Rational Livestock Nutrition in Rural Areas

Page 1

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences (PL)

Az „Ésszerű takarmányozás és állatartás” cı́mű kézikönyv a gazdaságokban élő állatok takarmányozásának ‒ beleértve az egészségre vonatkozó szempontokat, az állati eredetű termékek minőségét, a mezőgazdaság környezetvédelmi vonatkozásait és az állattartást ‒ tömör összefoglalása, miközben figyelembe veszi az Európai Unió mezőgazdaságra vonatkozó jogi szabályozásait is.

SZAKKÉPZÉSI PROJEKTEK A pályázattípus célja jó gyakorlatok megosztásának, fejlesztésének, átvételének vagy alkalmazásának támogatása intézményi, helyi, regionális, nemzeti vagy európai szinten a szakképzés területén (tágabb értelemben pl. a munka világát érintő képzések terén is).

A fejezetek nagy része a széles körben alkalmazott takarmányozás jelenlegi tudásszintjével foglalkozik, annak legfontosabb területeit érinti, emellett figyelmet szentel az állattartás fenntartható mezőgazdasági környezetben való megvalósı́tásának. Mindez a projekt célkitűzéseiből következik: az egyéni gazdálkodás, nem pedig az ipari méretű állattartás és élelmiszeripar áll a figyelem középpontjában. Az egyes fejezetek némileg különböznek egymástól a bennük feldolgozott anyag tudásszintjét illetően, de teljes körű közép-, sőt felső szintű alapismeretet nyújtanak az olvasó számára. A kézikönyv tartalmát nagyon közvetlen és kommunikatı́v módon közvetı́ti. Maja Słupczyńska és Barbara Król ‒ a kézikönyv szerkesztői, valamint a második fejezet szerzői ‒ rengeteg munkát fektettek a külföldi szerzők által ́ırt fejezetek egy-ségessé tételébe úgy, hogy emellett megmaradjon azok eredeti karaktere, stı́lusa és a szerzői jogok tiszteletben tartása is. A kézikönyvekben nem gyakori grafikai ábrázolások, színes ábrák, kulcsfontosságú információk (ahol az lehetséges) sora nagyban segíti a tanulási folyamatot, a megértést és az olvashatóságot, még a kevésbé felkészült olvasó számára is.

Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University (TR)

RATIONAL LIVESTOCK NUTRITION IN RURAL AREAS Barbara Król Maja Słupczyńska

Összefoglalásként elmondható, hogy az „Ésszerű takarmányozás és állatartás” cı́mű, terjedelmileg több mint 300 oldalas könyvben alkalmazott modern, szintetizáló és szerves megközelı́tés értékes összefoglalóként szolgál a vidéki gazdaságokban dolgozó állattartók számára. Elismerésem azoknak a fiatal koordinátoroknak, akik komoly szerzői, szerkesztői munkájuk révén mindezt létrehozták. Különösen fontos kiemelni azt a tényt, hogy a kézikönyvet angol nyelven készı́tették el, ́ıgy terjesztése ‒ fordı́tást követően ‒ a stratégiai partnerségben részt vevő országokban (Lengyelországban, Törökországban, Romániában, Olaszországban és Magyarországon) is megvalósul. Egy ilyen terjedelmű és változatosságú szöveg angol szókincstárának mesterfokon történő létrehozása hatalmas kihı́vást jelentett a fiatal szerkesztők, Barbara Król és Maja Słupczyńska, számára.

Prof. zw. dr. hab. Dorota Jamroz, dr. h.c., dr. h.c.

University of Balıkesir (TR)

National Research Development Institute for Animal Biology and Nutrition (RO)

Confederazione Italiana Agricoltori dellʼUmbria (IT)

ERASMUS+ COOPERATION AND INNOVATION FOR GOOD PRACTICES;

Association of the Regional Initiatived Development „Lacjum” (PL)

KA202 - STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING

www.livenutrition.eu Project no. 2014-1-PL-KA202-003496

LiveNUTRITION book OKL v4 do druku.indd 1

Tudás Alapítvány (HU)



ÉSSZERŰ TAKARMÁNYOZÁS A VIDÉKI TERÜLETEKEN Az állatok ésszerű és szükséglet szerinti takarmányozása meghatározó tényező az állattenyésztési ágazat jövedelmezőségében. Ennek ellenére sok állattenyésztő még mindig nem rendelkezik azokkal a szükséges ismeretekkel az innováció, a takarmányozás diverzifikálása és a helyi szolgáltatások szükségszerű fejlesztése területén, ami csökkenti az ilyen gazdaságok életképességét. Ha az állattenyésztést, -tartást folytató gazdák ismeretei, készségei, kompetenciái nem elegendőek, a kor színvonalának nem megfelelőek, akkor viselniük kell a gazdaságtalan állatitermék-előállítási költségeket. Mindezek miatt nagy szükség van az érintett szakemberek részére az ésszerű takarmányozás területén olyan innovatív és közérthető tananyagra, amely a kor követelményeinek megfelelő.

PROJEKTCÉLOK: egy innovatív, a kor követelményeinek teljes mértékben megfelelő, naprakész oktatási anyag előállítása az állati takarmányozás és a táplálkozásmenedzsment területén: a) e-learning platform, b) kézikönyv: Ésszerű takarmányozás és állatartás.

CÉLCSOPORTOK: állattenyésztők és takarmányozással foglalkozó szakemberek: szaktanácsadók, állatorvosok, takarmányt előállító cégek munkatársai stb.; a közép- és felsőfokú mezőgazdasági szakképzésben résztvevő tanárok, oktatók, diákok, egyetemi hallgatók.

LiveNUTRITION book OKL v4 do druku.indd 2

ODUCTS tanfolyamok innovatív tanterv kézikönyv interaktív e-learning platform A tanterv és a tananyag tartalmazni fogja a speciális regionális és nemzeti elvárásokat, felöleli a szakterület összes fontos kérdését: az ésszerű takarmányozást, az állategészségügyi kérdéseket, a gyepgazdálkodás fontosságát, a legelők minőségi fejlesztését és védelmét, az egészséges állatitermék-előállítást, a tej- és hústermelés minőségi előírásait, a tudományos módszerek ismeretét a betegségmegelőző egészséges táplálkozás vonatkozásában, a megújuló energiaforrások hasznosítását, a fenntartható, egészségre ártalmatlan ivóvízforrások megőrzését, a hagyományos és újabb takarmánynövények hasznosítását és a vidéki területek speciális igényeinek figyelembe vételét.



RATIONAL LIVESTOCK NUTRITION IN RURAL AREAS



Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences (PL)

Az „Ésszerű takarmányozás és állatartás” cı́mű kézikönyv a gazdaságokban élő állatok takarmányozásának ‒ beleértve az egészségre vonatkozó szempontokat, az állati eredetű termékek minőségét, a mezőgazdaság környezetvédelmi vonatkozásait és az állattartást ‒ tömör összefoglalása, miközben figyelembe veszi az Európai Unió mezőgazdaságra vonatkozó jogi szabályozásait is.

SZAKKÉPZÉSI PROJEKTEK A pályázattípus célja jó gyakorlatok megosztásának, fejlesztésének, átvételének vagy alkalmazásának támogatása intézményi, helyi, regionális, nemzeti vagy európai szinten a szakképzés területén (tágabb értelemben pl. a munka világát érintő képzések terén is).

A fejezetek nagy része a széles körben alkalmazott takarmányozás jelenlegi tudásszintjével foglalkozik, annak legfontosabb területeit érinti, emellett figyelmet szentel az állattartás fenntartható mezőgazdasági környezetben való megvalósı́tásának. Mindez a projekt célkitűzéseiből következik: az egyéni gazdálkodás, nem pedig az ipari méretű állattartás és élelmiszeripar áll a figyelem középpontjában. Az egyes fejezetek némileg különböznek egymástól a bennük feldolgozott anyag tudásszintjét illetően, de teljes körű közép-, sőt felső szintű alapismeretet nyújtanak az olvasó számára. A kézikönyv tartalmát nagyon közvetlen és kommunikatı́v módon közvetı́ti. Maja Słupczyńska és Barbara Król ‒ a kézikönyv szerkesztői, valamint a második fejezet szerzői ‒ rengeteg munkát fektettek a külföldi szerzők által ́ırt fejezetek egy-ségessé tételébe úgy, hogy emellett megmaradjon azok eredeti karaktere, stı́lusa és a szerzői jogok tiszteletben tartása is. A kézikönyvekben nem gyakori grafikai ábrázolások, színes ábrák, kulcsfontosságú információk (ahol az lehetséges) sora nagyban segíti a tanulási folyamatot, a megértést és az olvashatóságot, még a kevésbé felkészült olvasó számára is.

Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University (TR)

RATIONAL LIVESTOCK NUTRITION IN RURAL AREAS Barbara Król Maja Słupczyńska

Összefoglalásként elmondható, hogy az „Ésszerű takarmányozás és állatartás” cı́mű, terjedelmileg több mint 300 oldalas könyvben alkalmazott modern, szintetizáló és szerves megközelı́tés értékes összefoglalóként szolgál a vidéki gazdaságokban dolgozó állattartók számára. Elismerésem azoknak a fiatal koordinátoroknak, akik komoly szerzői, szerkesztői munkájuk révén mindezt létrehozták. Különösen fontos kiemelni azt a tényt, hogy a kézikönyvet angol nyelven készı́tették el, ́ıgy terjesztése ‒ fordı́tást követően ‒ a stratégiai partnerségben részt vevő országokban (Lengyelországban, Törökországban, Romániában, Olaszországban és Magyarországon) is megvalósul. Egy ilyen terjedelmű és változatosságú szöveg angol szókincstárának mesterfokon történő létrehozása hatalmas kihı́vást jelentett a fiatal szerkesztők, Barbara Król és Maja Słupczyńska, számára.

Prof. zw. dr. hab. Dorota Jamroz, dr. h.c., dr. h.c.

University of Balıkesir (TR)

National Research Development Institute for Animal Biology and Nutrition (RO)

Confederazione Italiana Agricoltori dellʼUmbria (IT)

ERASMUS+ COOPERATION AND INNOVATION FOR GOOD PRACTICES;

Association of the Regional Initiatived Development „Lacjum” (PL)

KA202 - STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP FOR VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING

www.livenutrition.eu Project no. 2014-1-PL-KA202-003496

LiveNUTRITION book OKL v4 do druku.indd 1

Tudás Alapítvány (HU)


Authors: Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition Prof. Dr. Imre Mucsi János Palotás (Tudás Alapítvány, Hungary)

Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives Dr. Eng. Barbara Król Dr. Maja Słupczyńska Dr. Eng. Rafał Bodarski (Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland) Wioletta Czernatowicz Maciej Dymacz (ARID Lacjum, Poland) Chapter 3. Animal Feeding Systems in Europe Dr. Eng. Catalin Dragomir Dr. Eng. Mihaela Habeanu Dr. Eng. Anca Gheorghe (National Institute for Research Development in Animal Biology and Nutrition, Romania) Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare Prof. Ergün Demir (Balikesir University, Turkey) Prof. Kemal Çelik (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey)

Chapter 5. Livestock Management and Environment Dr. Massimo Canalicchio Dr. Eng. Andrea Palomba (Confederazione Italiana Agricoltori dell’ Umbria in Italy)

Reviewer Prof. dr. hab. dr. h.c., dr. h.c. Dorota Jamroz Editors: Dr. Maja Słupczyńska Dr. Eng. Barbara Król Cover design Dr. Eng. Joanna Kubizna DTP Paweł Wójcik, Dr. Eng. Joanna Kubizna

LiveNutrition project has been funded with support from the European Commission with the reference number 2014-1-PL-KA202-003496. This book relects the view only of the authors, and the commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


Preface Livestock nutrition is one of the most important issue in animal production

both in physiological-economic terms as well as the impact of livestock on

the environment. The handbook „Rational livestock nutrition in rural areas”

has been funded with support from the European Commission under

Erasmus + programme – Cooperation for innovation and good practice. The book has been developed by experts in various fields of agriculture – animal

nutrition and feed science, animal husbandry, agronomy and veterinary

medicine. The authors of this book, originating from five different countries

– Poland, Turkey, Romania, Italy and Hungary by working within the

framework of the established Strategic Partnership – Vocational Education

and Training have developed a comprehensive compendium aimed at

transfer of knowledge, good practice and innovation in the field of agriculture with emphasis on rational nutrition of livestock.

The book covers five broad issues of livestock nutrition. Chapter one – „Physiology of Nutrition”, is related to the anatomy and functions of

particular organs of the farm animals’ digestive tracts, type of nutrients

found in the livestock diets, as well digestion, absorption and metabolism of

these compounds. An extensive characteristics of most common used in

animal nutrition feeds, their processing, feed additives as well as the

mechanism of their action are presented in the second chapter – „Feed and

Feed Additives”. The chapter number three – „Animal Feeding Systems in

Europe” in a synthetic way explains the fundamentals of commonly used

feeding systems of ruminants, pigs, poultry, horses and rabbits. This

chapter also provides several schemes of daily rations/concentrate

mixtures formulation for various farm animal species. An extensive chapter

number four is dedicated to animal welfare as well etiology, treatment and prevention of metabolic diseases in animals that livestock breeders are struggling every day.


Last but not least, the fifth chapter raises issues related to livestock

production in terms of environmental and legal conditions under the

common agricultural policy of member countries. The possibilities of

reducing the negative impact of livestock production on the environment,

so called „good practices” are discussed in this chapter.

The book “Rational Livestock Nutrition in Rural Areas” is intended for

people involved in animal production – mainly farmers but it can also be

used by agricultural and nutritional consultants, zootechnical service workers. Students of vocational agricultural schools and, to some extent, students of natural and agricultural universities may benefit this book as

well.


Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Digestive Tract Anatomy……………………………………….………………………………………………….. Nutrients ………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…....... Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids ………………………...………………………………………………..…… Vitamins & Minerals ………………………………………………………………………………………...……... Nutrients Digestion & Absorption ………………………………………………………...………………… Energy Metabolism ………………………………………………………………………………………………...

8 30 36 54 74 86

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Feeds Characteristics …...…………………………………….….……………………………………………….. Feed Processing …………………………………………………….………………………………………...…....... Feeds Quality ………………………….………………………...………………………………………………..…… Feeds Additives ……...………………………………………………………………………………………...……... Pasture and Grassland Management ………………………………….……………………………………...

92 119 128 137 166

Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

Chapter 3. Animal Feeding Systems in Europe 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ruminants Feeding Systems …....………………………….….……………………………………………….. Pigs Feeding Systems …………………………………………….………………………………………...…....... Poultry Feeding Systems ……………….......……………...………………………………………………..…… Horses Feeding Systems ……...…………………………………………………………………………...……... Rabbits Feeding Systems ………………..……………………………………………………...…………………

176 194 200 205 210

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Animal Welfare …………………..…....………………………….….……………………………………………….. Health Management and Biosecurity ………………………………………………………………...…....... Animal Diseases and Zoonoses ……………….........……………………………………………………..…… Metabolic Disorders ……..……...…………………………………………………………………………...……... Quality of Animal Origin Products ………………..………………………………………...…………………

214 222 234 242 274

1. 2. 3.

Nitrates and Zootechnics Effluents …………………..…....………...……………………………………….. European Directives and Basic Environmental Action………………………………………...…....... Livestock Management Good Practice to Reduce Water, Soil and Air Pollution …………...

279 290 309

Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

Chapter 5. Livestock Management and Environment

Literature ………………………………………………………............................................................ 324


Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

Physiology of Nutrition

1. Digestive Tract Anatomy 2. Nutrients 3. Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids 4. Minerals & Vitamins 5. Nutrients Digestion & Absorption 6. Energy Metabolism

ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE GLANDS

ORGANS OF LIVESTOCK DT FOREGUT

HINDGUT

MONOGASTRIC LIPS (MUZZLE)

ORAL CAVITY •TONGUE •TEETH

SMALL LARGE INTESTINE INTESTINE •WITH CROP •RETICULUM •DUODENUM •CECUM IN BIRDS •RUMEN •ILEUM •COLON •OMASUM •JEJUNUM •RECTUM •ABOMASUM

PHARYNX ESOPHAGUS

STOMACH

ANUS

RUMINANTS Digestive tract also known as the gastrointestinal tract or the alimentary tract is a glandulous canal begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. Lips or beak opens oral cavity that ended with pharynx. The next segment of digestive tract is the esophagus - a tube which runs from the pharynx to the stomach. Food is passed down the esophagus by peristalsis which is the contraction and relaxation of longitudinal and circular muscles, pushing food down to the stomach in wave like motion. The stomach has multiple roles in digestion and its structure depends in great extent on animal type of diet. 8

The complex four-compartment stomach of ruminants includes the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum and the abomasum that is considered to be the true stomach. The function of stomach with one compartment is just chemical and enzymatic digestion of feed begins in the stomach by gastric juices. Next segment of digestive tract is the small intestine that is a long and narrow ‘tube’ with a structure and epithelium that maximizes surface area. This is important because the small intestine is the primary site of digestion by enzymes and nutrients absorption.

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The small intestine can be divided into the duodenum, jejunum and the ileum. The pancreatic duct connects the pancreas to the duodenum – the majority of the digestive enzymes enter the small intestine by this duct. To aid in lipid digestion, bile is secreted by the liver. The small intestine joins to the large intestine, which consists of the caecum, colon and rectum. The remnants are excreted via the rectum and anal sphincters.

There are two types of fermenting herbivores, those which ferment in the foregut and those which ferment in the hindgut. The difference between them is the site of fermentation and the organ used for fermentation.

The foregut extends from the mouth till the end of stomach. Parts of the foregut: the oral cavity, the pharynx, the esophagus and the stomach. The stomach collects and stores the swallowed feed where it is further broken down by gastric juices secreted by the glands in the stomach wall. Finally, the stomach forwards the feed into the small intestine.

Hindgut fermenters such as horses or rabbits have a digestive system very similar to carnivores, except due to the large amounts of fibre and other difficult-to-digest components of the diet, the complete digestive tract is much longer.

The structure of digestive tract organs they shape and size depends mostly on type of food that animals intake. Herbivores that intake high-fibre diet have or long small intestine and complex large intestine where their fermentation can take place or complex 4 compartment stomach that also allows for good utilization of such diet. There are three the most important accessory digestive glands that secrete their enzymes into digestive tract lumen are: liver, pancreas and salivary glands. The liver is the largest epithelial origin gland. It produces bile which is an important digestive juice. The liver secretes bile directly to duodenum or to gall bladder where is stored and emulsifies lipids aiding in their digestion. Moreover the liver detoxifies various

metabolites such as ammonia, synthetizes protein and stores fat-soluble vitamins.

Pancreas secretes pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes to duodenum, takes part in carbohydrates, lipids and protein digestion and secretes insulin and glucagon that control sugar metabolism. And finally salivary glands than main function is saliva secretion into oral cavity that moistens feed and facilitate swallowing.

ACCESSORY DIGESTIVE GLANDS THE LIVER the largest epithelial origin gland, secretes bile directly to dueodenum or to gall bladder (where is stored) that emulsify lipids and aid in their digestion, detoxifies various metabolites e.g. ammonia, synthetises protein, stores fat-soluble vitamins.

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THE PANCREAS secretes pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes to duodenum, takes part in carbohydrates, lipids and protein digestion, secretes insulin and glucagon that control sugar metabolism.

SALIVARY GLANDS secrete saliva into oral cavity that moistens feed and faciliate swallowing.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

FUNCTIONS OF LIVESTOCK DT INGESTION (FEED INTAKE) mouth – grasps the feed teeth – grind the feed tongue – covered with papillae containing taste buds

DIGESTION stomach and duodenum chemical breakdown of nutrents into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into bloodstream

CHEWING (MASTICATION) salivary glands – secrete saliva moistens feed and helps in swallowing,

SWALLOWING esophagus – feed tube that leads from oral cavity to the stomach.

pharynx – enters feed material into the esophagus and protects feed from entering the lungs.

The digestive tract plays multiple functions however, the most important is feed breaking down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into bloodstream and utilize by animal for maintenance and production. Due to the fact that alimentary tract consists of several organs each of them is responsible for various functions.

Oral cavity is responsible for feed ingestion. Mouth grasps the feed, teeth grind the feed and tongue that is covered with papillae containing taste buds is responsible for palatability. Salivary glands secrete saliva into oral cavity facilitating feed chewing, mastication and helps in swallowing. Pharynx – enters feed material into esophagus and protects feed from entering the lungs.

Esophagus – feed tube that leads from oral

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EXCRETION OF UNDIGESTED FEED RESIDUES large intestine – fermentation of undigested feed, water and VFA absorbtion rectum – poop chute anus – opening through faeces is removed from the body

DIGESTED NUTRIENTS ABSORPTION small intestine – covered with tiny finger-like projections know as villi that increase absorptive surface of the intestine, majority of nutrients absorption into bloodstream occurs in small intestine.

cavity to the stomach is responsible for swallowing.

Stomach and duodenum are digestive organs where take place chemical breakdown of nutrients into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into bloodstream. The small intestine is additionally covered with tiny finger-like projections know as villi that increase absorptive surface of the intestine and majority of nutrients absorption into bloodstream occurs in small intestine.

Large intestine is the site of microbial fermentation of undigested feed components, the end-products of this fermentation are volatile fatty acids that are absorbed in large intestine. In terminal parts large intestine faeces are forming and excreted through anus from the body.

Livestock gastrointestinal tract (GT) is an organ system responsible for transporting and feeds digestion, nutrients absorption, and waste expelling. LiveNutrition


TYPES OF FARM ANIMALS DT All types of farm animals digestive tract may be classified into four groups: ruminants called also foregut fermenters, hindgut fermenters, monogastric and avian.

Ruminants are herbivores with multi compartment stomach with large rumen, long small and large intestine. Ruminants have no-upper incisors. Hindgut fermenters are non-ruminant herbivores. They have simple stomach but large and complex large intestine where intensive bacterial fermentation takes place. The most

RUMINANTS

important farm hindgut fermenters are horses and rabbits.

Monogastric animals such as pigs have also simple stomach like hindgut fermenters but their large intestine is smaller and less complex than hindgut fermenters. And the last type is avian digestive tract. Birds have beak, no teeth, crop, two-compartment stomach: proventriculus and gizzard and common end of urinary and digestive tract – cloaca.

Ruminant herbivores No-upper incisors Multi compartment stomach with large rumen Long small and large intestine Non-ruminant herbivores Simple stomach but large and complex large intestine HINDGUT FERMENTERS

Simple stomach, smaller and less complex caecum than hindgut fermenters MONOGASTRIC

AVIAN

Beak No teeth Crop Two-compartment stomach: proventriculus and gizzard Cloaca

Camelid such as camels, lama, guanaco, alpaca are classified as pseudoruminant. Their digestive tract varies from ruminants because these animals have rather three-compartment stomach while ruminants have a four-chambered one. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

OMASUM (MANYPLIES) capacity: cattle - 15 L water, VFA, minerals absorption reduction of particle size no enzymes secretion

RUMINANT DIGESTIVE TRACT

ORAL CAVITY - tonuge, teeth, muzzle 32 teeth - no upper incisors average saliva production: 75-150 L/day (cattle) and 10 L/day (sheep, goatS)

ESOPHAGUS opens into reticulum and rumen joins stomach with oral cavity and oral cavity with stomach (muscle contractions in both directions) esophageal groove – allow for direct feed passing into abomasum in young ruminants before weaning RETICULUM (HONEYCOMB) capacity: cattle - 9 L located next to the heart small ruminants have a larger reticulum than cattle distribution of rumen content to omasum catches metal and hardware eructation

ABOMASUM (GLANDULAR STOMACH) secretion of digestive enzymes: HCl, mucin, pepsinogen, rennin and lipase its role changes with the age – at birth – 60% of digestion, in adult ruminants – 2023%

RUMINATION Ruminants are well known for "cud chewing". Rumination is regurgitation of ingesta from the reticulum, followed by remastification and reswallowing. It provides for effective mechanical breakdown of roughage and thereby increases substrate surface area to fermentative microbes. There are three phases of rumination: the regurgitation, the re-salivation and mastication then swallowing. All of these is allowed by the changes in pressure conditions. After deep breathe the pressure is decreasing and downdraft effect develops over the esophagus. To understand rumination process follow presented chart. Ruminants chew feed almost without any sorting after a short mastication, when saliva is added, the feed is swallowed and enters the rumen follow and the reticulum where microorganisms start degrading cellulose-rich diet. See purple and

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red arrow path. Cow periodically regurgitates and rechews the cud and during this processes the main reduction of feed particles occurs. Cow regurgitates up to 8 hours, about 30 times per day, ingests the feed about 8 hours and rest one third of a day. After rechewing cow swallows the cud that enters the omasum where water is removed. See blue arrow path. Next the cud with a lot of microorganisms enters the abomasum where is digested by cow’s enzymes. See black arrow path. The further stages of digestion is similar like in monogastric animals. Saliva plays a crucial role in rumination. Saliva of ruminants contains no enzymes, has high pH – 8.2 due to high concentration of sodium bicarbonate thus express buffering activity. It act also as a foam suppressor and counteracts the effects of acidogenic feedstuffs, such as cereals on the rumen pH.

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SMALL INTESTINE capacity: cattle - 60 L, length 45m enzymatic digestion nutrients absorption

LARGE INTESTINE capacity: cattle – 28 L, length 10m fermentation of undegraded dietary fibre VFA and water absorption ANUS dung excretion depends on animal body weight – for standard cow – 70 kg (8-9% DM) RUMEN (PAUNCH) capacity: cattle - 180-200 L, pH - 6.0 – 7.0 left side of abdomen papillae lining muscular pillars digesta mixing

fermentation chamber, primarly anaerobic

1. RUMINATION Ruminants chew feed almost without any sorting after a short mastification, when saliva is added, 2. RUMINATION the feed is swallowed and enters the rumen. Some boluses enters the reticulum and micorganisms start degrading celluloserich diet. The end-product of this degradation are fatty acids. Cow periodically regurgitates and rechews the cud (main reduction of feed particles) – duration time up to 8 hrs, about 30 times/day.

3. RUMINATION 4. RUMINATION Cow swallows the cud that enters The cud with a lot of microorganisms enters the omasum where water is the abomasum where is digested by cow’s removed. enzymes SALIVA ROLE IN RUMINATION • contains no enzymes • high pH – 8.2 - high concentration of sodium bicarbonate • buffering activity • foam supressor • counteracts the effects of acidogenic feedstuffs, such as cereals on the rumen pH LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

HORSE DIGESTIVE TRACT

ORAL CAVITY - tonuge, teeth, nostril 36 (female) -44 teeth (male with wolf teeth) average saliva production: 20 -80 L/day wider upper jaw than bottom jaw allow for complex chewing

ESOPHAGUS opens into the stomach length: 1.2 – 1.5 m esophagus opens in acute angel causing that horses are not able to vomit very little reflux capacity risk of choke, thus it’s very importnant to maintain horse’s teeth correctly inclusion some chaffs to diet and/or putting some stone into feed bin to slow the rate of feed intake

LARGE COLON capacity: 86 L (38 of total DT capacity), length – 3.0–3.5m sacculated construction enahnces digestion of fibrous material but easily become twisted and fill gasses – colic risk place of intensive microbial digestion main VFA and vitamin absorption microbial protein can’t be effective utlize thus young growing animals need high BVP dietary protein available in the small intestine passage time 48 – 65 hrs

The major characteristic of horses’ digestion is that active microbial activities occur in the highly developed colon and cecum which allows the digestion of feed with high fibre content. Horses chew the feed extensively meanwhile the feed is mixed with considerable amount of saliva to make a moist bolus that can be easily swallowed. Horses produce between 20-80 litres of saliva per day depending on the feed quality and water-content. In case of feeding dry feed the amount of produced saliva can be multiple compared to the amount of feed intake. The capacity of horse’s stomach is relatively low – 8-15 L - intensely twisted bag-shaped, oesophagus opens in acute angel causing that horses

14

STOMACH capacity: 8 – 15 L (8% of total DT capacity), passage time – 3-4 hrs

are not able to vomit; the chance for gastric rupture is considerable. The neutral or slightly alkali saliva contains digestive enzymes only in negligible portion, although its sodium bicarbonate content is considerable. Digestion starts in the stomach by the decomposition of starch by diastase originating from plant cells and carbohydrate decomposing enzymes produced by bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Streptococcus and fungi living in the slightly acid pH around 5 in the stomach. During fermentation processes low molecule weight volatile fatty acids, lactic acid and gases are produced. Lactic acid is absorbed in the small intestine while VFA are absorbed in the large intestine.

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SMALL INTESTINE capacity: 40-60 L (30% of total DT capacity), length 22 m enzymatic digestion and absorption of nutrients (activity of enzymes lower , especially amylase are lower than in other monogasrtic) digestion and absorption of 30 – 60% of dietary carbohydrates and almost 100% of dietary protein bile (6-8 L) constantly flows to the small intesitne because horses have NO GALL BLADDER

CECUM blind sac with capacity: 28 – 35 L (15% of total DT capacity), length – 1,2 m beginning of microbial digestion entrance and exit on the top of organ – risk of colic when fed with dry feeds with not enough water or when diet changed rapidly passage time – 7 hrs RECTUM length 30cm after 36-72 hrs fecal ball are removed through anus SMALL COLON capacity: 16 L (9 % of total DT capacity), length – 3.0 m (only 10 cm of diameter) absorption of an excess of water forming fecal balls

Horse does not have gallbladder therefore the daily produced bile of 4-6 litres secreted continuously into the duodenum. In spite of all the above lipid digestion in horses is appropriate. Protein digestion is continued in the small intestine. About two third of the proteins is broken down in the small intestine. Protein digested in the large intestine can not be utilized by the livestock. The most important macro- (Ca, Na, Mg, K) and micro-elements are absorbed in the small intestine similarly to a part of carotene which gets into the liver after absorption. Phosphates absorbed in the colon get into the small intestine. Depending on the quality and quantity of feed, the digestion of large molecule weight carbohydrates (mainly cellulose) is located in the cecum and colon.

Both sections of the digestive tract are able to constrict firmly. Digestion in the cecum is done by enzymes produced by the cecum flora and fauna. Carbohydrates are further broken down here and due to the activities of cellulase and hemicellulase produced by the bacteria in the cecum, the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose to volatile fatty acids - acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid begin. During fermentation carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen are released. Major part of short carbon chained fatty acids absorbs from the large intestine providing energy. Due to relatively faster passage of the digesta the roughage content in feed containing more fibre then the is digested 25-30% worse compared to ruminants.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

PIG DIGESTIVE TRACT

ORAL CAVITY snout and muscuolus, long, narrow tongue 32 teeth (full set of permanent teeth is achieved at the age of 18 months taste buds placed over all oral cavity with the highest concentration of tongue surface. salivary glands – saliva is secreted by three main large glands: parotid, mandibular and the sublingual glands. Saliva synthesis: 1015 L/day saliva produced by sublingual glands contains enzyme - amylase that initiates the digestion of the starch

SMALL INTESTINE capacity – 20 L, length 18 m major site of enzymatic digestion and nutrient absorption

LARGE INTESTINE capacity – 25L, length 7.5 m, has no villi

STOMACH capacity – 3.5 L (when slaughtering), 5 L (when adult), under pressure 8 and 12 L, respectively)

CECUM capacity – 2 L, length 25 cm, relatively short bacterial degradability of undigested plant material

AVIAN DIGESTIVE TRACT ORAL CAVITY - tongue, teeth a beak no lips no teeth no chewing

CROP feeds enters the crop whole is stored, soften and undergoes bacterial fermentation – mostly LAB mean time for passage from crop to gizzard – 14 s there are no crop in duck and goose DT

GIZZARD – muscle stomach mechanical grinding of feed (many small stones act as teeth) contraction rate – 2-5/min. sets a rate of passage of GT hard and/or largers particles – slower rate

CLOACA AND VENT after leaving the colon fecal pellet pass to the cloaca where is mixed with uric acid and excreted through the vent

PROVENTRICULUS – enzymatic stomach lining secretes acid – low pH

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CECUM little nutrients absorption and bacterial degradability


RABBIT DIGESTIVE TRACT ORAL CAVITY - tonuge, teeth 28 permanent teeth – inscisors and cheek teeth grow continuously. rabbits do not have canine teeth

SMALL INTESTINE capacity: 20 – 40 g, length: 330 cm, pH - 7.2 major site of enzymatic digestion and nutrient absorption

COLON lenght: 140 cm, pH – 6.5 microbial fermentation of undigested feed nutrietns, mainly crude fibre

RECTUM indigestable fibre form droppings that are excreted fermented fibre from the cecum is coated with muscus and excreted as caecal droppings which is re-ingested by rabbit so the nutrients can pass through the small intestine again to be absorbed

STOMACH capacity: 90–100 g, pH - 1.5 – 2.0

CECUM capacity: 100 – 2000g, length: 40 cm, pH - 6.0 small particles of digestible fibre are degraded by bacteria enzymes to digestible nutrients

What is quite unusual for other farm animals rabbits are coprophagous. They eat their faeces – the food making up the faeces has been digested by the microflora making it of nutritional value. Fermented fibre from the cecum is coated with mucus and excreted as

caecal droppings which is re-ingested by rabbit so the nutrients can pass through the small intestine again to be absorbed. The ingestion of the faeces allows the restoration of the microflora population.

DIGESTIVE FLUIDS OF LIVESTOCK DT GASTRIC JUICE

INTESTINAL JUICE

MICROBIAL SECRETION

SALIVA PANCREATIC JUICE

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

The digestive juices are secreted by different organs, vary widely in chemical composition, and play different roles in the digestive process. Each is constantly produced by the body in small amounts, but the presence of food as it passes through the digestive tract causes increased production and secretion. The chemical digestibility and microbial degradation occur thanks to digestive fluids in alimentary tract.

SALIVARY GLANDS AND SALIVA There are three major pairs of salivary glands in farm animals: parotid, mandibular and sublingual. They secrete saliva into oral cavity. The saliva secreted keeps the oral cavity moist and facilitates mastication by lubricating the passage of the bolus. Salivary glands can parotid

buccal dorsal

buccal ventral

produce a serous secretion, a mucous secretion or both. Saliva is mainly water and contains amylase for carbohydrate digestion, salt- mainly sodium bicarbonate, mucin, electrolytes and antimicrobial agents. SALIVA

SALIVARY GLANDS •3 pairs of chief SGs mucous acinus

FUNCTIONS

lubrication – aids to form bolus for swallowing – water, mucins digestion – salivary amylase breaks down starch into malDUCTAL SYSTEM tose (in pigs) buffering – sodium bicarbonate buffer and regulate pH of stomach or rumen ACINI prevention of bacterial infection - lysozyme

sublingual

mandibular

serous acinus

salivary duct

secretory cell

salivary amylose

mucins water SALIVA sodium bicarbonate

pH – 6.5. – 8.2 mucins

sodium bicarbonate lysozyme

salivary amylase with limited activity in pigs no digestive enzymes in other livestock saliva is secreted by salivary glands into oral cavity

lysozyme

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COMPOSITION AND SECRETION 99% water

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STOMACH AND GASTRIC JUICE There are three main types of glands in the stomach: cardiac, fundic and pyloric. Cardiac glands secrete the mucus, fundic ones – pepsin , renin and hydrochloric acid while pyloric glands secretes mucus, gastrin that control hydrochloric acid secretion and stimulates the activity of fundic glands as well they secrete electrolytes that start buffer digesta before it esophagus

cardiac glands - mucus

FUNCTIONS GASTRIC JUICE pH regulation – HCl that protects from microorganisms proliferation protein denaturation – HCl STOMACH digestion of protein and fundic glands – lipids - pepsin A and B, hcl, pepsin gastricin, chymosin, lipase lubrication and protection of gastric pits the mucosal surface – mucin milk clotting – pepsin B STOMACH WALL

MUCOSA

duodenum

pyloric glads – mucus, gastrin

epithelium with gastric pits

gastric glands

mucosa

submucosa

GASTRIC PITS parietal cell

The main function of gastric fluid are: pH regulation through secretion of hydrochloric acid that protects from microorganisms proliferation and is responsible for protein denaturation. chymosin lipase mucin water HCl

reach duodenum to protect it. The mucosa of this area is covered by glandless epithelium. Irritation in this area due to fine particle size, stress or other environmental factors can contribute to ulcer formation in swine. Two major types of epithelial cells in gastric mucosa are parietal and chief cells. Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.

GASTRIC JUICE pepsin A and B gastricin

chief cell

The most important are pepsinogen-A and –D secreted by fundic glands which transformed to pepsin-A and –D due to hydrochloric acid produced in the stomach as well. Protein hydrolysis is done in the heavily acid environment with pH about 2 by pepsin-D, cathepsin and chitinase. The secretion of gastric juices is similar all mammals, but in swine gastrin – produced by the mucosa - plays significant role in hormonal regulation by stimulating the secretion of hydrochloric acid produced by the chief cells of fundic glands. Mucus lubricate and protect mucosal surface while pepsin B is responsible for milk clotting.

COMPOSITION AND SECRETION HCl – parietal cells mucin – mucous cells pepsin A and B, gastricin, chymosin, lipase – chief cells

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

RUMINANT STOMACH

DUODENUM

RUMEN

ESOPHAGUS RETICULUM

ESOPHAGAL GROOVE

ABOMASUM (TRUE STOMACH)

OMASUM

provides milk from the oesophagus into the abomasum directly

is shaped by position of the newborn animal lifting its head to suckle newborn animals should be fed with teat or teat-shaped tool that helps the formation age of groove closure: calves – 20, kids and lambs – 12 weeks can be also open in adults -used e.g. in drug administration

Rumen Rumen epithelium Rumen papillae  Capacity – up to 200  Sack shaped rumen is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity  The muscular sacs that are separated by PILLARS – long muscular folds of rumen wall that can close off to more mixing ingesta  Temperature of the rumen content - 38-40°C  Anaerobic conditions  pH – 6.7, in dairy cows due to high concentrates contribution to the diet the pH is usually 5.5  Small ruminants such as sheep and goats have a larger ventral ruminal sac than dorsal ruminal sac  The rumen wall consists of two separate layers: musculature and absorptive epithelium – mucosa  Muscle development depends on feed material in the rumen, especially roughage contribution to ruminant diets  Mucosa development affects production of volatile fatty acids does not depends on roughage contribution to the diet  Mucosa is lined with papillae - 10 mm x 2 mm fingerlike structures increasing absorption surface for VFAs  Mostly papillae are roughage selective species (few present on pillar are roughage selective)  The reticuloruminal contractions make possible regurgitation and eructation - contraction rate of 1 – 3 times/min  After birth responsible for 20% of digestion in an adult ruminants about 80% of digestion occurs in the rumen.

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Reticulum (honeycomb)  The second chamber of the ruminant stomach Honey comb  Capacity – 16 L Reticulum structure  pH as in the rumen  The smallest and most cranial compartment  Separated from the rumen with ruminoreticular fold  Nails and other sharp objects that are catches by the reticulum can hurt the pericardium. They can be removed with rumen magnate or by surgery  Mechanical digestion and microbial fermentation occur to breakdown food particles for absorption  Small ruminants have a relatively larger reticulum compared to cattle.

Omasum (manyplies) Many plies  The third chamber in the ruminant stomach Omasum structure  Capacity - 8 L  Located within the intrathoracic part of the abdomen  The omasal canal passes between the reticulum and the abomasum  Its mucosa is smooth except for particularly large papillae around the reticulo-omasal opening,  Contains no glands  The omasum has biphasic contractions, the first - expels fluid by squeezing the ingesta from the omasal canal between the lamella. The second - expels solids by mass contraction of the omasum,  VFAs and water are absorbed in the omasum  Bicarbonate ions are removed from ingesta to avoid altering pH of the abomasum  Small ruminants have a rel ativelysmaller bean shaped omasum  In cows the lower pole of the omasum contacts the abdominal floor below the costal arch. Abomasum (true stomach)  The fourth chamber  Capacity - 27 L Abomasum Abomasum  pH - 2-3 epithelium  An elongated pear shaped true stomach with a glandular lining  Gastric glands are present in the mucosal layer in the pyloric region  Is responsible for the chemical breakdown of food- similarly to the monogastric stomach  Secretes hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen  Its movements are slow - contractions occur first in the proximal part and are more forceful at the pyloric part  Differs in its position within the abdomen, depending on fullness of the other chambers of the stomach, contractions of the rumen and reticulum to which it is attached and by age and pregnancy status  Displacement of the abomasum to the left or to the right is a common disorder affecting dairy cows due to high concentrate feed  In small ruminants the abomasum can contact the liver and is proportionately larger than in cattle  In newborn animals it is responsible for 60% of digestion but in an adult ruminant only 8% of digestion occurs in the abomasum. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

SMALL INTESTINE AND INTESTINAL JUICE muscous water

INTESTINE LUMEN

INTESTINAL JUICE

SMALL INTESTINE enzymes

inorganic salts

MUCOSA VILLI

EPITHELIUM WITH VILLI

NUCLEUS

SUBMUCOSA

MUSCULARIS

CELL MEMBERANE

The first section of small intestine is the duodenum which starts from the pylorus of the stomach. The ducts of the pancreas and the liver join into the duodenum. The jejunum, usually empty after dead, is longest part of small intestine with its curves. The interior surface of the jejunum is covered in finger like projections of mucosa, called villi. The ileum is a relatively short part of the small intestine without curves. Ileum also has villi on the interior surface. Ileum continues in the cecum which is the first section of large intestine.

The intestinal villi increase the interior surface of the mucosa making available a greater surface area for absorption. The intestinal villi increase the interior surface of the mucosa making available a greater surface area for absorption. Intestinal villi are 0.5–1.5 mm long and 0.2–0.8 mm wide finger-like projections. The number of villi per square mm is 20-40. The surface of intestinal villi is covered by epithelium, they contain visceral muscle, blood capillary- and nerve system. The villi also contain one or more central lacteal ending at the top of the villi.

COMPOSITION AND SECRETION

Variable quantity and composition due to the simultaneous processes of secretion and

22

EPITHELIAL CELLS

MICROVILLI absorption.

pH – 7.8 – 8.0 (alkaline) - consists of water, muscous, inorganic salts, enzymes: proteases, carbohydrase, lipase, enterokinase.

Brunner’s glands located in the intestinal submucosa produce bicarbonate responsible for alkaline condition in intestine lumen.The higher feeding level is the higher secretion of brunner’s glands. The goblet cells present on intestine wall surface secrete mucin. Lieberkühn glands glove-like glands found in the epithelial lining of the small intestine secretes enzymes and antibacterial substances. FUNCTIONS

Lubrication of the intestinal walls

Protecting duodenum from the acidic content of chyme through providing alkaline conditions (bicarbonate) Providing liquid medium aiding nutrients absorption

Formation of diffusion barrier that nutrients must pass before entering enterocytes (mucin layer)

Formation of protect membrane of intestinal epithelium from noxious substances (mucin layer).

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LARGE INTESTINE AND INTESTINAL JUICE muscous water

LARGE INTESTINAL JUICE

LARGE INTESTINE OPENING CRYPTS EPITHELIUM WITHOUT VILLI

CIRCULAR MUSCLE

CRYPT

SUBOMUCOSA

LYMPHATIC MODULE

GOBLET CELLS

The first section of large intestine is the cecum which is the continuation of the vermiform appendix and the ileum. The cecum in case of horse is a large organ. Ruminants have cylindric, narrow cecum ending in round shape. Swine’s cecum is more capacious located on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The colon is the longest section of large intestine forming a U-shape curve. Sections of the colon: ascending colon, transverse colon and descending colon which passes into the rectum. The colon of the

INTESTINAL JUICE

no animal enzymes

enzymes of gut microbiota

EPITHELIAL CELLS

horse is capacious forming double U shape loop. The right side of the colon is fixed with the cecum while the left side is labile (the possibility of volvulus is given). The rectum passes under the sacrum towards the anus. Anus is closed up by two muscular rings. The mucosa of the large intestine is wrinkly. There are no villi in the large intestine but Goblet cells secreting mucus, Lieberkühn glands and folliculi can be found.

COMPOSITION water pH – 4.0 – 7.0 mucus secreted by Goblet cells no animal enzymes gut microbiota enzymes

FUNCTIONS: lubrication and protection – water, mucins

fermentation – undigested feed residues, mainly components of crude fibre are degraded by gut microbiota enzymes toVFAs that in turn are the source of energy for animal

removing acids from epithelial cells of the large intestine – exchange of bicarbonate ions for chloride ions and sodium ions with hydrogen ions.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

LIVER AND BILE

muscous water BILE PANCREAS

no enzymes

LIVER

cholesterol

DUODENUM HEPATIC LOBULE

LIVER

GALL BLADER

HEPATOCYES

HEPATIC CELLS HEPATIC VENULE

BILE DUCT

SINUSOIDS

The liver is the largest epithelial origin gland. It produces bile which is an important digestive juice. It is a reddish brown, densely circulated, dense, mildly flexible, wedge-shaped organ. Its connective tissue frame is bare. Located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, it rests just below the diaphragm. By aging its size is decreasing, it wilts. It is a multifunctional organ; it produces bile which is an important digestive juice. The liver stores dextrose in the form of glycogen and release it if needed. It has major role in lipid metabolism (lipid synthesis and transformation). The liver has major role in the catabolism and transformation of absorbed amino acids and also in the synthesis of different proteins. The liver is a filtering and detoxicating organ installed into the blood circulation. It detoxicates poisonous substances absorbed from the intestine. The liver stores vitamins and a hormone as well, activates steroid hormones. It contributes to the metabolism of hemoglobin. At embryonic stage it is a hematic organ. The liver is covered in a serous coat derived from peritoneum and this

24

has an inner fibrous coat (Glisson’s capsule) to which it is firmly adhered. The liver is connected to two large blood vessels, the hepatic artery (feeding vessel) and the portal vein (functional vessel). The portal vein carries blood rich in digested nutrients from the stomach, the intestine and also from the spleen. These blood vessels subdivide into small capillaries known as liver sinusoids, which then lead to a lobule. From here the central vein collects the blood which gets into the liver veins. Sinusoids ensure the connection between the portal vein and liver veins. Hepatic cells lay on the wall of sinusoids. Hepatic cells produce bile. The bile gets into the bile capillaries then into the hepatic ducts. The gallbladder is a hollow pear-shape sac that sits just beneath the right lobe of the river. Its function is to store bile. The common hepatic duct exits the liver and joins the cystic duct (from gallbladder) forming common bile duct that joins with pancreatic duct and enters duodenum. Horses are out of gallbladder.

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COMPOSITION AND SECRETION most of bile acids are Na-salts; pH - 7.4-7.9;

total lipid content – 0.6 – 0.7% including bile salts, phospholipids, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, mucus

bile is de novo synthesized in the liver by conversion of cholesterol to primary bile acids on natural or acidific pathway

BILE

cholesterol is converted to cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) (most of livestock species). Pigs produce no CA but similar quantities of hyocholic acid (HCA)

the bile synthesis is completed when the bile acids are conjugated with either glycine or taurine. pigs - glyco-conjugated (93%) chicken and sheep – tauro-conjugated cattle – tauro to glyco-conjugated ratio is 49:51 BILE CONTAINS NO ENZYMES!

Bile is produced by the liver and excreted to the duodenum directly or through the gallbladder. Bile acts to some extent as a surfactant, helping to emulsify the water insoluble lipids in food. The dispersion of food fat into micelles thus provides a greatly increased surface area for the action of the enzyme pancreatic lipase. Fatty acids, monoglycerides (products of fat digestion) and fat soluble vitamins are bound by the bile salts helping their absorption from the small intestine. The colour of bile is determined by bile pigments. Bile is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid depending on different animal species. Bile pigments are the decomposition products of haemoglobin secreted in the bile. Haemoglobin is produced in the spleen, the liver and the bone marrow. As a consequence of liver cell damage or closure of bile ducts bile pigments could get back into blood circulation causing yellowish pigmentation in the subcutaneous connective tissue (icterus). Gastrin, secretin and insulin stimulate bile secretion in the liver. The effectiveness of the bile (produced constantly and secreted periodically into the duodenum) depends on bile acid content. Bile acid emulsifies fatty acids and activates enzymes

FUNCTIONS bile salts aid in emulsification and digestion of lipids by increasing the lipids surface for lipase action.

decomposing fats. The daily production of bile at 7-8 month age can reach 6-8 litres. The major part of nutrients, mineral salts and water absorbs from the large mucosal surface reaches 10-15 square meters formulated by the characteristic villi of small intestine through diffusion and active transport. Most of bile acids are sodium salts with pH ranges from 7.4 to 7.9. Total lipid content in bile is 0.6 – 0.7% including bile salts, phospholipids, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, mucus. Bile is de novo synthesized in the liver by conversion of cholesterol to primary bile acids on natural or acidific pathway. Cholesterol is converted to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid in most of livestock species. Pigs produce no cholic acid but similar quantities of hyocholic acid. The bile synthesis is completed when the bile acids are conjugated with either glycine or taurine. In pigs about 93% of bile acids is glyco-conjugated, in chicken and sheep bile acids are tauroconjugated and cattle tauro to glyco-conjugated acids ratio is 49 to 51. Remember that the bile contains no enzymes.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

PANCREAS AND ITS ROLE EXOCRINE (DIGESTIVE) SECRETION accini cells are responsible for secreting digestive enzymes

PANCREAS

ENDOCRINE (HORMONAL) SECRETION pancreatic (Langerhans) islets are responsible for secretion of hormones controlling glucose metabolism

PANCREAS

DUODENUM

PANCREATIC LOBULE ACCINI CELLS BETA CELLS

ALPHA CELLS The pancreas is a light reddish, elongated, soft glandular organ in the small intestine which is smaller than liver. It is found hidden behind the stomach and the liver. Its shape differs in different animal species. In ruminants and carnivores it is a narrow organ curves in a quarter bow, in horse it is square shaped, in swine it is a fork shaped organ with more projections. It has two main ducts, the main pancreatic duct, and the accessory pancreatic duct. These drain enzymes through the ampulla of water into the duodenum. The pancreas is a secretory structure with an internal hormonal role called endocrine and an external digestive role called exocrine. The complex gland’s major component is the exocrine component of the pancreas, often called simply the exocrine pancreas, is the portion of the pancreas that performs exocrine functions. It has ducts that are arranged in clusters called acini. Between these locate the part of the pancreas with 26

PANCREATIC CELLS PANCREATIC ISLET

endocrine function which is made up of approximately a million cell clusters called islets of Langerhans. These cells are polygonal and have two types such as the bigger alpha cells with darker cytoplasm which secrete glucagon (increase glucose in blood) and the smaller beta cells with lighter cytoplasm which secrete and store pancreatic fluid is a colorless, odorless, clammy fluid with alkali pH value of 7,1 to 8,4. It has major role in the neutralization of acid digesta excreted from the stomach. The quantity of pancreatic fluid in horse is from 50 to 60 L per day, in cattle it is 15 to 35 L per day. The function of pancreas - with enzyme production - is affected by feeding practices. Feed with high starch content stimulates alphaamylase activity; feed with high protein content stimulates chymotrypsin activity. Lipase activity changes in parallel with the fat content of the feed.

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COMPOSITION AND SECRETION majority of digestive enzymes – carbohydrases, proteolytic, lypolytic enzymes, and a protein cofactor – colipase that changes in proportion to the dietary content of substrates

all proteolytic enzymes are secreted as inactive zymogens to protect the gland from autodigestion - activation is commenced by the stimulation of trypsin by enterokinase. Trypsin then activates all other zymogens and trypsinogen

PANCREATIC JUICE

pH – 8.2 – 8.6

secreted continuously

level and source of dietary protein or/and lipids affect the synthesis and secretion of proteolytic and lipolytics enzymes. their activities increase together with increase in dietary protein or/and fat content.

FUNCTIONS digestion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins

buffering – buffer and regulate pH of small intestine contents. The pancreatic juice contains the majority of digestive enzymes such as carbohydrases, proteolytic, lypolytic enzymes, and a protein cofactor – colipase that changes in proportion to the dietary content of substrates. All proteolytic enzymes are secreted as inactive zymogens to protect the gland from autodigestion. The activation is commenced by the stimulation of trypsin by enterokinase. Trypsin then activates all other zymogens and trypsinogen. The pH of

pancreatic juice ranges from 8.2 –to 8.6 and is secreted continuously. The level and source of dietary protein or and lipids affect the synthesis and secretion of proteolytic and lipolytics enzymes their activities increase together with increase in dietary protein or fat content. The main function of pancreatic juice is digestion of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins and regulation of pH of small intestine contents. COMPOSITION AND SECRETION secreted by pancreatic islets that consist of two various types of secretory cells secreting hormones responsible for glucose control and metabolism: alpha cells – secrete glucagon beta cells – secrete insulin

PANCREATIC HORMONES

The pancreatic hormones are secreted by pancreatic islets. There are alpha cells secreting glucagon and beta cells that secrete insulin. Insulin is an hormone that lowers blood glucose level by stimulating body cells to absorb glucose. It activates the liver to store glucose as glycogen and fat cells to convert glucose into fatty acids. On the other hand glucagon raises blood glucose level by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver and muscle cells.

INSULIN lowers blood glucose level by stimulating body cells to absorb glucose, the liver to store glucose as glycogen and fat cells to convert glucose into fatty acids. GLUCAGON raises blood glucose level by stimulating the breakdown of glycogen stored in the liver and muscle cells.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

REGULATION OF FOOD INTAKE Stop eating is caused by physical stimulus (the animal is not able to eat more) in spite of the fact that the animal did not intake enough feed to cover its energy need. After glut stimulated by chemical factors the animal still willing to eat

some from that type of feed which is considered as more palatable. The fullness of stomach and intestine result sense of glut and the animal stop eating. The sense of glut can be achieved temporarily by indigestible substance as well.

At the beginning of eating the sympathetic characteristic of nervous regulation changes to parasympathetic, this stimulates the secretion of saliva and gastric juices

The nervous centre of hunger and glut is in the hypothalamus. In monogastric animals the increasing concentration of free fatty acids and activated acetic acid in blood stimulates hunger

centre, in ruminants the effect is adverse. After decomposition of feed proteins free amino acids gets into the blood which contributes to the sense of glut.

To satisfy the energy need of livestock is the basic requirement in the regulation of feed consumption. Animals eat less from feed enriched with fat (higher energy content) but the decrease in the amount of intake is not proportional with the energy content, therefore energy intake is increasing.

In the metabolism of ruminants the role of volatile fatty acids is primary. As a result of the appropriate amount of acetic and propionic acid in the rumen cattle suddenly stop eating. Butyric acid has no effect on appetite. Microbial fermentation in the rumen produces heat just like regurgitation, therefore above 300C (environmental temperature) feed consumption is reduced; consequently the production is also lowered. There is significant colleration between feed consumption and production. By feeding more than needed for subsistence production can be increased. By doing this we can make animal husbandry profitable. Ad libitum feeding is one of

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the crucial circumstances in exploiting potential productivity of livestock. Besides ad libitum feeding we have to know the affecting factors of feeding behaviour, therefore we can use feed intake capacity as a major factor of production.

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Eating is a regular activity of the animal. Its main objective is to make up energy used for living and to reserve. The sense of hunger in animals prohibited in food intake or unable to swallow is constantly increasing and this could result extenuation or death. Sense of hunger is a warning signal, which motivates the animal to find food. The opposite of hunger is glut which is a result of physical and chemical stimulus and stimulates animal to stop eating. Hunger is obsessive while glut is rather enjoyable sense.

At the beginning of eating the sympathetic characteristic of nervous regulation changes to parasympathetic, this stimulates the secretion of saliva and gastric juices. After feeling glutted the animal stops eating. This can happen due to physical stimulus (the animal is not able to eat more) in spite of the fact that the animal did not intake enough feed to cover its energy need. After glut stimulated by chemical factors the animal still willing to eat some from that type of feed which is considered as more palatable. The fullness of stomach and intestine result sense of glut and the animal stop eating. The sense of glut can be achieved temporarily by indigestible substance as well.

Inappetence, diseases with fever, deficiency diseases are accompanied with food refusal even though the animal is starving concerning energetics, uses its reserves. This results body weight loss. The nervous centre of hunger and glut is in the hypothalamus. In monogastric

animals the increasing concentration of free fatty acids and activated acetic acid in blood stimulates hunger centre, in ruminants the effect is adverse. After decomposition of feed proteins free amino acids gets into the blood which contributes to the sense of glut. The need for food is increasing in cold and decreasing in warm weather conditions. The more body fat the more sensitivity for environmental temperature concerning appetite.

To satisfy the energy need of livestock is the basic requirement in the regulation of feed consumption. In this beside the provision of subsistence there is another factor called need for the production of animal products. Animals eat less from feed enriched with fat (higher energy content) but the decrease in the amount of intake is not proportional with the energy content, therefore energy intake is increasing. The extra or luxury consumption of livestock can be measured by the intensification of lipogenesis.

In the metabolism of ruminants the role of volatile fatty acids is primary. As a result of the appropriate amount of acetic and propionic acid in the rumen, ruminants suddenly stop eating. Butyric acid has no effect on appetite. Microbial fermentation in the rumen produce heat just like regurgitation, therefore above 300C (environmental temperature) feed consumption is reduced; consequently, the production is also lowered.

Isotonic conditions are essential for normal life functions. Thirsty animal is not hungry even though it is starving in physical sense. It requires only water.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF FEEDS Chemical composition of feed is the first factor determining nutritive value of feedstuffs. Proximate analysis of feeds (Weende analysis) is a routine quantitative method to determine nutrients contents in feed. According to this method feed compounds are divided into six categories by means of common chemical properties. Dry matter (DM) − mass of a feed sample when completely dried (after water removing). The moisture content is determined as the loss in weight that results from drying a known weight of feed to constant weight at 100°C for 12-24 hours. If dry matter content is determined moisture content could be calculated by subtracting dry matter content from 100%. 100 (%) − DM (%) = moisture (%) Organic matter (OM) − a difference between dry matter and crude ash (mineral) content. It represents content of compounds that contain carbon in feed sample. According to Weende analysis organic matter consists of four nutrients: crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre and nitrogen free extractives. OM (%) = dry matter (%) − crude ash (%)

Crude protein (CP) – total nitrogen content (%) determined according to Kjeldahl (or similar) method is multiplied by 6.25 based on the assumption that proteins contain 16% of N. CP is made up of true protein and of non protein nitrogen substances. True protein − simple or conjugated proteins. Non-protein nitrogen substances – compounds that are no proteins in chemical meaning including: peptides, free amino acids, amides, purines or other substances.

Crude fat (ether extract) – fraction of feed that is soluble in non-polar solvents. The ether extract (EE) fraction is determined by subjecting the feed to a continuous extraction with petroleum ether (Soxhlet’s method). Ether extract fraction includes all substances that are soluble in non-polar solvents: fats, oils, waxes, organic acids, pigments.

Crude protein

True protein

Organic matter

Crude fat (ether extract)

Non-protein nitrogen (NPN)

Moisture content of feeds can vary greatly. Thus, DM content can be the most important reason for variation in feed composition „as-feed basis”. For this reason, chemical constituents of feeds are often expressed on dry matter basis. 30

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Crude fibre (CF) – an organic residue after feed sample successive treatment with boiling acid and alkali of defined concentration. The crude fibre fraction includes cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses, but not necessarily the whole amounts of these that are present in the food: a variable proportion of the cell wall material is dissolved during the crude fibre extraction thus, is included in the nitrogen-free extractives. Crude fibre represents plants’ structural carbohydrates undigested by animals enzymes.

Nitrogen free extractives (NFE) – a fraction a heterogeneous mixture of all components not determined in the other fractions. The NFE fraction includes: starch, sugars, fructans, pectins, organic acids, pigments, some amounts of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses. To calculate N-free extractives content subtract crude ash, crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract from determined dry matter content according following formula: NFE (%) = DM (%) – CA (%) – CP (%) – EE (%) – CF (%)

Feed

Water (moisture)

Dry matter

Inorganic matter (crude ash)

nic matter

Crude fibre

Crude ash (CA) – an inorganic fraction of feed determined by its ignition until no carbon left.

Crude ash represents inorganic parts of the food (minerals). The major component of ash is silica. Animals do not have a requirement for ash per se but require the individual mineral elements.

N-free extractives

The content of nutrients is expressed in % or in g/kg and could be expressed in fresh or dry matter basis. …..the content of component expressed in % into g/kg ….. content of nutrient of fresh matter basis into dry matter basis

How to calculate ……. ?????

If content of crude protein is 12,6% it means that there are 12.6 g of crude protein in 100g of feed. Thus, in 1000 g (1 kg) there is 10 times more – 126 g of crude protein 12.6% crude protein = 126 g crude protein/kg

If content of crude protein in fresh matter is 12.6% and dry matter content is 36%, in aim to calculate the content of crude protein expressed on dry matter basis following formula should be use: 12.6 % crude protein – 36% dry matter x % crude protein – 100 % dry matter x% =

12,6% × 100% = 35% 36%

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

WATER Water provides the basis for all fluids of the body. It is media for most chemical reactions plays a role both a substrate and product of biochemical processes in animal body. Water provides cells with pressure to allow them to hold their shape (maintains osmotic pressure), helps body to maintain constant temperature, flushes the animal’s body of waste and toxic materials, digestion requires moisture for breakdown of nutrients and movement of feed (carries dissolved food materials). Water requirements are often not listed, but for optimum performance it is assumed that animals have free access to good quality water. Water requirement depends on: animal species including such factors as: age, activity, physiological stage and health; environmental temperature, dietary protein, salt and dry matter intake.

TOXIC SUBSTANCES

WATER

PROTEINS

PROTEINS Proteins are sequences of amino acids hooked together by the amino group of one to the carboxyl group of another (peptide linkage). There are 20 amino acids building blocks of proteins. Each species has its own specific proteins and a single organism has many different proteins in its cells and tissues. Therefore a large number of proteins occur in nature.

LIPIDS

CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are neutral chemical compounds containing: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and have the empirical formula (CH2O)n, where n is 3 or more. According to Weende analysis carbohydrates are classified into two fractions: crude fibre and Nfree extractives. The carbohydrates may be divided according to their chemical structure into two major groups: sugars and non-sugars. Structure of compounds classified as carbohydrates could be either very simple – like glucose, or very complex – as some hemicelluloses.

LIPIDS Lipids – a group of substances present in plant and animal tissues, insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents (benzene, ether, chloroform). In proximate analysis of foods they are included in ether extract fraction. Because there is more carbon and hydrogen and less oxygen in the molecule, lipids supply approximately 2.25 times as much energy as an equal weight of carbohydrates.

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MINERALS

NUTRIENTS: BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

CARBOHYDRATES

Taking into consideration animal requirement minerals can be classified into two groups: macroelements (requirement expressed in grams) and microelements (requirement expressed in mg). Macroelements: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, sulphur.

MINERALS

VITAMINS

All animal tissues and all feeds contain inorganic or mineral elements in widely varying amounts and proportions. These inorganic elements constitute crude ash that remains after feed ignition. There are 22 minerals considered to be „essential” for the higher forms of animal life.

Microelements (trace elements): iron, iodine, zinc, copper, manganese, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, tin, vanadium, fluorine, silicon, nickel, arsenic.

MINERALS

ANTINUTRITIVE SUBSTANCES

VITAMINS Vitamins are defined as organic compounds which are required in small amounts for normal growth and maintenance of animals. There are two groups of vitamins:

Water soluble: B complex vitamins B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, C.

Fat soluble: A, D2, D3, E, K Some compounds function as vitamin after undergoing a chemical change these compounds are called provitamins or vitamin precursors (i.e. β-carotene → vitamin A).

Chemical structure of nutrient affects its utilization in animals. Additionally, especially in minerals, interactions between them could decrease or increase absorption of others, i.e. calcium vs. phosphorus.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

VAN SOEST’S METHOD Van Soest’s method allows on determination of carbohydrates present in feed as two groups: structural and non-structural carbohydrates. The first group represents carbohydrates of plants’ cell wall, second carbohydrates connected with cell wall or dissolved inside the cell. According to Van Soest’s method feed sample, after boiling in neutral detergent is divided into two fractions: Neutral Detergent Solubles (NDS) and Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF). NDF can be regarded as a measure of the plant cell wall material. In the next step of Van Soest’s analysis NDF fraction is boiled in acid detergent and residues remain are called Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF). The Acid-Detergent Lignin (ADL) determination involves ADF treating Neutral-Detergent Solubles (NDS)

Soluble fraction that contains digestible by endogenous enzymes substances: soluble protein, non-protein nitrogen, lipids, sugars, starch, organic acids, pectin, some soluble minerals. NDF – ADF = hemicellulose ADF – ADL = cellulose

with 72% sulphuric acid, which dissolves cellulose.

On the base of determined NDF, ADF and ADL fractions according to presented in the chart formula it is possible to determine hemicellulose and cellulose content in feed.

Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), corresponding with nitrogen-free extractives, are included in neutral detergent solubles fraction. Non-structural carbohydrates could be calculating by subtracting the sum of the amounts of crude protein, ether extract, crude ash and neutral detergent fibre expressed in percentage from 100.

Neutral-Detergent Fraction (Fibre) - NDF

The residue after extraction with boiling neutral solution consists plant cell wall material: lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. This fraction also contain nitrogen bounded with lignin, chitins, tannins, keratins and silica.

Acid-Detergent Fraction (Fibre) - ADF

The residue after extraction with boiling acid solution, it consists of: lignin, cellulose, lignified nitrogen and silica. Acid-Detergent Lignin (ADL)

The residue after treatment with 72 % sulphuric acid, it consist of: lignin and silica.

DIETARY FIBRE The common features of dietary fibre definitions are carbohydrates: polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and lignin that are resistant to digestion in the small intestine but that may be fermented in the large intestine and promote beneficial physiological effects. Dietary fibre includes: non-starch polysaccharides such as celluloses, some hemi-celluloses, gums and The common dietary fibre are carbohydrates resistant to digestion in the small intestine but that may be fermented in the large intestine.

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pectins, as well as lignin, resistant dextrins and resistant starches. Taking into consideration solubility in water dietary fibre may be divided into two forms as presents in the chart. Various is physiological role of soluble or insoluble dietary fibre in animals’ nutrition.

Dietary fibre includes: non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) such as celluloses, some hemicelluloses, gums and pectins, as well as lignin, resistant dextrins and resistant starches.

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Dietary fibre may be divided into two forms, based on their water solubility

Insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) that includes: celluloses, some hemicelluloses and lignin.

Soluble dietary fibre (SDF) that includes: β-glucans, pectins, gums, mucilages, arabinoxylans and some hemicelluloses.


More specific analyses are necessary in modern animal nutrition to precise balance of diet to meet animals requirement.

NUTRIENTS: WATER PROTEINS CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS MINERALS VITAMINS

In feed could be also present substances that are classified as antinutritive (antinutrients) and toxic substances. Antinutrients are substances which either themselves or through their metabolic products, interfere with food nutrients utilization and could affect the health and performance of animals. Antinutrient substances content or activity could be reduced by appropriate feed processing. Antinutrients

Phytic acid

Glycosides (goitrogenes, cyjanogenes, saponins, phytoestrogenes, coumarin)

grains of wheat, oat, maize, barley

clover, alfalfa, brassica, linseed, cassava, sorghum grain, soybean meal, groundnut meal, lupine seed

sorghum grain, beans, peas, rapeseed, cottonseed, sesame meal, legumess

Alkaloides (solanine)

potatoes

Glucosinolates

NSP (non-starch polysaccharides)

ANTINUTRITIVE SUBSTANCES

Plants containing antinutrient

Phenols (gossypol, tannins)

Antivitamins or enzymes inhibitors

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

TOXIC SUBSTANCES

pea seed, soybean, alfalfa

Bacterial or fungal contaminations as well as mycotoxins could be bounded by specific feed additives. Spores from mouldy hay, silage, brewers' grain and sugar-beet pulp may be inhaled or consumed by animals with deleterious effects termed „mycosis�.

linseed, kale, rapeseeds, soybean seed

wheat, barley, rye

Feedstuffs that contain undesirable substances can not be used as a raw material in animal nutrition.

CONTAMINATIONS OF FEEDS Environmental

pesticides, industrial pollutants, radionuclides and heavy metals

Mycotoxins

aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, ergot and others

Bacterial and fungal

Nitrate and nitrite

faecal contamination of feeds : Escherichia coli; Listeria monocytogenes occurs in poor-quality silages and big-bale silage; Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria contaminants of cereal grains legumes, over fertilized plants LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

PROTEINS – STRUCTURE, DIVISION AND ROLE Proteins are the principal constituents of organs and soft structures of the animal body. There is no life without protein. Proteins have a critical physiological function. Primarily proteins are used in the body to build, maintain, and repair Proteins

body tissues. Key role of proteins stems from their multiple function. Additionally, excessive protein may be converted to energy, but protein energy will be used only after other energy sources are unavailable or exhausted.

Proteins are complex organic polymers of amino acids, containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and sulphur, that are joined together by peptide bonds. Some proteins contain in the structure selenium. In nature occurs a large number of proteins, each species has its own specific proteins as well as single organism may have numerous different proteins in its cells and tissues.

Amino acids

Amino acids are units that joined together by peptide bound build peptides and proteins. There are only 20 proteinogenic amino acids that are included in the genetic code. In there are also many more compounds of the same type in nature, over 200 amino acids have been isolated from biological materials. Non-protein amino acids e.g. taurine, ornithine or citrulline are products or intermediates in various metabolic processes.

AMINO ACIDS STRUCTURE AND PEPTIDE BOUND FORMATION

Amino group

Side chain

Carboxyl group

Amino acids are characterized by having a basic nitrogenous group, generally an amino group (–NH2), and an acidic carboxyl unit (–COOH). The nature of the R group (referred to as the side chain) varies in different amino acids. Peptide bonds are formed by a condensation reaction of carboxylic group of an amino acid and amino group of another amino acid with removal of water molecule.

Peptide bond

Dipeptide

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Water

Peptides are named according to the number of amino acids involved: i.e. dipeptide (2), tripeptide (3), decapeptide (10). Peptides that have fewer than 10 to 15 amino acids are called oligopeptides. Big peptides with 15 to 50 amino acids are named polypeptides. Proteins have more than 50 amino acids.

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ESSENTIAL AND NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS

Plants as well as many microorganisms are abale to synthesize protein from simple nitrogen containing compounds as nitrates. Animals are not able to synthesize the amino group and therefore to build up body proteins must have a dietary source of amino acids, therefore a protein requirement is really an amino acid requirement. Certain amino acids can be produced from others in process of transamination – transfer of amino group from one substrate to other. But the carbon skeletons of number amino acids cannot be synthesized by animals body – these amino acids are known as essential or indispensable.

Amino acid division Non-essential Alanine Asparagine Aspartate Glutamate Serine

Essential Arginine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine

Conditionally essential Cysteine Glutamine Glycine Proline Tyrosine

Non-essential amino acids are those that the body can synthesise in order to meet its metabolic requirements.

Essential amino acids are those that must be supplied by the diet because the body cannot synthesise them in amounts sufficient to meet metabolic needs. Currently ten amino acids are classified as essential. Conditionally essential amino acids are those that become essential under certain conditions.

In ruminants all the essential amino acids can by synthesized by the rumen microorganisms. However, microbial protein quantity and quality (lysine and methionine) is insufficient for young growing or high milk yielding animals. For maximum productivity the microbial protein must be supplemented with food protein with low degradable protein, or synthetic amino acids that are not degraded in the rumen (protected amino acids).

Primary difference between animal and plant proteins is their amino acid profiles. Plant proteins are often limited in one or more amino acids that are essential for animals. To meet animals requirement for that amino acids mixture of various plant proteins have to be used in the diet. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

PROTEIN STRUCTURE

Protein structure plays a key role in protein function. If a protein loses its shape at any structural level, it may no longer be functional. Proteins denaturation is a process in which proteins lose the quaternary, tertiary and secondary structure which is present in their native state. Denaturation may be caused by various factors.

Consequences of denaturation are changes in protein structure or solubility – lose of enzymatic activity of proteins, improve some proteins digestibility, destruction of toxins that are proteins. There are four level of protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.

The high temperature and production of chemicals in grains during storage may denature the proteins and increase the free amino acids contents. The formation of certain sulphur containing amino acids impart bad odour. The free amino acids may also undergo Maillard reaction combining with the reducing sugars and become unavailable for animals.

PRIMARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE

+H N 3

Gly

Pro

Gly

amino end

It is an unique sequence of amino acid (coded by DNA). In the fact, it is a list of amino acids in order of appearance in polypeptide chain, not really a structure but this sequence affects protein structure.

Thr

Thr Glu Gly

Gly

amino acid subunits

SECONDARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE

It arise as H bonds form between local groups of amino acids in a region of the polypeptide chain. These interactions between neighbouring or near-by amino acids make polypeptide starts to fold into its functional three-dimensional form. The most common forms of secondary structure are the α-helix and β-pleated sheet structures and they play an important structural role in most globular and fibrous proteins.

TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE

β-pleated sheet

α-helix

It describes how the chains of the secondary structure further interact through the R groups of the amino acid residues. This interaction causes folding and bending of the polypeptide chain. The specific manner of the folding giving each protein its characteristic biological activity. 38

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QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE Quaternary structure possesses proteins if they contain more than one polypeptide chain – subunit (multiple polypeptide chains – multimeric proteins).

Globular proteins – they are compact, spherical proteins readily disperse in water forming a colloid; functional proteins, chemically active; metabolic role i.e., enzymes (amylase), transport proteins (heamoglobin) antibodies – immunoglobulins and hormones (insulin).

Sub units are held together by hydrogen bonds and electrostatic or salt bonds formed between residues on the surfaces of the polypeptide chains.

Fibrous proteins - structural proteins, extended and strandlike, insoluble in water and very stable, i.e., elastin, keratin, collagen, and contractile fibers (actin and myosin), very resistant to animal digestive enzymes.

SIMPLE AND CONJUGATED PROTEINS Proteins may be divided into two main groups: simple proteins and conjugated proteins. Simple proteins include only amino acids in their structure. They may be subdivided into two groups, fibrous and globular proteins. This division based on shape, solubility and chemical composition of that proteins.

Conjugated proteins in addition to amino acids contain, a non-protein moiety termed a prosthetic group. Name of the conjugated protein is derived from the prosthetic group, some important examples of conjugated proteins are glycoproteins, lipoproteins, phosphoproteins and chromoproteins.

Amino acid part of conjugated proteins is called apoprotein and non-amino acid portion is called the prosthetic group.

FIBROUS PROTEINS Fibrous proteins are insoluble in water and are very resistant to animal digestive enzymes. Mostly they have structural roles in cells and tissues. They are composed of elongated COLLAGENS

filamentous chains joined together by crosslinkages. Fibrous polypeptide chains arranged in long chains or sheets. Usually consist of a single type of secondary structure.

•a collagen molecule is a long, rigid structure in which three polypeptides (α chains) are wound around one another in a rope-like triple helix •collagen may be dispersed as a gel that gives support to the structure or may be bundled in tight, parallel fibers that provide great strength •collagen contains hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine; tryptophan is not found in these proteins; is also rich in glycine and proline

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

ELASTIN

•protein found in elastic tissues (tendons, arteries) polypeptide chain of elastin is very flexible •elastin is rich in alanine and glycine

KERATINS •are classified into two types: α-keratins – protein of hair and wool; β-keratins – protein of feathers, skin, beaks and scales of birds and reptiles •keratins are rich in S-containing AA – cysteine •properties depend strongly on the degree of disulfide cross-linking – flexible – low levels of crosslinking (hair, skin); very hard – high level of cross-liking (claws, horns)

GLOBULAR PROTEINS Globular proteins due to distribution of amino acids (hydrophobic inside, hydrophilic outside) are very soluble in aqueous solution. Polypeptide chains of globular proteins are

folded in to spherical or globular shape. Globular proteins include: all the enzymes, antigens and those hormones that are proteins.

ALBUMINS •albumins are water-soluble and heat-coagulable •most abundant plasma protein; occur in the blood, milk, eggs and many plants •plasma albumin plays an important role in regulation of osmotic pressure GLOBULINS

•have higher molecular weight than albumins •insoluble in pure water – soluble in neutral and salt solution GLUTELINS

•soluble in dilute acids, alkalies •mostly found in plants, i.e. glutelin (wheat), oryzenin (rice) HISTONES

•basic proteins occurring in cell nuclei (associated with DNA) •soluble in salt solutions, are not heat-coagulable •they contain large quantities of arginine and lysine PROTAMINES

•basic proteins with low molecular weight which are associated with nucleic acids (mature male germ cells of vertebrates) •rich in arginine, but contain no tyrosine, tryptophan or S-containing amino acids

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CONJUGATED PROTEINS Name of the conjugated protein is derived from the non-protein prosthetic group, this group includes:

GLYCOPROTEINS • proteins conjugated with oligosaccharide chains, one or more heteroglycans covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains; heteroglycans contain a hexosamine (glucosamine or galactosamine), galactose and mannose • components of mucous secretions (lubricants), storage protein in egg white – ovalbumin, integral membrane proteins (cell-cell interactions), immunoglobulins, transport molecules (transferrin, celuroplasmin), antifreeze – plasma protein of cold-water fish

LIPOPROTEINS •proteins conjugated with lipids such as triacylglycerols and cholesterol, apoprotein parts are responsible for signalling the metabolism, transport and cellular uptake of lipoproteins • the main components of cell membranes, the form in which lipids are transported •chylomicrons, Very-Low-Density Lipoproteins, Low-Density Lipoproteins, Intermediate-Density Lipoproteins and High-Density Lipoproteins PHOSPHOPROTEINS •contain phosphoric acid as the prosthetic group •the caseins of milk and phosvitin in egg yolk

CHROMOPROTEINS •contain a pigment as the prosthetic group •haemoglobin and cytochromes (hem – the iron-containing compound), flavoproteins (flavins)

PROTEIN FUNCTION

There are a lot various functions of proteins: the best known is catalytic function – enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts to change the rate of metabolic reactions. They combine selectively with substrate molecules to split them. Physiological processes that require enzymes include digestion of food, generation of energy by tissues, generation and propagation of neurological impulses, clotting of blood, and contraction of muscle. Proteins are also responsible for transport and storage many substances. Proteins that combine with substances requiring transport in the blood, within cells, or across cell membranes include albumin, transthyretin, heme proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin. Examples of storage proteins are ovalbumin, casein and gliadin. Some of proteins are also membrane carrier proteins. Proteins are involved in motion coordination as well as in structural and mechanical support of cells and tissues. Those proteins are commonly divided into contractile proteins and fibrous proteins. The principal contractile

proteins are actin and myosin and are found in muscle, where they, when activated, power movement of body parts. The fibrous proteins are characteristic of connective tissue and include collagen, elastin, and keratin. Proteins called immunoglobulins, or antibodies, play important role in defence system. They function by binding and inactivating foreign objects – antigens such as bacteria or viruses that enter the body with potential to cause disease. Next role of protein is generation and transmission of nerve impulses: they act as neurotransmitters, in example acetyl choline. Proteins are also responsible for control of growth and differentiation. Some protein hormones are chemical messengers that may regulate metabolic processes by promoting enzyme synthesis or affecting enzyme activity. Some hormones are steroids derived from cholesterol, others are derived from amino acids that may be linked together or metabolically altered. These include thyroid and parathyroid hormones, insulin, growth hormone or glucagon.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

CARBOHYDRATES – STRUCTURE, DIVISION AND ROLE Carbohydrates are neutral chemical compounds containing the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Carbohydrates may be classified as sugars and non-sugars. Sugars include

monosaccharides and oligosaccharides; nonsugars include: polysaccharides and complex carbohydrates.

Sugars

Non-sugars

monosaccharides

polysaccharides

oligosaccharides

complex carbohydrates

Taking into consideration plant carbohydrates structure they may be classified as structural and non-structural carbohydrates. That two groups include various classes of carbohydrates and vary in digestibility and availability in animals. The main carbohydrates occurring in foods include the monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, arabinose, xylose and ribose; the disaccharides:

sucrose and maltose and the polysaccharides starch, hemicellulose and cellulose. The disaccharide lactose occurs in milk. Plants produce carbohydrates by photosynthesis for their own needs, simultaneously providing a stored form of solar energy in form of glucose. Higher animals and microorganisms use carbohydrates as energy sources and as precursors of more complex compounds.

In higher animals plants carbohydrates are used as energy sources and as precursors of more complex compounds. Contrary to plants animals store energy in fats.

CARBOHYDRATES CLASSIFICATIONS Carbohydrates may be classified as sugars and non-sugars. Sugars include monosaccharides and oligosaccharides; non-sugars include: polysaccharides and complex carbohydrates.

The term sugar is generally restricted to those carbohydrates containing fewer than ten monosaccharide residues, while the name oligosaccharides is used to include all sugars other than the monosaccharides.

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Type of linkages between monosaccharides units are describe by giving the number of the carbons are involved and the α and β orientation.

Different types of bonds in polymer affect digestibility of carbohydrates, in example α (1→4) linkages are digestible, whereas β (1→4) linkages are non-digestible by animals enzymes.

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SUGARS MONOSACCHARIDES: the simplest sugars, that may be divided into subgroups depending upon the number of carbon atoms that are present in molecule – trioses (C3H6O3), tetroses (C4H8O4), pentoses (C5H10O5), hexoses (C6H12O6) and heptoses (C7H14O7).

Monosaccharides may be linked together, with glycosidic bound, through an oxygen bridge, with the elimination of one molecule of water at each linkage, to produce di-, tri-, tetra- or polysaccharides, containing, respectively, two, three, four or larger numbers of monosaccharide units – those sugars are called OLIGOSACCHARIDES

Trioses (glyceraldehyde dihydroxyacetone) Tetroses (erythrose)

Pentoses (arabinose, xylose, xylulose, ribose, ribulose)

Monosaccharides

Hexoses (glucose, galactose, mannose, fructose) Heptoses (sedoheptulose)

SUGARS

Disaccharides (sucrose, sactose, maltose, cellobiose)

Oligosaccharides

Trisaccharides (raffinose, kestose) Tetrasaccharides (stachyose)

After McDonald et al., 2011 Type of linkage between monosaccharides units is describe by giving the number of the carbons are involved and the α and β orientation.

Different types of bonds in polymer affect digestibility of carbohydrates, i.e. α (1→4) linkages are digestible, whereas β (1→4) linkages are non-digestible.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

NON-SUGARS POLYSACCHARIDES – glycans – polymers of monosaccharide units divided into two groups – homoglycans (with single type of monosaccharide) and heteroglycans (monosaccharides and derived products).

COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES – compounds contain carbohydrates combined with noncarbohydrate molecules (glycolipids, glycoproteins) Polysaccharides

Homoglycans Arabians Xylans Glucans (starch, dextrins, glycogen, cellulose, callose) Fructans Galactans Mannans Glucosamines

Heteroglycans Pectic substances Hemicelluloses Exudate gums Acidic mucilages Hyaluronic acid Chondroitin

NON- SUGARS

Glycoproteins Complex carbohydrates Glycolipids After McDonald et al., 2011

Due to various types of linkages present in carbohydrates some of them are readily digestible by animals enzymes but others are indigestible, they may be split only by enzymes of microorganism in example intestinal microflora of monogastric animals.

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MOST IMPORTANT NATURALLY OCCURRING MONOSACCHARIDES HEXOSES D-Glucose may exist in the free state as well as in combined form. The sugar occurs free in plants, fruits, honey, blood and lymph. It is the sole or major component of many oligosaccharides, polysaccharides and glucosides.

D-Fructose occurs free in green leaves, fruits and honey. It also occurs in the disaccharide sucrose and in fructans. Green leafy crops usually contain appreciable amounts of this sugar, both free and in polymerised form.

D-Mannose does not occur free in nature but as mannan and as a component of glycoproteins in polymerised form. Mannans are found in yeasts, moulds and bacteria. D-Galactose does not occur free in nature except as a breakdown product during fermentation. It is present as a constituent of the disaccharide lactose, which occurs in milk.

MOST IMPORTANT NATURALLY OCCURRING OLIGOSACCHARIDES DISACCHARIDES Sucrose is formed from one molecule of α-D-glucose and one molecule of α–D fructose. It is the most ubiquitous and abundantly occurring disaccharide in plants. Sucrose is found in high concentration in sugar cane, sugar beet and sorghum; is also present in mangels and carrots and in many fruits. Lactose (milk sugar) is a product of mammary gland. It consists of one molecule of β-D-glucose joined to one of β-D-galactose in a β 1→4 linkage. Lactose readily undergoes fermentation by a number of organisms converting lactose into lactic acid. Maltose (malt sugar) consists of two α-D-glucose residues and is produced during hydrolysis of starch and glycogen. This sugar is also produced from starch, during the germination of barley The barley, after controlled germination and drying is known as malt and use in the manufacture of beer and Scotch malt whisky. Cellobiose is composed of two β-D-glucose residues linked through a β (1→4) bond. It does not exist naturally as a free sugar, but is basic repeating unit of cellulose. This linkage cannot be split by digestive enzymes, but it can be split by microbial enzymes. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

MOST IMPORTANT NATURALLY OCCURRING POLYSACCHARIDES

HOMOGLYCANS Homoglycans vary from the sugars, their molecules are composed of large numbers of pentose or hexose residues and have high

molecular weight. Many of them occur in plants either as reserve food materials such as starch or as structural materials such as cellulose.

ARABINANS AND XYLANS • polymers of arabinose (arabinans) and xylose (xylans)

GLUCANS • polymers of glucose: starch, dextrins, glycogen, cellulose, callose

FRUCTANS • reserve material in roots, stems, leaves and seeds of a variety of plants

GALACTANS AND MANNANS • polymers of galactose and mannose, respectively • occur in the cell walls of plants • galactans are present in seeds of many legumes (clovers, trefoil and lucerne)

GLUCOSAMINANS • the only known example of a homoglycan containing glucosamine is chitin (Crustacea, fungi, green algae)

• •

after cellulose, probably the most abundant polysaccharide of nature called „animal fibre”

The most important glucans with crucial meaning in animal feeding are starch and cellulose. Glycogen that is presents in some amounts in animal’s tissues is called animal starch.

STARCH

Starch is a glucan and is present in many plants as a reserve carbohydrate. It is most abundant in seeds, fruits, tubers and roots. Starches are mixtures of two structurally different polysaccharides, amylose and amylopectin. Amylose is unbranched structure consisting of long chains of glucose linked through alpha 1,4 linkages at carbons 1 and 4. Amylopectin is branched structure consisting of short chains of carbon 1, 4 linked glucose which is joined with other chains through alpha 1,6 linkages

In most starches amylopectin is the main component, amounting to about 70–80 % of the total and whereas maize starch contains about 98% of amylopectin. Starch occurs as microscopic granules whose size and appearance is specific for plant species. Starch granules are insoluble in cold water but when heated in aqueous solution swell and lose their structure. Starch digestibility varies with plant species. Starch from cereal grains, cassava and rice is approximately 90% digestible. Low digestibility of starch from other plant species is due to the degree of crystallization of the outermost layers of the starch granule. Gelatinization of the starch (as through steam flaking) makes the starch more digestible.

Amylopectin

Amylose 46

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GLYCOGEN Glycogen is a term used to describe a group of highly branched polysaccharides isolated from animals or microorganisms. α-1,6 linkage

α-1,4 linkage

Glycogen is the counterpart to amylopectin in animals which has the same composition and structure, but with more extensive branching that occurs every 8 to 12 glucose units, therefore it has been referred as „animal starches” Glycogen is the main carbohydrate storage product in the animal body and plays an essential role in energy metabolism. Glycogens occur in liver, muscle and other animal tissues.

CELLULOSE Cellulose is the most abundant single polymer in the plant kingdom, forming the fundamental structure of plant cell walls.

Pure cellulose is composed of repeating units of cellobiose – two β-D-glucose residues linked through a β (1-4) bond. This linear polymer consisting of 1 000 to 10 000 glucose units in β-

HETEROGLYCANS

1,4 linkages with no branching. Neighbouring cellulose chains may form hydrogen bonds leading to the formation of microfibrils, the microfibrils can form microfibers and the microfibers react to form cellulose fibers. In the plant cell wall, cellulose is closely associated, physically and chemically, with other components, especially hemicelluloses and lignin.

High molecular weight carbohydrate polymers that contain more than one kind of monosaccharides.

PECTIC SUBSTANCES

•constituents of primary cell walls •structural component is a chain of (1→6)-linked residues of D-galacturonic acid •presents in citrus fruit and sugar beet pulp (as the peel) •gelling properties •pectin, pectic acid HEMICELLULOSES

•are mixtures of xylans, glucomannoglycan, arabinogalactans, arabinans and arabinoxylans •are primarily structural polysaccharides in plant secondary cell walls EXUDATE GUMS AND ACID MUCILAGES

•exudate gums are produced from wounds in plants, may arise as natural exudations from bark and leaves (gum arabic) •acidic mucilages are obtained from the bark, roots, leaves and seeds of a variety of plants •are composed of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid HYALURONIC ACID AND CHONDROITIN

•repeating unit consisting of an amino sugar and D-glucuronic acid •hyaluronic acid, contains acetyl-D-glucosamine, is present in the skin, the synovial fluid and the umbilical cord and is important in the lubrication of joints •chondroitin is chemically similar to hyaluronic acid but contains galactosamine in place of glucosamine •sulphate esters of chondroitin – structural components of cartilage, tendons and bones LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

LIGNIN

Lignin is of particular interest in animal nutrition because of its high resistance to chemical degradation. Lignin is not a carbohydrate, that term does not refer to a single, well-defined compound but is a collective term that embraces a whole series of closely related compounds. Lignin is a polymer of three derivatives of phenylpropane: coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. The lignin molecule is made up of many phenylpropanoid units associated in a complex cross-linked structure.

Cumaryl alcohol

Coniferyl alcohol

Incrustation of plant fibres by lignin causes them inaccessible to enzymes that would normally digest them. Strong chemical bonds exist between lignin and many plant polysaccharides and cell wall proteins render these compounds unavailable during digestion and confers mechanical strength to the plant. Wood products, mature hays and straws are rich in lignin and consequently are poorly digested unless treated chemically to break the bonds between lignin and other carbohydrates.

Sinapyl alcohol Lignin structure

NUTRITIONAL DIVISION OF PLANT CARBOHYDRATES There are various chemical methods of plants carbohydrates determination. From nutritional point of view, the most important are that methods that allow to division of carbohydrates taking into consideration they digestibility and availability for animals. Taking into consideration mentioned factors – plant carbohydrates may be divided as it presented in scheme. Two components mentioned in the scheme – organic acids and lignin are noncarbohydrate components but are included in the scheme because are components of specific analytical fractions. Non-starch polysaccharides consist polymeric fraction of dietary fibre that includes all polysaccharides except lignin and starch. It is typically a mixture of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins and gums. This group may be divided according to water solubility: water soluble NSP includes: pectins, gums, mucilages hemicelluloses, while insoluble NSP includes: cellulose and according some divisions lignin. Dietary fibre is the name given to the polysaccharides of plants that cannot be hydrolysed by the digestive enzymes of higher

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animals. It includes cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, fructans and β-glucans, lignin is usually also included. Carbohydrates present in plant feeds may be also divided according to their ability to enzymatic hydrolysis (hydrolysable carbohydrates) and fermentation rate – rapidly and slowly fermentable carbohydrates. Division of carbohydrates according to Van Soest into fractions of neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and acid detergent lignin were presented in the first module. According to the most common division plant carbohydrates are divided into two groups: structural polysaccharides − cellulose, pectic substances, β-D-glucans, hemicelluloses and other heteropolysaccharides of diverse sugar composition and this group is closely associated with lignin and storage polysaccharides used as energy reserves by living organisms - starch in most higher plants, fructans in certain plants. Starch is present in all green plants and in most of their tissues and is storage in seed tissues, where it is used during germination.

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Plant carbohydrates

Cell content

Organic acids

Starch

Sugars

Oligosac charides

Fructans

Cell wall

β-glucans

Pectins gums

Hemicelluloses

Cellulose

Lignin

Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) Total dietary fibre (TDF)

Hydrolysable carbohydrates

Rapidly fermentable carbohydrates

Neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC)/ Nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) Non structural carbohydrates (NSC)

CARBOHYDRATES FUNCTIONS

Slowly fermentable carbohydrates

Neutral detergent fibre (NDF)

Acid detergent fibre (ADF)

Acid detergent (after NRC, Nutrient Requirements lining of Horses, 2007) (ADL)

The primary function of plant carbohydrates in animal nutrition is to serve as a source of energy for normal life processes. Starch is main storage carbohydrate in grains.

The relatively insoluble fractions (cellulose, hemicellulose) of plants carbohydrates are important in providing structural support for living plants. In animals are responsible for proper digestive tract functioning.

Carbohydrates and lipids are the two major sources of energy for animal body. Carbohydrate derivatives organism.

are important intermediates in many metabolic pathways in

Oligosaccharides are involved in process that take place on the surface of cells – cell interactions and immune recognition. Carbohydrates are helpful in absorption of calcium and phosphorus in younger animals, in secretion of digestive juices in gastrointestinal tract; provide suitable environment for the growth of rumen bacteria and protozoa.

Carbohydrates are also component of several important biochemical compounds such as nucleic acids, coenzymes and blood group substance. They play a key role in the metabolism of amino acids and fatty acids. Lignin is not a carbohydrate but is closely associated with plants cell wall carbohydrates. Lignin content increase with maturity of the plant and significantly decrease of nutrients digestibility. Therefore, crucial is harvesting time of plants. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

LIPIDS – STRUCTURE, DIVISION AND ROLE Lipids are substances insoluble in water, and soluble in common organic solvents such as benzene, ether and chloroform. Lipids include fats, oils, waxes, fatty acids, cholesterol, and related compounds. Structural lipids

Lipids are characterised by their more carbon and hydrogen and less oxygen content and therefore in comparison of with carbohydrates they supply approximately 2.25 as much energy as an equal weight of carbohydrates.

constituents of various membranes and protective surface layers (waxes, fatty acids and cutin)

Plant lipids are of two main types: structural and storage.

Storage lipids

Lipids, chemically, are esters of fatty acids with alcohol – glycerol or others. On that base lipids may be divided into glycerol-based lipids and non-glycerol-based lipids.

occur in fruits and seeds and are, predominantly, triacylglycerols

Main plants storage compounds are carbohydrates – starch, but in some seeds lipids are storage as energy form.

LIPIDS CLASSIFICATION Lipids may be divided according to presence in their structure glycerol. Glycerol based simple lipids include fats and oils. Compound glycerol based lipids include glycolipids in example glucolipids and galactolipids and phosphogly-

Simple

Glycerol based

Fats and oils

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Glycolipids

Glucolipids

cerides in example lecitins and cephalins. Nonglycerol-based lipids include: sphingomyelins, cerebrosides, waxes, steroids, terpenes and eicosanoids. LIPIDS

Compound

Galactolipids

Non-glicerol based

Phosphoglycerides

Lecithins

Cephalins

Sphingomyelins Cerebrosides Waxes Steroids Terpenes Eicosanoids

A large number of compounds present in plants possess characteristic of lipids in example carotenoids – precursors of fat soluble vitamin A. LiveNutrition


GLYCEROL BASED LIPIDS FATS AND OILS Fats are esters of fatty acids with the trihydric alcohol glycerol. They are also referred to as glycerides or acylglycerols. •ester linkage

•glycerol

•fatty acids – are a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated

The term „fat” is frequently used in a general sense to include both fats and oils which have the same general structure but have different physical and chemical properties. Oils at ordinary room temperatures are liquid and they tend to be more chemically reactive than the more solid fats. Triacylglycerols differ in type in accordance with the nature and position of the fatty residues.

Fats with three residues of the same fatty acids are termed simple triacylglycerols. When in fats more than one fatty acid is concerned in the estrification then a mixed triacylglycerol results. Naturally occurring fats and oils are mixture of mixed triacylglycerols. trans fatty acid cis fatty acid

FATTY ACIDS Naturally occurring fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms. They contain a single carboxyl group and an unbranched carbon chain, which may be saturated or unsaturated. The unsaturated acids may contain one, two, three or many double bonds. That fatty acids with more than one double bond in carbon chain are referred to as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The presence of a double bond in a fatty acid molecule means that the acid can exist in two forms − cis and trans and most naturally occurring fatty acids have the cis configuration. Fat has a vital role in providing individual fatty acids with specific nutritional roles within the

animal body. The names of the most common saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are given in the scheme (next page). Two low-molecular-weight saturated fatty acids − butyric and caproic are found in in the milk fats of ruminants, and caproic along with caprylic acid is present in palm kernel and coconut oil. In most plant oils the dominant fatty acids are oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. Coconut oil is an exception in having as its major acid the saturated lauric acid. Some fatty acids could not be synthesized in animals and therefore must be provided in the diet − these fatty acids are referred to as essential fatty acids.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

SATURATED FATTY ACIDS

UNSTURATED FATTY ACIDS

•Butyric •Caproic •Caprylic •Capric •Lauric •Myristic •Palmitic •Stearic

•Palmitoleic •Oleic •Linoleic •α-Linolenic •Arachidonic

ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS - EFAs Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are 18- to 20carbon unsaturated fatty acids having at least two double bonds. Animal systems do not have enzymes that can insert a double bond distal to n-9 carbon in a fatty acid, therefore they must be provided in the diet. As the essential fatty acids are referred two polyunsaturated fatty acids from group of omega 6- and omega 3- linoleic and linolenic, respectively. Additionally into that group are

also included – arachidonic acid, eicosapentenoic acid and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid. Good source of linoleic acid are oilseeds, and linseed is a particularly good source of α-linolenic acid.

linoleic

linolenic

NON-GLYCEROL BASED LIPIDS Waxes – simple lipids consisting of a longchain fatty acid combined with a monohydric alcohol of high molecular weight. The most common alcohols found in waxes are carnaubyl and cetyl alcohol. Waxes are widely distributed in plants and animals, where they have a protective function (reduces water losses caused by transpiration in plants, and provides wool and feathers with waterproofing in animals). Among better-known animal waxes are lanolin, present in wool. The waxes are resistant to breakdown and are poorly utilized by animals.

Steroids – based on phenanthrene nucleus linked to a cyclopentane ring compounds. They may be classified into three groups: the phytosterols, the mycosterols and the zoosterols.

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Cholesterol – is the major zoosterol and is important as a constituent of various biological membranes; precursor of the steroid hormones and bile acids.

7-Dehydrocholesterol – derivative of cholesterol; precursor of vitamin D3, which is produced when the sterol is exposed to ultraviolet light. Steroid hormones – oestrogens, androgens and progesterone, as well as cortisol, aldosterone and corticosterone.

Terpenes – are made up of a number of isoprene units linked together to form chains or cyclic structures. Many terpenes found in plants have strong characteristic odours and flavours. Among the more important plant terpenes are the phytol (moiety of chlorophyll), the carotenoid pigments, plant hormones, and vitamins A, E and K.

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LIPIDS FUNCTIONS

ENERGY RESERVE – in animals lipids are the major form of energy storage, mainly as fat. The yield of energy from the complete oxidation of fat is about 39 MJ/kg DM compared with about 17 MJ/kg DM from glycogen. Moreover, stored fat is almost anhydrous, whereas stored glycogen is highly hydrated. Therefore, weight for weight, fat is about six times as effective as glycogen as a stored energy source. THERMOGENESIS – specialized body fat deposits have been designated brown adipose tissue („brown fat”). They are characterized by the ability to generate heat in response to food intake or to prolonged cold exposure by a process called nonshivering thermogenesis. This process is especially important in animals that are born hairless, those that hibernate or those that are cold-adapted.

INSULATION – lipids are excellent insulators. In the higher animals, neutral fats that are found in the subcutaneous tissue and around various organs, serve as mechanical and thermal insulators. As the principal constituent of cell membranes, lipids also insulate cells from their environment mechanically and electrically.

CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION – particular fatty acids are found in phospholipids that are crucial for cell membrane structure and function. They provide physical support to the membranes, serve as a source of physiologically active compounds, and modulate cross-membrane movement of metabolically active substances.

NUTRIENT TRANSPORT – in addition to serving as a source of essential fatty acids, lipids are involved in transport of the lipid-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K and provitamin A carotenoids. SPECIAL TASKS – steroids, eicosanoids, and some metabolites of phospholipids have signalling functions. They serve as hormones, mediators, and second messengers. Lipids also produce cofactors for enzymatic reactions. The carotenoid retinal, a lightsensitive lipid, is of central importance in the process of vision.

Lipids are a good source of energy for ruminants but the capacity of rumen microorganisms to digest lipids is strictly limited. If the lipid content of ruminant diets increased above 100 g/kg the activities of the rumen microbes are reduced. Therefore, „protected fats” in form of calcium salts of fatty acids are used as fat supplements for ruminants. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

Some of nutrients are required only in a small amount by organisms but are essential throughout the all life. These compounds include vitamins which are organic and socalled vital nutrients and also minerals. Dietary minerals are the chemical elements also

required as essential nutrients by organisms. These nutrients are a source of elements other than carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen present in common organic molecules. These elements are classed as macroelements and microelements.

In practical feeding due to variability of minerals and vitamin content in feeds or due to changes in their activity during storage routinely mineral or mineralvitamin additives are used to prevent their deficiency in animals.

MINERALS All animal tissues and all feeds contain inorganic or mineral elements in widely varying amounts and proportions. These inorganic elements constitute the ash that remains after ignition. They exist in the ash mostly as oxides, carbonates and sulphates, so that the percentage of total ash is higher than the sum of the inorganic elements individually determined, al.though losses of some volatile forms may occur during ashing. Mineral elements exist in the cells and tissues of the animal body in a variety

of functional, chemical combination and in characteristic concentrations which vary in the element and the tissue. The function of minerals includes: structural, catalytic and regulatory activity. 22 minerals are believing to be „essential” for the higher forms of animal life. These comprised 7 major or macronutrient minerals like calcium or sodium and 15 micro- or trace mineral elements like iron, iodine or zinc.

Macroelements are required by organisms in relatively large quantities – g/kg. Macroelements comprised 7 major or macronutrient minerals: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, sulphur and magnesium. However, in most circumstances farm animal derive a high proportion of minerals form the feeds and forages that they consume. For this reason, the factors that determine the mineral content of the vegetative parts of plants and their seeds are the factors that determine the mineral intakes of livestock.

Micro- and trace elements include: iron, copper, zinc, manganese, selenium, cobalt, fluoride, iodine and molybdenum as well as chromium, tin, vanadium, silicon, nickel and arsenic. Microelements are required by organisms in small quantities, like mg/kg or even μg/kg for trace elements. There are many various sources of minerals in animal feeding that can be provided with components of diet as well with feed additives. However, minerals to be utilized first have to be absorbed. Availability of various sources of minerals vary greatly from 5 to 70% or even more.

MACROELEMENTS VS. MICRO- AND TRACE ELEMENTS

Minerals may bound with other substances presented in feeds and become unavailable for animals. In example all feed of animal origin, cereal grains, canola and soybeans are rich in phosphorus. HOWEVER! a significant part in the plant origin phosphorus are in form of phytate (averages 55-75% of the total amount of P in plants). Phosphorus in these compounds is practically not available for animals! 54

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MACROELEMENTS Occurrence

CALCIUM Facts-At-A-Glance •Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and 99% is found in the skeleton. •The basic function of calcium is to provide a strong framework for supporting and protecting delicate organs, joined to allow movement and malleable to allow growth. •Calcium can activate or stabilize some enzymes, contributes to regulation of the cell cycle and is required for normal blood clotting. •In poultry calcium performs the unique function of protecting the egg through the deposition of an eggshell during passage down the oviduct. •The shell matrix is heavily impregnated with CaCO3 and the need to furnish about 2 g of calcium for every egg produced dominates calcium metabolism in the lying hens.

•Feedstuffs contain variable amount of Ca. However, due to high livestock requirement, especially growing animals and milking cows supplementation of diets with Ca is a standard procedure. •The most commonly Ca supplements used in animal nutrition are: fodder chalk, dolomites, phosphates. Deficiency Symptoms

•If calcium is deficient in the diet then satisfactory bone formation cannot occur and the condition known as rickets is produced. •In adult animals calcium deficiency produced osteomalacia, in which the calcium in the bone is withdrawn and not replaced – the bones become weak and are easily broken. Toxicity Symptoms

•Lethargy, weakness, dehydration, constipation, diarrhoea.

Malfunction of egg shell formation In hens deficiency symptoms are soft beak and bones, retarded growth and bowed legs, the eggs have thin shell and egg production may be reduced. This symptoms can also be produced by a deficiency of phosphorus, abnormal Ca:P ratio, and vitamin D deficiency. It is important to consider the Ca:P ratio of the diet since an abnormal ratio may be as harmful as a deficiency of either element in the diet. The Ca:P ratio considered must suitable for farm animals other than poultry is generally within the range 1:1 to 1:2, although for laying hens proportion Ca:P is much larger (12:1), since they require great amount of the element for eggshell production.

Milk fever (parturient paresis) is a condition which most commonly occurs in dairy cows shortly after calving. It is characterized by a lowering of the serum calcium level, muscular spasm and, in extreme cases, paralysis and unconsciousness and even death. The exact cause of hypocalcaemia associated with milk fever is obscure, but it is generally considered that, with the onset of lactation, the parathyroid glands is unable to respond rapidly enough to increase calcium absorption form the intestine to meet the extra demand. The symptoms of rickets are misshapen bones, enlargement of the joints, lameness and stiffness. There are many various interactions between microelements – synergistic or antagonistic. One of example is relationship between molybdenum and copper. Dietary molybdenum levels affect copper requirements. Due to forming of insoluble complex forms of Mo with Cu and preventing of copper absorption. Sheep are more susceptible to Cu toxicity if molybdenum levels are less than 1 ppm. However, when Mo intakes exceed 10 ppm, Cu deficiency may occur on diets that would normally be adequate. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

Deficiency Symptoms

PHOSPHORUS

Facts-At-A-Glance •The phosphorus is closely associated with calcium in bones, it occurs in phosphoproteins, nucleic acids and phosholipids. •This element plays a vital role in energy metabolism. The phosphorus content is rather smaller than calcium: 85-90% of phosphorus occurs in the bones and teeth, the remainder is in the soft tissues and fluids. Occurrence

•Most of feedstuffs are quite rich in phosphorus. However, mostly it occurs in form of phytic acid that is unavailable for animals. •Therefore, an addition of phosphates or feed enzyme: phytase is recommended.

Cattle hypophosphataemia, source:

•Similar to signs of calcium deficiency. •Deficiency can cause rickets or osteomalacia, ”pica”. •Depraved appetite has been noted in cattle – the affected animals have abnormal appetites and chew wood, bones, rags and other foreign materials. In cows a deficient of this element may lead to postpartum complications and also reduce milk yield, in hens reduced egg yield, hatchability and shell thickness. •Low dietary intakes of phosphorus have also been associated with poor fertility, apparent dysfunction of the ovaries causing inhibition, depression or irregularity of oestrus. •Subnormal growth of young animals and low live weight gains in mature animals are characteristic symptoms of phosphorus deficiency in all species. Toxicity Symptoms

•Negative effect on calcium uptake. •Calcium deficiency. •High phosphorus intake in association with magnesium can lead to the formation of mineral deposits in the bladder and urethra (urothiliasis) and blockage the urine flow in male sheep and cattle.

www.kutubpdf.net

POTASSIUM

Facts-At-A-Glance

Occurrence •The deficiency of potassium occurs only in extreme cases such as vomiting or diarrhea causing moderated or severe decrease of production.

•Disorders in potassium supply is rare in practice since plant origin feeds normally contains more potassium then it is needed for animals. Deficiency Symptoms •The deficiency of potassium occurs only in extreme cases such as vomiting or diarrhea •Reduced appetite, depressed growth rates, causing moderated or severe decrease of muscular dystrophy. production. •Weakness, lethargy, reduced feed and water •In case of overdose the absorption of intake. magnesium is decreased this may cause grass •Weight loss. tetany. Disorders in Na/K balance due to K overdose may cause problems in reproduction Toxicity Symptoms processes. •Maintain water balance, osmotic pressure and •The overdose of potassium is very rare in acid-base balance. practice, mainly due to technological failure. •Activate enzymes. Help metabolize carbo- •Potassium induced periodic paralysis. hydrates and proteins. •Regulate neuromuscular activity (along with Ca). Help to regulate heartbeat.

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SODIUM Occurrence

Facts-At-A-Glance

•The amount of sodium in the cell is regulated •Most plant feed contains too low levels of this macro element in relation to the needs of by an energy demand process with ATP usage animal. Therefore, an addition of salt (NaCl) (Na-K pump). This is necessary because the Na is commonly used. excess inhibit the function of several intracellular enzymes. •Transmission of nerve impulses. Toxicity Symptoms •Beside the maintenance of osmosis, Na in the form of sodium hydrogen carbonate excretes in •Colic, diarrhoea, polyuria, weakness, paralysis. considerable amount with saliva and by doing this Na stimulates the buffer capacity of rumen in ruminants. Deficiency Symptoms

•Reduced feed intake. •Ultimate cessation of eating. •Lowering the utilization of protein. •Weight loss/growth inhibition. •The decrease in egg production. •Decreased sweating and performance. •Excess licking behaviour and constipation. •Muscular and nervous dysfunction. CHLORINE

Experimentally salt-deprived (on the right) vs. normally fed, source: www.xtension.umaine.edu Occurrence

Facts-At-A-Glance •The most important function of chloric together with sodium is the maintenance of isotonicity. •Beside this the chloride ion contents of blood plasma is one of the base materials for HCl synthesis, furthermore the chloride ion is the activator of alpha amylase enzyme. •Chloric bounded in the HCL content of the stomach absorbs effectively from the intestine; therefore there is only a few loss. •The excretion of Na and Cl is mainly through the kidneys. •However Na and Cl losses through different products and gland excretions (sweat) cannot be moderated by homeostatic processes.

•The supply of animals’ need concerning Na and Cl cannot be solved solely with plant origin feeds. •By the application of supplements it has to be considered that Na excretion two or three times faster than in case of Cl. •Consequently the feed has to be supplemented by table salt according to the Na need which is 0.15–0,.% of the daily DM consumption. Deficiency Symptoms

•In case of Cl deficiency there is a decrease in production which can go with excessive water intake. •Anorexia, weight loss, polyuria, eye defect, blood alkalosis.

Toxicity Symptoms

•Overdose of Cl can happen in case of inadequate drinking water supply and by applying feeds with high NaCl content. Possible damage to central nervous system.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

SULPHUR

Facts-At-A-Glance •Sulphur plays an important role in many biochemical compounds for instance amino acids, vitamins (biotin and thiamine), haemoglobin, heparin, insulin, bile salts and heteropolysaccharides such as chondroitin sulfate (component of cartilage, bone walls of blood vessels). •It is necessary for keratin formation and may impair the uptake of various elements (Cu, Co, Se, Mn). Occurrence

•Sulphur occurs in the diet in the form of inorganic sulfur, sulfate and related chemicals and sulfur containing amino acids and other organic compounds. •The usage of sulfur in an inorganic form is justified only in case of ruminants. It is recommended in case of feeding NPN substances when the portion of N and S from NPN substances has to be set to 12 : 1.

Deficiency Symptoms •The symptoms of sulphur deprivation in ruminants are not specific by are shared by any nutritional deficiency or factor which depresses rumen microbial activity. •Fed with fibrous diets there is often an early depression of appetite and digestibility, sheep deprived of sulphur spend more time ruminating, growth is retarded, wool or hair is shed, there is profuse salivation and lacrimation and the eyes become cloudy. Toxicity Symptoms

•Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) − necrosis of the cerebral cortex. •Blindness. •Poor coordination. •Lethargy. •Seizures.

Occurrence

MAGNESIUM

Facts-At-A-Glance •Magnesium is an essential mineral in cell metabolism. Mg is essential for the function of the nervous system, cell signaling, the energy utilisation in muscles, and the activation of more than 300 enzymes and stabilization of macromolecules such as DNA and protein. •The magnesium content in the body is approximately 0.05% of the body mass of which 70% is found in the skeleton. •About 35% of the magnesium is found in the heart, skeletal muscles and the liver and 1-5% in body fluids, such as blood, gastric juice, bile, lymph and urine.

•Most of feedstuffs used in farm animal nutrition include insufficient Mg content. •Due to very low Mg availability, providing of this element to livestock diet is a standard practice. Deficiency Symptoms

•Loss of appetite, nervousness, sweating. •Muscular tremors, ataxia, rapid breathing, convulsions. •Heart and skeletal degeneration, •In chronic cases mineralisation of the pulmonary artery by deposition of phosphate and calcium salts. •Grass tetany in ruminants – see module 4 – metabolic disorders.

Toxicity Symptoms

•Unknown

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Grass tetany in sheep, source www.teara.govt.nz

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MICRO- TRACE ELEMENTS IRON Facts-At-A-Glance

Deficiency Symptoms

•More than 90% of iron in the body is combined with proteins, the most important being haemoglobin, which contains about 3.4 g/kg Fe. •Iron also occurs in blood serum in a protein called transferrin – concerned with the transport of iron from one part of the body to another. •Ferritin – containing 200 g/kg of Fe, is present in the spleen, liver, kidney and bone marrow and provides a form of storage for iron. •Heamosiderin is a similar storage compound which may contain up to 350g/kg of Fe. Iron has a major role in a host of biochemical reactions, particularly in connection with enzymes of the electron transport chain.

•Most common in young, growing animals before weaning. Diet supplementation with iron necessary! •Anaemia. •Pale colour of mucous membranes of body.

Toxicity Symptoms

•Ingestion of a single large dose of ferrous fumarate causes death in newborn foals. •Iron in excess depress serum and liver zinc. •Chronic excess of iron results in reduced growth, impaired trace mineral metabolism, liver necrosis. ZINC Facts-At-A-Glance •Zinc regulates the function of more than 200 enzymes and is associated with immune system response. •It prevents diarrhoea occurrence. •The absorption of zinc is determined by homeostatic processes which are regulated by great molecule weight protein necessary for the absorption of zinc from the small intestine and the synthesis of ATP, stimulating active transport. •Zinc is stored mainly in muscle but is also present in high concentrations in brain, choroid and iris of the eye, pancreas and adrenal prostate glands. Most of the zinc in circulation (about 80%) is present in erythrocytes.

Occurrence •Most plant feed contains too low levels of zinc in relation to the needs of animal. •Therefore, an addition of zinc additives is commonly used. Deficiency Symptoms

•Developmental orthopaedic disease. •Reduced feed intake, reduced growth. •Parakeratosis, hair loss. •Impaired reproduction. Zinc deficiency in pigs is characterized by subnormal growth, depressed appetite, poor feed conversion and parakeratosis. •The latter is a reddening of the skin followed by eruptions which develops into scabs. Toxicity Symptoms

•Anorexia. Vomiting. Diarrhea. Hemoglobinuria. Seizures. •Large animals often show decreases in weight gain and milk production, and lameness has been reported in foals secondary to epiphyseal swelling.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

COPPER

Facts-At-A-Glance

Deficiency Symptoms

•Copper is not actually a constituent of haemoglobin it is present in ceruloplasmin which are concerned with the release of iron from the cells into the plasma. Indispensable in collagen synthesis. A deficiency of copper impairs the animal’s ability to absorb iron, mobilize it from the tissue and utilize it in haemoglobin synthesis. •Copper is also a component of erythrocuprein, occurs in erythrocytes where it plays a role in oxygen metabolism; it is also component of cytochrome oxidase, which is important in oxidative phosphorylation. •Copper occurs in certain pigments, notable turacin, a pigment of feather. It is necessary for the normal pigmentation of hair, fur and wool.

•Anaemia. •Poor growth. •Bone disorders. •Infertility. •Depigmentation of hair and wool, gastrointestinal disturbances and lesions in the brain stem a spinal cord. •The lesions are associated with muscular incoordination, and occur especially in young lambs. A copper deficiency condition is know as „enzootic ataxia” and is associated with pastures low in copper content. Toxicity Symptoms

•The excess (if the Cu concentration in the feed is to high) of Cu results in an accumulation of this metal in the organism, mainly in the liver. However, from all farm animals, the ruminants and in particular sheep are the most sensitive for copper poisoning. •Copper toxicity in sheep in general results from the accumulation of excess Cu in the liver over a period of a few weeks to more even a year with absence on any clinical signs.

Copper is also use as growth promoter in pigs nutrition. Pigs given high levels of copper (up to 250 mg/kg) in their diet had faster growth rates and better feed conversion efficiency than unsupplemented pigs. Most of this copper is not absorbed but passes thought the digestive tract, achieving its effect by altering the microbial population in much the same way as antibiotic growth promoters. Copper plays an important role in the production of „crimp” in wool. The element is present in an enzyme which is responsible for the disulphite bridge in two adjacent cysteine molecules. In the absence of the enzyme the protein molecules of wool do not form their bridge and the wool, which lacks crimp, is referred as „stringy” or „steely”.

Generally, sheep require about 5 ppm of Cu in their total diet.

Toxicity can occur at levels above 25 ppm.

Sheep are very sensitive for copper excess in Black urine diet. Followed by a sudden release of liver Cu stores to cause toxicity (rapid breakdown of red blood cells), such symptoms can be observed: black urine (red blood cell breakdown), jaundice of the gums, jaundice of the conjunctivae and third eyelid and the sclera of the eye, die of the Jaundice of the animals (yellow coloured skin, bronze coloured conjunctivae and third liver, 'Gun Metal' appearance of the kidneys). eyelid

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Jaundice of the gums

Animals death (yellow coloured skin)


MOLYBDENUM

Toxicity Symptoms

Facts-At-A-Glance •The concentration of molybdenum in tissue is very low, but the highest concentrations are in the liver, kidney, adrenal gland and bone. •Molybdenum is an antagonist of copper and sulphur and phosphorus. Occurrence

•Industrial contamination associated with mining or metal production or areas using molybdenum-contaminated fertilizers result in enhanced uptake of molybdenum by plants used as a feed source.

•Excess may cause secondary copper deficiency (Cu:Mo=1:8). •Cattle and sheep are ~10-fold more susceptible than other species for molybdenum toxicity. •Reduced mineralization of bones. •Reduced fertility − poor conception rates. •Sheep, especially lambs exhibit stiffness of the back and legs and have difficulty rising − enzootic ataxia, or sway back. •Abnormal development of connective tissue and growth plates are apparent in affected animals. •Salivation and scant mucoid feces are common. •Toxicity symptoms appear within 1-2 weeks if molybdenum levels are excessive.

Deficiency Symptoms

SELENIUM

Facts-At-A-Glance •Selenium is an antioxidant. It is present at the active site of two enzymes: gluthatione peroxidase and phospholipid-hydroperoxide gluthatione peroxidase which are found as distinct compartments intracellular and extracellular. •The enzymes catalyse the destruction of hydrogen peroxidase and organic hydroperoxides. •Selenium plays an important role with vitamin E and superoxide dismutase as part of the array of defence mechanism to prevent oxidative stress in the cell.

•Reduced immunity, reduced growth, stiffness of limbs, listlessness, difficult nursing in foals dyspnoea, lung oedema, increased salivation, white muscle disease •Combined selenium and vitamin E deficiency: progressive emaciation, painful subcutaneous swelling, rough hair coat, ventral subcutaneous oedema, yellow, gritty fat, „wobbler syndrome”, stiff gait.

Occurrence

White muscle disease,

source: By Lucien Mahin - Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10322810

•The level of selenium in foods of plants origin Toxicity Symptoms is extremely variable. •Normal levels of the element in pasture •„Blind Stagger” syndrome. Weight loss. herbage are usually between 100 and 300 Listlessness, anaemia. •Hair of mane or tail rough and loose, fluid μg/kg DM. faeces, stiffness. •Painful feet, abnormal hoof growth and rings. •Respiratory distress, diarrhoea, prostration, death. •3.3 g Se/kg BW is lethal. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

IODINE

Deficiency Symptoms

Facts-At-A-Glance •The concentration of iodine present in the animal body is very small and in the adult is usually less than 600 μg/kg. •Iodine is an important component of hormones secreted by thyroid gland. Iodine conjugates with thyronine to form monoiodothyronine and diiodothyronine and is therefore part of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroglobulin (the storage form of thyroid hormones). •The role of T3 and T4 are to influence the rates of oxidation of energy substrates in cells.

•Enlargement of the thyroid gland, termed endemic goitre, caused by compensatory hypertrophy of the gland is the main indication of iodine deficiency. •The thyroid being situated in the neck, the deficiency condition in farm animals manifests itself as a swelling of the neck, „big neck”. •Stillbirth with goitre and areas of alopecia. •Lower reproductivity. •Poor growth. •Retained placenta.

Occurrence

•The primary cause is low iodine content in soil. •Result of ingestion of goitrogen thiocyanate found in brassicas and legumes. •Selenium deficiency – Se is required for conversion of T4 to active T3. MANGANESE

Sheep with goiter

Toxicity Symptoms •Persistent cough. •Inappetence. •Depression. •Tachycaria. •Hyperthermia.

Deficiency Symptoms

Facts-At-A-Glance

•The amount of manganese present in the •Manganese deficiency has been found in animal body is extremely small. ruminants, pigs and poultry. •Most tissues contain traces of the element, the •The effects of acute deficiency are similar in all highest concentrations occurring in the bones, species and include retarded growth, skeletal liver, kidney, pancreas and pituitary gland. abnormalities, ataxia of the newborn and Manganese is important in the animal body as reproductive failure. an activator of many enzymes such as •Low manganese diets for cows and goats have hydrolases and kinases. been reported to depress or delay oestrus and conception, and to increase of abortion. Occurrence •Manganese deficiency in young chicks leading •Seeds and seed products contain moderate to perosis or „slipped tendon”, a malformation amounts except for maize which is low in the of the leg bones. element. Yeast and most foods of animal origin •Manganese deficiency in breeding birds are also poor sources of manganese. reduces hatchability and shell thickness and •Rich source are rice bran and wheat offals. causes head retraction in chicks. •Most green foods contain adequate amounts of •In pigs lameness can be observed. Mn. Toxicity Symptoms

•Accumulation of manganese in the brain. •Degenerated neurons in the substantia nigra and scanty neuromelanin granules in pigmented cells were reported upon histological analysis. • Reduction in hemoglobin – antagonists of iron.

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Chicken with perosis


COBALT

Deficiency Symptoms

•Reduced appetite and ill-thrift. •Depression. •Head pressing. •Cobalt is a vital microelement. Although the •Anaemia. microbes in the rumen and the intestine •Scaly ears. synthetize vitamin B12 but without cobalt the •Weepy eyes with damp matted wool below the synthesis is inappropriate. eyes, in some cases, wool break. •In monogastic is indispensable in vitamin B12 •Affected ewes may have small lambs. synthesis by intestine bacteria. •Rough, pale coat and reduced milk production. •Important in haematological processes. •Scours in calves, a 'depraved appetite' 'pica'. •Affected animals may eat bark, leaves or dirt Occurrence Facts-At-A-Glance

•Symptoms of Co deficiency are presented Toxicity Symptoms practically only in ruminants. •Deficiency of Co and vitamin B12 levels are •The excess cobalt is well tolerated by the observed when in the concentration of Co in sheep and only cows are slightly more the rumen fluid is less than 20 ppb. sensitive. •Normally levels of Co in plant feed are below •The level of 150 ppm is considered to be the 100 ppb. limit of toxicity for sheep.

FLUORINE Facts-At-A-Glance •Fluoride is incorporated in teeth and bones as fluorapatite, increase of crystalinity and hardness. •Often comes as „by-product” of P-supplements from rock phosphate, magnesium, iodine and calcium. Occurrence

•Most plant feed contains enough levels of this trace element in relation to the needs of animal. •Therefore, an addition of F-supplement is not required. Toxicity Symptoms

Fluorosis in ruminants

•Teeth grow too slowly, mottled and pitted teeth, reduced feed and water intake. •Chronic debilitation, stiffness, lameness. •Abnormally increased bone density. •Fluorosis in cattle – chronic poisoning fluorine compounds, usually in the vicinity of aluminum smelters, glass factories superphosphate. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition VITAMINS

Vitamins are defined as organic compounds which are required in small amounts for normal growth and maintenance of animals as well as plants.

Vitamins are not an energy source and not included in the structure of tissues. Some compounds function as vitamins are possible only after undergoing a chemical change. Such compounds – which include β-carotene and certain sterols are described as provitamins or vitamin precursors. If there is no vitamin in the feed or the amount is not adequate for the animals the symptoms of

vitamin deficiency may occur. The moderate form of vitamin deficiency is hypovitaminosis. Hypovitaminosis is a relative disease caused by the collective presence of many factors such as growing, pregnancy, milking, diseases, stressors etc. The long-term vitamin deficiency is called avitaminosis. Vitamins are classified into two main groups such as water soluble vitamins and fat soluble vitamins.

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS

FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS

thiamin

retinol, retinal, retinoic acid

riboflavin

cholecalciferol (D3), ergocalciferol (D2)

niacin choline

tocopherols, tocotrienols

panthotenic acid

menadione (K3), phytomenadione (K1)

pyridoxine

biotin folic acid cobalamin ascorbic acid

taurine amino acid

FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS Fat soluble vitamins are traditionally vitamin A, D, E, and K. These are the combination of compounds with different activity. Due to their functional relation with vitamin A, β-carotene and other carotenoids can also be mentioned. The absorption of fat soluble vitamins is the same as in case of lipids, namely processes in the lymph- and blood circulation in the lumen of

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intestine, and in the cytoplasm of intestinal epithelium. In case of fat soluble vitamins, the excessive intake can cause hypervitaminosis with moderate or severe symptoms since these vitamins are stored in body lipids, and mainly in the liver.

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Occurrence

RETINOL Facts-At-A-Glance •Retinol originating from the provitamins of vitamin A possesses all known physiological functions of vitamin A such as vision, growing, normal functioning of epithelium and germinal epithelium, construction of bone tissue, normal functioning of sexual organs and development of amnion. •Carotene is essential for the normal functioning of the ovary. •Carotenoids have important role in the synthesis of immunoglobulins, steroids and vitamin C. •Vitamin A and carotene are susceptible for oxidation – administered in excess is stored in the liver. •There is no vitamin A in plant origin feedstuff, however animals has ability to convert βcaroten to vitamin A. Conversion rates vary with species: 1 mg of β-caroten is:in ruminants – 400 international units, in poultry – 1667 and in pigs conversion rate ranges from 200 to 400 international units of vitamin A from 1 mg of beta-carotene

•Carotene and vitamin A deficiency occur in every animal species. •The optimal supply of carotene need can be solved by feeds with high carotene content, by mixing vitamin A into the forage and feeding products with artificial β-carotene. •The most important sources of carotene are the yellow, yellowish-green vegetative plant parts and crops. Deficiency Symptoms

•One of common symptoms of vitamin A deficiency is so called night blindness. Ability to see in dim light depends upon the rate of resynthesize of rhodopsin, and where vitamin A is deficient rhodopsin formation is impaired and this disease is known as „night blindness”. • Decrease in immunity. •Exfoliation of epithelium cells, open way to infection. Toxicity Symptoms

•The most toxic vitamin of all when overdosed: in monogastric – 4-10 fold and in ruminants – 30 times more than required quantity is toxic. •Hypercalcemia. •Skeletal malformation. •Skin and hair coat changes.

RUMINANTS •In breeding animals a deficiency of vitamin A may lead to infertility, and in pregnant animals to abortion or to the production of dead, weak or blind calves. •For males: abnormal sperm with reduced mobility; degeneration of mucosa in reproductive tissue. •Watery eyes and swollen legs are ofen observed. •Grazing animals generally obtain more than adequate amounts of provitamin from pasture grass and normally build up liver reserves.

PIGS •In pigs, eye disorders such as xerophthalamia and blindness may occur. •A deficiency in pregnant animals may result in the production of blind, deformed litters. •In less serve cases appetite is impaired and growth retarded. •Incoordination and posterior paralysis in growing pigs. •Where pigs are reared out of doors and have access to green food, deficiencies are unlikely to occur except possibly during the winter.

POULTRY •In poultry on a diet deficiency in vitamin A, the mortality rate is usually high. •Early symptoms include retarded growth, weakness, ruffled plumage and staggering gait. •In mature birds, egg production and hatchability are reduced. •Most concentrated foods present in the diets of poultry are low or lacking in vitamin A or it precursors. Yellow maize, dried grass or other green food, or alternatively cod or other fish liver oils or vitamin A concentrate can be added to the diet. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

CHOLECALCIFEROL (D3), ERGOCALCIFEROL (D2)

Occurrence •Due to high variability of vitamin D content in feedstuffs as well not enough animal welfare, it is recommended to supplement livestock diet with this vitamin.

Facts-At-A-Glance

•Vitamin D is one of the vitamins that were discovered first. Vitamin D is transformed Deficiency Symptoms several times during metabolism. It’s major physiological effect that promotes and •Malfunctions of Ca and P metabolism. regulates the absorption of Ca, P and Mg (less •Rickets. extent) from the intestine. •Osteomalacia – malformation of bones and •It is crucial for proper growth of growing joints. animals and bone formation. •Weak and easy to break bones. •Vitamin D takes part in carbohydrate •Poor growth. metabolism. •Malfunction in egg sell formation – soft eggs •As a consequence of the inadequate function of and shells. the ovary, in case of vitamin D deficiency malfunctions occur in oestrum, fertilization, Toxicity Symptoms and the number of dead offspring or offspring •Brittle bone disease. with birth defect are increasing. •The role of T3 and T4 are to influence the rates •Calcification of some organs – kidneys, lungs, joints. of oxidation of energy substrates in cells. Occurrence •Fresh grass forages, oilseeds are rich in vitamin E. •Drying, heating, and pelleting decrease vitamin E content in feeds. Deficiency Symptoms

Calf with rickets, source: www.vetbook.org TOCOPHEROLS, TOCOTRIENOLS

•Dystrophy. •Malfunctions of female and male fertility. •Exudative diathesis in poultry. •Liver damage. •Mastitis. Toxicity Symptoms

Facts-At-A-Glance

•Vitamin E is relatively nontoxic. However, when overdosed impaired bone calcification is •Vitamin E is the most important member of the major symptom that is shown for E toxicity tocopherols. The name of vitamin E also refers in most livestock species. to alpha tocopherol. •Vitamin E has multiple physiological effects. As a biological antioxidant it has important role in the maintenance of the physiological functions of cell membranes and plasma cells. This effect is due to the protection of cell lipids which play important role in cell functioning, namely vitamin E inhibits the decomposition of cell lipids to heavily oxidative metabolites. •Protection of cell membrane and the liver. •Enhancement of immune system. •Positive effect on reproduction. Vitamin E deficiency - encephalomalacia

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MENADIONE (K3), PHYTOMENADIONE (K1) Occurrence

Facts-At-A-Glance •The major physiological effect of vitamin K is relates to blood clotting, it is a component of the enzyme activating prothrombin (protein) to create calcium binding sites. •In case of vitamin K deficiency the blood clotting process is slower; consequently disorders with bleeding symptoms are developed. •Beside this vitamin K takes part in the transport of several elements and regulates the lengthwise growth of tubular bones. •In absence of bile acids the absorption of vitamin K is worsening therefore liver diseases often go together with vitamin K-hypervitaminosis and disposition of bleeding. •Vitamin K is synthetized in the rumen. •Coccidiosis increases requirement for vitamin K. •Participation in bone mineralisation processes.

•Vitamin K mostly occurs in fresh forages. In cereals, and oilseeds vitamin K contents is very limited. •Vitamin K deficiency is the most common in case of cattle fed by melilot. Deficiency Symptoms

•Malfunction of blood clotting. •Hemorrhages. •Fat malabsorption. •Poor growth.

Toxicity Symptoms

•Orally taken is non-toxic.

Vitamin K deficiency - hemorrhages, source: www.ncs.edu

Vitamin A occurs only in animal-origin products like fish oil, full fat milk or fishmeal. The plant feed contains only carotenoids - the starting products to create vitamin A. At least 600 naturally occurring carotenoides are known but only a few of these are precursors of the vitamin A.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS

Most of vitamins soluble in water are conferment of the catabolic enzymes. The water soluble vitamins are split in the body water and due to the faster interchange of fluids water soluble vitamins are not stored. For this reason, an excessive vitamin intake in case of water soluble vitamins does not cause any problem since the excess is excreted by the

THIAMIN

urine. However, due to the faster interchange of fluids water soluble vitamins are not stored, contiguous supply is necessary.Water soluble vitamins include: vitamin B1 – tiamin, vitamin B2 – riboflavin, vitamin B3 – niacin, vitamin B4 – choline, vitamin B5 – pantothenic acid, vitamin B6 – pyridoxine, B7 – biotin, B9 – folic acid, B12 – cobalamine and vitamin C – ascorbic acid.

Contrary to the fat-soluble vitamins, members of the vitamin B complex (exception cyanocobalamin) are not stored in the tissues in appreciable amounts and a regular exogenous supply is essential. In ruminants, all the vitamins in this group can be synthesised by microbial action and provide satisfactory amounts for normal metabolism in the host and secretion of adequate quantities into milk. Occurrence

•Thiamin is widely distributes in foods. It is concentrated in the outer layers of seeds, the •Plays an important role in carbohydrates germ, and in the growing areas of roots, leaves metabolism converting food (carbohydrates) and shoots. into fuel (glucose). •Fermentation products – brewers’ yeast •Helps in fats and proteins metabolism, contain significant amounts of thiamin. •Converts pyruvate to acetate. •Animal products rich in thiamin include egg •Is essential for a healthy liver, skin, hair, and yolk, liver, kidney and pork muscle. eyes. Deficiency Symptoms •Ensures proper functioning of nervous system •May strength immune system and improve •Early symptoms of thiamine deficiency in most species include loss of appetite, emaciation, animal ability to insufficient welfare. muscular weakness and a progressive •Normally ruminants are very resistant to dysfunction of the nervous system. thiamin deficiency due to rumen microbes providing the animal sufficient quantity of •Opisthotonos – head bent backward („stargazing”). thiamin. However, thiaminases – enzymes breaking down thiamin present in the rumen •Chicks reared on thiamine-deficient diets have poor appetites and are consequently can lead to polioencephalomalacia. High-grain emaciated. After about 10 days they develop diets encourage the proliferation of polyneuritis, which is characterized by head thiaminase-producing bacteria such as retraction, nerve degradation and paralysis. Clostridium sporogenes in the rumen. • Bracken ferns poisoning can bring thiamin •In ruminants under certain conditions, bacterial thiaminases can be produced in the deficiency in horses and sheep. rumen which destroy the vitamin - the Toxicity Symptoms deficiency condition called cerebrocortical •Orally intaken, thiamin toxicity has not been necrosis (CCN). Symptoms of CCN -circling recognized yet (excretion in urine and sweat). movements, head pressing, blindness and muscular tremors, sometimes wandering. Facts-At-A-Glance

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Opisthotonos in sheep and chicken, source: www.dsm.com LiveNutrition


Deficiency Symptoms

RIBOFLAVIN Facts-At-A-Glance •Riboflavin known as vitamin B2 plays a very important role in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism of animals. •Vitamin B2 is a key part of tissue repair, particularly in the eyes, mouth, and nervous system. It is critical for proper growth and embryo development. •Riboflavin is synthetized in the rumen. Occurrence

•Riboflavin occurs in all biological materials. The vitamin can be synthesized by all green plants, yeast, fungi and most bacteria. •Rich sources are yeast, liver, milk and green leafy crops. Cereal grains are poor sources.

•Weakness. •Cracks around the mouth. Bright magenta coloring inside the mouth. •Hypersensitivity of eyes to light. •Moon blindness in horses. •Chicks reared on a riboflavin-deficient diet grow slowly and develop „curled toe syndrome”. •In pigs deficiency symptoms include poor appetite with consequent retardation in growth, vomiting, rough, hair coat, dermatitis, skin eruptions and eye abnormalities. •Riboflavin is essential in the diet of sows to maintain normal oestrus activity and prevent premature parturition. Toxicity Symptoms

•There are no reports of riboflavin toxicity studies in ruminants and monogastric animals. Only small fraction of riboflavin administered orally in great excess is absorbed; the rest is excreted in the feces. Occurrence

Vitamin B2 deficiency in chick – curled toe syndrome, source: www.thepoultrysite.com NIACIN, NICOTINIC ACID, VITAMIN PP

Facts-At-A-Glance

•Rich sources of niacin are liver, yeast, groundnut and sunflower meals. •Although cereal grains contain vitamin, much of it is present in a bound form which is not readily available to pigs and poultry. •Milk and egg are almost devoid of the vitamin although they contain tryptophan. Deficiency Symptoms

•In pigs, deficiency symptoms include poor growth, anorexia, enteritis, vomiting and dermatitis. •In fowls a deficiency of the vitamin causes leg bone disorders, feathering abnormalities and inflammation of the mouth and upper part of esophagus. Ducks and geese are especially susceptible for vitamin B3 deficiency.

•Nicotinic acid can be synthesized from tryptophan in the body tissues, and since the animals can convert the acid to the amide containing coenzyme. However the efficiency of conversion tryptophan into nicotinamide is poor. •Niacin takes place in carbohydrate, protein and Toxicity Symptoms lipid metabolism and is a component of many enzymes. •Relatively non-toxic in farm animals due to •It enhances protein synthesis. niacin is water-soluble vitamin. •Responsible for epithelium protection and •When extremely overdosing, vitamin B can 3 transport of hydrogen. cause liver damage, ulcers, and skin rashes. •Not available for pigs from cereals. Must be synthetized from surplus tryptophan in body tissues – raw soybean contains a tryptophan inhibitors. •In ruminants it may prevent from ketosis during transition period so it is recommended to supplement diet for dairy cows with 12 g Vitamin B3 deficiency in chicks (bowel legs), niacin per cow daily. LiveNutrition

source: www.dsm.com

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

CHOLINE

Facts-At-A-Glance

Deficiency Symptoms

•Choline forms essential structural component of body tissues, unlike the other B vitamins is not a metabolic catalyst. •It is component of lecithins which plays a vital role in cellular structure and activity. •It also plays an important role in lipid metabolism in the liver (preventing the accumulation of fat in this organ). Choline can be synthesized in the liver from methionine. •Choline is also concerned with the prevention of perosis or slipped tendon in chicks. Occurrence

•Rich sources of choline are green leafy materials, yeast, egg yolk and cereals.

•Slow growth. •Fatty infiltration of the liver. •Incoordination. •Abnormal shoulder conformation in pigs. •Reduced litter size. •Spraddle-legged piglets. Toxicity Symptoms

•There are no reports of riboflavin toxicity studies in ruminants. Only small fraction of riboflavin administered orally in great excess is absorbed; the rest is excreted in the feces.

PANTOTHENIC ACID Facts-At-A-Glance Spraddle-legged piglet – choline deficiency •Vitamin B5 is an amide of pantoic acid and βsign, source: www.the pigsite.com alanine. •The free acid is unstable and the synthetically prepared calcium panthotenate is the commonest product used commercially. Pantothenic acid is a consistent of coenzyme A, which is important coenzyme of acyl transfer. Occurrence •It is a structural component of acyl carrier protein which is involved in the cytoplasmic •Rich sources are liver, egg yolk, groundnuts, synthesis of fatty acids. peas, yeast and molasses. Cereal grains and •Vitamin B5 is synthetized in the rumen potatoes are also good sources of the vitamin. Deficiency Symptoms

•Slow growth. •Diarrhoea. •Loss of hair. •Scaliness of the skin. •Weakness of legs. •„Goose-stepping” gait in pigs. •Dermatitis occurs. •Reduced hatchability in birds.

Toxicity Symptoms

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Goose-stepping, source: www.dsm.com

•Relatively non-toxic in farm animals. Given in excess may cause diarrhoea and reduced growth.

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PYRIDOXINE Facts-At-A-Glance

Deficiency Symptoms

•The vitamin is present in plants as pyridoxine whereas animal products may also contain pyridoxal and pyridoxamine. •Of the three related compounds, the most actively functioning one is pyridoxal in the form of phosphate. •Pyridoxal phosphate plays a central role as a coenzyme in reactions by which a cell transforms nutrient amino acids into mixtures of amino acids and other nitrogenous compounds required for its own metabolism. •The vitamin is believed to play a role in the absorption of amino acids from the intestine and red cells formation. •Pyridoxine is rarely deficient except when feeding out linseed meal.

•Primarily associated with amino acid metabolism. •Poor growth rate. •Convulsions. •Reduced appetite. •Anaemia. •Edema of eyelids in chicks. •Jerky movements in chicks. •Reduced hatchability and egg production.

Occurrence

Toxicity Symptoms

•Relatively non-toxic – doses 50 times higher than requirement is safe. •Ataxia, muscle weakness, incoordination when overdose 1000 times more than required.

•Piridoxine (the most stable form) and its derivatives are widely distributed: yeast, cereal grains, liver and milk are rich sources. BIOTIN

Facts-At-A-Glance •Biotin serves as prosthetic group of several enzymes which catalyse the transfer of carbon dioxide from one substrate to another. •It plays important role in fat and carbohydrate metabolism, lipotropic factor − liver protection. •Studies in chicks and pigs have shown that the bioavailability of biotin in barley and wheat is very low, whereas the biotin in maize and oilseed meals (soya, soya bean) is completely available. •Raw egg white contains avidin − a biotin antagonist.

Vitamin B6 deficiency in poultry – weakness, incoordination, edema of eyelids source: www.slideplayer.com

Occurrence •Biotin is widely distributed in foods: liver, milk, yeast, oilseeds and vegetables are rich source. •Low in cereals such as wheat, barley, sorghum and oats. Deficiency Symptoms

•In pigs biotin deficiency causes foot lesions, alopecia (hair loss) and dry scaly skin. •In breeding sows – decrease of reproductive performance. •In poultry biotin deficiency causes: reduced growth, dermatitis, leg bone abnormalities, cracked feet, poor feathering and fatty liver and kidney syndrome (FLKS). Toxicity Symptoms

Before (left) and after 12 months biotin supplementation, source: www.dsm.com

•Unknown. At least 10 times higher doses than in requirement are safe.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

Occurrence

FOLIC ACID

Facts-At-A-Glance •Folic acid plays several, important metabolic roles. It is a methyl group donor, takes part in methionine-choline and vitamin B12 metabolism, synthesis of hemoglobin and nucleic acids, and supports immune response. •After absorption into the cell folic acid is converted into tetrahydrofolic acid which functions as coenzyme in the mobilization and utilization of single-carbon groups. •Folic acid is responsible for reproductive performance in pigs and litter size. •Feeding forages with low folic acid content causes inadequate absorption. •The application of medicines (antibiotics) that disturb the activity of intestinal bacteria also may bring inadequate absorption. •Most naturally occurring folates are relatively unstable - a substantial loss of activity when harvesting, storage and processing. The synthetic folic acid, is more resistant to oxidation.

Deficiency Symptoms

Does not occur in livestock. In the experimentally induced deficiency animals exhibit such signs as: •stunted growth. •anaemia. •leukopenia. •poor feathering. Toxicity Symptoms

•Folic acids is considered to be non-toxic in farm animals - an excess is rapidly excreted in urine. •In poultry doses 5000 times higher that required are needed to induce toxicity – renal hypertrophy.

Vitamin B9 deficiency in chick (right) and normal bird at the same age, source: www.ncsu.edu

CYANOCOBALAMIN Facts-At-A-Glance •Vitamin B12 is the most complex and the largest vitamin considered to be synthesized only by microorganisms. •Conversely to the other water-soluble vitamins, cyanocobalamin is stored in the liver and other tissues and used during cobalt deficiencies. •The most important physiological effects of vitamin B12 are known in the following processes: synthesis of blood and epithelium, synthesis of nucleic acid together with folic acid, metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, functioning of nerve-fibres and collagen synthesis. •The coenzymic forms of vitamin B12 function in several important enzyme systems. •It is synthetized in the rumen from cobalt. Calves need 45-60 days for their rumen development so they can produce cyanocobalamin. Before that may need vitamin B12 supplementation. •Cyanocobalamin is essential for pigs and poultry. 72

•Folic acid is widely distributed in nature. Green leafy materials, cereals and extracted oil meals are good source of vitamin.

Occurrence •Practically there is no vitamin B12 in plant products. •Feedstuffs of animal origin, especially liver and kidney are generally good sources of vitamin B12. •Fermentation products, such as brewer’s yeast, DDGS sometimes contain vitamin B12. Deficiency Symptoms

•Poor appetite. •Stunted growth. •Lacrimation. •Demyelination. •Emaciation.

Toxicity Symptoms

•Livestock can stand large excesses of vitamin B12. •Level of 1000 times higher than normal level, can be tolerated by sheep for many weeks without visible toxic symptoms.

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ASCORBIC ACID Facts-At-A-Glance

Deficiency Symptoms

•Ascorbic acid plays an important role in various oxidation-reduction mechanisms in living cells. The vitamin is necessary for the maintenance of normal collagen metabolism. •Vitamin C takes part in folic acid metabolism, iron absorption and activation of vitamin D. •Vitamin C is essential only for primates, the guinea pig, and certain fishes. Other species synthesize the vitamin from glucose in their livers, via grucoronic acid and gulonic acid lactone.

Since farm animals can synthesize this vitamin, deficiency symptoms normally does not occur. However, under certain conditions – e.g. climatic stress in poultry, the demand for ascorbic acid becomes greater than can be provided by normal tissue synthesis. The most common deficiency symptoms are: •scurvy. •deterioration of mucosal integrity and resistance to disease.

•The main sources of vitamin C in livestock feeding are green plants. However, ascorbic acid content is very low in grains and plant protein supplements.

•Vitamin C is considered to be nontoxic.

Occurrence

Toxicity Symptoms

TAURINE Facts-At-A-Glance

Occurrence

•In mammals, taurine is involved in wide variety of functions including cell membrane stabilization, anti-oxidation, constituent of bile and osmoregulation. Farm animals in general are able to synthesize sufficient amounts of taurine. •Farm animals in general are able to synthesize sufficient amounts of taurine. The hard exception are cats, in which the endogenic synthesis of carnitine cover only a dozens percent of demand. Therefore the entire amount of essential taurine for domestic cats must be supplied in the diet. •Synthetic taurine is considered efficacious for use in cat, dog and carnivorous fish diets. In the case of poultry, pigs and ruminants, no studies demonstrating beneficial effects of taurine supplementation on performance, health or product quality have been found. However, some sources reported that exceptionally addition of taurine (0.1-0.2% of the feed) for the rapidly growing poultry is justified. •In laying hens, dietary supplementation with 0.25–0.5% taurine resulted in reduced egg weight.

•Taurine occurs in animal feed only (milk, meat) and it is not presented plant feed. Deficiency Symptoms •In poultry (broilers) occurs SDS − Sudden Death Syndrome. •In kittens, puppies and carnivorous fish the signs of taurine deficiency may be: inhibition of growth, abnormal development of the nervous system, slower growth of the cerebellum (ataxia movements). Toxicity Symptoms

•There are no available data on taurine toxicity in livestock.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

Digestion

Digestibility

Digestion it is an process of breaking down dietary components to make them available for absorption from the digestive tract. Nutrients of feed - proteins, starch and lipids before they can be absorbed have to be broken down to lowmolecular-weight compounds. In example proteins are broken down to amino acids; lipids to glycerine and free fatty acids and carbohydrates to monosaccharides or to volatile fatty acids in as a result of microbial fermentation. Nutrient digestion is an effect a large number of specific enzymes activity in specific places of digestive tract.

The digestibility of feeds is defined as the proportion of feeds component (nutrients) that is not excreted in the faeces and which is, therefore, assumed to be absorbed by the animal. Digestibility of nutrients is expressed as digestibility coefficient – the proportion of nutrient that was absorber (ingested-excreted) to nutrients that was ingested. In nutritional standards are given digestibility coefficients of nutrients for various feeds. These coefficients were determined in numerous experiments with various feeds and in different kind of animals.

FACTORS AFFECTING FEEDS DIGESTIBILITY Food composition − the fibre fraction (quantity and quality), content of lignin and ash fraction − silicium, soil; an excess of dietary lipid in ruminants inhibits the activity of rumen microorganisms; anti-nutritional constituents.

Ration composition − suitable ratio of crude protein to available energy ratio may affect nutrients digestibility. Other well-known relation is so-called associated effects amongst different feedstuffs, that may be positive or negative. Positive associative effect occurs when the digestibility of one ration component is enhanced by feeding it in combination with another. A negative associative effect occurs when the digestibility of one ration component is reduced by feeding it in combination with another.

Preparation/Treatment of Food − foods are often processed before feeding in order to increase and optimise their digestibility; the commonest treatments applied are normally chopping, chaffing, crushing and grinding.

Feed additives − microbial enzyme addition to foods may increase nutrient availability in example − use of β-glucanase in poultry diets containing barley.

Level of feeding − an increase in the quantity of food consumed by an animal generally causes an increase in the rate of passage of digesta, shorter exposition of feed to the action of digestive enzymes reduce its digestibility.

Animal factors − animal species − low in fibre feeds are equally well digested by both ruminants and non-ruminants, but foods high in fibre are better digested by ruminants.

Nutrients of the same feed have different digestibility coefficients when given various animals. 74

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PROTEIN DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION Protein digestion begins in the stomach - gastric hydrochloric acid denatures protein structure (secondary tertiary and quaternary) and pepsins cleave some of the peptide linkages. Pepsin is secreted as inactive precursor – proenzyme – pepsinogen that is activated by gastric HCl. Pepsins are most active at pH 1.5 to 3. Rennin (chymosin) an enzyme that occurs in the gastric juice of the calf and the young piglet and in its activity it resembles pepsins.

HCl

Pepsin

Rennin

Protein that leaves stomach are mixture of insoluble and soluble proteins, peptides and amino acids. Polypeptides resulting from digestion in the stomach are further degraded by the proteolytic enzymes of the pancreas and intestinal mucosa.

In avian species HCl and pepsin are secreted in the proventriculus and peptic hydrolysis occurs in the gizzard.

The products of protein digestion in the small intestine are oligo- and dipeptides which are further broken down by enzymes of the epithelium to amino acids. Amino acids are absorbed from the final section of jejunum and the front section of ileum. Absorption is done by active transport through the membrane of mucosal cells (different amino acids absorb with different rapidity). Most of the absorbed amino acids get into the liver and then are used for protein synthesis or decomposed (desamination, transamination or

•gastric hydrochloric acid denatures protein structure (secondary tertiary and quaternary) •pepsinogen – activated by gastric HCl → pepsin (pH 1.5-3) – cleaves some of the peptide linkages

•occurs in the gastric juice of the calf and the young piglet, in its activity it resembles pepsins Pepsin activity in young mammals is very low, or absent during the first 2 weeks after birth but then increases rapidly, together with HCl production. In ruminants, most of the dietary protein is utilized by the microbial flora in the rumen.

decarboxylation). In mammals the terminal product of the metabolism of amino acids is the urea. The excess urea is excreted by urine. Whole proteins can’t be absorbed because are too large to pass through cell membranes intact. Its digestion is a complex process. 20 protein AA may form over 400 different peptide bonds, and therefore large number of proteolytic enzymes with different specificities are needed to complete the hydrolysis of proteins to amino acids.

Protein absorption in native form is possible only after birth (24-48 hours). The importance of this is the absorption of immunoglobulin from the colostrum which result passive immunity in animals. At this time intestinal epithelium cells are still “opened”. Protein absorption is not possible after the “closure” of epithelium cells. LiveNutrition

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MICROBIAL DEGRADABILITY OF PROTEIN IN RUMINANTS In ruminants, most of the dietary protein is utilized by the microbial flora in the rumen and consequently, the proteins of the rumen microflora are the major source of protein for ruminants. In ruminants there is no proteases in saliva neither rumen secretions. For protein digestion in the rumen are responsible microorganisms: bacteria and protozoa.

Protein nitrogen may be divides into: Rumen Degradable Protein (RDP) – available for use by rumen microbes and Rumen Undegradable Protein (RUP) – escapes rumen fermentation and enters small intestine unaltered (“by-pass protein”). Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) also provides a source of nitrogen for microbial protein synthesis. Rumen microorganisms may hydrolyse food proteins: to peptides → amino acids →organic acids → ammonia →carbon dioxide. Ammonia, small peptides and free amino acids → synthesis microbial amino acids (both indispensable as well as dispensable) and proteins. Post-ruminal digestion and absorption closely

resembles the processes of monogastric animals. Due to microbial protein synthesis amino acid profile entering small intestine protein differs from amino acid profile of dietary protein. The rumen microbes have a „levelling” effect on the protein supply of the ruminant: low protein quality in feed ⇒ good quality microbial proteins, very good protein quality in feed ⇒ good quality microbial proteins. Processing of good-quality protein feeds can render some proteins indigestible in the rumen but the protein can be digested better postruminally.

In the small intestine digesta are mixed with an alkaline juice (pH 6.5) which neutralizes the acid digesta from the stomach and polypeptides formed by digestion in the stomach are further degraded by the proteolytic enzymes of the pancreas and intestinal mucosa. This process is similar in both ruminants and non-ruminants. Polypeptides resulting from digestion in the stomach are further degraded by the proteolytic enzymes of the pancreas and intestinal mucosa in small intestine. The final digestion to amino acids in small intestine occurs in three locations: the intestinal lumen with action of pancreatic enzymes; the brush border with action of brush border enzymes (in microvilli) and finally the cytoplasm of the mucosal cells. Into intestinal lumen are excreted pancreatic enzymes: trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, elastase that split peptide bond of polypeptides. Mixture of free amino acids (40%) and peptides (60%) are the result of proteolytic actions of gastric and pancreatic enzymes. Some of the di- and tripeptides may be absorbed intact by active transport systems but the completion of digestion of peptides fraction requires further action large number of specific peptidases.

Brush border peptidases: endopeptidases, aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases and dipeptidases split other remain peptide bonds between specific amino acids. Some amino acids are liberated in the intestinal lumen; others are liberated at the surface by the aminopeptidases and dipeptidases in the brush border of the mucosal cells.

Some di- and tripeptides produced by brush border peptidases are actively transported into the intestinal cells and hydrolysed by intracellular peptidases, with the amino acids entering the bloodstream. 76

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Protein digestion and amino acid absorption occur in the first part of the small intestine. Protein in the distal segment is to a large extent of endogenous origin. In most animals amino acids cannot be absorbed in the large intestine. Produced by microbes ammonia may be absorbed and utilized for synthesis of nonessential amino acids Back-flow of digesta from the large intestine to the small intestine may provide non-ruminants with microbial protein

In hindgut fermenters protein undigested in the stomach or small intestine is further broken down to amino acids, CO2 and ammonia by microbes in the cecum and colon. Products of that microbial digestion - ammonia, free amino acids are used by the bacteria for the composition of biologically valuable proteins which cannot be utilized by the host organization.

Rabbits as caecotrophic animals can utilize that bacterial protein by ingestion of excreted protein with faeces. Rabbits are producing two types of faeces - normal hard pellets, which are not eaten and the soft faeces which contain well-fermented material from the caecum and which are consumed.

Hind gut fermentation is less effective than rumen digestion, because digesta are not held for sufficient time and because many of the products of digestion (particularly microbial protein and vitamins) are not absorber.

Numerous enzymes involved in protein digestion differ in their ability to split peptide bond between specific amino acids. There are no universal peptidases.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF FEEDS PROTEINS Crude protein is divided into two subgroups: true protein and non-protein nitrogen but in the fact crude protein content gives you an information about content of nitrogen containing compounds if feeds, but it is insufficient if you want to predict availability of protein and its quality for your livestock. Nutritional value of feed protein depends on protein digestibility and content of essential amino acid. Evaluation of protein quality is useful in monogastric animals. In ruminants feed nitrogen utilization is more complicate and rumen microorganisms play important role in this process. Nutritional protein value depends on its digestibility and content of essential amino acids in protein. Taking into consideration protein metabolism, protein requirement is in the fact in monogastric animals focused in the content of essential amino acids

Digestible protein

requirements that can’t be synthesized in animals body or are synthesized in amount insufficient to meet animals needs – especially in high productive animals. Content of essential amino acids is one on the crucial factors affecting biological value of feed protein in monogastric animals. There are various units of protein requirement expressing ant its depend on kind of animal for which requirement is given as well as nutritional animal standard we are using. There are different units in monogastric and in ruminants protein requirement expressing that are the most suitable for the kind of animal and with regard to nutrient metabolism.

Part of crude protein that is digest and assume to be absorb from digestive tract of animals.

Protein Requirement

Crude protein

True protein

Non–protein nitrogen

Amino Acid Requirement

•Expressed in various terms for different kind of animals – monogastric or ruminants and in various units – depend on nutritional standards.

•Essential Amino Acids (EAA) Content

In ruminants all the essential amino acids can by synthesized by the rumen microorganisms. However, microbial protein quantity and quality (lysine and methionine) is insufficient for young growing or high milk yielding animals. For maximum productivity the microbial protein must be supplemented with food protein with low degradable protein, or synthetic amino acids that are not degraded in the rumen (protected amino acids).

Generally animal proteins have higher biological values than plant proteins, an exception is gelatin, because of deficiency in several essential amino acids. The amino acid composition of food protein is relatively constant, but its biological value is not fixed, but varies with the needs of different species, physiological and nutritional states.

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The first – protein quality and the second – biological value of protein. Biological value of protein is associated with amino acid profile of the protein – generally: the closer the amino acid composition of the food protein approaches

term describes the relative values of dietary proteins, how well the amino acid pattern of a dietary protein or combination of dietary proteins matches the pattern of the amino acids an animal requires.

Biological value Biological value of protein

Protein 1 – deficient of lysine and excess of methionine Protein 2 – rich in lysine and deficient in methionine

Mixture of protein 1 and protein 2

Biological value

Protein quality

that of the body protein, the higher will be its biological value. Therefore, food proteins with either a deficiency or an excess of any particular amino acid will tend to have low biological values.

protein is a direct measure of the proportion of the food protein that can be utilised by the animal for synthesising body tissues and compounds.

For example (see scheme above) if we take into consideration two proteins imbalanced in amino acids – the first with deficient of lysine and excess of methionine and second, contrary, rich in lysine and deficient in methionine – if these proteins are given separately they will

have low biological values because of the imbalance of these acids. If that two proteins are given together, then the mixture will be better balanced in amino acids and have a higher value than either given alone. Such proteins complement each other.

METHODS OF EVALUATION PROTEIN QUALITY AND BIOLOGICAL VALUE There are various methods used to determine biological value of feed protein – generally they may be divided into: biological and chemical methods. Biological methods demand conduction of animal experiment. These methods are based on the growth response of experimental animals to the protein because the efficiency with which the absorbed protein is used differs considerably from one source to another. In order to allow for such differences, methods for evaluating proteins have been devised. The most popular are − the protein efficiency ratio (PER) and the net protein retention (NPR).

Other method of determination of biological value of proteins in animal experiment is nitrogen balance. Since biological value is dependent primarily upon essential amino acid constitution, it would seem logical to assess the nutritive value of a protein by determining its essential amino acid constitution and then comparing this with the known amino acid requirements of a particular class of animal or with standard proteins that biological value is assumed as very high. The most popular methods based on this assumption are chemical score and the essential amino acid index.

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BIOLOGICAL METHODS

PROTEIN EFFICIENCY RATIO (PER) is the simplest method and it measures the weight gain of a growing animal with reference to its protein intake. Protein efficiency ratio is the simplest method and it measures the weight gain of a growing animal with reference to its protein intake. A high PER, above >2.5 assigned to proteins that are efficient at promoting growth. Major source of error in this method is the use of weight gain per se as sole criterion of protein value, additionally it dose not include protein required for maintenance. NET PROTEIN RETENTION (NPR) is the assay in which to growing animals are given a diet containing the test protein for a set period, second group of animals is feed protein-free diet. NPR is calculated from the weight gain of the test group, the weight loss of a group of animals given a protein-free diet and the amount of crude protein consumed by the test animals. This method was developed to overcome the drawbacks of PER method and the assay takes account of the use of the protein in meeting the animal’s maintenance requirements. BIOLOGICAL VALUE (BV) NITROGEN BALANCE is a direct measure of the proportion of the food protein that can be utilised by the animal for synthesising body tissues and compounds. It’s based on nitrogen balance and may be defined as the proportion of the absorber nitrogen that is retained by the body. In the balance trial nitrogen intake and urinary and faecal excretions of nitrogen are measured, along with the endogenous fractions in these two materials it is metabolic (endogenous) faecal nitrogen and endogenous urinary nitrogen.

CHEMICAL METHODS CHEMICAL SCORE is the concept in accordance with about biological value of protein decides that amino acid which is in greatest deficit when compared with a standard. The standard generally used is egg protein, or nowadays defined amino acid mixture the FAO Recommended Reference Amino Acid Pattern. The score is calculated by dividing the amount of each indispensable amino acid in the diet by the amount of the same amino acid in the reference pattern: the score is the lowest of these ratios. This method is useful for grouping proteins but a serious disadvantage is that no account is taken of the deficiencies of acids other than that in greatest deficit. Lysine is first limiting amino acid in most monogastric species – swine and methionine – for poultry. THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID INDEX (EAAI) - according to definition it is the geometric mean of the egg, or standard pattern, ratios of the essential amino acids. Advantage of the method is predicting the effect of supplementation in combinations of proteins. On the other hand, its disadvantage is that proteins of very different amino acid composition may have the same or a very similar index.

Both methods of evaluation of biological value of proteins have some disadvantages but are sufficient to prediction feeds protein utilization. 80

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With protein quality are closely associated two terms – ideal protein concept in regard to monogastric animals and protected protein and

protected amino acid terms with reference to ruminants.

IDEAL PROTEIN it is the pattern of amino acids in the diet that can meet the needs of an animal with the lowest dietary intake of nitrogen. It can be defined as one that provides the exact balance of amino acids needed for optimum performance and maximum growth. It is calculating on the basis of digestible amino acids, and calculate in relation to LYSINE – which is assume as 100%. Ideal protein is a model, not a fixed value, because ‘ideal protein’ changes over the production period. For poultry, evaluation of protein sources is based upon the amounts of the three major limiting amino acids, lysine, methionine and tryptophan. It is generally assumed that diets adequate in these acids will automatically provide sufficient amounts of the others. Microbial protein synthesis is not sufficient during rapid growth and in high yielding cows. These animals need by pass protein in addition to microbial protein to meet their metabolizable protein. These needs can’t be meet if protein is highly degradable in rumen because of dietary amino acid loss as ammonia and urea. Ruminal degradation of proteins can be reduced by decreasing retention times in the rumen (food intake, specific gravity, particle size of diet, concentrate to roughage ratio and rate of rumen digestion). The reason behind the attempts to PROTECT DIETARY PROTEIN is to avoid the degradation of high quality proteins and to further reduce wasteful ammonia production in the rumen. It is possible to protect proteins using several procedures such as heat treatment, chemical treatment/modification, and inhibition of proteolytic activity and identification of naturally protected protein.

To allow dairy cows to meet their metabolic requirements for intestinally absorbable protein, it is necessary to provide postruminally delivered protein with an amino acid profile that is consistent with AA requirementsAmounts and proportions of AA in duodenal digesta vary when different diets are fed, it is difficult to determine which AA are limiting. The most limiting AA for the synthesis of milk and milk protein are methionine (Met) and lysine (Lys). To supply additional Met and Lys, methods have been developed to protect these amino acids from microbial degradation resulting in the rumen-protected AA passing to the abomasum and small intestine where they are released and absorber.

In aim to achieve proper amino acid profile of diet protein for pigs and poultry pure amino acids are often used to reach amino acid profile the nearest to “ideal protein”.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

CARBOHYDRATES DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION As it was mentioned in section concern nutrients carbohydrates present in plant feeds may be divided according to their ability to enzymatic hydrolysis - hydrolysable carbohydrates and fermentation rate – rapidly and slowly fermentable carbohydrates. Hydrolysable carbohydrates – starch and sugars are hydrolysed by animal’s enzymes whereas fermentable carbohydrates – are fermented with microbial enzymes action. Digestion of hydrolysable carbohydrates in monogastic animals starts with action of salivary α-amylase but its activity is very low. The enzyme acts on starch, glycogen and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. αamylase hydrolyses the α-(1→4)- glucan links in polysaccharides containing three or more α(1→4)-linked D-glucose units. In poultry – microbial fermentation may occur together with action of salivary amylose in crop.

salivary αamylase

small intestine

Non-hydrolysable carbohydrates are further fermented with microbial enzymes action. The products of microbial breakdown of polysaccharides are not sugars but are mainly the volatile fatty acids: acetic, propionic and butyric. Under some circumstances lactic acid can be produced. The volatile fatty acids are absorbed and contribute to the energy supply. This microbial processes take place in different parts of digestive tract in dependence with kind of the animal: hindgut fermenters versus pigs and fowls. Carbohydrates of the ruminant’s diet are break down in the rumen with action of rumen microorganisms.

Carbohydrates are broken down to monosaccharides by the enzymes in the lumen of intestine and on the outer surface of mucosa cells in the small intestine. The absorption of different monosaccharides is different from the small intestine. The rate of absorption of various sugars (at equal concentrations) is as shows: galactose>glucose>fructose>mannose >xylose>arabinose. Glucose absorption is done by active transport across the cell after attached to the specific carrier using energy and then with blood go to the liver.

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•salivary α-amylase activity is very low •acts on starch, glycogen and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides; hydrolyses the α-(1→4)-glucan links in polysaccharides containing three or more α-(1→4)-linked D-glucose units •in poultry – microbial fermentation may occur in small degree together with action of salivary amylose in crop, mainly in ceecum

•pancreatic α-amylase and enzymes produced by the villi: sucrase, maltase, lactase and oligo- 1,6-glucosidase •pancreatic α-amylase is similar in function to the salivary amylase and attacks the α(1→4)- glucan links •sucrase converts sucrose to glucose and fructose; maltase breaks down maltose to two molecules of glucose, lactase hydrolyses lactose to one molecule of glucose and one of galactose and oligo-1,6-glucosidase attacks the α-(1→6) links in limit dextrins

Major part of absorbed monosaccharides is converted to glucose in the mucosa of the intestine then gets into the liver through the portal circulation where glycogen is produced. In ruminants carbohydrates of the feed are fermented to short carbon chained fatty acids (instead of glucose). It is important to note that non-fibrous carbohydrates (starches and simple sugars) fermented rapidly and almost completely in the rumen and in that group of animals important is to balance fibrous and non-fibrous carbohydrates share in the diet.

Non-fibrous carbohydrates do not stimulate rumination or saliva production. If in ration of high productive animals is high content of rapidly ferment carbohydrates (high share of concentrates) it may lead to acidosis. LiveNutrition


MICROBIAL FERMENTATION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN RUMINANTS The diet of the ruminant contains considerable quantities of cellulose, hemicelluloses, starch and water-soluble carbohydrates that are mainly in the form of fructans and all of the carbohydrates, but not lignin, are attacked by the rumen microorganisms. The breakdown of carbohydrates in the rumen may be divided into two stages.

Analogous to the digestion of carbohydrates in non-ruminants digestion of complex carbohydrates to simple sugars (by extracellular microbial enzymes).

Cellulose is decomposed by one or more β-1,4-glucosidases to cellobiose, which is then converted either to glucose or to glucose-1-phosphate. Starch and dextrins are first converted by amylases to maltose and isomaltose and then by maltases or 1,6glucosidases to glucose or glucose-1-phosphate. Fructans are hydrolysed by enzymes attacking 2,1 and 2,6 linkages to give fructose, which may also be produced – together with glucose – by the digestion of sucrose; hemicellulose, pectins and pentosans are break down to pentoses. The simple sugars produced during that stage: glucose, glucose-1-phosphate, fructose and pentoses are rarely detectable in the rumen liquor because they are immediately taken up and metabolised intracellularly by the microorganisms to pyruvate.

In the second stage pyruvate is converted to volatile fatty acids – acetic, propionic and butyric which are the major end products of rumen carbohydrate digestion. In this process methane and carbon dioxide also are produced. VFAs absorbed passively from rumen to portal blood may provide 70-80% of ruminant’s energy needs. The absorption rate depends on chain length and ranked as: butyrate> propionate > acetate. In ruminants, propionate is the primary precursor for glucose synthesis.

The profile of the VFAs produced in the rumen is a function of microbial enzymatic abilities, growth rate as well as kind of carbohydrates available for microbial fermentation. In example rapidly fermented carbohydrates promote

propionic acid production whereas slowly degrading carbohydrates promote acetic acid production. With concentrate diets, lactate produced may accumulate in the rumen and threaten the animal with acidosis.

In rabbits and flows site of microbial fermentation of carbohydrates is caecum. The major volatile fatty acids produced in caecal fermentation in rabbits are acetic and butyric acids.

undigested and is excreted in feces. The relative proportions of volatile fatty acids produced are dependent on substrates, fundamentally the proportions of dietary forage and concentrate. Increasing proportions of grain favored production of propionate as well as lactate at the expense of acetate. Feeding higher percentages of grain depressed the efficiency of fiber utilization by altering the equine microbial ecosystem in the cecum and colon. Livestock’s digestive tract is adapted to the kind of feeds that animals ingest. Proportion of feeds in ration – concentrates to roughages – significantly alter direction of fermentation processes in ruminants and horses and may be a cause of metabolic disorder occurrence.

ALTERNATIVE SITES OF MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

In horses carbohydrates are fermented in cecum and large colon by intestinal microflora to yield volatile fatty acids, mainly acetate, propionate, butyrate, and to a lesser extent, lactate and valerate. Microorganisms produce cellulase, which hydrolyzes β-1,4 glucose linkages in hemicellulose and cellulose. Ligno-cellulose may be degraded to cellulose by fungi present in the large bowel, while lignin remains

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

LIPID DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION •emulsification is completed in the duodenum by the bile salts, which act as an emulsifier of lipids •pancreatic lipase are secreted into the duodenum. But coated bile products surrounding the droplets of fats (mainly triglycerides) cannot be penetrated by pancreactic lipase lipases •colipase – makes a path through the bile product and giving lipase access to the triglycerides inside the droplets •lipase cleaves the fatty acids from each end of the triglyceride molecule and the hydrolysis products of one triglyceride are two fatty acids and one monoglyceride other enzymes

•cholesterol esterase and phospholipase, the hydrolysis products of these enzymes action are non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol and lysophospholipids

Products of lipase hydrolysis before they can be absorbed must be formed into micelles, that diffuse through the unstirred water layer to the brush border. In the enterocytes, triglycerides are reformed and packaged into chylomicrons (complex watersoluble aggregates). Fatty acids containing fewer than 10–12 carbon atoms are not packaged in chylomicrons but pass from the mucosal cells directly into the portal blood, where they are transported as free (non-esterified) fatty acids (NEFA). Chylomicrons are too large to pass through the basement membrane of the intestinal capillaries and cannot be absorbed through the intestinal blood system. Chylomicrons reach the blood vascular system through the intestinal lymphatics, thoracic duct and the vena cava. During hydrolysis the fats are decomposed to monoacylglycerol and free fatty acids. Lipids are hydrophobic and before they can be digested need to be emulsified (breakdown of fat globules into smaller globules). Lipids are absorbed after formation of micelles by passive transport in the intestinal lumen. Fatty acids with at least 10-12 carbon atoms pass directly from the epithelial cells into the portal blood. Fats in the rumen are digested by microorganism enzymes but fat in the diet of ruminants can reduce the digestion of fibre, because the fatty acids coat the fibre surfaces and prevent bacterial colonization. These unfavorable effects of fats can be prevented or

moderated by feeding “protected fats”. Lipids – does not have ability to dissolve in water and this inability is an element of difficulty to fat digestion. Therefore, lipids tend to clump together and form large droplets as they move through digestive tract. To make lipids available to lipase – enzyme hydrolysed lipids, they have to be emulsified. Emulsification is begun in the stomach by the higher temperature and intense mixing, which decrease the droplet size before the lipid enters the small intestine. The term „emulsify” means to break large fat droplets into smaller droplets.

Supplement of feed with 2-3% fat makes the feed more palatable which is an important considering adequate amount of dry matter consumption. This feed is more palatable not only because of the better taste but because of the fact that feed supplemented with fat is not powdery which makes it more desirable for animals.

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LIPID DIGESTION IN RUMINANTS

Lipids are often included in the diet of ruminants in an attempt to increase energy supply.

The triacylglycerols presented in the foods consumed by ruminants contain a high proportion of residues of the C18 PUFA, linoleic and linolenic. These triacylglycerols are to a large extent hydrolysed in the rumen by bacterial lipases as are phospholipids, they are released from ester combination, and the unsaturated fatty acids are hydrogenated by bacteria, yielding first a monoenoic acid and then stearic acid. Long-chain fatty acids are not absorber directly from the rumen. Calcium salts of fatty acids have little effect on rumen fermentation, and are used as fat supplements for ruminants – „protected fats” - they are protected from attack in the rumen but remain susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis and absorption in the small intestine.

The rumen microorganisms also synthesise considerable quantities of lipids, which contain some unusual fatty acids (such as those containing branched chains); these acids are eventually incorporated in the milk and body fats of ruminants. Specific fatty acid that is produced by ruminants is CLA – conjugated linoleic acid – rumenic acid are produced as intermediaries in the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid. Fat in the diet can reduce the digestion of fibre, because the fatty acids coat the fibre surfaces and prevent bacterial colo-

nization. The capacity of rumen microorganisms to digest lipids is strictly limited. The lipid content of ruminant diets is usually low (i.e. <50 g/kg) and if it increased above 100 g/kg the activities of the rumen microbes are reduced. Saturated fatty acids affect rumen fermentation less than unsaturated.

Lingual lipase is present in the saliva of calves when they are on a milk diet but disappears when they mature.

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

ENERGY AND ITS SOURCES Energy is defined as a capacity of physical system to perform work. There are various types of energy: chemical, heat, electric, kinetic or radiant. The source of all energy included in feedstuffs are nutrients so their energy value depends mostly on their chemical composition. The feeds are ingested by animals and the constituents are broken down, releasing energy. It is chemical energy that is defined as potential of the chemical substances to undergo transformation through a chemical reaction with energy release. All forms of energy can be converted quantitatively to heat energy that is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature. Taking this into consideration the main energy units used to express energy value of diet or livestock requirement for energy are joules and ENERGY

capacity of physical system to perform work

CHEMICAL ENERGY – potential of the chemical substances to undergo transformation through a chemical reaction with energy release

HEAT ENERGY – is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature

calories. One joule is the energy expended when 1 kilogram is moved 1 meter by a force of 1 Newton whereas one calorie is heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water for one Celsius degree.

Because nutritionists are concerned with large amounts of energy, they generally use kilo or mega energy units. Kilo is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by one thousand and mega – multiplication by one million. Energy value of feedstuffs or animal requirement for energy may be converted from joules to calories and calories to joules. To convert joules to calories you need to multiply joules by 0.239 whereas conversion factor from calories to joules is 4.184. JOULE [J]

•is the energy expended when 1 kg is moved 1 m by a force of 1 Newton

CALORIE (cal)

•the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water for one Celsius degree

Because nutritionists are concerned with large amounts of energy, they generally use kilo or mega energy units: 1000 000 J/cal = 1000 kJ/kcal = 1 MJ/Mcal J vs. cal cal vs. J

conversion factor from kJ to kcal •1 J = 0.239 cal conversion factor from cal to J •1 cal = 4.184 J

In most of modern livestock feeding systems energy value of feedstuffs or animal requirement for energy are expressed in mega joules (MJ). However, there are also others, sometimes quite unusual energy unit such as these used in French ruminant feeding system: UFL – unit for lactation or UFV – unit for meat production. 86

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The only source of dietary energy are chemical substances included in diet. The most significant are carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Due to different chemical structure energy value of these compounds is various. Carbohydrates are used as the first energy source. The average energy value of carbohydrates 17.5 mega joules per one kilogram of dry matter. Fats are the highest FATS

PROTEINS

energy density nutrient. The average energy value of fats is 39.0 mega joules per one kilogram of dry matter what means that they contain 2.5 much energy than carbohydrates. Proteins might be providing some energy but in animal body are used as the last source of energy. Their energy value is about 24 mega joules per one kilogram of dry matter.

The plants are consumed by animals and the constituents broken down, releasing energy that is used for: doing mechanical work

SUGARS

transport

ENERGY SOURCES IN FEEDS

CARBS FATS PROTEINS

maintaining the integrity of cell membranes

•main energy source for livestock •energy value – 17.5 MJ/kg DM

synthesis of expended body constituents

•the highest energy density nutrient •energy value – 39.0 MJ/kg DM

providing heat under cold conditions

energy supplied in an excess of that needed for maintenance is used for PRODUCTION

•use as the last source of energy •energy value – 24.0 MJ/kg DM

a young growing animal stores energy in the protein of its new tissues

an adult animal stores more energy in fat and animal origin products: milk, wool, eggs, work

Remember that animal is able to use energy provided with diet for production only after meeting its energy requirement for maintenance. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

DIETARY ENERGY WASTES

HEAT temperature regulation rumen fermentation

FLUIDS urine

not all dietary energy is available and useful to the animal

SOLID WASTES undigested residues of diet

GASEOUS carbon dioxide, methane

Due to the fact that not all energy included in the feeds can be used by animal for maintenance and performance none of livestock feeding systems expressed animal requirement for energy based on all energy included in feeds.

There are four main energy values of the feed. GROSS ENERGY

•minus fecal energy

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY

•minus energy of urine •minus energy of gaseous METABOLIZABLE ENERGY

•minus heat increment

NET ENERGY

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•for maintenance and production

Before being used for maintenance and production the losses of gross energy reach 50% in pig and 70% in ruminants. This is a result of ruminants feeding with high-fibre diet, intensive rumen fermentation and gases productions, especially methane. LiveNutrition


• the quantity of heat resulting from the complete oxidation of unit weight of feed • is a sum a heat of combustion of individual nutrients that are presented in feed

• consists of energy of undigested feed residues and metabolic products (mucosoa, bacteria, enzymes) • due to high crude fibre content and lower digestibility, fecal energy is higher in ruminants than in monogastric • ruminants FE ≈ 30% of GE • monogastric FE ≈ 22% of GE

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE) • depends on crude fibre content in diet that affect its digestibility • ruminants DE ≈70% of GE • monogastrics DE ≈ 78% of GE

• ruminants ME ≈ 58-59% of GE • monogastrics ME ≈ 74% of GE

URINE AND GAS ENERGY

• energy lost from the animal by gas and through the urine is not available for cell function • ruminants lose ≈ 5% of DE with urea and ≈ 8-9% of DE with gases (mainly as methane) • monogastrics ≈ 4% of DE with urea HEAT INCREMENT (HI)

• heat of digestive fermentations and action • heat of metabolism • may represent ≈ 25-40% of GE

PRODUCTION

tissue growth

NET ENERGY (NE)

METABOLIZABLE ENERGY (ME)

METABOLIZABL ENERGY (ME)

FECAL ENERGY (FE)

DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE)

GROSS ENERGY (GE)

stored in products work

CH4, CO2

basal metabolism

DE MAINTENANCE

ME

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activity at maintenance sustaining body temperature

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Chapter 1. Physiology of Nutrition

PRACTICAL TASK

How many kilograms of maize silage should be given to dairy cow to meet its 10% of daily protein requirement as synthetic nitrogen (non-protein nitrogen compounds).

ASSUMPTIONS: During ensilage process the following non-protein nitrogen compounds have been added to every tone of silage:  urea CO(NH2)2 - 5.0 kg  acid ammonium carbonate NH4HCO3 – 1.8 kg  cow body weight: 600 kg - to meet maintenance requirement needs 720 g of total protein  milk production: 25 kg/day – for each kilogram cow needs 75 g of total protein

AIMS:

 to estimate how many kilograms of maize silage

should be given to cow to meet its 10% of total requirement for total protein as syntetic nitrogen from non-protein nitrogen compounds (NPN)

CALCULATION OF KILOGRAMS OF MAIZE SILAGE  The synthetic N content in 1 kg of maize silage – 2.652 g

 To meet 10% of cow’s requirement for total protein

41.52 g of total N should be provided with non-protein nitrogen compounds 1 kg of maize silage – 2.652 g of N from NPN X kg of maize silage – 41.52 g of N from NPN X = 15.66 kg of maize silage To meet 10% of cow’s requirement for total protein it should be fed with cca. 16 kg of maize silage. ESTIMATION OF NITROGEN INTRODUCED TO SILAGE WITH NPN COMPOUNDS

SYNTETIC NITROGEN CONTENT IN 1 KG OF  Durinig ensiling process urean and acid MAIZE SILAGE ammonium carbonate were added as  2652 g of synthetic N in 1 tonne of maize silage follows:  2.652 g of synthetic N in 1 kg of maize silage urea – 5.0 kg acid ammonium carbonate – 1.8 kg  Taking into account nitrogen content in used NPN compounds and their quantities... urea - 5x 466.7 g = 2333 g acid ammonium carbonate – 1.8 x 177.2 = 319 g Used in ensiling process NPN compounds introduced 2652 g of nitrogen (2333 + 319) to one tonne of maize silage 90

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ESTIMATION OF COW’S REQUIREMENT FOR PROTEIN :  total requirement = maintenance + production 720 g + (25x75g) = 2595 g  10% of total requirement for total protein = 2595g x 10% = 259.5 g  10% of total requirement for total protein expressed as requirement for nitrogen =2595g / 6.25 = 41.52 g  41.52 grams of nitrogen should be introduced to cow’s diet with silage to meet 10% of cow’s requirement for total protein Conversion of total protein content/requirement to nitrogen content/requirement:

•total protein /6.25 = nitrogen •nitrogen x 6.25 = total protein

ESTIMATION NITROGEN CONTENT IN NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  calculation based on molecular masses of compounds: N – 14, C – 12, O – 16  urea - CO(NH2)2 = 12 + 16 = 2(14 + 1x2) = 60 There are 28 grams of N in each 60 grams of urea.  acid ammonium carbonate NH4HCO3= 14 + (1x4) + 1 + 12 + (3x16)= 79 There are 14 grams of N in each 79 grams of acid ammonium carbonate.

NITROGEN CONTENT IN NPN COMPOUNDS - g/kg  urea – N content 46.67 % = 466.7 g/kg

 acid ammonium carbonate - 17.72 % = 172.2 g/kg

NITROGEN CONTENT IN NPN COMPOUNDS - %  urea – 28 g of N in 60 g of urea

60 – 100 % 28 – x % X = 46.67 %  acid ammonium carbonate – 14 g of N in 79 g of NPN 79 – 100 % 14 – x % X = 17.72 % LiveNutrition

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Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

Feeds and Feed Additives

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Feedstuff − plant, animal, mineral origin products and substances obtaining as the result of chemical or biological processes containing nutrients for livestock. This division is based on the crude fibre, energy and total digestible nutrients content. Energy, crude protein and fiber contents are main factors taken into consideration in feed classification.

Feeds Characteristics Feed Processing Feed Quality Feed Additives Pasture and Grassland Management

FORAGE/ROUGHAGE ≥ 18% crude fibre/DM ≤ 4.1 MJ NEL/1 kg FM ≤ 70% TDN

WET

DRY

FEEDSTUFFS

CONCENTRATE ≤ 18% crude fibre/DM ≥ 4.1. MJ/1 kg FM ≥ 70% TDN

PASTURE, FRESH FORAGES, SILAGES, ROOTS

HIGH PROTEIN CONTENT >10% - GRASS LEGUME HAY, ALFALAFA HAY LOW PROTEIN CONTENT >10% - CEREAL STRAWS, HULLS, CHAFFS

ENERGY

MAIZE KERNEL, CEREAL GRAINS, DDGS

PROTEIN

SOYBEAN MEAL, RAPESEED MEAL, BREWER’S GRAINS, CORN GLUTEN

PHOSPHATES, LIMESTONE, SALT, MINERALPREMIXTURES According to the second most common used feed classification all feedstuffs can be divided into eight groups as presented below. GREEN FORAGE, DRY FORAGES/ ENERGY FEEDS SILAGES PASTURE, ROOTS, ROUGHAGES TUBERS

PROTEIN COMPONENTS

VITAMIN/ MINERALS

First three groups are forages/roughages and because of high fibre content are designed to be fed to ruminants and caecal fermenters such as horses and rabbits. Due to high crude fibre that affect digestibility negatively, forages are not

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MINERAL COMPONENTS

VITAMIN COMPONENTS

NON-NUTRITIVE COMPONENTS

recommended in monogastric animal nutrition, especially fattening ones. Some allowances of forages are used in pregnant sows and geese nutrition.

The concentration of nutrients in feeds decides about feeds classification. Forages are main feedstuffs in ruminant nutrition with some allowance of concentrates to meet ruminant requirement for nutrients. On the other hand monogastric animals, especially fattening ones, are fed with concentrates mixtures e.g. commercial complete feeds. LiveNutrition


FORAGES/ROUGHAGES •Generally forages are considered to be higher quality than roughage.

•They are a source of fibre for ruminants and cecal fermenters. Fibre is degraded only by enzymes of microorganisms in digestive tract!

•Nutritive value of forages depends on stage of vegetation when harvested – being green and leafy due to fact that crude protein and sugars are included in these part of plants. •Digestibility and palatability of a forage decreases together with advancing maturity and increasing fibre level. The chart presented below illustrate how great are differences in VDMI and forage digestibility depending on maturity.

Effect of maturity on voluntary intake of first cutting by sheep (Wagner, 1988)

Effect of maturity on dry-matter digestibility of first cutting forages (Wagner, 1988)

•The feed value of forages may vary greatly depend on maturity stage and plant species. Generally, forages depending on plant species may be classified into two groups grasses and legumes. GRASSES

LEGUMES

Nutrients content in comparison to legumes much more depended on maturity and fertilization - they use nitrogen from soil. NDF content – 50% including stems were up to 70% NDF; CP content – 13% of DM, including 30 – 65% of NPN when heavy fertilized.

Higher nutritive value compared to grasses due to higher contribution of leaves to whole plant. Due to symbiosis with bacteria they are able to assimilate air nitrogen.

NDF content – 25%, including stems up to 4045% NDF; CP content – 25% of DM, including 10-15% of NPN. Energy value comparable to grasses but higher content of Ca.

Generally feed value of grass forages is lower compared to legumes. However, some issues associated with sustainable farm nutrient management such as longer stand life, requirement for nitrogen fertilizer and higher tolerance of manure spreading make grass forages more desirable in sustainable farming. Grass forages might be also used as complementary feedstuffs in diets with great contribution of generally rich in crude protein by-products from the food and bioethanol industries because they are generally moderate or low in crude protein compared to legume ones. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

All forage/roughages are classified into three groups: dry forages/roughages, green forages and silages.

DRY FORAGES/ROUGHAGES

The feeds included in this group contain from 10 to 15% of water, 18 up to 50% of crude fibre. They are rich in hemicellulose and cellulose, but poor in starch and other easier degradable carbohydrates.

Two groups with the most importance in animal feeding are hays and straws and other cereal by-products.

HAYS

Hay − Facts-At-A-Glance •Cut and dried long stem plants. Hays can vary vastly in quality, especially grass hays, depending, on type, area it's grown, and maturity stage when harvested (before legume bloom stage and before heading out of grass seeds), drying system as well as weather conditions.

•Grass hays can be divided into two basic groups, cool-season and warm-season. In general, coolseason grasses are more palatable. The most common cool-season grass species are timothy, orchardgrass, ryegrass, fescue and meadow. Warm-season grasses mainly include bromegrass.

•A special category of grass hays are cereal hays made from leaves, stems, and grains of oat, barley, and wheat plants. A good quality cereal hay is harvested when the grain is immature (soft dough stage) and the leaves and stems are still green, and therefore higher in digestible nutrients. If the cereal hay is harvested after the grain is removed, it is no longer considered hay but straw. To achieve good quality hay…..

•Hay quality depends on method of harvesting, handling and storing. The best practice to preserve nutrients is to harvest hay in dry, sunny weather as quickly as possible. When dry matter content is about 85-88% hay should be taken from the field and stored in dry, aired place. Even under good conditions of hay harvesting and storage overall loss of dry matter may be about 20%. •Hay not harvested and stored under proper conditions may lose nutrients or get mouldy that affect its quality negatively. •Good quality hay should be obtained from healthy forage and should be free from weeds that usually are poor feed value or may be even toxic for livestock. •Legumes are generally more difficult to dry than grasses because they have coarse, thick stems. Drying legume hay in the field long enough for the stems carries over drying the nutritious leaves to the point where they shatter from the stem. Nutritional tips

•Good quality hays are very valuable feeds used first of all in horses and rabbits nutrition and may be also the main and very desirable component of ruminant diets. •Grass hays are a medium to low protein content – 7-11% DM and they are low in the essential amino acids, especially in lysine, while legumes hays contain 18-25% of CP on DM. Fibre content in most grass hays is relatively high and ranges from 28 to 35%. •Energy value both grass and legume hays is comparable. •Most often legume hays are too rich in nutrients, especially in crude protein taking into account most livestock requirement for crude protein and they can’t be used as free-choice feeding system thus they are applied to cecal fermenters and ruminants diet as a cheap protein supplement to grass forage based diet, providing also some essential amino acids and calcium.

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When purchasing or harvesting green forages for hay remember about factors affecting its quality. Maturity- good quality hay has a high contribution of leaves with few or no coarse stems or seed heads. Pay attention if it does not contain too much dust or molds. High quality hay will contain little dust or mold. High quality hay is bright colour and sweet, fresh favour whereas brown color and musty smell point to poor quality of hay. LiveNutrition


STRAWS Straws − Facts-At-A-Glance •Straw (stovers when derived from large plants as maize or sorghum) is a feed material residue consisting of dry stems and leaves left after the harvest of cereals, legumes and other crops.

•Chaff is husks and glumes of seed removed during threshing − chaff is usually a richer feed than straw, but more difficult to feed because of e.g. awns. •May be emergency feeds in periods of drought.

•The leaf:stem ratio also determines the nutritive value of straw, especially for legume species, and leaf loss should be prevented if the straw is going to be used as an animal feed.

•Straws must be harvested well dried, and stored in a dry place. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Chemical processes: treating straws with various chemical substances in order to improve their nutritive value. These methods requires a great quantities of water. The most often chemicals used in straw treatment are: urea, ammonia, sodium hydroxide. They make celullose-lignin complex content more available for rumen microorganisms and when urea or ammonia are added − increase in crude protein content.

•Physical processes: grinding, fermenting, soaking. Chopping the straws or stovers reduces forages wastes – more difficult selection leafy parts from the stems that are less palatable for animals. Nutritional tips

•Straws are highly fibrous, low-protein and low-digestible roughage what limits their usage in animal nutrition, even ruminants. • Straws play a role as fillers.

•When supplemented adequately they have some value as an energy source for feeding ruminants and pigs. •Straws are poor in sugars and starch (about 2% DM), minerals as well (4% DM).

•Low nutritive value that depends on species and variety - legume straws usually have a higher nutritive value than cereal straw due to higher protein content − 10%DM vs. grasses about 4%. Crude fibre and ADF contents in both types are about 35-40% whereas grass straw contains more NDF – 74% DM compared to legume ones (54% DM). Lignin content in cereal straw is 6.5% DM and in legumes it is about 10% DM. • Oat and barley straw is more palatable than other cereal straws.

Remember that burning straws in the field is banned by environmental legislation. Take into consideration other possibilities of their use within the farm economy. They have multiple usages in agriculture as a fodder, usually fed to livestock after harvesting or can be grazed. They may be used as a material for bedding and in turn can be used as manure in soil fertilization. Non-harvested straws provide biomass (when ploughed into the soil). There are also multiple non-agricultural uses of straws include biofuel, construction, crafts, clothing and others.

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Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

Green forages of most importance in animal feeding include are grasses, legumes, whole crop cereal forage, roots and tubers and pasture.

GREEN FORAGES

GRASSES Grasses − Facts-At-A-Glance

•In cold and moderate climate grass growth is affected mostly by temperature – grasses start growing when soil temperature is 4-6°C whereas in hot climate the growth is determined mainly by water availability. •Pattern of growth: from green leafy material to mature stems and flowering heads reflects grasses chemical composition. •Typical growth rates for temperate pastures in spring are 40-100 kg DM per hectare daily. •After grass crop harvesting starts the stage of grass regrowth that rate depends on grass maturity when harvested – young and leafy grass starts regrowth earlier and more quickly compared to mature. •There are six main grass species grown for animal nutrition purposes: timothy, ryegrass, cocksfoot, fescue, Kentucky bluegrass and bromegrass.

TIMOTHY

RYEGRASS

Processing methods for animal feeding •Drying: the final product obtain as the effect of drying processes is grass hay. •Ensiling: the final product is grass silage (WCCS) – see submodule feed processing and silages. Nutritional tips

•Together with more advanced maturity stage decrease water soluble carbohydrates (from about 25% DM to 2.5% DM) and crude protein (from even 30 to 3% DM). At the same time dry matter in fresh forage increase from 15-25% to 30-35% mostly due to crude fibre content increase from 20% to 60% DM. •True protein contribution to crude protein in grasses is 80%. Amino acids profile is rather stable and does not depend on stage of maturity in such extent as crude protein content. •Grass proteins have high biological value. The first limiting amino acid for growth is methionine and the second one isoleucine. Effective rumen degradability and overall digestibility of immature grasses proteins are very high – from 70 to 80%. •The digestibility of grasses decreases with maturity stage due to higher relative proportions of cell walls to cell contents. In consequence metabolisable energy value of grasses decreases together with the maturity stage. •The cellulose content in grasses ranges from 20 to 30% DM while average hemicelluloses content is from 10 to 30% DM. •The lipid content of grasses is low − 6% DM. •Feeding on immature or low quality grasses can bring on some diseases such as nitrate poisoning, grass tetany, various mycotoxicoses and grass sickness.

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COCKSFOOT

TALL FESCUE

KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS

SMOOTH BROMEGRASS

Nutritional value of grasses depends on three major groups of nutrients: protein, fibre and soluble carbohydrates and harvesting time should be a compromise of grass crop yield and nutritional value. Remember that high fibre levels that increase with the stage of maturity reduce digestibility and energy value of grasses. High contents of water-soluble carbohydrates increase energy value of grasses but makes them rapidly fermented in the rumen and lower rumen pH that results in lower digestibility of crude fibre. On the other hand low WSC contents affect microbial protein synthesis in the rumen negatively, leading to energy loss to convert ammonia to urea. Nutrient imbalance should be corrected by inclusion supplements to animal diet, e.g. high-starch feeds such as cereal grains to balance deficiency of WSC. LiveNutrition


WHOLE CROP CEREALS Whole Crop Cereal Forages − Facts-At-A-Glance •Whole-crop cereal forage (WCCF) is a feed material consisting of whole plant of cereals: stems, leaves and ears with grain.

• WCCF might be grown and fed to animal either alone or mixed with legumes as e.g. vetch, pea, berseem or others.

•WCCF is one of the way of larger volumes of quality feed production than are possible pasture, or to provide extra grazing in winter. Cutting or grazing may be start after 6-8 weeks after seeding.

•WCCF yield is about 28 tonnes DM/ha/year whereas average production from pasture is about 15 tonnes DM/ha/year.

•The main advantages of this feed material is possibility of growing all year long and low costs of production together with nutritive quality similar to maize.

MAIZE

SORGHUM

•Forages provide also grazing for winter two to three times more per hectare than pasture.

•The most often use of WCCF is to plant them after the maize harvesting and to produce green-chop silage in spring before maize is planted again (May). •There are six main cereals grown for whole crop forage: maize, wheat, barley, oats, rye and sorghum.

WHEAT

Processing methods for animal feeding

•Drying: the final product obtain as the effect of drying processes is whole crop cereal hay or after removing grains – straw – see dry forages. •Ensiling: the most applicable method of processing.

Nutritional tips

BARLEY

•WCCF is a good feed to complete high protein grasses and low fibre maize in animal diets. •WCCF has comparable nutritive value when harvested at similar maturity stages that affects chemical composition more than species.

•Crude protein content decreases quickly after heading together with increase in starch content.

OATS

•WCCF harvested in the boot stage - higher protein content and similar energy level as corn silage.

•The highest quality when harvested in the boot stage.

RYE Double-cropping systems with forage cereals make possible to produce the maximum quantities of forage per year from a run-off block. In this system WCCF are generally used as plant material for production of spring-harvested silage and/or winter grazing. To maximize forage yield the following crop rotation system is advised: 1. Autumn-planted cereals (e.g. oats) to be grazed in winter, 2. Next pasture is drilled in winter/early spring with triticale for ensiling - whole crop cereal silage (harvested January), 3. Afterwards pasture is drilled again in cereal for winter grazing – forage DM production using such crop rotation - up to 26 t per year whereas from a single brassica crop about 8-12. Another common crop rotation: 1. August-planted triticale for whole crop cereal silage 2. Winter brassica - sowing in pasture in late summer. Forage DM production - up to 28 t DM/ha over 13 months. LiveNutrition

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LEGUMES

Legumes − Facts-At-A-Glance •Numerous species with high nutritional value due high protein content and drought resistance. •All of the legumes, due to symbiosis with bacteria, are able to take nitrogen from the air and converting it to plant. Bacteria in root nodules carry out this nitrogen fixation process. •Legume forage dry matter intake and nutritional quality depends on the stage of maturity however not so greatly as in grasses. •In pastures the most common legumes are clovers being represented by red and white clover. •Most of legumes occur in pastures, but it is more commonly grown on its own. •Berseem is an important legume grown in the Mediterranean area due to its high nutritive value comparable to alfalfa rapid growth and good re-growth after cutting or grazing. •There are four main legume species grown for animal nutrition purposes as forages: alfalfa, clovers, birdsfoot trefoil and common vetch. Nutritional tips

•Legumes contain more protein and some minerals – average crude ash content is 11 %DM (particularly calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper and cobalt) than grasses. •Average protein content is 25% DM and its solubility is about 32%. •ADF and NDF content is respectively 31 and 40% (in DM) and lignin level is about 7% DM. •WSC content is approx. 9% DM and main sugar presents in legumes is sucrose. •Rumen degradability of legumes are more rapid than grasses therefore ruminants offered white clover as fresh forage consumed 20% more DM than from grass of the same metabolisable energy content. •Many legumes contain condensed tannins – low or moderate concentrations protect rapid soluble plant proteins against degradation in the rumen but they are not digested in the small intestine when too much bound to tannins. •A high concentration of condensed tannins (55 g/kg DM) reduces forage digestibility, especially protein whereas moderate contents – 20-45 g/kg DM such as in sainfoin and birdsfoot trefoil protect proteins from rumen degradability and increase amino acid absorption in small intestine. •Tannins alter gas production in the rumen, thus reduce methane synthesis and the same gross energy losses as well decrease bloat occurrence.

ALFALFA

CLOVERS

BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL

COMMON VETCH

Processing methods for animal feeding

•Drying: the final product obtain as the effect of drying processes is legume hay. •Ensiling: the final product is legume silage.

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Except for birdsfoot trefoil, the life span of legumes usually is not as long as grasses in a pasture or hayfield. Many times they are also difficult and expensive to establish. Taking above into account it very important to consider all pro and cons before making decision which legume is best suited for the needs of your animal production and your plant production potential. LiveNutrition


PASTURE Pasture − Facts-At-A-Glance •Pastures should be well matched to soils, climate and livestock species.

•Pasture if managed well have potential to support high levels of sustainable and efficient livestock production.

•Well managed perennial pastures provide good ground cover protect from various forms of soil degradation such as acidification, salinisation or dryland, as well limit weed invasion.

•Before pasture establishment overall farm approach needs to be carry out including: landscapes identification and broad consideration of livestock requirement.

•For sustainable land use its crucial to establish pastures based on productive and persistent grasses.

•Grasses grazed by cows should be in a vegetative state and approximately 15 to 20 cm tall, depending on the type of grass.

leaf % protein content energy content pasture intake stem % crude fibre content

When plants are getting older ...

Nutritional tips

•Grasses harvested for hay or silage most often are more mature than grazed on pasture. Therefore, grazed forage has higher nutritional value than storage ones (there also some nutrient losses during processing and storage). •Pasture forage nutritional value depends mainly on geographic location, environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, precipitation), type of grass and/or legume and a stage of their maturity. It is crucial to know when pasture is ready to be grazed, how much residue to leave before moving to another paddock, how long does it take to use the paddock and stocking density (see submodule pasture management).

•Well-managed pasture forage has high energy and protein value.

•Pasture protein is easily degradable in rumen – RDP 70-80% (recommended RDP in dairy cows diet is 62-68%).

•To enhance utilization high RDP levels in pasture diet should be supplemented with energy feeds providing energy available in the rumen for rumen microorganisms protein synthesis. •If sufficient quantities of energy available in the rumen are not provided with diet high RDP are lost by cows induce additionally energy losses and affect cows health and performance negatively.

Grazing management enables you to take the most from a pasture. Thanks to proper grazing management you can control nutritional value of pasture, its utilization and composition. Remember that growing extra feed won't be profitable unless you run or fatten more animals.

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Ruminants

Pasture

• High quality pasture allows to meet cow maintenance requirement and for production of 20 kg of milk. • One hectare of high quality pasture in grazing season lasting 160-170 days is enough for 3-5 cows. •The most valuable and preferable by cattle grasses species are: perennial ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, orchardgrass, meadow fescue and timothy grass Among legume species the most important is white clover. •Continuous grazing systems is more and more popular in meat lamb grazing when animals are kept on one pasture during whole grazing season •Stocking rate – up to 40 lambs/ha with ad libitum access to water and mineral salts. • Sheep graze plants selective and very close to the soil so it is crucial to remember that re-growth period of plant is longer. They prefer: meadow fescue, cocksfoot, timothy grass, perennial ryegrass, bentgrass and Kentucky bluegrass. The best legume for sheep grazing is white clover due to high tolerant of overgrazing. •Goats prefer alfalfa and clovers then graze perennial ryegrass, cocksfoot and fescues.

Horses and donkeys

Pasture

•The major grazing system is quarter horse grazing. •Stocking rate should not exceed 5-6 horses/ha. • Adult doe with kids needs about 0.15 ha. •To meet horse requirement for nutrients the stocking rate should be as follows: foals – 0.2-0.5 ha, adult horses 0.4-0.6 ha, mares with foals 0.5-0.7 ha. •Horses prefer grasses that graze selective and very low. Among grasses that are preferable by horses the most important are: red fescue, meadow, tall fescue, ryegrass, Kentucky bluegrass, Timothy grass, meadow fescue, smooth bromegrass. Among legumes the most significant is white clover however, alfalfa and red clover are also easily harvested by horses.

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ROOTS AND TUBERS Roots and Tubers − Facts-At-A-Glance •The most important root crops used in the feeding of farm animals are fodder beets, carrot and by-products of sugar-extraction from sugar beets.

•The main tubers used in livestock nutrition are potatoes and cassava.

•Root crops are high-carbohydrate, energy feeds, easy digestible and palatable for livestock.

•High water content bring some troubles in forage storage and limits its time. Due to germination process, they can be stored only from harvesting during winter till next summer.

FODDER BEET

•Preservation of root crops using such methods as ensiling or drying generates costs of feeding and losses of nutrients.

•Thus, root crops use in livestock nutrition is limited to application as a dietetic fodder whereas potatoes are mainly used in small-scale pig farming.

Nutritional tips

CARROT

•Root crops – mainly fodder beet, turnips, swedes, mangels – high water content – 75-95%, low crude protein content – 4-13% DM, lysine (2.3 to 4.3% of protein) is the first limiting amino acid in fodder beet. •Fodder beets are rich in WSC – 50-75% DM.

•Roots are highly digestible and their ME value is high – 11-13 MJ/kg DM. Roots are fed mainly to ruminants.

•Sugar beets generally are not used in livestock nutrition however, byproducts of sugar beet extraction for sugar such as beet pulp and molasses are common and valuable feedstuffs used in livestock.

POTATOE

•Tuber crops differ from the roots since the main storage carbohydrate instead of sucrose and glucose are starch and fructans.

•Tubers represented in livestock nutrition mainly by potatoes and cassava – water content – 60-80%, crude protein content – 4 (cassava) − 11% (potatoes), crude fibre – 4%, rich in starch – 40-70% DM. Their digestibility is high and ME value is about 14-15 MJ/kg DM.

CASSAVA

•Tubers are fed mainly to monogastric animals.

Processing methods for animal feeding •Drying •Ensiling •Steaming

SUGAR BEET BYPRODUCTS

Roots and tubers are classified as forages since their very high water content – up to 95%. However the great part of their dry matter – up to 70% consists of WSC (roots) or starch (tubers) that are the highly digestible energy source in all livestock species. Due to high sugar and low fibre content after drying roots and tubers are considered to be energy concentrates. LiveNutrition

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SILAGES

GRASS SILAGES Grass Silages − Facts-At-A-Glance •Grass silages are low-cost feed which can be fed during winter time.

•The best harvest time when DM content is from 30 to 45%. If ensiled when moisture content is higher than 70% − risk of Clostridia contamination and higher nutrients losses in effluents. Higher than recommended DM content affect feed value negatively and bring some troubles in compaction due to higher fibre content.

•The optimal particle size of grasses for silage purposes – 4 cm. The higher DM content in grass the shorter particles should be. Nutritional tips

•Grass silage may be fed as a sole forage in low producing cows, cows in late lactation or dry cows. Crude protein - < 17%, crude fibre − 22-25%, minerals content − 10%. •Compared to maize silage, has a relatively low sugar and high protein content thus a higher buffering capacity, which declines the fermentability. Due to its lower energy value grass silages are not recommended to be the sole forage in early lactating high productive cows. •Grass silage mostly contains a great quantities of potassium 30-40 g/kg DM, so alkali treatment and molasses should be avoided (also rich in potassium). •The more potassium and sodium in diet is the higher dietary cation anion balance. Therefore, grass silage should not be offered or given in limited quantities to close-up dry cows since it may increase a risk of hypocalcemia in early lactation. Before feeding haylage to horses pay special attention to bale covering if it has been previously damaged do not fed the haylage to horses. When after bale opening the haylage is wet it can prove the secondary fermentation has been performed. Such forage and haylage with visible white mould patches must not be fed to horses.

Haylage − Facts-At-A-Glance

•Haylage is made of cut high quality forages that are wilted toll moisture content is about 50-60% and baled. •The wilting process last about 24 hours whereas drying forages for hays – 4-5 day.

•Once opened bale of haylage should be used as soon as possible as exposure to air gives the chance for mould development.

•Not opened bales of haylage can be store up to 18 months without any nutrient losses. Nutritional tips

•Haylage is an ideal replacement for hay, especially in horse feeding. It is a very good feedstuff for horses with dust allergies and equine respiratory problems such due to there are no spores that may cause respiratory problems. •Sorghum silage has lower nutritional value than maize one but may be a good alternative or complement forage to maize silage in ruminants diet. •Other cereal silages such as barley, rye, wheat or sorghum have similar value to grass silage with the advantage of higher volumes at harvest. Whole crop cereals silages can be fed as the sole forage for late lactation, low producing, and dry dairy cows and in fattening cattle feeding. •The choice of harvesting stage should be guided by animal requirements.

•When silage is made at the dough stage - it is recommended to chop cereal forages to a length of 10-20 mm and use silage additives to enhance ensiling process and improve silage quality - urea, enzymes and inoculants.

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Whole crop forages and mixtures should be chosen carefully to fit in with the overall farm system objectives such as nurse crop, yields, quality, requirements.

LEGUME SILAGES Legume Silages − Facts-At-A-Glance •Whole crop legumes silages have comparable metabolisable energy values to whole crop cereals but considerably higher crude protein contents. •Thus, they are valuable components of the ration to balance whole crop cereal silages.

•Taking into consideration nutrients contents successful ensilage is not easy due to low WSC content, and thus acid production can be limited and the proteins are susceptible to extensive degradation.

•Since legumes has to be supplemented with energy feeds, such as ground cereal grains like wheat or barley, and inoculated to start fermentation. •If the silage is too wet, anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridia may develop and break down protein and may lead to excessive nutrient leaching. Thus in many cases it is recommended to make silage from pre-wilted material − moisture content − 50-70%.

•Additives such as organic acids (formic acid, formic acid+formaldehyde, propionic acid) or calcium salts can help to lower pH value and to improve preservation (low pH is deleterious to Clostridia development). Another solution is ensiling legumes with a mix with energy feeds such as grass forage, whole crop cereals forage or grounded cereals grains (the same increase in dry matter content).

•There are three main whole crop legume forage: alfalfa, red clover and white clover ensiled as a pure crop or as a mix with energy forage or concentrates. Nutritional tips

•Partial replacement (40%) of grass silage with red clover silage increased yields of milk, protein and lactose, due to increased flows of microbial and dietary N entering the small intestine.

•Pure white clover silage without supplementation can meet lactating cows requirement for production of 20 to 31 kg/d. while supplemented with a cereal grain or mixed concentrate milk yield increased significantly about 0.6 kg/d of milk per kg concentrate offered. •Fat and milk protein is not affected when compared to effect of grass silage however white and red clover silage increased PUFA content.

•Beef steers (BW about 350 kg) fed with rye grass silage or white clover silage alone, or mixed with rye grass, showed a higher DM intake (8.4 kg vs. 4.2 kg DM) with clover silage (alone or mixed) compared to pure rye silage.

•Dairy cows fed red clover silage at the same DM intake produced a slightly less milk than those fed white clover silage. Moreover milk fat content in milk of cows fed with red clover silage diets was about 0.2% lower than cows fed grass silages (milk protein content also tended to be lower). The lower milk fat content resulting from legume-based diets (compared to grass-based diets), may be due to an increased supply of long-chain fatty acids to the mammary gland which inhibits the de novo fatty acid.

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WHOLE CROP CEREAL SILAGES Whole Crop Cereal Silages − Facts-At-A-Glance •There are two main types of whole plant cereal silages: WCCS – cereals harvested when grain has reached full size but still soft (38% DM) or Green-chop cereal silage (GCCS) – plants are harvested at boot stage and wilted. The nutritive value of GCCS is comparable to pasture silage.

• Whole-crop cereal silage (WCCS) is an ensiled feed material consisting of whole plant of cereals: stems, leaves and ears with grain.

• WCCS might be grown and fed to animal either alone or mixed with legumes as e.g. vetch, pea, berseem or others.

•Maize silage is a great of importance in dairy cattle nutrition, especially high productive lactating cows. •The best dry matter content for forages designed to ensiling process is 35-45% − there is a starch in grains but material is still moist enough to be easily preserved.

•The most often use of WCCF is to plant them after the maize harvesting and to produce green-chop silage in spring before maize is planted again (May).

•There are six main cereals grown for whole crop silages: maize, wheat, barley, oats, triticale and recently due to climate changes sorghum.

Whole crop cereal silage use in livestock feeding at farm creates opportunity to increase considerable the quantities of fodders produced per area unit of land. Well managed pasture provides about 18 tonnes of dry matter per hectare whereas double cropping with whole crop cereal silage allows producing even 28 tonnes of dry matter per hectare. Nutritional tips •The queen of the silages is maize silage. It is a consistent source of palatable, high-energy forage for ruminants that have higher yields than most other forages (12 and 18 tons DM/ha). It contains high starch content (170-310 g/kg DM), high protein efficiency ratio, and relatively high digestible energy (64-71%) and total digestible nutrients. However, maize silage is also characterized by its low crude protein content that declines as maturity increases. If given as the sole forage, diet has to be complemented with protein thus, most often is used together with alfalfa or other legume silage that contrary is rich in protein. •Sorghum silage has lower nutritional value than maize one but may be a good alternative or complement forage to maize silage in ruminants diet. •Other cereal silages such as barley, rye, wheat or sorghum have similar value to grass silage with the advantage of higher volumes at harvest. Whole crop cereals silages can be fed as the sole forage for late lactation, low producing, and dry dairy cows and in fattening cattle feeding. •The choice of harvesting stage should be guided by animal requirements.

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ENERGY FEEDS GRAINS Feedstuffs of this category included mainly cereal grains and their by-products like brans or corn hominy feeds. These energy feeds contain less than 18% of crude fibre, its crude fibre content is usually low and range from 2 to 10 percent. These feeds are high digestible and have high energy value. Its total digestible nutrients content is high and amount about 90% on dry matter basis. Grains are rich in starch that is a main source of energy, they contain less than 17-18% of crude protein. The protein digestibility ranges from 50 to 80% but the quality of protein are rather poor due to low content of many essential amino acids. The content of calcium and most of trace elements

MAIZE GRAIN

are low. Energy feeds are feed to monogastric animal such as pigs and poultry as a main energy source. In ruminants and cecal fermenters such as rabbits and horses they are used to increase energy density of a diet. Maize is a major staple food grain throughout the world. The maize grain is a major feed grain and a standard component of livestock diets where it is used as a source of energy. Other grains are typically compared to maize when their nutritional value is estimated.

Maize grain – Nutritional tips •Is palatable and suitable for all livestock.

•Most valuable energy source among cereals.

•High starch content (about 65%), about 4% oil and a low fibre content (10% NDF), high in linoleic acid (an important factor in the diet controlling the egg size of hens).

•Maize starch is less readily fermentable than other cereal starches.

•Proteins in maize: zein and glutelin. Zein: deficient in lysine and tryptophan. •Low in calcium, phytate-phosphorus.

•Yellow maize has a high carotenoids content (is best for monogastrics). •Poor in available niacin. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Fed as dry maize grain (less than 15% moisture) or high-moisture maize grain (22 to 28% moisture). •Overheating reducing nutritive value and acceptability to pigs and poultry. •Dry or high-moisture maize grain can be available as: whole grain, various particle size ground material, steam-rolled, steam-flaked.

Some varieties have been created to improve the industrial or nutritional value: high lysine, high tryptophan, high oil, high amylose, low phytate. Genetically-modified (GM) maize varieties have been designed to improve grain.

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BARLEY GRAIN

Barley grains – Nutritional tips •Barley grain is a valuable grain for finishing beef cattle; most commonly used cereal grains in pig and poultry feeds. •It contains a high level of starch, about 60 % DM, average protein content is from 11 to 12 %, to 18% in high-protein varieties. Barley in comparison with maize and wheat has a higher fibre content (crue fibre 4-6%, NDF 18-24%, ADF 5-7%).

•Varieties of barley used in animal feeding: hulles varieties with decrease content of fibre or lowphytate. •Susceptible to scab, a disease caused by Fusarium spp. and it results in mycotoxins production.

•Barley contains pentosans (β-glucans) that negatively affect digestibility of feeds, increase viscosity of digestive contents as well as may cause nutritional disturbances in young pigs and poultry; β-glucanase supplementation is necessary.

Processing methods for animal feeding

•Barley is a hard grain and therefore should be crushed or ground.

•Feed efficiency improves: removing of hulls, grinding, or the breaking.

•Common processes include rolling (dry or steam), flaking, grinding, or pelleting. Fine-grinding is suitable for pigs and poultry. •Dry-rolled and ground barley may contains considerable dust and therefore reduce intake and negatively affect performance and health in cattle.

The awns of barley should be removed prior to feeding, because may cause irritation and result in stomatitis in horses, cattle and poultry.

OAT GRAIN

Oat grain – Nutritional tips •Nutritive value is largely determined by the percentage of hulls in the grain, which varies from 20 to 30% of the kernel weight, degree of lignification of the hulls varies between varieties.

•Richer in gross energy than other cereals due to their relatively high oil content (3.5-7.5% DM), more protein than maize (8-15% DM), but less than wheat and barley, are of poor quality are deficient in methionine, histidine and tryptophan, glutamic acid is the most abundant amino acid of oat protein, may contain up to 20%. •Less starch (about 40% DM) in comparison with maize, wheat and barley; naked and dehulled oats have a starch content close to that of barley (60% DM), protein content similar to that of wheat (more than 12% DM).

•The oil contains a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids: linoleic (18:2), oleic (18:1) and palmitic (16:0). •Very high fibre content due to the presence of hulls (ADF about 16% DM).

•Rich in pentosans (including β-glucans), therefore can cause digestive problems in monogastric. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Cold treatments (dehulling, grinding, rolling and cracking). •Crimping oats is particularly popular in horse feeding, •Extrusion, micronization, roasting and popping. •Steam-rolling, steam-flaking, pressure cooking and exploding. •Whole oats are more suitable for geese, pigs and young cattle; lightly crushed oats are suitable for cows and horses. •Too fine grinding may cause digestive upsets.

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WHEAT GRAIN Wheat grain – Nutritional tips •Rich in starch (about 70% DM), protein content about, 11-13% DM (17% in high-protein varieties), crude fibre – less than 3%. •Gluten is a protein composite of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat albumins are reported to have an anti-amylase, anti-tryptic and anti-lipase activity. Main amino acids in wheat protein are: glutamic acid, proline; limiting amino acid: lysine and methionine.

•Arabinoxylans may increase diet viscosity and have an antinutritional activity in poultry.

•Starch is fermented rapidly resulting in a greater potential for digestive upsets, including acidosis, bloat, laminitis and reduced or erratic intake patterns.

•Ruminants are progressively introduced to wheat grain in combination with hay. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Stored in a cool, dry and aerated place to prevent heating and/or gas accumulation.

•Dry rolling, steam rolling, flaking or grinding followed by pelleting can be used; whole wheat grain is more suitable for lambs and pellets are more suitable for cows.

RYE GRAIN

Gluten becomes viscous in the presence of water therefore it can be dangerous to animals fed large amounts of wheat flour or finely ground wheat. Gluten may form dough balls in the stomachs of pigs, blocking digestion and starving the animals to death. In cattle and horses, finely milled wheat forms a paste-like mass in the mouth and the digestive tract which may lead to digestive upsets.

Rye grain − Nutritional tips •Rye contains about 10% protein in the DM, has a low fibre content, about 2-4% crude fibre and a high starch content - about 62% DM.

•Is not commonly used as a grain for pigs and poultry and only to a slightly greater extent for sheep and cattle.

•Large amounts of soluble arabinoxylans and β-glucans which increase viscosity in the gut content in monogastrics ( necessary to supplement enzymes: β-glucanases, xylanases, pentosanases), presence of high concentration of alkyl- and alkenylresorcinols.

•The potential contamination with toxic ergot alkaloids.

•Is also generally less palatable than other grains.

•Liable to cause digestive upsets and should always be given with care and in restricted amounts. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Cold treatments (grinding, rolling and cracking). •Extrusion or fermentation (decrease of arabinoxylans and β-glucans).

Rye grain is susceptible to contamination by ergot (Claviceps purpurea), which produces alkaloids with vasoconstrictor and neurotoxic properties. LiveNutrition

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SORGHUM GRAIN

Sorghum grain – Nutritional tips •Used as a cereal grain energy source and is a good feedstuff for pigs and ruminants.

•Rich in starch (more than 70% DM), crude protein content ranges from 9 to 13% DM, low lysine content (may require amino acid supplementation), kafirins it’s proteins found in sorghum.

•Is devoid of xanthophylls and 70% of its phosphorus is bound in phytate.

•Sorghum ergot caused by Claviceps sorghi, which produces alkaloids therefore should be restricted in animals feeding.

•Is susceptible to various Fusarium spp. Therefore mycotoxins such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol or fumonisins may thus occur. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Grinding is the simplest, least expensive method of preparing. •Dry-rolling, steam-rolling, flaking and popping are also popular.

Sorghum is the only cereal that contains tannins. Tannins are antinutritional factors as they bind with proteins, precipitate them and make them unavailable during digestion. Therefore, the nutritive value of feeds containing tannins is consequently reduced.

WHEAT BRAN Wheat bran – Nutritional tips •Wheat bran is a bulky feed and it can be readily incorporated into mashes.

•Wheat bran contains about: 14-19% DM of protein (sometimes higher), 4-7% DM of minerals, notably calcium and phosphorus, oil content is about 3-5% DM, crude fibre 7-14% DM, NDF 3554% DM, ADF 9-16% DM and low amounts of ADL 2-4% DM and 15-30% DM of starch. •Fibre is the main constraint for the wheat bran utilization in monogastric animal nutrition.

•Wheat bran contains pentosans, has a high phytase activity, which is beneficial to phosphorus availability in pig and poultry diets (in pelleted brans phytase could by destroy). •Contains a heat-stable lipase that causes hydrolytic rancidity. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Wheat bran is sold raw or in pelleted form

Be careful with using wheat bran in horses because its large amounts can induce calcium deficiency in horses, known as Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism, and also as „big head disease”, „bran disease” or „Millers Disease”.

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INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS DDGS (Dried Distilles Grains with Solubles) DDGS – Nutritional tips •Both maize and wheat DDGS, are rich in protein, it’s content range from 30 to 35% DM for maize DDGS and from 30 to 40% DM for wheat DDGS.

•Maize distillers grain contains variable amounts of oil from 2 to 15%. Corn distillers grain that have been subjected to oil extraction have a fat content about 3-5% DM while other corn distillers grain can contain more than 10% fat. The fat content of wheat DDGS is low about 5% of dry matter and less than half of that of maize DDGS.

•In maize DDGS crude fibre content is about 7.5% DM, ADF content about 13.4% DM and NDF content - 35.2% DM. The lignin content is fairly low, about 3.9% DM. Wheat DDGS from whole grains have a slightly higher NDF content than wheat DDGS from milled grains and is about 32 vs 27% DM, respectively. •Residual starch in maize DDGS is low – less than 8% DM whereas wheat DDGS has lower starch and soluble sugars contents.

•Maize distillers grain contains variable amounts of oil from 2 to 15%. Corn distillers grain that have been subjected to oil extraction have a fat content about 3-5% DM while other corn distillers grain can contain more than 10% fat. The fat content of wheat DDGS is low about 5% of dry matter and less than half of that of maize DDGS.

•Ethanol by-products may be high in sulphate which increases the risk of sulphur toxicity in livestock. •DDGS are susceptible to mycotoxins contamination.

Facts-At-A-Glance

•Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is dominant distillery by-product used in animal nutrition.

•Other by-products of distillery processing include: wet distillers grain (WDG), wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS), dried distillers grain (DDG), condensed distillers solubles (CDS) and dried distillers solubles (DDS).

•Nutritive value of distillers grains depends on kind of grain that were used in ethanol production, the most popular are corn and wheat, as well as ethanol manufacturing process.

Heat damage of DDGS may lead to decrease of protein availability, level of this damage can be assessed by the amount of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN). Colour may be more practical indicator of heat damage: properly heated distillers grain has a honey golden to caramelized golden colour; a darker, coffee-like colour may be an indicator of excessive heating and potential protein damage, however, it also may be the result of higher contribution of syrup to DDGS during production process.

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PROTEIN FEEDS

Protein feeds may be divided in regard of source these supplements into: plant origin in example: soybean meal, canola meal, animal origin in example: fish meal, dried milk/whey protein and synthetic like urea, amino acids, ammonia salts. Plant origin protein supplements contain usually at least 30% of highly digestible and good quality protein. According to European Union law most of animal origin protein supplements as meat meal, blood meal derivatives, feather meal are banned to be used in livestock nutrition but can

be used in carnivorous animal and pets feeding. Exception are milk and egg protein supplements that are allowed to be used in all animal feeding. Fish meal is allowed to be used in all animal feeding except ruminants. However, it is allowed to use fish meal in milk replacers for young ruminants before weaning. The synthetic protein supplements – urea, synthetic amino acids – are discussed in submodule − Feed Additives.

Fish meal is reported to be hypoallergenic to piglets and was found to decrease diarrhoea during post-weaning.

LEGUME SEEDS FABA BEAN Faba Bean – Nutritional tips •Faba bean seeds are rich in protein (25-33% DM) and starch (40-48% DM), have a moderate content of fibre (crude fibre 7-11% DM). The amino acid profile has a high lysine content (5.46.8%) and is relatively deficient in sulphur-containing amino acids (0.6-1.0% methionine). Faba beans contain about 1% lipids in the DM. •Faba beans are a relatively poor source of calcium, iron and manganese; contain lower levels of biotin, choline, niacin, pantothenic acid and riboflavin, but a higher level of thiamine, than soybean meal or rapeseed meal.

•Faba bean seeds contain 12% hulls, which are rich in fibre (crude fibre 54% DM) and low in protein (6% DM). •Faba beans contain: tannins, vicine and convicine, protease inhibitors and lectins, phytic acid. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Extrusion; infrared heating (micronizing); steaming; autoclaving; and other cooking methods; also dehulling, flaking, soaking, treating with formaldehyde, or stimulating germination.

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FIELD BEAN – PEAS Field Bean – Nutritional tips •Peas are a good source of protein and energy but their feed value is variable and depends on several factors, particularly anti-nutritional factors (trypsin inhibitors and lectins), protein structure and fibre content.

•Content of protein in peas is about 22-24% DM, but may ranging between 16-32% DM (wellbalanced in lysine; deficient in tryptophan and sulphur-containing amino-acids, especially methionine); high starch content ranged between 48-54% DM; relatively low in fibre (NDF 1018% DM; ADF 6-8% DM; ADL less than 0.5% DM) and oil (less than 1.5% DM). •Antinutritive factors in peas are: trypsin inhibitors, tannins, lectins. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Field peas used for animal feeding (feed peas) can be fed raw or processed in order to improve their nutritional value.

•Most popular processing methods include mechanical treatments (grinding and decortication), dry or wet heat treatments (cooking and autoclaving) and their combinations (i.e. flaking, extrusion, pelleting). •The processes must be tailored to the nutritional requirements of each livestock species.

Peas can be a particularly valuable protein source in organic livestock farming when usual sources such as soybean meal and industrial aminoacids are prohibited.

SOYBEAN SEEDS

Soybean Seeds – Nutritional tips •Excellent sources of energy (GE =23.6MJ/kg) about 20% of lipids and protein (34.5-44.6% DM).

•High content of antinutritive substances: trypsin inhibitors, lectins (binds to intestinal mucosa and prevent amino acids, vit. B12 and polysaccharides absorption), urease (an enzyme that releases ammonia from urea), oligosaccharides mainly raffinose and stachyose, phyto-oestrogens and goitrogens. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Should have no more than 20% moisture at harvest and no more than 14% to be stored, commercial soybeans are dried at temperatures from 55°C to 60°C and the drying air moisture should be above 40% in order to prevent soybean coat cracking. •Should be cracked or ground. Ground soybeans cannot be stored long.

•Antinutritional factors presented in soybean seen can be removed by different heat treatments (toasting, roasting, micronisation, flaking, jet-sploding, extrusion, expansion or pelletizing), heat treatments also reduce the degradation rate of protein in the rumen. Soybean seeds before being fed to animals are often processed, if they are offered for monogastric processing aims is removing anti-nutritional factors; when they are included in ruminant diets, the objectives are to enhance by-pass protein Ruminal Undegradable Protein. LiveNutrition

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FOOD INDUSTRY BY-PRODUCTS

SOYBEAN MEAL Soybean meal − Facts-At-A-Glance •The most important main protein source used to feed farm animals, it is the standard to which other protein sources are compared. •By-product of the extraction of soybean oil.

•For marketing is usually classified by its crude protein content or by the sum of protein and oil: “high-protein” soybean meal: 49-50% of protein + oil and 3% crude fiber (from dehulled seeds); “low protein” meal, with 44-46% protein + oil and 6-7% crude fibre, that contain the hulls. Nutritional tips

•Good amino acid balance and contains high amounts of lysine, tryptophane, threonine and isoleucine.

•Concentration of cystine and methionine are in deficient for monogastric animals and methionine supplementation is necessary. •High amino acid digestibility.

•Contains oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose (can cause flatulence and diarrhoea that may increase digesta passage rate and decrease digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients).

•60-70% of phosphorus in soybean meal is bound to phytic acid.

•Poor source of B vitamins (reproductive and performance problems in sows, older pigs and hens).

•Contains of genistein (oestrogenic properties).

•Heat treatments are applied that destroy heat-labile antinutritional factors (particularly trypsin inhibitors and lectins).

CANOLA MEAL

Canola Meal – Facts-At-A-Glance •Product of the oil extraction of canola seeds.

•There are 3 main classes of canola meal depending on the process of oil extraction and that affected nutritive value of obtained product: 1). Expeller canola meal (mechanical extraction of seeds previously conditioned by a heat treatment). It contains about 10-12% oil; 2). Canola presscake (cold-extracted process consisting in pressing the seed at low temperature (60°C)); 3). Solvent-extracted canola meal − product of oil extraction followed by solvent (hexane) extraction of the remaining oil in the press-cake. It contains no more than 2-3% oil. Nutritional tips

•Crude protein content of all classes of canola meals ranges from 34 to 39 % DM basis; good amino acid profile when compared to other plant sources (less lysine than in soybean, but more methionine).

•High fibre content (12.1-14.1%, DM basis), dehulling reduce fiber content and increased amino acid and nutrient digestibility.

•High amounts of Ca and P, high level of S that may have deleterious effects on the cationic anionic balance. •Antinutritive substances: glucosinolates that have goitrogenic effects on animal; erucic acid, a very unpalatable toxic fatty acid; tannins that bind with various compounds making it less available to the animal, sinapine that reduce palatability and decrease feed consumption by animals.

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COTTONSEED MEAL Cottonseed Meal − Facts-At-A-Glance •By-product of oil extraction from cotton seeds.

•There is a wide range of cottonseed meals differing in their protein, fibre and oil content: solventextracted cottonseed meal, mechanically-extracted cottonseed meal, pre-press solvent extracted cottonseed meal.

•Is susceptible to mold development when it is too wet, and to dust explosion when it is too dry (moisture content should kept between 5 and 11%).

•Is valued as a protein feed, but the protein content is highly variable as it depends on the amount of dehulling and on the efficiency of oil extraction. Nutritional tips

•Is used to feed adult ruminants.

•A good source of protein for monogastrics provided that its limitations due to fibre content and the presence of gossypol.

•Protein content is from 30% DM for non-dehulled cottonseed meal up to 50% DM for fully dehulled meals. •Fibre content varies accordingly, from 25% (non-dehulled) to 5% (fully dehulled) crude fibre,

•Solvent-extracted meals contain less than 2% oil, but many cottonseed meals contain higher oil values, often in the range 5-10% and even over 20%. •Cottonseed meal protein is less rich in lysine than soybean meal (4% vs. 6% of the protein).

•Main constraint of cottonseed meal is the presence of gossypol, which limits its use in nonruminant animals and in reproductive ruminants.

CORN GLUTEN Corn gluten − Facts-At-A-Glance •By-product of the manufacture of maize starch (and sometimes ethanol) by the wetmilling process.

•Is a protein-rich feed, containing about 65% crude protein (DM).

•A source of protein, energy and pigments for livestock species.

It is important to note that corn gluten meal should not be mistaken for corn gluten feed, which contains about 22% crude protein rather than 65% and is nutritionally completely different.

Nutritional tips

•Protein-rich feed containing from 60 to 75% crude protein (DM).

•It contains about 15-20% of residual starch in the DM.

•It contains limited amounts of fibre (crude fibre 1% DM), fat (3% DM) and minerals (2%).

•Is low in lysine (1.7% of the protein) and tryptophan (0.5% of protein), but contains more methionine (2.4% of protein). •Is also a source of energy, due to its high gross energy content (23.1 MJ/kg DM) and energy digestibility (more than 90% in ruminants and pigs).

•Is particularly rich in yellow xanthophylls (between 200 and 500 mg/kg DM). •Corn gluten meal can be contaminated with mycotoxins. LiveNutrition

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BREWER’S GRAIN

Brewer’s grain − Facts-At-A-Glance •Solid residue left after the processing of beer production (concentrate of proteins and fibre).

•Grain used for brewing: barley, wheat, maize, rice or sorghum.

•Wet brewers grains are a highly perishable and bulky product, on the other hand, dehydration is high energy costly process. Nutritional tips

•Composition and nutritional value of brewers grains are high variable and depends on the grain used, on the industrial process (temperature, fermentation, etc.) and on the method of preservation.

•Brewers grains are relatively rich in protein (27-33% DM), but protein quality may be affected by temperature during brewing process. •Brewers grains are relatively rich in fibre (ADF 17-26% DM), are the feedstuff for ruminants.

•Wet brewers grains are a bulky feed with low energy content.

•Care should be taken to feed only unspoilt brewers grains. Processing methods for animal feeding

•Brewers grains are sold wet or dried, and can be ensiled. Wet brewers grains contain about 80% of water. •Palatability of brewers grains decreases with storage time (maximum recommended storage: 2-5 days in warm temperature; 5-7 days in cold weather).

•Ensiling – good method of brewer’s grain preservation, before ensiling material should be quickly cooled and pressed, silage is ready within 3 weeks and can be used over 6 months, brewer’s grain may be ensiling blended with bran or hulls as well as with molasses or cereal grains.

• Drying of brewer’s grains to 10% of water content enable long storage this feed, dried brewers grains to improve nutritional value may be mixed before feeding with spent hops and dried brewers yeast.

DRIED MILK PROTEIN

Dried Milk Proteins − Facts-At-A-Glance •Skim milk powder – product of removing of fat and water from milk; contains the same proportion of lactose, milk proteins and milk minerals as the fresh milk which it was made from. •Sweet whey powder − is obtained by drying fresh whey which has undergone pasteurisation and contains no preservatives. Sweet-type whey powder includes the same constituents as fresh whey and in the same relative proportion; its difference is lack of moisture.

•The most important protein source for young animals – calves, piglets, is used in milk replacers. Milk replacers

•Modern milk replacers can be classified by protein source, protein/fat levels and inclusion of medication or additives.

•Protein levels in calf milk replacers : 18% to 30% and fat levels: 10% to 28%, with 18% to 22% being the most common fat levels. • Milk replacers protein source include: dried whey protein concentrate, dried whey protein, dried skim milk or casein, acceptable are also non-milk proteins: soy protein isolate, modified soy flour or wheat gluten or isolate, egg, blood plasma, and potato.

•Non-milk proteins are less expensive but they are not equivalent to milk protein.

•Non-milk proteins are not acceptable for feeding calves less than 3 weeks of age. 114

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VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS Vitamin supplements are used to meet animal requirement for vitamins due to very diversified among feedstuffs vitamin content. They are added to diets in relatively small quantities.

Even in small quantities the requirement of vitamins has to be met to achieve high animal performance, good health and production profitability in all livestock species nutrition, especially highly productive.

FISH OIL Fish oil − Facts-At-A-Glance •Fish oil − an excellent source of energy, Vitamin A , D and omega-3 fatty acids. Vitamin A and D concentration is higher in oils extracted from livers (cod liver oil, tuna liver oil). •More economically Vitamin A and D are provided with using synthetic sources.

•The lipids associated with fish oil are highly unsaturated and can be oxidized easily (need of proper stabilization and handling).

•Fish oils that have been oxidized are highly unpalatable and can be toxic to animals.

•Feeding of fish oil to animals, especially monogastric animals; can cause off-flavors to develop in the edible tissues and softening of fat deposits.

Oxidation potential in fish oil is high, because of its content of highly unsaturated fatty acids. The oil should be properly stabilized to avoid the formation of oxidative products that can occur and become toxic to an animal.

FISH OIL Feeding fish oil to lactating cows could decrease intake of dry matter, they tend to produce milk with lower milk fat percent but with higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3. In cows nutrition protected fish oil should be used.

Feeding of fish oil to pigs can increase the amount of unsaturated fat present in the tissues, which can cause the back fat to become soft and off-flavors. The presence of unsaturated fats in the edible portions may lead to problem when those portions are being processed, such as when pork hams are being smoked and cured, therefore it should not be used in amount higher than 3%. Feeding fish oil to pregnant and lactating swine was found to increase birth weight of piglets as well as piglet weight at 21 days and decrease piglet mortality.

Fish oil may be used in broilers feeding in amount of up to 0.83 % during the starter phase and 1.14 % during growing phase without negative effect on flavor of the meat. Application in laying hens feeding fish oil increased the unsaturated fatty acid levels in the eggs, reduced cholesterol and lipoprotein in yolk and caused only a slight change in taste. LiveNutrition

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MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS

Minerals content and their bioavailability is very variable in feedstuffs. Therefore, some mineral supplements are used to meet animal requirement for them. Similarly, like vitamin, these supplements are added to diets in relatively small quantities to diet for highly

productive animals. It is a standard practice in modern animal husbandry. Even small deficiencies in minerals supply may affect animal performance, health and production profitability negatively.

Salt •Common salt (NaCl) – source of sodium and chloride. Salt lick

•May be provided to animals in loose form (mixed with diet) or in form of salt blocks (salt licks). •Available nowadays salt licks are enriched (trace mineralized) with various minerals and vitamins, have various colours.

Limestone and dolomite

• Grounded limestone is the most common source of calcium used in livestock feeding, it is almost pure calcium carbonate (CaCO3), it contains about 3638% of calcium.

CaCO3

CaHPO4

•Dolomitic limestone contains at least 5% magnesium carbonate and should not be used for poultry and mor for ruminants.

•The availabilities of calcium and magnesium from dolomite are relatively low. Phosphates

•Monocalcium phosphate (CaH4P2O8) contains about 23% of P and 16% of Ca; dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4) contains about 18% of P and 21% Ca, phosphorous in DCP is highly available during digestion; calciummagnesium phosphate (Ca, Mg)PO4 x nH2O) contains about 18% P, 15 % Ca, 9% Mg.

•rock phosphate contains about 75% tricalcium phosphate, the content of fluorine should be lower than 0,5%.

Using phosphates as phosphorus source remember that they are also source of calcium. Shells •Seashells, including clam shells, oyster shells, conch shells are almost pure calcium carbonate (95-99%) and ground are good sources of calcium for all classes of animals.

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116

•Seashells and coral contain about 37% calcium and no phosphorus.

•Shells coarse ground seem to be more palatable to laying hens; for other animals the shells should be finely ground. •Eggshells also consist source of calcium carbonate in the form of calcite.

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NON-NUTRITIVE SUPPLEMENTS Natural or synthetized products added to animal diet due to some reasons other than nutritive value. They may support animal growth, improve diet palatability and feed efficiency, enhance health, alter metabolism or affect quality of animal origin products.

FLAVOURS

NON-NUTRITIVE SUPPLEMENTS

COLOURING AGENTS

Flavour enhancers •Natural (1) or synthetic (2) enhancers : (1) most of the spices, herbs, roots, oils and extracts of some part of plants, (2) esters, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols.

FEED ENZYMES

•Odor and taste are the most powerful stimuli of the animal chemicals sense that will initiate reflex secretory phenomena leading to increase feed efficiency.

•Saccharin and aspartame; sucrose, talin (pigs nutrition – preference of sweet taste). Colouring agents

•The colour of the food helps in judging the quality of feed, colouring agents help to make the food look attractive (i.e. egg yolk, fish meat).

•Carotenoids and xanthophylls used as colouring agents in poultry and laying hens: capsanthin, lutein, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, citranaxanthin, as well as in salmon and trout feeding astaxanthin. Luteine − E161b and zeaxanthin the products obtained by solvent extraction of the natural strains of edible fruits and plants. Lutein and zeaxanthin occurs in corn, alfalfa, green vegetables and fruits. They are routinely present in commercial diets for poultry where they serve to intensification of the yellow tone of eggs and skin.

Astaxanthin is a red pigmenting carotenoid occurring naturally in plankton, crustaceans and fish. Astaxanthin is efficacious in colouring the flesh of salmonids and the epidermis of crustaceans. It gives salmon, shrimp and flamingos their pink-red colour.

In farm conditions, results similar to that achieved by commercial colouring agents and flavour enhancers application may be achieve by addition into animals diet specific feedstuffs, i.e. for deep yellow colour of egg yolk in laying hens feeding may be used corn gluten meal. LiveNutrition

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GMO AND MATERIALS BANNED IN LIVESTOCK FEEDING The genetically modified organism (GMO) − an organism such as plants, animals or micro-organisms, such as bacteria, parasites and fungi, in which the genetic material has been altered.

The genetic material is modified artificially to give it a new, desirable property such as plant's resistance to a disease, insect or drought, a plant's tolerance to a herbicide, improving a food's quality or nutritional value, increased yield. However, there are some potential hazards being the effect of GMO such as introducing allergens and toxins to food, anitiotic resistance, contamination of non-GMO with GMO, mutations or creation of „super weeds”. The most important is fact that the

GMO effect on human health and reproductivity as well as ecosystem balance is unknown. The European Union has established a legal framework to ensure that the development of modern biotechnology, and more specifically of GMOs, takes place in safe conditions. It aims t protect human and animal health and the environment, put in place harmonised procedures for risk assessment and authorisation of GMOs and ensure clear labelling of GMOs placed on the market in order to enable consumers as well as professionals such as farmers, and food feed chain operators, to make an informed choice.

40 of 47 European and only 1 of 23 North American countries require GMO food labelling

opting for ban on GM crop cultivation

opting for no ban on GM crop cultivation non-EU countries

MATERIALS NOT ALLOWED IN LIVESTOCK FEEDING According to European legal framework there are some materials that potentially could be feed materials but they are not approved to be

used in livestock feeding. The list of materials banned in animal nutrition is presented below.

Faeces, urine and separated digestive tract content resulting from the emptying or removal of digestive tract, irrespective of any form of treatment or admixture. Hide treated with tanning substances, including its waste.

Seeds and other plant-propagating materials which, after harvest, have undergone specific treatment with plant-protection products for their intended use (propagation), and any by-products derived there from. Wood, including sawdust or other materials derived from wood, which has been treated with wood preservatives.

All waste obtained from the various phases of the urban, domestic and industrial waste water. Solid urban waste, such as household waste.

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Packaging from the use of products from the agri-food industry, and parts thereof. LiveNutrition


Feed processing techniques include all processes that are applied to improve feed safety, nutritional value, and sensory and functional properties of food.

WHY?

• • • • •

Feed processing includes a lot of methods that allow to remove some plants parts like hulls, decrease content of toxic substances, improve digestibility and palatability. Additionally, allows to protect feeds against spoilage during storage what is also very important.

isolation of specific parts of seed: removing of hull improving digestibility improving palatability detoxification of toxic substances in feed prevention against spoilage during storage

• removing undigested parts of feed material • increasing utilization of feed material •increasing feed intake, reduce feed refusal and wastage • improvement feeds safety for animals

Most of feeds that are used in animal nutrition have to be prepared before feeding, taking into consideration to which kind of animal will be feed.

Removing of undigested for animals part of plants increase feedstuffs digestibility and in consequence, utilization of nutrients. Proper feeds preparation increase feed intake and reduce feed refusal and wastage, what is important if you take into consideration that feeding cost is the main cost of production. More over some feeds could contain antinutritive or even toxic substances and feed processing allow to decrease its content, causing that feeds could be safely use in your animal feeding.

PHYSICAL PROCESSES Feed processes could be divided in respect to method into four groups: physical, chemical, enzymatic and biological. Some of this processes could be applying indirect in farms but some of them are used only in feed industry due to sophisticate equipment application.

CHEMICAL PROCESSES ENZYMATIC PROCESSES BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES

•thermal treatment •mechanical treatment •reduction of water activity •irradiation

•addition of acids, alkaline, oxidizing or reducing agents •hydrolysis of proteins and polysaccharides or inactivation of toxic substances •fermentation •germination

In feed processing it is important to take into consideration economical aspect: benefit from processing must be weighed against its cost. Additionally some of these processes are high water consuming. LiveNutrition

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The most popular method you can use in your farm is crumbing of feeds, moistering, steaming and cooking, drying, ensiling as well as treating some feeds with ammonia or urea. Crumbing of feed material

•Straw, hay, green forages – in chopping form for monogastric animals (improvement of feeds intake) in ruminants particle size of the forage or feed is related with term physically effective NDF – peNDF – fraction of fiber that stimulates chewing.

•Roots and tubers − for cattle could be given without crumbing but it is better to chop them to avoid chocking, for sheep and pigs – always given in chopped form, it minimizes the fodder wastage. •Grains and seeds – should be crumbed before feeding (rolling, grinding, cracking, crimping) – this process is necessary, because whole grains are poorly digested and high proportion passes through the gut indigested. Moistening of feeds

•This process work against dusting of powdery feeds.

•Moisture feeds are easier to mixing and are more readily intake by animals (i.e. pigs). Particle size

•Feeding of animals with finely ground cereals is associated with ulceration of the oesophageal region of the stomach. The fine particles result in very fluid stomach contents, and pepsin and acid are transported very easily within the stomach and reach the unprotected a oesophageal region. The increased fluidity may also result in regurgitation of duodenal digesta. With wheat there is the additional problem of fine grinding producing an unpalatable pasty mass in the mouth.

The degree of grinding should not to be excessive, fine grinding can produce dusty material which could be inhaled and cause irritation to the eyes, respiratory system and may induce vomiting. Steaming and cooking

Drying and ensiling

•potatoes for poultry and pigs are always steamed, that process destroy protease inhibitor, solanine but the most important is increase of starch digestibility (starch change structure and become more available for animals enzymes).

•most popular methods of plant origin feeds processing – conservation in farms, for ruminants •allow on long storage of feeds without losing of nutrients and spoiling.

Ammonia or ureatreatment •most popular process in straw processing for ruminants – lead to softening of straw, enhance the taste, increase digestibility of nutrients (breaks the lignocelluloses complex),

•adds nitrogen to fodder thereby increases its protein value.

Cooking is not so common process of feed preparation. It is a process that is usually use in preparation of dietetic feeds for seek or weak animals and feed is given to them in form of mash or drink. 120

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INDUSTRIAL FEED PROCESSING METHODS Mechanical methods – cleaning, dehulling/ dehusking, crushing. •removing of various contaminations (seeds of poisoning plants, glass, nails, etc.) •decrease fiber content

•increase concentration of crude protein and fat,

•decrease or elimination of antinutritive substances

Mechanical-thermal methods – granulation, micronisation, expansion, extrusion. •changing of chemical composition •changing of structure

•decrease microbiological contamination

Process Cleaning Dehulling/dehusking Expansion Extrusion Granulation Micronisation Pelleting Toasting

Thermal methods – drying, roasting, toasting. •decrease moisture content, •structure changing

•inactivation of antinutritive substances •decrease microbiological contamination •crop pests annihilation

Definition Removal of objects (contaminants, e.g. stones) or vegetative parts of the plant e.g. unattached particles of straw or husks or weeds. Removal of the outer skins of beans, grains and seeds usually by physical means.

Thermal process during which the product’s internal water content, abruptly steamed, leads to the breaking-up of the product.

Thermal process during which the product’s internal water content, abruptly steamed, leads to the breaking-up of the product combined with special shaping by passing through an orifice. Treatment of feed materials to obtain a specific particle size and consistency. Process of reducing the average diameter of a solid material's particles to the micrometer scale. Shaping by compression through a die.

Heating using dry heat usually applied to oilseeds, e.g. to reduce or remove naturally occurring anti-nutritive factors.

Extrusion is a process in which conditioned meal is forced through an adjustable annular gap under high pressure. The high shear forces created rupture the cell structure, increase the temperature (more than 100°C) and gelatinize the starch. Extrusion takes place in a compression chamber of variable length, normally at least 2 m. The pressure (even 20MPa) is produced by feeding meal into the chamber at one end, whence it is moved along the chamber by a revolving screw conveyor before being forced through a die with many holes at the other end. The flow of meal is adjusted to keep the conveyor running full and

obtain maximum pressure at the die. Steam is normally injected along the length of the barrel to aid the extrusion process. Extrusion can be used to condition before pelleting.

Micronisation – heat processing which the layer of grain on the convey or belt is continuously carried under ceramic radiators emitting radiation with wavelength in the near infrared region ranging from 1.8 to 3.4 mcm. It’s decreases the moisture content of grain by 3040%. The intensity of infrared rays’ translation into heat and its effect depends on the type of material to be treated.

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UNDESIRABLE EFFECT OF FEED PROCESSING

increasing fluidity of stomach content

Feed processing beyond incontestable positive effect on feed utilization and safety for animals could also lead to undesirable changes in nutrients content, biological value or activity crucial substances. Inappropriate processed feed could also lead to some disturbances or even disorders in animals.

Feed processing may result in the so-called Maillard reaction. Maillard reaction favour high temperatures and low moisture contents used in termo-mechanical treatments. In the presence of water and heat free aldehyde group of reducing sugars: glucose, fructose, maltose and free amino-acid groups from amino acids may combine to form melanoides this reaction is also known as nonenzymatic browning. It is similar like during meet frying.

DNA

Maillard products may impair nutritional value of feed due to reduction of proteins, especially lysine, and perhaps carbohydrates utilisation.

Amino acid

Maillard reaction

Ribose Glucose  

Maillard Reaction (High Heat)

New flavours Brown Color

CONSERVATION METHODS ENSILING Ensiling is the process of controlled fermentation of a crop of high moisture content. Almost any crop can be preserved as silage, but the commonest are grasses, legumes and whole cereals, especially wheat and maize. Product received after fermentation is called silage. Poor fermentations can lead to excessive run off, loss of nutrients, and production of spoiled silage. Understanding the fermentation process and how it interacts with management factors such as silo packing speed, silage pack density, type of additive used, chop length, silo •cell respiration •production of CO2 and H2O •heat

Phase I

Pre-seal phase

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management during storage and during feedout should help you to minimize nutritive losses during fermentation. There are four stages of ensiling: pre-seal phase, active fermentation phase, stabile phase and feed-out phase. As you can see in the scheme in each phase different chemical and biological reactions occur and various products of that processes are produced.

Phase II •production of lactic and acetic acid •ethanol

Phase IV •lactic acid formation

Phase III

•lactic acid formation

Active fermentation

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Phase VI •material storage

Phase V

Stabile

•re-exposure to oxygen

Feed-out


The first essential objective in preserving crops by natural fermentation is the achievement of anaerobic conditions. In practice it could be done by chopping the crop during harvesting, by rapid filling of the silo, and by adequate consolidation and sealing. The second essential objective is to discourage the activities of undesirable microorganisms such as Clostridia and Enterobacteria, which produce objectionable fermentation products. These are microorganisms that naturally are Pre-seal phase

 starts at harvest and under ideal conditions of moisture, chop length, and firm packing  continues until either the oxygen supply or water-soluble carbohydrates have been depleted  temperature increases - cell respiration where carbon dioxide, water and heat are produced

present on fresh material, but their activity during ensiling, may spoil ensiled material. These microorganisms can be inhibited either by encouraging the growth of desirable lactic acid bacteria or by using chemical additives. Lactic acid bacteria proliferate and produce lactic acid, which decrease pH of ensiled material. pH at level about 4 is sufficient to preserve plant material.

Respiration and proteolysis

 respiration is an oxidative degradation of organic compounds to yield usable Energy, major substrate for oxidation – carbohydrates undergoes glycolysis and subsequent oxidation to CO2 and H2O; produced heat is retained in the mass of herbage, causing an increase in temperature  loss of soluble carbohydrates, through respiration, results in depletion of substrate that subsequent fermentation  plant respiration will continue in the silo as long as both oxygen and a supply of substrate are available therefore achieve of anaerobic conditions is necessary in limiting respiration  rapid proteolysis (hydrolysis of peptide bonds) occurs after harvesting and during wilting in the field, the protein content may be reduced by as much as 50%; the extent of protein degradation varies with plant species, dry matter content and temperature

Good silage management practices include:

 harvesting plants at the proper stage of maturity and moisture  chopping  firm packing of the ensiled material

Resutls

Active fermentation  starts as oxygen levels decline,  anaerobic acetate-producing bacteria and other heterofermentative, lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) proliferate,  production of ethanol, acetic acid, lactic acid and CO2, carbohydrates such as glucose, fructose, xylose and ribose utilized as substrates,  more efficient than the heterofermenters, homofermentative bacteria rapidly drop the pH of the fermenting forage by efficiently producing lactic acid.

At these low pH value, providing oxygen exclusion is maintained, growth of all microorganisms (including LAB) is inhibited, and the silage enters the stable. In this stage, nutrient quality in the silage can be maintained almost indefinitely. LiveNutrition

 production of acetate and lactic acids, domination: of heterofermentative Enterobacteria,  pH reduction below 5.0  at pH below 5.0 heterofermentative bacteria decline; homofermentative bacteria (producing only lactic acid) begin to dominate the fermentation process  growth of LAB produce of lactic acid continues until the pH of the silage is reduced to 4.5 - 3.8  the temperature of the silage mass decreases and stabiles 123


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Stabile phase

Feed-out phase

 this phase lasts through storage (fermentation process is stable as long as oxygen does not penetrate silage)  little biological activity,  storage time could change digestibility of the nutrients; longer storage time: starches become more quickly degraded in the rumen; increase NDF digestibility  oxygen entering can cause the growth of yeasts, molds, and aerobic bacteria,  in silage exposed to oxygen listeria bacteria can growth (listeria can cause disease of the nervous system in animals induce abortions or cause death)

 undesirable spoilage microorganisms number are reduced in the silage but not all killed, upon exposure to oxygen (opening a silo, feedlot) yeast, mold, and aerobic bacteria can again deteriorate silage (areobic deterioration)  these microorganisms metabolize remaining plant sugars, lactic acid or other compounds constituted source of energy to carbon dioxide, water and heat

Heating and a yeast aroma are the most common symptoms of aerobic deterioration of silages.

Spoiled areas of silage have to be refused and are not allow to animals feed out !

Most popular types of silos  bag silo (pressed bag)  round bale bunker  tower silos (oxygen limited silos)  bunker silo

tower silo

bunker silo round bale silo

bag silo 124

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MONITORING THE END PRODUCTS OF SILAGE FERMENTATION – SILAGE QUALITY Organoleptic evaluation of silage quality based on human sensory system. Silages according to this method is graded according to its smell, colour and structure. It is very practical system because it can be easily done and do not requires no special equipment. Chemical analysis of silages includes determination of silage pH, ammonia nitrogen to total nitrogen ratio what testify about proteolysis, as well as

the content of volatile fatty acids – lactic, acetic and butyric what testify about fermentation direction. Amount of determined acids is recalculated on percentage share of individual acid in the sum of volatile fatty acids and with use of Flieg-Zimmer scale taking into consideration the amount of each acid on the sum of acids points is assigned.

 the silage is graded according to its smell, colour and structure  it is points-based system  points may be deduced as a result of this sensory assessment  it is practical because it can be easily done and do not requires no special equipment

 pH  N-ammonia to total nitrogen ratio (NH3N/TN %)  volatile fatty acids (VFA) content (determined according to Flieg-Zimmer)

Organoleptic evaluation - based on human sensory system

Chemical evaluation:

Quality of silage could be evaluated as very bad, bad, average, satisfactory, good and very good. On chart below you can see characteristic of

silages very good and bad quality based on organoleptic and chemical evaluation.

 smell – mild, slightly acidic, fruity  colour – original colour of ensiled material, light, yellow, green  structure – completely recognizable  NH3-N/TN low than 8-10 %  Flieg-Zimmer − 81-100 points

    

Very good quality silage:

Bad quality silage: smell – rancid, nauseous, faecal colour – brown, dark structure – destroyed, viscous, slimy NH3-N/TN – higher than 20% Flieg-Zimmer − 0-20 points

PLANTS EASY, MODERATELY DIFFICULT AND DIFFICULT TO ENSILE EASY TO ENSILE maize, sorghum, corn and cob maize, beet leaves, oat and barley green matter, beets, steamed potatoes, grains.

MODERATELY DIFFICULT TO ENSILE grasses, birdsfoot, lupine, clover-grasses mixture.

Buffering capacity:

 ability of forage to resist changes in pH during ensiling  high buffer capacity prolongs the fermentation process, necessitates the use of more WSC for fermentation, inhibits pH reduction, and increases losses  plants with high buffering capacity are difficult to ensile

DIFFICULT TO ENSILE alfalfa, clover, rye.

Sugar minimum - water soluble carbohydrates content  substrate in fermentation process, necessary for proliferation of microorganism responsible for proper ensiling process  content of WSC (in %), necessary to decrease pH of ensiled material to 4.2  forages with less than 5%–8% WSC/DM may not reach a pH low enough to produce stable silage

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crude fibre [%] on dry matter basis

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Silage Additives According To Dry Matter And Crude Fibre Content In Feedstuffs

35 33 31

formic acid molasses or enzymes + or LAB with homolactic LAB molasses or providing adequate LAB with pace of silage intaking enzymes from clamp silage

formic acid

29 27

propionic acid, sodium benzoate

25 23 21

silage additives are not necessary

19 17 15

20

25

silage additives are not necessary providing adequate pace of silage intaking from clamp silage winter – 1.0 -1.5 m, summer – 2.0 – 2.5 m 30

35

heterolactic LAB, propionic acid, sodium benzoate

40

45

DRYING – HAYMAKING Haymaking is generally the more common process of green forages conservation and its aim is to reduce the moisture content of the green crop to a level low enough to inhibit the Good hay management practices include:

prevention or minimize the loses of nutrients

harvesting plants at the proper stage of maturity and moisture leave in field to dry

using specific equipment to aid dry (turning over – tedder) dried grass swept in rows (windrow)

50 55 dry matter [%]

action of plant and microbial enzymes. In order that a green crop may be stored satisfactorily the moisture content must be reduced to 1520%. Issues….

need plenty of sunshine (3 consecutive days without rain)

easily spoilt by moulds if not quickly dried requires heavy investment in machinery

large storage area is required

hay baler used to compress dried grass – cubes or big round bales

CHEMICAL CHANGES AND LOSSES DURING DRYING

Chemical changes during the drying process resulting in losses of valuable nutrients. The most importnant are:  action of plant enzymes – hydrolysis of fructans to fructose, respiration – losses of hexoses – increase of NDF fraction; hydrolyse the proteins to peptides and amino acids, degradation of specific amino acids

 action of microorganisms – bacterial fermentation (production acetic and propionic acid); moulds (mycotoxins); actinomycetes („farmer’s lung”)

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 oxidation – depigmentation, losses of carotene, but increase of vitamin D,

 mechanical damages - loss of leafy material (rich in nutrients)

Losses depends upon the speed of drying (resistance of the leaf and swath to water loss, weather conditions )  action of plant and microbial enzymes  chemical oxidation  leaching

 mechanical damages

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Legumes are more susceptible to leaf loss than grasses. This can lead to potentially higher dry matter and quality losses when making legume hay compared to grass hay.

FACTORS AFFECTING QUALITY AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF HAY To receive good quality hay you have to remember about factors that affect its quality especially, that these methods might be manipulating or controlling. You could choose plant kind – grasses or legumes or mixture of them to achieve hay with various nutritive

value. Hays made from legumes in example from alfalfa cut in the early bloom stage are generally richer in protein – about 20 percent as dry matter basis and minerals than grass hay.

Plants kind and stage of growth when harvesting

•legumes (clover, alfalfa) richer in proteins than grasses, green cut cereals •optimal stage of growth – various for different species

Changes during storage

•action of plant enzymes and microorganisms (if DM to low) •heating – thermophilic bacteria, reducing the solubility and digestibility of the proteins (Maillard reaction) losses of carotene

Hay preservatives

•chemical preservatives − propionic acid or ammonium bispropionate – prevent moulding; anhydrous ammonia and urea – improve nutritive value of hay •biological additives – lactic acid

Duration of drying and dry matter content

•field or artificially drying •high moisture content favour losses of nutrients caused by respiration as well as plant or microorganisms enzymes activity

Good quality hay

The heat, produced in bad management hay during store tends to accumulate in hay and eventually combustion may occur !!! LiveNutrition

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Feed quality control and ration consistency are directly or indirectly related to proper nutrition and high animals’ performance. The relationship between feed quality and animal performance is important and encompasses not Feed quality has been defined as “any of the features that makes something what it is” and “the degree of excellence which a thing possesses.”

only the quantitative amounts of all feed components but also the digestibility and metabolism of those components. These factors at the end affect quality of animal origin products for humans.

Feed quality and safety is a complex of factors affecting utilization of raw materials as well as commercial feeds in animal nutrition.

A quality feed would supply all nutrients in adequate quantity and high digestibility. There are following quality designations for feeds: Grade 1 – good Grade 2 – fair Grade 3 – poor Grade 4 – inferior

Product quality

Animal performance

Feeds quality

Quality control of incoming ingredients is crucial to predicting the quality of a finished feed. A large number of raw materials are considered for the production of livestock feed, based on their chemical composition and current price. The processing techniques, such as oil extraction, polishing etc., are the factors, which affect the composition of raw materials.

Adulteration of raw materials is also quite common. It is, therefore, desirable to lay down specifications for purchase of standard raw materials and negotiate prices effectively. Quality feeds analysis may be divided into physical and chemical methods as is shown in presented table.

Ingredients Quality (Qualitative) Physical evaluation

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•color •texture •odor or taste •particle size •shape •adulteration •evidence of wetting •damage and deterioration •bulk density storage •pests •faecal material, hairs etc.

Ingredients Quality (Quantitative) Chemical evaluation •chemical analysis •anti-nutritional factors: extrinsic (contaminants), intrinsic •decomposition and rancidity test, •protein quality •energy

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Either acceptable definition of feed quality is knowing the quantitative amounts of all components, good and bad, in a feed. Generally, quality is verified by comparison with a known standard. These relative values of quality over time are extremely valuable and useful in many situations. There are various methods and complex of factors that are taking into consideration in estimation of feeds quality for livestock. First, crucial step in proper feed quality estimation is correct method of feed sampling. Only in representative feed sample you can determine nutrient contents, contents of contamination and toxins or decomposition and rancidity products. The simplest method of estimation of feeds quality is sensor evaluation that takes into consideration colour, texture, smell or taste of feed material. Physical hazards may also by

detected by visual estimation of feed. More complicated are quantitative methods of feed quality evaluation because it demands complicate chemical analysis that allows on determination of chemical composition of feeds including content of nutrients as well as contaminants and toxins or feed decomposition and rancidity. The quantitative methods are often combined with animal experiments to better predict utilization of feeds component by animals. The crucial factor affecting feed quality is also the storage of raw material for further feeding.

SAMPLING It is to obtain samples that reffer to the part of material which they have been takenIn the chart below there is presented the scheme of proper procedure of sampling.

Individual samples

Individual samples of feed material are numerous samples collected in agreement with scheme for specific feed material. The number and way of samples collection are under regulation procedures. In these procedures specific tools should be use and sampling should be made according to specific, for individual feed materials, schemes.

Composition sample

Composite sample is creating by combining a number of individual samples and is useful in determining the average composition of feed material. Make sure the composite sample is well mixed. This sample should be representative. This sample shall be divided into three equal parts. One of these samples shall be for the referee. LiveNutrition

Hay sampling Referee sample

Referee (check) sample is a sample that is carefully subdivided with portions form composite and sent to a number of laboratories for analysis and used as a check on laboratory assay procedures. Samples shall be properly handle.

Reference sample is a sample of known characteristics kept as a guide or comparison check for incoming ingredients and finished product. The reference sample may be used for visual comparison (e.g., colour, texture).

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The goal in sampling is to obtain samples that are representative. A wrong answer which may arise from incorrect sampling, incorrect handling of samples, analytical error, etc. is even worse than no answer. Therefore, it is crucial to know proper procedures and techniques for sampling for various kinds of feed ingredients.

QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT Qualitative – physical evaluation of feeds include complex of simple methods that allows visually or with use of other senses like smell or taste assess feed quality.

Colour Smell Taste Touch

Ingredients Quality (Qualitative) Physical evaluation

Physical hazards

Colour – appearance of feed material of feed ingredient may reveal its quality, changes in colours gives indicator of the plants or grains maturity, storage conditions, presence of toxins, sand contaminations, i.e. orange to red colour of sorghum indicates high tannin content, in the case of DDGS it testify about overheating material during processing. Texture – important quality indicator of silages, and hay, i.e. good quality silage shall be leafy and have soft texture. Smell – farmer should familiarize himself with the normal smell of the feed ingredients. Any change in the normal smell should be viewed with suspicion. Musty odour may indicate beginning of fungal contamination or boring insects in grains. Odour of petroleum products – is suggestive of excessive pesticide or fungicides. Proper smell of hay and silage testify their quality.

Taste – each ingredient has a different taste. Changes in the taste like i.e. bitterness in grains, soya, sunflower oil meal and groundnut cake indicates the presence of mycotoxins. The level of salt can be detected by tasting, bitter taste of rice polish indicates rancidity of fatty acids.

Touch and sound – feeling the raw material will indicate dryness. Dry grains on pouring down or biting will produce sound of spilling coins. Physical hazards – glass, plastic, bone fragments, wear metals and other metal objects, insects or insect fragments, rodents or rodent fragments or rocks.Hardware disease in cattle occurs when a sharp object penetrates the gut lining and damages some other organ or creates peritonitis (infection within the abdomen).

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QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT CHEMICAL ANALYSIS Laboratory evaluation of feeds may be performer by chemical analysis or by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). This evaluation gives information concerning concentration of nutrients in examined feed and is crucial in daily ration balance for different groups of animals.

Determination of insoluble crude protein (ICP) or acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) refer to the proportion of CP that is no available to the animal as well as indicator of the amount of heating. For silages routinely pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) as well as ammonia-nitrogen content are determined.

Chemical composition of feed is the first factor determining nutritive value of feedstuffs. Proximate analysis includes determination or calculation of: dry matter (DM), crude ash (CA), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fibre (CF) and N-free extractives. Additionally, gross energy (GE), fibre fractions: neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) acid detergent lignin (ADL) should be determined, as well as dietary fibre content. Chemical analysis may gives also information about individual minerals content, vitamins content, amino acid profile or fatty acids composition.

CONTAMINANTS AND TOXINS

There are various sources of animal feeds contamination including: environmental pollution and products of activities of insects and microbes as well as endogenous plants toxins.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS organic and inorganic compounds that may occur in feedstuffs, including: pesticides (industrial pollutants, heavy metals.

MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION •Escherichia coli - faecal contamination of feeds, heat-processing prior to distribution minimize or even eliminate the risks of contamination with E. coli as well as Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. •In poor-quality silages and big-bale silages Listeria monocytogenes tends to occur. Listeria causes abortion, meningitis, encephalitis and septicaemia in animals and humans. The incidence of various forms of listeriosis has been increasing in recent years.

BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS

Endogenous plants metabolites

Microbes and their metabolites

Contaminants and toxins

WEED SEEDS The impact of weed seeds arises from the toxins (alkaloids, saponins, amino acids and proteinase inhibitors) they contain and from their diluent effects on nutrient density of feeds.

•Fungal contaminants feeds may be contaminated with fungi and their spores. Predominant genus is: Aspergillus and Penicillium, Fusariumand Alternari a, (important contaminants of cereal grains). •Fungal contamination is undesirable because of the potential for mycotoxin production. •Spores from mouldy hay, silage, brewers' grain and sugar-beet pulp may be inhaled or consumed by animals with deleterious effects termed "mycosis„ (ringworm and mycotic abortion). •Toxigenic fungi may be subdividing into "field" (or plant-pathogenic) and "storage" (or saprophytic/spoilage) organisms. Field fungi are: Claviceps, Neotyphodium, Fusarium and Alternaria while Aspergillus and Penicillium exemplify storage organisms. FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

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Mycotoxins are poisonous chemical compounds produced by certain fungi, therefore are associated with diseased or mouldy crops, although the visible mould contamination can be superficial; few of them are regularly found in animal feedstuffs such as grains and seeds. Mycotoxins have the capacity to impair animal health and productivity; the diverse effects precipitated by these compounds are term "mycotoxicosis„ with distinct syndromes as well

as non-specific conditions. Mycotoxin contamination of forages and cereals occurs in the field (plants pathogenic fungi), during processing and storage of harvested products and feed, Moisture content and ambient temperature are key determinants of fungal colonization and mycotoxin production. Depending on the place of contamination, micotoxins can be classified into two groups:

Trichothecenes

Field mycotoxins (Fusarium)

Storage mycotoxins (Aspergillus, Penicillium)

Deoxynivelenol (DON) T2 toxin Zearalenone (ZON)

Fumonisins

Fumonisin B1 (FB1)

Aflatoxins

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)

Ochratoxins

Ochratoxin A (OTA)

ENDOGENOUS PLANTS METABOLITES • Plant components that have the potential to precipitate adverse effects on the productivity of farm livestock.

• These compounds are present in the foliage and/or seeds of virtually every plant that is used in practical feeding. • Plant toxins may be divided into a heat-labile group (lectins, proteinase inhibitors and cyanogens), and a heat-stable group (antigenic proteins, condensed tannins, quinolizidine alkaloids, glucosinolates, gossypol, saponins, the non-protein amino acids and phytooestrogens).

LECTINS – proteins capable of damaging the intestinal mucosa; resist digestive breakdown; example of a lectin – is concanavalin A (jack bean); lectins are also present in other legume grains (winged bean and soybean); effect of lectins is reduction nutrient absorption, but immune function may also be impaired.

PROTEINASE INHIBITORS – proteins able to react in a highly specific manner with a number of proteolytic enzymes; trypsin inhibitors are an important determinant of nutritive value of feeds; proteinase inhibitors are present in leguminous seeds (soybean, peas, field beans); effects in animals: reduced protein digestion and endogenous loss of amino acids, overall performance is impaired. 132

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ANTIGENIC PROTEINS – certain storage proteins of legume seeds with adverse effects on immune function in livestock; soybean antigenic proteins have been identified as glycinin and conglycinin; effects of antigenic proteins are embodied within the "immune hypersensitivity" syndrome in calves and piglets; antigens provoke extensive local and systemic immunological reactions with severe intestinal damage resulting in abnormalities in movement of digesta, impaired nutrient absorption and a predisposition to diarrhoea. CYANOGENS – glycosides that readily yield HCN and that causes dysfunction of the central nervous system, respiratory failure and cardiac arrest; it occur in plants in diverse forms (in sorghum and cassava - dhurrin and linamarin, respectively) and in leenseeds. CONDENSED TANNINS (CTs) – a subset of tannins group widely distributed in leguminous forages and seeds and in sorghum; cattle and sheep are sensitive to CTs – in sheep: impaired rumen function and depressed intake, wool growth and live-weight gain; moderate levels CTs may result in nutritional advantages in respect of increased bypass protein availability and bloat suppression in cattle; at higher levels CTs reduce gastrointestinal parasitism in lambs.

GLUCOSINOLATES – glycosides, removal of glucose from glucosinolates results in the a number of toxic metabolites; the most common breakdown products are isothiocyanates and nitriles, these products may cause organ damage, goitrogenic effects or reduced feed intake, particularly in nonruminant animals (Brassicaceae, Cruciferae – rapeseeds).

GOSSYPOL – a pigment occurs in cottonseed, free gossypol is the toxic entity and causes organ damage, cardiac failure and death; cottonseed meal fed to bulls can induce increased sperm abnormalities and decreased sperm production. SAPONINS – divided into two groups: steroidal saponins, which occur as glycosides and triterpenoid saponins (soybean, clovers and alfalfa); intake of forage plants containing steroidal saponins many cause hepatogenous photosensitization conditions in sheep; triterpenoid saponins from alfalfa reduce feed degradation in the rumen. NON PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS – wide range of compounds occur in the foliage and seeds of plants; Forage and root brassica crops contain S-methyl cysteine sulphoxide (SMCO); foliage and seeds of Leucaena leucocephala contains aromatic amino acid mimosine; in ruminants feeding of brassica forage causes organ damage with haemolytic anaemia, abrupt feeding of Leucaena to sheep causes shedding of fleece, reduced intake, organ damage and death; in cattle: loss of hair, excessive salivation, lethargy, weight loss and enlarged thyroids.

DECOMPOSITION AND RANCIDITY DURING STORAGE Storage/preservation conditions of raw material are important factor affect quality of obtained feeds. There are specific conditions

and rules of safe storage various kind of feeds. Generally, to obtain good quality feed after storage, below conditions have to be met:

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How to store feeds correctly to further use in animal nutrition without decrease of nutrients content and spoiling.

Proper moisture content – i.e. grains should contain about 12-15 % moisture for safe storage to avoid fungal growth and mycotoxin production; proper drying methods sun or mechanical are crucial for obtain optimal moisture content to storage; excessive temperatures during artificially drying should be avoiding because of overheating.

It is important to avoid any damage before and during drying, and in storage. Damaged grain, seeds or tubers are more prone to fungal invasion and therefore mycotoxin contamination and spoiling. Remove clods and dirt before putting the potatoes into storage. It is essential that numbers of insects or other pests in stored feeds be kept to a minimum to avoid damage and promote fungal growth.

Preservatives or natural inhibitors may be used to control fungal growth in stored commodities.

Proper storage conditions – are mainly connected with control humidity by proper ventilation, air movement and temperature. A good storage management program should include daily checks of the storage.

During storage of raw material some chemical changes may occurs that include products of forage decomposition and rancidity.

There specific chemical methods allow on determination products of these processes.

Chemical changes of carbohydrates

Main process of carbohydrates changes during storage include bursting and gelatinisation of starch. Amylases hydrolase the starch into dextrose and maltose and significantly increase the content of reducing sugars during storage. Storage of cereals at high moisture content produces sour odour due to the production of alcohols and acetic acid. Proteins decomposition

Denaturation of proteins and increase of free amino acids contents, formation of certain sulphur amino acids imparts bad odour. Free amino acids may undergo Maillard reaction. Lipids decomposition

Oxidation of lipids especially the unsaturated fatty acids results in typical rancid flavour, odour and taste. Hydrolysis of lipids increase the fatty acids contents that is an index for material deterioration.

BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

Biological evaluation of the feeds involves the use of animals, specialized person to conduct experiments as well as sophisticated equipment. These methods are expensive and time consuming. Animal experiments are necessary to receive information about individual feed’s nutrients utilization in different species of animals. In wide range of experiments conducted in animals the most important are: digestibility trials, balance trials, biological value of feed’s protein determination,

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energy metabolism trials, etc. On the base of numerously animal experiments, digestibility coefficients of nutrients, that are given in nutritional standards or specific energy units were estimated. Various mathematic equations that are commonly used in animal feeding are based on previously conducted animal experiments and are combined with chemical evaluation on feed materials.

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RELATIVE FEED VALUE (RFV) and RELATIVE FORAGE QUALITY (RFQ) RELATIVE FEED VALUE (RFV) and RELATIVE FORAGE QUALITY (RFQ) are forage quality terms that account for animal responses to forage quality. RELATIVE FEED VALUE (RFV) accounts for an animal’s expected forage’s intake and its energy value. It is an index that combines ADF (DDM) and NDF (DMI) nutritional factors to arrive at one number to measure and compare forage quality. It has been used to comparison forages with varying digestibility and intake to different livestock classes. It is an index value that ranks forages according to ADF and NDF content as compared to full bloom alfalfa, which is assigned a RFV of 100. Relative feed value includes digestible dry matter (DDM) and dry matter intake (DMI) in its calculation RFV = DDM x DMI/1.29. The constant, 1.29, was chosen so that RFV = 100 for full bloom alfalfa. RELATIVE FORAGE QUALITY (RFQ) is a better index and estimate of actual forage quality than RFV, and better predicts how an animal will perform on a particular forage. It is calculated from TDN and intake based on estimates of digestible fiber instead of ADF. Factor

Stage of maturity of the forage

Leafiness (Leaf to stem ratio)

Odor and condition Foreign material and weeds

DDM (%) = 88.9 – [0.779 * ADF (% of DM)]

Total digestible nutrients (TDN) is an estimate of the total amount of nutrients in a forage that is digestible by the animal according to specific equations. (i.e. NRC recommendations) as well as dry mater intake. DMILegume = 120/NDF + (NDFD – 45) x 0.374 / 1350 x 100

The most reliable approach for evaluating hay for quality is a combination of physical/sensory inspection. There are five major factors that are evaluated in sensory hay quality determination: Maximum score

Description

Legumes Bud stage or earlier Early bloom Late bloom Seed stage or later

Grasses Pre-boot stage 26-30 Boot stage 20-25 Early head 10-19 Full head or greater 0-9

26-30 20-25 10-19 0-9

High leafiness with attached leaves High leafiness with many detached leaves Moderate leafiness Stemmy hay and/or hay with shattered leaves

Hay with a bright green color Bleached hay on surface or only part of hay Golden yellow to yellow throughout Dark brown or black hay (rain damage) Brown hay (heat damage)

Smell of new mown hay Musty or other off-odors Moldy or unusually dusty hay

Free of any foreign material Few to some weeds Unpalatable or mature weeds Other foreign material

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18 – 20 13 – 17 6 – 12 0–5

18 – 20 11 - 17 6 - 10 0 - 5* 0 - 5* 15 - 20 0 - 10 0 - 5* 10 5–9 0-4 0 - 5*

30

20

20

20 10

* So poor or injurious that hay may be totally unacceptable for animal feed

Colour

RFQ = (DMI, % of body weight) * (TDN, % of DM) / 1.23. Digestible dry matter (DDM) is a calculated value used to estimate the percentage of the forage that is digestible as determined from ADF. Digestible dry matter can be used to estimate the energy value of the forage, but The lower the ADF, the higher the DDM will be. The following formula is used to calculate DDM:

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QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF SILAGE

Field methods of silage quality assessment are very simple and useful for farmers. This method included determination of silage texture, colour and smell. On the base of those assessments

farmers may estimate silage quality and identify processes which occurs. Silage texture may be estimates as following:

Physical Appearance and Texture

Aroma

•Leafy soft texture – high content of ME and CP as well. •Leafy but leaves more fibrous – lower digestibility (high content of CF). •Stemmy, fibrous; seed heads present – ME and CP content low (plants may be harvested too late, in high maturity stage). •In silage presented legumes – increase CP content in silage, as well as content of ME, •Presence of mould or rotten silage – spoilage of silage, dry matter has been lost and silage quality declined during storage. •Very wet, effluent seeping from stack or ponding in bottom of wrapped bales – moisture squeezed from silage, forage was ensiled at too low DM content, low quality silage because of high risk of poor fermentation and significant nutrients losses. •Very dry, even brittle – silage was ensiled at too high DM content, probably poor compacted, risk of overheating, increased silage losses (low ME and CP content).

•Mild, pleasantly acidic, sour milk or natural yoghurt smell – normal lactic acid fermentation. •Very little smell, but slight sweet aroma – heavily wilted silage with little fermentation, especially from crops with low sugar content; stronger aroma as DM content falls. •Sweet, fruity alcoholic aroma – yeasts have played an active role in the fermentation; ethanol levels high; silages unstable during feedout. •Sour vinegar smell – poor fermentation dominated by bacteria producing acetic acid; common with low DM, low sugar forages. •Rancid butter, putrid aroma – poor fermentation dominated by clostridia bacteria – high levels of butyric acid; silage wet and slimy; (Rub silage between fingers, warm the hand for a few seconds and then smell – presence of butyric acid is easily detected). •Strong tobacco or caramel smell, with flavour of burnt sugar – heat damaged silage; palatable to stock but nutritive value very low. •Musty or mouldy aroma with only mild fermentation aroma – mouldy silage due to poor compaction and sealing, also evident in aerobically spoiled silage, which can be warm and have a compost aroma. Colour

•Very dark olive green - weather damaged, and/or very wet silage with a poor fermentation; high legume content, or immature grass that may have been fertilised with a high rate of nitrogen, •Dark olive green/brown - normal colour for wilted legumes, which are usually a darker colour than grass silages, •Light green to green/brown - normal colour range for grass, cereal and maize silages, •Pale green/straw yellow - normal colour range for wilted grass silages; heavily wilted silages with restricted fermentation tend to be greener, •Light amber brown - typical of late-cut grass and cereal silages. Can occur with low DM silages, and weather-damaged grass silages, •Brown - some heating has occurred during storage or due to aerobic spoilage during feedout; some loss in digestibility and heat damage of protein; more common with wilted silages, •Dark brown - more extensive heating; may also be some black patches of silage on the surface; significant loss in digestibility and high proportion of protein is heat damaged and unavailable to the animal; inadequate compaction, delayed sealing or poor air exclusion; usually accompanied by significant proportion of waste (mouldy) silage. 136

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Feed additives means substances, microorganisms or preparations, other than feed material and premixtures, which are

intentionally added to feed or water in order to perform, in particular, one or more of the functions:

Feed additive shall:

favourably affect animal performance, health or welfare

favourably affect the environmental consequences of animal production have beneficial effect on feed characteristics meet the nutritional needs of animals

have beneficial effect on characteristics of animal origin products favourably affect the colour of ornamental fish and birds

The list of the most common used feed addititves in livestock nutrition is shown below. The antibiotics used to be very popular in the past but since January 2006 are not authorized as feed additives. Also coccidiostats or histomonostats are not approved for use in animal nutrition as feed additives in the EU since January 2013.

Most common used/use feed additives in animal nutrition

• minerals • vitamins • enzymes • probiotics, prebiotics • amino acids • silage additives • antibiotics • coccidiostats • histomonostats

Feed additives due to their content and functions in animal nutrition can be used as: mineral premixtures

vitamin preparations and premixtures used therapeutically and preventively

mineral-vitamin premixtures

mineral-vitamin premixtures with other feed additives (AA, enzymes ect.)

Remember that feed additive shall not have an adverse effect on animal health, human health or the environment. Please also note that the use of a number of feed additives in feed premixes or feeds carries the risk of occurrence of various interactions between active substances present in these additives. Only few of them such as probiotics or prebiotics might be administered to animal diet directly, but in most of cases taking into account practical aspect of animal feeding, feed additives are given to animals in premixtures characterized by high concentration of biologically active substances highly concentrated or chemically pure on so-called carrier, usually fodder chalk, bran, water or other feed materials. Premixtures are not intended to be fed directly but are included in mixtures in amount of 0.5% to 5%. Depending on the needs, the premixture can be used in various forms, for instance as a rumen bolus, aqueous solutions for drinking or salt licks. PREMIXTURES: •high concentration of biologically active substances on so-called carrier - most often fodder chalk, bran, water •are not intended to be fed directly •0.5-5.0 % of diet

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In practical nutrition of animals kept under intensive production conditions it is necessary to supplement the animals diets with minerals and vitamins due to: * significant quantities of these compounds deposited in animal origin products * stress elicited by keeping animals in the conditions of large scale husbandry * high variation of these compounds contents in feeds and losses during feeds processing, production of mixtures and their storage.

GROUPS OF FEED ADDITIVES Due to the role of feed additives we can classified them into four groups: technological, sensory, nutritional and zootechnical additives. substances added to feeds for technological purposes, e.g. preservatives, binders, thickeners

technological additives

sensory additives

substances providing some nutrients for animals, e.g. vitamins, amino acids, urea

additives affect favourably the performance of animals in good health or used to affect favourably the environment, e.g. probiotics

nutritional additives

substances added to feed to improve or change its organoleptic properties or the visual characteristics of animal products

zootechnical additives

TECHNOLOGICAL ADDITIVES preservatives antioxidants emulsifiers thickeners

gelling agents adhesives

radionuclides controllers

substances or microorganisms protecting the feed from spoiling due to the microorganisms or their metabolites

substances prolonging the acceptable period of storing of feeds and feed materials, protecting them form the oxidation process

substances foreclosing the creation or maintaining a mixture of two or more non mixing phases in a homogenic feed substances increasing adhesiveness of feed

substances giving the feed structure by creation of gel

substances increasing the tendency of feed microparticles to adhere

substances that stop the absorption of radionuclided or increase their excretion

antiballing agents

substances that lower the tendencies of individual microparticles to adhere

silage additives

substances including enzymes or microorganisms, that are introduced to the feed to improve the production of silage

acidity regulators

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denaturants

substances that adjust feeds’ pH

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SENSORY ADDITIVES

NUTRITIONAL ADDITIVES vitamins, pro-vitamins and chemically well-defined substances having similar effect

colourants

 add or restore colour in feed;  when fed to animals, add colours to food of animal origin;  favourably affect fish or the colour of ornamental birds;  add colors or bring back colors in feed

compounds of trace elements

flavouring compounds

amino acids, their salts and analogues

substances the inclusion of which in feedstuffs increases feed smell or palatability

urea and its derivatives

ZOOTECHNICAL ADDITIVES digestibility enhancers

substances which, when fed to animals, increase the digestibility of the diet, through action on target feed materials

substances which favourably affect the environment

substances that, used in animal nutrition, limit the negative influence of animal production on the environment

gut flora stabilisers

other zootechnical additives

micro-organisms or other chemically defined substances, which, when fed to animals, have a positive effect on the gut flora

Using the feed additives in animal nutrition, remember to pay attention to the expiry date of product or allowed time of storing, counting from the date of production, directions for use and the content of active substance.

Giving animals feed additives in insufficient or exceeding their needs amounts as well as after the expiry date will not give the desired effect generating the same the costs of their purchase.

The use of feed additives increases costs of feeding, which already equal to ca. 70% of all costs of monogastric animal and to ca. 50% of ruminants production. Before you decide to introduce feed additives to animal diets, consider feed additives costs and possible incomes being a result of their application. Remember as well, that the best effect is given by “rotational” use of feed additives (change every 2-3 months). MINERALS VITAMINS THE MOST COMMON FEED ADDITIVES USED IN ANIMAL NUTRITION

PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS AMINO ACIDS UREA AND ITS DERIVATIVES FEED ENZYMES MODIFIERS OF RUMEN FERMENTATION SILAGE ADDITIVES LiveNutrition

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MINERALS

CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS USED AS A SOURCE OF MINERALS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION INORGANIC

ORGANIC

oxides

sulphates

metal specific AA complex

metal AA complex

chlorides, chlorates

iodides

metal AA chelate

metal proteinate

carbonates

metal polysaccharide complex

metal propionate

selenite, seleniate

PROS AND CONS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC MINERALS INORGANIC

IN ORGANIC BOUNDS

 low absorption from digestive tract – 530% being the result of complex forming with other nutrients such as fibre, phytates, tannins  low solubility  great part of minerals ingested by animal is excreted not being utilize and charge environment  attractive price

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 better mineral absorption  possibility of reduction mineral concentration in animal diet  lower mineral emission to the environment  not so toxic when overdosed  metal ions of organic minerals do not initiate free radicals formation in premixtures what enhances vitamin stability  high price !!!

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COMPOUNDS COMMON USED AS A SOURCE OF MACROELEMENTS • calcium carbonate • fodder chalk • phosphates • dolomites

CALCIUM

• calcium, sodium phosphates • ammonia phosphate (for cattle) • oxides

•sodium chlorate •sodium carbonate milking cows >20kg of milk

•potassium carbonate however K deficiency occurs quite rarely due to high potassium content in plant feedstuffs POTASSIUM

•magnesium sulphate •mangesium carbonate •mangesium oxide •mangesium chelate MAGNESIUM

•sodium chlorate

PHOSPHORUS

SODIUM

CHLORINE

• sodium sulphate • methionine • pure suplhur

SULPHUR

COMPOUNDS COMMON USED AS A SOURCE OF MICROELEMENTS • chlorides, oxide, iron sulphate • iron fumarate, citrate, lactate, carbonate • iron chelate

• potassium iodide • sodium iodide • calcium iodate

IODINE

• zinc chloride, oxide, sulphate • zinc lactate, acetate, carbonate • zinc chelate

• copper acetate • copper oxide, sulphate • copper chelate

• cobalt nitrate • cobalt chloride • cobalt acetate • cobalt sulphate

• manganese oxides • manganese chloride • manganese sulphate • manganese chelate

IRON

COPPER

COBALT

ZINC

MANGANESE

• sodium selenite • selenomethionine • selenium enriched yeast

SELENIUM

Due to numerous advantages of organic compounds which are a high available source of minerals, their use is fully justified. The factor limiting their use in animal nutrition is the high purchase price. It is recommended to meet 20 – 30% of animal requirement for minerals using organic compounds. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

VITAMINS

Feedstuffs contain vitamins. However, high variability of vitamin contents and their availability in feedstuffs as well as many factors

affecting vitamin activity negatively make supplementation of animal diets with vitamins justified.

RECOMMENDATION ! TO MEET ALL ANIMAL REQUIREMENT FOR VITAMINS USING SYNTHETIC FORMS

synthetic vitamins

• •

are produced by microorganisms in fermentation (high costs) or multistage chemical process need to be free-flowing, not dusty and mix homogenously with other diet components must remain stable and biologically available when consumed by animal some commercial vitamin preparations are dispersed in wax or gelatin that protect vitamins against oxidation

In practical feeding vitamin content in feeds and animal requirement for vitamin are expressed in international units (IU) or micrograms (mcg) of ACTIVE SUBSTANCE. vitamin A D E K B1 B2 B3 (PP) B4 B5 B6 B8 (H) B12 C

chemical name fat-soluble retinol chole - (D3) and ergocalciferol (D2) tocopherols menadione water-soluble thiamine riboflavin niacin choline pantothenic acid pyridoxine biotin cobalamin, cyanocobalamin ascorbic acid

FACTOR

The recommended dose for monogastric animals is given on concentrate mixtures basis, for ruminants and horses – daily dose per os.

Due to numerous factors affecting vitamin activity negatively, vitamins are usually supplied at levels greater than requirements determined under experimental conditions. The difference in physiological requirement and dose tolerated is large (from 100 to 1000 times more than daily requirement, except vitamins A and D3). Remember that this safety margins should not be excessive due to two major reasons: the first one are the costs of vitamin preparations purchase and the second one – an excess of one vitamin may increase the requirement for another e.g. an excess of vitamin A increases dietary requirement of vitamins E, D and K.

VERY SENSITIVE

pH 7 (neutral) pH < 7 (acid)

D3, folic acid, Ca pantothenian, amide of nicotinic acid D3, K, B1, B2, C, Ca pantothenian, choline chloride

pH > 7 (alkali)

A, C

ultraviolet light

A, D3, B2, C, folic acid

oxygen

temperature

heavy metals

142

humidity

UNSTABLE

B1, C, folic acid

D3, E, B6, B12, folic acid K, B6, B12

B1, folic acid

A, D3, B2, B6, H, Ca pantothenian, amide of nicotinic acid

Ca pantothenian, nicotinic acid, choline chloride

A, D3, K, B1, C

A, D3, B1, B6, C

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E, K, B1, B12, folic acid


PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS, SYNBIOTICS SYNBIOTICS

PROBIOTICS – preparations containing mono or mixed culture of live microorganisms and their metabolites, gut bacteria, mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or their mixture

+

PREBIOTICS – substances that selectively stimulate microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract

Role of probiotics and prebiotics in animal nutrition  probiotics;  prebiotics

 decrease in pH of gut content and holding down the multiplication of pathogens, which results in decrease of bacteria related diarrhoea occurrence  regulation of mineral management by increasing the absorption of Ca, Mg and Fe ions in the large intestine  immunostimulation of gut mucosa  prevent adhesion of pathogen bacteria e.g. Salmonella sp. or E. coli sp. to intestinal mucosa, protecting from pathogen colonization  stimulation of the growth of intestinal villi

PROBIOTICS – lyophilized, properly selected strains of bacteria together with medium they grew on. As carrier, Calcium carbonate, dried distilling stock, dried whey and others are used most often. Most preparations contain, apart from strains of bacteria, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other substances in amounts that stimulate the development of bacteria in gastrointestinal tract. In practical nutrition of animals mainly following genus of bacteria are used as probiotics: Lactobacillus

 enhancement of digestion by supporting peristalsis and fermentation of dietary fiber in the gut, which final products (mainly VFA) stimulate development of intestinal mucosa  enhancement of animal production – greater body weight gains, lower mortality rate  prevention of amine synthesis  production of bacteriostatic substances with antibiotic activity - acidophiline, lactobaciline, bacteriocine and rusine  synthesis of vitamin B complex and vit. K  substrate for probiotic bacteria residing in large intestine

PREBIOTICS contain nutritional substances that stimulate development and growth of natural, useful gut microflora that inhabits gastrointestinal tract of animals. Those substances cannot be hydrolysed nor absorbed until the end of small intestine, they should be a selective reactant of fermentation by potentially benefitial bacteria present in large intestine. In practical nutrition of animals mainly indigestible oligosaccharides are used as prebiotics: mannanooligosaccharides (MOS) fructooligosaccharides (FOS)

Bifidobacterium Streptococcus

transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS)

Enterococcus

galactooligosaccharides (GOS)

Bacillus

inulin lactulose and

yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

beta-glucans

mycelium of mould Aspergillus oryzae LiveNutrition

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Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

In ruminants, the inclusion of live yeasts modifies beneficially rumen fermentation. Live yeasts ferment sugars derived from starch degradation which is in great quantity in high – concentrate diet. Due to the fact that yeasts compete with lactic acid bacteria for starch and other sugars, they stabilize the rumen pH and reduce the risk of acidosis. What is more live yeasts scavenge oxygen in rumen and help to maintain anaerobic conditions favoured by cellulolytic bacteria what affect digestibility of dietary fibre positively and the same increases dry matter of forage intake. This in turn results

in better live weight gains, milk yield and higher fat content in milk. Supplementing diets for ruminants with live yeasts you should remember that they are not able to colonize rumen environment and due to the fact that they are able to survive in rumen approximately 12 hours. It means that live yeasts should be given to animal twice a day. While administering according to manufacturer recommendations live yeast increases milk production about 1.5 liter per day and improve health status of the herd.

SCHEME OF ACTION OF LIVE YEAST CULTURES IN THE RUMEN REMOVAL OF STARCH/SUGARS

live yests ferment sugars from starch degradation compete with LAB for substrate, therefore stabilise rumen pH and reduced risk of acidosis

live yeasts scavenge oxygen in the rumen, help to maintain anaerobic conditions what enhance proliferation of cellulolytic bacteria

RATE OF FIBRE DIGESTION

DMI

DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS

the better fibre digestibility is the more DM of forage cow is able to intake what improve liveweigh gain, milk yield and milk fat content

NUTRIENT ABSORPTION

better ration

feed

conversion

ANIMAL PERFOMANCE

LIVE YEASTS:

MILK COWS 1.0 x 1010 CFU

BEEF CATTLE 0.8 x 1010 CFU

CALVES 0.4 x 1010 CFU

CFU – Colony Forming Unit

do not have ability to colonize rumen environment since, they survive in rumen 12 hours after administration, they have to be given in diet twice a day increase milk yield about 1.5 L per day and improve health of the herd

Administration of probiotics is especially recommended for new-born animals (immature gut microflora), animals recovering from illness especially if antibiotics have been used for curation as well as during a period of raised stress levels (change of diet, room, inappropriate temperature, too high animals density) Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics are administered to animals „per os” as powder, emulsion, tablets, granules, paste or in premixtures. Good quality commercial milk replacers are also supplemented with probiotics. 144

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PURE AND SYNTHETIC AMINO ACIDS Proteins after digestion and absorption are a source of amino acids to build specific proteins of animal’s organism. Thus amino acid profile of feed proteins ingested by animals is very important, especially in monogastric animals. Some of amino acids could be synthesize de novo in animal organism in quantities meeting their needs, but some of them have to be ingested with diet because they cannot be synthesized. These amino acids are referred as indispensable or essential. To meet physiological needs, these amino acids must be provided in a diet. In practice to meet pigs and poultry requirement for essential amino acids both soybean meal or fish meal could be applied in the diet. However, fish meal is quite expensive and soybean protein is not so well balanced in essential amino acids having regard to animal •non-ruminants animals do not synthetize essential amino acids (EAA) •all of EAA have to be provided in diet

REQUIREMENT OF ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS

requirement. In such situation, introduction into diet soybean meal or fish meal leads to situation that requirement for limiting amino acids is met but content of other amino acids is higher than animals require. This excess of total protein is wasteful, because animals could not utilize it. Unused amino acids after deamination are excreted. What is more deamination is a process that demand energy, so both nitrogen and energy losses occur. Additionally, excreted nitrogen is a source of environment pollution. An alternative method to precise balance of essential amino acids is use of pure or synthetic amino acids. Various protein feedstuffs are used to meet pigs and poultry requirement for essential amino acids.

IN PRACTICE TO MEET THE REQUIREMENT OF LIMITING AA, AN EXCESS OF TOTAL PROTEIN HAS TO BE SUPPLEMENTED

•or high levels of not so well-balanced protein like soybean meal •necessity of the use of expensive protein sources like fish meal

•oversupplied total proteins can not be utilize and has to deaminated what requires energy supply •nitrogen of unused total protein is excreted and is a source of the environment pollution.

WASTES OF BOTH PROTEIN AND ENERGY METABOLISM

AN ALTERNATIVE TO THE USE OF HIGH LEVELS OF UNBALANCED PROTEINS

PURE and SYNTHETIC AMINO ACIDS According to Liebig’s law of the minimum the actual biological value of protein is determined by this essential amino acids that is in the greatest deficiency compared to animal requirement that depends on animal species, age, physiological state and production level. The first, most common limiting amino acid in animal nutrition is lysine. Methionine, tyrosine and tryptophan also are considering as limiting amino acids therefore, they are balanced in concentrate mixtures for monogastric animals. Due to significant difference in amino acids profile of components of concentrate mixtures, the quantities of supplementary EAA might differ significantly.

LIMITING AMINO ACIDS IN FEEDS

Met

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LYSINE most common the first limiting EAA in animal nutrition

Thr

Try

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The most common commercial amino acids are: L-lysine, DL-methionine, L-treonine, L-tryptophan and glycine. The content of amino acids in commercial products can very greatly – from 6.0 to 98.0% With synthetic amino acids most often are supplemented diet of monogastric animals.

However, in high yielding dairy cows due to intensive milk production two amino acids – methionine and lysine have to be supplemented. That amino acids could not be supplemented in the same forms as in monogastric animals due to rumen microorganism activity.

SUPPLEMENTATION OF NON-RUMINANT DIET WITH PURE AMINO ACIDS MAKES POSSIBLE:

HIGH-PRODUCTING DAIRY COWS

to use lower level but wellbalanced dietary protein since it’s important that supplementary AA are not used excesively

limiting amino acids – Met and Lys, especially when diet is based on maize silage or grain

AA has to be protected against rumen degradability but available in small intestine

to increase the efficiency of protein and energy utilisation

AA surface coated with fatty acids, pH sensitive polymer, mineral mixture or chemically modified molecule – problems with pelleting

to reduce quantity of nitrogen excreted to the environment

in fact monogastric diet are supplemented with L-Lysine hydrochloride, DL – methionine and L-Threonine

DIET FOR FINISHING PIGS – Lys content 10 g/kg mixtures STANDARD DIET

On the left side is presented small case study in diet formulation for finishing pigs with or without addition of pure lysine. According to finishing pigs requirement for lysine to meet their requirement 1 kilogram of concentrate mixture should contain 10 grams of lysine. Required content may be achieve using 750 grams of barley grain and 250 grams of soybean meal. Crude protein concentration in that mixture is 185 grams per kilogram. If 2 grams of pure lysine would be applied to the mixture to achieve the same lysine content – 10 grams per kilogram only 190 g of soybean meal and 808 g of barley grain have to be used. Crude protein content in that mixture decrease compared to previous mixture to 165 g per kilogram.

deficiency if diet contains less than: LysDI 6.8% of PDI MetDI 2.0% of PDI

750 g barley grain 250g soybean meal total protein content 185 g/kg

DIET WITH Lys

Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

2 g L-Lysine 808 g barley grain 190 g soybean meal total protein content 165 g/kg

It is important that the supplementary essential amino acids are not used excessively to satisfy the animal’s requirement, since this may bring about undersupply of the other essential amino acids. The well balanced dietary protein make possible decrease in total protein content of diet. In turn feeds with lower total protein content have lower buffer activity what affect decrease in bacterial diarrhea occurrence. Very important issue is beneficial effect of pure amino acids on zootechnical conditions in pigsties and hen houses due to better nitrogen utilization being the effect of higher biological value of dietary protein. 146

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UREA AND ITS DERIVATIVES Urea and its derivatives also called non-protein nitrogen compounds (NPN) are classified as nutritional feed additive group. Urea creates possibility of replacement some part of ruminant requirement for protein by NPN and taking into consideration fact that energy and protein are the most expensive nutrients of diets such replacement is economically grounded. But there is also a certain risk because urea may

be very toxic for animal thus applying them to ruminant diet you should be very careful. Inclusion of NPN to ruminant diet as part protein replacer is possible due to rumen microorganisms activity that are able to use ammonia and convert it into own microbial protein. The scheme of crude protein metabolisms in ruminants is presented in chart below.

Metabolism of crude protein in ruminants (McDonald et al. 2011) DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN (ALL NITROGEN COMPOUNDS)

SALIVA

PROTEIN DEGRADED IN RUMEN (RDP)

RAPIDLY DEGRADED IN RUMEN UREA URINE

RUMEN

PEPTIDES AMINO ACIDS

RUMEN UNDEGRADED DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN

RUMEN MICROORGANISMS PROTEIN

ABOMASUM and SMALL INTESTINE

DIGESTIBLE UNDEGRADED DIETARY PROTEIN

DIGESTIBLE MICROBIAL PROTEIN

FAECES

FAECES

AMMONIA

SLOWLY DEGRADED IN RUMEN

PROTEIN UNDEGRADED IN RUMEN (RUP)

AMINO ACIDS

PROTEINS OF TISSUES

All nitrogen compounds included in diet called crude protein is ingested by animal in diet and depending on the structure and properties of nitrogen compounds that are components of that crude protein they may be divided into

nitrogen compounds rapidly or slowly degraded in rumen by rumen microorganisms enzymes – proteases and peptidases that cleave peptide bonds and release amino acids and deaminate them releasing ammonia and carbon skeletons.

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Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

There are three sources of nitrogen in rumen. The first one is nitrogen of feed for instance protein feeds, fresh forages, silages. The second ones are non–protein nitrogen compounds means urea and its derivatives. Remember also than non-protein nitrogen compounds content in feedstuffs ranges from 5% of dietary crude protein in grains to 50 % in fresh immature forages. And the third source is endogenous nitrogen in saliva. There are two sources of protein in ruminant small intestine: dietary protein that has escaped rumen degradation and protein of rumen microorganisms. You know that biological value of protein is not so PROTEIN SOURCES IN SMALL INTESTINE OF A RUMINANT: feed protein, that was not degraded in rumen protein of rumen microorganisms

important for these animals due to rumen microorganisms. Generally in ruminant nutrition we are not interested in amino acids composition of dietary protein because type of feed does not affect amino acids profile of bacteria and protozoa leaving rumen and becoming a source of protein for ruminant. Rumen population has profound effect on amino acids profile of protein reaching small intestine that differs from amino acids profile of dietary protein. Microbial protein up-grades low quality dietary protein or down-grades high quality dietary protein. NITROGEN SOURCES IN RUMEN: nitrogen of feed (protein feeds, fresh forages, silages) non–protein nitrogen compounds – urea and its derivatives. Remember, that NPN content in feedstuffs ranges from 5% (grains) to 50% (fresh immature forages) of dietary crude protein endogenous nitrogen in saliva

RUMINANT DIET COMPOSITION DO NOT AFFECT AMINO ACID PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PROTEIN !!! Rumen microorganisms use ammonia and energy from carbohydrates like starch and cellulose as main substrates for their own rumen microbial protein synthesis what in turn is a source of high biological value protein. The more non-protein nitrogen compounds are in total dietary protein the easier and more quickly it is degraded in the rumen to ammonia and rumen microorganism do not car where ammonia comes from. In this situation rumen microorganisms may be not enough effective used all ammonia in rumen to build it into their own microbial protein. It carries a risk for too high ammonia accumulation in rumen and it flows through rumen wall to bloodstream. Part of that ammonia that flown to the bloodstream is transported to liver when is converted to urea

148

which backs to rumen with saliva or is excreted in urine. 80% of total ammonia absorbed from rumen to bloodstream is lost by ruminant what generates costs of dietary protein and charged environment with unused nitrogen compounds. But liver has also its ability to convert ammonia into urea and in case of too high concentration of ammonia in bloodstream and the ammonia concentration increases what might result even in animal death. At tissue level – metabolic pathways of protein metabolism is similar. Ruminants are able to synthesize dispensable amino acids but indispensable must be provided from digestive tract and after absorption from digestive tract they are used in body tissues protein synthesis.

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Urea or its derivatives used incorrectly may poison ruminant animal. If urea concentration in diets is to high the ammonia will start accumulating in rumen. The higher rumen ammonia concertation the higher rumen pH is. In such condition the ammonia shift to more active form absorbed faster than ammonium to bloodstream. As you remember liver capacity to convert ammonia to urea is exceeded and the ammonia goes to blood. For ruminant nutrition 2 milligrams of ammonia per 100 millilitres in plasma is toxic. The first signs of poisoning appear 20-30 minutes after urea ingestion. Afterwards there are rapid and laboured breathing, tremors, salivation, convulsion, incoordination, inability to stand and tetany increasingly apparent. There are some treatment methods that can be applied on farm

conditions. One of them is using compounds or solution decreasing rumen pH for instance 5% solution of acetic acid and give it to cow orally in amount of 1 litre for each 100 kilograms of cow body weight. In rumen environment with lower pH ammonium shifts to less active and slowly absorbed in rumen form – ammonia. It is recommended to administer 0.3-0.5 litres of 20% solution of glucose for small ruminants and 2-3 litres for cows. The glucose may be also given in injection form. One of the method of urea poisoning but not practical when several cows are intoxicated is dilution of rumen contents in 30-50 litres of cold water. Due to cold water rumen temperature decreases and the same the rate of urea hydrolysis is lower. Moreover water dilutes ammonia concentration in rumen.

MECHANISM AND SYMPTOMS OF UREA POISONING mechanism of poisoning

symptoms of poisoning (appear 20-30 min. after intake)

tremor of skin and muscles anxiety

flatulence

NH3 in blood 2 mg NH3/100 ml toxic level

pH

NH3 pH

NH4+ NH3, form faster absorbed to blood

hypersalivation too high NPN concentration in diet

lack of coordination, shivers

DM intake

TREATMENT administration of compounds reducing rumen pH: e.g. 2% acetic acid, sour milk (inactivation of urease) 20% glucose solution (0,3-0,5 l sheep; 2-3 l big ruminants) or glucose injection use of infusion of cold water 30-50 l into the rumen – decrease in the temperature and reducing pace of urea hydrolysis and dillution of ammonia concentration in the rumen

Urea applied in ruminants feeding may replace some part of animal requirement for protein but on the other hand it is a feed additive that used incorrectly may be very toxic and cause even a

death of animal. Thus, some rules should be fulfilled to ensure accurate application of urea or its derivatives in organism.

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Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

THE FUNDAMENTALS OF SAFETY USAGE OF UREA AND ITS DERIVATIVES IN RUMINANT DIET

•Use urea in amounts not higher than 25-30% of total animal requirement for protein while the amount of urea should not exceed 30g /100 kg of body weight.

•Remember, that microorganisms besides nitrogen need also energy, vitamins and minerals for the synthesis of their own protein – make sure that there are enough highly available in rumen carbohydrates (preferably starch) and supplement the diet with vitamins and minerals , especially sulphur essential for the synthesis of sulfuric amino acids – for optimal synthesis of microbial protein in rumen for every 12 g of nitrogen introduced as NPN , you should add 1 g of sulphur e.g. as a sodium sulphate. •Limit the urea addition if the concentration of total protein in 1 kg DM of diet exceeds 13%.

•Adding pure urea to ruminant diet remember to consider its amount in the feed mixtures or silages.

•Introduce the urea to ruminant diet gradually.

•Urea should be well-mixed with diet. •Don’t use urea as a liquid.

•Limit the use of urea and other NPN additives while feeding animals with soybean meal or other legumes due to the high concentration of urease in them. NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN COMPOUNDS USED IN NUTRITION OF RUMINANTS

Nitrogen content [%] pure urea

46,7

feed grade urea

slower-release urea* (surface coated with some substances (e.g. calcium chloride, linseed oil etc. gradually degradable in rumen and the same less toxic than standard urea ammonium phosphate

biuret (more expensive but less toxic than urea)

UMMB – urea molasses mineral blocks

42-45

42-45 19

35

ammonia treated straw

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Protein and energy are main and at the same time the most expensive ingredients in animal diet thus limiting the production. The use of non– protein nitrogen compounds (urea and its derivatives) in animal nutrition creates the possibility of limiting the costs of nutrition. However remember, these are also compounds that - if used incorrectly - can decrease animal performance, poison them and even cause death. Remember that urea in quantity of 0.75% DM of diet reduces diet palatability and voluntary dry matter intake, which affect the level of production negatively, according to the rule „cow is milked via its muzzle.” One should not administer urea in amount higher than 1% of dry matter of diet – for a standard cow with 600 kg of body weight is up to 200 g. LiveNutrition


FEED ENZYMES Feed enzymes are a group of feed additives that support or make possible digestion of nutrients. Mostly these additive are products of various strains of bacteria or fungi, e.g. Aspergillus sp., Penicillinum sp., Humicola sp., Bacillus sp. fermentation. Nowadays they are essential components of mixtures used in monogastric animals nutrition (poultry, pigs). FEED ENZYMES

ENDOGENOUS ENZYMES – used in feeding of young or sick animals when their own enzymes have too low activity, e.g. lipase, protease, amylase

EXOGENOUS ENZYMES – breaking down mainly dietary fiber, e.g. β-glucanase, xynalase, cellulase etc. and fitase breaking down phytates

ADVENTAGES OF FEED ENZYMES USAGE IN ANIMAL NUTRITION •increase in feed energy as a result of better digestibility of nutrients •enhancement of animal performance •decrease in diarrhoea incidence

•improvement of zootechnical conditions due to better utilisation of nutrients

COMMERCIAL ENZYMES

One or mixture of several feed enzymes on appropriate carrier (meals, brans, cereal grains) that protect against unfavourable external factors. Enzymatic preparations may be used in loose or liquid form. They are safety for animal ENZYME

PROTEASES LIPASES PHYTASES AMYLASES CELLULASES BETA-GLUCANASES XYLANASES

ROLE

and human health. Mostly feed enzymes are used in amount of 0.15 to 1.50 kg/tonne depending on animal species and mixture composition. APPLICATION

FEEDS

break down protein to amino acids

cereal by-products, gluten, soybean

milkreplacer containing soy protein

break down phytic acid to inozitol and phosphorus

cereals and extracted meals

mixture for poultry and pigs

hydrolyze cellulose to beta-1-4 polisaccharides

diets rich in fiber

straws, hays, silages

diets based on barley and oat grain

mixtures for poultry and pigs

hydrolyze lipids to triacyloglycerols and fatty acids

hydrolyze amylose to dextrins, maltose and glucose

break down betaglucans to oligosaccharides and glucose

break down pentoses to xylose and xylobiose

animal and plant lipids

starch products

diets based on barley, rye and wheat grain

dog and cat food

mixtures for piglets and calves

mixtures for poultry and pigs

Feeds including feed enzymes should not be heated to a temperature higher than 70-90°C (they can be pelleted while cold). Feed enzymes can be used as aquatic spray in the final phase of granulation. Feeds and premixtures with addition of enzymes should not be stored for too long period (enzymes activity– 6 - 9 months) in room temperature. While using feed enzymes one should avoid their atomization due to the fact they may result in allergies. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

MODIFIERS OF RUMEN FERMENTATION

Processes taking place in the rumen affect animal health and performance indirectly and in great extent. Therefore, in many cases addition of modifiers of rumen fermentation to ruminant diets is a standard practice, especially in highly

productive animals fed with a high contribution of concentrates to diet. Modifiers of rumen fermentation are the group of feed additives used to change profile of rumen fermentation to achieve specific effects.

PROBIOTICS (live yeasts) BLOAT PREVENTERS BUFFERS

METHANE INHIBITORS

Application of rumen fermentation modifiers to ruminant diets first of all depends on diet composition and level of animal production. It does not make sense use all of them as standard additive every day for every animal. Therefore, when adding any rumen fermentation modifier to ruminant diet think before you act if this additive is really necessary for animal and will prevent it against undesirable effects of feeding. GENERAL FACTS

Š State of New South Wales through NSW Department of Industry on all uses.

Ruminant produces about 1,000 litres of gases daily during rumen fermentation

Gases are removed from rumen mostly in the process of eructation BLOAT occurs if the gas becomes trapped at the animal is not able to remove it.

Cow suffering from bloat

Ruminant, under normal conditions, produces about 1,000 litres of gases daily during rumen fermentation processes. These gases accumulate in the area known as cardia and in the process of eructation are passed up the oesophagus. In some circumstances gases become trapped and animals are not able to remove them, is such situation bloat occurs. There are two kinds of bloats with various etiology. The first one occurs when rumen stasis due to acidosis and this is free gas bloat – pasture bloat. Second kind of bloat occurs when gasses

152

are trapped within fluid bubbles and gas cannot be eructated as normal and pressure builds up in the rumen this condition is known as frothy bloat. Pasture bloat occurs on high-concentrate diets, when the normal function of rumen is disrupted by the rapid accumulation of fermentation acids from readily fermented carbohydrates in this condition pH of rumen significantly decreases. Bacteria release mucopolysaccharides during cells lysis, this substances increase viscosity of the rumen fluid and favour the formation of the stable foam.

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ETIOLOGY OF VARIOUS TYPES OF BLOATS rapid fermentation = a lot of acids in rumen = too low rumen pH

high concentrate diet

bacterial cell lysis – release mucoplysaccharides and stable foam is formated

PASTURE BLOAT gases can not be eructated FROTHY BLOAT

pastures rich in legumes diet

foaming agents in plants e.g. saponins, tannins

formation of stable foam

BLOAT PREVENTERS

ANTIFOAMING AGENTS

vegetable oils (mainly linseed oil) lecithin

mineral oils

detergents (pluronics)

synthetic polymer poloxalene alkylarylsulphonate

sodium chloride (salt – NaCl) increases the rate of passage of rumen fluid but also decreases diet intake - dosage: 40 g/kg diet DM

Feeding practices reducing the risk of pasture bloat occur include: feeding hay or straw before turning cows on grass/legume pasture (the less hungry they are, the less fresh forage they intake), not turning the cattle on immature wet pasture and avoiding intermittent grazing.

FEEDING PRACTICIES DECREASING THE RISK OF PASTURE BLOAT OCCUR

Bloats preventing methods include application of antifoaming agents or some feeding practise. Antifoaming agents are defined as substances reduce surface tension of rumen liquid and protect against forming the stable foam in the rumen. The main problem with such additives is the maintenance of an adequate concentration in the rumen, since liquids quickly pass through.

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feeding hay or straw before turning cows on grass/legume pasture (the less hungry they are the less fresh forage they intake) not turning the cattle on immature wet pasture avoiding intermittent grazing 153


Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives

BUFFERS

ETIOLOGY OF ACIDOSIS In intensive cattle production high quantities of concentrates are used to achieve expected level diet rich in easily degradable of production. High-concentrate diet is rich in easily degradable carbohydrates, which are carbohydrates – a high-concentrate rapidly fermented by rumen microorganisms diet with production of great amounts of volatile fatty acids, especially lactic acid. In this situation rumen pH decreases dramatically what in turn leads to acidosis. Under acidosis conditions, in low rumen pH cellulolytic bacteria activity food intake stops. It leads to decrease in feed intake and in reduction consequence reduction of fat content in milk and at further stages rumenitis, ketosis, laminitis, liver abscesses may occur. Therefore, utilisation of high quantities of concentrates demands buffers application to diet. Addition of these substances to ruminant diets favour more reduced fat milk production, efficient microbial protein synthesis. Retention time of starch and microbial protein in rumen is rumenitis, ketosis, laminitis, liver shorter what increases activity of cellulolytic abscesses bacteria. Due to cellulolytic bacteria activity higher amount of acetate acid is produced. Acetate acid is precursor in milk fat synthesis therefore fat milk content increases.

reduced rumen pH and increase lactic acid formation

risk of acidosis and detriment to the cellulolytic bacteria

BUFFERS – feed additives added to ruminant diets to regulate rumen pH to levels that favour the activity of cellulolytic organisms (pH 6-7). The most commonly buffers used in livestock feeding are: sodium bicarbonate sodium carbonate calcium carbonate magnesium oxide clays bentonites

COMMON PRACTICE •Supplementation of early lactation dairy cows with 200g sodium carbonate (NaHCO3) per day and magnesium oxide (MgO). •It’s recommended to use certain clays or bentonities that are insoluble and allow the buffering process to be carried out if further part of digestive tract. •Do not forge that you can stabilize rumen pH by proper feeding management.

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SCHEME OF BUFFER ACTION

BUFFERS of the hydrogen ions and increases in the dilution rate of liquid in rumen

more efficient microbial protein synthesis

shorter retention time of starch and microbial protein in rumen

higher fat milk content

increase acetate content in rumen VFA pool

increase in activity of cellulolytic bacteria

BUFFERS

40 L Saliva in a natural buffer stabilizing rumen. Using significant quantities of forages in cows diet you can control the quantities of saliva produced by cow . As you can see cow feed with forages may produce about 150 litres of saliva while fed with concentrate feed materials is able to synthetize only 40 litres. Having regard to saliva composition its optimize rumen pH and may prevent against bloat. However, you have to be aware that using diet with large quantities of forages you will not achieve expected level of production. So as always please consider all pros and cons.

150 L

SALIVA

FORAGES

CONCENTRATE / GRAINS

A BUFFER – pH of saliva is about 8.2 and it contains a lot of sodium bicarbonate that buffers rumen environment. Therefore, saliva helps to counteract the effects of acid-producing feedstuffs, such as cereals, molasses, potatoes and fodder beets, on the ruminal pH.

A FOAM SUPRESSOR – saliva can reduce the risk of bloat as it also has a foam suppressing effect in the rumen.

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METHANE INHIBITORS

Methane in the rumen is produced by methanogenic bacteria using hydrogen and carbon dioxide for this synthesis. Methane production in the rumen is a wasteful process since up to 10 % of the gross energy of ruminant diets is lost with methane. Additionally methane contributes to the earth’s greenhouse gases. It’s estimated that 33.6 % of global methane production comes from enteric fermentation.

SOURCES OF GLOBAL METHANE PRODUCTION

70.0 % - human activity including 42.0 % - agriculture 33.6 % - ENTERIC FERMENTATION ! 8.4 % - animal wastes

methane in the rumen is produced by methanogenic bacteria according to formula hydrogen + carbon dioxide = methane + water

All factors channeling carbon and hydrogen to propionate production the same decreases methane production during rumen fermentation •increased rate of chyme flow and digestion

•increased level of feeding

•reduced rumen pH

•use of large quantities of starchy feeds, e.g. cereal grains

Remember,

the same quantities of total animal origin product may be reach using less animals. The same methane emission per animal is higher but overall methane synthesis is reduced due to reduced number of animal used to produce the same amount of animal origin products. Grains rich in starch decrease methane formation in the rumen by changing fermentation direction, more propionate and less acetate acid is produced. Additionally, greater acidity of rumen environment inhibits the growth or methanogenic bacteria. Unfortunately, in that conditions risk of acidosis occurs. probiotics (Saccharomyces cerevisiae – live yeasts) propionate precursors - fumaric and malic acids

METHANE INHIBITORS

All factors that change rumen fermentation to create favourable conditions for production propionate in consequence decrease methane synthesis, due to the fact that propionate production removes hydrogen away from methane production. That modification could be achieve by increase rate of chyme flow and digestion, increased feeding level, reduction of rumen pH or use of significant quantities of starchy feeds. Probiotics, propionate acids precursors or defaunating agents are used effectively as agents reducing methane production. Decrease of methane production in farm could be also achieve by higher animal productivity, because

Methane leaves the rumen by eructation and contributes to 6-10 % LOSSES OF DIET GROSS ENERGY

defaunating agents – saponins, tannins

increased animal performance – fewer animals are required to prouce the same amount of product

high quantities of concetrate (starchy) feeds with low inclusion of fibrous feeds – be careful. risk of acidosis and usage of cereals compete with human feeding

The effect of methane inhibitors feed additive tend to decrease over time due to rumen microflora adapts to them. To avoid such tendency use methane inhibitors rotary.

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SILAGE ADDITIVES Silages are natural or industrial products added to forage or grain mass reducing oxygen and increasing silage acidity rapidly, so that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) proliferate and preserve the forage. The aim of silage additives usage is :  to improve nutrient composition of silage;

 to reduce storage losses by promoting rapid fermentation;

 to reduce fermentation losses by limiting extent of fermentation;  to increase aerobic stability.

TYPES OF SILAGE ADDITIVES

REMEMBER,

 FERMENTATION STIMULANTS  FERMENTATION INHIBITORS  AEROBIC DETERIORATION INHIBITORS  NUTRIENTS  ABSORBENTS Silage additives may improve feed value of silage and animal performance what favourably affect economy of animal production. However, using mindlessly just increase cost of animal nutrition. Remember that type of silage additives used to enhance ensiling depends on target forage/grain (mainly chemical compo-

•Silage quality depends not only silage additives but many factors that are controlled by best practices of ensiling management. •Silage additives will not make poor quality forage into excellent silage but they can help to increase its quality.

sitions) and aims that you want to achieve. To make the best quality silage always use an additive is a good recommendation and always storage and use the additives as recommended by product manufacturer. The main silage additives are described below. molasses

FERMENTATION STIMULANTS Fermentation stimulants are substances that added to ensilaging material aid fermentation including:

fermentable carbohydrates

 substances added to ensilage material could aid process of fermentation by increase in rapidly fermentable carbohydrates that are easily available for lactic acid bacteria for example molasses, sucrose or glucose, citrus or sugar beet pulp,

 specific enzymes – cellulases, hemicellulases, beta-xylanases or amylases increases availability of structural carbohydrates included in ensilaging material,  inoculants enahnce proliferation of desirable bacteria – like various strains of lactic acid bacteria.

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sucrose or glucose citrus or sugar beet pulp cellulases hemicellulases

enzymes beta-xylanases amylases inoculants

lactic acid bacteria - LAB 157


Chapter 2. Feeds and Feed Additives ENZYMES E.G. BETAXYLANASE RELEASE FERMENTABLE SUGARS FROM FIBRE

MORE SUBSTRATE FOR LAB

INCREASE IN LAB PROLIFERATION

MORE LACTIC ACID = LOWER pH IN SHORTER TIME

STIMUALTION OF ENSILING PROCESS

READILY FERMENTABLE CARBOHYDRATES Are supposed to be added to low dry matter and sugar-limited forages. They are expected to provide fermentable substrate but also to direct the fermentation process by absorbing an excess of water. They are used in relatively high quantities (to achieve at least 25% of dry matter) and should be well-mixed with chopped forage.

Readily fermentable carbohydrates are supposed to be added to low dry matter and sugar-limited forages. They are expected to provide fermentable substrate but also to direct the fermentation process by absorbing an excess of water.

Grains, cane molasses and beet and citrus pulps are good source of readily fermentable carbohydrates that aid ensilage process. Grains before application should be cracked or rolled and its recommended addition to hay forage ranges from 50 to 100 kg per tonne of fresh forage. Remember that grain is not useful when added to maize ensilaging. Grains when added to hay crop silage increases both energy concentration and dry matter content. Advantages of presented situation are: no need to supplement diet with grain and make forage wilted and what is more grain make also wet silage easier to unload from a silo. Addition of grains has no effect on fermentation because starch is not easily degraded during ensiling process but prevent from effluent losses if used in high moisture forages.

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Cane molasses recommended addition is up to 10 per cent. Because it is difficult to mix it’s recommended to dilute molasses with warm water and remember: to avoid seepage losses use water as little as possible. The main disadvantage of molasses use is risk of losing great amount of molasses in for of effluents when molasses added to forage with very low dry matter content. This case molasses might be insufficient for lactic acid bacteria in competition with silage microflora. In such situation especially when ensiled material is contaminated with soil increase risk of colostrial spoilage.

Beet and citrus pulp is not recommended to use with low dry matter forages due to great seepage losses causing serious pollution problem. Dried form of these additives are a good source of easily degradable carbohydrates due to high water soluble carbohydrates content and increasing dry matter in forage. Both beet and citrus dried pulp are good additives used also as nutrients and absorbents in silages.

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ENZYMES Products of bacterial fermentation apply to forage or grain during ensiling process in order to release some sugars from polysaccharides to be used as a substrate for LAB, and in result, increase LAB growth. Fiber degrading enzymes (cellulases or xylanases) increase forage digestibility.

Enzymes added to ensiling material are products of bacterial fermentation applying in order to release some sugars from polysaccharides and make them available to use as a substrate for lactic acid bacteria, and in result, increase lactic acid bacteria growth. Amylases, cellulases and xylanases – the most popular enzymes used in silages production are the most effective on low-lignin feeds such as cereal and immature grasses. Application of these enzymes in production of silages has a positive effect on dry matter intake by animals and results in increased milk production. MOST POPULAR SILAGE ENZYMES

•amylases  starch

•cellulases  hemicellulose, cellulose etc.

•xylanases  xyloses

These enzymes increasing availability of carbohydrates used as a substrate in fermentation process stimulate production of lactic acid by bacteria. Consequently, pH of ensiling material decreases as well as proteolysis and concentration of ammonia nitrogen. Silage enzymes have rather negative effect on dry matter intake by animal and fibre digestibility probably due to pre-digestion easily digestible fibre and leaving the slower degradable or even undegradable fraction.

EFFECTS OF APPLICATION

EFFICACY

•most effective on lowlignin feeds such as cereal silages and immature grasses

•10 % increase in dry matter intake •10-14 % increase in milk production

•stimulation of acid production •decrease in silage pH

•decrease in ammonia-N

•rather negative effect on DM and fibre digestibility probably due to the fact silage enzymes predigested easily digestible fibre leaving the slower fraction

APPLICATION, Spraying the enzymes on the fresh forage. Spraying enzymes on the silage immediately before feeding.

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INOCULANTS

The most often and best recommended silage additives. They are added to forage to dominate epiphytic population of plant bacteria that are not so effective in sugars fermentation and may cause silage losses. Most of inoculants are available in powder or granular form. They are often mixed with limestone, dried skim milk, sucrose or other carriers. There are three main strains of bacteria used as inoculants in ensiling HOMOFERMENTATIVE

HOMOLACTIC (hoLAB)

•Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus, Lactococcus sp.

•Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus acidilactici

•promote a rapid fermentation, producing mainly lactic acid and decrease pH to 4 in short time

•fast growing homofermentative lactic acid bacteria are added to dominate the fermentation effecting in higher quality of silage

HETEROFERMENTATIVE •Lactobacillus buchneri, lactobacillus brevis •produce mix of lactic and acetic acid, slower fermentation compared to homofermentative, inhibit yeast and moulds growth, support aerobic stability

APPLICATION, •The best way to add inoculants is application to forage at chopper (max. time of microorganisms contact with substrates).

•Throwing a can of dry inoculant onto a load of forage and chopping is not acceptable practice.

SILAGES TREATED WITH ADEQUATE NUMBER OF INOCULANT

•Inoculants can be added both in liquid or solid form (if DM content in forage is higher than 45% - liquid products are preferable).

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lower pH lower acetic acid content lower butyric acid content lower ammonia-N content higher lactic acid content better lactic: acetic acid ratio better dry matter recovery risk of deterioration of aerobic stability better feed intake and animal performance LiveNutrition


FERMENTATION INHIBITORS Acids, salts of organic acids and other chemical compounds are classified as silage fermentation inhibitors. You can find the most common compounds used as fermentation inhibitors in this chart. The common feature of all presented in chart compounds is ability to reduce pH of forage immediately after application what in turn limits plant respiration and reduces heat

formic acid acids

production. Thanks to that fermentation inhibitors affect great reduction of fermentation losses of protein and carbohydrates. Moreover rapid acidification inhibits colostrial proliferation and prevent from colostrial spoilage of silage. As the effect of applying these additives we obtain inhibition of undesirable fermentation and degradation of forage as well as increase in bunk life.

ACIDS, SALTS OF ORGANIC ACIDS, OTHER CHEMICAL INHIBITORS

acetic acid lactic acid

REDUCE pH IMMEDIATELY

calcium formate organic acid salts

propionates hydrochloric

ACIDITY LIMITS PLANT RESPIRATION AND REDUCES HEAT PRODUCTION

GREAT REDUCTION OF FERMENTATION LOSSES OF PROTEIN AND CARBOHYDRATES

formaldehyde other chemical inhibitors

RAPID ACIDIFICATION INHIBITS CLOSTRIDIA PROLIFERATION

sodium nitrite sodium metabisulphite

INHIBITION OF UNDESIRABLE FERMENTATION AND INCREASE BUNK LIFE

ACIDS Added to forages at ensiling process to decrease pH immediately or to increase bunk life. The main drawbacks of acids application to ensiling are higher effluents, potential toxicity toward animals and fact that they are corrosive for machinery. Some of them increase aerobic stability of silages.

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ACID

SULPHURIC AND HYDROCHLORIC ACID

DOSE

ACTIVITY limit nutrient losses during fermentation (proteins and carbohydrates)

 5-15 kg/tonne of fresh forage

FORMIC ACID

 approx. 3 kg/tonne

ACETIC ACID

 5-20 kg/tonne

PROPIONIC ACID

SODIUM DIACETATE (mix of acetic acid and sodium salt)

limit nutrient losses during fermentation, especially proteins increase rumen udegradable protein

 15-20 kg/ tonne of wilted hay crop forage  50 kg/ tonne of 30% DM forage  0.1%-0.5% –maize kernel (20%DM)  1-2 kg/tonne of fresh forage

reduce yeast and mold development inhibit aerobic deterioration

has the greatest antimycotic activity reducing yeast and molds, so prevent aerobic stability added prior feeding prevent heating and spoiling in feed bunk

the same as propionic acid

NUTRIENTS The most important silage additives called nutrients because they main aim is to introduced to forages some components – energy, protein or minerals and the same

increase silage nutritive value. Most of them play more than one role during ensiling process and were discussed detailed described in other groups of silage additive.

Nutrient additives MOLASSES, SUGAR BEET PULP NON PROTEIN NITROGEN COMPOUNDS GRAIN

MINERALS

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provide energy – increase energy value of silage

fermentation stimulator – provide substrate for LAB

provide energy – increase energy value of silage

absorbent - reduce silage effluent losses in low DM silages

provide nitrogen – increase protein content in silage

increase mineral content in silage

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aerobic spoilage inhibitor

may act as a buffer increasing silage pH


NON-PROTEIN NITROGEN COMPOUNDS There are many non-protein nitrogen compounds that may be used in ensiling. However, the most popular compounds are anhydrous ammonia, urea and mixes of ammonia with other compounds like water or molasses. Usage of mix ammonia and molasses mix is highly recommended due to fact that molasses at once is a source of readily fermentable carbohydrates. NPN when applied to forage are economical source of crude protein, prolonged bunk life as the result of better aerobic stability, decrease moulding and heating during ensiling and decrease forage protein degradation in a silo. NPN intend to be applied to ensiling of lowprotein forages such as maize, sorghum, whole crop cereals forages and high moisture grain. At the same time you shouldn’t use NPN in ensiling of forages with low water soluble carbohydrates content and/or a high buffering capacity for example alfalfa forage because they

COMPOUNDS

EFFECT OF APPLICATION

TARGET FORAGES/GRAINS

NOT RECOMMENDED

PAY ATTENTION

can make process of ensiling more difficult to carry out. What is very important, be aware that NPN are toxic compounds and as you remember can be used only in ruminant nutrition. Remember that after adding urea, ammonia or its mix to ensiling pay special attention and check during diet formulation if rumen degradable and undegradable protein are balanced and will not be toxic for ruminant!

•anhydrous ammonia •water – ammonia mix •molasses – ammonia mix •urea

•economical source of crude protein •prolonged bunk life (aerobic stability) •less moulding and heating during ensiling •decrease protein degradation in a silo •low-protein forages: maize, sorghum, whole crop •high moisture grain •forages with low water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) content and/or a high buffering capacity e.g. alfalfa forage •after adding NPN compound in ensiling pay attention and check during diet formulation if rumen deragable and undegradable protein are balanced and will not be toxic for ruminant

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AMMONIA

Ammonia is hazardous compound and should be used very careful. In the chart below there are shown some hints how to use ammonia in ensiling safely. METHODS OF AMMONIA APPLICATION

can be added at the chopper, blower, bagger or bunk. Storage of ammonia-treated silage in steel silos is not recommended due to its corrosive properties. most often is used as mixed ammonia solutions e.g. with molasses.

should be added at the end nearest the cutter in a chopper with an auger system. If no auger is used, ammonia can be added behind the cutter prior to entering the blower. can also be spiked into bunks between loads and it will disperse into a forage.

the Coldflow method is the simplest way to add ammonia to silage - gaseous ammonia is super cooled in a converter box and about 80-85% becomes liquid. ammonia is a hazadrous gas – be careful and avoid inhaling it and contact with skin and eyes.

the Coldflow method is the simplest way to add ammonia to silage - gaseous ammonia is super cooled in a converter box and about 80-85% becomes liquid.

application rate – 3-3.5 kg/ t DM of maize forage increase protein content from about 8% to 12.5%

if DM content in forage is higher than 40-42% instead anhydrous ammonia use water-ammonia mixes or molasses-ammonia mixes - use as RECOMMENDED BY THE MANUFACTURER.

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ABSORBENTS Absorbents use as silage additives are substances that added to the forage at ensiling, limit effluent losses. Absorbents usage should be condsidered if DM content in forage is lower than 20 – 25%.

DRIED SUGAR BEET PULP

As you can see among absorbents you can see additives that have been earlier classified in other groups of silage additives, mainly as nutrients. The most often used in practice silage management absorbents are listed inthe table on the right side.

GRAIN CHOPPED STRAW (not recommended because decreases energy value of silage) DIRED DISTILLERS GRAIN

EFFECT OF BARELY GRAIN ADDITION TO PASTURE SILAGE [KG/T FRESH FORAGE) ON EFFLUENT LOSSES 0

75

150

225

Effluent loss (L/t fresh crop)

93.9 59.9

66.9

7.0

0.0

DM content (g/L)

42.3

32.6

7.1

7.8

0,6

-

4.8

-

EFFLUENT LOOSES AND COMPOSITION*

Nitrogen (g/L) WCS (g/L) Lactic acid (g/L)

0.8

1.5

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1.1

1.9

1.1

-

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Grasslands - major part of the global ecosystem, covering 37% of the earth's terrestrial area.

Permanent grasslands and permanent pastures are according to definition “land used to grow grasses or other herbaceous forage naturally (selfseeded) or through cultivation (sown) and that has not been included in the crop rotation of the holding for five years or more”…

 significant source the cheapest feed for ruminants: cattle, sheep, goats, geese or ostriches,  oxygen and vapour water production, water storage,

 protection against of soil erosion and organic soils (matter) mineralisation, Role of grasslands  recreation area,

 environment for various strains of organisms – plants and animals.

Pastures

Pasture management cycle

Grasslands are normally managed as either pastures for animal grazing or meadows mowed for hay or silage (stocking in a silo). Grasslands are a significant source the cheapest feed for ruminants: cattle, sheep, goats, geese or ostriches and supports commodity production and maintenance of soil fertility, as well as environmental, economic and social functions

DEFOLIATION

Meadow

Proper management of pasture is crucial to healthy, productive pasture. Well executed program of pasture management lead to improving soil fertility, grazing season duration, as well as pasture ecology (more diverse, dense and persistent). Management practices shown in scheme lead to promote a healthy grass supply for livestock, reduce feeding cost, reduce soil erosion and increase soil organic matter.

beyond the farm. These include biodiversity and landscape; soil, air and water quality; recreation, rural employment and social benefits. In aim to achieve the best pasture condition and productivity proper pasture management techniques have to be taken into consideration. These practices are described below.

•affected by grazing pressure, frequency, duration, and resting period interval •leafs area are necessary to provide new carbohydrates necessary for regrowth therefore there is very important to control the forage grazing •forage species should not be graze below 5 cm •severe defoliation late in the growing season is more harmful than early in the season •grazing a forage species for the 4 weeks before the growing season ends should be avoided •on the leg of a pair of rubber boots, a mark can be made to indicate entrance and exit − gumboot technique

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ESTABLISHMENT AND RENOVATION •grasses or legumes that are selected to sowing (adapted to the climate and provide a high germination rate) •correct seeding method and date and planting depth and rate •on low-producing grass pastures one of the best ways to improve forage yield and animal performance is to renovate them periodically

GRAZING SYSTEM •using specific grazing systems (extensive or intensive grazing) and methods increase forage use and profits •under continuous grazing, animals have free choice of forage – they become more selective creating bare spots that can lead to weed invasion and erosion •the rotational grazing method – use two or more grazing units pastures or paddocks that are alternately grazed and rested (animals rotation once every two hours or as once every two weeks) •rotations are based on the amount of forage available, forage growth rate, paddock size, and stocking rates, in a rotational stocking system animals tend to eat more forage because they can’t be as selective as in a continuous grazing system

PLANT SPECIES AND VARIETY SELECTION

•various species of grasses or legumes are available (cool- or warm-season) •that species may be used in monoculture – by itself or in mixture •environmental conditions such as rainfall, soil drainage, soil nutrient supply, pH or intended use – for hay or for pasture - are factors, that should be taken into consideration in species selection •based on the intended use as well as animal needs mixtures grasses and legumes increasing yield and reduce maintenance •forage mixtures with different maturities provide a high quality, longer grazing season and stand survival •species used in mixture should have similar growth patterns and palatability •use mixtures of grasses with legumes decrease N fertilization necessity because of nitrogen assimilation

SOIL TESTING AND LIMING

•essential in pasture management is adequate soil fertility •forages used for grazing usually require less fertilizer than those used for hay because most nutrients are returned in animal wastes; phosphorus is excreted in manure, and nitrogen and potassium return in urine and manure •legumes are very sensitive to low pH. They are best adapted to pH ranging from 6 to 7. If pH is less than 5.5, lime application is recommended

STAND EVALUATION •good pasture condition is key in successful livestock-based grazing system •factors affecting pasture condition include: species of plant (legumes or grasses), biomass cover (weed pressure), soil conditions (nutrients, pH, moisture), yield persistence and forage quality (taste, digestibility, toxicity) LiveNutrition

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WEED CONTROL

•healthy, well established forage plants are better able to resist invasion by weeds •weeds compete with forage species for space, nutrients, and water, reducing forage yield and stand persistence • in aim to combat aggressive weed growth, you may need to use herbicides or tilling practices. •herbicide use should be done only when necessary •ecological methods of weed combating include changes in grazing methods, fertilization, forage species, and water management might that help to shift the competitive balance in favour of the forage rather than the weeds •rotational grazing systems can help control weeds because livestock are less selective in small areas and more likely to eat weeds before they reach a seeding phase •letting different livestock species (sheep, goat, and horses) graze the same land may help with weed control (sheep and goats, consume more broadleaf species, forbs, and brush)

Animals on the pasture have to have free access to good quality water ad salt licks.

GRAZING SYSTEMS Is a defined, integrated arrangement of animal, plant, soil, and other environmental components and the grazing methods by which the system is managed to achieve specific results. Grazing systems can be divided into extensive and intensive.

EXTENSIVE GRAZING SYSTEMS Continuous grazing – method of grazing livestock on a specific unit of land where animals have unrestricted and uninterrupted access throughout the time period when grazing is allowed. •Advantages: requires less management and capital costs are minimal. •Disadvantages: lower forage quality and yields, lower stocking rate and less forage produced per unit of surface area, uneven pasture use, greater forage losses due to trampling, animal manure is distributed unevenly, weeds and other undesirable plants may be a problem. •Cows will graze selectively, making it difficult to balance the ration, it is enough feed in spring, but later in the summer pasture will be too short, or too over-mature to provide enough dairy quality feed; pasture quality and quantity will significantly decline as the season progresses; Pasture quality will decrease each year due to overgrazing damage, increased weeds, and rejected forage. Clipping and reseeding may be needed.

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Simple rotational grazing – a system with more than one part of pasture in which livestock are moved to allow for periods of grazing and rest for forages. •Advantages: increase forage production and improve pasture condition over continuous grazing, allows pastures to rest and allows for forage regrowth, can provide a longer grazing season, reducing the need for feeding harvested forages; better distribution of manure throughout the pasture. •Disadvantages: costs for fencing and water systems, forage production and pasture utilization is not as high as intensive rotational grazing systems. •As cows rotate back into pastures that are not fully regrown the quantity and quality of feed will decline, •Pasture quality will decrease each year due to overgrazing damage, increased weeds, and rejected forage. Clipping and reseeding may be needed.

INTENSIVE GRAZING SYSTEMS Intensive rotational grazing – system with many pastures, or with pasture divided into parts, referred to as paddocks, •Farm animals are moved frequently from paddock to paddock based on forage growth and utilization, animals are moved to a new paddock only when it has fully regrown, the rotation schedule will depend on herd size, paddock size, and paddock number, It is usually recommended that livestock be rotated every 3 to 7 days to a new paddock. •Advantages: highest forage production and use per unit of surface area, stocking rates can be increased, more even distribution of manure throughout the paddocks, weeds and brush are usually controlled through grazing, increase the quantity of pasture DM produced while improving the nutritional quality of the feed, provides more grazing options and reduces the need for mechanically harvested forages, cows only rotate back into pastures that are fully recovered. •Disadvantages: requirement monitoring of forage supply, due to fencing materials and water distribution systems initial costs may be higher, requires more management. Strip grazing •Involves confining animals to an area of grazing land to be grazed in a relatively short period of time. •Allows access to a specific land area. •A temporary fence line is progressively moved across a pasture. •After forage availability declines and the desired residual height is achieved, the temporary fence will be moved to another “strip” where animals are then allowed to graze. •Animals may be allowed access to previously grazed strips along with ungrazed strips, or in other cases, a back fence line is moved to keep cattle off of previously grazed strips.

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Mob grazing (flash grazing) large number of animals are grazed on a relatively small number of area to rapidly remove forage from the paddock, it is useful when forage growth needs to be removed prior to sod seeding another forage crop in the same paddock. Creep grazing •Creep grazing is a form of preweaning supplementation of nursing calves. It is the practice of allowing nursing calves to graze areas that adult animals cannot access at the same time. This is accomplished through use of a creep gate that the calves can pass through freely. Therefore, young nursing animals are given forward access to fresh, ungrazed pasture through an opening in the fence. In addition to better nutrition in the fresh paddocks.

Forward creep grazing •Forward creep grazing is a specific form of forward grazing. In this method of creep grazing dams and calves rotate through a series of paddocks with calves as first grazers and adult animals as last grazers. Therefore, calves have more opportunity for selectivity. •Forward grazing (first-last grazing, preference-follower, leaderfollower, top and bottom grazer) is a method that allows two or more groups of animals, usually with different nutritional requirements, to graze sequentially on the same land area.

Limiting grazing •Limit grazing method is where grazing animals are maintained on lower-quality pasture but allowed to access a higher quality pasture for a few hours each day or every few days. This method reduces waste from trampling, provides good nutrition at relatively low cost as the area needed for high-quality pasture is relatively small.

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Permanent or temporary fences may define paddocks. Use temporary fences to create paddocks and lanes allow for easy adjustment of the layout, easy accomplish livestock movement and react to managed grazing. The kind of fence that should be installed depends upon: purpose of the fence, kind and class of livestock to be contained, operator preference, predator control and cost. LiveNutrition


GOOD GRAZING MANAGEMENT involves organizing livestock to make the best use of pasture. Farmer must copy with challenge which is to balance pasture quantity (biomass) and stock numbers so that the condition of land is improved, not damaged. Therefore, grazing

management it is active manipulation of grazing factors in aim to optimize economic returns per area unit and other goals while maintaining or improving long-term natural resource productivity under changing conditions.

COMMON USED GRAZING FORMULAS HELP IN PLANNING GRAZING MANAGEMENT GRAZING FREQUENCY

•number of occurrences of herbage removal over a certain period of time

GRAZING INTENSITY

•proportion of the current season’s forage production that is consumed or trampled

ANIMAL SELECTIVITY (GRAZING BEHAVIOUR) GRAZING CAPACITY GRAZING PRESSURE (STOCKING DENSITY) STOCKING RATE

•period at which grazing occurs in relation to the vegetation’s stage of growth. •area of land required to maintain a single animal unit over an extended number of years without deterioration of the vegetation or soil, expressed in hectare per animal unit.

•number of animals per unit of forage available, or ratio of forage demand to forage available at any instant •number of animals per unit of land, it may refer the number of livestock on a paddock or a whole farm

Stocking rate – is the number of animals per unit of land, it may refer the number of livestock on a paddock or a whole farm. The usual measure is expressed in terms of grazing livestock per unit area (or mass of animal), such as breeders (cattle) per ha or square kilometer. Optimum stocking rates depend on cattle intake and pasture productivity and quality. Practical tip used sometimes to manage stocking rate is to rotate grazing livestock to a new paddock after they consume 50% of available forage.

Overstocking – occurs when stocking rate is too high – it may lead to decrease of animal performance because forage availability will limit forage intake; it decreases, during slow

forage growth and the ability of forage to recover. Overgrazing results in weak plants, reduced root systems, lower forage yield, greater soil erosion and water run-off, thinned forage stands, and more weeds. In that situation pasture forage can’t meet animal requirement and the solution is reducing stocking rate or using stored feeds.

Understocking – occurs when stocking rate is too low – it increases forage maturity, lowers forage quality and decrease animal performance. Undergrazing wastes forage and reduces overall forage nutritive quality.

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NUMBER OF PADDOCKS

To determine the number of paddocks needed, divide the number of paddock rest days by the number of grazing days and then add 1 to the result.

Days of rest range from 10 to lower for rapidly growing grasses to 30 for legumes and more than 30 for slow growing periods. Days of grazing varies from 1 to 7 and up.

Number of paddocks = (days of rest)/(days of grazing)+1

Days of rest – from 10 to lower for rapidly growing grasses to 30 for legumes and more than 30 for slow growing periods. Days of grazing – from 1 to 7 and up.

The number of hectares needed per paddock is computing according to formula: multiply the following: average animal weight, dry matter consumed per animal as a percentage of body weight, number of animals, and days on the pasture. Then take the result and divide by the following: dry matter available in grazing area multiplied by the percent of dry matter utilized by grazing. Number of hectares needed per paddock = (animal grazing weight x DMI x animal number x days on pasture ) / (dry matter available in grazing area x DM utilized by grazing)

Animal grazing weight – weight per head. Dry matter intake per animal as a percentage of body weight – ranging from 2 - 4%. Number of animals – number of head to be grazed. Days on the paddock values ranged from 1 -7. Dry matter available in grazing area – estimate of the total forage dry matter available as the animals enter a pasture (paddock).

Percent of dry matter utilized by grazing – portion of available forage per unit of grazing area that animals will consume during a grazing period. Utilization is the proportion forage production that is consumed or destroyed by animals. Improved grazing systems can result in utilization of 60% for grasses and 75% for legumes.

Total area required = number of paddocks x area required per paddock

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ANIMAL SELECTIVITY Animal selectivity it is the degree to which animals consume plants or plant parts in different proportions of the total amount of forage available to them. Animal selectivity is connected with many factors mentioned before but also with grazing behaviour of grazing animals. Animal selectivity (grazing behaviour)

When animals have access to a number of different pasture plant species or maturities, they show distinct preferences, they consume the best-quality forage first. Different grazing animal species have different forage preferences.

•Period at which grazing occurs in relation to the vegetation’s stage of growth.

•Animals that have access to a number of different pasture plant species or maturities show preferences (consuming the bestquality forage first). • consume the more nutritious parts of coarse weeds, brush, grasses, and legumes • consume a wider range of plants than cattle • tolerate bitter tastes including plants containing large amounts of tannins

• prefer grasses over legumes • tend to graze around excretion sites, reducing the amount of grazeable forage in a pasture Cattle

Goats

• are more selective than cattle • tend to spot graze • bite off forage very closely Horses The biting action and small mouths of sheep and goats allow more selective and closer grazing. Bite size may be affected by the proportion of leaf to stem as the animal seeks out leaves. Higher proportions of stems effectively reduce bite size.

Designing an optimal system can make a farm more productive and profitable, therefore the best choice of grazing system depends on the land resources, the livestock and the availability of time and money have to be planned. Records of animal and pasture measurements and observations provide valuable information when evaluating your current grazing system or when planning changes. LiveNutrition

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PRACTICAL TASK

How to estimate quantity of maize silage needed for the cattle farm, required cropping area and size of bunker silo for the silage. ASSUMPTIONS:  number of cows – 100 – average body weight 600 kg,

(average milk production - 30 kg)

 system of feeding – TMR all year long  maize silage contribute 50% the diet

 VDMI– ca. 3.5% of body cow body weight, i.e. - 21 kg

DM daily

AIMS:  to estimate how many tonnes of maize silage do you

need

 to estimate crop need quantities of maize forage  to design the bunker silo for maize silage (size)

SILO DESIGNED FOR SUMMER FEEDING

height 2 m

SIZE OF BUNKER SILO FOR SUMMER FEEDING PURPOSES  The quantity of maize silage for winter feeding  1096 (for all cows/year)/2 (two seasons: winter and summer) = 548 tonnes 1 m3 – 0.7 tone of silage Xm3 – 548 tones X = 783 m3  Size of the silo for winter feeding purposes 2m (height) x 6 m (width) x Xm (lenght) = 783 m3 X = 783/2/6 = 65m (silo lenght) Bunker silo A for maize silage should be 2m high, 6m wide and 65m long.

width 6 m 2.5 m of silage removal per week

SIZE OF BUNKER SILO FOR WINTER SIZE OF BUNKER SILO FOR SUMMER FEEDING PURPOSES FEEDING PURPOSES  The quantity of maize silage for winter feeding  bunker silo A – design to remove about 2.5 m  1096 (for all cows/year)/2 (two seasons: of maize silage (21 tonnes in 30 m3) winter and summer) = 548 tonnes  Assumed height of the bunker silo – 2 m 1 m3 – 0.7 tone of silage  2.5 m (meters of maize silage to remove Xm3 – 548 tones from the bunker silo during a week) x 2 m X = 783 m3 (height of the silo) x X m (width of silo) = 30  Size of the silo for winter feeding purposes m3 2m (height) x 10 (width) x Xm (lenght) = 783 m3 X m = 30 m3 /2.5 m / 2 m X = 783/2/10 = 39 m (silo lenght) x= 6 m – width of the bunker silo Bunker silo A for maize silage should be 2m high, 10 m wide and 39 m long. 174

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      

ESTIMATION OF NAMBER OF TONNES OF MAIZE SILAGE DO YOU NEED: VDMI - 21 kg maize silage contribution in TMR [DM] – 50% maize silage intake (DM) – 21 x 0.5=10.5 kg 10.5 kg x 100 cows= 1050 kg DM / herd maize forage - 45-55% cobs – 35% DM 1050/0.35 = 3000 kg of fresh maize silage daily 3 tonnes of maize silage x 365 days = 1095 tonnes per year

ESTIMATION THE NUMBER OF HECTARES OF LAND NEEDED TO PRODUCED 1095 TONNES  expected average maize forage crop - 500 dt/ha.  losses (about 12%) – 60 dt/ha;  net maize forage crop – 440 dt/ha;  required area for maize cropping 1ha – 44 tonnes X ha – 1095 tonnes X= 1095/44 = 24.89 ha = 25 ha SIZE OF BUNKER SILO FOR WINTER FEEDING PURPOSES  bunker silo A – design to remove 1.5 m of maize silage (21 tonnes in 30 m3)  assumed height of the bunker silo – 2 m  1.5 m (meters of maize silage to remove from the bunker silo during a week) x 2 m (height of the silo) x X m (width of silo) = 30 m3 X m = 30 m3 /1.5 m / 2 m x= 10m – width of the bunker silo

Appropriate rate of silage removal from silo affect its quality and protects from spoiling. The recommended silage removal from silo is: •in winter – 1.5 m/week •in summer – 2.5 m/week

DESIGN THE BUNKER SILO FOR MAIZE SILAGE (SIZE)  bunker silo – designed in such way remove weekly 

SILO DESIGNED FOR WINTER FEEDING

height 2 m

width 10 m 1.5 m of silage removal per week

 

about 1.5 m of silage during winter and 2.5 m of silage in summer time weight of 1m3 well compressed maize silage is about 700 kg maize silage intake/herd/week – 21 tonnes 1m3 – 0.7 tone 1m3– 21 tonnes X = 21/0.7 = 30 m3 You need 30 m3 of maize silage per week Two bunker silos should be designed: A – for winter feeding (silage removal - 1.5 m per week) and B – summer feeding (silage removal - 2.5 m per week)

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Animal Feeding Systems in Europe

1. Ruminants Feeding Systems 2. Pigs Feeding Systems 3. Poultry Feeding Systems 4. Horses Feeding Systems 5. Rabbits Feeding Systems

In ruminant nutrition you do not just feed the steer or cow! You also feed the microorganisms in the rumen. You must feed and meet the needs of the ruminal microorganisms and the animal. There are a few basic steps in ration balancing for animals – for cattle, pigs, poultry as well as for horses – there are the same. 1st step in ration balancing is identification of animal needs – requirements and are specified in nutritional standards. Identification of animal needs demands differentiation between two terms – maintenance and requirement for production. MAINTENANCE RATION. This is the minimum amount of feed required to maintain the essential body process at their optimum rate without gain or loss in body weight or change in body composition.

Identification of animal needs - specific to each farm animal category (calculation the total nutrient requirements).

Determination available ingredients (feedstuffs) and their nutrient contents (nutritional value) – depends on the local situation and the season, balance between energy containing feedstuffs and products with high protein content is required.

2nd step is to determine the available ingredients (feedstuffs) and their nutrient contents (nutritional value of feed). 3rd step – develop a basic ration of roughage and possibly some concentrates to meet the requirements for maintenance and production. 4th step – make sure protein and energy needs are met. Evaluate forage:concentrate ratio. Check protein sources and amino acid levels. Ensure proper mineral/vitamin supplementation. Good balanced ration meets animal requirements for both maintenance and production (milk, meet, eggs, gestation, work). PRODUCTION RATI0N. Ration given to an animal for certain production i.e. milk, work, meat or egg. It is in addition to the balanced ration.

The purpose of ration formulation is to provide to an animal the nutrients for maintenance and (desired) production. A balanced ration formulates proportions and quantities of nutrients to properly nourish an animal for 24 hours.

Development a basic ration of roughage and possibly some concentrates to meet requirements for maintenance and for production.

Balance ration – make sure protein and energy needs are met, forage : concentrate ratio, protein sources and amino acid levels. proper min/vit supplementation.

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ANIMAL REQUIREMENT

SUPPLY


Nutrients ingested with ration first will be used to meet maintenance requirement of animal. In Europe most popular systems in ruminant animal nutrition are French system INRA and German system DLG. In some countries popular is NRC system. These systems are quite similar in their basic physiological hypotheses but units, use to expression animal requirement and feed value that are necessary to diet balance, are little different.

Nowadays in calculation of balanced rations according to various systems of feeding are used specific computer software. In those software you can make characteristic of animal and choose feeds that you planning to use in ration. Then, software is computing and gives you solutions that you can choose and apply in practice. Nevertheless, it is worth to know what are you calculating and why you have to define a specific items and what they mean.

INRA SYSTEM Energy system of INRA based on net energy the NE value of feedstuffs has been calculated by deducting from the feed metabolisable energy content, the energy losses associated with feed intake, digestion and nutrient metabolism. The energy value of a feed or diet is expressed by a single parameter at a time. On the other hand, the energy value unit is different for the main types of production, milk or weight gain. Each feedstuff has two NE values: one for milk production (maintenance and lactation) expressed in UFL one for meat production (maintenance and body weight gain), expressed in UFV. These units are related to net energy of standard barley and therefore UFL is defined as NE content of one kg of standard barley for milk production and amount 1700 kcal NEL)

whereas UFV is defined as NE content of one kg of standard barley for meat production and amount 1820 kcal NEF. The difference appears at the level of the valorisation of the absorbed (digestible) energy in the organism of the ruminant - the efficiency of using absorbed energy is different between the two production – milk and meat. UFL is used for dairy females (cows, goats and ewes) during lactation, pregnancy or dry period, for dairy heifers, ewe-lambs and kids and also for wintering animals as well as slowly growing animals (live weight gain between 0 and 1.0 kg/d for cattle) and for breeding males. UFV is used for rapidly-growing and fattening animals (destined for slaughter) – steers, bulls, beef heifers and fattening lambs).

ENERGY SYSTEM •

• • •

two Energy values: one for milk production (maintenance and lactation) expressed in UFL; one for meat production (maintenance and body weight gain), expressed in UFV UFL = 1700 kcal NEL UVF = 1820 kcal NEF UFL – for dairy females during lactation, pregnancy or dry period, for dairy heifers, ewelambs and kids and for slowly growing animals and breeding males. UFV – for rapidly-growing and fattening animals (destined for slaughter) – steers, bulls, beef heifers and fattening lambs)

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Protein system is more complicated and its understanding demands knowledge of nitrogen metabolism in rumen. In INRA system the protein value of feed or a diet is measured by the amount of amino acids absorbed in the small intestine, from: the dietary protein that has escaped degradation in the rumen and the microbial protein synthesized in the rumen from the available nitrogen and energy. The protein value of feeds and the animal requirements are both expressed in terms of true Protein truly Digestible in the small Intestine – PDI. The PDI content of a diet is a sum of two fractions: PDIA – the dietary protein undegraded in the rumen, but truly digestible in the small intestine and PDIM – the microbial true protein which is truly digestible in the small intestine. Each feed contributes to microbial protein synthesis both by the degradable N and available energy it supplies to the rumen microorganisms. Thus each feed is characterized by two PDIM values: PDIMN – microbial protein that could be synthesized in the rumen using the degraded dietary N, when other nutrients are no limiting and PDIME – microbial protein that could be synthesized using the energy available in the rumen, when other nutrients are no limiting. The value of each feed is given directly as the sum of PDIA and PDIM, considering separately each of the two possible situations. PDIN is a

sum of PDIA and PDIMN whereas PDIE is a sum of PDIA and PDIME and the lower of these two values is the real value of feed when is fed alone (which is not always possible) and are reported for each feed in the Feed Tables. This value strongly depends both on the nitrogen and energy available at the rumen level. Some feeds are rich in nitrogen, some are rich in energy, therefore feeds will have different PDIN and PDIE (usually PDIN > PDIE). When calculating the PDI value of diet, the PDIN and PDIE values of the different ingredients are summed separately (PDIN and PDIE values should not be added together). The actual PDI value of the diet then corresponds to the lower of the two sums, PDIN or PDIE (R. Jarrige (Ed), 1988). PROTEIN SYSTEM

• • •

CRUDE PROTEIN

the protein value of feeds and the animal requirements are both expressed in terms of true Protein truly Digestible in the small Intestine – PDI PDI = PDIA (the dietary protein undegraded in the rumen, but truly digestible in the small intestine („by-pass protein) + PDIM (the microbial true protein which is truly digestible in the small intestine) two PDIM values of feeds: PDIMN and PDIME value of each feed is given directly as the sum of PDIA and PDIM; PDIN = PDIA + PDIMN and PDIE = PDIA + PDIME; the lower of these two values is the real value of feed when is fed alone when calculating the PDI value of diet the PDIN and PDIE values of the different ingredients are summed separately and the actual PDI value of the diet then corresponds to the lower of the two sums, PDIN or PDIE ENERGY (DOFM)

Rumen undegraded protein Rumen degraded protein (RUP) (RDP) Rumen microbial protein FEED PROTEIN „BYPASS” PDIA

Rumen microbial protein

RUMEN MICROBIAL PROTEIN (PDIM) PDIMN PDIN

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PDIME PDIE


FILL UNIT SYSTEM •

• •

feed intake capacity - the quantity of food that the animal is able to eat voluntarily, expressed as VDMI – the Voluntary Dry Matter Intake maximum quantity of the forage that could be eaten by the animal when it is fed ad libitum as the sole feed, called its “ingestibility” the influence of any supplementary concentrates upon the voluntary intake of forage, There are three Fill Units for: sheep – SFU (sheep fill unit), cattle – CFU (cattle fill unit), lactating cows – LFU (lactating cow fill unit) each forage in the feed table has been given three fill values (FV) per kg of DM, expressed in SFU, CFU and LFU respectively, concentrates do not have fixed fill units adding concentrate to forage offered ad libitum usually increases the total VDMI but reduces the forage VDMI. This substitution effect has been assigned to the FV of the concentrate

amount than X kilograms per animal per Concerning the main elements of the INRA day. feeding system, it has, at least, to be retained that: protein and energy values are the main In example in table below is given feeding subject of the dietary optimizations (together requirement of animal – a dairy cow of 600 kg with the “minimizing cost” target). Protein (or body weight, 20 kg per day mil yield, with 4% energy) supply can be calculated for each fat content (these are the main paramenters dietary ingredient (taken from the tables of needed to establish the requirements in dairy nutritive values or calculating from chemical cows and have to be known in order to find the composition, using prediction equations); the appropriate values in the requirements tables). sum of ingredients’ supplies is compared with Total requirement of the above characterized the animal requirements (taken from the tables cow is 13.8 UFL, 1355 g PDI, 33.6 g Ca, 24 g P or calculated). In ruminant nutrition the and the cow is able to consume max. 16.7 kg DM objective generally is to achieve maximum (therefore the dry mater of dietary ingredients intake of forages together with the maximum should not override this value). allowance of concentrates required in order Next you should choose feeds that are available that the whole diet meets the animal in your farm or that you can buy and find out their feeding value – in units corresponding requirements. In order to appropriately valorise the INRA with animal requirements. These values are feeding system, its final users (e.g. farmers) also given in tables in specific nutritional should at least know that: recommendations – here for example, 1 kg of  all ruminant categories (calves, dairy cows, dry matter corn silage contains 0.9 UFL, 52 g beef) are to be fed according to a prescribed PDIN, 66 g PDIE. diet in order to attain a foreseen production Then you should calculate how many kilograms level, of individual feeds you will use, how many  a diet is mainly based on: feeding nutrients you will supply with that amount of requirement of animal – specific to each feeds (multiply amount of feed by content of farm animal category – dairy cows, fattening nutrients in 1 kg of the feed) and check – if it bull, et cetera; nutritive value of available will meet animal requirement – as it is shown in feeds – expressed in the same units as is table. animal requirement and a set of feeding restrictions – farmer may decide that some of feed (Y) should not be fed in higher A set of feeding Nutritive values of the Feeding requirements restrictions feed •Ex. Feed Y should not be •Ex. A multiparous dairy •Ex. 1 kg DM corn silage = fed more than X kg / cow of 600 kg, 20 l/d milk, 0.9 MJ UFL, 52 g PDIN, 66 animal / day 4 milk fat should receive: g PDIE 13.8 UFL, 1355 g PDI, 33.6 •1 kg DM oat grain = 1.03 g Ca, 24 g P. The cow is UFL, 74 g PDIN and 85 g able to consume max. 16.7 PDIE. kg DM (therefore the dry matter of dietary ingredients should not override this value) LiveNutrition

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Animal requirement

DM (kg)

ULF

PDI (g)

etc.

16.7

13.8

1355 g

…..

DM (kg)

UFL

PDIN (g/diet)

PDIE (g/diet)

9.6

8.64

499.2

633.6

…..

43.33

49.19

.....

…..

…..

Ingredients – kind of feeds and amount (in kg) of used feeds Corn silage

(427)

Oat grain

(610)

Alfalfa hay

…..

(555)

etc.

…..

Total % of requirement

2.5

1.581

267.75

…..

…..

…..

0.585

0.6

…..

…..

…..

…..

16.539

14.63

99.0

106.0

…..

1409.9 104.1

224.4 …..

…..

1351.1

.....

…..

…..

…..

99.7

For the very final users of such a diet (this includes technicians and workers), there are several cautions to be taken. Thus, the nutritionist is to be consulted or supervisor is to be warned when: • • • •

the prescribed diet should not be significantly changed without consulting the nutritionist if a dietary ingredient seems not to have the foreseen quality if a feed ingredient has inconstant quality/ appearance if an animal does not consume entirely the prescribed diet

The nutrients requirements (energy, protein, but not only) of an animal category are available in tables, for each of the main animal categories. The values in tables are based on equations. These equations can be used for more accuracy, e.g. (upon exact live weight or production level of the animals). The protein value is usually calculated from chemical composition + parameters from tables. For more accuracy, some parameters (e.g. DT, digestibility) can be estimated (in situ, in vitro, using equations). The protein value of a feed may be estimated

using the following equations given in the chart (R. Jarrige (Ed), 1988). Content of FOM - “fermentable organic matter” is calculated from the total digestible organic matter (DOM) content after subtraction of the contents of ether extract and undegradable dietary protein in the feed and fermentation products in silage. The energy value of a feed may be estimated using the following equations given in the chart (R. Jarrige (Ed), 1988).

PROTEIN VALUE CALCULATION

PDIA = CP × 1.11 × (1 – DT) × 1,0 x dsi PDIMN = CP × [1 -1,11 × (1 – DT)] × 0,9 × 0,8 × 0,8 PDIME = FOM × 0,145 × 0,8 × 0,8 CP-crude protein; DT-theoretical degradability in sacco; ; dsi - true digestibility of undegraded dietary protein in the small intestine; FOM- fermentable organic matter FOM = OM × dOM – (r-1) CP- CF- Fpsilages 180

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ENERGY VALUE CALCULATION DE = GE × digE ME = DE × (ME/DE) ME/DE = 0.8417 – 0.000099 × %CFO – 0.000196 × %CPO + 0.221 FL kl = 0.60 + 0.24 × (q – 0.57); q = ME / GE km = 0.287 × q + 0.554; q = ME / GE kf = 0.78 * q + 0.006, kmf = (km x kf x .5)/(kf + 0.5 × km) NElactation = EM × kl NEmeat = EM × kmf UFL = NElactation / 1700 UFV = NEmeat / 1820 DE – digestible Energy; ME – metabolizable energy , CFO crude fibre in OM; CPO- crude protein content in OM; FL - feeding level; kl is partial efficiency of ME utilized for lactation ; q - energy metabolizability; km – is the partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance; kf – is the partial efficiency of ME for fattening kmf – the overall efficiency of ME for maintenance and for fattening; NEL – net energy for lactation NE meat – net energy for meat production

Taking into consideration the above-given information you already know that metabolizable energy is used with different efficiency for milk production and for fattening and that it can be expressed in two units as net energy for lactation (NEL) and net energy for meat production (NE meat). As it was mentioned before the net energy value

of feeds for milk production is related to that of barley. It is 1700 kcal NEL per kg; the net energy value of feeds for meat production is related of barley. It is 1820 kcal NE for maintenance and growth per kg. Finally, taking into consideration the above equation we can calculate two energy units of INRA system: UFL and UFV.

Beside the basics supplementary knowledge on the INRA feeding system and on the nutrition physiology may bring economic advantages, through better understanding and implementation of the diets prescribed by nutritionists, adaptation of the feeding strategies to various feeding situations, better valorisation of the available feedstuffs, etc. There are several such aspects that, once understood and took into account when establishing the feeding strategies, may bring a

better feeding efficiency. Protein and energy dynamics: rumen ecosystem relies on the nutrients available for the rumen microorganisms. The most influenced is the synthesis of the microbial protein. When the rate of degradability of the dietary proteins and the rate of fermentability of the dietary carbohydrates are inappropriate (too high/too low) the microbial protein is affected.

FINE TUNINGS IN CASE OF INRA SYSTEM

Ruminal degradability (DT) of the dietary proteins is described by three parameters: a, b and c. Thus, the degradation curve in rumen is described by the following equation (Orskov & McDonald, 1979): D(t) = a + b ∗ (1 – e-c∗t), where t = time spent in rumen (hours); e = EXP

The rumen degradability (the parameter that can be found in tables) is described by the following equation: DT = a + (b ∗ c) / (c + r), where r = rumen passage rate (which can be calculated or extrapolated). In the PDI system, for animals at maintenance level r = 4.5%/h, for dairy cow with moderate milk production, r = 6%/h LiveNutrition

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For optimal microbial protein synthesis, there are several conditions to be fulfilled: enough daily supplies of available carbohydrates, nitrogen, etc. at rumen level, rumen availability should match the growth curve of the rumen bacteria (for example too rapidly degradable nitrogenous or too rapidly fermentable

carbohydrates precede the peak of microbial growth and in this situation the excess of nitrogen or energy is lost), the availability should be simultaneous = synchronized. The most important is the synchronization of nitrogen and energy both in terms of daily supplied and dynamics.

it is important to maximize the microbial protein production

it is important to reduce the difference between IDPN and IDPE in most feeding situations, IDPE is smaller than IDPN

the protein system is to be extended to individual essential amino acids (ex. LysineID)

it is also important to retain that active substances/rumen manipulation, particular feeding situations, etc. alters the protein and energy values of a given diet, and cause shifts from the theoretical values which have to be assessed in case accurate predictions are desired.

slowly and harmonic digestion of feeds components

Finely ground wheat grains will ensure rumen available energy only for few hours after feeding, then the curve describing its availability rapidly decrease. Degradability dynamics of soybean meal are more appropriate than those of rapeseed meal. When a highly degradable protein meal is fed a different hour than a cereal with rapidly fermentable starch, there are important losses of nitrogen and energy (although the theoretical diet includes all their energy and protein potential content).

DLG SYSTEM Unlike other feeding systems energy value of a feed/diet is expressed by a single parameter at a time. There’s no conventional unit involved, as in other feeding systems, the energy being measured in megajoules (MJ).

182

There are various requirements for various productions - meat or milk, various categories of animals (dairy, beef), expressed either by MJ per kg metabolic weight (metabolic energy or net energy).

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ENERGY SYSTEM •

• •

the energy value of a feed/diet is expressed by a single parameter at a time. There’s no conventional unit involved, as in other feeding systems, the energy being measured in MJ there are various requirements for various productions (e.g. milk) and categories of animals (dairy, beef), expressed either by MJ/kg metabolic weight (metabolic energy or net energy) energy can be expressed either as ME (metabolisable energy) or dOM (digestible organic matter) for non-lactating animals maintenance requirements for energy: NEL (MJ) /day = 0.239 MJ × BW0.75 (dairy) ME (MJ) /day = 0.530 MJ × BW0.75 (breeding animals) Milk production requirements for energy: NEL (MJ)/1 kg = 1.50 + 0.4 × %EE + 0.07

In DLG feeding system, the protein value of a feed/diet is expressed by dCP – duodenal crude protein. This parameter depends on the crude protein content of the feedstuffs, their rumen degradability expressed by RUP (rumen undegradable protein) and the energy content, as it is shown in the diagram (DLG-Futterwerttabellen Wiederkäuer, 1997). The protein value is common for all ruminants’ categories/ productions. This parameter refers to digestible protein – not metabolic, not net protein value. Differently than other systems for ruminants,

for example INRA, the protein value is expressed by a single value, disregarding the quantities of energy or protein available at rumen level for the microbial protein synthesis. What is important is that by summing all dietary ingredients, the protein supplies must be higher than the protein feeding requirements (DLG-Futterwerttabellen Wiederkäuer, 1997). This is a simplified approach, for more details please consult the DLG Feeding System resources.

PROTEIN SYSTEM

in DLG feeding system, the protein value of a feed/diet is expressed by dCP (duodenal crude protein). This parameter depends on the crude protein content of the feedstuffs, their rumen degradability expressed by RUP (rumen undegradable protein) and the energy content differently than other systems for ruminants, the protein value is expressed by a single value, disregarding the quantities of energy or protein available at rumen level for the microbial protein synthesis milk production requirements for protein: 86 g dCP/kg of milk (for protein content in milk 3.4%) RUP

Feed protein „by-pass”

Digestible „by-pass” protein (in the small intestine)

DIETARY CRUDE PROTEIN dTP

RDP Rumen microbial protein

DIETARY ENERGY

Digestible microbial protein (in the small intestine)

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Protein and energy values are the main subject of the dietary optimizations. Protein and energy supplies have to be known for each dietary ingredients: they can be taken from the tables of nutritive values or can be calculated from chemical composition by prediction equations. The sum of ingredients’ supplies has to be compared with the animal requirements, taken from the tables or calculated. Calcium, phosphorous, etc. are also important, but they are easier to be optimized by including a premix containing mineral additives. Nutrients requirements of an animal category are available in tables, for each of the main animal categories. There are tables for dairy animals, breeding animals, beef cattle, etc. The values in tables are based on equations, and these equations can be applied by advanced

users for more accuracy, for example upon exact live weight or production level of the animals. Maintenance requirements for energy is calculated with reference to metabolic body mass of animal according equations given below (DLG-Futterwerttabellen Wiederkäuer, 1997). For animals on the pasture, as well as in free stall the maintenance requirement should be increased by about 10% taking into consideration energy use for movement. Milk production requirements for energy are given in the tables and depend on fat content in the milk, they may be also calculated according to the equations given the chart below. Milk production requirements for protein are also given in the tables and depend on protein content in the milk, here requirement for 1 kg of milk containing 3.4 % of protein is 86 g of dCP.

The protein value of a feed is calculated using regression equation from the CP (without urea), RUP and energy content of the feedstuffs. The energy can be expressed either by ME (metabolisable energy) or dOM (digestible organic matter content). For ether extract (actually fat) contents higher than 7%, its

energy (either ME or dEE) has to be subtracted from the amount of dietary energy. There are two equations given below that are suitable for feeds that contain less than 7% ether extract to dry matter content and for feeds that contain more than 7% ether extract (DLG-Futterwerttabellen Wiederkäuer, 1997).

ESTIMATION OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS OF THE DLG SYSTEM

PROTEIN VALUE CALCULATION

≤ 7% EE/DM: dCP=[11.93–(6.82×(RUP/CPwu))]×ME+1.03×RUP or = [187.7–(115.4 × (RUP/CPwu))] × dOM+1.03 x RUP > 7% EE/DM: dCP=[13.06–(8.41× (RUP/CP wu))]× (ME-MEEE)+1.03×RUP or = [196.1 – (127.5×(RUP/CPwu))] × (dOM–dEE) + 1.03 × RUP where: dCP is digestible crude protein, CPwu – crude protein without urea, ME – metabolizable energy, dMO is digestible organic matter; MEEE is metabolizable energy of ether extract and dEE is digestibility of ether extract.

In order to estimate the energy value of a feed, the first step is to calculate the gross energy from the proximal chemical composition of the feeds, whereas the metabolisable energy is calculated from the content in digestible nutrients (organic matter, crude protein, ether

extract, and crude fibre). The ratio between metabolisable energy and gross energy (q) is further used to derive net energy (e.g. for milk production) from the metabolisable energy according to equations:

ENERGY VALUE CALCULATION

NEL (MJ)= 0.6×(1+0.004 ×[q – 57])×ME (MJ) ME (MJ) = 0.0312×dEE (g) + 0.0136 × dCF (g) + 0.0147× (dOM – dEE – dCF) (g) + 0.00234 x CP (g) GE (MJ) = 0.0239 x CP (g) + 0.0398 x EE (g) + 0.0201 x CF (g) + 0.0175 x NFE (g) q = ME/GE x 100 where: ME – metabolizable energy, q – metabolizable energy to gross energy ratio; dEE – digestible ether extract; dCF – digestible crude fibre; dMO – digestible organic matter; CP – crude protein; EE – ether extract; CF – crude fibre; NFE – nitrogen free extractives.

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Often, energy and protein values are simply taken from the tables of nutritive values (and extrapolated from similar feeds, in case of missing values). For more accuracy energy and protein value are usually calculated from chemical composition and some parameters extracted from tables of nutritive values or from scientific literature. For even more accuracy, some parameters (e.g. DT, digestibility) can be estimated (in situ, in vitro, using prediction equations).

For DLG feeding system, there are few minimal things to be understood within, in order to appropriately valorise it in ruminants’ nutrition – it is similar like for INRA system but as you will see different units are used for that system.

In the example below, in table is given feeding requirement of a mulitiparous dairy cow of 600 kg body weight, 30 kg/day milk yield, 4% milk fat content and 3.4% milk protein content (these data re needed in order to indentify the specific nutritive requirements from the tables). Total requirement of characterized cow is 130.6 MJ net energy for lactation (NEL), 1355 g dCP, 33.6 g Ca, 24 g P. Also the cow is able to consume some 20 kg DM (therefore the dry matter of dietary ingredients should not

override this value). Next you should choose feeds that are available in your farm or that you can buy and find out their feeding value – in units corresponding with animal requirements. These values are also given in tables in specific nutritional recommendations – here for example: 1 kg of corn silage, at the end of silage maturity, contains 1.99 MJ NEL, 41.3 g dCP; 1 kg of red clover hay, at the beginning of flowering contains 4.52 MJ NEL, 115 g dCP; and 1 kg of corn grains contains 7.38 MJ NEL, 144 G dCP. Then you should calculate how many kilograms of individual feeds you will use, how many nutrients you will supply with that amount of feeds (multiply the amount of feed by the content of nutrients in 1 kg of the feed) and check – if it will meet animal requirement – as it is shown in table. The sum of the nutritive values – energy and protein of each of the dietary ingredients has to be slightly higher than the corresponding feeding requirements, while respecting the feeding restrictions and keeping the diet price as low as possible. Also, there are some more parameters to optimize (minerals, cost of the diet, etc.).

Feeding requirements

Nutritive values of the feed

A set of feeding restrictions

•Ex. A multiparous dairy cow of 600 kg, 30 l/d milk, 4% milk fat, 3.4% milk protein should receive 130.6 MJ net energy for lactation (NEL), 1355 g dCP, 33.6 g Ca, 24 g P. Also the cow is able to intake some 20 kg DM (therefore dry matter of dietary ingredients should not override this value).

•Ex. 1 kg corn silage, at the end of silage maturity (32% DM) = 1.99 MJ NEL, 41.3 g dCP, ... •Ex. 1 kg of red clover hay, at the beginning of flowering (88% DM) = 4.52 MJ NEL, 115 g dCP, ... •Ex. 1 kg of corn grains (88% DM) = 7.38 MJ NEL, 144 G dCP, ...

•Ex. Feed Y should not be fed more than X kg / head / day

As you can see by analyzing the table some feeds are still to be added in order to meet the feeding requirements for energy and protein. Also, there are some more parameters to optimize (minerals, cost of the diet, etc.)

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Animal requirement – maintenance – milk production Total Corn silage

DM (kg)

NEL (MJ)

dCP (g)

etc.

19.95

35.5 95.1 130.6

420 2580 3000

….. ….. …..

9.6

59.7

1239

…..

.....

Basal diet (forages)

Red clover hay

3.44

Concentrates

460

Corn grain

1.76

14.76

288

…..

…..

14.8

92.54

etc.

…..

Total % of requirement

18.08

…..

…..

74.2

70.9

.....

…..

….. 1987 66.2

Energy and protein values are simply taken from the tables of feeding values. For more accuracy energy and protein value are usually calculated from chemical composition and some parameters extracted from tables of nutritive values or from scientific literature.

FINE TUNING IN CASE OF THE DLG SYSTEM  Nitrogen balance in rumen (NBR) that is calculating according to equation in the chart below.  Dynamics of rumen ecosystem.  Synchronization of the energy and protein supplies For optimal microbial protein synthesis, there are several conditions to be fulfilled: – enough daily supplies of available carbohydrates, nitrogen, etc. at rumen level. – Rumen availability should match the growth 186

curve of the rumen bacteria for example too rapidly degradable nitrogenous or too rapidly fermentable carbohydrates precede the peak of microbial growth and therefore the excess of nitrogen or energy is lost occur. The availability of nitrogen and energy should be simultaneous – synchronized – both in terms of daily supplied and dynamics.

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Nitrogen balance in rumen (NBR) NBR = (CP – dCP)/6.25 It is an indicator of adequate intake of energy and protein in diet; in well-balanced diet NBR should be as close as possible to zero. Rumen ecosystem relies on the nutrients available for the rumen microorganisms. The most influenced is the synthesis of the microbial protein. When the rate of degradability of the dietary proteins and the potential rate of “fermentation” of the dietary carbohydrates are inappropriate (too high or too low) the microbial protein is negatively influenced. Synchronization of the energy and protein supplies - enough daily supplies of available carbohydrates, nitrogen at rumen level; rumen availability should match the growth curve of the rumen bacteria; The most important is the synchronization of nitrogen and energy.

NRC SYSTEM Energy requirement for maintenance and milk production in dairy cows are expressed in net energy for lactation (NEL) units) The energy

values of feeds are expressed in the same units. (NRC, 2001).

ENERGY SYSTEM

energy requirements for maintenance and milk production in dairy cows are expressed in net energy for lactation (NEL) units. The energy values of feeds are expressed in the same units the method used to obtain and express feed energy values based on Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) values the first step is to calculate TDN1X (1x = at maintenance level), based on the digestibility of nutrients: truly digestible Non Fiber Carbohydrates (tdNFC); trully digestible Crude Protein (tdCP) either for forages (tdCPf) and concentrates (tdCPc), truly digestible Ether Extract (tdFA) and truly digestible NDF (tdNDF) – corrections: PAF – processing adjustment factor for tdNFC net energy for lactation is easily derived from the metabolic energy, with a correction for the better metabolic efficiency of fat. Net energy for maintenance and growth is also derived from the metabolic energy, through non-linear equations

Two systems of describing the dietary protein supply and requirements for dairy cows are in general use: the crude protein system (CP) and the metabolizable protein (MP) system. The crude protein system is relatively simple to use and has provided a traditional means of formulating dairy cow rations. This system provides general guidelines for the required crude protein concentration of diets for largeand small-breed dairy cattle at various levels of production, but it is too aproximated for an

efficient use. The metabolizable protein (MP) system is more complex than the crude protein system and it was developed in recognition of the fact that not all crude protein provided to cows may be available for absorption as amino acids. Feed Evaluation for protein starts from the crude protein content that takes two metabolic pathways in the rumen: a part that is undegraded - RUP and a part that is degraded – RDP.

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• • •

PROTEIN SYSTEM

crude protein (CP) system considers only the total amount of dietary protein, or protein equivalent from nonprotein nitrogen sources two metabolic pathways of CP in the rumen: part is undegraded - RUP and part is degreged – RDP metabolizable protein (MP) system refers to amino acids absorbed from the small intestine and available for metabolism – derived from two sources: microbial protein synthesized in the rumen (from RDP) and dietary proteins that escapes rumen degradation (RUP) RUP passes unaltered through the rumen and forms a direct source of protein for intestinal digestion and amino acid absorption Nitrogen from RDP → incorporated into newly synthesized microbial protein → provide amino acids available for intestinal absorption dietary ingredients vary in their proportion of RUP and RDP proportions of dietary RUP and RDP are not fixed but depends on intake rate on the same diet, RUP proportions are higher in animals with high rates of feed intake than in those with low rates of feed intake

The efficiency with which RDP is recovered as microbial protein depends on the growth rate of the rumen microbes, which in turn depends on the supply of fermentable energy sources in the rumen. Thus, diets with sufficient RDP and relatively high energy concentrations will result in high yields of microbial protein, which will become available for intestinal digestion and absorption as MP. Calculations that balance dairy diets for MP must consider the complex interrelations among

fermentable energy sources, RUP, and RDP. Furthermore, on the base of RDP and TDN, the microbial protein synthesis (microbial crude protein) can be assessed (calculated) and, by applying true digestibility coefficients to the RUP and microbial protein, the metabolisable protein can be calculated. Animals most likely to benefit from supplements selected for high RUP proportions are those with relatively high protein requirements and relatively low rates of feed intake.

CRUDE PROTEIN (NRC, 2001). Rumen undegraded protein (RUP)

Rumen degraded protein (RDP) N Energy

MCP

Protein available for digestion and absorption

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MP


ESTIMATION OF THE MAIN PARAMETERS OF THE NRC SYSTEM Ruminal degradation of dietary feed CP is an important factor influencing ruminal fermentation and amino acids supply to dairy cattle and

may be calculated as shown in chart below (NRC, 2001).

NRC – PROTEIN CALCULATION Knowledge of the kinetics of ruminal degradation of feed proteins is fundamental to formulate diets for adequate amounts of rumen degraded protein (RDP) for rumen microorganisms and adequate amounts of rumen undegraded protein (RUP) for the host animal RDP (g) = CP (g) x RDP (%); RUP (g) = CP (g) x RUP (%) CP fraction consists of multiple fractions that differ widely in rates of degradation – the ruminal disappearance of protein is the result of two simultaneous activities, degradation and passage. Feed CP is divided into five fractions: A, B1, B2, B3, and C with different rates of ruminal degradation (kd). RUP (% of CP) = B1 [kp/(kdB1 + kp)] + B2 [kp/(kdB2 + kp)] + B3 [kp/(kdB3+kp)]+C RDP (% of CP) = A + B1 [kdB1/(kdB1+kp)]+B2[kdB2/(kdB2 + kp)]+B3 [kdB3/(kdB3 + kp)] Values for fractions A, B1, B2, B3, C and kd are obtained from the tables or by fitting data from rumen degradability tests; kp can be estimated from literature or using specific equations.

Microbial yield (MCP Total) and the requirement for RDP is calculated as shown: MCP total = 0.13 x total TDN (corrected for the production level) RDPreq = 0.15294 x total TDN (corrected for the production level) Efficiency of RDP capture into MCP cannot be higher than 85%; if higher: MCP total = (0.85 x (RDP Total x 1000)) MPBact = 0.64 x MCP total MPFeed = Total Digested RUP = RUP (g) x RUP digestibility (%) MPEndo = 0.4 x EndCP MP = MPBact + MPFeed + MPEndo

Fraction A (NPN) is the percentage of CP that is instantaneously solubilized at time zero. Fraction C contains proteins associated with lignin and tannins and heat-damaged proteins such as the Maillard reaction products. The remaining B fractions represent potentially degradable true protein and consist in three fractions (B1, B2, B3), having different rates of degradation (kd) and passage (kp); a single kp value is used for all fractions. The digestibility of RUP is a constant value (80%) in the former edition of NRC (1989), while in the latest edition there are equations

for predicting RUP digestibility. Using the above listed parameters, MP value of a feed (or diet) can be calculated, with the equations presented in the above table..

For more accuracy, the MP deriving supply from endogenous – recirculated nitrogen can be added into the calculations chain, using the following equation as endogenous metabolizable protein so the total metabolizable protein may be calculated.

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NRC – ENERGY CALCULATION

NEL value of feeds is calculated directly from their nutrient composition. The equations for calculating the TDN of a feed or diet at maintenance intake (TDN1X): TDN1X (%) = tdNFC + tdCP + (tdFA x 2.25) + tdNDF – 7 tdNFC - truly digestible nonfiber carbohydrates; tdCP - truly digestible crude protein; tdFA - truly digestible fatty acids and tdNDF - truly digestible neutral detergent fibre; 7 is metabolic fecal TDN.

tdNFC = 0.98×(100–[(NDF–NDICP)+CP+EE +Ash])× PAF. The PAF adjustment is applied only to the nonfiber carbohydrate fraction of the truly digestible NFC equation. tdCPf = CP×exp [-1.2×(ADICP/CP)] (for forages) tdCPc = [1-(0.4×(ADICP/CP))]×CP (for concentrates) tdFA = FA if EE < 1, then FA = 0 tdNDF = 0.75×(NDFn - L)×[1 – (L/NDFn)0.667] where: NDF – Neutral Detergent fibre; NDICP – neutral detergent insoluble crude protein; CP– crude protein; EE – ether extract; PAF - processing adjustment factor; tdCPf – truly digestible crude protein of forages and with index c for concentrates; ADICP – acid detergent insoluble crude protein; NDFn = (NDF - NDICP) DE1X (Mcal/kg) = (tdNFC/100)×4.2+(tdNDF/100)×4.2+(tdCP/100)×5.6+(FA/100)×9.4-0.3; for some classes of feeds (e.g. animal protein feeds) there are particular equations

Discount factor = (TDN1X – [((0.18 × TDN1X) – 10.3) × Intake]/ TDN1X DEp (Mcal/kg) = DE × discount factor MEp (Mcal/kg) = [1.01×DEp–0.45]+0.0046×(EE – 3) NELp (Mcal/kg) = [0.703×MEp (Mcal/kg)]–0.19, correction when EE is > 3%; there are similar equations for maintenance & growth) NELp (Mcal/kg) = (0.703×MEp–0.19)+{[(0.097×MEp+0.19)/0.97]× (EE – 3)}

After the TDN value of a feed or diet is determined, the next step is to convert TDN1X to digestible energy for use in the net energy system. The approach is to multiple each digestible nutrient component in the TDN calculation by its specific energy value, in order to determine the truly digestible nutrient component. The truly digestible components are then summed and a metabolic fecal fraction (0.3) is subtracted to obtain the digestible energy at maintenance level, as shown in the chart above. For some classes of feeds, for example animal protein feeds there are particular equations. Because DE at maintenance is not represe-

ntative of the energy value of a feed or diet at production intake levels, a discount factor based on DMI and TDN1X was developed to correct for decreased digestibility as dry matter intake increased. An intake corrected digestible energy (discounted digestible energy) is then used to calculate metabolisable and finally NEL. This approach acknowledges the fact that the energy value of feeds and diets decreases with increasing the dry matter intake. The following equations given in chart (NRC, 2001) are used to convert digestible energy at maintenance to production levels of DEp, metabolizable energy (MEp) and NELp.

Because starch availability of a feed can be affected by physical or chemical processing, a PAF factor was developed to account for the differences in starch digestibility and, hence, energy value of the feed. 190

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For example, in the next table, the feeding requirements are presented for a Holstein cow, 680 kg BW, 3.0 BCS, aged 65 months (it is necessary to calculate maintenance requirement of the animal); milk yielding – 35 kg (litres) per day, fat content in milk is 3.5%, true protein content in milk is 3.0% and lactose 4.8% – these data are necessary to locate in tables appropriate nutritive requirements. Total requirement of the above characterized cow is 34.8 Mcal NEL, 1291 g RUP, 2298 g RDP, 1862 g MP, etc. Also the cow is able to consume 23.6 kg DM, therefore the dry mater of dietary ingredients should not override this value. Next you should choose feeds that are available in your farm or that you can buy and find out Feeding requirements

•A Holstein cow, 680 kg BW, 3.0 BCS, aged 65 months, 35 kg milk/d (with 3.5% milk fat, 3.0% milk true protein, 4.8% lactose) needs 34.8 Mcal NEL, 1291 g RUP, 2298 g RDP, 1862 g MP, etc. Also the cow is able to consume 23.6 kg DM (therefore dry matter of dietary ingredients should not override this value)

Animal requirement

their feeding value – in units corresponding with animal requirements. These values are also given in tables in specific nutritional recommendations – here for example: 1 kg DM alfalfa hay contains 1.19 Mcal NEL, 192 g CP, 60.67 g RUP, 131.33 g RDP; 1 kg DM soybean mean contains 2.38 Mcal NEL, 463 g CP, 268.54 g RUP, 194.46 g RDP, etc. Then you should calculate how many kilograms of individual feeds you will use, how many nutrients you will supply with that amount of feeds (multiply the amount of feed by the content of nutrients in 1 kg of the feed) and check – if it will meet animal requirement – as it is shown in table.

Nutritive values of the feed

A set of feeding restrictions

•Ex. 1 kg DM alfalfa hay, 17% CP, code 1-00-023 = 1.19 Mcal NEL, 192 g CP, 60.67 g RUP, 131.33 g RDP, etc. •Ex. 1 kg DM soybean meal, expellers, 45%, code 5-20637 = 2.38 Mcal NEL, 463 g CP, 268.54 g RUP, 194.46 g RDP, etc.

•Ex. Feed Y should not be fed more than X kg / head / day

DM (kg)

NEL (Mcal)

RUP (g)

23.6

34.8

1291

4.52

5.37

273.9

592.9 …..

….. .....

Basal diet (forages)

Alfalfa hay

…..

Soybean meal (expellers) etc. …..

Total % of requirement

…..

…..

Concentrates

…..

RDP (g) 2298

1862

3.58

8.53

962.4

696.9

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

8.1

34.3

13.9

It can be observed that some feeds are still to be added in order to meet the feeding requirements for energy and protein and the

39.9

…..

1236.3 95.8

MP (g)

…..

…..

1289.8

…..

56.1

…..

particular situation that the RUP requirements are already almost fulfilled due to the presence of a RUP-rich feed.

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PRACTICAL TASK

How to calculate daily ration for breeding Holstein Friesian heifer according to INRA system.

1. Animal Characteristic:

 dairy breed vs. beef breed – here dairy breed

– Holstein Friesian  live weight – here 350 kg  daily gains – here 600 g per day

3.

Nutritive value of 1 kg DM of forage: here maize silage harvested in dry weather conditions: UFL

PDIN g

PDIE g

FV CFU

0.84

47

64

1.16

 calculate FED – Forage Energy Density =

UFL/CFU here: 0.84/1.16 = 0.72

 compare RED to FED, here: FED > RED

If FED is higher than RED it means that sole forage is sufficient to meet energy requirement of animal. Contrary, if FED is lower than RED it means that sole forage is not sufficient to meet requirement for energy so daily ration has to be supplemented with concentrates.  here – sole forage is sufficient to meet heifer

requirement for energy.

5.

2

. Animal Requirement (according to INRA standards):  energy requirement in UFL – here 4.9  protein requirement in PDI – here 441 g  intake capacity (IC) in CFU – here 7.6  RED – ration energy density (UFL/CFU) – here 0.64

4.

What daily weight gains could be achieved taking into consideration energy (UFL) if forage was taken ad libitum?  calculate of VDMI of maize silage (IC / FV) = 7.6 / 1.16 = 6.55 kg DM;  calculate the amount of energy intaken with that amount of DM: 6.55 × 0.84 (UFL/kg DM) = 5.5 UFL;  in INRA requirement tables you could find for how many grams of gain this amount of energy is sufficient: here - for 800 g/day (planned 600 g/d.);  therefore, to calculate the amount of forage that is sufficient to meet animal energy requirement: requirement/energy value of silage = 4.9/0.84 = 5.83 kg DM

Calculate protein content in 5.83 kg of forage DM – compare it with animal requirement.  PDIN and PDIE (g) included in 5,83 kg DM of silage: PDIN g

PDIE g

Requirement g (PDI)

5.83 × 47 = 274

5.83 × 64 = 373

441

-167

- 68

deficiency

 protein content in given amount of forage is

insufficient in comparison with animal requirement therefore the forage has to be supplemented with protein concentrates. i.e. soybean extracted meal.

PDIN deficiency is higher than PDIE deficiency. As both PDIE and PDIN are limiting facotrs, the highest of these deficiencies is to be considered. 192

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6. Feed value of the used meal (in kg): UFL

PDIN g

0.99

303

PDIE g 210

 how many kg of soybean oil-extracted meal 

is needed to supply PDIN deficiency? 167/303 = 0.55 kg soybean oil-extracted meal is enough to supply PDIN deficiency

7. Correction of forage amount:  introduction of 0.55 kg of soybean extracted meal increase of energy content in ration that

based on forage – forage amount was calculated to meet animal energy requirement,

 energy added in soybean extracted meal – 0.55 kg × 0.99 (UFL/kg) = 0.54 UFL

 this amount of energy is above animal requirement so it has to be removed from ration by

decreasing the amount of given silage,  0.54 / 0.84 = 0.64 kg DM of silage must be substracted  Final amount of maize silage in ration: 5.83 – 0.64 = 5.19 kg DM

8. Final ration: Maize silage (5.19 kg DM)

Soybean oil-extracted meal (0.55 kg)

Total

Requirement

UFL

PDIN g

PDIE g

5.19 × 0.84 = 4.36

5.19×47 = 244

5.19× 64 = 332

0.55×0.99 = 0.54

0.55×303 = 167

0.55×210 = 115

4.90 4.9

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447

441

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First at all you must be aware that the selection of a proper feeding system is particularly important because pig feeding and nutrition form much of the production costs. We cannot speak of harmonized feeding systems throughout the European union, two of them being better known for the pig industry, NRC and INRA. The biological processes within the animal organism are highly complex, which is why it is necessarily to know basic principles, notions and concepts, which allow selecting an adequate feeding system in support of an

efficient farm management. The first step implies acquiring basic notions such as nutrient, compound feed, feeding requirements, etc. The proper evaluation of the energy and protein content of the feed ingredients and of the feeding requirements of the animals ensures the profitability of pig production.

Before presentation of main pigs feeding systems you have to familiarize with basic principles of diet formulation for pigs with basic concept and definitions that are show below.

Correct feeding = consumption of energy and nutrients at an optimal level, which to allow maximizing the genetic potential, decreasing the physiological imbalances, optimizing the immune defense mechanisms etc.

Nutrient = feeding component of the diet ingredients, which the organism takes from the feed and uses for maintenance and production. It may exist as such, but most often results from the digestion processes.

Compound feed = mixture of vegetal, animal, micro-organic and mineral feeds, supplemented with feed additives with specific action, supplied at levels which meet the feeding requirements. The compound feeds allow meeting the specific requirements of each category of age and weight, based on the nutrient composition of the feed ingredients.

Feeding requirements (feeding norms) = ingestion of nutrients that cannot be synthesized by the animal organism through the processes of digestion and metabolism, which to provide the desired level of performance; they differ according to the species, categories of age and weight, they must be properly known and provided through diets.

Feeding norms = amount of nutrients necessary for the organism to cover the maintenance, growth, development and production requirements. The feeding requirements are different and they depend on the age, weight and physiological state of the animal.

Feeding value = nutrient content of the feed ingredients, bioavailability and efficiency of their utilization by the animal organism.

Feed – determining factor for the accomplishment of the productive potential (60-70% of the expenditure). ACCURATE ACKNOWLEDGE OF THE NUTRITIONAL NEEDS OF THE ANIMALS + NUTRITIVE VALUES OF THE FEEDSTUFFS = ACCURATE DIET = PROFITABILITY

A proper diet presumes accomplishing the following objectives: to be economic, ensure animal production at the level of the genetic potential, ensure animal health at the current standards and ensure high quality productions while not affecting animal performance. 194

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1st step in proper calculation of diet for pigs is estimation of the feeding, physiological requirements of pigs and then supply the

necessary nutrients in diet to meet maintenance and production requirement. Minerals & Vitamins

Energy

Protein

Amino acids requirements relies on the real and apparent ileal digestibility. The efficient use of the dietary protein depends on protein digestibility, i.e. the digestibility of its main components, the amino acids, but also on the amino acids balance and on their concentration related to the feeding requirements (Milgen & Dourmad, 2015).

The classical energy system used in pig nutrition is the system of the digestible (DE) or metabolisable energy (ME). NRC and INRA system have adopted the net energy system. It is much more accurate in estimating the energy used and retained in the pig for fibrous feedstuffs when compared to the ME system (Payne & Zijlstra, 2007).

In the fact in monogastric animals protein requirement is in the fact requirement for amino acids. Special attention has to be pay to essential amino acids balance. In monogastric animal nutrition available phosphorus amount in diet is calculated. About

Minerals and vitamins requirements include the amount of these nutrients supplied through dietary ingredients and that supplemented as vitamin-mineral premixes.

60% of phosphorus in concentrates used in pigs nutrition is bound with phytic acid and form unavailable for animal complex. In ruminants, rumen microorganisms are able to break that complexes and phosphorus in this group is more available.

There are three most popular fattening systems use in farm swine feeding:

CEREAL FATTENING the most common system of fattening, • cereal grains are energy concentrates (11-14 MJ EM/kg) and might provide about 85% energy in fattening’s diet, • the fattening pigs are fed ad libitum with concentrate mixtures mainly consist of grounded cereal grains and supplemented with protein concentrates, vitamins and minerals (premixes), • barley, rye, oat and maize. •

POTATO FATTENING among root plants the most often feedstuffs in fattening pigs feeding, • potatoes are carbohydrates feed rich in starch and might cause significant adipose when are used in fattening pigs nutrition in excessive quantities, • potatoes should be cooked/steamed or cooked and ensilaged or can be used as potato flakes or dry potato, • feeding uncooked potatoes cause deterioration of growth performance. •

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CCM SILAGE FATTENING (CORN COB MIX) •

• •

crude fibre content in these feedstuffs is only 4-7% (high digestibility), energy value of 1 kg CCM is 6.42-7.49 MJ, in fattening pigs feeding can be use up to 4.0 kg/day/head, CCM or maize kernel silage based diet has to be supplemented with protein concentrate.

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PRACTICAL TASK How to calculate daily ration for fattening pigs

Animal Characteristic:  fattening pig - BW– 65 kg live weight,  daily gains – 700 g per day,

 average feed intake (in kg) depends on energy concentration in feed

(see table below)

Month of fattening

BW kg

11,8

60-70

2.55

50-60

2

ME, MJ/kg 12,3

2.35

12,8

2.25

2.15

2.45

2.35

Daily requirement for energy: ME (MJ) = 2.45 x 12.3 = 30.135 MJ Calculation of daily requirement for lysine and protein:  required quantities of Lys and protein [g] per 1 MJ of ME.

BW kg 30-70

Lys (g) 0.72

Total protein (g) 13.3

1/

Met+Cys:Thr:Try ratio: 100:60:62:18.

CP(g) = 30.135 x 13.3 = 400.9 g Lys (g)= 30.135 x 0.72 = 21.7 g  daily requirement for nutrients: ME- 30.135 MJ;

CP – 400.9 g; Lys – 21.7  starch content should be at least 38% (at dry matter basis)  crude fibre content should be up to 6%-7% (at dry matter basis). Feed value of used feed:

Cooked potatoes

196

DM (g)

ME (MJ)

CP (g/kg)

CF (g/kg)

Starch (g/kg)

Lys (g/kg)

230

3.50

22

7.13

173.19

1.17

Pay attention!  only part of animal requirement for energy can be provided with forages,  potatoes, CCM, whey - max 30%  sugar beet roots - max 20%  green forages - max 5% LiveNutrition


Calculate the acceptable quantity of cooked potato in daily ration: 30% of 30.135 MJ is 9.04 MJ max ME that can be provided with cooked potatoes 9.04 MJ/3.5 MJ = 2.58 kg cooked potatoes (max) Daily ration DM (g)

kg

ME (MJ)

CP g/kg

30.135

400.9

8.75

55

-21.385

-345.9

Requirement 2.5

Cooked potatoes

575

Balance

Energy protein ratio Required = 345.9/21.385 =16.175g CP/ 1 MJ ME Feed value of concentrates used to complete deficient of energy and protein: Feed

Ground barley Soybean extracted meal

DM (g)

880

880

ME (MJ)

12.49

12.60

CP (g)

111

388

CF (g)

Starch (g)

49.00

528.00

78.32

63.36

Lys (g)

3.88

24.10

Equations with two unknown values:  ME (MJ) = A×MEA+B×MEB

 21.38 = A×12.49+B×12.60

A = 1.14 kg B = 0.56 kg

 CP (g) = A×CPA+B×CPB  345.9 = A×111+B×388

Total ration value vs. animal requirement

Feed Cooked potatoes

Barley

Soybean extr. meal

Total Requirement Balance

kg 2.5

1.14

0.56 4.2

DM (g)

ME (MJ)

CP (g)

1005.5

14.27

126.8

2077

30.13 30.13

575

496.87

8.75

7.11

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CF (g)

Starch (g)

Lys (g)

56

603

4.4

117.8

1072

55

17.8

219.1

44

400.9 400.9

433 36

2.9

13.6

20.9 21.7 -0.8

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INRA SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC

Database. The main menu includes information on: composition of the feed ingredients and their feeding value, feeding requirements by category (pregnant and lactating sows, pigs of all age categories). Composition of the feed ingredients: elementary (dry matter, ether extractives, ash, crude protein, sugar, starch, residues); energy (gross, digestible, metabolisable, net); amino acids: composition, standardized and apparent digestibility coefficients, ideal protein; fatty acids; minerals;fibre. INRA system has as novelties: inclusion of the content in net Energy, digestible amino acids, available and digestible phosphorus; electrolytic balance. Diet formulation: 1) setting the objective. 2) on the basis of the feeding value of the available ingredients, the inclusion amount is decided so as to 3) meet the feeding requirements. NRC SYSTEM CHARACTERISTICS

Database. The main menu: allows selecting the nutrient system (e.g.: digestible, metabolisable or net energy, standardized level of ileal digestible amino acids, total digestible phosphorus in the digestive tract). Selection of the ingredients: the feeding value of the selected ingredients is displayed using the new indicators of the system (e.g. net energy). Diet formulation. Includes the nutrient content of the diet resulting after the selection of ingredients. Database of the formulated diets (their feeding properties). NRC allows the development of a feeding system. NRC system has as novelties: Alternative energy systems, Inclusion of the net energy content of the dietary ingredients and the feeding requirements expressed as net energy. Alternative systems for digestible amino acids, Alternative systems for phosphorus.

Example of steps in calculation of a compound feed formulation is given in the diagram. First at all you should choose ingredients, in example: corn, soybean meal, oil, corn gluten, vitamin-mineral premix and salt. Then calculate nutrients, in example for protein calculation starts from the proportion of protein in each ingredient (values taken from tables or from the analytical results). The dietary level of each ingredient is determined by successive attempts. Calculation for protein concentration is multiplied with the amount of

the particular ingredients in order to determine the protein supply of each ingredient, and they are finally added up. The obtained figure is compared with the norms. No differences higher or lower than 1% from the norm are allowed. The other basic nutrients (energy, amino acids, calcium, phosphor, fibre) are calculated in the same way. The final step is to validate the formulation in actual practice.

Ingredients

Validate the formulation in actual practice

Calculate nutrients

Comparison with the norms 198

Nutrients concentration calculation

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In preparation of daily ration of concentrate mixtures for animals you may use commercially available protein concentrates and supply them with grains that are available in your farm, or you could buy complete feed mixtures that are design for specific kinds of animals. Complete feed mixtures are nutritionally adequate feed for animals and are prepared by specific formula to be fed as the sole ration and is capable of maintaining life and promoting production without any additional substance being consumed except water.

Net system have been criticized because the values of that system are determined in standardized conditions and therefore their application in practical conditions could result inconsistent production response (Boisen &

Werstegen, 1998). Current net systems provide advantage over the DE or ME system, however, they still present many elements of inaccuracy (Szabό, 2013). New concepts, challenges, opportunities of validation are still needed.

New concepts, challenges, opportunities of validation

•An increasing number of ingredients will be available, and their feeding potential is unknown. •New solutions for the efficient use of the feeding potential of some by-products where there is no inter-species competition. •The feeding value tables must be updated on a continuous basis.

•The feed composition has an important effect on animal performance (quantitative and qualitative), and on animal health state. •The net energy system of evaluating the feeding value is much more accurate, but more experiments are required in order to validate the prediction equations.

•The coefficients used by the regression equations are not similar in the two systems.

•New challenges and constraints appear (animal welfare, environmental pollution)

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Chapter 3. Animal Feeding Systems in Europe

The science of feeding presumes ensuring a balanced supply of nutrients in the diet so as to meet the optimal requirements for maintenance, growth, reproduction and production, and for a

proper health state of the poultry. At the beginning let’s familiarize with basic terms according to NRC 1994:

Diet – a mixture of several feedstuffs such as cereal grains, soybean meal, by-product meals, fats, and vitamin and mineral premixes. These feedstuffs, together with water, provide the energy and nutrients that are essential for the bird’s growth, reproduction, and health. Energy – is not a nutrient but a property of energy-yielding nutrients when they are oxidized during metabolism. Poultry can derive energy from simple carbohydrates, fat and protein. They cannot digest and utilize some complex carbohydrates, such as fibre, so feed formulation should use a system based on available energy. Metabolisable energy (ME) is the conventional measure of the available energy content of feed ingredients and the requirements of poultry. This takes account of energy losses in the faeces and urine.

Nutrients – a component of food that can be used to provide energy and/or in the synthesis of substances necessary for metabolism, growth, and for all physiological functions. There are 6 classes of nutrients are necessary for the formulation of poultry diets. Nutrient requirements – “the minimum amount of the nutrient required to produce the best weight gain, feed efficiency, etc. and the lack of any signs of nutritional deficiency (Leeson & Summers, 2001),” The factors influencing nutrient requirements of poultry: genetics (species, breeds or strains), gender, age, reproductive state, production aims, thermal environment, housing system, stress, health status (Ravindran, 2012).

In the scheme there are listed common feed ingredients used in poultry diets: Energy sources Cereals: corn, wheat Processing byproducts: DDG or DDGS, rice bran, wheat bran

Protein sources Industry by-products: soybean meal, full-fat soybeans, canola meal, sunflower meal,fish meal, flaxseed meal, corn gluten meal

Mineral supplements: - calcium supplements: i.e. limestone - calcium and phosphorus supplements: dicalcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate - trace minerals: trace mineral premixes - sodium sources: salt, sodium bicarbonate

200

FEED INGREDIENTS

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Vitamin supplements: vitamin premixes Crystalline amino acids: methionine, lysine, threonine Feed additives: enzymes, etc.


Classes of nutrients that are necessary for the formulation of poultry diets : Carbohydrates

Proteins

Fats

Minerals

Classes of nutrients

PROTEINS The function of dietary protein is to supply amino acids for maintenance, muscle growth and synthesis of egg protein. The synthesis of muscle and egg proteins requires a supply of 20 amino acids, all of which are physiological requirements. The essential amino acids need to be supplied in the diet because are either not synthesized at all or are synthesized too slowly to meet the metabolic requirements, and are designated as essential elements of the diet.

Vitamins Water CARBOHYDRATES

Organic compounds that include sugars, starches, celluloses, and other gums; represent the major source of energy for poultry. Poultry cannot digest and utilize some complex carbohydrates, such as fibre. In poultry diets the most part of the carbohydrate is provided by cereal grains. FATS (FATTY ACIDS)

Fats and oils are the dense forms of energy compared with carbohydrates and protein. Usually, poultry diets include fats up to 5 When all limiting amino acids are added, the percent, to achieve the needed dietary energy birds will perform to their maximum potential concentration. Poultry do not have a specific unless there are other limiting factors (disease, requirement for fats as a source of energy. The only requirement for essential fatty acid is for management, temperature). linoleic acid, because of the main effect on egg Methionine, lysine and threonine are size in laying birds. considered the most limiting essential amino acids in practical poultry diets. Advantages of using fats in poultry diets: • to achieve the dietary energy concentration. • to improve palatability of diets. MINERALS • to better dust control in feed mills and poultry Provide the inorganic elements critical to life; houses. are needed for formation of the skeletal system, for general health, as components of general WATER metabolic activity, and for maintenance of the body’s acid-base balance. The most important factor in poultry nutrition, has an impact on every physiological function of the bird. Water is necessary for digestion and VITAMINS absorption of nutrients, for the excretion of Essential organic compounds needed in small waste products, and regulation of body amounts by the body. The vitamins have temperature. Requirements for water are complex metabolic roles, they are not simple difficult to determine, and are influenced by body building units or energy sources, but are several factors (ambient conditions, age and mediators of or participants in all biochemical physiological status of the birds). Usually, water intake is assumed to be twice the amount of feed pathways in the body. intake. Water must be assured at all times, at temperatures between 10-25°C. The quality of water is very important: • Poor water quality can reduce productivity and increase economic losses. • Water is an ideal medium for the distribution of contaminants (such as chemicals and minerals), and the proliferation of harmful microorganisms. • The bacterial and physical quality of water should be monitored regularly and, where required, corrective action taken to ensure that bird performance is not compromised. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 3. Animal Feeding Systems in Europe

STEPS in poultry diets formulation: 1. Establish the nutrient requirements (e.g. layers, meat chickens or breeders). 2. Select and characterize (chemical composition) feed ingredients available for use. 3. Set the limits for each ingredient (available amount, physical factors, antinutritive factors). 4. Formulate diets by mixing the ingredients in the imposed limits, in order to provide the nutrients necessary for optimal economic performance. 5. Evaluate diets by analysing feed samples (chemical composition) and comparing the results to the expected value.

Example for the calculation of a compound feed formulation Step 1. Ingredients: corn, wheat, barley, rapeseed meal, soybean meal, oil, corn gluten, vitaminmineral premix, salt. Step 2. To calculate the protein must be start from the protein content of each ingredient (values taken from tables or from analytic results). The inclusion level of each ingredient is determined by multiple trials. The protein content is multiplied with the amount in order to determine the protein supply of each ingredient, and the results for each ingredient are added. The results are compared with the specification of the recommendations. The highest or lowest allowed deviation is 1%. Step 3. The same pattern is to be followed for the other basic nutrients (energy, amino acids, calcium, phosphorus, other macro- and microelements and vitamins, fibre). Step 4. Validation of the formulation in practice. Diet formulation – combining of different types of ingredients or nutrients so as to form a healthy and balanced diet for an animal. In commercial poultry production, feed is the most important variable cost component (65-70%). High productivity and efficiency depend on feeding nutritionally balanced diets that are formulated to meet the poultry nutritional requirements (egg or meat production). Quality control of feed ingredients is very important to allow formulation of more efficient and economical diets.

METHODS USED FOR DIETS FORMULATION – LINEAR OPTIMIZATION Feeding software – based on linear equations for compound feed formulation: Requirements = aX1 + bX2 + cX3 + dX4---where: a, b, c, d-- = amount of each ingredient X1, X2, X3, X4-- = nutrient amount in each ingredient

Algebraic formulas. If no computer is available, simple algebraic formulae can be used. Depending on the available ingredients, on their nutrient content and on the level of nutrients set by the norm, the simple algebraic equations are used to calculate the necessary inclusion level of the particular ingredients in the compound feed.

Please, remember that some feeds due to content antinutritive substances may be used in poultry diet in restricted amounts, so check it carefully, that data are given in recommendations. If you exceed that levels it may cause decline in production or even metabolic disturbances. 202

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The most important research publications regarding feeding systems for poultry in the European Union are National Research Council (NRC) and Institut National de la Recherché Agronomique – Association Française de Zootechnie (INRA-AFZ). These standards refer to the nutrition of all poultry species: chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, etc. In this module we will

focus on feeding requirements of chickens because they represent more than 90 percent of the poultry market. That two systems of poultry feeding vary in manner of calculation of energy or protein requirement of animals.

In the NRC (1994) system energy is expressed as metabolisable energy (ME) and is used to determine the energy requirements of the poultry and the energy content of the ingredients. The ME takes into consideration the loss of energy through faeces and urine as shown below and the energy value of a feed is calculated from the chemical composition of the ingredients, using regression equations that are

shown in the table. As you can see regression equations used to calculation of ME varied in dependence of specific feeds. Estimation of the amino acid composition in percentage of dry matter is calculate in this system according to regression equations for each ingredient according to shown formula. Used in that formula regression factors are presented in the table.

POULTRY FEEDING SYSTEMS - NRC

The NRC Nutrient Requirements for Poultry need to be updated because scientific progress has been made in poultry feeding since last edition. Due to the genetic progress that have been made in poultry strains (for meat and egg production), each specific genotype has its own requirements. Currently, most commercial feed formulations use minimum requirements recommended by the breeding companies that supply the chicks (Applegate & Angel, 2014). NRC – ENERGY

Metabolisable energy (ME) – the evaluation of the feeding requirements relies on regression equations and on literature data. Metabolisable energy (ME) is expressed in Megajoules (MJ)/kg or kilocalories (kcal)/kg and is used to determine the energy requirements of the poultry and the energy content of the ingredients. The ME takes into consideration the loss of energy through faeces and urine. ME (kcal/kg) = (Ei – Ee)/i where: Ei – ingested gross Energy; Ee – excreted energy (faeces and urine); i – amount of ingested feed

Calculation of the metabolisable energy (MJ/kg DM) – the energy value of a feed is calculated from the chemical composition of the ingredients, using regression equations. Ingredients Corn

Wheat

Soybean meal, solvent

Sunflower meal, solvent Rapeseed, solvent

Regression equation (Janssen, 1989) ME = 36.21 × CP + 85.44 × EE + 37.26 × NFE

ME = 34.92 × CP + 63.10 × EE + 36.42 × NFE ME = 37.50 × CP + 46.39 ×EE + 14.90 × NFE

ME = 6.28 × DM – 6.28 × Ash + 25.38 × CP – 62.62 × EE ME = 32.76 ×CP + 64.96 × EE + 13.24 × NFE

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source: NRC 1994

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Chapter 3. Animal Feeding Systems in Europe

NRC – PROTEIN

Estimation of the amino acids composition (% DM) – using the regression equations for each ingredient Y = a+bx, where: x – CP level a – intercept b – regression coefficient Ingredients

Corn

Wheat

% dry matter

88

Soybean meal, solvent Sunflower meal, solvent Rapeseed, solvent

88

% Regress. crude Factors protein

8.5

12.9

88

45.8

88

33

88

34.8

a b a b

Met

Met +Cys

Lys

Thr

Try

Arg

0.015 0.0192 -0.009 0.0163

0.073 0.0345 0.042 0.0343

0.057 0.0224 0.094 0.0194

0.014 0.0336 0.025 0.0264

0.041 0.0026 0.307 0.0087

0.091 0.0353 0.022 0.0445

a b

0.127 0.0111

0.157 0.0255

-0.252 0.0665

0.203 0.0344

-0.041 0.0144

-0.543 0.0844

a b

0.177 0.0157

0.140 0.0419

1.133 0.0231

0.250 0.0377

0.081 0.0105

0.510 0.0499

a b

-0.107 0.0255

-0.048 0.0419

0.259 0.0265

-0.051 0.0380

POULTRY FEEDING SYSTEMS - INRA-AFZ

-0.055 0.0134

-0.559 0.0965

source: NRC 1994

INRA-AFZ – ENERGY The INRA-AFZ use the system of metabolisable energy (ME) for the evaluation of the feeding requirements; for the calculation of the energy content of the feed ingredients is used, the system of the corrected apparent metabolisable energy (EMAn) for each ingredient, so that we have two values of EMAn in the feeding tables, for adult and young birds. Corrected apparent metabolisable energy (EMAn) – after correction by relating to a null nitrogen balance is calculated according to the formula: EMAn (kcal/kg) = ME – 8.22 x (ΔN/i) where: ΔN – nitrogen balance, g (positive or negative) i - amount of ingested feed (kg)

The energy value of a feed is calculated from the chemical composition of the ingredients, using regression equations for adult birds and compound feeds according to the given below examples. To calculate corrected apparent metabolisable energy for growing hens following lipid and starch digestibility’s are taken into consideration lipids from 3.9% to 11% and starch from 1.3 to 1.8% INGREDIENTS Wheat, corn, barley, triticale, sorghum, rye, corn gluten, lupine, beans

Soybean cakes, alfalfa meal, cereal by-products

REGRESSION EQUATION EMAn(adult)=37.05×CP + 81.96 × EE +39.87 A + 31. 08 Z (CEE equation) EMAn (adult) = 31.3 × CP + 66.3 × EE + 39.1ENApar

where: CP = crude protein (%); ENApar = nitrogen free extractives calculated from insoluble cell walls (%) EE = ether extractives (%) A = starch (%); Z = free sugars (%)

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source: INRA-AFZ, 2002


Amino acids composition in dry matter is estimate using the regression equations for

each ingredient depending on the crude protein content and amino acids content as it shown.

INRA-AFZ – PROTEIN CALCULATION

Estimation of the amino acids composition (% DM) – using the regression equations for each ingredient depending on the crude protein (CP) content and amino acids content (% DM) = K1+K2 x PB.

Ingre- Crude protein Regression Methionine Methionine Lysine Threonine Tryptophan Arginine dients (% of DM) factors +Cystine Corn

Wheat

8.5

12.0

K1 K2

K1 K2

0.048 0.0158

0.110 0.0349

0.026 0.0141

0.093 0.0334

The horse is a monogastric, non-ruminant herbivore animal. Six basic nutrients are required for to provide specific nutritional requirements for horses, as well as for other farm animals: protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and water. These requirements differ from individual to individual and are influenced by the horse’s body mass, age,

0.131 0.0157

0.145 0.0173

0.025 0.0347

0.052 0.0264

0.024 0.0040

0.053 0.0080

0.144 0.0317

0.114 0.0413

source: Larbier & Leclercq, 1994

workload, and metabolic efficiency (Johnson & Duberstein, 2013). Nutrients should be supplied in the amount, form and method that safely and efficiently meet the horse’s requirements (Freeman, 2014). In the table are given horses digestion particularities you should know.

The main sites of fermentation in horses are in the cecum and large intestine. Microbial fermentation may also occur in the stomach and small intestine to lesser degrees, depending on the type of feed.

Protein is necessary for the growth and maintenance of many components of the body. Horses can tolerate a fairly high level of fat in their diets (Johnson & Duberstein, 2013).

Enzymatic digestion of carbohydrates, protein, and fats occurs only in the duodenum and jejunum. Any of these nutrient sources that escape small-intestinal digestion/absorption are passed on for microbial degradation in the large intestine, where their fermentation will alter pH and microbial activity, both acutely and long-term.

Lignin is completely indigestible to the horse or the microbes in the gut flora. Fibre digestion below 50%.

Horses can use nutrient sources rich on fibres much more efficiently than poultry or pigs but utilization is less efficient than in ruminants (The Merk Dictionary). LiveNutrition

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For proper diet formulation it is necessary to know:  horses’ requirements for energy, protein, fat, vitamin, minerals, carbohydrates, water need for growth and maintenance

 nutritive value of feedstuffs that are listed in the nutritional tables  feed intake  price of used raw material

 Nutritive value is expressed for each nutrient.  The quality of feeds must be checked permanently for individual animals.  The energy requirements of work are influenced by many factors, including type of work, condition and training of the horse, fatigue, environmental temperature, and skill of the rider or driver.  Horses have a capacity of digestion lower than ruminant but can compensate by level of ingestion.

OPTIMAL HORSE NUTRITION BASIC RULES        

nutrition should be depended on animal requirement – BCS, production diets – starch low and rich in crude fibre good quality of forage, the base of horse diets – at least 0.5-0.8 kg/100 kg BW day addition of concentrates to diets – only if required daily ration should be divided into 3-4 small and frequent meals (the same time) the feeds should be given to horses in following order: first – forages and after 10-15 min. concentrates free access to water do not change the diet suddenly vitamins, minerals, electrolytes

Never feed more concentrate than 0.75% of body weight at any one feeding Dry matter of forages intake: • min.= 1% body weight BW •most common = 1.5-2.0% BW •max. = 2.5-3% BW The most recommended feeding system is three times a day: • morning forage: 1/4 (1/3) concentrate: 1/3 •afternoon forage: 1/4 concentrate: 1/3 •evening forage: 1/2 (2/3) concentrate: 1/3 206

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INRA SYSTEM ENERGY INRA system is based on Net Energy (UFC). • A horse net energy system was proposed and introduced in France (INRA, 1984) to evaluate and express the energy value of feeds and to recommend energy allowances for horses. • The scientific concepts, the bases and the structure of the UFC system were precisely established and validated through several studies (indirect calorimetry and feeding trial) carried out on horses (Vermorel & Martin-Rosset, 1997). • The NE value of feeds is calculated from:  Gross energy content.  Digestible Energy (DE).  The ratio between metabolisable energy (ME) and DE.  The assumed proportion of absorbed energy supplied by different nutrients.  The efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance of the main nutrients. PROTEIN The Horse Digestible Crude Protein System (MADC) – is based upon two concepts (Jarrige & Tisserand, 1984; Tisserand & Martiin-Rosset, 1996): • Nitrogen value of feedstuffs depends on the amount of amino acids (AA) truly provided by the feedstuffs. • The amount of AA provided by feedstuffs depends on the site of digestion in the digestive tract (small intestine vs. large intestine). A mature 500 kg horse need 660 g/CP/d, which can be supplied by 8 kg of hay containing 8.25% CP. Young horses, lactating mares, and mares in late gestation – need a diet with higher protein quantity and quality. NRC SYSTEM

Conceptual energy system has been developed to partition and quantity the energy utilized by animals, and the energy contained in feeds. In the United State, NE system is current in use for dairy cattle but DE system has been used for horses. In 1980 was initiated in France working on horses NE system. Although the two systems have some common characteristics they make different assumptions about the efficiency of ME use of various fuels during exercise. There are advantages and disadvantages of applying net energy system (Cuddeford, 2004):

 Net energy system provide a more complete theoretical basis for matching the energy content of feeds to the energy requirements of specific animals. Digestible energy may overestimate the value of forage compared to grains or fat (Harris, 1997).  NE system is more complex, and DE system is more practical.

Three proposed level of digestible energy intake for maintenance in adult horses are given in the table – analyse it carefully (NRC, 1989).

Body weight (kg)

Minimum (30.3 kcal/kg BW)

Average (33.3 kcal/kg BW)

Elevated (36.3 kcal/kg BW)

NRC (1989)

200

6.1

6.7

7.3

7.4

400

12.1

13.3

14.5

13.3

800

24.2

26.6

29.0

22.9

500

600

15.2

18.2

16.7

20.0

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18.2

21.8

16.4

19.4

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Chapter 3. Animal Feeding Systems in Europe

SCHEME OF HORSE DIET FORMULATION

1. At the beginning:  determine dry matter of forage intake

The aim of feeding management is to provide nutrients needs for maintenance, growing, production, work.

Steps in compound feed formulation processes: Identification and selection of the feed. Establish nutritive value. Successful diet formulation must take into account feed palatability, feeding behaviour, physiology of horses and feeding management practices.

PRACTICAL TASK

 determine feed value (DE, CP, Ca and P) of forage

 determine the deficiency of DE and if occurs determine

the quantity of concentrate that should be introduced to diet to meet horse requirement for energy

Intake limits (DM) and estimated nutrient requirement Upper intake limit (kg/d)

DE (Mcal)

CP (g)

Ca (g)

P (g)

12

16.7

630

20

13

Chemical composition of forage and concentrate Forage

Feed

DM %

DE (Mcal/kg)

CP (%)

Ca (%)

P (%)

89

1.7

11

0.3

0.2

Concentrate

90

3.3

12

0.6

2. Formulation of working horse diet based on previously assumed forage and

0.4

concentrate content in diet

 assumption: diet – 90% of forage and 10% of concentrate – 90:10, amount of ration is

determined by meeting estimated DE requirement,

 calculate DE density in 1kg of diet = (DE content in forage x % of forage content in diet) + (DE

content in concentrate x % of concentrate content in diet) = DE density in 1 kg of diet,

 calculate kg of diet that animal should be feed with to meet its requirement for DE ⇒ here: 1.7

× 0.9 + 3.3 ×0.1 = 1.86 Mcal/kg of diet,

 daily ration in kg = horse requirement for energy/ DE density in 1kg of diet; here: 16.7/1.86 =

8.98 kg,

 amount of forage = 8.98 ×0,9 = 8.08 kg; amount of concentrate = 8.98 × 0.1 = 0.90 kg

3. Analysis of the calculated diet

 calculated amount of the diet (8.98) is lower than upper intake limit (12 kg)  nutrient intake vs. nutrient requirement

Intake (kg/d)

DE (Mcal)

CP (g)

Ca (g)

P (g)

Forage

8.08

13.7

889

24.2

16.2

Total

8.98

16.7

997

29.6

19.8

Concentrate

Requirement

0.90

3.0

16.7

108

630

5.4

20.0

3.6

14.0

 amount of CP, Ca and P is higher than requirement if ration

feeding at level to meet DE requirement,  if levels are unacceptable the ratio of forage: concentrate or used feeds should be altered to achieve lower density of CP, Ca and P in relations to density of DE.

According to NRC 6th edition

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At the beginning:  assumption: chemical content of concentrate

Formulation of the concentrate method for commercially formulation diet for horses

mixture: DE – 3.5 Mcal/kg; CP – 14%; Ca – 0.5% and P – 0.4%  chemical composition of feedstuffs used to prepare concentrate mixture (DM basis)

According to NRC 6th edition Ingredients

DM %

DE Mcal/kg

CP %

Ca %

P %

Cereal 1

90

3.7

10

0.05

0.20

Cereal 2

90

Protein feed

3.2

90

Mineral additive1

97

Mineral additive 2

12

3.5

0.09

50

0.38

0.40

0.70

16.00

97

21.00

39.00

To achieve the assumed DE density in concentrate mixture – 3.5 Mcal/kg  assumption: x + y = ; x – cereal 1; y = 1-x cereal 2 (energy density – adjusted to 3.6 Mcal/kg – necessary to offset addition of other ingredients),  3.7x + 3.2 (1-x) = 3.6 → 3.7x + 3.2 -3.2x = 3.6 → 0.5x = 0.4 → x = 0.8; y = 0.2  to achieve DE density in concentrate mixtures (3.6Mcal/kg ) the mixture should consist of 80% of cereal 1 and 20% of cereal 2

Chemical composition of 2 cereal grains mixtures (80:20)

Mixture of 2 cereal grains

Cereals

Share %

DE Mcal/kg

CP %

Ca %

P %

100

3.6

10.4

0.06

0.24

Chemical composition of concentrate mixtures of 2 cereal grains and protein concentrate 10% Feed

Share%

DE Mcal/kg

CP %

Ca %

P %

Cereal grains

90

3.24

9.36

0.05

0.22

Total

100

3.59

14.36

0.09

0.29

Protein concentrate

10

0.35

5

0.04

0.07

Mineral additive of P to achieve P content in concentrate mixtures (0,4%)  assumption: x + y = 1; x – concentrate mixtures of mixture of 2 cereal grains and protein concentrate; y = (1-x) – P mineral additive → 0.29x + 21(1-x) = 0.4 → x = 0.995  to achieve P content in concentrate mixture 0,4%, the mixture should consist of 99.4% of mixture of 2 cereal grains and protein concentrate and 0.6 % of P mineral additive. Share %

DE Mcal/kg

CP %

Ca %

P%

Cereal grains

Feed

89.5

3.22

9.31

0.05

0.22

Total

100

Protein concentrate

P mineral additive 1

9.9

0.35

0.6

4.95

0.00

0.00

3.57

14.26

0.04

0.10

0.19

0.07

0.13

0.42

Ca mineral additive to achieve 0,5% of Ca  assumption: x + y = 1; x – mixture of cereal grains, protein concentrate and P mineral additive 1; y = 1-x Ca mineral additive 2 → 0.19x + 39(1-x) = 0.5 → x = 0.992  to achieve Ca content 0.5% in concentrate mixture, the mixture should consist of 99.2% of mixture of cereal grains, protein concentrate and P mineral additive 1 and 0.8% of Ca mineral additive 2. Feed

Cereal grains 1&2 (80:20)

Protein concentrate

P mineral additive 1

Ca mineral additive 2

Total

Share % 88.78 9.82 0.6

0.8

100

DE Mcal/kg 3.20

0.34

0.00

0.00

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CP % 9.23

4.91

0.00

0.00

14.14

Ca % 0.05

P%

0.21

0.04

0.069

0.5

0.41

0.10

0.31

0.13

0.00

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Chapter 3. Animal Feeding Systems in Europe

FUNDAMENTALS OF DIET FORMULATION FOR RABBITS The science of feeding presumes ensuring a balanced supply of nutrients in the diet so as to meet the optimal requirements for maintenance, growth, reproduction and production, and for a proper health state of the rabbits. Rabbits are primarily herbivores and like horses, microbial digestion is in the large intestine and cecum. Feeds are broken down in the small intestine where are absorbed protein, fat, carbohydrates, energy, minerals and vitamins

Stages of Diet Formulation Determining the feeding requirements that have to be met. Determining the ingredients available for use. Setting the limits for ingredient utilization (available amount, physical factors, antinutritive factors). Mixing the ingredients within the imposed limits, in order to provide the nutrients necessary for optimal economic performance.

Before we will discuss issues contained with rabbit nutrition you have to familiarize with some crucial terms. Rabbits are coprophagies.

Cecotropes – a digestive product called “night faeces” produced by rabbits, passed through the intestines (cecum), and re-ingested for its nutrients. The same 6 classes of nutrients are necessary for the formulation of rabbit diets as in previous discussed livestock.

Coprophagy – feeding on a specific type of excrement (such as cecotropes) to gain nutrients. Cecotropes – a digestive product called “night faeces” produced by rabbits, passed through the intestines (cecum), and re-ingested for its nutrients.

Proteins –limiting amino acids in rabbit’s diet are methionine, lysine and arginine. Carbohydrates – diet fibre is important important for overall gut health and mobility, caecotrophy and appetite stimulation Fats – increase palatability, reduce fines and aid absorption of fat-soluble vitamins; 2 – 5% fat in the promote a shiny coat. Caecotroph consumption supplies volatile fatty acids in the diet, which are a major energy source for the rabbit.

Vitamins – provide from diet and from cecal bacteria, rabbits require all vitamins except vitamin C. Minerals – recommended dietary ratio of calcium to phosphorus is 1.5:1 to 2:1; excess of calcium >15 g/kg; excess of dietary phosphorus (>9 g/kg) Water – rabbits must have free access to fresh and clean water. 210

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NRC & INRA FEEDING SYSTEMS FOR RABBITS The feeding systems for rabbits give nutrient requirements for 4 stages: Growth, 0.5-4 kg Maintenance, does and bucks avg. 4.5 kg Gestation, does avg. 4.5 kg Lactation, does avg. 4.5 kg

NRC

INRA

Digestible Energy (DE, kcal/kg) energy value of a feed/diet. In compound feeds for rabbits, the DE usually varies from 0.50 to 0.80 of the GE and offers a sufficiently precise estimation of the energy value of feeds. Energy level recommended for rapid growth is 2500 kcal of DE per kg of diet.

Digestible system is used by INRA for estimate nutrients requirements. DE is most reliable basis of reference for balancing the ration. The dis-advantage is that the amount of protein is overestimated, especially the fraction which is not degraded. Therefore, metabolisable energy (ME) allow more accurate estimation of the energy value of raw materials rich in protein. Metabolizable energy can be estimated using regression equations based on chemical composition.

Crude Protein (%) protein value of a feed/diet. Crude protein levels recommended for growth is 16%, maintenance 12%, pregnancy 15% and lactation 17%. These values assume the use of protein of adequate quality to meet essential amino acid requirements. Energy and protein value are the most important tools in the dietary optimizations in order to minimize the production cost. (NRC, 1997)

Net energy depends on the animal and nutritional status and as the horse shows advantages and disadvantages (Gidenne T., INRA, 2000).

If you see a lot of cecotrophes then your rabbit may have too rich a diet. More hay should help, and cut down on pellets. If their diet is not properly balanced then the cecotrophes will have a consistency similar to toothpaste rather than the ideal form of bunched, squishy pellets. Poorly formed cecals may also be missing nutrients. It is necessary to respect 4 points (Gidenne T., INRA, 2000): 1. The minimum quantity of lignocellulose (ADF) 2. The quality of lignocellulose (the lignins ratio/cellulose) 3. The quantity of digestible fibres (DF) compared to lignocellulose (DF/ADF ratio) 4. The quality and the nature of the starch (especially during the period around weaning)

The botanical origin of fibre can influence digestion and caecal microbial activity, independently of the quantity or nature of fibres. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 3. Animal Feeding Systems in Europe

EXAMPLE FOR THE CALCULATION OF A DIET FORMULATION Step 1. Ingredients: alfalfa hay, corn grain, barley grain, wheat bran, soybean meal, salt. Step 2. To calculate the protein we start from the protein content of each ingredient (values taken from tables or from analytic results). The inclusion level of each ingredient is determined by multiple trials. The protein content is multiplied with the amount in order to determine the protein supply of each ingredient,

and the results for each ingredient are added. The resulting figure is compared with the specification of the norms. The highest or lowest allowed deviation from the norm is 1%. Step 3. The same pattern is to be followed for the other basic nutrients (energy, amino acids, calcium, phosphor, fibre). Step 4. Validation of the formulation in practice.

DIETS FORMULATION METHODS Feeding software – Based on linear equations for diet formulation: Requirements = aX1 + bX2 + cX3 + dX4 + .. where: a, b, c, d, … = amount of each ingredient X1, X2, X3, X4, ..= nutrient amount in each ingredient. – Usually calculated based to the chemical analysis or tables values of ingredient. Algebraic formulae. If no computer is available, simple algebraic formulae can be used. Depending on the available ingredients,

on their nutrient content and on the level of nutrients set by the norm, the simple algebraic equations are used to calculate the necessary inclusion level of the particular ingredients in the compound feed.

Quality of the compound feeds formulations Chemical analyses – ingredients and compound feeds.

Pearson’ square – specific to the very simple compound feeds formulations.

PEARSON SQUARE One of the most common methods of balancing rations is by using the Pearson Square. The Pearson Square method can be used to determine the portions of two feedstuffs Pearson Square Steps

required to obtain a desired nutrient composition for a ration. Only two components can be used in the Pearson Square, although the components can be a mixture.

Step 1. – Write the number in the middle of the square that represents the nutritional requirement of the animal. In example crude protein, amino acids or minerals. – For this example CP is being calculated

Step 2. – Write the two numbers on the left that represent the contend of the CP in feedstuffs used to make the ration. – The number in the middle of the square must fall between the numbers on the left. 212

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Example

45% CP (soybean meal)

10% CP (corn)

16%


Step 3. – Subtract the nutrient value on the left from the nutritional requirement in the middle disregarding any negative.

45% CP (soybean meal) 16% 10% CP (corn)

6.0 parts of soybean meal

29.0 parts of corn

6.0 parts of soybean meal + 29.0 parts of corn

Step 4. – Add the feedstuffs parts together.

Step 5. - Divide the ingredient for which you want to know the ration by the total parts. - Multiply by 100 to determine percentage. - Round if necessary.

Step 6. – To determine the amount of the feed ingredient, multiply the percentage of each feed ingredient by the total amount of feed desired. – In this example 1 ton of feed is needed.

35.0 total parts

6.0 ÷35.0 = 0.17 ×100 = 17% soybean meal 29.0 ÷ 35.0 = 0.83 × 100 = 83% corn 100 %

1000 kg × 0.17 = 170 kg of soybean meal 1000 kg × 0.83 = 830 kg of corn

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source: www.prairieswine.com

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

1. Animal Welfare 2. Health Management and Biosecurity

Livestock Health and Welfare

3. Animal Diseases and Zoonoses 4. Metabolic Disorders 5. Quality of Animal Origin Products

1. Animal Welfare FREEDOMS OF FARM ANIMALS 10 March 1976 in Strasbourg was signed European Convention for the Protection of Animals kept for Farming Purposes, which describe conditions of keeping for livestock animals. Convention was entered into force in whole European Union 1 December 2009. The concept of Welfare in Livestock has gained an international importance in recent years. Animal's welfare, whether on farm, in transit, at

Concept of animal health covers not only the absence of disease in animals, but also the critical relationship between the health of animals and their welfare. It is also a pillar for the Commission’s policy on public health and food safety. Health care plays an important role in safe maintaining of production in livestock farms.

market or at a place of slaughter should be considered in terms of 'five freedoms'. They form a logical and comprehensive framework for analysis of welfare within any system together with the steps and compromises necessary to safeguard and improve welfare within the proper constraints of an effective livestock industry.

FIVE FREEDOMS OF FARM ANIMALS:

FROM DISCOMFORT

FROM FEAR AND DISTRESS

TO EXPRESS NORMAL BEHAVIOUR

FROM HUNGER AND THIRST

FROM PAIN, INJURY AND DISEASE

Animal welfare is not only a duty that has to be performed legally and ethically but it should also be considered as a way of direct economic contribution to the enterprise.

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Welfare is essential for ensuring the quality of the life of animals and expiration of their normal lifetime. Animals cannot talk and express their normal lifetime

Farms animals are exposed to painful illness, injuries and management methods negatively affecting their welfare

You have to remember that…… Quality of life of animals is a criteria sought today for the breeding of farm animals

Pain is the most crucial threat for animal welfare

High welfare farming addresses the needs of animals first an access to: opportunity to exhibit natural behaviors such as rooting, grazing, a stress-free environment

an appropriate feed

fresh water

fresh air

ANIMAL PAIN Pain recognition in farm animals raises significant challenges. The basic parameters for determining the pain of animals are: changes in heart beats, changes in eye temperature, changes in blood pressure, changes in behaviours and changes in the levels of some hormones and other materials in blood.

However, as it was mentioned before pain recognition in animals may be quite difficult because indication of pain may be too subtle or take too long to recognize under routine clinical SIGNS OF ANIMAL’S PAIN changes in heart beats

situations in both large and small animals. Sporadic observation of animal behaviour may not reveal signs of pain. Except in the most severe circumstances, very often signs of pain are “masked” by behaviour that is stereotypical of the species being observed. Moreover, flock animals, such as sheep, may be startled when an observer approaches and attempt to conceal signs of pain by staying bunched up with the rest of the flock and behavioural changes indicating pain may not be what we expect.

changes in eye temperature

changes in behaviours

changes in blood pressure changes in the levels of some hormones

BOTTLE NECKS OF PAIN DETERMINATION Sporadic observation of animal behaviuor may not reveal signs of pain.

Pain may be “masked” by behaviour that is stereotypical of the species being observed. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

PROVIDING LIVESTOCK FREEDOMS… THE MINIMUM STANDARDS OF LIVESTOCK WELFARE An adequate level of nutrition to sustain health and well-being of animals Supply sufficient and quality water for their needs

A suitable environment where the livestock animals stay comfortably, live and extend their legs Protection from predators

Protection from pain, injuries and diseases Protection from extremes of climate

Necessary precautions for protection from natural disasters such as fires, floods etc. Treatments that will not cause distress and pain in animals

Remember that animal welfare associated to nutrition, keeping and health depends on livestock species. In order to facilitate dealing with animals in conventional production very often practices such as mutilations like cutting off the horns of cattle, cutting off the beaks of chickens, and docking the tails are routinely performed in order to minimize stressful and crowded conditions.

In a high welfare system, farmer should focus on promoting health rather than simply treating disease. Farmers work to enhance the animals’ natural immunity to resist commonplace diseases rather than relying on veterinary

intervention. In high welfare systems, farmers use antibiotics solely to treat sick animals, not to reinforce poorly designed, disease-prone systems or promote unnatural growth.

The vast majority of farm animals are raised in conventional, industrial agriculture systems known as confined animal feeding operation often referred to as “factory farms”. These systems are designed to maximize productivity and profit for the producer, but they create serious welfare problems for animals. More optimal welfare conditions are ensured in extensive systems. The special type of extensive production is organic farming considered to ensure the best animal welfare. To obtain label “organic” a lot of various condition have to be met. However, organic products are more expensive than produced in conventional way. 216

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MAIN WELFARE MATTERS FOR LIVESTOCK

food/water

FOOD/WATER

sheltering and protection from climatic extremes

The minimum standard for food in terms of livestock welfare is that animals must be provided in all systems of management with access to a diet which is nutritionally adequate to maintain health and meet the appropriate physiological requirements for growth, pregnancy, lactation and to withstand cold exposure. The minimum welfare standard in terms of water is that animals must have access to quality and sufficient supply of water. The feed

health

requirements of livestock should be satisfied both in terms of quantity and quality, feeds should be free of toxic plants and other toxic materials that will threaten the health of the livestock, feeds to be given to livestock should be free of any materials that will cause pain and injuries to the animals, livestock should have access to feed appropriate to their physiological needs at least once a day.

Feed should be fresh, palatable and of good quality.

Nutrient requirements of livestock should be satisfied both in terms of quantity and quality. Sudden changes in the type and quantity of feed should be avoided.

Feeds should be free of toxic plants and other toxic materials that will threaten the health of the livestock. Feeds to be given to livestock should be free of any materials that will cause pain and injuries to the animals. Livestock should have access to feed appropriate to their physiological needs at least once a day.

No other similar chemical substances, with the exception of those given for therapeutic purposes, should be administered unless scientific studies of animal welfare are carried out.

Animals should be provided with fresh water enough for their daily needs. Preferably an animal should have free access to water. Water quality should be suitable for protecting the health of livestock. Livestock should not be deprived of water more than 36 hours and this term should be lowered when hot. Watering points should be located within the normal travel range of grazing animals.

Feeding and watering equipment should be designed in a way that will prevent the contamination of food and water and competition between animals.

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

SHELTERING

All efforts should be made to minimize the effects of weather that induces either heat or cold stress in livestock. Main welfare issues Ill and injured animals should be kept under suitable care conditions. Animals should be provided with sheds maintained with good care, having dry beddings and good drainage.

regarding the sheltering are categorized in 4 groups: Current experiences and scientific application to ensure the freedom of movement of animals.

Main welfare issues regarding sheltering

Areas physiological and ethological requirements of the animal.

Crucial agents affecting farm animals welfare in terms of sheltering: Ventilation: air circulation, dust levels, temperature, relative air humidity and gas concentrations shall be kept within limits which are not harmful to the animals.

Buildings and equipment: materials used for the construction of accommodation shall not be harmful to them and shall be capable of being thoroughly cleaned and disinfected.

Fencing: fences should be wellmaintained so as to avoid injury to animals.

Lighting: place where here animals are kept in adequate lighting whether fixed or portable shall be available to enable them to be thoroughly inspected at any time.

Space allowance: and group size for housed animals should be determined according to age, size and class of livestock.

Mechanical equipment: all automated or mechanical equipment essential for the health and well-being of the animals shall be inspected at least once a day to check there is no defect in it.

Fire and other emergency precautions: farmers should make advance plans for dealing with emergencies such as fire, flood or other (all staff are familiar with the appropriate emergency action). 218

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Hazards: livestock should be prevented from getting harmed by fences and traps.


HEALTH Health programs includes keeping of records containing the basic data of the flock. This program includes vaccination policy and timing, internal and external

parasite control and foot care. The following should be carried out for health regarding livestock welfare:

Care takers should regularly supervise animals to avoid any suffering.

Any animals which appear to be ill and injured should be cared for without delay.

Animal care takers should be experienced or trained for the health and welfare of livestock.

Vaccination and treatment and prevention processes for external parasites should be carried.

Appropriate protective measures should be taken if there is an illness in any region or any farm. A written health and welfare programme for all animals should be prepared for each farm.

Remember that animal welfare associated to nutrition, keeping and health depends on livestock species. In order to facilitate dealing with animals in conventional production very often practices such as mutilations like cutting off the horns of cattle, cutting off the beaks of chickens, and docking the tails of sheep, pigs and dairy cattle are routinely performed in order to minimize stressful and crowded conditions.

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

TRANSPORT

Transportation is an important stress resource for livestock. Heart rates and blood cortisol levels increase. Loading from a ramp or use of lifts cause equal stress. Wide space allowance during transport increases the stress as slipping Vehicles should be stopped for food and water after every transportation of 15 to 24 hours under any condition Provision of 8 hours for feeding and watering after 24 hours of transportation should be enough for treatment

and balancing in the vehicle when crowded decreases. This increases during braking or shifting gears. Stress and dehydration decreases if feed and water are provided to animals during transportation. If the livestock are to be kept for some time for slaughtering after transportation, feed and water should be provided

The most important welfare standards during animal transport

Being in their own social groups decreases the stress during rest

The matters regarding the transportation of livestock in EC regulations are as follows: Animals should not be injured and unnecessarily slaughtered, Animals should be available for transportation, Animals should be transported and maintained by capable persons, Animals should be provided with rest, feed and water during transportation.

Even under the most controlled conditions within the industry transport of livestock is unquestionably the most stressful and injurious stage in animal production contributing significantly animal’s suffering and loss of production. 220

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WELFARE IN PLACES OF SPECIAL PURPOSES WELFARE IN ANIMAL MARKETS The things required to be done for achieving high standards in terms of livestock welfare in markets are:  friendly equipment should be provided in market places  animals should be handled in a friendly, calm and careful way and cages should be wellorganized. WELFARE FOR HUSBANDRY METHODS AND SMALL SURGERIES Ear marking, tail docking, castration, horn trimming, paring of feet, and slaughtering cause stress and pain for animals and affect their welfare. Attention should be given to the livestock welfare from the beginning of catching the animal until the end of treatment process. The following precautions are important: the place of operation should be suitable and the contamination of illnesses and parasites from the environment and faeces should be minimized, type and degree of restraint is important in terms of welfare, equipment should be sterilized prior to use, protections precautions should be taken before any operation against tetanus, farmers should know some small surgeries and veterinaries should be employed.

WELFARE IN SLAUGHTER HOUSE The main welfare rule for slaughter is that the method of slaughter should be effective and humane, causing sudden and painless death for the livestock. The animal must be handled quietly beforehand to ensure it is not unnecessarily distressed or alarmed. It must be stunned with a fire-arm or captive bolt penetrating stunner followed by bleeding out. The stress caused to animal before and during the slaughter affects the carcass quality. Slaughter should be as fast as possible and in a way not causing distress to the animal.

The transport of weaned animals is considered an important stress factor since the conditions involved in shipping affect the animals’ health and welfare. The principal stressor factors that weaned animals experience during transport include: mixing with unfamiliar animals, overcrowding, heat, cold, temperature fluctuations, vibrations and noise. It is well known that all these factors contribute to raising the level of stress caused by the weaning process. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

2. Health Management and Biosecurity

HEALTH MANAGEMENT

Sanitation

Farm management

taking the advice of the veterinary and to annually compile and renew this plan. Programs should be prepared in advance for all routine treatments, vaccinations, parasites control methods, husbandry management and sanitation.

Parasites control

Vaccinations

Good health management includes three major issues: animal health and welfare plans and biosecurity programs, providing the basic care and nutrition needs of the livestock, proper treatment or elimination of the ones with health problems. In livestock farms, it is necessary prepare animals health and welfare plan by

Health and welfare plans are action plans aimed at improving the health and welfare of farm animals, which are drawn up between the farmer and vet. Plans to work effectively, need to be flexible, farm-specific documents that should be frequently reviewed, updated and developed with advice from the vet, to ensure that the animals' health and welfare remains as good as possible. The main issues of health programme on the farm are: inspection, animals body condition scoring, lameness and parasites control, ill-

nesses and casualties treatment, vaccination, medicines and disinfectant use.

INSPECTION

The health and welfare of animals depend upon regular supervision. Farmers should carry out inspections of the animals at intervals so that signs of injury, distress or illness or infestation can be recognized.

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ANIMAL BODY CONDITION SCORING 1-5 scale, where 1 – very thin (skinny) 5 - obese Livestock farmers and shepherds should be aware that the use of condition scoring can contribute significantly to good husbandry. Keeping an animal in proper condition decreases incidence rate of many metabolic disorders.

LAMENESS CONTROL Lameness is an important health problem in livestock farms. Animals with lameness cannot intake enough feed, production decreases and some reproductive disorders are generated.

Animal’s performance drops and treatment expenses increase. In addition, welfare of the animal gets worse due to chronic pain.

Lameness decreases performance of animals.

Quarantine for animals coming from out of the farm.

All animals should regularly be examined and treated.

Foot bath prevents lamnitis.

If necessary their toe nails should be clipped and antibiotic treatment should be applied upon veterinarian recommendation.

Infected animals should be separated from the other and chronically affected ones should be eliminated.

Application of disinfectants

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Farm foot care program should be made and it should be integrated into the farm health program and annually renewed.

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

PARASITE CONTROL

Internal and external parasites cause economical losses in livestock breeding especially because of diminishing productivity. In some cases, deaths can be experienced. Taking above

into consideration it is very important to control parasites in livestock species in your farm. The most effective internal parasites in livestock are NEMATODES. INTERNAL PARASITES •Subcutaneous injection •Oral administration

EXTERNAL PARASITES •Bath in water with disinfectants •Pulvertization

EXTRENAL PARASITES IN POULTRY

External parasites can cause real problems for small flock poultry producers and occasionally for large flock producers Parasites can be brought into the poultry house by wild birds or new birds being added to the flock.

ILLNESSES AND CAUSALITIES

Injured, ailing or distressed animals should be identified and treated without delay.

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The lice and mites are host specific and are not found on animals other than birds

All new birds should be checked for parasites before they are mixed with the original flock.


VACCINATION Vaccination is carried out to stimulate the immune system which increases the protection level when the livestock is exposed to a disease. The diseases which require vaccination in livestock animals are separated into 4 groups. Clostridial diseases induced by bacteria clostridium, mostly Clostridium perfringes and Clostridium tetani. The second group are reproductive diseases that affect reproduction performance and result in economic losses of production. Reproductive diseases which are vaccinated against are common. The most known is enzootic abortion caused by Chlamydia psittici serotype-1. and vibriosis caused by Camphylobacter jejuni fetus and Campylobacter jejuni. Also viral diseases can bring great economical losses at animal production. Some

Reproductive diseases affecting reproduction performance and result in economic losses of production, e.g. enzootic abortion, vibriosis

Clostridial diseases induced by bacterium – clostridium (mostly C. perfringes and C. tetani.)

viral diseases are specified for each species while others such as rabies are common for many species. Other vaccinations such as against footrot, caseus lympha denitis, contagious ecthyma and rabies. In case of risk at the farm regarding these diseases, vaccinations may be carried out. For this purpose, farmers should determine the necessity of these vaccinations with veterinaries. Remember that when vaccination is used for the first time, it doesn’t provide 100% protection. Storing and applying vaccination properly is important so that it can be effective. In case the animal is vaccinated for the first time, the effect is felt after applying the first dose. Viral diseases that can bring great economical losses at animal production.

DISEASES REQUIRING VACCINATION

Other vaccinations e.g. against footrot, caseus lympha denitis, contagious ecthyma or rabies.

FIRST VACCINATION DOES NOT PROVIDE 100% PROTECTION

STORING AND APPLYING VACCINATION PROPERLY IS CRUCIAL FOR THEIR EFFECTIVENESS LiveNutrition

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

MEDICINES

Medicines are substances which are applied in the treatment of diseases and they can be administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly, intravenously, intraruminally, orally or on body membranes depending on illness.

Proper use of these medicines is important in prevention and treatment of diseases.

In case a disease comes out at the farm, it should be determined which medicines are to be applied in health plans prepared with a veterinary. The signs and directives on the medicines and boxes should be read every time although they were previously read and excretion rate should be considered since it may change.

Medicines should be stored in locked places and away from children by taking the recommendations of the manufacturing company into consideration. Administered medicines for each animal should be recorded into the medicine logbook.

DISINFECTANTS USE All tools and equipment used for animal breeding should be disinfected periodically in accordance with biosecurity program. The following should be considered in disinfectant use:

Proper disinfectant substances should be used and they should be effective against bacteria, fungi and viruses.

Since excreta and other organic materials spoil the effects of disinfectants, it is important to clean the tools and equipment with brush and water without using disinfectants.

Disinfectants should stay active for a while in hard water, excreta and bedding.

Disinfectants should not harm humans and equipment.

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Health and welfare plans are action plans aimed at improving the health and welfare of farm animals, which are drawn up between the farmer and vet. Plans to work effectively, need to be flexible, farm-specific documents that should be frequently reviewed, updated and developed with advice from the vet, to ensure that the animals' health and welfare remains as good as possible. LiveNutrition


BIOSECURITY PROGRAM Biosecurity program is a program which includes the control of infectious diseases. A good biosecurity program protects not only the animals but also the flock owners, their families and farm employees. Biosecurity can be applied in three stages: the first one is the minimum preventive measures, the second one indoor livestock management and the last but not least - forming special pathogen-free livestock farms. Each biosecurity program should be based on 4

main components. Remember about purchasing new animals into the flock from the farms who are known to have a good health status in order to reduce their infection risks. Before adding them to your herd or flock isolate them to be sure that they are not a source of potential pathogens for your animals. Always control animal movement and remember about appropriate sanitation.

1. Minimum preventive measures BIOSECURITY PROGRAM (3 STAGES) 2. Indoor livestock management

3. Forming special pathogenfree livestock farms

4 COMPONENTS OF BIOSECURITY PROGRAM Purchasing new animals into the flock who are known to have a good health status.

Control of movement

Isolation

Sanitation

The biosecurity measures taken should reflect the risk involved. Disease is not always apparent, especially in its early stages. Further, disease agents and vectors may still exist even when animals have been removed and hence biosecurity measures still apply. The two key biosecurity measures are concerned with: 1) minimizing movement of people, vehicles and equipment where animals are kept, 2) implementing best practice (hygiene and protective clothing) in situations where there is direct contact with animals. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT – MAIN ASPECTS Main aspects of livestock management are presented and discussed in this chart. There are 6 main aspects considered to be the most important in animal management. The first one farmer and supervision. The body condition of

the female and male livestock prior to insemination have a marked effect on the ovulation rate and eventual litter size. Farmers should have good knowledge on this matter.

The body condition of the female livestock prior to insemiantion have a marked effect on the ovulation rate and eventual litter size.

Artificial rearing of newborn young animals requires suitable supervision. However, it is essential that all newborn animals should start with an adequate supply of colostrum.

BREEDING MANAGEMENT

ARTIFICIAL REARING

Early weaning of livestock before 28 days affects their immune responses and performance negatively. The recommended age for weaning is the age of 3 months without any stress for sheep.

WEANING

Fields or buildings should be free from wires or plastic parts which can be harmful for animals

Good arrangement of practices regarding care and management at farms may decrease the stress, pain and discomfort experienced by the animal. The practices that may cause pain should be rendered to minimize the pain and practical alternatives should be developed.

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Shelters should be provided for animals outdoor in winter and adverse weather conditions

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Access to drained laying area

Competent persons to implement management procedures


Flock owners, flock officers, veterinaries, employees and shepherds are responsible for animal welfare in livestock breeding. Animals should be cared for by a sufficient number of competent staff.

SUPERVISORS OF STAFF

All livestock farmers should have easily operated and efficient handling pens, to facilitate routine management and treatment. Especially floors should be maintained in good repair to avoid animals’ injury.

HANDLING

SHEARING

It is normal practice to shear sheep annually. Additional shearing be required at other times of the year. Shearing may be required to reduce the risk of fly strike.

Livestock management requires strong business sense and a firm understanding of how farms operate. It combines the knowledge and skills in economic issues, human resources and proper care and feeding of animals. LiveNutrition

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PROTECTION AND PREVENT OF DISEASE ENTRANCE TO FLOCK OR HERD Protection and prevent of disease entrance to flock or herd include following issues: management of newly joined animals into flock, including quarantine application, management

of live farm traffic, management and housing of groups, removal of dead animals, management of stockyards, sections and excreta and foot bath, parasite control and vaccination.

Management of newly joined animals into flock including quarantine application Management of live farm traffic

Management and housing of groups Removal of dead animals

Management of stockyards, sections and excreta

NEW ANIMALS AT THE FARM Newly purchased animals and the ones coming flock which is individually known is the ideal back from shows and fairs should be kept in application. Animals from different flocks and quarantine. During a quarantine he origin of animals going to different flock should not be animals should definitely be known and their transported together. In case of animals from health status should be determined, Individual other countries and human entries, business vaccination and health status of the animals biosecurity programs should strictly be applied should be reviewed, three animals of the together with the legislation of the country. purchased ones should be considered as risk carrier, the animals which come into the flock should be kept in quarantine for 3 weeks, the animals should be treated for internal parasites, the animals should have foot bath in every five days, quarantine should ideally be carried out in a separate place using separate feeding and health status of new individual vaccinations birth areas, transition of excreta from animals and health status quarantine area to other parts should be avoided. Remember that new animals which come to flock or herd should be kept by 3 weeks in quarantine. Management of newly joined animals into the flock include determination of health status of the animals to be provided from markets or private businesses proper quarantine treatment for parasites and of the current flock should be compared. time (3 weeks) control Health status of the flock where the animals to be purchased come from should be asked and it should be questioned if the flock experienced problems regarding enzootic abortion and ectoparasite prevention methods should also be questioned. Since the control of health status of flocks in markets is difficult, information avoiding transit excreta regarding health status should be learnt from foot bath every 5 days from quarantine area the seller. Purchasing all new animals from a

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Health status of animals provided from markets or private buisness

Animals from different flocks and going to different flocks/herds should not be transport together

Information regarding health status of the flock/herd should be provided by seller

WHAT HAVE TO BE DONE

Business biosecurity programs should be strictly applied for animals from other countries

Registration of health status of the flock/herd from which animals to be purchased

MANAGEMENT OF LIVE FARM TRAFFIC Below there are presented some hints how to manage with farm live traffic. Remember to control of birds. They carry infection to especially feeds and water with their feet, beaks and feathers. Control of mice and rats. A rat can defecate 25,000 times and a mouse 17,000 times per year. A small part of it is enough to contaminate the feeds. Rodents carry infection with their feet. They should be destroyed via good planning of animal stockyards by poisons, fumigation and traps. Control of human and pets. Shoes, hands and clothes of animals are

source of disease contamination. Pets are potential contaminants with their feet, bodily fluids and excreta. Control of farm vehicles traffic. Vehicles are contaminants because of their tires and carriers. Control of feeding and watering equipment. While developing biosecurity programs, the feeds and equipment used in feeding should also be taken into account. Cleaning of equipment. With any kinds of farming equipment, diseases may contaminate from farm to farm.

Birds can carry infections to feed and water by feet, beaks and feather

Proper management of feeding and water equipments

WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE

Rodents can defecate to feed, they should be eliminate by traps and poisons

Humans can transport diseases by shoes, clothes and hands

Control and cleaning of equipment

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

MANAGEMENT AND HOUSING OF GROUPS

Management and housing of groups is very important because when young animals are kept with old ones, infectious diseases contaminate more quickly due to immune systems of the young animals are not as developed as adults. In small ruminants and cattle the critical day for immune system is 28th day of their life. Immune system of young animals is not well developed so they are more susceptible for infections.

In small ruminants and cattle the critical day for immune system is 28th day of their life.

For this purpose weaned ones may be kept separately, animals which will give birth soon should be separated from the flock, proper sections should be made in the stockyard and proper feeding length and watering should be provided.

Weaned animals may be kept separately

Animals before giving birth should be separate from the flock

Proper sections in barn/pig house should be prepare

Proper feeding and watering length

REMOVAL OF DEAD ANIMALS Removal of dead animals is extremely important issue in disease prevention at farm. Carcasses, dead animals and other birth and similar wastes damage both animals and humans. In addition, they pollute soil, air and water. To minimize the contamination and reduce the disease risk wastes of dead animals should be removed in 48 hours at the latest. They should be disposed of by cremation,

burial, waste removal vehicles or anaerobic digestion. Dogs, cats or other wild animals should be prevented from eating or taking them out of their burial place. For these wastes, separately isolated areas with no animal entrance should be formed. After all wastes in the areas with death animals and bedding with birth wastes should be removed and disinfected.

Dead animals should be removed by 48 hours

Dead animals must be disposed off

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WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE ‌

Waste zone must be disinfect after all process

Dogs, cats and wild animals shouldn’t eat meat from dead animals

Wastes should be deposit in isolated areas

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MANAGEMENT OF FARMS, SECTIONS AND EXCRETA

HOW TO REDUCE RISK OF CONTAMINATION REGARDING TO EXCRETA AND BEDDING?

Management of farm buildings, sections, excreta and used bedding to reduce the risk on contamination includes following issues: excreta might be recycled at the farm for instance by utilizing them for biogas purposes, microorganisms which cause diseases can be

destroyed with proper methods by composting the excreta. To prevent the reproducing of parasites and flies, excreta should be kept away from pasture and stockyard. Fly populations should be destroyed with insecticides or biological methods with this purpose. Bedding of animals, especially young should be kept clean and free from excreta. After cleaning the excreta, the sections and paddocks should be cleaned and disinfected.

Recycle of excreta

Elimination of pathogenic microorganisms from excreta by composting

Excreta must be keep away from animals and their feed

Utilization of insecticides or biological methods to elimination of fly population

Proper conditions of bedding for young animals

Disinfection after cleaning section or paddock

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3. Animal Diseases and Zoonoses

TYPES OF FARM ANIMALS’ DISEASES Livestock health, welfare plans and biosecurity programs play an important role in prevent of diseases in livestock that can be divided into © State of New South Wales through NSW Department of Industry on all uses

NON-INFECTIOUS •NUTRITION-RELATED METABOLIC •STRESS •COGENTIAL

The diseases can spread from human to farm animals, from animals to human and between animals. human

animal

two main groups according to their reasons. These are: non-infectious and infectious.

INFECTIOUS •BACTERIAL •VIRAL •PARASITIC •FUGAL

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that are transmissible from animals not from humans to man. Humans may acquire zoonotic infections through a number of routes, including food, water, direct contact and insect vectors. Do not forget that transmission of certain diseases through food remains an important cause of illness in both developing and developed countries.

Quite deceptive is the fact that some zoonotic pathogens may, however, cause little or no disease in their animal hosts and, unfortunately, these unapparent infections called carrier states are more difficult to detect, either on farm or at slaughterhouse level. Many of these pathogens reside in the intestinal tract of healthy animals and may spread through faecal contamination of the environment and products such as meat, milk or eggs. So to minimized the risk associated with this type of contamination apply proper food hygiene throughout the entire food chain from production, through processing to preparation at home.

animal

WATER ROUTES OF ZOONOSES INFECTION

FEED

INSECT VECTORS CONTACT WITH ANIMALS 234

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UNAPPARENT INFECTIONS (CARRIER STATES) - some zoonotic pathogens may cause little or no disease in their animal hosts and are more difficult to detect. Many of these pathogens reside in the intestinal tract of healthy animals and may spread through faecal contamination of the environment and products such as meat, milk or eggs. about proper feed hygiene throughout the entire feed chain

ZOONOSES – MAIN VECTORS OF INFECTION

Toxoplasmosis Rabies Bartonella henselae CATS

DOGS

RATS

RUMINANTS

Toxocariasis Rabies Leptospirosis Leptospirosis Rat-bite fever Plague Haemorrhagic fever

HENS AND EGGS

Q fever Brucellosis E.coli Anthrax Ringworm Erythrasma Hydatid disease

Salmonella Campylobacter Psittacosis Cryptococcus M. aviumintracellulare

Mostly, for foodborne human infections, that can be fatal, are responsible bacteria such as Salmonella, Camylobacter or E.coli present in animal origin products. Poor animal welfare, especially too high stocking density and long transport increase shedding and spreading of these bacteria.

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CONTAMINATION WAYS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN ANIMALS

The most important contamination ways of infectious diseases in farm animals are entry of sick animals into the flock from outside. Contamination of diseases occurs when animal is in carrier state period. The other possibilities of contamination is through infected dust and air, feed materials or water especially the ones which are contaminated with excreta. The infectious disease can also spread through wander-

Sick animals incorporate to flock from outside

Contaminated dust and air

Feed materials or water contaminated with excreta

ing of the tools and equipment used in the farm, human traffic between flocks, pets and wild animals, rodents, birds, clothes and shoes and carriers and sellers between flocks. Remember that such vector of infection may be also animals which have just recovered from diseases but which still carry the disease factors.

Tools and equipnment used on a farm

Pets, wild animals, rodents

Animals recoverd from disease but still cary disease factors

WHY CONTROL THE RODENTS? damage to buildings

destruction of insulation

feed consumed

feed contamination

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236

•Mice and rats will damage wood and electrical wiring, which can be a fire hazard. •Many livestock and poultry facilities show serious deterioration within five years. Associated with this damage are costs for reinsulation, increased energy costs and poorer feed conversions by animals. •A colony of 100 rats will consume over 1 tone of feed in 1 year.

•A rat can contaminate 10 times the amount of feed it eats with its droppings, urine and hair. A rat produces 25 000 droppings per year, a mouse 17 000. •Rodents are recognized as carriers of approximately 45 diseases, including salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, leptospirosis, swine dysentery, trichinosis, toxoplasmosis and rabies. LiveNutrition


INFECTIOUS DISEASES Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, parasites or fungi. Infectious diseases can be transmitted, directly or indirectly, from

BACTERIAL

VIRAL

one animal to another. According to the source of infection we can divide these diseases into four groups:

PARASITIC

Pathogenic microorganisms can enter animal body using various ways such as ingestion with contaminated water or feed, through mucus membranes in mouth, eyes or nose. They can be

FUNGAL

inhaled and transmit through respiratory system. The source of infectious may also be bites or injuries that break natural protect surface as skin.

WAYS OF PATHOGEN ENRANCE TO THE BODY respiratory system – with inhaled air mucus membranes – nose, eye, mouth

ingestion with contaminated water or feed

insect bites

injuries – damage of skin surface

The course of a disease consists of five stages. Immediately after infection animal has no signs of disease. During the first one – exposure animal is infected with pathogen but there are no organism response yet. In the second stage – incubation pathogen increases its level in an animal organisms and first symptoms appear

such as fever or muscle ache in prodromal stage. Decline stage is the effect of treatment or immune system response on pathogen proliferation. If no treatment disease becomes chronic one. After overcoming disease convalescent is going better and recoveries.

COURSE OF AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE INCUBATION

•no physical response yet

EXPOSURE

•pathogen proliferation

•the first symptoms appear

PRODROMAL

DECLINE •treatment or immune response effects

•animal recovery

CONVALESCENT

Infectious diseases vary greatly in terms of causes, symptoms, severity and treatment. However, there is one common issue that join these infections – prevention. Isolation of sick animals plays a crucial role in prevention from disease spreading in the herd/flock and allow to minimize economic losses. LiveNutrition

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BACTERIAL INFECTIONS According to shape pathogenic bacteria can be classified into 4 groups:

GENERAL FACTS The most of bacteria are harmless to animals and some strains such as Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium are even beneficial. They support feeds digestion and synthetize some vitamins, mostly B group. They also support immune system by prevention from pathogens colonization in animal’s digestive tract. Taking into account all the strains of bacteria that exist, relatively few are capable of inducing diseases in farm animals. A DISEASE IS AN EFFECT OF TOXINS RELEASED BY PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

TREATMENT

Staphylococcus

Streptococcus

Bacillus

Spirochete

EXOTOXINS secreted outside the cell

ENDOTOXINS part of the cell, released when cells die

• Antibiotics • Immune system fights using phagocytes – cells that surround and destroy pathogens

FUNGAL INFECTIONS GENERAL FACTS Fungi live in air, in soil, on plants, animals and in water. They can grow in two forms as yeasts that are single round cells and molds – many cells forming long, thin threads called hyphae. Fungi spread by spores that are very resistant to heat, moisture, or dryness. They can also spread by direct contact. Many species of fungus exist in the environment, but only some cause infections. The primary source of most infections is soil and air.

TREATMENT ANTIFUNGAL DRUGS may be applied directly to the infected site or, if the infection is serious, taken by mouth or injected. 238

Many of fungal species are able to established infection only in WEAKENED OR IMMUNOSUPPRESSED ANIMALS (malnutrition or viral infections). The infection may be localized or may affect the entire body. Many mycoses affect only THE OUTER LAYERS OF SKIN, and although they are sometimes difficult to cure, they are not considered dangerous. The fungi that affect THE DEEPER LAYERS of skin and internal organs are capable of causing serious, often fatal illness.

SPOROTRICHOSIS is an infection of farmers, horticulturists, and others who come into contact with plants or mud. The disease affects the skin and lymphatic system and, in rare cases – lungs, joints, bones or even brain.

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VIRAL INFECTIONS According to shape viruses can be classified into 4 groups:

GENERAL FACTS Viruses are much smaller than a fungus or bacteria. Virus has no cell wall, no organelles.

It is considered to be at the boarder of living and non-living microorganisms. What is quite interesting to reproduce viruses must invade a living cell.

Helical

Polyhedral

Spherical

Complex

In vast majority of cases infected cells die releasing new viruses that infect other cells.

Some viruses do not kill the host cells but leave their genetic material where the material remains inactive for an long time (latent infection).

Depending on genetic material there are DNA and RNA viruses.

SCHEME OF VIRAL INFECTION

1. virus attaches to the cell

4. new viral genetic materials are coated with protein and release from the cell often causing cell death

TREATMENT

2. virus damages cell wall and injects its genetic material (DNA or RNA) into the cell and forces it to make a copy of the virus.

3. replication of viral genetic material

• NO ANTIBIOTICS unless you treat symptoms. • Immune system fights using lymphocytes and monocytes – cells that attact and destroy pathogens. • Some of viruses are destroyed by cell enzymes. • Some of immune cells remember an invader and are able to respond more quickly and effectively to a subsequent infection by the same virus. This response is called IMMUNITY that can also be obtained with VACCINE. LiveNutrition

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PARASITIC INFECTIONS

A PARASITIC DISEASE called parasitosis, is any type of disease caused or transmitted by a parasite. Some parasites can cause disease dirGENERAL FACTS Parasitic infections can be caused by three types of organisms: protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. Endoparasites (usually protoza and helminths) live inside the body of the host, while ectoparasites usually live on the surface of the host. Protozoa are single-celled organisms that can live and multiply inside animals. Helminths are multi-celled organisms that can live alone or in animals such as flatworms, tapeworms, ringworms, and roundworms. Ectoparasites are multi-celled organisms that live in or feed off of the skin of animals, such as mosquitos, fleas, ticks, and mites.

ectly, but others can cause disease by the toxins that they produce. PARASITES cause economical losses in livestock breeding especially because of diminishing productivity

deteriorate of benefiting from feed, medicine used for treatment and labor losses compete for nutrients with a host

use the blood causing host’s anemia damage host’s tissues

release toxins into a host

TYPES OF PARASITIC DISEASES

Protozoan diseases

Many parasites have a complex life cycle that help them survive and spread from one host to another.

Helminthiasis egg

adult

egg larvae

pupa The animal that carries the mature parasite is called DEFINITIVE HOST whereas INTERMETREATMENT

Ectoparasitosis

or

adult

nymph

DIATE HOST carries the immature stadium of parasite – egg, larvae or nymph.

Internal parasites – consult with your veterinary and make all necessary vaccinations. External parasites – the most common application is to bath the animals in disinfected water in addition to medicines. 240

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NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES There are three main types of non-infectious diseases. The first one in nutrition related and will be discussed in separate submodule devoting nutritional disorders. Stress diseases are the result of not sufficient animal welfare. Among most common stress diseases we can

list these ones induced by too high or too low temperature and injuries. The last group of noninfectious diseases are congenital diseases that are birth defects or anomalies regardless of cause.

TYPES OF NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES:

CONGENITIAL

NUTRITION RELATED

CONGENITAL DISEASE - birth defect or anomaly regardless of cause. Birth defects vary widely in cause and symptoms. Factor that causes birth defects is known as a TERATOGEN. Birth defects may be the result of genetic or environmental factors. Congenital diseases are quite common in livestock, especially in cattle.

STRESS

STRESS DISEASES:

heat/cold stress

fear induced

injuries, broken bone etc.

dehydration

NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES are caused a wide array of factors such as improper feeding, not sufficient welfare conditions or genetics. Non-infectious diseases cannot be transmitted, however can affect many animal in a herd/flock.

Congenital defects can cause abortion or be present at time of birth. They are not very common but do occur in most livestock. Abnormality may be a result of genetic and/or environmental factors. LiveNutrition

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4. Metabolic Disorders

Nutritional disease - any of the nutrient-related diseases and conditions that cause illness in farm animals. They may include deficiencies or excesses nutrient or any antinutritive substance

in the diet, obesity and eating disorders. Feeding is a factor which has a great effect on the health of farm animals, in any of the following ways:

Feeding too little or too much food to the animal.

Feeding a ration which is not balanced for the particular livestock’s needs.

Deficiencies of protein, major minerals, trace elements, vitamins, and even water; can lead to many different deficiency diseases.

Feeding a ration that contains a substance that is toxic to the animal – poisoning incidence

Allowing the animal to eat food or to drink water that has been contaminated by bacteria or by parasites such as worms. The health of the animal can be affected positively by feeding a diet that increases its resistance to bacterial disease.

Among the most common nutritional errors in livestock we can list: malnutrition or under-

nutrition and overfeeding that are the causes of many metabolic disorders. Overfeeding

Malnutrition

• Situation when in diet of animals is insufficient quantity or quality of nutrients to sustain their proper health and growth.

• Situation when animals are fed with diet contains more nutrients than animal requires.

Changes in production (low, negative changes of nutrient composition in final product)

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Overfeeding is detrimental to animal and to the environment.

Changes in body weight (low, thin appearance)

Problems with reproduction and risk of health problems

Changes in activity of animals (weak or depressed)

Animals become overconditioned or obese

Changes in hair coat (dull, rough)

More nutrients to manage in manure or as spoiled feed

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METABOLIC DISORDERS are not simple but very complex disorders because they can occur in many diversified forms either singly or in association one with another. They respond to dietary treatment. Metabolic disease is a disturbance of the internal homeostasis of the body, brought about by an abnormal change in the rate of one or more critical metabolic processes.

THE MOST COMMON METABOLIC DISORDERS IN LIVESTOCK:

Bloat

Grass tetany

Acidosis

Lamnitis

Liver abscesses

Fat cow syndrome

Hypocalcemia

Displaced abomasum

Ketosis

Mastitis

Retained placenta

White muscle disease

Equine metabolic syndrome

Colic in horses

Ascitis (water belly)

Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome

In subclinical form of metabolic disorders there are no visible signs of the illness. However, not treated it affects animal performance negatively. LiveNutrition

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BLOAT

BLOAT results from the formation of a stable foam in the rumen that limits eructation and release of gases produced normally from microbial fermentation. Gas production may then exceed gas elimination. Gas then accu-

mulates causing distention of the rumen and cause bloat. The skin on the left side of the animal behind the last rib may appear distended.

© State of New South Wales through NSW Department of Industry on all uses.

FREE – GRASS BLOAT common in feedlot cattle

www.vet.unicen.edu.ar

FROTHY BLOATH gas is trapped in rumen in a form of foam

BLOAT – WHY?

Esophagus is obstructed often by foreign objects such as potatoes.

Result of a stable foam developing on top of the rumen liquid, which blocks the release of the gases.

The animal can’t burp such as with milk fever or tetanus.

Highly seasonal with peaks in the spring and autumn. because the foam is formed by breakdown products from rapidly growing forages particularly legumes such as wet, wilted clover and alfalfa.

Less common than frothy bloat.

Rapid degradation increases the stickiness of the rumen fluid and prevent the small bubbles of gas formed by rumen fermentation from coming together to form free gas that can be belched off.

Most of legume forages contain in significant quantities substances called SAPONINS forming the soap-like foam when shaken in aqueous solutions.

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BLOAT – SYMPTOMS Distended left side of abdomen

In some cases sudden death may be the first sign seen by the stockman, although in such cases it is likely that there will be other cattle with bloat that are still alive.

Pain discomfort and bellowing

Death occurs within 15 minutes

Gaseous bloat is usually seen in one or two animals Frothy bloat can affect up to 25% of cases BLOAT –TREATMENT Oral administration antifoaming agents include oils and fats and synthetic nonionic surfactants such as prolaxene Feeding animals coarsly chopped roughage as a 10-15% of ration in a feedlot diet

In extreme cases puncture of the wall of rumen by bloat needle or trocar Passing a stomach tube

POLOXALENE, a synthetic polymer, is a highly effective nonionic surfactant that can be given at 10-20 g/head/day and up to 40 g/head/day in high-risk situations. It is safe and economical to use and is administered daily through the susceptible period by adding to water, feed grain mixtures, or molasses. OILS AND FATS are given at 60–120 mL/head/day; doses up to 240 mL are indicated during dangerous periods.

BLOAT – PREVENTION It is much more effective to prevent bloat than treat affected animals. However, prevention of pasture bloat can be difficult. Feeding management practices using to reduce the risk of bloat include: • Feeding straw or hay, particularly orchard grass, before turning cattle on pasture.

• If possible avoid using high-risk pastures at high-risk times. Pastures with a history of bloat problems or with a high clover content should not be used for cows soon after turnout.

• If you have to use high-risk pastures, introduce the cattle to them slowly. In some cases restricting access to as little as ten minutes per day at the start may be necessary to prevent bloat. • Avoid starting to graze high-risk pastures

when they are wet.

• Mature pastures are less likely to cause bloat than immature or rapidly growing pasture.

• If bloat is a severe problem administer antifoaming agents. If this is the case and you can strip graze then spraying antifoaming oils (emulsified with water) onto the grass can significantly reduce labour costs.

• The only satisfactory method available to prevent pasture bloat is continual administration of an antifoaming agent during the risk period. Spraying the agent onto the pasture is equally effective, provided the animals have access only to treated pasture. • The antifoaming agent can be added to the feed or water or incorporated into feed blocks, but success with this method depends on adequate individual intake.

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MILK FEVER (HYPOCALCEMIA)

MILK FEVER (hypocalcemia) occurs at transition period (within 24 hrs of calving) in highly milking cows, usually in 3 or later lacta-tion, caused by too low calcium concentration in cow blood. AFFECTS: Dairy cows, sheep, goats, rare in beef cattle

AGE OF ANIMAL: Incidence increases with age. Almost never in first calf heifers, rare in second calf.

RATES – 20% of incidence reported for cows in 6th or greater lactation. Subclinical hypocalcemia rates can affect 50% of dairy cows. BREED OF COW: Jersey cows are particularly more susceptible.

SEASONAL OCCURRENCE: Some evidence that incidence increases at the end of the grazing season by limited nutrition and deficiency of Mg.

HYPOCALCEMIA – WHY?

Late pregnancy - relatively low calcium requirements about 30 g of Ca.

too low

After calving – calcium requirement abruptly increases (initiation of lactation) – mammary gland drainage may exceed 50 g.

Most cows suffer from various degrees of hypocalcemia. Some cows have clinical signs.

Insufficient blood calcium concentration is the effect large quantities of Ca excreted with colostrum and milk after calving.

HYPOCALCEMIA – SYMPTOMS a dry muzzle

body temperature below 38.5°C (cold legs and ears) teeth grinding and loss of the appetite

By Lucyin - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=26970055

tremor in muscles sitting position

„S”curved neck

lying on the side coma, death 246

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HYPOCALCEMIA - TREATMENT The treatment methods depends on stage of hypocalcemia severity (see chart below). Typically 300, or even 600 milliliters, of a 40% solution of calcium borogluconate. Clinical cases of hypocalcaemia are usually treated with calcium borogluconate solution intravenous and subcutaneous. Response should be dramatic. The dose usually starts to shiver and brightens up by the time treatment is finished. If she does not, it may be that the diagnosis is incorrect or is complicated by another disease. It is important that intravenous treatment only be

Stage •6.5-8.0 mg blood Ca/dL, Oral or lack of cooridination and intravenous 1 twitching Ca Stage •4.5-6.0 mg blood Ca/dL, dry muzzle, depression, laying 2 down but still up right

given in the face of strong clinical evidence of disease. Calcium can easily cause death if given intravenous to an animal with normal calcium levels. At the first stage of milk fever you should apply oral or intravenous calcium salts but at the second or the third stage it is compulsory to treat with intravenous calcium. Animal should respond in 30 min of treatment and be standing. Do not forget that recovered cows should not be milked for 24 hours; then the amount of milk taken should be gradually increased over the next 2-3 days. 300 ml, or more (even 600 ml), of a 40% solution of calcium borogluconate In normal clinical cases administration calcium borogluconate (20 mg Ca2+/ml) intravenous or subcutaneus

Must be treated intravenous Ca

Stage •<4.5 mg blood Ca/dL, bloat, weak pulse, laying out flat, 3 risk of death

In strong clinical cases application intravenous calcium gluconate

HYPOCALCEMIA - PREVENTION • • • •

Close-up dry cows diet supplementation CaSO4 or CaCl2 – 150-180 g Ca/cow/day.

Inclusion to the diet Ca-rich feeds such as alfalfa hay.

Avoiding Ca-low feeds such as whole crop cereal forages.

Over-feeding of calcium in late gestation without anionic salts induces hypocalcaemia.

Dry cows should be kept on a low calcium diet – stimulation calcium regulatory system to keep the blood levels normal by

mobilising the body stores of calcium from the bones. Recommended dietary cation – anion difference (DCAD) value of close-up dry cows diet 0 to -100 meq/kg DM of a diet – addition of anionic salt to diet. Caution decrease in palatability!

Feeding an anionic ration in late gestation will also improve calcium absorption from the gut and from the bones. The ration in late gestation and early lactation should also have a calcium:phosphorus ratio of greater than 1.5 to 1.

Proper nutrition in prepariturient period

DCAD diet formulation

Acidification of diet

Prevention of pregnancy toxaemia

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LAMINITIS

LAMINITIS is separation of epidermal laminae from dermal laminae of hoof. In vast majority of cases laminitis occurs in lactating cows and horses. If the fresh cow (horse) is abruptly switched to a high energy lactation diet, itis at risk of developing rumen acidosis because the lactate producers will respond rapidly to the

LAMINITIS – WHY?

higher starch diets and produce high amounts of lactate that decreases rumen pH (hindgut in horses) significantly what in turn leads to rumen (large intrstine in horses) microoganisms death and releasing of endotoxins and histamine.

Horse suffering form laminitis

There are numerous causes of laminitis. Among the most important can be listed pasture and improper feeding. Feeding out a great amount of cereal grains that are starch-rich that cause digestive disturbances and lush. The second reason of laminitis are bacterial toxins that affects hoof wall. Also some metabolic disorders such as metritis, ketosis, mastitis can initiate the laminitis. Foot rot or hoof damage and secondary infection can result in laminitis in cattle with Bacteroides nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum are the cause of this metabolic

disorder too. Overfeeding with carbohydrates causes increased lactate concentration in rumen or small intestine. The lactate converting bacterial population responds slowly to a change in diet, requiring 3-4 weeks to reach levels that will effectively prevent lactate from building up in the rumen. The lactic acid, endotoxins and histamine released as the rumen flora die, are absorbed systemically and affect the microvasculature of the growing hoof wall, which then result in clinical laminitis.

PASTURE AND IMPROPER FEEDING •overfeeding of grain (carbohydrates), digestive disturbances, lush BACTERIAL TOXINS •affects hoof wall METABOLIC DISORDERS •metritis, ketosis, mastitis FOOT ROT OR HOOF DAMAGE •secondary infection can result in laminitis in cattle (Bacteroides nodosus, Fusobacterium necrophorum)

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LAMINITIS – SYMPTOMS extreme pain, reluctance to move

excessive hoof/toe growth, abnormal stance pounding digital pulses

increased temperature of hoof wall swelling of coronary band

circumferential hoof rings

Severe cow’s laminitis

flattened sole

depressed coronary band LAMINITIS – TREATMENT • First step is to remove the cause of laminitis.

• Treatment application – immediately after observing first symptoms of laminitis to prevent any lasting damage to the feet and remove pain source. • Move animal to a smaller stand and bed the surface down with a deep bed of shavings or sand.

• It is important to limit sugars soluble or starch-rich feed in the diet, including molassed licks and ensure free access to fresh clean water.

• Treatment of laminitis in cattle is primarily trimming and pain killers administration as well rumen buffers to stabilize rumen microflora.

LAMINITIS – PREVENTION IN HORSES use high fibre, low carbohydrate and low sugar feeds - avoid feeding cereal mixes and molassed products. Restrict pasture forage intake – grass is very high in soluble carbohydrates such as fructans, especially in spring and autumn. Avoid sugars-rich ryegrasses and protein-rich clover on the pasture.

Feed a horse with small quantities and remember that horse needs to chew and does not like boredom. Minimise horse’s stress.

Proper feeding management

Stress minimazing

Obesity prevention

Prevention of any hoof damage – reputable ferrier

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IN CATTLE the most important tools to prevent laminitis: Avoiding an abrupt switch from dry-off ration to high lactation ration.

Inclusion rumen buffer at the first stage of lactation to prevent acidosis.

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RUMEN ACIDOSIS

RUMEN ACIDOSIS – also called lactic acidosis is the most common metabolic problems in livestock fed high contribution of energy concentrates to a diet. A large amount of highly fermentable feeds, such as cereal grains, molasses and feeds rich in starch consumed in a short period increases the production of normal pH in the rumen: 5.8-6.2

liver abcesses, rumentis, bloat or laminitis

volatile fatty acids and mostly lactic acid. However, rumen can’t buffer high concentration of lactic acid cause acidosis. Rumen acidosis commonly occurs in early lactation because of consumption of high levels of energy feeds in this period.

pH 5.2

pH 4.7 – rumen acidosis = change in pattern of rumen fermentation

HIGH CONTRIBUTION OF CEREAL GRAINS TO THE DIET celullolytic bacteria dies – releasing toxins and histamine

number of LAB increase = higher concentration of lactic acid

In horses acidosis takes place in small and large intestine also affecting ulcer, damages of intestine wall and laminitis.

SARA (sub-acute rumen acidosis) is a disorder of ruminal fermentation that is characterized by extended periods of depressed ruminal pH below 5.5. ACIDOSIS – WHY?

TOO HIGH CONTRIBUTION OF CEREAL GRAINS TO THE DIET •overfeeding of grain (carbohydrates), digestive disturbances •rapid change of a diet – e.g. when dry cows abruptly switch from high fibre diet to high energy concentrate diet for milking cows SHORT TIME OF DIET INTAKE •small particles of diet – depression of rumination – less saliva that buffers rumen pH ACCUMULATION OF LACTIC ACID IN RUMEN •lower pH – cellulolytic bacteria die CHANGE IN RUMEN FERMENTATION PROFILE •from volatile fatty acids to lactic acid

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ACIDOSIS – SYMPTOMS

reduced feed intake

decreased milk production

lethargy

reduced milk fat content

diarrhea

poor body condition score

excessive salivation

ACIDOSIS – TREATMENT Treatment for rumen acidosis is similar to prevention efforts. If the cattle consumed much concentrate feed keep them giving only water for 24 hours. Some common treatments are oral administration of mineral oil and or sodium bicarbonate along with activated

charcoal, anti-endotoxin therapy, and surgical emptying of the rumen in some cases. Mild cases can be treated by rumen lavage and oral administration mineral oil are other treatment materials.

ACIDOSIS – PREVENTION Good feeding management is the main preventive measure. Gradually increase the grains contribution to the diet over the first 14 days.

Keeping at least 10% roughage in the diet will help moderate rumen pH. The fiber should be long enough to serve as a “scratch factor” and stimulate rumination. A general recommendation for particle size is that about 15% of the particles in a ration should be longer than 3.8 cm. Cud chewing stimulates saliva production, and saliva is a good buffer. Forages and cottonseed hulls are both good sources of effective fiber. You can use barley straw or

sorghum hay as the source of initial roughage. Any changes from one grain to another or from whole to crushed grain should be gradual, over 4-7 days or grain poisoning might occur.

Avoid alfalfa hay in hay racks. If you feed alfalfa hay or an equivalent, cattle will only stand and wait for the next batch of fresh feed. Rumen buffers, such as sodium bicarbonate and bentonite, counter acidity and these can be fed during the introductory period.

Supplementing the diet with direct-fed microbials that enhance lactate utilization in the rumen e.g. live yeast may reduce the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis.

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LIVER ABSCESSES

LIVER ABSCESSES are often a secondary result of acidosis, bacteria from rumen by blood are transport to liver cause liver abscesses.

Low pH from acidosis cause necrotic lesion of rumen Bacteria from rumen are transport by blood to liver cause rise of abscesses Severe liver abscesess may affect performance of cow – lost of appetite, decrease in body weight, decrease in milk and slaughter yield

Liver absesses LIVER ABSCESSES – WHY? The primary cause of liver abscesses is Fusobacterium necrophorum a bacterium that is a component of normal rumen microflora. However, some nutritional mistakes allow this bacteria to reach the liver and cause liver abscesses. Rapid rumen fermentation due to high contribution of energy feeds such as cereal grains to the ruminant’s diet. It results in increased volatile fatty acids, especially lactic acid in rumen and decrease in pH what in turn cause superficial necrosis of rumen wall.

LOWERED RUMEN pH increase in VFA, especially lactic acid

RUMENITIS superficial necrosis of rumen wall due to low pH

RUMEN LESIONS colonization of Fusobacterium necrophorum around necrosis in rumen wall

Around necrosis in rumen wall Fusobacterium necrophorum and other bacteria colonize and through lesions of rumen wall they move to hepatic portal venous system and are transport to the liver. In the liver Fusobacterium necrophorum establish infectious foci of necrobacillosis that can develop into liver abscesses. Other causes of liver abscesses are not nutrition-related and include foreign body penetration from the reticulum and bacteremic diseases.

INFECTIOUS FOCI IN THE LIVER through lesions bacteria get to hepatic portal venous and are transported to the liver

LIVER ABSCESSES in the liver bacteria establish necrobacillosis that can develop into abscesses

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RAPID RUMEN FERMENTATION

high contribution of ENERGY CONCENTRATES (cereal grains) to diet


LIVER ABSCESSES – SYMPTOMS www.therasc.com

periodic fever

inappetence

loss of weight

www.tagris.org

evidence of pain when animal lies down LIVER ABSCESSES – TREATMENT

episodic drop in milk production

ANIMALS SELDOM DEMONSTRATE CLINICAL SIGNS

A vaccine consisting of the leukotoxoid of Fucobacterium necrophorum combined with a bacterin of A pyogenes reduces abscess incidence and severity. Feed antibiotics common used as agents preventing from liver abscesses have been not allowed anymore since 2006. •tylosin phosphate •virginiamycin •chlortetracycline •procaine penicillin G LIVER ABSCESSES – PREVENTION The primary preventive method of liver abscesses is avoiding rumen acidosis that can be control through the method of feeding, diet composition, and use of buffers in the diet.

Multiple daily feedings increase the time of rumination and the same saliva production that buffer rumen continuously increasing rumen pH. Also lower concentrate contribution to the diet and at least 15% of particles sized 3.8 cm or

more in diet stimulate rumination and saliva production which in turn result in lower number of ruminal lesions and the same decreases incidence of liver abscesses.

There are also some feed additives known as buffers that also prevent from decrease in ruminal pH. The most common are sodium carbonate or magnesium oxide.

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FAT COW SYNDROME

FAT COW SYNDROME is a complex syndrome related to metabolic, infections, and reproductive problems. It is associated with incidence

of milk fever, ketosis, and retained placenta. caused by the accumulation of fat in the liver which limits critical liver function. Feeding errors in late lactation and dry period

Deposition of fatty acids in peripheral tissues

Inadequate secretion of liver triglycerides

FAT COW SYNDROME

Fatty liver source:www.centralwest.lls.nsw.gv.a FAT COW SYNDROME – WHY?

The greatest increase in liver triglyceride typically occurs at calving. The extent of feed intake depression before and after calving or during disease in combination with the amount of available body fat reserves moderates the degree of triglyceride accumulation. Excessive intracellular triglyceride accumulation in liver cells results in disturbed liver function and cell damage. Energy consumption above requirements for maintenance and productive purposes will not directly result in deposition of triglyceride in hepatic tissue. FAT COW SYNDROME – SYMPTOMS There are no pathognomonic clinical signs of fatty liver disease in cattle. The condition is often associated with feed intake depression, decreased milk production, and ketosis. Increased blood NEFA concentration that impairs immune function and a proinflammatory effect what in turn find the result in increased incidence of clinical mastitis, metritis, and other periparturient infectious diseases.

no pathognomonic clinical in cattle

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depression of feed intake and milk production

Triglyceride accumulation in the liver reduce gluconeogenesis, ureagenesis, hormone clearance, and hormone responsiveness. Consequently, hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, and altered endocrine profiles may accompany fatty liver. Although obesity predisposes to fatty liver disease, it is not restricted to obese cows. Similarly, obese cows do not necessarily have fat liver syndrome.

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associated with other metabolic disorders

increased blood NEFA concentration


FAT COW SYNDROME – TREATMENT PROPYLENE GLYCOL in amount 300-600 ml per day given as an oral drench during the final week prepartum has effectively reduced plasma non-essential fatty acids and the severity of fatty liver at calving.

Propylene glycol can be replace with GLYCERIN that is less expensive.

GLUCAGON stimulates glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and insulin production. Glucagon in amount 10 mg daily intravenously for 14 days is effective at reducing liver triglyceride.

Propylene glycol can be fed, but feeding may not be as effective if the full dose is not consumed in a short period of time

FAT COW SYNDROME – PREVENTION • The critical time for prevention of fatty liver is ~1 wk before through 1 wk after parturition, when cows are most susceptible.

• Remember that prevention can be achieved by avoiding over conditioning cattle, rapid diet changes, unpalatable feeds, periparturient diseases, and environmental stress.

• A single 100 IU IM dose of a 24hr slow-release insulin immediately after calving may be prophylactic. Higher doses may cause severe hypoglycemia and should not be used without concurrent glucose administration.

• Niacin is an antilipolytic agent that may have potential for prevention of fatty liver, but unequivocal evidence supporting niacin supplementation of animals at risk is not available. Cow should enter the dry period with an average BSC 3-3.5 in scale (where 1 thin and 5 - obese).

• Thin cows with BSC equal or lower than 2.5 can be fed additional energy during the dry period.

• Overconditioned cattle with BSC 4 or higher should not be feed restricted, because this promotes fat mobilization from adipose tissue and increase blood NEFA and liver triglyceride. Therefore, it’s important to monitor body condition and feed intake.

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KETOSIS

KETOSIS – is a metabolic state in which most of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides most of the energy is a condition of late pregnancy and early lactation in ruminants. It is similar to pregnancy disease in ewes. Pregnancy toxaemia

is a more common condition than ketosis in goats and sheep. Through recognition of early signs and symptoms and avoidance of the predisposing factors, it can be reduced to a sporadic condition.

Primary spontaneous ketosis •Negative energy balance conditions •Excessive feeding of silages with high levels of butyric acid Secondary ketosis •Cause by reduction of appetite in early lactation

Cow suffering from ketosis source:www.nadis.org.uk

KETOSIS – WHY? Due to insufficient energy supply the synthesis of propionate in the rumen, that is a precursor of glucose is depressed. As the result cows becomes hypoglycemic because of low blood glucose level. Hypoglycemic cow starts metabolizing its own fat reserves such as fatty acids

cow starts metabolizing its own fat reserves: fatty acids and glicerol

fatty acids and glicerol are oxidized to acetyl-Co-A

and glycerol that in turn are oxidized to AcetylCo-A. Due to lack of energy an excess of AcetylCo-A is converted to ketone bodies such as acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate accumulate in milk and urine.

low blood glucose level – a hypoglycemic cow

an excess of Acetyl-Co-A (due to lack of energy) is converted to ketone bodies – acetoacetate and βhydroxybutyrate

KETOSIS ketone bodies accumulate in milk and urine

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insufficient synthesis of propionate – a precursor of glucose diet DOES NOT MEET energy requirement of cow


KETOSIS – SYMPTOMS Ketosis clinical signs usually occur in early lactation after calving within 3-6 weeks. www.therasc.com

decrease in milk production

weight loss

inappetence

www.4archive.org

acetone smell of the breath, milk and urine

bellowing

KETOSIS – TREATMENT The aim of ketosis treatment is to achieve proper glucose concentration in blood and reduce serum ketone bodies.

GLUCOSE – bolus glucose treatment brings very quick recover but usually the effect is temporary and ketosis relapses. Glucose can be administered in continuous intravenous infusion or tube feeding, especially in therapy of refractory ketosis. PROPYLENE GLYCOL administered orally. Recommended dose is 250-400 g/dose, once per day acts as a glucose precursor and is effective as ketosis therapy. Overdosing propylene glycol leads to central nervous system depression. KETOSIS – PREVENTION

DEXTROSE, a common therapy use in ketosis is intravenous administration of 500 ml of 50% dextrose solution. Be careful the solution is very hyperosmotic and given to animal perivascular irritates tissue and causes its swelling.

GLUCOCORTICOIDS such as isoflupredone acetate or dexamethasone are recommended in therapy in amount 5-20 mg/dose administered intramuscular, may cause more stable reaction, compared to glucose alone. Glucose and glucocorticoid therapy may be repeated daily as necessary.

• Prevention of ketosis is possible mainly by nutritional management.

• It is important to keep proper body condition in late lactation – do not allow your cow to become too fat.

• Formulate diet for cows in late lactation period to increase contribution of energy from digestible fibre and increase contribution of energy provided with starch.

• Early lactation rations should be relatively high in non-fiber carbohydrates with such allowance of fiber to ensure rumen health and feed intake – NDF – 28%-30%, and non-fiber carbohydrates – 38%-41%. Some feed additives such as propylene glycol, niacin, calcium propionate, sodium propionate, and rumen-protected choline. These feed additives should be given to animals in close-up dry period (2-3 weeks before calving). LiveNutrition

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GRASS TETANY (HYPOMAGNESEMIA)

GRASS TETANY - a common disease of cattle and sheep grazing on pasture rich in lush, poor in mangesium grasses. Animals in peak lactation are the main risk group for hypomagnesemia. However, grass tetany also occurs in cows in

early lactation. The severity of hypomagnesemia is related to hypocalcemia occurs in hypomagnesemic animals during the same period.

GRASS TETANY – WHY?

Heavy fertilization of pastures, especially with N and potash – high content of Nand K that are antagonist of Mg and reduce its absorption from the rumen.

Heavy fertilization with P in turn affect Ca absorption negatively and result in lowered serum Ca concentration. Immature grass pastures and green cereal crops may predispose cattle to metabolic alkalosis – pool of ionized Ca and Mg in the rumen is reduced – less absorbed from the rumen increasing the risk of hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia.

Low Mg content in immature grasses, especially when grown in cool, cloudy temperature that favour rapid plant growth. Usually grass tetany occurs in cattle and sheep grazing pasture rich in lush, immature grasses.

Grass tetany usually gives clinical signs when plasma magnesium concentration is lower than 1.2 mg/dl in cattle and lower 0.5 mg/dl in sheep. Such low plasma magnesium concentration is the effect of low magnesium content in immature grasses, especially when grown in cool, cloudy temperature that favour rapid plant growth. Heavy fertilization of pastures, especially with nitrogen and potash results in high content of nitrogen and potassium that are antagonist of magnesium and reduce magne258

sium absorption from the rumen. Moreover heavy fertilization with phosphorus in turn affect calcium absorption negatively and result in lowered serum calcium concentration. Immature grass pastures and green cereal crops may predispose cattle to metabolic alkalosis when pool of ionized calcium and magnesium in the rumen is reduced thus less quantities of these element are absorbed increasing the risk of hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia.

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GRASS TETANY – SYMPTOMS hyperexcitability incoordination

muscle spasms and salivation laying down on its side death

GRASS TETANY – TREATMENT

By L. Mahin - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6035848

Cattle with clinical signs have to be treated immediately. Common therapy in grass tetany is intravenous administration of combined calcium borogluconate and magnesium hypophosphate solutions. Animal should be left alone during treatment and respond without stimulation. It is recommended to administer subcutaneous additional 200 ml of

50% magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) solution per cow. Treated animals should be removed from the pasture and fed with hay treated with 60 g of magnesium oxide (MgO) daily what should prevent from grass tetany recurrence. After treatment gel containing calcium and magnesium can be administered orally.

GRASS TETANY – PREVENTION • Monitoring the flock in pasture.

• Before turning a pasture animals should be fed with hay to avoid excessive green pasture intake.

• Pastures deficient in Mg should be limed with fertilizers contain magnesium.

• Legumes are rich in Mg. They can be planted in pastures to decrease the risk of hypomagnesemia.

• To enrich pasture in Mg it may be dusted with 500 g of MgO/cow or sprayed with a 2% solution of Mg sulphate at intervals of 1or 2 weeks. • Supplementation of diets with Mg and Ca during the grass tetany period – daily oral supplements of MgO is 60g to cattle and 10g to sheep.

• Additional 10-15g MgO into each pregnant cow diet and 30g into each lactating cow diets

• Salt-molasses blocks and enriched cakes with magnesium.

• The main problem with additional magnesium salts is their palatability. Magnesium salt should be given to animals combined with other palatable diet components such as molasses, concentrate or hay. LiveNutrition

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DISPLACED ABOMASUM

DISPLACED ABOMASUM (DA) is repositioning of abomasum. The abomasum transfers to right ventral abdominal wall of cow. This form of GENERAL FACTS

abomasum slows transit time of the digesta and stops digesta flow. It causes gas production and leads cow to bloat.

85-90% of DA is left-sided DA - rare in heifers 75% incidence – first 14 days postcalving

DISPLACED ABOMASUM – WHY? The causes of abomasal displacement are multifactorial depending on feeding management, occurrence of other metabolic disorders and genetic predisposition. The secondary main cause of displaced abomasum is abomasal hypomotility associated with hypocalcemia, as well as coexisting diseases such as mastitis and metritis connected with endotoxemia and decreased rumen fill. The

hypocalcemia – one of the main function of Ca is ensuring proper activity of muscles

mastitis and metritis connected with endotoxemia and decreased rumen fill

ABOMASAL ABOMASAL HYPOMOTILI HYPOMOTILITY TY

ingestion of high-concentrate and low-forages diets affects abomasal hypomotility negatively and results in increased production of gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. The risk of displaced abomasum is higher in cows with body condition score higher than 4.0 as a result of worse dry matter intake in parturition period.

concentrate/forage ratio (physical structure of diet) – high– concentrate and lowforages diets affects abomasal hypomotility negatively and results in increased production of gases such as CO2 and CH4 BCS – higher than 4.0 due to worse DMI intake during transition period

genetic predisposition

INCREASE IN RISK OF ABOMALSAL DISPLACEMENT INCIDENCE

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DISPLACED ABOMASUM – SYMPTOMS

lack of apetite

decrease in milk production

distension over the left paralumbar fossa and ping

reduced frequency and strength of rumen contraction

DISPLACED ABOMASUM – TREATMENT

There are surgical and percutaneous techniques used to correct abomasal displacements. All surgeries have to be carried out by veterinarian. Fluid and electrolyte correct abnormalities in simple displacement, spontaneously with access to water and a salt block. The common practice is to administer electrolyte water 60 g of sodium chloride and 30 g of potassium chloride diluted in 19 l of water by stomach tube. DISPLACED ABOMASUM – PREVENTION

ketosis - mild to moderate phase

The second method of treatment is rolling a cow through a 180° arc after casting her on her right side corrects most left displaced abomasum but recurrence is quite often.

Therapy of animals with displaced abdomen includes handling with other concurrent disease such as ketosis. It is recommended to administer calcium borogluconate or calcium gluconate subcutaneous or calcium gels given orally avoid to achieve normal abomasal motility.

Rapid increase in rumen volume after calving.

Energy concentrates intake after calving should be increased slowly if total mixed ration is not fed. At least 3 feedings per day and less than 3 kg of grain/per feeding/per cow. Control of the calcium intake around parturition.

Prevent other metabolic diseases and hypocalcemia.

Cows should be in proper body condition score at parturition < 4.0. It is better to encourage cows to lie on left side.

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MASTITIS

MASTITIS (MISCELLANEOUS ABNORMALITIES OF THE MAMMARY GLAND) – a multifactoral, metabolic disorders and created by microbial growth in mammary gland. PathoSUBCLINICAL MASTITIS an udder infection however no apparent signs inflammation can be seen.

gens can colonize in mamamry gland and cause udder edema. Cows can be infected by milking machines, milkers and cow to cow. CLINICAL MASTITIS is an inflammatory response to infection causing visible changes in milk.

MASTITIS – WHY? All factors affecting higher risk of mastitis incidence can be classified into three groups: linked to cow, environment and microorganisms. Obese cows have high affinity to udder edema. Increased intra-abdominal pressure of the fetus in pregnant cows and first month after parturition is the risk period. Occurrence of udder edema is also higher when immunity system is depressed or in hypoproteinemia. The second group is associated with cow environment including nutrition. High contribution of concentrates to diet, large amounts of sodium and potassium intake and not enough amount of calcium effect on udder edema. The risk of mastitis occurrence is higher in cows suffering from other metabolic COW

Obesity First month after parturition Increased intra-abdominal pressure of the fetus in pregnant cows Immune depression Hypoproteinemia 262

disorders, especially acidosis and ketosis. Also oxidative stress in mammary tissues may play an important role in udder edema. Mastitis incidence may be increased by milking frequency, improper first milking and bad sanitary condition. Any teat injury increases risk of inflammation in great extent. And the third group are microorganisms. It is estimated that 70% of mastitis is bacterial origin, 2% is caused by yeast and molds and about 28% has unknown origin. Some important group of microorganisms cause udder edema are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Mycoplasma bovis.

ENVIRONMENT

High contribution of concentrates to a diet High Na and K intake – high P content in fertilized alfalfa Low Ca intake – no uterine contraction and its prolapse Acidosis Ketosis Oxidative stress Milk frequency and improper first milking Insufficient sanitary condition Teat injury LiveNutrition

MICROORGANISMS

70% – bacteria 2% – yeast, moulds 28% – unknown Common micoorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Mycoplasma bovis


MASTITIS – SYMPTOMS

hot, hard, and tender udder

changes in milk properties e.g. colour, clots

lack of appetite

dull eyes

increase in blood protein

SCC increase

MASTITIS – TREATMENT ALL FOUR QUARTERS OF INFECTED UDDER SHOULD BE TREATED to ensure elimination of the pathogen and to prevent possible crossinfection of a non-infected quarter.

ANTIBIOTICS TREATMENT – a cow is milked out and antibiotics is given directly into the infected udder. Prior to intramammary infusion, the teat should be cleaned and disinfected with an alcohol. The antibiotic is applied from a plastic tube with a plastic infusion cannula on MASTITIS – PREVENTION

To control mastitis in your herd you need a good sanitation plan, clean environment and early disease and its source identification.

Feeding strategies to prevent mastitis include well-balanced diet for close-up dry cows preventing hypocalcemia and limiting potassium intake in forages. It is important to provide with diet sufficient amount of anions, vitamin E, copper, magnesium, zinc, manganese and selenium.

• Keep cow’s bedding, ponds, mud, milking parlor clean. • Milk only clean dry teats.

• Before milking pre-dip teats with germicide.

• After milking keep cows standing – teats’ ends are still open then what increase a risk of infection. To keep cows standing offer them feed.

• Use only sterile single-dose infusion products

the end. Due to antibiotics present in milk it must not be put into the milk tank.

NON RESPONDING CASES – Some cows are unable to overcome the infection due to natural resistance Typically udder of such cows is infected with Staphylococcus aureus – cows remain a constant source of infection for other cows. Sometimes culling of such cows is the only way to effectively control spread of mastitis in the herd. and techniques of sterile infusion such as alcohol swab. Dip cow’s teats in germicide after each milking – lower incidence of the disease.

• Treat each quarter of dry cows with antibiotics at the end of lactation.

• Milk cows with contagious mastitis last or using a separate milking claws for the infected cows.

• Flush milking claws with hot water and/or germicide after milking infected cows.

• Use individual cloth or paper towels to wash and dry teats.

• Milkers should have clean hands and wear latex gloves. • Cull chronically infected cows from the herd. • Minimize teat lesions from lacerations, machine damage, frostbite.

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stepping, chapping,

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RETAINED PLACENTA AND METRITIS

RETAINED PLACENTA is a metabolic disorder appears in cows after calving with failure of the fetal membranes. The fetal membranes should be expelled within 12 to 24 hours after parturition, usually 3-8 hours.

METRITIS is an uterine problem caused by inflammation/infection of the uterus. Metritis is mostly associated with retained placenta. It is also highly correlated with occurrence of cystic ovaries and cause lower milk yield and greater culling.

RETAINED PLACENTA AND METRITIS – WHY? Cow with retained placenta, source: www.theorganicfarmer.org

Others

Nutritional imbalanced diet for dry-off cows – deficiency of energy and/or protein

dystocia

deficiency of diets with dietary energy, protein or both can cause retained placenta

retained placenta – 6 x greater risk of metritis

imbalanced calcium and phosphorus in diets during dry-off period

stillbirth

risk factors actors for fat cow syndrome

some metabolic disorders such as milk fever, displaced abomasum deficiencies of vitamin E, A and selenium

twin birth

shorter than 45 days dry period stress, especially overstocking

RETAINED PLACENTA AND METRITIS – SYMPTOMS degenerating, discoloured, ultimately decaying membranes hanging from the vulva uterus with excess fluid and lacking tendency fever

clinical metritis

lack of appetite depression 264

retained placenta

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RETAINED PLACENTA AND METRITIS – TREATMENT RETAINED PLACENTA Manual removal of the retained membranes is not recommended and could be harmful. Trimming of excess tissue that contributes to contamination of the genital tract is permitted. Untreated retained placenta cows expel the

membranes in 2-11 days, with 40% of cases requiring no treatment. CLINICAL METRITIS

requires treatment with antibiotics.

RETAINED PLACENTA AND METRITIS – PREVENTION • Good dry cow management, especially proper feeding.

• Providing proper amounts of Ca and Mg as well as fat soluble vitamins.

• Feeding a diet to with appropriate levels of Ca and a negative dietary cation – anion difference (DCAD) to prevent milk fever.

• Minimization of negative energy balance in transition period.

• Maximizing of dry matter intake (DMI).

• Managing pen moves.

• Prevention from overstocking.

• Maintaining correct body condition score (BCS).

• Providing to calving cows a clean dry environment.

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WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE

White Muscle Disease (WMD) is a most common metabolic problem occur in calves and lambs but also in foals and horses. The main

reason for WMD is selenium and/or vitamin E deficiencies in diets. It affects cardiac or skeletal muscle of young animals.

WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE – WHY? White muscle disease is a myopathy being the result of not enough dietary selenium and vitamin E supply. Feeds grown in areas where the soil is deficient in selenium results in decreased uptake by the plant thus making the feed selenium-deficient. Vitamin E deficiency

Vitamin E deficiency can be the effect large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and other peroxide-forming substances in the diet.

can be the effect large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids and other peroxide-forming substances in the diet. Selenium deficiency in cattle can be also caused by certain metals such as silver, copper, cobalt, mercury and tin that are antagonists of selenium.

Non-sufficient Se and vitamin E supply.

Feeds grown in areas where the soil is deficient in Se results in decreased uptake by the plant thus making the feed selenium-deficient.

Decreased absorption – some metals Co, Cu, Me and Al are antagonists of Se.

WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE – SYMPTOMS cardiac muscle degeneration and sudden death an arched back

spending most time lying weakness

By Lucien Mahin (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

white striations in muscles 266

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WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE – TREATMENT Treatment of cardiac form is mostly not successful.

SODIUM SELENITE AND VITAMIN E – The skeletal form can be treated by intra muscular injection of sodium selenite and vitamin E. It is recommended to administer intramuscular or subcutaneous 1mg of Se and 50 mg of vitamin E per each 18 kg of BW. Therapy may be repeated two weeks later but not more than four times. WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE – PREVENTION To avoid any deficiency selenium animal diets have to be supplemented with this trace element.

Feed known to be grown in selenium-deficient soils needs to be supplemented with additional selenium as sodium selenite containing 45.65% of pure selenium.

Selenium is considered to be essential but also very toxic when overdosed therefore it has to be well-mixed with premixtures to avoid any toxicities. The recommended level of supplementation is 0.3 ppm Se on DM basis.

Additional selenium can be also administered to the cattle directly in the form of subcutaneous, intramuscular injections or intraruminal selenium pellets, selenium-enriched salt or mineral mixtures.

15 mg of Se may be administered to cows per os or subcutaneous, usually as sodium selenite 4 weeks prior to expected parturition to prevent white muscle disease of newborn animals.

By L. Mahin (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

By L. Mahin (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

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EQUINE METABOLIC SYNDROME

EQUINE METABOLIC SYNDROME (EMS) occurs both in horses, ponies and donkeys. EMS develops mainly in 5-16 year old horses. The most common affected breeds are ponies, Saddlebred, Tennessee Walking, Paso Fino, Morgan, Mustang, and Quarter horse. There is no recognized sex predilection. Affected animals typically are obese, with increased condition score overall and abnormal fatty deposit in the neck (crasty neck) and tailhead regions. Both chronic and acute laminitis occurence is common.

Equine metabolic syndrome, source: www.cailsilorin.com

EQUINE METABOLIC SYNDROME – WHY? The primary cause of equine metabolic syndrome is not known. It seems to be a genetic predisposition both within and between breeds. Often affected horses posse a “thrifty” gene enabled their ancestors to survive in harsh circumstances. This genetic predisposition allow for more efficient energy metabolism but mostly is maladaptation to modern circumstances of horse breeding with abundant, high nutrient and energy diets. The common signs associated with EMS are increased adiposity, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulemia. Obese horses are predisposed to tissues adipose. Increased fat stores in the liver may also predispose to insulin resistance. In turn high

blood insulin levels lead to laminitis in horses and ponies. Altered glucose and insulin levels may also lead to altered epidermal cell function and glucose uptake by epidermal laminar cells. What in turn predisposes horses equine metabolic syndrome to develop laminitis. Horses fed with high carbohydrate diet respond with excessive secretion of insulin higher than expected glucose level. This point to a resistance to insulin and inability to metabolize dietary carbohydrates. EMS may be a factor that predispose horses for equine Cushing disease. Both endocrine disorders can occur concurrently in middle-aged and older horses.

EQUINE METABOLIC SYNDROME – SYMPTOMS high BCS – 6-9

adiposity in the neck, tailhead, ribs, top line, perpuce laminitis

hyperinsulemia with normal glucose level infertility

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crusty neck

abormal fatty deposit

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EQUINE METABOLIC SYNDROME – TREATMENT

THE MAIN AIM IS TO REDUCE HORSE’S BODY WEIGHT DIETARY TREATMENT • Reduction of digestible energy value of diet. • Reduction of NSC content - starches, fructans, monosaccharides – recommended NSC content <10% DM. • Elimination or restriction in pasture grazing – turn a horse to pasture early morning when WSC in grasses are lower. • In severe cases pasture should be replaced with low-NCS hay – to reduce NSC content in hay soak the hay in cold water at least one hour before giving it to horse. • Concentrates should be removed from the diet. • Minerals and vitamin supplements should be added to the diet.

EXCERCISES • Increased exercise is recommended in horses with equine metabolic syndrome, supposing laminitis does not restrict activity. MEDICAL TREATMENT • Applied when horses do not respond to diet and exercise alone. • The two most commonly used drugs for EMS are metformin and levothyroxine sodium to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce body weight.

EQUINE METABOLIC SYNDROME – PREVENTION • Maintain proper horse body especially in high-risk breeds.

weight,

• In many cases efficiency of energy utilization in these horses are higher than normal so it is

crucial to observe and maintain proper body condition score, even if feeding recommendations offer different solution.

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

COLIC IN HORSES

COLIC IN HORSES – colic is a word used to describe a symptom of abdominal pain. This might be due to intestinal spasms the gut wall being stretched by gas or feed material, the blood supply being shut off to part of the gut or intestine becoming stuck. Colic is one of the

most common causes of death in horses.

FALSE COLIC – abdominal pain caused by nonintestinal causes, such as laminitis, bladder stones or ovarian problems. It occurs occasionally however, also may be very serious.

COLIC IN HORSES – WHY?

high grain and low forage diets

feeding out moldy or tainted feed

abrupt change in diet, parasite infestation

lack of water intake leading to impaction colic

sand ingestion

long term use of NSAIDs

stress

COLIC IN HORSES – SYMPTOMS upper lip curling flank watching

pawing the ground

lying on their side for long periods kicking the belly violent rolling

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Severe case of colic in horse, source: www.princetown.net

Colic in horse, source: www.extension.umn.edu LiveNutrition


COLIC IN HORSES – TREATMENT STRONG LAXATIVES • Strong laxatives stimulating intestinal contractions are not commonly used in treatment and may deteriorate the problem. Sporadically, horses with extremely hard symptoms are treated with magnesium sulfate, which draws body fluids into the digestive tract.

FLUID THERAPY

• Fluid therapy – fluids are administered through a nasogastric tube or intravenous, is an important and effective part of treating horses with colonic or cecal disorders.

• If the disease does not start to break down within 3–5 days, surgery may be necessary to get empty the intestine and help restore normal motility.

LUBRICANTS OR FECAL-SOFTENING AGENTS

• given through a nasogastric tube soften the

impacted ingesta, allowing it to be passed. Effective method when colic in horses is a simple obstruction of the large colon, sometimes mixed with sand. This form of therapy can be aided by the simultaneous administration of intravenous fluids.

SURGERY TREATMENT

• Surgery usually is necessary if there is a mechanical obstruction to the normal flow of ingesta that cannot be corrected medically or if the obstruction also interferes with the intestinal blood supply.

MINERAL OIL

• The most commonly used medication.

• Administered through a nasogastric tube.

• Dose – 4 l, once or twice daily, until the colic symptoms disapeared. • Not so effective in severe or sand treatment.

COLIC IN HORSES – PREVENTION • Free access to fresh water. • Small and frequent feeds of concentrates. • Using only hard feed as a supplement to the grazing. • Formulation a diet consisting of high fibre content, using hay or other fibrous feeds. • Avoiding low quality, mouldy feeds. • Remember about a post-exercise cooling off period. • Gradual change in horse diet.

• Regular dental checks as poorly chewed food increases the risk of a blockage in the intestine. • Avoiding grazing heavily sanded pasture. • Ensuring the worm control programme.

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

ASCITES (WATER BELLY)

ASCITES is a metabolic disease in birds characterized by pulmonary hypertension, right side heart failure and accumulation of excessive fluid in the abdomen. Nutritional factors triggered ascites occurrence are: rapid growth, diet density, feeding type, an excess of salt in ASCITES (WATER BELLY) – WHY?

the feed and/or water. Other non-nutritional factors triggered ascites: infection, environmental factors: ambient temperatures, high altitudes, stock density, air quality; environmental hygiene as well as genetic events.

Nutrient density (concentration of nutrients)

The rapid growth of the bird and high feed conversion ratio (more oxygen demand, more work out of the heart and lungs)

Feeding type Excess of salt in feed or in water

ASCITES (WATER BELLY) – SYMPTOMS • Pre-morte: sudden deaths, poor development, trouble breathing birds often just sit and pant, gurgling sounds, cyanosis of the comb and wattles, dullness or depression, abnormally slow heart rate, red abdominal skin with congested blood vessels. • Post-mortem: fluid accumulation in the pericardium, generalized oedema, hydropericardium, liver changes, the lungs are extremely congested and edematous. ASCITES (WATER BELLY) – TREATMENT

Unfortunately, there is no treatment for ascites once it has developed.

ASCITES (WATER BELLY) – PREVENTION • Ascites can be controlled by slowing the growth rate of the birds to reduce oxygen requirements - slower growing birds have reduced oxygen needs.

• Control of contamination of the air in the house (concentration of harmful gases – especially ammonia, and dust in the air should be reduced to the minimum) - necessary to optimal ventilation.

• Control environmental temperature, litter moisture, humidity and air quality to prevent excessive body heat loss and to maintain bird health. 272

• Using a less dense (lower in energy and protein) diet.

• Restricting feed, feeding a mash diet (however, it decreases the growth performance).

• In the case of ascites caused by microorganisms, acidifiers have shown promising results. Reduce contamination of food with toxins to a minimum,

• Antioxidants - increase content of vitamin E, vitamin C and organic selenium in foods.

• monitor sodium levels in feed and water to prevent salt intoxication. (reduce sodium levels in foods to 0.19%).

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FATTY LIVER HAEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME (FLHS) FLHS – a disorder described as excessive fat in the liver of prolific laying hens, associated with varying degrees of haemorrhage. This condition is most often in caged birds fed high-energy

diets. Is most often seen in white-egg layers in a period of extensive egg-laying during warm, summer months. Energy maize or wheat diets may produce higher incidences of FLHS.

FATTY LIVER HAEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME (FLHS) – WHY?

surfeit of energy rather than an excess of any particular nutrients such as fat or carbohydrate (excess fat in the liver arises from increased lipogenesis). exposure to cold or heat induces stress and influences lipid metabolism in the fowl.

FATTY LIVER HAEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME (FLHS) – SYMPTOMS • The hens may be overweight (on the average by 20% or more) • Sudden drop in egg production may be observed, • The birds are discovered suddenly dead, with pale head skin. FATTY LIVER HAEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME (FLHS) – TREATMENT Unfortunately, there is no treatment for FLHS once it has developed. It is better prevent than cure. The use of lipotropic agents such as

vitamin A, B6, B12, and choline chloride, Se may support liver functioning and regeneration.

FATTY LIVER HAEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME (FLHS) – PREVENTION • Reduction of feed dosis.

• Replacement of corn with other cereals, such as wheat and barley.

• FLHS may be reduced through the use of various by-product feeds such as distiller's grains, fish meal, or alfalfa meal. Best prevention method is not allowing an excessive positive energy balance in older birds. • Body weight can be monitored and, when potential problems are seen, remedial action

taken to limit energy intake through the use of lower energy diets and/or change in feed management.

• A wide energy:protein ratio in the diet deteriorate FLHS.

• The diet should contain at least 0.3 ppm selenium if there were incidence of FLHS. The best choice is organic selenium, up to 100 IU vitamin E/kg diet, and appropriate levels of an antioxidant such as ethoxyquin.

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Chapter 4. Livestock Health and Welfare

5. Quality of Animal Origin Products

Growing populations, increased meat consumption in high-growth economies, the need for higher quality ingredients and healthy eating. These are just some of the factors shaping livestock nutrition. It’s all about high-quality feed that helps farmers and agriculture, and

ultimately the end consumer. Changing societal drivers such as landscape values, animal welfare and consumer demands for tasty healthy products request systems that provide desired products through improved, sustainable production processes.

animal origin product poultry

beef, lamb

eggs

It is well-known that there is a strong relationship between what we eat and our health. The most common animal origin product used in human nutrition are eggs, milk and its products and meat. Many factors may affect food quality. Factors such as animal feeding, species, breed, age and gender, climatic conditions, management and rearing systems are effective factors on quality of the animal origin foods. In recent years, there has been a

breed

age

pork

focus on designing of animal production through nutritional modulations for the health benefits to the consumers of foods of animal origin. New trends in animal production is to produce healthy and quality foods for consumers by nutritional modulations. A functional food is a food given an additional pro-health function by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients. gender

species feeding

milk

climatic conditions management

FOOD QUALITY

rearing

The nutritional quality of animal products is influenced by many factors, including the species, breed, age and sex of the animal, the system in which the animal was reared, the composition of the animal’s diet, the geographical location, climate and season. 274

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NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND SAFETY OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS ASPECTS OF ANIMAL FEEDING ON NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND SAFETY OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS: The greatest risk comes from microbial contamination.

Foodborne infection is a major cause of illness and death worldwide.

Nutrition of livestock has a significant impact on food quality and safety. The dietary energy supply of livestock via carbohydrates or fat directly affects fatness of carcasses.

Low-fat, carbohydrate-rich diets do not influence sensory characteristics, but decrease carcass fat.

Animal diets with a high nutritive density (high energy, high protein) decrease fatness of animal carcasses.

Reducing dietary fat and increasing crude protein or single amino acids increase the contents of protein and amino acids in carcasses.

Additional supplementation of Lysine improved feed conversion, carcass yield and breast meat yield in poultry.

It is well known that dietary fatty acid profiles are indirect reflected in tissue fatty acid profiles.

Quite a number of different undesirable components are under discussion with and without proven effects on human health: residues of drugs, pesticides, antibiotics etc.,

contaminants (CB, PBDE, mycotoxins etc., and xenobiotics - antigenes, toxins etc.

According to EU legislation strict control systems for the screening of any residues or contaminants has been introduced.

Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) levels have been fixed for many residues and contaminants. For instance maximum content of dioxin has been fixed at the level 3 ppb.

Another common residue of interest may be polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), which is used to protect electronic and electric equipment against inflammation.

Recently, xenobiotics have gained more interest as allergies have become a severe disease in today’s affluent society. But, in contrary to the egg little is known about the allergic potential of meat proteins.

On the other hand, in Europe consumers are cautious of using GMO. The potentially dangerous effects of GMO in animal diets on human health by consumption of animal products should not be fully ignored. Knowledge on deposition in tissue for other xenobiotics, the mycotoxins (DON, ZEA, Ochratoxin A), is also quite limited.

Eating organic, pasture-raised animals can be healthier and environmentally beneficial compared to industrial feedlot systems.

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FACTORS AFFECTING FOOD QUALITY AND HUMAN HEALTH

There are two main factors affecting quality and safety of animal origin products. Animal welfare

Animal nutrition

FOOD QUALITY ANIMAL WELFARE VS. QUALITY OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS Conventional animal production usually is permanent indoor housing of livestock breeds selected for high productivity. This system may restrict opportunities for exercise and behavioral expression, whilst the latter is associated with a number of production-related conditions that may cause serious animal health and welfare problems. In general, extensive farming systems are considered to have the potential for higher animal welfare than intensive systems. Animal products produced in extensive systems which means pasture based, free-range and organic from less productive breeds can have nutritional advantages because of rearing environment and their feeds from pasture. It is possible to alter and design the quality of animal origin foods by controlling all rearing environment and diets. The consumers believe

that extensive farming systems are required to have higher animal welfare when compared with intensive systems. The consumers choosing animal products produced with higherwelfare expect these foods make a substantial contribution to meet their omega-3 fatty acids and a balanced omega-3 to omega-6 ratio. It can be mentioned that products of animals rearing in high welfare standards contain higher levels of antioxidants (vitamin E and beta-carotene) and iron when compared with intensivelyproduced animal products. The consumers also think that they can intake more vitamin E and iron from products produced by higher-welfare animals. If this concept is true , the consumers can choose higher-welfare animal products to use beneficial effects of the products on consumers’ health.

CONVENTIONAL ANIMAL PRODUCTION usually is permanent indoor housing of livestock breeds selected for high productivity. This system may restrict opportunities for exercise and behavioral expression, whilst the latter is associated with a number of production-related conditions that may cause serious animal health and welfare problems.

In general, EXTENSIVE FARMING SYSTEMS are considered to have the potential for higher animal welfare than intensive systems. Animal products produced in extensive systems which means pasture based, free-range and organic from less productive breeds can have nutritional advantages because of rearing environment and their feeds from pasture.

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ANIMAL NUTRITION VS. QUALITY OF ANIMAL PRODUCTS Feedstuffs, feed additives, nutrition and nutrients of the diets, hygienic characteristics of the diets directly affect health of animals and human health by the means of products. They also affect the environment by the excretion of digested and indigested feeds. Animal nutrition has pronounced direct impact not only on animal health but also indirectly through animal products on human health and through excreta on the environment. In recent years, due to increased awareness and concerns about

animal health food quality because chronic noncommunicable diseases. Increased concern on climatic changes affect animal nutrition and product quality. Nutrition has also important effects on sensory, hygienic quality and safety of animal products affect human health and environment. Animal nutritionists have paid attention to increase quality of animal origin food by regulation of diets and feeding strategies together with protection of animal welfare.

To protect human health European Union banned some substances such as e.g. antimicrobial growth factors - feed antibiotics despite their important role in animal performance. The EU regulations also limited the use of some other feed supplements such as metals (zinc, copper) and put limitations on others e.g. selenium. These limitations targeted to decrease risk for human feeding strategies and feed additives administration. Animal nutrition for low fat/cholesterol and high CLA foods. Animal fats are known to be the risk factor for human cardiovascular system.

Demands for leanness meat is main approach of consumers. It is possible to trim subcutaneous and abdominal fats. However, meats, milk, eggs and butter are not free for fats.

Total fat contents and composition of fats can be optimized by some feeding strategies. Diet formulations to decrease fat deposition will also decrease the production costs of the animal products because fat deposition is the expensive way of body weight gain in animals.

In recent years, there is also concerns on essential fatty acids of animal products. They can’t be synthesized by human body and we have to get them from our diets.

Specially sheep fats are rich in conjugated linoleic acid. Researches in animals and in human have indicated that CLA has anticarcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, and immunomodulatory effects.

CLA is produced by microorganisms in rumen by the modification of oleic fatty acids from animal feeds.

It is possible to increase level of CLA in animal products by using polyunsaturated fatty acids and adding oils rich in linoleic acid such as included in sunflower.

The EU has established a complex system for improvement of animal origin products. This system includes measures to guarantee food safety and hygiene, clear labelling, regulation on animal health and welfare, control of additives for nutritional information.

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Chapter 5. Livestock Management and Environment

Livestock Livestock Management andand Health Environment Welfare

1. Nitrates and Zootechnics Effluents 2. European Directives and Basic Environmental Actions 3. Livestock Management Good Practice to Reduce Water, Soil and Air Pollution

In this chapter you can find all necessary information and practical hints about methods of animal keeping and reduction of negative affect of animal husbandry on environment, mainly using some nutritional treatments. In recent decades the concerns for the state of the environment have increased and as a consequence has also increased the tendency to reduce pollution of anthropogenic origin. One of the environmental issues that is most conspicuous and involves a significant agricultural activity, concerns the quality of water both as regards the presence of hazardous compounds for the health, as in example nitrates, and for the enrichment of nutrients, in particular nitrogen and phosphorus, which promote eutrophication phenomena. This term refers to the excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants resulting in disruption of the balance present in aquatic ecosystems and deterioration of waters.

The role of agriculture and animal husbandry, in this context, is not negligible. In fact, although not being the only sector involved, it is that to which are allocated the majority of nitrogen release to the water surface and groundwater.

Environmental issues are more and more important in the management of livestock in compliance with the European regulations on

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animal production. Adequate treatment and use of zootechnic effluents, reduction of nitrates, water environmental protection and cut of GHGs (Greenhouse Gases) emissions based on the Kyoto Protocol are the main problems to be faced and the main topic of this chapter. It is important, however, that the concentration of nitrate in drinking water should not exceed the limit of 50 mg/l as required by Legislative Decree no. 31/2001.

The European Environment Agency (EEA) estimates that in countries with intensive agricultural system, agro livestock affects more than 60% of nitrogen releases to surface water and shows a close correlation between the concentration of nitrates in the water and the intensity of farming practices in the area. The concern about the high levels of nitrogen fertilizer inputs in the agricultural system, which result in a greater risk of release to the environment, grows in areas where intensive animal husbandry is added to the use of nitrogen mineral fertilizers from breeding.

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At regulative level manures are intended as mixtures of manure and/or food residues and/or loss of watering and/or water conveyance of manure and/or lignocellulosic materials used as bedding that can or cannot, if arranged in pile on platform, to maintain the geometric shape granted to them. It is important to know the characteristics of the waste so that, in this way it is possible: the correct use of sewage, manure and other materials that can be shoveled, in the fertilization of crops (by estimating the availability and amount of nutrients, the estimation of intake volumes and the pollution ZOOTECHNIC EFFLUENTS: Why to know their characteristics?

load rating). Identification of treatment techniques and sizing of equipment (through the volumes produced estimates). The zootechnic effluents comprise manure, food residues, watering leaks, water of dejections and lignocellulose materials used as litter. In order to manage and use sewages, manure and other similar residues as fertilizers of cultivations it is necessary to know: estimation of availability and quantity of nutrients, the fertilization supply volumes and assessment of the pollutant load. In order to identify treatment techniques and size of the plants we need to estimation of the produced volumes. The zootechnic effluents are defined as mixtures of manure and/or food residues and/or watering leaks and/or water of dejections and/or lignocellulose materials used as litter

In order to manage and use sewages, manure and other similar residues as fertilizers of cultivations it is necessary to know •Estimation of availability and quantity of nutrients •Evaluation of the fertilization supply volumes •Assessment of the pollutant load

In order to identify treatment techniques and size of the plants •Estimation of the produced volumes

FACTORS AFFECTING CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ZOOTECHNIC EFFLUENTS • • • • • • • •

ANIMAL SPECIES ANIMAL SIZE FEEDING PRODUCTIVITY PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE METHODS OF STALLING DILUTION WITH WASH WATER LITTER TYPE/QUANTITY LiveNutrition

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Chapter 5. Livestock Management and Environment

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF EFFLUENTS The wastewater characteristics vary according to several factors such as species, dilution with washing water or rainwater, farming methods, type and amount of litter, physiological condition, size of the animal, power and productivity. The main features of manure are:

• Dry matter, that determines the physical form of the effluents (shoveled or not shoveled) and ranges from 0.5-1.5% to 80% in pig slurry manure. The solid portion can be distinguished into: perched, colloidal and dissolved.

• Organic substance, is about 75-85% of dry substance, and is essentially composed of volatile solids. It is greater in the case of addition of litter and smaller in the case of treatments that lead to the degradation of carbon (ex. oxygenation, biodigestion etc.). His presence positively affects soil fertility

• Phosphorus (0.1-25 kg/t) and Potassium (0.4-25 kg/t), which in adequate amounts positively affect soil fertility. Their quantity is greatest in manure. DRY MATTER It determines the physical shape of the effluents (in case it can be shovelled or not)

0.5-1.5% dry matter (i.e. pig sewage)

up to 80% dry matter (i.e. chicken dung)

The solid portion can be distinguished into: PERCHED, COLLOIDAL and DISSOLVED

• Micronutrients. Manure contains metals, in particular copper and zinc. These elements are co-administered with the rations, as growth promoters and for their pharma-cological effects, particularly in pigs. Their utilization is very low (maximum 30% of the total is absorbed), and for this large part is recovered in excreta. They accumulate in the soil (by binding to colloidal compounds) and can not be eliminated in any way.

• Nitrogen (organic and inorganic). A large parte of it is disguised as ammonia, that has for the cultivations a suitability similar to synthetic fertilizers. It undergoes to losses due to volatilisation over the period between distribution and use. Also the effluent treatments usually operated at farm (prolonged storage with stabilization under anaerobic conditions), imply the partial mineralization of the organic nitrogen and consequently the increase, compared to the fresh residue, of the ammonia part. ORGANIC MATTER About 75-85% dried matter is basically constituted of volatile solids. This portion is bigger if added with litter and smaller if the treatments generate carbon degradation (i.e. oxygenation, digestion, etc.) PHOSPHORUS AND POTASSIUM

0.1>25 kg/t mainly disguised as inorganic matter (bigger quantities in the manures)

0.4>25 kg/t (bigger quantities in the manures)

There are various types of zootechnical effluents depending on animal,system of its stalling, water contet etc. Also value of the zootechnical effluents in fertilization depends on their chemical composition, mainly dry matter content. 280

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CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MANURES PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT ANIMAL SPECIES

Animal species

DM (%)

Volatile solids (% DM)

N (kg/t)

P (kg/t)

K (kg/t)

Milk bovines Meat bovines

10-16

75-85

3.9-6.3

1.0-1.6

7-10

75-85

3.2-4.5

White meat calves

0.6-2.9

60-75

Swines

1.5-6.0

Laying hens

19-25

Cu

Zn

3.2-5.2

40-70

150-750

1.0-1.5

2.4-3.9

40-70

150-750

1.3-3.1

0.1-1.8

0.4-1.7

30-60

600-1100

65-80

1.5-5.0

0.5-2.0

1.0-3.1

250-800

600-1000

70-75

10-15

4.0-5.0

3.0-7.5

40-130

390-490

(mg/kg DM) (mg/kg DM)

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MANURES AND OTHER SHOVELABLE MATERIALS PRODUCED BY DIFFERENT ANIMAL SPECIES DM (%)

Volatile solids (% DM)

N (kg/t)

P (kg/t)

K (kg/t)

Bovine manure

20-30

75-85

3-7

0.4-1.7

3.3-8.3

Swine manure

25

70

4.7

1.8

4.5

Swine manre (deep litter)

42

78

8.2

9.5

12

Broiler exhausted litter

60-80

75-85

30-47

13-25

14-17

Guinea-fowl exhausted litter

80

75

35

13

15

Sheep manure

22-40

70-85

6-11

0.7-1.3

12-18

Compost from bovine litters

35-60

40-50

9-13

3-5

14-23

Compost swine solid fraction manure

40-80

40-70

14-23

22-25

4-7

Compost from chickendung (with straw)

50-70

55-60

10-20

10-16

-

Pre-dried chicken-dung

50-85

60-75

23-43

9-15

14-25

Animal species

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NITRATES

There are different regional areas affected by problems of groundwater pollution caused by nitrates, phenomenon related to the spreading of manure on agricultural land which also determines, as a result of rainfall or irrigation activities, the release into surface water of high concentration of effluent organic load with consequent development of eutrophication situations. In relation to air pollution, intensive breeding industry is considered as a major contributor to the release of ammonia emissions, gases that gives rise to a multitude of impacts, acid rain, water eutrophication, increase of greenhouse effect through the production, by reaction in the atmosphere, of nitrous oxide. The European Environment Agency has attributed to agriculture, in 2002, 94% of ammonia emissions released into the atmosphere of which about 80% is derived

from animal manure produced on intensive breeding farms. Less important, but still significant, it is the contribution of livestock activities to the greenhouse effect through the release of methane emissions. With reference to nitrate agriculture is considered the sector more responsible for nitrogen release - 60% of the total amount into surface and underground water sources. It must be said, however, that agriculture is the only sector that can boast the fixing part of pollutant emissions through the growing activities of fields, in fact the photosynthesis performed by plants allows the fixation and subsequent transformation of atmospheric carbon dioxide. To achieve the goal of a greater sustainability of livestock production is therefore important to identify and implement solutions that will help prevent or contain its environmental impacts.

Agriculture is responsible for: 94% of ammonia emissions released into the atmosphere of which about 80% is derived from animal manure (fertilization) produced on intensive breeding farms; 60% of nitrogen release into surface and underground water sources (EEA, 2002).

Nitrate is one of the most common groundwater contaminants in rural areas. It is regulated in drinking water primarily because excess levels can cause methemoglobinemia, or "blue baby" disease. Although nitrate levels that affect infants do not pose a direct threat to older children and adults, they do indicate the possible presence of other more serious residential or agricultural contaminants, such as bacteria or pesticides. 282

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NITROGEN In manure nitrogen occurs in organic bounds and inorganic form. A large part of it is disguised as ammonia, that has for the cultivations a suitability similar to synthetic fertilizers. It undergoes to losses due to volatilisation over the period between distribution and use. Also the effluent treatments usually operated at farm (prolonged storage with stabilization under anaerobic conditions), imply the partial mineralization of the organic nitrogen and consequently the increase, compared to the fresh residue, of the ammoniac part. NITROGEN

INORGANIC

NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS

The effluents have from the environmental point of view a positive value since they allow to restore fertility to the soil in the form of organic matter and microelements preventing the impoverishment. When produced in large quantities may, however, increase the release of nitrogen to the waters also because the manner in which they are used it results only as a partial utilization for crops. Excessive amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus can cause in the waters the eutrophication phenomenon, extreme growth of algae and water plants with consequent breaking of existing balances in the water eco-system and deterioration of the waters. A large part nitrogen is in form of ammonia, that undergoes to losses due to volatilisation over the period between distribution and use. Also prolonged storage with stabilization under anaerobic condition, imply the partial mineralization of the organic nitrogen and consequently the increase, compared to the fresh residue, of the ammonia part.

ORGANIC

EUTROPHICATION

Extreme growth of algae and water plants with consequent breaking of balances existing in the water eco-system and deterioration of the host waters.

FERTIRRIGATION Besides carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, the absorption takes place mainly through the roots. This means that we should, as a rule, fertilize the soil, which in turn provides to supply the crops, not without having to overcome difficulties related to the multiple interactions that characterize the plant-soil system. The dynamics of the individual elements in the ecosystem occupies another

important chapter of the studies on plant nutrition: nutrients are rarely static forms over time, being more often subject to change from one to another in a continuous process that, at the level of soil, provides moments of dynamic balance between inputs and outputs, but also of imbalance for a prevalence of revenue (e.g. fertilization) or outputs (e.g. leaching losses).

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In simple words, fertirrigation is a technique by which fertilizer are applied with the water of the irrigation system. I this way, the producer takes advantage of the irrigation system to add to the plants the nutrients they need. Its name comes of combining the words “fertilization” and “irrigation”.

There are two different types of fertirrigation: the quantitative and the proportional. The quantitative fertirrigation studies the nutrition needs considering some variables like the number of plants, the age, the foliar surface, the type of soil, the planted area and others. After analyzing this data, the nutritional requirements of the crop can be known ad according to them the fertilizers are added to the irrigation system. This is a more traditional system. On the other hand, the proportional fertirrigation is a technique that is more used in crops without soil, also called hydroponic. In this case a determined quantity of fertilizers is added to a estimated quantity of water to get the required concentration to achieve a correct fertilization in plants. The calculation is made in grams per liter or in liters per cubic meter. Because of the importance that rational use of water has today, fertirrigation appears as a very

complete solution to take care of this resource and optimize it to the maximum in agriculture. Also, with this fertilization technique, producers can save not only water, but also money, by saving fertilizers too. The best time for the distribution coincides with the immediate preplowing or, when the tankers are able to move on tilled soil, with the run-up to the harrowing. The embedding in the ground it is necessary to limit the losses of nitrogen and to bring the other nutrients and the organic substance to a certain depth. For disposal of stable manure also a range of solutions different from direct use on agricultural land can be proposed. Different solutions become necessary especially when the number of animals per surface unit is too high and it requires the artificial elimination of manure. The main ones are: the separation, dehydration, incineration, biological treatment and composting. By separation and dehydration it can be produced a richer material because more concentrated, by biological purification can be also obtained biogas, by composting (fermentation in accumulation with straw, green waste, etc.) a kind of manure, called compost, can be obtained.

WARNING ON FERTIRRIGATION It is particularly important to estimate accurately the concentration of nitrogen in the livestock wastewater, given that the amount of it that can be spread on the ground, under the legislation in force, is directly related to the maximum dose of nitrogen allowed to be distributed to crops. Whilst holding the sewage in open basins or tanks as well as in the period between spreading and use by cultivations, a large part of ammonia goes lost because of volatization. The sewage organic part and not volatilized amount of ammonia got to the soil can have the following destinations: be transported to the sewage surface after heavy rains so called runoff, to reach ground water by percolation, a phenomenon that It is accentuated in the case of coarse-grained soils, means very stony. It is affected by the process of mineralization with nitrate formation. The latter process is the norm because it is only in the nitrate form that nitrogen becomes soluble and it can move easily into the soil and leach. The importance, with regards to manure spreading, of clean technologies, refers to the ability to reduce emissions into the atmosphere of ammonia and

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odours, while allowing not to disperse in the air the nitrogen content in the manure, that can be so conveniently used by the cultivated plant species. In order to assess the reduction of ammonia emissions and similarly of odours, reference was made to one of the most common techniques and characterized by high levels of emissivity: the surface shedding with dispensers in pressure (diverting plates and fluctuating diverters, oscillating nozzles) not followed by burial in the spreading close time. Furthermore, it is particularly important to estimate accurately the concentration of nitrogen in the livestock wastewater, given that the amount of it that can be spread on the ground, under the legislation in force, is directly related to the maximum dose of nitrogen allowed to be distributed to crops.

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It is particularly important to estimate accurately the concentration of nitrogen in the livestock wastewater, given that the amount of it that can be spread on the ground, under the legislation in force, is directly related to the maximum dose of nitrogen allowed to be distributed to crops. Remember that manure, being of good agronomic quality, is mainly used as fertilizer, sewage having greater nutritional quality and produced in greater quantity, by virtue of its liquid form, often does not represent a resource. It is, on the contrary, rather a waste which is difficult to dispose.

LOW IMPACT SPREADING TYPES Surface spreading with technical flush Through this technique the slurry is discharged to the ground level in bands or stripes (the technique for this is also called superficial spreading in bands) through a series of flexible tubes mounted on a length of bar equal even up to 12 m and spaced about 30 cm. This technique, which allows a reduction of 30% of the emissions, is considered a clean technology when it is applied to:

• •

permanent grassland and arable crops with a height of less than 30 cm;

bare arable land (stubble) if, within four hours, following coverage through plowing or other soil processes.

Superficial spreading with light scarification below the vegetation cover

Even through this technique the slurry is discharged in strips at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other. It is applicable in permanent meadows with a height of maximum 8 cm crops. During spreading a type slipper device creates a gap between the stems to the ground at the same time releasing the sewage that is immediately protected by vegetation cover when the plants return to normal position. Thanks to this protection emission reduction is around 40%. a) Spreading with shallow injection

This technique is applicable to grassland crops and allows to inject the slurry to a depth of 515 cm and over. The slurry fills the grooves products from discs or knives immediately followed by a dispensing tube. The maximum working width is 6 m, the furrows are drawn

every 20-40 cm and are not covered. Reducing emissions are increased to 60% in this case. b) Spreading with deep injection

It differs from the prior technique for the presence of discs or roller compactors that the groove-closing, once filled with the slurry. Thanks to this technique can achieve a reduction of 80% in emissions. The grooves, deep from 5 to 20 cm and normally 25-30 cm distance on the row, are crossed by the dispensing devices made up of teeth with side wings in shape of duck paw that favour the lateral dispersion and therefore increase the quantity of slurry that can be scattered. Other popular systems are those with rigid anchors or consisting of tillers with elastic or rigid teeth on various orders.

c) Spreading manure

techniques

of

shovelable

With regard to the spreading of shovelable manure (eg. cattle manure, poultry manure, litter or solid fractions from pig farms) is considered environmentally friendly technology every type of intervention involving burial, through plowing, within 12 hours from spreading. Even an incorporation within 24 hours, allowing a potential reduction of 50% of the ammonia emissions, it is considered an option for improvement by some experts.

The following tables contain data referred to manures with different characteristics depending of different animal species in relation to nitrogen produced, losses of ammonia and emissions.

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NITROGEN PRODUCED BY FARM ANIMALS: VALUES ​TO THE FIELD PER YEAR NET OF LOSSES FOR EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA; DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN BETWEEN SEWAGE AND MANURE

Animal category and type of stalling Pigs: sows with piglets up to 30 kg (w/v)* • Stalling without litter

• Stalling on litter

Pigs: accretion/fattening

• Stalling without litter • Stalling on litter

Cows in production (milk) (w/v) 600 kg

• Fixed or free without litter

Nitrogen on the field (net of losses)

kg/animal /year

26.4

total

kg/t (w/v)/year

9.8 83

101

110 138

• Free on permanent litter

• Fixed with litter; free on inclined litter

Comeback milk cows (w/v) 300kg

• Free in box on slatted floor

36

• Free on beds without or with few straw

110

138

120

• Free with permanent litter only in the rest area (end cycle removal)

• Calves on slatted floor ((w/v) 130 kg)

53

53

99 85

120 26

94

17

103

20

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110

85

120

• Calves on litter

101

76

61

• Free permanent litter also in the feeding area; free with inclined litter

manure kg/t (w/v)/year

62

120

• Fixed with litter

286

101

39

• Free on beds with straw (rump to rump) • Free on beds with straw (head to head)

sewage kg/t (w/v)/year

59

100


NITROGEN PRODUCED BY FARM ANIMALS: VALUES ​TO THE FIELD PER YEAR NET OF LOSSES FOR EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA; DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN BETWEEN SEWAGE AND MANURE

Animal category and type of stalling Fattening oxen (w/v) 400 kg • Free in box on slatted floor

Nitrogen on the field (net of losses)

kg/animal /year

33.6

total

kg/t (w/v)/year 84

sewage kg/t (w/v)/year 84

• Free on beds without or with few straw

84

• Free with permanent litter only in the rest area (end cycle removal)

43

• Fixed with litter

• Free permanent litter also in the feeding area; free with inclined litter

• White meat calves on slatted floor - (w/v) 130 kg

• Calves white meat on litter - (w/v) 130 kg Sheep/goat

18

8.6

8.6

• With stalling in individual or collective fences

• On grid or slatted floor Horses

67

67

99

69

• With stalling in individual or collective fences

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manure kg/t (w/v)/year

66

12

41

12

55

67

72

44

55

21

48

99

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NITROGEN PRODUCED BY FARM ANIMALS: VALUES ​TO THE FIELD PER YEAR NET OF LOSSES FOR EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA; DISTRIBUTION OF NITROGEN BETWEEN SEWAGE AND MANURE

Animal category and type of stalling Laying hens (w/v) 2 kg • Laying hens in cages without chicken-dung drying

Nitrogen on the field (net of losses)

kg/animal /year

0.46

total

kg/t (w/v)/year 230

• Laying hens in cages with chickendung drying on belts or ventilated tunnel

sewage kg/t (w/v)/year 230

• Laying hens and cocks on the ground with litter and chickendung aeration in the pit under the slatted floor

• Chickens in cages with chickendung drying on belts or ventilated tunnel • Pullets on litter

Broilers (w/v) 1 kg

• Free range with litter

0.23

328

• Free range females with litter (w/v) 4.5 kg Rabbits

328

328

250

1.49

165

165

143

143

143

143

0.76

• Females in cages with manual or mechanical manure removing (scraper) (w/v) 3.5 kg

• Fattening animals with manual or mechanical manure removing (scraper) (w/v) 1.7 kg

288

328

0.25

Turkey (w/v) 0.7 kg

• Free range males with litter (w/v) 9 kg

230 230

Pullets (w/v) 0.7 kg

• Pullets in cages without drying chicken-dung

manure kg/t (w/v)/year

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250

169


METALS Zootechnic effluents contain heavy metals, particularly copper and zinc. Obviously these microelements are essential for high livestock performance and they are fed out to animals as standard feed additives in livestock diet but due to the fact that are given to animals in great quantities and their absorption is relatively low they can charge natural environment. Manure contains heavy metals, in particular copper and zinc. These elements are co-administered with

the rations, as growth promoters and for their pharmacological effects, particularly in pigs. Their utilization is very low - maximum 30% of the total is absorbed, and for this large part is recovered in excreta. They accumulate in the soil by binding to colloidal compounds and cannot be eliminated in any way. Heavy metals gather in the ground binding themselves with colloidal compounds and can enter the food chain.

animals are digested plants are digested humans and animals digest soil directly

plants uptake of soluble and exchangeable metal sludge extended soil

elevated metal concentration

soil is transported by surface run off leaching of metal with infiltrating water

soil

groundwater is used as drinking water

groundwater

groundwater flows into surface water

Livestock manures contain a considerable amount of metals such as zinc, copper, cadmium, mercury, nickel and lead. Trace metals in soils and biowaste exist in different forms such as water-soluble, exchangeable, linked to organic substances, occluded or co-precipitated with oxides, carbonates and phosphates, or other secondary minerals and finally ions in the crystalline lattices of the primary minerals. The first three chemical forms are considered to be balanced among themselves; this equilibrium is influenced by pH and the concentrations of metals and ligands. The metals present in these forms are considered to be the most available forms of plant nutrition. LiveNutrition

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Effluents from farms are an issue very relevant in the current context of environmental legislation, both because of having the particularity that its legal position has always been the subject of conflicting interpretation, and above all for the practical implications which that discipline cover in the context of the vast area of industrial and handicraft settlements that operate in this area. The legal rules on ferti-

gation are also closely related to those of manure, since it is substantially the same theme seen and processed under two different but absolutely synergistic angles. The directive presented on the chart are of the most importance for sustainable agriculture. The should be treated as the European reference standards to which follows, for each Member State, a special decree of implementation.

LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK

ADOPTION BY MEMBER STATES DECREE OF APPLICATION

DIRECTIVE 91/676/EEC – NITRATES DIRECTIVE 86/278/CEE SEWAGE SLUDGE DIRECTIVE DIRECTIVE IPPC 96/61/CE INTEGRATED POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE DIRECTIVE 2006/118/CE GROUNDWATER DIRECTIVE

Remember that EU Directives are applied to all EU countries as mandatory) using national legislation – some neighbouring countries may also choose to follow the same rules. National legislation is also mandatory and deals with special local problems with the environment. National legislation can not be in contradiction to the EU legislation. There are also some national guidelines that are not compulsory but because of them there are some differences in national law of the member states.

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NITRATES DIRECTIVE – 91/676/EEC <25 25-40 40-50 >50 Nitrates Directive EU-27 reporting period 2008-2011

The EU directive 91/676/EEC called Nitrates Directive has stated the fundamental principles aimed at protecting the groundwater and surface water pollution caused, in particular, by nitrates present in manure. The agronomic use of nitrates is permitted as long as: protection of ground water tables the production, from the effluents of a fertilizing effect and fertilizer on the soil and the adequacy of the amount of nitrogen applied efficiently and deployment time to the needs of crops compliance with sanitation standards, environmental protection and urban planning are guaranteed. The EU directive provides:  the designation of zones vulnerable from agricultural nitrates (NVZ), in which there is the shedding ban of animal manure (and wastewater coming from small food companies also scattered on the ground), to a maximum annual limit of 170 kg of organic nitrogen per hectare;  the regulation of the use of agricultural and livestock enterprise wastewater effluent, through the adoption of action programs, which establish the ways in which it can be performed such spillage. That directive is transposed into national law. In recent years fertilization is continuously decreasing, with losses of over 30% for both nitrogen loads, both of phosphorus pentoxide. It remains open the question of exemptions for the use of agronomic manure and digestate.

ground water annual average nitrate concentration Avg NO3 [mg/L]

Consequently the national decrees were enacted at different times, regional decisions of approval of action programs, including the designation of vulnerable areas, and the national provisions, in particular the prohibition of spreading during the winter, the storage obligations and fertilization control plans. nitrogen quantities

non vulnerable areas 340 kg N/ha/year

vulnerable areas 170 kg N/ha/year

COMMUNICATION to the competent authorities

PROHIBITIONS ON USE OF MANURE

on areas not pertaining to agricultural activity, except for public and private green areas and areas subject to recovery and environmental restoration in the woods, with the exception of the effluents released by the wild animal breeding

within 5 meters away from the shores of rivers, except where authorities can withdraw the prohibition because of local conditions

water marine-coastal and lake resorts within 5 meters away from the start of the sandy shore

on the frozen ground, snow-covered, with aquifer outcrops, with landslides in place and waterlogged soils, except for land used for crops requiring flooding

in all situations in which the competent authority shall issue specific measures of prohibition/limitation to prevent infectious diseases, parasitic and epidemic for animals, for man and for the protection of ground water. LiveNutrition

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PROHIBITIONS ON USE OF SEWAGE

water marine-coastal and lake resorts within 10 meters away from the start of the sandy shore within 10 meters from the shores of rivers, with exception due to local conditions, having the regional authorities identified actions or technical requirements to eliminate water pollution risks caused by the sewage on land with an average slope greater than 10%, save where otherwise provided by the regional framework on the basis of local circumstances, also granted on the basis of best spreading techniques available

after planting of the crop in areas used in parks or public gardens, playgrounds, recreation or intended for use in general public use

in cases in which the slurry can come into direct contact with products intended for human consumption; in horticulture, present, as well as on fruit crops, unless the distribution system does not allow to fully safeguard the aerial part of the plants near roads and towns, to distances defined by regional legislation, unless the slurry is distributed with techniques to limit the emission of unpleasant odors or are immediately buried on forage crops in the three weeks prior to the mowing of forage or grazing In any case, when making the agricultural use of wastewater, it must be submitted to the competent authority a communication on the quantities distributed and the generality of the

plot object spreading. In the event that the plot falls into a vulnerable area by nitrates it is necessary to provide an Agronomic Utilization Plan.

PLAN OF NITROGEN AGRONOMIC USE It is drawn up in order to minimize losses of nitrogen in the environment, respect for the balance between the foreseeable nitrogen requirements of crops and the nitrogen supply to the crops from the soil, from the atmosphere and from fertilization corresponding to:  the amount of nitrogen present in the soil at the moment when the crop starts to use significantly (remaining amount at the end of the winter)  the supply of nitrogen through the net mineralization of reserves of organic nitrogen in the soil

292

 additions of nitrogen compounds from livestock manure and sewage  additions of nitrogen compounds from the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation and from sewage sludge in the manner and quantities allowed by national laws.

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SEWAGE SLUDGE DIRECTIVE - DIRECTIVE 86/278 / EEC At Community level the use of sewage sludge in agriculture is regulated by Directive 86/278/EEC and reaches 40% of the total sludge produced. The data on the use of sludge in agriculture, at national level, are acquired by the Ministries and transmitted to the European Commission, in fulfillment of the obligations arising from the implementation of Directive 86/278/EEC. The Member States have implemented the Directive by defining the conditions which must be verified for the use of sludge in agriculture. The decree shall determine in particular:  the concentration limit values for some heavy metals that must be observed in soil, sludge  agronomic and microbiological characteristics of sludge (the lower limits of concentration of organic carbon, phos-

phorus and total nitrogen, the maximum values of salmonella)  the maximum quantity of sludge that may be given to soil. In some regions they were enacted specific rules governing the matter further on. The agronomic direct reuse of sludge or following composting, is a valid solution to the problem of disposal of sewage sludge and assumes considerable interest for the agronomic and economic effectiveness as it replaces, in whole or in part, the chemical fertilization or other types of organic fertilization. To avoid any risk situation for the environment and people's health, it must be properly practiced in full respect of the legislation in particular with regard to management of soil and sludge controls.

The Member States have implemented the Directive by defining the conditions which must be verified for the use of sludge in agriculture. The decree shall determine in particular: • the concentration limit values ​for some heavy metals that must be observed in soil, sludge • agronomic and microbiological characteristics of sludge (the lower limits of concentration of organic carbon, phosphorus and total nitrogen, the maximum values ​of salmonella) • the maximum quantity of sludge that may be given to soil • in some regions they were enacted specific rules governing the matter further on

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AGRONOMIC USE

The response of a cultivated plant to the supply of a particular fertilizer, as for any other factor of production, it is always of quantitative and qualitative nature. The function that expresses the quantitative response with the variation of the dose of fertilizer is very often different from that which expresses the qualitative response: the maximum productive result may not coincide, for example, with the best qualitative expression of the product. The reactivity of the different crops to fertilization with a certain fertilizer depends, at same conditions (light, temperature, presence of other elements, etc.) by the following factors: a) quantity of element required in the complex. This in turn, depends on the yield and on the chemical composition of the

product. In principle it can be said that the culture responds to fertilization with a given element because it absorbs from the soil a certain amount of the same b) absorption pace during the growing cycle. At certain times the culture absorbs very strongly the main elements it needs, so it is positively influenced by the fertilization that he may be found readily absorbable c) attitude of the species to modify the availability of the element in the ground and to absorb up to a certain minimum of its potential value. There are species that absorb certain elements less easily than other species, others take more advantage of fertilization.

The response of a cultivated plant to the supply of a particular fertilizer, is always of quantitative and qualitative nature

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DOSE OF FERTILIZER

As regards the optimal dose of fertilizer, we must first distinguish between "technical optimal dose" and "economic optimum dosage"; the first (TD) is that beyond which the production does not increase more by acting only on the dose of fertilizer; the second (ED) is that beyond which the income does not grow by acting only on the dose of fertilizer. With reference to the quantitative aspect, and in the absence of significant effects on the quality, TD>ED and the two doses coincide (theoretical case) since the cost of fertilization is zero and the cultivation and harvesting costs do not vary with the increase of production. The value of the TD depends, besides from the above influential factors on the response of crops, also from the following aspects: 1) losses and residual effect of the fertilizers; 2) cultivation technique.. Losses (leaching, volatilization, etc.) primarily affect nitrogen fertilizers and reach values by 20-50% . They are higher in loose soil, in rainy climates or with the use of high amounts of water. For phosphorus and potassium it is more important the phenomenon of immobilization in the soil which directly influences the so-called "residual effect", or the fertilizer capacity of expressing part of its action also in the subsequent vintages to that in which it was distributed.

Qualitative does not mean maximum plant productivity

technical optimal dose (TD) - is that beyond which the production does not increase more by acting only on the dose of fertilizer economic optimum dosage (ED) - is that beyond which the income does not grow by acting only on the dose of fertilizer

It therefore follows that, at least in principle and until it has reached approximately dynamic equilibrium conditions such that the part of "fixed" element is compensated by the action of residual fertilizing performed in previous vintages, potassic and phosphatic fertilization (especially the latter) have to provide a higher nutrient quantity of 50-100% to the planned removal of the crop.

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In very poor in nutrients soils the effect of manuring is higher. However, the effectiveness of a fertilizer not only depends on the total amount of element absorbed by the plant to grow and provide the required production. TOMATO - removes small amounts of N from the soil, but does not take advantage, in a very striking manner, of N fertilization.

BEET - plant potassofile, reacts just a little to K fertilization

- quantity of element in the complex - absorption pace during the growing cycle - attitude of species to modify the availability

Reactivity of the different crops to fertilization at same conditions (light, temperature, presence of other elements) is various and depends on:

TD value depends on the above influential factors on the response of crops, and

losses and residual effect of the fertilizers

cultivation technique

• N losses reach –20-50% • higher in loose soil, in rainy climates or with the use of high amounts of water • for P and K "residual effect", or the fertilizer capacity of expressing part of its action also in the subsequent vintages to that in which it was distributed. K and P fertilization have to provide 50-100% to the planned removal of the crop As for the cultivation technique is to be reminded that depth, age and mode of plowing and other tillage, organic matter inputs, density, age and mode of sowing, irrigation, crop rotation, weeding and ridging, treatments with herbicides and pesticides, are all agronomic interventions which interact more or less with fertilizing, conditioning the response of the crop, the losses, the residual effect, and then the value of the optimal dose technique. As an example to take in mind, how the higher seeding density generally results in the need to fertilize more abundantly, so as to correspond

• depth, age and mode of plowing and other tillage, organic matter inputs • density, age and mode of sowing • irrigation and crop rotation • weeding and ridging, treatments with herbicides and pesticides • manner and timing of application in the field! to the increased nutritional requirements on the unit of cultivated area. For selecting the dose of fertilizer for use on a particular crop, it is necessary to decide the manner and timing of application in the field. This aspect of fertilization proves the great interest in determining the characteristics of the TD and should be examined carefully. It involves very wide problems, which affect the mechanics of distribution, the location, burying and fractionation or not of the dose used, and requires different solutions depending of the fertilizer element, type of fertilizer and crop.

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WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE - DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC

Directive 2000/60/EC (Water Framework Directive – WFD) establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water introduced an innovative approach to European legislation on water, both from the environmental, as well as administrative and management point of view. The Directive pursues ambitious goals: to prevent the qualitative and quantitative deterioration, improve the state of the waters and ensure the sustainable use based on long-term protection of available water resources. Directive 2000/60/EC aims to achieve the following general objectives:  enhancing the protection of waters, both surface and underground  achieving the state of "good" for all waters by December 31, 2015  water management based on river basins regardless of the administrative structures  proceeding through action that combines emission limits and quality standards  recognizing all water services the right price that takes into account their true economic cost  citizens’ participation to the choices made in the field. The Directive states that Member States address

the protection of waters at the "river basin level" and the territorial unit of reference for the management of the basin is located in the "river basin district", area of land and sea, made up of one or more neighbouring river basins together with their associated groundwaters and coastal waters. In each river basin district, the Member States must ensure that are made:  an analysis of its district characteristics  a review of the impact caused by human activity on the status of surface and ground waters  an economic analysis of water use. In relation to each district, a program of measures has to be set up taking into account the analysis performed and the environmental objectives of the Directive, with the ultimate goal of achieving a "good status" for all waters by 2015 (unless for special cases expressly foreseen by the Directive). The programs of measures are indicated in the Management Plans that Member States must prepare for each river basin and therefore represents the programming tool/implementation to achieve the objectives set by the Directive.

The Directive pursues ambitious goals:

•to prevent the qualitative and quantitative deterioration, •to improve the state of the waters, and •to ensure the sustainable use based on long-term protection of available water resources.

Planning at the level of: WATERSHED management plan of the river basin district ADMINISTRATIVE district regional water protection plan

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GROUNDWATER DIRECTIVE - DIRECTIVE 2014/80/EU Directive 2014/80/EU called Groundwater Directive integrates the previous Directive 2006/118/EC with a list of information to be provided for the purpose of groundwater protection against pollution and deterioration. Member States have time until 11 July 2016 to incorporate the innovations. The novelty of the first measure of "revision" of Directive 2006/118/EC on the protection of groundwater, was inspired by the observed lack of information provided by Member States in the first application of the discipline. In addition to

expanding the range of mandatory information. Directive 2014/80/EU integrates the Annex II to Directive 2006/118/EC, also in order to introduce new "common principles" for the determination of background levels, and include nitrites in the list of pollutants for which should be considered the establishment of threshold values. Nothing new on the other hand as regards the quality standards for groundwater set out in Annex I to Directive 2006/118/EC – the information available to the Commission are not sufficient to indicate new standards.

The Groundwater Directive integrates the previous Directive 2006/118/EC with a list of information to be provided for the purpose of groundwater protection against pollution and deterioration.

The novelty was inspired by: the observed lack of information provided by Member States

also in order to introduce new "common principles" for the determination of background levels

include nitrites in the list of pollutants for which should be considered the establishment of threshold values.

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IPPC DIRECTIVE - DIRECTIVE 96/61/EC

Directive 96/61 / EC, also known as the IPPC Directive (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control), is the instrument the European Union has provided to itself to implement the principles of industrial pollution prevention and control and promotion of clean production. The IPPC Directive requires EU Member a new attitude regarding the protection of the environment and the health of citizens. The Directive in fact aims to prevent, reduce and, if possible, eliminate pollution, speaking at the source of polluting activities: for certain categories of installations, identified in an Annex, the competent authority shall issue a single authorization for the compartments air,

water and soil (Integrated Environmental Authorisation, AIA). This type of authorization also includes proactive aspects for concrete pollution prevention and control, through the imposition of "best available techniques" (BAT in the corresponding English Best Available Techniques). Best techniques it means, in addition to process technology, design, management, maintenance, commissioning and decommissioning; for available techniques are intended those that allow their application in various industries from both a technological and economic view, in a structured evaluation of costs and benefits deriving from their use.

The complete prevention process from pollution according to IPPC:

COMPLETE PREVENTION OF POLLUTION (IPPC)

RECYCLING AT SOURCE

REDUCTION AT SOURCE

REDESIGN PRODUCTS

HOST BEHAVIOUR

298

EXTERNAL RECYCLING

ENERGY RECOVERY

REDESIGN PROCESS

REPLACEMENT OF MATERIALS

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CHANGING TECHNOLOGY


ADVANTAGES FROM USE OF AGROENERGIES ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF BIOMASS From the sewage as well as from other organic compounds such as vegetable residues, whey. It is possible, through an anaerobic degradation in the absence of oxygen, to obtain a mixture of gases formed by methane from 50% to 80%, carbon dioxide and other gas traces. In order to start with the process it is necessary different groups of microorganisms can transform organic matter into intermediates, mainly acetic acid, carbon dioxide and hydrogen used by the methane microorganisms that end the process producing methane. The anaerobic digestion can be carried out in mesophilic conditions at temperature around 35°C or thermophilic at temperature about 55°C. The choice between the two processes also generally determines the duration of the trial. Duration is on average between 14 and 30 days for mesophilic, and in

between 14-16 for thermophilic fermentation. With simplified type of plant it is also possible to operate in psicrofilia carried out at temperature 10-20°C, with transformation times longer than 30 days, up to a maximum of 90 days. The anaerobic digestion process can be single-stage when the hydrolysis steps, acid and methanogenic fermentation take place simultaneously in a single reactor. The second types is two-stage when the methanogenic phase takes place subsequently in a second reactor. The anaerobic digestion can be developed with dry substrates: dry with dry matter content greater than or equal to 20% such as manure, agricultural food waste, plant waste or wet substrates with dry matter less than or equal to 10% such as slurry, whey, blood. The substrate can be also intermediate.

MIXTURE OF GASES •manure/slurry •other organic subtrates SUBSTRATE

•CH4 (50-80%) •CO2 •other gas traces

SUBSTRATES FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTION DR – DM ≥20% (manure, agricultural, food and plant waste) WET – DM≤10% (slurry, whey, blood) INTERMEDIATE

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION (NO OXIGEN)

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PROCESS

PSICROFILIA MESOPHILIC (10-20°C) (35°C) 14-30 days THERMOPHILIC 30-90 days (55°C) 14-16 days SINGLE-STAGE (in a single reactor)

TWO-STAGE (methanogenic phase takes place in a second reactor)

Good potentialities of biogas production in some specified areas exist in these areas where a fair number of intensive animal production farms are located due to good access to zootechnical effluents that can be used as a potential source for production of energy from biogas deriving from anaerobic digestion of zootechnical effluents available in the territory. LiveNutrition

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BENEFITS OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM MANURE

In addition to economic and environmental benefit as regards energy production from renewable sources, other management and environmental benefits of biogas production from manure are:  a reduction of odours  the elimination of fugitive methane emissions  a maturation of the substrate as a result of anaerobic digestion for spreading or composting. For what concerns the yields of the different substrates in terms of product methane it is possible to realize:

 0.10 m3/day per fattening pig with average 85 kg live weight  0.75 m3/ day per dairy cow with average 500 kg live weight. The exploitation of methane can therefore develop as:  direct combustion in boiler with heat only production  production of electricity via engines connected to generators  cogeneration for the combined production of electricity and heat.

Benefits of biogas production from manure are: • a reduction of odours • the elimination of fugitive methane emissions; • a maturation of the substrate as a result of anaerobic digestion for spreading or composting. THE YIELDS OF THE DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES IN TERMS OF PRODUCT METHANE 0.10 m3/day per fattening pig ABW – 85 kg

0.75 m3/ day per dairy cow ABW – 500 kg

The exploitation of methane can therefore develop as: direct combustion in boiler with heat only production production of electricity via engines connected to generators cogeneration for the combined production of electricity and heat.

•lower GHGs emissions from zootechnic effluents because of their controlled fermentation •substitution of chemical fertilizers with digestate

•better ecologic balance

ECONOMY BALANCE

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THE CONSTRUCTIVE DETAILS OF A SIMPLIFIED SYSTEM The spread of plants for the production of biogas from manure in recent years attests to the effectiveness of this technique. Following are the constructive details of a simplified system type of system more widely used for the production of biogas from sewage made by superimposing a plastic cover to a storage tank of slurry. The following description is referred to a simplified plant built in Parma in Italy in a pig farm , closed loop, home to 330 sows and 3500 fattening pigs with a total average live weight of 330 tones. The plant uses a moist substrate in that case sewage and the process is single stage. The exploitation is of type cogeneration, the produced hot water is used to heat the slurry in the digestion so as to reduce the time and improve the overall efficiency of the process. The electricity produced is totally transferred and sold to the grid. The biogas plant has been created by adapting appropriately the tanks provided for the storage of slurry. In particular the slurry, after arriving PIG FARM (Parma, Italy) 330 sows 3500 fatteners 330,000 kg BW

in a cockpit, is lifted by a pump which sends it to a round riddle for the separation of the coarse solid fraction; separate the solid part is stored in the underlying pit specially made; the liquid part is divided into two identical streams by a hydraulic divider, and then sent to two parallel digestion tanks of identical size; the side walls of the digestion tanks are insulated and each tank is heated by means of steel coil, installed near the bottom, in which hot water from the cogeneration plant is circulated; the biogas formed and recovered by means of the two domed covers is sent to a room where a CHP unit is installed that can provide about 50 kilowatts of electricity and 120 kilowatts of thermal power. Biogas production also allows the elimination of volatile compounds responsible for unpleasant odours as well as a fraction of organic nitrogen (which is converted to ammonia). Digestate, properly separated from the liquid fraction, has characteristics that make it an excellent fertilizer.

SUBSTRATE: sewage single stage anaerobic digestion

ENERGY EXPLOITATION: hot water: to heat the slurry in digestion electricity: selling to the grid BIOGAS PLANT CONSTRUCTION: adopted tanks designed for the slurry storage

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ACTIONS FOR REDUCING NITROGEN QUANTITIES ACTIONS FOR REDUCTION OF NITROGEN QUANTITIES •At the level of food it is important to try to reduce the amount of nitrates produced by: •dietary protein input reduction in rations •efficiency improvement of rations •accurate estimate of needs •homogenity of rations for homogeneous groups of animals

At the level of wastewater treatment

- primary treatment: sedimentation, thickening (evaporation), solid/liquid separation - secondary treatment (biological aerobic or anaerobic) - chemical treatment with chemical additives - dehydration and drying

FEEDING TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF SEWAGE A reduction in the excretion of nutrients (in particular phosphorus and nitrogen) leads to a decrease of the emission release and phenomena of water contamination produced from animal wastes, implying therefore the need for downstream intervention in the breeding cycle. Through the nutritional techniques we can understand the real needs of the animals; increasing the availability and digestibility of

nutrients and improving the digestibility of the diet we reduce the amount of nutrients excreted in faeces and adapting the contributions to the animal's needs we limit the amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine. With dietary interventions we can also reduce the concentrations of heavy metals (copper and zinc) present in manure. There are several techniques that can be taken in breeding, both individually and simultaneously.

Reduction in excretion of nutrients (in particular P and N)

NUTRITIONAL TECHNIQUES

leads to a decrease of the emission release and phenomena of water contamination produced from animal wastes,

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implying therefore the need for downstream intervention in the breeding cycle . understand the real needs of the animals – FEEDING STAGES

REDUCTION OF PROTEIC INPUT PHYTASE ADDITION

increasing the availability and digestibility of nutrients improving the digestibility of the diet - less nutrients excreted in faeces

INORGANIC P ADDITION REDUCTION OF METALS PRESENT IN MANURE

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FEED ADDITIVES


FEEDING STAGES FEEDING STAGE supply is a technique that involves the adaptation of the diet and its content in minerals and amino acids to the specific needs of animals raised in various stages of development. Adjustment of the levels of Ca and P in the various production stages, but it is necessary to have homogeneous groups of animals and implement a gradual transition from one to the next diet.

Division of the growth period and finishing in three phases, in each of which the objective to be pursued is the index optimization of feed conversion. In the first phase proteins and amino acids should be balanced and supplied to a high level. In the second phase the animal's digestive capacity must be increased in order to provide more food with a higher energy content. In the third step the content of proteins and amino acids can be further reduced, but the energy content remains the same of the previous phase. At all stages Ca-P balance remains the same, but the total concentration of the two elements in the feed decreases. The feeding application for steps can lead in the case of broilers to a reduction of N excreted by 15-35%.

The technique is based on the same principles applicable to broilers phases may be four or even five. By applying the power supply multiphase it can be considered a further reduction of 5-6% for Nand 7-8% for P.

Application to the animals a diet that meets the requirements in amino acids, minerals and energy of the phase in which they are. The feeding programs vary from country to country, also in relation to the type of pig that is produced. For light pigs (25-110 kg final live weight) are well developed techniques based on two stages, the multi-phase power techniques are still applicable, based on food programs that change weekly or even daily. A feeding program based on three stages leads to a reduction of 3% of N and 5% of P. For pigs weighing between 25 and 110 kg, for each percentage point of protein content reduction is a reduction of about 10% N excreted.

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REDUCED PROTEIN CONTENT AND INTEGRATION WITH PURE AMINO ACIDS

This technique is based on the principle of food animals by eliminating the excess protein ingested and while providing appropriate levels of amino acids in order to cover the needs in limiting amino acids, the first of them lysine, while meeting the optimum balance between the essential amino acids and non-essential so called ideal protein, in order to obtain optimal performances. 1% reduction in the protein ELIMINATING THE EXCESS PROTEIN INGESTED

content in the diet can lead to a decrease of 10% of the nitrogen excreted in laying hens and 510% in broilers, turkeys and other poultry meat. Several studies have shown that a reduction of protein content of the ration, as for example in beef cattle in the fattening stage/finishing, has no negative effects on the performance of the animals, inter alia, ensuring a reduction in nitrogen excretion by themselves. 1% reduction in protein content in the diet can lead to decrease in:

PROVIDING APPROPRIATE LEVELS OF ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS, ESPECIALLY LYSINE AND METHIONINE

5-10% of N in broilers, turkeys and other poultry meat

MEETING THE OPTIMUM BALANCE BETWEEN THE ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS AND NON-ESSENTIAL - IDEAL PROTEIN Several studies have shown that a reduction of protein content of the ration, as for example in beef cattle in the fattening stage/finishing, has

10% of N excreted in laying hens

no negative effects on the performance of the animals, inter alia, ensuring a reduction in nitrogen excretion by themselves.

Weight gain in Friesian bulls fed with different protein sources (Iacurto M., Palomba A., Ballico S., Vincenti F.; 2010) 304

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FEEDING AT A REDUCED LEVEL OF PHOSPHOROUS BY THE ADDITION OF PHYTASE Normally, the level of phosphorus available in foods of plant origin that are administered to poultry and swine is not sufficient to obtain adequate performance. Phosphorus is found in plants also in an organic form, such as phytic acid (approximately 65-50%), which is scarcely used as the animal organism does not possess, or possesses in very limited quantities at the intestinal level, the specific enzyme, phytase, able to demolish the molecule of phytine phosphorus. Phytic acid, in addition to making sparsely available phosphorus for the nutrition of monogastric animals, has negative effects on the absorption of calcium, iron and copper on availability, on the release of amino acids and other negative aspects. The supply of phytase enables the metabolism of the phosphorus in plant feed.

A significant contribution of phytase may derive from the administration of the milling of the cereals by-products, in particular bran from wheat and rye. The addition of phytase in the diet increases the digestibility of phosphorus plant by 20-30% in piglets, and by 15-20% in pigs for fattening and sows. In poultry, the inclusion of phytase in the diet improves the digestibility of phosphorus plant by 20-30% in broilers, laying hens and turkeys. It should be remembered that a diet supplemented with phytase has no negative effects on growth, the index conversion or egg production. At the operational level are not requested special skills in the company for the use of phytase, this being already present in the feed formulation.

Contribution of phytic acid to total P are especially high in cereal grains and their by-products, in particular bran from wheat and rye. P content in plant origin feeds – not sufficient to meet poultry and pigs requirement. 65-50% of P in plants occurs as phytic acid – animals are not able to use it or absorb very limited quantities thanks to enzymes secreted by large intestine microorganisms. Phytic acid- poorly absorbed in monogastric animals, affects availability of Ca, Fe and Cu negatively.

Phytase administration enables absorption of P in plant feed. The addition of phytase in the diet increases the absorption of P plant by: 20-30% in piglets 15-20% in fatteners and sows 20-30% in poultry

DIET INTEGRATION WITH HIGHLY DIGESTIBLE INORGANIC P The addition of inorganic phosphorus in the feed that is highly digestible implies lower levels of phosphorus in the diet and therefore a reduction of the amount excreted. The inorganic phosphorus is incorporated in the diet either as powder and granulate form and requires no special operator skills in its use. The integration with inorganic phosphorus allows to modulate the phosphorus provision in function of the needs which are reduced, as for the nitrogen, with age. LiveNutrition

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FEEDING WITH REDUCED CONTENT OF Cu and Zn

Copper and zinc are two basic metals for the maintenance of the physiological processes of the animals and may lead to positive effects on productivity when used in concentrations compatible with those essential to animal requirements. Copper and zinc are therefore added to animal feed, but often in excessive amounts, resulting in an increase in their concentration in animal products and in excreta and thus excessive accumulation in soils Cu

Zn

basic metals for the maintenance of the physiological processes

fertilized with manure. Using feed at a reduced content of the two metals, added for example in organic form such as chelated with amino acids or peptides or combined with the use of phytase, it is possible to significantly reduce the amount that accumulates in the dejections, and then the provision to the ground and crops during spreading, preserving, however, the positive effect on animal performance.

Zn and Cu addition to animal feed – standard practice but often in excessive amounts

increase in Zn and Cu content in animal products and in excreta - excessive accumulation in soils fertilized with manure

DIET INTEGRATION WITH OTHER FEED ADDITIVES Among the food additives that can be added in small quantities in the diet of poultry and swine are found probiotics or probiotic action substances such as enzymes, intestinal fermentation regulators. These products are used to reduce the quantity of feed ingested without depressing the increase in weight. As a result is

to be expected a reduction of the total quantity excreted nutrients that can get to 3% for pigs, and to 5% for poultry. The use of probiotics can also be helpful in improving the general health condition of the animals thus reducing the use of medicated feed.

REDUCTION OF NITROGEN QUANTITIES FOR AGRONOMIC USE In terms of agronomic use it is necessary to act according to use of high efficiency equipment, with the limits imposed by the Nitrates Directive, compliance with the requirements of the crops and increase hectares of land available.

At the level of wastewater treatment:  primary treatment like sedimentation, thickening (evaporation), solid/liquid separation  secondary treatment (biological aerobic or anaerobic)  chemical treatment with chemical additives  dehydration and drying.

In terms of agronomic use it is necessary to act according to: – use of high efficiency equipment – the limits imposed by the Nitrates Directive – compliance with the requirements of the crops – increase hectares of land available

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EMISSIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE IPCC DIRECTIVE According to IPCC directive in function of the physical characteristics we distinguish dust – a respirable fraction and inhalable fraction, simple gases such as methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide as well as other volatile compounds.

In function of the chemical composition we can distinguish compounds containing nitrogen, carbon, sulphur and other compounds. All of them causes rains and soil acidification, greenhouse effect and smell problems.

In function of the physical characteristics we distinguish: •dust (respirable fraction - inhalable fraction) •simple gases (CH4 , NH3 , H2S) •other volatile compounds (VOCs)

In function of the chemical composition we can distinguish compounds containing: •nitrogen - N •carbon - C •sulphur - S •other compounds

rains and soil acidification greenhouse effect smell problems

NITROGEN PROTOXIDE – N2O

The nitrogen protoxide emissions from the zootechnic sector are attributed to three main origins. The first one is the storage of dejections, both liquid and solid). He second source is the direct emissions from arable lands from zootechnic effluents, and grazing animals. And the last one is the indirect emissions due to

setting of ammonia and mono-nitrogen oxides. The nitrogen protoxide emissions are also attributed from phenomena relevant to nitrogen forms called denitrification also originated from zootechnics, findable in surface waters and in the upper soil layers.

The N2O emissions from the zootechnic sector are attributed to three main origins:  the storage of dejections (both liquid and solid)  the direct emissions from arable lands (zootechnic effluents, emissions from grazing animals)  the indirect emissions due to setting of NH3 and NOX and phenomena relevant to nitrogen forms called DENITRIFICATION also originated from zootechnics, findable in surface waters and in the upper soil layers.

AMMONIA – NH3   

Livestock breeding is responsible for 80% of NH3 emissions in the agricultural sector (CORINAIR 1998). The agricultural sector is responsible for 80-90% of total NH3 emissions of ammonia into the atmosphere. The formation of ammonia in sewage is the result of the microbial decomposition of animal wastes and the activity of the enzyme urease (with reference to pH and temperature).

The emission is influenced by many environmental factors

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METHANE – CH4

Even 36% of methane emissions and about 30% of the whole zootechnic emissions is due to agriculture. Methane derives from digestive processes – about 95% from enteric emissions from rumen fermentation because of anaerobic degradation of dejections - emission originated by dejection management. To illustrate you how great is contribution of animal production sector to global methane production let me

show you some data on most popular livestock species as methane producers. As you can see a sow produces 20.7 kg of methane per year, pig only 8.4, but cow more than 190 kg per year. What is worth to be noticed is the fact that methane production is zero with temperature below 10°C.

Methane derives from

 

digestive processes (enteric emissions)

anaerobic degradation of dejections (emission originated by dejection management)

36% of methane emissions (about 30% of the whole zootechnic emissions) is due to agriculture. ANIMAL CH4 PRODUCERS

sow 20.7 kg/year

pig 8.4 kg/year

cow 191 kg/year

REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS IN ATMOSPHERE In order to reduce emissions in atmosphere is possible to act on: • management • building typologies of stables and effluent storage • effluent treatment • correct draining of effluents (i.e. anaerobic treatment with relevant energy production) • effective use of energy resources • new technologies and smart grids (intelligent energy networks).

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The global food system, from fertilizer manufacture to food storage and packaging, is responsible for up to one-third of all human-caused greenhouse-gas emissions. However, the most greenhouse gases occur naturally and are important for maintaining a global average temperature of approximately 15°C – if no GHGs existed in the atmosphere, the global average temperature would be around -6°C. LiveNutrition


CLIMATE CHANGE AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION  

  

Climate change is transforming the planet’s ecosystems threatening the well-being of current and future generations. To “hold the increase in global temperature below 2°C, as planned in the COP21 summit in Paris (December 2015, www.cop21paris.org/) and avoid dangerous climate change, deep cuts in global emissions are urgently required. The global livestock sector contributes a significant share to anthropogenic GHG emissions, but it can also deliver a notable share of the necessary mitigation effort. Concerted and collective action from all sector stakeholders is urgently required to ensure that existing and promising mitigation strategies are implemented. The need to reduce the sector’s emissions and its environmental footprint has indeed become ever more pressing in view of its continuing expansion to ensure food security and feed a growing, richer and more urbanized world population.

LIVESTOCK CONTRIBUTION TO CLIMATE CHANGE With emissions estimated at 7.1 gigatonnes CO2eq per annum, representing 14.5% of humaninduced GHG emissions, the livestock sector plays an important role in climate change. Beef and cattle milk production account for the majority of emissions, respectively contributing 41 and 20% of the sector’s emissions. While pig meat and poultry meat and eggs contribute

respectively 9% and 8% to the sector’s emissions. Feed production and processing, and enteric fermentation from ruminants are the two main sources of emissions, representing 45 and 39% of sector emissions, respectively. Manure storage and processing represent 10%. The remainder is attributable to the processing and transportation of animal products.

livestock sector contribution to global human-induced GHG emissions – 7.1 gigatonnes CO2 equivalents per annum (14.5%) including: 10

6

ruminant enteric fermentation

manure storage and processing

39

milk cows 41%

45

feed production and processing

transport and processing of animal products

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HUMAN HEALTH AND AGRICULTURAL EMISSIONS Ammonia and methane are major contributors the most dangerous pollutants for human health particulate matter and ozone which causes more than 400000 premature death in the EU. They affects brain development, damages the nervous system, diabetes, breathing problems including asthma and chronic lung disease and also damages the reproductive system which causes premature births. The most of GHGs come from agriculture:

ANIMAL PRODUCTION: • feed digestion • slurry spreading and storage • 33% of total arable land is used for animal production.

Agriculture is the main source of ammonia – about 90% and methane about 40% come from agriculture in the European Union. Livestock digestion and slurry spreading and storage are sources of methane. Synthetic fertilizers and also slurry spreading and storage are sources of

ammonia. Agricultural emissions transform in the atmosphere and worsen air quality where we live. 470 million hectares - 33% of the total arable land are used for animal production. There is a large body of evidence on the health impacts of air pollution, as knowledge in this area has increased considerably in recent decades. The latest World Health Organization review on the health effects of air pollution concludes that a considerable amount of new scientific information on the health effects of particulate matter, ozone and nitrogen dioxide, observed at levels commonly present in Europe, has been published in the recent years. This new evidence supports the scientific conclusions of the WHO air quality guidelines, last updated in 2005, and indicates that health effects can occur at air pollution concentrations lower than those used to establish the 2005 guidelines. It also provides scientific arguments for decisive action to improve air quality and reduce the burden of disease associated with air pollution in Europe.

In 2013 WHO reviewed health effect of air pollution – conclusion: actual air pollution concentrations affecting health are lower than published in air quality guidelines updated in 2005 . Most of the health impact studies reviewed by the WHO are focused on respiratory and cardiovascular effects attributed to exposure to air pollution. But evidence is also growing for a range of other effects, caused by exposure to air pollutants at different times of life, ranging from prenatal exposure all the way through childhood and adult life. For example, exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy has been associated with reduced foetal growth, pre-term birth and spontaneous abortions. Maternal exposure to air pollution during pregnancy increases the risk of the child developing allergies and asthma later in life. Furthermore,

the mechanisms by which air pollution may act on the nervous system have recently been documented, and a few epidemiological studies report positive associations between exposure to air pollution and impaired cognitive function, but more research is needed to better understand these effects. Health effects are related both to short-term and long-term exposure to air pollution. Short-term (exposure over a few hours or days) is linked with acute health effects, while long-term exposure (over months or years) is linked with chronic health effects.

Exposure to air pollutants Short-term exposure (few hours, days) – acute symptoms 310

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Long-term exposure (motnhs, years) – chronic symptoms


Health impacts of air pollution can be quantified and expressed as mortality and morbidity. Mortality reflects reduction in life expectancy due to air pollution exposure, while morbidity relates to illness occurrence, ranging from minor effects such as coughing to serious conditions that may require hospitalization. Measures of health impacts of air pollution

MORBIDITY – illness occurence

MORTALITY – reduction of life expectancy due to air pollution

Epidemiological studies attribute the most severe health effects of air pollution to particulate matter. The evidence base for an association between particulate matter and short-term as well as long-term health effects has become much stronger. Recent long-term studies show associations between particulate matter and mortality at levels well below the current annual WHO air quality guideline level for particulate matter 2.5 nanograms per one cubic meter. This corroborates earlier scientific evidence, and the WHO has therefore suggested that exposure to particulate matter (PM) – even in very small amounts – causes adverse health effects. The latest study from the World Health Organization links long-term exposure to fine particles with cardiovascular and respiratory deaths, as well as increased sickness, such as childhood respiratory diseases. Ozone also has a marked effect on human health, with recent epidemiological studies indicating considerably larger mortality effects than previously thought. High concentration levels of ozone cause breathing problems, reduce lung function, and lead to lung HEALTH IMPACTS

diseases like asthma. Short-term exposure to current summer ozone concentrations in Europe has adverse health effects on pulmonary function, leading to lung inflammation and respiratory symptoms. These symptoms in turn result in increased medication usage, morbidity and mortality. New evidence has also emerged detailing the negative effects of long-term exposure to ozone on mortality and reproductive health. Many studies have documented associations between short-term and long-term exposure to nitrogen oxide with mortality and morbidity. Both short- and longterm studies have found these associations with adverse effects at concentrations that were at or below the current EU limit values. Some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potent carcinogens, and they are often attached to airborne particles. WHO found new evidence linking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but at present these effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure cannot be separated from the effects of particles. It is important to note that the proportion of the population exposed to lower levels of air pollution and affected by less severe health impacts is much larger than the proportion of the population affected by the more severe events leading to more serious health impacts. Nevertheless, even these less severe health effects may have strong public health implications. This is because air pollution affects whole populations, especially in major cities, where large populations are continuously exposed. The overall costs of the less severe health impacts may therefore be higher than the sum of the most severe effects. In spite of this, it is the severe outcomes such as increased risk of mortality and reduced life expectancy that are most often considered in epidemiological studies and risk analysis.

headache and anxiety

central nervous system diseases

AIR POLLUTANTS SO2 PM

irritation of eyes, nose and throat breathing problems

O3, PM, NO2, SO2

liver, spleen and blood diseases

NO2

cardiovascular diseases

respiratory system diseases: irritation, inflammation, asthma reproductive system diseases

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PM, O3, SO2

PM, O3, PAHs PM

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ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT

How the Ecological Footprint can be defined?

•Ecological footprint is a resource accounting tool that measures how much biologically productive land and sea is used by a given population or activity, and compares this to how much land and sea is available. •The ecological footprint measures the "piece of land" (be it land or water) for which an individual, a family, a community, a city, a population needs to produce in a sustainable manner all the resources it consumes and to absorb the waste.

Ecological footprint is a resource accounting tool that measures how much biologically productive land and sea is used by a given population or activity, and compares this to how much land and sea is available. This area compared with the actual surface of the territory inhabited by all living beings become an indicator of the sustainability of that community. More precisely, the comparison is not made with the overall surface area, but it is subtracted from it an estimated share around 12% of the territory, as not all the space is available for humans, but there are also all other kinds of biodiversity with which it must be shared. The ecological footprint is a well-

known and widespread method of analysis to assess the human impact on the Earth ecosystem. Giving too general discourses, even if right, more concrete and scientific approach on man and environment interaction, can be a useful tool for the interpretation of contemporary reality. Conceived in 1990 by Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees at the University of British Columbia, the Ecological Footprint is now widely used by scientists, companies, governments, agencies, individuals, and institutions working to monitor the use of ecological resources and sustainable development.

THE CONSUMPTION CATEGORIES 1kg of bread – 29.7 m2 1 kg of beef – 300 m2 1 kg of plant – 7 m2 1 egg – 2.53 m2 1glass of milk – 4 m2

FOOD

HOUSING 150 m2 house – 1.5 ha creates an ecological footprint  the more people living in that house and the because of direct occupation of the lower is the per capita soil and the consumption of energy footprint and materials to carry them out and keep them. TRANSPORTS affect the ecological footprint due to the consumption of fuel and energy used for the construction of vehicles SERVICES it corresponds to the amount of resources required to deploy and have access to services. 312

spending 50 euros in telephone services – 200 m2

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1person travelling 10 km a day by: • bike – 120 m2 • bus – 500 m2 • car – 2500 m2

CONSUMER GOODS furniture, equipment, clothing, footwear and other "consumer goods" participate significantly to the ecological footprint formation 1 pair of leather shoes – 300 m2 1 washing machine – 2500 m2


HOW TO CALCULATE ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT DIVIDE THE CONSUMPTION of into the categories to assess the demand of land required to procure, maintain, and make available the goods in question.

To assess what is the area corresponding to produce a good it is necessary to CONSIDER ALL ENERGY EXCHANGES AND MATTER INCORPORATED IN ITS PRODUCTION.

To assess what is the area corresponding to produce a good it is necessary to consider all energy exchanges and matter incorporated in its production. To do this, are to be considered the productive ecological systems from which originate the resources to meet the different consumption; they are classified into the following categories:  territory for energy  farmland  pastures  forests  built-up area  sea. All types of consumption require a certain amount of energy, but the interpretation of this given energy in the related " surface energy for production" is not simple. The method has also planned to express energy in form of surface for three fundamental reasons:  sustainable economy should not exploit fossil energy, but be based on renewable forms that can therefore be expressed as the area of forests for biomass, of land surfaces for the wind farms etc.  energy from fossil fuels is converted to the natural surface area required to absorb the Calculation of personal ecological footprint:

To do this, are to be considered the productive ecological systems from which ORIGINATE THE RESOURCES to meet the different consumption; they are classified into the following categories: •territory for energy •farmland •pastures •forests •built-up area •sea.

relevant CO2 emitted  it is believed that the non-renewable energy of fossil fuels can be used in a sustainable society to the extent that can be provided, at the same rate, assets of equivalent renewable resource. It is evident that the ecological footprint calculations are implicit in the concept of sustainable development that can ensure a future for the next generations. The point that at a consumption of fossil fuel should correspond equivalent area where grow forests, means to ensure, in addition to the maintenance of the CO2 balance in the atmosphere, the ability to grow forests that may represent fuel from biomass. According to the ecological footprint theory 1 hectare of land is corresponding to a consumption between 80 and 100 GJ of energy that corresponds to about 278 kWh. The calculation of the Ecological Footprint, which is proposed, is a simplification of the more complex method which, based on some key parameters, estimates a personal ecological footprint. It has been identified an equation that calculates the impact of any human group on the environment. It is the product of three factors:

IMPACT = POPULATION x TURNOUT x TECHNOLOGY

Impact = weight human group on earth (result is measured in hectares i.e. how much of the earth's resources each of us consumes).

Population = number of individuals of which we are concerned.

Turnout = this term indicates a measure of the average consumption of resources per person.

Technology = index of environmental harmfulness related to the technology used to deliver the goods consumed. LiveNutrition

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CARBON FOOTPRINT

The concept name of the carbon footprint originates from ecological footprint, discussion, which was developed by Rees and Wackernagel in the 1990s which estimates the number of "earths" that would theoretically be required if everyone on the planet consumed resources at the same level as the person calculating their ecological footprint. However, given that ecological footprints are a measure of failure, Anindita Mitra (CREA, Seattle) chose the more easily calculated "carbon footprint" to easily measure use of carbon, as an indicator of unsustainable energy use. In 2007, carbon footprints were used as a measure of carbon emissions to develop the energy plan for City of Lynnwood, Washington. A carbon footprint is the total set of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an individual, event, organisation, product and expressed as CO2 equivalents.

Carbon footprints are much more specific than ecological footprints since they measure direct emissions of gases that cause climate change

into the atmosphere. Carbon footprint is one of a family of footprint indicators, which also includes water footprint and land footprint.). The total carbon footprint cannot be calculated because of the large amount of data required and the fact that carbon dioxide can be produced by natural occurrences. It is for this reason that Wright, Kemp, and Williams, writing in the journal Carbon Management, have suggested a more practicable definition. A measure of the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions of a defined population, system or activity, considering all relevant sources, sinks and storage within the spatial and temporal boundary of the population, system or activity of interest. Calculated as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) using the relevant 100-year global warming potential (GWP100). Greenhouse gases (GHGs) can be emitted through transport, land clearance, and the production and consumption of food, fuels, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, and services. For simplicity of reporting, it is often expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent of other GHGs, emitted.

Emissions are standardized in terms of CO2 equivalent (IPCC)

1 kg CO2 = 1 kg CO2

1 kg CH4 = 25 kg CO2

1 kg N20 = 298 kg CO2

GHG EMISSIONS IN THE ZOOTECHNIC SECTOR As already has been mentioned the intensive animal husbandry is an important footprint part of farming due to environmental emissions of air pollutants (CO2, CH4, NH3, acidifying and odorous substances), water (directly and/or

indirectly) and soil (nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals). Within the livestock sectors, the greatest impact of carbon is found in the meat and dairy cattle industry.

The contribution to the GHG emissions in the zootechnic sector (FAO 2010) are:

314

beef – 5.5%

milk – 2.8%

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pork – 1.9%


For breeding then reference units are:  kg CO2eq/kg of milk or meat produced  kg CO2eq/kg of dry matter intake Sources of GHG emissions during livestock production ENTERIC FERMENTATION Choice of diet components Improved diet digestibility Enhanced feed intake capacity Rumen modifiers

HERD MANAGEMENT & PERFORMANCE Choice of animal species/breed Genetic selection Herd structure Health & fertility management

FEED PRODUCTION AND STORAGE Choice of feed types Plant breeding Improved harvested methods Optimized fertilizer use Feed conservation/processing methods Feed waste management

MANURE STORAGE & USE Adapted protein intake Reduced protein digestibility Improved diet digestibility Use of fibrous feeds Optimized excreta management Excreta recycling

Dickhoefer et al. 2014

manure applied to soils synthetic fertilizer

enteric fermentation rice cultivation crop residue

manure left on pasture

Breeding always causes an impact on the environment in terms of gas and production of organic substances released as manure and indirectly as a result of fertilization of pastures, forage and cereal crops used to feed livestock. The impact of forage crops depends also from any transformations (e.g. soybean meal) and the distance between the place of production and use (up to 1080 g CO2eq/tkm in the case of aircraft use for the transport). Taking the example of barley for animal feed, it is considered a carbon footprint of 400 g CO2 eq/kg, mainly due to its cultivation (of which

buffaloes sheep goats

others

dairy cattle

non-dairy cattle 181 due to NO2, 132 for the use of fertilizers, 87 for energy, 14 for the seed and 9 for cultivation techniques). If you consider the pelleted alfalfa, this will have a footprint of nearly 1200 g CO2 eq/kg mainly due to the transformation processes. In the case of soybean extraction (about 2100 g CO2 eq/kg) largely footprint flour is due to the LUC (Land Use Change; as a consequence of deforestation, CO2 eq/kg skins of soy or soy extraction meal largely increase). The figure comes to about 3200 g CO2 eq/kg if also carbon emissions on soil are considered.

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The distribution of the GHG emissions in the production process: 77 80 70

60

60 50 40

51

48

milk

35

beef

30 20

5 1 7

10

kg CO2e

0

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

39.2

pork

16

feeding & pastures

production processing

5 1

7

selling

CARBON FOOTPRINT OF ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTION 27.0

13.5 12.1 11.9 10.9

6.9

4.8

2.9

1.9

1.1

0.9

kg of consumed food

GHGs emissions (Mton CO2e)

post farmgate emissions (incl. processing, transport, retail, cooking, waste disposal) 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

production emissions (incl. all emissions before product leave a farm)

TOTAL CARBON FOOTPRINT OF ZOOTECHNICS IN EUROPE

dairy cows

beef cattle

enteric fermentation

316

organic soils and liming

pigs

N2O soil emission

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poultry

laying hens

manure management


CARBON FOOTPRINT OF SOME FEEDING

2000

g CO2 ea./kg

1600 1200 800 400

0

molasses

soy hulls

wheat

soy excration meal

farming

2400

oats

barley

processing

alfalfa pellets

mangold pulp pellets

CARBON FOOTPRINT OF SOME FEEDING Entering LUC (Land Use Change) as a consequence of deforestation, CO2 ea./kg of soy hulls or soy extraction meal largely increase.

2000

g CO2 ea./kg

1600 1200 800 400

0

molasses

farming

3200

soy hulls

transport

wheat

processing

2800

soy excration meal LUC

barley

mangold pulp pellets

alfalfa pellets

CARBON FOOTPRINT OF SOME FEEDING Fodders capture carbon, that is why they contribute positively to reduce GHG emissions.

2400 2000

g CO2 ea./kg

oats

1600 1200 800 400

0

-400

molasses

farming

soy hulls

transport

wheat

processing2

soy oats excration meal LUC C in the soil LiveNutrition

barley

mangold pulp pellets

alfalfa pellets 317


Chapter 5. Livestock Management and Environment

BARLEY : AN EXAMPLE FOR UNDERSTANDING GHG EMISSIONS

Barley is presented an example for understanding greenhouse gases emissions. In barley productions the natural fertilizers, energy, fuels, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and others are

input. The results are products, by-product, residues and waste, with gas emissions such as ammonia, nitrogen protoxide, carbon dioxide and others. OUTPUT

INPUT Gas emissions (NH3, NO2, CO2, etc)

NATURAL FERTILIZERS ENERGY FUELS CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES OTHER

PRODUCTS BYPRODUCTS RESIDUES WASTE

Soil and water emissions NO3, chemical active principles

•INPUT PRODUCTION

TRANSPORT

TRANSPORT

•AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

•PROCESSING

TRANSPORT

•BREEDING

CO2 EMISSION FOR BARLEY MEAL PRODUCTION 200

181

180 160

132

140 120

g CO2/kg

87

100 80 60 40

14

20 0

318

N20

fertilizers

energy

seed

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9 processing


WATER FOOTPRINT The water footprint measures the amount of water used to produce each of the goods and services we use. It can be measured for a single process, such as growing rice, for a product, such as a pair of jeans, for the fuel we put in our car, or for an entire multi-national company. The water footprint can also tell us how much water is being consumed by a particular country – or globally – in a specific river basin or from an aquifer.

The water footprint has three components: green, blue and grey. Together, these components provide a comprehensive picture of water use by delineating the source of water consumed, either as rainfall/soil moisture or surface/groundwater, and the volume of fresh water required for assimilation of pollutants.

GREEN WATER FOOTPRINT

BLUE WATER FOOTPRINT is water that has been sourced from surface or groundwater resources and is either evaporated, incorporated into a product or taken from one body of water and returned to another, or returned at a different time. Irrigated agriculture, industry and domestic water use can each have a blue water footprint.

is water from precipitation that is stored in the root zone of the soil and evaporated, transpired or incorporated by plants. It is particularly relevant for agricultural, horticultural and forestry products.

The water footprint looks at both direct and indirect water use of a process, product, company or sector and includes water consumption and pollution throughout the full production cycle from the supply chain to the end-user.

It is also possible to use the water footprint to measure the amount of water required to produce all the goods and services consumed by the individual or community, a nation or all of humanity. This also includes the direct water

GREY WATER FOOTPRINT is the amount of fresh water required to assimilate pollutants to meet specific water quality standards. The grey water footprint considers pointsource pollution discharged to a freshwater resource directly through a pipe or indirectly through runoff or leaching from the soil, impervious surfaces, or other diffuse sources.

footprint, which is the water used directly by the individual(s) and the indirect water footprint – the summation of the water footprints of all the products consumed.

As regards the agricultural and zootechnical sector, the quantities of water needed to produce one kg of product has a range between from: 70 liters for apples to 4500 a one steak for beef, 1440 – one steak of pork, 1170 – one breastfillet of poultry and 10000 l of water for one litre of milk.

It is foreseen in 2025 that 64% of the world population will have not complete access to water; 8% of water of drinkable water available for humans is used for animal production and mostly for irrigation. Breeding systems still cause eutrophication and water sources pollution. LiveNutrition

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Chapter 5. Livestock Management and Environment

GOOD PRACTICES TO REDUCE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION EMISSIONS The main challenge for the zootechnical sector is to provide food from animal production to an increasing population in a more sustainable way. In order to do this it is necessary more efficiency of the zootechnical sector in terms of water saving and rational feeding methodologies as well as more environmental sustainability, that means to satisfy present needs without compromising the suitability for human living of future generations. The most challenging step for today is how to increase animal production, as particularly requested from the developing markets, and reduce GHG emissions at the same time.

There is a direct link between GHG emission intensities and the efficiency with which producers use natural resources. For livestock production systems, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the three main GHG emitted by the sector, are losses of nitrogen (N), energy and organic matter that undermine efficiency and productivity. Possible interventions to reduce emissions are thus, to a large extent, based on technologies and practices that can improve production efficiency. They include the use of better quality feed, animal health and welfare, water saving and less polluting, and feed balancing to lower enteric and manure emissions.

In some cases, the livestock sector has taken a leadership role in better identifying the environmental impacts of production and the potential mitigation options to reduce environmental impact. The International Dairy Federation’s (IDF’s) Common Carbon Footprint Approach for Dairy is one such example (IDF, 2010). Based on LCA (life-cycle assessment), the methodology developed is the result of an intensive process involving international experts and dairy companies to develop common guidelines to calculate the carbon

footprint of the dairy sector. The meat industry is also progressively engaging in this way. Such initiatives not only identify GHG emission critical points and reduction opportunities, but can also enhance efficiency across the supply chain. In relation to this international effort, an increasing number of national dairy associations are engaging in voluntary mitigation programs. The European Union has strongly highlighted the importance of GHG mitigation practices in Directives and Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) measures 2014-2020.

MITIGATION PRACTICES

PASTURES CARBON CAPTURE AND EXTENSIVE BREEDING

Extensive breeding, based on suitability of and improving livestock breeding efficiency. pastures for carbon capture, is one of the most Under mitigation practices of environmental ambitious objectives of the new CAP 2014- impacts , a major role is played by pastures. The 2020. The “greening” concept, coming from a use of extensive livestock breeding techniques, vision of the European agriculture as more in fact, allows a reduction in emissions and an competitive and more sustainable, in compli- increase in carbon fixed quantity (about 1910 ance with animal welfare and sustainable CO2eq./kg/ha/year). farming rules, aims at protecting environment Role of pasture in nitrogen use effciency (NUE) Improving perennial ryegrass and red clover to Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in the rumen increase nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) body N 35-40%

faeces N (nitrates) 2540%

urine N (urea) 3540%

milk N 15-40%

Aim: to breed grasses with high yield and high quality with reduced fertilizer

On average, 75% of intaken N is „wasted” Aim: to breed red clover with high agronomic (ammonia, nitrous oxide, urea, nitrates) performance and reduce N leaching

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LCA (LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT) Life Cycle Assessment is a method that evaluates a set of interactions that a product or a service has with the environment, considering its entire life cycle includes pre-production stages (hence extraction and production of materials), manufacturing, distribution, use (and therefore reuse and maintenance), recycling and final disposal. The LCA procedure is standardized internationally by the ISO standards 14040 and 14044. LCA (as defined in ISO 14040) considers the environmental impacts of the event with reference to human health, ecosystem quality and resource depletion, furthermore also considering the economic and social impacts. The LCA aims to establish a complete picture of the interactions with the environment of a product or service, helping understand the environmental consequences directly or indirectly caused, and then give those who have decision-making authority (who has the task of

define the rules) the information needed to define the behaviours and the environmental effects of activities and identify opportunities for improvement in order to achieve the best solutions for tackling the environmental conditions. In accordance with ISO 14040 and 14044, the Life Cycle Assessment is divided into five stages of evaluation: goals and objectives

inventory of the life cycle impact assessment of the life cycle interpretation

LCA uses and tools

EMISSIONS REDUCTION IN LIVESTOCK BREEDING RATION

AGRONOMIC USE

STORAGE/TREATMENT

•ration protein input reduction •ration efficiency improvement (i.e. bypass protein quota increase, correct fodder/concentrates ratio, etc.) •careful needs evaluation for physiologic stage •collection of homogeneous groups. •cultivation needs evaluation •respect of climate-environment conditions (no fertirrigation on water saturated soils) •high efficiency fertirrigation systems. •solid/liquid separation •stabilization of effluents (oxygenation, anaerobic treatments) •nitrogen biologic rimoval (nitro-denitro) •phyto-depuration etc.

In order to reduce the emissions of livestock farms it is possible to operate on: RATION  ration protein input reduction (eliminating excess ingested protein and while providing appropriate levels of amino acids in order to cover the needs in limiting amino acids, first of all lysine, while meeting the optimal balance of essential amino acids and nonessential “ideal protein”, in order to obtain optimal performances)

 ration efficiency improvement (through the nutritional techniques, i.e. bypass protein increase share, correct fodder/concentrates ratio, etc., it is possible to understand the animal real needs, increasing availability and digestibility of nutrients and improving the digestibility of the diet; reducing in this way the proportion of nutrients excreted in faeces and adapting the contributions to the animal's needs, the amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine is limited)

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Chapter 5. Livestock Management and Environment

 collection of homogeneous groups (it is necessary to have homogeneous groups of animals and implement a gradual transition from one to the next diet)

AGRONOMIC USE  cultivation needs evaluation (it is important to use an Agronomic Utilization Plan that takes into account the actual nutritional needs of the crop , the soil type , the time of spreading and the previous crop )  respect of climate – environment conditions (agronomic use must be made in accordance with local regulations and avoiding specific conditions which would reduce the effectiveness. For example, the spreading cannot be done in a land saturated with water to avoid pollution of groundwater by leaching of nutrients)  high efficiency fertirrigation systems (the use of efficient fertigation systems, such as direct injection of the slurry or the timely burial of the waste, are a necessary condition to avoid losses by volatilization of nutrients and to reduce odorous emissions

STORAGE/TREATMENT  solid/liquid separation (the application of this technique allows to get from the slurry two fractions, one fraction clarified and another thickened with a different content of nutrients, which management is easier and more efficient compared to the slurry as it is. The mechanical separation can be also applied to sewage deriving from bovine breeding if in stable without litter)  stabilization of effluents (during the storage phase of the slurry it happens a subdivision of suspended solids according to their specific weight that involves the formation of a dense fraction on the bottom, an intermediate clarified fraction and a floating fraction. The solid part, and therefore nutrients, excepted the ammonia nitrogen and potassium that are in the dissolved phase, are not uniformly distributed and this creates problems linked both to the contribution of nutrients on the treated surfaces with the slurry, both to the sampling operations of significant samples and the operations of the handling machinery. To overcome these problems, equipment is used for sewage mixing and homogenization matched to insufflation of air, targeted to the containment of odour production.

In order to reduce negative impact of animal production on natural environment it is possible to operate on: •management (balanced rations, needs respect, rations equilibrate, etc.) •building typologies of shelters and effluents storage (i.e. vacuum system, chemical or biologic scrubbing, etc.) •storage design (i.e. tanks covering, storage bags, etc.) •effluents treatment (anaerobic digestion, drying process, renewable energy, etc.) •agronomic use (i.e. composting effluents burial)

322

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates that this will lead to a 60% increase in demand for high quality protein such as milk, meat, and eggs. The livestock sector currently constitutes the world’s largest user of natural resources and GHGs producer that affect climate change negatively. Therefore, animal production sector is faced with a dual challenge: it is called to produce larger quantities of high quality and affordable meat, milk, and eggs in response to an increasing global demand and improve substantially the environmental performance of livestock production. LiveNutrition


From the sewage as well as from other organic compounds (e.g. vegetable residues, whey, etc.) is possible, through an anaerobic degradation (so in the absence of oxygen), to obtain a mixture of gases formed by methane (from 50% to 80%), carbon dioxide and other trace gases. In order for the process to take place it is required the action of different groups of microorganisms that can transform organic matter into intermediates, mainly acetic acid, carbon dioxide and hydrogen used by the methane microorganisms that end the process producing methane. The production of biogas, in addition, allows the elimination of volatile compounds responsible for bad smells as well as a small part of organic nitrogen, which is converted into ammonia. Digestate, properly separated from the liquid fraction, has characteristics that make it an excellent fertilizer.  nitrogen biologic removal (the technique of stripping for air insufflation is based on the passage of the ammonia, present in the slurry in aqueous solution, on the air in gaseous form. The gaseous flow thus produced is cut into a device, typically a scrubber, that captures the ammonia present, by contact with an acid solution, so as to produce a stable ammonium salt. It is a process which requires considerable quantities of thermal energy; its application, therefore, cannot be separated by the availability of an energy source with low

cost, such as that which could be provided by an anaerobic digestion plant, where the biogas is used for the production of electricity and heat cogeneration);  phyto-depuration (the phyto-depuration is a natural process for purifying waste water using plants, broadleaf Typha, Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna spp., Miriophyllum spp., Potamogeton spp., Ceratophyllum spp, as active biological filters able to reduce the pollutants present in them. The phytoremediation treatments are secondary biological treatments, that need a primary sedimentation treatment, such as a biological septic tank (Imhoff) and/or tertiary, of refinement, which use the capability of selfpurification of aquatic environments. The removal of nutrients and bacteria occurs through the same physical, chemical and biological activated sludge through filtration, adsorption, assimilation by the plant organisms and bacterial degradation. The phyto-depuration plant thus represents an alternative to the traditional treatment, respects the environment and is advantageous from the economic (i.e. electrical energy savings, taking into account sustainable development and limited working costs) and environmental point of view (better impact on the landscape and elimination of disinfection treatments).

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Key Literature: 1.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14. 15.

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Agriculture, and County Governments Cooperating (https://www.uaex.edu/publications/ PDF/FSA-3071.pdf) 16. Jarrige R. (ed). 1998 . Ruminant Nutrition: Recommended Allowances and Feed Tables. John Libbey Eurotext, 1989 17. Jamroz D (ed). 2013. Animal Nutrition and Feed Science (in Polish). Part 1. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN 18. Jamroz D. and Potkański A. (ed). 2015. Animal Nutrition and Feed Science (in Polish). Part 2. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN 19. Jamroz D (ed). 2013. Animal Nutrition and Feed Science (in Polish). Part 3. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN 20. Undrestanding and Improving Forage quality. 2014. UGA Extension Bulletin 1425 21. Patyra E., Kwiatek K. 2015. Glukozynolany – składniki antyżywieniowe pasz. Życie Weterynaryjne, 90(10), 674-677. 22. Rood, K.A. and Chapman, C.K., 2009. Minimizing Disease in Your Sheep Flock. A Guide to Preventative Flock Health. Agriculture, Animal Health, September, Utah State University Cooperative Extension, U.S. 23. Rucker R.B., Suttie J.W., McCormick D.B., Machlin L.J. Marcel Dekker. 2001. Handbook of vitamins. Inc. New York 24. Sinha, K.K. and Bhatnagar, D. 1998. Mycotoxins in agriculture and food safety. New York, M. Dekker. 25. Sundstøl F,. 1993. Energy systems for ruminants. Icel. Agr. Sci. 7, 1993: 11–19. 26. Suttle NF. 2010. The mineral nutrition of livestock. 4th ed. CABI Publishing Cambridge, USA 27. Van Saun R. and Heinrichs A.J. Troubleshooting Silage Problems: How to Identify Potential Problems. (http://extension.psu.edu/animals/dairy/ nutrition/forages/silage/troubleshootingsilage-problems-how-to-identify-potentialproblems) 28. Rotz, CA. 1995. Maintaining and Enhancing Forage Quality during Harvest and Storage, In: Proceedings of the Western Canada Dairy Seminar Proceedings (JJ Kenelly, ed), (www.afns.ualberta.ca/wcds/wcd95147.ht m) 29. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. Eighth Revised Edition. 2000. Subcommittee on Beef Cattle Nutrition; Committee on Animal Nutrition; Board on Agriculture; National Research Council.


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37. 38.

39.

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Nutrient Requirement of Dairy Cattle. Seventh Revised Edition. 2001. Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition. Committee on Animal Nutrition. Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources. National Research Council Nutrient Requirements of Horses. Sixth Revised Edition. 2007. Committee on Nutrient Requirements of Horses; Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. Ninth Revised Edition. 1994. Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition; Board on Agriculture; National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th Revised Edition.1998. Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition; Committee on Animal Nutrition; Board on Agriculture; National Research Council. Applegate and Angel, 2014. Nutrient requirements of poultry publication: History and need for an update. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 23:567–575. Boisen, S. and M. W. A. Verstegen. 1998. Evaluation of feedstuffs and pig diets. Energy or nutrient-based evaluation systems? I. Limitations of present energy evaluation systems. Acta Agric. Scand. Sect. A Anim. Sci. 48:86-94. Cuddeford, D., 1997. Feeding systems for horses. Chap. 11. In : Feeding systems and feed evaluation models. Theodorou, M.K., France J., Ed. Cabi Publishing, Oxon, U.K., NY, USA, p. 239-274. Freeman DW. 2014. Nutrient Needs of Horses. Gidenne, T., 2000. Recent advances and perspectives in rabbit nutrition: Emphasis on fibre requirements. W. Rabbit Sci. 8, 2332. Harris, P., 1997. Energy sources and requirements of the exercising horse. Ann. Rev. Nutr., 17, 185-210 Jarrige R. (Ed), 1988. Alimentation des bovins, ovins et caprins. INRA, Paris, ISBN 2-7389-0021 Jarrige, R., Tisserand, J.L., 1984. Métabolisme, besoins et alimentation azotée du cheval.Chapter 18. In : R. Jarrige, W. Martin-Rosset Editors. « Le Cheval » INRA Publications, Route de St Cyr, 78000 Versailles, p. 277-302. Johnson E. L. and Duberstein K.J. 2013. How to Feed a Horse: Understanding Basic Principles of Horse Nutrition. IFAS Extension. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. ANSI -3997. Larbier, M., Leclercq, B. 1994. Nutriţia şi alimentaţia păsărilor. Ed. Alutus-D, Bucureşti.

43. Leeson, S. & Summers, J.D. 2001. Scott’s nutrition of the chicken, 4th edition. Nottingham, UK, Nottingham University Press. 44. National Research Council (NRC). 1977. Nutrient Requirements of Rabbits. Second Revised Edition. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C. USA. 45. National Research Council (NRC). 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th revised edition. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C. USA. 46. National Research Council (NRC). 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle / Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council, 7th rev. ed., National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., ISBN 0-309-06997-1 47. National Research Council (NRC).1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC, USA. 48. Orskov ER, McDonald I (1979) - The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science Cambridge, 92, 499-503. 49. Payne, R. L. and R. T. Zijlstra. 2007. A guide to application of net energy in swine feed formulation. Advances in Pork Production 18:159-165. 50. Ravindran, V. 2012. Advances and Future Directions in Poultry Nutrition: An Overview 51. Korean Journal of Poultry Science. Volume 39, Issue 1, pp.53-62. 52. Sauvant D., Perez J.-M., Tran G. 2002. INRA-AFZ Tables de composition et de valeur nutritive des matières premières destinées aux animaux d’élevage. ISBN 27380-1046-6 2002, INRA Editions Versailles. 53. Szabo C. and Halas V. 2013. Shortcomings of the Energy Evaluation Systems in Pigs: a Review. 54. Tisserand, J.L., Martin-Rosset, W., 1996. Evaluation of the protein value of feedstuffs in horses in the MADC system. In: Proceeding of 47th Annual Meeting of European Association for Animal Production. Lillehammer August 25-29 Norway. Aleshat H.4.3. p. 293. Wageningen Pers. Ed. Wageningen The Netherlands. 55. Vermorel, M., Martin-Rosset, W., 1997. Concepts, scientific bases, structure and validation of the French horse net energy system (UFC). Livest. Prod. Sci., 47 :261275. 56. Vermorel, M., Martin-Rosset, W., Vernet, J., 1997. Energy utilization of twelve forages or mixed diets for maintenance by sport horses. Livest. Prod. 57, 157-167. 325 57. www.prairieswine.com


RATIONAL LIVESTOCK NUTRITION IN RURAL AREAS Insufficient knowledge and not enough rational livestock nutrition skills generate high costs of animal production. The nutritional mistakes limit the exploitation of genetic potential of animals, affect animal health and performance negatively what leads to considerable financial losses. Moreover, undigested nutrients of animal diets present the risk for environmental contamination.

tanfolyamok

Therefore, there is a need to transfer skills and knowledge (know-how) on the new animal feeding systems and feed production with particular emphasis on the financial, animal physiology and environmental protection issues.

interaktív e-learning platform

PROJECT AIMS:

development of innovative methods and teaching/training materials (interactive e-learning platform, handbook) in the field of rational livestock nutrition and feed quality;

enhancement of animal production viability and reduction of youth migration from rural to urban areas through improvement of life quality in the countryside.

PROJECT TARGET GROUPS: breeders and people involved in animal production ‒ animal nutrition advisors, veterinarians, agriculture counsellors etc.; teachers/lecturers of vocational agriculture schools/universities and students.

LiveNUTRITION book OKL v4 do druku.indd 2

ODUCTS

innovatív tanterv kézikönyv

A tanterv és a tananyag tartalmazni fogja a speciális regionális és nemzeti elvárásokat, felöleli a szakterület összes fontos kérdését: az ésszerű takarmányozást, az állategészségügyi kérdéseket, a gyepgazdálkodás fontosságát, a legelők minőségi fejlesztését és védelmét, az egészséges állatitermék-előállítást, a tej- és hústermelés minőségi előírásait, a tudományos módszerek ismeretét a betegségmegelőző egészséges táplálkozás vonatkozásában, a megújuló energiaforrások hasznosítását, a fenntartható, egészségre ártalmatlan ivóvízforrások megőrzését, a hagyományos és újabb takarmánynövények hasznosítását és a vidéki területek speciális igényeinek figyelembe vételét.



The handbook “Rational livestock nutrition in rural areas” is a compendium with holistic approach to farm animal nutrition including health aspects, the quality of animal origin products, protection of agricultural environment and animal production as well as the European Union legislation in the framework of the Common Agricultural Policy.

SZAKKÉPZÉSI PROJEKTEK A pályázattípus célja jó gyakorlatok megosztásának, fejlesztésének, átvételének vagy alkalmazásának támogatása intézményi, helyi, regionális, nemzeti vagy európai szinten a szakképzés területén (tágabb értelemben pl. a munka világát érintő képzések terén is).

Substantive part of all chapters covers the most important issues, in accordance with the current standards of knowledge of widely recognized livestock nutrition and issues arising from the implementation of animal production in sustainable agriculture context. From the nature of the project derives its target - a private sector, not industrial animal production or feed industry. The individual chapters differ each other slightly with a level of knowledge on presented issues, but they provide complete basic knowledge for readers with vocational, and even a higher level of education. The compendium contents are presented in very direct and communicative way. Dr. Maja Słupczyńska and Dr. Eng. Barbara Król ‒ project coordinator and editor of the whole handbook, as well as the authors of chapter 2 ‒ Feed and feeds additives, have put a lot of to unify chapters submitted by foreign authors, retaining their individual character, style and honoring copyright laws. The introduction of numerous graphics generally less frequently used in handbook, colourful aplas, short, key information (where possible) facilitate learning process, perception and readability of the contents, even for the less prepared reader.

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences (PL)

Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University (TR)

ÉSSZERŰ TAKARMÁNYOZÁS ÉS ÁLLATTARTÁS Barbara Król Maja Słupczyńska

Overall, the contents of “Rational livestock nutrition in rural areas” book, modern, synthetic and holistic approach on the limited volume of about 300 pages allow to provide a valuable compendium of animal production in rural areas. I pay tribute to young coordinators for the effects of their intense editorial work. A special highlight requires the fact that the contents of the handbook were prepared in English, as it is provided for its dissemination, after prior translation, in project countries participating in strategic partnership ‒ Poland, Turkey, Romania, Italy and Hungary. (“the mother handbook”). Verification and mastering specific English nomenclature of so vast and diverse text by Dr. Eng. Barbara Król and Dr. Maja Słupczyńska has been a great challenge met by young editors.

University of Balıkesir (TR)

National Research Development Institute for Animal Biology and Nutrition (RO)

Confederazione Italiana Agricoltori dellʼUmbria (IT)

Prof. zw. dr. hab. Dorota Jamroz, dr. h.c., dr. h.c. ERASMUS+ EGYÜTTMŰKÖDÉS ÉS INNOVÁCIÓ A BEVÁLT GYAKORLATOK TERÉN;

Association of the Regional Initiatived Development „Lacjum” (PL)

KA202 - STRATÉGIAI PARTNERSÉGEK - SZAKKÉPZÉSI PROJEKTEK

www.livenutrition.eu Projektszám: 2014-1-PL-KA202-003496

LiveNUTRITION book OKL v4 do druku.indd 1

Tudás Alapítvány (HU)