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Enzymatic browning and softening in vegetable crops. Studies and experiences
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March 2010 number 59
R.N. BARBAGALLO* - M. CHISARI - G. SPAGNA* Dipartimento di Orto-Floro-Arboricoltura e Tecnologie Alimentari (DOFATA) Sez. Tecnologie Agroalimentari - Università di Catania Via S. Soﬁa 98 - 98123 Catania - Italy *e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
ENZYMATIC BROWNING AND SOFTENING IN VEGETABLE CROPS STUDIES AND EXPERIENCES Key words: browning, endogenous enzymes, fresh-cut, softening, vegetables
THE ISSUES It is well known that enzymes are biological catalysts that act by lowering the activation energy and increasing the chemical reaction rate of specific physiological processes. As with every catalyst, these proteins are highly specific for each reaction, while not being changed themselves. They have highly complex structures and may be conjugated with metals, carbohydrates and/or lipids. Enzymatic activities are sensitive to several factors, mainly pH, temperature, substrate availability, inhibitors and activators. They are naturally present in vegetables (endogenous enzymes) and senescence phenomena and/or industrial processing put them in a condition to modify the physicochemical, sensory and nutritional properties of products (Koshland, 1959; Whitaker, 2003a and b).
Minimally processed or “freshcut” products are prepared and handled so as to maintain their fresh nature in order to provide “ready-to-eat” convenience products to the consumer especially in terms of saving time in cooking (Varoquaux and Wiley, 1994). These products were an important novelty in the food industr y in the 1980s. The category is mainly made up of minimally processed vegetables (MPV) and, to a smaller degree minimally processed fruit (MPF). Producing MPV involves cleaning, trimming, peeling, coring, slicing, shredding and washing of raw vegetables, generally followed by packaging in plastic bags and storing at temperature <6°C, and being sold within 8-10 days. In MPV, discolouration and loss of turgidity result in a loss of sensory quality, particularly visual quality, due to browning reactions
ABSTRACT The main enzymes associated with browning and softening of “minimally processed vegetables” are reviewed. The enzyme activities considered are those endogenously present in plant tissues and that act during postharvest, processing and/ or storage. The results shown are from research conducted by the Food Biotechnology Group of the University of Catania (Italy). The research results are compared with results obtained by other research groups in order to have a better understanding of problems related to extending the shelf-life of fruit and vegetable commodities.
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
on leaf surfaces (russet spotting) and in bruised tissues (brown stain) and softening reactions. The main mechanism for these changes is the disruption and decompartmentalisation of cellular structures which allows enzymes and their substrates to come in contact with each other, leading to cascade reactions. Such phenomena are mainly initiated by endogenous enzymatic activity, followed by microbial spoilage that may lead to further product decay. The enzymes involved in browning and softening reactions in vegetables such as tomatoes (Solanaceae), salad vegetables, including lettuce, baby romaine lettuce and endive (Asteraceae), Chinese cabbage (Brassicaceae) and fennel (Apiaceae) are mainly polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 188.8.131.52) followed in importance by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL; EC 184.108.40.206), pectin methylesterase (PME; EC 220.127.116.11) and polygalacturonases (Endo-PG; EC 18.104.22.168 -Exo-PG; EC 22.214.171.124 and EC 126.96.36.199). Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity is induced by cutting or bruising and leads to an increased phenolic content (Hyodo et al., 1978; KE and Saltveit, 1989) and these phenolics are specific substrates for polyphenol oxidase reactions. In this review, the influence of some degradative enzymatic activities found in vegetables and in minimally processed products is reviewed. It is based on research conducted from 1998 to 2008 by the Food Biotechnology Group of the University of Catania (Italy). Detailed results of all the cited research can be obtained from the original articles.
THE PROTAGONISTS Enzymes involved in degradation of vegetables Evaluation of genotypes that have an extended shelf life is one of the most active areas of research aimed at improving vegetable quality. Such selection mainly depends on the use of some endogenous enzymatic activities as markers of quality loss (Barbagallo et al., 2006; 2008). Among these activities, is polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 188.8.131.52) the primary enzyme responsible for the browning of damaged tissues due to the oxidation of phenolic compounds. Softening is a universal feature in the ripening of fleshy vegetables and is typically accompanied by the degradation of the middle lamella and loss of cell adhesion. This process derives from the solubilisation of cell wall pectin which involves the action of pectin methylesterase (PME; EC 184.108.40.206) and other pectinases. Polyphenol oxidases or oxidases Browning of vegetables and other alterations of the main sensory parameters can be due to enzymatic (enzymatic browning) or non-enzymatic reactions (mostly Maillard reactions). The oxidation substrates are oxygen and polyphenols (which are synthesised by phenylpropanoid metabolism, a pathway that is initiated by phenylalanine ammonia-lyase). Enzymatic browning consists of the oxidation of phenols to form reactive quinone compounds which can create radical oxidative coupling by interacting with the reactive residues of amino acids and peptides (amines and sulfhydryls) and with reduc-
6 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
ing sugars, to form brown oligomers of varying intensity. Quinone formation is reversible if reducing agents are applied (ascorbic acid, glutathione etc.); these are capable of generating colourless diphenols, while the subsequent process of oligomerization is irreversible (Mayer and Harel, 1979; Taylor and Clydesdale, 1987; Mc Evily et al., 1992). The oxidases principally involved are polyphenol oxidases, mostly classified into the following two groups (RamĂrez et al., 2003) (Fig. 1): 1. Polyphenol oxidase, also known as catechol oxidase, tyrosinase, phenolase, catecholase, o-diphenol oxidase and monophenol oxidase, (PPO, EC 220.127.116.11) catalyses the hydroxylation of monophenols into o-diphenols (monophenolase or cresolase activity) and subsequently oxidises them into o-quinones (o-diphenolase or cathecolase activity) at a ratio between 1 and 40. It is located in cell organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes where it is firmly bound to the membrane and may even be found in the soluble fraction of the cell membrane. Van Lelyveld et al. (1984) found increased PPO activity in response to mechanical shock. 2. Laccase (EC 18.104.22.168) oxidises p-diphenols more than odiphenols and forms quinones. They are produced from wild mould strains (Aspergillus, Botrytis, etc.) during conidial formation. They also react strongly with anthocyanins and are found when fruit is spoiled by Botrytis cinerea (Dubernet, 1974; Minassi et al., 2002). Pectinases Softening is a universal feature in the ripening of fleshy fruit and is
Fig. 1 - Reactions catalyzed by polyphenol oxidases.
typically accompanied by degradation of the middle lamella and loss of cell adhesion (Fraeye et al., 2007). This process derives from the solubilisation of cell wall pectin and involves the action of pectin methylesterase (PME, EC 22.214.171.124). PME causes cell autolysis and decompartmentalisation of cell wall components starting a series of cascade enzymatic reactions leading to: (i) an increased tissue respiratory ratio with consequent dehydration and senescence; (ii) increased ethylene biosynthesis and (iii) degradation of cell wall polysaccharides and tissue softening (Van Linden et al., 2008; Plaza et al., 2007). During fruit ripening PME cleaves the methyl esters from pectin to produce methanol, pectin with a low degree of esterification, and free acid. Decreasing levels of esterification are crucial for the softening of fruit; pectin is highly susceptible to degradation
by endo-acting enzymes (Huber, 1983; Crelier et al., 2001; Fachin et al., 2002). Pectic hydrolases One of the most important sensory characteristics of vegetables is turgidity related to the cell wall structure, which provides structure and rigidity (Longo, 1996). The composition of the cell wall can vary significantly among vegetables, but mainly consists of pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, proteins and other components. Vegetables are particularly rich in pectin which forms the major structural polysaccharide component of the fruit lamella and cell wall. It is composed of linear polygalacturonic acid that is largely esterified with methyl or acetyl groups that alternate with rhamnose molecules (“smooth regions”) with multiple side chains of various carbohydrates, including arabinan, xylan and galactan
(“hairy regions”). Methoxylation affects the susceptibility of pectin to pectinases and is characteristic of different types of fruit. Apples, for example, usually have very high pectin methoxylation (Benen and Voragen, 2003). Among the pectic hydrolases which degrade pectin, let us consider pectin methyl esterase and the polygalacturonases. Pectin methyl esterase Pectin methyl esterase (PME, EC 126.96.36.199) is produced by higher plants, mushrooms, some bacteria and yeasts (Jayani et al., 2005). This enzyme de-esterifies pectin by hydrolysing methoxyl groups to produce methanol and pectinic or pectic acids. PME starts with the non-reducing end of the chain and progresses to obtain alternating methoxylate and free carboxyl groups (Fig. 2). De-esterification never reaches completion due to competitive
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
Fig. 2 - Reaction catalyzed by pectin methyl esterase.
inhibition by the product; in fact, 10% more esterification is needed to activate the enzyme. Furthermore, PME can hydrolyse other esters, ethyls, propyls and allyles, but less effectively. In many fruit PME accompanies polygalacturonase by depolymerising pectin substrate. Ca+2 stimulates the enzyme, because it removes competitive inhibition by liberating the enzyme from the complex with the substrate (Hagerman and Austin, 1986). The first distinction between thermostable and thermosensitive enzymes was reported by Versteeg et al. (1980) when various isoenzymes of PME were isolated mostly from orange (Seymour et al., 1991; Cameron and Grohmann, 1996; Cameron et al., 1998; Anthon and Barrett, 2006). These isoenzymes can be differentiated, isoelectrically, by molecular weight and catalytic properties (kinetic, substrate affinity, pH and heat sensitivity) (Corredig at al., 2000). In various fruit isoenzymes pI varies from 9-11 (Ly-Nguyen et al., 2002; Denes et al., 2000; Laats et al., 1997). The biochemical properties, thermal stability and food applications for PME are similar in many types of fruit like tomato, orange, apple, grapefruit and others. PME is inactivated in juices by pasteurization even though some thermostable isoen-
zymes remain untouched; in citrus processing, Ca+2 causes gelling with subsequent precipitation. PME from fruit can be inhibited by high sugar concentrations, but is restored in reconstituted juice (Ingallinera et al., 2005). Polygalacturonases The endopolygalacturonases catalyse the hydrolysis of the Îą-1,4D-galacturonase bond, causing a rapid drop in substrate viscosity (Fig. 3). Even the hydrolysis of a small percentage of glycoside bonds can reduce viscosity by 50%. Endopolygalacturonases (Endo-PG, EC 188.8.131.52) randomly hydrolyse the polymer along the chain, while exopolygalacturonases (Exo-PG) are confined to cleaving off galacturonic acid monomers (EC 184.108.40.206) or digalacturonides (EC 220.127.116.11) from the non-reducing end. Endo-PGases are widely distributed throughout fungi, bacteria and many yeasts. In contrast, exoPGases occur less frequently. ExoPGases can be differentiated into
two types: fungal exo-PGases, which produce monogalacturonic acid as the main end product, and bacterial exo-PGases, which produce digalacturonic acid as the main end product. The occurrence of PGases in vegetables has also been reported (Benen and Voragen, 2003; Benen and Visser, 2003; Toivonen and Brummell, 2008; Tomassen et al., 2007). PME and PG together with cellulases and peptidases are required for cellular demolition during the maceration in wine-making and extraction of fruit juices (Della Penna et al., 1990; Hadfield et al., 1998; Smith et al., 1990). Pectic lyases Other pectinases belong to the lyases group; these are enzymes which catalyse chemical bondbreaking via hydrolysis and oxidation, often producing a new double-bond or a new aromatic compound. Pectic lyases are different with respect to others because they only need one substrate to catalyse the reaction in one direction and they need two in the other. While pectin and pectate lyases are necessary to depolymerise cell walls during sugar production, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase produces the substrates needed for oxidases to work. This is both nutritionally and sensorially deleterious. Pectic
Fig. 3 - Reaction catalyzed by polygalacturonases.
8 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
lyases, such as pectin lyase, pectate lyase and other pectinases occur less frequently than pectin hydrolases in beverages. Unfortunately no nucleotide sequences are available for many pectate and pectin lyases that have been characterised, so there is a large discrepancy between these enzymes (Benen, 2003; Benen and Voragen, 2003; Rombouts et al., 1982; Huber, 1984; De Lorenzo et al., 1991; Scavetta et al., 1999; Marín-Rodríguez et al., 2002). Pectin lyases are produced almost exclusively by mushrooms; in a few rare cases from some bacterial strains, they are extra-cellular. They can be distinguished by poly (methoxygalacturonide) endo pectin lyase (endo-PL, EC 18.104.22.168) and poly (methoxygalacturonide) exo pectin lyase exo-PL (exo-PL, EC 4.2.2.-), they break the glycoside bond by β-elimination of highly esterified pectin. The endo-PL reacts randomly on the substrate, while the exo-PL reacts at the non-reducing terminus. Pectin lyases are a valid alternative to polygalacturonase and pectin methylesterase since they directly de-polymerise pectins without altering their level of esterification. This prevents the release of methanol into the beverage and the formation of the colloidal precipitates of de-esterified pectin and endogenous Ca+2. Pectate lyases are mainly produced by microorganisms, although some may come from plants or pathogenic mushrooms. They are distinguished by poly β-1,4-Dgalacturonide endopectate lyase (endo-PEL; EC 22.214.171.124) and polyβ-1,4-D-galacturonide exopectate lyase (exo-PEL; EC 126.96.36.199). They both break the glycoside bond of the chain by trans β-elimination
of pectins with a low level of esterification, to form a double bond in the C4-C5 position. There is a substantial difference between the two types of enzymes; endoPEL hydrolyses randomly, while exo-PEL reacts at the ends of the chain. Pectate lyase is less common than pectin lyase.
VEGETABLES AS SUBSTRATES OF ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION Tomato The shelf-life of tomatoes mainly depends on adopting strategies in order to select genotypes with low degradative enzyme expression. Spagna et al. (2005a) investigated the role of polyphenol oxidase on tomato quality loss and on lycopene degradation during storage. Polyphenol oxidase was extracted from five Sicilian varieties of tomato (Pizzutello, Naomi (Hazera), F1 PS212 (Peto seed), Rosa Maletto, PO228) and assayed with a method using 3-methyl-benzothyazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) as a chromophore coupling agent, while 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) acetic acid (DOPAC) was used to determine PPO activity in tomato. The tomato PPO had a maximum activity at pH 4.8. The pH of juice in ripe fruit is between 4.1 and 4.4; in this range the PPO relative activity is between 74 and 87%. The optimum temperature for activity of tomato PPO is 40°C; the enzyme showed a good relative activity (55% of the maximum) at cold-storage temperature (4°C). PPO retained 82% of its relative activity at a NaCl concentration of 0.1 M; it gradually became more inactivated as
the concentration increased. The commercial tomato variety Naomi is more susceptible to enzymatic browning than the local varieties Pizzutello, Rosa Maletto and PO228, due to higher PPO activity levels. This result confirms the suitability of these local tomato varieties for the national markets. Results from storage tests show a relationship between the PPO activity and the colour changes associated with browning and lycopene degradation; lycopene is an antioxidant agent that reconstitutes the polyphenols that are oxidised by the action of PPO. The polymerisation of quinonic compounds due to the action of polyphenol oxidase is a major cause of fruit deterioration, that is then followed by microorganism development. In an earlier study, Barbagallo et al. (2008) evaluated the effect of watering regime on the expression of PME and PPO enzymatic activities, as well as on the physico-chemical properties of typical long-term storage cherry tomatoes (“Pizzutello”, “Albicocca di Favignana”, “Rosso”, “Giallo piccolo a punta”, “Albicocca di Lipari”, “Percopara”), in order to propose a strategy suitable for Sicilian cultivation. Polyphenol oxidase seemed to be related to the water regime used; a maximum activity was observed under in normal watering conditions and pectin methylesterase activity greatly decreased as water stress increased (loss of activity ranging from 22.31 to 82.01%). Water stress conditions also induced an increased titratable acidity (up to 64.3% in cultivar “Rosso”) and an increase in dry matter and total soluble solids (increase ranging from 19.41 to
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47.83% and from 5.60 to 29.03% for dry matter and total soluble solids, respectively). Different strategy solutions for the cultivation of tomato genotypes with an extended shelf life are possible: (a) selecting the local type that presents the lowest levels of pectin methylesterase and polyphenol oxidase (“Pizzutello”) and (b) modifying the water regime in order to induce the commercial cultivars used in intensive cultivation, such as “Naomi”, to better “protect themselves” from enzymatic degradative activities. The results suggested that high watering levels, leading to a more marked production of degradative enzymatic activities, could lead to products being more susceptible to undesirable browning and softening reactions. Leafy vegetables Leafy vegetables belong to a group of food commodities characterised by high amounts of vitamins, minerals and fibre and a reduced calorie content. Furthermore, they are relevant preventive agents against tumors and cardiovascular diseases, and inhibition agents against free radicals, responsible for the ageing phenomena (Bajpai et al., 2005). In the literature there are conflicting opinions as to the role of PAL and PPO in browning during storage of minimally processed lettuce. Some authors (Hisaminato et al., 2001; Degl’innocenti et al., 2007) have proposed PAL activity as a marker for determining the browning potential of minimally processed lettuce. On the other hand, Cantos et al. (2001) did not find any correlation between browning and PAL activity. The same authors found
increased PPO activity due to enzyme activation from a latent to a fully active form following tissue bruising. Heimdal et al. (1995) reported a lack of correlation between PPO and browning phenomena. To date, no research has been published regarding the correlation between pectin methylesterase activity and softening of minimally processed lettuce. Lettuce Four botanical varieties of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) var. longifolia, crispa, acephala and capitata were studied by our research group (data not published) in order to evaluate the impact of PAL and subsequent activities of PPO and PME in fresh-cut products. Colour changes during storage at 4°C, measured as the change in parameters L*, a*, b* and chroma, were taken as quality markers of minimally processed lettuce. A sharp variation of a* parameter, representing the green to red component, was noticed in all the varieties. Such variation can be taken as a browning index of lettuce (Martin-Diana et al., 2005). The a* value increased during storage in all varieties except longifolia; the a* values range from 2.2 (crispa) to 4.0 (capitata). All lettuce varieties examined showed similar PAL activity values immediately after cutting (day 0). The values increased during the first days of storage, but with different values; longifolia and crispa showed a maximum activity on day 4, while capitata showed a maximum on day 6 with a value 10 times higher than that on day 0. Different values of PPO activity were observed among the varieties already on day 0 of storage. In particular, crispa showed the highest activity
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(0.047 U/g) followed by acephala, capitata and longifolia. The higher PPO activity value on day 0 can be explained by the increased availability of phenolic substrates due to processing and cellular disruption. It can also be related to a defense mechanism of the plant against the stress induced by processing. The initial PME activity was different among the varieties, with capitata showing the highest value (4.74 U/g), followed by crispa, longifolia and acephala. By calculating the ratio between phenolics and PPO activity, it was possible to obtain some information about the enzymatic browning of freshcut lettuce. In longifolia the ratio was positive, indicating that PPO did not act effectively on the phenolics so browning did not occur. On the other hand, in capitata the ratio was more favourable to PPO, indicating a high activity towards phenolics with the formation of quinones, precursors of the brown legumes. In acephala, the phenolics/PPO ratio was similar to that of capitata, but the a* variation during storage was slightly lower. This was probably due to low PAL activity and consequently reduced phenolic formation. In an earlier work (Chisari et al., 2007), oxidase activities and antioxidant capacity of minimally processed baby romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Duende) cultivated under different salinity conditions were investigated. The two oxidases which were the object of the study were polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase (POD; EC 188.8.131.52). POD oxidises the hydrogen donors of peroxides and also accepts polyphenols as donors (Thongsook et al.,, 2007; LopezSerrano and Ros-Barcelò, 1995). POD is often associated with the
appearance of undesiderable aromas but its role in browning is limited by the low level of H2O2 within plant cells (Richard-Forget and Gauillard, 1997). Furthermore, physico-chemical analyses were performed to determine the total phenolic content, colour parameters and antioxidant capacity (assayed with ORAC method), during 10 days of storage at 4째C of minimally processed baby romaine lettuce cultivated under 3 different salinity conditions (2.8, 3.8, 4.8 dS/m), in order to determine the most suitable condition for further processing. Wounding of tissues during minimal processing activated both enzymatic activities which became, much more evident after 7 days of storage. The increase in PPO activity seemed to be correlated with the low salt availability, whereas no marked increase was observed at higher salt concentrations. The increase of polyphenol oxidase activity ranged from 2.3 to 21.0% at day 3, reaching 59.8% at day 7 in samples cultivated under low salinity conditions (2.8 dS/m). Peroxidase activity also increase, with a drastic increase up to day 7 (about 4 times higher than the initial value). Furthermore, POD extracts from samples cultivated under low salinity conditions showed the highest activity (0.431 U/g fw at day 7) in comparison with the other two salinity conditions (0.361 and 0.404 U/g fw at day 7 for medium and high salinity conditions, respectively). The highest oxidase activity in extracts was recorded in samples cultivated under low salinity conditions. This result can be explained by the high availability of free water for the enzymatic reactions. A general
decrease in the phenolic content was noticed in all the samples, reaching minimum values at day 7, in correspondence with the maximum PPO and POD activity values. A very similar decreasing trend was observed relative to the antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts of lettuce; the highest variation was found after 7 days of storage at 4째C in samples cultivated under low salinity conditions (-57% of the initial value); a general decrease in ORAC units was observed in all the samples. The oxidation of phenolic compounds inevitably led to browning of the samples; this was measured by the variations in the L*a*b* parameters. Colour degradation was linear up to day 10 in samples cultivated under low salinity, while there was no significant difference between day 7 and 10 in samples raised under with medium and high salinity conditions. Increasing levels of salinity (up to 4.8 dS/m) effectively reduced PPO and POD activities, colour changes and phenolic degradation, thus, preserving the antioxidant capacity of the product, immediately after cutting and throughout 7 days of storage. Escarole Escarole (Cichorium endivia var. latifolium) is one of the most highly regarded salads because of its colour, slightly bitter flavour and for its toning, purifying and diuretic properties in low-calorie diets. Furthermore, fresh-cut escarole has a long shelf-life because it resists browning. While not entirely understood, it may be due to low PPO activity, which is responsible for enzymatic browning (Castaner et al., 1999)
and/or the low level of polyphenol substrate in the plant tissue. Ingallinera and Spagna (2007) studied shelf-life and enzymatic oxidation in six fresh-cut escarole cultivars (Salanca, Laurv, Davos, Perlita, Lorca, Elsa). Samples were packed in both air atmosphere and nitrogen-or-argon saturated atmospheres with triple layer film. The phenol content, PPO activity and colour change were measured during storage for 14 days at 4째C. Colour variation during storage was significant. The lightness, L*, and red to green, a*, values showed a similar increase during storage in all the samples. There were no significant differences between the samples stored in air atmosphere and those stored in nitrogen-or-argon saturated atmosphere. The PPO values initially increased and reached a maximum after 2 days of storage. This result suggests that tissue wounding caused an increase in PPO activity due to a shift in the activation process from latent to fully active (Castaner et al., 1999). The subsequent decrease could have been due to the reduced availability of polyphenol substrate rather than to an effective reduction in enzyme. In fact, Cantos et al. (2001) reported that PPO was active only in the initial phase and was not further synthesised. It may be deduced that escarole is well-suited as a fresh-cut salad vegetable with a long shelf-life due to its low PPO activity and browning resistance. Argon-and nitrogen-modified atmospheres can further improve shelf-life over a 14-day period due to reduced PPO biosynthesis and the absence of oxygen which prevents the enzyme from oxidizing which then leads to browning.
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Chinese cabbage The suitability of four cultivars of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis Lour) (“Bilko”, “Kasumi”, “Manoko” and “Nikko”) to be processed into a ready-to-eat product was evaluated by Scuderi et al. (2007). Immediately after harvesting, cabbage samples were cut, washed with chlorinated water, packaged under ordinary atmospheric conditions and stored at 4°C for 8 days. The results indicate that Chinese cabbage is of interest as a ready-to-use product. In fact, there were few changes in the titratable acidity, soluble solids and weight loss values for Manoko; the CO2 and O2 percentage changes were the least in Bilko. The total PPO levels differed in the various cultivars during storage in the following order: Manoko < Kasumi < Bilko < Nikko. Generally, the green leaf tissue had a higher activity than the vascular ones, except for cv. Nikko. Variations in polyphenol were also found in the polyphenol content in the tissue; generally, the green leaf tissue had a higher content than the vascular ones. A good correlation was found between the PPO activity and browning, in agreement with other authors (Severini et al., 2003). These results indicate that Manoko is suitable for use as a ready-to-use product. In an other study Catalano et al. (2007) investigated the effect of harvest age and processing on the biochemical degradation of ready-to-eat Chinese cabbage during chilled storage. Chinese cabbage cultivar ‘Manoko’, harvested at 60 days, was taken from storage processed under the same conditions and packed under air and modified-active-packaging
(MAP) with three mixtures of O2 and CO2 at different and increasing concentrations and with an anti-fog film for condensation control (O2 permeability: 35 cc/ m2/24 h, CO2 permeability: 135.8 cc/m2/24 h, H2O permeability: 15 g/m2/24 h at 25°C). The gas mixtures used in MAP were those generally recommended in the literature for fresh-cut vegetables (Cantwell, 1995), Mixture 1: 5% O2, 5% CO2; Mixture 2: 10% O2, 5% CO2; and Mixture 3: 10% O2, 20% CO2. Chinese cabbage samples were taken for analysis at 0, 4 and 12 days. Samples harvested at different ripening stages showed appreciable differences in all the parameters tested on the day of the production and during chilled storage. The samples wrapped in modified atmosphere only showed differences in PPO activity and browning during cold storage. The initial PPO activity, browning and total polyphenol content increased during ripening. Early harvested cabbage (40 days from sowing) maintained a good quality longer than those that were harvested later. This was due to a smaller PPO increase and less browning during the chilled storage, even though the initial phenolic content was lower. Five percent O2 and 5% CO2 was the most suitable packaging solution for preserving quality during chilled storage. The effect of reducing O2 was more effective than increasing CO2 in order to reduce browning during cold storage, although it is was very difficult to understand the exact effect that of MAP has on PPO activity and browning. Fennel Among minimally processed vegetables, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare
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Mill.) is not widely used due to the rapidity with which enzymatic browning occurs (Artes et al., 2002). The edible part is the bulb-like structure formed by the inflated leaf base, and the green stalks. In an attempt to extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fennel, Spagna et al. (2005b) studied the effects of treating fennel with stabilising solutions and using different packaging conditions. PPO activity, colour changes and the levels of the main microbial groups were monitored during storage at 4°C in order to evaluate the effects of different stabilising treatments and packaging on the shelf-life of fennel. Washed and cut fennel samples were treated with two stabilising solutions (ethanol and SO2) just before packaging; this was carried out in ordinary and modifiedatmosphere conditions using an impermeable PET (polyethylene terephthalate) film. The results obtained from the storage tests showed that pre-treatments with SO 2 extended the shelf-life of minimally processed fennel. In comparing untreated samples with those treated with ethanol, those treated with SO2 showed a lower PPO activity during storage, less variation in L*a*b* variations and better hygienic-sanitary conditions. Modified atmosphere packaging showed positive results in terms of reducing microbial growth, while a clear correlation was not found between the tested packaging and enzymatic browning of the samples. Initial activity (day 0) ranged from 0.14 and 0.16 U/g fwt. Wounding of tissue caused an increase in PPO activity due to the activation process from latent to fully active PPO (Cantos et al., 2001). The increase was
slight with a maximum reached at 7 days of storage for all the samples tested except for those treated with ethanol, whose PPO activity increased up to day 10. Samples without stabilising treatments, with both ordinary and modified atmosphere packaging, showed the highest PPO activity values (0.21 and 0.20 U/g fw, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS Based on published literature regarding several types of vegetables, it is not possible to find a single explanation for the interactions between enzymatic activities and browning and softening phenomena. In fact, the deterioration and senescence processes in vegetables during the post-harvest period are extremely complex from a physiological point of view and involve several metabolic pathways. The “scientific reductionism” that leads to a simplification of biological systems to just a few variables, is not suitable when trying to explain specific situations of fresh-cut vegetables. In fact, the limiting factors in biochemical reactions that lead to degradation may differ according to the different botanical types and plant tissues. However, some general comments can be made on enzymatic browning, which essentially depends on PPO activity, even if other variables, such as PAL and PME activities, water content with the consequent solute concentration, play an important role. So, it is difficult to establish which parameter is most relevant in a particular vegetable type. However,
the phenolics/PPO ratio and the presence of PME describe in part the degradation pattern of leafy vegetables during their shelf-life continuum. From “Italian Journal of Food Science” nr. 1/2009
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Cracow University of Economics - Faculty of Commodity Science - Packaging Department 27 Rakowicka St. - 31-510 Cracow - Poland e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
THE PROPOSAL OF SENSORY QUALITY DETERMINATION OF FOOD IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING USING THE ESTIMATE METHOD
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to suggest estimate method for evaluating sensory quality of food product based on a multiple regression model under the inﬂuence of the product quality parameters as well as packaging system parameters. This estimate method was veriﬁed with the expert-estimate method. The object of this estimation was peanuts packaged in MAP in bags using metallized ﬁlm: PET/EVOH-LDPE. Sensorial quality is a critical quality parameter, which disqualiﬁed the quality of food. For that reason, on the basis of the calculated models of changes of speciﬁc quality parameters, the dependence of the index of total sensorial quality (ITSQ) from the remaining analyzed quality parameters of the products, i.e.: acid value (AV), the peroxide value (PV) and water content (X) as well as the quality parameter of packaging system, i.e.: the oxygen content in packaging (O2) as well as the vapour permeability (Pv) and the oxygen permeability (Po) through packaging material. The suggested estimate method for evaluating product sensory quality based on a multiple regression model may – due to its precision and accuracy – constitutes an alternative/ complement to the expert-estimate method.
Key words: modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), sensory estimation, quality of peanuts
INTRODUCTION The quality of food can be defined as the sum of those properties of a food article which determine its fitness for the satisfaction of the needs of a contemporary consumer. Those needs can be met if the product fulfils the requirements of the law in force, has the nutritious value desired by the consumer, is compliant with the health requirements, has the expected technological value and the desired sensory properties throughout the period of durability (Coles et al., 2005). On the basis of the findings of research presented in trade publications, (Cardelli and Labuza, 2003; Lisi´nska-Ku´s n ierz, 2008; Piergiovanni and Limbo, 2004; Porretta, 2004), we can state that the most important properties of food for the consumer at the time of consumption include: external appearance, taste and aroma,
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which determine the sensor y quality of a food product. The key factors affecting the sensory quality of the products include: level of original quality of the product, kind of packaging, and the conditions of storage. Sensorial quality is a critical quality parameter which disqualified the quality of food products. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) is one of the packaging systems which extend the shelflife of the products. On the basis of the research of the durability of MAP packaged products e.g. by Franzetti et al. (2001) (fish products), Jacxsens et al. (2002) (fruits), and El-Kayati and Fadel (2000) (peanuts), our work was based on the assumption that the durability of the packaged product was to be determined on the basis of an evaluation of the sensory quality. On the basis of a review of the related publications, we can state
that the modified atmosphere packaging system is based on the following elements (Jones, 1989; Ucherek, 2007; Lee et al., 2008): – determination of the gas mix adapted to the product, to be used inside the packaging, – use of materials with high barrier properties with respect to gases and water evaporation, guaranteeing the air-tightness of the packaging and a proper mechanical resistance, – maintenance of proper parameters of the environment. The principle of MAP consists in the specific properties of individual gases used for the mix, selected depending on the characteristics of the packaged product so as to ensure the best and the longest protection possible. While selecting the composition of the gas mix according to the kind of product, the professionals can make reference to a large base of experience. However, that composition shows more or less marked variations with regard to the same products. These can be the result of differences in the characteristics of the products themselves, in the required periods of durability, and in the microclimatic conditions of storage (Lisi´nska-Ku´s n ierz and Ucherek, 2003). Thus the analysis focused on the dependency of the variations of the sensory quality from the variations of the other quality parameters of the products, the composition of the mixture of gases in the packaging, and the properties of the packaging material. The purpose of the research was to develop a method of estimate evaluation of the sensory quality of MAP products (Ucherek, 2004; Soliva-Fortuny and RicartColl, 2007).
The above research undertaking was the result of the willingness to identify an objective method where the tests performed by a team of experts, requiring the suitable preparations, could be replaced by laboratory tests. The need to implement such solutions constituted the topic of several publications, among others Yam (2004); Porretta (2000); Mazza and Jayas (2001); Irwin and Hedges (2004) as well as Paddmaja et al. (2001).
MATERIAL AND METHODS Commercial roasted and salted peanuts, produced by known on Polish market company MAP packed with peanut oil, are used as examples in this discussion. These products were packaged in bags (100 g). For packaging materials, metallized laminate with interlayer print thick (PET met/ EVOH-LDPE ) was used (thickness: 0,90 m -4 ; basis weight: 83,90 g/m2; the tensile load in length: 32N; the tensile load in breadth: 35N; tensile strength in length: 26,5 MPa; tensile strength in breadth: 30 MPa; elongation in length: 50%; elongation in breadth: 46%). Peanuts were packaged in a mixture of gases obtained as a result of the product being washed in nitrogen directly in the process of packaging, in the v.f.f.s. system (vertical form-fill-seal) (Company Normalization Document, 2005). Products regarding to possibilities of technology process in different kinds of gas mixtures were packaged experimentally,
as following: 0-1% O2 and adequate 100-99% N 2, 1-3% O 2 and adequate 99-97% N2, 3-6% O2 and adequate 97-94% N2. Gas mixture in packaging of products which are on the market are 1-3% O2. The program of researches of packaged peanuts takes analysis of the quality parameters of the product, the composition of the mixture of gases in the packaging, and the properties of the packaging material. These parameters were analyzed during storage in microclimate conditions according to the normalization document using the air conditioning chamber type KPW-1/4: T=18°±1°C, RH= 75±2% (research cycle: 4 weeks, time of storage: 52 weeks) (Lisi´n s ka-Ku´snierz, 2005). The sensor y tests were performed in a special sensory laboratory with separate testing and product preparation areas. Products were assessed by a trained panel consisting of 6 persons (PN-ISO 8586, 1996; PN-ISO 4121, 1998). The scoring method applied to sensory estimation of peanuts was a 5-point scale test with gradation of validity (5very good quality, 4-good quality, 3-sufficient quality, 2-tolerance quality, 1-poor quality). The evaluation cards with coefficients of importance for quality factors were created by experts. Finally, an index of total sensorial quality (ITSQ) was determined. The experiment material was collected directly at the production and was compliant with the quality requirements described in Company Nor malization Document (Company Normalization Document, 2005). All the packaging units destined for
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the tests had been controlled for their tightness using the Package Test System by Skye (Lisi´nskaKu´sn ierz, 2005). The program of researches of peanuts in MAP is presented on Fig. 1.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In order to develop a method of estimate evaluation of the sensory quality of MAP packaged products, the Author analysed the correlation between the variations of the product ITSQ, which is a critical parameter in the research of the durability, from the other specified quality parameters of the product, content of oxygen in the packaging, and from the packaging material. A multiple regression analysis method was used, on the basis of Multiple Regression package of the Statistica 8,0 software. Its purpose was to identify those among the measured quality parameters which in a meaningful
way affect the ITSQ level, and to formulate a suitable equation of multiple regression (Zelia´s et al., 2004). The analysis was performed separately for various combinations of the initial composition of gas mixture in the packaging. The dependent variable was ITSQ, and the independent variables – according to the analysed area of research – were the parameters characterising the quality of the product, composition of the gas mixture in the packaging and the properties of the packaging material. Taking into account the recommendations pertaining to the scope of the conducted research provided in the factory standards, as well as the considerations presented by Trystam (2005), Labuza (2003), and Man (2002), the Author proposed 3 areas of research, to wit: basic, partial and full. The scope of the above research was presented on Fig. 2. The Table 1 contains a comparison of the proposed multiple re-
Fig. 1 - The program of researches of peanuts in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).
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Fig. 2 - The scope of the researches of peanuts in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP).
gression models depending from the initial composition of the gas mixture in the packaging and from the selected area of research. The above table also presents the values of the coefficient of determination R2, the values of the standard error of evaluation, and the values of the Durbin-Watson statistics. The developed regression models contain those independent variables, in the case of which it was stated that they did exist – as a result of t-Student test verification – assumptions for the rejection of the null hypothesis. That constituted the basis for the statement that the variations thereof have a material influence on the variations of ITSQ. The values of the Durbin-Watson test fit in the environment of 2, which is a proof of non-occurrence of the phenomenon of autocorrelation of random component residuals. Among the results shown in table 1, the Authors obtained very high values of R 2 (above 96%) (Zelia´s et al., 2004). Analysing the multiple regression equations obtained, we can state that PV is the parameter influencing the sensory quality of the packaged products, regardless of
Table 1 The proposed multiple regression models depending from the initial composition of the gas mixture in the packaging and from the selected area of research*. The initial The areas composition of of the gas research mixture in the packaging 0-1% O2
Basic Partial Full Basic Partial Full Basic Partial Full
The multiple regression models
ITSQ=5.3709-0.5778PV-0.63321AV ITSQ=5.5261-0.9819PV-0.0534O2 ITSQ=7.5781-1.1540PV-0.3506X-0.0850O2-0.0893PPW ITSQ=5.6313-0.3751PV-0.6240AV ITSQ=5.7050-0.5404PV-0.4769AV-0.0544O2 ITSQ=10.025-0.1742PV-0.7696X-0.0051O2-0.1184PPW ITSQ=5.4660-0.5461PV-0.4478AV ITSQ=5.4869-0.5788PV-0.4207AV-0.01390O2 ITSQ=6.4034-0.3659PV-0.0739O2-0.0279Pv
The verification tools of multiple composition regression models Coefficient of The values of d DurbinSerial determination the standard Watsona correlation R2 [%] error of of the rest evaluation 97.50 97.66 97.81 98.80 98.98 99.42 97.82 97.02 98.41
0.1332 0.1274 0.0823 0.0971 0.0907 0.0675 0.1752 0.1803 0.1319
1.0885 1.4113 2.3173 1.4662 1.6375 2.2113 1.0346 1.1950 1.3423
0.4390 0.2646 -0.2154 0.2612 0.1770 -0.1116 0.4825 0.3840 0.3149
The * symbol means that the multiple regression models were extracted according to results of verification the accuracy of evaluation. The index of total sensorial quality (ITSQ), the acid value (AV), the peroxide value (PV), the water content (X), the oxygen content in packaging (O2), the vapour permeability (Pv).
the initial composition of the gas mixture in the packaging and of the selected area of research. The obtained correlations find their corroboration in the research of peanuts conducted by El-Kayati and Fadel (2000), Man (2002), Lee et al. (2005) and others. In those tests, only PV was considered as the physico-chemical parameter determining the quality of the packaged product and the freshness of the fat contained there in. However, insofar as the characteristics of the functional properties of the packaging material are concerned with respect to the full area of research, only the vapour permeability (Pv) proved to be a parameter materially affecting the level of the sensory quality of the packaged product. The above analysis allows us to state that the scope of ITSQ variations includes the variations of the quality of fat contained in the packaged product (the peroxide value-PV in particular), of the
composition of the gas mixture in the packaging, i.e. the â€œenvironmentâ€? of the product (expressed by the oxygen content in packaging-O2), and the functional properties of the packaging material, among which the vapour permeability (Pv) has a material influence on the level of the sensory quality. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed estimate method of determining the ITSQ of the packaged product, a comparative research was conducted. Its purpose was to determine whether the results of the ITSQ estimations made using a suitable equation of multiple regression are comparable with the method of ITSQ being determined by a team of experts. Author checked whether the accuracy and precision of the estimations were at least the same as the accuracy and precision of the expert evaluation method. An experiment was performed to evaluate peanuts in each of the versions of modified atmosphere
(60 samples). The products were stored in the conditions as per the standards for period ranging from 4 to 10 months, and the samples were taken from the products then sold on the market. After the completion of microbiological analyses which confirmed the absence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli, the following quality parameters of the product were determined: ITSQ, PV, AV, X. The results of the PV and PV evaluation constituted the basis for the estimation of ITSQ by means of a suitable equation of multiple regression for the basic area of research (Table 1). The data obtained as a result of the comparative evaluation of ITSQ estimated using a multiple regression equation and those calculated on the basis of the expert assessment are shown in Table 2. Then, the accuracy and precision of the two methods were tested. The Author assumed that the measure of the accuracy of a method jest is the value of the ar-
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Table 2 The results of the comparative evaluation of ITSQ estimated using a multiple regression equation and those calculated on the basis of the expert assessment.
method is higher than the precision of the expert method (Zelia´s et al., 2004).
The initial composition of the gas mixture in the packaging
0-1% O2 1.1-3% O2 3.1-6% O2
ITSQ [point] Calculated on the Using a multiple basis of the expert regression assessment equation
The accuracy of methods
The precision of methods
3.52 3.58 3.56
0.332 0.279 0.342
3.56 3.59 3.71
0.399 0.302 0.240
1.304 0.436 3.240*
1.445 1.172 2.031*
The * symbol means significance value of the test, with the level of significance α=0.05.
ithmetical mean, and the measure of its precision, the value of the standard deviation. The accuracy of two methods was therefore compared by means of a test checking whether two trials (for every combination of the modified atmosphere), for which the values of the arithmetic mean x1 and x 2 were calculated, originated from two populations with the same expected value (i.e. µ1 = µ2). The null hypothesis Ho: µ1 = µ2 was tested using t-Student test for dependent trials. The null hypothesis was rejected if the calculated value of the “t” characteristic was material, with the assumed level of materiality α=0.05. Next, the precision of the two methods was compared by proposing a null hypothesis about the equality of the variance in general populations. That hypothesis was verified with the F-Snedecor test, and rejected in the cases when the calculated value of the test was material with the level α =0.05. The calculated values of the two tests are shown in table 2. It can be inferred from them that only in the case of products pack-
aged in bags (3,1-6% O 2) the hypothesis about the equality of the expected values is to be rejected, which means that the accuracy of the two methods of ITSQ determination varies. In the estimation method the ITSQ values are on average 0.15 pts higher compared to the results obtained using the expert evaluation method. In the case of the other combinations of the packaged product the accuracy of two methods is identical. With respect to the products packaged in bags (0-1 and 1,13% O2) there were no grounds to reject the hypothesis about the equality of the variance. We can therefore state that the precision of two methods is the same. However, in the case of the product packaged in bags (3,1-6% O2), the null hypothesis was to be rejected. That means that the precision of the two methods varies. Considering that the values of the measures of result dispersion (standard deviation and variance) obtained using the expert method are higher than the values of the same measures for the estimation method, we can recognise that the precision of the estimation
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On the basis of those considerations, we can state that a critical parameter ITSQ fully reflects all the essential quality variations of the MAP packaged products, which decide about the loss of their durability. The establishment of the above described correlation is one of great cognitive importance. It may be used e.g. in comparative research needed to decide about the selection of the initial composition of the gas mixture in the packaging (partial area research) or of the packaging material (full area research). It is also closely related to the efficiency of the packaging machines and to the cost of packaging. Moreover, the proposed method of estimating the sensory quality of MAP packaged peanuts on the basis of the specified models of multiple regression, taking into account the kind of packaging and the initial composition of gas mixture in the packaging, is sufficiently accurate and precise. That method can be used as an alternative/complement of the method of direct determination by a team of specialized trained experts. It is to be noted that the direct method is particularly burdensome in the production environment. The above considerations also prove that the development of an universal and accurate regression model covering the MAP packaged peanuts, using various kinds of packaging and different initial compositions of the gas mixture inside the packaging, is impossi-
ble because of the fact that the above described factors have too much impact on the evolution of the variations of quality parameters of the packaged products.
REFERENCES Cardelli C. and Labuza T.P. (2003). Predicting algorithms for oxygen uptake and shelf life of dry foods and the application to cafe, University of Minnesota, Usa, pp. 1-23. Coles R., McDowell D. and Kirwan M.J. (2005). Food Packaging Technology, Blackwell Publishing, CRC Press. pp. 48. Company Normalization Document ZDN2005/0/7. Roasted and salted peanuts. El-Kayati S.M. and Fadel H.H. (2000). Heat and storage effects on the flavor of peanuts. Nahrung 42: 416-421. Franzetti L., Martionoli S. and Piergiovanni L. (2001). Influence of active packaging on the shelf life of minimally processed fish products in modified atmosphere. Packaging Technology and Science 14: 1-8. Irwin J.W. and Hedges N. (2004). Correlating analytical measurements with sensory evaluation. In: Steele R. (Ed.). Understanding and Measuring the Shelflife of Food. New York: CRC Woodhead Publishing Limited. pp. 304-316. Jacxsens L., Devlieghere F. and Debevere J. (2002). Temperature dependence of shelf life as affected by microbiological proliferation and sensory quality of equilibrium modified atmosphere packaged fresh products. Postharvest Biology and Technology 26: 59-73. Jones M.V. (1989). Modified atmosphere. In: Gould G.W. (Ed.). Mechanisms of action of food preservation procedure. London: Elsevier Applied Science. pp. 247-284. Labuza T. (2003). Whole package oxygen permeability. University of Minnesota, Usa.
Lee D.S., Yam K.L. and Piergiovanni L. (2008). Food packaging science and technology. London, New York: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. pp.125-139. Lisi´ n ska-Ku ´snierz M. (2008). Dynamics of the changes of the sensory quality of bakery products. Italian Food & Beverage Technology, 51: 13-21. Lisi´ nska-Ku ´snierz M. (Ed.) (2005). Quality estimation of packaging materials and packaging. Cracow: Publishers of Cracow University of Economics. Lisi´n ska-Ku ´ snierz M. and Ucherek M. (2003). Modern packaging. Cracow: Polish Food Technologists Society (PTTZ).
Porretta S.(2000). Analisi Sensoriale e Consumer Science. Pinerolo: Chriotti Editori. pp. 37-59. Porretta S. (2004). The sensory and consumer approach to the shelf life of foods. Italian Journal of Food Science, Special Issue: 5-6. Research Procedure PBw/DOJ/01.04 (2004). Permeability of Oxygen by OX-TRAN 100.Warsaw: COBRO. Research Procedure nr PBw/DOJ/02.03 (2004). Estimation the Permeability of Water Vapour by PERMATRAN W 3/31 MW Master firmy Master. Warsaw: COBRO.
Man D. (2002). Shelf-life, Food Industry Briefing Series. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Mazza G. and Jayas D.S. (2001). Controlled and modified atmosphere storage, In: Eskin N.A. and Robinson D.S. (Ed.). Food Shelf Life Stability. Chemical, Biochemical and Microbiological Changes. New York: CRC Press. pp. 149-173. Paddmaja R.J., Ramesh V.B. and Nadumani N.A. (2001). Suitability of chemical parameters in setting quality standards for deep-fried snacks. Food Quality Preferences 12(4): 223-228. Piergiovanni L. and Limbo S. (2004). Shelf life of packaged foods. In: Proceedings of 1st National Conference Milano, 11-13 June. Italian Journal of Food Science, Special Issue: 25-34.
Service Manual of Electronic Weighting Equipment. Type WPS 110S(2002). Radom: Radwag. Service of Oxygen Analyzer LC-700 F (1995). Tokyo: Toray Engineering Co. Ltd. Soliva-Fortuny R. and Ricart-Coll M. (2007). Internal atmosphere, quality attributes and sensory evaluation of MAP packaged fresh-cut pears. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42: 208-213. Trystam G. (2005). Food processes research: status and trends. Italian Food Technology, 4: 46-48. Ucherek M. (2004). An integrated approach
PN-EN ISO 527-1 (1999). Determination of tensile properties. Part 1: General principles.
to factors affecting the shelf life of prod-
PN-ISO 660. (2004). Animal and vegetable oils and fats. Determination of acid value.
PN-ISO 3960. (1996). Animal and vegetable oils and fats. Determination of peroxide value. PN-ISO 4121. (1998). Sensory analysis. Methodology. Evaluation of food products by methods using scales. PN-ISO 8586.(1996). Sensory analysis. General guidance for the selection, training and monitoring of assessors.
uct in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Food Review International
Ucherek M. (2007). Shelf life of foods in modified atmosphere packaging. Cracow: Publishers of Cracow University of Economics. Yam K.K. (2004). An overview of shelf life models for packaged foods. Italian Journal of Food Science, Special Issue: 3-4. Zelia´s A., Pawełek B. and Wanat S. (2004). Economic forecasting. Warsaw: Polish Scientific Publishers (PWN).
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
TRACING THE BOTANICAL ORIGIN OF OLIVE OIL
In recent years there has been an increase in demand for high quality olive with specific characteristics or originating from particular locations. Recognition of these quality characteristics are formalised in the European Commission’s Regulation EC No. 510/2006 which offers protected designations of origin (PDOs) or protected geographical indications (PGIs) for a very wide range of speciality products including many types of olive oil. Registered, published and applied-for designations all appear in the DOOR database. In an article of Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry a group of Authors from the Fac-
ulty of Chemistry, University of Alcala, Spain, have reviewed 77 traceability studies aimed at finding out the botanical origin of olive oil. The Authors explain that differentiating the olive varieties, which have been used to make a certain olive oil can be complex. The olive variety may have been selected for its adaptation to climate and soil conditions. In addition some cultivars are characteristic of a given zone, yet others can be found in several Countries, and named differently according geographical origin. Traditionally, olive cultivars have been differentiated by numerous morphological and pomological traits, but these can
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be somewhat subjective and influenced by the plant’s developmental age and its environment. Recent investigations have focussed on one or more compounds present in the oil with the capacity to act as markers of the oil’s origin. Montealegre et al. present the results of their review in tabular format under the headings of compositional and genetic markers. The compositional markers discussed include fatty acids, triglycerides, sterols, phenolic compounds, volatile compounds, pigments, hydrocarbons and tocopherols. The genetic markers are amplifiable DNA fragments. The Authors say that the most useful of these are random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR). These genetic markers can be used to distinguish olive tree cultivars by extracting DNA from the leaves, usually with the addition of clustering or discriminant analyses. Olive varieties can also be distinguished by directly extracting DNA from the oil, although this method suffers
from the disadvantage that the DNA may be highly degraded. In some cases, researchers have examined both the DNA extracted from the olive leaves and the oils to try to establish the oil’s origin. Montealegre et al. appear to conclude that none of the existing methods provide the regulatory agencies with a foolproof way of confirming the authenticity of PDO and PGI labels for particular types of olive oil. In relation to compositional markers they say that more than one marker is needed to give good discriminatory power, and although DNA methods can give better discrimination they say it is often difficult to extract enough high quality DNA to give an unequivocal result. They believe that it will be necessary to find new traceability makers less influenced by environmental conditions, fruit ripening and extraction technology. They indicate that other complex biomacromolecular components present in olive oil may have the potential to provide novel traceability markers of botanical origin, but these are not described or discussed in the present article. RSSL
GELATIN AND SOY PROTEIN MAY REDUCE BITTERNESS OF CASEIN HYDROLYSATES Protein hydrolysate could be used as bioactive compounds that may have physiological benefits or reduce the risk of diseases. However the bitterness of these compounds may limit their use in foods. A study published in the journal Food Hydrocolloids has looked for ways to reduce or to mask casein hydrolysate bitterness using spray drying and carriers of gelatine and soy protein isolate (SPI). Microencapsulation is used in products to control the release of flavour, reduce volatility, hygroscopicity (ability to absorb water) and reactivity and, under adverse environmental conditions, increase the stability of these products. Due to its low processing cost, spray drying is often chosen as a method of encapsulation. The Authors of this study, Favaro-Trindrade et al., state that a number of studies have tested encapsulated peptides in pharmaceutical formulations but only a few have used the application for food ingredients. Previous studies have found that gelatine is a good choice for microencapsulation by spray drying because of its water solubility, edibility and biodegradability and its emulsifying and film-forming properties. The scientists used two carriers, soy protein isolate and bovine gelatine type B. The active compound used was hyprosol
which is a bitter tasting hydrolyzed casein containing peptides. The researchers prepared six formulations, 3 containing 20% hydrolysate and 80% of a mixture of gelatine and SPI and another 3 containing 30% hydrolysate and 70% gelatine-SPI mixture. Spray drying was then performed in triplicate on the formulations. Favaro-Trindrade et al. then evaluated the samples for moisture content, dissolution in soybean oil and distilled water, as well as measuring hygroscopicity, water activity, particle size distribution morphology and moisture sorption isotherm. Sensory evaluation was carried out by 13 trained panellists on powder forms of mechanical mixtures containing pure casein hydrolysate, SPI and gelatine, and the spray dried formulations. Results indicated that the water activity values of the free hydrolysate and the formulations were similar and within the recommended range of microbiological stability. The formulations had higher water content than the free hydrolysate. The free hydrolysate took three times longer to dissolve in oil than in water, whereas the formulations were twice as fast in oil as in water. It is suggested that this is because exposure of hydrophobic sites, which are capable of promoting protein-oil interactions, fa-
cilitates dissolution in this solvent/medium. As the product is water and oil compatible this would allow it to be suitable in numerous applications. All formulations had lower hygroscopicity values than the free casein hydrolysates. The formula with the lowest amount of added hydrolysate had the lowest hygroscopicity. All the formulations led to microspheres with similar morphologies ranging in size from 10.26 to 17.72 micrometres. The sensory panel
found significant difference in taste between the mechanically blended and spray dried samples with the spray dried being significantly less bitter. Favaro-Trindade et al. conclude by indicating that the results of this study show that spray drying with mixtures of gelatine and SPI as carriers is efficient in controlling or masking the bitter taste of casein hydrolysate. It also reduces water absorption and improves stability. RSSL
DARK CHOCOLATE AND OXIDATIVE STRESS RESISTANCE Dark chocolate has been attributed with a number of health benefits and these have been linked to the antioxidant properties of cocoa and chocolate flavonoids. A study by researchers from the University of Milan and published in the British Journal of Nutrition has investigated the effect of dark chocolate compared to white chocolate on plasma epicatechin (a type of flavonoid) levels, DNA resistance to oxidative stress and total antioxidant activity in healthy individuals. Antioxidants help prevent oxidative DNA damage which may play a part in the development of atherosclerosis. The beneficial effects associated with chocolate consumption depend on the amounts of antioxidants present, in particular flavonoids. Cocoa and choco-
late products have high flavonoid contents and a high total antioxidant content compared to other flavonoid-containing foods. Epicatechin is the main flavonoid found in chocolate together with epicatechinbased procyanidins. The study by Spadafranca et al. evaluated the effect of the regular consumption of 45 g of dark chocolate (DC) on plasma epicatechin levels, mononuclear blood cells (MNBC), DNA resistance
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to oxidative stress and plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) compared to white chocolate (WC) in healthy subjects. Twenty healthy, non smokers (10 men and 10 women) with an average age of 24.2 were recruited from an Italian university. A balanced diet (SD) was consumed for 4 weeks with intakes of antioxidants limited to only two portions of fruit and vegetables each day. After 2 weeks the volunteers were split into two groups and were provided with either dark chocolate containing 70% cocoa (DC) or white chocolate (WC). They were advised to consume 45 g of chocolate as a snack with 40 g of white bread. To avoid excess energy consump-
tion the standardised diet was slightly modified. Blood samples were then collected at the beginning of the study, the end of the 4-week SD and at 2 and 22 hours after the initial consumption and again before and after the final chocolate serving. The samples were analysed for epicatechin using HPLC analysis, the resistance of MNBC DNA against oxidative stress using the Comet assay, total antioxidant activity and antioxidant vitamins. Statistical analysis was carried out in duplicate. Consuming 45 g dark chocolate led to an intake of 860 mg of total polyphenols, of which the epicatechin intake was 58 mg. In contrast, the WC contained only 5.1 mg total
polyphenols and epicatechin was not detectable. Spadafranca et al found that at all times there were no observed differences in the two groups in terms of ascorbic acid, Îą-tocopherol and retinol plasma levels. They found that 2 hours after the first DC consumption, plasma epicatechin had increased to 105 ng/mL and MMBC DNA damage had decreased significantly, but this effect was not seen after 22 hours. The results were similar to those found with the last consumption of DC. The study authors suggested that this may have been related to epicatechin and its plasma kinetics or other bioactive compounds found in the chocolate. The subjects who consumed the
WC had undetectable amounts of plasma epicatechin and the WC did not affect DNA resistance to oxidative damage at any time. Regular consumption of DC did not affect DNA resistance to oxidative damage and total antioxidant activity was not affected by DC or WC. In conclusion, Spadafranca et al. claim that a DC snack within a balanced diet can improve DNA resistance to oxidative stress in healthy subjects. However the effect is short term due to flavonoid kinetics. Although regular intake of DC had no more beneficial effects than an occasional consumption, the authors believe that the results are clinically encouraging. RSSL
Up grading of existing plants to ATEX
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INCREASING IRON UPTAKE FROM FRUIT JUICES WITH MILK Milk may boost iron uptake from iron-fortified fruit juices by up to four times, and exceeded uptakes observed when juices were formulated with casein proteins, according to findings published by Spanish researchers in the Food Chemistry. “The addition of milk to fruit beverages exerted a positive effect on iron retention, transport and uptake versus fruit beverages, and this effect was greater than in the case
of caseinophosphopeptides added to soluble fractions of fruit beverages,” wrote the researchers, led by Reyes Barbera from the University of Valencia. “The addition of caseinophosphopeptides to soluble fractions of fruit beverages improved iron transport”. Iron deficiency remains the leading nutrient deficiency in both developed as well as developing countries. It affects around one in five wom-
en in the Great Britain. Fortifying foods with iron also poses several challenges for the food industry, most notably with regards to effects on colour, taste, and the shelf-life of the food. However, the researchers stressed that additional studies are needed to confirm the results, especially in humans. It should also be clarified which caseinophosphopeptides favour iron bioavailability, they said. “In addition, studies are required on the addition of functional ingredients to fruit beverages with the purpose of favouring iron bioavailability,” wrote Barbera et al. Using different fruit juice concentrates, including grape concentrate,
orange concentrate, and apricot puree, the researchers prepared fruit juices enriched
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LVIX (2010) march -
with iron sulphate at a level of 3 mg of 100 mL fruit beverage, with or without skimmed milk. A comparison was made with juices formulated with ca-
seinophosphopeptides, and measurements of iron retention, transport and uptake Caco- 2 cells. The study showed that milk im-
NANOPARTICLE MAY PROTECT OIL IN FOODS FROM OXIDATION AND SPOILAGE Using a nanoparticle from corn, a Purdue University scientist has found a way to lengthen the shelf life of many food products and sustain their health benefits. Yuan Yao, assistant professor of Food Science at Purdue University, has successfully modified the phytoglycogen nanoparticle, a starchlike substance that makes up nearly 30% of the dry mass of some sweet corn.
The modification allows the nanoparticle to attach to oils and emulsify them while also acting as a barrier to oxidation, which causes food to become rancid. The findings are published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Oxidation destabilizes oil droplets in emulsified food, degrading and changing the chemical structure of the oil and causing it to go bad. This
ARS SYSTEM TO DETECT POULTRY CONTAMINATION PASSES FIRST COMMERCIAL TEST Technology developed by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists that automatically scans poultry carcasses for contamination has been successfully tested in a commercial poultry plant. ARS researchers have im-
proved the hyperspectral imaging system so that it can detect small amounts of fecal contamination. ARS scientists K. Lawrence, B. Park, B. Windham, and Seung-Chul Yoon, at the agency’s Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit
26 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
proved the retention, transport and uptake of iron in the fruit juices, even more than when CPPs were added to soluble fractions of fruit beverag-
es. “Iron supplementation increased iron retention, transport and uptake, the effect being more notable in samples with milk,” noted the Authors.
oxidation happens in a wide range of products, shortening their shelf lives. In fish oils, for example, the lipid oxidation degrades omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential in infant development and are thought to help with chronic inflammatory and heart diseases in adults. Yao was able to modify the surface of phytoglycogen nanoparticle to make it behave like an emulsifier, creating phytoglycogen octenyl succinate, or PG-OS. PG-OS is thicker and denser than commonly used emulsifiers, creating a better defense from oxygen, free radical, and metal ions, which cause lipid oxi-
dation. The findings also show that E-polylysine, a foodgrade polypeptide, can be added to the oil droplets to aid in the protection from oxidation. Polylysine is much smaller than the PG-OS nanoparticles, allowing it to fill in the gaps between PG-OS nanoparticles. According to Yao’s study, PGOS nanoparticles with e-polylysine significantly increased the amount of time it took for oxidation to ruin the oil droplets, in some cases doubling the shelf life of the model product. Shelf life was tested by warming the emulsifiers and checking for chemical reactions that signal oxidation has occurred.
in Athens, Ga, Usa, developed the system. Hyperspectral imaging is a technique that combines digital imaging with spectroscopy, creating individual wavelengths of light that pinpoint contaminants. To test the technology commercially, a prototype was installed in a commercial poultry plant to detect contaminated carcasses. The system was developed through a research agreement with Stork Food Systems, a manufacturer of poultry-processing equipment in Gainesville, Usa. Carcass-
es were imaged after evisceration but before washing, at a rate of 150 birds per minute. The system ran for several days without hardware or software problems and demonstrated its feasibility, according to Park. The Athens team is collaborating with agricultural engineer K. Chao and biophysical scientist M. Kim at the ARS Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory in Beltsville, Usa. Using the same hyperspectral imaging technology but at different wavelengths, the ARS scientists in Beltsville
developed an on-line imaging system to differentiate systemically diseased poultry carcasses from wholesome ones. This research supports the U.S. Department of Agricultureâ€™s priority of ensuring food safety. The ARS groups and their industry partner are now merging the fecal-detection and diseased-carcass-detection systems onto a common platform that includes a line-scan hyperspectral imaging camera, lighting, and operating and detection software. Merging the two systems will aid in commercial-
ization by creating one interchangeable imaging system that can be installed in different locations of the processing line to solve two separate and significant processing problems. Combining the two systems will allow processors to more easily integrate such a system into their operations. In addition, the researchers in Athens also developed and implemented a new imageprocessing method to identify and remove false-positive readings.
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LVIX (2010) march -
CONTINUOUS ABRASIVE PEELER
The continuous abrasive peeler mod. A 80 designed by Boema removes the skin from product by means of rollers in the form of a cradle, which helps every part of the product to make contact with the rollers. Fully made of press-formed Aisi 304 stainless steel sections and plate, the main parts are as follows: cradle formed by rollers coated with abrasive material which can be coarse, medium or fine and variable in number depending on the model; roller driven by means of 2 reduction units with an inverter to adjust speed; internal product feed worm fitted with special blades for moving the product inside the cradle; worm drive by means of an inverter to adjust holding time; side casing with opening doors and top grating for
machine cleaning operations; skin and water conveyor and discharge hopper; nozzles positioned above the worm for spraying on water during ling (in the case of sprinkler peeling); loading and unloading hoppers with, on request, a lateral hopper for product recirculation; washing system formed by piping and valves for cleaning the machine at the end of each shift; centralized bearing lubrication system. As an option Boema offers: framework to raise the machine, with walkway, access ladder and Aisi 304 stainless steel protection railing, and electrical control panel fitted to the machine; single-screw electropump for extracting the skins in the case of peeling supplied with a receiving hopper with worm and level switch for op-
Continuous abrasive peeler mod. A 80 (Boema).
eration only in the presence of skins. Drum filter is positioned below the water conveyor hopper for the separation of skin residues and the recirculation of water (in the case of prinkler peeling). The IP55 standard protection is guaranteed. Several models are available, with 4-6-8-10 or 12 toilers; the output is variable between 1 and 20 tons/hr, depending on
HIGH CAPACITY HOMOGENIZER Only GEA Niro Soavi could design and manufacture Ariete NS5355. From studies by the R&D department and in collaboration with technological and business partners, an
absolutely innovative machine was born. A result wiping out the patterns of the past, eliminating compromises between flow rate and pressure limits. Ariete NS5355 is the only ho-
28 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
mogenizer enclosing so much power in the reduced sizes of its compact, ergonomic design, conceived to optimize the space occupied. Its strong points are safety, ease of use
the product and the standard of peeling required. The water consumption is only for washing in the case of dry peeling or is variable depending on the userâ€™s discretion in the case of sprinkler peeling. (Boema - Corso Romano Scagliola 197 - 12052 Neive - CN Italy - Tel. +39 0173 678711 Fax +39 0173 67626 e-mail: email@example.com)
and reduction of maintenance costs, easy and completely safe access to the process unit, the electric box and the systems on side of the machine. The inner parts are made of special material, and the transmission system features an original, novel design, which
Ariete NS5355 homogenizer (GEA Niro Soavi).
is exclusive and patented. The five pistons can process high quantities, up to 60,000 L/h, and very high pressures, up to 1,500 bar, with capacities comparable to a 6 or 8-piston
homogenizer thus with significant saving of energy, lubrication oil and cooling water. The Ariete is characterized by a modular design which meets all requirements. It is avail-
able with different compression heads: MonoBlock (low and high pressure versions) and Multiblock VHP suitable for very different production and application requirements, both designed with modelling systems CAD 3D, FEM and fluido-dynamic analyses. The MonoBlock head uses high-efficiency valves NanoVALVE, an exclusive patented technology which optimizes homogenization at lower pressures compared with the normal valves, thus reducing the energy requirement and consequent environmental impact. Suitable for various applications, not only in the food and dairy sector, but also for beverages and chemical emulsions, “high pressure” NanoVALVE is a spe-
cial version of NanoVALVE designed to process medium pressures and increase efficiency. The Multiblock VHP (Very High Pressure) compression head uses Re+VALVE, another GEA Niro Soavi innovation, a valve designed to reach very high pressures, up to 1,500 bar. Multiblock VHP is designed to work also on capacities that could never be processed before at high pressure regimes. It is entirely made of special materials, wear resistant and capable of withstanding occasional or unexpected stress. (GEA Niro Soavi - Via Da Erba Edoari 29 - 43123 Parma - Italy - Tel. +39 0521 965411 - Fax +39 0521 24 2819 - e-mail: alessia.ilariuzzi @geagroup.com)
STERILIZING PLANT Since 1964 Sordi manufactures plate sterilizing plants suitable for the production of plain or flavoured milk, cream, puddings, ice-cream mix, milkshake, dietetic products, fruit juice, tomato juice, soya milk, isotonic drink, pharmaceutical products, etc. All the UHT Steriplak-S plants are preassembled and made with plates equipped with press-in type gaskets ensuring the highest resistance to pressure. The plants usually operate with homogenisers in nonaseptic phase and they can be equipped with stabilising
holding anddegaser. The actual high heat regeneration obtainable (over 90%) allows a very cheap conduction of the plant reducing to the minimum the steam consumptions required for the sterilization. The configuration of the heat exchange cycles ensures a short holding time over 90°C and an extremely reduced wall-temperature such as to definitely ensure low values of lactulose formation and denaturation of the wheyproteins. The product sterilizing safety is assured by the tested system of
UHT Steriplak-S plate sterilizing plant (Sordi).
controlled overpressure introduced by Sordi in 1974. Different levels of automation of the UHT Steriplak-S plant are available.
(Sordi Impianti - Via Gorini 9 26836 Montanaso Lombardo LO - Italy - Tel. +39 0371 48621 - Fax +39 0371 486 2235 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
ELECTRONIC SORTING MACHINE
The electronic sorting machine Magic Sizer (I.Co.El.)
Magic Sizer is the innovative electronic sorting machine suitable for processing large fruits
(melons, peppers, aubergins, etc.) designed by I.Co.El. It allows to make the reading
of the weight by means of a load cell and measurement of the diameter and colour, while
the fruit is rotating, by means of optical apparatus. The Magic Sizer is capable of sorting according to 째brix (soluble solids); fruits are transported by means of rollaway rollers and winged cups. The rollers roll along with the winged cups in the first tract of the sizer to single out the product and rotate it allowing to see the whole surface, and then accompany it into the cups that transport the product to the programmed exits. (I.Co.El. - Trav. Via Diversivo Acquachiara km 1.400 04022 Fondi - LT - Italy - Tel. +39 0771 511416 - Fax +39 0771 511417 - e-mail: email@example.com)
THERMAL TREATMENT Comecal Impianti presents the Stersys aseptic sterilizer based on the principle of cross-flow heat exchange between the heating/cooling means and the product; the product flows freely inside the smaller tube, while the process fluid flows in the interspace. This system of concentric tubes allows to obtain excellent product uniformity even for products that have high viscosity such as concentrates, creams and minced composites. It is also possible to install static mixers. The company also proposes the Turbo Extractor, a machine designed for extracting tomato juice and for processing fruit
and vegetables. The centrifugal technology adopted allows a superior juice yield compared to the conventional systems, and an exceptionally high standard of refinement. These benefits make this machine one of the most efficient systems on the world market today. Maintenance requirements are almost zero (only lubrication of supports is required) and the washing cycle is carried out with the machine running thanks to a specific distribution system. All surfaces in contact with the product are in highpolished mirror stainless steel guaranteeing optimum hygienic conditions and reliability.
30 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
The Stersys aseptic sterilizer (Comecal Impianti).
(Comecal Impianti - Strada Antolini 18 - 43044 Lemignano di Collecchio - PR - Italy - Tel.
+39 0521 304313 - Fax +39 0521 334015 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
RETORTING UNIT WITH ROTATING OR SWINGING BASKETS Galvanin is a company founded in 1970 and certified to manufacture and sell pressure vessels through ASME, PED, COST regulations. On the Food Division market, thanks to high qualified personnel and use of top class materials, the company soon became a leader in the manufacturing of machines and complete turn-
key projects for thermal treatment of food items in jars, flexible packaging, metal, bags, etc., and particularly has introduced new and important technologies in sterilization up to 120°/130°C and pasteurization up to 100°/105°C fields. Recently GaIvanin presents the GSR retorts with rotating or swinging baskets. The rotation
of the baskets during the process widely increases the heat penetration in composed foodstuffs having different densities. It is also possible to reduce process time and increase the main qualities of the products under treatment. The system guarantees fully automatic sterilization or pasteurization cycles with total control over working pa-
rameters. Sprayers are directly heading process water toward foodstuffs so that even in swinging mode the retort is absolutely reliable with high accuracy of the working parameters. The thermal difference between heating water and products to be treated is minimum. Thanks to high level technology applied to the autoclave it is possible to control very accurately the heating and cooling temperature gradient up to 0.1°C. A very important innovation regarding energy
GSR retorting unit (Galvanin).
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
GSR retorting unit (Galvanin).
COMPLETE LINES FOR FOOD PROCESSING Emmepiemme has manufactured and installed a series of complete processing lines, with a capacity from 500 up to 6,000 kg/h, with the aim of fully enhancing the poten-
tiality of its innovative thermal processing technologies. These CO lines are inclusive of all sections, from product reception and feeding down to final packaging, either aseptic
savings is the use of an external heater exchanger for the recovery of the condense during the heating phase and for the recovery of the hot water during cooling phase. Diameters 1,400 and 1,700 mm with loading capacity from 1 to 6 baskets in manual or automatic mode are available. Every basket is equipped with a rubbing less system of the containers to avoid dam-
age to products and of a locking system of the same basket. This assures perfect integrity of the containers, even the more fragile. Construction is entirely of stainless steel Aisi 304 L and insulated. (Galvanin Food Division - Via Dell’Industria 22 - 36035 Marano Vicentino - VI - Italy Tel. +39 0445 637507 +39 0445 637510 - e-mail: email@example.com)
(“bag-in-box” filling) or with hot filling of glass jars or flexible pouches, as well as the automatic cleaning and sterilization systems and complementary sections for ingredients preparation and metering. Emmepiemme lines present original characteristics, both under the aspect of the technical solutions, and from the
point of view of the control and regulation systems. All machinery and equipment are manufactured according to the regulations and are provided with EC certification. (Emmepiemme - Via Burali 2 29100 Piacenza - Italy - Tel. +39 0523 451583 - Fax +39 0523 462448 - e-mail: info@ emmepiemmesrl.com)
STERILIZERS FOR ASEPTIC FILLING The Pellacini line of sterilisers/ coolers uses concentric pipe technology to process a wide range of products, such as creams, diced, thick, and concentrated products. Special devices are used to optimise the heat exchange and guarantee even processing, appropriate speeds and capacities to obtain products whose quality is confirmed by the number of installed units worldwide and full customer satisfaction.
The sterilisation plant is only one of the elements of the aseptic filling system. Developed by Pellacini, it has the key characteristic of operating with positive pressure to minimise the risk of product contamination by foreign bodies. Furthermore, other systems of active and passive protection, such as the presence of steam barriers in critical points, are a guarantee of aseptic processing. The plant is made up of posi-
32 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
tive pump with filters for product circulation; volumetric piston pump feeding the steriliser; storage tank with agitator; product sterilisation phase with hot water concentric pipes; holding phase; cooling phase; automatic control electric panel (with optional remote supervision system); heating unit for the water needed to heat the product; CIP unit for automatic washing of the line; and automatic
decalcifying system for water cooling pipes. The types of products that can be processed are fruit creams, juices, nectars, purées and jams, diced fruit and vegetables, tomato paste, pulp, ketchup and sauces, harissa and pepper sauce, carrot cream, and carrot concentrate. The machine is made up of several heat exchange units, which are duly interconnected in a number varying according to the requested production capacity. Each unit is made up of four concentric pipes, of which
the material and thickness are determined according to product capacity and quality. The parts in contact with the product are polished. Special and exclusive devices together with appropriate sizes guarantee speeds depending on the product type and an effective mixing for a rapid, soft and precise heat exchange with homogeneous and constant temperatures. Special flanges with steam barriers guarantee perfect seal and air-tightness to the system. A special tube-nest
at high pressure, designed to have rapid heat exchange, supplies superheated water at a constant temperature and fast adjustments during transition phases. Different models are manufactured to deal with all capacities ranging from 1,000 to 15,000 L/h. (Officine Mecc. Pellacini Sergio - Via Provinciale 38 43038 Sala Baganza - PR - Italy - Tel. +39 0521 833528 Fax +39 0521 833859 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Novatris sterilizer (Officine Mecc. Pellacini).
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
DOUGH AND BREAD
All Bertuettiâ€™s Universal SV or SP divider versions allow the combining with other moulding machines, moulding tables or French mouldings. Automatic loading on trays or plants with measurements between 80x100 one at a time through the setting machine with retracting belt can be added. Once the tray or plant is positioned in the special space, the automatic lifting device for the tray (optional) reduces at least once the piece of dough jump and the belt, after the consent of the photocell, is withdrawn with a suitable speed to deposit the pieces of dough quickly so the machine stops. If required the setting machine can be fitted with a retracting belt in different dimensions in order to satisfy particular requirements. The machine is provided of a hopper-belt for the dough load, and it can be supplied in different widths according to the model (on request also increased in length). A clutch placed at the entry of the dividing machine regulates the dough influx in the lamination cylinders, also facilitating the use by no specialized personnel, also improving the
weights and shape constancy. The dough is gradually rolled thanks the Rotative system characterized by a series of specifically positioned lamination cylinders and a lever, started up manually, allows to regulate the thickness modifying the position of all the superior rolls up to a maximum of 30 mm. The cut happens in a perpendicular and alternate way, it can be chosen from 1 to 7 ways, and the length of the piece is determined by the weight, electronically chosen giving the possibility to choose, the most suitable shape required. The machine is equipped with a flour duster positioned to allow the dusting whether on the rolls or directly on the knives before the cut. The SVR200 Line is a traditional Bertuetti concept line, where the dough is treated by the traditional â€œno-stressâ€? system during the lamination and dividing of dough stripes, before going under the guillotine for the most gentle cutting of dough lengths. The square dough pieces will be rounded by the new Bertuetti concept, which will give a perfect round result, this solution is flexible and it allows to round 4, 5, 6 rows. The sys-
34 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
Universal SV no stress divider with rounder (Bertuetti).
tem has two steps of rounding to choose from. A few more adjustments also allow to get the best result of different kinds of dough, softer or hard. The system provides an additional auto panning unit, a pressure table, intermediate proovers (stamping system or moulders), and automatic feeders. For both the lines, the small cut wheels, easily and quickly interchangeable, are standard in stainless steel as the inside and external part of the ma-
chine. It is mounted on swivel wheels to facilitate movement. The belts are in wool or in synthetic material according to FDA rules. All the surfaces in contact with food can be easily cleaned and disinfected, the inactive angles are joined so as to allow complete cleaning. (Bertuetti - Via Industria 22/24 25030 Torbole Casaglia BS - Italy - Tel. +39 030 2150026 - Fax +39 030 2150031 - e-mail: info@ bertuetti.it)
MOULDING SOLUTIONS With the Polin Pastry Line it is possible to process dough automatically, in continuous cycle, reducing manual labour and increasing production. The mobile conveyor belt and the wide range of accessories, are ideal to process, cut, fill, fold and mould every kind of pastry, puff pastry, with yeast, shortbread and special dough. The structure, made entirely of
stainless steel, is supported by wheels for easy moving and feet for solid positioning while the line is in operation. Every component has been designed and made to be easy to clean and easy to use. (Polin - Viale Dellâ€™Industria 9 37135 Verona - Italy - Tel. +39 045 8289111 - Fax +39 045 8289187 - e-mail: email@example.com)
BREAD SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTION Bread substitutes with long shelf life are a market reality that bakers cannot neglect anymore. Traditional grissini or crackers are now transformed into new shapes, tastes and flavours and they are more and more perceived as the best nutritional alternative to
the old fashioned fried snacks. To fulfil this strong demand, Minipan now introduces the latest developments, such as the Scrap Free lamination system, the multipurpose forming machines with tray up system, the amazing sliced bread rephrasing line, and all of them
can be integrated with customizable topping devices. And to make the automation absolutely complete, the unique rack loader expresses the latest achievement in Minipanâ€™s technology. All this reflects one only goal: to give a shape to the taste of tradition.
Gresex 660 Line with Scrap Free gauging unit in detail (Minipan).
The flexibility of Gresex is now powered by an automatic sheeting line featuring the Scrap Free system. Thanks to flanged guaging rollers, the Gresex 660 Line is capable of delivering a sheet of dough to the forming machine which is accurately controlled in thickness and length, and consents to avoid the nasty re-cut of the sheet edges. The Scrap Free system is a great development, to reduce towards zero any kind of scrap on the raw product, to obtain a perfect shape, enhancing the production efficiency. With an immediate result: great flexibility with low labour costs. (Minipan - Via Trebeghino 47 48024 Massa Lombarda - RA Italy - Tel. +39 0545 971593 Fax +39 0545 971595 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
DOUGH AND BREAD
BAKERY PRODUCTS PRODUCTION Today, ideas on new bakery products can be realized by the new universal line developed by Trivi company. Thanks to the concept of flexibility and versatility, it is possible to decide to add a new product to an existing range of products at any time. The barriers of the injections have been removed thanks to the new dosing machines for sauces and creams both sweet and salted. A speed from 1 to 10 mts/minute, cull-
ing cycles from 20 to 100 cycles per minute, and a maxi 1,6 ms make the line unique for customer requirements. Trivi is specialized in the automation of the production process for bakery and deep-frozen products and proposes cells for dough resting, automatic proofing and cooling, tray movement in entry/exit of oven. After having taken care of the quality of the product during the make-up phase, it must also be kept unchanged
36 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
during the following phases of the production cycle: that is why Trivi has installed lots of fully automatic lines such as croissants, breadsticks, pizzas, baguettes, cakes. The company offers a study of the layout that will be adapted to requirements according to the available spaces, the production request and the production process. Some examples of automatic processes for the unloading and packaging of products
for ovens are: unloading and packaging for finger-biscuits; unloading, packages makeup, feeding of thermoshaped boxes for cake and maddalenas; unloading of the tray with rows or completely and feeding in phase of the packaging machines for croissant; tray unloading thanks to vacuum for pizzas, bread and focaccias; and simple unloading (helter-skelter) or double (orderly) for particular products. (Trivi - Via A. Grandi 25 - ZI Peco - 28066 Galliate - NO Italy - Tel. +39 0321 806564 - Fax +39 0321 861187 - email: email@example.com)
TRIVI TURNKEY SOLUTIONS
BAGUETTES -LINE CROISSANT CIABATTA LINEA BAGUETTE EURO LINE
• Baguettes • Ciabatta • Breadsticks • Pizzas
• Industrial croissant • Handicraft croissant • Puff pastry products • Plant engineering • Toast & Rusks
28066 Galliate (NO) - Italia - Via A. Grandi, 25 Zona Industriale Peco tel +39 0321 806564 - fax +39 0321 861187 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org - www.trivisrl.com
ITALIAN QUALITY ALL OVER THE WORLD
CAKE AND CONFECTIONERY
INSULATED TANK FUSER FOR CHOCOLATE
MCM Massa draws on 50 years of experience to design and manufacture a wide range of insulated tanks, displacement pumps, mobile displacement pumps, fusers, and filters. Top European foodstuff companies have chosen these machines because they are born out of experience and constant perfecting of technology and constructions.
The precious experience acquired with top companies is also available for small laboratories: melters and temperers, insulated fusers with capacity of 100 kg, insulated tanks with capacity till 500 kg, and a wide range of PR series displacement pumps. In addition, to complete the attention of M.C.M. Massa for small laboratories an accurate and effi-
cient technical service is available. The TCXF series insulated tank fuser is designed to melt and maintain the product at a constant temperature: chocolate, substitute, cocoa past, cocoa butter, fillings, creme, and fats. The tank is manufactured in thick Aisi 304 stainless steel electrically welded and is equipped with an agitator which is completely dismountable and extractable with fix-
able scrapers, two pump mounts, a double casing for thermoregulation on sides and base; it offers the possibility of heating with vapour, electrical resistances, hot water and duplex thermal regime. An additional tank for heating coil is also available. (MCM Massa - Via Aosta 15 10044 Pianezza - TO - Italy Tel. +39 011 9676018 - Fax +39 011 9663921 - e-mail: email@example.com)
CENTRIFUGAL MIXER FOR CREAMS AND SAUCES
Insulated tank fuser (MCM Massa).
38 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
The Tonelli Group designs, engineers, manufactures and sells complete plants for the bakery industry worldwide. The human and professional contribution of about 100 people, between personnel, collaborators and agents, has brought over 7,000 planetary mixers and 200 sponge cake lines to more than 1,000 customers all over the world. Today, the Tonelli Group wants to be a “preference partner” for both the big bakery indus-
tries and for the artisanal bakers. A partner and not simply a supplier, the company mission is to develop projects starting from the active collaboration of the customer and to be with them step by step during the productive process, from the recipe’s adjustment in the laboratory with the technologists’ support, to the definition of the right environmental variables for the production area, from the study of the product’s technical needs, to the final advice
MU centrifugal mixer for batter, creams and sauces (Tonelli Group).
on the real production phase at the customer’s facilities. The group presents a centrifugal mixer, suitable for fast mixing of batters for cakes
and sponge cakes, meringue premix to homogenize and emulsify creams and whipped creams, sauces and mayonnaise, and also fats for marga-
rine plasticization. The ingredients can be introduced both manually and with volumetric dosers or by using a pump, or they can be weighed with lording cell scales. The machine is available in six models from 50 to 600 litres capacity. Pushed by this mission, Tonelli has created a 700 m2 laboratory area, in which engineers and technologists have carried out, over the years, many trials that have brought about the creation of new mixers, buffer tanks, product transfer systems and new patented scraped surface heat exchangers. Moreover, different technologies have been studied and applicated, thanks to laboratory trials, such as thermical treatments (liquid or
gaseous nitrogen, freon, glycolic water, saturated steam, etc.). Today Tonelli is specialized in a great variety of applications: mousses, jelly, jam, sauces, marshmallows, dulche de leche, cookies, cakes, sponge, whipped creams, cooked creams, fat plasticization and many others. The Tonelli laboratory, which has become the fulcrum of all the Tonelli universe, is available for customers to realize tests with their own recipes or with the technological support of technologists for discovering new products. (Tonelli Group - Strada Nazionale Est 7 - 43044 Collecchio - PR - Italy - Tel. +39 0521 339011 - Fax +39 0521 339099 - e-mail: info@ tonelligroup.it)
ing decorations with twisted or smooth cream roselets. (Gorreri - Via Cisa 172 42040 Sorbolo Levante di
Brescello - RE - Italy - Tel. +39 0522 680853 - Fax +39 0522 680687 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
CAKE PRODUCTION LINE Gorreri projects and makes completely automated “turnkey” lines for the production of celebration cakes, round or rectangular shape, with or without support, with containment ring made of cardboard or stainless steel. Gorreri’s lines can make all possible workings in order to obtain the finished product: manual positioning of the sponge cake disk, dosage and distribution of syrup solutions, dosage and distribution of creams whipped or not, cold jams or jellies, automat-
ic positioning of the sponge cake disk and pressure of it, to obtain perfect levelling, spreading of coating creams on the side and on the top, both for round and rectangular cakes. Moreover, lateral decoration with all kinds of grains (grains based on dry fruit, coloured sugar, meringue, sponge cake crumbs, chocolate flakes, etc.). It is possible to decorate the top of the cake with different kinds of decoration, using whipped creams or not, chantilly creams, etc., with the possibility of hav-
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
LESS PACKAGING MATERIAL FOR THE BEST PRODUCT PRESERVATION
Market leader with Fres-co System trademark, Goglio has plants in Europe, Usa, and Asia, and offers packaging systems made up of multilayer flexible laminates, plastic accessories and packaging lines. Fres-co System is synonymous for integrated packaging systems applied to powders, granules or pieces, products that are traditionally packed in rigid containers: tomato, vegetable preserves, both for retail and catering markets, coffee, ready meals, pet food, industrial products and detergents. High quality, particular printing effects, shapes, ergonomic handles, innovative solutions for easy opening (laser cut) and reclosing systems, safety of use: these are Goglio’s main pluses, result of a vertically integrated and innovative production process. In particular, the G Novasteril, recently designed, represents a real turning point for the sterile packaging of foodstuffs as tomato, fruit or diary products. The development of the new filling line meets market requests and is the result of complementary skills in the Group on packaging, machines and food.
G Novasteril packaging unit (Goglio).
A compact size distinguishes the line with respect to traditional hot filling versions, as the cooling equipment is not necessary. Versatile and flexible, it guarantees safety and efficiency in the filling phase. It is fed with z-belt completely sealed and previously sterilized pouches, in formats up to 5,000 mL. Inside the machine the pouches are externally sanitized with hydrogen peroxide steam. Then they are opened, aseptically filled and sealed in the sterile over pressured chamber. Sterilizing steam is collected through the catalyser, and decomposed in
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O2 and H2O, granting ecological processes. G Novasteril is a new example of Goglio’s effort to reduce environmental impact compared to traditional packaging solutions, to assure high quality standards and to optimize product packaging cost. The least packaging material to protect products: flexible laminates are much lighter (-85%) and thinner (-95%) than glass or tinplate and preserve environment before and after their use. The advantages are evident: reduction of warehousing, transport and disposal costs together with diminu-
tion of polluting gas in the atmosphere. Goglio constantly invests resources for material production, innovative systems development and environmental respect. Goglio’s packaging system meets producer and consumer needs in all phases of its life, from the laminate production to the disposal of empties through logistics, packaging and presentation on the sales lines. (Goglio - Via Dell’Industria 7 21020 Daverio - VA - Italy Tel. +39 0332 940111 Fax +39 0332 940201 e-mail: email@example.com)
PACKAGING LINE FOR CHOCOLATE Cama presents a line for the packaging of stand-up pouches and pillow bags into display boxes, composed of a monoblock system with integrated forming, top loading and lidding units. The product, extremely unstable in its nature, with an arrival speed of up to 200 pieces/minute, is loaded in multiple standup configurations into display boxes (tray and lid) with a production output of up to 30 display boxes per minute. Considering the peculiar characteristics of the product, Cama has engineered a particular loading system capable of handling the pouches in vertical position, thus guaranteeing high production speeds and extreme system reliability. The line is furthermore capable of loading pouches in both flat and stand up position.
Monoblock loading unit with 2 axis robot (Cama Group).
The flexibility and the modularity of Cama systems allow the control of two production lines by one operator only. The high system reliability, the
MODULAR PACKAGING SYSTEM The ZMV is a new modular system for secondary packaging of various kinds of food, solid and liquid, packed in boxes, bags, sacks, cans or other primary packages. It has been conceived by Zucchini to offer the customer the greatest flexibility of use and a modularity of configuration, expand-
able according to the specific needs. It is not only a case packer anymore, but represents an actual packaging system, having the possibility to be configured either in form of compact machine, or in the form of a packaging line with independent units. The system has been conceived to be also
limited footprint, combined with clean design, advanced and easily accessible operator interface and ample visibility on four sides characterise Cama production lines.
(Cama Group - Via Como 9 23846 Garbagnate Monastero - LC - Italy - Tel. +39 031 879811 - Fax +39 031 856373 - e-mail: commerciale@ camagroup.com)
manufactured in stainless steel. The ZMV system is composed of single modules that can be combined to obtain the desired configuration. The system is built around the Filling Cell CCP, that can be then used to handle American or Canadian cases, pre-formed trays, or trays to form, metal or plastic cases, boxes, or crates. The modularity concept adopted allows for an expandability of the installation according to requirements, even with modules
added in the future. The conception of modularity and flexibility adopted allows for the interconnection of the Filling Cell CCP and the Case Feeder ALC either with the Case Storage MAC, for the preparation of American or Canadian cases, with the Tray Forming Unit ZMVS, or with any further units to feed containers in other material. In fact each unit can be made in movable execution, on wheels, with quick mechanical and electrical connections
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
through plugs and Profibus communication net, allowing for the packaging of the same products, on the same line, in different containers, according to the needs of the actual production (i.e. distribution for local market or long distance export). The electrical board, with integrated control panel, is integrated within the frame of the Filling Cell CCP, obtaining a compact unit, easy to transport and install. All the connections to modules are obtained with communication net Profibus and systems with plugs. (Zucchini Macchine Automatiche - Via Anna Magnani 5/B 40013 Castel Maggiore - BO Italy - Tel. +39 051 710611 Fax +39 051 710633 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
ZMV modular packaging system (Zucchini Macchine Automatiche).
“LINERLESS” LABELLING TECHNOLOGY “Linerless” is the brand new labelling technology which is presented in a solution entailing the simple application (i.e. without printing) of a label made up of continuous adhesive material without siliconated backing. This solution offers the well-known advantages of a lower cost per label, no liner waste (not recyclable), and increased range: over twice as many labels as a reel of self-adhesive material with the same diameter. This solution is based on a newly designed unit, the ALstep
LL, specially devised for linerless labels, for both decorative and functional purposes. The unit can treat neutral or continuous printing material with programmed cutting, so that it is possible to easily modify the label length, as well as treat preprinted material and accurately cut it along a colour mark. The ALstep LL can be used in several applications: from open/ close labels, to tamper-evident protections and promotional labelling. It is already set up for the short-term development of complete systems for wrap-
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around labelling of cylindrical products, up to shrink-sleeve from the reel. The unit is suited to material widths of max 100 mm, at a cruising rate which can reach 100 labels/min; it is equipped with a guillotine cutter with a revolvable application group for trouble-free cleaning and maintenance and is easy to set thanks to the control box featuring a user-friendly display. (Altech - Viale De Gasperi 72 20010 Bareggio - MI - Italy Tel. +39 02 90363464 Fax +39 02 90363481 e-mail: email@example.com)
The new “Linerless” labelling unit (Altech).
SPIRAL CONVEYOR BELT
Alu-Mixer is a modern and dynamic firm resulting from the indepth technical expertise and recognised experience of its founders and the entire operational team. Alu-Mixer designs and produces professional systems for the food processing industry: it not only constructs technology, but also offers complete and custom solutions.
Highly specialised and flexible technical personnel, attention to customer satisfaction, ongoing technological research and innovation are the strong points of this firm, that have rapidly achieved important goals and solid growth. The quality and reliability of the products and the ensuing solutions come from the experience gained by the staff, in
addition to attention to detail, constants controls and ongoing maintenance services. The spiral conveyor belt, designed for the food sector in order to address the many needs in working and processing products, is a cutting-edge and versatile technology used in the phases of proofing, pasteurization, cooking, cooling, freezing of bread, pasta, meat, cheeses, vegetables and other foods. The sophisticated spiral structure meets the requirements of food producers and large industrial groups: it supports large production volumes in limited spaces, optimising the layout of the production lines, while limiting energy consumption thanks to an optimal distribution of heat and cold in
product treatment, with consequent drastic reduction in costs. The conveyor belts slide on special guides in low friction plastic material and do not require any lubrication, thus completely eliminating the possibility of contaminating the product. The parts in contact with the food are entirely in stainless steel or plastic material, assembled in complete respect of the current regulations. Extremely easy cleaning and inspection of the structure favour better care and therefore longer life of the machine. (AM Alu-Mixer - Via Europa 33 35010 San Giorgio delle Pertiche - PD - Italy - Tel. +39 049 9202237 - Fax +39 049 9202153 - e-mail: info@ alumixer.it)
MICROINGREDIENT BATCHING SYSTEM
Spiral conveyor belt (AM Alu-Mixer).
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Agriflex is an Italian company that has been designing, manufacturing and erecting installations for the food industry (bread-making, pasta, pastry), chemico-pharmaceutical and
plastic industry since 1975. In particular, it produces installations for the storage, conveying, batching and automation of raw materials in a simple and intelligent way.
Microingredient batching station (Agriflex).
Agriflex presents the microingredient batching system, a group of appliances dedicated to the storing, weighing and batching of powdered ingredients to be added â€“ in variable quantities â€“ to the main components of a mix, from a few tenths of a gram to several kilos. The system is ideal for the bread-making and pastry industry, and food application in general. A micro-batching
unit guarantees the highest reliability in the process as well as the highest level of hygiene, constant quality of the recipe thanks to the weighing accuracy and high automation level thus meaning remarkable savings. (Agriflex - Via Barsanti 6/8 47100 ForlĂŹ - Italy - Tel. 39 0543 796153 - Fax +39 0543 725152 - e-mail: info@ agriflex.it)
INGREDIENT STORAGE AND DOSING Intech designs and produces a wide range of storage plant for flours, consisting in a variable number of silos and in
appropriate extracting and conveying systems, in order to meet the most varied requirements.
The micro components dosage System (Intech).
The silos with a fluidifying bottom for inside installations are realized in stainless steel with modular panel. The fluidifying bottom allows a continuous oxygenation of the flour, optimising their performance in the mixture and keeping their characteristics unchanged over time. Upon request, they can be realized in any format in order to make the best use of the available areas, and all the equipment is always personalized. The Intech research and experience have resulted in the production of a special filtering cover, which grants the separation of air and flour during the pneumatic filling of the silos, thus preventing the use of the outside filters. Moreover, Intech produces a series of micro components dosage systems that allows the automatic management with an absolute precision of
The silos Intech for inside.
the weighing. Product levels on the micro silos are always monitored and it is possible to memorize the recipes and the dosage data. (Intech - Via Cav. Giovan Battista Bordogna 5 - 25012 Calvisano - BS - Italy - Tel. +39 030 9968222 - Fax +39 030 9968444 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
EFSA COMPLETES FIRST SAFETY ASSESSMENTS OF SMOKE FLAVOURINGS
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has completed the first ever review of the safety of 11 smoke flavourings used in the European Union. Based on EFSA’s work, the European Commission will establish a list of smoke flavouring products authorised for use in foods. Klaus-Dieter Jany, the chair of EFSA’s expert Panel on flavourings (CEF Panel), said: “The Panel based its conclusions on the limited data which are currently available as well as conservative – or cautious – intake estimates. The Panel expressed safety concerns for several smoke flavourings where intake levels could be relatively close to the levels, which may cause negative health effects. However, this does not neces-
sarily mean that people consuming these products will be at risk as, in order to be on the safe side, the consumption estimates deliberately over-estimate intake levels.” To assess the safety of these smoke flavourings, the CEF Panel asked manufacturers for data on the composition and toxicity of their products as well as details on their intended uses and use levels. Based on this information, the Panel determined the highest intake level at which each product was shown not to cause adverse health effects in animals. This level was then compared to estimated intake levels for humans in order to determine “margins of safety” for each product. Out of the 11 smoke flavour-
ings evaluated by the Panel, experts found that the margins of safety for two of the products were large enough not to give rise to safety concerns when considering the uses and use levels specified by the manufacturers. For eight others, the smaller margins of safety did give rise to safety concerns and for one of those smoke flavourings the Panel could not rule out concerns regarding possible genotoxicity (damage to the genetic material of cells) given the available data. The Panel could not assess the safe-
RISKS AND BENEFITS OF FOLIC ACID FORTIFICATION In 2008 the EFSA commissioned the EFSA Scientific Cooperation Working Group (ESCO) to review current scientific data regarding the risks and benefits of folate and folic acid fortification of food. This included a review of current practise in EU member States of mandatory and voluntary fortification of foods and current guidelines given for the safe upper limit of folic acid intake. It was also to
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ty of one further smoke flavouring due to the lack of adequate data available. Smoke flavourings are products which can be added to certain foods – including meat, fish or cheeses – to give them a “smoked” flavour, as an alternative to traditional smoking. They can also be used as flavourings in other foods such as soups, sauces, drinks and confectionery. All of the smoke flavourings which have now been assessed by EFSA are currently, or have previously been, on the market in the EU.
review evidence linking high folic acid intake and increased incidences of some cancers. As a result of the study, ESCO have issued several recommendations for further study and closer monitoring of scientific data to allow for a full quantitative risk assessment of folic acid intake. Neural tube defects (NTDs) are thought to occur in 0.4-2 in every 1,000 births which in-
clude spina bifida and anencephaly. The benefits of folic acid in reducing the risk of NTDs have been conclusively established through randomised control trials and human intervention studies. Supplementation is recommended at levels between 300 and 600 µg per day in women of child bearing age although the efficacy of this supplementation has not been evaluated in all Countries. Several epidemiological studies have reported that diets high in folate are associated with a number of health benefits which include reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a slowing of agerelated cognitive decline. However, intervention studies have
produced a wide range of results with some reporting adverse effects including an increase in risk of some cancers, specifically colorectal cancer. One study found that high levels of folic acid delay the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency by masking anaemia, causing irreversible neurological damage. Based on these findings the Commission’s Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) set the upper limit (UL) at 1 mg per day although this was based on limited data and it is ESCO’s recommendation that it be revised when further data become available. Results of randomised control trials designed to test the effect of folic acid on recurrence of colorectal adenomas have proved in-
MIGRATION FROM NOVEL PACKAGING MATERIALS Many jurisdictions have regulatory requirements, which mean that tests must be carried out to check what substances might migrate from a packaging material into food. The development of what the European Commission refers to as “active and intelligent” food contact materials means that the number and type of substances with the potential to migrate is increasing and may present new hazards not yet encountered in the risk assessments for currently used materials. Novel packaging technologies may involve the inclusion of additives in packaging films, con-
tainers or sachets intended to maintain and extend product shelf life. They may also involve the use of nanotechnology to increase the barrier and antimicrobial functions of packaging materials. In some cases more stable, rigid and re-usable materials are being developed. Then there are enzyme systems, which could be used to slow spoilage or plastics which are intended to remain on foods during cooking. Active packaging, for instance, could contain oxygen scavengers, ethylene scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers or emitters, and antimicrobial films. Nano-
conclusive providing contradictory results. One study reported no adverse effects while another, longer term study reported adverse effects on adenomas in the intervention group. Naturally occurring folate is found in a range of foods including chickpeas, lentils and green leafy vegetables. Many foods are voluntarily fortified with folic acid including bread and wheat flour products in a bid to reduce the number of incidences of NTDs. However, this is currently under review in the UK. While fortification of some staple foods, such as
flour is mandatory in the US and Canada, so far no EU member states have mandatory fortification. ESCO have recommended that legislation is reviewed and data from future research be carefully monitored. The report concluded that further research was essential to produce a fully qualitative risk assessment on folates and that future studies and research projects be carefully monitored. The report will now be assessed by the EFSA’s Panel on Dietetic products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) and an opinion published.
scale technologies are in development to improve traceability and monitoring of the condition of food during transport and storage, to make food contact materials stronger, lighter and more fire-resistant and less permeable to gases. Current risk assessment procedures involve the comparison of potential human exposure, estimated on the basis of migration studies, with predicted safe levels of exposure generally obtained from toxicological studies conducted in animals. Where only trace quantities migrate or few toxicological data are available, the concepts of the “Threshold of Regulation” (ToR) or Threshold of Toxicological Concern” (TTC) are applied. Howev-
er, even before the challenges of novel food contact materials presented themselves, there were criticisms of existing risk assessment methods. Much of this criticism has stemmed from the concept of “hormesis” whereby, for a given effect, a U-shaped dose-response curve has been postulated. This concept has led to allegations of potential adverse effects of food contact substances below the identified NOAEL (no observable adverse effect level). Such alleged adverse effects have generally been found in non-standard investigative studies. The Authors say that the integration of these results with the results of standard toxicology studies presents a daunting challenge.
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As an indicator of the sort of problems caused by current risk assessment methods, the Authors from Cantox Health Sciences International in Canada, provide a detailed examination of the case of bisphenol A (BPA), a substance whose safety has been under scrutiny for a number of years. BPA is a chemical used in the manufacture of numerous consumer
goods, including polycarbonate plastic bottles and the lining of food cans. Safe levels of exposure to BPA have been based on a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg bodyweight/day from conventional toxicity studies in rats and mice. But some studies have found effects in animals at well below 5 mg/kg bodyweight/ day. The presence of trace levels of certain chemical from
EFSA UPDATES SAFETY ADVICE ON SIX FOOD COLOURS After reviewing all the available evidence, the European Food Safety Authorityâ€™s scientific pan-
el on additives, the ANS Panel, has lowered the Acceptable Daily Intakes (ADIs) for the
packaging that were once accepted as being low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, which can occur at very low doses. Indeed recent concerns over BPA safety led the European Commission to reduce the Specific Migration Limit for BPA in-
to foods or food simulants from 3 to 0.6 mg/kg. Despite highlighting many potential problems with the current risk assessment methods, Munro et al. conclude that the current risk assessment paradigm and regulatory approval process should be sufficiently robust and flexible to meet the challenges posed by novel food contact materials.
artificial food colours Quinoline Yellow (E104), Sunset Yellow FCF (E110), and Ponceau 4R (E124). As a result, the Panel concluded that exposure to these colours could exceed the new ADIs for both adults and children.
The Panel found that the currently available data did not require a change to the existing ADIs for the three other colours evaluated â€“ Tartrazine (E102), Azorubine/Carmoisine (E122) and Allura Red AC (E129). According to the Panel, only some
Grill Marker Homogenizer Vacuum Blender
GS ITALIA srl Via Stelvio, 193 - 21050 Marnate (VA) Italy - Tel. +39 0331 389142 - Fax +39 389143 Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march www.gsitalia.com - email@example.com
children who consume large amounts of food and drink containing Azorubine/Carmoisine or Allura Red AC could exceed the ADIs for these colours. John Larsen, the chair of the ANS Panel, said: “Many food colours have been in use for decades since their initial approval and so after such a long period of use we are now looking at the overall data available, including any new evidence on their safety, to help protect European consumers. We are doing this work systematically for all food additives, and have started with these colours for which some concerns have been raised.” The six colours re-evaluated by the Panel can be used in
a range of foodstuffs including soft drinks, bakery products and desserts. The Panel concluded that one of the colours, Tartrazine, may bring about intolerance reactions – such as irritations to the skin – in a small part of the population. For the remaining five colours (Quinoline Yellow, Sunset Yellow FCF, Ponceau 4R, Azorubine/Carmoisine and Allura Red AC), no firm conclusion could be drawn on a possible link with intolerance reactions from the limited scientific evidence available. EFSA is currently assessing the safety of all individual food additives, which are approved for use in the EU, starting with food colours. The European Commission asked EFSA to consid-
er these six colours as a priority after a study was published by Southampton University (McCann et al.) in 2007 – the socalled “Southampton study” – linking certain mixtures of these colours and the preservative sodium benzoate with hyperactivity in children. John Larsen added: “We have now reduced the ADIs for three
of the six colours we assessed, but for different reasons in each case as different data were available on each individual compound. The data which are currently available – including the Southampton study itself – did not substantiate a causal link between the individual colours and possible behavioural effects.”
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
MEMORY FOR FOODS THE KEY TO UNCONSCIOUS DECISIONS
Memories of earlier experiences are a major factor in our decisions as to what we eat and what we don’t eat. They also play a central role as to whether or not a new product is accepted. Sensory researchers at the European Sensory Network believe that these memories are often more important than direct sensory comparisons. They have therefore placed “memory for foods” at the centre of their research. One of the most important themes in sensory research is understanding how consumers decide. Usually researchers proceed from the assumption that the consumers’ perceptions and preferences are central to his or her decisions, and try to evaluate them. When a new version of a product is being market-tested, for instance, various difference tests are performed to determine whether or not the consumer is able to perceive a change in the product’s ingredients. If this is the case, the next question is whether this change could be a risk to the product’s acceptance. In such tests the subjects would then be given both products to directly compare them. Claire Sulmont-Rossé of the INRA research institute in Dijon France states
that, “Such a situation rarely happens in real life. Normally consumers can only compare their impressions of the new product in relation to earlier experiences with a similar product. In every-day situations consumers base their decisions on their memories of earlier experiences with foods, and not on the basis of actual perceptions.”
TRUE-TO-LIFE TESTING To be able to experimentally test this memory for foods in a way that assures that the results reflect the behaviour in a real-life situation, it is important that the test is set up to be as true-to-life as possible. On this point there is wide agreement among sensory researchers. To this end one must consider the particular characteristics of this special form of memory: among other things, in real life, first and foremost one is geared to recognise the changes (Have I already eaten something like this before? Is this the same thing I had before, or is it something different?). An exact identification and designation is almost never sought. Jos Mojet and Ep Köster, from the
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Centre for Innovative Consumer Studies (CICS) at Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands, explain that, “Under natural conditions the memory for foods is mostly formed incidentally or implicitly without the person affected having a conscious thought about his actual intake of the food. It is seldom that one really notices how something tastes – rather, one simply eats and enjoys without any particular focus.” For these characteristics to be correctly observed and analysed, the researchers have developed experimen-
tal trial designs in which these everyday conditions are reproduced accurately. To be certain that subjects experience the food only in an incidental way, as would be the case in daily life, the subjects are first given a “learning session”, which obscures the true goal of the experiment. In the second part of the experiment, the memory test, the person is unexpectedly asked whether the test product served at that moment is identical to the product that was tasted in the first session, or whether it has specific differences.
MEMORY FILTERS THROUGH PERSONAL PRIORITIES In part, the results of such an experimental design differ significantly from the results garnered from direct discrimination tests. The memory of product characteristics will not retain a 1:1 ratio; rather they will be “filtered” through personal priorities. Léri MorinAudebrand from INRA, Dijon reports that, “For instance, in an experiment with a custard dessert, it was shown that the test subject had a more precise memory of the particular level of sweetness than of the intensity of the aroma or the exact consistency of the dessert.” In the memory for foods, it seems that one concentrates on “important” characteristics and ignores characteristics that were perceived to be “unimportant”. Food memory is selective and can distort, and it creates expectations. In practice, that can reach the point that differences which are clearly detectable in direct product comparisons, fall by the wayside in “natural” comparisons with memory imprints. Another question is in what way the judging of a taste as pleasant or unpleasant influences memory. The researchers have found evidence that sensory characteristics that were disliked were remembered better than those that were liked. The connection between the feelings of satisfaction and satiation after eating is also relevant to the study of the memory for foods, and is an interest-
ing subject for research. The memory stores the closely interwoven perceptions of the sense of taste and the perceptions of the digestive organs. For sensory research, methods that would make it possible to determine a consumer’s satisfaction with a foodstuff regardless of his or her degree of satiation would be of special interest. Ep Köster emphasises that, “Since memory allows people to imagine eating experiences, it is possible to test the appropriateness of a particular food for a particular situation using completely imaginative methods.”
A CHILD’S PLAY TASK Another interesting characteristic of the memory for foods is its consistency across different age groups. Whereas explicit memory gradually develops as a child grows, and notably decreases with old age, it appears that the implicit memory for foods is relatively unaffected by ageing. Monica Laureati and Ella Pagliarini from the University of Milan, Italy, have found that pre-school children can answer such questions as “Did you also eat this product last time?”, and “Do you find this product better, worse, or the same as last time?” as competently as young people and older grown-ups. The researchers point out that, “The results from the respective tests are comparable, which gives an interesting perspective into the eating and drinking behaviour of children.”
MIX S.r.l. 41032 CAVEZZO (MO) Via Volturno, 119/A Tel. +39.0535.46577 Fax +39.0535.46580
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
HOT DEVELOPMENTS IN THIN WALL PACKAGING The Packaging Community has undertaken a survey into decision making in packaging across 9 European Countries and concluded that there is a big move towards environmentally-friendly and sustainable products. This is partly met in the trend towards lower weight, as discussed at the October 2009 AMI conference on Thin Wall Packaging held in Cologne, Germany. Jon Nash of AMI described typical applications: yoghurt, cheese, cream, fresh produce, bakery, yellow fats, ready meals, sandwiches, pet foods, frozen foods, etc. Dairy is the largest sector at almost 25% and chilled meals are among the fastest growing areas. PP and PS dominate, followed by PET and PVC with a small percentage of other materials. Research conducted by Faerch Plast shows that there is interest in the food industry in moving from cans and glass into plastics. In 2008 it produced 1.7 billion thermoformed trays. Ready meal packaging is produced from CPET and PP; and fresh meat trays from PP, APET, PS, or AMPET; with cold food and snack bowls from APET, PLA, PS or PP.
The company has developed modified high barrier CPET (AMPET) containers with excellent organoleptic properties, low migration, withstands 130-135C retort, can be reheated in oven and microwave, with easy opening and cost effective. It is being used for long shelf-life products such as Larsen Danish Seafood: mackerel in tomato sauce can be stored for 2 years with a high barrier aluminium coated lidding film. Superfos Deutschland is the Europe’s largest injection moulder of packaging, making 3,100 containers per minute. It also offers containers with shelf-life of up to 2 years, using PP with a membrane and barrier in-mould label (IML). Kraft Foods has manufactured 27% lighter weight PP cups by conversion from injection moulding to thermoforming. The products were tested using ASTM D-4169 for factors such as gas and light transmission, drop impact and top load strength. Dairy products require UV barrier, which is generally provided using calcium carbonate or titanium dioxide fillers. Another property that is tested is “oil canning”, which occurs when
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containers are hot-filled and bulge at the base leading to a “rocker bottom”. Overall the performance was fit for purpose: drop impact and hoop strength were improved, while top load, oil canning resistance and light transmission were reduced but still adequate. Anson Packaging supplies around 15% of the UK thermoformed food packaging market and is following the Courtauld Agreement to reduce packaging by 10%. Current materials are PP, PET and PS. Recycled PET is now an option (rPET) and improves the carbon footprint. The company has also moved to punch and die technology which has reduced straight sided pots from 11.3 to 9.0 g, and round pots from 10.5 to 9.4 g. Illig Maschinenbau produces thermoforming machines and claims to have cut material and energy consumption compared to injection moulding. Production rates have increased and the machines will also handle new materials such as PLA. Kiefel supplies thermoforming machines with a level of computer aided controls. Norner Innovation has wor-
ked to improve the barrier properties of injection moulded containers using multilayer structures. In terms of oxygen permeability, EVOH, PVDC and polyamide are high barrier and are often combined with lower barrier materials to improve properties, requiring a tie layer due to poor adhesion. Norner Innovation has worked to avoid the adhesion
layer by modifying the polymers – two-material injection moulding is easier than three. The IML can also be used as a barrier, as can a silicon oxide coating. Netstal-Maschinen supplies IML systems and has commented that the label permit an even thinner wall as it provides an insulation layer and extra rigidity. There are improved grades of PP from Dow Europe. The high melt flow rate reduces cycle times, enables a lower injection temperature, and allows a thinner wall, while reducing overall energy consumption. The company has also studied organoleptic properties and generated improvements by using a low odour catalyst, careful additive selection, zero or limited peroxide treatment and UNIPO process technology. The material has been tested in transparent thin wall thermoforming and opaque thin wall injection moulding. Dow has also developed foamed sheet for thermoforming, allowing up to 25% light-weighting of polyolefins. SABIC Europe has also developed improved PP with high flow and good impact/stiffness, improving energy efficiency. The CLEARPACT range can be injection moulded for applications such as transparent ice cream, soup and ready meals. It can also be extrusion-thermoformed for meat, fish, poultry, convenience and frozen food packaging. Milliken supplies clarifiers for PP including sorbitol, which has high clarity and
good organoleptics. The company’s nonitol technology gives PP the look and transparency of PS. Its nucleating agents help improve the balance of stiffness and impact properties, and the latest product is food contact approved and focused on thermoforming and injection moulding applications. RPC Containers is a European market leader and worked with EVAL Europe and Ciba to produce a new PP/EVOH/PP barrier tray containing an oxygen scavenger for retort applications. (Albis has now bought the Ciba oxygen scavenger). The PP provides retort stability and the EVOH supplies the barrier properties. The scavenger supports the EVOH as a barrier during retort shock, when the molecular structure becomes more permeable. One alternative to conventional polymers is bioplastics from companies such as Novamont. The material has been injection moulded for use in vending cups, foamed food trays and coffee capsules. BASF supplies PS for packaging – one target is non-carbonated beverages. Around 0.93 million tons of PS is used in thin wall packaging in Europe. It has a lower cycle time and better properties than PET so less material is required. It can be processed on existing injection moulding and stretch blow moulding machinery. PS has been used in bottles for foods such as yoghurt drinks by companies such as Andechser Molkerei and Schwaelbchen Molkerei. Total Petroche-
micals is another supplier and also a member of the European PS Producers Association. Around 46% of PS is used in packaging in Europe. End-of-life management in Europe varies with national programmes. The material can be recycled up to 20 times. There are several PS cup recyclers: Stichting Disposable Benelux, Save-A-Cup (UK) and Eco-collector (France and Benelux). The material can be used in a sandwich layer with virgin materials once approved. It can also be used in non-food applications like CD boxes, plastic benches, coat hangers, etc. it is also has a high calorific value in energy recovery by waste incineration. The Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kunststoff-Recycling takes sorted bales of plastics for recycling. In Germany lightweight packaging is collected in yellow bins and subjected to semi-automatic sorting with an air classifier separating films, large plastic items and others. NIR detection can also be used. Post consumer plastics are re-granulated or re-melted and converted to new products. Energy recovery is the other option. Thin Wall Packaging offers the eco-benefits of light weight and minimalistic packaging, with excellent performance from yoghurt cups to oven-ready meals. The next international AMI conference, Thin Wall Packaging 2010, will be held from 7th to 9th December 2010 at the Maritim Hotel in Cologne, Germany.
THIN WALL PACKAGING DEMAND EXCEEDS 25 MILLION TONNES In recent years thin wall packaging (TWP) has become an increasingly well delineated sub-segment of the rigid plastics market. In total in Europe it accounts for over 2.5 million tonnes of thermoplastics. AMI Consulting has now published a new pan-European report covering market size, structure, growth and market dynamics. The report covers all 27 EU Countries. Thin wall packaging is defined to include yoghurt pots, butter and margarine containers, meat and fruit trays, blister packaging and similar containers. It excludes CD and DVD packaging and excludes blow moulded packaging. The largest single application is dairy products accounting for 23% of the market. The fastest growing applications are chilled ready meals and ambient foods which are both growing at around 6% p.a. While some of the applications for TWP are mature others are evolving rapidly such as ambient food packaging where the replacement of glass jars and tin cans is now underway and will represent a substantial growth opportunity. Underlying industry volume has held up comparatively well during the recession, but still the industry has been buffeted by changing stock levels and strong price pressure from retailers and brand owners. Structural change is being driv-
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
en too by rapid developments in polymer properties, pricing and sources. Grade development in retortable and microwaveable PP for instance has opened opportunities in prepared food packaging. PET too is highly dynamic with the success of rPET creating new players in the market and new propositions. The largest producers in Europe are HuhtamĂ¤ki, KP (KlĂśckner Pentaplast), Linpac, RPC Group, and Veriplast. According to AMI they accounted for one-quarter of European production of TWP in 2008. The large producers have been in the vanguard of change as they fight to secure profitability in the face of the price and innovation
GLOBAL TRENDS IN STRETCH AND SHRINK FILM The stretch and shrink film industry is among the fastest growing and most dynamic flexible packaging segments in Europe, and has been studied by Andrew Reynolds, research director at Applied Market Information. Consumption of stretch and shrink film is now in excess of 2.1 million tonnes per year in Europe. Reynolds will be giving the opening address at the 7th international conference, Stretch & Shrink Film 2010, which takes place from 26th - 28th April 2010 at
the InterContinental Hotel in Madrid, Spain. Typically the attendees account for over 1.6 million tonnes of polymer purchase. AEP Industries will outline issues for the North American stretch film market, and EuropackNE Ind e Com de Prod Termoplasticos will review the industry in South America. There will be a separate study on the structure of the Polish market by PHP ICC NESKOR Sp. z o.o. Strategic challenges will be discussed by John Campin
54 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
requirements of their customers. Even before the onset of the global recession, leading players had been reviewing and evaluating their position within thin wall packaging markets in response to the buying power of the major customers. These strategic reviews are increasingly driving restructuring as leading producers look to rationalise and optimise the manufacturing footprint, reduce overheads, strengthen defensible business segments and exit from unprofitable or non-core ones. (Applied Market Information AMI House 4 - 5-47 Stokes Croft - Bristol - BS1 3QP - UK Tel. +44 (0) 117 924 9442 Fax +44 (0) 117 989 2128 www.ami-publishing.co)
of AMI, and a personal global view will be given by Poon Khim Ang of the Malaysian company Thong Guan Plastic & Paper Industries. There are new materials in the market including metallocene PE from ExxonMobil and next generation plastics for collation shrink from Dow Europe. Italian suppliers include ENI Polimeri Europa. Film performance can be enhanced with the right additives, such as the new stabilisers from Chemtura, and with styrene-butadiene copolymers from Chevron Phillips Chemicals. Manufacturing technology is advancing. Macchi has studied blown film coextrusion trends. Cast stretch machinery has been improved by SML, winding by Gloucester Engineering and cores have been optimised by Sonoco Alcore. Testing is important to maintain quality control: Davis Standard has been working on blown film thickness measurement. Highlight Industries is developing test methods for both field and laboratory use. The conference will cover the main stretch applications for pallet wrap and silage wrap as well as addressing issues in the collation shrink, pallet shrink and the stretch hood arena. Beumer Maschinenfabrik has expertise in stretch hooding. Stretch & Shrink Film 2010 provides a forum for the industry to discuss the latest material and technology developments in the context of the current challenging business environment.
www.wolhfarth.it - firstname.lastname@example.org
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
AN OVERVIEW ON ENERGY BAR
The recent announcement that Kraft Foods had sold its Balance Bar nutrition bar business to a private equity firm perhaps indicates that the Company’s interests are currently focused in other areas, but what is its significance in terms of the energy bar market as a whole, particularly in the key market of the US, where sales of energy bars have risen from less than US$400 m in 1996 to over US$2 bn, although this rate has now slowed and there are signs of saturation? The Innova Database records that over 1,600 cereal bars were launched in the first 11 months of 2009, up from the same period in 2008, but well down on the total of over 2,000 launched in the same period in 2007. The majority of launches have a health positioning, particularly in the US, where over 90% of the launches recorded had a health positioning of some kind, compared with just over 80% in Western Europe. Most of these are marketed on a fairly general multibenefit health platform, however, particularly in Europe. It is only really in the US that the market for more specialist nutrition bars has emerged from the relative ob-
scurity of the specialist sports nutrition sector and into the mainstream and this has been led by three players – Powerbar, Balance Bar and Clif – which pioneered the US energy bar market in the 1990s before two of the three were snapped up in 2000 by major multinational food companies looking for upcoming markets emerging from rising levels of interest in health and convenience. At that time Balance Bar, originally developed for consumers with special dietary needs, was purchased by Kraft, while rival Powerbar was bought by Nestlé, while number three player Clif remained independent. Balance Bar has retained its original 40-30-30 concept of 40% carbohydrate, 30% protein and 30% fat for sustained energy and hunger management over the years, as it has explored a huge range of product options, including energy bars, fruit and nut bars, natural and organic bars, high protein bars, meal replacement bars, 100-calorie bars and low-carbohydrate bars, to mention but a few. Many of these initiatives do not seem to have worked, however, with its range immediately prior to
56 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
its sale encompassing just four lines, Original, Gold, Pure and Carbwell. While Powerbar has continued to lead the market, Balance Bar has had problems and has been overtaken by former number three Clif. Looking at new product launches in the US over the past 12 months, the Innova Database shows that, while there was little evidence of activity from Balance Bar, Powerbar was continuing to develop its range with a strong sports and performance image, and Clif was focusing on the natural image of its range and extending into
new flavours and formats such as Clif and Luna Cookies and Clif Shot Roks. Meanwhile the overall cereal bars market in the US is facing some problems after years of sustained growth. Sales through supermarkets, drugstores and mass merchandisers showed only slight growth in the first half of 2009, although nutrition and intrinsic health bars, including energy bars, saw the best growth in the market, ahead of breakfast bars and rice snack squares. It also has to be remembered that the majority of the nutrition bars market goes through spe-
cialist outlets, multilevel marketing, etc., rather than mass channels, which may also be facing a downturn. Lu Ann Williams, Head of Research for Innova Market Insights, states that “Within the nutrition bars market, traditional-style energy bars are having to compete with a range of other health-oriented bars, not only those positioned on a general or multibenefit platform, but also on a range of formats that are currently very much in vogue, including wholegrain,
high fibre, weight management, digestive health, freefrom and natural”. She emphazises that “With the high levels of product activity apparent in the bars market in recent years, it may be that saturation point is approaching, with market maturity and segmentation reaching a point where further innovation opportunities are going to be more limited, possibly causing further shakeouts in the market and creating an even more challenging environment”.
THE WORLD MARKET FOR DAIRY BIOACTIVES INGREDIENTS A new report on dairy-derived bioactive ingredients, “The world market for dairy bioactive ingredients 2009-2012”, clearly demonstrates increasing activity within this business area. The product range continues to expand, more patents are issued, the number of new consumer products launched containing these bioactives is continuously increasing, and the current market size estimated to more than 30,000 MT with an approximate value of USD 700 million is growing by 10-20% p.a. The market for dairy bioactives is being driven by the broader nutrition industry, i.e. infant formula, sports nutrition, dietary supplements, clinical nutrition and functional foods. The ma-
and covers a wide range of ingredients such as milk and whey hydrolysates, peptides, glycomacropeptides, case inphosphopeptides, α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, osteopontin, milk phospholipids, etc. Report headlines are: market size (volume and value) and expected growth; current applications and new product development trends; historical and current price developments; producer profiles; application and breakdown of end-use segments; drivers and barriers; regulatory issues; patent activity within the given product areas. “Generally, bioactives addressing the current key health issues have excellent growth opportunities, and
dairy-derived bioactives will be part of the solution in the future” says Tage Affertsholt. The main objective of this report is to provide the reader with an overview of the current and expected future global market for selected milk and whey fractions and peptides, based on a comprehensive assessment and characterisation of the market, as well as factors directly or indirectly affecting the commercial potential of the selected ingredients. For each ingredient activity in launched consumer products containing the ingredient has been tracked. Examples are included within the main body of the report, and a more complete listing is given in the Appendix.
jor players are the large dairy ingredient companies with significant technological depth and global market reach, e.g. Aria Foods, FrieslandCampina, Davisco, Glanbia, Fonterra and Morinaga/Milei. From the non-dairy area, DSM is the most prominent player marketing a couple of milk-derived bioactive peptides. “The dairy bioactive ingredient business is a high risk, high reward business area, as it takes considerable knowledge and resources in processing technologies, regulatory aspects including claims and marketing capability to be successful” says Tage Affertsholt, managing partner in 3A Business Consulting. The report is global in scope Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
THE SPECTRE OF PRODUCT RECALLS ON THE DOORSTEP OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY
In 2010, multiple sales prohibitions may be imposed on food – and especially on food supplements – as advertising claims are deemed impermissible, fears Andrea Stemmer from the health care industry consultant Diapharm (www.diapharm.com). The background to this situation is the impending stepwise publication of partial lists on permitted food health claims by the EU Commission. “After every such publication, the sale of any food whose packaging and advertising materials make claims running counter to the EU specifications is
likely to be permitted for only another six months”, explains Stemmer. This period is clearly too short for food supplements with a typical shelf life of 36 months. Worse still, “Because the first partial list of the EU Commission will refer to only a fraction of the health claim applications, manufacturers of products containing several nutrients may have to change their advertising claims repeatedly at intervals of only a few months and will have to recall product packaging with impermissible claims. This leads to great uncertainty regarding planning,
as to which claims will still be permissible upon issue of the next partial list.” The health claims Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 mandated the EU Commission to issue a generic list of permitted, scientifically proven advertising claims such as “calcium is good for the bones” by 31 January 2010. The European Food Safety Authority EFSA will subject the claims to a scientific assessment. A total of 4,185 proposals to Article 13(1) of the health claims regulation have been submitted to the authority. In October, however, EFSA ini-
NUTRACEUTICALS AND COSMECEUTICALS SHOW IN MILAN Nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals represent two productive sectors and a market that, despite the period of worldwide crisis, are in really good health and, in fact, are even undergoing continuous growth and offer considerable investment opportunities. In particular, the
worldwide market for nutraceuticals is expanding strongly and the annual growth rate is higher than 30%. According to Cordis – The information service of the European Commission for scientific research and development – the worldwide market is already worth
58 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
50 billion €. A recent survey by AcNielsen also shows that in 2008 the entire Italian productive chain of nutraceuticals and nutritional supplements registered turnover of about 1.4 billion € with 11% growth compared to 2007. Nuce International, the South
tially published scientific assessments of only the first 523 proposals, noting that in more than half the claims there is insufficient data to justify the claim of a positive health effect. However, EFSA negative comments are already likely to create uncertainty among food manufacturers. As EFSA assessments originate from a committee of leading European experts, they could also be used in lawsuits, explains Stemmer: “Advertising claims dismissed by EFSA should already be open to legal challenge now.”
Europe & Mediterranean Area trade show and conference dedicated to the nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and functional food & drink ingredients industry, will shine its spotlight on these areas. From 26th to 28th October 2010, the event will offer a showcase par excellence for all operators: manufacturers, retailers, distributors, and for all those companies operating in the sector
of the ingredients, raw materials and services for nutraceutics, pharmaceutics, dietetics, cosmetics, functional food & drinks, personal wellbeing, natural products, as well as equipment for laboratory analysis, services, etc. According to the survey from AcNielsen, the important market success of this productive sector comes essentially from two factors: the increasing awareness towards wellbeing, and the possibility to buy these health products in supermarkets and pharmacies. In fact, about one out of three buyers purchase nutritional supplements: out of 100, at least 18 have been using them regularly for several years, 62 out of
100 for more than two years, and 14 out of 100 for more than a year. “In consideration of this data,” explains Marco Pinetti, president of Artenergy Publishing, the company organizing the fair, “we have decided to create an important annual appointment, with the highest professional and scientific level, to give Italy, South Europe and the Mediterranean area a show for this sector at long last. Nuce International is, in fact, an international event and the project will involve the main associations of the category, universities, as well as public reference bodies and institutions. We are also organizing a scientific commit-
NEW PACKAGING SHOW IN ITALY Excellence and internationality will be the key features of Packology, the Italian packaging manufacturer trade fair, the result of the partnership between the Italian Packaging Machinery Manufacturers Association (UCIMA) and Rimini Fiera. The first edition will be held from 8th to 11th June 2010 and the event will be staged every three years The exhibition was conceived as an important professional showcase highlighting the innovations of the leading companies at international level in
the processing and packaging field, in the food, beverage, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, healthcare and (non food) consumer goods sectors. In eight halls, a total area of 60,000 m2 will host packaging machines, processing machines, packaging material, labelling, coding and branding technology, accessories and components, technology connected with logistics, trade press and publications. At Packology, exhibitors will be able to have one-to-one meetings with buyers, in par-
tee made up of the most authoritative personalities of the productive world, institutions and research that will enable us to set up a rich conference programme and, in general, will be the main contents of a show that will deal with topics such as innovation, research and development of the market. A business-to-business event that will be able to attract tens of thousands of international visitors.” Nuce International 2010 will take place in the pavilions of the Milan Exhibition Fairground occupying an exhibition area of more than 10,000 square metres, along with the second edition of Biotech Expo, the international fair and
conference on biotechnologies. In order to satisfy the needs of the most demanding operators, Nuce International 2010 will also have an exclusive service: partnering, which will enable users to set up numerous one-to-one meetings using the best worldwide software, able to personalize individual agendas identifying the most suitable partners to meet at the fair and to whom offer collaboration, joint-ventures, technologies, research, new products, consultancy, services, funding projects, and more. (Artenergy Publishin - Via Gramsci 57 - Cormano - MI - Italy Tel. +39 02 66306866 Fax +39 02 66305510 e-mail: email@example.com)
ticular from Mediterranean, East European, Balkan and Middle Eastern countries. In fact, Rimini Fiera foreign marketing office (led by Alessandro Piccinini) is at work in these rapidly developing areas to clinch the larger possible number of relations useful for the exhibitor and trade visitor target. The action plan is supported by a massive fine-tuned advertising campaign involving the major papers and magazines (trade and others) with national and international circulation. As well as in Italy, Packology will be covered by articles, reports and ad pages in the
media in Europe (particularly in Germany, Austria, France, United Kingdom, Holland, Belgium, and Greece), Eastern Europe (in particular Russia, Ukraine, Poland, and Czech Republic), Middle East and Mediterranean Countries (in particular Turkey, Egypt, and Tunisia). For Packology, these same specialist magazines will organize up conferences and workshops, to ensure that the exhibition is also a place for networking, in-depth discussions and updating on issues that are interesting and topical trade members of the sector. www.packologyexpo.com
Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march -
THE WORLD OF WINE AT VINITALY 2010 Business, promotion and information are the keywords of the 44th Vinitaly, scheduled for 8th 12th April. As ever a platform for meetings between supply and demand, the largest international wine exhibition is upgrading its services for companies in order to support them during this difficult market period and prepare them to grasp the opportunities that will arrive with the economic recovery. “The event has been presented and promoted during all the stop-offs of the Vinitaly World Tour,” said Giovanni Mantovani, director general of VeronaFiere, “because we must continue to think in terms of expansion for consumption all over the world, providing our clients with the medium-long term perspective fundamental to avoid losing ground compared to international competitors. VeronaFiere is well aware of our role and this is why we are already working to prepare an edition of Vinitaly much awaited by operators.” Despite the need for companies to implement economy, the number of participants at Vinitaly 2010 will be in line with 2009, while new companies are asking to take part in the event. The last edition attracted more than 4,200 exhibitors over an area that – thanks to expansion plans implemented in recent years – came to more than 92,000 m2. More than
151,000 professional operators attended, with more than 45,000 from 112 Countries, who established contacts with
exhibiting wine cellars on their stands, during the tasting workshops organised thanks to VeronaFiere’s network of delegates
in 60 Countries or through direct meetings (1,100 at the last edition) organised through the Buyers Club. The main innovation in 2010 concerns the 18th International Wine Competition. Enrolment
INTERNATIONAL EVENTS IN ITALY 8 - 12 April 2010 - Verona: Vinitaly+Enolitech, int. wine show. Veronafiere - Viale del Lavoro 8 37135 Verona - Italy - Fax +39 045 8298288 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 8 - 12 April 2010 - Verona: SOL, int. olive oil show. Veronafiere - Viale del Lavoro 8 - 37135 Verona - Italy - Fax +39 045 8298288 - e-mail: email@example.com 10 - 13 May 2010 - Parma: Cibus, int. food show. Fiere di Parma - Via Rizzi 67/A - 43031 Baganzola - PR - Italy - Fax +39 0521 996270 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 22 - 26 May 2010 - Verona: SIAB, int. baking industry show. Veronafiere - Viale del Lavoro 8 37135 Verona - Italy - Fax +39 045 8298288 - e-mail: email@example.com 8 - 11 June 2010 - Rimini: Packology, packaging and processing technology exhibition. Rimini Fiera - Via Emilia 155 - 47921 Rimini - Italy - Fax +39 0541 744829 - e-mail: info@ packologyexpo.com 24 - 26 September 2010 - Napoli: Tiam, Mediterranean agro-food technology exhibition. Ipack-Ima - Corso Sempione 4 - 20154 Milano - Italy - Fax +39 02 33619826 - e-mail: ipackima@ ipackima.it 6 - 8 October 2010 - Cesena (Fc): Macfrut, int. fruit processing show. Cesena Fiera - Via Dismano 3845 - 47023 Cesena - FC - Italy - Fax +39 0547 318431 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 12 - 13 October 2010 - Verona: Save, int. show of automation and instrumentation. E.I.O.M. Ente Italiano Organizzazione Mostre - Viale Premuda 2 - 20129 Milano - Italy Fax +39 02 55184161 - e-mail: email@example.com 23 - 27 October 2010 - Milano: A.B. Tech Expo, baking and confectionery exhibition. F&M Via M. Donati 6 - 20146 Milano - Italy - Fax +39 02 40922499 - e-mail: visit.abtech@ fieremostre.it 26 - 28 October 2010 - Milano: NUCE, exhibition-conference of nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals and fuctional food&drink ingredients industry. Artenergy Publishing - Via Gramsci 57 - 20032 Cormano - MI - Fax +39 02 66305510 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 28 - 31 October 2010 - Cremona: MeatItaly, int. meat processing show. CremonaFiere Piazza Zelioli Lanzini 1 - 26100 Cremona - Italy - Fax +39 0372 598222 - e-mail: meatitaly@ cremonafiere.it 8 - 11 May 2011 - Milano: Tuttofood, world food exhibition. Rassegne - Via Varesina 76 20156 Milano - Italy - Fax +39 02 48004423 - e-mail: email@example.com 18 - 21 October 2011 - Parma: CibusTec, int. food equipment show. Fiere di Parma - Via Rizzi 67/A - 43031 Baganzola - PR - Italy - Fax +39 0521 996235 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 28 February - 3 March 2012 - Rho-Pero (Mi): Ipack-Ima, int. packaging, food processing and pasta exhibition. Ipack-Ima - Corso Sempione 4 - 20154 Milano - Italy - Fax +39 02 33619826 - e-mail: email@example.com
60 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
was opened in January and from this year the Special Vinitaly Nation and Grand Vinitaly awards will be joined by the Special Vinitaly Region Award. Producers, moreover, will be able to print and apply labels or stamps to wines winning medals with the distinction “International Wine Competition 2010”, thereby valorising in marketing terms this important recognition of quality. Enrolments for the 15th International Packaging Competition also open in January.
FOR OLIVE OIL PRODUCERS Vinitaly will again be flanked by appointments with Sol, Agrifood Club and Enolitech.
Sol is the event for exchanging professional experience and meeting market leaders and national and international buyers. The 16th edition of the International Exhibition of Quality Extra Virgin Olive Oil enhances its commercial vocation by further developing the Buyers Club to become an important b2b occasion. There is also growing demand for participation in Agrifood Club, the showcase of Made in Italy excellence and its selected Italian agro-food companies emphasising the quality of exhibitors to satisfy even the most demanding operators and visitors. Lastly, Enolitech is a vital marketing opportunity for exhibiting companies, now at its 13th edi-
tion. This international promotion tool dedicated to technical aspects in the wine and olive oil, cellar and oil mill value chain is an occasion for com-
parison and dialogue with all operators seeking to keep up to date and purchase avant-garde instruments and technologies. www.vinitaly.com
TIAM 2010 BECOMES SPECIALIZED In 2010 Tiam is back on stage in Naples from the 24th to the 26th of September with a special edition dedicated exclusively to technology and products for grain-based food production: bread, pasta, pizza and pastry. There are over 15,000 users of technology and products for the production of bread, pasta, pizza and pastry in the Naples area, which extends
for 300 km north and south of the city. This makes Mostra d’Oltremare exhibition center hosting Tiam 2010 a strategic location to meet a high number of potential clients, consisting for 90% of small and medium-size companies, all eager to participate in an exhibition which is specifically designed around their needs. www.tiam.it
MILAN 23rd - 27th OCTOBER 2010
In coincidence with:
pizza International Baking and Technology Exhibition for Bakery, Pastry and Confectionery
Products and Technology for Pizza and Fresh Pasta
We leaven up your business www.abtechexpo.com Machinery, high-tech, ingredients, semi-finished, equipment and furnishings, inspired by both innovative spirit and time-honoured traditions are the highlights at A.B. Tech Expo and A.B. Tech Pizza Expo 2010. Milan, Europe's business hub and home to its largest trade fair centre, provides a unique opportunity to get together with key players in bakery, pastry, confectionery and pizza industries and to exhibit trailblazing machinery, ovens and facilities as well as world-class ingredients and semi-finished products designed to meet the exigencies of an increasingly competitive market.
THE MUST-GO EVENT! A.B. Tech Expo 2010: the recipe to leaven up your business! Events promoted by
Endorsed by and in co-operation with
Organized by F & M Fiere & Mostre S.r.l. Via M. Donati, 6 20146 Milano Italian Food & Beverage
Organizing Secretariat A.B. Tech Expo Tel +39 02 49976246 +39 02 49976250 TechnologyFax - LIX (2010) march firstname.lastname@example.org
PAVAN TAKES OVER THE GBS GROUP The Pavan Group, leading manufacturer of plants and systems serving the Food Processing Industry, has successfully closed the acquisition of the GBS Group. This group of companies was founded by the merger, back in 2000, of three important names (Golfetto, Sangati and Berga), specialists in the flour milling market and in grain storage and handling terminals. This new Pavan business ven-
ture, registered under the name Golfetto Sangati Spa, will offer equipment and systems for flour milling and animal feed industries as well as extending its business across a number of applications for grain storage and handling terminals satisfying requirements relating to in-loading and out-loading of bulk products by ship. Another important new business branch will be plants and systems for producing biofuels. The prod-
Biofuels production plant.
62 - Italian Food & Beverage Technology - LIX (2010) march
uct lines will be marketed under the three original names serving world industries. Andrea Cavagnis, CEO of Pavan, comments, “Over the last few years we have been implementing a business consolidation and expansion plan and Pavan, with this move, will now be in the position to offer and provide our customers with a broader range of solutions and services, equipment and systems to complete and integrate food processing lines with cereal and flour milling systems.” The Pavan Group located in Galliera Veneta, Italy serves the food processing industry with technologically advanced automatic plants and systems for processing, dry and fresh pasta, snacks, breakfast cereals, readymade meals and frozen food products. Annual sales revenues amount to 90M Euros and exports (120 countries worldwide) account
Andrea Cavagnis, CEO Pavan Group.
for 95% of total sales. Pavan has a 35% market share in the pasta processing machinery market and serves the biggest names in the food processing industry: Barilla, Nestlé, Kellogg’s, Kraft, PepsiCo, Conagra, Procter & Gamble and Molinos Rio de la Plata. Company strategy focuses on launching Golfetto Sangati worldwide through the Pavan sales network, the brand image and investments. (Pavan - Via Monte Grappa 8 35015 Galliera Veneta - PD - Italy - Tel. +39 049 9423111 Fax +39 049 9423303 e-mail: email@example.com)
CHIRIOTTI EDITORI Viale Rimembranza, 60 - 10064 PINEROLO - ITALY Fax +39 0121 794480 - e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Name .............................................................................................................. Company ........................................................................................................ Address ........................................................................................................... City ...................................................................... State ................................. Country ..................................................... Postal Code ................................. e-mail ............................................................... Phone: .................................
J food industry supplier
J food producer
J beverage industry supplier
J beverage producer
J services - research
J wine producer
ADVERTISER INDEX AB Tech - Milano. ............................................................. 61
Me.Tra - Vago di Lavagno ................................................. 43 Mix - Cavezzo.................................................................... 51
Brevetti Gasparin - Marano Vicentino ....................cover 3
Moriondo - Besana Brianza ............................................... 2
Cavicchi Impianti - Villanova di C. ................................ 49
Omac Pompe - Rubiera ................................................... 27
Chiriotti Editori - Pinerolo .............................................. 62 CMT - Peveragno........................................................cover 1
Partisani - ForlĂŹ ................................................................. 15
Comet - Roddi d'Alba ................................................cover 2 Sacchi - Vidigulfo .............................................................. 33 FBF Italia - Sala Baganza .................................................. 1
SCA - Fiorenzuola d'Arda .................................................. 25 Soren - Corsico ..........................................................cover 4
GS Italia - Marnate ......................................................... 48 Technosilos - Capocolle di B. .......................................... 36 Italo Danioni - Milano .................................................... 24
Trivi - Galliate ................................................................... 37
Larioreti - Lecco ................................................................ 31
Wolhfarth - Sordio .......................................................... 55
COMPANY INDEX Agriflex - ForlĂŹ ....................................................................44
GEA Niro Soavi - Parma ....................................................28
Altech - Bareggio ................................................................42
Goglio - Daverio.................................................................40
AM Alu-Mixer - S. Giorgio delle Pertiche .........................44
Gorreri - Sorbolo Levante di Brescello ..............................39
Bertuetti - Torbole Casaglia ...............................................34
I.Co.El. - Fondi...................................................................30
Boema - Neive....................................................................28
Intech - Calvisano ..............................................................45
Cama Group - Garbagnate Monastero ..............................41
MCM Massa - Pianezza ....................................................38
Comecal Impianti - Lemignano di Collecchio ..................30
Minipan - Massa Lombarda ..............................................35
Emmepiemme - Piacenza...................................................32
Officine Mecc. Pellacini - Sala Baganza ............................32
Galvanin Food Division - Marano Vicentino....................31
Pavan - Galliera Veneta ......................................................62
PROCESS TANKS Model PC
SCRAPED SURFACE HEAT EXCHANGERS Models HD and XHD
For blending cooking and cooling Versatile design to match the precise application by: • Mounting additional agitators • Installing ancillary hoppers or tanks on top • Mounting special pump assemblies on discharge
For heating, pasteurizing, sterilizing. For cooling, crystallizing, freezing. Designed and manufactured with the materials suitable to the different products, processes and CIP procedures. Typical applications are for processing Filling creams, ice cream mix, sauces, gravies, baby food, soup, tomato juice, ketchup, margarine, shortenings, processed cheese, ricotta cheese, tomato sauce and paste, ice cream and frozen yogurt.
Applications Preparation of gravies, sauces, soups, creams and ice cream mixes.
Equipment and Food Technologies SOREN srl - Via Pacinotti, 2920094 Corsico - Milano - Italy Tel. +39 02 45177.1 - Fax +39 02 45177.340 - email@example.com
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