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ON THE TRACES OF HERCULES

Erasmus plus Project Searching for the Labours of Hercules


ON THE TRACES OF HERCULES SULLE TRACCE DI ERCOLE

Erasmus plusProject Searching for the Labours of Hercules

Erasmus plus Project Searching for the Labours of Hercules

2016


© Tudás Alapítvány, 2016 Published within the Erasmus plus KA2 Project „Searching for the Labours of Hercules”, 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990 (further information) Produced with the support of the Erasmus plus Programme of the European Union. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the writers and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the NAs and the Commission.

With the contribution of: Özlem Kaplan Mehmet Çelikel Lisesi (Zonguldak, Turkey) Rodica Festila Colegiul Tehnic de Transporturi „Transilvania” Cluj-Napoca (Kolozsvár, Romania) Simon Ferenc Tudás Alapítvány (Hódmezővásárhely, Hungary) Mercedes Casuso Qesada Instituto de Educación Secundaria les Jándula (Andújar, Spain) Daniela Gentili Liceo Statale G. Bagatta (Desenzano del Garda, Italy) Conci Mazzullo Liceo Statale G. Lombardo Radice (Catania, Italy)

Published by: Simon Ferenc Tudás Alapítvány


CONTENT

Introduction (Mercedes Casuso Qesada) .................................................................................................................................................... 7 The Labours of Hercules Killing the Nemean Lion (Daniela Gentili) ................................................................................................................................................. 8 Slaying the Lernaean Hydra (Rodica Festila) .......................................................................................................................................... 9 Capturing the Golden Hind of Artemis (Simon Ferenc) .....................................................................................................................10 Capturing the Erymanthian Boar (Mercedes Casuso Qesada) .......................................................................................................11 Cleaning the Augean Stables in a single day (Mercedes Casuso Qesada) ..................................................................................12 Slaying the Stymphalian Birds (Simon Ferenc) .....................................................................................................................................13 Capturing the Cretan Bull (Daniela Gentili) ...........................................................................................................................................14 Stealing the Mares of Diomedes (Rodica Festila) .................................................................................................................................15 Obtaining the Magic Girdle of Hippolyta (Özlem Kaplan)................................................................................................................16 Obtaining the Cattle of Geryon (Conci Mazullo) ...................................................................................................................................17 Stealing the Apples of the Hesperides (Conci Mazzullo)....................................................................................................................18 Capturing Cerberus (Özlem Kaplan) ..........................................................................................................................................................19 Traces of Hercules in the Partner Countries Hercules in Zonguldak 1 (Özlem Kaplan) .................................................................................................................................................20 Hercules in Zonguldak 2 (Özlem Kaplan) .................................................................................................................................................21 Hercules in Desenzano del Garda (Daniela Gentili).............................................................................................................................22 Hercules in Mantua (Daniela Gentili) .......................................................................................................................................................23 Hercules in Andújar 1 (Mercedes Casuso Qesada) ..............................................................................................................................24 Hercules in Andújar 2 (Mercedes Casuso Qesada) ..............................................................................................................................25 Hercules in Catania (Conci Mazzullo) .......................................................................................................................................................26 Hercules in Syracuse (Conci Mazzullo).....................................................................................................................................................27 Hercules in Cluj-Napoca 1 (Rodica Festila) .............................................................................................................................................28 Hercules in Cluj-Napoca 2 (Rodica Festila) .............................................................................................................................................29 Hercules in Budapest (Simon Ferenc) .......................................................................................................................................................30 Hercules in Visegrád (Simon Ferenc) ........................................................................................................................................................31


PART ONE – The Labours of Hercules


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Spain – Introduction : The Labours of Hercules

Zeus temple at Olimpia. Reconstruction of Metopes by students of IES Jándula HERACLES (Ἡρακλῆς in ancient Greek), and in Latin Hercules, was the most celebrated of all the heroes of antiquity. The traditions about him are the most widely spread: we find them not only in all the Mediterranean countries, but his deeds were known in the most distant countries of the ancient world. Every nation of antiquity as well as of modern times had or has some traditions of heroes of superhuman strength and power. While in the earliest Greek legends Heracles is a purely human hero, as the conqueror of men and cities, he afterwards appears as the subduer of monstrous animals, and is connected in a variety of ways with astronomical phaenomena. Heracles was the son of Zeus by Alcmene of Thebes in Boeotia, and the favourite of his father. While Amphitryon, her husband, was absent from Thebes, Zeus one night, to which he gave the duration of three other nights, visited Alcmene, and assuming the

appearance of Amphitryon, he seduced her. As a result, Alcmene brought into the world two boys, Heracles, the son of Zeus, and Iphicles, the son of Amphitryon, one night younger than Heracles. Hercules is often depicted carrying a knotted club, a quiver full of arrows, and wearing a lion’s pelt with sometimes also a lion head helmet. He is usually bearded and has very large eyes.

Eurystheus, who had become King in his stead and was his enemy, ordered him to carry out ten tasks. Heracles carried them all out, but according to Eurystheus two of the tasks had been failed because Heracles had been helped, so two more were allocated, which Heracles also completed, making 12.

WHY 12 LABOURS? In a fit of madness, induced by Hera, Hercukes killed his own children by Megara and two of Iphicles. In his grief he sentenced himself to exile. He then consulted the oracle of Delphi as to where he should settle. The Pythia first called him Heracles (glory of Hera) – his name had been Alcides – and ordered him to serve Eurystheus, the king of Tiryns and Mycenae for twelve years, after which he would become immortal.

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Hercules at the Parliament, Seville

Andalucian


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Italy – Killing the Nemean Lion The first task assigned by Eurystheus was to bring back the skin of the fierce lion which threatened the town of Nemea (Νεμέα), in the north-eastern part of the Peloponnese. The lion had been generated by Typhon (Τυφῶν), a dreadful monster and father of monsters, and was invincible. On his way to Nemea, Hercules stopped in Cleonae, at the house of a poor worker, Molochus. His guest offered to sacrifice a victim to Zeus to secure a safe lion hunt, but Hercules asked him to wait. After 30 days, if Hercules conquered the lion skin, they would sacrifice to Zeus, if he failed and died, Molochus would perform a sacrifice to Hercules, as to a hero. As he reached Nemea, Hercules spotted the fearsome lion and immediately shot an arrow to him, but he soon realised

that weapons were useless against the invulnerable animal. So he seized his club and chased the lion into a cave with two entrances. Hercules obstructed one access and fought the beast with his bare hands. At the end of a fierce struggle, he seized the lion in his arms and clasped it tightly until he strangled it. Hercules laid the dead lion on his shoulders and headed for Cleonae. He found Molochus on the thirtieth day, ready to sacrifice a victim to Hercules’ heroic death and together they sacrificed it to mighty Zeus.

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Then Hercules returned to Mycenae with his prey, to Eurystheus’ amazement. Greatly alarmed at Hercules’ strength, King Eurystheus refused to see the hero: he forbade him to enter the town and ordered to display the lion spoils outside the gates. Moreover, King Eurystheus had a large iron jar built and buried in the earth, where he could hide from Hercules’ fury, if necessary. From that day on, Hercules wore the lion skin “upon his back, hiding his yellow hair in [the lion’s] fearful tawny gaping jaws.” (Euripides). This is how Hercules is depicted in ancient and modern paintings and sculptures.


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Romania – Slaying the nine-headed Lernaean Hydra King Eurystheus kept council with the vengeful goddess Hera on what to order Hercules to do as his second labour of penitence out of the ten foretold by the Pythian priestess of the temple in Delphi. They wanted him to have a meeting with the Lernaean Hydra, a monstrous creature, a watersnake which Hera raised to fight against Hercules. To kill this nineheaded animal was the task the fearless hero had to accomplish. As one of his glorious predecessors once had done – Perseus, who killed the Medusa (a woman’s head-like monster that could kill anybody with the deadly glare in her eyes) – Hercules had the almost impossible task to annihilate a vicious animal who lived in a swamp, and would ravage the cattle and the country around.

Hercules had to obey in order to deserve his absolution for the murder of his wife and children. So, off he went to find the Hydra! He did not go alone. His devoted charioteer, Iolaus, drove him to Lerna. Hercules found out that the Hydra dwelt in a den on a hill beside the springs of the Amymone. The animal had a huge body and nine tentacles with a head at the end of each. The odor of its body killed all who breathed the stinking fumes. Hercules stirred up the monster out of her den by pelting her with burning shafts of wood. She came out raging with poisonous tongues against him. She wound herself around one of Hercules’ feet trying to immobilize him. But he hit the tentacles with his mighty club causing the monster to roar with pain.

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He knew that eight of the Hydra’s heads were mortal and one was immortal. He could hit as hard as he might, the tentacles would not easily be beheaded. To his surprise, once he struck a head with his club, two more grew in its place. A huge crab, friend of the monster, came along and bit Hercules’ foot. The hero asked Iolaus for help. The latter used a torch and burnt the beheaded tentacles so no more new heads sprout. Thus, Hercules managed to kill all the heads, except the immortal one. He finally took this one too, using a golden sickle. He buried this head under a rock and then dipped some of his arrows into the poisonous gall of the monster’s corpse.


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Hungary – Capturing the Golden Hind of Artemis The Third Labour of Hercules was to travel to Oenoe (Οινόη), capture the Ceryneian hind and bring it alive to Mycenae. The fleet-footed, mottled animal with bronze hooves and golden horns looked like a stag. The animal was sacred to Artemis. The child goddess Artemis saw five hinds twice the size of bulls grazing near the black pebble river Anaurus in Thessaly. She began to chase them and the agile goddess was able to catch four of them by hand and joined them to her chariot.

Hercules and the Ceryneian Hind, 19th-century painting by Adolf Schmidt in its architectural setting.

The fifth not been reached, escaped to Kelada, on the other side of the river, on the Ceryneian hill. According to the myth, the goddess Hera wanted it: she had already devised the Labours of Hercules.

According to the story, Heracles did not want to kill or injure the animal, because the task had to be carried out without the use of violence. He pursued the hind actively for one full year. During the chase Heracles followed the animal up to Istria and chased it in the hyperboreus territory. After this, the tired gold hind fled from the wild chase over the mountain Artemisium and there rested. When the thirsty animal descended to quench her thirst in the river Ladon, Heracles pulled his bow and with an arrow pinned her front legs together. He then carefully laid her motionless body across his shoulders and made his way back to Mycenae. He went through Arcadia with it. Artemis reproached Herecles, but later the goddess accepted his apologies and allowed him to continue on to Mycenae. Hercules captures the Hind of Ceryneia, breaking off one of its golden antlers, while Athena (on the left) and Artemis (on the right) look on. Attic black-figured neckamphora, ca. 540–530 BC. Said to be from Vulci.

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ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Spain – Capturing the Erymanthian Boar Erymanthos (in Greek, Ερύμανθος), also Olonos (Ωλονός), is a mountain range in the southern part of Achaea and the northeastern part of Elis. With an elevation of 2,224 meters, it is the fourth-tallest mountain in the Peloponnese peninsula.

Accidentally Chiron was struck on the knee by one of Hercules' poisoned arrows. Hercules tried to help his friend and former master, but the wound would not heal, and Chiron seemed doomed to an eternal life of suffering, because he was inmortal.

These creatures - half-man, half-horse were aggressive and warlike, Chiron and Pholus being the only exceptions. After eating a good meal, and despite warnings from Pholus, Hercules opened a cask of wine belonging to all of the Centaurs. They got angry and furiously attacked Hercules but he managed to overcome them and chased them to Malea, the home of Chiron.

Having successfully caught the Boar, Heracles bound it and carried it back to Eurystheus. A favourite subject for vasepainters: Heracles delivers the Erymanthian boar to Eurystheus who cowers inside a buried pithos vase, begging Heracles to get rid of the beast.

On his way to hunt the boar, Hercules stopped to visit his friend Pholus, who was a centaur and lived in a cave near Mount Erymanthus. Chiron (Χείρων) was the leader of the Centaurs. He was the eldest and wisest of the Centaurs, a tribe of half-horse men. He was a great teacher who mentored many of the great heroes of myth including Jason, Peleus, Aquilleus and Heracles. After his death he was given a place amongst the stars by Zeus as the constellation Saggitarius or Centaurus.

To gain advice on how to catch the boar, Chiron had told him to drive it into thick snow, which sets this Labour in mid-winter.

Here Hercules brings him the boar alive and Eurystheus hides in a bronze vase. Unlike Hercules, he has a weak character.

Heracles at Pholus', 520–510 BC.

However Zeus agreed that Prometheus should take over Chiron's immortality, so the Centaur was freed from his agony and died. While Hercules was gone, Pholus examining one of the poisonous arrows let it fall on his foot and died. So when Hercules returned, he found Pholus dead. He buried his centaur friend and proceeded to hunt the boar.

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Reconstruction of Metope from the Temple of Zeus in Olympia (ca. 468-456 BC)


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Spain – Cleaning the Augean stables in a single day The fifth Labor of Heracles was to clean the Augean stables. This task was intended to be both humiliating (rather than impressive, as the previous labors) and impossible, since the livestock were divinely healthy (immortal) and therefore produced an enormous quantity of dung. Augeas (or Augeias, in Ancient Greek: Αύγείας), whose name means “bright”, was king of Elis. His stables housed the single greatest number of cattle in the country and had never been cleaned. Although this may seem a minor or less known work, the truth is that it has been represented in the most varied media, especially with a humorous or satirical purpose: magazines, illustrations, caricatures, coins and stamps…

Detail of the Roman mosaic of Lliria, MAN, Madrid Heracles had a brilliant idea and succeeded by rerouting the rivers Alpheus and Peneus to wash out the filth.

According to Pindar´s Odes, Heracles then founded the Olympic Games (Olympiakoi Agones) in honor of his father.

Augeas was irate because he had promised Heracles one tenth of his cattle if the job was finished in one day. He refused to fulfill the agreement and Heracles killed him after completing the task and gave his kingdom to Augeas’ son Phyleus, who had been exiled for supporting Heracles against his father, Zeus.

He taught men how to wrestle and measured out the stadium, or the length of the footrace. At the first Games Hercules was the only contestant. This was possible for the running and throwing events but it was a problem for boxing or wrestling and Zeus finally entered the wrestling match against Hercules. They ended in a draw. The Olympic stadium course length was over 192 meters (the distance he could run in one breath) or 600 foot lengths of Hercules.

Olympic stadium, Olympia

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ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Hungary – Slaying the Stymphalian Birds The Stymphalian lake is located next to Stymphalos in the north-east of Arcadia. It is surrounded by dense forests and covered in reed. Uncountable lots of birds were dwelling there. When they set to fly, they darkened the sky. This multitude of birds could not be subdued by force because of their great number. Another labour of Hercules was again to attack and chase away something deathly. When all birds of the Stymphalian Lake set to fly, they darkened the sky just like countless souls arriving at swampy Acheron at the border of the Underworld. On the west where Helios sets starts the empire of the dead. Statues of bird-legged virgins were standing here and these man-eating birds were thought to have been deathly sirens of the swamp. Their feathers and beaks were of hard metal, therefore the person they attacked got injured. It was hopeless to fight them since, when someone shot an arrow to them, they dropped thousands of sharp feathers on him.

You can see on old vases how Hercules attacked the birds waving his slingshot or he is struggling with them using his club although his most important weapon was bow and arrows against the birds. Hercules took the carcass of the birds to Mycenae to prove the completion of this labour.

We can learn more about the Stymphalian birds from the Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century AD, Pausanias, who described a type of bird from the Arabian desert called Stymphalian. They were as fierce as lions or leopards and, according to Pausanias, they were similar to those fought by Hercules.

So climbing a tree in the forest of Stymphalos, Hercules clashed a bronze krotala loudly, scaring the birds out of the trees, then shot them with bow and arrow when they were circling around him.

„These fly against those who come to hunt them, wounding and killing them with their beaks. All armor of bronze or iron that men wear is pierced by the birds; but if they weave a garment of thick cork, the beaks of the Stymphalian birds are caught in the cork garment... These birds are of the size of a crane, and are like the ibis, but their beaks are more powerful, and not crooked like that of the ibis.”

Those that survived had been frightened so badly that they flew away and never troubled the Stymphalian Lake again.

(Pausanias)

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ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Italy – Capturing the Cretan Bull Detail of the Roman 3rd ce. AD mosaic of Lliria, at National Archeological Museum, Madrid. Hercules’ seventh Labour was to sail to the Mediterranean island of Crete (Κρήτη), capture Minos’s bull and take it back to King Eurystheus. According to some legends, this was the bull Zeus sent to carry King Minos’s mother Europa (Εὐρώπη) on his back to the island of Crete. According to other sources, this was the bull sent to Minos by Poseidon, the Olympian God of the Ocean, to be offered as a sacrifice. When Minos saw the beauty of the animal, he preferred to spare its life and sacrifice another bull instead. Taking offence, Poseidon made the bull ravage Crete. Minoss’ wife Pasifae fell in love with the animal and gave birth to the Minotaur, the monstrous bull-headed creature imprisoned in the Labyrinth.

Minos wanted to keep the bull for himself, but after an easy wrestle Hercules caught it and brought it to King Eurysteus, who afterwards set it free. The bull wandered to Sparta and from Arcadia to Marathon in Attica, where he harassed the inhabitants.

It was the Athenian hero Theseus who subsequently killed the Cretan bull in Marathon and the Minotaur in Crete.

Hercules fighting the Mintaur, Michaelertor, Hofburg, Vienna

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ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Romania: Stealing the Mares of Diomedes Hercules was assigned a new Labour by king Eurysteus, after finishing his seventh task with the Cretan Bull: to bring to Mycenae the four mares of the Thracian king Diomedes. They were wild horses who would not be fed on plants. Hercules gathered some volunteers and set off on his journey to the kingdom of the Bistones, where Diomedes ruled. These Thracians inhabited a territory lying north and northeast of Peloponnese. Hercules set sail across the Aegean to reach that far away realm. Hercules was sure that king Diomedes would not gladly hand over his precious wild horses without a good fight. But Hercules did not know that the mares were so wild because they ate human flesh. Diomedes was famed to be the son of Ares, the god of war. These four uncontrollable mares were Podargos (the Swift),

Lampon (the Shining), Xanthos (the Yellow) and Deinos (the Terrible) and were kept tethered to a bronze manger. Hercules and his companions went to the manger were the four mares were kept and killed the servants of the king in charge of the stables. He then cut the chains of the horses and drove them to the shore of the sea where his ship was anchored. However, king Diomedes soon found out that his mares were stolen by Hercules and with an army of Bistones went to rescue the horses. Hercules entrusted the guardianship of the mares to his companion Abderos and went to fight Diomedes and his men in arms.

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He defeated the Bistones, by killing Diomedes and many of the warriors, forcing the rest to run away. When he returned to the place where he had left Abderos, he found him dead, eaten by the mares. Saddened by the event, Hercules buried him and founded the city of Abdera, in memory of his loyal friend. Diomedes was fed to his mares who thus were calmed down by Hercules. Hercules then went back to Mycenae with the tamed horses. But king Eurystheus set the mares free. They wandered up Mount Olympus, falling prey to wild beasts.


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Turkey – Obtaining the Magic Girdle of Hippolyta Admete, Eurystheus’ daughter, wanted her father to get her the Amazonian queen Hippolyta’s magic girdle. Queen Hippolyta’s magic girdle was given to her by her father Ares, the god of war, as a gift. Whoever had that girdle would be the best warrior. Eurystheus ordered Hercules to bring him the magic girdle of Hippolyta. The Amazons were the daughters of the God Ares and Harmonia. The land of this race of savage women warriors was the city of Themiskyra on the coast of Pontos Euksinos (the Black Sea Region) and near the mouth of the Thermodon (modern Terme River). These women warriors overran the cities and earned their living from spoils of war. Men were either their slaves or servants. They just met them to get pregnant. If the baby was a girl she was brought up and trained as a warrior. If it was a boy, it would be killed or mutilated.

These women could combat very well both on foot and on horseback. The Amazons had their right breast cut off in order to shoot arrows well. Indeed the word amazon was derived from the word „a – mazos” (μαζός) which means "without breast". Hercules arrived at the city of the Amazons with his friends and they were hosted nicely. The queen of the Amazons, Hippolyta agreed to give him the girdle when she learned why he went there.

Yet Hera, who had been following Hercules since his childhood and was jealous of his successes, ruined everything. She claimed that Hercules went there to kidnap their queen. So a fight started between the Amazons and Hercules’ friends. In the end Hercules killed Hippolyta unintentionally. Alternatively, it is said that Hercules kidnapped Hippolyta and brought her to Theseus as a wife. Hercules accomplished this labour and brought the magic girdle of Hippolyta to Admete.

Source: Tanrıların Öyküsü: Derman Bayladı

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Italy – Sicily – Obtaining the Cattle of Geryon Meanwhile, Hercules was searching for the runaway animal Hephaestus, and went after the bull To accomplish his Tenth Labour, Hercules had to go to the end of the world. Eurystheus ordered the hero to bring him the cattle of the monster Geryon. It seems that Geryon had three heads and three sets of legs all joined at the waist. Geryon lived on an island called Erythia, there he kept a herd of red cattle guarded by Cerberus’s brother, Orthus, a twoheaded hound. Apollodorus tells us that Hercules built two massive mountains, one in Europe and one in Libya, other accounts say that Hercules split one mountain into two, thus originating Hercules’ Pillars and the strait of Gibraltar. The stealing of the cattle was not such a difficult task, compared to the trouble Hercules had bringing the herd back to Greece. In Liguria, two sons of Poseidon, the god of the sea, tried to steal the cattle, so he killed them. At Rhegium, a bull got loose and jumped into the sea. The bull swam to Sicily and then made its way to the neighboring country. The native word for bull was "italus," and so the country came to be named after the bull, and was called Italy.

The escaped bull was found by a ruler named Eryx, and Eryx put this bull into his own herd. Hercules found it in Eryx's herd, but the king would return it only if the hero could beat him in a wrestling contest. Never one to shy away from competition, Hercules beat Eryx three times in wrestling, killed the king, took back the bull and returned it to the herd. Hercules made it to the edge of the Ionian Sea, with the end of his journey finally in sight.

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Hera, however, was not willing to let the hero accomplish this labor. She sent a gadfly to attack the cattle, and the herd scattered far and wide. Now, Hercules had to run around Thrace gathering the escaped cows. Finally, he regrouped the herd and, blaming his troubles on the river Strymon in Thrace, he filled the river with rocks, making it unnavigable. Then, he brought the cattle of Geryon to Eurystheus, who sacrificed the herd to Hera. The ancients don't tell us how long either Hercules or Europe took to recover from this eventful jaunt.


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Italy – Sicily – Stealing the Apples of Hesperides According to the Sicilian Greek poet Stesichorus, in his poem the "Song of Geryon", and the Greek geographer Strabo, in his book Geographic (volume III), the garden of the Hesperides is located in Tartessos, a location placed in the south of the Iberian peninsula. The Garden of the Hesperides is Hera's orchard in the west, where either a single apple tree or a grove grows, producing golden apples that grant immortality.

Eurystheus ordered Hercules to bring him the golden apples that Hera had given him as a wedding gift. She would never allow Hercules to steal them. They were kept in a garden at the northern edge of the world and they were guarded by a hundred-headed dragon, Ladon, and by the Hesperides, daughters of Atlas, the Titan who held the sky and the earth upon his shoulders. Hercules' first problem was that he didn't know where the

garden was. He journeyed through Libya, Egypt, Arabia, and Asia. He had single combats with several contenders. Continuing on his quest, Hercules was stopped by Antaeus, the son of the sea god, Poseidon, who also challenged Hercules to fight. Hercules defeated him in a wrestling match, lifting him off the ground and crushing him, because when Antaeus touched the earth he became stronger. Hercules came to the rock on Mt Caucasus where Prometheus was trapped. Prometheus, who had stolen the secret of fire from the gods, was condemned by Zeus.

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He was chained to the mountain and every day a monstrous eagle ate his liver. This lasted 30 years, until Hercules killed the eagle. In gratitude, Prometheus told Hercules how to get the apples. And so Hercules picked up the apples and quickly ran off, carrying them back, uneventfully, to Eurystheus. There was one final problem: because they belonged to the gods, the apples could not remain with Eurystheus. After all the trouble Hercules went through to get them, he had to return them to Athena, who took them back to the garden at the northern edge of the world.


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Turkey – Capturing Cerberus

King Eurystheus asked Hercules to enter the Underworld and bring Cerberus as the last and the most challenging labour. Three-headed and snake tailed Cerberus was a monstrous guard dog of the gates of the underworld. As soon as he accepted the labour, Hercules entered the underworld with Hermes. They passed disgusting mudflow and lava flows. When they arrived at the throne of Hades, the great God of the Underworld, Hercules told Hades the purpose of his visit. Hades agreed to let Hercules bring Cerberus to the surface only if Hercules could catch this monstrous guard dog of his gates without using weapons. Yet, defeating this three-headed, snake tail monstrous dog Cerberus was impossible. Its scary voice made the one who came closer quake for fear.

Without using any weapons and only using his lion-skin as a shield, Hercules got closer to the monstrous dog roaring wildly.

He seized it around its neck. Even though he was bitten so many times, Hercules squeezed Cerberus around the neck so hard that the dog thought it was dead and submitted. Hercules chained the monstrous dog and brought it up from the Underworld to Thessaly. The poisonuos slobber of the angry dog made the plants poisonous. When King Eurystheus saw that Hercules had overcome that difficult task and brought the dog, he got shocked and scared and sent that monstrous animal back to the Underworld, to Tartarus.

Source: Klasik Yunan Mitolojisi, Ĺžefik Can

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PART TWO – Hercules in our Towns


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Turkey – Hercules in Zonguldak , , HERAKLES-PONTİKA

NEXT STOP There are many must-see cultural and historical places around Ereğli. Some of them are Amasra, Akçakoca , Safranbolu and Ancient Tios.

Safranbolu Traces of Hercules According to the legend, in 1200 BC Hercules achieved the most dangerous labour in a cave in Ereğli, when Eurystheus ordered him to go to the Underworld and kidnap the beast called Cerberus. In 1938 Eduard Bore, the traveller who visited the city, stayed in Ereğli for 3 days and discovered the cave. WHAT’S IN A NAME? Ereğli used to be known as Heraclia Pontika. It is known to be founded in 550 B.C. according to all resources. Its name takes from the Greek legendary hero Heracles (Latin: Hercules) then turned into “Ereğli” to be distinguished from the other Heraclia counties in Anatolia. The name used to be HERAKLES-PONTİKA, which means “Ereğli of the Blacksea”.

Ereğli is situated on the West coast of the city in the Zonguldak Province of Turkey. It was founded by the Greek city-state in approximately 560–558 and was named after Heracles, whom the Greeks believed entered the underworld at a cave.

Being situated on the coast of the Black Sea, its climate is mild with abundant rain and as a result it was surrounded by thick forests. It used to be a small fisher county, but after the discovery of coal in the region in 1829, it has turned into a city of industry and commerce by the opening of Ereğli Iron and Steel Factory and Turkish Coal Instution. The region has also become a trade center as it is situated on an important point of transportation and it has paved the way for the cities development in the World of trade. Moreover, as a result of the fertile lands, nuts and strawberries are some of the produce that are grown in Ereğli.

Ereğli Iron ans Steel Factory

Map of the city:

Cehennemağzı

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ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Turkey – Hercules in Zonguldak

HOW TO GET TO? Ereğli is close to İstanbul and 4 hours from the capital of Turkey, Ankara. From İstanbul you should take the metro from Atatürk airport to the Esenler coach station and then the bus to Zonguldak. You only need to take the bus from Ankara to arrive at Ereğli.

UNUSAL TIPS Don’t forget to buy a dress made by Elpek Cloth, which has been used in Anatolia for centuries.

ACCOMMODATION Ereğli is a tourist attraction for those who are searching for natural and cultural beauties thoughout the year. Many hotels are on the coast, such as Hotel Grand Ereğli, Elif Otel, Grand Ahos Hotel, Hür Hotel, Büyük Anadolu Ereğli Hotel.

Don’t forget to taste the “Ottomon Strawberry” AKA “ Fruit of the Kings “, which is indigenous to the place.

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Being the meeting point of the most important cities, Ereğli is one of the must-see tourist destinations of the Black Sea region with numerous paradise beaches, sunshine and luxurious hotels. “Hellmouth Cave” is one of the must-see places in the city. You can also visit: 1-The local Museum of Ereğli 2-The Palace of Heracles 3-Çeştepe Light House Tower 4-Byzantine Cistern 5-Crispos Monument


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Italy – Hercules in Desenzano del Garda The Roman Villa is one of the best preserved villas in the north of Italy. It was built at the end of the 1st century BC but the remains you can see date back to the 4th century AD. Its polychrome mosaics represent scenes from the daily life of the Romans who lived there. A marble statue of Hercules decorated the garden.

Statue of bearded Hercules wearing the lion skin and holding a cornucopia at the Antiquarium of the Roman Villa.

DESENZANO DEL GARDA Desenzano is a town on Lake Garda, in the north of Italy, between Brescia and Verona, not far from Milan and Venice. In Desenzano there are several historical and cultural landmarks, for example the Medieval Castle, the Roman Villa and the historical town center. The Castle was built with a double function: when the city was attacked, it was a refuge for all the citizens and during a war people kept on living there. For example, even the market was moved there. Nowadays the castle yard is used as an open air theatre or cinema during the summer.

CURIOSITIES The Bearded Hercules in Desenzano was probably inspired by a Greek model. Similar statues are displayed all over the world.

The city center has characteristic views such as the old Harbour or the new one with its Lighthouse. Walking around you can visit the Cathedral and spend some leisure time in cafés and shops.

WHAT’S IN A NAME? The name Desenzano probably comes from the owner of the Roman Villa in the town center, Decentius.

ATTRACTIONS In Desenzano you can do lots of different things thanks to the lake and to the mountains nearby. In summer you can go sunbathing on the well equipped beaches or you can have fun trying windsurfing or sailing. You can also take a ferry trip around the lake and visit the picturesque villages on its shores. During the winter in just one hour’s drive you will be on the ski slopes of Monte Baldo or in the Alps.

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Bearded Hercues at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art

Since the late 4th ce. BC, educated and wealthy Romans desired works of art evoking Greek culture. Greek and Roman artists created marble and bronze copies of famous Greek statues. By the second century A.D., the demand for copies of Greek statues was enormous: niches filled with marble and bronze statuary decorated both private houses and public buildings throughout the Empire.

TOURIST INFORMATION OFFICE iat.desenzano@provincia.brescia.it

Via Porto Vecchio, 34 25015 Desenzano del Garda Tel. +39 030 3748 726


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Italy – Hercules in Mantua CURIOSITIES

MANTUA Mantua (Mantova in Italian) is a city in the Northern part of Italy on the Mincio river, not far from Lake Garda. The legendary figure of Hercules was inspirational for the Renaissence painters and sculptors who had the task to exalt the fame of its rulers: the House of Gonzaga. WHAT YOU CAN SEE In Mantua you can breathe history everywhere: it has plenty of cultural monuments and churches such as two palaces, Palazzo Tè and Palazzo Ducale, and the cathedral, Basilica di S. Andrea. Palazzo Tè was built in the fifteenth century as a stable for the renowned horses of the Gonzaga family who ruled Mantua from the 14th to the 18th century. Italian architect Giulio Romano later turned it into a palace intended for court ceremonies and pleasure for the will of Federico II Gonzaga. The rooms Chamber of Psyche, Chamber of the Giants and Hall of the Horses, decorated with six Labours of Hercules, contain the most

beautiful frescos of the palace and they represent a great example of the Italian art of that time, reproducing classical themes. Palazzo Ducale was the official residence of the Gonzaga family. It includes several apartments and buildings and St. George’s Castle, decorated with frescos by the Italian painter Andrea Mantegna. In the Bridal Chamber you can see a portrait of the Gonzaga family.

TOURIST INFORMATION OFFICE www.turismo.mantova.it Piazza Mantegna, 6 46100 Mantova Tel. +39 0376 432432 e.mail: info@turismo.mantova.it

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Mantua gave birth to Publio Virgilio Marone, the Latin poet of the Augustan Age who wrote the epic Aeneid, one of the most important Latin poets; also some famous Italian artists spent part of their lives here, like Andrea Mantegna, Leon Battista Alberti, Giulio Romano, and they contributed to create the artistic heritage of the city. Every year in September Mantua hosts a Literature Festival where you can meet famous writers and buy books. There you can also find a vintage market with unique clothes and objects from the past. TYPICAL FOOD Mantua is famous for two traditional food specialties: Sbrisolona and Tortellini. Sbrisolona, is an almond cake. Tortellini are a kind of pasta stuffed with meat, vegetables or pumkin and cheese. You must taste them!


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Spain – Hercules in Andújar TRACES OF HERCULES

ANDÚJAR

WHAT´S IN A NAME?

The Guadalquivir river, Iberian lynx, ceramics, Sierra Morena Mountain range, Chapel of the Virgen de La Cabeza, olive groves and olive oil are Andújar’s main points of reference. It has a magnificent cultural heritage dating from Prehistory and Roman times, also Almohad remains and domination, and Christian architecture visible in its elegant towers, palaces, churches, and stately homes.

The name Andújar comes from the Iberian toponimic “Andura“ (and+uhar), meaning Abundant in water. This prefix was usual in preRoman languages. Andura under the Muslim domination became “Andūšar”. The definitive name was given after the Reconquest.

Old Bridge This magnificent bridge crossing the Guadalquivir river may have Roman origins. Built with blocks of sandstone, it is usually known as the Roman Bridge. Hercules by Manuel López Sirvente de Mieres Palace A Baroque house of the 18th century, located in the town center. It has a sandstone façade. It is known as the house of D. Francisco de Mieres y Cárdenas. Hercules, the sculpture made by Manuel López, stands on the top as a guardian of the building. Nowadays, it is a nice apartment house.

Ramparts Designed by the Almohads at the beginning of the 12th Century, from old Roman mortar stone. A few turrets and pieces of wall remain. Church of San Miguel The Gothic design of the ground plan, side view and roof is well preserved.

MAP OF THE CITY

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WHAT´S TYPICAL HERE? Pottery production dates back to Roman times. There is also a significant craftsmanship in leather and harness work and olive tree wood. Honey production is also important. Some ceramic and pottery pieces worth mentioning are the “Grutesca Jar” or the “Little horse Whistle”. FOOD AND PRODUCTS Typical gastronomy includes mountain game, aubergines, traditional tomato cream «Salmorejo», or white garlic and almond soup, stuffed meat roll or «Flamenquín» Salmorejo


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Spain – Hercules in Andújar VISITOR INFORMATION Municipal tourist Office Clock Tower (Torre del Reloj) Santa María Square 953504959 Open.M-F:9-2; 17-19 Sat:914,30 www.andujar.es/ Natural Park Visitors Center Viñas de Peñallana Santuario Road, KM. 12 953539628 main information Basilica-Sanctuary Virgen de la Cabeza Santuario Road, Km.32 953549015 http://www.santuariovirgencabez a.org/ Museums Museum of Visual Arts Antonio González Orea Antigua iglesia de Capuchinos (Calancha Str.) Exhibition Hall of Archeology Profesor Sotomayor. House of Don Gome (Maestra Str.) HOW TO GET TO Bus Station Avenida de Sevilla, 27 953513072 Train Station Polígono Industrial la Estación, s/n 902432343 http://www.renfe.com/

Iberian Lynx

ANDÚJAR Clock Tower It was raised in 1534 as the town's homage to King Carlos V. It has a magnificent Plateresque clock face that now doesn't have any machinery. The tower has a plain structure, alternating stone and bricks. Church of Santa María Although Gothic in origin in accordance with its supports and bases of the vaults, the temple was given the majestic appearance visible today no sooner than the 16th century. Inside there is a painting by El Greco. House of Don Gome In its architecture from the 17th Century classical and Arabic designs were merged. The Town Hall Finished in 1639, it was a “Corral de Comedias”, the place for the privileged classes to attend playful and religious events. It became the town hall in 1791.

Town Hall

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UNUSUAL TIPS Natural Park, Sierra Morena In the range of hills surrounding Andújar, the most prominent trees are oaks and cork oaks. There is a great variety of birds and abundance of game animals (wild boar, deer). The largest population of Iberian Lynxes in Spain is there. Sanctuary (Romería)

and

pilgrimage

Located 32 kms from Andújar, it has its origins in the 14th century, although it was rebuilt after the Spanish Civil War. A crowded and well-renowned annual pilgrimage on the last Sunday of April is dedicated to the Virgin de la Cabeza (la Morenita). NEXT STOP Ubeda y Baeza, are UNESCO World Heritage and unique examples of the arrival of Renaissance trends in Spain.


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Sicily – Hercules in Catania TRACES OF HERCULES IN CATANIA

CATANIA

WHAT´S TYPICAL HERE?

Catania is known for its seismic history: it was destroyed by the 1669 earthquake and the 1693 eruption.

The historical Grasso family from Acireale, Catania’s puppet-making family, has made the famous Sicilian "Pupi" for centuries and has given shows at the Opera dei Pupi Theater. Craft objects are made from lava stone.

Sono presenti nella

HOW TO GET THERE The Tourist Board for the Province of Catania www.apt.catania.it MOUNT ETNA are in Ignazio Paternò Castello’s Collection at the Castello Ursino. Ignazio V, prince of Biscari (Catania 1719-1786) was the first Italian archaeologist. He did some excavations in Catania (amphitheatre, thermal baths). In 1758 he officially opened his museum where he exhibited all the finds he discovered. The collection was so important that intellectuals and scholars such as Goethe and Vivant Denon visited him on their Grand Tour. Palazzo Biscari It’s been the Paternò Castello family palace after the 1693 earthquake. The new palace was built directly against the Charles V city walls. The first archeological collection was located there.

Mount Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and it is constantly erupting. In 2013, it became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

WHAT´S IN A NAME? The word Katane (Greek: Κατάνη), means “Grater” or “Crude tool apt to pare”, “Uneven ground”, “Sharp stones” and “Rough soil”. The latter etymologies are justifiable since it has always been rebuilt within its typical black-lava landscape.

main information Catania official website http://www.comune.catania.it International Airport "Vincenzo Bellini" Fontanarossa Catania Tel. +39 095 0937023 Railway Central Station FF.SS Piazza Giovanni XXIII Catania

THE GREEK THEATRE It was originally built on the Greek foundations of a theatre. The original seats disappeared because houses were constructed over them. In the central part there is a water spring which forms a tiny lake.

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FOOD AND PRODUCTS Catania cuisine has strong Arabic traits just like Pasta alla Norma and Granita, a flavoured sorbet. Tarocco blood oranges are famous. The most traditional food is Arancini.


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Sicily – Hercules in Syracuse

TRACES OF HERCULES ARE IN SYRACUSE at Paolo Orsi’s Museum

The best archaeological museum in Sicily is in Syracuse (Parco Landolino, Via Teocrito 66, 96 100, Siracusa). WHAT´S IN A NAME? The etymology of the name Syracuse is uncertain: the name seems to derive from "Sirokos" (the Sirocco wind), or, perhaps even more likely, the name might come from Syraka, which was the marsh between the Anapo and Cyane Rivers. Some scholars, however, argue that the name is in reality of Phoenician origin, signifying "Rock of Sea-gulls".

MUSEUM OF AIDONE The small museum of Aidone is precious for its unique archaeological finds. One is the crater painted by Euthymides, which is a real treasure for our research on Hercules. It is a rare masterpiece signed by its potter painter, very well known in Greece, a real celebrity. In the world there are few specimen extant and one is in Aidone. It shows Hercules killing an Amazon. The Euthymides’ crater was found by Justin Walsh, who began working in Morgantina in 1999. Justin has continued to work on pottery and its role in ancient daily life and long-distance trade. His first job at the site was cataloguing and drawing Athenian black-gloss pottery from Cittadella for Carla Antonaccio. He also participated in the excavation of trenches on both Cittadella and Serra Orlando.

MORGANTINA Place and name Morgantina is a Sicilian and Greek ancient city near the territory of Aidone and it was built on the slopes of Mt. Cittadella. The name

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may come from its inhabitants, who were called “Morgeti”. Monuments Morgantina was discovered by Princeton University. Some important remains are public buildings around the “Agorà” square, the theatre and other monuments which are from the 14th century BC. The Theatre It may have been built by Archela in 310 BC and it is made of limestone; it was divided into two different parts: upper and lower. Both are based on an a gentle slope of the rocky ridge, which was reinforced with sand and earth. This material was contained by thick walls, the weight of which was supported by buttresses. NEXT STOP: AGRIGENTO Agrigento was the leading city of Magna Graecia. The most important archaeological site is The Valley of the Temples with seven extant temples. The most ancient is the Temple of Heracles, destroyed by an earthquake, it consists of eight columns.


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Romania – Hercules in Cluj-Napoca

Banffy Palace Built between 1774 and 1785 on the sides of a rectangular courtyard by duke György Banffy, the governor of the Principality of Transylvania, the palace is considered the most representative baroque building in Transylvania. The Rococo style of the palace frontispiece has Banffy family coat of arms and six statues of characters from Greek mythology: Hercules, Apollo, Ares, Athena, Artemis, Perseus. Since 1951 the building has housed The Art Museum of ClujNapoca. The museum has a great valued heritage of Romanian and European art paintings, graphics and decorative art from the 15th to the 20th century. The National Gallery is located in 21 rooms on the second floor of the building. With a new design, it was re-opened to the public in January 1996. It offers a synthesis of four centuries of Romanian art with a natural focus on the artistic phenomenon in Transylvania. The museum includes works of art of many important Romanian artists, such as Nicolae Grigorescu, Ştefan Luchian, Dimitrie Paciurea, Theodor Pallady and others.

Located in the “heart” of Transylvania, on the banks of the Someşul Mic river, Cluj-Napoca is an important cultural centre, defined by the existence of the “Babeş - Bolyai” University, the largest university in Romania, the National Theatre and Romanian National Opera House, by the Hungarian State Theatre and Opera House, and also by the existence of several museums. The “Babeș-Bolyai” University of Cluj-Napoca Founded in 1872, as “Franz Joseph” University of Cluj, the institution of higher education changed its name into the “BabesBolyai” University in 1959. The monumental edifice in New Renaissance style was built between 1893 and 1903. The Romanian National Theatre Built in Neo-Baroque-Rococo style, with some inflexions of Secessionism, the building was set up between 1904 and 1906. It has a capacity of 1000 people and three tiers of boxes. Cluj-Napoca, the 2015 “European Youth Capital”, offers visitors relaxation areas such as the „Alexandru Borza” Botanical Garden, Central Park, Cetăţuia Hilltop. Cetăţuia Hilltop offers tourists a splendid panorama of the city. The city’s image is also highlighted by the modern multipurpose Sports Hall, a venue for various sports and cultural events, as well as by Cluj Arena – an international standard stadium.

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MAP OF THE CITY

WHAT’S IN A NAME The name of the city derives from the ancient Dacian name Napuca and Cluj (clus - clausa, meaning a narrow, confined place in Latin). Its first documentary attestation dates from 1275, as villa Kluswar. The city has been given several names across history: Napoca (in Dacian), Napocensis (in Latin), Kolozsvar (in Hungarian), Klausenburg (in German). Its current name, Cluj Napoca was established in 1974. Today, the name of the city reflects the contributions of the two main ethnic groups which formed the Romanian nation. The city was granted the status of Roman municipium in 124 AD. HOW TO GET TO? “Aurel Vlaicu” International Airport 149-151 Traian Vuia street, Cluj-Napoca www.airportcluj.ro Cluj-Napoca Railway Station 1-3 Railway Station Square, www.cfrcalatori.ro TOURIST INFORMATION Tourist Information Center 6-8 Eroilor blvd, Cluj-Napoca tel. +4 0264 452244 Open: M-F: 8:30 - 20:00 Sat-Sun: 10:00 – 18:00 www.visitcluj.ro www.visitclujnapoca.ro


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Romania – Hercules in Cluj-Napoca WHAT´S TYPICAL HERE?

The “Al. Borza” Botanical Gardens

The “Gerovital” brand of cosmetics, well-known and appreciated worldwide are made by “Farmec” factory, founded in our city in 1945.

It was founded in 1920 after the Union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania and has developed along the time both as a tourist attraction and as an important site for didactic and scientific activities. At present, it is home to some 10,000 plant species, which makes it one of the most prestigious in the world.

Another local brand is the “Nasal Cheese”, unique in the world thanks to the fermentation properties specific to the natural grotto at Ţaga, located near Cluj, where this particular sort of cheese is prepared and stored for maturation. FOOD AND PRODUCTS Local traditional food is varied and rich in aromas. To whet your appetite, we could mention “Varza a la Cluj” (Cluj style cooked cabbage), a dish based on layers of cabbage or sauerkraut, minced meat and rice, cooked in an oven and served hot with cream.

Such a food is always accompanied by a steaming slice of “corn bread”, a traditional speciality prepared from corn flour, wheat flour, boiled potatoes and salt, yeast leavened baked in the wood oven Traditional local craftsmen’s products, such as wooden and ceramics kitchenware and decorations (spoons, bowls, pots), homemade clothes (blouses, girdles, peasant’s belt) can be admired and bought in Museum Square.

Those who look for moments of introspection and spiritual peace, can retreat into one of the several churches in the city: the Metropolitan Orthodox Cathedral, Saint Michael’s Catholic Church, the Transfiguration Greek– Catholic Cathedral, the Reformed Church, the Evangelic Lutheran Church, The Neolog Synagogue. The Orthodox Cathedral The Metropolitan Orthodox Cathedral was built between 1923 and 1933, in a Romanian Brâncovenesc style, a synthesis of Renaissance and Byzantine architecture. Saint Michael’s Roman- Catholic Church It is considered one of the majestic Gothic edifices in Romania, being 70 metres long and 80 metres high. The Minorites’ Church The edifice, in Baroque style, was built between 1775-1779 at the order of the Roman-Catholic Friars Minor. In 1924 Pope Pius IX gave the church to the Greek-Catholic Church to serve as the cathedral of the Cluj-Gherla Eparchy.

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UNUSUAL TIPS Baciu Forest Located in the western side of the city, Baciu Forest has been declared the fifth most frightening place in the world, owing to some paranormal phenomena which have been witnessed here: various UFO’s sightings, mysterious ghostly sightings, a place considered to be a portal between earth and heaven. NEXT STOP Turda Gorges A natural reserve (on the Hășdate River) situated 6 km west of Turda and about 15 km south-east of Cluj.

Turda Salt Mine Now a Al. Borza Botanical Gardens history museum of salt mining.

Vălul Miresei Waterfall (The Bride’s Veil Waterfall) The waterfall is over 30 metres high.


ERASMUS+ KA2 Searching for the Labours of Hercules 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990

Hungary – Hercules in Budapest

Zsigmond Strobl Kisfaludi: Archer (1918-19). The Archer imitates the apperance of Hercules, who was shooting at the deathbringer, human-eater birds from Stymphalos. The inspiration came from Shooting Hercules (1912), a statue by French sculptor Émile-Antoine Bourdelle (USA, New York Metropolitan Museum of Art). The archer’s movement still resembles the effort, with his spread fingers as he just unleashed the string, and from his open mouth we tend to hear the great shout of victory from the deepest place of his soul, what he defeated the birds with.

Zsigmond Strobl Kisfaludi (18841975), who was twice awarded the Kossuth Price, is well-known across the country and abroad as a great Hungarian sculptor. He had a great talent in illustrating movement, forming characters and capturing symbols. In 1925 the statue was placed on the Margit Island, in front of the Hungarian Athletics Club sport track. Later on it was damaged, but in 1929 the capital city bought it and it has been remade in bronze and placed in front of the Ice Skate Park’s entrance (in the background we can see the top of it). In 1926 a rich American magnate bought and transported it to the United States. Copies can be found in: Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, University of California; Saint Petersburg, Hermitage Garden; Indonesia, Djakarta, in front of the Government palace; Zalaegerszeg, next to the Sports Hall; Moscow; Stockholm, National Museum.

The Square of Heroes, and Castle of Vajdahunyad, which can be found at the centre of the City Park, were built for the 1000 anniversary of 896 when the Hungarian conquered the Carpatian basin. Later on, the building complex was expanded with an artificial lake, Ice Rink, Budapest Zoo & Botanical Garden, Capital Circus of Budapest, the Amusement Park, Széchenyi Termal Bath and Swimming Pool, Museum of Fine Arts and the Art Gallery. You can also find here the Transport Museum and Petőfi Music Hall. Details of the sight: http://www.budapest.com/budap est_kalauz/latnivalok/varosliget.h u.html The history of the City Park, freetime and cultural activities, statues and maps: http://varosliget.info. The QR code of the City Park:

Sights The City Park is a section in Budapest, it’s the world’s first public park that was open for everyone. It lies on 100 hectares of area in the XIV District. Out of this area, about 81 hectares is the actual park, where you can find roughly 6500 trees. This area is a really popular cultural centre in the capital city, but you can also find sculptures and monuments there.

MORE ATTRACTIONS        

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http://www.szepmuveszeti.hu http://www.mucsarnok.hu http://www.zoobudapest.com http://www.mmkm.hu/index.p hp/hu/kozlekedesimuzeum http://www.mezogazdasagimu zeum.hu/article.php?article_id =1 http://www.petoficsarnok.hu http://www.szechenyifurdo.hu http://www.varosligetcafe.hu


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Hungary – Hercules in in Visegrád The Fountain was first impaired in 1526 by the Turks; some of its parts were moved to the northeastern side of the courtyard. Later, when the palace was destroyed, the fountain was covered in debris. Its original shards are displayed in the courtyard’s northeastern corner room, while a reconstructed replica stands in its original location.

In the place of the demolished fountain, which was built during the Zsigmond period, was built the Hercules Fountain around 1484, made of red marble. The creator Giovanni Dalmata was born in Trau (nowadays Trogir, Croatia) who was running the ItalianDalmatian sculpture workshop at Mátyás's constructions. The Hercules Fountain is the earliest Renaissance artifact made outside of Italy. The sculpture on the Fountain, which is decorated with Mátyás's hatchment, is depicting Hercules who is fighting with the Lernan Hydra. The hero is shown as a child who is referring to Corvin János, Mátyás's son, who was the heir to the throne. After the victory over the Austrians – represented by the Hydra – Mátyás did a triumphal walk to the conquered Vienna in 1485. According to Bonfini, Hercules was an ancestor of the Hungarians, and Mátyás was defending the European culture in the same way as Hercules against the conquerors.

Visegrád, the small city of the late Middle Ages, is located 43 km north of Budapest, in the most beautiful spot of the Danube Bend. It was the headquarters of Medieval Hungary. During the times of Constantine the Great, the Romans built a castrum (fort) called Novatus, on the Sibrik hill, which was the most significant buliding on the limes alongside the Danube. The first certificate written in Latin mentions Visegrád in 1009. Its name comes from Slavic, meaning “Tall fortress”. The city’s name from the 14th century means the same: „Altum Castrum”. The castle system seen today was built by Béla IV and his wife Queen Mary around the year 1250. The system contains the Fellegvár (Citadel), which stands on a 328 m tall mountain, Alsóvár (Lower Castle) founded on the hill below Várhegy (Castle Hill), and the Vízibástya (Water Bastion)on the Danube’s bank.

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The 1335 Meeting of kings was held here, with Károly (Charles) I. The Hungarian king’s invitation was attended by the Czech king, John, and Casimir, the Polish king. It was one of Europe’s most beautiful residences in the 14th century. It was later decorated with the Renaissance memories of Mátyás. TOURIST INFORMATION www.visitvisegrad.hu. Cultural events Apart from concerts, the Roman times are recalled by the Quadriburgiumi Játékok (Quadriburgium Games), and the Medieval times by the Palotajátékok (Palace Games): http://www.palotajatekok.hu. Sights Fellegvár (Citadel), Bertényi Miklós Botanic Garden (www.parkerdo.hu); Royal Palace, Alsóvár, Salamontower, Archdeacon Church, Sibrikhill Roman fort and and Agent castle (www.visegradmuzeum.hu); Palotaház (www.palotahaz.hu); Zsitvay-viewpoint (www.kilato.hupont.hu). Specialties  http://www.bobozas.hu  http://www.canopy.hu  http://www.visegradgokart.hu  http://www.extrabringa.hu  http://www.zugfozdevisegrad.hu  http://pocketguideapp.com/en/ visegrad?l=huhttp://www.visitvis egrad.hu/editor_up/Terkep  http://www.atlantisclubkft.hu  http://www.renvisegrad.hu  http://www.visitvisegrad.hu/sza badido/Kornyek.html


On the Traces of Hercules  

Searching for the Labours of Hercules (Erasmus+ KA2: 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990) - English version

On the Traces of Hercules  

Searching for the Labours of Hercules (Erasmus+ KA2: 2014-1-TR01-KA201-012990) - English version

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