Human-Centred Design for Entrepreneurship GUIDE, CDTMOOC

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INTELLECTUAL OUTPUT 5 GUIDE Human-Centred Design for Entrepreneurship


CDTMOOC project INTELLECTUAL OUTPUT 5 GUIDE Human-Centred Design for Entrepreneurship

Authors: University of Turku | Turku, Finland Euro-net | Potenza, Italy Art Square Lab | Luxembourg Succubus Interactive Ltd |Nantes, France Miðstöð símenntunar á Suðurnesjum |Reykjanesbæ, Iceland

“CDTMOOC“ project: approved by the European Commission under the programme “Erasmus+ – KA2 – Strategic Partnership for Higher Education” Project no. 2019-1-FI01-KA203-060718

“This project is funded by the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission/National Agencies cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein”.


Contents Introduction


CHAPTER 1 – Human-Centred Design. What is HCD?




CHAPTER 2 – Human-Centred Design Methodology for Entrepreneurship. HCD for entrepreneurs 8 2.1 Context: why to deploy Human-Centred Design


2.2 Trends


2.2.1 Post-COVID 2.2.2. Artificial Intelligence 2.2.3. Circular economy

2.3 Practical guidance, templates and other methodologies 2.3.1. Lean start-up methodology 2.3.2 The five steps of Human-Centred Design 3.2.3 A/B testing

2.4 Application of HCD in entrepreneurial context 2.4.1. Cognitive engineering 2.4.2 Agile methods for software development 2.4.3 Customer centricity and user experience (UX) research 2.4.4 Co-creation in entrepreneurial context

CHAPTER 3 – Entrepreneurial learning in Europe 3.1. Cases collected by the partners 3.1.1. University of Turku - Finland 3.1.2. EURO-NET - Italy 3.1.3. Miðstöð símenntunar á Suðurnesjum - Iceland 3.1.4. ArtSquare Lab - Luxembourg 3.1.5. Succubus Interactive - France

CHAPTER 4 – Links, Materials, videos

9 10 10

11 11 12 13

14 14 15 17 18

19 19 19 21 24 28 32


4.1. Other cases in education


4.2. Other cases in companies


4.3. Other courses and conferences in HCD


4.4. Other interesting links


Bibliography - Books and Publications



Introduction About this GUIDE This guide is a FREE Open Education Resource integrated with videos, web links and tools about Human Centred Design for entrepreneurship. It describes the methodology and provides a practical point of view with successful cases, tools and materials. The guide is designed to be used by: -

Actual Students: to enrich and update the knowledge with a topic not usually included in academic courses Future Students: to attract students to the Higher Education (HE) system by providing for free innovative methodologies with a gamified approach Former Students: to update the knowledge with fresh perspectives coming from an innovative methodology to create successful enterprises Start-uppers, business sector, accelerators and incubators and all SMEs: interested in new perspectives and approaches useful to survive and adapt the enterprises.

About Human-Centred Design Human-Centred Design (HCD) is a design and management framework that develops solutions to problems by involving the human perspective in all steps of the problem-solving process. Human involvement typically takes place in observing the problem within context, brainstorming, conceptualizing, developing, and implementing the solution. Human-Centred Design is an approach to interactive systems development that aims to make systems usable and useful by focusing on the users, their needs and requirements, and by applying human factors/ergonomics, usability knowledge and techniques. This approach enhances effectiveness and efficiency, improves human well-being, user satisfaction, accessibility and sustainability; and counteracts possible adverse effects of use on human health, safety and performance. Human-Centred Design builds upon participatory action research by moving beyond participants' involvement and producing solutions to problems rather than solely documenting them. Initial stages usually revolve around immersion, observing, and contextual framing in which innovators immerse themselves with the problem and community. Consequent stages may then focus on community brainstorming, modelling and prototyping, and implementation in community spaces. Furthermore, Human-Centred Design typically focuses on integrating technology or other useful tools in order to alleviate problems; for example, health technologies is one common area where HCD is used. Once the solution is integrated, Human-Centred Design usually employs system usability scales and community feedback in order to determine the success of the solution. System usability scale is a 10-item questionnaire tool that can be used for assessing the usability of a solution. One of its main benefits is that it can yield reliable results even with small sample sizes ( 2021). There are also numerous other ways to collect community feedback. For instance, in online services, a Net Promoter Score is one of the easiest ways to collect feedback: it presents the user with the simple question of “How likely are you to recommend (our service) to a friend or a colleague”. Those giving a rating of under 7 (in a 10-point Likert scale) should be followed up on for further information about what they were unsatisfied with, whereas those giving 9-10 could be engaged for testimonials and referrals (Forbes 2019).


About INNOVATION - The HCD methodology is focused on empathy that is more and more recognised as an essential element for modern managers and enterprises. As explained in IDEO’s Human-Centred Design Toolkit, empathy is a “deep understanding of the problems and realities of the people you are designing for”. It refers to getting to know about the difficulties people face, discovering their latent needs and desires in order to explain their behaviours. For this reason, understanding of the people’s environment is highly important, as well as their roles in and interactions with it. Unlike traditional marketing research which is focusing on facts about people, empathic research is more focused on motivations and thoughts. Finding out what people mean instead of what they say is also very subjective. - The HCD is an integrated approach that is iterative, measurable and results-driven. It engages through collaboration, system mapping, participatory research but also rapid prototyping and piloted implementation. - Enterprises are now focusing as much on their consumer experience as on the product delivered. The HCD is a unique approach as it merges between four main characteristics:    

user needs (empathy) involvement of the consumer in the development process (collaboration) the belief that it is possible to create a change (optimism) based on learning by doing and prototyping (experimentality).

About the EXPECTED IMPACT AND TRANSFERABILITY POTENTIAL The impact is expected to be large and the transferability potential should be substantial thanks to the open access of the guide (through an Open MOOC). Another element of innovation to consider is connected to the availability of the guide in five different national languages (English, Finnish, Italian, French and Icelandic). The number of comparable guides in languages different from English is small, which adds a challenge related to the translation process, as there is a need to invent novel terminology in some languages.


CHAPTER 1 – Human-Centred Design. What is HCD? Definition Human-Centred Design (HCD) can be defined as a method bringing purposes to means, by considering user requirements, and as an interaction model working through incremental functional analysis and participatory design., a design and consulting firm with offices in the U.S.A, England, Germany, Japan, and China uses the Design Thinking approach to design products, services, environments, and digital experiences. IDEO states that HCD “is a process that starts with the people you are designing for and ends with new solutions that are tailor made to suit their needs”. Human-Centred Design consists of three phases:   

Inspiration phase to learn directly from the people the company is designing for by immersing in their lives and coming to deeply understand their needs - understanding the problem by engaging with the community Ideation Phase to make sense of what was learned; identifying opportunities for design, and prototyping possible solutions - refining ideas, ideation Implementation Phase to bring the solution to life and eventually to market. The solution would be more likely to be a success because the very people who are meant to be served by the solution are kept at the heart of the process and in prototyping

1.1 What is the difference between Design Thinking and Human-Centred Design? Design Thinking was popularized by Stanford’s, also known as the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford, which is a design thinking institute based at Stanford University. Design Thinking is an iterative process used to understand users, challenge assumptions, redefine problems and create innovative solutions to prototype and test. Solutions refer to products, processes or services to be used by a person or a group of people.

Figure 1. Design Thinking process, scientific diagram (dschool; licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license).

GUIDE HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP Human-Centred Design, popularized by, is a mind-set that overlays design thinking to ensure that the products are actually relevant and beneficial, and in the long run, for the people they are intended to serve. It follows the Design-Thinking two ways of thinking: divergent and convergent thinking through its three phases. Example: Any business can use Design Thinking to build a solution that is capable of generating revenue, to create a video game or TV show for kids. Applying Human-Centred Design in addition to Design-Thinking ensures that the show actually serves the needs of the people watching it, such as the learning objectives of the children watching the show or playing the game. Design Thinking is typically used to create market-based products and/or services, whereas Human-Centred Design takes a step further and provides a mind-set and approach to ensure these products and/or services actually improve the lives of the end-users or beneficiaries. When combined, they offer a process that has the potential to create self-sustaining solutions to some of the world’s greatest challenges.

1.2 Co-creation In order to bring the user closer to the innovation process, consumers can be involved as active actors in the development process through co-creation. In practice, it implies that collaborative workshops are organised where business stakeholders, designers, researchers and end-users gather to assess a problem and find solutions collaboratively with attention paid to the different points of view and needs of the various actors (source: Crowdsourcing is a related and overlapping concept, which implies that problems and tasks are given to a large crowd of people to solve or provide their contribution to. In contrast with co-creation, the tasks related to crowdsourcing may involve a lesser degree of creativity and lesser possibility for an individual to affect the features of the outcome, depending on the task at hand.


CHAPTER 2 – Human-Centred Design Methodology for Entrepreneurship. HCD for entrepreneurs 2.1 Context: why to deploy Human-Centred Design According to the CB Insight research1 42% of start-up failures are due to the fact that there was never a need in the first place. Tackling problems that are interesting to solve rather than those that serve a market need was cited as the number one reason for failure. The 9th reason for failure was that customers were ignored. Human-Centred Design gives the possibility to entrepreneurs to understand customers or future users better and they are able to: ●

Develop on new and innovative ideas

Human-centred approach feeds the creation of products that fit better with an audience, ultimately driving engagement and growth. ●

Check assumptions

Through Human-centred design, entrepreneurs and innovators better understand people’s needs, motivations and concerns, but it also gives support for a more efficient, flexible design process. By engaging early with users and seeking their input and feedback, entrepreneurs gain valuable insights while still working with prototypes. It gives the possibility to pivot early and avoid steering resources in the wrong direction. It allows to rapidly check key assumptions, uncover opportunities for improvement and gather inspiration for new ideas. ●

Cut waste

By testing, iterating and interacting with users, entrepreneurs and innovators are able to consider the production and components in another manner, affecting the way resources are used. Also when considering sustainability, entrepreneurs have to take into account the entire product life cycle and therefore integrate returns and recycling from the start. It also impacts the type of components used in the first place. ●

Create partnerships

Involving different types of stakeholders at all development stages ensures the product/service has comprehensive features and by consequence a greater impact. By interacting, ideating, testing and collaborating with different types of thinkers and makers, the entrepreneur ensures his/her idea is viable. Inspiration also supports innovation. And while information is available online, routines and comfort increase the risk of mental stagnation which is counterproductive.

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2.2 Trends 2.2.1 Post-COVID Crises may impact our daily life, but COVID-19 pandemic has changed our future permanently. Online interaction and remote working have become a norm rather than an option. According to the Boston Consulting Group and a study conducted in April 20202 with more than 40 interviewed business executives, design and technology experts and members of the public, new modes of engagement have emerged in the past year mostly due to digitalisation. Because of the pandemic, many organisations such as restaurants, gyms, movie studios were lagging on the digital front, and have adapted their business models and offerings very quickly. This rapid shift to digital implies that the number of technology users has increased. Among the expanded audience: children, the elderly, individuals with physical disabilities, and those who were skeptical about replacing in-person with digital interactions. Entrepreneurs and innovators have to consider the different needs of these new users as they create and improve digital channels. Expectations are likely to be higher. Some businesses have been particularly proactive in creating convenient online channels and set the bar high. Users' expectations might have increased towards offerings that consider the entire online interaction, for example regarding product returns. For many, the COVID-19 crisis has sparked reflection and introspection. Life goals and priorities are reviewed, relationships have changed. Connections with geographically distant members have been reinforced. Which of these changes are here to stay? Some of the shifts, such as accelerated technology adoption, hybrid digital physical delivery, and remote collaboration, can be thought to have a lasting impact. It is important to think differently about building and implementing solutions for the new reality. The human perspective is essential for successful design, and it is evolving at a rapid pace. Innovators need to consider different markets, geographical factors and cultural differences. While digitalisation might bring us closer and take down some barriers, people are still acting based on their culture, habits, beliefs, etc. ●

Closing the gap between digital and physical experiences by striking a careful balance between the convenience of digital channels and the immediacy of in-person experiences

Gaining a deep understanding of the customers and users through ethnographic research, journey mapping, and behavioural analytics will contribute to closing the gap. It reveals opportunities for innovation and differentiation. ●

Know what not to replicate online

Not all interactions can be transposed online. Sensations like touch, environmental factors like temperature, or the physical presence of other people are essential to the experience. Some activities such as painting and exercise classes may work well virtually, others require a different approach.



Embrace inclusive design and digital upskilling

With so many new users of digital channels, products and services, designing with an inclusive perspective is important. Some customer segments, for example, may have challenges around technology access because a required device or broadband connection is not readily available. Others, like the elderly and the very young may not be used to the interfaces and processes. ●

Increase the speed of innovation

In addition to meeting increased expectations and ensuring robust, high-quality and continually improving experiences, innovation needs to happen quickly. Enabling a fast pace means developing processes and a culture that supports iteration rapidly while engaging with end users. Agile methodologies3 are a way to boost responsiveness and get feedback. ●

Foster interconnectedness and micro communities

Community belonging should be integrated into design. For example, by creating virtual micro communities composed of geographically diverse people sharing a common interest, a sense of familiarity, personalization, and connectedness will be fostered. Marketing strategies are of great importance to reinforce the feeling of community. For a greater impact, innovations should be designed to function within ecosystems, therefore by considering interconnectedness and interdependencies from a more technical level4.

2.2.2. Artificial Intelligence The increase of artificial intelligence (AI) possibilities offers vast potential to transform businesses. For instance, it enables the introduction of largely scalable intelligent services. In order to realise its potential, companies should be conceived as hybrid learning organisations, which requires new ways of working and organising themselves. The organisational structures and processes need to combine technological and human capabilities: integrating algorithms and decision engines in order to learn at the speed of incoming data, refocusing humans on higher-level problems that algorithms cannot yet solve, and creating new interfaces for humans to effectively collaborate with machines5. Rapid digitisation puts into light the power of AI, which through its algorithmic decision engines help coordinate activity e.g on online marketplaces, leading to a massive increase in e-commerce in many countries. It has also shown its limits, such as reimagining business models. Creating alliances between people and AI systems will become an even more important challenge as digitisation progresses. That development necessitates the deployment of humancentred design for instance in the interfaces, so that the capabilities of AI can be as well as possible made to yield results utilisable effectively by people.

2.2.3. Circular economy Circular economy approach rethinks the traditional take-make-dispose economic model and suggests a new model that retains as much value as possible from resources, products, parts and materials to create a system that allows for long life, optimal reuse, remanufacturing and recycling67. Innovations supporting the reuse of 3 5 6 7 Kenniskaarten: 4

GUIDE HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP resources can make companies less dependent on scarce raw material, increase operational efficiency, drive further innovation, and enable new offerings attracting customers and deepening existing relationships. It has been estimated that the transition to the circular economy could unlock over 3 trillion euros of GDP growth worldwide by 2030. Benefits are also foreseen for the society as it would make it easier to shelter, feed, and clothe the 8.5 billion people expected to inhabit the planet by 2030. There is a growing pressure to reduce the environmental impact and for companies, it means increased government regulations, consumer demands and costs. Pressure is also growing internationally as presented by the U.N.’ Sustainable Development Goals. There are three types of circular innovations with progressing degrees of complexity that companies can implement gradually:   

Process innovation, it is usually the easiest as companies follow processes. It requires to improve production processes, logistic and/or recycling methods Product innovation, somewhat more challenging as it concerns more areas of the organisation. It requires to improve or develop goods and/or services Business model innovation is the most challenging. It requires to rethink or implement significant changes on how the company generates value8

According to the joint report from the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and The Boston Consulting Group in 20189, recommendations for entrepreneurs have been identified to implement circular initiatives:      

Engage with external stakeholders Explain the concept and communicate the vision with your team members Educate team members on dematerialization and remanufacturing, eco-design, recyclability, and practices extending product lifetimes Collaborate with external partners Define your business KPIs to measure progress Do good and talk about it

2.3 Practical guidance, templates and other methodologies 2.3.1. Lean start-up methodology10 The core idea of Lean is to eliminate everything that does not create value for the end user, seen as wasteful11. Lean includes seven principles12 summarizing its most important points:       8

optimize the whole eliminate waste build quality in learn constantly deliver fast engage everyone p.13 10 11 Poppendieck & Poppendieck, 2007 12 Fagerholm et al., 2014 9


and keep getting better

The Lean Start-up13 builds on existing ideas in scientific literature to popularize experimentation in start-ups. It focuses more on “should this product/service be created instead of can it be built”. A core component of Lean Start-up methodology is the build-measure-learn feedback loop, which is in line with the human-centred design methodology. The principle is to act with the end users as much as possible to collect feedback and react accordingly. The Lean Start-up methodology encourages business owners to conduct experiments and adapt their products to fit the market needs. Experimentation for product development is not a new trend, as it has been used for several years already, especially by software development companies. Experimentation is an activity fundamentally linked to innovation14. The goal of experimentation is to make sure that the solution creates customer value as companies should not rely only on the experience and intuition of their employees15. Through experimentation, it becomes possible to identify what is valuable to the customers and to prioritize development activities. It reduces risk-taking as decisions are based on collected data. In the experimentdriven approach, assumptions about the product are systematically identified, prioritized and validated16. The first step is to identify the problem to be solved and then develop a minimum viable product (MVP), or prototype, to start learning quickly from testing. By collecting feedback, the start-up can measure and learn from potential users. The start-up also employs an investigative development method called the "Five Whys", largely used in Design-Thinking methodology as presented in the Design-Thinking Guide. During this measuring process, the start-up will be able to either go on with its business model or make a structural change to test the product further and its strategy. To support the Lean Start-up process, the lean canvas can be used to validate ideas and concepts. It focuses more on problems, solutions, key metrics and competitive advantages. Once the business strategy is validated, the business model canvas can be used. “The Business Model Canvas was proposed by Alexander Osterwalder based on his earlier book: Business Model Ontology. It outlines several prescriptions which form the building blocks for the activities. It enables both new and existing businesses to focus on operational as well as strategic management and marketing plans. The Lean Canvas, on the other hand, has been proposed by Ash Maurya as a development of the Business Model Generation. It outlines a more problem focused approach and it majorly targets entrepreneurs and startup businesses." (Canvanizer)

2.3.2 The five steps of Human-Centred Design According to the principles of Human-Centred Design, a requisite of the problem to be solved is that a solution is discoverable and that it can be found by interacting with the people studied. Step 1: Empathise Design Thinking starts by understanding people and defining a problem emerging from this group. HumanCentred Design suggests that this phase is based on “Inspiration”, and that there is no hurry to get to the execution of the solution. During this first step, it is important to fully understand the people the solution is trying to serve, and HCD also provides ethical methods on how to do so.


Eric Ries, 2011 Thomke, 1998 15 Lindgren & Münch, 2016 16 Lindgren & Münch, 2016 14

GUIDE HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP Step 2: Define Design Thinking recommends framing one problem that can meaningfully be designed towards. During this phase, Human-Centred Design proposes converging stakeholders to better understand their needs, assets, and opportunities to align around one common shared problem. Step 3: Ideate Design Thinking suggests coming up with as many ideas as possible, right and wrong. Human-Centred Design favors creative processes in this “ideation” phase on how to generate more ideas by involving the people the solution will be serving. Step 4: Prototype Design Thinking encourages the development of a minimum viable prototype to see if the solution will actually be adopted by the market. Human-Centred Design provides tools in this “Implementation Phase” suggesting that prototypes would be built in partnership with stakeholders and end-users to get their feedback and suggestions. Step 5: Test Design Thinking guides to test the prototypes to identify if they could be adopted, and to learn more about the end-user. Human-Centred Design in this last phase verifies that people will adopt the solution, and that it actually creates an impact along the identified goals of making things better17.

3.2.3 A/B testing A/B testing (also known as split testing or bucket testing) is a method for comparing two versions of design elements against each other to discover which one is the most successful. It allows individuals, teams, and companies to make careful changes to their user experiences while collecting data on the results18. It allows building hypotheses and learning why certain elements of the experiences impact user behaviour. A/B testing can be used to continually improve a given experience and allows to identify which changes had which effect on the user behaviour, and which ones did not. A/B testing is mostly used for digital product development, but it can also be used by product developers and designers to demonstrate the impact of new features or changes to a user experience. Product on boarding, user engagement, modals, and in-product experiences can all be optimized with A/B testing. Here are the six stages to construct A/B tests19: 1. Collect Data Analytics will often provide insight into where to start optimizing 2. Identify Goals

17 18 19

GUIDE HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP Conversion goals are the metrics used to determine whether the variation is more successful than the original version or not. Goals can be anything from clicking a button or link to product purchases and e-mail signups. 3. Generate Hypothesis Once the goal is identified, A/B testing can start generating ideas and hypotheses to verify why and how improvements from previous versions have had an impact. The list of ideas can be organised in order of priority and in terms of expected impact and difficulty of implementation. 4. Create Variations Using A/B testing software makes the desired changes to an element. Many leading A/B testing tools have a visual editor making changes easily. 5. Run Experiment Kick off the experiment and wait for participants. Interaction of the participants with each experience is measured, counted, and compared to determine how each performs. 6. Analyse Results Once the experiment is complete, results should be analysed. The A/B testing software will present the data from the experiment and present the difference between how the two versions performed, and whether there is a statistically significant difference.

2.4 Application of HCD in entrepreneurial context This section discusses the deployment and tools of HCD methods in an entrepreneurial context.

2.4.1. Cognitive engineering Cognitive engineering (CE) is a composite discipline that deals with computer science and engineering, but also involves human and social sciences. The goal of CE is to gain a comprehension of the needs and experiences that people have along the life cycle of a product, taking into account human capabilities and limitations in the design of systems. CE focuses on designing high-level requirements through taking user needs and requirements into account, and through emphasising testing. For this purpose, modeling and simulation tools and methods need to be employed during the product’s entire lifecycle. As it is not possible to analytically anticipate users’ cognitive functions, it is necessary to run human-in-the-loop simulations (HITLS) to discover and identify them. CE is in stark contrast with systems engineering in that CE, likewise as HCD in general, takes people (uses, needs, user requirements) first (outside-in approach to engineering), whereas systems engineering takes systems first (inside-out approach to engineering). In the inside-out approach, human factors are normally taken into account after the product has been developed, through user interface development (Boy 2012)20.


Orchestrating Human-Centred Design, Guy André Boy, Springer, ISBN 978-1-4471-4339-0 (eBook), 2013, p35-42


2.4.2 Agile methods for software development Agile methodologies are widely used in software development. Their principles and values are listed in the Agile Manifesto21 which highlights the concept of customer collaboration. Within customer collaboration, the consumer is actively involved in the development process, although the degree of involvement depends on the methodology used and room should be given to steer the direction of the project through interventions due to possibly changing needs22. The most common way to integrate HCD and an agile approach is through Scrum and Kanban, detailed in the next sections. Other aspects to integrate HCD with agile approaches are23:      

little design up front, where the user research activities are conducted at the kick-off meeting or in stage 0 prototyping during the project lifetime user stories, where user requirements are created with all stakeholders inspection evaluation, where paper prototypes are assessed to clarify the user interface user testing through interactive prototypes involving the end users one sprint ahead where HCD experts work one sprint ahead or in sprint 0

❖ Scrum Scrum is a framework that has been designed to help creating value through adaptive solutions for complex problems (Schwaber & Sutherland 2020). A Scrum team comprises of a Scrum Master, Product Owner and Developers. The team focuses on one objective at a time (the Product Goal). The Product Backlog lists the to-dos (Product Backlog Items [PBIs]) related to the product and is managed by the Product Owner. Within the Scrum team, there are no hierarchies nor sub-teams ( 2021). The Scrum teams are also selfmanaging (Scrum Guides 2020). The development process takes place through an iterative and incremental approach through “Sprints”, in which the team turns the selection of work into an increment of value (Figure 2). After a Sprint, the team and its stakeholders assess the results and make adjustments in preparation for the next Sprint.


Beck K, et al. Manifesto for Agile software development. Verdiesen B (2014) Agile user experience. MSc dissertation, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen 23 Human–Computer Interaction Series ISBN 978-3-319-32163-9 22


Figure 2. Schematic of the Scrum Framework process (Mitchell 2015; licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionShare Alike 4.0 International license).

❖ Kanban Kanban is a workflow management method defining, managing and improving services. The objective of this method is to help visualize operations, maximize efficiency, and improve continuously. Kanban in Japanese can be translated as billboard or signboard. This approach, originally used in manufacturing, is nowadays claimed by Agile software development teams. Kanban can be implemented into an organization without changing the whole development process; compared with Scrum which specifies a process including a set of meetings, roles and rules. Kanban lean methodology starts with making a workflow visible and proceeds with continuous improvement of the existing process model. The application of Kanban in IT was mainly influenced by Anderson between 2004-2010 (Anderson, 2004; Anderson, 2010). Five core practices in Kanban can be identified (Anderson and Roock, 2011):     

Visualize the workflow (e.g. using a Kanban board) Limit work in progress (WIP) Manage continuous flow Make process policies explicit Improve collaboratively (using models and scientific methods)

Integrating human-centred development activities into the development process is necessary to improve human related factors (e.g. usability and UX). Certifications such as ISO 9241-210 (ISO 9241-210: 2010) entails a process model for HCD related to interactive systems. First, the HCD process must be planned. Then, the context of use should be understood and specified. Consequently, users, tasks, hard- and software and physical and social surroundings need to be analysed. According to gathered data, the user requirements can

GUIDE HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP be specified. Then, possible design solutions can be produced. Finally, designs are evaluated against user requirements and if necessary iterated until the solution meets the user requirements24. Kanban method can be applied by using the Kanban board25 and its three basic columns: 1. “Requested” 2. “In Progress” 3. “Done” It serves as a real-time information repository, highlighting bottlenecks within the system and anything else that might interrupt smooth working practices. David J. Anderson, pioneer in the field of Lean/ Kanban for knowledge work, has formulated the Kanban method as an approach to incremental, evolutionary process and systems change for knowledge work organizations. The method is result oriented and can be divided into four basic principles and six practices26: Principle 1: Start With What You Do Now, in order to highlight issues that need to be addressed and help assess and plan changes for a non-disruptive implementation Principle 2: Agree to Pursue Incremental, Evolutionary Change, to encourage continuous incremental and evolutionary changes to the current process Principle 3: Respect the Current Process, Roles & Responsibilities to promote and encourage logical changes without triggering fear of change itself Principle 4: Encourage Acts of Leadership at All Levels, as everyone must foster a continuous improvement mind-set (Kaizen) to reach optimal performance The 6 Practices of Kanban: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Visualize the Workflow Limit Work in Progress Manage Flow Make Process Policies Explicit Feedback Loops Improve Collaboratively (using models & the scientific method)

2.4.3 Customer centricity and user experience (UX) research User-centred design is an umbrella term which stands for a set of techniques, methods, procedures and processes that places the user at the centre of an iterative design process27. User experience, commonly referred to as UX, can be defined as a person’s perceptions and responses resulting from the use and/or anticipated use of a product, system or service28. Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila et 24

Enterprise Experience into the Integration of Human-Centered Design and Kanban, E-M Schön, D. Winter, J. Uhlenbrok, M.J. Escalona and J. Thomaschewski, 2016, DOI: 10.5220/0005942601330140 25 26 27 Rogers Y, Sharp H, Preece J (2011) Interaction design: beyond human-computer interaction. Wiley, Chichester 28 ISO 9241 (1998) Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) – part 11: guidance on usability. International Organization for Standardisation, Genève

GUIDE HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP al. (2008) discuss the differences in the conception of UX between academic UX research and industrial UX development. They conclude that while the research concentrates mostly on hedonic aspects and emotions, companies concentrate more on functionality and usability issues29. While customer experience focuses on what the customer gets, customer centricity concentrates on why and the motivation for the company to provide such service/product. In the book “Smart Customers, Stupid Companies”, the authors (M. Henshaw and B. Kasanoff) propose to break down the customer experience into three phases: static, human, and digital.   

"Static" experiences relate to how the customer encounters, uses, and gets benefit from the products, retail outlets, newsletters and advertisements, packaging, pricing and coupons, etc. "Human experiences" result from interactions with employees and other representatives of the brand, via meetings with sales reps, phone conversations, interactive chat sessions, etc. "Digital" experiences derive from digital interaction with the company’s website, phone or computer apps, social media, sensors, and other electronic channels.

It is very resourceful for a company to ensure that these phases are well connected with the customer in a personal and value-creating way. In order to provide a good customer experience (CX), the company must first be customer centric, and therefore put a high priority on delivering a quality customer experience. It is the customers themselves who evaluate the quality of the connection. The more customer-centric the company is across the organisation, within all departments, involving all staff, the more likely the customer experience will be above and beyond the simple transaction. The relation between customer centric and customer experience is based on trust. Trust can be defined under competence (providing a good experience), good intentions (doing things right), transparency and proactivity.

2.4.4 Co-creation in entrepreneurial context As mentioned in section 1.3, the users of a product/service/solution can be involved as active actors in the development process through co-creation. Entrepreneurial cases where the active input of users have had a potentially significant effect on the end product are numerous and include open-source software that can be edited and improved by the users collaboratively. As an example, Lego Ideas line of products are based on ideas and designs from the user community. A further example is provided by IKEA which launched in 2018 an initiative called “Co-Create IKEA”. The company asked its customers for product idea suggestions by organising IKEA Bootcamps working with entrepreneurs, collaboration with university students on products, and linking with other innovation laboratories (source: Furthermore, Unilever operates an open innovation initiative where the group invites individuals such as suppliers/startups/academics/designers who have new designs or technologies that could help Unilever to grow their business or solutions. It also launched challenges published to work collaboratively30.


Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila K, Roto V, Hassenzahl M (2008) Towards practical user experience evaluation methods. In: Law ELC, Bevan N, Christou G, Springett M, Lárusdóttir M (eds) Meaningful measures: Valid Useful User Experience Measurement (VUUM) (2008), pp 19–22 30


CHAPTER 3 – Entrepreneurial learning in Europe 3.1. Cases collected by the partners 3.1.1. University of Turku - Finland Case nr 1 in entreprise Title Place Organization/Institution Description

Medicine-dispensing robot Salo, Finland Evondos Oy The Evondos service, a medicine-dispensing robot at its core, strives to ensure a high standard of pharmacotherapy by guiding homecare clients in taking the correct medicine in the prescribed dose always at the right time. The service employs mechanical dose distribution sachets provided by pharmacies. The robot is able to read the time for administering medication from the dose sachet text field and offer the medicine accordingly at the correct time. In order to minimise the risk for any problems related to the homecare client taking their medication, the robot instructs the client in taking medications, both through spoken instructions and audible signals, and through displaying textual instructions on the device screen, along with contextual indicator lights. In case the homecare client for some reason does not take the prescribed dose of medicine, the robot inserts the untaken dose into a locked medicine container in order to maintain the safety of medication. In such a case, the robot also informs the care organisation of the incident, and makes an entry accordingly also in a system log. The contents of the locked medicine container can be accessed solely by authorised care workers. The care organisation and care staff responsible are able to monitor the progress of the pharmacotherapy in real time via the control system of the device, and also remotely online via a mobile phone application. It is also possible to grant the relatives of the client an access to this information. (Source:

Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom)

Reduced need for calls of homecare workers at clients’ (e.g. elderly people) homes. Right-timing and control of pharmacotherapy: medicines are taken at the right time, and care staff are automatically informed if the medicine has not been taken. ● Drug safety: the robot dispenses only the intended dose ● Result: improved capability of patients to live autonomously The user interface of the robot has been designed to be easy for the clients to use: the robot has one large control button, and it


Link to www

gives medication instructions in spoken form, and also displays large text and illustrative symbols on a large screen. For health service operators, the reduced need of homecare workers to make medication visits to the clients in person can result in significant savings, and healthcare staff can be allocated more effectively.

Case nr 2 education Title Place

Multi-sensory laboratory research restaurant Turku, Finland


Flavoria research centre, University of Turku


Flavoria is a research platform which meets the needs of scientific research and also provides businesses with the possibility to conduct flexible service studies and give daily customers access to their own lunch data. The mission of Flavoria is to research people’s genuine experiences and choices and questions related to health and sustainable development in a multi-sensory laboratory research restaurant. Flavoria produces multidisciplinary data with the newest technological methods to support consumers’ choices, product and service innovations and social innovations, new technological solutions and services. Flavoria's research platform includes 3 research environments: Lunch restaurant, café and snack shelf, Aistikattila and My Flavoria App. - The lunch restaurant provides opportunities to test new products, packages and technology, monitors consumers’ food choices, measures the amount of bio-waste produced and observes the eating experience of each customer - Aistikattila is a research, design and test laboratory for immersive multi-sensory experiences. The space is used for cocreation, product and group interview studies - My Flavoria is a mobile application allowing users to participate in Flavoria’s research activities and in the development of new food solutions, to learn about their nutritional intake and earn bonus rewards. The information collected by the app is made available to the researchers. Research based on Flavoria’s data including consumers’ food choices and amount of bio-waste produced provides a better understanding of consumers’ behaviour to businesses and allows for rapid testing. Intelligent lunch lines with built-in scales provide valuable information about consumer choices in real-life settings for research purposes but also for businesses interested to test new products. In addition, the consumers are better aware of their eating habits and intake contributing to increasing their well-being.

Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom)


Link to www Tools, materials, videos

Flavoria contributes to sustainable development by producing information related to produce bio-waste which can be analysed and corrected. Through the collected data, the University of Turku and University of Helsinki can promote new solutions.

3.1.2. EURO-NET - Italy Case nr 1 in enterprise Title Place Organization/Institution Description

CLOTHES FOR HUMANS Worldwide BENETTON: an Italian global fashion brand with a network of about 5,000 stores worldwide What Human-Centred Design was applied by Benetton for a brand new product and marketing philosophy. This is the disclaimer used: “Far away from fashion stereotypes, real moments and real emotions are what life is all about”. The concept behind the brand’s renewal: Clothes play an important emotional role in our lives. Every morning, when we choose what to wear, we are deciding what our personality will be for the day ahead and how our feelings will be attuned to the different moments that await us. The clothes for humans philosophy starts from here: Benetton’s clothes should empower people to express their emotions and get the most out of the experiences they live. Dress Up: smart elegance for work and special occasions Dress Down: relaxed style for every moment of the day Dress to Move: functional garments for a sporty lifestyle. The three product lines, like all future collections, revolve around knitwear, one of three brand pillars that Benetton intends to focus on and add value to through all its activities. The other two are colour and social commitment, which are also part of the brand heritage. How Clothes for Humans will be the unifying force behind three product lines, a global campaign, a brand new website and a series of in-store initiatives and materials, including the "magalog", a hybrid communication media between a magazine and a catalogue that will be distributed in Benetton stores worldwide.


Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom)

Link to www

Reflected by the three new product lines, the clothes for humans philosophy comes to life as a creative platform characterized by a core idea – Benetton explores the most honest and ‘human’ moments of emotion that are relevant to clothing – conveyed through a fresh, quirky tone of voice. Both the idea and the tone of voice will be applied across each of the brand’s communications channels. The clothes for humans product line and marketing philosophy will be applied globally to: - magazines - digital media - Benetton properties and social channels - Stores - Out of home events The advertising campaign shows diverse, genuine and expressive real people: a woman eating take away food in front of an empty open fridge, a group of girls drinking wine at an informal party, two young siblings cutting each other’s hair. The lightning is authentic and so are the locations: real homes, which feel warm, contemporary but also ubiquitous, just like Benetton’s global customers. The new website is human-centred by taking on the task of letting current and new customers into the Benetton world; while a new section called Clothes for Humans will present the new design philosophy and help the customers match their mood with the three lines of clothing. Benetton stores will then change following the current design direction. Signage, design and communication materials will evolve to turn the shopping experience itself into a truly human moment, in which everyone – especially young women – will be able to isolate themselves from the background noise of status updates and filtered photos, and eventually reconnect to their own emotions, also thanks to Benetton clothes. In Benetton stores, customers will also be able to pick up the magalog called clothes for humans. Inside the publication, Benetton’s collection images will be interspersed by in-depth photographic stories about what people wear in different parts of the world: from where the first school uniform was born to how women style their hijabs in Iran and why boys usually dress in blue and girls in pink.


Tools, materials, videos

Video: 4kukd7URyJFZtNerPpJyzCfPPUfUv&index=113 Case nr 2 education Title Place Organization/Institution Description

Innovative Design dei processi educativi scolastici (Innovative Design of school educational processes) Italy ANP (Italian National Association for headmasters) The project “Innovative Design of school educational processes” was intended to respond to the pressing need of the teaching staff for training related to methodological and didactic innovation, necessary to increase effectiveness in teaching / learning processes, promote the development of high skills in pupils, to enhance individual talents and promote educational success, making use of new technologies. The project has been divided into 5 stages: 1. recruitment phase, where 350 teachers have applied of all schools levels from 18 regions of Italy 2. classroom training phase, where the 100 selected teachers took part in 25 workshops focusing on decoding, co-designing, evaluating and recoding the educational process 3. active collaboration phase through web portal to share ideas 4. in the classroom experimentation phase, where teachers were asked to share, implement and experiment with their pupils the new learning process, during a whole school year. Through the daily comparison with digital native students, it is possible for teachers to test and refine the project directly with other colleagues 5. monitoring, evaluation and awards phase, where an Observatory and a Scientific Committee monitors the entire process of innovative design and supports the


Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom) Link to www

growth and development of ideas. At the end of the process, the Scientific Committee evaluates and awards the best proposals and projects created with the classes by the teachers involved, chosen from among those selected by means of a peer vote. To meet these demands, a collaborative environment has been created for all Italian teachers, in which they can build their own teaching and learning method "among equals", through a shared and visible path in every phase. As in a transparent kitchen, through the web portal, it is possible to see all the phases of conception and implementation of new teaching models and new teaching materials and it will be possible to participate in the development of new forms of sharing information and knowledge. The teachers involved in the project are actively engaged on several levels: - participation in training workshops in five cities corresponding to five territorial macro-regions; - collaboration through the web portal in the creative and innovative process; - experimentation of the new method with the children of their classes. The process is then made visible to all Italian teachers and to all those interested in the most innovative happening in the school. The project has been running between 2012 and 2014. The educational pathway was for free and funded by a Foundation (Fondazione Telecom). The impact was very relevant and all the materials were released for free to anyone interested.

3.1.3. Miðstöð símenntunar á Suðurnesjum - Iceland Case nr 1 in enterprise Title

The Ocean Cluster House/cases; companies - education




Ocean Cluster House


The Iceland Ocean Cluster (IOC) started in 2012. In the beginning, 12 companies had offices in the facilities but they are now over 70 of different sizes which represent most parts of the ocean value chain in Iceland from fisheries to seafood biotech companies. The companies are rather newly established branches taking their first steps to a branch of well-established companies. The building employs around 120 people from over 12 countries. The companies are in fish sales, fisheries technology, software development, design, biotechnology, cosmetics, consulting, research, and various other things. The IOC is a community of these companies and a platform for them to create new value together. A recent study by the Iceland


Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom)

Ocean Cluster showed that over 70% of the companies in the Ocean Cluster have collaborated with another company in this facility. The Ocean Cluster (OC) House is a place with different resources which are linked to the ocean; fishermen and seafood processing technicians, product designers, marketing and salespeople, inventors, social media specialists, biochemists, marine biologists, etc. The entrepreneurs use the network to take advantage of these resources, test new ideas, and try to form a coalition with those they see fit. The Cluster management has carefully selected the companies so that they represent a variety of knowledge and skills but still have a common thread. Also, the 70 companies form an extended network in which the cluster management continuously seeks ways to network with start-ups and others in the OC House. The OC house’s mission is to be a matchmaker for various parts of the ocean industry. As an example, the founder of a sea salt plant in the Vestfjords of Iceland was addressing his challenges to collect the salt from the ocean. There were some technical issues that had to be addressed. The challenge was discussed among the ICO and a very successful founder of the high-tech seafood processing company 3X overheard the conversation and there was magic! They started talking and after three weeks the problem was solved with help from 3X – actually, no money transaction was made.

This human-centred design model of cooperation between companies has good success. Many of the biggest companies are working with entrepreneurs and all kinds of companies including the Universities in Iceland and all over the world.


The cluster has also a learning zone for Master’s degree students who are resourcing in this creative environment and often getting some projects from the partners in the cluster. There is just one rule: You are not allowed to have a coffee machine in your own working space. It is in the coffee area that new ideas are often discussed across the fields. The cluster has a team of specialists that are providing various advice and services to companies and organizations. Support and solution-oriented approaches are the main goals. Many of these companies have told us (Marel, Valka, Lýsi, Samhentir) how important it is to have at least a few members of the staff in the cluster to work in this creative environment. Example for a project in education: Project Sharing is a website where University students and businesses are united. Students in search of project ideas or work can apply for projects and businesses in search of employee prospects can register projects. The web is open to all and free to use "The Ocean Cluster House is commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley of White Fish" - Alexander Hammond /Human Progress. Link to www

Iceland Ocean Cluster

Case nr 2 education Title Place Organization/Institution Description

Learn Cove - For teaching, therapists, training Iceland LearnCove Reykjavík Digital teaching and training content is the key to empowering educators, learners, and workers in any industry. LearnCove connects networks with relevant content sources making it possible to mix and match resources for personalization and collaboration through a single sign-on.


Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom)

Teachers, therapists, and trainers have been using this app for their clients. In schools, it is easy to arrange information in the app on the study material at the level of ability the student is at. The app can be in different languages so it is very relevant for foreign students. For therapies, the National Centre of Addiction Medicine gives to their patients the app as it is very useful. It is easy to be focused on each person and collect information and the plan for their stay at the hospital. For this group of clients it is very important to have the app simple and easy to use. What was the trigger for LearnCove? We all learn in different ways as our strengths and interests are different. Despite this, most educational systems have been developed in such a way that study materials are presented with the same approach to all students. LearnCove was developed to better meet the diverse needs of students by offering them different ways to achieve the same goals. A student who is interested in video making can thus choose to make a video to present his knowledge or skills in a specific subject, while a student who is more interested in expressing himself in written language can choose to write an essay or story. Teachers have access to a central portfolio of materials and projects where they can get ideas from other teachers for different approaches. In addition, they can support students with Icelandic as a second language with the help of machine translation into the child's mother tongue, offer students special support material or extra material that they need, and a new teaching program and electronic material to mobilize students as much as possible. LearnCove can benefit a diverse group. Originally developed for the needs of primary school children in mind, LearnCove has now reached the point where the system is used as a basis for a treatment system at SÁÁ, distance training for physiotherapists, and is useful for further education and incompany vocational training. This is the biggest opportunity but also the biggest challenge. The most important thing in the growth process is to keep the focus on the right markets. Icelanders are so lucky to have an incredibly strong group of entrepreneurs with valuable ideas in all industries. It is important in the innovation environment that entrepreneurs have access to capital and individuals, to bridge the gap from idea to income in the market. LearnCove would not be where it is today without the support of the Technology Development Fund and investors who have believed in the project from the beginning. What has been the most important lesson of setting up an innovation company? The biggest lesson has been to understand the importance of working closely with potential customers and partners. A


Link to www Links to interesting tools, videos, materials (also in national languages)

common mistake for innovative companies is to start developing a product that does not have a place on the market. It is important to map out exactly what requirements and needs the product or service should meet and have potential users in mind.

3.1.4. ArtSquare Lab - Luxembourg Case nr 1 in enterprise Title Place Organization/Institution Description

Carebnb The Netherlands Social Entreprise Carebnb Carebnb's are reliable, unique accommodations in Dutch neighbourhoods where people who leave hospitals can live temporarily and where the social workers are the 'neighbours'. A house where well-known care providers such as the district nurse and the GP also visit, in order to provide help. The project answers the problem for ex-hospital patients who need to recover after surgery or other health issues. Normally people are increasingly calling on their own social network. But not everyone has informal care available. Where the social network is not available or sufficient, there is a risk of isolation and an accelerated growing need for care. Support from a community nurse and home care is not enough for some people in a certain period of time.


Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom)

The aim of the project is to give people the opportunity to live independently for longer and to receive care at home. The entitlement to stay in a care institution has been reduced. Recent reports show that elderly people sometimes needlessly stay in a hospital bed because there is no other alternative. The demand for care is also increasing due to the aging population and the increase in dementia. With these changes, there is a good chance that many people with a low care requirement will need that type of care alternative. Unlike regular care houses (mostly for elderly people) or rehabilitation centres, Carebnb is accessible, not institutional, in a patient's own trusted neighbourhood and in a normal house with a host or hostess. It focuses on security and social control rather than on professional medical help.


Link to www

Case nr 2 education Title Place Organization/Institution Description

Experience Design for Digital Cultural Heritage Luxembourg University of Luxembourg What Emerging technologies are fundamentally transforming the ways in which we interact with museum objects and exhibitions. Museums now extend far beyond their gallery walls into digital spaces and the semantic web, inviting visitors to access highresolution digital collections and even curated tours directly from their personal devices. Despite several emerging trends in digitalising museum experience, museum interfaces struggle to offer the same rich experiences as the museumgoers experience during in-person visits. How Drawing from user experience (UX) design methods and the digital humanities, the research project “Experience Design for Digital Cultural Heritage” addresses the growing need for sophisticated interaction design to enhance the exploration and


Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom)

Link to www

Tools, materials, videos

browsing of online collections. In particular, this project investigates emotional design for technology and how it can contribute to a more engaging digital museum experience. The following steps were researched during the project, involving the users/ audiences of the museums: ● study on user experiences in museums ● study on user interfaces for cultural heritage ● participatory design workshops at the Musée national Histoire et d’Art Data collected and analysed during the process will allow to move into solution space: ● design probes study for museum interfaces ● study on low and high fidelity prototypes During the study, participants were invited to the University of Luxembourg User Lab to test the three different applications: Coins, Curator Table, and Museum of the World. After a short interview about museum experiences, respectively in presence and digital, participants used the three applications to explore different arts and culture collections. Throughout their interactions with the applications, participants described their experiences using the think aloud technique in order to provide in-the-moment feedback. The project aims to transform the experience of spectators of cultural institutions, in particular museums. Cultural heritage can now be explored digitally with various interfaces developed by the UX researchers. The human-centred design tools help them to adapt the interfaces to the information seeking habits and patterns of various audiences and adapt them to their needs.


3.1.5. Succubus Interactive - France Case nr 1 in enterprise Title Place Organization/Institution Description

Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom)

Link to www

Adel virtual assistant France ELSAN What ADEL is a digital assistant developed by ELSAN healthcare group as a mobile application targeted to patients in order to simplify their interaction with the hospital and to keep their healthcare experience under control. How This digital application was developed around the actual needs of the ELSAN group patients and medical personnel. This human-centred design approach is kept ongoing as patients and healthcare professionals are regularly involved in the further development of the application on a daily basis, and it is constantly evolving. The declared objective of ADEL is to provide an effective and intelligent digital solution that supports patients before, during and after hospitalisation by making available ● Online appointment booking with ELSAN's specialist doctors, ● Healthcare domiciliation through a network of nurses, ● Mapping of ELSAN's emergency or unscheduled care services, ● Teleconsultation services, In addition to other online services related to administration (bills payment) and healthcare information. On the one hand, through the app, patients receive personalised support at each stage of their care and to stay connected to their medical team (e.g. via reminders of instructions or personalised follow-up questionnaires). On the other hand, through a monitoring console, healthcare teams of the ELSAN group can check the state of health of patients.

Tools, materials, videos (in French) (in French)



GUIDE HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP Case nr 2 education Title Place Organization/Institution Description

Benefits (what has changed thanks to this project and for whom)

Link to www

Setting up Ecole W Narrative Design School Paris Centre de formation des journalistes / Journalists’ Training Centre (CFJ Paris) - Higher Education What In 2016 the Journalists’ Training Centre (CFJ) and Abilways, leader in professional training, joined forces to tackle the urgent question of how to keep the pace of an ever-changing professional landscape fostered by the take up of new media technologies and of their innovative usage. The traditional courses and educational solutions didn’t fit anymore to the new emerging needs. How The educational agency that belongs to the KAOSPILOT design and business school in Aarhus (Denmark), partnered the two parties and provided them with guidance and instruments through seminal interventions, in particular with a 4-day cocreation and HCD-led workshop built around the successful Art & Craft of Designing and Facilitating Learning Spaces (A&CDFLS) experience. Around 20 participants coming from different countries and a variety of professional experiences principally in higher education contexts outlined the bases of a new educational reality to be addressed to a new public, composed of students in need of up-to-date higher education curricula for being able to access the ever-changing job market in the digital content industry as well as of media and press professionals in need of upskilling / reskilling. The resulting Ecole W implemented the participative and inclusive initial seeds by designing programmes and courses that allow students to get and develop knowledge, know-how and savoir être (soft-skills and meta-skills) and grow as human beings able to take up complexity and build themselves their learning and professional paths in autonomy and collaboratively (co-creation). Project-based learning, curiosity and confidence are the key pedagogical drivers of Ecole W. (in French) ●

Tools, materials, videos

● ● (in French) (in French)



CHAPTER 4 – Links, Materials, videos 4.1. Other cases in education ●

In France

An other interesting example of HCD applied to Education is provided by the toolkit of digital services provided by the French Ministry of Education and the French Ministry of Higher Education, Research and Innovation to the students that are leaving the secondary school to start a learning path in higher education and / or address the job market through the ParcourSup platform. Two sets of tools are available, one for the students themselves ( and one for the pedagogical teams ( In both cases, the digital applications and the services provided have been designed around the needs of the target audiences addressing mostly orientation. ●

In Finland

Claned - digital learning platform: My2050, an adventure mobile game about climate change from the City of Tampere:

4.2. Other cases in companies ●

In Finland

Suunto: Parkman, a parking application: ShareIt, a network of marketplaces, maas operators, search engines and car sharing operators: Tampere Stardust and app, transforming cities into living labs:

4.3. Other courses and conferences in HCD Human Centred product development course through FITech portal: HEALTHY CITY DESIGN 2021, Back from the brink: Designing for climate, community and social value, 11–14 October 2021:


4.4. Other interesting links Human-Centred Design by IDEO: Five Human-Centred Design Methods to Use in Your Projects When You Are in Isolation: Human-Centred Design vs. Design-Thinking: How They’re Different and How to Use Them Together to Create Lasting Change: Human-centred Design toolkit and cases: Press Article – Wired magazine: The Human Centred Design Society is an organization created to promote Human Centred Design as a community of practice: Ernesto Sirolli TedTalk about how to help someone:


Bibliography - Books and Publications -

Design Thinking : New Product Development Essentials from the PDMA, Michael G. Luchs, Scott Swan, Abbie Griffin, Michael I. Luchs, and Scott Swan,


Service Design and Delivery : How Design Thinking Can Innovate Business and Add Value to Society, Toshiaki Kurokawa and Milan Frankl,


Design Thinking Research: Looking Further: Design Thinking Beyond Solution-Fixation, Authors: Christoph Meinel, Larry Leifer; Publication Information: Cham, Switzerland : Springer. 201, 5760


Creating Desired Futures, How Design Thinking Innovates Business, Accessible, Edited by: Michael Shamiyeh, Birkhäuser 2010,


Forbes (2019). “10 Smart Ways To Collect And Utilize Customer Feedback.” Available at (retrieved on 28.6.2021)


Mitchell, Ian (2015). Schematic of the Scrum Framework process. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. Available at (retrieved on 29.6.2021)


Scrum Guides (2020). The 2020 Scrum Guide. Available at (retrieved on 29.6.2021)

- (2021). “System Usability Scale (SUS)”. Available at (retrieved on 28.6.2021)


This project is funded by the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission/National Agencies cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

The “GUIDE Human Centred Design for entrepreneurship” has been developed under Erasmus+ KA2 Strategic Partnership for Higher Education Project “CDTMOOC” (Project no. 2019-1-FI01KA203-060718) and it is licensed under Creative Commons. Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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