Traditional Settlements, Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development

Page 1


Traditional Settlements, Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development





Foundation of Knowledge, Hódmezővásárhely (Hungary)

ASPECT – Management and Intercultural Relations, Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

Shoqata Shqiptare e Ambientalisteve Industriale, Tirana (Albania)

Instytut Rozwoju Sportu i Edukacji, Warszava (Poland)

Razvojna agencija Sotla, Šmarje pri Jelšah (Slovenia)

Associazione Paesaggi Connessi, Sestu (Italy

Comune di Petrosino, Petrosino (Italy)

The publication has been published with the assistance of the Erasmus+ KA2 project called “Traditional Settlements, Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Development”, number 2016-1-EL01-KA204-023477 The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
















CULTURAL HERITAGE OF EPIRUS-GREECE WITH EMPHASIS IN THESPROTIA Wri en by Smyris Georgios (Architect, School of Fine Arts, University of Ioannina) Ntelis Methodios IAbbot of Holy Monastery of Giromerion) Dimitriou Constanঞnos (Infrastructure Engineer) Adapted translaঞon from Greek: Athanasia Krikoni, Teacher of English


Copy ediঞng and photos by Nikolaou Markos Theodoridi Thalia (Center for Environmental Educaঞon of Filiates), Filiates, Greece)




Coat of arms of Epirus 5

CULTURAL HERITAGE OF EPIRUS-GREECE WITH EMPHASIS IN THESPROTIA The protection and enhancement of the architectural heritage is an obligation for the Greek state and the result of the international obligations of the country. Greece’s

participation in international organizations (UNESCO, Council of Europe, ICOMOS, ICOM, Europa Nostra) brought the country out of isolation on these issues. A series of directives or internationally accepted principles have been formally adopted or indirectly influenced by these decisions and developments. The concept of the cultural environment appeared for the first time in the Greek legislation with the 1975 Constitution, where it is clearly stated that “Monuments, traditional

6 Koulia Tower in Paramythia

Folklor museum of Foiniki

areas and traditional elements are protected by the State”. In this context, it is clear that traditional settlements, the protection of which is imposed by their architecture, their unity or their integration in the landscape and their particular value in terms of the history of art or science, are also included. Urban space and the countryside are homely, encoded spaces that have come from uses and habits, are not free and in no way empty. As we all understand, they are the result of relations between economic activities, social structures, cultural values, natural factors and memory, in a constant dynamic change with the man not as an observer but as a factor of the society that he experiences. With a more critical eye, the space is full of memories, activities and experiences. It is the one created through social, economic values and environmental conditions from life and culture. The real challenge nowadays is if we are able to find the relationship with the earth and re-encounter with the

natural world to which we belong as living organisms. Since it is necessary to mediate a “built-in model” for the transition from the existing imperfect society to an ideal one, we should work out how to build an integrated house to support human and social identity, since no one can be a citizen of the world or a simple person if he doesn’t belong to a place. Thus, it is imperative that we be aware of the indigenous tradition and the knowledge of the past, and it is fundamental to preserve the elements that ensure this knowledge. Modern definitions of scientific areas ensure the correctness of the methods by partly removing the desired but inadequate, simplistic approach to the above issues. In the region of Epirus, the institutional framework imposes control of the form and the uses in 10 historical centers (settlements or parts of settlements). We also have to add a number of individual buildings, such as 142 buildings in the city of Ioannina, 26 in


the county and a number of others that are under control due to legislation. The framework is relatively adequate without implying that it cannot be extended and modified. But everything has a general underlying principle. The question of “what are the specifications for repair, maintenance, rehabilitation of integration, has been literally replaced by the question: what are the terms of construction” of new constructions, a question which abolishes the concept of conservation. In my opinion, a legislative gap has been created, which is expanded with the addition of new fragmentary decrees and opinions, thus creating a multifaceted reference system. Moreover, the definition of “traditional settlement” is not given in any legislative text concerning its protection. This protection, which is one of the essential objectives of spatial planning and urban planning, is primarily aimed at making apparent the unity of cultural heritage and the links between architecture, arts, folk traditions and lifestyles at regional, national and European level. Its protection is necessary due to folklore, ethnology, social, technical, architectural, industrial or historical, artistic or scientific significance. If we attempt to classify the various trends that have been developed, we could discern the following trends, of course, considering that the imitations or neutrality, are the easy solution for every legislator. Here we have to add that the above comes from the need to supply the architectural policy. With the

deep knowledge of the space to which we are going to contribute, we will avoid slipping into clichés and recipes. This of course has two aspects: Reflection must be fruitful on all four sides of the table which involves the State bodies and legislation, users, scholars and reviewers. As far as the issue of religious monuments and their prospect of development is concerned, we should point out that taken for granted the fact that from antiquity to today, to almost all people, there is the belief that the practice of one’s religion is more effective at places where there are statues, temples, relics of saints or miraculous icons and in places where the most important events of history took place, then we can understand the tradition of worshipping and its architectural unity. Religious tourism as a consequence of such worshipping expressions belongs to the alternative forms of tourism, which goes beyond the usual pattern of holidays and includes the seeking for action and different activities. The intense interest in “religious tourism” and its possibilities of development has for years concerned the tourism policies of the various states and the relevant bodies internationally. Since our country has so much religiosity, which is unique, with the thousands of small and big monasteries and places that everyone would like to visit, we have a sound means of development. Especially the geographical region of Epirus presents important prospects and development opportunities, which are iden-

8 Ioannina

Chapel of Saint Minas Kokkinolithari

The Holy Metropolis of Paramythia tified both in the diversity of the alternative forms of tourism and in the incentives given by the state for the strengthening of the infrastructure in the region. In the prefecture of Thesprotia, which together with certain areas of the neighboring prefectures of Ioannina and Preveza, constitute the Holy Metropolis of Paramythia, a significant portion of visitors is interested in touring and acquainting our Monasteries and their historical monumental complexes, the way of life of the monks and the old historians with exquisite frescoes and our picturesque chapels. In the wooded areas and on the slopes and steep summits of the mountainous areas, but also close to the cities and the sea, monasteries and churches offer exceptional and unique sights of architectural design. Monuments of the Byzantine world and others carry memories of the traces of Hellenism and Orthodoxy in this turbulent area. There are areas where a visit can perfectly be combined with other activities such as visiting archaeological sites, traditional settlements or areas of special natural beauty and interest. One example of this, which concerns Thesprotia, is the historic Giromeri Monastery in the area of Filiates. The Patriarchal and Stavropigiaki Monastery of Giromeri was built in the early 14th century and is situated 23 km far from Igoumenitsa. It is one of the most important monastic centres in Epirus. It served as the headquarters of the Patriarchal Exarchate and Bishopric until the end of the 19th century, with a major contribution to Hellenism. Its Catholic, built in the

Holy Monastery of Giromerion 14th century and renovated in 1568, is one of the most remarkable monuments of Byzantine art with excellent wall paintings of the 16th century. Parts of wood-carved temple and several heirlooms of different seasons and of great artistic value are still kept in good condition. Other monuments are also located around the monastery. These are the traditional villages of Giromeni, Foiniki, Faneromeni, Plaisio and Sideris, the beautiful villages of Mourganas, with their abundant natural beauty, the Folklore Museums of Tsamanta and Foiniki and the mountainous range of Kalamas. There are also small rivers in the area, even the sea that is not far away, with the well-known and attractive to all Sagiada. Thesprotia is a prefecture of monuments and places that can constitute a network of tourist interest, which will contribute significantly to the further development of the area. These are the Agios Georgios Kamitsanis Monastery dating from the 18th century, with its wonderful Catholic , the Monastery of Agios Athanasios of Vavouri with its magnificent location, the Monastery of Agia Marina Lykou near Haravgi, the Agia Paraskevi Monastery from the 16th century on the edge of Kalamas. Some others are the picturesque Monastery of Panagia Spileotissa neighboring Vrosina and finally the amazing Metochi of Agios Minas, the Meteor of Epirus in Kokinolithari which is a part of this network to the north of the prefecture. But also the Paramythia area, with the historic home of the Metropolis, is embellished with a large number of ecclesiastical monu-


ments. The majestic temple of Panagia from the 14th century on the edge of the city with the nearby Byzantine baths, the magnificent monuments of ancient Photios excavated and constantly revealed, as well as the modern Metropolitan Church of Agios Donatos in the center of the city, where part of Relics of the patron saint, are important attractions for visitors. We should also mention the famous Souli with the Temples and its castle, the historic settlement of Osdina with the Five Churches, Gliki with its Middle Byzantine basilica, Velliani with the historical Monastery of Prodromos, the Paganias Monastery built in 17th century, Plakati with the Metamorphosis Monastery and the Monastery of the Virgin Mary in Michla, as well as the important

Agios Georgios Kamitsanis

Monastery of Panagia Ragiou, which is in operation after several years of abandonment. We still have remarkable monuments in Kaminis with the Catholic of Agios Dimitrios Monastery dating back to the 13th century and in Gardiki with the Catholic Agia Kyriaki Monastery that has survived since the 14th century. Unique in their form are the Hermitages, which are well preserved with the most important one this of the Saint Nile in Giromeri, where there are frescoes from the 14th century, the one of Boliana and the two of Agios Arsenios in Velliani and Morphati. Outside the boundaries of the Prefecture, but within our Metropolitan Region, there are other important monuments that complement the ideological religious map. Other notable monuments are the Monastery

Metropolitan Church of Agios Donatos

1100 Five Churches

Kalamas River Osdina

Monastery of Panagia Ragiou

of Agios Dimitrios Kypselis with its amazing architectural Catholic from the 13th century, the unique Parga with its many churches and the Vlacherna Monastery, and the Pounta Monastery, outside Kanallaki, the only active women’s monastery, where the tomb of Saint Paraskevi is located. Most of them, however, have the need for saving initiatives and maintenance in order to be highlighted and continue their history. All the co-competent bodies must, without delay, take on their responsibilities and act in this direction. When it comes to traditional settlements and sustainable developments, we couldn’t omit the restoration work of the two watermills in our region: First, the watermill of the Duma family in Kristallopigi, Paramythia and the watermills of the Balaura family in Rizo, Filiates. The watermill is the first work machine, which humans made to take advantage of the renewable energy sources. The dynamic energy, produced by the drop of water, with the help of this machine, turns into kinetic energy. This energy puts in motion simple machines in the beginning, and more complex ones later on, meeting the needs of

people in the pre-industrial era. The watermills, which replaced the hand mills and the animal-powered mills, perhaps are the most important discovery, after the wheel, that changed his life. The first historical evidence of the existence of the watermills dates from the historian Stravon. The watermills were built at the edges of the rivers, and in places which were protected from the floods. They were usually small, rectangular stone-built buildings covered with tiles, slabs or metal sheets. The watermills, whose traces are all over Greece, are over 20000. After the revolution of 1821 and the establishment of the New Greek State, there was a record of 6000 watermills. 5500 of them were Turkish and were brought to the Greek state, which gave them or rented them to private citizens. The profession of the miller was one of the most lucrative of this pre-industrial era. The operation of the watermills was particularly high during July and August, after harvesting. Then the millers worked day and night. The watermills were directly connected with the social life, since it was the place where a large number of people from the surrounding villages was gathered. There, they exchanged news from


the surrounding areas and commented on the events that took place. Agreements on work and affairs were made in the mill. Following the structure of a common mill, we observe that on the upper house there was the house of the miller which consisted of a room with a fireplace. There, the tired passer-by, the hunter, and every kind of “hunted” man found shelter. Due to the long-lasting use of the watermill through the centuries, fictional legends and stories have been falsified. For this reason, people believed that the mills were inhabited by ghosts, goblins, witches and all kinds of elves. In our area, there are many watermills along the Acheron and Kalamas rivers and their tributaries. Others have been restored and others are in ruins. The operation of a watermill is relatively simple, and is based on a series of transmitted moves. The water is flowing to the mill from the flume with momentum, and empowers the paddle wheel. As it turns, it moves on an axis, which in turn, turns the runner stones. As stated above, we dealt with two watermill complexes of our region. The first is the mill complex of the Duma family in Kristallopigi in Paramythia, and the second the complex mill of Balaura family in Rizo in Filiates. During the stage of their study and restoration we have strictly adhered to the principles of environmental protection and respect for history and tradition. The DUMA family’s mill complex is located about 1500 meters away from the Kristallopigi springs in Paramythia, where there are the headwaters of the mythical Kokitos river. The initial owner and manufacturer of the mill was the Italian engineer Pristinelas, οr else called Frangos. It was later sold to the Turks, and after the liberation from the Ottomans, it came down to the Duma family. Its historical route begins in the 18th century, and more particularly in 1715. The entire building complex consists of 7 different buildings, of various geometrical dimensions, tied together harmoniously. They are perched on a green hillside, below shadowy plane trees, harmoniously tied to the


environment and nature. The entire complex of watermills is an excellent folk architecture monument. At the top of the complex stands the water tower which is 12 meters high. Many of these buildings before restoration were half deserted, abandoned and dipped in the bushes and mosses and hardly anyone suspected that these were buildings. In the centre of the complex, just below the water tower, there is the gristmill. On the ground floor there is the gristmill and on the first floor the house of the miller. They have been interventions on the exterior of the building and extensions on the first floor. On the ground floor of the gristmill, there is one big entrance for the animals, loaded with grains to enter, and an exit door. The parts of the flour mill and its function present great interest. Its function is based on a series of transmitted movements. Restoration work carried out is as follows. In the gristmill, externally and internally, the walls were cleaned with sandblasting to reveal the masonry. All the walls were fitted with a strong mortar. The floor level was formed, and it was over -coated with thick, white porcelain slabs. Parts of the input and output doors were removed for the purpose of restoring them to the former condition and wooden doors were built. Wooden panels were placed on the ceiling of the gristmill and the marble outdoor staircase was replaced with stones. The steel roof at the home of the miller was replaced with a roof made of wooden tiles and four parallel reinforcement of the building’s load bearing structure. The entrance of the house and the windows were replaced with wooden window frames, and safety rails were installed on the windows. Also, various parts of the grist mill were filled in order to operate properly. The outer walls of the floor were coated and painted in auburn (color of tiles). In the gristmill area and to the west side, there is a ground floor building, with a single roof, where nozzles operate. In the past, the housewives, in the villages, were weaving onto the loom. These woven fabrics (flanked

rugs, capes, blankets), and all the clothes of the loom were shuffled with the rotational vortex to become more fluffy and soft. In the pre-industrial era in Greece, the nozzles and the water mills were the most common hydro-powered installations. They have made a significant contribution to the

economic and social life of the place. The nozzle is a cone-shaped wooden bin. It looks like a large barrel, which is buried deep into the soil so that it is safe. Today’s nozzles are troughs of concrete in the soil. The restoration work in the nozzles was the replacement of the roof, the reinforcement

Watermill Duma

and the cleaning of the masonry as well as laying the floor with white thick slabs. In the lower part of the complex, descending one large stone staircase, there is the building where the mandane is installed. The basic function of the mandane is as follows: The water, through the impeller, drives four pestles. They are heavy wooden hammers which rhythmically beat the woolen cloths, intended for jackets, trousers, capes, etc to tighten the knots and thread and give them durability. Mandane has a special manufacturing interest since all of its components are wooden. In this area all the stoneworks were cleaned with sandblasting and grooved with high strength mortar. The roof was replaced with a single-sided wooden tile roof and the sup-

porting body of stonework was strengthened. The floor was overcoated with thick, white slabs. Next to the gristmill there is the warehouse, where clothes were kept. In this building, all the walls of stonework were revealed and were cleaned with sandblasting, and the roof was replaced with a new wooden tile roof. A heavy, wooden door was placed at the entrance and showcases for the exhibits and wooden beads for the visitors were constructed. Next to the flour mill, there is the warehouse with the flour. The masonry of this building was cleaned of the grooves, the floor was coated with tiles and wooden frames were placed. At the back of the gristmill, there are two buildings which have historical value.

14 Watermill Balaura

Grika Bridge

It is a two-storey building, where on the ground floor there is a vaulted construction and on the floor there is a large room with a fireplace. On the ground floor they stored the tobacco after the necessary processing was done. The floor was a guest house for passers-by and customers of the mill. The other building on the ground floor was used as a storage place for the rice. In this building, there were reinforcements on masonry bearing body. The roof was replaced, doors and wooden windows were placed and the floors were coated with white, thick slabs. Interventions also took place in the exterior area of the complex. Walls and benches were repaired, yards and stairs were paved and all the damages were restored. Trails were made to allow the visitor to reach all the laces and especially its highest point, the water tower. The whole complex has been illuminated to highlight a great cultural heritage of our country. All the above studies and work have been funded by the ROPs of Epirus. Regarding the other mill, the mill of Balaura

family located at Rizo, Filiates in a lush forest of ancient trees, there are two buildings on the right and left side of the road leading to Rizo. These water mill buildings before the interventions were in a semi-ruined-condition. In the building where there is the flour mill, the home of the miller was added which communicates with the gristmill with a wooden staircase. Wooden frames were placed and the building was coated with a quadruple wooden tiled roof. The flume and the hopper were replaced. The building below the street was in the same condition as the building of the flour mill. On the ground floor of the building there was the establishment of the nozzle. A floor was added which was the house of the miller and it was formed and has been repaired appropriately to host exhibits of our folk culture. Around the surroundings, necessary interventions were made so that the place can be visited. Watermills are monuments of our popular cultural heritage and as such they require the interest of the state and all of us. 15


HÓDMEZŐVÁSÁRHELY – HUNGARY Wri en by Gábor Palotás János Palotás (Founda on of Knowledge, Hódmezővásárhely, Hungary) Photos: Gábor Palotás










THE FORMATION OF THE FARMSTEAD CENTRES Székkutas Kardoskút-Pusztaközpont Mártély

26 26 26 27

ARTIFICIAL FARMSTEAD CENTRES Ba da Erzsébet Kútvölgy Szikáncs Rárós

27 27 27 27 27 27

PRIVATE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS OF THE WORLD OF SCATTERED FARMS Farmsteads: buildings for living and farming Farmstead Museum in Kopáncs Farmsteads of our days in the outskirts of Vásárhely Piroska Guest House

28 28 29 31 31



SCHOOLS The school in Csomorkány The school in Bodzáspart – open-air school The school in Mártély The school in Sóshalom, reading circle The school in Mátyáshalom

32 32 33 33 34 34

WINDMILLS Papi wind-mill Imre Késmárki wind-mill Piroska wind-mill

35 36 36 37

CHURCHES Szent Adorján-templom (St. Adrian/Hadrian’s Church) Szent Mihály-templom (St. Michael’s Church) Székkutasi Református Egyházkösség temploma (Church of Székkutas Calvinist Church District) Kardoskúঞ evangélikus templom (Lutheran Church of Kardoskút) 39 Csomorkányi templomrom (Csomorkány church-ruin) 42

38 38 38

RAILWAY STATIONS Railway staঞon in Mártély Railway staঞon in Székkutas

28 42 42




Coat of arms of Hódmezővásárhely


THE HISTORY OF HÓDMEZŐVÁSÁRHELY Hódmezővásárhely can be found in the south-eastern part of Alföld (Great Hungarian Plain) at a distance of about 180 km from Budapest. It has the second largest area (487,98 km2) and its population is 44795 (2015). The history of the town goes back to the Arpadian age (10-13th centuries). In the 14th century the villages of Hód and Vásárhely were joined and by this Hódmezővásárhely came to being by the former Lake Hód and in 1446 it was awarded the rank of a market-town by János Hunyadi, governor, landlord of the territory at that time. “Market-towns (or oppidium) is characteristic form of settlements in the territory of Hungary including the Great Hungarian Plain. Having gained privileges from their landlords they composed a kind of transition between villages of serfs and free royal towns. Their basic privilege was the right of keeping fairs and their name suggested that, being located on open areas, fields just like villages, were not allowed to build town-walls. At some places they were surrounded by entrenchment or board fence.” (Mrs. Gál, 2016) After 1541 when the country got torn into three parts the situation of the town be-


came disordered for a long time and it was only in 1552 that it became part of the territory under Turkish rule, which surrounded it. During two later military expeditions of the Turkish the area was devastated by Tartar predatory troops and as a result of this several villages belonging to Vásárhely such as Fecskés, Földvár and Solt in 1566, Batida, Csomorkány, Férged, Gorzsa, Körtvélyes, Mágocs, Sámson, Szőlős, Pereskutas, Rárós, Rétkopáncs, Tótkutas and Újváros in 1596, became depopulated and disappeared for ever. Hódmezővásárhely might have been able to remain due to its location near Lake Hód and it became the only permanently populated settlement in the whole surrounding lowland plain. This fact contributed significantly to its further growth concerning population and size. At margin areas Turkish administration did not make efforts to obtain absolute supremacy, they were satisfied with keeping military power and collecting taxes. Vásárhely, being a “khas” town, was allowed to pay taxes for the Turkish vilajet in a more favourable way, which was once a year in one amount. Besides this it also paid taxes to the landowners, who were parts of the Hungarian ad-ministration surviving and existing parallel with the Turkish rule. Although this double-taxing was an exhausting burden for the town, among these unclear manorial conditions it was able to save its mar-

ket-town authority entirely and even to acquire new ones. These were the following: independent provision over cultivation of the land and independent jurisdiction. In a rather strange way it was the liquidation of the Turkish supremacy in the 17th century and driving out of the Turkish that caused the greatest financial danger as it was nearly completely destroyed and it also became depopulated for years. It was only after the fall of the war of independence of Rákóczi (1711) that a longer peaceful period came. Károlyi family, who became landowners in1722, guaranteed the further autonomous development of the town and ensured freedom of Calvinist reli-

gion. From that time on economic development created a particular settlement-shape instead of the former one liquidated in Turkish times: an expanded area of scattered farms was formed, which made a better agricultural use of the land possible and during the times it became the dwelling-place of thousands of people. Following the compromise of 1867, in 1873, it became a municipal town with a continuously growing population. In 1890 it was the fourth densely populated town of the country (with a population of 60,883 in 1900). As a result of the consequences of the constructional “boom” the outlook of the town changed considerably during the age of du-


alism. In spite of this it preserved its appearance of a market-town: the central area of the town was surrounded with a vast world of scattered farms. After World War II and the settling down of the communist rule powerful industrialization was started involving mainly light industry, agricultural machinery and food industry. The life of those living in scattered farms was greatly influenced by forced collectivization meaning the incorporation of the land of small-holders, the demolishing of the world of scattered farms and the liquidation of the conditions of life in scattered farms. After the changing of the regime, in 1991 Hรณdmezล vรกsรกrhely became a City with County Rights. The political and economic changes led to the disintegration of industry in the town (the socialist large-scale industry collapsed). At the same time intensive infrastructural development began with the aim of recreating the bases of industrial, agricultural, commercial and cultural development.


THE NETWORK OF SCATTERED FARMS AS THE TYPICAL FORM OF SETTLEMENTS ON THE GREAT HUNGARIAN PLAIN Detached farmsteads, whose first name was shelter, originally used to mean a hut or a tent made by herdsmen or hunters built for themselves on the pasture or in the wood. Later, typically on the Great Plain, this name was used for smaller farms that made the economic management of the land among the buildings possible. According to its classical interpretation the farmsteads are scattered, private-ly owned settlings with dwelling- and farm-buildings, lying in the surroundings of a vil-lage/community and making the cultivation of lands in the outskirts possible. According to its orig-inal meaning,

scattered farms used to be temporarily inhabited at first, mainly during the summer periods while during winter-times they were meant to help animals spending the winter. Later on, when agriculture became more intensive, scattered farms were converted into the permanent dwelling-place of the farmer/ smallholder and his family. Scattered farms appeared typically in the wide outskirts of market-towns from the beginning of the 18th century as small spots populating the previously uninhabited lowland plain, or “puszta”, used only for grazing up to the time, and drawing it into cultivation in a more and more intensive way. The pre-condition of this course of proceedings was the landed property of peasants or at least the possibility of farming lease ensuring free use of the land. “Market-towns redeemed land from land-lords uniformly so the right of possession was enforced by the town community. (…) The so-called civis society consisted of smallholders, wealthy peasant farmers and free citizens, who had

the free right of moving and inheritance. They were allowed to employ cotters, who owned neither land nor live-stock, on their pastures and lands.” (Mrs. Gál, 2016.) At places where all this was not ensured (areas where socage conditions stayed for a long time) the same settlement-shaping process that had existed in the peasant-towns on the Great Plain for one and half a centuries started only after the emancipation of serfs (1853). “Taking the conditions of the 20th century as a starting-point, researchers of settlement-geography as well as some of the historians used to believe for a long time that scattered farmsteads came into being through the decay/disorganization of “huge villages”, which were formed during the Turkish rule and had wide boundary and through the people’s “settling apart”. At the same time farmsteads were considered to be scattered settlements inhabited permanently, that is the categories of the European settlement systems were adapted to them. Lat-


er, especially after the researches of István Győrffy and Ferenc Erdei, it became clear that farmsteads used to be parts of the external boundary of the divided peasant-town”. (Sources: Települési szórványok – Tanyák) The formation of scattered farms • Middle of 17th–19th centuries: Scattered farms are lodgings belonging to market-towns and were formed at places where agricultural areas were far from the town and it was impossible to cultivate the land and supply animals with food by commuting there daily. Farmers used to build lodgings for themselves for their stay during the time of agricultural work (that is from spring to autumn) and having finished work (after harvest) they returned to their houses in the town. • 1850 – the end of 19th century: Agricultural production became more and more intensive resulting the necessity of spending more time in scattered farms (keeping animals in sheds/stables instead of grazing, growing hoed plants, besides growing of corn, wine and fruit


production ap-peared). The owners of these farmsteads still did not become permanent dwellers there but hired labourers did, and they spent the whole year living there cultivating plants and breeding animals in the summer and looking after the animals in the winter. The beginning of 20th century – 1945: As a result of the more intensive agriculture farmers owning land started to move there. By this the social circle of those living there permanently was created. They were no more connected to city-life in the same way as farmers of the previous cycle. 1945–1990: Changes came in two directions in this period. As a result of the distribution of land after World War II 75000 scattered farms were built typically on small and medium-sized peasant estates (5-10 holds: 1 hold equals 0,57 hectares/1,42 English acres). After 1950 power-ful collectivization started resulting these estates becoming parts of co-operatives and disap-pearance of a

huge proportion of the scattered farms. From 1990: Scattered farms have their Renaissance. This can be connected with the restart of the privately-owned agricultural production, but at the same time a lot of people buy estates with farmsteads with the aim of recreation (weekend or free-time farmsteads, but “farmstead-tourism” as a service has also appeared).

THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORLD OF SCATTERED FARMS IN VÁSÁRHELY Farming in scattered farms goes back to the beginning of 18th century in Hódmezővásárhely. Serfs (villeins) used to keep

animals on land given by landowners and later on they started cultivating the land on these animal-keeping shelters. Grazing went on pastures on the “puszta”, animals stayed in the scattered farms only in the winter. During that time farmers used to live in the town, farm hands and/or single members of the family took care of the animals. By 1761 a vast system of scattered farms was formed around the town, which can be observed well on the first military map of the area made between 1780-1784. A characteristic feature of this period is that farming activity moved to the outskirts, but social life stayed in the centre of the town. The area of scattered farms and the town had a strong connection between them, the owners lived their (civil) life in the town, but their agricultural activity was done in the areas outside the town. The odd thing in this type of settlement structure is the lack of villages (where social life and farming is not separated, but in unity). In the second stage of development keeping


animals in sheds/stables spread instead of the grazing (extensive) method. This way of farming required somebody (farm hand, member of family, etc.) to stay permanently in the farmstead. In this period farmsteads had already become permanent dwell-ingplaces of those working there. So the double-type way of life, which was so typical previously, disappeared. During this time, after the constitutional emancipation of serfs, cultivation became even more intensive and because of this more workers were needed in scattered farms resulting in the growing number of farmsteads and those living there. This process was promoted by the regula-tion of River Tisza, the draining and ceasing of the wet flood areas, which led to the radical growing of the outskirts of the town as well as the growing number of scattered farms. There were more and more families living in farmsteads, who did not own a house in the town, they were only con-nected to the town through their families (parents, relatives). It is important to mention


that the town remained the only scene of social life. Beyond their families, people living in the outskirts were bound to the church, holidays/feasts and fairs/markets. At the same time they often did not have any relationship with their own neighbours. In the third stage of development the intensive way of cultivation continued, the world of scattered farms did not increase with new land. Having inherited the property the young farmer moved to the farmstead with his family as he had no house in the town. Farmsteads used to be found scattered in the outskirts of Vásárhely, lying about 1-3 kms from each other. Their connection with the town became looser and looser and connection with all those living in the outskirts became stronger and stronger. People living in scattered farms were mostly from among the poor, for them raising the claim to having a house in the town appeared in their old ages. In the 1920’s and 1930’s there used to be 5517 scattered farms in an area of 132000

cadastral yokes/acres (= 6823.95 square yards = 1.412 acres) in the outskirts of Hódmezővásárhely. Size of estates: • most of them were between 5-50 holds (1 hold = 0.57 hectares or 1.42 English acres), • only 21 estates were of 200-1000 holds, • there was no estate with a bigger area than 1000 holds. After 1945 as a result of the agrarian reform 1066 families were given land in Hódmezővásárhely, 6022 cadastral yokes/acres were shared out among them (the average size being 5 holds). They built new farms on their estates (in 1950 there used to be about 7000 scattered farms around the town). The world of scattered farms around Hódmezővásárhely was condemned to death by the collectivization (creation of Soviet-type co-operatives) starting in 1948 (and lasting until 1960). Lands around the scattered farms were regrouped (ploughed into one) and only an area of 800-1600 square-fathoms (one square-fathom = 3,57 m2 = 38,32

square foot) could be left for the use of those living there. Between 1957 and 1987 it was prohibited to build or reconstruct scattered farms. Farmstead centres were assigned for people living there. Together with the disappearance of possibilities for life and work, migration started from the farmsteads to the farmstead centres, villages and towns where people could find possibilities for living and workplaces. Cultivation on farm-steads was replaced by large-scale production in co-operatives. People living there found jobs either there or in the industrial works and factories of cities. As a consequence of this the deserted farmsteads (which were mostly built of adobe) started to decay. In the 1980’s changes came in this process, which, after the transformation of the political system (1990), became stronger. In the beginning people living in the town bought farmsteads to use them as weekend-houses or to have hobby-gardens, etc. and after 1990 there were possibilities again for private-farming, which brought positive changes for the conditions of farmsteads as well.


Farmstead-types of our days in Hódmezővásárhely: • farmsteads for living: people living there do not do any production, they work in the town or somewhere else, only live in the farmstead, • smallholders’ farmsteads: the owners produce for their own needs, make their own living at another workplace or are pensioners, • farmsteads for tourists: the owners provide touristic services for inhabitants of town interested in village and country-life, • farmstead farms: with actual agricultural production.

THE FORMATION OF THE FARMSTEAD CENTRES By the turn of the 19th-20th centuries three farmstead centers had developed: Székkutas, Kardoskút and Mártély, which became independent villages later on and separated from the administrative area of Hódmezővásárhely. Because of these changes the area of the town decreased with 48000 cadastral yokes/acres and the population with 10000 people. In all the three cases the double role of the developing railway (and railway stations) and the churches can be observed: they are signs of the advanced stage of settlements and promoted them to become independent.

Székkutas From 1892 a transferred administrative unit started its work in the settlement, which had the name Vásárhelykutas at that time. The civil-servant, the doctor and the veterinary coming from the town spent two or three days weekly at a rented farmstead. Later on gendarme service was also established. Székkutas lies near the railway-line between Szeged and Békéscsaba and with its railway 26

station it was suitable for the role of a farmstead centre. In 1914 26 building sites were parceled out, houses were built on them, which became the centre of the later settlement. The village started to develop during the 1950’s partly because of the fact that the communist direction considered it to be a socialist model village.

KardoskútPusztaközpont Also in 1892 the administrative unit started its work in similar conditions in Pusztaközpont lying at a distance of 5 kms from the present-day Kardoskút. In 1893, at the railway-line between Orosháza and Mezőhegyes, a railway-station was constructed in Kardoskút, where a platform for loading pigs and cattle was also built (from this time on animals from the farmstead centre were transported here). Neither the centre in Székkutas nor the one in Kardoskút worked

during World War I. Work there started again (together with the one in Mártély) only in 1921. In 1949 Kardoskút became an independent community. Oil and gas fields were found in its neighbourhood, it is lying on the terri-tory of the Körös-Maros National Park, Lake Fehér, the place of rest for birds of passage, that is cranes, is situated in this area.

Mártély It started working in 1921. It is situated 7 kms from Hódmezővásárhely so a strong connection was created between Mártély and the town. Because of the dead arm of River Tisza Mártély is an important resort-place for people living in the town. The colony of artists which is working efficiently there is an important link for both sides.

ARTIFICIAL FARMSTEAD CENTRES In 1949 (taking the points of the socialist agricultural reorganization into consideration) they took the measure of the areas which could be suitable for new farmstead centres. In Hódmezővásárhely, about 7-10 kms from each other, five such centers were marked out (Batida, Erzsébet, Kútvölgy, Rárós, Szikáncs). Four of them were built, but the fifth, Rárós, was not. Having made the decision the new farmstead centres were built at the beginning of the 1950’s in a short time, within about 2-3 years. These artificially created settlements were rather similar in their appearance: chessboard-like arrangement with public institutions on the main square and living-houses can be found in the parallel streets opening from there. The inhabitants worked mostly in the local co-operatives.

Batida In the 12th century there used to exist a settlement called Gorzsa on the territory of the

farmstead centre. Batida is lying in the flood area of River Tisza, which area had been drawn into agricultural cultivation after the regulation of the river. The co-operative, Gorzsai Állami Gazdaság (at present: Gorzsai Mezőgazdasági Zrt.), was established relatively early.

Erzsébet Before the Tartar invasion there used to exist a village called Erzsébet in this area. Its soil is far in quality behind that of Batida. During the time of development a school, a nursery school and a house of culture was built. People could find jobs in the local co-operative.

Kútvölgy Building up of the farmstead centre began at the end of 1949. In the 1920’ a tuberculosis sanatorium was built in Kútvölgy, but it did not have a real contact either with local people or with the farmstead centre. It operated as a set out part of the hospital of Hódmezővásárhely (later on it was transformed into a home for the aged).

Szikáncs It can be found in the flood area of River Tisza and River Maros being used as a pasture and hay-field. Considering traffic it has a good position, both the high road going to Makó and the railway line pass the farmstead centre.

Rárós It used to be an active settlement until 1456, later on it decayed. The indicated farmstead centre did not possess the infrastructure necessary for the process of construction (building materials, transport, etc.) so people were unwilling to move there and as a result of this the centre was not built.


PRIVATE AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS OF THE WORLD OF SCATTERED FARMS Farmsteds: buildings for living and farming Buildings in the boundary originally used to have the purpose of protecting animals or to serve for feeding them, that is pigsties, barns, sheds, etc. However quite early lodgings-like buildings appeared as well (firstly only for the personnel supplying animals with food or for the random ac-commodation of the farmer). These buildings of the beginning presumably used to consist of one single unit and later on they might have been equipped with an oven (making permanent stay possible in winter-time). During the following history of development, with animal-keeping becoming more and more intensive and with the start of ploughland cultivation, the buildings made permanent staying more and more possible and in the end they became the permanent lodgings for whole families. According to this farmsteads had been enlarged by the 18th-19th centuries or had been built to a functional arrangement, which had met these demands. Architecturally neither dwelling-houses nor farm-buildings brought anything new compared with the general popular building practice, although in the course of time they differed more and more from the houses of wealthy farmers having burnt-brick facades and dry gateway built in close order. These differences, however could be noticed in the towns as well: most of the houses built inside the towns kept the characters of village-houses thus keeping the relationship with the buildings of the scattered-houses. The use of more simple and traditional ma-


terials indicated a difference in rank and wealth, too and at the same time the world of construction was not sharply different in towns and scattered-farms. On the other hand as time passed, development in building technology could be detected in the outskirts as well, cob walls were replaced by walls made of adobe bricks and in-stead of roofs covered with reeds there were more and more roofs covered with tiles. From first to last economical and reasonable shaping and maintenance stayed a basic aim as this could result people living there in being able to get a house in the town in their old ages passing the scene of work and life in the farmstead to the younger generation. Permanence is even more typical considering the arrangement by their ground-plan and their functional form: the most widespread type of the Hungarian popular architecture, the so-called middle-Hungarian kind of houses, characteristic of the whole area of the Great Plain was the most typical. Besides the use of materials mentioned earlier, which was supposed by the natural sources of the Great Plain, its determining character was its division into three parts. The central element was the kitchen, first with an oven and later with a range. It could be preceded by the porch functioning as a hall opening from the direction of the entrance located in the middle of the side of the house. The rooms opened in two directions from here or directly from the kitchen. One of them was meant for the guests (clean room) while the other served as the sleeping place for the whole family. The main scene of family-life was the kitchen, which, besides cooking, was the spot of eating meals and common family programmes that were often in connection with economic activities. This basic type could be enlarged backwards often with the help of a further kind of hall through the porch, which was made closed or left open. The arrangement beyond the above mentioned mostly differed from those in villages or towns because the farming estate itself had a different form, size and bases,

even the typical buildings were situated in a different way than in the more densely populated, more urbanized surroundings. While in the classic settlement-types with traditional development the street was the primary organizing system: houses joined it uniformly with or without a front-garden, typically in a vertical system, built on one of the estate border or in a closed line, for farmsteads built within the estate central position seemed the most ideal from the very beginning and so they were much larger and mostly square-shaped, lying at a huge distance from each other. So the “puszta” was inhabited with even density and only a small area was left even for locally appearing development of urbanization. In the middle of the occupied farming estate there was the yard, in whose (typically north) side the dwelling-house was located and usually the stables, pigsties of animals could be found near them, in a row according to their sizes. On the other side of the farm other farm-buildings were built in a similar row: feedstuff, manure, etc. The

other ends of the farmstead were also often built in result-ing a U-shaped or frame-like arrangement. These buildings with a width of 5-6 metres followed each other in a reasonable system, without any complicated connection and preserving their shape with saddle-like roofs and gables.

Farmstead Museum in Kopáncs • • • • •

Kopáncs: 01521/2 topographical number. 6800 Hódmezővásárhely-Kopáncs, farmstead No. 3440 GPS: 20,262 46,377 Telephone: +36 (62) 533 317: +36 (62) 533 318, +36 (30) 506 0780 Opening hours: 13:00-17:00 between 15th March and 15th October

It belongs to Tornyai János Museum in Hódmezővásárhely. Kovács-farmstead, which was built around 1890, was restored in ac-


cordance with the conditions of the 1920’s. The small-holder’s farmstead of six holds (1 hold = 0,57 hectares or 1,42 English acres) dealt with cultivation of corn and animal-breeding. The living house consists of a room, a kitchen and a pantry with a large earth-enware oven shaped like a rick. The following farm-buildings can be found there: a stable for horses and cattle, a shed with a roof, a summer manger, a granary for crops, a barn for storing maize, a granary, pigsties and henhouses, a shadoof and a coachhouse. In the stable and in the shed added to it all the working tools of a farmstead can be found. (Source: Kopáncsi Tanyamúzeum, Hódmezővásárhely) The museum opened in 1975. All the furniture, equipment and fittings, working tools which it is fitted with were collected by Tibor Szenti and Antal Juhász, ethnographic researchers, from existing farmsteads. The farmstead museum had been reconstructed from 50 million forints and it was reopened on 24th May 2015. Victoria Ter-


endi, ethnographic researcher, said: “The aim was to create a place where interesting programmes, which are important both for families and for Hungarian culture, could be held. The exhibition calls the attention to the fact that farmsteads were not merely farming centres. It passes the intellectual treasure and knowledge possessed by our forefathers.” Tibor Szenti said in his opening speech: “People used to be self-supplying: they produced raw materials necessary for crafts – from leather to wood-carving everything was made by them – they produced foodstuff for the animals and had a good knowledge of agriculture. This wonderful area was called Mother Earth”, said the ethnographer underlining the importance of family ties: “under one roof a generation with one more bread used to live.” (Source: Hagyományőrző programokkal nyílt meg a Kopáncsi Tanyamúzeum)

Farmsteads of our days in the outskirts of Vásárhely There are still a lot of people living in the world of scattered houses even in our days: they do farming, use them for recreation, cultivate hobby-gardens, provide touristic services, etc.

Piroska Guest House • • • • •

Sándor Kenéz 6821 Székkutas, I. ker. 23. Telephone: +36 62 293189, +36 20 4422003 E-mail: Web: Piroska vendégház

READING CIRCLES István Széchenyi was one of the greatest initiators of the reading circles taking western, mostly English and German patterns as examples, but their importance and mainly the need for they establishment remained even with the end of the reform age and the fall of the war of independence both in cultural and in political sense. It was especially true in Vásárhely, where their stage of organization and spread was perhaps the highest. For the more wealthy there used to be different kinds of associations such as casinos in the second half of the 19th century. In the world of scattered farms reading circles used to represent the only social organizing power resulting the formation of closer neighbourhood relations and common representation. Reading circles subscribed to magazines together and their members could read them or they read out for each other as reading skills were not general. Besides these they organized events, had lectures, organized communities. They were spread quite evenly with one in every 2-5 square-kilometre and could be found in the neighbourhood of schools, which were spread similarly or were built together with those. Architecturally they did not have any homogeneous organizing principle as they were established individually, on self-contained initiatives. Presumably they could be transformed from simple farm-stead-buildings, which in the second half of the 20th century either got inhabited again or started their slow decay, perhaps were demolished.


SCHOOLS In the area of scattered farms the first schools established in 1855, thanks to the town, “in Rárósi and Erzsébeti roads as well as on the Mártély side”, says Sámuel Szeremlei, one of the historians of the town. Presumably in the case of the Rárósi school this refers to the Szőrháti, in the case of the Erzsébeti to the Cirjákparti (later inner Erzsébeti) and in the case of Mártély to the Tegehalmi schools or their predecessors, at least sources from 1858 seem to prove this. During the following decades the number of schools slowly increased, the less suitable character of the buildings so typi-cal in the beginning changed in the direction of standardization according to their function, which meant that the new buildings had already been designed and built for school purposes. These took the role of temporary rented properties in simple farmsteads, which were often too small. In the beginning schools were built and run by the town, but they were under church supervision: besides the protestant the catholic church also took part in this task. Schools built by the church only appeared in the 1890’s, but supervision could be performed less and less successfully. There were several so called black market schools, which was run by associations established by parents. In the denominational and black market schools conditions were worse than the average and as a result of this in the last decade of the 19th century people living in farmsteads typically urged the establishment of schools run either by the settlement or by the state. In 1903 every school, except for one, in the town (22 owned by the town and 4 rented properties) got inspected by the town, but the maintainer remained the town and building more new schools stayed the duty of the town. During this period processes accelerated and by 1910 teaching went on in 36 schools already, 22 of which were newly built. This number increased to 48 by 1940 and after the world war there more were 32

established. In the second half of the 20th century the role of schools in the scattered farm area was pushed into the background and by the end of the 80’s, beginning of the 90’s nearly all of them were closed, many of them transformed or even pulled down. Several of the buildings which stayed in good condition were restored and given a suitable function, mostly in connection with their original purpose, during the past years. This happened in the case of the schools in Sóshalom, Bodzapart as well as Mártély (and hopefully the building in Mátyáshalom, disordered for the time being, is facing a similar restoration). Homogeneous external appearance and similar or completely unified ground-plan arrangement is typical of these schools with protection as monuments as if they really had been built on the basis of standard planning. A good explanation on this might be that except one all of them were built between 1903-1910, which was the period bringing the greatest prosperity (the one in Mátyáshalom was built a few years earlier). Considering their outlook they can all be characterized with longitudinal mass, a simple saddle-like roof and unplastered brick-architecture with unified decoration on the eaves and along the ridge of the roof. A permanent element is the shield of the town that had built and maintained it made of ceramics and always placed in the middle of the longitudinal facade parallel with the street thus crowning the line of spacious apertures for windows.

The school in Csomorkány •

46° 26’ 15,5” É - 20° 31’ 41,7” K (near the Csomorkányi church ruin)

Teaching started in1906 in the school of Csomorkány, in a rented building. The new school-building built near the church-ruin was opened in October 1910. The last schoolyear finished in 1968-69 in the school. Then 1 first-class, 1 second-class, 4 third-class and

1 fourth-class student attended the school. The building was pulled down in 1973 and only a monument shows its place in our days.

It finally closed in 1986. In 2004 the building was restored from EU sources and in our days it works as a unit of Varga Tamás Általános Iskola / Tamás Varga Primary School) “The old school lying in the green belt and resounded only with warbling of birds gives place to several programmes of the school and the town for nature-lovers.” (Source: Bodzásparti iskola)

The school in Mártély •

The school in Bodzáspart – openair school • • •

3 kilometres from the end of Zrínyi street 46° 24’ 07” É - 20° 15’ 44” K Telephone: +36 62 245 877

Mártély, Fő utca 45. (45 Main street)

There is no data about its establishment, but it used to work as a catholic school in 187879 already. There had been a decision about the construction of the present school-building, which was com-pleted in 1907. (Source: Koncz S. 2005) In 2013 the old buildings were transformed and an open-air school was made. There is possibility for the accommodation of 42 people at the same time. Water-block and a lounge, a playground, a sportfield, a spot for laying fire and an oven also belong to it. (Source: Erdei iskola)

It was built in 1906. Records about its establishment exist from the beginning of 1903. (Source: Koncz S. 2005) 33

changed in January 1925 as it can be found near Sóshalom and the railway station near the school also had the same name). It can be found 15km from the town near the road between Hódmezővásárhely and Székkutas. (Source: Koncz S. 2005) It functioned as a school until 1985. Then the Sóshalmi Reading Circle got a classroom there where they can arrange programmes even today. (Source: Átadták a megújult Sóshalmi Olvasókört)

The school in Mátyáshalom

The school in Sóshalom, reading circle • •

Sóshalom: 0556/8-10 topographical number Kutasi dűlő, Tanya 1627/farmstead No. 1627 (near the road No 47 between Hódmezővásárhely and Székkutas) GPS: N 46°, 28,728’ - E 20° 28,764’

It was built in 1909. It is one of the most beautiful school buildings of the outskirts. In 1950 a second classroom was added. Until the beginning of the 1920’s it used to be referred to as Kutasi school, the name sóshalmi was given to it only later (its name was


GPS: 46° 26’ 31,3” É - 20° 28’ 16” K

It can be found 13 km from the town. Earlier it used to be called school in Csomorkány, school No. 2 in Csomorkány or school in the outskirts of Csomorkány. It has been called school in Mátyáshalom since 1898 as it is situated at the end of a large unit of fields in Mátyáshalom. The present-day building was erected in 1900. (Source: Koncz S. 2005) In 2008 it became protected as a historic building. Today it is empty, falling into decay, in a bad need of renovation and getting a new function. (Source: Megújul a mátyáshalmi iskola)

WINDMILLS Windmills were the most monumental products of popular architecture in the area of scattered farms around Vásárhely, whose construction needed serious knowledge of carpentry and locksmith’s trade. A special trade, the trade of mill-masters, had been created for their construction who were specialized for building them. In Hungary most mills driven by wind were built between the Rivers Duna and Tisza and in the southern part of the territory east of the River Tisza. Their role was especially important in the outskirts of market-towns with wide areas around them where they appeared scattered evenly. They started to become wide-spread at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1808 there used to be only 3 of them in the surroundings of Hódmezővásárhely while the number of ordinary mills was 86 and there were 16 water (boat) mills. In contradiction to ordinary mills driven by animals, windmills were based on wind as free source of energy. As the work done with the use of animals had to be paid for, the poor, who did not have any animals, could not have grinding done with their own animals and preferred cheaper grinding done in windmills. In connection with this having a windmill built was worth for the miller because they got their money back through the increase of the business. The spread of windmills accelerated highly in the second half of the 19th century trying to keep up with the prosperity of crop-growing, which started at that time. Although mills driven by wind had a serious rival with

the appearance of steam-mills, these (falling far behind the European trends) started to spread in our country in a large number only very late. On the Great Plain, besides the averagely low level of industrialization, the lack of the railway-net also hindered the more devel-oped technology to become exclusive as the coal needed had to be transported to the spot continuously. Although with the time passing more and more steam-mills of great capacity were established and could produce flour and coarse meal more effectively (and without depending on the weather), their number used not to be enough still for a long time and so they were not able to meet the requirements of the inhabitants living in scattered farms. Because of this the hegemony of the wind-mills stayed until the end of the 19th century. Around 1870 there were 47 of them and their number might have increased one and a half times by the end of the century and even in1924 at least 21 of them were in function (more than half of them in scattered farms). With the complete decline of the importance of windmills so profitable at earlier times, they were first let out by their wealthy owners and later sold usually to the miller working there. Considering their structure on the Great Plain and in the surroundings of Vásárhely mostly the Dutch-type wind-mills with more levels and with low or with the more modern upper drive were spread, but less frequent types with middle-drive must have been built as well. In Vásárhely the mills were typically built of bricks or at least the outer part of the adobe walling was trimmed with bricks because of the nearby brick-works. The structure of the mill, from the shovels


to the inner mechanism, was made of wood with iron contact elements at places. The number of the sails was typically four in this area, the six-sail type was less spread here. In the surrounding of Vásárhely 3 windmills have remained: Papi wind-mill, Imre Késmárki wind-mill and Piroska wind-mill. It is only Papi wind-mill near Erzsébeti road that has a safe future hav-ing protection as a monument and being the property of the town museum it can be visited in a con-dition nearly ready for working even today.

Imre Papi, the last miller of the wind-mill near Erzsébeti road, had been able to make his living from this job until the end of the 1950’s.

Papi wind-mill • • • •

Erzsébeti road: 0231/1 topographical number (7 kms from Hódmezővásárhely) Hódmezővásárhely, Tanya 2310. (Farmstead 2310) GPS: 46.4104462215, 20.4612721572 Telephone: +36 (62) 533 317, + 36 (62) 533 318 (it can be visited if registered)

It was built by Bálint Csánki in 1856. It got into the possession of the Papi family in 1891. In 1962 it was declared a historic building. It is frustum of cone-shaped with four sails and its lower diameter is 9,7 m, the upper diameter is 5,6 m, the height of the walls is 8,8 m, its roof can be turned round with a radius of 3 m and a height of 2 m, coneshaped. In the inner structure of the mill there are four floors called as follows downwards: gear wheel bench, fast-wheel bench, stone-bench, flour-bench. At the turn of the 19-20th centuries with the pushing forward of the artificial mills, the importance of the wind-mills working in the area of scattered farms gradually decreased. In spite of this 36

The wind-mill is the exhibition area of Tornyai János Museum. (Source: Papi-féle szélmalom)

Imre Késmárki windmill • • •

Mártély, Tanya 24. (Farmstead 24) GPS: N 46° 29,216’ - E 20° 14,692’ It is in a private area so it cannot be visited

It was built in the middle of the 19th century at a distance of about 1 km from the village. Its owners (following the one who had it built): Sándor Kis and then Imre Késmárki (from1913 on) millers. The sail of the windmill broke in 1953 and it lost function. In 1966 Ferenc Szalai painter-artist living in Hódmezővásárhely bought it. Its furniture

and fittings were kept and part of the miller’s house located near it was transformed into a studio. (Source: Késmárki Imre-féle szélmalom)

Piroska wind-mill • •

It can be found in the eastern outskirts of Székkutas GPS: N 46° 30,488’ - E 20° 33,008’

Sándor Szabó, smallholder, built it on the basis of a special style-design made by Kálmán Leibert (the date is carved even in the beam of the building). For a long time local people called it Szabó wind-mill after its owner. At the beginning of the 20th century a shop and a workshop used to func-tion near the mill. In 1892 the reading association of Pusztakutas was formed in the mill. Occasion-ally Hangya Szövetkezet (Co-operative Ant) of Vásárhelykutas also had its meetings there. In 1945 it was severely damaged in a big storm. Until 1950 it still had worked with electric motor. In the mill, which has no fittings in our days, articles in connection with the contemporary life of peasants can be found. At present it is privately owned, but its owner left i t to its fate. (Source: Javaslat a „Szélmalom” Javaslat a „Szélmalom” települési értéktárba történő felvételéhez) The mill was made world-famous by the book “Gyakran gondolok Piroskára / I often think of Piroska” (Ich denke oft an Piroschka) by Hugo Hartung, which appeared in 1954. The mill together with the railway station is an important scene of the book.


CHURCHES The four churches built in the area of scattered farms around Vásárhely in the first part of the 20th century mark the strongest focus of development of settlements on the “puszta”: they appeared in the farmstead centres, which originally developed from the micro-settlements of individual farm-steads, in order to meet the religious requirements of the inhabitants increasing in their number con-centratedly. Mártély, unlike the predominantly Calvinist Vásárhely, had always stayed catholic so it obviously got a catholic church. In Székkutas Calvinist and catholic churches were built at the same time while in Kardoskút, which is at a ddistance of 10 km both from Tótkomlós and Orosháza, probably due to the Slovakian roots of the population, a Lutheran church was built. After World War II, during the communist era, the

atheist state administration did not intend to build any church buildings when designing the area of the artificial farmstead centres (1949-1950).

St. Adrian / Hadrian’s Church • • •

Mártély, Fő utca 70. (70 Main street) Telephone: +36 62 346 289 Personage: Mártély, Fő utca 66. (66 Main street)

The foundation-stone of the church had been laid in 1910. Its consecration was in 1911. Spiritual activity was provided from Hódmezővásárhely. In 1930 it became an individual parish. In 1961 it was renewed and in 1962 electrified. Since 1975 service is being delivered from outside again. (Source: Szent Adorján-templom / St. Adrian/Hadrian’s Church)

St. Michael’s Church • •

Székkutas, Szabadság utca 3. (3 Szabadság street) Telephone: +36 62 228 052

It was built in 1924-25 and consecrated in 1925. It had been designed by Károly Kruzslicz, architect from Hódmezővásárhely, and built by Ferenc Tóth Kovács, master-builder. At the beginning spiritual service had been delivered from Hódmezővásárhely. From 1st January 1928 registration was done independently and from 1st October 1936 the personage became independent. It was renewed and enlarged on more occasions (1956, 1965, 1975). In 1980 the church got a new exterior (rock-flour coat of plaster, blue tower-casque). In 2013 it had a complete renovation (complete replacing of the outside plaster and the roof, entrance suitable for the handicapped, parking place for the handicapped, restoration of a part of the colour(ed) glass windows) on EU support. In 1987 it stopped to be an individual parish, at 38

present service is delivered from Hódmezővásárhely. (Source: Szent Mihály-templom / St. Michael’s Church)

Church of Székkutas Calvinist Church District • •

Székkutas, Erkel Ferenc utca 22. (22 Ferenc Erkel street) Telephone: +36 62 293 110

The foundation-stone of the church had been laid on 23rd September 1925 and it was consecrated on 17th October 1926. Mihály Elek donated his farmstead of 64 holds

(1 hold = 0,57 hectares or 1,42 English acres) to the church for the construction. Besides him dozens of private persons and civilian organizations supported its building. There are seats for 200 people in the inner space of 9 x 16 m. The organ was made by István Barakovics in 1936. (Source: A székkutasi református templom 90 éve / 90-year history of the Calvinist church in Székkutas)

Lutheran Church of Kardoskút • • • 39

Kardoskút, Tanya 303. (Farmstead No. 303) GPS: É 46° 29’ 49” - K 20° 41’ 59” Telephone: +36 68 412 402

Its foundation-stone had been laid in 1937 and it was consecrated in 1938. In the country it used to be the first Lutheran church in the area of scattered farms. (Source: Kardoskút - Evangélikus templom / Kardoskút - Lutheran Church)

Csomorkány churchruin •

GPS: É 46° 24’ 51,75” - K 20° 21’ 18,43”

The village of Csomorkány had been first mentioned in documents in 1231. During the 14th century the settlement being the landed property of the Hunyadi-family devel-


oped into a market town. In 1596 as a consequence of the Turkish ravage it had been definitely destroyed and never again had it been rebuilt. The church of Csomorkány may have been constructed in the last third of the 13th century in Ro-man style. At the turn of 13-14th centuries it had been reconstructed and enlarged in gothic style. It used to be a long, narrow building with gothic reticulated vault and counterparts. After the ravage in 1596 the ruin was strengthened in the 1830’s. The archeological digging up of the church started in the last decade of the 19th century and it has been restarted on more occasions since then. (Source: Hódmezővásárhely-csomorkányi egyház)


RAILWAY STATIONS At the end of the 19th century three new railway-lines passing Hódmezővásárhely and its outskirts were built: one main line and two branch lines. The Szeged-Békéscsaba section of the main railway-line No. 135 was opened in 1870 by the Alföld-Fiumei Vasúttársaság (Alföld-Fiumei Railway Company). Later, in1884 it became the property of Magyar Királyi Államvasútak (Hungarian Royal Railway Company) because of the nationalization of the private company. The Szentes-Hódmezővásárhely section of the Szolnok-Hódmezővásárhely-Makó district railway-line No. 130 (HÉV) opened in 1893 and the Hódmezővásárhely-Makó section opened 10 years later in 1903. The last one, the Orosháza-Mezőhegyes section of the Mezőtúr-Orosháza-Mezőhegyes-Battonya line No. 125 opened in 1893 and the construction was completed by the Békési HÉV.

Railway station in Mártély • •

Railway station in Székkutas • •

Székkutas, Béke utca 2. (2 Béke street) GPS: N 46° 30’ 14,64” - E 20° 32’ 27,58”

It was built in 1870 at the time of the opening of the railway-line between Szeged-Békéscsaba. It is an important scene of the novel “Gyakran gondolok Piroskára” (“I often think of Piroska”) by Hugo Hartung) (the main character is in love with the daughter of the stationmaster). (Source: Székkutas vasútállomás)


Mártély, Kossuth utca 7. (7 Kossuth street) GPS: N 46,473293° - E 20,236157° •

The building was made as the IV-class type-design of the HÉV special style-buildings of year 1892, in 1893. The railway station is in function in good technical state. (Source: Mártély vasútállomás)


János Bárth: Szállások, falvak, városok. A magyarság települési hagyománya. Kalocsa, 1996, Kalocsai Múzeumbarátok Köre. Ferenc Erdei: Magyar tanyák. Budapest, 1942, Athenaeum. Ildikó Horváth Gálné: A Hódmezővásárhely környéki tanyák és tanyaközpontok a tér és idő összefüggésében. Budapest, 2016, ÉK Egyesület.

• • •

• • •

• • • • • •


István Györffy: A nagykún tanya. Budapest, 1910, Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum. Helyi Érdekű Vasutak szabványtervei (1–4.) Antal Juhász: A szegedi táj tanyái. Szeged, 1989, Móra Ferenc Múzeum. (A Móra Ferenc Múzeum évkönyve, 1982/83. 2.) Sándor Koncz: 150 éves a külterületei iskoláztatás Hódmezővásárhelyen Mezőtúr–Orosháza–Mezőhegyes–Battonya-vasútvonal István Nagy (főszerk.): Hódmezővásárhely története a legrégibb időktől a polgári forradalomig. I. köt. Hódmezővásárhely, 1984, Hódmezővásárhely Városi Tanács. Szeged–Békéscsaba-vasútvonal Szélmalmok Szélmalom Szenti Tibor: A tanya. Budapest, 1979, Gondolat. Szolnok–Hódmezővásárhely–Makó-vasútvonal Típusépületek


PLOVDIV – BULGARIA Wri en by Svetlana Mutafchieva (ASPECT – Management and Intercultural Relations, Plovdiv, Bulgaria)



ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE – ANCIENT TIME The Roman Stadium The Ancient Amphitheatre The Odeon of Philippopolis The Nebet Tepe Fortress The Roman Aqueduct

47 47 47 48 48 49

ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE – OLD TOWN Kuyumdzhiev’s House Balabanov’s House Hindliyan’s House Klian ’s House

49 49 50 51 51



ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE – RELIGION St. St. Konstan n and Elena church „Sveta Nedelya” church The Holy Assump on Cathedral (Uspenie Bogorodichno church) “Saint Ludvig” Catholic Cathedral Dzhumaya Mosque The Small Basilica of Philippopolis Great Basilica of Philippopolis ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE – TOBACCO CITY




53 53 54 54 55 55 55 56






ENTREPRENEURSHIP Plovdiv Fair Trakia Economic Zone

57 57 58

NATURAL RESOURCES IN PLOVDIV Dzhendem Tepe (Youth Hill) Bunarzhik (The Liberators Hill) Sahat Tepe (Danov Hill) Nebet Tepe, Dzhambaz Tepe, and Taksim Tepe - the Three Hills Markovo Tepe (Hill of Marko) The Rowing Canal (Rega a Venue)

58 58 59 59 60 60 60

PLOVDIV AREA Winemaking Bachkovo monastery Assen’s fortress Dairies

61 61 61 62 62

CREATING NEW TRADITIONS PLOVEDIV Milyo Sasho Sweety Plovdiv Together GraffitI The Seventh Hill

62 62 62 63 63 63 63



Coat of arms of Plovidv


“Cultural and architectural heritage is an integral part of the social life of a place. Although social structures are constantly developed, they are not necessarily contradicting core traditional values of a place. Alternatively, opposing completely to core values of the past and tradition, can dramatically affect core social and human values that can vitally influence the existence of a society and its social fabric. Hence, traditional settlements and buildings that can be preserved constitute the link between the past and the modern environment. The maintenance and preserving of their existence is not a monumental action but it contributes to the developing of stimuli which facilitate us to perceive the historical route and the continuity of our place.”

PRESERVATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Plovdiv is the second-largest city in Bulgaria with a city population of 341,567 as of 2015 and 675,586 in the greater metropolitan area. It has roughly 8 millennia history and has been proclaimed the oldest continuous-


ly-inhabited city in Europe and the sixth oldest in the world. The city is situated amongst seven hills and is divided in two by the Maritza River. On three of the hills was build an Architectural and historical reserve – The Old Town, which has preserved historical layers from Prehistorical, Thracian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Middle Ages, Revival, and Modern Times. Actually, the city has changed its name many times through its long history: • Kendrisos/Kendros (presumed) 4000 B.C. • Evmolpias/Eumolpia 1200 B.C. – the Thracians named the city after their mythical king Eumoplas, son of Poseidon. • Philippopolis 342 B.C. – Philip of Macedonia named the city after himself. • Pulpudeva – when the Thracians won their city back, they named it Pulpudeva, which is a translation of Philippopolis. • Trimontium – the Romans named the city Three Hills when they took over in 42 A.D. • Puldin/Ploudin/Pulden/Populdin – the name given to the city after the fall of the Roman Empire. • Filibe – the city was known as Filibe during the Ottoman Empire.

Plovdiv – the name was first mentioned in the 11th century but was replaced by Filibe during the Ottoman Empire and reinstated after the city’s liberation. Nowadays Plovdiv combines a modern and thriving city center with a quiet and laid back Old Town, everything dotted with Roman ruins. The city plan has one focal point and that’s the Main Street.


poetry and art contests. Later in the 4th century, this area was crossed by an Aqueduct. Nowadays only one end of the Stadium has been excavated and is accessible to the public while the main arena is still under the Main Street. It’s an open-air museum and is frequently used as a stage for concerts, small operas, and performances. There are plans to expose the remains of the runway of the Stadium building along the entire length of the Main Street under a glass ceiling. The seating is mainly under the buildings and only visible in their basements. Some of them offer public access to the ruins.

The Roman Stadium

The Ancient Amphitheatre

The Main Street is separated into two by the Dzhumaya Square where the substantial ruins of a Roman Stadium that could hold thirty thousand spectators are on display beneath the square. Build at the beginning of 2nd century AD by Emperor Hadrian, near the fortress wall. It was used for games similar to Pythian Games in Greece. Sporting events were usually accompanied by music,

Uphill is The Old Town and there is the Ancient Theatre. It is located on the Southern slope of the Three Hills, in the saddle between Taksim and Dzhambaz tepe. Build in 1st century AD by Emperor Trajan, it was used until the 4th century. The open-air spectator’s area includes 28 concentric rows of marble seats, surrounding the stage (on some of them still can be read the name of


the owner of the seat of honor). Nowadays it is one of the best-preserved theaters in the world. Completely hidden and forgotten for centuries it was excavated in the 70’s of the 20th century. It was carefully restored to its nowadays state. Fully functional, the Ancient Amphitheater can hold about 5000 spectators and is heavily used for festivals and opera performances. With its perfect acoustics, it’s one of the best open stages.

was a rectangular building which comprises typical elements for roofed theatres like skene, orchestra, and a cave with 350 spectator seats. Nowadays the stage and seating of the Odeon is under the open sky and is used for small performances and concerts. Future plans include incorporating visitors’ facilities and further restoration until the previously bestknown state of the structures.

The Nebet Tepe Fortress

The Odeon of Philippopolis There is another stage from the Roman period in Plovdiv and that’s The Odeon of Philippopolis. It’s situated near the Central Square. It’s believed that the building was originally used as Town Hall but later reconstructions changed it to Theatre Building. The Odeon had four construction periods: from the 2nd century AD (during the reign of Hadrian) when it was initially built to the 4th century AD, when it was abandoned. It


The oldest settlement of Plovdiv is on the hill of Nebet Tepe (in the Old Town). The complex was part of the fortification system of the city and contains many historical layers of its constant expansion and development until the 14th century. During a clearing of Nebet Tepe was discovered a unique postern from Roman times – a secret tunnel in the rock massif out of the northern wall from the time of Justinian the Great (6th century). According to certain

suppositions, Apostle Paul passed through it. There is a preserved staircase in the tunnel, which led to the right bank of the river. Historians believe that the Maritsa River ran through it in the past. The river bed had been so great that it occupied today’s Shesti Septemvri Blvd. Storage reservoirs used in enemy sieges are also preserved. The rectangular water reservoir preserved until present times attracts people’s interest with its size and capacity of 300,000 liters. In 2017 a team of archeologist started excavating just below the top of the hill to reveal the boundaries of the original fortress and to gather as much information as possible for the historical layers there. Future plans include restoration of previous best-known state (like the ancient theatre and roman stadium) and permanent exposition and usage as a museum and open-air stage.

The Roman Aqueduct Plovdiv has always been a big city with an important role in the region, so in the 2nd3rd century, the Aqueduct of Philippopolis was built. It was expensive and difficult to construct so not many cities in the world could afford it (there are just a few preserved in the world nowadays). The Aqueduct comprises of two main pipelines (one of them 6 km long) supplying the whole city with fresh water from the springs in Rhodopa mountain. So in the 2nd century, Philippopol already had a built pipeline network, which supplied it with approximately 480 liters per second or 43 000 tons of water annually. A significant part of the western aqueduct has been perfectly preserved and in the 1980s it was reconstructed. It can be now seen on Komatevsko Shose Street, towering over the busy city traffic. Parts of the Aqueduct foundations, which later became part of the city’s fortification system, are exhibited in the new Presentation Centre of the Ancient Stadium.

ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE – OLD TOWN A good example of integrating architectural heritage is The Old Town (the oldest continuously living part of the city). It’s a living museum of the type of National Revival architecture that developed here (there were regional differences) in the early to mid1800s. The residential buildings here are exceptionally rich, most could be described as mansions. Most revival houses are elaborately decorated. Walls, ceilings, and parts of the façades were painted with floral motifs; ceilings, porches, doors, and furniture were carved out of wood and painted. By the mid 19th century Classicism infiltrated from Western Europe and the Plovdiv, style is evident only as external decoration. Nowadays the Old Town is an interesting mixture of private houses, museums, hotels, restaurants and antique shops. The complex also houses headquarters of artists, writers, poets. There are craft and art schools which made The Old Town, not just beautiful remain from the past but the living heart of the modern city.

Kuyumdzhiev’s House Probably the most famous house in the complex is the Kuyumdzhiev’s House. Built in the remote 1847 by the master-builder Hadji Georgi, it is now home to the Ethnographic Museum. Plovdiv Regional Ethnographic museum is the second largest specialized museum of this type in Bulgaria. It is an acknowledged scientific-educational institution and an attractive center for cultural tourism. The museum was established in 1917 and since 1938 it has been located in Kuyumdzhieva’s house, a cultural monument of national significance. It is located near the eastern gate of the town called Hissar Kapiia (Hissar Stone Gate). It is a typical representative of Plovdiv Re49

naissance symmetrical house, defined by experts as a peak of Baroque architecture in Bulgaria. The eastern façade of the house was built upon the ancient fortified wall and is an inseparable part of the ensemble of Hissar Kapiia. At the end of the 19th century the house became a girls’ boarding school, and later it turned into a millinery factory, a vinegar factory, and a flour storehouse. In 1938 the house was established as a museum and has been open for visitors since 1943. Nowadays the museum is a famous tourist attraction. It offers a demonstration of traditional crafts and is a co-organizer and a host of popular traditional festivals such as the Annual Festival of Chamber Music, The Festival of Classic Guitar, etc., as well as concerts, biennials, fashion shows, theatrical plays, book presentations and other kinds of performances.

Balabanov’s House The Balabanov’s House is another spectacular example for the development of the symmetrical Plovdiv house and is one of the most lavish buildings whose spatial composition is characterized by the equal role


of two perpendicular axes, the one of the ground floor and the one of the 1st floor. The exclusively rich elaboration of the architectural detail, of plastic and flat ornamentation, transcends the pure residential function and is similar to the features of a public building. The house was built in the early 19th century and had three owners. Today it bears the name of its last owner, the tradesman Luka Balabanov. The house was unfortunately demolished in the 30s of the 20th century and was carefully reconstructed in the 70s, based on photographic material and schemes, and under the guidance of renowned Plovdiv architects. Nowadays, the ground floor features a permanent exhibition of modern Bulgarian art. The second floor, once having served for inviting guests, exhibits Revival period interior and serves as a popular venue for the holding of cultural events - chamber music concerts, theatre performances, meetings etc. The traditional “Balabanov’s House Music Days” festival is held twice a year. There are also two halls in the basement area, serving for the organization of temporary art exhibitions.

Hindliyan’s House Hindliyan’s House was constructed in 183435 by unknown builders and is one of the few houses in the Old Town of Plovdiv, which has preserved their original symmetric design. Its owner Stepan Hindliyan is known as the founder of one of the four wealthiest families of Armenian descent in the town. He was a prominent merchant, whose business at the beginning of the 19th century frequently sent him as far as India, which is how he earned the nickname of Hindliyan. The house has a complicated plan, which adheres to the symmetry only within the frameworks of the inner space. The ground floor is organized around a rectangular hall which is open to three large rooms, a small bay-window on the street`s side, an entrance to the bathroom, changing room and one staircase to the second floor. The bath was built following the oriental model, with domes, vaults, niches, marble floor, a small basin and floor heating with warm air. The interior of Hindliyan’s House was richly decorated, walls and ceilings, by the two

master-icon painters Moko and Mavrudi from Chirpan. Some of the wall paintings have survived intact over the years. Paper stencil was used for the first time here to paint the standard motifs on the first floor of the house. All the walls upstairs, including the French-fashion niches, were painted by hand, with the ceilings covered in color to match the walls. A mirror image of the house can be seen above the door of the storage room in the yard, which serves both as decoration and a blueprint of the house. Another image above the kitchen door is considered to serve the same purpose- it represents a mirror image of the less formal part of the house. Nowadays the house is a museum and is used for many cultural events.

Klianti’s House The beautiful Klianti’s House is the most recently restored – the oldest in the Old Town Architectural and Historical Reserve. It is situated opposite Lamartine House, Antov’s House and the Yellow School – all listed cultural properties of national significance with remarkable decorative systems. The house was built in 1816 and was completely rebuilt in 1846 and the ground floor was expanded to the north`, forming the covered yard. The builders were the same craftsmen who constructed The Holy Mother Assumption Church. In 1882, the western part of the house was destroyed and with the division of the building, two separate houses were differentiated. In 1920, part of the southeast corner was “cut”. Since 1949 Klianti’s House has been declared „people’s monument of culture”, and in 1995 – listed property of national significance. It has rich interior decoration and unique architecture. The mural paintings inside are polychrome with plant ornamentation, bouquets, and vases with flowers. On the walls, there are richly decorated niches, cupboards, backgammon wooden doors. Nowadays the house is municipal property and is currently open for visitors. 51

ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE – MAIN STREET The city plan has one focal point and that is the Main Street. That’s the main completely pedestrian zone and it houses many theaters, restaurants, galleries, shops and a lot of town landmarks. Often, The Main Street itself is defined as a landmark. In 1896 a Master plan for Plovdiv was created. The author of the Plan – Joseph Shniter, predicted the central artery to be 50 meters wide. It was from “Tsar Simeon” garden to Maritsa bridge. The professional followed the European models because he knew that the city will grow and the Main Street will assume even bigger movement. But most of the city councils had houses that had to be demolished because of the plan and finally it was decided that the street will be 8 meters wide from Maritsa bridge to Dzhumayata and 12 meters wide from Dzhumayata to “Tsar Simeon” garden. Later when the tunnel under The Old town was build it became completely pedestrian.


Nowadays it extends from the Central Square to Novotel Plovdiv and has a total length of 2.1 km including the bridge, making it the longest pedestrian street in Europe. Unlike many historical places here almost every site is within walking distance of it. Most of the houses on the Main Street were built in the early 20th century; their architecture has elements of the Classicism, the Secession, and the Postmodernism. One of the emblematic buildings is Molle Hotel, built in 1911, designed by the Italian architect Mariano Pernigoni. The Main Street starts from the Central Square and “Tsar Simeon” garden. The garden itself has historical significance for the city. It was created in 1892 by the Swiss landscape architect Lucien Chevalas (18401921) and is later declared a monument of park art. For all his contribution to the city, in 1901 he was declared an honorary citizen of Plovdiv, and, also, is often referred to as “the Minister of flowers”. In 2014 the garden was renovated to resemble its previous look from the time of the First Bulgarian fair in 1892. All fountains were restored and a Viennese pavilion was built in the center of the park.

Its metal openwork construction is a replica of the 1936-Central Pavilion. All this was possible with the help of archival photographs and historical evidence from the Book of the fair. The pearl on the crown of the park is the renovated Lake with the Modern Singing Fountains. Nowadays the park is a focal point for both tourists and local people. The Main Street starts from the Main Square with the Central Post Office whose basement contains the remains of the Eastern Gate of Philippopolis, continues over the main track of The Roman Stadium and right next to its restored end is the Dzumaya mosque. Just behind the mosque is The Seventh Hill installation and then the Old Town. The Main Street then became the Small Main Street which passes by the Kapana District and the Department Store ending with the pedestrian bridge over the river.

ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE – RELIGION Places of worship have been built in Plov-

div since ancient times. Through centuries many religions found their way to the city: Neolithic people’s beliefs, Thracian and Elinistic, later Muslim, Christian, all of these – and many more – had their shrines and places of worship, some of which still exist today. Some temples have been restored and open for the public as museums, others are still popular places of worship. Nowadays Plovdiv is a cosmopolitan city of many religions and their temples coexist peacefully.

St. St. Konstantin and Elena church The churches in the Old Town Architectural and Historical Reserve have all been restored and are preferred places for religious ceremonies. Probably the most famous is St. St. Konstantin and Elena. It is one of the oldest Christian churches in the city of Plovdiv. It is situated in the heart of the complex, right on the wall of the Acropolis. In 304, at the place where the church is located today, the martyrs Severin and Memnos were beheaded for professing their Christian faith. The church was built about thirty years after their death. Throughout the years, the temple was demolished several times and then built up again. In 1810 the prominent weaver of frieze from Koprivshtitza Todor Moravenov along with Valko Chalakov from Plovdiv managed to erect the ruined temple to its present glory. The newly built temple was one of the largest of its time. It was built by the famous master of Bratzigovo School, Petko Petkov – Boz. The iconostasis of the church is unique for its gilt and polychrome decoration. It was made in Vienna by John Pashkula of the village of Metsovo. He also carved the canopy over the Holy See and the Bishop’s throne. The first row of the iconostasis icons was painted by the famous Bulgarian painter, Zahari Zograph. The old iconostasis icons also date from 14th – 15th centuries. In the ‘50s of the twentieth century, during excavations beneath the apse of the church,


some attractions such as the rectangular tower were discovered. It is associated with the defense of the eastern fortress gate – Hissar Kapia. The temple has an icon gallery, where different examples of the icon art are presented in a permanent exhibition. The works of 14th – 16thI century are the oldest and most valuable in this exhibition, including the old iconostasis icons of the church, existing since before its restoration. There are also works dating from 15th – 18th centuries. The church is one of the few Plovdiv temples, whose original frescoes are fully preserved. The St. St. Konstantin and Elena church has been functioning permanently since July 2007. A priest has been appointed and he regularly performs ministrations and takes care of the temple which is popular place for wedding ceremonies.

„Sveta Nedelya” church The temple dedicated to Saint Nedelya was built in the early XVII century. It was with small dimensions and unassuming architecture but with richly decorated iconostasis. In 1829 the old building of Saint Nedelya was demolished due to its bad structural condition and a temporary chapel was built, with the iconostasis of the old church mounted in it. The new St. Nedelya church was constructed by builders from Bratzigovo with chief master the famous Petko Petkov – Boz. The workmanship of the iconostasis was probably assigned (about 1832-1833) to Yane Spirov. The famous Debar masters, Makrii Negriev Fruchkovski, and his brothers, Gyurchin and Trayan, executed the embossment of the column capitals – a fine artwork similar to sculpting. The majority of the icons were painted by the famous Zaharii Zograph, Dimitar Hristov Zograph and his son Zafir, later known by the pseudonym Stanislav Dospevski. In 1893 the first bishop liturgy in Bulgarian language was held in the church “Sveta Nedelya”. 54

Nowadays the church is fully restored and many of the original frescoes are preserved. It is a popular place for worship.

The Holy Assumption Cathedral (Uspenie Bogorodichno church) The church dedicated to the Holly Mother, Virgin Mary existed in the 9th century in The Old Town. During the Ottoman invasion in Bulgarian lands and after the conquest of the city in 1371, the monastery near the church was demolished and completely destroyed. For years the church remains were forgotten when in the period from 1844 to 1845, craftsmen from Bratzigovo constructed a large new church, built entirely of stone. The main donor was Valko Chalakov (The Large) of Koprivshtitza, who settled in Plovdiv in early 19th century. During the religious and national fights for independence of the Turkish Invasion, the St. Mary church played a crucial role. On December 25, 1859, Christmas day, Plovdiv Metropolitan Paisiy together with priest Zlatan, chairman of the temple, held a solemn Holy Mass in Bulgarian for the first time (so far Greek was the language of the church in all Bulgarian churches). After the service, the Bishop officially announced that his congregation denies the Patriarch of Constantinople. Stanislav Dospevski is the creator of the royal icon of Saint Mary with the Divine Infant by the iconostasis, which he painted in 1875. In honor of the 2000th anniversary of the Nativity of Christ, the church was fully restored and rebuilt. Nowadays the temple is a favorite place for wedding ceremonies.

“Saint Ludvig” Catholic Cathedral The Catholic Cathedral of Saint Ludvig is the largest Catholic church in Bulgaria, named after the King of France, proclaimed a saint because of his exceptional virtuous and religious life, resembling the life of a monk. The cathedral was designed and engineered by Roman architect Alfonso, who was one of the best connoisseurs of Gothic style and architecture. Its foundations were placed in 1858 by Bishop Andrea Canova and were consecrated and finally completed on March 25th, 1861. The bell tower of Saint Ludwig Catholic Cathedral was built with funds donated by Pope Leo XIII in 1902. There is a legend that three centuries earlier the place was a small house, where Paulician worshipers, who had accepted the Catholic faith, used to gather. A major fire in 1932 destroyed most of the building, which was later carefully restored to its nowadays looks. The gravestones of the chairman by seniority of the first meeting of the Eastern Rumelian Regional Assembly, Archbishop Francis-Dominique Renaldy and Bishop Andrea Canova are placed in the middle of the church. Another valuable object stored here is a sarcophagus made by the famous Italian sculptor Professor Gentile. The sarcophagus is Princess Maria-Luiza’s, the wife of Bulgarian Prince Ferdinand, the mother of Tsar Boris III, and the grandmother of Simeon II Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Maria-Luiza was deeply connected to Plovdiv and often visited the city with charitable missions. She was extremely religious and her godfather was Pope Pius IX. Nowadays the cathedral is one of the most beautiful buildings in the city and an active place of worship.

Dzhumaya Mosque Dzhumaya Mosque is the main Muslim shrine in Plovdiv situated by the center of to-

day’s pedestrian zone, west of the Old Town. The mosque was built on the site of St. Petka Tarnovska Plovdiv Cathedral Church soon after the conquest of the city by the Ottoman army (1363-64). During the reign of Sultan Murad II (1421-1451) the old building was demolished and today’s mosque, called Ulu Dzhumaya Mosque, meaning Main Friday Mosque, was erected in its place. The temple is one of the oldest cult Ottoman buildings of the Balkans. Its construction shows the influence of Byzantine and Old Bulgarian architecture technique – two layers of bricks were built up after each layer of stone. Unlike the later one-dome mosques, the Dzhumaya Mosque is amongst the multiple-domed ones – nine covered with lead sheets. The amazing wall decorations inside the mosque are filled with rich plant ornamentation – twigs, flowers, and garlands, sandwiched between medallions with quotations from the Koran. The frescoes probably date from the end of 17th and beginning of 19th century. Analogies of the external and internal architecture of Dzhumaya Mosque in Plovdiv can be made with one of the oldest Ottoman cult monuments in Bursa, Edirne, and Sofia, built between 14th and 15th centuries. Nowadays Dzhumaya Mosque is fully restored and is used as an active Muslim temple.

The Small Basilica of Philippopolis The basilica is located on Maria Louisa Blvd off the center of Plovdiv. The ruins of the early Christian church were found during construction works in the area in 1988. The fine mosaics of the Small Basilica were subject to emergency conservation soon thereafter. The temple was located on the eastern outskirts of the ancient city, close to the inner face of the castle wall with a tower from 2nd – 4th century. The church was near the eastern necropolis of the city and the martirion


of the 37 Philippopolis martyrs on the road to Constantinople. The basilica was built in the second half of the 5th century and contained rich decoration. In 1995 the basilica and the adjacent remains were declared a national monument of culture and in 2010 to 2013 careful conservation and restoration was conducted. In 2014 The Small Basilica was opened for the public and instantly became a popular site for both tourists and locals.

Great Basilica of Philippopolis The Great Basilica is located in the central part of Plovdiv, next to the Catholic Saint Ludvig Cathedral and Maria Luiza Blvd. It was built at the beginning of the 5th century probably over an earlier building with a similar plan which covered the space for two insulae (quarters defined by four perpendicular streets). It was demolished and abandoned, probably in 577. The large size of the building, the rich decoration of mosaics and the altar area organization suggest it was the Episcopal Basilica of Philippopolis. The remains of the basilica were discovered during the construction of an underpass in the mid-1980s. In 2014 a restoration project which discovered and conserved the building’s ruins started. The unique mosaics were removed to the Plovdiv Archaeological Museum. The next step of the project is constructing a protective building around the ruins. After that, the mosaic will be restored and exhibited. It will be part of a museum complex including the “Saint Ludvig” Cathedral and surrounding areas, which will be turned into a pedestrian zone.

ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE – TOBACCO CITY At the end of the Main Street lies the Tobacco City. It is located on the southern side of Ivan Vazov St., one of Plovdiv’s most beautiful streets. The unique tobacco warehouses were build during the economic prosperity in the 1920s. Built in the style of the Vienna Secession, neo-Classicism and Art Nouveau the warehouses were designed by some of Plovdiv’s most talented architects of the period like Kamen Petkov and Dimitar Popov. They were commissioned by prominent tobacco merchants and benefactors, such as Dimitar Kudoglu, Anastas Kutsoglu, and Tomasyan. Following the communist coup in 1944, the warehouses were nationalized. In 1962, parts of the movie “Tobacco”, based on the novel by Dimitar Dimov, wеrе filmed in the quarter. Nowadays a large number of the warehouses have fallen into disrepair due to conflicting property claims. Despite being acknowledged cultural-heritage monuments, only some individual buildings were fully restored and used. Some buildings are used for art exhibitions and workshops. In 2014 chain of events started to draw attention to the quarter. In 2017 a project with the Municipality and the owners of the warehouses was started aiming at restoring the whole district and bringing it back as part of the living life.

CRAFTS – KAPANA DISTRICT In the center of the city, near the Main Street is the newly renovated Kapana District (The Trap). The quarters emerged as a center for craftsmen 5 centuries ago and in it were situated workshops of all guilds and from them


were formed several bazaars: tailor, leather, saddlery, iron, coppersmith, goldsmith bazaars and others. The former neighborhood was destroyed by a major fire in 1907, after which new buildings were built where many legal and commercial firms were established. In 1980 started a new period of revival for the district as a trade and craft quarters with maximum preservation of the street network. Many buildings were restored which gained the status of the neighborhood to be declared a Group Monument of Culture. In 1981, a group of architects, designers, and artists, under the leadership of Arch. Antoaneta Topalova took part in the exhibition “For More Beauty in the Living Environment: Synthesis of Architecture with the Plastic Arts”, where they presented a project for the renovation of Kapana turning it into a multifunctional place for culture by preserving its authentic outlook. This project had been awarded a silver medal and a prize by the Mayor of Madrid when it was presented at the World Architecture Biennale in 1985. The project was abandoned after the political changes in 1989 but in 1995, the Municipality of Plovdiv won a European project for cooperation with the Republic of France in the field of construction and management of Кapana. The main point in the project called “New Scenography of the Street Spaces” is the public spaces. A team from Plovdiv, led again by arch. Topalova, and a team from the city of Dijon worked together with local residents on the aesthetics of the neighborhood and organization of transport, parking, public services, waste collection. Finally, from 2013 to 2017 the Plovdiv Municipality and “Plovdiv 2019” Foundation transformed the quarter into an art center and a district dedicated to creative industries. This project was part of the artistic programme of “Together” – the concept and motto Plovdiv won the European Capital of Culture 2019. The nowadays district is almost completely pedestrian. What’s left of the old craftsman quarter are the street names - like Kozhuharska (Leather Str), Zhelezarska (Iron Str)

and Zlatarska (Gold Str). The name of the district itself is inspired by the many tangled small streets which form a labyrinth. It now houses a contemporary breed of café-bars, clubs, galleries, workshops, ateliers, studios, cozy restaurants, and shops, as well as art spaces, and there is even a vinyl shop! All these places fill Kapana with modern cultural content not only with their daily activities but also organizing events with social, economic and cultural effect for the city, such as concerts, exhibitions, festivals, forums, art installations, screenings, workshops and much more.

CULTURE Plovdiv has a long history of festivals and celebrations. Nowadays different events are held all year round to celebrate traditions and create new ones. Most popular events are: the Night of Museums and Galleries – extremely popular one, which had to extend to two or more nights due to the heavy visitors’ interest in all cultural sites, Kapana fest – fair held in the renovated Kapana District presenting both old and new crafts, Traditional Crafts Fair, Opera Open – part of the opera season, Shake that Hill – Rock festival held on the Youth Hill, Days of Thracian culture, Hills of Rock – Music festival, Plovdiv Jazz Fest, International Folklore Festival, Trimontiada, One Dance Week – contemporary dance festival, One Architecture Week – installations and workshops for the people who want to participate in changing their surronundings, Balabanov’s house music days, Wines of the Ages, Drone Up International Film Festival, Young Wine Parade and many more.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP Plovdiv Fair In 1892 Plovdiv hosted the First Bulgarian Agricultural and Industrial Exposition. That


was the beginning of the exhibition industry in modern Bulgarian history. Todays International Fair Plovdiv is the successor of the First Exposition. The Fairground is one of the largest exhibition venues in Southeast Europe. It is situated in an area of 352,000 sq. m. The exhibition complex consists of 17 multifunctional pavilions best equipped for the arrangement and display of all kinds of exhibits. The exhibition area amounts to 159,100 sq. m., the indoor area is 64,500 sq. m. The modern Congress Centre of the International Fair Plovdiv comprises eight multifunctional halls with 20 to 550 seats. Another 12 halls in various pavilions are also available. International Fair Plovdiv is the first fair organizing company in Bulgaria admitted as a member of UFI - the Global Association of the Exhibition Industry in 1936. Seven of its events have fulfilled the high criteria and have been approved by UFI. These are the International Technical Fair, the International Consumer Goods and Technologies Fair, the specialized exhibitions AGRA, VINARIA, MEDICUS, DENTO, GALENIA, PrintCom, and Foodtech.

Trakia Economic Zone Trakia Economic Zone (TEZ) in Plovdiv is an industrial and commercial area and one of the biggest economic projects in Bulgaria. It includes six major industrial zones in the region of Plovdiv with a total area of 10,700,000 sq.m. of which 3,250,000 sq.m occupied area. More than 140 Bulgarian and multinational companies operate in TEZ which employ over 12,000 people (as of 2015). Since 1995, TEZ has attracted over EUR 1.1 billion of fixed-capital investments.

NATURAL RESOURCES IN PLOVDIV Dzhendem Tepe (Youth Hill) Dzhendem Tepe is the highest of all the hills in Plovdiv. Its relative height compared to


the average altitude of the city (164 m) is 143 m. The hill is located in the southwest part of the city. The Dzhendem Tepe is the first of the Plovdiv hills declared a protected territory. As early as 1970 the southern part of the hill with an area of 3ha had adopted the status of a national landmark. Its aim is the preservation of the natural habitat of rare plant species, not typical for our flora, including Bulgarian and Balkan relict endemic tutsan, Astragalus physocalux, Genista rumelica. In ancient times it was called the Hill of the Dryad Nymphs. There was a huge statue of Apollo in bronze on top of the hill until Late Antiquity. In the early Christian era, there was located a large three-nave basilica, which was built on the site of the pagan statue demolished by the Christians. During the Ottoman period, it was named Dzhin Tepe (the Hill of the Spirits), which gradually changed to Dzhendem Tepe. Nowadays there is a large park on the Youth Hill, with a mini railway for kids. The place is very popular for recreation and even hosts a few festivals.

Bunarzhik (The Liberators Hill) Bunarzhik is the second highest of the seven hills. Its name comes from the Ottoman word Bunar (a well), because of the numerous water sources. In Roman times it was known as the Hill of Hercules, as there was a large statue on the top. The hill is a favorite place for relaxation and picnics of Plovdiv citizens and it is declared a natural landmark. The first forestation was carried out alongside the construction of the monuments of Russian Liberators and of the Soviet Soldier, known locally as Alyosha in 1881. In 1901 the first open-air restaurant, known for its ‘frog legs’ specialty, was built. After World War II the Summer Theater was built on the hill’s outskirts.

Sahat Tepe (Danov Hill) Danov Hill (Sahat Tepe) is located in the center of Plovdiv, west of the Main Street. In


the first modern city plan, drawn by Joseph Schnitter, the hill was named the Hour Hill, because of the Clocktower on top dating back to 17th century. It is believed that in Roman times on the top of the hill there was a temple of Venus with a sundial. Today the hill is used as a park for relaxation and gatherings of musicians.

Nebet Tepe, Dzhambaz Tepe, and Taksim Tepe – the Three Hills The Architectural and Historical Reserve Old Town is situated on the Three Hills. The ancient fortress is on Nebet Tepe. On Dzambaz, which is called like that because of the steep cliffs on the southeast, where acrobats and rope tricksters used to give their performances in the antiquity, is situated the Ancient Amphitheatre. The name of Taksim Tepe comes from the word Taksim (Arabic for “distribution”), which refers to the place as a distribution center of the ancient city. The waters of the former Roman aqueduct were collected here and then they were released


in different directions across the Three Hills.

Markovo Tepe (Hill of Marko) Markovo Tepe was the seventh hill of Plovdiv. It was destroyed in the course of a period from the late 19th to mid-20th century and the material was used as pavement for the streets in Plovdiv. The site stayed empty for many years when in 2016 a large public and commercial building opened there. Recently the city “regained” its Seventh Hill with a project that immortalizes writers, who created their works in Plovdiv, with paving stones from the destroyed Markovo Tepe.

The Rowing Canal (Regatta Venue) The rowing Canal is a sports facility located adjacent to the Recreation and Culture Park, near Maritza River. Its the largest of its kind in the Balkans and rowing competitions can be held there. The channel is 2 200 meters long, 120 meters wide and three meters deep. The spectators can enjoy the sports events from

the renovated 800 seats grandstand. A bridge crosses the Rowing canal. On its railings, there are hundreds of locked padlocks which symbolize the “locked love of young and old ones� as the keys lie somewhere on the bottom of the canal. The Rowing Canal is surrounded by jogging and walking alleys, as well as a cycling alley. Sport fishing competitions are also held here. But apart from these events, the fishing in the canal is strictly prohibited.

PLOVDIV AREA Winemaking The area around Plovdiv also offers some very good examples of sustainable development. Bulgaria especially the Thracian Valley has a rich history of winemaking, so the tradition is being kept alive and has been de-

veloping in more than 20 boutique wineries in an 80 km radius from Plovdiv. Daily wine tasting tours around them are the perfect way to popularize the local variety Mavrud which the sommeliers assess as the Bulgarian variety with the highest potential for international recognition. Those tours offer plenty of opportunities to see and even experience some of the cultural heritage sites.

Bachkovo monastery Bachkovo monastery is the second largest monastery in Bulgaria, located in the southern part of the village Bachkovo, 10 km south of Asenovgrad. It was founded in 1083 by the Georgian Gregoriy Bakuriani, who donated the land. It is thought that after the fall of Bulgaria to the Ottomans at the end of the 14th century, Bulgaria’s last patriarch Eftimiy was exiled to the Bachkovo Monastery.


The monastery holds a silver-plated icon from 1311 known as The Holy Mother of God Icon. It is believed to have miraculous powers. The monastery has a large collection of icons, silver plated covers for copies of the Gospels and other works of art from the 16th to the 19th centuries. Treasures from the 17th century include a carved wooden icon stand with gold ornamentation and the cathedral’s royal doors. The monastery is still functioning, and visitors have the option of overnight accommodations. The place is very popular for ceremonies – weddings, christenings, etc. The monastery and the area around are developed tourist site. There is a museum where some of the oldest artifacts connected with the history of the monastery are on display. Also, the path leading to the monastery is lined with small shops and stands that sell everything the Rhodopa Mountain can offer – herbs, fruit, homemade jam and dairy products, ceramic items, wood carvings and much more.

Assen’s fortress Near the Bachkovo Monastery is located Assen’s fortress – the ancient fort that guarded the entrance to the Thracian Valley once known as “Petrich”. It first appeared in history books during the 11th century as part of Bachkovo monastery. The earliest archaeological findings date from the time of the Thracians, the area of the fortress being also inhabited during the Ancient Roman and Early Byzantine period. In the 13th century, the site was considerably renovated and went on to play a significant role under the rule of Tsar Ivan Assen II, from whom Petrich would adopt its more common name: ‘Assenova Krepost,’ or ‘Assen’s Fortress.’ In the 14th century, it was completely destroyed by Ottomans and only the Church of the Holy Mother of God partially survived and later was fully restored by the local Orthodox community. It has remained in religious use ever since. Nowadays the site is open to tourists. 62

Dairies The nearby Rhodopa Mountain offers perfect opportunities for rural tourism. A good example is Rodopa Milk Dairy. It was founded in 1993 with main activity milk processing. Located in an ecologically clean area, the dairy can meet hygiene and technology standards at European level. As well as producing traditional Bulgarian dairy products they specialize in alternative and eco-tourism and provide their visitors with the opportunity to observe the production process in the enterprise, as is the practice in Alpine dairies. The Milk House complex established adjacently to the dairy, offers all the conveniences and comfort, dairy specialties and surprises.

CREATING NEW TRADITIONS Ever changing and constantly developing the city has its old and new “tokens”. Monument or installations which contain small mementos, inside jokes even, of people of Plovdiv.

PLOVEDIV The sign PLOVEDIV, is mounted on one of the houses in the Old Town, visible from the Stanislav Dospewski Street. In 2011 Milen Gelishev and Simeon Todorov completed it within the Night of Museums and Galleries – Plovdiv, in the program “City and public spaces”. It presents how contemporary people see the city, their vision for communication and the creative ways to name and brand the place they live in. It became popular very quickly and added one more name to the already long list of names for the city.

Milyo On the Main Street, at the foot of the Kamen-

itza stairs, sits the statue of Milyo. He was not some great historical figure but simply the town’s idiot. He was goodhearted and known and loved by everybody in his time. Often used as a model for artists and photographers he has already numerous portraits but his statue made him one of the symbols of Plovdiv.


• •

Sasho Sweety Near the church of St. Petka is the Statue of Sasho Sweety. Well known and loved jazz musician, he was popular for his jokes with the regime.

Plovdiv Together The sign Plovdiv Together in The Main Street was erected for the European Capital of Culture – Plovdiv 2019. It quickly became a popular place for selfies for both tourists and local people.

Graffiti As part of the modern city culture, Plovdiv is collecting vast graffiti collection. Most popular are the drawings on the back of the Department Store, and the graffiti on the back of the Drama Theatre. In Trakia quarter, giant graffiti is drawn on the entire facades of a block of flats (usually historical figures or even poems).

• • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

The Seventh Hill

The “Seventh Hill” installation by the sculptor Atanas Hranov is located next to the Main Street in the middle of the small garden. It is a symbolic regaining of the long-lost Seventh Hill of the city. The installation is built with paving stones from the original Markovo Tepe and contains cast iron plates with sayings, titles and the names of popular writers, who created their works in Plovdiv.

• • • •


Шишков С. (2016) Пловдив в своето минало и настояще (in Bulgarian), Пловдив, Фондация „Балкански Културен Форум“ Roman Plovdiv Valandovski D. (2015, March 30). Excavation project for ‘Great’ Basilica in Bulgaria’s Plovdiv to focus on early christian mosaics restoration Ancient Plovdiv Tobacco City Kapana creative district Lost in Plovdiv Alternative map of Plovdiv Plovdiv a touch of art and history Plovdiv time (in Bulgarian) Капана (in Bulgarian) “Rodopa Milk” Dairy (2017 September 02) Детското влакче - един от символите на Пловдив (in Bulgarian) The ancient stadium of Philippopolis The Sofia Globe Plovdiv Wine Tasting Tour Асенова крепост (in Bulgarian) Richter D. Asen’s Fortress, Bulgaria Bachkovo monastery History Кривошиева Б. (2017 November 04) Паметникът на Альоша- между християнските символи, Херакъл и Супермен (in Bulgarian) Христов К. (2017 October 08) Как пловдивският талисман Мильо оживя в паметник на Главната (in Bulgarian) Добрева Е. (2011 September 05) Откриха „Седмия хълм“ в Пловдив (in Bulgarian) PLOVEDIV – проект в градска среда (in Bulgarian) International Fair Plovdiv Trakia Economic Zone Pixabay






68 68

CASTLE ACTIVITIES Castle-for fica on Mosque Clock tower Tekke Hammam Tradi onal buildings Modern buildings Church Roads Sewage rehabilita on Crea on of green spaces Tradi onal bazaar Main na onal museum Ethnographic museum Interpreta on signage Monumental and func onal ligh ng

69 69 70 70 71 72 74 74 76 76 76 77 78 79 79 82 83


Wri en by Ols Lafe Uendi Murthi Arঞ Çiçolli (Shoqata Shqiptare e Ambientalisteve Industriale, Tirana, Albania)


BACKGROUND Strategical Framework

SUSTAINABILITY The financial aspect Ins tu onal level Policy level: Environmental level Social level


84 84 84 85 85 85

Coat of arms of Scanderbeg


BACKGROUND Albania is a country with ancient history and rich cultural heritage. Notwithstanding local tourists, cultural tourisms has a strong impact on local economies. Destinations promoting a high quality cultural tourism in Albania, such as Butrint, Gjirokastra, and Berat (all of which are UNESCO designated World Heritage Sites), and Apollonia, Durres, Kruje, Lezhe and Shkodwr offer tourists a good opportunity to visit unknown place. With an increasing number of tourists on a yearly basis, a large number of opportunities is provided for cultural heritage preservation (for example the case of Butrint where the archaeology supplement nature and the case of Gjirokaster and Kruja where the castle, historic centre and characteristic houses offer to the tourists numerous naturally combines values of Albanian heritage. Investments and rehabilitation of historic centres has been a priority of Ministry of Tourism, Culture, youth and Sports also in cooperation with international organizations and other donors. The Kruja Castle is the most renowned medieval cultural heritage monument in Albania, a stronghold of the National Hero, Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg and nowadays a highly visited attraction for both foreign and Albanian tourists. Kruja, the castle and its environs, stands as a first class national monument, which offers a complex view into the history of Albania. Situated at about 600m above sea level, the castle has a perimeter of walls of ca. 800 m, and occupies a surface of ca. 2.25 ha, while holding inside several cult related monuments (a mosque, a tekke and a church), as well as houses and two museums. In historical sources the castle is first mentioned in the 9th century AD and as a fortified settlement in the 13th century AD. During the 13th-14th centuries it became the centre of the State of Arbër.


Strategical Framework This site stands in the priority of National Strategy for Development and Integration (NSDI) 2007-2013, with regard to the strategic priority to achieve a balanced and sustainable economic, social and human development. Kruja Castle stands in compliance with the NSDI’s visions and strategic priorities in the sectors of Tourism and Culture, and in particular: • Tourism: develop special interest tourism, with special reference to cultural tourism, in the short- to medium term, by means of enhancing awareness, capacity-building, territorial planning, and the overall improvement of the cultural tourism offer; • Culture: to improve the restoration of monuments, standards of management and treatment of cultural heritage and support the diversity of contemporary cultural expressions, while at the same time mainstreaming culture within central and local development programmes and policies. In particular, Kruja site contributes to the eenlightening an important historical asset of Ottoman Empire history, as well as serving for: • inclusion of cultural and natural assets in tourism development; • improvement of existing local products in areas with potential for tourism. The restoration, rehabilitation, treatment of existing pathologies of monuments, creation of green spaces inside the castle, improving the existing museums as well as restoring the mosque, hammam, tekke and remnants of the church are part of the authority priorities. Improving the tourist experience and the quality of life of the inhabitants is another main goal. By providing a tourist information centre, the creation of the ticketing system and the tourist signage it is aimed at providing better information and services to visitors.

The latest intervention has aimed to: 1. Improve conservation/restoration of local cultural heritage by implementing pilot conservation works and developing capacities of local practitioners, with special focus on women and youth. 2. Sustain the social and economic inclusion of vulnerable groups at risk of poverty (with special focus on women and youth) by supporting job creation and the integration of vulnerable groups in income-generating activities related to cultural heritage (e.g. tourism, arts and crafts, etc). 3. Support sustainable territorial development through the better management of Kruja’s cultural heritage, by increasing accessibility as an important national historic site, ensuring the application of the relevant international standards as in UNESCO World Heritage Sites within Albania and abroad. 4. Foster the promotion and increase visibility and practice of cultural heritage-re-

lated tourism in the area of Kruja (and more generally in Albania).

CASTLE ACTIVITIES Castle-fortification The castle is the main attraction to all visitors aiming to arrange a trip to Kruja. Its predominant location can be easily discerned while approaching from the main road, as well as from the traditional bazaar. The following important and indispensable actions are taken lately and are still ongoing: • Restore and secure all of the existing ca. 800m long walls. • Consolidating foundations in some of the round and rectangular towers as well as capping of the walls for better visual impact. • Reconfiguring of some important elements, consolidating the stone foundations of the main walls.


• •

• •

Rehabilitation of the landscape after the consolidating interventions. Cleaning of the stone walls fugues and joints, vegetation and re-fuguing where necessary. Partial reconstruction of the observation towers and conservation of the existing elements. Cleaning from modern elements (phone and electric pylons, fences etc). Creation of several belvedere-s as part of the visitor’s experience.

• •

Filling in missing details and consolidating walls where possible and visible in order to have a better configuration of the remaining architectural plan. Cleaning of vegetation, partial excavation, levelling. Cleaning of the minaret fragment and algae created by long exposure in humidity. Extended explanation touristic panels for the functional environs of the mosque.

Clock tower

Mosque The remnants of the mosque occupy an important part of the area adjacent to the entrance of the castle. Situated strategically between the two museums, the monuments constitute an important element of the history of the castle and its people with Islam over the centuries. Provisions are made for the following interventions:


The position of the clock tower on the highest part of the castle, make it highly important as a visual element, which ought to be treated through the interventions. • The checking of the hydro insulation function of the clock tower roof. • Cleaning of the facades from algae and replacement of damaged stone masonry. • Full reconstructing of the wooden stair-

case to make it more traditional and safe. The inner area could serve for informative aspects, as well as a small alternative museum and as a belvedere.

Tekke This monument indicates the presence of the Bektashi inside and around Kruja. Its location on the lower part of the castle, somehow hidden from view, still makes it part of the cultural assets of the castle. • The new bridge built in the year 2000, could be dismantled in the mid-term perspective and the reconfiguration of the old access route, which traces are clearly present can be a good solution. • A return to identity of the monumental graves in the courtyard of the tekke, by restoring their elements. • The restoration of the facade of the modern annex of the tekke, by proposing a traditional facade, in order to integrate it with the complex. • Reconsidering the modern tekke building outside the tekke complex, possible removal may be a solution. • Paving of the courtyard with cobble stones, and the addition of new cobble stone pavement at the existing one. • The creation of recreational elements in the two belvederes next to the tekke. • Consolidation of foundations on the north-eastern side, based on observa71

tions of cracks on the facade of the monument. Re-joining of openings, aesthetical interventions of the fugue of the whole facade, filling in additional elements and the checking the functional capabilities of the roof, by fully dismantling, new hydro insulation, preserving the good roof tiles, and replacement of the damaged

Hammam • The hammam building is located adjacent to the tekke. Through the restoration and rehabilitation of the monument, it is sought to create the first in-use hammam in Albania. • Cleaning of vegetation and joints of stone masonry. • Checking the functional aspects of the 72

roof tiles with new ones of the same type. Cleaning of interior of tekke from humidity affected elements, and the creation of an opportunity for the consolidation of the fresco if it results damaged by high humidity already observed inside the monument. Conservation and preservation of existing wooden elements on the facade.

roof, taking into account the high level of humidity inside the monument. Dismantling the existing roof tiles, and the revitalisation of arcades and cupolas. The creation of the new hydro-insulation covers for the whole building, and the remodelling with mortar of the tiles, replacing the damaged ones. Inside the hamman, it is proposed to fill


in the missing wall plaster within the existing structure, as well as filling in missing constructive elements. The pavement of the floor with stone elements, highlighting the existing reserved elements.



The changing area is proposed to be covered by a new roof, which will increase the use of the hammam, enabling the government to rent out the building while creating a solid revenue from its sustainable use.

Traditional buildings Large one and two storey high traditional buildings still exist within the castle walls. Their state of reservations is not good, and in same cases urgent intervention is required. Some of the houses are not inhabited and the rest, have been restored in a wrong way. We propose the thorough constructive analysis of each building, replacing constructive elements such as beams and wooden columns, ceiling constructive decorative elements and the reshaping of the constructive elements within the roofs. After the reinforcement of the constructive elements, the aesthetical treatment of the exterior may begin. This action consists in the refreshment of the roofs with traditional tiles, after being treated with hydro insulation material, the tiles can be mounted as in other cases, with mortar, which are preceded by the restoration of the exterior roof covers, which if deemed appropriate must preserve their solid authentic elements. In the traditional buildings the newly inserted elements in a naïve and sporadic way will be removed. In the façade elements, such as doors and windows, their conservation will be enabled by treating them with anti-insect solutions: • Restoration of wall plaster, painting with traditional white wash. • In the respective gardens, the garden walls will be restored, reaching the original quotes, and the completion with extra stone masonry walls when needed, and vegetation removal. Original entrances will be preserved and restored, serving as a model for the modern buildings rehabilitation process.

Modern buildings The modern buildings inside and near the wall at the exterior of the castle, present in an ugly way architectural fragments, imported and deformed, which makes the existence of those buildings unacceptable for the


historic setting of the castle. The imposing proposals for the future for the residents of those objects, will consist in the rehabilitation of these buildings in traditional elements, where the return in a stylized form of the elements which are evidenced and va-

lued in the early buildings. These interventions will be a good synchronisation of the exterior architecture in full coordination with the existing construction, the latter being hidden under the now traditional cover.


Church The church remains, situated on the north-eastern part of the castle complex, next to the clock tower and the fortification wall, is a one nave church, where what has been conserved until nowdays is only the perimeter of the walls in low levels, and the whole has been covered with an existing wooden cover, too heavy and competes with the monument itself. Inside the church, only on the south-western side, can be found traces of the early fresco walls, which is part of the floral decoration of the lower level stripe. It is proposed to test excavate the rest of the church to clarify the lower possible levels of its foundations. The removal unnecessary elements of the masonry, cleaning the existing walls and relying on traditional methods for its realisation, and if needed, after the removal of the existing cover structure, this could be replaced by a new metal cover, inox or hard aluminium, or chromed iron, cover-


ing it with a stratum of polycarbonate where the introduction of natural light would be present, making this monument visitable, both in terms of space and necessary light influx.

Roads Only a small part of the inner network of the castle has been recently restored, while a large part of the existing network needs considerable intervention to refresh their contour and improve lost levels. Another section of those roads seems to have been lost forever. The intention is to rebuild those lost passages, working with the same technique.

Sewage rehabilitation Part of the traditional and modern buildings, being enlarged and trying to adopt to modern needs, have been using large quantities of water and thus dispose along and outside

the fortification walls their excess water. This not pleasant view is to be fixed through the construction of hidden collectors, which will collect all the waste water from all possible houses, and if possible to be connected to the main city waste water treatment or another bio treatment facility. This would enable the disappearance of the pipes protruding on the south eastern faรงade of the fortification wall.

Creation of green spaces The underlining of lost green space inside the castle, between houses, roads and forti-

fication walls, it is proposed to create green spaces, combined with low and medium, and partially high vegetation. The plans will be typical Mediterranean, as part of an inner treated landscape. The stone passages and the green space of those areas would create a pleasant background putting forth the main elements of this monumental complex. This would finally put an end the sporadic parking which can be easily seen within the castle, which alter the functional image of the main squares of the castle. Having in mind the large level differences within the castle, combined with the pebble roads and green spaces, as functional and aesthetical part, would be the retaining and division walls of those levels. Those would


create comfortable squares for recreational uses, using the dry stone masonry technique.

Traditional bazaar The traditional bazaar of Kruja, despite the fact that has constantly been in the focus of restoration interventions since 1961, shows signs of degradation both from the urban silhouette as well as the architectural elements. It can be clearly spotted the interventions which have fallen outside the traditional contours. The owners which have replaced important elements with ordinary elements, have brought inescapably the loss of its traditional image. The tendency to save this complex, although at a certain distance from the castle walls, would propose the immediate freeze of all construction, both illegal and non-professional in it. The analysis and study of the function of old materials still preserved today, will be followed by several actions such as:


the creation of a complex and professional proposal for the preservation of older elements where possible, • the replacement of damaged parts, especially wooden elements, with similar ones both in terms in colour and durability, • the unification of late interventions with earlier professional ones, the return in the original state, of all new window openings which have damaged the values of the south-western facades of the bazaar. • the last intervention would be aiming the restoration of the roofs, from the first to the third level, which apart from the structural reconstruction, will be treated preserving the original tiles, the connection with mortar, the characteristic covers, and the preservation of various levels, quite characteristic and easily identified in the still intact older parts. An urgent matter would be the halt on each spontaneous intervention until the serious and complete intervention we are proposing.

Main national museum The authorities intervention aim to rehabilitate, promote, protect the artifacts as well as the bring people closer to the museums. They play an extremely crucial role in presenting in full details the history of the country as well as they are an important part on the creation of revenue from visitors. The rehabilitation of the elevator, heating and cooling system has been foreseen.

Ethnographic museum The museum is situated in a traditional house, which will be fully restored, main original elements will be preserved and internal lighting and presentation materials will be fully reconfigured. The garden of the museum will be rehabilitated, offering extra space for evening outdoor activities during the dry period. 79



Interpretation signage In the signalling system of this complex, there will be two kinds of information provided, short and orienting, and long information, with reduced historical elements. The information network for the short and orienting section, will begin at the main entrance of the castle, on the north-western part, where the respective map and passages of the castle will be situated. This map will include brief explanations on the main monuments within the castle. A carefully studied network, will be used, in order to inform on the access or not, according to the values and possibilities of visits. This will be made in order to have visitors orient themselves quickly and easily in the areas they want to go. The information panels, with extended information, which will placed nearby the monuments, will provide the historic values, monumental values and events of other important data related to the monument. These panels, may be proposed to be used accompanied with illumination adopted for evening visits.


Monumental and functional lighting The limited existing illumination, will extend to all the areas where revitalization is needed. The functional lighting follows the pebble roads, until the entrances of the various monuments of this complex. The functional lighting systems is divided into two types: the low type, aimed at enhancing passages, and high types, which lights widely the passages as well as different elements of the recreational areas inside the castle, enabling their use in the evening and night. The monumental lighting is categorised within its own type, into exterior and interior type. The main exterior monumental type of lighting will be the one devoted to the main fortification walls of the castle, placed at the lower level of the walls, with warm colours in yellow, in combination with the local stone, trying to emphasize the important moments of this perimetral fortification. On the exterior facades of the monuments of the complex, various ways will be used for the lighting, depending on the architectonic styles, such as in the case of linear facades the lighting intends to be fully extended, while in the composite facades the lighting follows the peculiarities of the style, in order to highlight as much as possible, the differences, and show the elements within them. In the inner monumental lighting, could emphasize the case of the tekke, where the spot-like lighting, using a certain angle, would enhance the appreciation of the main cupola decoration and auxiliary arcades and

arches, while in the case of the upper part of the hammam cupola, particular attention is given to the beautiful and rigid structures brought back after a long time, and will be evidenced by the proposed lighting.

FUTURE INTERVENTIONS EXPECTED Interventions will aim at increasing the positive impact and image of the castle and the country, protect the monumental complex, surges the life span of degraded materials, and increases the use of income and comfortable visits. The rehabilitation of public space, museums and monuments, as well as the inner and outer illumination of the castle complex will allow for better appreciation of the history. A special focus has been placed at the way how the main national museums are managed and presented and a radical improvement of the messages they transmit. A full intervention, would pave the way for a better presentation of the artifacts, as well as serve as a model for the rehabilitation of smaller national museums across the country. Specifically, some of the expected results of the proposed intervention as foreseen are: • Awareness raised (public and institutional) on the importance of preserving cultural heritage and mainstreaming it into local and national development programmes • Conditions established for the creation of job opportunities and the develop83

ment of business activities related to cultural heritage, both directly (restoration works, museums, etc) and indirectly (tourism, traditional cultural productions) Local sustainable development fostered, by means of improving the safeguarding and management of cultural heritage, as well as the local tourism strategy and action plan Socio-economic conditions of vulnerable groups (with special focus on women and youth) improved, by means of their inclusion in the safeguarding of cultural heritage and in heritage-related income-generating activities.

Multiplier effects

partners in implementing Knowledge Management activities on the theme of culture and development, will enable the messages delivery intended to informing future culture and development programming and policy in Albania. In this sense, the intervention results and lessons learned will turn valuable and functional to raising awareness on the importance of Albanian cultural heritage both as a driver and enabler for sustainable development, thus advocating for the mainstreaming of culture and cultural heritage within national and local development strategies.

SUSTAINABILITY The financial aspect:

The concept of interventions, based on previous good practices developed by UNESCO at international level as well as Albanian government at local level, is designed in order to be replicable in any other cultural heritage site in Albania, such as the related national tentative list (Durrës Amphitheatre, tombs of the lower Selca and natural and cultural heritage of the Ohrid region). In addition, the experiences developed throughout the project may be used to better tune the project’s methodology on the specificities (institutional, operational, socio-economic) of Albania, thereby facilitating its possible replication elsewhere in the country. In this sense, one of the key added values for the implementation and possible intervention replications consists in the comprehensive and balanced composition of the key relevant actors. The role of the local governmental authority with specific mandate on both culture and tourism is associated to the complementary role of the persons from targeted vulnerable groups and public whose combined action and responsibilities will be of crucial importance not only in terms of implementation, but also with regard to outreach and communication/dissemination capacities. he combined action of relevant Albanian 84

The activities related to the conservation and management of cultural heritage and the promotion of cultural tourism supports and enhances the existing policies and programmes of the relevant national and local authorities. The status of the venue as a first class national monument (determining an enhanced visibility and attractiveness) will continue ensuring a competitive advantage in terms of fund-raising for its future safeguarding and management, both with regard to public funding as well as to alternative means of resource mobilization.

Institutional level: •

Institutional sustainability will be ensured by the direct inclusion of all relevant institutions in the project design and implementation. Therefore, the actor partnership shall determine the full ownership of activities by the concerned institutions. As already stated for what concern the financial sustainability, the intervention activities are designed with a view at ensuring their coherence and functionality with regard to the already existing policies and programmes of the relevant

national and local authorities. In particular, the direct involvement of relevant institutions through the intervention will have an impact in the sense of building capacities for the continuation of their action on the concerned issues.

Policy level: •

The action at policy level is one of the basic elements of the interventions methodology and of its comprehensive approach. In particular, it aims to increase the sustainability of current policies in the concerned fields of action, especially by means of the activities on the assessment and implementation of cultural heritage- and tourism-related policies. The sustainability of the mentioned action at policy level will be ensured by the direct operational involvement of related government agencies, both at local and national level, throughout the entire design and implementation of the project.

based on previously accomplished as well as future risk assessment exercises, encompassing the possible impact of environmental risks, and therefore contributing to a better integration of heritage-related and environmental policies.

Social level: •

Environmental level: •

The interventions planned do not include any activity having a potential negative impact on environmental sustainability. On the contrary, the support offered to the safeguarding of built heritage will also contribute to the reduction of environmental risks associated to the deterioration of such heritage. Similarly, the activities on the safeguarding/management of cultural heritage are


The inclusion of vulnerable groups and the improvement of their social and economic conditions is a must. Such objectives will be pursued by means of a comprehensive approach integrating three complementary and mutually reinforcing fields of action: 1) the indirect (capacity-building) support to vulnerable groups for their participation in cultural heritage- and tourism-related income generating activities; 2) the improvement of cultural heritage conservation and management; 3) the improvement of tourism development policies and programmes. In so doing, the activities directly targeting the inclusion of vulnerable groups will be supported by a synergic action aimed at enhancing the safeguarding of the site and its attractiveness as a tourism destination, thereby building essential elements of sustainability. In turn, the inclusion of vulnerable groups will create the right conditions for the sustainability of the entire project, as it is expected to have a positive impact on social cohesion, which is a necessary condition of a durable and equitable development.


SIEDLĘCIN / ŚLEMIEŃ – POLAND Wri en by Michał Ryszard Koskowski Kazimierz Waluch (Founda on IRSiE, Warszawa, Poland)








CASE STUDIES Siedlęcin Ślemień

91 91 94





Coat of arms of Ślemień 87

INTRODUCTION The article explores the complex relationship between heritage, socio-economic development and tourism, within the framework of sustainability. The narrative’s central premise states that heritage management is a process that impacts and is impacted by both the tourism growth and the socio-economic change, which is particularly important and visible in the case of traditional settlements (see Fig. 1). Two examples of heritage sites in Poland have been selected to illustrate the concept: a Mediaeval tower-castle and the surrounding rural estate in Siedlęcin, Lower Silesia; and an open-air museum of folk life and architecture in Ślemień, Beskidy Mountains. Both cases, despite their contrasting origins and character, offer an opportunity to study the key factors and functions of heritage management today.

The article begins with a review of relevant literature to review the relationship between tourism and culture, to introduce the concept of sustainability, and to explain the role of heritage tourism in sustainable development. Then, a brief historic and ethnographic account is given of each of the selected case study sites, followed by a closer examination of the difficulties and opportunities that arise from particular methods of heritage protection and interpretation observed at the two locations. The overall conclusion of the article is that despite the dominance of site-specific solutions, a balanced mix of economic and socio-economic functions - including the prominent role of heritage tourism - coupled with appropriate conservation efforts is the preferred approach in site management for sustainable development based on cultural heritage resources.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Tourism is increasingly recognised as a major, global economic force, that contributes to economic growth, job creation, and infrastructure development. In 2016 international tourism generated 10% of world’s GDP, and as an export category it ranked third, after chemicals and fuels; international arrivals reached over 1.2 million globally and international tourism receipts amounted to 1.2 billion USD (UNWTO, 2017). Considering that spending by domestic tourists typically surpasses that of international tourists by approximately three to one (Deloitte, 2010), tourism can easily be pictured as a substantial economic phenomenon. However, tourism is also a cultural activity. Tourism and travel feature in almost every known culture, driving social change and regeneration, and culture remains one of the fundamental tourism assets, as a rich source of experience, education and entertainment. Monuments and sites, museums and art galleries, sports and religions, festivals and mu-

Fig. 1. Heritage management aspects discussed in this article. Source: authors’ own compilation


sic events are among the key pull factors in domestic and international tourism. In Europe only, it is estimated that almost 50% of all tourism activity is motivated by cultural heritage (Europa Nostra, 2005; Europa Nostra et al., 2015). All the same, tourism is one of the vital sources of revenue for cultural institutions and for host economies in general, as well as a powerful rationale for cultural policy makers (Koskowski, 2015; Rebanks, 2010; Waluch, 2004). It can be argued that tourism, and especially heritage tourism, is indeed the most profitable field of interaction between economy and culture, effectively bridging the two seemingly separate worlds (Koskowski, 2006). It would be expected, therefore, that tourism management should make a significant part of the process of heritage management. In reality, however, heritage administrators – or others responsible for the day-to-day management of heritage sites – represent strikingly diverse approaches to tourism. Tourism can be treated as anything from a nuisance to a goldmine. Visitors at heritage sites should therefore be prepared to be shunned, ignored, or exploited, just as well as to be entertained and celebrated. Many a heritage manager is still finding it difficult to depart from the traditional “curatorial approach”, prevailing in 1990s, focused on caring for and maintaining a historical property, where the issue of public access remains at best a secondary matter and sometimes even a source of threat (Garrod & Fyall, 2000; Stone, 2006). At the same time, some managers cannot resist transforming heritage sites into visitor attractions, at the expense of quality and content of their interpretive and research programmes (Graham, Ashworth, & Tunbridge, 2016; Landorf, 2009). Equally diverse in intensity and direction are the host communities’ feelings about tourists on their doorstep. Numerous research papers have explored this issue in recent years to study the factors that influence locals’ affection (or the lack of it) for the visiting strangers (see for example: Almeida García, Balbuena Vázquez, & Cortés Macías,

2015; Kay Smith & Diekmann, 2017; Kim, Uysal, & Sirgy, 2013). Insufficient or superficial community engagement, overemphasis of the needs of the tourists – only partially justified by the commercial imperative – compounded by seasonal price variations, overcrowding, radical cultural differences and other factors may indeed fuel host communities’ hostility towards tourism development (Garrod, Fyall, Leask, & Reid, 2012; Leask, 2016). Frequent references to the famous Doxey’s Irritation Index (Pavlić & Portonal, 2016; Reisinger, 2009) highlight that antagonism is only a few steps away from euphoria, and the relationship between the visitor and the visited is a delicate matter (see Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Doxey’s Irritation Index Source: Reisinger (2009, s. 221) At heritage sites things are yet more complicated. Among the many elements that are at stake in this context is a combination of community values, heritage values, and tourists’ interests. As said earlier, tourism is often seen as a solid source of revenue – even its own self-image is that of predominantly an economic activity (Europa Nostra et al., 2015; European Tourism Manifesto, 2017). What remains somehow ambiguous is the role that tourism plays for heritage sites


and local communities. Indeed, the risks associated with tourism development at heritage sites cannot be downplayed: commodification and loss of authenticity, erosion of traditional landscapes and values, and the latest menace of over-tourism – are recognised and real threats to heritage conservation and interpretation, social stability and cohesion (Garrod & Fyall, 2000; Higgins-Desbiolles, 2017). It should not come as a surprise, therefore, that the complex relationship between cultural heritage and sustainable development has been a subject of significant political and academic activity in the last two decades (Garrod & Fyall, 2000; Pereira Roders & van Oers, 2011; UNESCO, 2013; Zolfani, Sedaghat, Maknoon, & Zavadskas, 2015). It is now widely understood that heritage can both be the driver and the objective of sustainable development: destinations rich in cultural heritage can enjoy higher levels of wellbeing, tolerance and safety, environmental quality, greater social cohesion, and more integrated spacial planning policies; investment in heritage preservation and conservation is reported to create numerous socially beneficent externalities (Europa Nostra et al., 2015). However, as this paper points out, specific decisions tend to be highly site-specific. In the case of built heritage, the choice of solutions and interventions ultimately depends on the character of the site, its setting and degree of preservation, and on the nature of its relationship with its stakeholders, in particular the tourists and the local community. The concept of sustainable development itself has a long and turbulent history. In short, since the momentous Brundtland Report (Brundtland, 1987) it has become a by-word for efficient management of the World’s limited resources – minimising impacts and maximising benefits. Sustainability is typically envisaged as the right balance of economic growth, environmental protection and social responsibility – recently, the UN Hangzhou Declaration has elevated culture to become the fourth factor of sustainable


development (UNESCO, 2013). As far as tourism is concerned, the United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) embedded the concept of sustainable development in its Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, whose Article 3 posits that the tourism-induced economic growth should satisfy “equitably the needs and aspirations of present and future generations” (UNWTO, 2001). The UN Sustainable Development Goals embrace both heritage protection and promotion of sustainable tourism (United Nations, 2015). The EU has also issued a number of relevant policy documents in this field (Europa Nostra et al., 2015), and launched a system of indicators, known as ETIS, encouraging tourism destinations to adopt a balanced approach to tourism planning (European Commission, 2016). Recently, the United Nations announced 2017 an International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development to highlight the tourism’s potential for “positive change, prosperity and wellbeing” (UNESCO, 2017). As demonstrated above, the dominant narrative maintains that positive aspects of tourism outweigh the threats it carries for communities, economies, culture and heritage. The European Year of Cultural Heritage 2018 will also undoubtedly demonstrate that heritage and tourism are closely linked and positively interdependent. Heritage sites should therefore be expected to embrace the powerful ally in the person of a cultural tourist who, equipped in higher-than-average cultural and financial capital (Rebanks, 2010), brings income and global recognition to often remote locations and disused buildings. However, even assuming the net positive social and economic effects of tourism, the stark warning once uttered by Hewison (Hewison, 1987) remains valid: the tourism-heritage relationship needs to be carefully managed to prevent economic forces from turning heritage into yet another branch of the entertainment industry.

CASE STUDIES Two sites have been selected to realise the objective of this study: a Medieval tower-castle in Siedlęcin and a contemporary open-air folk museum in Ślemień; both in the south of Poland (see Fig. 3). The two sites represent

different historical periods, functions, types of ownership and approaches to heritage preservation and interpretation. Nevertheless, both are purposefully open to visitors and offer the chance to explore the challenges and opportunities associated with heritage management and the role of tourism in the process.

Fig. 3. Geographical position of the two case-study sites described in the article Source: authors’ own compilation

Siedlęcin The tower in Siedlęcin (Fig. 4) was constructed in years 1313-1315 by Henry I, Duke of Jawor (Nocuń, 2016). Originally built as a large, defensive-residential keep (perhaps a hunting lodge), surrounded by a wall and a moat, the castle in Siedlęcin is a typical example of a dwelling of this type in Central Europe. Located in the heart of the Duchy of Jawor and Świdnica, one of the richest regions of Central Europe at that time, situated at an important trade route and river crossing, and close to an already settled village, the tower was one of over fourty keeps, built by Henry I and his father Bolko I at the break of the 13th and 14th centuries (Adam-

ska, 2016; Nocuń, 2016). The tower has not changed much since the day it was built, apart from natural wear and tear, necessary repairs and slight interior repurposing, including changes in function that followed several changes of ownership. In consequence, it still boasts most of the original timberwork and other structural elements (Nocuń, 2016). The tower’s surroundings developed more substantially in time. Almost since its founding, the estate had economic functions and included a couple of water mills, several fish ponds, a grazing meadow and a sheep shed. Today, the settlement also includes a manor house (that incorporated the original gatehouse) and a number of partially ruined agricultural outbuildings in the farmyard; since the late 18th 91

Fig. 4. The tower in Siedlęcin and the farmyard buildings Source: Elżbieta Wojczuk, c. most of the castle moat has been filled in. Recently, the area has been the subject of extensive archaeological excavations that shed new light on its complex history. The community that grew around the tower and on the other side of the river is now an average-sized, Silesian village, with two churches and a (currently disused) train stop. It is conveniently located only 5 km away from a sizeable city of Jelenia Góra, which remains the main source of employment and visitors. What makes the tower in Siedlęcin stand out as a tourist attraction, apart from its obvious historical value, are the decorations of the great hall of the keep, located on the second floor. Today, they are the only surviving, 14th c. mural paintings depicting the story of Sir Lancelot, conserved in their original place (Witkowski, 2001) (Fig. 5). The paintings, whose unnamed author may have come from as far as Switzerland, were commissioned by Duke Henry I and his wife, Agnes of Bohemia – a well-educated and


well-connected noble couple. They adorned what once used to be the ceremonial great hall of the tower, and tell the romantic and tragic story of Lancelot, the most famous and charismatic of the legendary Knights of the Round Table. The work has never been finished and we will probably never uncover the founder’s original intention behind this undoubtedly expensive commission. It can only be speculated that the story of Sir Lancelot was meant as a warning, or perhaps an inspiration for the closest circle of the Duke’s friends. Today’s visitors will rather marvel at the craftsmanship of the artist and the imagination of his benefactor. Arthurian legends used to and still do evoke the chivalric ethos of the Middle Ages, which surely contributes to the feeling of being transported in time that accompanies visitors to the Siedlęcin tower. The paintings were discovered in 1877, after a period when the tower had been used as a granary, and much more recently have been meticulously

renovated at the behest of the current owner of the castle. Undoubtedly, the Arthurian murals are the main asset of Siedlęcin, but the castle and the remains of a once-prosperous estate can be also visited for their picturesque setting on a riverbank and the specific charm of the place – a genius loci – highlighted in many positive comments in the visitor book and social media channels. The tower is under management by a dedicated Association, acting on behalf of a private Foundation. The last ownership change of the estate took place in 2001, when it was sold by the Treasury as a broke and disused collective farm – a failed communist government undertaking. Both the Association and the Foundation, however, represent people and money, whose origin is largely not local. As such – and given the sudden activity at the site which was not always welcome – they have been treated with much suspicion and even silent opposition by the local community and a lot of effort was needed to convince the villagers of the good intentions of the new owners. Trust was won by a string of difficult decisions, such as not restricting access to the estate grounds, criss-crossed by public footpaths, or by closing a blind eye on youth gathering in the adjacent park. Ad-

ditionally, free-of-charge visits are organised on a regular basis for local schools, and popular regional and traditional food fairs are held in the tower grounds. At almost every opportunity the local community receives due attention from the tower owners, however informal interviews with members of the Association indicate that the relationship is yet far from reciprocity. The evolution of the relationship between the local community and the site owner in Siedlęcin is a good illustration of the processes that built heritage has to undergo in Central and Eastern Europe at the beginning of the 21st c. It is also a classic example of the so called ‘heritage cycle’, which assumes that cultural heritage can become part of our lives only if we wish so, and we usually need to begin with understanding in order to proceed to appreciating and caring (Thurley, 2005) (Fig. 6). The historical events that shaped current attitudes in Lower Silesia have also left deep scars and much dissonance. Heritage owners need not to neglect these dynamics. It appears that the managers of the Siedlęcin tower have managed to strike an exemplary, if fragile, balance between commercial pursuits, scientific research and community relations.

Fig. 5. The great hall of the tower with the mural paintings Source: Nocuń (2004)


Fig. 6. The heritage cycle Source:

Ślemień The site in Ślemień is an example of heritage protection ex situ, away from the original setting, in purposefully designed surroundings of an open-air museum. Otherwise known as skansens, the open-air museums are collections of buildings, predominantly vernacular, assembled to represent a given period of history, culture or style typical for a given area. The concept to remove entire buildings or even groups of buildings in order to recreate cultural landscapes in a designated space was born in Scandinavia at the end of the 19th c. (Oliver, 2001). The skansen is supposed to bear the closest possible resemblance to the original (or typical), historical and functional context in which the buildings existed – or would have existed in a selected historical period – thus recreating as much as possible of their contextual integrity while performing an educational


and sometimes also a socio-political function (Forrest, 2010). The artificial spacial and historical setting of an open-air museum has also been subject of criticism. The enclosed and idealised surroundings in which buildings are placed in an open-air museum are said not only to create a sanitised, perfected image of the past, but also to isolate them from the modern world. By doing so they strengthen an association that ‘old’ architecture belongs in the museum. According to some authors (see for instance Oliver, 2001), this contributes to historical detachment and the destruction of vernacular architecture found beyond the boundaries of skansens. Open-air museums worldwide are known under different names: outdoor museums, village museums, museum villages, working historical farms etc. (Rentzhog, 2007). What they have in common is that they attempt to portray social history: lives and trades of ordinary people, as illustrated through

reconstructed building interiors, furnished with typical equipment, and real or imagined characters, that together deliver dynamic, interpretive programmes. Open-air museums are often mentioned as places where one can “step into the past” (Oliver, 2001, p. 207) thanks to their unusual setting and engaging design, which offer a multidimensional visitor experience, unlike an ordinary museum. It should be expected that the attractive setting, complemented with various visitor activities, will draw visitors to open-air museums in scores. However, evidence suggests that, unlike amusement parks, they are rather perceived by the general public as typically educational institutions and are at best frequented by school groups, as an ethnographic component of the curriculum. Here lies the biggest challenge to skansens in the 21st c., when nostalgia for the past

and folk romanticism are not enough to attract visitors – or to secure support in the local community (Rentzhog, 2007). The skansen at Ślemień – also known as Etnopark – is at the time of writing the youngest open-air museum in Poland. It is also one of the smallest in the country – it is a collection of only 17 structures from the mountain region of Beskid Żywiecki. It includes, among others, a smithy, a village school, a village pharmacy, a medicine woman’s hut, a granary, and a number of huts and farmhouses, as well as sheds, wells and other structures. The plants, trees, paths and the general layout of the site represent typical surroundings and setting of a highland settlement in this part of Poland at the break of the 20th c. (Fig. 7). Also the handcrafted souvenirs and merchandise on sale in the museum shop reflect local tradition. A visit to the museum can be self-guided

Fig. 7. One of the traditional buildings re-erected in the open-air museum in Ślemień Source: Kielur & Hołyszko (2016)


but the real strength of the skansen in Ślemień are the passionate and knowledgeable members of staff, who also conduct guided tours of the site. Not every aspect of the narrative is self-evident, so it helps to have a guide point to the visitor the stylistic similarity of some of the houses to the Alpine regions of Austria, or to identify Balkan ornamental influences in the cloth and clothing on display in some of the houses. The museum also organises regular events associated with seasons, folklore, religious traditions, pastoral activities etc. which boost ticketed visits and increase the popularity of the Etnopark. Like many other open-air museums, it also offers a modest choice of publications and its staff get involved in research and other activities. Recently, similar to the tower in Siedlęcin, the Etnopark hosted an event organised by a local NGO as part of the “Volunteering for Heritage” activity programme funded by the Polish Ministry of Culture and National Heritage, which gathered a number of young folklore enthusiasts and local elders, willing to share their stories and experience (Chabiera, Kozioł, & Skaldawski, 2017). Press releases, published interviews and an informal conversation with the museum staff indicate that the idea for Etnopark in Ślemień was indeed a one-woman’s dream (Ż, 2013). The construction of the museum took five years between 2008 and 2013, facing a string of obstacles, political, financial and organisational, also including a palatable lack of local support. Not only in the rural community of the southern Poland has the 20th c. modernisation drawn people away from their roots and strengthened a popular view that old and traditional are synonymous with obscure and backward. There are local voters and politicians who would rather see public money spent elsewhere than on the rehabilitation of disused vernacular architecture, ignoring evidence about the social and economic role of heritage, and the identity- and community-building potential of tradition. To sum up, the Etnopark in Ślemień combines professional curatorial management 96

with an open-minded and hands-on approach, thus managing the balancing act between didactical idealism, embedded in the very concept of an open-air museum (Oliver, 2001), and visitor engagement. Given enough time and funding, it might turn the skansen into a major local cultural institution on par with conventional museums such as the City Museum ‘Stary Zamek’ in the nearby city of Żywiec or the City Museum at the Renaissance castle in Sucha Beskidzka. However, the greatest challenge for the museum in Ślemień, ironically, might be not to attract more tourists but to finally win the hearts and minds of the locals.

CONCLUSIONS The two sites described in the article represent some of the key issues that affect heritage management in Poland today (see Fig. 8). It is evident that tourism plays a major role in both cases. Both Ślemień and Siedlęcin need to compete with alternative attractions, deliver visitor satisfaction and value-for-money. In order to attract visitors they need to identify and communicate their significance in both the local and the wider context. To this end – even if not always by design - both sites apply effective marketing measures, organise engaging events and do not shy away from bold interpretive statements. However, it is also notable that it is not tourism, but relations with the local community, that require most of the site manager’s attention. In Siedlęcin, tourists and day trippers are, first and foremost, a vital source of revenue. Given the nature of site ownership and the very limited state subsidies that it receives, the recorded steady growth of ticketed visits remains the castle’s financial lifeline. A lot of the owner’s efforts have gone, however, into building rapport with the village community, who has been identified as one of the factors that affect the sustainability of the site. It means not only controlling or averting unwelcome or damaging behaviour but, more importantly, in building a relationship,

that contributes to the already mentioned unique character and atmosphere of the place. It takes patience, dedication, a lot of networking and a range of soft skills, which can sometimes be at a shortage. Being a workin-progress, it is difficult to predict its results but successful cooperation with schools and local entrepreneurial individuals who participate in trade fairs bid well for the future of the process. In Ślemień, too, numerous examples of community work can be noted – in some part they are a consequence of the statutory, educational mission of the museum, but every case of cooperation helps the uneasy relationship with the locals. The Etnopark has had certain success in bringing both the youngest and the oldest of the local generations to participate in the museum’s activities. Of course, collection care and interpretation lie at the core of an open-air museum’s management, and the Etnopark staff approach both areas with dedication and creativity, but these seem not to be greatest chalFig. 8. Heritage management aspects discussed in this article - expanded Source: authors’ own compilation

lenge at this stage. The study demonstrates that the concept of sustainability may not explicitly be part of a given heritage management strategy, yet it can be attributed to the managers’ concern in the durability and fairness of their activities. Interestingly, it is most notable not in how tourists are approached, but how locals are treated.



Adamska, D. (2016). Siedlęcin, czyli ‘wieś Rudigera’. Studia nad średniowiecznym osadnictwem wokół Jeleniej Góry. In P. Nocuń (Ed.), Wieża książęca w Siedlęcinie w świetle dotychczasowych badań (pp. 37–74). Siedlęcin - Pękowice - Kraków: Stowarzyszenie ‘Wieża książęca w Siedlęcinie’. Almeida García, F., Balbuena Vázquez, A., & Cortés Macías, R. (2015). Resident’s attitudes towards the impacts of tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 13, 33–40. Brundtland, G. (1987). Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. Chabiera, A., Kozioł, A., & Skaldawski, B. (Eds.). (2017). Coś bierzemy, coś dajemy. Reportarze o wolontariacie dla dziedzictwa. Warszawa: Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa. Deloitte. (2010). The economic contribution of the Visitor Economy: UK and the nations. Europa Nostra. (2005). Position paper of Europa Nostra. Adopted by the Europa Nostra Council at its meeting on 2 June 2005 in Bergen. Europa Nostra, ENCACT, Heritage Europe, International Cultural Centre, Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation, & The Heritage Alliance. (2015). Cultural Heritage Counts for Europe. Kraków. European Commission. (2016). European Tourism Indicators System for sustainable destination management.

• •

• •

European Tourism Manifesto. (2017). Tourism Manifesto for Growth and Jobs. Forrest, C. (2010). International Law and the Protection of Cultural Heritage. London: Routledge. Garrod, B., & Fyall, A. (2000). Managing heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 682–708. Garrod, B., Fyall, A., Leask, A., & Reid, E. (2012). Engaging residents as stakeholders of the visitor attraction. Tourism Management, 33, 1159–1173. Graham, B., Ashworth, G. J., & Tunbridge, J. E. (2016). A Geography of Heritage: Power, Culture & Economy (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. Hewison, R. (1987). The Heritage Industry: Britain in a Climate of Decline. London: Methuen. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2017). Sustainable tourism: Sustaining tourism or something more? Tourism Management Perspectives, in press. Kielur, N., & Hołyszko, M. (2016). Biegun Wschodni. Kim, K., Uysal, M., & Sirgy, M. J. (2013). How does tourism in a community impact the quality of life of community residents? Tourism Management, 36. Koskowski, M. R. (2006). Castles as a Particular Tourist Product. Forum UNESCO University and Heritage, 10th International Seminar Cultural Landscapes in the 21st Century, Newcastle upon Tyne, 11–16. Koskowski, M. R. (2015). Future of the Past. Heritage and economy in Poland in the first half of the 21st century. Przyszłość. Świat-Europa-Polska. Biuletyn Komitetu Prognoz ‘Polska 2000 Plus’, Polska Akademia Nauk, 31(1), 89–100. Landorf, C. (2009). Managing for sustainable tourism: a review of six cultural World Heritage Sites. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(1), 53–70. Leask, A. (2016). Visitor attraction management: A critical review of research 2009-2014. Tourism Management, 57, 334–361.


Nocuń, P. (2004). Wall Paintings in Siedlęcin Castle, Poland - 14th c. Pictorial Representations of Lancelot’s story. BBSIA, LVI, 403–422. Nocuń, P. (Ed.). (2016). Wieża książęca w Siedlęcinie. Siedlęcin: Stowarzyszenie ‘Wieża książęca w Siedlęcinie’. Oliver, P. (2001). Re-Presenting and Representing the Vernacular: The Open-Air Museum. In N. AlSayyad (Ed.), Consuming Tradition, Manufacturing Heritage: Global Norms and Urban Forms in the Age of Tourism (pp. 191–211). London: Routledge. Pavlić, I., & Portonal, A. (2016). Irritation index. In Encyclopedia of Tourism (p. online). Springer International. Pereira Roders, A., & van Oers, R. (2011). Editorial: bridging cultural heritage and sustainable development. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, 1(1), 5–14. Rebanks, J. (2010). The price of lemons - World Heritage and economic development. Interview with James Rebanks. World Heritage, 58, 79–82. Retrieved from Reisinger, Y. (2009). International Tourism. Cultures and behaviour. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Rentzhog, S. (2007). Open Air Museums. The history and future of a visionary idea. Kristianstad: Jamtli Forlag and Carlsson Bokforlag. Smith, M. K., & Diekmann, A. (2017). Tourism and wellbeing. Annals of Tourism Research, 66, 1–13. Stone, P. G. (2006). A marriage of convenience? Heritage and tourism working together. Historic Environment - Australia ICOMOS, 19(2), 8–12. Thurley, S. (2005). Into the future. Our strategy for 2005-2010. Conservation Bulletin [English Heritage], 49. UNESCO. (2013). Hangzhou Declaration. Placing culture at the heart of sustainable development policies. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO. (2017). UNESCO Joins Launch of International Year of Sustainable Tou-

• • • • •

rism 2017. United Nations. (2015). Sustainable Development Goals. UNWTO. (2001). Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. Madrid: UNWTO. UNWTO. (2017). Tourism Highlights. Waluch, K. (2004). Polityka kulturalna Unii Europejskiej. Płock: Novum. Witkowski, J. (2001). Szlachetna a wielce żałosna opowieść o Panu Lancelocie z Jeziora: dekoracja malarska wielkiej sali wieży mieszkalnej w Siedlęcinie. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. Zolfani, S. H., Sedaghat, M., Maknoon, R., & Zavadskas, E. K. (2015). Sustainable tourism: a comprehensive literature review on frameworks and applications. Economic Research, 28(1), 1–30. Ż (2013). Żywiecki Park Etnograficzny.



OBSOTELJE & KOZJANSKO – SLOVENIA Wri en by Anita Čebular Janja Sivec (Razvojna agencija Sotla, Šmarje pri Jelšah, Slovenia)








BEST PRACTICES Tradiঞonal market towns Pilštanj Podsreda Lemberg Importance of Regional park Kozjansko Park Preservaঞon of tradiঞonal se lements in open air museum Open-air museum Rogatec Green Scheme of Slovenian Tourism

104 105 106 107 108 109 109





110 110 112

Coat of arms of Slovenia 101

TRADITIONAL SETTLEMENTS AND CULTURAL HERITAGE IN OBSOTELJE AND KOZJANSKO REGION The Republic of Slovenia is characterized by a large number of settlements. Although the national terri¬tory extends on the 20,273 km2, there are more than 6,000 settlements registered. All rural residential houses have a very similar character, especially similar building types. This is their characteristic feature. The same goes for all types of farm buildings, such as wineries, granaries, multipurpose outbuildings, mills. Uniformity, not equality, in the architecture of these houses is a particular effect of this consistency in construction, which is another characteristic feature. It was used in the construction of houses


for farmers or day labourers, middle-class farmers as well as wealthy landowners. The fundamental difference between them was in the size, materials, and ornamental additions to the facade. The construction of residential houses had to constantly adapt to the people’s lifestyles and work. It is characterized by the rational use of the materials available and the effective placement in the diverse terrain. According to the criterion of placement in the terrain, there are single-storey, multiple-storey houses, and houses leaning in against a hill or pushed up against a hill. To illustrate the structure of floor plan we have shown a sketch of Type D. The roofing is characterized by a symmetrical gable roof and slope of 45–50 degrees. A surface and height ratio of 1:2 is also a common characteristic of all the houses. In this region you may go from forest to orchard to meadows and fields continuously. Extraordinary diversity of plant and animal life was left to us by our grandparents, who

knew precisely how to listen to the mother nature and work with her in the best possible way. Once its geography presented travel challenges, but nowadays easy travel allows for a luxurious stay, providing experiences with nature, relaxation and understanding of genuine human relationships.

IMPORTANCE OF HERITAGE INTERPRETATION Despite today’s high-tech means of preserving memory, traditional methods remain important. One of the most important challenges of our time is ensuring sustainable practices and development in environmental and social contexts. Heritage interpretation is communication skill that connects visitors to heritage by reveling different meanings about nature and culture, tangible and intangible heritage with the help of stories that carry universal messages. Interpretation has aim, objectives, themes and messages that interpreters convey, with the help of different tools to the visitors of a certain heritage site. First one to define heritage interpretation was Freeman Tilden who wrote in his book Interpreting our Heritage in 1957 that: Heritage interpretation is an educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objects, by first-hand experience, and by illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual information. Many others have written their own definitions in the years since Tilden defined heritage interpretation but in general they all define heritage interpretation as designed communication process that engages emotions, experiences and connects people with the legacy of their past.1 Tilde also established basic methodology 1 The National Association for Interpretation, The Association for Heritage Interpretation and Interpret Europe.

of heritage interpretation buy defining six principles that quality interpretation should follow. Any interpretation that does not somehow relate what is being displayed or described to something within the personality or experience of the visitor will be sterile. Information, as such, is not Interpretation. Interpretation is revelation based upon information. Nevertheless, they are entirely different things. However all interpretation includes information. Interpretation is an art, which combines many arts, whether the materials presented are scientific, historical or architectural. Any art is in some degree teachable. The chief aim of Interpretation is not instruction, but provocation. Interpretation should aim to present a whole rather than a part, and must address itself to the whole man rather than any phase. Interpretation addressed to children (say up to the age of twelve) should not be a dilution of the presentation to adults, but should follow a fundamentally different approach. To be at its best it will require a separate program. Interpret Europe describes heritage interpretation principles as interpretive triangle. Where we have basic aim of heritage interpretation; reveling meanings in the middle, surrounded by other features that we want to offer or trigger with our visitors; first-hand 103

experience with original heritage phenomena, active involvement of and exchange with participants, commitment to the idea of caring for heritage. Good interpretation has a good plan. Interpretive planning starts with recognizing the significance of our heritage and defining the stories that we want to tell. Including people that could reveal different meaning about the heritage, we want to interpret, or better yet to interpret the stories that heritage community finds significant. This stage is also about responsibility, who is going to manage the interpretation. The most successful stories are the one where heritage community takes responsibility for the heritage. Major part in our planning falls on whom we are interpreting it for. Only than should we choose the best media (tools of personal and non-personal interpretation) to convey the story. Often forgotten but much necessary stage is evaluation. Does our interpretation work what to change how to adapt? That is why evaluation should be part of the planning and not an afterthought. Heritage interpretation is not just about interpreting natural and cultural heritage. It is about telling stories of communities. Who they are and what is their story about the connection to the landscape. Landscape offers the best synergy between nature and human. It tells the story of how humans created culture within the nature. The European Landscape Convention sees landscape as a reflection of European identity and diversity, the landscape is our living natural and cultural heritage, be it ordinary or outstanding, urban or rural, on land or in water. 104

Landscape offers us stories that will reveal how our way of life has changed through history. Once busiest roads became periphery, when railway was built in the middle of the 19th century. How once, hearts of trade and life, town centers are slowly dying due to lifestyle changes. Nevertheless, rural areas, alternative to modern lifestyle, are becoming more populated and visited by tourists, due to people recognizing the value of re-connection to our natural and cultural heritage. Landscape in its broadest definition of being a witness of interchanging relationship between nature and humans is a never-ending supply of stories for different communities. Heritage communities, people who have recognized value and significance of heritage and are working together with the same aim, of preserving heritage for future generations, have in heritage interpretation the tools with which they can tell their stories and a way to make their stories significant to others. By making their heritage relevant, they will also make their heritage economically profitable. Touristic products like accommodations in traditional built houses, guided tours and other activities in the landscape, tourism products based on gastronomy of the area etc. Other opportunities are also products based on traditional knowledge like craft, products from plants known in folk medicine, school programs in nature or about living on a farm and all the other skills and knowledge about the way of life that is slowly dying with pre II. WW generations. Examples of heritage communities who have recognized the value of their heritage and are working together with the institution in preserving it.

BEST PRACTICES A visit of Obsotelje and Kozjansko always feels like coming home and the welcome received by people who live here is the reason we visit again. The locals still know a thing or two about the old folk customs, as they are keeping customs alive in order to pre-

serve the legacy of previous generations. Do you know how many pieces and craft skills it takes to make an organ? Have you ever felt the power of fire that creates a crystal masterpiece with the help of a glassblower? Do you know how to knit a bag out of husk, a basket out of rod or weave a bracelet on a plaiting comb? We could ask some questions. Locals know the answers to these questions so do not hesitate and learn something new. The intertwinement of historical periods bring us both happy and tragic stories of locals, evokes old skills and gives us the feeling of eternity. This region is famous for its authentic medieval markets, baroque excessive segments and sacral architecture where styles mesh and are truly more intriguing. Markets in this region can show you the past by telling numerous stories about events and people. Do not miss a humorous trial with the help of pillory or any other traditional event that fills up historic center.

Traditional market towns Beneath the castles and at intersections of important trade routes, settlements in Obsotelje and Kozjansko region were erected and slowly expanded into market towns (KunĹĄperk, Podsreda, Kozje, PilĹĄtanj, PodÄ?etrtek, Lemberg, and Rogatec). Most came into existence in the 14th and 15th centuries. The position of those market towns beneath important road passes and slopes or on top of hills promoted the settlement of craftsmen that were important for travelling salesmen and people who transported cargo. Among those were blacksmiths, wheelwrights, belt manufacturers, saddle makers, rope makers and others. Road conditions called for a break, rest, repairs, reloading and accommodation. In market towns, trade at prestigious annual fairs, later joined by weekly markets played an important role. Market towns therefore


have a location for markets and fairs where the trading took place. In addition, the judicial function was performed in market towns. As an external symbol of the judicial system, there are three pillories (in Podsreda, Pilštanj and Lemberg) intended for punishing offenders. More recently, a sharper focus on the retail future of market towns began to emerge.

Pilštanj The market town of Pilštanj is one of the settlements in Kozjansko that has one of the most picturesque positions in the landscape, above the Bistrica valley. It was first mentioned in 1404 and received market rights in 1432, thus also receiving the right to hold a fair on the day of the parish’s patron saint St. Michael. The pillory or “pranger” has also been preserved. It could date to the 17th century, i.e. the same as in Podsreda. It is a rare relic of the judicial system before the time of Maria Theresia of which only few


have been preserved in Slovenia. Pilštanj also features a silver town seal from the mid-15th century, which is one of the finest examples. It bears the inscription “Sigillium civitas Peilnstain” and the coat of arms of Pilštanj in the middle. Today, it is preserved in the Museum of Posavje in Brežice. Directly below the market town is the solitary rock formation Ajdovska žena (Pagan Woman). The pagan woman legend still lives among the locals. The people from Pilštanj are proud of the European cornel (Cornus mas) overgrowing the surrounding thermophilous slopes. The Pilštanj footpath will take you through the market town and its surroundings and is also linked to the Lesično Educational Water Trail. Pilštanj a 15th century market town has an interesting story on how once bustling market town became forgotten by industrial revolution and building roads that bypassed them. But heritage community is aware of the rich history of the town and is keen on interpreting intangible heritage of the place.

Especially interpreting traditions of Pentecost have become one of the most recognizable activities of the heritage community in Pilštanj. Intangible heritage has become one of the top priorities with institutions worldwide. UNESCO has popularized, with the Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage, or beliefs, practices and customs. We have finally realized that objects without stories are just that, objects. We need stories to bring material alive. We need to relate with past generations, so that we are able to rethink how we live today and that some things do not change through centuries. Like love, lost, birth, death etc. Universal meanings are revealed with stories about intangible heritage and who better to tell them than local community with their storytellers. For interpreting intangible heritage means of personal interpretation (live interpretation/re-enactments, guiding, events …) are usually most successful, but there are also some options in tools of non-personal interpretation – like audio guides, apps for smart phones, books with folk tales … But to make them successful

they have to be authentic, made by heritage community because they are the ones to tell their own stories.

Podsreda As a market town with the usual market rights and privileges it is first mentioned in 1377. Today, the pillory – “pranger” is still a reminder of that era. The development of the Podsreda market town was centred around a narrow, oblong space on a somewhat elevated terrace. Since the town never grew past its edge, it was always protected from flooding. The biggest danger to urban settlements was fire since it was hard to keep under control due to numerous wooden structures, unsuitable chimneys, low-quality construction as well as due to the distance from water. Podsreda experienced the rage of fire having burned down twice. Therefore, all the houses in the market town, including the church, were built after 1798, when the first fire ruined Podsreda. The skyline of the town is distinctively dominated by the Church of St. John the Baptist,


constructed at the beginning of the 19th century, which replaced an older building. Today, Podsreda is an interesting market town with a traditional market town parcellation. The ground plan of the settlement is funnel shaped. The main street is bordered by townhouses on both sides, their longer side facing the market space and thus forming the “facade” edge of the market. With its position, it belongs to the few areas with an extraordinary cultural landscape. The settlement is a cultural monument.

Lemberg The settlement that developed under the castle was mentioned as a patrimonial square with ordinary market rights and privileges in 1386 and 1436. Its position on the crossing of roads towards Šmarje, Rogatec and Poljčane enabled the development of trade and crafts. Later, the square obtained the right to six annual and cattle fairs. Pottery and the leather trade were important crafts. However, Lemberg failed to develop anything more than a market street and


had no walls. It reached its climax in the 18th century. When the parish was moved to Sladka Gora and the road led through Pečica and Podplat, it started to fall apart in the first half of the 19th century. It burnt down on two occasions. Its noble past is attested by the pillory in the middle of the square and the former town hall next to it. Even older as Pilštanj is a market town Lemberg whose strategic position on an important crossroad enabled it to become an important trading center of the area. Leather and pottery industry were his trademarks, but moving of the parish church and building the road that bypassed it, Lemberg went into decline. His tangible heritage was recognized by its heritage community who works actively on its preservation and interpretation. But sometimes it can be difficult to imagine times long gone. With the help of interpretive panels, art installations, apps and other tools of interpretation, we can help visitors to relate with the rich history of the landscape.

Importance of Regional park Kozjansko Park More than 50% of the land in Slovenia is protected and more than 30% is Natura 2000-designated, which is the highest percentage of the European Union member countries. Kozjansko Park is an IUCN category V protected area – a Regional Park. It measures 206-sq. km. and it was founded in year 1981 with the proclamation of the law by the Parliament of Slovenia. The Centre is in small village Podsreda (Slovenia). It is very rich in natural and cultural heritage, there are no heavy industries or any others activities, which would have negative influence on protected area. Kozjansko park is located in the Eastern part of Slovenia and is a mosaic comprised of the sub-Alpine Posavsko Hills, wine-bearing slopes, and plains along the Sotla River. The hight rate of biodiversity ranks him among

the most important nature reserves in Slovenia and Europe, and most of the park is protected as a special NATURA 2000 reserve. It is responsible for implementing all the national nature conservation legislation in this area. Till now, many projects were successfully completed. Kozjansko Park has stablished very strong connections to the local inhabitants and schools and represents very significant part of cultural and social life in the area. Since 2010, the area of Kozjansko and Obsotelje regions have enjoyed the status of a biosphere reserve under the protection of UNESCO (MAB Programme - Man and biosphere). They could be just another protected area if they had not defined what is the story of the area. Story that connects nature, people and cultural heritage are apples. Not just any kind of apples, they are the leading producer of old sorts of apples that do not need to be treated with chemicals. The story, because it is significant to heritage community and relevant to other visitors, became a success with high demand of young apple trees that people plant at home and recognizable tour109

ist product in kozjansko apple. Heritage interpretation offers many tools to interpret stories of heritage community, but the key is that community recognize the stories are their own. That way they will recognize the potentials in implementing the story of kozjansko apple in different products from gastronomy and homemade apple products, to promotion and interpretation of ecologically friendly farming, touristic events that bring different stakeholders under one cover story, which is kozjansko apple. One of the principles of heritage interpretation in revealing the whole and not just parts of the story, so kozjansko apple should also be part of the big picture of the landscape of Obsotelje in Kozjansko, how it represents the way of life in this area, way do people relate with this story and the end why does one apple per day keeps doctor away. The Kozjansko apple from the meadow orchards has become a symbol of environmentalism, sustainability, preservation of 110

the heritage, health, and recognition of the Kozjansko Park protected area.

Preservation of traditional settlements in open air museum Open-air museum Rogatec As it is known, the initial aim of forming of open-air museums was formulated quite narrowly: monuments had been transported with the purpose of their rescue. They had been placed in the new territory of museum in neighbourhood with the other objects, and it was not taken into account that they belonged to the certain historical and cultural zone, occasionally the whole ensemble

of installations was not taken into account. However, in open-air museums, especially in those which are created at the places (“in situ”), under skilful use of both immovable and movable monuments and under professional management it is possible to achieve feeling of spirit historical place, new socio-cultural situations and new objects of demonstration. Founded in 1981, the Rogatec Open Air Museum is Slovenia’s largest and most ambitious skanzen (open-air village museum), with more than a dozen mostly original structures, moved here in the early 1980s. It presents unique cultural, ethnological, regional, and historical features of eastern Slovenia. The museum presents the life and work of farmers and craftsmen at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th in the Rogatec area, under the Boč, Donačka Gora, and Macelj Hills. In 1999, it was declared a cultural site of national importance and in 1997 it was nominated for a European Museum Award.

The Rogatec Open Air Museum comprises 15 different relocated or reconstructed buildings and associated materials that make up the museum space and form three separated sections. The homestead of poet Jože Šmit (1922–2004) with a garden, an outhouse with manure pit and a field toilet, beehives, a pig stable, and a hay rack (kozolec). The administrative part are loden, an old shop with mixed merchandise, which is today also a museum shop and office. The third part is a domestic inn with a wine cellar and bar called pušenšank surrounded with vines that provide welcome shade in the summer and juicy grapes in the fall. There are regular displays (including participation) of activities such as weaving, stone cutting, bread making and so on. It aims to conserve, use and develop the heritage and to sustain it values and significance by giving the heritage a compatible use. The Rogatec Institute manages the Rogatec Open Air Museum, the Strmol Manor and sites in the medieval town of Rogatec.


Museum activities combine and present the local history and ethnology through guided tours, craft workshops, oenology experiences, and horse riding expeditions. Because of the interesting programmes for youth and adults, the Rogatec Open Air Museum is one of the most visited museums in Slovenia; many visit it repeatedly, depending on the season and the work and farm activities that have to be done at that time.

Green Scheme of Slovenian Tourism The destination Obsotelje and Kozjansko, with Podčetrtek, Rogaška Slatina and Kozjansko Park, is one of the destinations that have entered a pilot national programme called Green Scheme for Tourism in Slovenia which is being implemented under the patronage of the Slovenian Tourist Board. The main goal of the programme is to promote sustainable tourism development in Slovenia. What is the Green Scheme of Slovenian Tourism? The GSST is a tool and a certification programme that brings together all the efforts directed towards the sustainable development of tourism in Slovenia, evaluates and improves the sustainability endeavors of destinations and providers, and finally promotes green achievements through the Slovenia Green brand. The Green Scheme of Slovenian Tourism (GSST) is a tool developed at the national level and a certification programme that carries out the following tasks under the SLOVENIA GREEN umbrella brand: brings together all efforts directed towards the sustainable development of tourism in Slovenia, offers tools to destinations and service providers that enable them to evaluate and improve their sustainability endeavors and promotes these green endeavors through the Slovenia Green brand. In the process of joining the GSST the destinations and service providers sign the Green Policy of Slovenian Tourism, which is based on ten sustainability principles. The


Green Policy of Slovenian Tourism sets out the fundamental commitment of Slovenian tourism to operate according to sustainability principles and to make continuous efforts to improve. Till now, Slovenia offers a total of 37 destinations, 21 accommodation providers, 3 natural parks and 2 agencies, which comply with the green strategy and pride themselves on having obtained the Slovenia Green label. To obtain the Slovenia Green Destination label (Bronze/Silver/Gold), the destinations must follow eleven steps (appointment of a green coordinator, setting up a green team, increasing awareness, signing a green policy, carrying out surveys, gathering information, submitting reports and the application for an assessment, drafting an action plan for measures, determining the local character and USP, submitting an application for a field visit, realizing measures and, after three years, re-assessment), which are evaluated using a point system from 1 to 10. We have to golden labels in our region (Rogaška Slatina and Podčetrtek) and one Slovenia green park label (Kozjansko Park). Destination gets SGD gold label, if at least three of the five categories have 8 points or more and where at least one of those three categories is directly linked to tourism (Destination management or Socio - Economic situation) and it has at least one accommodation provider with the label, verified by Slovenia Green. To obtain the SLOVENIA GREEN PARK label, the provider must submit proof of ownership of one of the two labels, verified by the scheme. The project complements the already wellknown slogan I feel Slovenia with another one – Green. Active.Healthy. The slogan Slovenia – Green Destination establish the whole destination on the Slovenian and, above all, European and global market as an environmentally and socially friendly destination.

CONCLUSION The Slovenian Tourist Board defined the focus on green, sustainable tourism as the right development opportunity for our country and its range of tourism products, while placing the integral implementation of sustainability at the very heart of its operations, namely the development and promotion of Slovenian tourism. The appealing competitively positioned range of tourism products based on the concept of sustainability and the development of high-quality and innovative tourism products with added value represents the key element of our competitiveness, which makes our country and its offer for tourists stand out from other tourist destinations. Stories of our local communities are more and more recognized through Europe and worldwide. Local stories are becoming an important tourist product with shift of tourist profile. Some solutions already exist, but they have to be adapted to each situation individually and always with high involvement of local communities.

WHERE THE SOUL FINDS ITS OWN PLACE “I know that on memories it is sad to live, that all the rhymes on May are worn out, but I’m drawn, as others who have ever lived there, to wander back there in that little place.“ (Mi2, Sweet as Honey)

Introductory remarks at an occasion such as this are generally intended for a personal reflection of the writer, his observation, memories, as well as emotions and sentiment. But even if this would not be so, I confess that I could not write about Obsotelje and Kozjansko in any other way. Because when it comes to his home town, it is difficult for a man to remain impartial. As a professional historian I could list some data from the past. I could name local castles, describe medieval, but later on pretty much lost economic, judicial and administrative importance of towns of Obsotelje and Kozjansko,


I could praise the discovery of medicinal water or I could smile at adventures of an outlaw Guzaj, a tragic Robin Hood of Kozjansko. I could proudly point out how during the Second World War a partisan division was getting through the blizzard of snow and shots over the hills of Kozjansko and how a liberated territory arose in the middle of occupied Europe, where Slovenian children could learn in their mother tongue again. I could cry over the tough destiny of the local people and their fight for a crust of bread, or I could smile compassionately at their superstitions, myths and legends, preserved for centuries in a folk tradition. Fairies, dancing on clearings or washing clothes in the stream, the menacing dragons above Kozje and Olimje, heavy bangs of poachers, the return of the deceased and their midnight masses, “Ajdovske” wives and girls in Pilštanj, and of course the witches, who were stirring the imagination during the long nights without the electric lights all the way from Donačka Mountain to Bohor. Electricity came to these remote villages and hill farms very late, just before the earthquake in Kozjansko in 1974, which forever altered a part of the landscape. Nevertheless, the landscape has still retained its originality. Originality, whose core comes from the yesterday’s world, which can be seen in the preserved natural and cultural heritage, books and the already mentioned folk tradition, but more importantly, it is complemented by that part of the image, which places and people from Obsotelje and Kozjansko live and offer today. To all who still live and work here, as well as those, more and more of them, who visit these places, either as tourists or as random travellers, open to the acceptance of everything good and beautiful. And finally, to all of us who grew up here, and although today we live elsewhere, we still carry this piece of Styrian land and sky with us. Not only in slightly nostalgic verses, such as those above, but in real, almost tangible joy which, perhaps unconsciously, assumes us when returning home. Therefore, my writing, as I said before, can not and


will not be objective. For me, the local wines have fuller flavour, and a chunk of brown bread is crumbled between your teeth in a different way. The song sounds more softly, but as well more powerfully, and words, in their lightness, get an additional meaning. It is said that every place has its own soul, but to me it seems more, that the soul seeks and finds its own place. In Obsotelje and Kozjansko this is (still) possible.

Tone Kregar, PhD, Historian and Sociologist, Singer and Author (Band Mi2)



HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK Sardinian art and architecture – tangible heritage Intangible heritage – language The varieঞes Phoneঞc characterisঞcs The vocabulary The dialects of Sardinian


Photos: Carlo Salvatore III Laconi Marco Pisu Nicola Castangia Francesca Pontani 116



119 119 119 120 120 120



THE HOUSE OF THE CAMPIDANO ‘Campidanese’ house

121 121



CASE STUDIES – Maintenance 1) Casa Zapata (Archaeological Museum) in Barumini (Medio Campidano Province) The village of Barumini Descripঞon Best pracঞce 2) Casa Saba (Ci.M.A Civic Museum) in Allai (Oristano Province) The village Descripঞon Best pracঞce

Wri en by Carlo Salvatore III Laconi Marco Pisu (Associazione Paesaggi Connessi, Sestu, Italy)


123 123 124 124 125 125 125 126 126

3) Casa Angioni (Domus Art) in Quartucciu (Cagliari Province) The town Descripঞon Refurbishment and maintenance best pracঞce Good pracঞce and criঞcism

127 127 128 129 129

CASE STUDIES – economic explotaঞon 1) Casa Ruda in Suelli (Cagliari Province) Definiঞon: Noble family manor The village Descripঞon Best pracঞce of criঞcisms 2) Villa Puddu in Siddi (Cagliari Province) The village Descripঞon Best pracঞce 3) Corte Crisঞna in Quartucciu, (Cagliari Province), a luxury B&B Descripঞon Best Pracঞce and criঞcism

129 129 130 130 131 131 131 132 132 132 132 133



Coat of arms of Sardinia


HISTORICAL FRAMEWORK The first great culture of the western Mediterranean area was born in the island: the Nuragic civilization (1.500 b.C). This civilization is very important because it represents the meeting point between the megalithic culture of the west and the urban culture of the eastern Mediterranean. The megalithic constructions of the Nuragic art are among

Nuraghic village of Su Nuraxi; Barumini – XVI–XIV century a.C.

ministrative and law system, compared with many other European countries (for legislation see “Carta of Eleonora d’Arborea). During this period, architecture and arts flourished, even thanks to strong relations with Pisa and Genova Republics and to the work of artists from Lombardy and Tuscany. The peculiar artistic style is called the Sardinian Romanesque. The “Giudicati” era ended at the beginning of the 15th century, because of the Aragon’s conquest, after complex and sometimes bellicose relations with the western Maritime

Tomb of the Giants of Coddu Vecchiu; Arzachena – II millennio a.C.

The Nuragic civilization met the Phoenicians and Punic, then the island was conquered by Rome in 238 B.C. Rome gave to Sardinia urban, economic and social structures. During the middle ages, after a Vandals invasion, Sardinian has belonged to Byzantine government for many decades. The next period has been characterised by four kingdoms named “Giudicati” which were based on the former Byzantine administration structure. The kingdoms were called Càlari, Torres, Arborea and Gallura; they had an advanced ad-


Republics (Pisa and Genova). The Sardinian art and architectures had a slow decadence, as the Spanish empire was slowly falling. In the XVIII century, the Island became part of the Savoy reign: The “Kingdom of Sardinia”. The artistic styles of Piedmont characterised the Savoy domination until the end of the XIX century; however, at the beginning of XX century a new generations of Sardinian artists had an important imprinting to the Sardinian art, their influence is still strong today.

Sardinian art and architecture – tangible heritage Art and architecture styles in Sardinia are sometimes original and often imported; even when they are imported they acquire a

Basilica of the Holy Trinity of Saccargia; Pisan Romanesque style; Codrongianos – 12th century

strong typical footprint linked to the Sardinian identity. A complex history brought many different influences in architecture and arts, but some key elements shaped them. Here we focus on rural buildings settlements and towns, shaped by agriculture, such as traditional private houses.

Francesco Ciusa – Mother of the killed; Cagliari Municipal Art Gallery – 1907

Intangible heritage – language Sardinian language is one of the oldest Romance Languages; its own evolution started since the III century A.D. and among such kind of languages, it makes group on its own, well distinguished from all the others. The first written witnesses in Sardinian Vulgar Latin dates back to the XI century, and are in documents of the chancelleries of the four medieval kingdoms (Giudicati). Sardinian is the first “Vulgar” used for juridical purposes: the royal Sardinian chancelleries wrote official documents by using it. But it was used in literature very late. In the rest of Europe, Latin was the only language of the official documents; in other regions it

Mario Delitala – The Expulsion of the Arendendore – 1926

was just for literary compositions. During the fall of the medieval kingdoms, Sardinian was no more an official language and a progressive diversification in many dialectical varieties began.

The varieties Sardinian has two main macro varieties: the southern Sardinian or Campidanese, and northern Sardinian or Logudorese / Nuorese. Southern Sardinian had more evolution/contaminations, while the northern one shows a rather conservative phonetic. The today’s language is characterized by a great presence of Iberic words in the vocabulary: from Catalan in southern Sardinian, while in the northern a large variety words, 119

taken from Castilian (Spanish), are common. The languages spoken in the regions of Gallura, in Sassari, Alghero and Carloforte are not part of the Sardinian linguistic system. They belong respectfully to the systems of Corsican and Sassarian that come from medieval Pisan, Catalan and Ligurian.

Phonetic characteristics Within the evolution from Latin to romance languages, the vowel phonetic divided the roman area in four groups: the system of Common Roman, the Romanian system, the Sicilian one and the Sardinian one. Latin had ten vowels, five longs and five shorts, the Sardinian has just five. The phonetic characteristic that has mostly interested the linguists in the ‘800, looking for ‘Linguistic purity’, is the occlusive velar, only typical of the northern Sardinian. Many characteristics makes this language the closest to Latin.

The dialects of Sardinian

The vocabulary Sardinian takes the majority of its words directly from Latin, which is the base for its vocabulary. It has fewer influences coming from Germanic languages, than the other Romance languages. The base is Latin while the lexical super layer is constituted by words coming from other Romance languages, like Catalan and Castilian (Spanish). Sardinian counts more than six thousand ‘Iberisms’ in its lexica. Moreover, the original lexicon mostly expresses concrete things, not linked with abstract concepts. As it is described above, Sardinian language, at the beginning, was linked with the administrative subjects (written) and, obviously, with everyday life and work. It becames an idiom for literature very late. In the island, a language expressing work and everyday life is the language for agriculture and a ruralture ture and a rural world. 120

1: Campidanian of the Caralitanus 2: Campidanian of the Sulcis 3: Common Campidanian 4: Central Campidanian 5: Campidanian of the Sarrabus 6: Campidanian of the Ogliastra 7: Campidanian of southern Barbagia 8: Arborean 9: Southern Nuoresian 10: Central Nuoresian 11: Nuoresian of the Baronias 12: Southern Logudoresian 13: Central or common Logudoresian 14: Northern Logudoresian

NON Sardinian dialects or languages 15: Cathalan 16: Sassarian 17: Gallurian (Corse) 18: Tabarkan (Ligurian)

TYPOLOGY OF TRADITIONAL BUILDINGS IN SARDINIA Architecture in Sardinia deserves a special mention, because its originality and varieties surprises surprise. Depending on the territory where the buildings are located

THE HOUSE OF THE CAMPIDANO ‘Campidanese’ house We would like to focus on the ‘Campidanese’ house, which is one of the most interesting kind of type of building structure of the island. Such houses are the result of the repetitions of traditional patterns that occurred through the centuries; the pattern characterise a structure that is beautiful (aesthetic value) and functional for agricultural works and extremely useful for the management of familiar agricultural firms. It is the typical farmhouse of the villages of Campidano that is the largest plain of the island, located in the southwestern part. The construction techniques are the following: • The mural bases are built with stones; • Upon the base, the wall are built with làdiri, that are mud bricks and straw dried by the sun (mud bricks techniques are one of the oldest and most widely techniques used in the Mediterranean

(plains, mountains, coasts) and their functions, the traditional shapes, layout and materials change. Some examples of different typical architectures are the ‘Campidanesi’ Houses (south Sardinia), the Cumbessias or Muristenis, the Carthusian Churches with Loggia, the Pinnetas (shepherds’ buildings).

region); • Roofs are often made in “Cannicciato” a technique that uses canes. The houses have different sizes, but basically the layouts respects the same principle. Here we have decided to describe a house having all the architectonic peculiar characteristics: ‘Su Furriadroxu’ in the town of Pula. “Su Furriadroxu” is a typical agricultural building in the Deep Southwest of Sardinia (area named ‘Sulcis’). We described it as a complete example, but we don’t studied it for the specific project purpose, because it is in developed town, which doesn’t have relevant problems.

TRADITIONAL ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS 1. Su Portali (The Arch gate) - The portal is the large access arch that is often the only visible structure, looking at the house from the street. 2. Sa pratza de manixu (The working yard) It is the yard, which is often used for work activities. 3. Su magasinu de su binu (The wine de121





posit) Literally the deposit of the wine where are barrels and the tools for the wine making. Sa funtana - It is the well. The house had to be self-sufficient, that’s why the well has to be in the yard. Sa pratza bona - It is the court in front of the strictly residential rooms. The structure is similar to a cloister. Sa Sala - The dining room of the house, which is often divided into separate rooms. Sa Lolla - It is the loggia that is connection among the different rooms. It is the most characteristic element of the ‘casa campidanese’. Without the ‘lolla’ we

can’t talk about a campidanese house. 8. S’aposentu de arriciri - The Aposentu de arriciri was a room rarely used; there the owner hosted important guests. It was the most beautiful room and was often decorated with paintings on the ceiling. The floor is often tiled with decorations that imitate Spanish majolica. The style of this room follows a typical Sardinia taste. 9. Sa Stanza ‘e lettu (The bedroom) - The bedroom was the room where the whole family slept, often in a single room. The most wealthy families in multiple separate rooms.

Example ‘Campidanese’ house


CASE STUDIES Maintenance 1) Casa Zapata (Archaeological Museum) in Barumini (Medio Campidano Province)

Definition: Spanish Noble family building Type: noble mansion with some ‘Casa campidanese’ elements Function: Administration / productions / agriculture Site: Barumini, Marmilla historical region in Sardinia, south Sardinia District Current function: Museum – End of XVI century beginning of the XVII Culturale area: Nuragic Archaeology


The village of Barumini Barumini’s population is slowly decreasing; this is a threat for the local identity. The rural economy still survives in the area. The described building and actions are surely a help for the local development, even thanks to the important archeologic sites located in the town. However, even if such sites have many visitors, the local administration and stakeholders have to carry on with projects and activities, in order to face depopulation. Pupulation (ISTAT – Italian Statistics Institute - source):

Description ‘Casa Zapata’ is a beautiful large mansion, whose construction was ordered by the noble Zapata family at the end of the sixteenth century. The family members arrived in Sardinia in 1323 with Alfonso of Aragon, the conqueror of the island. In 1541, they bought the Barony of Las Plassas, Barumini and Villanovafranca, becoming landowners and then barons of these lands until the abolition of feudalism. Among the various elements of the mansion, there is a beautiful building with an elegant garden, built between the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth century; it was the lord’s house. Two other buildings have agricultural func124

tion, they were built at the beginning of the twentieth century and used as warehouses, stables and farmhouse. In front of them, a large open courtyard allowed easy movement of people, goods and animals. In front of “Casa Zapata” there is a church dedicated to the Immaculate Virgin Mary, whose construction was probably commissioned by the same noble family from Aragon. Currently, the Spanish residence is the location of a museum organized in three sections: archaeological, historical and ethnographic ones. The archaeological part is in the oldest area of the residence, a palace built according to the classic model imposed by Philip II of Spain. This is a beautiful seventeenth-century building, ideal for the exhibition of the finds discovered in the area of Su Nuraxi (UNESCO SITE). A large Nuraghe has been discovered under the ‘Casa Zapata’. After the discovery, many excavation campaigns have been carried out and are still in progress. The museum has been designed in order to preserve the structure of the building and, at the same time, to let watching the nuraghe from above, through a system of glass pathways. It is extraordinary to enter a 16th century palace and then, unexpectedly, to be in front of a very suggestive Nuraghe. The historical section is in one of the most recent construction, which was a warehouses or stables. Inside you can see some important documents belonging to the Zapata family and the community of Barumini. In the showcase the visitors may admire some original papers, previously considered disappeared, but recently found by the Municipality of Barumini. In addition, in the panels and computers next to the room it is possible to see some other important documents belonging to the private collection of Andrea Lorenzo Ingarao Zapata from Las Plassas, who is the great-grandson of the Baron’s last wife, Donna Concetta Ingarao Zapata. He lives in Rome and has given us all these documents

only in digital format. The ethnographic section, also located in one of the most recent part of the residence, consists of a room that shows some of the common tools used by the inhabitants of the Barumini region (Marmilla) in the last century and of the Regional Museum of Launeddas: a place dedicated to the oldest musical Sardinian instrument. The musical area was developed thanks to the support of the most famous player of such instrument: the Maestro Luigi Lai.

Best practice The building is a best practice about architecture and maintenance: it is upon an important archaeologic Nuragic site and It is extraordinary to enter a well preserved 16th century palace and then, unexpectedly, to walk upon a very suggestive Nuraghe. The Barumini site and meseum are increasing the number of their visitors, thanks to a cultural tourism experience involving not just a very important archaeologic site (Su Nuraxi UNESCO), discovered decades ago, but also thanks to little museum that is something especial and unique.

2) Casa Saba (Ci.M.A Civic Museum) in Allai (Oristano Province) Definition: A set of dwellings and loggias around a court. Typology: Traditional houses around a large court Function: Traditional farmhouses residential / production - agriculture. Location: Allai, Historical Sardinian Region of Barigadu, Oristano district. Current use: Museum. Cultural area: Ethnographic – Archaeologic.

The village Allai is a little village in the centre-west of Sardinia, characterised by a rural economy;

it is facing a severe depopulation problem. The described museum and other projects are attempts aimed at facing the disappearance of the settlement. The actions carried out are surely very interesting, however cultural and economic consistency of the project should be assured, in order to overcome the decline. The population’s decline is emphasised in the figure below (source ISTAT).


called Julia Uselis. About the roads structures, the Roman Bridge called Ponti’ Ecciu (old bridge in Sardinian laguage), upon the Rio Massari (local river) is a magnificent example, which was renovated during the Middle Ages and restructured several times in the modern age. The loggias of the museum host an ethnographic section concering three specific moments: the pressing of lentisk berries, the cultivation of wheat, milling and baking, and finally the loggia that hosts the oxen wagon and transports. In the deep south of Sardinia, the typical building materials are mud bricks, while in this region people have used stone bricks, like local trachyte, for centuries.


Best practice

The building are the location of the Ci. M. A Public Allai Museum, which can be considered the centre of the cultural life of Allai. The monumental complex, better known as “Casa Saba”, is a collection of houses and loggias around a large elliptical courtyard, some buildings are private houses. This is a traditional set of buildings that can belong to the concept of ‘urban musealisation’, that is an interesting way of promoting cultural experiences even in small rural villages. Inside, the museum preserves precious archaeological finds from the territory, which have not been showed, since the museum was not built. The exhibited things are from prehistoric times to the modern age; they are stone and ceramic artefacts that underline, each for its own peculiarities, their cultural periods and contexts. In particular, in a room dedicated to it, there is a splendid example of Mediterranean Mother Goddess, modelled on a megalithic trachyte; these little statues start the prehistoric statuary phenomenon in this geographical area. There are also finds belonging to Roman times, thanks to the ancient road network involving Allai and starting from Forum Traiani (Important Roman city close to Fordongianus) and thanks to the Roman colony

The museum is not an isolated thing, but something involved within a wider programme aiming at promoting local cultural and economic development, which are ways of facing the depopulation of rural regions in Sardinia. The projects of the programme are about (i) the preservation of traditional buildings, (ii) the construction of buildings and the creation of artworks expressing the contamination between traditional identity and the current global dimension (iii), cultural events. Examples of contamination are contemporary art sculptures located near the river and a house on the tree (the first Sardinia house in the tree). Events are (i) EcoRurality, carried out by Paesaggi Connessi, high level training events on the landscape as a cultural identity element and the sustainable contamination between tradition and contemporaneity and (ii) free climbing on the stonewalls of traditional houses (sport and culture together).


Land Art (Info@ssil by L. C. S. III.)

EcoRurality – Tree house by Abitalbero

3) Casa Angioni (Domus Art) in Quartucciu (Cagliari Province) Definition: ‘Casa Campidanese’ Typology: traditional house in the south of Sardinia Function: traditional farmhouses residential/production - agriculture Location: Quartucciu, a town within the metropolitan area of Cagliari Current use: hosting cultural events Cultural area: Ethnographic – Music – theatre

Allai – Roman bridge

The town Quartucciu is growing in population and it is probably one of the richest town in Sardinia, even thanks to the proximity to the capital city with its roads, transports, airport and port. Industrial development replaced an economy based on agriculture. It doesn’t mean that everything is going ok: the place almost lost a strong rural identity and now it is in the Cagliari metropolitan area. The disappearance of any cultural identity because of the transformation towards a simple peripheral area of a large city might be considered a problem, even because the area is full of historical and archaeological sites like noble family ancient


buildings, a monumental Nuragic tomb and a Punic Necropolis. Casa Angioni is a first public attempt of supporting local cultural life; but it is not enough, many other actions should carried out and consistency should be assured. Later we will talk about an economic exploitation of private historical buildings; it is, among other small hospitality structures, a successful example of business; but it exploits a historical and traditional site, without connecting it with the local cultural life. Population (ISTAT source):

Description Casa Angioni – Domus Art is a typical ‘Casa Campidanese’, a kind of house that characterises the South Sardinia plain called Campidano. We selected this building because it is a public example, and because it is an attempt of rediscovering the local identity. The house is located in Quartucciu, a town in the deep south of Sardinia; that was a country village and its culture, society and economy were deeply related to agriculture. In the 60s 70s, Cagliari – the largest city of the island – had developed an urban continuity with the towns around, such as: Quartu, Selargius and Quartucciu itself. Currently the Cagliari’s metropolitan area includes these


towns. This has generated important social and economic changes in Quartucciu’s society, economy and traditional identity: an agricultural village has become a part of a large city and a sort of residential area within a city. ‘Case Campidanesi’ like Casa Angioni are characterised by • an arch over a wood made front portal; • a central courtyard (sometimes two); • a loggia called ‘Sa Lolla’ and • a warehouse. The house may be divided into two areas: a working area and residential one. Behind the front portal, there is a courtyard; a warehouse for materials, crops, food, wine and olive oil is at the side of the courtyard, while a loggia is the first part of residential area. The courtyard was useful to park carts carrying food, crop and materials that could be unloaded, brought and stored in the warehouse located at one side of the perimetral walls of the mansion. The loggia is a decorative part and a functional one (it connects the rooms); its aspect indicates the location of the residential side. The courtyard, the warehouse and the large portal allowing carts entrances shows the function of the house that is a home and work place in a rural society. Such typical elements are in DomusArt, where is even possible to see a room used as kitchen. The kitchen is close to the loggia, and belongs to the residential sector; however, it even had a function related to production: there the women prepared brad and food in very early mornings, in order to feed employees working for the house owner. In the deep south of Sardinia, the Case Campidanesi (plural) are built by using mud bricks walls called ‘laddiri’ (perimetral and partition walls) covered by painted plasters; just the most important structural elements have some stone briks, such as the bases of the walls, arches elements, keystones, cornerstones. Going norther in the island walls are build using stone bricks.

Refurbishment and maintenance best practice Casa Angioni is a public building located in the ancient centre of the town, close to the biggest church. Two important refurbishment works has been carried out through the years. The last one in 2017. Since may 2017 DomusArt is available. The colour of the perimetral walls is a kind of pink, which is a typical colour in such kind of traditional buildings, it respects the tradition, but the roof construction technique does not: the tradition roof materials were built with canes: ‘Canniciato’ technique, while now the roof is built with wood. The Municipality chose the wood, as well as almost every traditional house owners, because of the resistance of ‘Canniciato’. The quality of the maintenance is good; the local government carries out frequent interventions, in order to keep the building in very good condition. .

CASE STUDIES – economic explotation 1) Casa Ruda in Suelli (Cagliari Province) Definition: Noble family manor Tipology: ‘Casa Campidanese padronale’ Function: residential – local administration – productions – agriculture Location: village of Suelli, in the historical Sardinian region named Trexenta (south Sardinia district) Current use: place for weddings and private ceremonies and historical archive Cultural area: local historical archive and ethnographic exposition

Good practice and criticism Refurbishment and maintenance may be considered good practice, implemented by the municipality: Casa Angioni revitalised the cultural activities, often linked to events on local traditions. It is suitable for many type of events and shows, it is a traditional building, it has stimulated the area improvement: its street is the nicest in the area. It is very important for the town’s identity, which might be lost because of the inclusion within the area of a large city. However, its potentials are not still fully exploited: there are not a communication strategy and actions, like social media, social network and web pages, boosting the possibility to rent the place for cultural activities: many cultural and civil society stakeholders don’t know it. Moreover, the interested organisation may rent the house only after a not easy navigation in the institutional unicipality’s web page.


The Village The village of Suelli still have a rural economy and culture, it’s population is not considerably decreasing; therefore, it has few depopulation problems; however, it could depend on the proximity to the capital not just on the economic and cultural life. This makes the exploitation of the cultural heritage important; in order to keep alive traditions, without losing important part of the local identity. Suelli’s polulation ((Source ISTAT – National Statistics Italian Institute):

Description In Suelli, a village in the center of Campidano there is Casa Ruda; it is a house-museum with interesting documents of agricultural and pastoral life and culture of the region. Casa Ruda is an ancient manor; the owners restored and arranged it, in order to allow the use as a home, a welcoming meeting place, a place for ceremonies and a museum. The part for ceremonies includes a restaurant and large halls. The first building of the Rudas’ House dates back to the beginning of 1600; it is located 42 km from Cagliari and it is easily accessible by public roads 131 and 128, or by a touristic railway called the Green Train. What today 130

appears a small and pleasant hilly village had been an episcopal seat for centuries: the cathedral and sanctuary dedicated to St. George, bishop of Suelli (1000 A.D.), show this importance, as well as the remarkable sixteenth-century retable inside the church, painted Pietro and Michele Cavaro. The name of the house, ‘Casa Ruda’ is linked with Ruda family that has noble Catalan origin. The Family came to Sardinia at the end of 1400 and settled in the feud of Samatzai and later in Donori and Cagliari. Later, It extended its properties in the towns of Suelli, Soleminis, Guasila, Ortacesus Villacidro, Villasor, Pauli Arbarei, Lunamatrona, Oristano, Cabras. At the end of 1800 the noble Cavaliere Vittorio Tordelli, native of Spoleto in Umbria, joined the noble Chiara Ruda in marriage. In the noble Tordelli family there were administrators in the Papal State, great collectors of art. In the nineteenth century, the Tordellis became interested in hospitality business: they built hotels first in Rome and then the prestigious Grand Hotel Tordelli in Spoleto. Vittorio and Giorgio Tordelli Ruda are keeping the ancient traditions of the family and giving impetus to the management of their properties. Their manor is very large; it is divided into welcoming courtyards and gardens: from the patrician residence, dating back to the end of the 18th century, to the numerous dependencies. On the walls, there are frescoes, paintings and furnishings. The halls, corridors and rooms were carefully restored; now they host congresses, awards ceremony, cultural meetings and weddings parties. An historical archive, visited by schools, contains important documents while in several corridors and room there are traditional tools; such spaces recreate the ancient rural life of the region: Trexenta. The combination among an archive and ethnographic museum and a place for large ceremonies may create a fascinating experience.

Best practice of criticisms The manor house is wonderfully restored, while artistic and ethnographic objects are well preserved end showed. The place is very large and beautiful, but, for its historical relevance, its size, its beauty and the importance of the owning family, it should be more at the centre of the cultural life of the village; It is not enough linked with the local cultural development. It should be a point of reference, even helping the relationships with public and private stakeholders. The place offers many things to the visitors: beauty, food, tradition and history; however, its potential, in business terms, are not well exploited. The quality of the restoration and maintenance is not enough to assure the best economic performance: diversification of the supply and a better communication should be carried out.

2) Villa Puddu in Siddi (Cagliari Province) Definizione: Villa/palace Tipology: Italian Art Nuveau (liberty) villa with ‘Casa Campidanese’ elements. Function: Residential Location: Siddi, historical region named Marmilla, (south Sardinia district) Current use: Gourmet restaurant – B&B – high quality cuisine school Built at beginning of the XX century Cultural area: Traditional and fusion food culture

The village Siddi is a village in the centre-south of Sardinia characterised by a rural economy; it is facing a quite considerable depopulation problem. The described activity is a nice private attempt, aimed at facing depopulation in the settlement. It is surely very interesting because it is based on (i) economic exploitation and diversification, (ii) contamination between local and global dimensions and (iii) links between local culture and economic development. However, cultural and economic consistency should be assured, in order to overcome 131

the decline; It should be linked with more private and public actions. The population’s decline is emphasised in the figure below.

him, named ‘Accademia di Cucina e Sviluppo del Territorio’. Roberto Petza is conservative and progressive; he preserves with obstinacy and courage a heritage made up of tastes and techniques, knowledge and ancient gestures. He is progressive because he has understood that the past is the only way to conquer the future. He updates the Sardinian tradition with new executive practices, new combinations, new aesthetics and a new idea of catering. Its restaurant is the symbol of this multiple vocation.

Best practice

Description Casa Puddu is among the green hills of Marmilla (Sardinian region); it is a historic residence built in Art Nouveau style at the beginning of the 20th century by Filippo Puddu, whose brother was the founder of the Puddu’s pasta factory that has been, until 1996, one of the largest industrial pasta factories in the island. It is the only example of palace in the village of Siddi and is composed of a main “C” building built on two floors, the main part of the house. In the frontal façade, you can see a flat frame, a final cornice and a large central terrace with balustrade. The main building is flanked, on the left side, by the rustic part of the house, where the former servitude rooms are located. This part of the building, lower than the other and without decorations, is definitely closer to what was once considered the construction typology of the place (casa campidanese). Today Casa Puddu is a gourmet restaurant called ‘S’ apposentu’; the owner and chef is Roberto Petza. In the building there is also a high level school for cookers managed by 132

The building, wonderfully restored, is important for the history of the area (The historical region of Marmilla; this importance has leaded the owner towards an inclusive approach: he organises events involving the social, economic and cultural local life. Moreover, these events, as well as its business, are deeply linked with the local identity, refreshed by the contamination with international high quality food experiences. These help the stakeholder involvement. Under a narrow business perspective, the enterprise differentiates its offer: high-level international training on food and beverage, hospitality, interesting events.

3) Corte Cristina in Quartucciu, (Cagliari Province), a luxury B&B Definition: Villa Tipology: ‘Casa Campidanese’ Functione: Residencial - agriculture Location: Cagliari Metropolitan area Current use: luxury B&B and events organisation XVIII century Cultural area: Italian and Sardinian History

Description Corte Cristina is an 18th century residence,

with ancient furnishings, and luxurious rooms. The villa was the summer residence of Queen Maria Cristina of Savoy and the Savoy court; it is in Quartucciu, within the district of Cagliari. Now, the building is a successful luxury B&B, which is contributing, with other little hospitality structures, to the touristic development of a town that is losing its agricultural identity but needs to rebuild it, in order to face the involvement, as a residential area, within a metropolitan area. The original furnishings of the eighteenth and nineteenth century brought back to the ancient splendour, contribute to create a colourful and relaxed atmosphere, especially in common areas where high standards applied to all rooms and suites are able to ensure the most exclusive comfort. The suites contain the charm of the ancient times typical hospitality, combined with the modernity of all the offered comforts: wooden beams and original furniture are combined with the ritual of a modern bathroom, where guests are pampered by Jacuzzi tubs and emotional showers. Immersed in the city centre, Corte Cristina offers moments of pure relaxation to its guests that may live an experience where the royal family Vittorio Emanuele I of Savoy spent its holydays.

Best Practice and criticism

based on an ancient and innovative concept: ancient because it respects the spirit of the place, an eighteenth-century patrician house, rich in stories and secrets, innovative because it locates the same sensations in the twenty-first century. The building is a best practice of architectural restoration and economic exploitation, as it has a successful occupancy rate, promotion and great reviews. However, even if the building has an historical significance, it is not integrated into the town’s cultural life. This can create problems with some stakeholders and does not help the cultural identity of a place that is losing it.

REFERENCES Artistic, Architectural, Historical, Linguistic and on the Campidanese House • • • • • • • •

Corte Cristina offers a timeless welcome,


Sardegna Cultura Su Furriadroxu Casa Angioni and Corte Cristina Quartucciu Comune di Allai – CIMA- Civico Museo Paesaggi Connessi - Ecorurality 2009/11 Casa Zapata Museum S’Apposentu - Casa Puddu - Siddi Casa Ruda - Suelli





AGRICULTURE AND VITICULTURE AS BASIS OF THE CITIZEN ECONOMY 136 The birth of viঞculture and marsala wine 136


Wri en by Monica Calabrò (Comune di Petrosino, Petrosino, Italy)




HISTORICAL ARCHITECTURES Fiuredde Towers Church: Milazzo Chapel The bagli Baglio woodhouse Baglio Vecchio Marchese and sustainable reuse Baglioম Baglio Don Federico Baglio Basile and sustainable reuse Baglio Spano’ and sustainable reuse

138 138 138 139 139 140 141 141 142 142 143





Coat of arms of Petrosino 135

INTRODUCTION Petrosino is one of 24 municipalities in the Province of Trapani, on the extreme west side of Sicily (Italy). It is located along 10 km of coast between Marsala and Mazara del Vallo: an area where it is possible to harmonize the rural and maritime traditions with the many sport activities related to the sea (kitesurfing, windsurfing, snorkeling, diving, etc.) and the peace of the fishermen’s village. The town obtained its autonomy in 1980, when Petrosino, town hamlet under the administrative rule of Marsala, separated from Marsala thus becoming the youngest town with its own local government in the province of Trapani. The territory of Petrosino is placed opposite Africa, but the temperature rarely rise at high levels, thanks to sea-wild which blows directly and steadly. For its climatic characteristics Petrosino can be considered privileged for its agricultural and tourism development, in particularly for viticulture. His countryside offers extensive cultivated fields, especially vineyards, with various local productions of fruit and vegetables. Petrosino has more vineyards than each other city in Italy and it significantly contributes to the production of first-class wines thanks to the connection between vineyards and sea that makes unique the experience of tasting local products. Petrosino has the highest production of grapes for inhabitant and it significantly contributes to the Marsala wine production. The landscape is characterized by an immense number of catarratto and grillo vineyards. This is an area with a deep rural identity that it is possible discover visiting the typical “bagli”, enjoying the contemplation of the unspoilt area of “margi” or tasting the local organic products. Petrosino is not only characterised by agricultural landscape and wine making vocation, but also by its sandy coastlines (Biscione beach is the most famous) which in summer use to become popular holiday destinations. The first settlements, dating back to the 136

mid-seventeenth century, were established by farmers who formed housing units called “chianura” and by fishermen who settled on the coast forming Biscione village. The residential area developed from the 19th century along the road where the English merchant John Woodhouse built his “baglio” (rural fortified structure) whose portal later became the coat of arms and the symbol of the town.

ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF “PETROSINO” The name of the town is linked to history and legend at the same time. According to tradition, the name derives from Latin words sinus (gulf) and Petri (Peter) that is Gulf of Peter, alluding to the landing of Saint Peter at Biscione. However, there is not any historical document to validate this theory. Another theory, more popular than the first one, is linked with its distinctive toponym that seems to come from the Greek word “Petrosilion” then changed in “Piddusino” by local dialect. In ancient times, in this uninhabited area grew in abundance a type of aromatic herb known as parsley, due to this vegetative characteristic the place was called Petrosino (Vinci 1995).

AGRICULTURE AND VITICULTURE AS A BASIS OF THE CITIZEN ECONOMY The birth of viticulture and maesala wine Its economy is essentially based on agriculture with the production of greenhouse vegetables, table grapes and must. It turns out to be the most common wine-growing town in Italy, with the largest grape production

per inhabitant. It contributes significantly to the production of the well-known Marsala wine. The landscape of Petrosino is characterized by an immense number of catarratto and grillo vineyards, typical for the production of famous Marsala wine. The story of Marsala wine was born from the intuition of the English merchant John Woodhouse (Neu, 1957). The legend tells that in 1773 John Woodhouse with his ship Elizabeth was bound for Mazara del Vallo to pick up a cargo of sodium carbonate (for industrial purposes). Due to a storm, it lands in the port of Marsala. Having to wait for the storm die down, he decided to stop at a tavern in the city. Here Woodhouse taste a local fortified wine, which reminds him another very famous drink, the Port. Sure about the success that Marsala could have in England, he changed idea and loaded the brig with the local wine, approximately fifty barrels for a total of 420 liters. During the voyage back to Liverpool, he added small quantities of alcohol to preserve the wine. This was the regular practice with Port and Xéres (Sherry). The wine arrived safe and sound, and John sold it at a huge profit. “Marsala wine” had been discovered by Britain. The British greatly appreciated the quality of this wine, so Woodhouse realized that others would soon begin importing “his” wine. So, on his next trip, he sent his men out to buy up all grapes from the best vineyards of Petrosino territory. The next step was to create a vinery to produce the precious wine. He built a farmhouse like a fortress for himself, his men and local farmers, on the coastline of Petrosino where he could survey the ocean from pirates and warships. The British Royal Navy eventually became a big client. Admiral Lord Nelson used Marsala as the official wine ration for his men. A manuscript exists, dated 19 March 1800, carrying the signature of Woodhouse and the Duke of Bronte - Horatio Nelson’s Sicilian title - stipulating the supply of 500 barrels, each with a capacity of 500 litres for the fleet stationed in Malta. After Nelson’s victories Buckingham Palace

was keen to taste the wine that so fortified this sailors’ spirits. The wine was since then included in the royal cellars and, as a consequence, in many other cellars as well. In England, due to the royal interest and Admiral Nelson, the wine had become a fine wine, “worthy of any gentleman’s table”, as contemporary documents stated. With Marsala went the ancient legend about wine having originated in Sicily as the gift of the Gods. There is a very interesting word which explains a great deal about Marsala. It is the Latin word “perpetuum”, in English perpetual. Wine produced in the Marsala region is aged in gigantic barrels. After a certain time part of the aged wine is removed and replaced with a younger wine of exactly the same kind (similar to the Spanish Solera method). Hence perpetual: the barrels are never emptied (The history of Marsala). But the origins of viticulture in this area of Sicily are much older (Nesto and Di Savino, 2013). According to Greek legend, however, it was Dionysus who brought the vine to Sicily. While embarking on an arduous journey across the seas, the god of wine brought with him a vine and carefully looked after it along the way. When he finally got to Sicily he planted the first vineyard at Naxos. But the Western part of Sicily was covered in grapevines long before the Greeks got there, and the Greeks were not the first to make wine in Sicily. In fact, archeologists have found evidence that the island’s inhabitants were drinking wine as far as the 17th century B.C. however, when the Greeks arrived in the eighth century B.C. they introduced viniculture techniques, pruning styles and a new take on variety selection. The result was better quality and larger quantities of wine. When the Romans took control of Sicily, they spread wine from the region around the empire. It did not take long for the wines to gain recognition in the ancient world. Wine was essential for celebrating mass, and religious leaders became experts in viniculture. From A.D. 872 to 1061, wine production in Sicily declined, but developed directly following that period the export activity from the island. This, in turn, helped stabilize the econ137

omy. The next important step in the history of Sicilian wine would come many years later, when John Woodhouse would help bring Marsala to the world. Riding on the success of Marsala, Sicilians made huge developments in wine production, and wine soon became an important pillar of the island’s economic structure. During the years to follow, some of Sicily’s most famous wineries were founded. In 1881, Phylloxera (an insect of the Phylloxeridae family) invaded Sicily and entire vineyards were destroyed (Grandori, 1914). This harmful vine insect, native to North America, appeared in Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century, and is now widespread in all the wine-growing countries of the world. This insect causes serious damage to the roots and the consequent death of the attacked plant. In the same decade, exports to France stopped. Wine production on the island didn’t recover for more than half a century. Meanwhile the market had changed completely, and Sicilian winemakers had to adapt. Fortunately, their ability to adjust, as well as a new attention to quality, helped wine producers in Sicily regains their place as some of the best in the world. Wine production is a millenary tradition that has preserved until today a rich heritage of vines, still very much appreciated today, and Petrosino has more vineyards than any other city in Italy (Trapani, 2011; Caruso, 1997; Zanfi A. and Mencarelli S. , 2013).

HISTORICAL ARCHITECTURES Fiuredde Going through the streets of Petrosino is easy to find small shrines (sanctuaries), locally known as “fiuredde” (sacred aediculae). The local sacred aediculae are architectural elements dedicated to sacred figures (Barbera 1989). They are usually located in


the main crossroads or at the beginning of a narrow street. The style changes from one to another, they are usually painted in light colours and the sacred image is represented mostly with reproductions or paintings, sometimes with plaster or stone sculptures. Sacred aediculae are a spontaneous expression of popular religiosity which is shown during the celebration of the Saint to whom is dedicated and in other religious events.

Towers Looking back in time, when the area of Petrosino was still uninhabited, the first buildings that were built were military sighting towers to organize defence in case of pirate incursion. Then the decline of maritime and trade activities facilitated the development of agriculture from which comes the need to fortify the area with several watchtowers (Bellanca, 1987). One of this is the Sibiliana Tower, built in the 1500. Its purpose was to catch sight of pirates and, at the same time, to signal the passage of tuna which were then conducted to the nearby tuna-fishing net. It is twelve meters high with very thick

tuff walls and the shape is quadrangular. The name Sibiliana or Scibiliana maybe refers to the Sybil, a girl who was kidnapped by pirates and held captive here. Another tower present in the territory of Petrosino is Galvaga Tower. This majestic and fascinating structure was built in 1582 to dominate the countryside and to catch sight of some bandits or criminals. Each tower had a well and a waterhole and it was a small fortress where farmers and shepherds could take refuge. Realized in tuff, it is massive, squared and quadrangular. It has two floors with three rooms on each floor. Unique element of the tower is its crenellation on the top that makes the structure austere.

ritory is Milazzo Chapel. Located in district “contrada Torreggiano”, it was built in XVIII century as the chapel of Milazzo Family. The little church has a neoclassic facade and the interior has a nave where is placed a polychrome plaster statue of Christ.

Church: Milazzo Chapel The oldest church that was built in the ter-

The bagli The history of Petrosino is closely related to the construction and evolution of the “bagli”. The fortified structures of the bagli are rural architectural buildings which are to be found all over the countryside and which characterise the territory (Saeli , 2011). The etymology of word “baglio” appears uncertain, however the most valid theories lead back to the Latin “ballium” (courtyard surrounded by buildings or walls) and to word “balarm” (fortress). These structures are the witness of the important role that viticulture had at the beginning of 1800. Bagli were built to facilitate the local farmers (Petrosino was among the major centres of wine production) which had not sufficient resources to carry grapes and wine to Marsala. They are built by landowners for agricultural activities in a dominating position in order 139

to control the surrounding land and the various phases of the agricultural work. They have, as a characteristic element, a central courtyard around which communal life is lead, a manor house and several warehouses (Giacomarra 1997). Other characteristic element was specific spaces were designed for grape pressing (in local dialect palmentu) or olives pressing (in local dialect trappitu). The highest part of the structure was the house of the landowner who stayed there seasonally. The development of viniculture and winemaking fostered the reproduction of baglio structure especially near the coast. Of this structures that were the cornerstone of the agricultural activity (the “Bagli”) much was lost.

Baglio woodhouse It is the first Baglio used as winery, a luxurious neoclassical villa with a strong artistic value, built in 1813 by John Woodhouse (the English merchant who discovered the wine “Marsala” and exported it all over the world). A testimony of the ancient splendor of this Baglio now remain, in addition to the entrance portal, only a few elements original and frescoes depicting vine leaves, in the upper floor. This baglio is locally known as “bagghiu gnisi” (English baglio), where the legendary Marsala Soleras 1815 and Marsala Waterloo 1815 were produced (source: Unfortunately the fascinating structure now is not in good conditions. In the courtyard there is still a well and a washtub made in tuff. The access portal is equipped with a spy and a slit that served as a defensive work. The arch is a sixth lower and inside, above the arch, is the “walkway”. The whole thing was closed by a wooden door and represented the only solution of continuity between the outside and the inside. All other openings have been practiced in recent times. The flooring of the residential building is in hexagonal shaped clay bricks. The same geological nature of the land has provided the building materi140

als and has favored its use, in fact the masonry (stonework) of the various buildings is usually composed of stones and pieces of tuff bound together by lime and sand, which even today the corrosive action due to atmospheric agents resist. The roof is made of brick tiles resting on wooden planks (Vinci, 1995). Almost entirely renovated in the interior finishes of the ground floor while completely intact on the upper floor, where they were found under the various layers of lime and colors of the walls frescoes with vines of green and yellowed vines. Behind the Baglio you can still see what remains of the house of the keeper of the fields. The portal of the baglio (Picture 4) has been used as an emblem of the Municipality of Petrosino, as a tribute to the ancient and prestigious culture and civilization of the farming world.

Baglio Vecchio Marchese and sustainable reuse Another Baglio is “Baglio Vecchio Marchese”, an ancient beam built in 1700. It was the summer residence of the Marquis D’Anna from Marsala. Abandoned for a long time, nowadays it retains a little part of the original structure where there was the area for the farmer activities. A magnificent courtyard completed the typical structure of the local beam. Unique elements of this baglio are the three sighting towers. This Baglio is an example of reconversion of ancient beams in a modern way. Indeed the baglio was restored and it is now used as a restaurant. One of the wings of this Baglio is reserved for cultural and artistic events, always aimed at dissemination and knowledge of the local craft culture, and home to a professional school for the training of potters and decorators. Inside the company many different architects and sector specialists collaborate, which, with great artistic ability, make each piece unique in its kind, succeed inventing shapes and decorations of high expressive value. Since the beginning of the activity,

the company has drawn inspiration from the centuries-old Sicilian ceramic culture to propose itself to the market with precious products, strictly artisan, but able to satisfy current needs. Ceramics of “Vecchio Marchese” respect the artistic taste of centuries of traditions; shapes, colors, and techniques unique all over the world. The production still includes tiles with Sicilian decorations since ‘500 to the present day and still dishes, mugs, kitchen accessories, flasks, lamps, chandeliers and furnishings for verandas and interiors. Reuse of this Baglio allows perpetuating historical and popular traditions respecting environment.

Bagliotti After the construction of the Baglio Woodhouse and other beams, the first rural houses with annexed warehouses began to rise. The warehouses were equipped with the necessary for pressing grapes and storing the must (liquid obtained from pressing the grapes). These were called “bagliotti” (little beams) in imitation of the great feudal beams constructed by the wealthiest land workers. Among these the most important and interesting are Baglio Basile, Baglio Don Federico,


and Baglio Spanò of the nineteenth century.

Baglio Don Federico Baglio Don Federico was built by Don Federico Spanò in 1865 and it stands in the Ramisella district, in an area entirely planted with vines. During the Arab period the Baglio was part of Casale Bizir and later, under Norman domination, it was granted to the bishopric of Mazara. In 1862 it was assigned to the public auction of Don Federico Spanò. It has an almost quadrangular plan with a single and monumental entrance with a round arch in tufa stone blocks. The entrance consists of a quadrangular environment with a barrel vault now completely collapsed. On the west side, to the right of the entrance, the perimeter wall was destroyed. The pe-

rimeter wall of the left side is intact and well preserved. In the quadrangular courtyard, all the rooms, warehouses and houses overlook. The presence of a well, now covered with tuffs, characterizes the internal quadrangular court. The warehouses along the South side also collapsed and constituted the old part of the services. A cornice at the top, still evident on the west side and partly on the south side, followed the perimeter walls of the baglio. Baglio Don Federico should be recovered and reinserted in the historical memory of Petrosino as an indelible mark of its past that should not be forgotten, it also represents a natural background to the main street, Via Baglio.

Baglio Basile and sustainable reuse Baglio Basile is an ancient noble residence built in 1862. The land where it arise was bishopric and in 1862, after Italian unification and Corleo law of that year (which ratify abolition of the ecclesistical feuds) some lots of this land were bought by notary Gaetano Basile who built here baglio and put lands under cultivation. It presents all the structural characteristics of the bagli that, since the seventeenth century, arose in countryside of Marsala, but it presents neoclassical elements typical of period in which it arose. The towers are made with tuff blocks, that recall those typical of the wineries, along the coast of Marsala. The materials in which the structure was built are typical of the place: tuff bricks, the so-called Sicilian “cantuna” and the gray San Vito marble. Architectural beauty, preserved in the ancient Baglio Basile, is the chapel, built for the benefit of the lords and peasants at their service, where the various religious rites were performed. The chapel has a rectangular plan, which ends in the shape of an apse, where the altar is placed. The ceiling of the chapel consists of a “barrel-shaped” dome, finished with ancient stuccos, which reproduce floral and ge-

ometric motifs. The predominant colors are the shades of blue and pink, characteristic of the Sicilian “sacred aedicules”. Today Baglio Basile has been completely renovated along with its interior furnishings and has became a hotel with rooms and suites, restaurants and a modern “Wellness Center and Beauty Farm”.

Baglio Spano’ and sustainable reuse Another example of a baglio in the territory of Petrosino is the Baglio Spanò. It was an Episcopal property, then between 1873 and 1882 the Marquis Nicolò Spanò from Marsala decided to build his baglio there. It is located in district Triglia Scaletta and it was characterized by two connecting courtyards: one reserved to the landowner’s family and the other one for all the farmer activities. The majestic palace of the Marquis stands in front of the entrance, on the main courtyard. Its prestige is evidenced by the magnificence of the structure. The dominant colour of building facade is pink. At the left of courtyard you arrive at gound floor rooms and at right side the staircase leads to the upper floors. The white Carrara

marble staircase has a barrel vault decorated with a beautiful mottled pink enclosed in white frame panels. Even walls have same colour and decoration. Still in building façade, in the center and above the entrance arch, there is a big balcony surmounted by a round arch decoration with two initials MS in the center, surmounted by a four-pointed crown in a red background. Looking out of the windows of the top floor it is possible enjoy a wonderful sea view. The baglio is surrounded by luxuriant vineyards. The doors and floors in beautiful majolica are original. It still is a private ownership and it is used as agritourism. The structure offers the comfort of a modern structure and at the same time keeps the distinctive elements of the old Sicilian house unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS Our present has its roots in our past but must focus on the future. For this reason, nothing of the past must be cancelled. In this context the restoration of historical buildings allows to recover the historical memory and make them live again in a modern way. Respect for the environment and traditions are essential. For this reason the administration of


Petrosino, in addition to the recovery of historic buildings, also aims to perpetuate gastronomic and popular traditions organizing events and festivals that enhance local traditions and typical products (grape, “gnocculo” pasta etc ...). One of the most important and characteristic festival is the “festa di chianura”, it recalls moments of farming and maritime life, and it is amazing attend the preparation of cakes and pastries made from mulled wine and grape must are prepared. The economy of this territory is essentially based on agriculture and Petrosino tries to focus on the use of 0 km and organic products, even in school canteens. The organic market uses to take place in summer time. The peasant culture is passed down thanks to the creation of a museum located inside the school “Istituto Comprensivo Nosengo”. The “Museum of rural civilization” holds a patrimony of tools and objects which allow the reconstruction of the identity of the town and show the techniques and procedures linked to the activities which took place in the fields, in the craft workshops or in family households. Protection of environment and landscape as well as respect for culture and traditions are the key to safeguarding the territorial identity and its specific features (Bartolotta et al. 2000).

• •


Barbera Maria (1989). Pieta’ popolare: le edicole sacre di Palermo ieri e oggi. Mazzone editore, Palermo, 1989: 125 p. Bartolotta Michelangelo, Di Naro Sabrina, Lo Brutto Mauro, Misuraca Paola, Villa Benedetto (2000). Information systems for preservation of cultural heritage. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Vol. XXXIII, Part B5. Amsterdam 2000. Bellanca Calogero (1987) Rural Architecture in Sicily. In: Old cultures in new worlds. 8th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Symposium. Pro144

• • •

gramme report - Compte rendu. US/ICOMOS, Washington, pp. 514-521. [Book Section] Caruso Ignazio(1997). Breve storia agronomica della vite e del vino in Sicilia. Marsala: Associazione marsalese per la storia patria. 1997- IX, 87 p. 21 Emerson Avery (2015). Marsala’s hinterland: The evolution of Roman settlement in western Sicily. University of Pennsylvania, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2015. Giacomarra Mario (1997). Bagli e masserie a Palermo. Ariete, 1997: 32 p Grandori R. (1914). Risultati dei Nuovi Studi Italiani sulla FILLOSSERA della vite. Hoepli editore Manzo Cecilia, Pepori Chiara (2017). Amunì, tra mari e pirrere. Progetto per il recupero del territorio elimo-ericino. Tesi di laurea urbanistica. Università degli studi di Palermo. Nesto Bill, Di Savino Francesco (2013). The World of Sicilian Wine. University of California press. Neu I. (1957). An English Businessman in Sicily, 1806–1861. Business History Review, 31(4), 355-374. Saeli M. (2011). Bagli e masserie della Sicilia centro-occidentale: casi di studio a confronto= Country Houses in the Middle-West Sicilian Area: Cases of Study. Firenze University Press. Trapani Nicola (2011). Marsala il vino e la città dell’unità d’Italia. Enovitis 2011. XVI - 367 p. 30. Vinci Attilio L. (1995). PETROSINO, tra storia, leggenda, personaggi, tradizioni popolari. Arti Grafiche Campo, 1995. Zanfi A. and Mencarelli S. (2013). Marsala, in Sweet, Reinforced and Fortified Wines: Grape Biochemistry, Technology and Vinification (eds F. Mencarelli and P. Tonutti), John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK. * * * Trapani Click and Go Turismo Trapani Visit Petrosino

• • •

Petrosino Marsala wine Marsala wine’s background history