Concordia NATALIA SUĹ KOWSKA
Academie van Bouwkunst Amsterdam January 2018
NATALIA SUĹ KOWSKA
Concordia the greatest level of the craftsmanship The transformation of a former textile factory into a University of Craft with the ambition for a improvement strategy of a small Polish town, BolesĹ‚awiec.
PART I - RESEARCH INTRODUCTION prolog situation in Poland goal
BOLESŁAWIEC my hometown 16 difficulties 20 opportunities 26 craftsmanship 30
Russian Army station 1946 - 1949 58 after war period 1950 - 1966 60 Hanka (Sława), Eskord (Bonitex) 1967 - 2002 62 Saltex 2003 - now 64 urban changes 66 architectural changes 68
CONCORDIA location matters context
URBAN RESEARCH surrounding 72 landscape 76
8 10 12
HISTORICAL RESEARCH forgotten place 42 timeline 44 textile industry 1871-1943 52 II World War 1939-1945 56
ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH existing drawings 80 buildings inventory 82
PART II - DESIGN DESIGN RESEARCH statement studying dna changing meaning - program concept - 2 spaces, 2 atmospheres
112 114 126
drawings 180 materialisation 200 further strategy 202 SUMMARY thank word bibliography
TRANSFORMATION, INTERVENTIONS AND DESIGN giving back to the city - the garden 134 emphasizing the heritage - the exposure 146 connecting people - the voids 154 attraction to enter - the public route 162 experience of the past - the courtyard 170
INTRODUCTION prolog situation in Poland goal
Nowadays we travel constantly and became citizens of the world. Despite that there are places stack in our minds where we always want to go back. The places where we grew up, used to live or something important in our life happened. The phenomena of place attachment, place identity and place memory causes the emotional connection to a place and the interest in its past, present and future. There will be no memories without people we shared our lifes with. But what keeps us coming back to certain places is its identity. Architectural heritage is one of the most important elements of the place recognition. Thanks to the original buildings and spaces we can recall memories and recognize the place we belong to. The one of the most important places for me is Bolesławiec, my hometown. I used to live there almost 20 years. It is a town, where my family house stands, where I met my best friends
and I discovered my talents. After the industrial crises Bolesławiec transformed into art town and living there I could discover my passion for architecture. That town took a big part in the creation of who I am right now. Currently Bolesławiec is losing identity and is on the list of shrinking and aging towns. There is no care about the architecture. After years of being abroad and widening my knowledge it is time for me to give something back to Bolesławiec as I feel responsible for it and thankful as well. My graduation project focuses on Bolesławiec’s improvment strategy in a very personal way. It is a combination of my own fascinations, frustrations and memories. As a case I used the iconic buildings complex, Concordia, a place that used to fascinate me since I was a child. As a tool I have picked the greatest fortune of my hometownthe craftsmanship.
Me on Bolesławiec’s main square, 1992
situation in Poland
Poland is a country with a long, rich and complicated history. Constant wars, battles and changing political and economic systems shaped the country and its architecture in a specific way. Poland is one of the oldest country in Europe, at the same time very young in the case of its freedom. While in years 90â€™s of XXc the Western European countries were completely revived after war, Poland was suffering from the crises after the fall of the comunism. That is why we are always left behind. At present, we are almost 30 years later so it is a time to move on. Living abroad and taking a distance from what is happening in Poland, I can definitely say now that we still need to change the way we treat the architecture. Using the knowledge I gained while studying abroad I would like to show that we need to move on and we should improve the architecture in our country.
Nowadays, the wind of changes comes to big Polish cities. We can see young architects popping up and changing the cities in a positive way. It is also very often appreciated by the citizens. Thanks to that there are more and more funds earmark for culture, art and architecture. At the same time problem appears in the small Polish towns where peopleâ€™s energy and funds are going into surviving, not intensive development. Because of that people do not really care about aesthetics as their focus comes down to the basics. That causes the architectural crises and lost of towns identity. A good example of the small Polish town with problems mentioned above is BolesĹ‚awiec- my hometown.
Museum of Lower Silesia, Katowice - transformation of former Katowice mine
With my graduation project I would like to show to people how important it is to care about architecture. How good architecture can influence the town and what it can bring to the citizens. With the research I would like to show how important it is to know the history and take care of our heritage. I wish to proof that it is worth to reuse the old buildings instead of let them crumble and built the new ones. I would like to change citizens sensitivity towards craftsmanship. I suggest to create a new typology of the craft university, open to the public. In further stages the creative industry will shape people, who can give more care for the identity of the town. My biggest ambition is to bring young people back to BolesĹ‚awiec and BolesĹ‚awiec back to life.
BOLESĹ AWIEC my hometown difficulties opportunities craftsmanship
Bolesławiec is a small Polish town on the river Bóbr in the Southwest of Poland. The town exists since 1251 and includes ca. 40.000 inhabitants. In the past it was a place desired by enemies, because of the geographical location as well as natural resources including: clay, silica, coal and sandstone. Since 1740 till 1945 it used to belong to Germany, after that it came back to Poland. Its history consists of a lot of happiness as well as drama. Wars, fires, crises and epidemics were constantly devastating Bolesławiec since the beginning of its existence. Though life was always coming back to the town. In the past Bolesławiec was often visited by important people like Napoleon Bonaparte, Martin Opitz or John Quincy Adams. They described the town as a fully developed, powerful place. Since the beginning of existence Bolesławiec was a typical industrial town as 47% of inhabitants used to work in factories. In its heydays
the town was full of entertainment and worldwide famous for the production of good quality products. The craftsmenship was always an integral part of Bolesławiec. In 1989 the crises hit Polish industries and didn’t miss Bolesławiec. Lots of factories got closed and buildings abandoned. Nowadays the industrial business is dominated by pottery as it always used to be. The new factories appeared as well in the field of textiles, fireproof materials, sandstone and glass products. Bolesławiec is mainly famous for its pottery industry. Nowadays we can find Bolesławiec’s blue glazed pots with white dots in lots of designers shops around the world. At this moment the tradition in Bolesławiec as an industrial town continues, but it is not so strong anymore. In the last decades Bolesławiec changed into creative town full of local artists with a possible potential to grow that way.
position in Europe
position in Poland
The first problem of Bolesławiec is a lack of young people. Bolesławiec is a place where lots of talents are being discovered, but it is impossible to keep them in the town. People above the age of 19 leave Bolesławiec as there is no possible place to study. All of them go away to big cities or abroad and never come back. The second problem is the identity loss. Despite the great tradition of craftsmanship the solution for buildings in need of renovation seems to be black or white: demolition of difficult to maintain places or plastered Styrofoam for old but still usable spaces. There are lots of renovations going on, but most of them very functional and without care about beauty. The money are spent on building new malls, while lots of historical buildings crumble staying abandoned. The new buildings appearing in the town are eighter standardized or out of context.
45 40 35 30 25
20 15 10 5
1885 1890 1910 1925 1933 1939 1946 1950 1955 1960 1970 1980 1990 1993 2000 2009 2014 emigration crises
town hall transformation
tenement house restoration
former ceramic factory demolition
new build restaurant with hotel
new build housing project
Bolesławiec is a great cultural town with a strong atristic value. There are lots of artistic events happening every month: theater shows, exhibitions and performances. The most popular festivals are Bolesławieckie Święto Ceramiki (Bolesławiecs Ceramic Festival) and popular in Poland music festival Blues nad Bobrem (Blues over the Bóbr river). Bolesławiec is also famous from Gliniada (Parade of Love for Clay)- the parade that unites people to paint their bodies with clay and perform on the streets of the cities and towns all around the world showing the tradition in an innovative, artistic and original way. The big opportunity for Bolesławiec is its geographical location. In just 2 hours its possible to reach the cities as Berlin, Dresden, Prague or Wrocław. The costs of life in Bolesławiec are affordable comparing to the big cities.
Finally, the most powerful opportunity for Bolesławiec is the craftsmanship. The natural resources located in the region as forests, sandstone and clay, shaped the town into place full of outstanding craft. Bolesławiec is worldwide known from its original products, like pottery, ceramics or sandstone.
culture - Gliniada
culture - Blues nad Bobrem
239 km 280 km
Bolesławiec 112 km
The first traces of craftsmanship were found in Bolesławiec in the epoke of paeolith. The land where Bolesławiec is located is full of natural resources allowing development of the craftsmanship. Since always, development and economy of the town was dependent on the crafts. For a long time there were craft schools existing in Bolesławiec. After II WW the schools were closed and the tradition started to disappear. Before the crises in 1989 there were more than 50% of citizens working in the industries connected to the craftsmanship. Nowadays the tradition is slowly dissapearing and we can clearly see it in the architecture of the town.
The most popular crafts in Bolesławiec are: ceramics/ pottery, textiles, stone and wood. There is
also a potential to develop a new ones: glass and metal as there are many people working with this materials nowadays.
craftsmanship in BolesĹ‚awiec
Bolesławiec’s pottery spotted in one ofthe episodes of Narcos
The President and the First Lady of Poland giving Bolesławiec’s pottery to Duke and Duchess of Cambridge as a thank gift for visiting Poland.
special design by Ceramika Artystyczna for CIA
CONCORDIA location matters context
When I was a child I used to play at post-industrial abandoned sites of Bolesławiec. It was always dangerous but as a child you do not think about consequences of your choices. The more something is prohibited; the more you get excited about it. The curiosity leads you to discover things- most of the time when it is new for you or it really scares you. When I was little I was afraid of the abandoned places: emptiness, darkness, dust and the scary mood, but it was fascinating and thanks to that my imagination was broadening. I think the curiosity of discovering something new in these abandoned places is still somewhere inside me at this moment in my adult architectural life. The topic of interesting forgotten places is the one coming back in most of projects I have made. It was always exciting and challenging for me to pick the assignment with existing building, as it gave the possibility to make a scientific
research and explore more than anybody else before. The abandoned building is not only physically walls, floors, doors and ceilings. It has a specific atmosphere and experience. It has a hidden layers telling a story I want to understand and add the next chapter to let it continue. The post- industrial buildings are an icons of Bolesławiec. They make the town special, because of their appearance and complicated history. When I decided to pick one of post- industrial buildings as an starting point of the Bolesławiec’s revitalization strategy, people told me not to do that because of limited information about it. This is the biggest problem with the heritage. Because of the people’s mentality and lack of knowledge about the buildings, no one does anything with them, they crumble and we loose part of our history with it. If I would pick not to do that, I will be one of those who let the heritage die.
HISTORICAL RESEARCH forgotten place timeline textile industry 1871 - 1943 II World War 1939 - 1945 Russian Army station 1946 - 1949 after war period 1950 - 1966 Hanka (SÅ‚awa), Eskord (Bonitex) 1967 - 2002 Saltex 2003 - now urban changes
Concordia is one of the most recognizable post- industrial sites in BolesĹ‚awiec. At this moment the site consistis of 7 buildings from different time periods. It is an former textile factory, but its appearence reminds of sacral building. This is what makes that place architecturally iconic and special. Nowadays nobody takes care of them, what causes its decay. Lots of inhabitants pass by that mysterious place with great atmosphere every day not knowing what happend behind those walls in the past...
1889-1890 beginning of the Concordia starts in building no. 1, 2, 3 (one floor), 7, 9, 10
function ownership history
0 10 20 30 40
1871 the burn of the Big Water Mill
British enterpreneur and industrialist Samson Woller
1881 Samson Woller takes over the ground and gets rights to build a new factory
1888 Woller together with brothers opens a textile factory in LeĹ›na
1890 construction of building no. 5
1889 first buildings appear at the place of the burned mill
1920-1927 adding tower- construction of water tower tank
British enterpreneur and industrialist Samson Woller
1925 reaching the pick- 1000 people working with 20000 spindles. Woller opens 4 textile factories in Miloszow, Biedrzychowice and 2 in Bogatynia
1925 construction of building no.5. modernisation of equipment: changing water turbine for turbine generator (steam)
1920s building no.1: expansion of the staircase, the introduction of reinforced concrete water tank technology, covering new building with reinforced concrete structure, the roof of building no.1 burns down and is replaced by a flat concrete roof
1943-1945 crates in the windows and barbet wire around the facade
branch of Gross Rosen concentration camp, war airplanes production
1935-1940 again pick of production, 70-80 tones of mochair produced by 800 people
1938-1942 production of the textiles for needs of German Army
1942 export of textile machinery to be replaced by machines producingwar planes for German Army
1943 creation of the Gross Rosen concentration camp branch
1945 Russian Army takes over the building and changes function for a military base
silk and haberdashery production, later: grain warehouse
1950 Polish government takes over the complex and gives it to State Silk and Haberdashery Company
1960s transfer of mechanism of the water towers clock to the BolesĹ‚awiecs town hall tower. Adding transportation slide, elevators and staircases. Changing a wooden roof for a flat concrete roof, changing wooden floors for concrete according to technological changes and heaviness of new machines. building no.3: removing the energy channel, adding 2 stories up
1950s removal of the floors in building no.1 and 2 for placing the grain silos
Polish authorities, State Silk and Haberdashery Company, later: State Grain Plants
knitting industry branch
1966 Hanka (Legnicas Knitting Industry Branch) takes over the complexbig architectural changes
knitting industry branch and technical textiles industry branch
1968 start of the production. Hanka gives away west side of the complex to Escord (IĹ‚owas Technical Textiles Industry)
1980s demolition of the last of the characteristic brick chimneys
2000 - 2018
independent- knitting industry and SĹ‚awa (Hanka) independent- fabric for paper industry plant Bonitex (Escord)
2002 Hanka declares bankruptcy
2003 Saltex buys the complex
2010 underwear manufacture and other functions created by renters
2009 artistic movements, Bogdan Nowak opens art gallery Concordia
2015- now Saltex starts small building reparations and comes back to the strategy of renting spaces
textile factory 1871-1943
ownership: Samson Woller function: textile factory The story of Concordia started in 1871 after a fire, which consumed the Big Water Mill. In the years 1871-1873 British entrepreneur and industrialist Samson Woller built on the ruins of the previous building textile factory and called it Concordia Spinnerei und Weberei A.G. Marklissa Zweigbetrieb: Bunzlau. At the beginning he used to hire 150 people servicing mechanical looms powered by a 80 horsepower water turbine. Samson Woller was English Jew industrialist. In 1850s he used to be an inventor of the worsted wool spinning mill in Bradford, England. From the personal reasons (one of them was the death of his brother) he decided to go out of England. In 1871 Woller heard about the fire of the Big Water Mill and the great place to use his experience and start the textile industry. With a huge
wealth he came to Bolesławiec and invest his money to create modern at that time in Poland textile industry. The factory buildings he built was a special and original at that time structure. Looking to his past we can see that he exactly knew how the buildings will look like, he took his knowledge from England and simply copied it in Poland. Buildings are looking quite similar what is caused by functionality of the factory. He exactly knew how the process of production works and what type of configurations and floor plans will be the best to follow the function. By further changes in architecture of the building- Concordia became an original place, like no other in the world. While Concordia became a success he opend also 5 other factories in Leśna, Miłoszów, Biedrzychowice and two in Bogatynia. Next-known historical period of this place is the time of World War I, when the factory very keenly felt the lack of raw materials needed for
production of textiles. From this period it is related to a historical story, from which we learn about the events of the years 1915-1916. To assist decaying factory, patriotically oriented German women have provided for the production their own hair, whose total weight was up to 500 tons. Thanks to their dedication the inaccessible skin was replaced by that specific gift.
After the start of II World War the factory was producing wares for industries. It was working till year 1942, when the textile factory stopped and the machines were dismantled and exported.
Golden times for the factory were the years 1925-1942. In 1926 the factory used to hire more than 1000 workers serving 30.000 spindles. In 1926 the machines were powered by three 150 horsepower water turbines, in 1927 by 1000 horsepower diesel engine and later on 1000 horsepower electrical power plant. In 1936 the factory was producing around 70- 80 tones of mochair, crewel and plush per month and hire 800 peoplemost of the time they woman. The products made in Concordia were mostly sent to the region of Silesia and Rhine.
II World War 1943-1945
ownership: German Army function: branch of Gross Rosen concentration camp
to sleep, eat and die over there. The windows were barred and covered with barbered wire.
The most interesting and most dramatic period in the history of Concordia were the years 19431945. At that time the buildings were adapted by Germans for an branch of Gross Rosen concentration camp. In total, the branch forcibly employed about 1000 people: mainly Jews, Russians and Poles. The prisoners of Bunzlau II were used for creation of aircraft wings to the German Focke-Wulf 190 for the Air Betting Wasserflugzeugbau A.G.
February 1945 was one of the most dramatic months in the history of the city. Boleslawiec was attacked by the Soviet Army and the evacuation of the camp began. On the list were only 440 survivals from branch Bunzlau II. The march continued for 35 days, prisoners were walking 30 kilometers a day without a proper meal. The weakest prisoners were killed. Every day several prisoners died from grogginess and hunger too. They were evacuated to the camp Mittelbau and later on to KL Bergen-Belsen. On 15th April 1945 British army liberated them over there.
The production halls were made on the ground, first, second and fourth floor of building no.1. The risoners used to work there with two shifts12 hour each. On the third and fifth floor the camp commanders placed the prisoners. On one floor there were 11 rows of 10 bung beds each,eating place, toilet, infirmary, office and SS-man room. People used
Russian Army 1946-1949
ownership: Russian Army function: station, field hospital
The period of the military station run by Russian Army was for Concordia devastating. Russian Army took over the building in the winter. At that time the winters used to be cold and because there was no heating, they burned all the furniture in the building. They started the disassembly of the factory, took all the machines and ruined interiors. WĹ‚adysĹ‚aw Korczak, the witness of one of the situations said: At the entrance to the territory we heard a clatter of moths, which gradually came closer, and finally we saw 2 Soviet soldiers with rifles, and 4 with great blacksmiths hammers, use to break down desks, wardrobes, doors, as well as parts of machines and aircrafts located on the factory territory. We stayed in the factory
for half an hour and all the time we could hear smashing and tangling. They demolished the building of mechanical workshop and weaving building.
after war period 1950 - 1966
ownership: Polish authorities function: silk and haberdashery production, later: grain warehouse After the period of demolition, Polish authorities took over the complex and started immediate reconstruction. The site was quickly renovated and equipped with a new range of machines. In 1950 the textile factory started the production again. This time it was a place for silk and haberdashery fabrication. After couple of years, the factory desisted the manufacturing not finding funds for the necessary modernization of the machinery. Concordia changed its function one more time. Until 1966 at the site there were state-owned grain warehouses with processing plants. During this period of time some floors in the buildings were demolished transforming them into grain warehouses.
Hanka (Sława), Eskord (Bonitex) 1967 - 2002
ownership: Hanka (Sława), Eskord (Bonitex) function: knitting industry branch, technical textiles industry branch In 1969 the east part of the complex has been given away to knitting industry called Hanka and privatized. At the same time the west part has been given to Eskord- the technical textiles industry branch. The 1960s period brought Concordia lots of fascinating architectural changes. It started from the transfer of mechanism of the water towers clock to the Bolesławiecs town hall tower. All the structures of the buildings were changed from wooden and steel to concrete elements according to technological development and heaviness of new machines. The big change was also replacement of a wooden roof for a flat concrete roof and changing wooden floors for concrete. Lots of elements were added: transportation slide, elevator cores and staircases.
In the building no.3 two extra floors were added and the energy channel removed.
Saltex 2003 - now
ownership: Saltex function: underwear manufacture, other functions created by renters Nowadays the building is privately owned and partly occupied by Saltex- textile company producing underwear. In the meantime some parts of the complex were sub rented to small companies specialized in various disciplines as bakery, car repair, art gallery. Because of the poor condition of the buildings and high exploitation costs the companies left the complex. At this moment the production of textiles takes place in building no.1, the rest is abandoned what causes decay. Despite that the owner is open for a new ideas and tries to repair damages in the complex looking for a support from the government as well as European Union donation.
1871 The Big Water Mill. The mill burns down. Samson Walter decided to build Concordia
1882-1890 Samson Walter decided to builds first buildings of Concordia complex on the riverside of BĂłbr. Sewing building, weaving building, office buildings, electricity building, storages, houses for workers, entrance
1945-1950 Russian army takes over the building. They take all the machines and demolish interiors. They demolish the building of mechanical workshop and weaving building.
1966 Adaptation of all the buildings for a new function. Concrete replaces wood. The new technologies are coming: lifts and staircases. The plot divides in two. East side is owned by Hanka SĹ‚awa, west by Escord Bonitex. The river is filled up with sand.
1912 Fast development of company causes need of new buildings. Boiler house, mechanical workshop and pumping station.
1921-1927 Expansion and closing the urban complex. New knitting building and welding workshop. New water tower comes on the North side of sewing buildings.
1980-2000 Explosion. Lots of new functional buildings without quality appeared in 1990s on the plot destroying the original urban plan of monumental complex.
2018 Complex now.
1920s The roof of building no.1 burns down and is replaced by a flat concrete roof
1920-1927 Adding tower- construction of water tower tank
1940s Demolition of mechanical workshop building
1960s Adding transportation slide, elevators and staircases
1960s Changing a wooden roof for a flat concrete roof, changing wooden floors for concrete according to technological changes and heaviness of new machines
1980s demolition of the last of the characteristic brick chimneys
URBAN RESEARCH surrounding landscape
Concordia is an island in mixed use area of the town. In itâ€™s surrounding we can find houses, recreation places, shops and services run by locals. It is a place forgotten and avoided by people, as it is owned by private companies. Interesting place, but nothing interesting going on there right now. It is located on a spot with low people and car traffic. There is lots of parking around for the people working in the whole area. Concordia is an industrial fortress breaking the green zone coming from the city center to the boulevard of BĂłbr river recreation zone.
Despite the site is quite messy right now, there is some interesting flora appearing on the plot.
ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH existing drawings buildings inventory
One of the most problematic moments during the research process was finding the existing drawings. The proper and correct ones do not exist. A plenty of time spent on the site and measuring the building gave some great results later on.
location visit- new measurments
I went to measure the buildings because I had a feeling that the drawings I have made are not proportional at all. It was a right floors of the building are slightly lower, but it makes a big difference. I put some attention to the details- windows, structure and walls.
building no.1 year of build: no. stories: original function: building area: usable area: volume:
1889-1890 5 sewing 980 m2 4630 m2 22600m3
characteristic elements - two towers with staircases on the north and south side of the building, built as water tank - lettering CONCORDIA made of sandstone - the remains of mechanical clock on the tower: 4 clock shields with significant detail made out of the sandstone - north facade pick with characteristic detail made of stone and concrete - form of the roof structure: supported on reinforced concrete columns, with reinforced concrete roof, different forms of reinforced concrete and topped with a lantern - connected with building no. 2
technical description foundation:concrete walls: brick masonry structure: concrete slabs on top of 2 rows of concrete columns floors: concrete, slabs based on the beams and reinforced concrete binders (before 1966 wooden) roof: concrete covered with asphalt (before 1921 wooden and higher) flooring: cement finishing wall finish: c ement and lime plaster, oil and emulsion painted (paneling) facades: faced with sandstone slabs ( blocks) windows: wood composite doors: wooden gates: steel extras: 2 staircases and 2 cargo and passenger elevators Q=1000kg
building no.2 year of build: no. stories: original function: building area: usable area: volume:
1889-1890 3 warehouse/ administrative 825 m2 2286 m2 9900 m3
characteristic elements - extension of the building no.1 - connected with the building no.3 on 1st and 2nd floor - connected with the bridge to the building no. 10 on the first floor
technical description foundation: concrete walls: brick mansonry structure: concrete slabs on top of 2 rows of concrete columns floors: concrete, slabs based on the beams and reinforced concrete binders (before 1966 wooden) roof: almost flat concrete covered with asphalt (before 1966 wooden after attic structure) flooring: cement finishing wall finish: cement and lime plaster, oil and emulsion painted (paneling) facades: faced with sandstone slabs ( blocks) windows: wood composite doors: wooden extras: 1 own staircase and 1 reachable in the connection with building no.1
building no.3 year of build: no. stories: original function: building area: usable area: volume:
1889-1890 originally 1, after 1966- 3 energy transmision 153 m2 364,7m2 1530 m3
characteristic elements - connected with the building no.2 on 1st and 2nd floor - extended from 1 floor to 3 floors in 1966
technical description foundation:concrete walls: brick mansonry structure: concrete slabs floors: concrete slabs roof: channel-shaped reinforced concrete slabs carried by steel beams(before 1966 wooden, after attic structure) flooring: magnesia binder wall finish: c ement and lime plaster, oil and emulsion painted facades: faced with sandstone slabs ( blocks) windows: wood composite doors: wooden extras: 1 staircase
building no.5 year of build: no. stories: original function: building area: usable area: volume:
1890 2 lodge/ entrance 201 m2 149 m2 465 m3
characteristic elements - partly kept original stone gate - entrance to the complex - in 1966 modernized through the expansion of the attic technical description foundation:concrete walls: brick mansonry structure: concrete slabs on top of 2 rows of concrete columns floors: concrete roof: flat concrete + roof tiles flooring: cement finishing wall finish: c ement and lime plaster facades: cement and lime plaster windows: wooden doors: wooden
building no. 7 year of build: no. stories: original function: building area: usable area: volume:
1889-1890 3 raw materials storage 348,9 m2 1059,9 m2 4466,9 m3
characteristic elements - basement - outside escape steel staircase (other buildings do not have that) - characteristic slide to transport the materials - connected with building no. 8 by staircase
technical description foundation:concrete walls: load barrying outside walls made of stone glued by cement and lime, inside walls brick mansonry structure: load barrying stone walls floors: casted concrete roof: flat, channel-shaped reinforced concrete slabs carried by steel beams, insulated with mineral wool, covered with concrete hollow core slabs to create roof pitch flooring: cement wall finish: c ement and lime plaster, oil and emulsion painted facades: faced with sandstone slabs ( blocks) windows: wood composite doors: wooden extras: 1 staircase
building no.8 year of build: no. stories: original function: usable area:
1925 3 knitting 2388,8 m2
characteristic elements - modern building totally different from the other ones at the complex - big rectangle windows - basement - connected with the building no.7 and no.9
technical description foundation:concrete walls: brick mansonry structure: concrete skeletal structure filled with brick floors: concrete roof: concrete flooring: cement finishing wall finish: p laster facades: plaster windows: steel/ wood, single glazing gates: steel, double extras: 2 staircases shared with building no.7 and no.9, 2 cargo and passenger elevators Q=1000kg and Q=500kg
building no. 9 year of build: no. stories: original function: building area: usable area: volume:
1889-1890 3 offices 340 m2 895 m2 3420 m3
technical description foundation:concrete walls: brick masonry structure: concrete slabs on top of concrete columns floors: concrete, slabs based on the beams and reinforced concrete binders roof: wooden rafter attic structure flooring: cement finishing wall finish: c ement and lime plaster facades: faced with sandstone slabs ( blocks) windows: wooden (before 1966 steel) doors: wooden extras: 1 staircase
building no. 10 year of build: no. stories: original function: building area: usable area: volume:
1889-1890 3 technical storage 535 m2 1470 m2 5100 m3
characteristic elements -connection with building no. 9 and with a bridge to building no.2
technical description foundation:concrete walls: brick mansonry structure: cast iron columns and beams floors: concrete, slabs based on the cast iron beams and columns roof: almost flat concrete covered with asphalt (before 1966 wooden, after attic structure) flooring: cement finishing wall finish: c ement and lime plaster, brick facades: faced with sandstone slabs (blocks) windows: steel doors: steel extras: 1 staircase, 1 ramp, 1 elevator
DESIGN RESEARCH statement what to keep? studying dna changing meaning- program concept- 2 spaces, 2 atmospheres
Before I started the design I wrote down statement with 5 points for transformation of existing architecture. Those points are important for me as an architect. I believe that using this strategy in lots of cases might bring an interesting research and design result. I was following the statement through my whole design process. It helped me to keep my process consistent and to the point.
studying dna keeping character, being aware of the history and heritage connecting with the city exposure, giving back to the city, involving citizens opening to the public educate, make curious, involve people, let them experience, take their breath away, show them what they have changing meaning function follows research, use the opportunities of the surrounding listening to the building make reasonable changes, move with the times, use the change of subordinate elements to exaggerate the unique pieces, use the qualities of the building
what to keep? studying DNA
The one of the first steps before starting the design process was the studies on the architecture of the complex. The research showed what part of the complex are necessary to keep to save the character of that place. It showed also the inversewhat is possible to change to emphasize the heritage and transform the buildings while respecting the existing.
monumental buildings At this moment the site of Concordia is messy and full of not valuable barracks, warehouse and garages. It is difficult to notice the beauty of monumental buildings. The site is enclosed, surrounded by big fence and not reachable by the citizens. It is a forgotten island and nobody takes care of it. First step of the research was checking the quality of the buildings around. There are few with a high architectural value and great history. By cleaning up the site and removing walls and roofs of the buildings with low value it is the best way to expose the ones that are really important.
ensamble The most important and the most recognizable place of the whole complex is the courtyard. A big square surrounded by stone facades seems to be a place like no other in the world: a little bit gloomy, with specific atmosphere. Standing in the middle you can read the history of the complex, all the urban and architectural changes. The feeling of being there is difficult to describe. It is a place that turns on all your senses. To experience that magical place you need to just be there and look around, touch it. The courtyard used to be a very functional space, where people used to gather before going to work to meet there again after. All the raw materials were brought there by train or, later, by truck and unloaded. During the war it was the only one place, where the prisoners could walk and get a fresh air. They used to be killed or hang in the middle as well. This place have seen so many things during its existance. Like no other place in the world.
structure The history of the structure changing over years is very interesting and worth to look closer into. At the beginning of buildings existence (1888) the structure was a combination of wood and steel ready to hold the waving machines. The parts of the complex build in 1920s, together with the development of the reinforced structures, were build in concrete. At that time it was the cheapest and the strongest solution. While walking through the building it is possible to see the difference between old structure and one added later to support floors from cracking under heavy industrial machines. The most interesting period for the structure are 1960â€™s when the industrialisation comes with heavy equipment and all the steel and wooden structure is removed and replaced by concrete colums and beams.
functional cores The verical functional cores are well thought off and serve all the parts of the building. Till the day of today is a main communication knot for all the buildings. In every core there is a staircase, storage space, technical spaces, installations and toiletts. It is worth it to keep it at the same place as it is still the best position for the functional elements.
additions All the additions appearing over the history of the building are worth to keep as they are making the complex very unique. Samson Woller used to build similar factories in England before coming back to Poland. It is most likely that without the added element the complex will look the same like dozens of other ones. The first special elements were water towers added in 1923 after the technological changes in the factory and need for it. Later on- in 1960â€™s after full replacement of structures and machinery for heavier and more efficient the elevator were added to make the life of workers easier. The interesting element is also a ramp that was made only for unloading the raw materials from the truck to the building.
program- changing meaning
Creating The University of Craft in Bolesławiec is a great opportunity to keep the tradition and, even more, bring it to the next level. It is also a continuation of the craft education we used to have in Bolesławiec before II WW. In the university craftsman will learn the history of the material and its possibilities, try it out on the site of Concordia and work with it in the innovative way using the buildings in Bolesławiec as a field of experiment.
craft school program - workshops - classroms - teacher rooms - sleeping places
The title you can get while graduating from the university is Master of Crafts. It is a 3-yearprogram to practice the craft and new technologies connected to that. The crafts are: ceramics, textiles, stone, wood, glass and metal.
experiment rooms - interior rooms (interesting spots in building) - exterior rooms for bigger projects
The building is designed to host around 200 students and teachers to use the buildign every day and 20 people to stay in the rooms. It is prepared for citizens visits.
public program - workshop space - library - exhibition space - restaurant/ bar - auditorium - shop
gross - technical rooms - bathrooms - storages - staircases etc.
The pot of Master Johann Gottlieb Joppe
concept- 2 spaces, 2 atmospheres
The conclusion that followed the research led to the idea of creating two extremes: two urban spaces and two atmospheres, both with a social potential to connect and educate the inhabitants. At first a new open garden connecting main green zones and opening the site to the city. A space to enjoy free time, relax and work. Secondly an historical untouched courtyard situated in the center of the complex. An urban interior to meet, think, discuss, reflect and create. It can be reached from each side of the town by continuing existing paths that cut through the ensamble and brings people together withing its mysterious space. The necklace of existing buildings become a transition between two extremes: a transparent outer faรงade exposing the craftsmen towards the garden. A closed faรงade on the courtyard used as an exhibition for al that is made within the University of Craft. A chain of buildings opened to the public, with
a public route and public rooms with educational functions. Removed building elements create wide and functional spaces, it allows exposure and interaction between different disciplines of craftsmanship and the public.
TRANSFORMATION, INTERVENTIONS AND DESIGN giving back to the city - the garden emphasizing the heritage - exposure connecting people - the voids attraction to enter - the public route experience of the past - the courtyard drawings materialisation further strategy
giving back to the city - the garden
While walking from the town you start your journey in a garden surrounding the complex. The garden is connecting a green boulevard at the river Bรณbr and the town. It consists of lots of local trees: mix of leaved and needle trees to keep the place green in the summer as well as in the winter. In the park you can find the squares intended to be used by citizens and by craftsman to execute their work 1:1. They remain removed while cleaning up the complex buildings to leave a trace of the past. There is also grass and flower fields. You can stay in the garden to rest or enjoy time with your friends and family. You can also follow the main paths and go closer to the building.
existing The setting of the buildings on the plot mix of valueless warehouses and important heritage.
removal The plot needs to be cleaned from magazines and garages to expose the heritage.
squares To keep a trace after the old structures there are created paved squares for citizens use.
main paths The main paths are extensions of the streets. They pierce the complex ending in the public space- historical courtyard.
walkway The free walkway helps to experience the park and walk from one square to another.
grid The grid of 15x15 meter is an extension of the main path direction and shows the places for planting trees.
creating a garden with local plants helps to connect the center of the town with a recreation zone
site plan existing
site plan existing 1/10
site plan existin
site plan ne
site plan design
emphasizing the heritage - exposure
Coming deeper into the garden you will notice the buildings of Concordia where the University of Craft is located. The monumental buildings are beautifully exposed between the trees. Looking at the new open glass facade wrapped up with waving curtains you will notice the craftsman working on their projects, studying history or just simply talking to each other. The open facades give them light and a view to the garden. The curtains prevent the strong sunlight to penetrate the buildings in the summer and keep the warmth inside in the winter. You can come inside to experience the atmosphere more. You can reach the building through three entrances and be part of the craftsman life.
the new open facade is making people curious to look inside the building and also giving more natural light for craftsman to work
west facade (1) existing
south facade (2) existing
east facade (3) existing
west facade (1) design
south facade (2) design
east facade (3) design
1 3 2 12
connecting people - the voids
To create more space, air and light some parts of the floor are taken away. By removing the floors craftsmen can see each other and know what the other are working on. Different disciplines and rooms are spread around all buildings to connect people and let them work together and help each other. The workshops, atelier, houses, offices, theory rooms are located in different stories in different buildings and connected by public route. That helps craftsmen to meet citizens and other craftsmen.
the voids connecting people and crating spaces to create bigger pieces
Do you need help?
attraction to enter - the public route
To see whole university and look how the craftsman work you can use public route looping through all the buildings. Public route is marked with white color and following it you will visit all the buildings and see all the crafts. It takes you along the facade on the corridor with special designed staircases going up and down to let you see as many as possible parts of the university. On the way there will be spaces open for the public. Exhibition space where the work of craftsman will be exposed. The auditorium for public lectures and presentations. The workshop where you can test your crafting skills and be teached by masters. The cafe where you can just sit and enjoy your breakfast, lunch and cup of coffee. The shop with handmade products made by students and craftsman. And at the end the library where you can sit and read the history of region, craft, art and architecture.
You can use the spaces within the opening hours whenever you want.
walking along public route: exhibition and public spaces
Look at that!
experience of the past - the courtyard
At the end of the journey or, as you wish, as the next step after wandering through the garden, you will end up in the courtyard- place with a huge social potential. It is a great space right now, a little bit forgotten and lost in the town. The place is kept untouched, because it is already perfect as it is. There is a lot of potential for the courtyard to become an urban interior used by citizens. This courtyard was always a place where people used to meet each other: eighter before or after work, in the lunch break or unloading materials out of train or truck. While being there you can experience the 150-years-old history of that space, you can read the layers of the changes made by new owners according to the actual function and understand the uniquness of the complex. There is no other space like that in this world.
It is open 24h for the citizens to meet, discuss, protest, organize events...
possibilities to use the courtyard: events, discussions, work
we say NO!
west facade (1) existing
south facade (2) existing
east facade (3) existing
west facade (1) design
south facade (2) design
east facade (3) design
1 3 2
ground floor existing
legend cafe ceramic workshop project room metal workshop textile workshop storage auditorium student housing shop stone workshop wood workshop warehouse
00.01 00.02 00.03 00.04 00.05 00.06 00.07 00.08 00.09 00.10 00.11 00.12
00.09 00.05 00.08 00.07 00.06
ground floor new
first floor existing
legend 01.01 01.02 01.03 01.04 01.05 01.06 01.07 01.08 01.09
offices wood atelier auditorium exhibition living room glass atelier stone workshop classrooms warehouse
first floor new
second floor existing
legend 02.01 02.02 02.03 02.04 02.05 02.06 02.07 02.08
textile atelier workshop public metal atelier project room student housing glass workshop library warehouse 02.08
second floor new
third floor existing
legend 03.01 stone atelier 03.02 classrooms
third floor new
fourth floor existing
legend 04.01 classroom 04.02 ceramic atelier 04.03 project room
fourth floor new
fragment closed original facade - courtyard
194 fragment courtyard facade fragment and bridge courtyard 1/25 facade and bridge 1/25
fragment courtyard f
fragment open new facade - garden facade
existing exterior wall - sandstone cladding (boleslawiec) - bearing masonry - patched plaster finish, painted to match concrete - skirting, transparent epoxy coating
window - existing window, wood - single glazing, double window - painted finish, ral 7044 - painted glass at corridor
detail closed original facade - courtyard
panel - alumium plate folded, 2mm - anodized/clear coating
sliding window - aluminium sliding window, 120mm - panoramah 38, double system - insulating safety glass, 38mm - clear glass (no coating/foil) - anodized/clear coating
floor - transparent epoxy floor coating - concrete screed floor, 60mm - insulation, 20mm - existing structural floor slab, no finish
detail open new facade - garden facade
windowsill - galvanized steel, 2mm - perforation 4x4mm, 80% - no visible fixing
radiator - (replace) existing radiator - new infrastructure in floor - painted finish, ral 7044
detail closed original facade - courtyard
steel structure - steel H-section, 350mm - connected to existing structure - powdercoat/pain finish, ral 9005
foundation - new concrete foundation - bridging existing masonry foundation
floor - transparent epoxy floor coating - concrete screed floor, 60mm - insulation, 20mm - existing structural floor slab, no finish
detail open new facade - garden facade
All details were designed by following the research about the complex. There is nothing made out of the air. Picked materials are very subtle. The reason is that architecture in that case is a background to expose the craftsman and their work as well as citizens. The materials were picked to possibly produce them locally.
grey paintwindows at the courtyard
steel (grey)- new window frames
curtain (light grey)- exterior
white tilespublic spaces, toilets
granit (different patterns)- floor
mirror- invisible bridge
perforated steelsitting elements
wood- fixed furniture
steel (black)new structure
white paintfloors, walls, corridors
materials public route
rough plasteradded volumes materials courtyard
steel (white)light, fixtures, curtain rails, frames
materials added interior elements
There is still a lot to do in the city. I believe this project might be a beginning of revitalization strategy for BolesĹ‚awiec. Creating The University of Craft will keep the tradition of craftsmanship and bring it to the next level. That could make BolesĹ‚awiec worldwide famous. I hope the University could grow into different campuses and at the same time keep more and more young people in the town. Craftsman educated at the University could use the town as a case study and experiment place working in a proper way on the buildings in the city. Later on they could cooperate with big industries on a bigger scale projects. I did my best to reach the goals I had at the beginning of the project. I proved with the design that we should care about architecture and I showed how to do that in a good way.
I believe my graduation project might be an inspiration for the strategies of revitalization of the other small Polish towns in need.
SUMMARY thank word bibliography
I would like to dedicate this page to thank people, who were helping me during the graduation process. It was a long journey and without you it will be much difficult to make it. Thank you! Special thanks: My mentor- Rob Hootsmans and committee members- Gus Tielens and Ira Koers. For help, understanding, supporting and always giving a hand when needed. My soon husband- Daniel Bakker, for a huge support, sharing his knowledge and help with design and production. Friends- Stefano Barile, Roxana Vakil Mozafari, Nora Maria Zechmeister, Thomas Wolfs for advises and hard work on my maquettes. Family- my parents Janusz i Jola, my brother Artur and his girlfriend Ola for supporting me from the distance
and getting extra information about the project if needed and I couldnâ€™t be there. Family to be- my parents in law Jacqueline, Eduard and sister in lawThessa for giving me space to work and helping with maquettes.
literature (1) Olczak, M. and J. Moniatowicz, Bolesławiec przewodnik historyczny [Boleslawiec- historical guide], Jelenia GóraBolesławiec, Moniatowicz Foto Studio, 1998, p. 9-15 (2) Bugaj, T. and K. Matwijowski, Bolesławiec. Zarys monografii miasta. [Bolesławiec. The outline of the monograph of the city], WrocławBolesławiec, Wydawnictwo DTSK Silesia, 2001
Gross- Rosen in Bolesławiec], Wałbrzych, Muzeum Gross- Rosen, 2004 (5) Heimatbuch, E., Bunzlau: Der Bunzlauer Kreis an Bober und Queis, Bolesławiec, 1964, p. 454-456 (6) Bober, A. and Moniatowicz, J., Bolesławiec przewodnik jubileuszowy [Boleslawiec- jubilee guide], Bolesławiec, Moniatowicz Foto Studio, 2001, p. 31-32
websites (3) Sawicka, J., Bolesławieckie Opowieści: Czas przełomu. [The stories of Bolesławiec: The time of Breakthrough], Bolesławiec, Usługi Poligraficzne Bartosz Łapiński, 2011 (4) Konieczny, A., AL Bunzlau I i AL Bunzlau II- filie KL GrossRosen w Bolesławcu. [Arbeitslager Bunzlau I and Arbeitslager Bunzlau II- branches Konzentrationslager
(7) Bobrzanie, [website] 2016, http://bobrzanie.pl/2016/05/12/ chca-ozywic-concordie/ , (accessed 11 May 2016) (8) Tuba Bolesławca, [website] 2014, h t t p : / / w w w. t u b a b o l e s l a w c a . p l / aktualnosci/czytaj/326/ Concordiamiejsce-kazni , (accessed 31 August 2016)
(9) Interia Fakty, [website] 2015, http://fakty.interia. pl/prasa/odkrywca/newswiezniowie-z-obozow-pracy-wbunzlau,nId,1838435, (accessed 2 September 2016) (10) Abramowicz, Z., “Rocznik Boleslawiecki 2009” Czas pogardy w Bolesławcu [The time of contempt in Bolesławiec], Bolesławiec, Muzeum Ceramiki, 2010, p. 17-22
information sources Saltex- the owner of Concordia Biblioteka Miejska w Bolesławculibrary Muzeum Cermiki w Bolesławcu- the pottery’s museum Archiwum Państwowe we Wrocławiu odd. w Bolesławcu- archive