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Lesson 3

Groundwater and Wetlands

Skim Lesson 3 in your book. Read the headings and look at the photos and illustrations. Identify three things you want to learn more about as you read the lesson. Record your ideas in your Science Journal.

Groundwater I found this on page

625

Organize information on groundwater. . Groundwater: water that lies

below ground

soil

Collects as water seeps through

and into

pores between sediment and rock

Some groundwater lies

.

Some groundwater lies

close to the surface .

hundreds of meters below

the surface

.

Groundwater can stay underground for long periods, but eventually it returns to the surface and reenters

I found this on page

625

.

.

Identify four important facts about groundwater.

provides water to

roots

of plants

helps form

streams

lakes, and

wetlands

Groundwater

more plentiful than

surface water

188

Freshwater

used as a

water supply

,

Copyright Š Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

water cycle

the


Lesson 3 | Groundwater and Wetlands (continued)

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626

.

Identify the underground zones associated with the water table. Draw a red line where the water table is located. Label the line “water table.” Then, explain the difference between the two zones.

Students should draw a red line between the unsaturated and saturated zones.

land surface

unsaturated

zone

saturated

zone

water table

The unsaturated zone lies near the surface. The pores within rocks and sediment in this zone are not completely filled with water. The saturated zone lies beneath the unsaturated zone. Here the pores are completely filled with water. The water table lies at the upper limit of the

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

saturated zone.

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626

.

Compare porosity and permeability. Porosity

Permeability

a measure of a rock’s ability to hold water

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626

.

a measure of water’s ability to flow through rock and sediment

Summarize two facts about groundwater flow. flows

downhill and can join surface water

Groundwater is replaced as

surface water seeps into the ground Freshwater

189


Lesson 3 | Groundwater and Wetlands (continued)

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627

.

Explain, in your own words, how wells and aquifers are related. Sample answer: An aquifer is an area of permeable underground sediment or rock that holds useful amounts of water. People dig wells to reach the water in an aquifer. The water flows into the well from the aquifer and is pumped to the surface.

Wetlands I found this on page

628

Organize information about 3 types of wetlands. Include at least .

three facts about each type.

Sample answers are shown.

Bogs

form in wet, cool climates; produce peat; water comes from runoff ; acidic and nutrient poor

Swamps

form in warmer, drier climates; can temporarily dry out; water comes from runoff and precipitation; soil is slightly acidic and nutrient rich

190

Freshwater

Marshes

form in warmer, drier climates; can temporarily dry out; water comes from runoff and precipitation; soil is slightly acidic and nutrient rich

Copyright Š Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Wetlands


Lesson 3 | Groundwater and Wetlands (continued)

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629

.

Summarize why wetlands are important. Function

Copyright Š Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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630

.

What Wetlands Do

Habitat

provide food and shelter for newly hatched and young animals; important rest stop for migrating animals

Flood control

reduce flooding because they store large amounts of water

Erosion control

reduce the energy of large waves and storm surges

Filtration

prevent sediments and pollutants from reaching streams, lakes, groundwater, or oceans; absorb excess nitrogen by means of wetland plants and bacteria; help remove toxic metals and other pollutants from the water

Identify three effects of wetland destruction. Cause

Effects 1. rising sea level

Wetlands are drained and filled with soil for roads, buildings, and other uses.

2. coastal erosion 3. introduction of non-native

species A developer wants to build houses near a lake. Much of the ground is currently covered with a marsh. What would you tell the developer about filling in the marsh and building on it? Sample answer: I would explain that the marshy area is important to the environment. It is a habitat for many organisms and a filtration system for pollution. Marshes help reduce the risk of flooding and reduce the amount of erosion. I would then encourage the developer to build homes away from the marsh, perhaps on a hill overlooking the lake, so that the homeowners could take advantage of the view.

Freshwater

191

Groundwater & Wetlands Answers  
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