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Fermenting Papirøen: making Pressure visible

Pine Oil

Dalia Matsuura Frontini

Technical Studies Portfolio - Intermediate 9 2015 Christopher Pierce, Christopher Matthews and Charlotte Moe


How to read this book: Every chapter in this TS book have a specific aim, as listed in here: to begin with, it shows the projects vision and the important drawings, then starting to chaper: one, the Paper Island and the impact of intervening in its location close to Noma. Two, Noma’s Fermentation as the process to analyze gases. Three, the pressure systems in the Carlsberg factory, Four, the impact of intervening in the exhisting buildings of the Paper Island. Five, the TS proposal. Six, making prototype models in 1:1 scale. Seven, the types of Gases found in the Laboratories and Making pressure visible through my proposal and eight, my references that inspired my design and strategy.


CONTENTS

o. KEY DRAWINGS: - The project’s Vision - The Stack Effect - The Fermentation Laboratory - Karyokinesis - Pressure and Buoyancy - Goniochromism - The Noble Gases

i. PROJECT INTRODUCTION: Copenhagen and the Archipelago - The Nordic Archipelago - The Paper Island - The Warehouses of Paper Island

ii. DESIGN STARTEGY: The Fermentation Laboratory - Noma’s (Nordic Food Lab) Fermentation Process - Fermentation Laboratory setup - The Platform and the Rings - The Packaged Gases - Pressure - Package Scale - Growth Sequence - Density of Gases and Effervescence - Analysis

iii. PRECEDENT STUDY: The Carlsberg Brewery Factory - The Carlsberg Factory, The Architectural Kingdom - The Brewhouse - Bacteria - The Whirlpools of the Brewhouse - Brewing Technology - The Stack Effect - The Winding Chimney

iv. BUILDING STUDY: The Paper Island site - The Paper Island Flipped Roof - The Event Room: Material Study and Structure Study - The Office: Material Study and Structure Study - The Car Park: Material Study and Structure Study - The Science Museum and The Food Market: Material Study and Structure Study - Model testing - Structural Analysis - Carving

v. STRUCTURE: The Incubator and Package - Inserting the Incubator - The Science Museum and the Market Scheme - The Package and the Incubator - The 6 Construction Steps - 1. Removing Existing Structure - 2. Micropiling - 3. Glass and Hardware - 4. Air Incubator - 5. Anchorage - 6. The Package and Cables

vi. MODEL TESTING: The Package - Membrane types - Ellipse Membrane - The Deflated State - The Membrane - Making the Fermentation Package - The Cloak - Catalogue of Forms - Karyokinesis - Pressure and Buoyancy - The Fermented plaster

vii. DRAWINGS: The Noble Gases and The Stack Effect - Ground Plan - The Stack Effect sequence - Catalogue of Incubators - Goniochromism - Catalogue of the Noble Gases - The Opera Collage - The Convex Mirror Collage - The 416 Christiansholm Collage

viii. TIME: - The Treasure Island - The Fermentation Phases: Papiroen Now - Lagtime phase - Exponential Phase - Maltose - High Kraeusen - Flocculation - Precipitation - Evaporation

ix. FERMENTATION: - Atmospheric Pressure versus Gravity - From Incubators to Hot air Balloons: Types of Packages - Models

x. REFERENCES: - Inspirations - Materials - Carving and Coating


AIM of the Technical Studies Project: To make Pressure visible Thus determine how pressure can change the volume and form of package (in the Fermentation Laboratory). Hypothesizing that the change of pressure in the incubator is determined by the change of volume of the package. The Fermentation Laboratory is an autonomous system which collides into the existing building or stand alone. Divided into two key functions: the incubator and the package. The package will respond to the activities in the incubator. The package will store the gases and the incubator will control the air flow and temperature.


Fabrimeister

Operaen

Havnebussen River

Copenhagen - The Opera House, Birds eye view


COPENHAGEN

7 pascal

8.5 pascal 5 pascal

20 pascal 10 pascal 4.5 pascal

6.5 pascal

6 pascal

Galionsvej

2 pascal

1 pascal

The Paper Island

Noma

Royal Danish Playhouse

Nyhavn

Copenhagen - Fermenting Papiroen, Birds eye view


INFLATED:

1.

DEFLATED:

2.

3.

4.

5.

The change of pressure in the incubator is determined by the change of volume of the package

The Stack Effect - Fermenting Papiroen, Section 1:500 Scale

6.

7.

8.


4

Pressure (Pa) 4

1

1 0.25 Steel Collar

0.05 0.25

Attachment to the existing roof

Steel Collar

0.05

Attachment to the existing roof

Incubator -30 to +30 degrees Celcius temperature variation

Incubator

-30 to +30 degrees Celcius temperature variation

Glass and Hardware (30 to 50 cm thickness)

Glass and Hardware Micropiling (30 to 50 cm thickness)

(-6 meters depth minimum)

Micropiling (-6 meters depth minimum)

Underground Type Concrete pavement and Limestone underground

Underground Type Concrete pavement and Limestone underground

Irredescent Colours

The irridescent Fabric is vital to see how the colour changes when a force is acting on it

c=75 m= 5 y=100 k =0 c=180 m= 0 y=0 k =0

c=0 m= 50 y=0 k =0

c=0 m= 70 y=0 k =0

Pressure is the amount of force acting per unit area. The symbol of pressure is p or Pa.

c=60 m= 0 y=80 k =0

p is the pressure, F is the normal force, A is the area of the surface on contact.

c = 0 m = 10 y = 80 k = 10

Pressure is a scalar quantity. It relates the vector surface element (a vector normal to the surface) with the normal force acting on it. The pressure is the scalar proportionality constant that relates the two normal vectors.

The Fermentation Laboratory - Fermenting Papiroen, Section 1:100 Scale


KARYOKINESIS

Determine the Density of Magic Plastic influences the form of the package.

Maximum Volume

Incipit: Medium 1: Air tube

Medium 2: Inflatable

1 to 20: a progressive growth of the Magic Plastic in a fraction of exactly 43 Seconds.

x

6

1

16 11

POP!

x 2

2

7 12

17

x 4

3

8 13 18

Karyokinesis These rules are both applied for the process of: Mitosis, Effervescence and Magic Plastic. Mitosis: The 4 phases of cell complementation and creation of different nuclei. Effervescence: when different densities of bubbles meet Magic Plastic: has different densities in the plastic, so causes change of direction and volume of the inflatable

4

9 14

19

Excipit:

5

10

15 20

Density - of Polyvinyl Acetate, Elevation 1:2 Scale


PRESSURE AND BUOYANCY:

Determine the amount of pressure needed to lift an x amount of mass

Medium 1: Medium 2: Plateau Inflatable

D Time The Plateau rising from water level to ground level. A potentiality of bridging and inhabitation.

ΔTime - The Plateau, Elevation 1:4 Scale


GONIOCHROMISM Goniochromism is a property of certain surfaces that appear to change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.

Colour Scripts: (xx yy zz)

c3af7a

a08fa2

ce5370

b45187

b45187

929db9

ef5792

50fe9d

314939

4666b9

d64b36

a974e0

d9fe56

7d502f

Goniochromism - Irredescent Film, material study 1:5 Scale


THE NOBLE GASES: Every kitchen/lab has a particular type of : residual gas, temperature, function and scale of package. Each Gas is ideal to perform a standard scale for the package. These gases are stored in the packages and generated in the incubators

Full image in Chapter VII (drawings)

Catalogue of the Noble Gases - Fermenting Papiroen, Section Perspective 1:500 Scale


EVOLUTION OF PACKAGES: Starting from Stage 1 (explored from Chapter 1-7), to developing the DIY types of buckets. These are made of the local material you find in the Paper Island and in which Noma restauranters and chefs will build and gradually lift off from ground.

stage 1

stage 2

stage 3

stage 4

stage 5

stage 6

stage 7

stage 8

stage 9

stage 10

1. Glass incubator 2. Steel tiles 3. Brick 4. Timber spiral 5. Timber clad 6. Timber frame 7. Steel plates 8. Bicycle 9. Concrete bucket 10. Hot Air Balloon

Concrete

Piles

Limestone

Debris

Evolution of the Labs - The Paper Island, Section 1.400 Scale


AERONAUTICS:

The Package propeller, also known as the Hot Air Balloon is composed by several parts in order to function. From the previous chapter studies, this design also will include a burner and replace the glass with a lightweight basket in order to make the Balloon rise.

a.

b. Equator (Maximum Radi) c. d.

e. f. g. h. i. 1.

2.

a. Parachute valve b. Equator c. Gores d. Panels e. Skirt (flameproof Nomex fabric) f. Parachute valve cord g. Connecting ropes h. Burners i. Cargo Basket

Package Propeller - The Paper Island, Section 1.500 Scale


INCUBATOR (GROUNDED)

If the incubator or the basket exceeds the specifications to lift off, or exceeds the mass, it will be simply impossible to lift it. Either you increase the size of the package or you reduce the mass of the basket.

a. b. c. Equator (Maximum Radi)

d.

e.

f. g. h. i.

1.

2.

a. Valve b. Gores c. Panels d. Equator (max. radius) e. Connecting cables f. Ring g. Air Fans (run in petrol) h. Airlock Door i. Incubator

Package Incubator - The Paper Island, Section 1.500 Scale


TIME: THE 8 PHASES OF INHABITATION, REORGANIZATION AND REUSE OF PAPIROEN The total amount of years is 5-6 years in order for the Fermentation take process of the entire Island. Papiroen will undergo phases of deconstruction, reconfiguration, reduction and evolution of Papiroen. Noma will do so.

Saturday Nights Projects in the Kitchen

Year

2015

2016

2017

2018

MAD symposium 2017 Nighttime - The Paper Island, Axo 1.2000 Scale

2019

2020

2021


MAD symposium 2017 - The Paper Island, Section 1.1000 Scale


Fermentation Ratio (phR ): To make 1 meter cubed of Carbon dioxide package, you need exactly 67 plums fermented under lactic acid bacteria. 67 plums = 1m3 CO2

Noma - The Paper Island, Section Perspectival


MAD 19- Fermenting Papiroen, Section


I. PROJECT INTRODUCTION

J. C. Jacbosen Jacob Christian Jacobsen (1811 – 1887), mostly known as J. C. Jacobsen, was a Danish industrialist and philanthropist best known for founding the brewery Carlsberg and the Little Mermaid.


COPENHAGEN

The Nordic Archipelago

Copenhagen is the Capital city of Denmark. Established in the 11th century. The coordinates are: 55°40’34’’N 12°34’06’’E,

The group of islands: 1. Papiroen 2. Indre by 3. Kastellet 4. Galionsvej 5. Refshalevej 6. Provesten 7. Knippelsbro 8. Christianshavn 9. Slotsholmen 10. Operaen 11. Norrebro 12. Amager East 13. Provesten 14. Valby Hills

ORESUND RING

PROVESTEN

North

REFSHALEVEJ

Trekroner AMAGER EAST

Fabrimester Galionsvej

Operaen

ChrisTianshavn

Papiroen

er

n Riv

usse

neb

rhav

nen

Brid

ge

Hav Inde

Kastellet

The Paper Island (Papirøen)

Ch

ri

sit Nordatlantens ansha vn Brygge Ka na

l

Knippelsbro

INDRE BY

Slotsholmen

Th

o eR

ya

lL

ibr

ary

Nyhavn

r

ve

n

se

us

ne b

Ri

e

ak

eL

ng

bli

Pe

v

ake

eL

ling

Peb

University of Copenhagen

VALBY HILLS

Gamle Carlsberg

The Nordic Archipelago - The Paper Island, Map 1.10000 Scale

Ha

NORREBRO


The Paper Island in 2017 The last several decades, the press FÌllesindkøb rented most of the buildings on the 23,376 -square-foot island and here had its stock of newsprint. Towards the end of 2017, when all lease agreements cease , the City and Port in cooperation with the City of Copenhagen will decide what Christian Holm in the future will be used for .


THE PAPER ISLAND Is in the very heart of Copenhagen, parallel to the Opera house, Noma, Nyhavn and the Royal Danish Playhouse. Originally it was the factory and storage of a National Danish Paper company. The Island opened the gates in 2010. Now inhabited by Museums, Offices and Markets.

Operaen

Distance = 146 meters

Distance = 160 meters

Royal Danish Playhouse

Nyhavn

Inderhavnen Bridge

Fermentation Lab Noma

Nordic Food Lab Boat

Centre of Copenhagen - The Paper Island, Ground Plan 1.1500 Scale

Christianshavn Canal


THE FOUR WAREHOUSES

2. Event Rooms

The Paper Island (Papiroen) is known for its characteristic warehouse style. There are 4 different types of them. They have different uses of materials, roof angle, column grid and height.

3. Office

4b. Science Museum 1. Car Park

4a. Street Food Market

Location in Paper Island:

160 metres

146 metres

N

1.2000 Scale. Ground Plan

The Paper Island - The four warehouses, Isometric 1.1000 Scale


II. DESIGN STRATEGY


The Nordic Food Lab, Noma: The Fermenatation Lab has been operating since 10 July 2014, and Johnson expects its role to shift as more time goes by. “After [MAD] we’ll real- ly get our hands dirty with figuring out a lot of stuff,” Johnson says, referring to whether she’ll bring on more chefs and/or scientists to join in her and Williams’ work. “I’m not sure what the next six months will look like,” she explains.


FERMENTATION PROCESS Lactic Acid and Yeast are the two most common types of cultures used in the Process of Fermentation in Noma. The Footage shows Lars the chef fermenting plums through lactic acid and how the sugars convert from Carbohydrates into Carbon Dioxide.

The Bunker has been operating since 10 July 2014, and Johnson expects its role to shift as more time goes by. "After [MAD] we'll really get our hands dirty with figuring out a lot of stuff," Johnson says, referring to whether she'll bring on more chefs and/or scientists to join in her and Williams' work. "I'm not sure what the next six months will look like," she explains.

- Arielle Johnson, 2014 (MAD/Noma Resercher)

Volume: 30 x 30 x 15 cm

Phase 6: 96 hours in the incubator. The residual gases from the plums and lactic acid have inflated the package. Here Lars will make a hole to smell the gas and taste the plums.

Key words: - Vacuum - Incubator - Package - Anaerobic Condition - Culturing - 30 degrees temperature - pressure

6. Package fully inflated

0.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Phase 1: Lacto Fermented Plums. Plums are cut in half and the seeds are removed.

Phase 2 & 3: Lars inserts the plums into a plastic package and gives a 2% of salt on the cutted skin of the plum

24 Hours

Phase 4 & 5: The package is vacuumed to make sure that no oxygen is left. As fermentation does not need oxygen because it follow an anaerobic way of culturing. He puts it in an incubator for 24 hours and we can see that a quarter of the package has been inflated.

Phase 6 & 7: He leaves the plums to culture for other 96 hours in the incubator. We can see that the package is fully inflated, which means that the plums are ready to be eaten and tasted. The pressure of the plums released is clearly obvious.

Phase 8 & 9: Effervescence of the plums is also created. The plums shirnk in volume because the moisture sucks out from it and the lactic acid bacteria cultures where there is moist and heat.

Noma’s Bunker - Fermenting Plums, footage

96 Hours


Aim of Experiment: The aim of the experiment is to measure the residual gases and understand structure of bubbles from Yeast Fermentation. The first experiment is to evaluate how much gas yeast releases and how the type of solution influences the speed of growth. The second test to see the structure and scale of the bubbles.


FERMENTOPIA KITCHEN

The aim of the experiment is to analyze the behaviour yeast bacteria. The first test will be to see the structure and scale of the bubbles released from the yeast gases. The second experiment is to evaluate how much gas yeast releases and how the type of solution influences the speed of growth.

5

Ingredients:

10

Hydrogen Oxide: Rings 1-5 Carbon Hydrogen Oxide: Rings 6-10

15

4

Citric Acid: Rings 11-15

3

9 14

- 2 packages of Yeast per vessel - plastic cup to store yeast with mixed solution - 30 degrees hot water - Syringe to control amount of solution - Dr Pepper as Carbon solution - Orange juice as Citric Acid solution - Water as Hydrogen Oxide solution - The “ring” to control air pressure - Magic plastic or polyvinyl acetate to inflate or balloon.

8

2

13

7 1

D. Quaternary Structure: Growth of The inflateable package

12 6 50 mm

11

40 mm

30 mm

20 mm

Diameter of ring:

C. Tertiary Structure: “The Ring”

10 mm

5 10

4

80

40 cm

cm

15

Analyzing solution number 9, Carbon Hyrdrogen Oxide

9

3

14 8

2

13 7

1

12

B.

6 11

Secondary Structure: The platform

Elevation point Height: 12.5 cm Mili litres: 250 ml x Cup Temperature: 30 degrees C Amount of Yeast: varied 125g Yeast

100g Yeast 75g Yeast

A. Primary Structure:

H20

50g Yeast

H2O CO3

25g Yeast

C6H8O7

The Laboratory -Primary to Quaternary Hierarchy of Structure, Isometric 1:8 Scale

The vessel/fermentation containers


THE PLATFORM AND RINGS The platform is being perforated by 15 rings. There are five different sizes of rings, varying from 10mm to 50mm. The size of ring is important to understand how it can impact the pressure in every package. The hypothesis is: the smaller the ring, the more pressure is needed to inhert gas into the package.

0 Mili Seconds (no yeast added)

L = 40 cm

5.

10.

15.

9.

14.

8.

13.

Ring Diameter: 75 mm

4.

Ring Diameter: 50 mm

3.

H = 80 cm

Ring Diameter: 35 mm

12.

2.

7.

1.

6.

11.

H2O CO3

C6H8O7

Ring Diameter: 25 mm

Ring Diameter: 10 mm

H 20

Before - Fermentopia Kitchen setup, Top View 1:5 scale


PACKAGED GASES

The aim of the experiment is to record the amount of gas created from the yeast. To encapsulate the gases polyvinyl acetate bag was used . 25 cm

60 000 Mili Seconds (Yeast producing gases) 60 000 mili seconds (10 minutes to inflate)

10.

5.

15.

Carbon Solution: Maximum Volume of gases produced in 10 minutes. The size of the sphere is as big as a Rugby Ball.

4. 14. 9.

8. 3. 13.

Citric Acide Solution: Very little amount of gas has been produced. Half the size of a ping pong ball.

4 cm

7.

2.

12.

6. 1.

H20

11.

H2O CO3

After -The packaging of Gases, Top view 1:5 Scale

C6H8O7

Hydrogen Oxide Solution: Interesting Overlap between the wall. Causing change of geometry of the package.


PRESSURE Pressure is the force acting per unit area. We can see how the gases released from fermentation is releasing an x amount of volume per second. The graph will determine the rate of growth of the solution type.

Volume 10

252

2

Volume 9

mm2

202

2

Volume 8

20 mm

25 mm

Volume 6

mm2 152

Foundation

Volume 7

2

mm2

15 mm

102

2

mm2

52

10 mm

2

5 mm

Carbonated Water

Volume (cm3)

Charting the Expansion of Package 4, 9 and 14 Volume versus Time

Average Gradient: (cm3/s) 1200

1100 cm3

average 10 minuTes release of Carbon dioxide

850 cm 3

600 cm3

720

Time (s) C6H8O7 H 20 H2O CO3 Gradient

Carbon Dioxide Solution takes the lead, as it expands 1/4 faster than Water. Citric Acid remains the least inflated due to its density.

Expansion of Package - Fermentopia Kitchen, Graph

mm2


PACKAGE SCALE

This picture was taken at 9 minutes during the experimentation. Every package had a different volume and smell. The largest volume obtained was Volume 10 (from Carbon Hydrogen oxide solution) and the smallest is Volume 11 (from Citric Acid solution)

Carbon Hydrogen Oxide solution:

Citric Acid Solution:

Largest Package: 25Ď€2 m3

Smallest Package: 0.9 π2 m3

Volume 10

Volume 9

Volume 8

Volume 7

The Carbon Hydrogen Oxide Solution released the largest volumes over the fraction of 10 minutes. The Carbon solution tends to expand quicker as it is already a solution with gas. Having added yeast it has increased the rate of growth by 3. Whilst the Citric Acid solution was denser (more viscous), so the process to break down the sugars was slower and more energy was required to let the pressure out. Water or Hydrogen oxide was balanced, as it did not contain any sugars, in the experiment I noticed that by adding sugar it increased the culturing and expansion of the package volume.

The Laboratory setup -The release of Gases, Elevation 1:6 Scale

Volume 6

Volume 11


GROWTH SEQUENCE OF SOLUTION 9 A closer understanding of the Carbon Hydrogen Oxide solution (in the cup 9). Every cup follows the cycle of Karyokinesis, meaning from the stage of bacteria culturing in the slowest to the exponential rate. The growth rate of bacteria is proportional to the pressure/gas released.

n

INTERPHASE

INTERPROPHASE

t (s)

0 mili seconds

60 000 mili seconds

v (m3)

0 x 100000000 m3

1.5 x 10-1 m3

p (pa)

0 x 1022 Pascal

5 x 10-3 Pascal

The stage which most energy and carbon dioxide pressure needed for the rubber to inflate.

n

State of Bacteria phase

t (s)

Time (seconds)

v (m3)

Volume (meter cubed)

p (pa)

Pressure (pascal)

PROPHASE

180 000 mili seconds 25 x 10-1 m3

7.45 x 10-4 Pascal

Yeast is culturing fastest as possible, and generating a pressure of carbon dioxide.

0 - 5 minutes - Growth Sequence, Elevation 1:6 scale

PROMESOPHASE

240 000 mili seconds 30 x 10-1 m3

654 x 10-2 Pascal


300 000 mili seconds 40 x 10-1 m3

980 x 10-2 Pascal

The Balloon is reaching an exponential and rapid growth phase.

ANAPHASE

420 000 mili seconds

ANATELOPHASE

TELOPHASE

n

600 000 mili seconds

480 000 mili seconds

t (s)

50 x 10-1 m3

65 x 10-1 m3

25 x 10-1 m3

v (m3)

1594 x 10-2 Pascal

2341 x 10-1 Pascal

290 x 10-2 Pascal

p (pa)

Almost reaching the maximum point, and slowly decelerating the growth speed.

The Maximum Point before the breaking of the tissue.

Going back to Phase 1, Interphase.

Diagram: 1.6 scale 1

2

1

1

3 2

2

4 3

3

5

4 5

4 5

Hydrogen Oxide

6 - 10 minutes - Growth sequence, Elevation 1:6 Scale

Carbon Hydrogen Citric Acid Oxide

25cm height

MESOPHASE


DENSITY OF GASES AND EFFERVESCENCE Each fluid carry different density. Starting from water (which is the lightest), then soda (which is Carbon and with pre-added sugar) and lastly, the orange juice (basis of Citric Acid) which is the densest. The density of the fluids influences the structure of the bubbles.

Ingredients Citric Acid

Citric Acid

Carbon Hydrogen Oxide

Carbon Hydrogen Oxide

Hydrogen Oxide

Structure of Bubbles: 1:2 scale

Hydrogen Oxide

Hydrogen Oxide (H20)

- 297000 mili seconds under the fermentation operation - Hydrogen Oxide generating a radius of 4.4mm to 0.000000000000000000000000000 00000000001 mm of bubbles - Percentage of effervescence: 49.9999999% - Level of pH (power of Hydrogen): 5.7 - Type of structure performed: hanging on the disk

0 mili seconds

24 000 mili seconds

Carbon Hydrogen Oxide (H2O CO3)

- 297000 mili seconds under the fermentation operation - Hydrogen Oxide generating a radius of 212mm to 0.000000000000000000000000000 00000000001 mm of bubbles - Percentage of effervescence: 24.99999999999999999999999999% - Level of pH (power of Hydrogen): 2.25 - Type of structure performed: concentric.

36 000 mili seconds

48 000 mili seconds

Citric Acid (C6H8O7) - 297000 mili seconds under the fermentation operation - Hydrogen Oxide generating a radius of 1.33333333333333 mm to 0.00000000000000 000000000000000000000001 mm of bubbles - Percentage of effervescence: 49.9999999% - Level of pH (power of Hydrogen): 3.44 - Type of structure performed: planar.

60 000 mili seconds

Density of Gases - The Three solutions, Top view 1:4 Scale


ANALYSIS

Behaviour of the solutions under the process of fermentation. Understanding the expansion of Gases, the metabolic process of Yeast. Converting Carbohydrates into Carbon Dioxide. The structure of bubbles is influenced by the density. This is apparent when we compare the maximum height of the colony.

Hydrogen Oxide Maximum height: 25 mm

Overlap of two flavours: Water + Carbon

Yeast in dry/powder state

Carbon Hydrogen Oxide Maximum height: 60 mm

Overlap of two flavours: Carbon + Citric

Overlap of three flavours: Carbon + Citric + Water

Citric Acid Maximum height: 20 mm

N.B - Each fluid carry different density. Starting from water (lightest), soda (medium) and orange juice (heaviest). - The density of the fluuds influences the structure of the bubbles.

Variables/ Constants: - (Constant): in One cup, there is 200 ml of fluid + 14 g of yeast + 2 spoons of sugar - Variable: Time, type of fluid and size of foundtation.

Analysis -Fermentation Lavoratory, Top view 1:1 Scale


III. PRECEDENT STUDY

The Carlsberg Factory Interior view of the Brewhouse: - The Chimney - The Whirlpool


STATE the Problem: The Pressure is not visible in the Chimneys and Whirlpools Analyzing pressure systems used in the production of beer, such as Chimney and Whirlpools, and how they have a specific amount of pressure and volume but there is no effect after the release of gases.


THE CARLSBERG FACTORY

List of Functions:

This is the kingdom of brewery fermentation. Carlsberg was founded in Copenhagen in 1847 by brewer J.C. Jacobsen and his son Carl continue the expansion of the industry. The factory is composed by 14 functions. One of the most remarkable building is the Brewhouse, highlighted in the ground city plan.

- The Brewhouse - The Bottle plant - The Boiler House - The Power Plant - Lighthouse - Tower - Pompeii - Mineral Water Plant - Winding Chimney - The Cellar - Dancing Elephants - The Hanging Gardens - The Isotope Laboratory - Apartments - Museum

1. 2.

4.

3.

5.

14.

8.

7.

6.

13. 9.

12.

11. 10.

The Carlsberg Factory The factory functions, Ground Plan 1.5000 Scale


Study of Pressure systems: The Carlsberg factory is reigned by different scale of Whirlpools and Chimneys, all of which take part of the Stack Effect. The Brewhouse has been carefully selected due to its cross fertilization between the archetype of the Palace versus Factory, the whirlpools acting as spatial dividors, the Platform which is being cut by the Vessel and the versatility of Materials.


THE BREWHOUSE

Ny Carlsberg Road

Built in 1901 as Ny Carlsberg’s new brew house, replacing a smaller one still found on the other side of the street. The facade with its balcony was inspired by Palazzo Bavilaque in Verona, Italy. The roof features Carl Johan Bonnesen’s sculpture group in cast bronze ‘Thor in combat with the Jötunns’.

North Section

Bryggernes Road

South Section

Storage

Pasteurs

vej Roa

Winding Chimney

Ny Carlsberg Road

d

Headquarter

The Boiler House

The Brewhouse - Carlsberg Factory, Ground Plan 1.1000 Scale


THE WHIRLPOOLS OF THE BREWHOUSE

There are three main Whirlpools which are placed in the middle of the platform of the Brewhouse. East of the brewhouse, malt storerooms were built with fifteen 10m deep soils, and towards the west a fermentation cellar and storage building.

Maximum Pressure (pa)

78 pa

80 pa

65 pa

Chimney number

9.

17.

8.

100 metres

Height: 37 metres

North Section

Maximum Pressure (pa)

65 pa

80 pa

78 pa

Chimney number

8.

16.

9.

Diameter of vessels: 7.5 metres

Height of vessels: 30 metres

East Section

Chimneys - The Brewhouse, Sections 1.500 Scale


BREWING TECHNOLOGY

German engineering skills. Section ins hte installations for the new Brew House at New Carslberg built in 1901 by architect Vilhelm Klein. Brewing hall with four upright vessels, two of iron mash tubs and straining vats and two of copper. They run one above the other.

Whirlpool placed in the platform

Mash tub Whirlpools - The Brewhouse, Section and Ground plan 1.300 Scale


THE STACK EFFECT The chimneys are vital for the release of pressure in the mash tubs whirlpools. Each chimney indicates that there is one or more whirlpool functioning with it. All of them have a different scale and height, which also suggests the scale of the whirlpools. The question arising from here: is pressure visible enough?

Maximum Pressure (pa)

26

30

26 32

30

26

52

78

78

65

Chimney number:

1.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

West Elevation

Maximum Pressure (pa):

39

Chimney number:

11.

30

39

12. 13.

39

65

80

78

75

52

26

14.

8.

15.

9.

16.

7.

3.

East Elevation

Chimneys - The Brewhouse, Elevation 1.500 Scale

26 1.


THE WINDING CHIMNEY

The Chimney cost was aout 100,000 DKK, an insane sum for a factory chimney. Built in red brick and granite, the chimney turns around its own axis and stands on an octagonal plinth. The Chimeras (Gargoyles) are replicas of those on Notre Dame in Paris while the upper part of the chimney is decorated with motifs of Egyptian lotus flowers.

Temperature: 500 Degrees Celsius

56 metres Height

Winding Chimney - Carlsberg Factory, Perspectival


IV. BUILDING STUDY The 4 warehouses of Papiroen


Proportion: 60% of the Paper Island is made out of reinforced concrete column and beam. The 20% is made from Truss timber roofing and the 15% is slanted reinforced concrete roof with Glass. The rest is surrounded by small steel containers and brick houses.


THE FOUR WAREHOUSES

The Paper Island (Papiroen) is known for its characteristic warehouse style. There are 4 different types of them. They have different uses of materials, roof angle, column grid and height.

Location in Paper Island:

N

Concrete

Concrete

Concrete

Timber

Car Park

Event Room

The Office

The Museum

160 metres 146 metres

1.1500 Scale

The Paper Island - Flipped Roof of The four warehouses, Isometric 1. 750 Scale


THE EVENT ROOM

Surrounded by the other 3 containers, the Event Room is at the centre of the Paper Island. The outer shell may suggest a very dull and standard brickwork, but observing the interior, we find one of the most sophisticated sequence of Truss roof.

Location in Paper Island:

N

The Event Room - The Paper Island, Perspectival


THE EVENT ROOM

Sequence of Column

Timber Truss Structure and Bolts

Brick Wall and Timber Joint

The Event Room - Material Detail, Perspectival


North west Isometric view Primary to Tertiary Hierarchy of structure

Interior View The Apex and sequence of columns

Tertiary Element: Roof Tar Patch and Impermeable sheet

Secondary Structure: The Purlin

Primary Structure: Truss

77 metres 10 metres

Structure Detail 1.100 Scale

Scale: 1.500

17.5 metres

Description

The combination of two materials: the brick and the timber. Reflecting a very early stage of Scale: 1.1000

factory design. Metal and timber bolts adjoining the two bars. Thickness of the bars varies from 5cm to 10 cm.

The Event Room - Structure Detail and Hierarchy, Isometric Various Scales


THE OFFICE

This warehouse hosts 4 different firms, distributed in two levels. The particularity of this structure is the slanted beam, causing a slanted roof for rainwater collection. Consists of the grid of 3 x 11 columns. The height varies from 6m to 8m.

Location in Paper Island:

N

The Office - The Paper Island, Perspectival


THE OFFICE

Entrance Staircase

Mortar in between the concrete beam

Brick Wall and Timber Joint

The Office - Material Detail, Perspectival


North west Isometric view Primary to Tertiary Hierarchy of structure

Interior View The Apex and sequence of columns

Tertiary Structure Felt Roof and “External� concrete cladding

Secondary Structure: The Purlin

Primary Structure: Reinforced Concrete Beam and Column

9 metres 70 metres

26 metres

Scale: 1.500

Description Main entrance to the Architecture office: Cobe. Most of the material used is reinforced Concrete. Scale: 1.1000

A close up image of the two adjoining structural beams. A deail of metal insertion between two concrete purlin.

The Office - Structure Detail and Hierarchy, Isometric Various Scales

Structure Detail 1.100 Scale


THE CAR PARK

Connecting to the Copenhagen Street Food Market and the Science Museum Experimentarium. Adjacent to the view of the Opera we find the Car Park. Follows a grid of 8 x 4 columns. Supported my reinforced concrete beams and columns. We also encounter a very important Utzonian connotation� the sequence of Columns and the Apex.

Location in Paper Island:

N

The Car Park - The Paper Island, Perspectival


THE CAR PARK

Mortar between the concrete beam and column

The Apex

Insulation Panels detail

The Car Park - Material Detail, Perspectival


North west Isometric view Primary to Tertiary Hierarchy of structure

Interior View The Apex and sequence of columns

Tertiary Structure “External� concrete cladding

Secondary Structure: The Purlin

Primary Structure: The Beam 8 metres

and Column

Structure Detail 1.100 Scale

54 metres

51 metres

Scale: 1.500

Description Combined by various materials, such as: Felt roof, insulation panel, glass, concrete and tar. During daylight most of the Carpark is lit by the Apex and the entrances. The entrances are Scale: 1.1000

oriented to the Event building or to the Opera.

The Car Park - Structure Detail and Hierarchy, Isometric Various Scales


THE SCIENCE MUSEUM AND FOOD MARKET

The two main buildings viewed from the Royal Danish Playhouse, Noma and Nyhavn is the Experimentarium Museum and Copenhagen Street food market. These two buildings play an important role for the “spectators” as anyone who is sitting at the opposite end of the island.

Location in Paper Island:

N

The Science Museum - The Paper Island, Perspectival


THE SCIENCE MUSEUM

Glass door entrance

Roof Light

Sequence of Columns

The Science Museum - Material Detail, Perspectival


Interior View

North west Isometric view

The Apex and sequence of columns

Primary to Tertiary Hierarchy of structure

Tertiary Structure “External� concrete cladding

Secondary Structure: The Purlin

8.5 metres

Primary Structure: The Beam and Column

110 metres

Structure Detail 1.100 Scale 70 metres

Scale: 1.500

Description Entrance of the Science Museum. Entrance wall has been converted from Steel doors into glass

Scale: 1.1000

Roof lights have been painted on top with a black paint to block natural light. And therefore, replace it with Artificial lighting.

The Science Museum - Structure Detail and Hierarchy, Isometric Various Scales


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS Identifying the structural principles of every warehouse. Every warehouse have a different grid and durability.

Location in Paper Island:

Location in Paper Island:

N

1/2 mg

N

1/2 mg

1/4 mg

1/2 mg

10 cm

1/4 mg

9cm

17 cm

26 cm

The Event Room

The Office

Key words: - Compression - Tension - Shear Force - Fulcrum Point - Equilibrium Point

Structural Analysis - The Event and Office Room, Model 1: 50 Scale


Location in Paper Island:

Location in Paper Island:

N

1/4 mg

1/4 mg

N

1/4 mg

1/2 mg

1/4 mg

1/2 mg Front View

9.5 cm 8.5 cm

14 cm

18cm

The Car Park

The Museum and Market

Structure Analysis - The Car Park and The Museum Market, Model 1:50 Scale


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS II Identifying the structural principles of every warehouse. Every warehouse have a different grid and durability.

Location in Paper Island:

Location in Paper Island:

N

N

BEFORE Insertion of the incubator 25 metres total

Main Section

Main Section

17 metres span

10 m

10 metres 15 metres span

11 metres

Compression and Tension

Compression and Tension

Fulcrum Point

Fulcrum Point

Scale

Scale

Shear Force

Shear Force

9.5 metres

AFTER Insertion of the incubator 15 metres

15 metres

10 metres

10 metres 5 metres

Main Section

Main Section

Compression and Tension

Compression and Tension

Fulcrum Point

Fulcrum Point

Scale

Scale

Shear Force

Shear Force

The Event Room

5 metres

The Office

Key words: - Compression - Tension - Shear Force - Fulcrum Point - Equilibrium Point Structural Analysis - The Event and Office Room, Model 1: 800 Scale


Location in Paper Island:

Location in Paper Island:

N

Main Section

N

Main Section

18 metres span

18.5 metres span

8.9 metres

8.1 metres

Compression and Tension

Compression and Tension

Fulcrum Point

Fulcrum Point

Scale

Scale

Shear Force

Shear Force

15 metres

Main Section

15 metres

10 metres

10 metres 5 metres

5 metres

Main Section

Compression and Tension

Compression and Tension

Fulcrum Point

Fulcrum Point

Scale

Scale

Shear Force

Shear Force

The Car Park

The Museum and Market

Structure Analysis - The Car Park and The Museum Market, Model 1:800 Scale


CARVING Identifying the positioning of the incubators within the existing structure and how it changes the grid and acts as a room partitioning

Location in Paper Island:

Location in Paper Island:

N

N

Ground Plan

35 metres

26 metres

77 metres 70 metres

The Event Room

The Office

Carving - The Event and Office Room, Ground Plan 1: 800 Scale


Location in Paper Island:

Location in Paper Island:

N

N

Ground Plan 54 metres 73 metres

51 metres

46 metres

The Car Park

The Museum and Market

Carving - The Car Park and The Museum Market, Ground Plan 1:800 Scale


V. STRUCTURE

The Diving Bell of Dr. Halley.


Technical Specifications of the Package: The package is installed on top of the incubator. It is made from 800 square meters of ETFE and 100 meters of Vectron cable. The inflated envelope is 17.5 meters high, with a diameter of 15 metres, a volume of 2800 cubic meters and a total weight of 84 kilograms. The package can be experienced from the outside and inside. You enter the incubator from the door , which is supporting the existing structure and two air fans attached to it creating a varied pressure depending on the use of the Fermentation Laboratory.


INSERTING THE INCUBATOR The Incubator will be placed in between the Science Museum and the Copenhagen Street Food Market. The incubator will carve into the existing structure and replacing the existing column. It will re-support the structure, just like retrofitting . The incubator will be made of Glass.

Location in Paper Island:

N

21 metres height 10 metres diameter

Section A

The Museum and Market - The Paper Island, Isometric 1:250 Scale


THE FUNCTION VS. THE EFFECT The Fermentation Lab is composed by two parts, one is the effect (The Package) and the function (the Incubator). What happens in the incubator it is proportional to the scale of the package.

Location in Paper Island:

N

Package

12 metres

Platform

9 metres

Incubator

Pressure capacity produced in incubator

the volume of the package

The Package and Incubator - Fermentation Lab, Section 1.300 Scale


THE PACKAGE AND THE INCUBATOR Location in Paper Island:

N

Package

21 metres

Air in

Incubator Air Out

The smart air fan system used in container refrigerators control the temperature and inflates the above package from the residual gases. The package is controlled by anchorages, plucked into the roof. The material of the package is irredescent ETFE, a better material compared to PVC. The irredescent material changes colour due to the positive forces acting (such as wind, rain or air pressure).

Package and Incubator - The Fermentation Lab, Section 1.100 Scale


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Construction Sequence - Fermentation Lab, Diagrams 1.600 Scale


THE 6 CONSTRUCTION STEPS

1. Existing Structure Removal 2. Micropiling 3. Glass application, Hardware and Collar 4. Air Incubator 5. Inflateable Anchorage 6. Applying the Package


STRUCTURE REMOVAL / RETROFITTING Void

Truss system reinforcement

The process of structural removal leads to the concept of Retrofitting, defined as: the process of modifying something after it has been manufactured. For buildings, this means making changes to the systems inside the building or even the structure itself at some point after its initial construction and occupation. Typically this is done with the expectation of improving amenities for the building’s occupants and/or improving the performance of the building. The development of new technologies mean that building retrofits can allow for significant reductions in energy and water usage. Links: http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/1200buildings/what/Pages/WhatIsRetrofit.aspx

Oxford Circus, London, New insertions into the old historical facade

Step 1: Structure Removal

Step 1 - Construcion Sequence, Sequence 1.500 Scale


REMOVING A PART OF STRUCTURE

8 metres

Removing one column and 82.5 m2 of Roof surface

37 metres

Section A - The Science Museum, Section 1.200 Scale


2. MICROPILING

“Micropiles, also known as minipiles, (and less commonly as pin piles, needle piles and root piles) are deep foundation elements constructed using high-strength, small-diameter steel casing and/or threaded bar. Capacities vary depending on the micropile size and subsurface profile. Allowable micropile capacities in excess of 1,000 tons have been achieved� - Hayward Micropiles http://www.haywardbaker.com/WhatWeDo/Techniques/StructuralSupport/ Micropiles/default.aspx

Links: http://www.inzynierbudownictwa.pl/images/magda/ib_03_11/ pale1.jpg http://www.sigmaplantfinder.com/media/catalog/product/cache/1/image/9df78eab33525d08d6e5fb8d27136e95/1/_/1_72_81.jpg

Drilling and piling the ground

Step 2: Micropiling

Step 2 - Construcion Sequence, Sequence 1.500 Scale

The Micro piling vmachine


Height: 9.3 m

DRILLING PILES INTO GROUND

Concrete Ground

Limestone Ground

Micropiling - The Science Museum, Section 1.50 Scale


3. GLASS HARDWARE AND COLLAR

The simplified design will eliminate much of the connecting hardware, focusing the design more on the glass panes. The Pudong Shanghai apple store has been a great challenge. is a 12.5m tall panes, larger than any ever made. After a year of work and inventing new manufacturing methods, North Glass successfully made the 12 side panes that make up the cylinder, and the pieces that make up the top. http://www.ifoapplestore.com/2011/08/09/new-glass-technology-is-behind-cube-replacement/

Links: http://bcj.com/images/uploads/regular_case_study_

The Apple Store cylinder in Shanghai

slides/_slideshow/1104x820_ApplePudong9e.jpg

Step 3: Glass Insertion to Existing Builing

Step 3 - Construcion Sequence, Sequence 1.500 Scale


TYPES OF HARDWARE AND GLASS

1.

2.

Right angle attachment

1.

Parallel attachment

3.

Staircase attachment

4.

4.

Attaching two plates of glass: 5cm thickness

3.

2.

Glass Insertion - The Science Museum, Section 1.50 Scale


4. AIR INCUBATOR Run by fuel, therefore releases Carbon dioxide, just how Yeast behaves

Noma’s Bunker: “The space itself is more than just a collection of shipping containers. Three formerly refrigerated containers have been outfitted with temperature and humidity controls to allow for precise climate engineering. There are seven rooms in total, which are home to equipment like a centrifuge and soon a rotovap. A fourth container serves as the office, originally designed to perform the same function for a construction site.” http://www.eater.com/2014/8/28/6167493/inside-nomas-sciencebunker-their-new-culinary-research-hub#4126732

Noma’s bunker lab

Step 4: Air Filter Fan

Step 4 - Construcion Sequence, Sequence 1.500 Scale

Refrigerated container T: + - 30 degrees C


AIR FANS AND MICRO CAVITIES

Micro Cavities for gas enter into the package

Pressure exchange

2 metres

AIR IN

AIR OUT

3 metres

Names of Components 1. Compressor 2. Compressor suction side stop valve 3. Compressor discharge side stop valve 4. Evaporator 5. Air Cooled condenser 6. Water Cooled condenser 7. Cooling Water inlet connector 8. Cooling Water outlet connector 9. Evaporator fan 10. Condenser fan 11. Control Box 12. Upper Venitlator 13. Lower Ventilator 14. Sampling Port 15. Gas sampling port 16. Liquid Moisture Indicator 17. Drier 18. Access Panel 19. Storage space for power cable

18. 26. Injection Solenoid valve (ISV) 27. Liquid solenoid valve (LSV) 28. Reheat coil solenoid valve (RSV) 29. Discharge pressure regulating valve (DPR) 30. Suction modulating valve (SMV) 31. Thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) 32. Ambient temperature sensor (AMBS) 33. Discarhe pipe temperature sensor (DCHS) 34. High pressure switch (HPS) 35. High pressure transducer (HPT) 36. Low pressure transducer (LPT) 37. Compressor suction pipe temperature sensor (SGS)

20. Discharge gas by pass solenoid valve (BSV) 21. Capillary solenoid Valve (CSV) 22. Defrost solenoid valve (DSV) 23. Economizer solenoid valve (ESV) 24. Electronic Expansion valve (EV) 25. Hot gas solenoid valve (HSV)

14.

18.

10.

10. 21.

11.

13.

21.

12.

28. 25. 22. 20. 11.

24.

13.

26. 16.

34.

23. 31.

35. 36.

5. 33.

31.

6.

5

19. 29. 17. 27. 33. 3. 1. 15. 2. 32. 37. 8. 30. 7. 6.

LXE10E-1 Model (Large)

Air Incubator- The Science Museum, Section 1.50 Scale

25.

22. 20. 24. 26.

19.

LXE10E-1 Model (Small)

1. 2. 15. 3.


5. ANCHORAGE AND STABILIZATION MEASURES The stabilising pressure of the membrane is an important structurale element in a pneumatic structure. Its production and maintenance as well as its constant control require the provision of special technical equipment. The main task is always that of conducting the membrane forces into the other strucural elements. Pneumaic Structures: a handbook for the architect and engineer. Thomas Herzog. St Albans, Hertfordshire : Crosbie Lockwood Staples, 1977, c1976. page 154, 155, 158, 159

Step 5: Package Ancorage

Step 5 - Construcion Sequence, Sequence 1.500 Scale


ANCHORAGE

1.

2.

4.

1.

Fixing in steel profile by clamps

2.

Joint between fan and envelope

3.

Joining a cable loop

Anchorage - The Science Museum, Section 1.50 Scale

4.

Connector with 2 or more cables

3.


6. THE PACKAGE AND CABLES

Colour Codes:

c=0 m= 70 y=0 k =0

The Geometry of the Package is Elliptical, and the cables are compressing parts of the form to morth. The material will be ETFE with and irridescent pigment. The pigment is useful to see how the forces acting on the inflateable changes the colour or the angle of form. The cables will be made out of Vectran, used in spacecrafts and inflateables. Vectran is a manufactured fiber, spun from a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) created by Celanese Acetate LLC.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vectran Links: http://files.archinect.com/uploads/ai/aiu_watercube_construction_01.jpg http://www.pinbax.com/index.asp?mc=ROPE&sc=Splicing%20Rope&ssc=Vectran%20Splicing%20Rope

c=0 m= 50 y=0 k =0

c = 0 m = 10 y = 80 k = 10

Irridescent Film

c=75 m= 5 y=100 k =0

c=180 m= 0 y=0 k =0

Step 6: Package and Cables

Step 6 - Construcion Sequence, Sequence 1.500 Scale

Vectron Cable

ETFE Fabric


THE PACKAGE

Pressure is the amount of force acting per unit area. The symbol of pressure is p or Pa. p is the pressure, F is the normal force, A is the area of the surface on contact.

Irridescent Film applied on top of the ETFE Fabric: Irridescent Film

ETFE Fabric

Pressure is a scalar quantity. It relates the vector surface element (a vector normal to the surface) with the normal force acting on it. The pressure is the scalar proportionality constant that relates the two normal vectors.

Stitched Point

12 metres

Pressure (Pa) 8 metres

4

4.5 metres

1

2.5 metres

0.25 Steel Collar

0.05

Attachment to the existing roof

Incubator -30 to +30 degrees Celcius temperature variation

Glass and Hardware (30 to 50 cm thickness)

Micropiling (-6 meters depth minimum)

Underground Type Concrete pavement and Limestone underground

The Package - The Science Museum, Section 1.50 Scale


VI. MODEL TESTS


MEMBRANE TYPES

Drawstring Purse

Beachball

Dome

Flower

Baseball

Link: http://krsimanis.edublogs.org/2014/03/03/checklist-for-march-3-7/

Membrane Type - Sewing Pattern , Sample 1: 100 Scale

Cylinder


ELLIPSE MEMBRANE The Sewing pattern to obtain a perfect sphere. You need two membrane types, the circle and ellipses. The point on which they meet it will be the poles.

s

iu

75

cm

d Ra

CIRCLE

9.

ELLIPSE

30 cm Height

Membrane poles and Attachments: Circle 1

Ellipse 5

Ellipse 1

Ellipse 2

Ellipse 3

Ellipse 4

Circle 2

18.3 cm Length

Ellipse Membrane - Sewing Pattern , Sample 1: 1.5 Scale


THE DEFLATED STATE An important aspect to consider is how the inflateable will deflate. As the air pressure rises, the package expands and the pillars will lift up. When the package will deflate, the pillars will go back to the ground. So if the wind blows, the inflateable will not be blown away or damaged.

The states of inflation

i. 0 pascal

ii. 0.05 pascal

iii. 0.1 pascal

iii. 0.14 pascal

Elevation

Deflated State - The Package , Physical Model 1.500 Scale

iv. 0.20 pascal

iv. 0.30 pascal


THE DEFLATED STATE

Isometric View

Elevation

Elevation II

Plan

Sealing point 1

Closed branches

Opened branches

Sealing point 2

Diameter = 25 cm

25 cm

Joint between the inflateable and the branch

The collar

Opened branches

The pivot component

Deflated State - The Package , Physical Model 1.20 Scale

Closed branches


THE MEMBRANE The way you join the fabric with one another is important, since you can control the geometry of your package. The fermentation package will follow the “pillow” type membrane.

Noma’s Fermented Plums

1. Main Geometry

Sealing Point

Pillow Membrane

Maximum Radius

1.50 Scale Front view

7.5 m 1.100 Scale Isometric view

5m

2. Variations of Geometry The pressure influences the outcome of the Geometry. When it is fully inflated the package will look closer to its original geometry. As it deflates, it may resemble to a doughnut, fig or potato.

a. 90% inflated

b. 75% inflated

c. 50% inflated

Geometry - Of the Package, Prototype model 1:100 Scale and 1.200 Scale

d. 25% inflated


MAKING THE FERMENTATION PACKAGE

3. Making prototype

The Doughnut Shape

Irredescent Film

Air Pump

ETFE 100 Microns

ETFE 50 Microns Sealer

The Fig shape 0 Pascal (pressure) Fermentation Package XS

0.25 Pa

1.5 Pa 5 Pa Fermentation Package XXS

7 Pa 0 Pa Airlock (lowtec)

Making Prototype - The Package, Model 1:1 Scale


THE CLOAK

Determine how to control the geometry of inflatable with the cloak.

Variables: Independent

Dependent

Direction of compression

Size of cloak

negative pressure

Volume

30 cm

15 cm

The Inflated Machine

Stages of inflation

The Four elements:

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

ELEVATION

PLAN

The Cloak - The Package , Physical Model Various Scales

Interphase


CATALOGUE OF FORMS Positive and Negative Forces acting on the Polyvinyl Acetate

Compresion Acting on the Package 12 cm

10 cm

1

4

13

2

3

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

14

Forces - The Package , Physical Model 1.20 Scale

15


KARYOKINESIS

Determine the Density of Magic Plastic influences the form of the package.

Maximum Volume

Incipit: Medium 1: Air tube

Medium 2: Inflatable

1 to 20: a progressive growth of the Magic Plastic in a fraction of exactly 43 Seconds.

12.5 cm

x

6

1

16 11

POP!

x 2

2

7 12

17

x 4

3

8 13 18

Karyokinesis These rules are both applied for the process of: Mitosis, Effervescence and Magic Plastic. Mitosis: The 4 phases of cell complementation and creation of different nuclei. Effervescence: when different densities of bubbles meet Magic Plastic: has different densities in the plastic, so causes change of direction and volume of the inflatable

4

9 14

19

Excipit:

5

10

15 20

Density - of Polyvinyl Acetate, Elevation 1:2 Scale


PRESSURE AND BUOYANCY

Determine the amount of pressure needed to lift an x amount of mass

8 cm

6cm

Medium 1: Medium 2: Plateau Inflatable

D Time The Plateau rising from water level to ground level. A potentiality of bridging and inhabitation.

ΔTime - The Plateau, Elevation 1:4 Scale


FERMENTED INSULATED WALL Referencing Airated Concrete to increase lightness in the material and the percentage of porosity and insulation.

Autoclaved Airated Concrete Case study: is a lightweight, precast, concrete building material invented in the mid1920s that simultaneously provides structure, insulation, and fire- and mold-resistance.

Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoclaved_aerated_concrete

Scale Non-toxic food colour

Scale

Water

Tsukiji Knife

Production

Cutting board

Pipette

Spoon Stopwatch

Safety goggles

Beaker

Petri Dish

Ca Cl2

(C6 H7 NaO6)n

Ingredients and Equipments:

5 metres radius

8 metres

Fermented Plaster insulating wall

Section detail: Glass panel Fermented Plaster argon, krypton and xenon Gas

Insulation Glazing - Molecular Gastronomy , Isometric 1.100 Scale


SKIN 1: FERMENTED INSULATION GLAZING

The percentage of porosity is an important factor to understand the weight and strength of the material.

EL

AN SP

AS

E

D

TE ER

O NT

TH

GL

I

S

IN

80% Porosity Weight = 10 grams

60% Porosity Weight = 23 Grams

40% Porosity Weight = 45 grams

20% Porosity Weight = 60 grams

Experiment through Molecular Gastronomy, Ingredients: = Calcium Lactate + Sodium Alginate + Plaster Paris

Insulation Glazing - Molecular Gastronomy , Top View Model 1.2 Scale

40 cm


VII. DRAWINGS


LINKING Linking the Science Museum and the Food Market

Ground Plan 1.500 Scale

Ground Plan 1.500 Scale

70 metres

Section A

110 Metres

Aerial View 1.500 Scale

Section A

The Incubator

Plan levels 1.200 Scale

5m radius

1. Foundation and Micropiling Application

2. Roof Plan

3. Geometry

Linking - The Science Museum, Ground Plan 1.500 Scale and 1.200 Scale

4. Hardware


THE INCUBATOR SKIN The Fermentation Lab has 12 sub shelves. Some of them are for insulating, others for providing air, others to store food, others is for the door, and others to see through. The equipments/materials in these thresholds: - Fermented Plaster (for insulating) - Air incubator fans (run from fuel) - Opaque/transparent panels - Storage - Garden

Fermented insulating Wall

Air Fans (in)

A kelp farmer showing his produce

Entrance

lars

10m diameter AIR IN See through Glass

Storage

Garden

ben AIR OUT Opaque Glass arielle

The “Low Tech� examples of Noma. From Ben creating his own distillery, as if they could not afford it and using heating blanket to ferment Peas. The staff meal fridge

Warming with a heat blanket

Building a distiller, as if they cannot afford one

The Incubator Skin - The Science Museum, Ground Plan 1.50 Scale


THE STACK EFFECT Stack effect is the movement of air into and out of buildings, chimneys, flue gas stacks, or other containers, resulting from air buoyancy. Buoyancy occurs due to a difference in indoor-to-outdoor air density resulting from temperature and moisture differences. The result is either a positive or negative buoyancy force. The greater the thermal difference and the height of the structure, the greater the buoyancy force, and thus the stack effect. The stack effect is also referred to as the “chimney effect�, and it helps drive natural ventilation, infiltration, and fires

n

INTERPHASE

INTERPROPHASE

t (s)

Dinner (20:00)

Spuntino (18:00)

h (m)

17 metres

16.5 metres

16 metres

p (pa)

10 Pascal

9.5 Pascal

9 Pascal

PROPHASE

PROMESOPHASE

Afternoon Tea (16:00)

Coffee Break (14:00)

21 metres

Warm Air Rises

Cool Air replaces Warm Air

Fully inflated (10 Pascal)

Equilibrium Axis (0 Pascal)

Vacuum (-10 Pascal)

Dinner time, where demand for food is high at Noma. Constant Pressure is kept to function the laboratory, therefore it maintains the package form.

n

State of Package phase

t (h)

Time (hours)

h (m)

Height (metres)

p (pa)

Pressure (pascal)

Afternoon tea, less deman compare to Dinner time. Pressure decreases as the room temperature gets colder and because airfans are not at full power.

Pressure (inside) Pressure (outside) Pressure state Before - The Buoyancy Force, Elevation 1.500 Scale

16 metres

7 Pascal


THE STACK EFFECT

MESOPHASE

ANAPHASE

ANATELOPHASE

TELOPHASE

Lunch (12:00)

Brunch (10:00)

Breakfast (8:00)

14 metres

12 metres

7 metres

4 metres

h (m)

5 Pascal

4 Pascal

2 Pascal

0.5 Pascal

p (pa)

n t (h)

No air coming in

At lunchtime Noma starts to prepare ingredients for the Dinner course. From 14:00 to 12:00 o’clock the package has reached to half of the maximum pressure

The Laboratory usually goes in operation at 9 am. Dr. Ariel is not there yet. Hence The Airfans are not on. There is no pressure coming from the incubator, therefore the package will not inflate.

References to the Stack Effect: 1.

1. The Chimney of Carlsberg 2. The Whirlpool of the Brewhouse 3. The Gasometer 4. Shell Gasometer

2.

3.

Whirlpool of Carlsberg

Chminey of Carlsberg

After - The Buoyancy Force, Elevation 1.500 Scale

4.

12 metres

Tsukiji Market (6:00)


CATALOGUE OF INCUBATORS Here offers four sizes of the incubators, it ranges from 6m to 25 meters. They all have the same structural characteristics: the Glass structure in the incubator and the EFTE in the package, supported by Cables. These incubators are autonomous, as they can interfere into the existing buildings of the Paper Island and alter the column grid or the roof structure. It can also vary to a larger or smaller scale of incubators, however, here indicates the most common ones:

Small Incubator

Medium Incubator

Pressure: 5 pascal

Pressure: 3 pascal 6m

10 m

8m

6m

Plateau 8 m height

Large Incubator Pressure: 9 pascal

Jumbo Incubator 25 m

Pressure: 30 pascal

16 m

25 m

25 m

Plateau 8 m height

Catalogue - The Incubator and Package, Elevation 1:500 Scale


GONIOCHROMISM Goniochromism is a property of certain surfaces that appear to change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.

Colour Scripts: (xx yy zz)

c3af7a

a08fa2

ce5370

b45187

b45187

929db9

ef5792

50fe9d

314939

4666b9

d64b36

a974e0

d9fe56

7d502f

Goniochromism - Irredescent Film, material study 1:5 Scale


Name of Kitchen

Noble Gas type (potentially) Pressure (measured in Pascal) Maxiumum Height the package can achieve Maximum Diamater of the package Temperature Range (Degrees Kelvin)

Boate

Therapy

Funny

Cold

The Noble

The Brewhouse

Pharmacy

Baths of Caracalla

The Diver

Neon 10Ne

Oxygen 8O

Helium 2He

Nitrogen 7N

Argon 18Ar

Carbon Dioxide CO2

Trimix PO2

Methane CH4

Hydrox

Pressure = 10 Pa

Pressure = 3 Pa

Pressure = 5 Pa

Pressure = 4 Pa

Pressure = 2 Pa

Pressure = 30 Pa

Pressure = 1 Pa

Pressure = 9 Pa

Pressure = 6 Pa

Maximum height = 19 m

Maximum height = 8.5 m

Maximum height = 12 m

Maximum height = 6 m

Maximum height = 9 m

Maximum height = 34 m

Maximum height = 6.7 m

Maximum height = 17 m

Maximum height = 13 m

Diameter = 28 m

Diameter = 18 m

Diameter = 10 m

Diameter = 18 m

Diameter = 8.5 m

Diameter = 25 m

Diameter = 8.5 m

Diameter = 25 m

Diameter = 14 m

24.5 K

277 K

4.2 K

37 K

83 K

300 K

n/a

85.1 K

n/a

The Office

The Event Room

CATALOGUE of the NOBLE GASES Every kitchen/lab has a particular type of : residual gas, temperature, function and scale of package. Each Gas is ideal to perform a standard scale for the package. These gases are stored in the packages and generated in the incubators.

The Noble Gases - Fermentopia Kitchen, Perspectival 1:200 Scale

The Car Park


The Operaen - Making Pressure Visible, Collage


The Convex Mirror - Making Pressure Visible, Collage


416 Christiansholm - Making Pressure Visible, Collage


Part II: Low Tech, Fermentation and Time


VIII. TIME

Noma using heating blanket at 40 degrees celsius for Macherel.


Abandoned Objects

1. Canal Tour Boats

2. Cranes

3. Vintage Trucks and Cars

The Warehouses 4. Bicycles

5. Wood Decks 6. Steel Container


THE TREASURE ISLAND Papiroen is the treasure Island - for a very simple reason: it has many abandoned objects and unused materials. This for the Chefs of Noma is a luxury, to be able to use this Island the way they want and without any cost.

The Treasure Island - The Paper Island, Ground Plan 1.1500 Scale


THE FERMENTED ISLAND Ground Plan of the phase 5 of papiroen (High Kraeusen), undergoing an exponential growth and deconstruction of the existing warehouses. The island will contain the Mad symposium, Noma restaurant, Accomodation and space for any chef or cook to work on.

MAD symposium 2017 - The Paper Island, Ground Plan 1.1500 Scale


PHASE I: PAPIRĂ˜EN |TODAY The treasure island of many abandoned and unused objects and warehouses. Demolished or becoming a 1:1 urban lab? Noma is moved to the Paper Island


TREASURES FOUND

1. Wood Decks

2. Bicycle

3. Canal Boats

4. Gas Tanks

5. Gas Pipes

6. Cranes

7. Steel Container

The Treasure Island - The Paper Island, Photographs Taken by Dalia Frontini


PAPIROEN TODAY: Papiroen is the treasure Island - for a very simple reason: it has many abandoned objects and unused materials. This for the Chefs of Noma is a luxury, to be able to use this Island the way they want and without any cost.

The Treasure Island - The Paper Island, South West Axo 1.1500 Scale


PHASE II: LAGTIME PHASE Consuming slowly the ‘sugars’ in plum (the paper island). The sugars are the ingredients, such as the warehouse, machines and materials.


First Warehouse to be deconstructed: the Event Room.


LAGTIME PHASE: The first warehouse on which will be deconstructed is the Timber truss roof one (outlined in Pink), this is Noma’s favorite one and protected by the other 3 warehouses.

Lagtime Phase - The Paper Island, South West Axo 1.1500 Scale


PHASE III: EXPONENTIAL Three main construction materials found in the Paper Island: Steel, Concrete and Timber. The minority is: glass and brick Rapid sugar consumption.


MATERIAL PROPORTION

1) Concrete: 55% 2) Steel: 23% 2) Mdf: 20% 3) Glass: 2%

The Car Park and Science Museum

1.

2.

3.

4.

1) Timber: 50% 2) Brick: 30% 3) Insulation: 20%

The Event Room

1.

2.

3.

4.

3.

4.

1) Concrete: 70% 2) Steel: 10% 3) Glass: 5% 4) Insulation: 15%

The Office

1.

Material Proportion - The Paper Island, South West Axo 1.500 Scale

2.


EXPONENTIAL PHASE: The tertiary and quaternary structures will be removed in order to construct the buckets and incubators. There are four main materials on which Noma can handle and make it by themselves: timber, steel, conrete and brick.

Exponential Phase - The Paper Island, South West Axo 1.1500 Scale


PHASE IV: MALTOSE Noma and Food scientists gradually moving into the Island and using the existing materials. Tricky sugar for yeast to digest


Pressure (Pa)

0.5

1

1.5

2

0.5

5

4

3.5

0.75

7

2

Maltose - The Paper Island, South West Axo 1.1500 Scale


MALTOSE: This is the phase where we see the first installation of the ETFE packages coated with the Irridescent film (as explored in previous chapters that pressure makes the colour of the package change).

High Kraeusen - The Paper Island, South West Axo 1.1500 Scale


PHASE V: HIGH KRAEUSEN Laboratories and kitchens expanding and releasing more and more carbon dioxide and methane gases. In return - the Paper Island is gradually being digested.


LIGHT REFLECTION: Observing the diagram, we can see with a direct and perpendicular light source the different angles of refraction and the effect of the light bouncing back from the Irridescent film. The result: a unique spectrum, similar to the Aurora Borealis.

Irridescent Sheet

Light Source

Refraction

Aurora Borealis - The Paper Island, Model Tests 1.50 Scale


SATURDAY NIGHTS PROJECTS: During the nightime the laboratories work on discovering new recipes. At the meantime, it illuminates the Canal, giving a theatrical to the centre of Copenhagen, the Opera and Danish Playhouse.

Nightime - The Paper Island, South West Axo 1.1500 Scale


PHASE VI: FLOCCULATIONS Maximum level of consuption of Papiroen. Kitchens and Labs proliferating into other islands.


FLOCCULATIONS: This is the most exciting moment of History for Noma, it is expanding, travelling witht different types of Packages and fermenting the warehouse.


PHASE VII: PRECIPITATION Death phase. Gradual deceleration of consumption and decomposition of the Paper Island. 15-30% of Island buildings remained. Residuals and voids.


PRECIPITATION: This is the decelerating moment, where Papiroen is gradually dissappearing as Noma converts them into Labs. To a point, one day, they start to launch their labs off ground and start to migrate into a different place.


PHASE VII: EVAPORATION The Last bacteria remained and no more traces of Papiroen. Tabula Rasa.


RENE’ REDZEPI IS LEAVING PAPIROEN: At last, Noma never stays in one place permenently, from moving away of the Boat to the Nordattlantens Brygge and then to Papiroen, there is a wonder to the next destination, TOKYO?


IX. FERMENTATION:

Imaginary solution for a Package-Bicyclette for the Danish people.


SATURDAY NIGHT PROJECTS

Every saturday night, Noma setsup the event of cooking new recipes: the Saturday nights projects. The pop ups reflect the active labs and those that have succeeded they rise their own packages as a celebratory moment.

100 metres

5 pa

3.4 pa

50 metres 2 pa 1.5 pa

3 pa 7 pa

3.5 pa

5.5 pa

4 pa 2 pa

2 pa

1.5 pa

1 pa

0.01 pa

8 metres

1.25 pa 4 metres

0.25 pa

0.15 pa

0.05 pa

Saturday Night Projects - The Paper Island, Elevation Collage


EVOLUTION OF PACKAGES: Starting from Stage 1 (explored from Chapter 1-7), to developing the DIY types of buckets. These are made of the local material you find in the Paper Island and in which Noma restauranters and chefs will build and gradually lift off from ground.

stage 1

stage 2

stage 3

stage 4

stage 5

stage 6

stage 7

stage 8

stage 9

stage 10

1. Glass incubator 2. Steel tiles 3. Brick 4. Timber spiral 5. Timber clad 6. Timber frame 7. Steel plates 8. Bicycle 9. Concrete bucket 10. Hot Air Balloon

Concrete

Piles

Limestone

Debris

Evolution of the Labs - The Paper Island, Section 1.400 Scale


MAD SYMPOSIUM 2017: Noma’s annual summer event is held in here, the Paper Island, the theme is “Fermentation” and thats what people are holding their cups: Soda drinks, beer, fermented Ant Gin, oils and so on. Welcome to the Mad Symposium!

Mad Symposium 2017, Noma in the Paper Island Zero Gravity Lab package being blown off from the strong Nordic Winds!

Nordatlantens Brygge: ex-Noma

MAD symposium 2017 - The Paper Island, Collage


CYCLE OF FERMENTATION:

Fermentation is about the production of gases and bringing gas into an architectural scale. Thus by packaging the different types of gaseous compounds we can see how they are very useful for the use of kitchens and food production. Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen are the main types of gases.

YEAST

SUGAR

WATER (30 Degrees Celsius)

GAS RELEASE

CARBON DIOXIDE

Its greatest use as a chemical is in the production of carbonated beverages; it provides the sparkle in carbonated beverages such as soda water. Formed by the action of yeast or baking powder.

HYDROGEN

Hydrogen is used in the Haber process for the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, in the production of methanol, and in hydrogenation of fats and oils. Therefore: fertilizers, ammonia and cleaning liquids.

METHANE

Methane is an invisible, odorless, and combustible gas present in trace concentrations in the atmosphere. It is the major component of natural gas, a fossil fuel commonly used for heating and cooking.


GRAVITY VS. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

Gravity is the pull force that attracts objects with mass into earth. Atmospheric pressure increases as you go towards up the sky. If you have a closed system balloon, as it rises up to the sky the air pressure will increase therefore cause the balloon to pop!

Largest fermentation package

DECREASE IN GRAVITATIONAL PULL

(old) Noma building

Fermentation Garden - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale


GROUND VS. SKY:

Some of the labs remain in the ground level, some in the platform of the warehouses then some are getting ready to lift off and fly around Copenhagen and beyond!

Hanging Garden

FerMeters (Making pressure visible)

Walking Package

Lighthouse boat

Landing Base 350 m

220 m

170 m

120 m

70 m

50 m 40 m

30 m 25 m 20 m 15 m 10 m 5m 0m

Fermentation Garden - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale


TYPES OF PROPELLERS:

Every package has different functions, some of them are for observing at high altitudes, some are for transportation, some are for rescuing, some are for lifting heavy objects and some are gliding in the sky as a pop up.

2. Blanchards Balloon

1. Hot Air Balloon 2. Wings Balloon 3. Transatlantic Balloon 4. Parachute 5. Observatory 6. Boat balloon 7. Hydrogen Balloon 8. Parachute II 9. Fins and Gores

1. Mongolfier Balloon

4. Garnerins Balloon

3. Santos Dumont Balloon

6. Lanais Aeronautic Machine

5. Observatory Balloon

7. Charles & Robert Balloon

8. Blanchards Balloon

9.

Package Propeller - The Paper Island, Section 1.500 Scale


PRESSURE CALCULATIONS:

Every package has an x amount of mass, fuel capacity, passanger capacity, burner tanks, and weight of the fabric. All these factors are important to understand the physics of the Hot Air Balloon, below shows the estimates:

5 km

Increase in Atmospheric Pressure, therefore increase in Buoyancy

60 metres

3.

2.

1.

6.

4. 5.

2.5 km

7.

9.

8.

Name of Package: 1. Foraging Lab Balloon 2. Mongolfier Fire Balloon 3. Methane Balloon 4. Lifting Balloon 5. Dirigible 6. Parachute 7. Conservation Balloon 8. Observation Balloon 9. Circumnavigation

Envelope (m3): 5000 m3 3000 m3 1000 m3 750 m3 1750 m3 500 m3 400 m3 650 m3 10000 m3

Basket: 100 kg 70 kg 25 kg 30 kg 60 kg 1 kg 10 kg 20 kg 250 kg

Fuel: Passenger(s): 200 L 10 140 L 7 50 L 5 60 L 3 120 L 15 - n/a 1 20 L 2 40 L 3 500 L 50

Airballoon Types - The Paper Island, Section 1.500 Scale

Heated Air: 4600 kg 2700 kg 700 kg 350 kg 1450 kg 200 kg 100 kg 350 kg 9700 kg

Total pressure: 10 pa 7 pa 2 pa 1 pa 11 pa 0.1 pa 3 pa 5 pa 20 pa

Ground


AERONAUTICS:

The Package propeller, also known as the Hot Air Balloon is composed by several parts in order to function. From the previous chapter studies, this design also will include a burner and replace the glass with a lightweight basket in order to make the Balloon rise.

a.

b. Equator (Maximum Radi) c. d.

e. f. g. h. i. 1.

2.

a. Parachute valve b. Equator c. Gores d. Panels e. Skirt (flameproof Nomex fabric) f. Parachute valve cord g. Connecting ropes h. Burners i. Cargo Basket

Package Propeller - The Paper Island, Section 1.500 Scale


INCUBATOR (GROUNDED)

If the incubator or the basket exceeds the specifications to lift off, or exceeds the mass, it will be simply impossible to lift it. Either you increase the size of the package or you reduce the mass of the basket.

a. b. c. Equator (Maximum Radi)

d.

e.

f. g. h. i.

1.

2.

a. Valve b. Gores c. Panels d. Equator (max. radius) e. Connecting cables f. Ring g. Air Fans (run in petrol) h. Airlock Door i. Incubator

Package Incubator - The Paper Island, Section 1.500 Scale


OBSERVATORY

The Labs are infecting the existing cranes, gradually stacking up on top of one another and cantilivering. The observatory will be one of the most exciting parts of the island, since you can see the different views of Copenhagen.

a. Balcony I.

b.

Balcony II.

Conservation Package

c.

d. 80 metres e.

g.

Balcony III.

h.

a. Crane Tower b. Air Ventilator c. Air Ventilator II d. Gores e. Valve f. Equator g. Connecting Ropes h. Cable Connectors

Observatory - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale

f.


THE GATE

Is activated when the steel container (bunker) of the fermentation lab inflates the package, and it deflates when it is inactivated. When it inflates it acts as a barrier or a closed door for the island. This is the only entrance (through land) you can get in the island.

a.

b. Closed Gate

c. d. e.

f.

Open Gate

g.

h.

a. Equator b. Deck c. Cable connectors d. Gores e. Steel Container f. Cables g. Deflated Package h. Void for entrance

The Gate - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale


THE WINDING CHIMNEY

This is the tallest tower found in the Paper Island, it acts as a symbol of signage and orientation for the air traffic (for balloons, airplanes and birds).

a.

b.

c.

d. e.

f.

120 metres

g.

h.

a. Valve b. gores c. Equator d. Cables e. Ring f. Chimney g. Pipes h. Air Ventilators

Winding Chimney - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale


THE LANTERN

Is injected with Helium and Neon gas, the Helium gas is optimum for lifting objects as it has a very low density volume and it tends to go up much quicker compared to other gases. Neon gas, is not a breathable gas since it is very chemical and reacts when electrical current passes through it and it “excites� particle atoms to inhibit light. Thats why is called Neon Light.

a.

b.

Lantern I.

c.

Lantern II.

d.

90 metres

e.

Lantern III.

f.

Lantern IV. g.

Boat

h.

a. Valve b. Cable Connector c. Incbuator d. Package 2: Helium Gas e. Lightweight Incubator 2 f. Package 3: Helium Gas g. Package 4: Helium Gas h. Boats

The Lantern - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale


THE PIVOT

The modified crane will be able to carry and transport from one island to another the fermentation Lab. There is the manufacturing island, close to the Operaen (no mans land) and it will serve to drag one side to another the labs.

Crane

Ice Cream Lorry a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

a. Crane b. Package 1 c. Staircase d. Inactivated package e. Ventilator f. Pillar g. Entrance

The Pivot - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale


THE HANGING GARDEN

The Garden is supported by the two large cranes, these are able to support a total of 15000 kg in a span of 8 metres. Therefore for 32 metres it can carry a load of about 6000 kg. This is enough to support the delicate hanging fermentation garden.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

a. Connection to Crane Tower b. Inactivated Package c. Platform d. String e. Bicycle wheels f. Inverted Package g. Large Package h. Connecting to Crane

Hanging Garden - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale

g.

h.


THE SKELETON

Here is a section without the packages, to understand how Noma has removed parts of the exciting building and converting into labs or hot air balloon buckets. It is also a clear understanding of the types of buckets and labs.

Gate

Steel Container

Crane I

The Winding Chimney

Bucket

Treasure Island - The Paper Island, Section 1.500 Scale

Platform

Truck


Bicycle Wheel

TruckII

TruckIII

Tower of Pizza

Elevator

Crane II

Treasure Island - The Paper Island, Section 1.1000 Scale

Pompeii

Lighthouse Boat


i. The Tent

ii. The Package

iii. The overlap

Making Pressure visible: Addition of two elements: the package and the tent. The result of having the packages inflated will make the pressure visible of the activities happening in the incubators and therefore, lift the tent. Which can accomodate more spaces on the roof.

i. the incubators

ii. Incubatos placed into the warehouse

iii. Incubators framing the existing

Preserving the “soul� of the existing: Subraction of the existing building with the incubators. Where the incubators will frame particular moments of the existing. As well as the incubator reinforcing the roof structure so that the platform can be used for MAD symposium.

Dialogue between the industrial (low tech):

i. The tent

Subraction of the existing building with the incubators. Where the incubators will frame particular moments of the existing. As well as the incubator reinforcing the roof structure so that the platform can be used for MAD symposium.

ii. The Package

iii. The incubators

iv. The warehouse

Strategy - Papiroen is a test kitchen , Section 1.500 Scale


Name of Kitchen

Noble Gas type (potentially) Pressure (measured in Pascal) Maxiumum Height the package can achieve Maximum Diamater of the package Temperature Range (Degrees Kelvin)

Boate

Therapy

Funny

Cold

The Noble

The Brewhouse

Pharmacy

Baths of Caracalla

The Diver

Neon 10Ne

Oxygen 8O

Helium 2He

Nitrogen 7N

Argon 18Ar

Carbon Dioxide CO2

Trimix PO2

Methane CH4

Hydrox

Pressure = 10 Pa

Pressure = 3 Pa

Pressure = 5 Pa

Pressure = 4 Pa

Pressure = 2 Pa

Pressure = 30 Pa

Pressure = 1 Pa

Pressure = 9 Pa

Pressure = 6 Pa

Maximum height = 19 m

Maximum height = 8.5 m

Maximum height = 12 m

Maximum height = 6 m

Maximum height = 9 m

Maximum height = 34 m

Maximum height = 6.7 m

Maximum height = 17 m

Maximum height = 13 m

Diameter = 28 m

Diameter = 18 m

Diameter = 10 m

Diameter = 18 m

Diameter = 8.5 m

Diameter = 25 m

Diameter = 8.5 m

Diameter = 25 m

Diameter = 14 m

24.5 K

277 K

4.2 K

37 K

83 K

300 K

n/a

85.1 K

n/a

The Office

The Event Room

Every kitchen/lab has a particular type of : residual gas, temperature, function and scale of package. Each Gas is ideal to perform a standard scale for the package. These gases are stored in the packages and generated in the incubators.

The Noble Gases - Fermentopia Kitchen, Perspectival 1:200 Scale

The Car Park


MAKING PRESSURE VISIBLE

The noble gas, listed below, are the main elemental types of gases in food science and chemistry. Each gas has different density and optimum temperature to operate. Some gases will tend to stay grounded (there are heavy gases) and some gases tend to want to rise up to the sky.

Name of Kitchen

Noble Gas type (potentially) Pressure (measured in Pascal) Maxiumum Height the package can achieve Maximum Diamater of the package Temperature Range (Degrees Kelvin)

Methane Package (from toilets)

Boate

Therapy

Funny

Cold

Neon 10Ne

Oxygen 8O

Helium 2He

Nitrogen 7N

Pressure = 10 Pa

Pressure = 3 Pa

Pressure = 5 Pa

Pressure = 4 Pa

Maximum height = 19 m

Maximum height = 8.5 m

Maximum height = 12 m

Maximum height = 6 m

Diameter = 28 m

Diameter = 18 m

Diameter = 10 m

Diameter = 18 m

24.5 K

277 K

4.2 K

37 K

Accomodation/Camping

Hydrogen Package

Two storeys Warehouse

FerMeters - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale


The Noble

The Brewhouse

Pharmacy

Baths of Caracalla

The Diver

Argon 18Ar

Carbon Dioxide CO2

Trimix PO2

Methane CH4

Hydrox

Pressure = 2 Pa

Pressure = 30 Pa

Pressure = 1 Pa

Pressure = 9 Pa

Pressure = 6 Pa

Maximum height = 9 m

Maximum height = 34 m

Maximum height = 6.7 m

Maximum height = 17 m

Maximum height = 13 m

Diameter = 8.5 m

Diameter = 25 m

Diameter = 8.5 m

Diameter = 25 m

Diameter = 14 m

83 K

300 K

n/a

85.1 K

n/a

Entrance to noma Restaurant

Largest Fermentation Package

The Tower of Pisa

Timber Truss Warehouse

Bottling Plant

Concrete Warehouse

FerMeters - The Paper Island, Section 1.750 Scale


MODELS


THE CABLE MODEL

Testing: control points, cable connectors through rings, air pressure valve, pipes and weights.

CO2 Gas: Carbon Dioxide Gas

a.

b.

Front Elevation

c.

d.

e. f. Top View

g.

h.

i.

j. Bottom View

a. Pressure: 0.01 Pascal b. Cable connectors c. Plateau d. Package e. Joints f. Control points in plateau g. Weights (10 grams each) h. Valve i. Pipe j. Airlock Vessel

Cable Package test - The Paper Island, Physical Model 1.100 Scale


THE FERMENTATION LAB

This is the final model, which carries several experiments: the test of the material (irridescent film) which will be coated on top of the ETFE, the air fans, interiority of the lab (the effect of pressure with the material) and the adaptation between the warehouse and the incubator.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

a.Connecting Ropes b. Package (2 Pascal) c. Hole in Roof of Warehouse d. Air Fans e. Valve ring f. Platform of Warehouse g. Mirror

Inside the incubator: Deflated (0 Pascal)

Inflated (2 Pascal)

Activated Lab - Fermenting Papiroen, Model 1.50 Scale


THE HOT AIR BALLOON

Testing: proportion between the size of the package and the weight of the basket. A hot air (of 40 degrees celsius) is lifting the hot ait balloon and propelling from the ground for 1 meter.

a. Parachute Valve

b. Package

c. Connecting ropes

d. Door of basket

e. Cargo Basket

a.

b. Equator (Maximum Radi) c. d.

e. a. Parachute valve b. Equator c. Gores d. Panels e. Skirt f. Parachute valve cord g. Connecting ropes h. Burners i. Cargo Basket

f. g. h. i. 1.

2.

Hot Air Balloon - The Paper Island, Model 1.100 Scale


THE DIRIGIBLE BALLOON

Testing: with two Balloons you can manoevre the direction and distance you want to take the balloon, it is easier to control as you can vary the pressure between the two of the balloons.

f. Cargo Basket

a. Observatory Package

c. Gliding Platforms

e. Pivot

b. Dirigible Package

d. Refraction/Shadow

Basket Basket

Staircase

The Dirigible Package

Dirigible Balloon- Fermenting Papiroen, Model 1.100 Scale


X. REFERENCES


INSPIRATIONS Ark Nova By: Arata Isoaki & Anish Kapoor Two years after a major earthquake and tsunami hit Japan, architect Arata Isozaki and artist Anish Kapoor have completed an inflatable mobile concert hall that will tour affected region. The walls of the structure are made from a stretchy plastic membrane, designed to enable quick erection and dismantling. To transport it to a new venue, the orb is completely deflated and loaded onto the back of a lorry alongside the disassembled equipment.

Big Air Package By: Christo and Jean Claude The sculpture is installed inside the Gasometer. It is made from 20,350 square meters of semitransparent polyester fabric and 4,500 meters of polypropylene rope. The inflated envelope is 90 meters high, with a diameter of 50 meters, a volume of 177,000 cubic meters and a total weight of 5,300 kilogram. The Gasometer was built in 1928/29 to store the blast furnace gas that is generated as a by-product of the industrial processing of iron ore. It is one of the largest gas tanks in the world, 117 meters high by 68 meters in diameter.

Pneu und Knochen By: Frei Otto The influence exerted on a very elastic rubber membrane by guying with additional linear elements. The pressure inside the membrane is constant. It can be seen that such support of the membrane does not only bring the advantage of reducing radii of curvature and thereby the membrane tensions (paer of the tensile stress is absorbed by the cables) but also considerably affects the total appearance - a point that is of great significance for the design of pneumatic objects.

Mobile Roof at Expo 1970, Osaka By: Tanero Oki & Associates. The diameter of the Mushrooms are varied between 15 to 35 meters. The pneumatically stabilised surfaces were guyed with the radical cables to the centre masts, and if the cables were retracted the mushrooms closed. When open the support pressure was 200 mm of water pressure; when closed it was 400 mm under wind speed loadings of over 15m/sec. The membrane material was PVA and polyester fabric with PVC coating.

On Space Time Foam By: Tomas Saraceno Required months of engineering and static testing. The installation was created thanks to the collaboration of a team of engineers and Lindstrand Technologies, a leading company in the research and production of aerostatic materials and products, hot-air balloons and space vehicles also manufactured for the European Space Agency (ESA).

Ballon für Zwei By: Haus Ruker Co When fears regarding environmental pollution and potential catastrophe were at a high in the 1970s, Haus-Rucker-Co set out to develop a “new concept of architecture.” Based in Vienna, the group was known for their interactive exhibitions and their development of utopian architectural ideas, which showed how people could affect their own environment. Now, their work between 1967 and 1977 is the theme of “Architectural Utopia Reloaded,” the latest exhibition on display at the Haus am Waldsee in Berlin.


MATERIALS Project: Festungsarena Kufstein Material: Tenara Fabric (PTFE) PTFE stands for PolyTetraFluoroEthylene, the most inert polymer known. Chemically, it consists of a polymer chain ‘backbone’ of carbon with fluorine bonds. These bonds are exceptionally strong and are the reason for PTFE’s exceptional resistance to UV, chemicals, etc. PTFE is commonly used in very low temperatures, as well as very high temperatures in a wide variety of industrial, pharmaceutical, medical and consumer products. PTFE is considered part of a larger family of ‘fluoropolymers’.

Project: The Spacebuster - Raumlabor Material: Rip stop Ripstop fabrics are woven fabrics, often made of nylon, using a special reinforcing technique that makes them resistant to tearing and ripping. During weaving, (thick) reinforcement threads are interwoven at regular intervals in a crosshatch pattern. The intervals are typically 5 to 8 millimeters (0.2 to 0.3 in). A similar effect can be achieved by weaving two or three fine yarns together at smaller intervals.

Project: Khan Shatyr Entertainment Centre Material: ETFE 60m Tripod leg weighs 351 tonnes. Each 70m Tripod leg weighs 211.5 tonnes. The ETFE and cable roof is very lightweight and thus efficient- the large spans would make for a very heavy structure if it was steel and glass- and by hanging the roof from the tripod all the cables are simply in tension, which is a very efficient system for steel.

Project: Dreamspace - Maurice Agis Material: Vinyl-Coated Nylon (fin to thick) Manufactured in a wide variety of thicknesses, it is used for its strength, durability and flexibility. Easy to clean and repair. The downsides to PVC are its weight and its reaction to longer term UV exposure. In order to provide similar load capacities to that of Rip Stop Nylon or Polyester, PVC has to be thicker which dramatically increases weight, making it harder to erect and transport.

Project: Aluminium Floating Cube Material: Aluminium Aluminium distorts its surroundings, especially lights and shadows, portrays interesting reflections. The lights become elongated swirls and the shadows/ reflections cause a rippled effect – almost creating its own piece of art on its façade. It is important to take into consideration how the exterior of the cube affects its environment, and similarly how the environment affects its exterior.

Iridescent film By: Tomas Saraceno Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the property of certain surfaces that appear to change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes. Examples of iridescence include soap bubbles, butterfly wings and sea shells, as well as certain minerals. It is often created by structural coloration (microstructures which interfere with light). This process, termed thin-film interference, is the functional analogue of selective wavelength attenuation as seen with the Fabry–Pérot interferometer.


COATING/CARVING Ceramics By: Cumella A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid comprising metal, nonmetal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. The crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from highly oriented to semi-crystalline, and often completely amorphous (e.g., glasses).

Mud By: Djenne mosque The walls of the Great Mosque are made of sunbaked earth bricks (called ferey), and sand and earth based mortar, and are coated with a plaster which gives the building its smooth, sculpted look. The walls of the building are decorated with bundles of rodier palm (Borassus aethiopum) sticks, called toron, that project about 60 cm (2 ft) from the surface. The toron also serve as readymade scaffolding for the annual repairs. Ceramic half-pipes also extend from the roofline and direct rain water from the roof away from the walls.[15]

Fibre Glass By: Smiljan Radić Fiberglass is a strong lightweight material and is used for many products. Although it is not as strong and stiff as composites based on carbon fiber, it is less brittle, and its raw materials are much cheaper. Its bulk strength and weight are also better than many metals, and it can be more readily molded into complex shapes. Applications of fiberglass include, aircraft, boats, automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks, roofing, pipes, cladding, casts, surfboards, and external door skins

Domecrete By: Haim Heifetz Here are a 3 or 4.5 or 6cm thick coat of high grade concrete is applied or sprayed in layers of 15mm on high pressure structures the size of a house. The pneumatic form work can be removed within 90 minutes after application of the concrete. In less than a day a dwelling house includin a Vermiculite insulating layer, inside and outside plastering, electricity and water supplies. Anarchitecture By: Gordon Matta Clark Gordon Matta-Clark used neglected structures slated for demolition as his raw material. He carved out sections of buildings in order to reveal their hidden constructions, to provide new ways of perceiving space, and to create metaphors for the human condition. When wrecking balls knocked down his sculpted buildings, little remained. The placement of Matta-Clark’s work in the Pulitzer’s building by Tadao Ando offers the means to recall the artist’s lost interventions. Matta-Clark’s desire to give abandoned objects and buildings new meaning.

Taichung Metropolitan By: Toyo Ito The National Taichung Theater is an opera house in the 7th Metropolitan area of Taichung, Taiwan. The estimated area of the structure is 57,685 square metres (620,920 sq ft) with 2,011 seats. It was designed by Japanese architect Toyo Ito. It was contracted on 11 November 2009 with construction planned for 45 months. The venue had a partial opening on 23 November 2014.The opera house will officially open in 2016.


CONCLUSION of the Technical Studies Project: The change of pressure in the incubator determines the change of volume of the package. Therefore, if there is a larger input of air flow into the incubator, then the package will respond to that outcome. The package is the solution in order to understand the activities happening in the incubator - what time is in operation, what time it is on high production or use. The package is a new and different way of seeing pressure. Firstly because of the inflateable which deflates and inflates sculpturally into the air. Secondly, is the materiality of the inflateable, the Irridescent Film which is vital to see the apparent change of colour and form of the package. Lastly, the colours of the gases released and how that can change the ambience and temperature. The incubator is a very important part for the function of the package. At first, being made of glass and metal hardware, it is capable to integrate into any structure or stand alone. Secondly because, it has these various “skins” which different glazes can be applied, including the air fan (specifically used in Noma’s incubators) and a new invented “aerated” plaster through fermentation. The Package and the Incubator need one another in order to make the pressure visible. They simultaneously follow a cycle of an input and an output source (this could be temperature, chemical solutions or air). Which means, the air coming from the incubator either will be exhausted on the exterior or indeed, inside it, so that it will inflate the package. Vice versa, the air of the package will go back straight into the incubator and eventually filtered out from the air fan.


Fermenting Papiroen: Making pressure visible Dalia Matsuura Frontini

Technical Studies Portfolio - Intermediate 9 2015 Christopher Pierce, Christopher Matthews and Charlotte Moe

Dalia m frontini ts2  
Dalia m frontini ts2