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The Soul of the City

425a.s.l

Aleppo case study

Urban design in post-war reconstruction

by Bengin dawod


‘War levels the cities in much more than the physical sense. It reduces their multi layered complexity of meaning to one layered tableaux’.

Lebbeus Woods


Bengin Dawod

Academy of Architecture

Hans van der Made Hanneke Kijne Jaap van den Bout

Master in Urbanism

4

Amsterdam University of the Arts

2018


Table of contents

Introduction Context Observations Analyses Strategy Planning, Design Principles Scenario planning & Development Dynamics Reflection, Prototyping

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Introduction The destruction of cities as a result of war affects spatial transformation, loss of physical spaces, and loss of human life. After war ends, plans to rebuild a city are often developed very quickly, they usually have a political and economic agenda, and are more often than not developed with the help of ‘outsiders’ such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the UN. Because of the need for swift actions and the large financial investments available, the initial act of rebuilding often has a physical focus while ignoring the invisible layers of the city, and its future challenges. The aim of this project is to develop new urban designs for the city of Aleppo that optimize the role of all those involved in the rebuilding, that adds synergy on all levels to ensure a better future, that enables the people to rebuild their livelihood, and that set up development strategies for the future of the city.

Among the ruins of Aleppo, Syrian children have fun playing in a pool created with the rain that filled a crater formed by the explosion of a bomb. Among the ruins of a shattered city. These makeshift ponds have become the joy of the little ones. Reuters

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Today we are witnessing the revival of planning as an instrument of sustainability, good governance, and inclusion, especially in “hyper- dynamic� environments. Yet, as far as contemporary post-conflict situations are concerned, planning still only plays a marginal (if any) role in the reconstruction of post-conflict cities. The lack of planning has had considerable implications for the revival of the post-war economy, for their sustainable development, and for their reconciliation and reunification. This is despite the fact that history, e.g., post-World War II reconstructions, has demonstrated that planning is a vital factor in the process of national recovery after a war. When conflicts (suddenly) end, the situation is often chaotic and it changes rapidly. How can urban designers act effectively in these situations? How can they guide the reconstruction of war-affected cities in a manner that supports mutual reconciliation? How can they support sustainable recovery of the socio-economic context instead of creating systems that cause distrust and divide which lead to economic stagnation and environmental degradation? Is it possible to unify divided cities, like Mostar and Beirut, through planning efforts? Is there even a role for planning and planners in the immediate aftermath of war What does it mean to rebuild a city in the 21st century if global temperatures are rising, new urban technologies are implemented in cities, and the world population is ever increasing ?

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CREDIT: GRASSHOPPER FILMS


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Syria, officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. Syria’s capital and largest city is Damascus. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is a home for diverse ethnic and religious groups, such as Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians,[8] Mandeans[9] and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma’ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. The Sunni make up the largest religious group in Syria.

Aleppo is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 4.6 million in 2010, Aleppo was the largest Syrian city before the Syrian Civil War; however, now Aleppo is probably the secondlargest city in Syria after the capital Damascus. Aleppo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world; it may have been inhabited since the 6th millennium BC. Excavations at Tell as-Sawda and Tell al-Ansari, just south of the old city of Aleppo, show that the area was occupied by Amorites since at least the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC. This is also when Aleppo is first mentioned in cuneiform tablets unearthed in Ebla and Mesopotamia, in which it is a part of the Amorite state of Yamhad, and is noted for its commercial and military proficiency. Such a long history is attributed to its strategic location as a trading center midway between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia.

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Context It was hard to foresee the scale of war that was to come when protesters took to the streets of Damascus and Aleppo in a day now coined “Day of Rage”, on March 15th 2011. “Your turn, Doctor [Bashar al-Assad],” Arab Spring demonstrators chanted as they demanded the release of 15 teenagers arrested for painting walls with anti-government graffiti. Arrests and beatings did not deter them, the people drew courage from the recent fall of both Hosni Mubarak in Egypt and Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in Tunisia in similar Arab Spring protests. After three days of demonstrations – which were exceptionally rare - the government had had enough. On March 18th four protesters in Deraa – most reports say they were unarmed – were shot dead by security forces who opened fire on a crowd. These murders provided the catalyst for a revolution which then morphed into a conflict unlike any other modern war; it has shaken the world’s faith in the power of the United Nations and left many questioning the sanctity of international humanitarian law. What can be said with certainty is that more than 500,000 people have been killed, half of Syria’s prewar population has been forced to flee their home, and an entire generation of Syrian children has not known anything other than war. In July of 2012 the fighting reached Aleppo and the city became one of the main battlegrounds for the civil war. As the government forces and the rebels fought in Aleppo the city was roughly divided into halves; those against the Syrian government (the rebels) had control of the east, while the government soldiers had control of the west of the city. The Time magazine wrote: “…the ongoing devastation inflicted on the country’s stunning archaeological sites—bullet holes lodged in walls of its ancient Roman cities, the debris of Byzantine churches, early mosques and crusader fortresses— rob Syria of its best chance for a post-conflict economic boom based on tourism, which, until the conflict started 18 months ago, contributed 12% to the national income.” 11


A fire in September 2012 devastated the Al-Madina Souq, a major souq (market) in Aleppo. The Irish Times reported that around 700 to 1000 shops were destroyed by this fire, which was caused by firing and shelling. The following month there were reports of the Great Mosque of Aleppo being ruined by rocketpropelled grenades. Fights with mortars and machine guns had caused severe damage to the main gate and the prayer hall. Also, the Citadel of Aleppo was damaged during Syrian army shelling. On October 2nd, 2014, Irena Bokova, the DirectorGeneral of UNESCO, expressed her “grave concern about possible damage to precious sites” and requested the combatants to “ensure the protection of the outstanding cultural legacy that Syria hosts on its soil”. She cited the Hague Convention for protecting heritage sites. In 2014 a report by UNITAR found, using satellite images, that 22 out of the 210 examined key structures had been completely destroyed. Also, 48 of the key structures had sustained severe damage, 33 moderate damage, and 32 possible damage. The destroyed sites included the Carlton Citadel Hotel, blasted to its foundations in a bombing in 2014, the madrasas of al-Sharafiyya, and Khusruwiyah. According to official estimates, 1500 out of the 1600 shops in the souq had been damaged or destroyed. The Washington Post wrote (2017) that the scale of devastation of Aleppo “evoked comparisons with cities like Grozny and Dresden”. It noted that the destruction was mainly concentrated in the rebel-held part of the city: about 70 to 80 percent of the destruction was in the east. UN satellite images determined that more than 33,500 residential buildings in the city were damaged, most of them multi-apartment blocks. The costs of reconstruction were estimated between $35–40 billion. Al-Hakam Shaar and Robert Templer proposed that the deliberate destruction of Aleppo was a form of “urbicide.

@ Mstyslav Chernov/AP

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Observations

Observations It has been seven years since I was last in Aleppo. I still remember the 18th of March 2011. In my memory it is 9:30 p.m. and there’s a nice light breeze as we, a group of Syrian and German students, walk through this beautiful city that we all call home - at least for now. We make so much noise laughing loudly as we pass through the narrow streets of the old city of Aleppo. The stores begin to close in the main souk as we step on the ancient stones that have been its foundation for hundreds of years. The moon is smiling above our heads, the buildings mumble and whisper to us, this place tells a story. And Every time we think about how we had to walk away from this place, from these summer nights, from the memories that used to be our reality, our hearts tear just a little bit more. Later that night, after having an unforgettable dinner in one of the best restaurants in the old city, I saw on the news that the revolution had started. The, so called, Arab-spring has reached us. I said goodbye to Aleppo knowing somehow that I will never see it again. By 2013 the situation had become very dangerous and, as for so many others, the moment came to make a decision: stay and die or leave and be able to do something for the future, not just my future, but for the future of our motherland. I moved to the Netherlands with one mission: to continue my life, learn how to plan cities, and to one day bring that knowledge back to Syria to help rebuild it and help make a better future for Syria. With my degree in architecture I, in 2013, started a master degree in Urban Design at the Academy of Architecture in Amsterdam. From 2014 onwards, I have focussed on studying and analyzing post-war city reconstructions. The lessons that we can take from different contexts will serve as a guide on what Aleppo and other post-conflict cities should avoid in reconstructions.

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Observations

Lessons from Beirut During the civil war Beirut was divided by checkpoints into the ‘Christian east’ and the ‘Muslim west’. Today daily movement is hindered by what Mona Fawaz, a scholar of urban planning, describes as ‘architectures of security’. Soldiers and blast barriers guard the entrances to Solidere’s downtown. The sidewalks alongside public buildings are protected by concrete walls and barbed wire, forcing pedestrians onto the road. The process of post-war rebuilding was especially lucrative for members of the government and their business associates.

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1970 LAND USE

LEBANON 3,500,000 Miliilion inhabitants PUBLIC SPACE 98 ha (242 acres)

=

59 ha (146 acres) roads

+

39 ha (96 acres) landscaped open space

144,000 Died

17,000 Disappeared

184,000 Wonded

Beirut city center reconstruction and development project 191 ha (472 acres)

=

73 ha (180 ac) 118 ha (292 ac)

extension reclaimed from the sea

originally constituting the traditional city center

144,000 Emigrated

$ 15,000,000,000 in damage $ 5,000,000,000 to infrastructure alone

1990 18

93 ha (230 acres) allocated for development, including 22 ha (54 acres) of retained, public or religious property


Observations

The motives for reconstructing Beirut are exposed when one looks at the lack of basic services. Solidere turned Beirut into a city of exclusion. Its iconic architecture and tax incentives attracted foreign investment which in turn helped the country’s economic recovery. But more buildings were torn down during reconstruction than were destroyed during the war, transforming Beirut’s war-scarred layered history from the Romans, to the Mamluk, the Ottomans, and the French periods, into a city without memory. Solidere also symbolizes the extent to which reconstruction can blurr the boundaries between public interest and private profit. As international donors and development specialists look towards reconstructing Syria they should heed the lessons from Lebanon. Politically paralyzed, fragile infrastructure, and deeply indebted, Lebanon is a model for what post-war Syria should avoid. Of course, it is essential that the hostilities in Syria end. Starting reconstruction then, however, without first dismantling the war economies and the political patronage networks that perpetuate them would mean that Syrian reconstruction will resemble that of Lebanon, with all its division and dysfunction. Post war cities require more than just physically rebuilding, they require reorienting the political economy away from war. Lebanon shows us this is particularly difficult if the perpetrators and profiteers of the conflict hold political office in the post-war era.

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Observations

The lessons Aleppo can take from what happened in Beirut: • Rebuilding driven by the few for the few will fail. • The core values must be accountability and transparency. • Aleppo should not focus on investor-led fantasies of what the city could be but concentrate on rebuilding families, their businesses, and the local economy. • Economic resilience should be a key part of any reconstruction. • Rebuilding the city centre is essential, but so is an integrated plan for the whole city. • Reconstruction will not mend deep political divisions but it can be used to rebuild public spaces that promote reconciliation. • Democratic control may mean that reconstruction will take longer but it will be done to a better standard and is it is less likely to deepen social divisions.

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Observations

LESSONS FROM SARAJEVO Sarajevo took a narrow approach to reconstruction. The incredible influx of donors after the end of the siege created a situation in Sarajevo that was both commendable and fraught with failure. Internationally-sponsored development reshaped Sarajevo and returned much of the city to physical normalcy. By viewing reconstruction largely in physical terms, however, international and national groups failed to restore institutions, curb corrupt practices, and counter nationalist groups that benefited from the complex political structures created by the Dayton Accords.

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11,000

60%

DEATHS

+

=

DAMAGED BUILDINGS

80%

UTILITIES DAMAGED

+

DAYTON ACCORDS

AGREEMENT

WAR

4 SIEGE SARAJEVO

YEARS OF

1995

TRIPLE TRANSITION

WAR

PEACE

DEMOCRACY

COMMUNISM VOTE

CAPITALISM

ETHNIC COMPOSITION

THINK COUNTRY HEADING IN WRONG DIRECTION

NEARLY

90%

40% Bosnian Muslims

20% Bosnian Croats

30% Bosnian Serbs

16% Other

POST WAR

87%

SARAJEVO CANTON RESIDENTS DO NOT FEEL REPRESENTED

84%

Bosnian Muslims

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PRE WAR

10%

UNFINISHED TRANSITION

TRANSITION

SOCIALISM


Observations

While each city and post-conflict situation is unique, the failures Sarajevo encountered during rebuilding offers five overarching lessons for future reconstructions: • Reconstruction efforts must be planned strategically to include the many actors that are involved in the process. The lack of coordination In Sarajevo between donors, local government, and residents of the city undermined successful reconstruction. • Local institutes must be strengthened before starting reconstruction. Many failures in Sarajevo could have been avoided by having the necessary urban planning and administrative- and governance structures during the earliest years of reconstruction. • Supervision and anti-corruption measures must be implemented from the start. Both recipients and donors must create a system of checks and balances, be willing to hold local leaders accountable, and have a procedure in place that withholds salaries or aid when large-scale corruption ensues. • Urban reconstruction must be accompanied by economic growth. Sustaining returnees is completely dependent on accessible jobs and economic growth. Policies should streamline business legislation and make starting an enterprise as easy as possible. • Reconstruction must be recognized as an ecosystem. Functional reconstruction of merely physical aspects is insufficient to recreate a vibrant city. Policymakers should therefore seek to use educational, economic, and cultural initiatives to rekindle urban life.

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Observations

Sarajevo City Center, the biggest shopping mall of Sarajevo, built by the Saudi Al-Shiddi Group. Š Pieter Stockmans

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Observations

LESSONS FROM Berlin Because of the city’s historic polycentric structure Berlin took rebuilding the collective memory and flexibility on urban policy level into account when developing its architectural strategies. Described in a government bill as “many cities in one city” Berlin suffered the loss of its historical centre by having it cut out of the city with the building of the Wall. Centrality, therefore, became a problem that needed solving. The commercial axis of Kurfiirstendamm was not diversified enough to offer a sense of traditional urbanity. Moreover, because of its physical structure and its history, Berlin as a whole appeared as a patchwork of highly heterogeneous parts separated by large amounts of undeveloped land (rivers, lakes, and green areas which still represented nearly 30% of Berlin’s geography). In such an urban context, the philosophy of reconstructing autonomous sections of a city was a realistic approach. It implied that each of those sections should sustain diversified activities and not only be comprised of housing. Both as a theoretical and as a practical experiment IBA Berlin (Instrument for Planning and Architecture) can be considered an outstanding contribution to architectural and urban planning (at least at site-scale).

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Observations

Reconstructions of Berlin demonstrated a deep concern with, and a sophisticated approach to, the central issue of designing a viable type of housing within the centre of a contemporary city. At the core of this issue is the opposition between the privacy of the home and its location within a building, which in turn is a part of the city and therefore public space. The IBA project made sure to take both the private and public aspect into account when developing their plans. The intentions were: - To improve family living conditions and provide resident units of various sizes; - To build an extensive network of highly diversified social and cultural facilities that were in walking distance of the housing and decentralized in order to respond to the needs of specific social- and age groups; - To enhance the immediate local environment by providing good quality public- and semi-public spaces that could be adapted to the specific habits and needs of the local population; - To support mixed uses of spaces: encouraging local businesses, public facilities, and small scale productive activities to share spaces (especially in the “Altbau” parts). The Berlin Block was flexible enough to absorb Berlin’s complex history and its harsh socio-political changes. Overt time it became a porous and, on many levels, heterogeneous urban structure of spatial and social programmed co-existence. Germany’s reunification contributed to the emergence of a new culture that was the seed for Berlin’s current demographic and economic growth.

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A scene from the Syrian government video pitching an upscale rebuilding plan for a southern Damascus neighbourhood of Basateen al-Razi, where for decades working-class Syrians lived in slums. (Syrian government video)

Google Earth satellite imagery of Basateen al-Razi in 2011, left, compared with imagery from 2015. Much of the areas that were green in 2011 were destroyed by Syrian government bulldozers and show up as grey in the 2015 photo. (Google Earth)

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A proposal by the current regime Outdoor parks, high-rise condos, and an underground mall are just some of the luxuries pitched in a flashy computer-generated video from the Syrian government. The dream they are selling is crystal clear: invest in a beautiful future for Damascus. Critics, however, see a darker future engineered to force dissidents out of communities, paid for by wealthy foreign allies, and contracted to regime-friendly businesses. All of which enhances the regimes power and permanency. The Syrian government’s real-estate video envisions redeveloping a southern Damascus neighbourhood called Basateen al-Razi, where for decades working-class Syrians lived in slums and built unauthorized settlements. There have been plans to redevelop that area for years but the Syrian uprising in 2011 served as a perfect catalyst. The strategy of destroy, rebuild, or replace isn’t unique to Basateen al-Razi. Most of the people of Basateen al-Razi who are forced out either end up in other parts of Syria or have to flee the country and live in exile as refugees. Other communities see this new law, called ‘Decree 66’, as a model for legally justifying forced displacement of existing residents and pursuing reconstruction plans that favour the government’s allies. In Syria today, people

continue to be detained or disappear and their houses are burned down by government- and allied forces.

Observations

Syrian reconstruction plan

Slowly but surely Syrian people are being evicted from their homes. However, I see a lot more suffering to come. The regime needs to satisfy the warlords so they don’t start fighting each other. Therefore, they are looking for different projects to generate new income and keep itself in power. This is why the regime will give the warlords and regime-friendly businesses a profitable stake in the reconstruction of the city of Damascus and other Syrian cities. Secondly, the regime encourages public-private partnerships. The government passed laws allowing municipalities to create holding-companies with tax-free incentives for its investors. With their big plans for Damascus, Homs, and Aleppo, Syria could be making the same mistake Lebanon did after its civil war. Lebanon poured their money into Beirut widening the gap between the increasingly rich city and its poorer neighbouring municipalities. The socio-economic problems that were present before the war will only be increased. The reasons why people started the uprising — whether it was the absence of democracy, the absence of social justice —are even more present. It will only nurture future problems for a new generation. The practice of dividing people along class and sectarian lines, along with not allowing any room for a true democratic opposition, is the Syrian government planting the seeds for another civil war in their carefully re-engineered neighbourhoods. It’s literally building a new crisis.

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35


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Analyses

Analyses Before 2011 Aleppo was an authentic contemporary Middle Eastern city where modernity and a rich cultural heritage did not conflict with each other but rather merged. The strong tradition of openness and coexistence could be witnessed all over the city, be it in its exceptional medieval city centre or in its various modern sub-centres. This made Aleppo a truly multicultural city. Aleppo’s city centre contained a vast amount of historical and cultural sites which were easily accessible due to a network of public spaces and high-quality public transport. This rich history combined with the city centre’s authenticity attracted foreigners and tourists alike and fuelled the economy. Aleppo’s city centre was a place where private initiatives and the state shared a vision of an evolving, diverse, and open city.

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The city’s dense sub-centres each had their own distinct character, e.g., shopping, entertainment, knowledge, services, agricultural trade, and logistics, each with its own appearance. Because the subcentres housed a mix of different environments they stimulate old and new forms of urban work-life. Furthermore, being in permanent evolution, they were places where innovations could be tested and new businesses could be developed. Around the city’s sub-centres lay Aleppo’s neighbourhoods. These neighbourhoods displayed a range of urban life, from the garden villa to the dense city block, from self-built settlements to new locally adapted building typologies. These neighbourhoods displayed the richness of life in Aleppo and the different forms of urban life encouraged engagement among its citizens. The neighbourhoods were also well connected to the city’s sub-centres through flexible microbus systems that heavily reduced private car use. These neighbourhoods were the foundations of a safe and open society. City centre, subcentres and neighbourhoods are linked to each other by a green network of strong and differentiated public spaces that unfold Aleppo’s urbanity — this is were people meet for business or a chat, where people can exercise or stroll. Its most prominent part, River Quweik Park, is a large multifunctional city park along the renaturated riverbed. Connecting East and Westand linking the city with its surrounding historical landscape, it is the social interface for all of Aleppo’s citizens and contributes to their collective identity.

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All of Aleppo had green fingers that reached deep into the urban fabric of the city carrying fresh air into the city and offering its citizens a break from urban life. The city centre, the sub-centres, and the neighbourhoods were all linked to each other by a network of nature that broke up Aleppo’s urbanity. These green public spaces were places where people met for business and leisure. One of its most prominent spaces, River Quweik Park, was a large multifunctional city park along the riverbed. These green spaces connected the east and the west side of the city and linked the city as a whole with its surrounding landscape. It was the social interface for Aleppo’s citizens and contributed to their collective identity.


Analyses

View on the citadel from Bab Kinnisrin, around 1925 ( image source unknown)

Demographics before 2011 Due to its history Aleppo citizens were incredibly multifaceted. Nearly three quarters of its inhabitants, or 70%, were Sunni Muslims. While most of them where Arabs this number also included Kurds, and other Muslim ethnicities such as Assyrians/Syriacs, Bosnians, Bulgarians, Chechens, Circassians, Kabardians, and Turkmens. Furthermore, Aleppo not only had the largest Christian community in the Middle East, after Beirut (Lebanon), but also one of the most diverse Christian community. Even though only a handful of Jewish citizens still live in Aleppo, the properties of Jewish families that were not sold after the migration remained under protection by the Syrian Government. 39


Byzantine period( Jean Sauvaget, 1935)

Early 16th century ( Jean Sauvaget, 1935)

1935 ( image source unknown)

1954 Gutton Plan ( Stefano Bianca, 1980)


Analyses

HISTORY Historically Aleppo has been influenced by an extraordinary amount of outside forces. Aleppo is one of the oldest continually inhabited city in the world and there are few cities that have seen as many cultures come through (i.e., Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongols, Ottomans, and French). The city’s physical location was determined by agriculture and traffic routes.

1929 ( image source unknown)

1980 ( Stefano Bianca, 1980)

When the historic trade routes shifted and the Europeans began to use the Cape route to India, and later the route through Egypt, Aleppo became detached from worldwide trade. Later the Silk Road shifted north to Smyrna (Izmir), and then the access to the Gulf of Iskenderun — which was important for Mediterranean Sea trade —was cut off by the French mandate in 1938. Finally, the wars in Iraq in 1990 and 2003 further paralyzed Aleppo’s trade in the east. Nonetheless the city maintained a strong role as import hub and its history as a trading city is still alive in the open-minded attitude of its inhabitants.

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Analyses

Concentric model

Satellite model

Radial(finger) model

Aleppo as a mix of all models

Models of urban spatial development we can recognize three basic spatial expansion patterns in the city of Aleppo. The concentric model features a single main core with secondary areas in equal distance from the centre which results in a compact city. The radial model shows how the city extends into its environment and affects its geography and infrastructure. The satellite model interprets the city as a set of centres and sub-centres. Aerial plan of the existing city (Google Earth 2011)

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3 KM

Aleppo

Amsterdam 3 KM

Aleppo

3 KM

Amsterdam

Amsterdam

Scale comparison Aleppo has a foot print almost the same as Amsterdam

3

3 KM

3 KM

Aleppo

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Amsterdam

Aleppo

Amsterdam


Analyses

density 200,0

Aleppo 150,0

100,0

50,0

0,0

Berlin

Hamburg Frankfurt

Munich

London

Paris

Warsaw

Amsterdam

Density of Aleppo in comparison to European cities. the Y-Axis denotes people per hectare, the blue bar indicates the density of the entire city area, the yellow bar indicates the density of the inner city. Aleppo was a surprisingly a compact city. Tradition, social coherence and govermmental control led to a city with virtually no sprawl, despite the fact that 40% of the population lives in informal settlements , and despite the fact that buildable land is widely avaliable. this results in a city with clearly recognisable boundry. Aleppo was a mixed city. many areas of the city features a dense combination of functions-work and live, production and consumption, service and leisure- in a very well working, integrated and unspectacular way. This caused rather by economical factors than by regulations, in fact, often in spite of regulations. This dense offering of diverse 5000000 uses is very positive and something which many western cities are striving for, and should be maintained and encouraged, especially in future developments and rebuilding the city.

Aleppo was a surprisingly compact city with clearly defined boundaries. Tradition, social coherence, and governmental control all led to a city with virtually no extension despite the fact that 40% of the population lived in informal settlements and despite the fact that land was widely available. Furthermore, Aleppo was a mixed city. Most of city was made up of spaces that housed a combination of functions, work and live, production and consumption, service and leisure, which worked in an integrated and smooth way. This was caused by economic factors rather than by regulations, in fact, often in spite of regulations. A dense space that has diverse uses is very beneficial for a city and something that many western cities should strive for. Aleppo’s city planning regulations used to plan for an average of 5 people per household. With its population profile Aleppo was regarded a young city. Processes of change and renewal could happen rapidly and the workforce was available.

5 Million

4000000 3.6 Million 3000000 2.4 Million 2000000

1000000

2010

2025

2050

Projected Population Groth in Aleppo. 2.6 % growth rate. Municipality of Aleppo possible scenarios of future growth after war.

MGreen@MmaGreen

Aleppo’s city planning regulations use an average number of 5 people per household. Aleppo was regardign the population profile- a young city.change and renewal processes can happen rapidly, workforce is avaliable

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Antakya Al Bab

Aleppo

Idlib

Latakia

Mediterranean sea

Agriculture land

sweetwater

forests

saltwater

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Analyses

Spatial Structure The city of Aleppo lies within a network of smaller agricultural settlements. There are fertile grounds close to the city, particularly in the south along the river Quweik. West winds carry cool air from the coast and mountains which has led to a natural distribution of richer, mostly residential areas, in the west and poorer residential and manufacturing areas in the east.

Manbij

A new industrial area (Sheikh Najjar) is being planned in the north east of the city, approximately 6 km from the centre of town. 30 km south east of Aleppo is Lake Jabbul which about 100 km2, making it the largest natural lake in Syria. This saline lake which traditionally floods in the spring and dries up in the summer is important for the local economy as it supplies the industrial sector with large quantities of salt. Lake Jabbul is also an important wetland water birds.

Lake Jabbul , Aleppo

Regional roads Syrian turkish border Aleppo government border

5 KM

20 KM

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26% of Aleppo city IDPS (camps, turkish cities, Europe)

9% of Aleppo city IDPS (Kurdish area of Afreen)

Antakya Al Bab

Aleppo

Idlib

40% of Aleppo city IDPS (costal region cities)

Latakia

Mediterranean sea sweetwater saltwater

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25% of Aleppo city IDPS (Secondary cities and rural areas)

Analyses

Covernorate context Aleppo is the largest governorate in Syria in terms of population (4.68 million, CBS, 2011). The governate of Aleppo has 8 districts of which the city of Aleppo is the capital. They had an influential role on national level because of their economic status. The main economic drivers in the governorate were agriculture, tourism, and industry.

Manbij

Currently: The governorate of Aleppo is one of the most impacted by the war in Syria.

Jarablous

A’zaz Al Bab

Aleppo is the Largest in Syria in terms of po million,CBS,2011). the Aleppo is the central governorate. Aleppo governorate h in terms of populatio tral city of the district Aleppo Governorate nate economic role a level. Main economic the Governorate were tourism,industry. Currently: the Govern the mostly impacted Governorates.

Afreen Manbij

Antakya Al Bab

Aleppo

Jabal Saman

Ayn Arab Idlib

Manbj Al Safera

Latakia

Regional roads Syrian turkish border

Syrian turkish border Aleppo government border

Aleppo government border

5 KM

5 KM

20 KM

20 KM

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2011 Aleppo Gov 4.680.000 Miliilion inhabitants

Aleppo city 2.400.000 Miliilion inhabitants

Aleppo Goverment Area 18,482 km2 1848200 hectare

Aleppo City Area 190 km2 19000 hectare Elevation 379 m

1.730.000 million currently displaced 1.000.000 million completely flied more than 70,000 dead more than1,000,000 million still in Aleppo city

2017 50

Aleppo City neighbourhoods 125 more than 22 are informal Settlemnts


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Pre crisis urban information Water and sanitation

Portable water: 94% of Houses were connected to water network and used improved water sources.98% used improved sanitation (CBS,2009) Sewerage network:98.5% of city population had access to sewerage networks(MoA&AR,2011)

Current daily water Supply

h

Pre/crisis daily water supply

h

6 20

Health Maternal mortality: 56 deaths per 1,000 life birth Health facilities:Aleppo had more than 3000 operational bed capacity(2011). Currently:69% of this capacity is not operational.

Bed capacity 945

Bed capacity 2116

8 Public hospitals 78 Private hospitals

Electricity 99.7% of houses had electricity supply (Multiple indicator Cluster survey 2006) but average daily supply hours have dropped signicantly.

Current daily electricity Supply Pre/crisis daily electricity supply

h

4

h

23.2

Education 97.5% of 6-11 years-old were in school, but the drop-out rate exceeded 9.5% (CBS,2011) Illiteracy rate (15+): 20.2% Number of primary schools:public:3,300 private:72, UNRWA:11(CBS,2010). Currently 43% of these facilties are not operational

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Nonoperative schools

43 % 57 %

Currently operative schools, Dec.2015

C @ gurax


53


Pre/crisis employment per sector

Economy

Key economic drivers: Private sector led industrial activity, international tourism based on cultural heritage, commerce. Strategic role and key linkages: the dominaant city in northen Syria, linking coastal cities with eastern region, and playing a pivotal role in transportation between the Arab Gulf, Syria and Europe. Pre-crisis unemployment rate: 7.6% (CBS,2011) Estimated current unemployment rate: 78.3% Industry, tourism and construction used to be the city main sectors of employment. The major current losses in employment are in the tourism, industry, services and construction sectors.

4% 7%

3%

33 %

13 % 18 %

22 %

Industry Hotels and restaurants Construction Services(including government staff) Transportation and communications Finance, insurance, and real estate Agriculture and forestry

Change in employment rate per sector Industry Hotel and restaurants Construction Services including gov staff Transportation and communications Finance,insurance, real estate Agriculture and Forestry 0 Sectore employment (pre-crisis)

20

40 60 80 Current sector employment

2%

Housing and Shelter 24 %

Aleppo had 720,000 housing units in 2011 64% of which were in the form of multi-story apartment buildings, with another 10% of Patio houses (old city and traditional neighbourhoods) The 22 informal housing areas provided 45% of the housing stock. 86% of the households in Aleppo were owners. Of these, 61% had official ownership titles only, while the remaining possessed some form of documentation approved by the official notary bureau, 10.5% of households were renting. As per the findings of the city profile,340,000 housing units are no longer in use or have been abandoned(end 2016) i.e. 54% of the city 2011 housing stock. The majority of the damaged residentail units are multi-storey. The concentration of damage in the informal areas may lead to complex tenure issues in future recovery

54

10 %

64 %

Villa Multi-story Patio houses Row houses

61 %

Official ownership Informal on agricultural propoerty Notary registerd deed Squatting

13 % 9% 7%

No. of housing units No. of occupied units No. of empty units No. of units under construction No. of units out of use

719928 619575 61648 38705 340000

100


55


CITY COMPOSITION AND CHARACTERISTICS CITY COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS 47 % of the city is composed of modern housing areas. Mixed residntial and commercial uses make 9% of the city area, but if we add old city area( mixed uses in tern), this makes a total of 13% of the city area. 45% of the population lived in informal or íllegal’settlements, which consitute 32% of the city’s built-up area. In these areas: -the ownership of the land is in dispute or not legally registered; -the settlement is in contravention of the master plan zoning regulations; -building standards and regulations are not enforced.

During the crisis;

informal settlements

have expanded significantly in all city growth directions as local authorities have less planning control on expansion and condensation. Much of the new informal construction is accommodating IDPs, even in unfinished buildings.

Commercial Mixed residential and commercial Residential Informal housing Industrial Old City Services

C @ Cliff Hague

56


Analyses

Residential Industrial Informal housing Services (including light industries, military zones and open public spaces) Mixed residential and commercial Old City Commercial City master plan boundary Rail-road City ring road and major motorways Carriageways River (Kuaik)

0

2

3 km

57


C I T Y D A M A G E A N A LY S I S DAMAGES OF BUILDINGS AND HOUSING STOCK 45 neighbourhoods have been heavily damaged (most to all buildings are either damaged or structurally hazardous); 61neighbourhoods have been partially damaged (heavy damages limited to certain areas/ blocks. Other buildings are still habitable or have been repaired)

Neighbourhoods per damage level

Heavily Damaged Partially Damaged Affected

34 neighbourhoods have no damage or minor damage.

DAMAGES AS PER CITY LAND USE COMPOSITION

67% of heavy damages are in informal settlements

When damage was considered against spatial fuctions, the housing urban fuction has received the biggest share of damage; - 78% of the damaged areas(both heavily and partially) were residential, mostly multi-story housing buildings. - 67% of the heavily damaged were informal housing areas. - Commercial and industrial areas have also been affected by damage which has caused loss of livelihoods and income. - 71% of the industrial areas have been partially damaged. this dose not include the damage in the industrial City of Sheikh Najjar

58

Distribution of heavy damage per land-use Residential Informal housing Services Mixed residential and commercial Old City


She i Ind kh Naj ustr j ial C ar ity

h eikh

To

az

Me

A’z

Najjar

slmia

Analyses

To

Heavily Damaged Partially Damaged

To S

recently escalating neighbourhood City master plan boundary Old City boundary Informal Areas Rail-road City ring road and major motorways Carriageways River (Kuaik)

Hanano

Al- Sha’ar

To M

enbi

j

Al Kar Qa m ter ji

To Jabal Sa ma’an

To Raqa

leb

As -Su

To Ed

kk

ari

Karm Myassar

0

2

3 km

T

loA

Zu

rb

a

ern R i n g R o a d

T o T a l A l - D am a n

South

59


C I T Y D A M A G E A N A LY S I S AFFECTEDNPOPULATION PER DAMAGE OF HOUSING 2.25 million of Aleppo’s population have been severly affected by the damage of housing and buildings stock. 0.96 million have not been directly affected. - It is estimated that 1.2 million inhabitants have been forced to leave their homes due to severe housing gamages; most of which were concentrated in the informal housing areas, the old city and the traditional high density neighbourhoods surrounding the old city. - Some inhabitants have chosen to stay in partially damaged houses, and sometimes in structurally hazardous condition,especially the elderly who are emotionally attached to their homes, or low-income groups who could not afford displacement. The increased proportion of population affected by damage in housing sector( when compared to proportional area of damage) can be attributed to the concentration of heavy damage in high-density residential areas ( mainly the informal settlements).

Damage level Vs. urban land-uses (%), Aleppo,

Partially Damaged

Heavily Damaged Residential Industrial Informal housing

Mixed residential and commercial Old City

Commercial

Landuse Vs. damage level, Aleppo Informal Area Public Services

Heavily Damaged Partially Damaged

Old City Industrial Residential Residential Commercial Commercial

Destroyed houses are seen in the east Aleppo neighbourhood of Tariq al-Bab Image:AP.ASSOCIATED PRESS

60


61


The following map shows the pre-crisis population densities in the city neighbourhoods, which signals the implications of housing damage.

2.5 million of

Aleppo,s population have been severely affected by the damges of housing and buildings stock

1.2 million

inhabitants have been forced to leave their homes due to severe housing damage The increased proportion of population affected by the damage in the housing sector can be attribuated to theconcentration of heavy damage in high-density residental areas

Population Density in the city (pre-crisis, Capita/ha)

No population less that 40 110-40 200-110 300-200 More than 300

A Syrian boy walks with his bicycle in the devastated Sukari district of Aleppo on 13 November, 2014 AFP

62


63


URBAN FUNCTIONALITY 48% of Aleppo urban area is no longer functional

URBAN FUNCTIONALITY LEVELS Not Functional

Partially Functional

Most houses are either damaged or structurally hazardous

Minor to no Total damages limited to certain damages blocks, others are still hapitable

Basic infrastructure

Not operational

Partially operational for some areas/ sectors

Basic services

No services

Limited services

Available services

Markets

Not functioning

Partially functional

Functioning. New markets established

Housing facilities

Functionality

Out of 125 neighbourhoods, 94 neighbourhoods are either not functional or only partially functional

to strain on infrastructure and services due to increased IDP population

Functionality analysis for the city found that there is not a direct link between damages to housing and habitability and functionality levels. People occupy damaged areas due to a range of factors including extreme vulnerability and inability to pay rents elsewhere, risk of losing property, minimum critical infrastructure and services and livelihoods. These factors together form revival of critical functionals in Aleppo neighbourhoods.

functionality

41 neighbourhoods were found not functional, previously high population density areas. 53 neighbourhoods were partially functional, either retaining part of original population or attracting very vulnerable IDPs from heavily damaged areas. These IDPs are being hosted by families, friends and relatives and cannot leave due to resource, property or cash constraints; 34 It was also noted that neighbourhoods are clustering in patterns in terms of functionality. C@ 64


h eikh

To

az

Me

A’z

Najjar

slmia

Analyses

To

Not Functional Partially Functional

To S

City master plan boundary Rail-road City ring road and major motorways Carriageways Accessible supply routes River (Kuaik) In-crisis emerging market Operational market In-operational market Fruit and vegetable whole sale market

To M

enbi

j

To Jabal Sama’an To Raqa

To Ed

leb

0

2

3 km

T

loA

Zu

rb

a

ern R i n g R o a d

T o T a l A l - D am a n

South

65


URBAN FUNCTIONALITY Water and sanitation Despite the operational status of the channel from the Euphrates(90% of city needs), and the quality potable water and sanitation network the city previously enjyed, there has been a serious decrease in the level of the services in most of the city due to: Insecure supplies of pumping fule, Damage in water and sanitation networks infrastructure The quality of water deteriorated due to a lack of necessary sterilization chemicals Supply hours dropped from 20 to 2 per day

Current daily water Supply

h

Pre/crisis daily water supply

h

2 20

Aleppo has a cool steppe climate. Short, cool, wet winters with an average annual precipitation of 395 mm (around 50 rainydays)

Solid waste Waste management and collection srvices have become almost non/existent in some areas (mainly in eastern and northern areas), or only continue through the efforts of the people living there. Informal dumbing locations at the fringes of urban areas are causing enormous hygiene concern, some residents also try to dispose of trash by burning it. Despite big losses in the garbage collection capacity collection in western parts of Aleppo has been restored, Eastern parts of th e city have access to dump sites arranged in the urban hinterland, with local management system developed by neighbourhoods communities.

Solid waste collection

Estimated in-duty vehicles (2016) Assessed vehicls need (2004) Pre-crisis in-duty vehicle (2011) Estimated in-duty laborers Waste management laborers needed (2004) Waste management laborers (2011)

Children wait to collect water in Aleppo , Syria, water shortages are worsening and supplies are sometimes contaminated, putting children at increased risk of diseases. REUTERS/Giath Taha

66


67


URBAN FUNCTIONALITY Health Maternal mortality: 56 deaths per 1,000 life birth Health facilities:Aleppo had more than 3000 operational bed capacity(2011). Currently:71% of this capacity is not operational. All operational public and private hospital are in the western parts of the city. The eastern periphery of the city is the least served area in terms of health services. 80% of Aleppo’s pharmaceutical industry has stopped, and lack of access routs are making medicine not accessible for most of the vulnerable population.

Bed capacity 945

8 Public hospitals

Bed capacity 2116

78 Private hospitals

Operational Status of public health facilities

Operative bed capacity Not operative bed capacity

Electricity 99.7% of houses had electricity supply (Multiple indicator Cluster survey 2006) but average daily supply hours have dropped signicantly. The Eastern Aleppo thermal plant( originally 60% of city power supply) is still partly operating under conflict contexts, and most urban and rural areas are supplied at average of 4 hours per day Lack of electricity supply is a major factor in the deterioration of basic services. private generators have become widespread in the west part of Aleppo, which makes the price of main fuel materials vary according to city accesibility, but the renewable energy sources as solar energy are not yet used , even though Aleppo has a very good location geographical and available space for solar energy.

Current daily electricity Supply Pre/crisis daily electricity supply

h

4

h

23.2

Aleppo has more than 3,000 hours of sunshine per year

Syria’s historic hospital in Aleppo was completely destroyed in 2013 | GETTY IMAGES

68


69


URBAN FUNCTIONALITY Population changes and diplacement trends

Out of the total population (3.08 million), it is estimated that 1.72 million inhabitants have been displaced by Nov.2013; 53% of which have flied the Governorate (mainly to Syrian coastal cities, Turkey, Lebanon, or to further destinations), and another 48% have been displaced within Aleppo, making at total of 38% of the current population. (OCHA, Nov. 2013). IDPs inside Aleppo comprise 38% of current city population, and many constitute highly vulnerable groups. However, OCHA estimates that 57% of city population are in need for assistance, which includes vulnerable communities from the non-displaced populations. The trend of displacement in Aleppo slowed down in the second half of 2013 (OCHA Governorate Consultations,Nov.2013) although conflict intensity has been systematically increasing. This illustrates decreasing choices for IDPs, with security deterioration in possible destinations, safe intake areas already saturated, and local communities resigned to live with crisis implications. However, in Aleppo displacement has started to increase once again starting mid-January 2014, mainly from 5 neighbourhoods in southern and eastern Aleppo ( Map ).

Hosting is a dominant shelter support mechanism in the city of Aleppo as well as Aleppo Governorate.

Proportions of population in terms of displacement, end 2013

3.08 Million inhabitants IDPs residing in Aleppo Non-displaced persons

Estimated Current Population in Aleppo, end 2013

2.2 Million inhabitants IDPs residing in Aleppo Non-displaced persons Pepole in need

70


Analyses

Analyses

Less than 10% 10 to 50% 50 to 100% 100 to 150% 150 to 200% More than 200% Not residential Intra-city displacement trend Master plan boundary

0

2

3 km

71


statistics of returns to Aleppo

28 %

Yes No

72 %

A post-conflict Aleppo will look markedly different than it did in mid-2012. Wars don’t only destroy and damage buildings and infrastructure; they tear apart the underlying social fabric. An uncomfortable but important question for Aleppians remains not only how will they reconstruct their city, but who will live there when it is rebuilt.

Even though 72% of Aleppians, want to go back EDUCATION/GENDER

AGE

82%

18%

84%

16%

100% 26%

80%

31%

60% 40%

74%

69%

20% 0%

0% 15

Yes

80%

26%

29%

74%

71%

80% 40%

Female

Male

100%

No

30%

21%

66%

70%

79%

Yes

17%

31%

No

NEIGHBORHOOD CONTROL 100% 80%

16%

31%

39%

69%

61%

60%

60% 83%

69%

40% 20%

0%

84%

0%

Yes

72

80%

34%

No

100%

20%

60%

0%

LEVEL OF EDUCATION

40%

40%

100%

20%

Yes

80%

31%

60%

20% 0%

69%

NEIGHBORHOOD CONTROL

60% 40%

31%

Yes

No

GENDER 100%

20%

69%

No

Families’ emotional return home after fleeing years ago C @ ABC News


73


URBAN FUNCTIONALITY Functionality of the industrial sector The crisis impact on the industrial sector is a major factor in the deterioration of city livelihoods. The Syrian Labourers Union reported that around 140.000 labourers have been laid off form the sector by December 2013 1.The greatest industrial losses are concentrated in Syria largest industrial site of Sheikh Najjar (4.412 ha, north east of Aleppo), where there has been a signicant drop in the operational capacity 2.Textile and garment industries have almost collapsed in Ash-Sheikh Maqsoud and Al Ashrayeh, and all traditional crafts in the Ancient City of Aleppo have closed down. Medical and building materials industry located near the AleppoDamascus highway are partially operational, but major industrial clusters in ArRamouseh and Blleramoon have been widely damaged. 3.Informal industrial areas have also reduced operations due to direct damage to buildings and infrastructure (Jibreen and JAbal Badro in specific)

Decrease in Sheikh Najjar industrial site operations

74

Syria’s GDP is estimated to have contracted 63%, amounting to a cumulative loss of $226 billion, about four times the 2010 GDP, a World Bank report titled “The Toll of War


Analyses

Essential industrial areas

Al Ashrafiyeh

Ash-Sheikh Maqsoud

Industrial Site Of Sheikh Najjar

Blleramoon

Jabal Badro Jibreen

Ar-Ramouseh

75


Aleppo urban typologies Traditional Patio Houses the beauty of these traditional houses represents an art form that has resulted from an understanding of a unique mode of religious and cultural human life. For example, the privacy of the family was an essential element which affected the shape and the plan form of all traditional Arab houses, to be clearly defined as public, semi-public and private spaces. It plays with spaces and volumes, shade and light.

French typology influenced very much by the French urban block , with higher building and french balconies and back gardens,

First and second Modern Housing High standard of construction and infrastructure, monotony and lack of identity due to the standardization of the buildings

Informal housing Low standard of Construction and infrastructure,low quality, high-rise buildings + very densely populated low-rise Medium: 2-3 storey buildings on 75150m² plots (mostly inner city) Low: 1-2 storey and large plots (mostly new settlements on the peri-urban fringe

76


Analyses

Old center Patio houses traditional Patio houses New center French typology First Modern housing Second modern housing Industrial informal housing Row housing Villa village typology University

1 Km

5 Km

77


Topography and green topography Aleppo is build around the valley of river Quwiek, and it elevate from the center towards the west, and the east, the mound of the citadel is very clear, the diffrent in hight from the center( 350m a.s.l) to the outside edge of the city (450m a.s.l) gives the quality of the view, but also the opportunities for rain water collection in the future, the ground at the south part of the revir is very good ground for agriculture and to creat a natural water reservoir

The city of Aleppo from the South, Google Earth, 2009

The green structure The distribuation of parks and green areas indicates an overall lack of recreational space, especially in the dencer eastern areas, the ground is fertile with avaliable water,opportunities for productive landscape and continues green spaces and fingers to link the landscape to the city center, tourism and recretional green should be high on the city development which brings better life qualities to the future citizens of Aleppo. Central park of Aleppo city

River Quwiek Is a 129 kilometres long river that flows through the northern Syrian city of Aleppo.The river dried up completely in the late 1960s, due to irrigation projects on the Turkish side of the border. Recently, water from the Euphrates has been diverted to revive the dead river, and thus revive agriculture in the plains south of Aleppo, the riverbed arks this functional and social rift thet divides Aleppo in tow parts, East and West, but it can also be an opportunity to unite the city in the future

Quweiq River

78


Analyses

425a.s.l 400 a.s.l

385 a.s.l

Green areas, Forest Tourism Area, Parks Cemeteries, Vineyards River Quwiek Topography City boundary

450a.s.l 425a.s.l

400 a.s.l

425a.s.l

400 a.s.l

400 a.s.l

375 a.s.l

1 Km

5 Km

79


Infrastructure Highways and roads Making the city accessible at multiple scales and speeds for all citizens is the ultimate goal of good urban mobility syetem. In Aleppo the dominance of the individual car as a main mode of traffic was obvious.and it os difficult to imagine any mobility system for Aleppo in the future without the car as a prominent part of it. But beside the car Aleppo have to reorganis the public transport system, which can bring the citizens to there work faster than the car. Aleppo had 5 road rings which the bigest extend over 35km, which gives possibilities in the future for using those road not only for cars , but also as urban battery to generate Electricity.

Main entrance road in southwest Aleppo, Salaheddin district © SPUTNIK / MICHAEL ALAEDDIN

Railroads Aleppo railway station is the 2nd oldest railway station in Syria and the main station of the city of Aleppo.Aleppo had a rail system which was part of the national system which connects to Damascus and the south but also important connection to the east, Rail roads have not been operational since February 2012 Substantial damages and thefts have been reported regarding rail-roads infrastructure and assets. but the exciting railroad can play an important roll in the future sustainable transport system.

Aleppo Bagdad-Railway-Station © Reinhard Dietrich

Airport Aleppo International Airport is an international airport serving Aleppo, Syria. The airport serves as a secondary hub for Syrian Air, the airport has a modern terminal which combines a modern and Islamic architecture. The total area is 38,000 square meters over four floors. The airport capacity is 1.7 million passengers a year.The Airport has a very important role in the future of Aleppo,located east of the city , less than 5 Km from the center. A view shows a part of Aleppo international airport January 22, 2014. © REUTERS/George Ourfalian

80


Analyses

Train station Airport Bus Station local road Rail road Highway River Quwiek City boundary

1 Km

5 Km

81


Informalbed on agricultural propoerty of this capacity is not operational. Not operative medicine not accessible for most of the vulnera61 % documentation approved by the official notary All operational public and private hospital are in Notary registerd deed 7% capacity ble population. bureau, 10.5%parts of households the western of the city.were renting. Operational Status of public health facilities Squatting AsThe pereastern the findings of theofcity periphery theprofile,340,000 city is the least housing no longer in use or have been servedunits areaare in terms of health services. Electricity 80% of Aleppo’s2016) pharmaceutical industry has abandoned(end i.e. 54% of the city 2011 No. of housing units 719928 Operative bed capacity Neighbourhoods per damage level stopped, and lack of access routs are making housing stock. No. of occupied unitsNot operative bed 619575 medicine accessible for most of theunits vulneraThe majoritynot of the damaged residentail are capacity No. of empty units 61648 ble population. multi-storey. The concentration damage in the 99.7% of houses had electricityof supply No.daily of units under construction informal areas may lead to survey complex tenure 38705 4 (Multiple indicator Cluster 2006) but Current electricity Supply h issues in future recovery Heavily Damaged average daily supply hours have dropped No. of units out of use 340000 Electricity signicantly. Partially Damaged Pre/crisis daily electricity supply h 23.2 The Eastern Aleppo thermal plant( originally 60% Affected of city power supply) is still partly operating under conflict contexts, and most urban and rural 99.7% of houses had supply areas are supplied atelectricity average of 4 hours per day (Multiple indicator Cluster survey 2006) butin the Current daily electricity Supply h 4 Lack of electricity supply is a major factor average daily supply hours have dropped deterioration of basic services. signicantly. Pre/crisis daily electricity supply h 23.2 private generators have become widespread in The Eastern Aleppo thermal plant( originally 60% the west part of Aleppo, which makes the price of supply) isvary still partly operating of city mainpower fuel materials according to cityunder conflict contexts, and most urban and rural accesibility, but the renewable energy sources areas are supplied at average of 4 hours per day as solar energy are not yet used , even though Lack of electricity supply is a major factor in the Aleppo has more than 3,000 Aleppo has a very good location geographical deterioration of basic services. and available space for solar energy. hours of sunshine per year private generators have become widespread in the west part of Aleppo, which makes the price Water and sanitation of main fuel materials vary according to city accesibility, but the renewable energy sources as solar energy are not yet used , even though Despite operational status of the channel Aleppo has more than 3,000 Aleppo has athe very good location geographical Current daily water Supply h 2 from the Euphrates(90% of city needs), and the and available spacedamage for solar energy. Distribution of heavy per land-use hours of sunshine per year quality potable water and sanitation network the Pre/crisis daily water supply h 20 city previously enjyed, there has been a serious Pre/crisis employment per sector decrease in the level of the services in most of Residential the city due to: 3% Industry 4% Economy Informal housing Insecure supplies of pumping fule, Hotels and restaurants 7% Services Damage in water and sanitation networks infraConstruction Aleppo has a cool steppe climate. Short, Mixed residential structure 33 % and commercial Services(including government staff) 13 % cool, wet winters with an average annual The quality of water deteriorated due to a lack Key economic drivers: Private sector led industriTransportation of necessary sterilizationOld chemicals City precipitation of 395 mm and communications al activity, international tourism based on cultural 18 % Supply hours dropped from 20 to 2 per day Finance, insurance, and real estate 22(around % 50 rainydays) heritage, commerce. Agriculture and forestry Strategic role and key linkages: the dominaant city in northen Syria, linking coastal cities with Solid waste eastern region, and playing a pivotal role in Change in employment rate per sector transportation between the Arab Gulf, Syria and Solid waste collection Europe. Industry Waste management and collection srvices have Pre-crisis unemployment rate: 7.6% (CBS,2011) Hotel and restaurants become almost non/existentrate: in some areas Estimated current unemployment 78.3% Estimated in-duty vehicles (mainly in eastern and northern areas), only Industry, tourism and construction used to beor the Construction (2016) continue through the efforts of the people living city main sectors of employment. Assessed vehicls need Services including gov staff (2004) there. The major current losses in employment are in Informal dumbing locations the fringes of the tourism, industry, services and at construction Transportation and communications Pre-crisis in-duty vehicle urban areas are causing enormous hygiene sectors. (2011) Finance,insurance, real estate concern, some residents also try to dispose of trash by burning it. Agriculture and Forestry Estimated in-duty laborers Despite big losses in the garbage collection Waste management capacity collection in western parts of Aleppo 0 20 40 60 80 100 laborers needed (2004) has been restored, Sectore employment (pre-crisis) Current sector employment Eastern parts of th e city have access to dump Waste management sites arranged in the urban hinterland, with local 2 % laborers (2011) management system developed by neighbourHousing and Shelter hoods communities. 82 24 % Villa Multi-story 10 % Aleppo had 720,000 housing units in 2011 64 %

67% of heavy damages are in informal settlements URBAN FUNCTIONALITY


Analyses

conclusions from the Analyses In 2011 Aleppo had 720.000 housing units. In the war approximately 340.000 residential units were destroyed, many of which were multi-storey. Most of the damage is concentrated to the informal living settlements (67%) which will lead to complicated housing issues in the future. 99.7% of houses had electricity (Multiple indicator Cluster survey 2006) but daily supply hours have since dropped significantly and the old electricity generating system will face challenges in the future. Also, the city’s water supply poses a challenge in the future development of the city and the region as a whole, especially since a large part of it is necessary for agriculture as it is one of the city’s main incomes. However, it should be noted that Aleppo’s future also holds a lot of opportunities for the use of renewable energy. The disparity between the eastern- and western half of the city requires the plan for the city’s reconstruction to take that into account so as to avoid a divided city. The plans should also address the current lack of public spaces, the lack of green spaces and Aleppo’s disconnect from its own landscape, the social tensions, and how to get the cool winds from the west to reach the entire city. The estimated unemployment rate is currently 78.3%. Industry, tourism, agriculture, and construction used to be the city’s main sectors of employment. The challenge in rebuilding the city includes dealing with the changes in the demographic and a loss of identity. We should be very wary of rebuilding using only modern typologies because they run the risk of creating a monotone city that ignores the traditional architecture which will only intensify the lack of identity.

83


84


Analyses

Adding synergy Rebuilding a city in the 21st century requires more than just rebuilding what used to be there. It requires adding synergy by taking the future challenges into account, drawing up flexible urban plans, and taking the changes in climate into account. Global warming is an indisputable fact and so is the lack of water in the Middle East. It is vital, for the city of Aleppo and its citizens, that the reconstruction plans take climate change into account on all levels of the urban design. The city of Aleppo is not new to adapting to its climate, it has a long history of climate adaptability in its urban tissue, such as using wind and shadow wisely. However, this was never developed as a tool for planning its future. An example of how plans of reconstruction could include climate adaptability is ‘microclimate streets’, which is inspired on the traditional streets of the old city. Also, the city plans could open the streets towards the cool breeze and the green landscape to the west of the city. Furthermore, plans could take advantage of the city’s natural geography to collect rain water.

Sisi street at the Armenian quarter, Jdeydeh district, Aleppo © Pinterest

85


Climate adaptation Street orientation and width Aleppo has relevantly very warm climate over the whole year, Summer protiction from sun is very important and solar access to the sky in the winter, Height to width ratio (H/W) and street orientation are the most relevant urban parameters responsible for microclimatic change is street canyon.

Wind: speeds are slower and more stable in deep canyon in both winter and summer, building position and alignment plays a role in that, narrow street canyons (4m) could increase wind speed passing through it, for better passive cooling placing a few blocks of high rise towers will improve the velocity with in the street parallel: Increase of velocity by 90% temperature decrease 1 degree perpendicular: increase of velocity 10 times temperature decrease 1,1 degree

Vegetation is important to prevent dry climate, North-South orientation streets create more pleasant microclimate, Best street canyon is when the ratio of high and width is ( H/W ≼ 0,5)

86

N


87


Climate adaptation and social, economic, cultural principles. The history of architecture exhibits a positive correlation between the environment and traditional buildings, which have been designed with careful attention to climatic requirements and sociocultural contexts. Traditional courtyard houses in the hot and dry region of Syria can also be considered successful climate-representative architecture that responds to many persistent environmental challenges. These houses use renewable solar and wind energies for passive heating and cooling to provide thermal comfort for their occpants. Traditional courtyard houses apply designprinciples such as compact urban fabrics, regular forms, optimal climatic orientations, dome-shaped roofs, high thermal capacity materials, courtyards as microclimate modifiers, and wind catchers as natural cooling systems. the open courtyard gives the occupant a feeling of privacy and privileges the relations between the individuals of the family, who develop a strong attachment for the house.

Most openings are to the internal courtyard rather than exterior surface.

the courtyard is provided with water and plants, it acts as a cooling source.

In the traditional building the courtyard is accessed by a corridor starting at the house's front door, a design which ensures privacy and security. the characteristic of syrian traditional cities and urban tissue, usually have been designed by narrow streets with tall walls to increase the shaded surface of the street Some parts of the street are even covered by roofs or living spaces on top of the street . Moreover, the streets are rarely designed in a straight line and the street pattern tends to be designed in a semi-organic shape. the main reason for making many turns or twists in the shape of the street is to reduce the speed of hot and dusty winds from the desert. However, it can also be pointed out that these changes in direction of streets make a different range of shadow and light spaces in the street and therefore provide light winds on microclimate scale. The light winds help ventilate and reduce the temperature in the street.

88

Beit Wakil Aleppo image source: unknown


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The Soul of the city A city is more than a constructed surrounding or a gathering of build spaces. To describe a place, often we try to capture an atmosphere; a place is soulless or soul-full; we talk of the ‘heart’, ‘life’ of a city and that it has ‘spirit’ or that it ‘breathes’. Cities are living organisms and therefor easily use emotive language to describe places, which makes the city primarily an emotional experience. We approach it as a living entity and almost ‘humanize’ cities. What is it, this ‘soul of a city’ that we can feel, hear, smell, what we experience as unconscious part of our (emotional) life and memories? What makes this common city-culture a personality which citizens share? Being an Aleppian or a Damascino can give a stronger feeling of mutual connection than a national identity, sometimes even more narrowed down to the scale of neighborhoods or ‘the place down hill’. Interesting is, that a city can carry many identities as a whole, the cultural differences between people can commonly live together as being an Aleppian. That this mutual connection functions different in a city context than a national context (or continent) might come from studies proven strong links between place-identity and place-attachment as a person’s individual development in his direct living surroundings. Eventually, the soul of the city doesn’t only come to existence by the developing culture of the inhabitants. However, the makers of the city such as politicians, planners and architects are implementing their visions in a physical sense, lasting for often a large time span. Connecting to depression of welfare, political disorder, a dictatorial regime or a technocratic decision for a New Town; the interaction between the makers and the inhabitants develops into an intangible flux. Hillman suggests, for instance, that depression or anxiety resulting from a lack of intimacy in formative parental relationships might be mirrored by planners, designers, architects or property developers creating cityscapes that lack that sense of intimacy and connection with its citizens, leading them to feel similarly insecure. 90

After destruction, the stress releases and is radically and quickly influencing the soul of the city. As described the link in place identity and place attachment, ‘Peace Psychologists who noticed, while supporting negotiations in disputed territories that if basic human psychological needs were not made then a solution was less likely. By transferring the processes of psychology from people to cities, seeing them almost as if they were a person provides a fresh outlook and can place complex issues into a more understandable human perspective. This thinking leaves the importance of more traditional urban policy intact but adds an extra insight by taking us into a landscape of feeling and emotion, humanizing urban policy in a way which could have practical uses. And yet, when a city experienced the trauma of war and destruction, as much as the people whom once shaped the soul of the city, scattered all over the globe, and transported from one place to another, sometimes even tabbed in the past, or disconnected to it, how do we find the soul of the city again, and where to search for? The tasks for architects and urban designers is more complex than ever, especially when they are working with changing memories, stories, emotions, and wounds, which is in the area of reconstruction unfortunately a meagre researched aspect. It may be practically easy to remove this aspect in rebuilding physical places because of it complexity, but it is undesirable and impossible to remove and erase the memory of spaces, as well the negative ones. We might as urban designers and architects take advantage of the destruction after war to start from scratch to design new places, but it will be very difficult to find enough human effort to try to investigate and learn the story and history of the new place, which most of the time has the enormous risk to become soulless.


Starting points based on findings in the study Taking in account the complexity of the assignment, regarding the soul of the city, its fluid form which changes over time and the wounds of the city caused by destruction, leads to the following starting points for the design proposals for the future of Aleppo. - the master plan is a proactive steering tool/ a flexible planning methodology - seeing chances in the destruction footprint for the development of public spaces and parks, remembrance of the wounds of the city - adding synergy (past/ current/ future) - applying climate adaption principles - bottom up approach and ownership (communities informal settlements) - using old traditions in design for recognisable elements of what’s lost - taking in account the soul of the city by social reconciliation, rebuilding mutual trust

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Reserved open space

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strategy

Strategy My strategy for Aleppo is to sketch an outline for a robust urban structure that connects the city’s past, present, and future. It should reflect the quality of urbanism the city used to have and anticipate its future challenges.

District scale

I propose to not just rebuild what was lost but to take the opportunity to plan a future city with a better quality of life and one that can adapt to the rapid changes in its climate. Aleppo was a very diverse city and this should be the point of departure for the plans of reconstruction. The design should specifically focus on rebuilding the cultural life after war and should take loss of recognisable places, trust, places with a safe feeling, as well future perspectives into account. Thoroughfares as the backbone of the city The strategy is that every level of the plan uses characteristic elements of the city of Aleppo and then adds value to it by incorporating it in a flexible and durable way. The integral plan for Aleppo is based on a hierarchy in thoroughfares and streets on all levels. The thoroughfares will be the backbone of the city and they will support growth.

Neighbourhood scale

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public programs

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strategy

Preventing a divided city It is very important to prevent the city from being divided, as the examples of rebuilding Beirut and Mostar have shown. Therefore, this should be of the utmost importance in the future plans for Aleppo. There is an opportunity to use the river valley as a place to introduce both public programs and spaces that allow for the east and west of the city to connect. This shouldn’t only be developed on city-scale but also on district-scale. These programmes should be built into the urban structures. Preventing a divided city requires the future stakeholders (e.g., local government, local and international investors, UN, world bank, etc) of the rebuilding plans to envision a united city.

Neighbourhood scale

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strategy

Green structure and renewable energy Currently, green pockets are far away from the thoroughfares and these should be pulled into the city and kept safe from urban sprawling. It not only preserves the scarce green landscape but it also offers flexibility for the future transformation of the city. The plans for Aleppo should implement the green structure in a consistent way, from the west to the east of the city and on all levels. The space along the highways can be used to bring the green structure into the heart of the city.

District scale

Furthermore, the west wind should be harnessed to bring cool air into the city. This will create better living conditions, a better quality of life, and a city that is better equipped to adapt to the changes of its climate. Also, Aleppo’s geography and river valley should be used to collect rainwater. Additionally, Aleppo has more than 3,000 hours of sunshine during the year which makes the introduction of renewable solar energy incredibly lucrative on all levels. The highways could be used as a possible energy transportation system.

Neighbourhood scale

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New subcenters

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strategy

Sub-centres There is an opportunity to update the current spatial model of ‘one centre’ (hosting all administrative, economic and cultural services), which wasn’t able to accommodate the fast-growing population, by creating several new subcentres around the old city centre. This will relieve pressure from the old city centre and distribute the development forces. Adding more centres will enhance both the identity and the position of other districts of the city. The reconstruction plans should support this by creating a flexible urban tissue that allows smaller business to grow which will in turn generate the value of a mixed program.

District scale

Neighbourhood scale

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Informal settlements

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strategy

Bottom-up approach An important part of the strategy is to upgrade and transform the informal settlements since they accommodated for more than 45% of Aleppo’s housing and they were damage most severely in the last 7 years. The informal settlement should be transformed into safe low- to middle-class neighbourhoods. The communities who currently live there are generally fairly intact, have developed a strong sense of community, and they are largely self-organized. This has contributed to these communities strongly identifying with their built environment.

Street in Kareem El Katerji , East Aleppo

The plans for Aleppo should have a bottom-up approach. This will help the citizens feel safe to come back to their city and it is of immense value on the city-scale. Therefore, the people’s ownership has to be strongly present in the rebuilding process and it has to be taken as a tool for future financial models (conditional cash transfer and self-construction).

Ownership neighbourhood scale

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1 Km

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strategy

Seeing destruction as a chance for improvement and the importance of incorporating the wound of war The strategy that is going to accommodate for the aforementioned aspects is based on viewing destruction as an opportunity. First, the physical impact of destruction has left space to add more green structure to the city and to create better public spaces on all scale levels. Secondly, the development of public spaces is necessary to prevent and alleviate social tensions and conflicts. This is particularly important when you take into account that perception of public spaces changed when people took to the streets and squares in the revolution. Finally, by viewing the open spaces left by destruction as wounds the wounds of the city become incredibly visible and tangible. It is important to leave some of those spaces open as a means of remembering. This allows us a chance to create public squares and parks that are places to come to terms with the impact of Aleppo’s incredible losses.

Š AFP

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Percentage damage in residential area of Aleppo City

strategy

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This map illustrates the percentage of buildings damaged in the city of Aleppo, Syrian as determined by satellite imagery analysis. UNOSAT identified a total of 33,521 damagestructures within the extent of this map. These damaged structures are compared with total numbers of buildings found in a pre-conflict satellite image collected in 2009 to determine the percentage of damaged buildings across the city. Note that this analysis considers only damage in residential areas and excludes industrial areas.

Legend Highway / primary road Secondary road nalysis e ten t 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% > 0%

I 37°12'0"E

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Map Scale for A3: 1:60,000 0

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City master plan boundary city polycentric City growth areas Rail-road City ring road and major motorways Carriageways River (Kuaik) Solar farms

recreational river park Metro Lines Hanano

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planning, design principles

City master plan A master plan is a decision-making tool. It serves as an instrument to gather political support and as a basis for discussion with which to evaluate priorities and integrate different visions and wishes for the future city. But, most importantly, master plans are agile and create an integrated overview that focusses on achieving quality and not quantity. A proactive steering tool A master plan is a proactive tool to map the development of Aleppo rather than a reactive instrument that is continuously trying to keep up with the rapid rebuilding processes. It develops a strategic and flexible vision for the city. An approach like this is vital given the current uncertainties and instabilities in Syria. The master plan that we’re proposing will map Aleppo’s opportunities and prepare the city for future challenges such as rapid climate changes and water shortages. The master plan is characterised by looking for possibilities in the face of the destruction and all the damages. First, it offers steering tools to guide agile urban development, release pressure from the city centre, and introduce integrating renewable energy sources. Secondly, it contains a proposal to distribute cooler west winds throughout the city and use highways as a means of bringing green structures into the heart of the city. Finally, the plan works with space reservation as it will use destructed places to create public spaces such as squares and parks. The overall aim is to create a better quality of life for the citizens of Aleppo.

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Landscape to the city, strong network of green parks, west wind to cool down the city,

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Infrastructure to guide the growth of the city, new infrastructure mode( Metro, light rail)

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polycentric city, more centers with strong connection, stronger identity and heather growth,

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the river valley as strong public and social connector, united city with better live qualities.

Think big-Vission plan for paris, France( LIN Finn Geiple+Giulia Andi,Berlin, D,2009)


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planning, design principles

District level The districts will be designed to encourage walking since the shaded streets and courtyards offer an attractive pedestrian environment. The design is inspired by Aleppo’s traditional urban structure which creates a shelter from climate extremes and keeps cars at the edge of the district.

N

The orientation of the main streets, which will run from west to east, is essential to allow the cool west wind to flow through the city. Also, the west-east orientation offers a strong connection to the old city centre (north-south orientation) and connects the districts to the main infrastructure, including highways and a future metro. Introducing a sustainable public transport system will further reduce the use of cars and create a better connectivity.

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By allowing new economic activities to evolve the districts will develop strong centres. Also, using the city’s geography wisely will allow us to collect rainwater on the district-scale which will create a productive local landscape and connect the district to a lot of green structures. (See space availability based on the destruction map

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planning, design principles

District level Map of the current Situation with destruction levels, the red areas are flattened to the ground which are opportunities for green and public space.

current situation with projection of the destruction map,

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District design principles District transformation shows the new pedestrian routes, and the hierarchy in streets, public space and green structure.

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N

pleasant and save pedestrian streets,city center connection, slow traffic and bicycle lines, Connects the green structure.

Space for programs to grow, district center, with good connectivity to the city center. reserve zones and spaces for the future services.

Cars are secondary, present on the main road outside,Hierarchy in the streets,

Introducing new modes of transports, buses and Metro, .


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District design principles District transformation shows the new pedestrian routes, and the hierarchy in streets, public space and green structure.

parks, green street structure which adds better life quality, and better street experience.

Using the main (East-West) street structure for better passive cooling.

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N

Highway as a landscape corridor, to bring the landscape to the city, productive landscape in possible places in the area.

using the topography to collect rainwater, locally and on the area scale, by using the main streets to accommodate it.


planning, design principles

To achieve a high quality of urban development on the district-level the local municipality will have to play a big role in supporting connecting the different communities. Furthermore, having flexibility in the planning and development and allowing micro developments within the district is crucial to accommodate the master plan and channel the investments efficiently. To ensure flexible plans the local authorities and city governance will have to be responsible for the overall vision and the large structures and they will have to regularly communicate this with the local communities.

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Section in the highway, and the forbidden built space next to the highway, which can become an urban park, connecting the landscape to the city center

highway as a park added Values

N

Refresh the city lower tempreture

Promotes biodiversity

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Captures CO2

captures & purify water

Real estate value

Life quality


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street section which accommodated the future transport mode (light rail, Metro)

N

75

75

75

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section in future square, the height and orientation plays a big role for better shade in the sunny warm days,

N

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125


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planning, design principles

Neighbourhood level The area that I have used as a case-study is located in the east part of the city and was an informal settlement before 2011. (it is (40 h) and (1464 plot)). Transforming and upgrading these informal settlements is an essential part of the plan to rebuild Aleppo. The proposed design principles suggest employing a ‘bottom up’ approach which gives people back the ownership of their own neighbourhoods. Due a lack of public space, public services, and spatial hierarchy it is very important to establish a framework of policies that would generate a civic and legal structure. The civic and legal structure is instrumental in transforming the informal settlements into established and integrated neighbourhoods. The so called ‘destruction foot print’ also functions as a key element in transforming the informal settlements. The open spaces that this destruction has left offer room to introduce public space and can even help adjust the hierarchy in the existing urban structure. The destruction footprint allows for the transformation of the existing urban grid to be more flexible with the chance to add green structure, climate adaptable streets, and diverse urban blocks.

N

Area 40 h totaal plots 1464 lost 350 Scale 1/1000

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planning, design principles

Neighbourhood situation map before 2011,

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1- collecting the residues of the buildings in a local area , reuse this material on a local scale, to rebuild and recycle, more efficient, and creates new jobs, reserving the future park location.

2- reusing the materials in the construction, the destruction has left voids which have similarities in the traditional voids, around the recycle center new programs are being developed,

3-the neighbourhood and the blocks are taking form, also applying the the plot principles, the recycle center is shrinking and green is starting to develop,new place memory and identity.

4- the neighbourhood is forming a social, economic structure, and a climate adaptable structure, the park is taking a final form, and programs are being accommodated

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planning, design principles

neighbourhood scale Furthermore, on the neighbourhood-scale the destruction footprint will be used as a geographical guide to map the transformation of the neighbourhoods and reserve spaces for green structures and public squares. Ownership is very important in getting citizens to return to Aleppo and ensuring an inclusive city in the future. To attain this local authorities and local communities need to collaborate and hold the same vision.

traditional urban public squares

the ownership map is very essential in the transformation process, and have to be used as an underlayment for the future development

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Neighborhood design principles Neighborhood transformation shows the new pedestrian routes, and the hierarchy in streets, public space and green structure.

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N

Hierarchy in the streets, pleasant and save pedestrian streets

Public car free streets which connects the main programs, public squares,which allows programs to develop.

Cars are secondary, present on the main road outside

Central park, green street structure which adds better life quality, and better street experience.


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Neighborhood design principles Neighborhood transformation shows the new Block diversity, and flexibility, the climate adaptability.

Block diversity, and flexibility, which makes the urban tissue very adaptable to the future development opportunities.

Using the main (East-West) street structure to get better wind flow on the outside edges of the neighborhood and increase wind speed passing through it, for better passive cooling

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Diverse semi-public spaces inside the block, enforced by different traditional types of plantation.

using the topography to collect rainwater, locally and on the area scale, by using the main streets to accommodate it.


Laurel tree

Food,massage therapy and aromatherapy. Aleppo soap.

Jasmine tree

Stimulates relaxes supports self confidence

lemon tree

Lavender

orange tree

Roses

antidepressants encourages physical activity

relaxes and encourages physical activity

planning, design principles

Some traditional trees and plants from Aleppo

the scent that helps against insomnia.

lowers the level of adrenaline refreshes the memory

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section in main street, urban polivard with three lines of trees to give the maximum shade, and wide sidewalk to accommodate the programs and the pedestrian,

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planning, design principles

section in street, with two lines of trees to give the maximum shade, and sidewalk to accommodate the pedestrian,

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section in main street,cars are secondary, and they can park overnight and the street is mainly accommodating the programs and the pedestrian,with trees on the soth west side of the street for maximum shade,

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section in street, block level, one direction for cars, pedestrian sidewalks are dominant.

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planning, design principles

section in street, relation to the park

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section in street, block level inside street, cars are the guest,parking overnight

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Block transformation design principles Block study shows the transformation from an existing structure to a socially, economically and climate adaptable one.

1-

4-

Hierarchy in the streets, pleasant and save pedestrian streets

7-

Better wind flow on the outside edges of the block, and increase wind speed passing through it, for better passive cooling

2- Destroyed area reserved as

5-

new urban patterns, public space. save for children's, and it enforces the inward sense of community

8-

Collection of rainwater, which helps to add moisture to the microclimate in the street and can be transferred in the street to a reservoir in the area,

3-

6-

Space for green and for better outdoor living environment, microclimate. Semi-private space on the block level.

9-

Better shade areas and cooler outdoor space inside the block, and accessibility to sky light.

Block old structure, size 70m by 150m, All streets are East-West orinted,

public space, adding north south connection, new pattern which reflects the organic patterns of the traditional urban fabric.

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N

Transforming the middle street to a pedestrian street,car free.


planning, design principles

Block level The design for the block-levels are, again, inspired by Aleppo’s traditional urban structure. It gives a clear boundary and at the same time allows for a lot of flexibility for if circumstances change in the future. The design for the blocks create a better social, economic, and climate adaptable future for its citizens.

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Plot transformation design principles Plot study shows the transformation from an existing structure to a socially, economically and climate adaptable, allows family growth.

15-25m

N

20% of the plot: Green garden courtyard 8-10m

4 possible plot forms

1- Section for the existing structure of the plots

Plots transformation on block level

2- Section transformation by taking out 20% for open space

3- Adding extra floor

extra floor is 20% less built and roof gardens, Inside outside on blood level, public and private,

4- Adding solar panels on the roofs, water tank in the garden to collect rainwater

5- taking orientation in

account, sun and wind, which helps creating microclimate. 2 degrees cooler Green courtyards, semi-public squares

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planning, design principles

Plot transformation By not only legalizing but also supporting selfreconstruction and citizen ownership people regain their neighbourhood. Community governance will have to play a big role in shaping this. This can only be achieved if local authorities and the municipality collaborate and if they in turn are supported by the international players and investors. The design for the plots ensure that the informal status of the plot is legalised and that every plot is powered by solar energy. This stimulates people to build their own sustainable future. This creates: -Plot legalisation -allowing families to grow -win/win situation for all parties involved -involvement and investment in semi-public spaces -climate adaptable buildings

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New block typology design principles new block, in some areas for higher density, collective transformation, public,private development

N B

4-6m 15-25m

8-10m

A

A

5-8m

30% of the plot garden 20 % semi-public courtyard

10-12m

8-10m

B New block, size: L 70-100 m W 40-60 hight 5-6 floors Section A-A

1- the block fits in the existing urban tissue,

Room for programs on the ground floors, parking in the center of the block, height diversity.

Section B-B

Section A-A

2- green courtyards, better social coher-

semi-public courtyards,

ence and safety,Adding solar panels on the roofs, water tank in the garden to collect rainwater Section B-B

Section A-A

3- taking orientation in account, sun and wind, which helps creating microclimate. 2 degrees cooler

courtyards with water elements, and green Section B-B

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planning, design principles

New block typology The design for the block is highly versatile and considers the social- and economic situation and takes the climate into account. The traditional courtyard principle is applied to block-level which creates better social security and is a more efficient use of the land, anticipating a future population growth for the city of Aleppo.

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Which public services should resume first ?

8%

6% electricity water

38 %

12 %

health/schools public services telecommunication

12 %

infrastructure

24 %

From December 2014 The Aleppo project interviewed 940 men and women mostley in the east of the city about their vision for the city, one of the questions was, `which public services should resume first ? as you can see in the graph above, 60 per cent want electricity or water restored to Aleppo first. another 20 per cent want public services, including security and a judiciary system or healthcare and schools restored first. The rest want telecommunication or other infrastructure restored first.

planning, design principles

Future of solar energy in Aleppo Large solar plants offer one of the best ways to restore power to Syrian cities such as Aleppo. They are cheap to manufacture, quick to assemble, and have relatively low running costs. Furthermore, dispersed solar systems would also add resilience to an energy system that has been severely damaged by war and that remains at risk for violent attacks. Reconstruction requires electricity but supplying it in conflict situations has proven difficult as Iraq and Afghanistan have shown us. Both countries had hoped to rely on oil and natural gas to generate electricity but redeveloping central power generators and widespread distribution networks has proven almost impossible because of insurgences. Power stations and power lines are attractive targets because of the number of people that will be affected by an attack. Solar panels would help to off-set some of these security concerns. Small solar plants that provide power to local communities would, one, be protected locally, and two, offer less attractive targets. This is because solar panels operate independently of each other, blowing up one does not cause the whole system to go off line. Further, reducing investments in vulnerable distribution networks would mean less waste when power lines are attacked.

the world’s largest solar park is set to move forward this month. Phase 3 of the Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park in Dubai will add 800 megawatts (MW) of clean energy to the enormous solar park. The project could be a big win for the environment, expected as it is to displace 6.5 million metric tons of carbon dioxide every year when it is completed

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Ring road

planning, design principles

Solar farms possible locations

Photovoltaic solar systems do not solve every energy problem — its inability to store energy for example is a serious limitation—but it could provide cost-effective and resilient energy to a complex post-conflict environment in a way that has been impossible using thermal generators. Solar panels should be implemented on all scalelevels of reconstructing the city of Aleppo. On the regional-scale solar farms can be built on the landscape around the city, especially in areas where soil isn’t fertile enough for agriculture. On a city-scale solar panels could be added to the sides of the 35km highway of Aleppo’s city ring. This would actually serve two functions, it would produce energy and it would also act as a sound barrier, something which Aleppo does not yet have and significantly contributes to a better quality of life. The master plan has allocated 175,000 m2 to solar panels. These panels can produce 27 (MW) megawatt. An average home uses about 11,000 kWh per year. This means that the average homeowner will need 28 – 34 solar panels to cover 100% of their energy usage (dependent on location and roof size). Since nearly all the roof in Aleppo are flat it means that it is possible to cover a significant part of them with solar panels

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lt

Ring rowad section

Inside outside on blood level, public

Solar roofs

Ouarzazate solar power plant. The new installation already creates 160 megawatts of power and is expected to grow to cover 6,000 acres by 2018, Situated in the Sahara Desert, its crescent-shaped solar mirrors follow the sun to soak up sunlight all day long. The mirrors, each of which is 40 feet tall, focus light onto a steel pipeline that carries a synthetic thermal oil solution. The oil in those pipes can reach 740 f, and that’s what’s used to create electricity: The heat is used to create steam which drives turbines. The hot oil can be stored to create energy overnight, too.

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Green courtyards, semi-public squar


Scenario planning

scenario planning

- In scenario planning stakeholders together identify risks, opprtunities,roles and responsibilities. - Therfore scenarios are a tool for risk management - Each scenario leads to its owen specific set of options - Some scenarios share ‘no regret’ measures - No regret measures for Aleppo are: investment in robust infrastructure, renewable energy sources , and sustainable, climate adaptable housing principle

Scenario planning is a strategic planning method to make flexible long-term plans. The concept was originally derived from game theory and has since been used by multinationals, governments, military, and scientists. The planning method consists of four steps: 1. Dominant variables: The ongoing complex conflict in Syria and the uncertainty of the political situation makes assessing Aleppo’s future difficult. What are the important variables in this situation? For Aleppo it’s the political stability and the economic growth. 2. Uncertainties and risks: : Each variable can either have a positive or a negative outcome. For example, the crisis in Syria might end within a few years or it might remain unresolved. In this step the dominant variables are plotted in coordinate axes. 3. Scenarios: Where the dominant variables meet on the two axes they produce four extreme future scenarios. These scenarios are not described as desirable end-situations but rather as possible outcomes. 4. Strategy: Each scenario has its own specific risks, opportunities, and possible (counter) measures. Moreover, each scenario has its own ‘no regret’ measures, the measures that are helpful no matter what changes the future holds. This information is vital for decision-making and strategic investments.

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Identifying dominant variables

Identifying uncertainties and risks

Discussing effects and anticipating strategies

Transparency

Risk management

Each scenario has certain consequences for people, communities, businesses, public authorities, and organisations. It is important to involve these stakeholders when drawing up the regional scenarios. They can contribute valuable knowledge by elaborating on each scenario.

Working with spatial and socio-economic scenarios is not a method to predict the future. However, it is a form of risk management. The aim is to develop a toolbox to prepare the region for any future developments.

Discussing the scenarios doesn’t necessarily need to lead to a consensus but can rather contribute to a greater mutual understanding. This is probably more important than the actual scenario descriptions.

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Developing possible future scenarios

It should be noted that the scenario planning as described above has only been performed in a limited case-study circle. My goal is to demonstrate how the method works and what it can do. The master plan involves repeating the exercise of drawing up such scenarios with all of Aleppo’s stakeholders, internationally, as well as regionally.


scenario planning

Scenario Planning Possible scenarios for the futute of Aleppo.

STABILITY Scenario 2:

Scenario 1:

geopolitical stability & economic growth, Repatriation of Syrian and rapid development, Aleppo city grows economically

geopolitical stability & economic stagnation, partly repatriation of Syrian Aleppo city deteriorated, social conflict

GROWTH

STAGNATION Scenario 3:

Scenario 4:

geopolitical crisis& economic growth, people are moving from other regions to Aleppo and rapid development, Aleppo city grows economically Risc of divided city

geopolitical crisis& economic stagnation, more people are leaving Aleppo, Syria. economical stagniation city is deteriorated.

CRISIS The horizontal axis denotes the economic situation, with complete stagnation versus vibrant growth as extremes. The vertical axis denotes the crisis in Syria, with a return to safe stability versus a further escalation of the humanitarian crisis as extremes

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geopolitical stability & economic growth, repatriation of Syrian and rapid development, Aleppo city grows economically,

Scenario 1

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Food: the end of war in syria and increasing stability enhances food production in the regeon of Aleppo, which supports the city economy,

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poupulation: increeases and more people moves to the city, growing social tention, importants of green and public space and housing development.

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water and energy: due to increasing demand for water , water use for agriculture becomes restricted, alternative water sources like reainwater collection. other energy sources like solar farms and local solar energy.

program: more centers on the city scale, rapid development and economical growth.

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Scenario 1: Opportunities and risks Opportunities in scenario 1 - High degre of self-reliance - Stable situation, growing economy and willing investors -Economic activities in construction, food production and logistics for rebuilding - open borders and international cooperation

Risks in scenario 1 - water shortage, electricity shortage - traffic congestions, city center - Deterioation of infrastructure - Inadequate supply of housing, health, education - sprawl in informal settlements - Solid waste disposal issues

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Scenario 1: Robust investments The risks and opportunities of this scenario with the desired investments: • Investments in infrastructure and new types of transportation such as a metro and railroads. • Investments and reserving spaces for strategically spaced areas such as strips along the main roads. • Investments and reserving spaces for green- and public spaces. • Investments in the housing sector and upgrading and transforming the informal settlements. • Investments in water management systems focussing on efficiency, desalination, and water transport. • Investments in renewable energy sources such as solar farms and solar roofs. • Acknowledgement of human resources.


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geopolitical stability & economic stagnation, partly repatriation of Syrian. Aleppo city deteriorated, social conflict

Scenario 2

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water and energy: due to increasing demand for water , water use for agriculture becomes restricted, alternative water sources like reainwater collection. other energy sources like solar farms and local solar energy.

program: more centers on the city scale, rapid development and economical growth.

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Scenario 2: Opportunities and risks Opportunities in scenario 2 - Self-reliance - Stable situation, - Economic activities in construction, food production and logistics for rebuilding - open borders and international cooperation

Risks in scenario 2 - Social tentions - Interregional migration - Deterioation of infrastructure - Unemployment and poverty - Deterioration of housing qualities

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Scenario 2: Robust investments The risks and opportunities of this scenario with the desired investments: • Investments in all types of infrastructure. • Investments in water and irrigation-management systems. • Investments in renewable energy sources such as solar farms and solar roofs. • Acknowledgement of human resources.


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geopolitical crisis& economic growth, people are moving from other regions to Aleppo and rapid development,economical growth Risc of divided city

Scenario 3

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Infrastructure: Investment in infrastrucure decline, but there remains a demand for efficient interregeonal connection and improved routs for collective transport and distribution.


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Scenario 3: Opportunities and risks Opportunities in scenario 3 - Increasing international donations and aid, - A higher priority on the international agenda, - A large and growing pool of Syrian human re sources for work in the region around Syria,

Risks in Scenario 3 - Deterioration of infrastructure - Water deterioration risks and shortage - Desertification of agricultural land, - Food shortage -Demographic changes - Social tentions and local conflicts

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Scenario 3: Robust investments The risks and opportunities of this scenario with the desired investments: • Investments in all types of infrastructure. • Investments in water- and irrigation management systems and rainwater catchment systems. • Investments in renewable energy sources such as solar farms and solar roofs. • Investments in the housing sector to upgrade and transform the informal settlements. • Acknowledgement of human resources.


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geopolitical crisis& economic stagnation, more people are leaving Aleppo, Syria, city is deteriorated.

Scenario 4

Food: the war continues in syria is but, lack of stability and uncertain future, agricultural production is decreasing in the region of Aleppo,the city becomes more dependent upon import and aid,

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Infrastructure:no demand for efficient interregeonal connection and improved routs for collective transport and distribution.


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Scenario 4: Opportunities and risks Opportunities in scenario 4 - International donations and aid, - A higher priority on the international agenda, - A large and growing pool of Syrian human re sources for work in the region around Syria,

Risks in Scenario 4 - Deterioration of infrastructure - Water deterioration risks and shortage - Desertification of agricultural land, - Food shortage - Demographic changes - Shrinking economy and investments

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Scenario 4: Robust investments The risks and opportunities of this scenario with the desired investments: • Investments in all types of infrastructure. • Investments in water- and irrigation management systems and rainwater catchment systems. • Investments in renewable energy sources such as solar farms and solar roofs. • Acknowledgement of human resources.


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Working with scenarios concludes with an integrating step: Identifying the ‘no regret’ measures: the measures that are helpful no matter what changes the future holds. The four aforementioned scenarios give rise to three important ‘no regret’ measures: 1. Infrastructure: Prioritise robust investments in the regional infrastructure such as: • Good traffic- and transport infrastructure on the city-scale; • Services (utilities, healthcare, education, etc.); • Water supply, food production, and housing; • Renewable energy sources. 2. Regional economy: Investigate whether the Syrian refugees outside Syria and those displaced within Syria can be utilised to activate the local and regional economy. Refugees are not merely consumers, they can also contribute to the economy with knowledge, skills, entrepreneurship, and sometimes with personal financial reserves. 3. End value: Look beyond the costs and returns of tomorrow and invest in creating long term economic value. Investing in end-value initially carries higher costs but it yields sustainable returns, both financially as well as in social terms.

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Reflection This study proposes viewing a city as a living organism that is ever changing and has a soul that is socially and culturally constructed. While this isn’t a common notion yet it does account for the impact of war on a city, which really is more than just the physical changes to its appearance. Since we are reaching an age where half of the world population lives in cities, the relationship we have with our direct environment is increasingly connected to the complexity of the fabric of the city. Throughout history cities have been places for people to congregate, exchange, and for traditions, experiences, and memories to be passed on. These interactions have helped shape our cities because they are translated into physical spaces. When rebuilding cities, it is easier to disregard the fact that a city has a soul and that spaces hold collective memories, and just focus on rebuilding physical places. But this study has shown that it is undesirable (and actually impossible) to remove the memory of spaces, especially in the case of war torn cities. Rather, urban designers should use the open spaces created by the destruction of war as opportunities for collective spaces and healing. Rebuilding a place always carries the risk of the rebuild being soulless. However, this study suggest that this can be avoided by using the ruins of destruction as an instrumental part of the rebuilding process rather than just erasing them by filling them with new structures. Furthermore, this study concludes that urban design is ideally equipped to tackle post conflict reconstruction because the discipline understands complexity, multiple layers, and the challenges that a city may face. While in the past traditional urban design failed to deal with the “hyper-dynamic” changes that accompany post-conflict cities, I propose that flexible planning / “scenario planning” can be instrumental in steering and accommodating post conflict reconstructions. It can both assess the current situation and anticipate future challenges. Furthermore, it manages the involvement of all stakeholders and guides the development process. 179


Many cases of post-conflict reconstruction seem to go wrong pretty quickly. In the case of Sarajevo, the absence of planning and urban design created a very narrow approach to reconstruction: most donor’s simply cherry-picked reconstruction projects without consulting local stakeholders or adhering to an overall vision for the city. Beirut also struggled with not having an overall integral plan for the reconstruction of the city which led to local actors misusing development plans and a divided city that is constantly plagued by conflict. These examples of Sarajevo and Beirut show us that it is incredibly important to have a processbased integral approach to reconstructing postconflict cities. It is important for Aleppo and its future stakeholders that an overall vision and master plan is developed that has considerations for the different possible future development scenarios. The key is to consider all the different possible scenarios and create solutions that all adhere to the overall master plan for the city. This study is the very first step in creating the master plan for the reconstruction of the city of Aleppo. This case study should serve as a guide of where to start and a map for the different steps that are necessary to develop the master plan. Implementing the master plan in a sustainable manner that is not tied to ad-hoc political and economic conditions involves its principles being turned into plans, policies, and eventually actions. Here are the study’s conclusions for the Aleppo’s reconstruction master plan

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Create flexible plans: Scenario planning is vital for post-war rebuilding; it ensures all player’s involvement and it creates a clear direction for the investments. Working with scenario planning allows you to identify the “no regret “measures which steers the investments in the right direction and it focuses the plans on long term development. It helps create a sustainable future, not just financially but also socially. This case study has shown that Aleppo’s “no regret” measures are that investments in both infrastructure and renewable energy will always be beneficial.

The financial systems should be focused on selfconstruction and conditional cash transfer which impowers the locals and gives them the opportunity to be part of the future development of their city. Regard destruction as an opportunity: The physical foot-print of destruction in Aleppo actually allows for the opportunity to add green structure in the city, public space on the neighbourhood-level, and room for a clear urban block design. It also gives the opportunity for future development and allows for flexibility in the urban structure.

Focus on development and growth: Investing in infrastructure that brings the city’s landscape into the city and that increases its citizen’s mobility will allow the city to grow and develop. Avoid a divided city: To avoid a divided city Aleppo’s master plan needs to prioritise efforts on all scale-levels that bring people together. One example is to reserve space in the river valley for public programs that strengthen the eastwest connection. Focus on climate adaptations: -create green pockets that connect the city with its green landscape. -preserve open spaces to allow for city green spaces. -create a west-east orientation in the main city structure to allow the wind to naturally cool the city. Create a polycentric city: The design in Aleppo’s master plan should be polycentric: several centres that each have their own strong identity. This will encourage growth and flexible urban tissue which in turn allows businesses to grow and mixed programs to develop Support ownership: Aleppo’s informal settlements should be transformed and upgraded since they make up more than 45% of Aleppo’s housing and since they suffered the most damages in the last 7 years. It is very important that this transformation is based on ownership, which has been standard UBHABITAT practice in Gaza city.

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Recommendations ● Flexible planning is a strong tool to, with the involvement of all stakeholders, draw the sustainable future of the city. ● The reconstruction plan must be completed with an updated city-level vision and a strategy and action plan for transforming the informal settlements. This should be done by consulting local and international urban planners, and with the involvement of the residents of Aleppo.

● An online platform should be created where people and professionals can share their ideas and thoughts on Aleppo’s future challenges and opportunities. The platform should collect both the hard and soft data. ● International collaboration should focus on environmental sustainability and invest in poverty prevention and exclusion prevention. ● Enhancing resilience and self-reliance in communities’ insid the city and outside, Training and knowledge building for reconstruction especially in the refugees camps in the region.

● A reconciliation deal that includes a clear provision of land ownership is necessary. Furthermore, this deal should address the provision of housing, land, and property rights to heal social tensions and prevent future conflicts. ● Preparations should be made to consult Syrian citizens and local councils to create a mechanism that resolves land disputes, trains paralegals, and establishes law clinics for marginalized groups. ● The number of widows and matriarchal households that are at risk of being disinherited from their property is significant. These people require special considerations and must be provided with information and legal assistance. ● The reconstruction work should be closely monitored to ensure that corruption is punished. Evictions should be forbidden unless those affected have signed an agreement and have been fully compensated. ● Aside from physical reconstruction the Syrian people are in need of social reconciliation to enable them to live together after the siege of Aleppo. It should be noted that this is unlikely to occur as long as the regime is in a triumphant mood, and to date it has shown no interest in reconciliation. ● Inclusive workshops should immediately be organised in the refugee camps surrounding Aleppo. These camps comprise an incredibly diverse group and our stakeholders must use this as a learning opportunity for creating the reconstruction plans. 182

IN MAFRAQ, JORDAN, A group of Syrian refugees is studying the art of stonemasonry. They gather each day at 5 a.m. to learn how to hammer pieces of rock into the kinds of beautiful ornaments that once adorned the buildings of Aleppo, before the war reduced them to rubble. @World Monuments Fund


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prototyping workshop with Aleppo ex-residence and children In preparation of the master plan for Aleppo I organised a workshop, in Amsterdam, in 2017, on the soul of the city for ex-residents of Aleppo and other war torn cities. The aim was to understand the experiences and stories of the people’s life in the city. Through architectural models of the city we tried to explore the impact of war on a city, both physical and emotional. In the final model people were invited to imagine how a city could be reconstructed to not only address the physical reconstruction but also address the emotional impact of war on a place. The workshop explored 4 parts:

The city before war: One model represented the rational city planned by architects and urban designers. There is a logic to the layout of the grid, streets and blocks. We can identify different urban typologies including minor and major streets, squares, a park or public space, and varying size buildings. This symbolises the city as we know it.


The city in war: War wreaks havoc and destruction on a city. When the physical fabric of a city is demolished buildings, parks, roads, and landmarks disappear overnight leaving only rubble and voids. These new spaces in the city then become part of people’s experience and memory of a place during war.

The soul of the city / The invisible layers of the city: War has an impact on not only the physical architecture of a city but also on its inhabitants and their collective memories of a place. This destruction may not be immediately tangible. Smells, sounds, and stories once associated with a city may be destroyed too. These invisible layers can be what makes a city unique, so when they are gone the soul of the city is changed or lost.


A reimagined city: Post-war reconstruction tends to focus on the physical rebuilding of a city but should it also consider recreating the soul of the city? How should we reimagine a post-conflict future city? Should the rebuilding of a city aim to recreate the rational city – the city as we once knew it? Or should reconstruction respond to the destruction brought by war and explore how new spatial forms could be expressed? Or should the reconstruction rather start with trying to repair the invisible layers of the city? In this workshop it was clear that most of the people did not fully understand the role of urban designers and planners. It was also clear, however, that professional urban designers are necessary in rebuilding cities. The workshop allowed participants to share their memories, hopes, and dreams for the future of Aleppo and one conclusion was that the physical voids caused by war should be part of the future city. This workshop also showed that this method of workshopping is effective to involving people in the plans for the future of the city. On a larger scale this method can be translated into a digital online platform. An overall conclusion from the workshop was the importance of holding such a workshop in the region surrounding Aleppo, in particularly in the refugee camps. Since the majority of the people in the refugee camps have the intention of going back to Aleppo such a programme creates the opportunity to attract involvement and spread knowledge of the reconstruction plans.


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Appendix

189


Existing City before 2011, built space 190


Existing City before 2011, built space, green areas 191


Master plan 2004

Master plan 2010 192


District boundaries

District centers 193


Planned residential areas before 2011

Public services 194


Roads

Green Areas 195


Tourism Areas

Forests 196


Cemeteries

Vineyard and Orchards 197


Academy of Architecture

Amsterdam University of the Arts

Master in Urbanism

198

2018


199


425a.s.l

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The soul of the city_Bengin Abdullah  

The soul of the city_Bengin Abdullah  

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