakovka/Upak Italia 2010, the international trade fair for packaging machinery, packaging production and packaging material. Some 21,000 trade visitors from throughout the CIS and the neighbouring countries visited the Krasnaya Presnya Expocenter over the four days of the fair, which was held in

parallel to Interplastica 2010, the international trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. A sum total of around 800 exhibitors, who had rented approximately 15,000 square metres of exhibition space, were very pleased with the interest shown by the visitors. Those who showed increased interest in specific projects and investments, far exceeded expectations. This made for a very optimistic mood at the beginning of 2010. Erhard Wienkamp, Member of the Management Board of Messe Düsseldorf responsible for international trade fairs, was very pleased. “Our exhibitors’ confidence in the Russian market appears to be starting to pay off now. Although we are still a long way from the boom of bygone years, the enormous potential is evidently

gradually gathering momentum again.” The largest contingent of exhibitors at Upakovka/Upak Italia this year was Russian companies (83), followed by Italy (80) and Germany (75). It also featured official national presentations from Germany, France and Italy. Upakovka/ Upak Italia is jointly organised by Messe Düsseldorf and its Russian subsidiary OOO Messe Düsseldorf Moscow in cooperation with the Italian event coordinator Centrexpo. The German manufacturers of confectionery machines were completely oblivious to any crisis in Russia last year. According to figures provided by the VDMA (German Engineering Federation), Germany exported about €46.6 million worth of confectionery manufacturing machinery to Russia

(NOS) and Catherine Collins, a dietician at St George’s Hospital, London. Bowring said the NOS did not recommend raising alcohol consumption on the basis of Casey’s and Bamforth’s results. Collins said that beer drinking was not really relevant in terms of bone health, and that silicon contributed only in a very insignificant way to bone health, compared to other essential nutrients like calcium and vitamin D.

in the first ten months of 2009, a rise of approximately 31% in comparison to the figures for the same period in 2008. However, the German packaging machine manufacturers saw themselves confronted with entirely different circumstances, with exports to Russia falling by 43% to €207 million in the same period in comparison to the previous year. Vera Fritsche from the Food Processing and Packaging Machinery Association, a division of VDMA, emphasised the great importance of the Russian market. “The food & beverage industry is one of the key growth industries of the future in Russia, which means there are excellent opportunities for suppliers of food processing and packaging machinery. The good outcome of the fair for the German exhibitors at Upakovka/Upak Italia gives us cause for optimism that we will be able to continue to exploit this potential.”

Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march -



The Italian exhibitors also sensed that the market was picking up again and were satisfied with the outcome of the fair. Annunziata Landi from the Italian National Institute for Foreign Trade, ICE, emphasised the importance of the Russian market. â&#x20AC;&#x153;As our third-largest export market, Russia holds very attractive sales prospects in the medium and long term, making it especially significant for Italian companies. Now there seems to be movement in this market again, not least because there is once again more capital available for investments due to the rising price of raw materials.â&#x20AC;? On the second and third days of the fair, Upakovka/Upak Italia 2010 was augmented by a supporting programme of workshops and seminars. It attracted a large number of people interested in the practical topics addressed such as stateof-the-art packaging solutions for the Russian market, or the impact of high quality packaging on the goods it contains. The programme was drawn up with the involvement of representatives from several leading national and international companies and associations as well as members of Russian governmental organisations. The next Upakovka/Upak Italia is scheduled to take place from 25th - 28th January 2011 in Moscow and will once again be held in parallel to Interplastica.

INTERNATIONAL EVENTS IN ITALY 8 - 12 April 2010 - Verona: Vinitaly+Enolitech, int. wine show. Veronafiere - Viale del Lavoro 8 37135 Verona - Italy - Fax +39 045 8298288 - e-mail: 8 - 12 April 2010 - Verona: SOL, int. olive oil show. Veronafiere - Viale del Lavoro 8 37135 Verona - Italy - Fax +39 045 8298288 - e-mail: 10 - 13 May 2010 - Parma: Cibus, int. food show. Fiere di Parma - Via Rizzi 67/A 43031 Baganzola - PR - Italy - Fax +39 0521 996270 - e-mail: 22 - 26 May 2010 - Verona: SIAB, int. baking industry show. Veronafiere - Viale del Lavoro 8 37135 Verona - Italy - Fax +39 045 8298288 - e-mail: 8 - 11 June 2010 - Rimini: Packology, packaging and processing technology exhibition. Rimini Fiera - Via Emilia 155 - 47921 Rimini - Italy - Fax +39 0541 744829 - e-mail: info@ 24 - 26 September 2010 - Napoli: Tiam, Mediterranean agro-food technology exhibition. Ipack-Ima - Corso Sempione 4 - 20154 Milano - Italy - Fax +39 02 33619826 - e-mail: ipackima@ 6 - 8 October 2010 - Cesena (Fc): Macfrut, int. fruit processing show. Cesena Fiera Via Dismano 3845 - 47023 Cesena - FC - Italy - Fax +39 0547 318431 - e-mail: 12 - 13 October 2010 - Verona: Save, int. show of automation and instrumentation. E.I.O.M. Ente Italiano Organizzazione Mostre - Viale Premuda 2 - 20129 Milano - Italy Fax +39 02 55184161 - e-mail: 23 - 27 October 2010 - Milano: A.B. Tech Expo, baking and confectionery exhibition. F&M Via M. Donati 6 - 20146 Milano - Italy - Fax +39 02 40922499 - e-mail: visit.abtech@ 26 - 28 October 2010 - Milano: NUCE, exhibition-conference of nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and fuctional food&drink ingredients industry. Artenergy Publishing - Via Gramsci 57 - 20032 Cormano - MI - Fax +39 02 66305510 - e-mail: 28 - 31 October 2010 - Cremona: MeatItaly, int. meat processing show. CremonaFiere - Piazza Zelioli Lanzini 1 - 26100 Cremona - Italy - Fax +39 0372 598222 - e-mail: 8 - 11 May 2011 - Milano: Tuttofood, world food exhibition. Rassegne - Via Varesina 76 - 20156 Milano - Italy - Fax +39 02 48004423 - e-mail: 18 - 21 October 2011 - Parma: CibusTec, int. food equipment show. Fiere di Parma - Via Rizzi 67/A - 43031 Baganzola - PR - Italy - Fax +39 0521 996235 - e-mail: tecno@ 28 February - 3 March 2012 - Rho-Pero (Mi): Ipack-Ima, int. packaging, food processing and pasta exhibition. Ipack-Ima - Corso Sempione 4 - 20154 Milano - Italy - Fax +39 02 33619826 - e-mail:

62 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LX (2010) march

CHIRIOTTI EDITORI Viale Rimembranza, 60 - 10064 PINEROLO - ITALY Fax +39 0121 794480 - e-mail:

Name .............................................................................................................. Company ........................................................................................................ Address ........................................................................................................... City ...................................................................... State ................................. Country ..................................................... Postal Code ................................. e-mail ............................................................... Phone: .................................

J food industry supplier

J food producer

J beverage industry supplier

J beverage producer

J services - research

J wine producer

ADVERTISER INDEX Akomag - Soragna. ............................................................ 41

Chiriotti Editori - Pinerolo .........................................25-44 Cosmapack - Polignano a Mare ....................................... 57

Metalnova - Parma ....................................................cover 4

Pellacini - Sala Baganza .................................................... 51

Costacurta - Milano ........................................................... 2 Tosa - Cossano Belbo ................................................cover 1 Fava Artemio - Collecchio .........................................cover 3

Gai - Ceresole d'Alba ...................................................30-31

Lita - Poirino ...................................................................... 1

Velo Acciai - San Zenone degli Ezzelini....................cover 2

Walter Systems - Verduno .............................................. 45

COMPANY INDEX A.Esse Service ....................................................................39


Altech .................................................................................42

Maselli Misure ...................................................................29

Andreotti Impianti.............................................................28

MBF ...................................................................................38

Astepo .......................................................................... 28-37


Ball Packaging Europe .......................................................54

O.M.B.F. .............................................................................41

Barida .................................................................................35


Bortolin Kemo ...................................................................46


Cadalpe ..............................................................................34

Puleo ..................................................................................32




Sacmi Labelling ..................................................................58

Eastman .............................................................................52

Siem ...................................................................................39



Fimer ..................................................................................36

Tecnomax-Due ...................................................................40


Velo Acciai..........................................................................27

Industrie Fracchiolla ..........................................................32

Water Systems ...................................................................26

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