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TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER

2/2019 Volume 2 Issue 2 2019 textile-leather.com ISSN 2623-6257 (Print) ISSN 2623-6281 (Online)


TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER Editor-in-Chief

Srećko Sertić, Seniko studio Ltd., Croatia

Editorial Board

Davor Jokić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Dragana Kopitar, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Ivana Schwarz, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Editorial Advisory Board

Emriye Perrin Akçakoca Kumbasar, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Tuba Bedez Üte, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Mirela Blaga, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Andrej Demšar, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Krste Dimitrovski, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Ante Gavranović, Economic Analyst, Croatia Ana Marija Grancarić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Huseyin Kadoglu, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Fatma Kalaoglu, Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Textile Technologies and Design, Turkey Hüseyin Ata Karavana, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Ilda Kazani, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Department of Textile and Fashion, Albania Vladan Končar, Gemtex – Textile Research Laboratory, Ensait, France Stana Kovačević, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Aura Mihai, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Jacek Mlynarek, CTT Group – Textiles, Geosynthetics & Flexibles Materials, Canada Abhijit Mujumdar, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India Monika Rom, University of Bielsko-Biala, Institute of Textile Engineering and Polymer Materials, Poland Venkatasubramanian Sivakumar – CSIR – Central Leather Research Institute, Chemical Engineering Department, India Pavla Těšinová, Technical university of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Czech Republic Savvas Vassiliadis, Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Department of Electronics Engineering, Greece

Language Editor

Ivana Lukica, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Technical Editor / Layout Marina Sertić

Editorial Office / Publisher - Textile & Leather Review Seniko studio Ltd., Nove Rašljice 2, 10090 Zagreb, Croatia Tel: +385 1 3499 034 Fax: +385 1 3499 034 E-mail: editorial@textile-leather.com URL: www.textile-leather.com

Textile & Leather Review ‒ ISSN 2623-6257 (Print), ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) UDC 677+675 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR Frequency: 4 Times/Year The annual subscription (4 issues). Printed in 300 copies Published by Seniko studio d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia Full-text available in open access at www.textile-leather.com


TEXTILE & LEATHER REVIEW ISSN 2623-6257 (Print)

ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) CROATIA

VOLUME 2

ISSUE 2 2019

p. 61-120

CONTENT ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE 66-71

Thermal Properties of PEDOT-compl-PSS Sensor Yarns and Textile Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Ivona Jerković, Ana Marija Grancarić, Clément Dufour, François Boussu, Vladan Končar

72-78

Functional Design of Medical Undershirt with Microbial Barrier Beti Rogina-Car, Slavica Bogović

PRELIMINARY COMMUNICATION 79-89

Technologies for the functionalization of textile mats with nanoparticles Emilia Visileanu, Alexandra Ene, Razvan Scarlat, Laura Chirac, Cornelia Mitran

SCIENTIFIC REVIEW 90-103

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CLOTHING: Meaning of Colors, Body Image and Gender Expression in Fashion Duje Kodžoman

NOTICE 104-106

COST Action “Investigation and Mathematical Analysis of Avant-garde Disease Control via Mosquito Nano-Tech-Repellents” (IMAAC) CA16227 (2017—2021) Peyman Ghaffari, Ana Marija Grancarić


S H O E . C O M G M B H & C O . K G · F E R E N C V A S A D I · P H O N E : + 3 6 ( 0 ) 3 0 9 4 6 9 12 3 · F E R E N C . V A S A D I @ S O L I V E R - S H O E S . C O M


JERKOVIĆ I et al, Thermal Properties of PEDOT-compl-PSS Sensor Yarns... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 66-71.

Thermal Properties of PEDOT-compl-PSS Sensor Yarns and Textile Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Ivona JERKOVIĆ1*, Ana Marija GRANCARIĆ1, Clément DUFOUR2, François BOUSSU2, Vladan KONČAR2 University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Textile Chemistry and Ecology, Zagreb, Croatia Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts et Industrie Textiles, Gemtex, Roubaix, France *ivona.jerkovic@ttf.hr 1 2

Original scientific article UDC 687.017.56 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.21 Received 19 December 2018; Accepted 18 February 2019; Published Online 20 February 2019

ABSTRACT Smart textile structures such as sensor yarns provide real possibility for in situ structural health monitoring of textile reinforced thermoplastic composites. In this work thermal properties of E-glass/polypropylene (GF/ PP) and E-glass/poly(N,N’-hexamethylene adipamide) (GF/PA66) sensor yarns based on conductive polymer complex [3,4(ethylenedioxy)thiophene]-compl-poly(4-vinylbenzenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-compl-PSS) and related composites were studied. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) and limiting oxygen index (LOI) methods were used to detect thermal behaviour of these structures and effect of coatings applied. According to TGA, GF/PP sensor yarn started to decompose at higher temperature, 345 °C, and showed higher pyrolysis residue, 28 %, compared to GF/PA66 sensor yarn that started to decompose at 316 °C and had lower pyrolysis residue, 23 % . The MCC showed that Heat Release Rate peaks of GF/PP sensor yarn, 341 W/g, and GF/PA66 sensor yarn, 348 W/g, occurred at similar Heat Release Temperature, ~ 430 °C. The additional peak, 51 W/g, was detected for GF/PP sensor yarn at 493 °C. Finally, LOI 22 and LOI 23 were detected only for GF/PP and GF/PA66 composites with integrated sensor yarns. KEYWORDS Smart textile, PEDOT-compl-PSS, textile sensors, textile reinforced composites, thermal properties

INTRODUCTION Smart textile structures can be made by coating or treating textile yarns, filaments, or fabrics with conductive and semi conductive polymers. They provide real possibility for in situ structural health monitoring of textile reinforced composites [1-2]. Commercially very useful conductive polymer complex poly[3,4 (ethylenedioxy)thiophene]-compl-poly(4-vinylbenzenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT-compl-PSS) produce transparent coatings with high mechanical flexibility, excellent thermal stability and ease of synthesis [3]. Textile reinforced thermoplastic composites can be used for transportation applications due to their high fracture toughness, recycling possibility, damage tolerance, etc. [3-5] Polypropylene (PP) and poly(N,N’-hexamethylene adipamide) (PA66) as polymer matrices have been widely taken for automobile applications [6]. Glass fibres are suitable reinforcements in composites and are characterised by hardness, resistance to chemical agents, insulating properties, etc. [7] Textile materials are very flexible in all directions and sensors used should be

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JERKOVIĆ I et al, Thermal Properties of PEDOT-compl-PSS Sensor Yarns... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 66-71.

able to support mechanical deformations [8]. In this work thermal properties of sensor yarns and composites were studied to detect thermal behaviour of these structures and effect of coatings applied.

EXPERIMENTAL Materials and Methods E-glass/polypropylene (GF/PP) and E-glass/poly(N,N’-hexamethylene adipamide) (GF/PA66) commingled yarns by PD Fiberglass group (Glasseiden GmbH, Oschatz, Germany) were used for sensor yarns manufacturing. Fineness of GF/PP is 842 tex (GF/PP mass content of 71%:29%), while fineness of GF/PA66 yarn is 957 tex (GF/PA66 mass content of 65%:35%) [2-3]. A novel piece of laboratory equipment, aluminum roll to roll device and plexiglass bath, was taken to ensure effective and equally distributed coating onto yarn without destruction of textile properties. During the sensor yarns manufacture, two layers of conductive coating based on polymer complex PEDOT-compl-PSS were applied. The aqueous dispersion of copolymers of acrylic esters (synthetic latex) was used also as protective coating to join yarn filaments together and protect sensor yarns from abrasion [3]. Finally, sensor yarns based on PEDOT-compl-PSS were integrated during weaving 2D fabric (thickness ~2.660 x 10 -3 m), 4-end satin, in weft direction, using computer controlled hand weaving loom (ARM, Biglen, Switzerland); GF/PP fabric (warp density, 4 ends/cm and weft density, 6 ends/cm) or GF/PA66 fabric (warp density, 5 ends/cm and weft density, 6 ends/cm). Three-layered textile preforms with integrated sensor yarns were consolidated at the Dolouets heating press (Soustons, France) under the strict conditions (Table 1) to develop composites with integrated sensor yarns. Table 1. Consolidation conditions of 2D textile preforms with integrated sensor yarns Conditions Three-layered 2D fabric for textile preform preparation

GF/PP

GF/PA66

Sensor yarns

GF/PP

GF/PA66

Temperature, T (°C)

185

230

Pressure, P (MPa)

4-5

4-5

Time of cooling at 100 °C (min)

2-3

3-4

Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) and limiting oxygen index (LOI) methods (average of three samples per each structure) were used for thermal properties determination of dry films (conductive and protective coatings), non-coated and sensor yarns, and textile reinforced 2D thermoplastic composites with integrated sensor yarns. TGA (5 mg test samples) was carried out (TGA Q50, TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) in nitrogen atmosphere under the following conditions: flow rate of 50 mL/min and heating rate of 10 °C/min over the temperature range from 50 °C to 600 °C to achieve data of coating effects on the treated yarns, pyrolysis residues and the temperature of sample decompositions. MCC tests were performed using microscale combustion calorimeter, model MCC-2 (Govmark, Farmingdale, NY, USA) according to the ASTM D 7309 standard. In the MCC test, 5 mg test samples were heated from 75 to 600 °C at the heating rate of 1 °C/s, in an inert gas stream (nitrogen, 1.33 ml/s). LOI measurements were performed on the LOI instrument (Dynisco, Franklin, MA, USA) according to the ISO 4589-1:1996 and the ISO 4589-2:1996 standards to obtain flammability data of textile reinforced 2D thermoplastic composites with integrated sensor yarns. www.textile-leather.com 67


JERKOVIĆ I et al, Thermal Properties of PEDOT-compl-PSS Sensor Yarns... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 66-71.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Thermogravimetrical data of dry films (conductive and protective coatings), non-coated and sensor yarns are shown in Table 2 and in Figure 1. Table 2. Thermogravimetric data of dry films, non-coated and sensor yarns Initial Decomposition Temperature, Tign (°C)

Final Decomposition Temperature Tendset (°C)

Yield of Pyrolysis Residue, Yp (%)

Sample Description

Sample Label

Conductive Dry Film

8 % PEDOT-compl-PSS FET- LApp96100DF

233

480

7

Protective Dry Film

Lapp96100DF

328

447

4

Non-coated Yarn

GF/PP

344

447

72

Non-coated Yarn

GF/PA66

365

482

67

Sensor Yarn

GF/PP-Sy08

345

483

28

Sensor Yarn

GF/PA66-Sy08

316

470

23

Conductive dry film, 8 % PEDOT-compl-PSS FET LApp96100DF, started its degradation earlier than protective dry film, LApp96100DF, while its final decomposition temperature was higher. Conductive dry film showed also higher pyrolysis residue. GF/PP yarn started to decompose first, and its degradation ended earlier compared to GF/PA66 yarn.

Figure 1. TGA curves of dry films, non-coated and sensor yarns

This can be explained with a lower decomposition “phase” of PP compared to the PA66 thermoplastic polymer. GF/PP sensor yarn started to decompose at higher temperature than GF/PA66 sensor yarn. The cause could be greater coating thickness of GF/PA66 sensor yarn that showed also lower pyrolysis residue. The MCC data of dry films (conductive and protective coating), non-coated and sensor yarns are presented in Table 3. The results of Heat Release Rate, HRR (W/g), in correlation with the maximum temperature, Tmax (°C) are shown in Figure 2.

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JERKOVIĆ I et al, Thermal Properties of PEDOT-compl-PSS Sensor Yarns... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 66-71.

Table 3. MCC data of dry films, non-coated and sensor yarns Heat Release Capacity, Ηc (J/G-K)

Maximum Specific Heat Release, Qmax (W/G)

Heat Release Temperature, Tmax (°C)

Yield of Pyrolysis Residue, Yp (%)

Sample Description

Sample Label

Conductive Dry Film

8% PEDOT-compl-PSS FET LApp96100DF

358

362

427

8

Protective Dry Film

LApp96100DF

476

483

430

2

Non-coated Yarn

GF/PP

302

303

485

73

Non-coated Yarn

GF/PA66

233

216

447

61

Sensor Yarn

GF/PP-Sy08

337

341/51

434/493

25

Sensor Yarn

GF/PA66-Sy08

344

348

430

21

Conductive and protective dry films provided high HRR peaks (362 W/g and 483 W/g) and low Yp (8 % and 2 %). Non-coated yarns, GF/PP and GF/PA66, showed lower HRR peaks (303 W/g and 216 W/g) and higher Yp (73 % and 61 %). The HRR peaks of GF/PP (341 W/g) and GF/PA66 (348 W/g) sensor yarns occurred at similar Heat Release Temperature, Tmax (~ 430 °C). The additional peak (51 W/g) was detected for GF/PP sensor yarn at 493 °C. Finally, MCC pyrolysis residues were coherent with the obtained TGA residue values.

Figure 2. MCC curves of dry films, non-coated and sensor yarns

LOI measurements of textile reinforced 2D thermoplastic composites with integrated sensor yarns are presented in Table 4. Table 4. LOI of textile reinforced 2D thermoplastic composites with integrated sensor yarns Time, t (s)

LOI

GF/PPcmp-GF/PP-Sy08

379

22

GF/PA66cmp-GF/PA66-Sy08

237

23

Sample Description

Sample Label

GF/PP Composite with Integrated GF/PP Sensor Yarn GF/PA66 Composite with Integrated GF/PA66 Sensor Yarn

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JERKOVIĆ I et al, Thermal Properties of PEDOT-compl-PSS Sensor Yarns... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 66-71.

During heating PP or PA66 polymer softened, melt and dripped. GF/PP composite with integrated GF/PP sensor yarn showed LOI 22 . PP burns rapidly with a smoke-free flame, with no char residue left and can aid in fire propagation. On the other hand, GF fibres, as inorganic material, do not burn or support combustion, but start to deform when the temperature reaches 500 °C or above [9]. GF/PA66 composite with integrated GF/PA66 sensor yarn showed LOI 23 due to different thermal consolidation conditions of 2D textile preform prepared.

CONCLUSION GF/PP sensor yarn started to decompose at higher temperature than GF/PA66 sensor yarn due to greater coating thickness applied onto the GF/PA66 commingled yarn during sensor yarn manufacture. MCC pyrolysis residues were coherent with the obtained TGA residues. Higher HRR peaks of sensor yarns occurred at slightly lower temperature compared to non-coated yarns. GF/PP and GF/PA66 composites with integrated PEDOT-compl-PSS sensor yarns showed low LOI and fire. Acknowledgements The paper is a part of the EU project “MAPICC 3D” results within the call NMP-FP7- 2010-3.4-1, numbered with 263159 entitled: One-shot Manufacturing on large scale of 3D up graded panels and stiffeners for lightweight thermoplastic textile composite structures. The authors would like to thank the European Commission for funding of the project.

REFERENCES [1] Grancarić AM, Jerković I, Končar V, Cochrane C, Kelly FM, Soulat D et al. Conductive Polymers for Smart Textile Applications. Journal of Industrial Textiles [Internet]. 2017;48(3):612-642. Available from: https:// journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1528083717699368 doi: 10.1177/1528083717699368 [2] Grancarić AM, Jerković I, Leskovac M, Dufour C, Boussu F, Končar V. Surface Free Energy of Sensor Yarns and Textile Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites. In: Simoncic B, Gorjanc M, editors. Proceedings 16th World Textile Conference AUTEX; 8-10 June 2016; Ljubljana, Slovenia. Ljubljana: University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, Department of Textiles, Graphic Arts and Design; 2016. p. 6-111-6-11-6. [3] Jerković I, Končar V, Grancarić AM. New Textile Sensors for In Situ Structural Health Monitoring of Textile Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Based on the Conductive Poly(3, 4ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(Styrene Sulfonate) Polymer Complex. Sensors [Internet]. 2017;17(10):2297. Available from: https:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28994733 doi: 10.3390/s17102297 [4] Liu D, Ding J, Fan X, Lin X, Zhu Y. Non-Isothermal Forming of Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Commingled Yarn Fabric Composites. Materials & Design. 2014;57:608-615. Available from: https://journals.sagepub. com/doi/abs/10.1177/1528083717699368 doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2014.01.027 [5] Teixeira D, Giovanela M, Gonella LB, Crespo JS. Influence of Flow Restriction on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Long Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polyamide 6.6 Composites for Automotive Applications. Materials & Design. 2013;47:287-294. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S0261306912008515 doi: 10.1016/j.matdes.2012.12.030 [6] Friedrich K, Almajid A. Manufacturing Aspects of Advanced Polymer Composites for Automotive Applications. Applied Composite Materials. 2013;20(2):107-128. Available from: https://link.springer. com/article/10.1007/s10443-012-9258-7

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[7] Zănoagă M, Tanasă F. Complex Textile Structures as Reinforcement for Advanced Composite Materials. Proceedings International Conference of Scientific Paper AFASES; 22-24 May 2014; Brasov, Romania; 2014. p. 1-7. [8] Jerković I, Dufour C, Legrand X, Tao X, Boussu F, Grancarić AM et al. E- Glass/Polypropylene Sensor Yarns Developed by Roll to Roll Coating Procedure. In: Lahlou M, Koncar V. Proceedings 5th ITMC International Conference 2015; 4-6 November; Casablanca & Marrakesh, Morocco; 2015. p. 68-74. [9] Kandola BK, Toqueer-Ul-Haq R. The Effect of Fibre Content on the Thermal and Fire Performance of Polypropylene–Glass composites. Fire and Materials. 2012;3688):603-613.

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ROGINA-CAR B, BOGOVIĆ S, Functional Design of Medical Undershirt... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 72-78.

Functional Design of Medical Undershirt with Microbial Barrier Beti ROGINA-CAR*, Slavica BOGOVIĆ University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Clothing Technology, Prilaz baruna Filipovica 28a, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia *beti.rogina-car@ttf.hr Original scientific article UDC 687.01:579 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.24 Received 21 December 2018; Accepted 28 February 2019; Published Online 29 February 2019

ABSTRACT Underwear is a very important segment for people with sensitive skin and patients with dermatological diseases. Since it is in direct contact with skin, it has an important role in the postoperative period, in which it is used as a function of protection and support of the operative part of the body. The main task of the underwear for this purpose is to protect the skin from harmful effects such as microorganisms and to keep the skin’s condition in remission if no improvement can be achieved. In accordance with the specific requirements, a functional design of a medical undershirt with microbial barrier was proposed. Functional design was carried out based on previously published research. Digitization of the human body was carried out by 3D scanning and based on the cloud of points measures have been taken as well as defined forms of body parts for whom the cutting pattern is being developed. The model is divided into several zones where it is possible for each area to determine the required compression for the support. KEYWORDS Functional design, computer clothing construction, 3D body scanning, microbial barrier, medical undershirt

INTRODUCTION Underwear is a garment that is worn in direct contact with skin. It is exposed to the influence of microorganisms from the environment and from the carrier itself. Therefore, it is necessary to select a suitable material with the appropriate microbial barrier. Underwear is mostly made by knitting. The knitwear is very adaptive to the shape and size of the body, due to its structure. Underwear that covers the body after injury, surgery or a chronic dermatological picture has a specific function. The laundry needs to provide adequate protection from infections and irritation that can worsen the dermatological image or to a great extent slow down the recovery of the patient. The functional design is obtained by necessary acceptance or underwear that follows the shape of the body and provides the necessary support. The properties of the selected material and the shape of the laundry must minimize negative impacts on the recovery of the patient. The use of wood based cellulosic fibers enables the creation of products that are able to achieve a balance between sustainability and performance. Biodegradability Lyocell fiber is an important criterion for use in segments such as cosmetics and hygiene. They are therefore an ideal alternative to conventional materials. Such high quality textiles are used for medical and sports wear, covers, sheets and pillows [1]. 72 www.textile-leather.com


ROGINA-CAR B, BOGOVIĆ S, Functional Design of Medical Undershirt... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 72-78.

Tencel® is an excellent alternative to cotton and has an important position on the textile market: in manufacturing of clothes, clothes, bed linen, towels etc. Also to be used in technical textiles: nonwoven fabrics and foil [2-4]. Tencel® is also Lenzing’s flagship brand for textiles. It is used for a variety of highly specialized applications due to its specific properties: it gives a soft skin feeling, its smooth upon touch, it has an extraordinary capacity for heat regulation and moisture absorption. Cotton absorbs much less water than Tencel®. Tencel® consists of countless, highly hydrophilic, crystalline nano fibrils, which have a fixed arrangement. Fibers do not absorb water but absorption occurs only in capillaries between fibrils. The water distribution at Tencel® is very unique: it absorbs water over the entire cross-section of the fiber. The reason for such behavior Tencel® are pores that are uniform in the nanometer range. Such properties provide a natural mechanism for thermal regulation of the body. The skin›s feel is warm and dry. Compared with polyester and synthetics, a small amount of moisture remains on the surface of the fiber. It provides a less favorable environment for bacterial growth and offers better hygiene properties of textiles [1, 3, 5-9]. Such properties make it an ideal choice to use in medicine. In the work of author Diepgen and Schuster 30 patients with atopic dermatitis and 30 psoriasis patients were wearing Tencel® textile for a week. All textile products were commercially available without special refinement. The results showed that during the study period there was a significant improvement in dermatological skin images affected by atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. More than 90% of patients rated Tencel® much better and more compatible with their skin than their own clothes and linens. Improvement associated with itching, skin sensitivity, thermoregulatory properties, due to cold, smooth and dry skin sensation has been achieved. The conclusion is that it can be recommended not only for people with sensitive skin but also for patients with skin diseases, especially atopic dermatitis or psoriasis [10]. The aim of the research was to propose a functional design of Medical Undershirts with Microbial Barriers with respect to the previously explored properties of textile materials. Construction and modeling were carried out on the basis of the obtained results of the permeability of the microbial barrier. With the combination of textile materials, the required functionality is achieved. The woven fabric is used for those parts of the laundry that must have a support function, for example, an operative part of the body. Using the knitted fabric requires the necessary acceptance. Comfort is achieved by choosing a textile material made of 100% Tencel®. A proposal for new models of disposable Medical Undershirt with Propolis was given. Tencel® nonwoven with Propolis has antimicrobial activity. Additionally, Propolis is a natural antibiotic that provides a faster recovery for skin with dermatological problems. It is also recommended for use after operative procedures.

EXPERIMENTAL Materials and Methods In the research 100 % Tencel® made by Lenzing: woven fabric, Tencel® knitted fabric with Chitosan, Tencel® nonwoven fabric with Propolis and without it was used. The Sample II was post treated with a Chitosan solution (0.8%), Lenzing, Austria. Tencel® nonwoven fabric with Propolis have been developed for use in medicine and are described in detail in the literature [11]. In this paper, it is applied for the functional design of disposable underwear with microbial barrier and antimicrobial effect. The properties of the textiles used are shown in Table 1 [11-14].

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Table 1. Properties of the textiles used Samples

Surface mass, g/m2

Thickness, mm

Sample I

100 % TENCEL®

woven fabric, twill 2/1

193.7

0.34

Sample II

100 % TENCEL® with Chitosan

single jersey knitted fabric

280.0

0.43

Simple III

100 % TENCEL® with Propolis

nonwoven fabric

55.7

0.28

Simple IV

100 % TENCEL®

nonwoven fabric

55.3

0.23

Permeability of microorganisms in dry conditions of extreme contamination Testing the permeability of the microbial barrier of dry textile material was conducted according to the newly developed method [11]. The samples are fixed into a ring device which is packed in a transparent sterilization package. After that, the samples are sterilized at 134°C for 5 minutes. The spores are rubbed down onto sterilized samples in aseptic conditions. Incubation follows for 24 hours, after that prints are taken with CT3P agar plates, first from the back side and then from the front side. The agar plates are incubated for 72 hours at 35°C, after follows the counting of bacterial colonies (CFU) [11].

Defining body shapes and taking body measurements For the purpose of adequate design, 3D scanning of the human body was carried out using a 3D body scanner, whereby the male body was digitized and the geometric features and numerical data used in defining the shape and construction of the compression or support underwear were determined. For this purpose, the 3D body scanner VITUS smart was used, which was installed at the University of Zagreb, at the Faculty of Textile Technology, at the Department of Clothing Technology. The ScanWorx software package was used for this interactive computer-based work when taking measurements and points cloud cross sections to accurately define body shape.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 1. shows the results obtained by 3D scanning of male bodies, with visible variations in shapes and sizes. Cross-section measurments have been taken every 5 cm. In this way, we can get the necessary approval of medical clothing.

Cross-section measurments 118.05 cm 95.29 cm 89.41 cm 83.81 cm 86.96 cm 86.92 cm 90.97 cm 98.33 cm 102.92 cm 106.25 cm Figure 1. Shapes obtained by 3D scanning

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The testing results of medical textiles to the permeability of microorganisms after extreme conditions of contamination with bacterial spores and thickness fabrics are shown in Figure 2., [11-14].

Figure 2. Results of medical textiles to the permeability of microorganisms and thickness fabrics

The properties of the microbial barrier are affected by the structure of the samples: woven fabric, knitted fabric, nonwoven fabrics. From microorganism permeability results, it can be concluded that the nonwoven structure has the smallest bandwidth. The reason is layered and densely arranged lyocell fibers that block the passage of microorganisms. The results show that knitted fabric has the highest permeability of microorganisms due to its specific cavity structure. The knitwear gives the required fit of underwear. The model of medical undershirts 1 and 2 has the required microbial barrier achieved using woven fabric, Figure 3. The microbial barrier woven fabric (Sample I) is in the ratio of 60:1 (Front - Back Ration CFU). While the ratio of bandwidths is 10:1. Given their mechanical properties that differ for models 1 and 2 that are designed to provide a good microbial barrier and the appropriate support, a woven fabric is used. Foreclosure is projected from the front with the help of a broad band strap that allows regulation of the support. The knitted fabric (Sample II), due to its elasticity, is intended for the construction of that part of the garment that has to follow the shape of the body and therefore gives greater comfort, especially in the change of body positions, Figure 3.

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Figure 3. Construction and modeling of Medical Undershirt with Microbial Barrier: Model 1 i 2

Comparison of the results shows that the best results with respect to the microbial barrier and the time of absorption have Tencel® nonwoven fabric with Propolis and without it, (Sample III and IV) Figure 4.

Figure 4. Comparison of results: number of microorganisms on the back of the textile, sample thickness and absorbency time

Their combination yielded three models of the disposable Medical Undershirt Figure 5-7. Tencel® nonwoven fabric with Propolis is intended for the affected or sensitive skin. Since Tencel® and Propolis are biodegradable, they are completely ecologically acceptable.

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Figure 5. Construction and modeling of disposable Medical Undershirt with Propolis – Model

Figure 6. Construction and modeling of disposable Medical Undershirt with Propolis – Model 4

Figure 7. Construction and modeling of disposable Medical Undershirt with Propolis – Model 5

CONCLUSION Based on the results obtained through functional design and construction methods, and the combination of Tencel® woven fabric and knitted fabrics, a Medical Undershirt is provided that provides the necessary support, comfort and microbial barrier for the affected or operative body parts. The regulation of support is provided with a wide band strap. For the functional design of a disposable Medical Undershirt, a combination of Tencel® nonwoven fabric and a newly developed Tencel® nonwoven fabric with Propolis were used. Propolis is a natural antibiotic that provides antibacterial properties. Also the time of absorption is the smallest in this combination of materials, giving you additional comfort and a pleasant feeling on the skin. Also, time of absorption is very important for sweating and excretion caused by skin diseases. Since it is a disposable Medical Undershirt, the design proposal for using Tencel® is environmentally friendly. The www.textile-leather.com 77


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obtained models have the functionality and the required microbial barrier and can be proposed for use in medicine, but also for people with sensitive skin. Acknowledgements This research was conducted in collaboration with Department of Clinical and Molecular Microbiology and Clinical Department for Sterilization and Medical Surveillance of Employees, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia. The authors would like to express their gratitude to Dr. Josef Innerlohinger (Fiber Science and Development, Lenzing Aktiengesellschaft) for the samples of TENCEL® knitted fabric and Dr. Ksenija Varga for the samples of TENCEL® nonwoven fabric.

REFERENCES [1] Abu-Rous M, Ingolic E, Schuster KC. Visualisation of the Fibrillar and Pore Morphology of Cellulosic Fibers Applying Transmission Electron Microscopy. Cellulose. 2006; 13(4):411–419. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-006-9052-5. [2] Yilmaz D, Senior A. An investigation of knitted fabric performances obtained from different natural and regenerated fibres. J. Eng. Sci. Des. 2010; 1(2):91–95. [3] Eichinger D, Bartsch P, Schafheitle P, Kreuzwieser C. Wearer comfort proper-ties of Lenzing Lyocell, ITB Int. Text. Bull. 1999; 45(3):58–60. [4] Musa K, Ayse O. The properties of cotton-Tencel and cotton-Promodal blended yarns spun in different spinning systems. Textile Research Journal. 2010; 81(2):156-172. DOI: 10.1177/ 00405 17510377828. [5] Nergis BU, Iridag Y. Lyocell fibre and its properties (Lyocell Lifi ve O¨zellikleri). Tekstil ve Teknik. 2000; 16(2):74–84. [6] Taylor J. Tencel – a unique cellulosic fibre. J. Soc. Dyers Colourists. 1998; 114(7, 8): 191–193. [7] Abu-Rous M, Ingolic E, Schuster KC. Visualisation of the Nano-Structure of Tencel® (Lyocell) and Other Cellulosics as an Approach to Explaining Functional and Wellness Properties in Textiles. Lenzinger Berichte 2006; 85:31–37. [8] Schuster KC, Firgo H, Haussmann F, Männer J. Home Textiles with Feel Good Factor Derived From Wood. Lenzinger Berichte. 2004; 83:111–116. [9] Schuster KC, Suchomel F, Manner J, Abu-Rous M, Firgo H. Functional and comfort properties of textiles from Tencel® fibres resulting from the fibres water-absorbing nanostructure: A review. Macromolecular Symposia. 2006; 244:149-165. DOI: 10.1002/masy. 200651214. [10] Diepgen LT and Schuster KC. Dermatological examinations on the skin compatibility of textiles made from TENCEL® fibres. Lenzinger Berichte. 2006; 85:61–67. [11] Rogina-Car B, Rogina J, Govorčin Bajsić E, Budimir A. Propolis – Eco-friendly natural antibacterial finish for nonwoven fabrics for medical application. Journal of Industrial Textiles. Online first (2018); 1-20. Available from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/ 10.1177/ 1528083718805711. [12] Rogina-Car B, Budimir A, Turcic V, Katovic Drago. Do multi-use cellulosic textiles provide safe protection against contamination of sterilized items? Cellulose. 2014; 21(3):2101-2109. Available from: https:// link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-014-0199-1. [13] Rogina-Car B, Bogović S, Katović D. TENCEL® with a microbial barrier for medical bras. Journal of Fiber Bioengineering and Informatics. 2015; 8(4):635-643. DOI: 10.3993/jfbim00153, ISSN: 1940–8676. [14] Rogina-Car B, Budimir A, Katović D. Microbial barrier properties of healthcare professional uniforms. Textile Research Journal. 2017; 87(15): 1860-1868. DOI: 10.1177/00405175166593 83, ISSN: 0040–5175.

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VISILEANU E et al, Technologies for the functionalization of textile mats... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 79-89.

Technologies for the functionalization of textile mats with nanoparticles Emilia VISILEANU*, Alexandra ENE, Razvan SCARLAT, Laura CHIRAC, Cornelia MITRAN The National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, Bucharest, Romania *visilean@certex.ro Preliminary communication UDC 687.027.6 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.25 Received 28 December 2018; Accepted 15 February 2019; Published Online 29 February 2019

ABSTRACT Nanotechnology is the science of materials with extremely small dimensions (one nanometer is one billionth meter), but it is a major developing industry with an estimated annual market of about one trillion US dollars by 2017[1]. Nanoparticles are used or evaluated for use in many areas, which is currently demonstrated on the market for over 1,000 nano-products. The impact of nanotechnology extends from its medical, ethical, mental, legal and environmental applications to areas such as engineering, biology, chemistry, computer science, materials science and communications [2-3]. Potential risks include environmental, health and safety issues; transient effects, such as the reallocation of traditional industries as nanotechnology products, are becoming dominant and are a cause for concern for privacy lawyers [4-5]. Textile of 100% cotton, 55% polyester / 45% cotton and 100% polyester, white and dyed, were functionalized by spraying technology on a test device made at UT Dresden after oleofobization with Rucostar EEF6 or Nuva N 2114 and impregnation by applying oleophobic treatment simultaneously with the functionalization with Ag NP. Analysis of the size and form of Ag NP was achieved by using SEM electronic microscopy, TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) transmission microscopy. The uniformity, dispersion and migration of Ag NP from the surface of the textile materials for the initial samples compared with those tested for acid / alkaline perspiration, washing and wear (rubbing) revealed by AAS determinations that the acidic sweat test is the most aggressive leading to decreases in the amount of Ag NP of approx. 25% versus untreated sample.The amount of Ag NP deposited on the textile by the two technologies did not differ significantly. Compared to untreated knits with treated ones the size of the agglomerations does not change significantly; from the point of view of the uniform distribution of Ag NP on the surface of the knits after the acid / alkaline sweat tests, the best values (agglomeration distances) are highlighted in the case of 100% polyester knitted. KEYWORDS Textile, spraying, nanoparticles, functionalization, migration

INTRODUCTION Nanotechnology is the science of materials with extremely small dimensions (one nanometer is one billionth meter), but it is a major developing industry with an estimated annual market of about one trillion US dollars by 2017. This involves the control] of atoms and molecules to create new materials with a variety of useful functions. The properties of many conventional materials change when they are made up of nanoparticles because they have a larger surface area, relative to their weight, than larger particles, making them more

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reactive to other molecules [3]. Nanoparticles are used or evaluated for use in many areas, which is currently demonstrated on the market with over 1,000 Nano-products. Today nanoparticles are used in medicine, electronics, environmental protection, food, solar cells, batteries, space (lighter spacecraft and cables for space elevators), artificial intelligence etc. (figure 1).

Figure 1. Application of nanoparticles

In recent years, nanotechnology has found a wide field of application in the textile industry. It has been incorporated not only into a wide range of garments to increase their durability but also in technical textiles. There are also many additional areas that benefit from the use of nanotechnology, without being related to textile materials themselves. These are electronic components that can be incorporated into garments and coating treatments that confer surface protection properties to a fabric. There is a wide range of nanomaterials that have been incorporated into garments to improve their properties. These nanomaterials can be from graphene to carbon nanotubes and to various nanoparticles (clay, carbon black, metals and metal oxides). Instead of going through the process of incorporating nanoparticles (or other nanomaterials), the companies can now create garments from nanofibers. A sector that has benefited significantly from the use of nanofibers is the medical field (antimicrobial garments, bandages and bedding). The scientists have identified for the first time a mechanism by which nanoparticles cause lung damage and have shown that they can be fought by blocking the process involved, taking a step towards addressing of growing concerns about nanotechnology safety [1]. The impact of nanotechnology extends from its medical, ethical, mental, legal and environmental applications to areas such as engineering, biology, chemistry, computer science, materials science and communications [2-3]. Potential risks include environmental, health and safety issues; transient effects, such as the reallocation of traditional industries as nanotechnology products, are becoming 80 www.textile-leather.com


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dominant and are a cause for concern for privacy lawyers [4-5]. These can be very important if the potential negative effects of nanoparticles are neglected.

EXPERIMENTAL Materials and methods Knitted structures from yarns with following composition: 100% cotton, 55% polyester / 45% cotton and 100% polyester with interlock and pique structures with values of linear coverage factors between 21,22 (100% cotton) and 35,0 (100% polyester) and values of superficial coverage factors between 0,87 (45% cotton / 55% polyester) and 5,6 (100% polyester) were knitted on a Shima Seiki SIG 123 knitting machine of 12 gauge. The technological flow of finishing process for white knitted fabrics included the following phases: alkaline boiling, bleaching, softening and for dyed fabrics included: alkaline boiling, bleaching, dyeing, softening, and drying (figure 2). The physic-mechanical characteristics of knitted structures have showed: mass: 115,3 – 297,3 g/m2, thickness: 0,53 – 0,83 mm, water vapor permeability: 32,9 – 39,0% and air permeability: 1673,0 – 477,1 l/m2/s.

Figure 2. Technological process

The Ag NP nanoparticle batch used in experiments is part of the NM-series materials intended only for testing as part of the research activity and is also included in the OECD WPMN International Test Program (OECD Paris 2009-ENV-JM-MONO-2009-20 ENG Manual). The analysis certificate no. 576832 of Ag NP shows that they are in the form of a powder with dimension under 100 nm, containing PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) as dispersant and 99.5% metal. The SEM analyzes of Ag NP (figure 3) were performed with the FEI-QUANTA 200 electronic microscope and showed their spherical and polyhedral form. Analyses of NP sizes (43.2 nm, 22 nm, 10.4 nm, 14.7 nm, 28.1 nm, 35.6 nm, 138 nm, 34.3 nm, 27.3 nm) were performed and obtained an average diameter of 54.6 nm, which falls within the Ag NP class <100 nm. The transmission electron microscopy images were obtained using a Titan Themis 200-80-200 kV Scanning Transmission Electron.

Figure 3. SEM image of Ag NP

Figure 4.TEM images in bright-field

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The TEM images in bright-field obtained on the Ag sample shown in figure 4 pointing out that the sample is composed from spherical and polyhedral particles with an average particle size of 57.55 ± 1.97 nm at the same level as SEM analyses (54.6 nm). Figure 5 shows the distribution diagram of the Ag NP dimension, pointing out that their size is evenly distributed.

Figure 5. Dispersion diagram for Ag NP

Figure 6(a). HR-TEM

Figure 6(b). SAED image

The figure 6 presents: a) HR-TEM image and b) Electron diffraction on selected area – SAED, obtained on the Ag NP sample. The regular sequence of the crystalline planes indicates that the Nano crystallites are uniform in term of crystallinity, without amorphous phase and the only formed phase is of Ag. The pre-prepared 100% cotton knitted fabrics were functionalized by: • The spraying technology with Ag NP in Ultra-Pure Water (UPW) dispersion, using a process that included the following phases: oleophobization by padding, drying, condensing and spraying with Ag NP. The formulations and applied process parameters are: 70 g/l Nuva N 2114/ Rucostar EEE, 6,1 ml/l acetic acid 60%, uptake level 80%, drying at 110-120°C, condensation at 140°C for 2 minutes. Functionalization experiments with Ag NP of 100% cotton knitted fabrics were performed in the testing room of the German Federal Institute of Risk Assessment (BfR) consisting of (figure 7): ventilator (1), entrance of the ventilation

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system(2), exit from the ventilation system (3), spraying and activator (4), tube refill system with spraying formulation and re-pressurization of the spraying tank without opening the spraying room (5), plate where the textile samples can be placed (6).

Figure 7. Testing room

The room is equipped with an advanced ALI-VITROCELL-Cloud-System for in vitro exposure. Spraying of various Ag NP dispersions was done with 5 second spraying pulses. 5 and 10 minute test intervals were used between the spraying pulses and the totally different number of spraying pulses. Because the refilling and the re-pressurizing of the spraying tank was a manual process, the ranges vary and sometimes a spraying pulse has been omitted. For functionalization, Ag dispersions with UPW and various chemical auxiliaries: ethylene glycol, MEK (Methyl Ethyl Ketone), HCL, triethylamine, silanes were used. To obtain 2 liters of dispersion (2), 742 g of UPW (MilliPure) and 1026 g of ethanol (w> 99.9%) were mixed in a 2 liter glass flask; 14.40 g of 2-butanone (MEK, w = 99.5%), 10.80 g of HCl (w = 37%) and 7.20 g of triethanolamine (w = 100%), followed by sonication, 30 min. • The padding technology included oleophobization treatments with Nuva N2114 and Rucostar EEE 6 and Ag NP in the same phase of the process, followed by wringing and drying/ condensation. The treatment formulations included: 70 g/l Nuva N2114 / Rucostar EEE6, 20 ml/l dispersion 5% Ag NP in ethylene glycol / water dispersion, 0.5 ml/l 60% acetic acid (1 ml/ for 100% polyester), 80% uptake level, drying at 110°C, condensation at 140°C for 2 min. For functionalization, dispersions of Ag with UPW and solvents obtained in the same way as in spraying technology were used.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The concentration evaluation of Ag NP in aerosols was performed by using the Power Spectral Density (figure 8). It showed that: HCl and TEA dispersions generate higher concentrations of NP and peaks in PSD (Position Sensitive Detector) the results obtained with the formula: EtOH + MilliQ + HCL are similar to the formula UPW; peaks and suspension concentrations are influenced by the size of the NP; the humidity in the test room influences the monitored indicators.

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Figure 8. PSD spectrogram and diagram

The CPC (Compass-Parabolic-Concentrator) measurements performed during the spraying experiments, in which the spraying ranges were different, revealed that the NP dispersion formulation has a large impact on the number of aerosol particles (figure 9). In particular, the UPW formulation has resulted in aerosols with a very low NP. This is most likely related to the spraying process and the influence of the compounds and additives on droplet formation. Differences between MEK and HCL formulations are much lower, and although particle numbers were lower for HCL formulation, these differences could also come from daily variations or from disassembly-reassembly processes. Formulation 1, 12 spray pulses, 5 min intervals

Figure 9. CPC spectrogram

Determination of the amount of Ag NP was performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) which showed the following aspects:

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VISILEANU E et al, Technologies for the functionalization of textile mats... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 79-89.

Spraying technology The treatment of 100% cotton knitted fabric with Ag NP and UPW dispersion and Nuva N 2114 oleophobization agent produces the highest amount of Ag NP deposited on the knitted surface (95.7 μg/kg) followed by the solution consisting of: Ag NP dispersion with solvent and oleophobization agent Rucostar EEE 6 (73.8 μg/kg), Ag NP dispersion with UPW and oleophobization agent Rucostar EEE 6 (66.8 μg/kg) and dispersion of Ag NP with solvent and Nuva N 2114 oleophobization agent (66.6 μg/kg). The resistance test to acid/ alkaline perspiration was performed at 30, 60 and 90 min and the wash test at 400°C and the results showed that: a) Nuva N 2114 oleophobization agent • The washing test of knitted fabric treated with Ag NP solution in UPW or solvent and oleophobization agent Nuva N 2114 is the most aggressive, causing a decrease of about 30% and about 5% of the Ag NP amount on the surface of the fabric; • The resistance test to acid perspiration determines, in the case of Ag dispersion with UPW, a decrease in the amount of Ag NP of about 23%.; • The comparison between dispersions, namely Ag with UPW and respectively Ag with solvent, reveals a better resistance in the case of fabrics treated with solution of: Ag in solvent and Nuva N2114 oleophobization agent. b) Rucostar EEE6 oleophobization agent • The washing of knitted fabric treated with Ag NP solution in the solvent and an oleophobization agent Rukostar EEE 6 is the most aggressive one causing a decrease of approx. 12% of the amount of Ag NP on the knitted surface; • The comparison between dispersions, namely Ag with UPW and respectively Ag with solvent, reveals a better resistance in the case of the fabrics treated with solution of: Ag in UPW and Nuva N2114 oleophobization agent. The comparative analysis of Ag NP solutions with UPW or solvent dispersions and Nuva N2114 oleoforbising agents with Rucostar EEE 6 shows a better resistance to acid/ alkaline perspiration and washing tests using Rucostar EEE6 oleophobization agent.

Impregnation (padding) technology The analysis of the evolution of the quantity of Ag deposited on the surface of the knits by the technology of padding highlights the following aspects, differentiated by the type of oleophobic agent and Ag NP dispersion (figure 10): • The highest amount of Ag NP is recorded on 100% cotton knits, dyed and white treated with solution of: Ag dispersion with UPW and Rucostar EEE 6 (82.3 μg/kg and 81.2 μg/kg), followed by: 100% cotton, white and dyed, treated with solution of: Ag NP and UPW and Nuva N2114 oleophobization agent (79.3 μg/kg and 78.2 μg/kg; • Amounts in the range of 62.4 μg/kg- 63.8 μg/kg of Ag NP recorded for all treatment solutions for 45% cotton / 55% polyester, white and dyed knits.

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Figure 10. Evolution of Ag NP

The resistance tests of the knits treated with the oleofobic agents Nuva N2114 and Rucostar EEE 6 were performed accordingly with SR EN ISO105-E04 / 2013 at 30, 60, 90 min; The evolution of Ag NP on 100% cotton, white and dyed fabric, 45% cotton / 55% polyester, white and dyed and 100% polyester, white and dyed, treated with solutions of Ag NP dispersions in UPW and solvent and NUVA N2114 or Rucostar EEE6 oleofobic agent, highlights the following aspects (figure 11a and 11b):

Figure 11. Evolution of Ag NP quantity a) Nuva 2114

Figure 11. Evolution of Ag NP quantity b) Rucostar EEE6

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VISILEANU E et al, Technologies for the functionalization of textile mats... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 79-89.

The most aggressive test in terms of decreasing the amount of Ag NP on the surface of the knits is the acidic sweat test, both for knits treated with solutions of: Ag NP in UPW or solvent and oleophobic agent Nuva N 2114 In the case of the solution of: Ag NP and UPW dispersion, and the Rucostar EEE6 for the treatment of 100% cotton, white and dyed knits, alkaline and acid sweating, determines a decrease in the amount of Ag NP on the textile surface by 25% (acid); Acid / alkaline sweat tests for 45% cotton / 55% polyester and 100% polyester, white and dyed treated with solutions of Ag NP dispersions with UPW or solvent and Rucostar EEE 6 are not so aggressive, in the sense that the decrease in the amount of Ag NP on the surface of the knits is not significant. SEM images of 100% cotton, white and dyed, 45% cotton / 55% PES. white and painted and 100% PES treated with solution of: Ag NP dispersion in UPW and Nuva N2114 oleophobic agent were performed after acid / alkaline sweating tests and determinations of the size of agglomerations and distances between them were performed (figure 12).

Figure 12. SEM images

Figure 13 shows the evolution of the Ag NP dimensions on the surface of the untreated knits and after the acid / alkaline sweat tests.

Figure 13. Dimensions evolution

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Compared to untreated knits in 100% cotton knits, the size of the agglomerations does not change significantly except for the white knit variant tested on alkaline sweat at which the initial level is 506.8 nm and the 2182 nm, respectively. In knits of 45% cotton / 55% PES, the white variants and the painted on alkaline perspiration show values below the baseline (326.3 and 506 nm co-ordinate with 2476 and 1374 nm). For 100% knits, the variations in the sizes initial to those tested for acid / alkaline perspiration, are not conclusive. Figure 14 shows the distances evolution of Ag NP agglomerations on the surface of untreated knits and after acid / alkaline sweat tests. From the point of view of the uniform distribution of Ag NP on the surface of the knits after the acid / alkaline sweat tests, the best values (agglomeration distances) are highlighted in the case of 100% polyester knitted, being at the same level as untreated knits (4217 -6919 nm and 41186630 nm respectively).

Figure 14. Distances evolution

For knitted fabrics of: 45% cotton / 55% polyester the difference between the knits tested and the original knits is not significant because the distribution uniformity of Ag NP is at the same level. In 100% cotton, white and dyed, tested for alkaline perspiration, the NP distance is over 25984nm (low density) and 9614nm respectively, and in the variants tested for acidic perspiration, the NP density remains at the same level as the original knits (596,5-5625nm versus 1310-5224 nm).

CONCLUSION • Ag Nanoparticles in dispersions with various auxiliary chemicals were used for treating knits by spray and impregnation technology; oleophobization treatment with two compounds was provide in the same or different phase. • TEM images in the light field obtained on Ag NP revealed that they are spherical and polyhedral, with a mean particle size of 50.55 nm ± 1.97 nm and a very uniform dispersion; the HR-TEM image highlighted the crystalline planes with an interplanar spacing of 2.3 Å corresponding to the Ag NP families of crystalline planes (1 1 1); SEM images showed an average size of Ag NP of 54.6 nm at the same level as determined by TEM analysis. • Evaluation of the concentration of Ag NP in aerosols revealed that: HCl and TEA dispersions generate higher concentrations of NP and peaks in PSD; the results obtained with the formula: EtOH + MilliQ + HCL are similar to the formula UPW.

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• The CPC (Compass-Parabolic-Concentrator) measurements conducted in spraying experiments during which the spraying ranges were different have shown that the NP dispersion recipe itself has a large impact on the number of aerosol particles. • Knits from 100% cotton treated by spraying technology with a solution: Ag NP and UPW dispersion and Nuva N 2114 oleophobic agent have the highest amount of Ag NP deposited on the surface (95.7 μg/ kg) compared to other solutions. • Comparative analysis of Ag NP solutions with dispersions in UPW or solvent and oleophobic agents Nuva N2114 or Rucostar EEE 6 highlights a better resistance to acid / alkali sweating tests and scrubbing when using the Rucostar EEE6. • Compared to untreated knits with treated ones the conclusion is that the size of the agglomerations does not change significantly; from the point of view of the uniform distribution of Ag NP on the surface of the knits after the acid / alkaline sweat tests, the best values (agglomeration distances) are highlighted in the case of 100% polyester knitted, being at the same level as untreated knits (4217 -6919 nm and 4118-6630 nm respectively).

REFERENCES [1] Ferreira AJ, Cemlyn-Jones J, Robalo Cordeiro C. Nanoparticles, nanotechnology and pulmonary nanotoxicology. Revista Portuguesa de Pneumologia. 2013 19(1):28-37. [2] Levard C, Matt Hotze E, V Lowry G, E Brown G. Environmental Transformations of Silver Nanoparticles: Impact on Stability and Toxicity. Environmental Science & Technology. 2012 46(13):6900−6914. Available from: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es2037405 doi: 10.1021/es2037405 [3] van Broekhuizen P, van Broekhuizen F, Cornelissen R, Reijnders L. Use of nanomaterials in the European construction industry and some occupational health aspects thereof. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2011 13(2):447-462. [4] Nilsson N. Artificial Intelligence: A New Synthesis. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 1998. [5] Burri RV, Bellucci S. Public perception of nanotechnology. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2008 10(3):387-391.

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KODŽOMAN D, The Psychology of Clothing: Meaning of Colors, Body Image... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 90-103.

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF CLOTHING: Meaning of Colors, Body Image and Gender Expression in Fashion Duje KODŽOMAN University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Zagreb, Croatia dkodzoman@ttf.hr Scientific review UDC 391:159.937 DOI: 10.31881/TLR.2019.22 Received 16 December 2018; Accepted 14 February 2019; Published Online 20 February 2019

ABSTRACT We select clothes that we’re purchasing and wearing according to the meaning we believe them to have, or the messages we believe them to send. But what are psychological consequences of clothing, and how does clothing express something about the user? To assess the state of knowledge about the communicative nature of fashion, the aim of this review was to provide a concise and succinct literature overview of over twenty empirical studies of the above-mentioned concept. The psychology behind clothing is classified into 3 thematic categories in this paper: a) the meaning of colors in clothing psychology; b) the socio-psycological impact of clothing; and c) gender (in)equality regarding clothing. Finally the last chapter brings a concise study of a few recent fashion shows, brands and trends. It is doubtless that both clothing and appearance serve as an important socializing influence and a form of communication. KEYWORDS Clothing, psychology of clothing, social interface, fashion communication

INTRODUCTION In early civilizations, the key purpose of clothing was to keep us warm and relatively dry. In the 21st century we should be aware that protection is only one function of clothing (along with identification, modesty, status and adornment). This means that clothing allows people to be recognized as members of a specific group; it covers the body in a proper way; shows position or rank within a group; and it helps people express their uniqueness and creativity. In many societies, dress sense embodies personal wealth and taste, and this was specially noticeable in the past. George Taylor demonstrated this most vividly with the Hemline Index – a theory presented in 1926. Taylor noted that as a country enters recession, women often show a preference towards longer dresses. On the other hand during times of prosperity, the opposite result can be seen – hemlines (the level of the lower edge of a garment such as a skirt, dress or coat) often become shorter [1]. Our dress sense is quite important to our reputation, because the clothes we wear send powerful signals to our peers and strangers, projecting the self image of us that we want to display. Any artefact placed on the body takes on social meaning in relation to its wearer [2]. Clothing serves an important socializing influence and acts as a symbol of social status and identity [3]. It also plays a crucial role in the identity politics of urban societies. 90 www.textile-leather.com


KODŽOMAN D, The Psychology of Clothing: Meaning of Colors, Body Image... TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 90-103.

From the perspective of fashion, clothing is our first social interface. Clothing functions as an important and necessary social tool that interfaces our bodies with society [4]. Through clothing we inform others of our personal and collective affinities. Clothing can signal many aspects of a person’s social identity including socio-economic status, gender, religion, and occupation. Doctors, nurses, soldiers, police and military men, postmen, judges, priests (...) are all identified and called upon by their attire. As soon as clothes are put on the body, they can influence one’s mood [5]. It has been documented that individuals reinforce their mood and express their feelings through their clothing [6]. Also, clothing reflects the self — the identity, the material practice we engage with in daily life [7,8]. One’s wardrobe is known to be an extension of the diverse aspects of one’s beliefs and constructs social identity [9,8]. To understand what fashion communicates via person perception, it is important to consider the content of person perceptions. This topic has been studied in the context of general person perceptions, not necessarily those conveyed by fashion [10]. This paper examines and reviews an interdisciplinary, conceptual framework – study of clothing behavior, based upon a synthesis concepts from cognitive social psychology and symbolic interactionism. However, complexity in terms of the interdisciplinary nature of this area is not shown in detail in this review.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Meaning of Colors in Clothing Psychology Color is critical to creating attractiveness or unattractiveness. In today’s society both genders use color to enhance their visual and aesthetic appearance. The use of color has become an important expression of who we are, how we feel and what we believe. From the Renaissance period, the color of clothing became more important. Certain colors were only to be worn by the upper classes and royals. Medieval Europeans developed sumptuary laws that allowed only the nobility to wear costly colors such as purple that was extracted from Mediterranean seashells [11]. These defined those who could wear certain colors, the amount of color allowed and when the color could be worn [12]. The color developed deep symbolic meaning indicating the individuals’ cultural learning, place in the social hierarchy and economic status [13]. Color is a critical cue for sexual signaling, but what the preferred colors actually are in humans, is difficult to predict. Human vision and perception contributes to how a color appears to the individual. Perception is unique to each individual and is constantly changing due to the influence of a range of variables. No two people see color or experience its effects in the same way, so color provokes different responses according to various situations. The use of color is important in improving one’s aesthetic character. Women choose those colors that they perceive to be more „seductive“[14]. Many studies have been carried out on color preference phenomena, in which the aim was towards determining population preferences. Jastrow carried out one of the earlier documented studies of color preferences, in 1893, at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. 4556 visitors were asked to vote for their single favorite color out of a set of 12 paper rectangles varying in their color. The more preferred colors were blue, red, light blue and blue-violet. The less popular colors were orange, yellow-orange, and red-orange [15]. In a study by Guilford [16], the results showed that greens and blues were preferred while yellow and yellow-green were the least favored colors. Lind conducted a study on 138 university students to determine any preference in clothing colors. Purple-blue and blue clothing colors were preferred and the least preferred clothing colors were yellow-red and green-yellow [17].

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Roberts, Owen & Havlicek [18] investigated attractiveness judgments of both sexes by contrasting attributions based on six different colors. They took digital photographs of ten male and ten female participants while wearing t-shirts of six different colors: red, black, blue, green, yellow and white. Analyses confirmed significant effects of color in both comparisons. Raters awarded highest scores to images in which targets wore red or black. They found that clothing color affects ratings of attractiveness. Their results showed that females are influenced by clothing color in judgments of male attractiveness, and that they are thus sensitive to color cues in social contexts. It has been suggested that such functional responses to color, particularly to the color red, may also influence perception of individuals when they wear different colored clothing (for a review, see [17]). Wearing red is associated with success in both individual combat [19] and team sports [20], and in multiplayer computer games [21]. Frank & Gilovich [22] showed that an individual’s behaviour can be influenced by the colour of their clothing only. In their experiment they manipulated the colour of the subjects’ uniforms (black or white). Results showed that subjects who wore black uniforms were more aggressive than their white counterparts. Adams & Osgood [23] concluded that black is seen, in almost all cultures, as the colour of evil and death. Vrij [24] conducted two experiments to investigate the impact of black clothing on impression formation. Results revealed that black clothing evokes negative impressions. Offenders and suspects made a more aggressive impression when they wore black clothing than when they wore light clothing. Moreover, the offender dressed in black evoked the most irritation, and the suspect dressed in black made the most guilty impression. Of course it would be premature and hasty to conclude that black clothing would evoke negative impressions in all circumstances. However, previous mentioned findings strengthen Frank and Gilovich’s [23] conclusion that black clothing is likely to evoke negative impressions in situations that possess elements of competition, confrontation and physical aggression. The psychological impact of clothing color is noticeable also in animals. Putman [25] quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis). The research was based on the assumption that animals will have the greatest tolerance to the color of a T-shirt that is their sexually appealing color. T-shirts that were used in this study were dark blue, blue, gray and red. Quantitatively, the two blue T-shirts (dark blue and blue) resemble more to the lizards’ throat and abdominal patches. Reduced escape occurred most often under the dark blue treatment, facilitated easy capture of lizards, and suggests that they might have a preferential bias toward this color [26]. The color, style and texture of personal aesthetics express a position with respect to gender, ethnicity, race, class, nationality, religion, sexuality, and age. People use color to express their social identity, hierarchy, emotions, political leanings, personal identity, self-image, and aesthetic tastes [12,27,28,]. Clothing color conveys values, attitudes, personalities, and tendencies towards conformity or individuality [27].

The Socio-psycological Impact of Clothing An individual’s body image play an important role in clothing preferences and attitudes [29]. Clothing is an extended dimension of one’s bodily self [30] and is used to change the appearance of the body [31]. Reed [32] found that an individual’s clothing style is influenced by aspects of selfconcept such as identity, value, attitude, and mood. Sontag and Lee [33] recognized the importance of body image in relation to clothing and included a body image dimension in the Proximity of Clothing to Self scale. They stated that body image may affect clothing behavior and clothing may affect body image and self-feelings. Thus, how we perceive our bodies can affect how we use clothing.

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Research using clothing as a variable has indicated that discordance between attire and verbal message [34] or between attire and role/stereotype [35,36,37] can result in less positive judgments by a perceiver. Thus from a cognitive approach, clothing or other appearance cues are viewed as stimuli that may be selected by a perceiver in order to undertstand an observed person. Formal clothing is often worn to follow norms [38]. Wearing formal clothing is associated with perceptions of more professionalism but also less approachability [39,40]. Wearing formal clothing is related to psychological formality and social distance, whereas casual clothing is related to intimacy and familiarity. People who wear formal clothes describe themselves as more competent and rational [38]. As formal clothing is associated with enhanced social distance, Slepian proposes that wearing formal clothing will enhance abstract cognitive processing. Gurney et al. [41] confirmed that competency ratings of individuals vary by their posture [42,43,44] and their attire [45,46]. In their study they also confirmed an interaction effect of posture and clothing by showing that perceptions of people in different attire can be altered by the posture they adopt while wearing it. They report that both men and women benefit from dressing smartly and adopting a neutral posture when doing so. Howlett et al. [47] coducted a study by photographing models in realistic settings and by manipulating an additional independent variable — a camisole. In their study of subtle clothing changes, participants rated women as less competent when their blouses were unbuttoned as compared to buttoned. Women who appear „sexy” are judged as less competent, less intelligent, and less moral than those who dress „appropriately” [48,49]. Their research shows that women in provocative clothing are rated as less competent. Whereas it is clear that dressing provocatively can indeed have negative consequences, these findings suggest that the right combination of clothing can also project power. Women’s use of high-heeled shoes is a prevalent phenomenon in both developing and modernized societies [50,51]. In the United States alone, over $8,000,000,000 is spent annually on high-fashion footwear [52]. However, despite the widespread prevalence of high heels, the reasons why women wear high heels are not well understood. Lewis et al. [53] study provides evidence of high-heeled shoes’ concurrent effects on women’s lumbar curvature and attractiveness, and reveal a precise, lumbar curvature-dependent effect of high heels on women’s attractiveness. This study along with some other studies that employed distinct methods shows that when women wear high heels, their lumbar curvature increased and they were perceived as more attractive. One very visible component of police identity is the police uniform. Previous studies have shown that police uniforms can induce feelings of safety in those around the uniformed person [54]. Other research show that uniforms are associated with the perception of increased competence, reliability, intelligence, helpfulness, status, and authority [55,56,57,58]. Civile & Obhi [59] investigated the question of whether the police uniform itself might induce a bias in social attention. Their results demonstrate that wearing a police-style uniform may induce a kind of „status-profiling” in which individuals from low-status groups become salient and capture attention. Individuals have been found to be more aggressive when wearing a black sports kit [24] or a hood and cap [60], while women are less aggressive when wearing a nurse’s uniform [61]. These observations can be explained through the concept of enclothed cognition, a term proposed by Adam & Galinsky [62]. Enclothed cognition is the phenomenon of people adopting the traits and properties they associate with the clothes they wear. Forsythe [63] found that participants judged women to be more forceful in job interviews and were more likely to recommend them for hiring when they were dressed in a more masculine style (a navy suit) compared with a more feminine style (a beige dress). www.textile-leather.com 93


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Gender (In)equality Regarding Clothing Many studies on fashion and clothing for older people have considered only female participants. Studies on men’s fashion are typically limited, and those on fashion for older men are even more so, because fashion and clothing are culturally considered to be feminised. However, additional studies on menswear clothing and modern masculinity have indicated that men should be studied as a part of fashion [64,65]. Modern men of all ages are at present more interested in fashion, and studies on menswear should be viewed in a more positive light as those concerning womenswear [66]. Contrary to commonly held beliefs, men have been shown to be often more self-conscious than females with regards to their personal dress sense and the way in which they are viewed in public [67]. Therefore, we need to understand the significance of clothing choices regardless of our gender. Whether you are male or female, your fashion choices can affect both your self image, the impression that you convey to others and in turn, the way in which people behave towards you. They can influence everything from the outcome of a sports match [19], to an interviewer’s impression of your ability to perform effectively in a job position [63]. Chowdhary [68] and Spruiell & Jernigan [69] have found that both older men and women are attracted to stylish clothing that fits them well, makes them feel well-dressed, and looks current. Fit and price are major attributes for garment purchases by older people [70]. Holmlund et al. [71] indicated that older women prefer fabrics with good quality, good finish, a loose and comfortable fit, an elastic band in the waistline, natural fibres, elasticity, and suitability for their shape as well as breathable fabrics. Study by Au, Lam & Ho [72] examines the psychological dimensions of older men and women in terms of fashion involvement and clothing needs, design preferences, and views and experiences when choosing fashion in Hong Kong. Older men had a significantly lower preference for certain eye-catching vibrant colours, but they welcomed subtle colours such as black, white, and blue. Older women tended to look for multiple functions in fashion, they were not concerned with being noticeable, because they preferred red and warm colours over dull colours such as black and white. Older males were more concerned with comfort compared with older women. Regarding the experience of older people making fashion choices, older women exhibited significantly more difficulties buying clothes because of a changing body figure, and experienced a stronger need for a new size specification for fashion compared with older men. The clothing style of each professional has an important impact on presentation, credibility and appearance. Hartmans et al. [73] conducted a study whose aim was to investigate the influence of the general practitioners attire on the confidence that patients have in their practicioner as a medical expert. Participants completed a survey after seeing images of six models of three different age categories (25-35 / 35-50 / >50), each in five different clothing styles (leisure clothing, casual, semiformal, formal and professional). The study found that patients have the most confidence in a female doctor wearing a white coat, and the age of the female doctor did not affect this preference. As regards the male doctor, there was a preference for semi formal attire: in both the younger doctor, as the middle-aged doctor. This study showed a clear influence of the GP’s attire on the patient’s confidence in the GP as a medical expert. The gender of the physician played a role: patients had most confidence in a female GP when she wore a white coat, while the male young and middle-aged practitioner was trusted when presenting in semiformal attire. Through an analysis of awards, canons, and evaluative discourses, Stokes [74] article has shown how gender and sexuality shape symbolic success in fashion design. Gay male designers receive more prestigious awards and their names appear more often in elite design canons. Stokes study analyzed canonizing lists of elite designers and award recipients, and conducted a qualitative content analysis of 157 entries in Voguepedia (a canon of elite designers) and 96 articles from broader fashion media. Stokes found that men, most of

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whom are publicly identified as gay, are canonized and awarded more than women, and that commonly used discourses of value and legitimacy construct a gendered image of the ideal cultural producer.

The Psychology of Clothing as Shown by Most Influential Fashion Brands Today Insights from psychology suggest that our feelings and identities may have a great influence on which brands we choose. Psychology concepts that might explain what makes us love brands are emotional decisionmaking and identity formation [27]. What we choose to wear, has become a statement, and fashion has become all about the alter ego – who do I want to be today. Every quarter, fashion search platform Lyst analyses the behaviour of more than five million online shoppers to determine the most influential brands and products. Lyst takes into account data from its own search engine and Google, as well as engagement statistics, conversion rates and sales worldwide to form its quarterly Index. In the second quarter of 2018 Gucci reclaimed the top spot on the list, while Vetemants took sixth place. In the same data report Supreme’s logo has been voted the most powerful in the world. It’s not a suprise these brands show up at the top of the list, since they are reflecting modern society and tackling it’s issues concerning gender, age and social status (aforementioned and discussed concepts) in their own „true to brand” way which results in unique and genuine identity. Gosha Rubchinskiy, Demna Gvasalia, Vejas Kruszewski, to name but a few, make the kind of clothes many would call „ugly”, but fashion houses seem to appreciate them. Gosha Rubchinskiy has become the face of a new generation of Russian youth and a global fashion phenomenon. His aesthetics takes influence and inspiration from the fall of the Iron Curtain, Russian street, and youth culture of his home country. With Gosha Rubchinskiy fashion stopped showing only a highly luxurious and flashy image of itself. Suddenly aesthetic standards have changed. For him glamour is a parody. His garments are everywhere from highend boutiques to street style galleries. Rubchinskiy’s collections bring something to the fashion-streetwear

Figure 1. Gosha Rubchinskiy Spring/Summer 2018 Collection Source: https://fgukmagazine.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/gosha-rubchinskiy-spring-summer-2018-lookbook-4.jpg

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genre that we’ve never seen before, and it is indisputable that his approach to fashion is different from the ones we are used to. All his models are chosen on street casting. His shows are held in alternative locations such as the Orthodox Church, the basketball court, bus station... For several seasons, he collaborates with a Moscow musician who performs under pseudonym Buttechno. Every season he creates a different sound depending on the mood and atmosphere of Rubchinskiy’s collection. Comme des Garçons distributes his collections at Dover Street Market in London, and his collections routinely sell out – for example Spring/Summer 2016 Collection was sold out within two days. The production is led by Comme des Garçons, which makes Rubchinskiy able to produce the highest quality jackets and the finest knitwear, but he does not want it. He chooses to produce and sell sportswear with allusions of Russia. While it is possible to ask what are the elements that stand out Gosha from other designers, and how can we justify and explain the hype for his clothing, it should be clear that street clothing always carries a certain message and Rubchinskiy knows this well. Demna Gvasalia is another Russian designer who is shaping global fashion industry at the moment. He is founder of Vetements – the French fashion house, created by the collective of 16 designers, that today is among the most lauded labels around. At first glance, Vetements looks like the rare example of an overnight success story in fashion. Demna Gvasalia – the seemingly public face of the brand studied at the Royal Academy of Art in Antwerp and worked as senior womenswear designer for Maison Martin Margiela. Currently he is the creative director at French luxury house Balenciaga. The essence of Balenciaga has always been about forward-thinking, and that’s in a way what Demna has done, especially through a continuation and a development of the aesthetic he has coined within Vetements. Vetements is a recent fashion phenomenon; their research largely consists out of information from the Internet – a lot is directly pulled from social media like Facebook, and there is lots of sociological research involved. Vetements streetwear feels revolutionary because it is democratising and open. Reviewers for some venerated publications – Vogue, The Times, Washington Post – have declared Vetements the house to breathe new life into fashion. Luxury vendors who stock the collection – Net-A-Porter, Browns Fashion, Matches and so forth – indicate that it sells very well. With items like an $885 Leo DiCaprio hoodie and deconstructed jeans in the $1000plus range, the brand manages to sell out of inventory each season. They sell DHL T-shirts for $330 while it is possiblle to request one from the de facto delivery service for $14.99.

Figure 2. Collaborative fashion item from DHL X Umbro Source: https://inmotion.adrivo.com/images/870/uploads/content/2017/03_Fashion/vetements-hong-kong-pop-up-18.jpg

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A similar approach of the garments production to aforementioned is also noticeable within Supreme. In 1994, Supreme opened as a skate shop in lower Manhattan, and the shop started making T-shirts in small runs; then hoodies and sweaters; then shoes in collaboration with Nike and Clarks, coats with The North Face and Stone Island, hoodies with Comme des Garçons and jeans with A.P.C. Majority of its customers were people in the skateboarding community and young adults. Their initial price range was affordable for the quality of the products they were producing. What drove the prices up was the resell market for skate paraphernalia. Today every time Supreme releases new stuff at its ten stores across Europe, America and Japan (which is every Thursday from the start of each collection) hundreds of people skip school or work to get first dibs. They release limited amounts of new collections and designs at specific timings. After the drop is done and the items are sold out, the items are never restocked and thus gone forever. What makes people want to buy Supreme is the competitive, social aspect – to be able to go out in public and feel like you’re less likely to be wearing clothes that everyone else is wearing. When the Louis Vuitton X Supreme collab dropped, people queued for days to get in and bought as many as they were allowed. Most of the people in line are there simply to resell the items. Despite all this craziness, the demand for Supreme products is still there and it’s not looking to slow down anytime soon.

Figure 3. Supreme Fall/Winter 2017 Collection Source: https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-qS2CuuNjOds/WZGXETmKzQI/AAAAAAAAA3k/6B93tGfJBtk4r8IkSJuij3jk5KJsWYeQCLcBGAs/s1600/header.jpg

Alessandro Michele, Gucci’s creative director since January 2015, has been the key to giving Gucci a strong new identity, and its bright, elaborate looks have expanded the brand’s following particularly among younger customers. Michele entirely redefined what Gucci could represent, working in the very contemporary idiom of eclecticism with a vintage approach, along with accessories that he likens to the relics of saints. He is using vintage pieces as inspirational starting points, and many prints are taken from antique textiles. The flora and fauna motifs, along with the sense of handicraft are what he tries to weave into all his collections. The brand, the biggest in French luxury group Kering, has been revamped with a new style over the past

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two years under Michele. A/W18 collection staged his show in a brutal, overlit surgical theatre. One model sprouted sheep horns, another carried a baby dragon, and another, most alarmingly, toted a „human” head.

Figure 4. Gucci Fall/Winter 2018/2019 Collection Source: https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-JjEepKwKBgY/WpJaDXCeeoI/AAAAAAABogI/4nAeYRRCB9ARzSMnENy_0iphtQ14oFWwg CLcBGAs/s1600/Gucci_Collage_Fotor_Collage_2.jpg

CONCLUSION Clothing serves many purposes: it protects the wearer from the elements by enhancing safety; it protects by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment; it can insulate against cold or hot conditions; it can provide a hygienic barrier... Wearing clothes is also a social norm. It may also function as a form of adornment and an expression of personal taste or style... Finally, it is possible to conclude that clothing expresses a lot about the user. However, it is intuitive to think of clothing as mere covering, or the means by which we project our image to other people, beacuse clothes can influence ourselves too. An array of psychological surveys that have been reviewed in this article have revealed the true impact of clothing choices on the way in which we perceive and judge each other and ourselves. The research method underlying data processing in this paper implies a systematic and analytical review of the literature concerning the psychology of clothing. The databases that were searched are mainly journals and magazines (60), books (17) and conference papers (2). The period involved in the analysis is the period from 1959 to 2018. A statistical method was based on the principle of impartial presentation of the collected published data. This review has attempted to define and explain the nature of the psychology behind clothing. In order to do this, it has had to investigate meaning and communication and explain what sort of meaning fashion has and what sort of communication it can accomplish. Meaning and communication have been explained in terms of colors in clothing psychology, the socio-psycological impact of clothing, and gender (in)equality regarding clothing. Color is critical to creating attractiveness or unattractiveness. It is also a critical cue for sexual signaling. In today’s society both genders use color to enhance their visual and aesthetic appearance. The use of color has become an important communication tool. People use clothing color to express of who they are, how they feel and what they believe; to express their social identity, emotions, self-image, and esthetic tastes. Since fashion and clothing are culturally considered to be feminised, studies on men’s

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fashion are limited. The days when skirts were just for women and trousers were just for men are gone long time ago, gender no longer dictates the way people dress. It is important that we understand the significance of clothing choices regardless of gender, since clothing is influenced by our identity, attitude, and mood. Whether you are male or female, your fashion choices can affect both self image, and the way in which people behave towards you. This article provided an overview of the development of interdisciplinary field of fashion design and psychology, it clarified the role that clothing has in psychological and sociological practice, and finally it provided a comprehensive list of theoretical approaches that show how clothing choices affect, reflect and express something about the user and ourselves.

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[41] Gurney DJ, Howlett N, Pine KJ, Tracey M, Moggridge R. Dressing up posture: The interactive effects of posture and clothing on competency judgements. British Journal of Psychology. 2016; 108(2):436-451. [42] Hall JA, Coats EJ, LeBeau LS. Nonverbal behavior and the vertical dimension of social relations: a metaanalysis. Psychological bulletin. 2005;131(6):898-924. [43] Murphy NA, Hall JA, Colvin CR. Accurate intelligence assessments in social interactions: Mediators and gender effects. Journal of Personality. 2003;71(3):465-493. [44] Weisfeld GE, Beresford JM. Erectness of posture as an indicator of dominance or success in humans. Motivation and Emotion. 1982;6(2):113-131. [45] Behling DU, Williams EA. Influence of dress on perception of intelligence and expectations of scholastic achievement. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. 1991;9(4):1-7. [46] Dacy JM, Brodsky SL. Effects of therapist attire and gender. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 1992;29(3):486-490. [47] Howlett N, Pine KJ, Cahill N, Orakçıoğlu I, Fletcher BC. Unbuttoned: The interaction between provocativeness of female work attire and occupational status. Sex Roles. 2015;72(3-4):105-116. [48] Graff K, Murnen SK, Smolak L. Too sexualized to be taken seriously? Perceptions of a girl in childlike vs. sexualizing clothing. Sex Roles. 2012;66:764-775. [49] Murnen SK, Smolak L. I’d rather be a famous fashion model than a famous scientist. The rewards and costs of internalizing sexualization. In Zurbriggen EL, Roberts TA, ed. The sexualization of girls and girlhood: Causes, consequences, and resistance. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2013: p. 235-256. [50] Miller D. Fashion and ontology in Trinidad. Cultural History. 1990;7:49-77. [51] Freeman C. High Tech and High Heels in the Global Economy. Durham, NC: Duke University Press; 1999. [52] Rossi WA. The Sex Life of the Foot and Shoe, 2nd Edn. Malabar, FL: Krieger; 1993. [53] Lewis DMG. Lumbar curvature: an evolved standard of attractiveness. Paper Presented at the Institute for Social Neuroscience Evolutionary Psychology and Social Neuroscience Symposium, Melbourne, VIC. 2017 [54] Balkin S, Houlden P. Reducing fear of crime through occupational presence. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 1983;10:13-33. [55] Mauro R. The constable’s new clothes: effects of uniforms on perceptions and problems of police officers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 1984;14:42-56. [56] Singer M, Singer A. The effect of Police uniform on interpersonal perception. The Journal of psychology. 1985;119:157-161. [57] Lawrence S, Watson M. Getting others to help: the effectiveness of professional uniforms in charitable fund-raising. Journal of Applied Communication Research. 1991;19:170-185. [58] Durkin K, Jeffery L. The salience of the uniform in young children’s perception of police status. Legal and Criminological Psychology. 2000;5:47-55. [59] Civile C, Obhi SS. Students Wearing Police Uniforms Exhibit Biased Attention toward Individuals Wearing Hoodies. Frontiers in Psychology. 2017;8:62. [60] Zimbardo PG. The human choice: Individuation, reason, and order versus deindividuation, impulse, and chaos. Nebraska symposium on motivation. 1969:17,237-307. [61] Johnson RD, Downing LL. Deindividuation and valence of cues: eects on prosocial and antisocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1979;37:1532-1538.

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[62] Adam H, Galinsky AD. Enclothed cognition. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 2012;48(4): 918-925. [63] Forsythe SM. Effect of Applicant’s Clothing on Interviews’ Decision to Hire. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1990;20(19):1579-1595. [64] Edwards T. Men in the mirror – Men’s fashion, masculinity and consumer society. London: Cassell; 1997. [65] Twigg J. Clothing, age and the body: A critical review. Ageing and Society. 2007;27, 285-305. [66] Davies H. Modern menswear. London: Laurence King: 2008. [67] Solomon MR, Schopler J. Self-Consciousness and Clothing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 1982;8(3):508-514. [68] Chowdhary U. Self-esteem, age identification and media exposure of the elderly and their relationship to fashionability. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal. 1988;7(1):23-30. [69] Spruiell PR, Jernigan M. Clothing preferences of older women: Implications for gerontology and the American clothing industry. Educational Gerontology. 1982;8:485-492. [70] Yu W. Subjective assessment of clothing fit. In: Fan J, Yu W, Hunter L (ed.). Clothing appearance and fit: Science and technology. Cambridge, England: Woodhead; 2004; p. 31-42. [71] Holmlund M, Hagman A, Polsa P. An exploration of how mature women buy clothing: empirical insights and a model. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management. 2011;15(1):108-122. [72] Au J, Lam J, Ho C. Design preferences and experience of older people’s choice in fashion in Hong Kong. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education. 2016;9(3):183-191. [73] Hartmans C, Heremans S, Langrain M, van Asch K, Schoenmakers B. The Doctor’s New Clothes: Professional or Fashionable? Primary Health Care. 2014;3(3):1-5. [74] Stokes A. The Glass Runway: How Gender and Sexuality Shape the Spotlight in Fashion Design. Gender & Society. 2015;29(2):219-243. [75] Benz JJ, Anderson MK, Miller RL. Attributions of Deception in Dating Situations. The Psychological Record. 2005;55:305-314. [76] Brown TA, Cash TF, Noles SW. Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness Among College Students: Selected Determinants and Methodological Matters. Journal of Social Psychology. 1986;126(3):305-316. [77] Butler S, Roesel K. Students’ perceptions of male teachers: The effects of teachers’ dress and students’ characteristics. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1991;73:943-951. [78] Dunlap K. The Development and Function of Clothing. Journal of General Psychology. 1928;1:64-78. [79] Guéguen N, Jacob C. Clothing Color and Tipping. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. 2010;38(2): 275-280. [80] Howlett N, Pine K, Orakçioglu I, Fletcher B. The influence of clothing on first impressions: Rapid and positive responses to minor changes in male attire. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management. 2013;17(1):38-48. [81] Ju-Young MK, Kim KPJ, Jieun K. Clothing functions and use of clothing to alter mood. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education. 2013;6(1):43-52. [82] Palmer SE, Schloss K. An ecological valence theory of human color preference. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2010;107:8877-8882.

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[83] Regan ARG, Punke E, Brickner M, Badalamenti V. Power and provocativeness: The effects of subtle changes in clothing on perceptions of working women. The Journal of Social Psychology. 2018;158(2): 252-255. [84] Lennon SJ, Johnson KKP, Noh M, Zheng Z, Chae Y, Kim Y. In search of a common thread revisited: what content does fashion communicate?. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education. 2014;7(3):170-178. [85] Wolfe JB, Betz NE. The relationship of attachment variables to career decision-making selfefficacy and fear of commitment. The Career Development Quarterly. 2004;52:363-369.

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GHAFFARI P, GRANCARIĆ AM, COST Action “Investigation and Mathematical… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 104-106.

COST Action “Investigation and Mathematical Analysis of Avant-garde Disease Control via Mosquito Nano-TechRepellents” (IMAAC) CA16227 (2017—2021) Peyman GHAFFARI, Ana Marija GRANCARIĆ University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Zagreb, Croatia pgsaid@fc.ul.pt ana.marija.grancaric@ttf.hr Notice

SUMMARY The main aim and objective of the Action is to address the quantitative and mathematical investigation of the effect of employing avant-garde mosquito control measures as part of the technological processes in the textile and paint industries. The measurement of these effects in population to improve the new generation of control measures is the core of this challenge. This will be achieved through the specific objectives detailed in the Technical Annex. The economic dimension of the activities carried out under the Action has been estimated, on the basis of information available during the planning of the Action, at EUR 32 million in 2016. The MoU will enter into force once at least five (5) COST Member Countries and/or COST Cooperating State have accepted it, and the corresponding Management Committee Members have been appointed, as described in the CSO Decision COST 134/14. The COST Action will start from the date of the first Management Committee meeting and shall be implemented for a period of four (4) years, unless an extension is approved by the CSO following the procedure described in the CSO Decision COST 134/14. IMAAC aims at investigation and mathematical analysis of the effect of avant-garde control measures in vector-borne diseases involving day-time active mosquitos transmitting diseases like dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever. The control measures involve new technologies in textile and paint products based on nano- and micro-particles releasing repellents or pesticides in well portioned dosage. The study will 104 www.textile-leather.com


GHAFFARI P, GRANCARIĆ AM, COST Action “Investigation and Mathematical… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 104-106.

also be expanded to scenarios using vaccines in combination with mentioned control techniques. The main focus will be on dengue fever transmitted via Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in synergy with existing EU-projects, but the application will have also positive effects on other vector-borne diseases. Nano- and micro-particles are used in textile production for various purposes, and can be used to release chemicals like repellents and insecticides in a well-controlled rate. First attempts in this direction have been made, but no efficacy studies could be performed yet. The spectrum of combinations of nano- or micro particles, repellents, insecticides and types of textiles (or paint) has not been well studied. Especially, efficacy studies in cases using these control measures in combination with vaccines are unchartered territories and mathematical modelling has to be developed. This Action aims to bring together experts from epidemiology, biostatistics, mathematics, biology, nanotechnology, chemical and textile engineering to implement new techniques to combat mosquito transmitted vector-borne diseases. The key question remains, in how far such avant-garde measures can help to reduce the disease burden, eventually in collaboration with existing vaccines which turned out to have only limited efficacy on their own.

Areas of Expertise Relevant for the Action • • • • •

Mathematics: Statistics Biological sciences: Biostatistics Chemical engineering: Medicinal chemistry, drug synthesis Materials engineering: Nanophysics for materials engineering applications Nano-technology: Nano-materials and nano-structures

Keywords • • • • •

Epidemiology and Modelling Disease Control Measures Vector-borne Diseases Mosquito Dengue Fever

Specific Objectives To achieve the main objective described in this MoU, the following specific objectives shall be accomplished:

Research Coordination • Investigation of the effect of employing avant-garde mosquito control measures as part of the technological processes in the textile and paint industries. Nano- and micro-particles release repellents or pesticides in well-controlled dosage. The Action would measure these effects in population to improve the new generation of control measures. • The development of structure, coordination, and maintenance of a long-term European Network between Industry and Research Institutes pursuing the goal of a new generation of mosquito control measures with the long-term vision of field studies and cumulating licensing of the products. • This Action will not only have an immense impact on healthcare in relation to mosquito transmitted diseases but has economic benefits for the industry by producing new kind of textiles, paints (and other products i.e. tiles). www.textile-leather.com 105


GHAFFARI P, GRANCARIĆ AM, COST Action “Investigation and Mathematical… TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 104-106.

Capacity Building • The core capacity objective remains, in how far based on mathematical analysis of the achieved data regarding new avant-garde technologies against mosquito- disease spreading can help to combat the vector-borne disease burden • Expert knowledge from textile and paint research and related new material industries, from nano- and micro- technology, from repellent and insecticide industry and research in mathematical epidemiology and biology combined with state of the art knowledge in mosquitoes and vector-borne disease spreading and control. • This Action will provide help by various activities such as collaborating with existing EU projects, organizing new events to join forces tackling problems applying New Techniques in Combating Mosquito transmitted diseases theoretically, experimentally and industrially • Capacities to initiate some pilot field study projects in future through the gained knowledge. Already some advances have been achieved in the development of repellents or insecticides, which help us to realize the set targets with the help of mathematical tools developed by the theoreticians in this consortium. • This Action will also help in the long run to apply for EU or National grants to fund more costly research such as field studies.

COST Action CA16227 Core group members with Mr. Rafael Santana - Fuerteventura Minister of Economy and Carlos DG Robaina - Director AFRIMAC

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 107-110.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS EDITING YOUR MANUSCRIPT Please use our template to edit your article before submitting for review. • Volume of a manuscript should not exceed 10.000 words, without Tables, Figures and Images. • Title of a manuscript should not exceed 15 words. • Full names and surnames of the authors, as well as full names of the author’s affiliation – university, institute, company, department, town and country should be clearly given. Corresponding author should be indicated, and their e-mail address provided. • Abstract of a manuscript should be no longer than 250 words. • Keywords should contain 3-7 items. • SI units should be used throughout. • Abbreviations should be used according to IUPAC and ISO standards and defined when first used. • Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, they should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and appended at the end of the manuscript. • References should be cited using Arabic numbers in square brackets,  according to the Vancouver referencing style. Please use our Quick Reference Guide (or look at the next page) • Figures and illustrations with a title and legend should be numbered consecutively (with Arabic numerals) and must be referred in the text. Images should be numbered as Figures. Additionally, Figures should be supplied as a separate file saved as jpg or tif at 300 dpi minimum. Type size in the description of axes should be proportional to the size of the Figure. • Tables with a title and optional legend should be numbered consecutively and must be referred in the text. • Acknowledgements may be included and should be placed after Conclusions and before References.

CATEGORIZATION OF ARTICLES Distinguishing scientific from professional articles The importance of usefulness of a article is not determined by whether it is scientific or professional. The difference between a scientific and a professional work is the originality of the results of research, debate and conclusions obtained by verified scientific methods. A professional paper can be more important for spreading knowledge and profession and economically more useful in application, but this does not mean it is a new contribution to the increase of scientific knowledge. The received manuscripts are categorized into: Original scientific papers means it is the first publication of original research. It must be presented so that the research can be repeated giving results with equal precision within the limits of the trial error, which means that the correctness of analyses and conclusions can be checked. Scientific review is a complete review of a issue or a field of research based on already published work but contains original analyses synthesis or suggestions for further research. It has a more comprehensive introduction than the original scientific paper. Preliminary communication includes new scientific results demanding urgent publication while the research is underway. This kind of article does not have to ensure the repetition and checking the presented results. It is published only with the author’s obligation to publish the original scientific paper when the research is completed.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 107-110.

Conference paper is the work presented at a professional conference organized on local, regional or state level. It will be published if it has not been published in full in Proceedings, as a report, a study etc. Professional paper deals with the issues in the profession. It gives professional instructions and suggestions for how to solve the issue (technique, technology, methodology). Professional review is a complete review of a professional issue (technique, technology, methodology) based on already published work indicating the best ways for solving the issue. The papers that are not categorized include: Presentation and communication from practical experience deals with solving the problem of particular laboratory, institution or industry and serve to inform interested parties of the solution applied. Position paper is an essay that presents an arguable opinion about an issue. Commentary is paper connected with actual news and condition in science and textile/clothing industry.

QUICK REFERENCE GUIDE Vancouver referencing style consists of: • citations to someone else’s work in the text, indicated by the use of a number, • a sequentially numbered reference list at the end of the document providing full details of the corresponding in-text reference. In-text citations • Insert an in-text citation: o when your work has been influenced by someone else’s work, for example: ▪ when you directly quote someone else’s work ▪ when you paraphrase someone else’s work • General rules of in-text citation: o A number is allocated to a source in the order in which it is cited in the text. If the source is referred to again, the same number is used o Use Arabic numerals in square brackets [1], [2], [3], … o Superscripts can also be used rather than brackets o Reference numbers should be inserted to the left or inside of colons and semi-colons o Reference numbers are placed outside or after full stops and commas Multiple works by the same author: Each individual work by the same author, even if it is published in the same year, has its own reference number. Citing secondary sources: A secondary source, or indirect citation, occurs when the ideas on one author are published in another author’s work, and you have not accessed or read the original piece of work. Cite the author of the work you have read and also include this source in your reference list.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV TEXT LEATH REV 2 (2) 2019 107-110.

In-text citation examples The in-text citation is placed immediately after the text which refers to the source being cited: ...and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1] Including page numbers with in-text citations: Page numbers are not usually included with the citation number. However should you wish to specify the page number of the source the page/s should be included in the following format: …and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1 p23] Hearle [1 p16-18] has argued that... Citing more than one reference at a time: The preferred method is to list each reference number separated by a comma, or by a dash for a sequence of consecutive numbers. There should be no spaces between commas or dashes For example: [1,5,6-8] Reference List • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper • Begin your reference list on a new page and title it References • The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text • Use Arabic numerals [1], [2], [3], … • Full journal titles are prefered • Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source when you cite it Scholarly journal articles • Enter author’s surname followed by no more than 2 initials (full stop) • If more than 1 author: give all authors’ names and separate each by a comma and a space • For articles with 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. For articles with more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors then add ‘et al.’ • Only the first word of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalized. • Use Full journal titles • Follow the date with a semi-colon; • Abbreviate months to their first 3 letters (no full stop) • Give the volume number (no space) followed by issue number in brackets • If the journal has continuous page numbering through its volumes, omit month/issue number. • Page numbers, eg: 123-129. Digital Object Identification (DOI) and URLs The digital object identifier (DOI) should be provided in the reference where it is available. Use the form as it appears in your source. Print journal article – Ferri L de, Lorenzi A, Carcano E, Draghi L. Silk fabrics modification by sol-gel method. Textile Research Journal. 2018 Jan;88(1):99-107. ▪ Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of article. Title of journal. Date of publication YYYY Mon DD;volume number(issue number):page numbers.

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Electronic journal article – Niculescu O, Deselnicu DC, Georgescu M, Nituica M. Finishing product for improving antifugal properties of leather. Leather and Footwear Journal [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Apr 22];17(1):31-38. Available from: http://revistapielarieincaltaminte.ro/revistapielarieincaltaminteresurse/en/ fisiere/full/vol17 -nr1/article4_vol17_issue1.pdf ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Title of Journal [Internet]. Date of publication YYYY MM [cited YYYY Mon DD];volume number(issue number):page numbers. Available from: URL Book – Hu J. Structure and mechanics of woven fabrics. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2004. 61 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of book. # edition [if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination. Edited book - Sun G, editor. Antimicrobial Textiles. Duxford: Woodhead Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier; 2016. 99 p. ▪ Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. # edition[if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year. Pagination. Chapter in a book - Luximon A, editor. Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2013. Chapter 5, Foot problems and their implications for footwear design; p. [90-114]. ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; p. [page numbers of chapter]. Electronic book – Strasser J. Bangladesh’s Leather Industry: Local Production Networks in the Global Economy [Internet]. s.l.: Springer International Publishing; 2015 [cited 2017 Feb 07]. 96 p. Available from: https://link. springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-22548-7 ▪ Author AA. Title of web page [Internet]. Place of Publication: Sponsor of Website/Publisher; Year published [cited YYYY Mon DD]. Number of pages. Available from: URL DOI: (if available) Conference paper – Ferreira NG, Nobrega LCO, Held MSB. The need of Fashion Accessories. In: Mijović B. editor. Innovative textile for high future demands. Proceedings 12th World Textile Conference AUTEX; 13-15 June 2012; Zadar, Croatia. Zagreb: Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb; 2012. p. 1253-1257. ▪ Author AA. Title of paper. In: Editor AA, editor. Title of book. Proceedings of the Title of the Conference; Date of conference; Place of Conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of Publication. p. page numbers. Thesis/dissertation – Sujeevini J. Studies on the hydro-thermal and viscoelastic properties of leather [dissertation]. Leicester: University of Leicester; 2004. 144 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Number of pages Electronic thesis/dissertation – Covington AD. Studies in leather science [dissertation on the internet]. Northampton: University of Northampton; 2010. [cited 2017 Jan 09]. Available from: http://ethos.bl.uk/ OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.579666 ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [cited YYYY abb. month DD]. Available from: URL This quick reference guide is based on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). Please consult this source directly for additional information or examples.

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Invitation Arranging the collection for spring and summer of

2020.

W

e invite all manufactures and wholesalers to arrange collection of footwear, accessories and related products for spring and summer 2020.

The arrangement will be held in Zagreb on 1st and 2nd of September (Sunday and Monday) 2019 at the Hotel Antunović in Zagreb, Zagrebačka avenija 100a, Croatia. We also offer the possibility of presenting this year’s collection for autumn and winter if there is any interest. This collection must be clearly marked as this year’s. Models are presented on the tables of approximate size of 1.00 m2 (+ 4 chairs). Table price for domestic exhibitors is 400,00 HRK + VAT. Table price for foreign exhibitors is 80,00 €. License fee is 15,00 €.

on 1 and 2 of September 2019 st

nd

(Sunday and Monday)

at the Hotel Antunović Zagreb

The application must be submitted by 14th August 2018 to the email address: pihler@infonik.hr Payment of the total amount is to IBAN: HR7823600001101300785 no later than 17th August 2018 Contact person – Ivan Pihler, +385 98 219 641 Organizer Ivan Pihler

For Infonik Ltd. Vladimir Dubović


Profile for Suvremena trgovina - online

Textile and leather rewiev 2 2019  

Textile and leather rewiev

Textile and leather rewiev 2 2019  

Textile and leather rewiev

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