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TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER

2/2018 Volume 1 Issue 2 2018 textile-leather.com ISSN 2623-6257 (Print) ISSN 2623-6281 (Online)


TEXTILE & REVIEW LEATHER Editor-in-Chief

Srećko Sertić, Seniko studio Ltd., Croatia

Editorial Board

Davor Jokić, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Dragana Kopitar, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Ivana Schwarz, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Editorial Advisory Board

Emriye Perrin Akçakoca Kumbasar – Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Tuba Bedez Üte, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Mirela Blaga – Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Andrej Demšar – University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Krste Dimitrovski, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Slovenia Ante Gavranović, Economic Analyst, Croatia Huseyin Kadoglu, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Fatma Kalaoglu – Istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Textile Technologies and Design, Turkey Hüseyin Ata Karavana, Ege University, Faculty of Engineering, Turkey Ilda Kazani – Polytechnic University of Tirana, Department of Textile and Fashion, Albania Stana Kovačević, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia Aura Mihai, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles, Leather and Industrial Management, Romania Abhijit Mujumdar, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India Monika Rom, University of Bielsko-Biala, Institute of Textile Engineering and Polymer Materials, Poland Pavla Těšinová, Technical university of Liberec, Faculty of Textile Engineering, Czech Republic Savvas Vassiliadis – Piraeus University of Applied Sciences, Department of Electronics Engineering, Greece

Language Editor

Ivana Lukica, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Croatia

Technical Editor/Layout Marina Sertić

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Textile & Leather Review ‒ ISSN 2623-6257 (Print), ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) UDC 677+675 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR Frequency: 4 Times/Year The annual subscription (4 issues). Printed in 300 copies Published by Seniko studio d.o.o., Zagreb, Croatia Full-text available free of charge at www.textile-leather.com


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TEXTILE & LEATHER REVIEW ISSN 2623-6257 (Print)

ISSN 2623-6281 (Online) CROATIA

VOLUME 1

ISSUE 2 2018

p. 41-84

CONTENTS ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE 46-55 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector Modelling Paula Milosevic, Slavica Bogovic

57-62 Functional Design and Construction of Reusable Surgical Gowns Considering Microbial Barrier Beti Rogina-Car

PROFESSIONAL PAPER 64-71 Launching a New Brand of Women’s Underwear Ivana Kojundzic, Alica Grilec, Ksenija Dolezal, Irena Sabaric

INTERVIEW 73-77 HIPPY GARDEN – a Brand of Creative Freedom and Challenges Jelena Novak


THE PULSE OF THE CITY

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MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 46-55.

3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector Modelling Paula MILOSEVIC, Slavica BOGOVIC* University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Clothing Technology, Croatia * slavica.bogovic@ttf.hr Original scientific article UDC 687.021+687.14 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR.2018.vol1.iss2.p46-55.a6 Received 30 July 2018; Accepted 23 August 2018

ABSTRACT The application of 3D technology increases every day by discovering new ways of usage, which can make everyday life easier. It is most used in production of individualized items that become more accessible and fully customized to personal needs. 3D technologies such as 3D scanning, 3D modelling and additive technologies (3D printing) are used in various areas of human activity such as medicine, architecture, the movie industry, etc. In the clothing’s industry, 3D scanning the human body is digitalized, which is after that used in computer software packages for custom-made clothing. Except for the fashion industry, there is a need for individualized protective work clothing and equipment production in other industries as well. The possibility of applying new technologies such as 3D scanning and 3D modelling of protective elements that can be made by using 3D printers is presented in this paper. In order to design a field hockey chest protector, male and female subjects were scanned using a 3D body scanner in several different positions specific to the sport. The chest protector was constructed and modelled based on the digitalized images. Software packages were used which enable point clouds preparation of the digitalized human body for constructing the protector, its modelling and preparation of virtually designed protectors for 3D printing. An individualized chest protector is modelled using a software program called Bender. The protector is integrated into the clothing item, completely follows the body shape and provides the necessary protection. KEYWORDS 3D body scanner, 3D modelling, 3D printing, chest protector

INTRODUCTION The development of 3D technologies as well as finding new ways of application has largely increased in the last several years. 3D technologies include 3D scanners, 3D modelling software and 3D printers. By using 3D body scanners, human bodies are digitalized, thus forming spatial coordinates of point clouds suitable for further computer processing. 3D human body digitalization is carried out by various techniques depending on the type of sensor used [1, 2]. Point clouds of the human body obtained in such a way have different applications and are used in the clothing industry, film industry, ergonomic research, aesthetic surgery, etc. [2]. In the clothing industry, 3D body scanners have been used for many years and enable custom-made

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MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 46-55.

clothing production, virtual simulation of clothing and measuring fabric surface geometry [1, 2]. Point clouds obtained by scanning are used when taking measurements or for a virtual representation of clothing fit, where a parametric model of the human body was made previously [3, 4]. Such clothing provides good fit and, in the case of producing functional custom-made protective clothing, provides better protection [1, 5]. The productďťżion of individualized protectors which are part of the protective equipment includes additive production or 3D printer. An object that is produced using a 3D printer needs to be designed using a software package. In this way, the 3D model is constructed or can be made based on a scanned object. Today, there are a number of CAD programs on the market that allow precise computer modelling of the object [1, 6]. In order to produce computer designed objects using a 3D printer, it is necessary to store them in a file that is suitable for printing. STL (triangulation file) is the most common type of a 3D model file in which the surface consists of triangles. Each triangle has an internal and external side that is called a normal. In well formed STL files, all normals are facing outwards and together make a continuous surface [6, 7]. The 3D model is made using a 3D printer that arranges the polymer in layers. The layer thickness is defined depending on the purpose and required strength of the object being produced. The printing process may take several hours to several days depending on the size and the type of product [6, 7]. The most commonly used polymers for 3D printing are: polylactic acid (PLA), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyethylene terephthalate (PETT), nylon by Taulman 3D, etc. The easiest to use is PLA, and the strongest is ABS [1, 8]. During 3D printing, layer height, object filling and wall thickness can be defined. Wall thickness, the form of filling, and density are defined prior to printing as well. The exterior appearance and firmness of the object depends on the wall thickness. Items are most often printed at 10% fill, while a 15 % fill is used for prototypes and in architecture, and 20 % fill for usable objects [8]. Individualized protective clothing and equipment have been used in various sports for a long time. Such clothing and equipment may, in addition to protection, provide better sport results [9]. In order to design equipment and clothing intended to protect athletes, it is necessary to know characteristics of the sport in which it will be used. It is important to know which body parts should be provided protection and at what level, what are the rules prescribing the equipment, as well as human body measurements and shapes, specific positions of the body, and similar [1, 9]. In some team sports, hockey included it is important to know the position of the user in the team, because the type of protective equipment to be used depends on it [1]. What is required adequate clothing and equipment varies between ice hockey and field hockey. Due to greater dynamism of ice hockey, its equipment consists of: helmets, neck protectors, upper body protectors, elbow pads, leg protectors, hockey gloves, trousers and jerseys. Such elaborate equipment, with the addition of hand and leg protectors, is worn only by the goalkeeper in field hockey [1, 10]. Protectors for field hockey are made of polymeric materials with high firmness and durability. Textile materials should also be used to ensure adequate protection. Textile materials adhere to the body at the appropriate locations. Custom-made protectors are made of various polymeric materials and textile composites, thus achieving high firmness, impact resistance and other properties [11]. Figure 1 shows the needed protection for field hockey goalkeepers. The protection is layered and made from different materials. Next to the body, there is protection made of foam material (b) that relieves impacts and can be of various thicknesses and firmness. Strong polymeric protectors (a) are used for the protection of the chest and the shoulders. Both types of protectors are integrated into the clothing item.

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that relieves impacts and can be of various thicknesses and firmness. Strong polymeric protectors MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies Individualized Chest TEXT LEATH REV 1of(2)protectors 2018 46-55. are (a) are used for the protection ofinthe chest and theProtector... shoulders. Both types

integrated into the clothing item.

Figure 1. The sketch of positions of body protectors used by field hockey goalkeepers

Figure 1. The sketch of positions of body protectors used by field hockey goalkeepers a) strong polymeric protectors, b) a) strong polymericprotection protectors, b) of protection made of foam material made foam material

EXPERIMENTAL EXPERIMENTAL

MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualised Chest… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 XX-XX.

The modelling of a chest for a specifi has beenhas carried in three The modelling ofprotector a chest protector for capurpose specific purpose beenout carried outrelated in threesteps: related • 3D body scanning in specific positions, steps: 3D body scanning of point cloud for 3D chest protection modelling and • Preparation  3D for body • 3D modelling and preparation 3Dscanning printing. in specific positions, For an individualized protector production, male and female subjects were scanned in specific  Preparation of point cloud for 3D chest protection modelling and positions when using the equipment (Fig.2). The scanning was performed using the VisualSmart 3D 3D body scanning  3D modelling and preparation for 3D printing. body scanner installed at the University of Zagreb, at the Faculty of Textile Technology’s Department For an individualized protector production, male and female subjects were scanned in specific positions when of using Clothing Technology.(Fig.2). A system of 8 CCD cameras and using laser the beams was used3Dand the scanning the equipment The scanning was performed VisualSmart body scanner installed at the10-12 University of Zagreb, at the of Texti le Technology’s Department Clothing Technology. A lasted seconds, resulting in a Faculty point cloud containing about 500 000 spatialofcoordinates. Data system of 8 CCD cameras and laser beams was used and the scanning lasted 10-12 seconds, resulting in a processing took approximately 40 seconds and created a point cloud used as the etalon for point cloud containing about 500 000 spatial coordinates. Data processing took approximately 40 seconds measuring anda point extracting human body usingand theextracti ScanWorx software The using and created cloudshapes used asof thethe etalon for measuring ng shapes of thepackage. human body scanning area was 1000x800mm byThe 2040 mm tall.area was 1000x800mm by 2040 mm tall. the ScanWorx soft ware package. scanning

2 1 3 4 ) positions in which the body is scanned [1] )Figure 2. Specific body Figure 2. Specific body positions in which the body is scanned [1]

Point cloud preparation for 3D modelling 48 Point www.texti cloudle-leather.com preparation for 3D modelling was performed for the purpose of closing the point cloud, thereby reducing the number of points. The MeshLab software package was used due to its


MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 46-55.

Point cloud preparation for 3D modelling Point cloud preparation for 3D modelling was performed for the purpose of closing the point cloud, thereby reducing the number of points. The MeshLab software package was used due to its suitability for processing and editing of unstructured 3D data after 3D scanning. Automatic software package filters were used to clean the meshes including removing double, undefined, unexposed edges and peaks, and so called zero surfaces. Performing The tools supported a high quality ofon mesh catibe on.accomplished Using different surface divisions different 3D modifications the simplifi object can by types objectof processing andinsurface reconstructi algorithms, pointIncloud can be the completed 12]. two ways: in ObjectonMode and Editthe Mode. Edit Mode, object is[1, processed by adding or reducing the number of points, edges, or surfaces. These elements can be positioned individually or

3D modelling and preparation for 3D printing

in a group with a high accuracy in forming a 3D object. Both data processing modes allow adding 2D

Theand Blender software wasonused for the etc. 3D [1, modelling of the chest protector as it supports 3D 3D objects, lines,package and meshes the surface, 13]. modelling, animation, simulation, assembling, motion tracking, video editing, and games creation [13]. When constructing an cati individualized different 3D modelling caninbe Performing different 3D modifi ons on thechest objectprotector, can be accomplished by object methods processing two ways: in Object Mode and Edit In Editpackage Mode, and the object is processed adding orWhen reducing the number of applied, depending on Mode. the software input data used in 3Dbymodelling. it comes to points, edges, surfaces. These positi in necessary a group with a high human bodyordigitalization, theelements obtained can databeare notoned fully individually structured. or It is to find 3Daccuracy in forming a 3D object. Both data processing modes allow adding 2D and 3D objects, lines, and meshes on modelling methods that will ensure shapes suitable for 3D printing. Therefore, it is possible to define the surface, etc. [1, 13]. a simple geometric body with finite object dimensions which is then modelled. A cube, cuboid or When constructing an individualized chest protector, different 3D modelling methods can be applied, depenusually as the base [1].data Another method is a it construction of the base dingsphere on theare soft ware used package and input used3D in modelling 3D modelling. When comes to human body digitathat modelled according a scanned object. InItother words, ittohas its3D own shape and volumethat will lizati on, isthe obtained data aretonot fully structured. is necessary find modelling methods ensure shapes suitableand for 3D ng. Therefore, possible define a simpleofgeometric with which is multiplied builtprinti in layers into a 3Dit is object. Thetothird possibility modelling body is finite object dimensions which is then modelled. cube, cuboid sphere are usually as the constructing a structured mesh that fully followsAthe scanned 3Dor object. When definingused the area forbase [1]. Another 3D modelling method is a construction of the base that is modelled according to a scanned object. which the protector has to be made, the volume of the protector is determined. In other words, it has its own shape and volume which is multiplied and built in layers into a 3D object. The third possibility of modelling3D is constructi ng a structured that fully follows scanned 3D object. The aforementioned modelling procedures resultmesh in a structured 3D meshthe that is suitable When ning the area for which the protector has to be made, the volume of the protector is determined. for defi 3D printing. The aforementioned 3D modelling procedures result in a structured 3D mesh that is suitable for 3D printing. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

Based on the experiment plan, the 3D human body point clouds in different positions were

Based on the(Fig. experiment plan, the 3D human body point clouds in different positions were obtained (Fig. 3). obtained 3).

Figure 3. 3D scanned point clouds of male body in specific positions Figure 3. 3D scanned point clouds of male body in specific positions

After the scanning, the point clouds were closed and unified. The MeshLab software package was used for unifying the point clouds and the Poisson’s surface reconstruction algorithm was used

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MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 46-55. MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualised Chest… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 XX-XX.

After the scanning, the point clouds were closed and unified. The MeshLab software package was used for unifying theforpoint clouds and the Poisson’s surface reconstructi wasmodelling used forofclosing the point closing the point clouds. This way, parameters that allow evenon andalgorithm precise surface clouds. Thistheway, parameters allow and precise surface modelling of thei.e. scanned object were scanned object werethat defined. Theeven first parameter defines the depth of reconstruction the defined. The firstofparameter defi depth ofwill reconstructi i.e.cloud theofdepth of the point cloud that the depth the point cloud thatnes thethe reconstruction capture. Theon point the scanned human reconstructibody on will capture. The pointthe cloud of the scanned human four layers. has four layers. By reducing number of points, a unified point body cloud ishas obtained. Figure 4 By reducing the number of points, unificloud ed point cloud is obtained. 4 shows the point of human shows thea point of human body obtained by Figure 3D scanning (Fig. 4a) and closedcloud point cloud (Fig. body obtained by 3D scanning (Fig. 4a) closed point cloudabove, (Fig. 4b) prepared for 3D modelling. Aswhich described above, all 4b) prepared forand 3D modelling. As described all the scanned point clouds are prepared accurate measurements and defining a body shape for whichmeasurements the protective element the scannedenables pointtaking clouds are prepared which enables taking accurate and defining a body will be the constructed [1].ve element will be constructed [1]. shape for which protecti

a)

b)

Figure 4. Point clouds of the digitalized human body: a) point cloud obtained by 3D scanning; b) point cloud prepared for

Figure 4. Point clouds of the digitalized3D human body: a) point cloud obtained by 3D scanning; modelling b) point cloud prepared for 3D modelling 3D modelling of the protector was carried out according to the sketch of the chest protector

shown in Figure 1. A cuboid which outlines the protector was defined for the chest protector

3D modelling of the protector wasThe carried to theofsketch the5a) chest protector production by 3D modelling. cuboidout wasaccording defined by scaling the cubeof(Fig. and according to shown in Figure 1. A cuboidthe which protector was defi(Fig. ned5b). forThe the chestofprotector producti chestoutlines protector’sthe external shape template number edges increased withinon theby 3D modelling. The cuboid defined was defi ned which by scaling cube and according to thethe chest cuboid makesof it the possible to (Fig. form 5a) a structured mesh defining chestprotector’s protector’s external shape template (Fig. 5b).shape The(Fig. number external 5c). of edges increased within the defined cuboid which makes it possible to form a structured mesh defining the chest protector’s external shape (Fig. 5c). The protector’s external shape is constructed as described above, and integrated into a cuboid with defined height which corresponds to the protector’s thickness.

a)

a)

a)

a)

b)

b)b)

b)

c)

c)

c) c)

FigureFigure 5. Chest protector modelling: a)a)Defining the cube; b) remodeling the cube into the cuboid according to 5. Figure Chest protector 5. Chest Figure protector modelling: 5. Chest modelling: a)protector Defining modelling: the Defining cube;the b)a)remodeling cube; Defining b) remodeling thethe cube; cubeb)the into remodeling cube the cuboid intothe the according cube cuboid into according to the protector’s cuboid to protector’s according to protector’s protector’sdimensions; dimensions; c) Creating a structured mesh for chest protector modelling dimensions; c) Creating c)dimensions; aCreating structured a structured c)mesh Creating for mesh chest a structured for protector chest mesh protector modelling for chest modelling protector modelling The next The step next in step the Thechest in next theprotector step chest in protector theconstruction chest construction protector was the construction was modelling the modelling was of the the protector’s of modelling the protector’s of inner the protector’s inner inner side so side that so it precisely thatside it precisely so follows that itfollows the precisely body the shape follows bodyAs shape the it cannot body As itshape cannot be achieved Asbe it achieved cannot by conventional beby achieved conventional methods, by conventional methods, it itmethods, it

50 www.texti le-leather.com was modelled was modelled according was according modelled to the scanned to according the scanned part to of thepart the scanned point of thecloud. part point ofAs cloud. the a result, point As acloud. functions result,Asfunctions awhich result,enable which functions enable which enable modelling modelling of protector of modelling protector structured of structured protector mesh by structured mesh “imprinting“ by “imprinting“ meshpart by of “imprinting“ part the point of theclouds part point ofinto clouds the the point into prepared clouds the prepared into the prepared


MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 46-55. a)

b)

c)

The protector’s external shape is constructed as described above, and integrated into a cuboid with defined 5. Chest protector modelling: a) Defining the cube; b) remodeling the cube into the cuboid according to protector’s height which Figure corresponds to the protector’s thickness. dimensions; c) Creating a structured mesh for chest protector modelling The next step in the chest protector construction was the modelling of the protector’s inner side so that The next step in the chest protector construction was the modelling of the protector’s inner it precisely follows the body shape As it cannot be achieved by conventional methods, it was modelled side so that it precisely follows the body shape As it cannot be achieved by conventional methods, it according to the scanned part of the point cloud. As a result, functions which enable modelling of protector was modelled according to the scanned part of the point cloud. As a result, functions which enable structured mesh by “imprinting“ part of the point clouds into the prepared chest protector shape were modelling of protector structured mesh by “imprinting“ part of the point clouds into the prepared used (Fig. 6). As the etalon, the point cloud of 3D scanned human body was used in the standard scanning protector shape were used (Fig. 6). As the etalon, the point cloud of 3D scanned human body position (pos.chest 1, Fig. 2). was used in the standard scanning position (pos. 1, Fig. 2).

Figure 6. 3D chest modelling according the body scanned body Figure 6. 3D protector chest protector modelling according to the to scanned The chest protector modelled as described is preparedChest… for 3D printing a XX-XX. smooth MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualised TEXT LEATH by REVdefining 1 (2) 2018

The chest protector as described is prepared 3DByprinti ng by defi ning a smooth and evenmodelled surface of the chest protector’s external for layer. multiplying the number of points,and the even surface of the chestnumber protector’s external layer. By multiplying the number of points, the number of mesh edges of mesh edges and the mesh surface elements, the fragmentation of 3D object mesh and the mesh surface elements, the fragmentation of 3D object mesh construction was achieved (Fig. 7). construction was achieved (Fig. 7).

Figure 7. Smoothened surface of 3D modelled chest protector Figure 7. Smoothened surface of 3D modelled chest protector

After modelling the right chest protector, the chest protector covering the left side of the body was modelled. After modelling the right chest protector, the chest protector covering the left side of the body It is not possible to define the left side of the chest protector as mirror image of the right part due to the was modelled. It is not possible to define the left side of the chest protector as mirror image of the asymmetryright of the body, which is determined by a virtual fit testing. Therefore, the left part of the protector part due to the asymmetry of the body, which is determined by a virtual fit testing. Therefore, was corrected according to the body shape. Figure 8 shows 3D protectors in static body position. the left part of the protector was corrected according to the body shape. Figure 8 shows 3D protectors in static body position.

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was modelled. It is not possible to define the left side of the chest protector as mirror image of the right part due to the asymmetry of the body, which is determined by a virtual fit testing. Therefore, MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 46-55. the left part of the protector was corrected according to the body shape. Figure 8 shows 3D protectors in static body position.

Figure 8.Figure 3D modelled chest protectors formale male body 8. 3D modelled chest protectors for body The chest protectors the female body were in modelled in amanner similar manner showing thatinner the side The chest protectors for the femaleforbody were modelled a similar showing that the inner side of the protector differs themale inner sideprotector of the male protector due to of the protector differs from the inner sidefrom of the body duebody to the anatomical diffthe erences of the female body (Fig. 9). anatomical differences of the female body (Fig. 9).

Figure9.9.Chest Chest protector protector modelling made forfor female body [1] [1] Figure modellingcustomcustommade female body

3D chest protectors were virtually tested for the purpose of fit testing in specific body positions (Fig. 10). The for tested furtherforprotector modelling was in order 3D chest protectors wereneed virtually the purpose of fit testi ngestablished in specific body positito onsprovide (Fig. 10). The need for further protector modelling was established in order to provide adequate protection [1]. adequate protection [1].

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Figure 9. Chest protector modelling custom- made for female body [1]

3D chest protectors were virtually tested for the purpose of fit testing in specific body MILOSEVIC(Fig. P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 46-55. positions 10). The need for further protector modelling was established in order to provide

adequate protection [1].

a) a)

MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualised Chest‌ TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 XX-XX.

b)

b)

Figure 10.the Chest protector fitoftesting in specific position: a)of male b) female [1]the 3D Considering occurrence ofbody point thebody; human bodybody and[1] Figure 10. Chest protectoroverlapping fit testing in specific body clouds position: a) male body; b) female body

modelled chest protector, it is necessary to model new 3D objects in the sleeve area is following the Considering occurrence of overlapping of point cloudsforofthe thefemale humanbody, body it and the 3D modelled chest body shape. the In the case of the chest protector intended is necessary to make protector, it is necessary to model new 3D objects in the sleeve area is following the body shape. In the case additional protector modelling in the neck area. Thecustom-made chest protectors for male and of the chest protector intended for the female body, it is necessary to make additional protector modelling female bodies areThecustom-made shown in Figure 11. in the neck area. chest protectors for male and female bodies are shown in Figure 11.

Figure 11. formale maleand andfemale female bodies made to measure and prepared 3D printing [1] Figure 11.Chest Chestprotectors protectors for bodies made to measure and prepared for 3D for printing [1]

The difference in shape theprotector chest protector theand male and female does not appear The diff erence in shape of the of chest for thefor male female bodies bodies does not appear only in the innerinpart the protector, but protector, on the external shape well. The chestas protector intended the female only theofinner part of the but on theasexternal shape well. The chest for protector body moves to the neck in specific position sue to the anatomical differences of the female body. The major intended for the female body moves to the neck in specific position sue to the anatomical differences cause is the shoulder width and the angle at which the protector lies on the chest of the female body. of the female body. The major cause is the shoulder width and the angle at which the protector lies on the chest of the female body. CONCLUSIONS

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The common methods of shaping protective clothing and accessories, as well as elements


MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 46-55.

CONCLUSIONS The common methods of shaping protective clothing and accessories, as well as elements that integrate into a garment item, are conceived in body measurements and are made on the basis of a national manufacturer’s standard in several sizes. Such equipment does not provide adequate protection and security to users. Therefore, research, application of scientific technical and engineering knowledge, creativity and the use of new technologies are of great importance for the design of individualized functional protection elements. Based on the results presented in this paper, it can be concluded that 3D technologies can be successfully used in the modelling of protection elements for the human body 3D scanning, 3D modelling, and 3D printing require knowledge of 3D technology and its use in order to develop objects for individual purposes. 3D chest protectors modelling according to real body shapes and specific purposes indicate the need for using sophisticated equipment that will provide adequate protection. Modelling of protective elements can increase the level of protection, as shown, because body asymmetry can be taken into consideration during development, as well as the specific body positions in which the protection is used. The method of using 3D technology presented in this paper can be used for other purposes of protecting the body. In this manner, various protectors can be produced to be implemented in clothing items for different purposes. Acknowledgements We thank “Tresnjevka” hockey club, Zagreb, Croatia, for their cooperation.

REFERENCES [1] Milosevic, P. Primjena 3D tehnologija pri konstrukciji prsnog stitnika [Rector’s award]. Zagreb: University of Zagreb; 2018. 54p. [2] D’Apuzzo N. Recent Advances in 3D Full Body Scanning with Applications to Fashion and Apparel. Optical 3-D Measurement Techniques IX. [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2018 Jul 12] Available from: http:// www.hometrica.ch/publ/2009_optical3d.pdf [3] Nikolic G, Rogale D. Industrija 4.0 – pravac razvoja tekstilne i odjevne industrije. Tekstil. 2017 Mar;66(34):65-73. [4] Rudolf A, Bogovic S, Rogina-Car B, Cupar A, Stjepanovic Z, Jevsnik S. Textile forms computer simulation techniques. In: Cvetkovic D, editor. Computer simulation. Rijeka: InTech; 2017, p. [67-93] [5] Frydrych I, Bartkowiak G, Pawłowa M, editors. Innovations in protective and e-textiles in balance with comfort and ecology. Lodz: Lodz University of Technology; 2017. Virtual prototyping of special protective clothing for sport aircraft pilots, p. [84-96] [6] Novakova-Marcincinova L, Kuric I. Basic and Advanced Materials for Fused Deposition Modeling Rapid Prototyping Technology. Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering [Internet]. 2012 [cited 2018 jul 20];11(1):24-27. Available from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1ecc/ fa155a85a8d399c875984a5e4c2d004a547c.pdf [7] Godec D, Mandic L, Surma R, Pilipovic A, Katalenic M. Influence of 3D Printing Parameters On Flexural Properties of 3D Printed Product. In: Ercegovic Razic S, Glogar M I, Novak I, editors. Textile, Leather, and Footwear – the Sector of “Sustainable” Development. Proceedings of the 11th Scientific – Professional Symposium; 24th January 2018; Zagreb, Croatia. Zagreb: University Of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology; 2018. p. 74-79

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MILOSEVIC P, BOGOVIC S, 3D Technologies in Individualized Chest Protector... TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 46-55.

[8] Brown D. 3D Printing materials, terminology and specifications, 3D Properties and models [Internet]. 3D Prototypes and Models [cited 2018 jul 20]. Available from: http://3dprototypesandmodels.com. au/3d-printing-terminology-specifications/ [9] Haak S J. The impact of technology on sporting performance in Olympic sports. Journal of Sports Sciences [Internet]. 2009 [cited 2018 jun 7];27(13):1421-1431. Available from: https://shapeamerica.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02640410903062019#.WuYqNnpuZPZ [10] Hassnain Farrukh A. Textiles in Ice Hockey. [Internet]. 2016 [cited 2018 jul 20]. Available from: https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/296349866_Textiles_in_Ice_Hockey [11] Shishoo R. Textile in sports. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited in association with The Textile Institute; 2005. [12] Cignoni P, Callieri M, Corsini M, Dellepiane M, Ganovelli F, Ranzuglia G. MeshLab: an Open-Source Mesh Processing Tool. In: Scarano V, De Chiara R, Erra U, editors. Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference. Proceedings of the Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference; January 2008; Pisa, Italy. Salerno, The Eurographics Association; 2008. p. 129-136  [13] Chronister J. Blender Basic Classroom Tutorial Book 4th Edition [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2018 Apr 4]; 2011 Available from: http://www.cdschools.org/cms/lib04/PA09000075/Centricity/Domain/81/ BlenderBasics_4thEdition2011.pdf

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ROGINA-CAR B, Functional Design and Construction of Reusable… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 57-62.

Functional Design and Construction of Reusable Surgical Gowns Considering Microbial Barrier Beti ROGINA-CAR University of Zagreb, Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Clothing Technology, Croatia beti.rogina-car@ttf.hr Original scientific article UDC 687+615.479.4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR.2018.vol1.iss2.p57-62.a7 Received 03 August 2018; Accepted 24 August 2018

ABSTRACT The objective of this paper is to propose a functional design of surgical gowns regarding previously investigated properties of textile materials. The following materials were used for the surgical gowns: 100% Tencel, 50% PES/50% cotton and PES/PU/PES three-layered textile laminate. The materials showed satisfactory properties throughout 50 washing cycles and 50 sterilization cycles under realistic conditions at KBC Zagreb (University Hospital Centre Zagreb). Construction and modelling were carried out based on necessary requirements in the operating room. Functional design is proposed based on microbial barriers permeability and air permeability results. KEYWORDS Functional design, clothing construction, modelling, reusable surgical gowns, microbial barrier

INTRODUCTION Surgical clothing is a class 2 medical textile, which is used for bacteria transfer reduction from the skin of surgical personnel into the air in the operating room, as well as for the protection of surgical personnel from contact with body fluids [1]. Protective clothing is defined as -”clothing which covers or replaces personal clothing and which are designed to provide protection against one or more hazards” [2]. Disposable gowns are intended for use during the operation after which they are thrown away. However, reusable surgical gowns usually have to fulfil many more requirements and resist abrasion during use. Typical hospital environment, including operating rooms, presents multiple potential dangers for contamination of healthcare professionals and patients. Necessary protection is provided by using different types of clothing and textiles. Although there are many standards for determining performance of medical textiles, most tests are carried out in laboratory conditions and against one hazard only. When used, a surgical gown can consist of several layers, either as one product, or several products simultaneously worn as a set [3, 4]. The penetration of microorganisms will be smaller through several layers of the same fabric compared to one layer. Air permeability will be reduced by adding layers of the same fabric as well. For example, when using one or two layers of the same fabric, air permeability is reduced by approximately 50% and approximately 30% when using two or three layers , etc. [5].

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ROGINA-CAR B, Functional Design and Construction of Reusable… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 57-62.

The Disease Control Centre has proposed that surgical gowns and other medical textiles, disposable or reusable, must be impermeable to fluids and viruses [6]. The Nurses Association has proposed that fabrics used for surgical gowns must minimize penetration of bacteria from non-sterile to sterile areas and resist fluids transfer, abrasion and perforation [7]. The choice of fabric depends on the professional task and the degree of surgeon’s exposure, e.g. fluid-resistant surgical gowns are worn when there is a risk of contamination of the surgeon by passing of blood and other fluids [8]. Surgeon’s protective clothing must not allow blood or other body fluids to get onto or pass through surgical clothing under normal conditions of use. In addition, in reference to reusable surgical clothing, the duration of the protective function of the surgical gown material itself is important. [9, 10]. In 1978, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instruments (AAMI) established four levels of protection, from the minimal AAMI Level 1 to the highest AAMI Level 4. AAMI Level 1 and Level 2 unreinforced surgical gowns are intended for low or moderate contact with fluid and short term surgery with minimal risk of contamination. AAMI Level 3 reinforced surgical gown is intended for moderate to high contact with fluid. AAMI Level 4 impenetrable surgical gown is intended for long operating procedures and high intensity contact [8]. The goal of the study was to propose a functional design of surgical gowns regarding previously investigated properties of textile materials. Construction and modelling were carried out based on necessary requirements in the operating room. Functional design is proposed based on microbial barriers permeability and air permeability results. Both comfort and 100% protection against penetration of microorganisms, blood and all body fluids was achieved with the combination of textile materials. As a result,, the AAMI classification of surgical gowns requirement is fulfilled and a proposal for new models of reusable gowns is given (the term of validity of minimum 50 washing cycles and 50 sterilization cycles).

EXPERIMENTAL Materials and Methods In order to ensure the best protection from infections for the surgeon and the patient, it is important to select materials that have the appropriate microbial barrier. For functional surgical gown design, a combination of materials was used according to their characteristics. The basic characteristics of the material are shown in Table 1 [11]. Table 1. The properties of the textiles used [11] Textiles PES/cotton Tencel  PES/PU/PES

Composition (%)

Weave

Surface area (g/m2)

50/50

Linen

100

Bluette 2/1

Three-layer textile laminate

Yarn count (tex)

Density (threads/cm)

Warp

Weft

Warp

weft

178.6

28.60

42.28

34

25

193.7

22.83

31.30

50

27

216.0

-

-

-

-

The goal was to achieve the necessary comfort and to allow unrestricted motion of the surgical staff. In addition to these two requirements, it was necessary to achieve the required microbial barrier in critical areas such as the front part and the sleeve. Functional design was carried out based on previously published medical textiles research. The research was conducted in collaboration with the University Hospital Centre Zagreb The samples were exposed to 50 washing cycles and 50 sterilization cycles under actual hospital conditions after which microbial barrier permeability and air permeability tests were performed.

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ROGINA-CAR B, Functional Design and Construction of Reusable… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 57-62.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Based on the microbial barrier permeability and air permeability results, functional design and modelling of reusable surgical gowns was carried out [11]. According to the air permeability results, Tencel® achieved air permeability maximum and therefore maximum comfort [11]. Tencel® is a man-made cellulosic fibre of the generic fibre type lyocell. It has the ability to absorb water and moisture into its nanostructure, which reduces the tendency of microorganisms growth. The high absorption capacity provides the necessary comfort. An even greater advantage is given to Tencel® from a medical aspect because it does not release particles or produces textile dust [12, 13]. PES/PU/PES three-layered textile laminate meets the European standards for surgical textiles EN 13795; it is impermeable to all liquids, viruses and also meets dry and wet microbiological tests. Therefore, laminate is used in the above mentioned models where maximum protection against fluid spraying is needed and because of the possibility of microbial contamination. The air permeability [R] of tested samples was measured in compliance with EN ISO 9237, Figure 1. The results show that Tencel® has theBeti. bestFunctional air permeability, the PES/PU/PES laminate is ROGINA-CAR Beti. Functional Design and Construction… TEXT REV ROGINA-CAR Design and while Construction… TEXT LEATH LEATHthree-layered REV 11 (2) (2) 2018 2018 XX-XX. XX-XX. completely air impermeable throughout all 50 wash and sterilization cycles [11].

RR[[mm/s] mm/s]

250 250 200 200 150 150 100 100

PES/cotton PES/cotton

30W+S 30W+S 50W+S 50W+S

20W+S 20W+S

1W+S 1W+S

10W+S 10W+S

0W+S 0W+S

50W+S 50W+S

30W+S 30W+S

20W+S 20W+S

1W+S 1W+S

10W+S 10W+S

0W+S 0W+S

50W+S 50W+S

30W+S 30W+S

20W+S 20W+S

1W+S 1W+S

10W+S 10W+S

00

0W+S 0W+S

50 50

Laminate Laminate PES/PU/PES PES/PU/PES

Tencel® Tencel® Washing and Washing and sterilization sterilization

Figure 1. Air permeability of theof tested medical textiles andsterilization, sterilization, R permeability) - air permeability) Figure 1. Air Air permeability permeability of the tested tested medical textiles(W+S (W+S washing RR -- air Figure 1. the medical textiles (W+S--- washing washing and and sterilization, air permeability)

The resultsThe of medical textiles permeability microorganisms after extreme conditions of contamresults cellulosic of medical medical cellulosic textiles of permeability of The results of cellulosic textiles permeability of microorganisms microorganisms after after extreme extreme ination with bacterial spores are shown in Figure 2 [11]. conditions of of contamination contamination with with bacterial bacterial spores spores are are shown conditions shown in in Figure Figure 22 [11]. [11].

CFU CFU

16 16 14 14

12 12 10 10 8 8 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0

1W+S 1W+S 10W+S 10W+S 20W+S 20W+S 30W+S 30W+S 50W+S 50W+S

PES/cotton PES/cotton

Tencel® Tencel®

Laminate Laminate PES/PU/PES PES/PU/PES

lower side (back) lower side (back)

Washing and sterilization Washing and sterilization

Figure 2. The number of biological colonies on the back side (CFU - Colony Forming Unit) Figure 2. The number of biological colonies on the back side (CFU - Colony Forming Unit) Figure 2. The number of biological colonies on the back side (CFU - Colony Forming Unit)

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The results results show show that that the the PES/PU/PES PES/PU/PES three-layered The three-layered laminate laminate is is impermeable impermeable to to microorganisms and and has has an an excellent excellent microbial microbial barrier, barrier, while microorganisms while Tencel® Tencel® showed showed better better microbial microbial


ROGINA-CAR B, Functional Design and Construction of Reusable… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 57-62.

The results show that the PES/PU/PES three-layered laminate is impermeable to microorganisms and has an excellent microbial barrier, while Tencel® showed better microbial barrier than PES/cotton [11]. Raglan sleeve model that provides the necessary freedom of motion and comfort for the surgeon was used on all models. The combinations of textile materials were used in order to meet the AAMI classification of surgical gowns from Level 1 to Level 4. The functional design is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Functional Design of Reusable Surgical Gowns Figure 3. Functional Design of Reusable Surgical Gowns

Surgical gown models are used surgical which are which less time-consuming Surgical gownthat models that for aresimpler used for simplerprocedures surgical procedures are less time- and without any risk of without microbial contamination are contamination made of Tencel® the satisfactory consuming and any risk of microbial are because made of of Tencel® because ofmicrobial the barrier in dry state and the comfort it provides. Where a microbial barrier and protection against spraying satisfactory microbial barrier in dry state and the comfort it provides. Where a microbial barrier and of blood and other body fluids are required, a functional design of the model is proposed using a combinaprotection against spraying of blood and other body fluids are required, a functional design of the tion of two textile materials. model is three-layered proposed usingtextile a combination textileonmaterials. PES/PU/PES laminateofistwo applied the front part and on the sleeves where there is a great potential for contamination with microorganisms and where fluids PES/PU/PES three-layered textile laminate is applied on the protection front part from and on the permeability sleeves is required.Tencel® proposed for the back part in order achieve greater comfort for the surgeon. where there is aisgreat potential for contamination with to microorganisms and where protection from The construction was carried out based on literature [14]. Construction and modelling are shown in Figures 4 fluids permeability is required.Tencel® is proposed for the back part in order to achieve greater and 5. comfort for the surgeon. The construction was carried out based on literature [14]. Construction and modelling are shown in Figures 4 and 5.

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ROGINA-CAR B, Functional Design and Construction of Reusable… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 57-62. ROGINA-CAR Beti. Functional Design and Construction… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 XX-XX.

Figure 4. Clothing construction and Surgical Gowns modelling: AAMI Level 1 and 4

Figure 4. Clothing construction and Surgical modelling: Figure 4. Clothing construction and Surgical Gowns Gowns modelling: AAMI Level 1AAMI and 4 Level 1 and 4

Figure 5. Surgical Gowns modelling: AAMI Level 2 and 3

Figure 5. Surgical Gowns modelling: AAMI Level 2 and 3 Figure 5. Surgical Gowns modelling: AAMI Level 2 and 3

CONCLUSIONS The functional design presented in this paper is proposed based on results obtained after use in actual hospital conditions. Textile materials used have appropriate properties during 50 washing cycles and 50 sterilization cycles. The necessary comfort and freedom of motion are achieved using raglan sleeves. In the Tencel® and the PES/PU/PES three-layered textile laminate combination, Tencel provides comfort and the textile laminate provides 100% protection against penetration of microorganisms, blood and all body fluids. In this way, the AAMI requirements for the classification of surgical gowns are fulfilled and a proposal for new models of reusable gowns is given. www.textile-leather.com 61


ROGINA-CAR B, Functional Design and Construction of Reusable… TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 57-62.

REFERENCES [1] Laufman H, Seigal JD, Edberg SC. Moist bacterial strike through of surgical material: confirmatory tests. Annals of Surgery [Internet]. 1979 [cited 2018 Jul 22];189(1):68–74. Available from: https://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1396949/ [2] International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Standard ISO/TR 11610: 2004 - Protective clothing— vocabulary [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2018 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.iso.org/standard/34638. html [3] Naver LPS, Gottrup F. Incidence of glove perforations in gastrointestinal surgery and the protective effect of double gloves: a prospective, randomised controlled study. The European Journal of Surgery [Internet]. 2000 [cited 2018 Jul 20];166(4):293-295. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/10817324 [4] Aarnio P, Laine T. Glove perforation rate in vascular surgery – a comparison between single and double gloving. VASA [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2018 Jul 21];30(2):122-124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1024/03011526.30.2.122 [5] Baldwin BC, Fox IL, Russ C. Affect of disposable draping on wound infection rate. Virginia Medical. 1981 Jul;108(7):477. [6] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Update: Universal Precautions for Prevention of Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, and Other Bloodborne Pathogens in Health-Care Settings. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report [Internet]. 1988 Jun;37(24):377–388. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/ preview/mmwrhtml/00000039.htm [7] Association of Operating Room Nurses Recommended Practices Coordinating Committee (AORN). Recommended practices: universal precautions in the preoperative setting. AORN Journal. 1993 Feb;57(2): 554–558. [8] Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation. Liquid barrier performance and classification of protective apparel and drapes intended for use in healthcare facilities: ANSI/AAMI PB70:2003. 2003. Arlington, VA: AAMI. [9] Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens: proposed rule and notice of hearing. 29 CFR Part 1910, FRDoc.89-12470, 1989; 23042– 23139. Washington, DC: US Department of Labor. [10] Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens. Final rule, 1991. Washington, DC: Department of Labour Federal Register. [11] Rogina-Car B, Budimir A, Turcic V, Katovic Drago. Do multi-use cellulosic textiles provide safe protection against contamination of sterilized items? Cellulose [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2018 Jul 19];21(3):2101-2109. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-014-0199-1 [12] Schuster KC, Suchomel F, Manner J, Abu-Rous M, Firgo H. Functional and comfort properties of textiles from TENCEL® fibres resulting from the fibres water-absorbing nanostructure: A review. Macromol. Symp. [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2018 Jul 21];244:149-165. DOI: 10.1002/masy.200651214 [13] Girard NJ. Standards, recommended practices, and guidelines. AORN Journal [Internet]. 2006 [cited 2018 Jul 21];83(2):307-308. DOI: 10.1016/S0001-2092(06)60160-9. [14] Ujevic D, Rogale D, Hrastinski M. Tehnike konstruiranja i modeliranja odjece. Zagreb: Tekstilno-tehnoloski fakultet, 2000.

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KOJUNDZIC I et al. Launching a New Brand of Women’s Underwear TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 64-71.

Launching a New Brand of Women’s Underwear Ivana KOJUNDZIC, Alica GRILEC, Ksenija DOLEZAL*, Irena SABARIC University of Zagreb Faculty of Textile Technology, Department of Clothing Technology ikojundzic@gmail.com, alica.grilec@ttf.hr, *ksenija.dolezal@ttf.hr, irena.sabaric@ttf.hr Professional paper UDC 658+687.2+339.138 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31881/TLR.2018.vol1.iss2.p64-71.a5 Reveived 25 July 2018; Accepted 29 August 2018

ABSTRACT Women’s underwear plays a significant role in everyday clothing. Underwear serves a number of equally important purposes. High aesthetic requirements have to be fulfilled as well as those of protection and comfort. Therefore, the idea of launching a new fashion brand of women’s underwear is presented in this paper. The main purpose of the paper is the description of the development of a new brand of luxury underwear including the introduction of several economic phases which are cover mission, vision, brand goal, SWOT analysis and 7P marketing mix. KEYWORDS Underwear, fashion brand, SWOT analysis, 7P marketing mix

INTRODUCTION Underwear is classified as clothing items that are worn under the outerwear and is in direct contact with the body. Apart from protecting clothing, its purpose is to reduce friction between outerwear and skin, shape the body, and provide additional warmth if necessary. Underwear was first used to cover private parts and was made of natural materials such as leaves. Egyptian women were the first to wear underwear 3000 years BC [1]. Underwear was worn as protection from various epidemics in the past, but its role and shape changed by adapting to the trends throughout history. The purpose of underwear was often associated with emphasising certain body parts. For example, women wore tight corsets to emphasise their breasts in ancient Greece, Figure 2.

Figure 1. An example of bodice/corset from the 19th century [2]

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Figure 2. Source, 19th century underwear- pants [3]

Figure 3. Examples underwear form 1920s [4]


KOJUNDZIC I et al. Launching a New Brand of Women’s Underwear TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 64-71.

In other periods, underwear was used for covering the breasts so they would not stand out, emphasizing the back of the body and the hips, Figure 3, 4. Textile materials such as leather or linen were used for this purpose, as well as hoops from brushwood, wires or metal [1, 5]. Nowadays, underwear is made of high quality materials and the models are constructed and modelled to meet the current fashion trends and ensure the desired function, comfort and shape of the body [6].

STARTING A NEW FASHION BRAND OF WOMAN’S UNDERWEAR Firstly, we analysed the existing underwear manufacturers in Croatia and their presence on the Internet, as well as the brands they developed. The economic sector of the underwear production in Croatia was analysed as shown in Tables 1 and 2. Only companies with 10 or more employees registered as clothing manufacturers were included (C14). Specifically, underwear manufacturers according to total revenue (from the top down) as presented in Table 1. Table 1. Underwear manufacturers, Croatia 2018 Nr

Company

Companies size

Nr of employees

1

GALEB JSC

Medium

404

2

HAKADESCH Ltd.

Small

92

3

NEORES Ltd.

Small

208

4

ORLJAVA Ltd.

Small

351

5

MODEA NOVA Ltd.

Small

143

6

POUNJE JSC

Medium

31

7

PENIĆ TEXTIL EXPORT-IMPORT Ltd.

Small

101

8

TEX Ltd.

Mikro

15

9

MAKO Ltd.

Small

44

10

MAIER-TEXTIL Ltd.

Small

54

11

KETEKS Ltd.

Small

58

12

MTČ Factory of tricot JSC

Small

73

13

LAGOMAR Ltd.

Micro

37

14

HAVA simple Ltd.

Micro

37

15

I-KONG Ltd.

Micro

42

16

ŠTIKMA Ltd.

Micro

16

17

Misteks Pro Ltd.

Micro

22

18

POUNJE KONFEKCIJA Ltd.

Micro

44

19

Fashion stars simple Ltd.

Micro

13

20

Privredno društvo Satina Ltd.

Micro

10

Source: Croatian Chamber of Commerce, 2018.

It is concluded there are 20 companies registered for underwear manufacturing in Croatia employing 10 or more employees. Only two are medium sized, nine are small sized, and nine are micro companies. Their brands, according to the Internet analysis, are presented in Table 2.

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KOJUNDZIC I et al. Launching a New Brand of Women’s Underwear TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 64-71.

Table 2. Underwear brands by Croatian manufacturers, 2018 Nr

Company

Web Adress

Brands

1

GALEB JSC

www.galeb.hr

2

HAKADESCH Ltd.

Not Available

Data Not Available

3

NEORES Ltd.

http://www.neores.hr/

Do not develop their own brands according informations from their web site

4

ORLJAVA Ltd.

http://www.orljava.hr/

5

MODEA NOVA Ltd.

https://modea-nova.hr/

6

POUNJE JSC

https://www.pounje.hr/

7

PENIĆ TEXTIL E EXPORT-IMPORT Ltd.

http://www.penic-textil. com/

Data Not Available

8

TEX Ltd.

https://tex-garesnica.hr/

Data Not Available

9

MAKO Ltd.

https://www.mako.hr/

10

MAIER-TEXTIL Ltd.

http://maier-textil.hr/

Data Not Available

11

KETEKS Ltd.

Not Available

Data Not Available

12

MTČ Factory of tricot JSC

http://mtcstrigova.hr/

13

LAGOMAR Ltd.

Not Available

Data Not Available

14

HAVA simple Ltd.

Not Available

Data Not Available

15

I-KONG Ltd.

Not Available

Data Not Available

16

ŠTIKMA Ltd.

http://stikma.hr/

Do not develop their own brands according informations from their web site

17

Misteks Pro Ltd.

Not Available

Data Not Available

18

POUNJE KONFEKCIJA Ltd.

Not Available

Data Not Available

19

Fashion stars simple Ltd.

http://www.fashionstars. com.hr/

Do not develop their own brands according informations from their web site

20

Privredno društvo Satina Ltd.

Not Available

Data Not Available

Source: authors

If we assume that companies with less than 10 employees do not produce large enough quantity of underwear to have a significant market share and, according to Table 2, we can conclude there are not a lot of Croatian underwear brands. This provides a possibility for success and positioning among Croatian underwear producers, as well as gaining a market share. Only six (out of 20 analysed) manufacturers have a visible brand presence on the Internet. Given the growing demands of the market for quality products and the lack of Croatian underwear manufacturers, the idea of launching a new line of luxury underwear has been

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developed. For the realization of this idea, it is necessary to include several economic phases important for brand development. The first step is to describe the company’s potential business activities through its mission, vision, business goal, SWOT analysis and 7P marketing mix, supporting the viability of placing luxury underwear on the market. In addition, it is necessary to identify business objectives, advantages and disadvantages, as well as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to the business. By using a combination of marketing tools, the company would adapt to the requirements and characteristics of the target market, covering all elements of the 7P marketing mix: product to be placed on the market, price formation, promotion, type of distribution when entering the market, market placement process, people and physical environment, and finally, the target audience.

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW FASHION BRAND According to Easey, fashion marketing is defined as “the application of a range of techniques and a business philosophy that centres upon customer and potential customer of clothing and related products and services in order to meet the long-term goals of the organization” [7]. This is the reason why companies without strong vision, mission, and lasting value will be lost among the messages other brands send on the same market. A brand is the most valuable asset of a company and a satisfied customer is the key to long-term success. According to Burke, branding is defined as “the process a company uses to identify and communicate its product or services and provide customers with assurances of a level of quality and consistency of standard” [8]. There are two scenarios: placing a new product on the market or reminding the customers of the already existing one. In the first case, as presented in this paper, the company must offer unique solutions and show the customers that the new brand can satisfy their needs. In the second case, the customers just need to be reminded of the brand’s presence on the market [9]. First of all, the importance of brands for both companies and customers needs to be defined. For companies, brands are: an identification tool for easier handling and monitoring, a means of legal protection of unique features, a symbol of certain level of quality. For the consumer, a product enrichment means for unique associations, a source of competitive advantage and financial income. For the clients, brands are: proof of originality of the product and company’s responsibility, a way of reducing risk and product search costs, a promise, warranty or contract with the manufacturer of the product, a symbolic means and a sign of quality [10]. In order to start a new fashion brand and enter into a new business or to improve an already existing one, a detailed analysis of the planned activities and business environment needs to be conducted. Elaboration of external and internal analysis of the situation is required. Creating an internal situation analysis involves an analysis of the current level of development and management analysis in case that a company or brand already exists. External analysis comprises an analysis of external factors. In order to obtain a better quality analysis, it is necessary to understand a wide range of parameters. Competition analysis, as well as procurement and sales markets, are of great importance.

VISION, MISSION AND GOALS OF A NEW COMPANY Vision The main vision is to create a recognizable fashion brand of luxury underwear in Croatia expand to foreign markets, and become a synonym for luxury and luxurious underwear. The goal is to become the only Croatian fashion brand that manufactures and sells underwear made of high quality materials, such as silk, fur, lace, cotton and viscose which guarantee quality, durability and attractiveness of the product.

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Mission The mission of the brand is to focus on quality and uniqueness, professional production, and availability to potential buyers. Furthermore, the mission is to demonstrate modern style, as well as inspiration from the past. In addition, the mission is to create a fashion brand of luxurious underwear with luxurious materials and details. The aim is to provide more prosperous clients with modern underwear made of high quality natural materials. Finally, the mission of the brand is to achieve recognition for the quality of production.

Goals Short-term goal is to organise various events focusing on luxury aimed at attracting target audiences. The plan is to place the products on the domestic market, where there is currently minimal or no competition, and expand the assortment of products after a while. The first step is to employ persons with secondary and higher professional education in the field of textile and fashion design, and to procure the equipment for production. It is necessary to create a production line consisting of sewing machines, ironing machines, sewing equipment, materials and computers for performing administrative tasks. Long-term goal is to become the leading fashion house of luxurious underwear with its own store and custom-made production in Croatia as such a brand does not exist in the country. The main feature of the fashion brand would be quality and uniqueness. The underwear would be made in Croatia and the materials would be purchased at factories abroad. The possibility of custom-made production or repairs of purchased underwear would be offered to customers. The target group are wealthy clients in all age groups, attracted by the quality of the material and the luxurious appearance of the underwear. Considering there is little luxurious underwear on the market, a high quality product assortment would be offered. The goal of the brand is to develop and survive on the market as the leader in producing luxurious underwear, and to grow and expand into the regional and international market. Goal achievement is planned in 10 years.

MATERIALS AND METHODS SWOT analysis In addition, there are different methods and techniques of analysing company’s internal and external environment. Based on these methods and techniques, the company identifies its place on the market and takes specific actions to improve its position. The SWOT analysis of the new company is presented in Table 1, and was carried out to detect its strengths and weaknesses, as well as opportunities and threats to the company and the fashion brand. Table 3. SWOT analysis of the new fashion brand STHRENGHTS S

WEAKNESES W

Quality of production Quality of materials Unique production Productive team and workers experience Investment in Marketing and Promotion Excellent relationship with suppliers Good organization and leadership

Limited market The difficulty of entering the market Initial low wages Insufficient funding for promotion

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OPPORTUNITIES O

THREATHS T

Opportunity for entering the foreign market Poor competition

The weakening of customers purchasing power Emigration of working-age population Possibility of an economic crisis Innovations

Based on the analysis, the conclusion is that the benefits of the business lie in customer satisfaction, quality of production and materials, and the quality of management and leadership. As for weaknesses, a limited market is mentioned as a small company requires a lot of effort for differentiation on the market. However, there is an emphasis on opportunities because the fashion brand can be recognized and it can gradually increase its market share, as well as expand its operations beyond the state borders. The main threat is the weak customers’ purchasing power due to the high rate of displacement of working-age inhabitants of Croatia. Based on the SWOT analysis of the initial business of the new company, the conclusion is that neutralize the weaknesses and moderate possible threats with its strengths. As part of the SWOT analysis, interviews were conducted with several entrepreneurs, design studio owners, and professors at the Faculty of Textile Technology in Zagreb. It was concluded that Zagreb, as the capital of Croatia, has a deficit of luxurious underwear designers, and that such a company will not have great competition. There is great potential for expansion across the whole region. There is also a high number of skilled personnel for production of underwear in Croatia because Croatia was once the capital of the textile and fashion industry in the former Yugoslavia. The interviewees emphasized that an increasing number of young people are launching their fashion brands and are trying to revive the fashion industry’s famous era. In addition, more people decide to buy products from local designers. The interviewees highlighted problems of taking out loans and the lack of financial means which limit marketing communication. At present, the main threats are the unfavourable economic situation, the purchasing power of Croatia’s inhabitants, and the placing of cheap products on the market, which are more affordable to the majority of people [11].

7P marketing mix of the fashion brand There are a number of activities in each company that affect customers, and the task of each of them is to create their own combination of activities. Such a combination of activities is called a marketing mix. In the early 1960s, professor Jerome McCarthy proposed a marketing mix consisting of four Ps, namely: Product, Price, distribution and selling Place, and Promotion. Each P covers several activities [12]. In recent times, the mix has expanded to seven Ps including: People, Process and Physical Evidence [13]. In the company presented in this paper, the products are luxurious underwear and the goal is to introduce other clothing items. What sets the new brand apart from the majority of other manufacturers’ products is quality which ensures the products longevity and justifies the price. The products to be produced initially are: bras, panties of various kinds, corsets, neglige, baby doll dresses, bathrobes, thin silk dresses, nightgowns and silk pajamas, and, in time, luxurious silk and lace dresses for special occasions. The most popular products will be women’s underwear made of lace and silk satin. The company will develop a very close relationship with its customers by fulfilling their wishes and offering custom-made production and product repairs. The product is the marketing mix element on which the new company largely relies [11]. The initial price of the product will be determined by “Market Skimming” policy. A high price of the product will be set in accordance with global competition and justified by the product’s quality. The distribution of

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the product will be carried out by the company itself, in its own stores and own web page , as well as in a variety of concept stores across the state, and later in the region. The aim of the new company is to attract as many customers through different forms of promotion, TV advertising, fashion magazines, billboards, sponsorship of various events (concerts, fashion shows, in catering, tourism, exhibitions, etc.). Active participation is planned in various exhibitions and competitions, as well as organizing fashion shows each season and fashion events when placing a new collection on the market. Different methods of payment will be possible, as well as the ability to test or try out the products for 14 days. Each product will be the best marketing tool. After that, an active website will be launched which would enable advertising and sales as well as getting customers’ feedback. The best place to promote new products are social networks such as Facebook and Instagram [11] as digital communication today is one of the most dominant form of mass communication [14]. Mass media are the means of mass communication and are aimed at informing, educating, and entertaining users. Newspapers, television and radio are traditional mass media, while the internet is a new mass media that uses portals as substitute for newspapers. Nowadays, it is possible to watch television and listen to radio shows on the Internet, which means it unites all media and brings more information and content than traditional media [14]. Communication via electronic media is only slightly different from the usual communication model. While the communication process is the same, the participants and the devices used are different. Blogs, YouTube, Pinterest, and Instagram are some of the most popular digital media that influence the fashion industry today. Fashion blogs and YouTube fashion gurus have established relevance in the fashion world and affect the way businesses are advertised. They have built their own following and have the ability to launch or stop trends that are based on what they wear and publish on their social network accounts [15]. Facebook is still the most popular social network overall, but younger people mostly use Instagram or YouTube because they are much easier to use, give greater creative freedom to display content, and are less formal than Facebook. Statistics confirm that, currently, over two billion people use Facebook. YouTube has one and a half billion users, and Instagram has 900 million users [16]. The new fashion brand’s underwear is primarily intended for women who value quality, love luxury, and can afford it. By wearing such items, they try to build a fashion- conscious image in society. Clients have to feel comfortable and satisfied while shopping which will be achieved by interior design. For this purpose, the prevailing colours highlighted on the logo will be golden, beige and off-white, Figure 4.

Figure 4. Example of shop decoration [11]

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CONCLUSIONS By using contemporary economic methods and conducting needs analysis, the feasibility from idea to realization has been determined. Based on Swot and 7P marketing mix analyses, it has been confirmed that the new company has a good perspective for launching and developing a new fashion brand and surviving on the luxurious underwear market. Considering there is almost no competition, the new company has a great potential for success and the next step is to raise the initial capital for the realisation of this idea.

REFERENCES [1] Dolezal K, Hrzenjak R, Kojundzic I. The impact of underwear on the shape of a woman’s body. In: Savanovic G, editor. VI Scientific-vocational Conference with international participation „Development tendencies in the textile industry – Design, Technology, Management”; 2018; Beograd: The College of textile design, technology and management, 2018. p.106-109. [2] Pinterest. Vintage corset ideas. [Image on internet]. 2017 [cited 2 May 2017]. Available from: https: // www.pinterest.com/pin/ 550142910710119600 [3] Pinterest. Women’s fashion, 19 century fashion. [Image on internet]. 2017 [cited 21 May 2017]. Available from: https://www.pinterest.com/explore/19-century-fashion/ [4] McWha R. Vintage Underwear for a Vintage Fit [Internet].The Costume Rail: Costume, Couture and Vintage Sewing. [Cited 18 Jun 2017]. Available from: http://thecostumerail.blogspot.com/2013/02/ vintage-underwear-for-vintage-fit.html [5] Thomass C, Örmen C. Povijest donjeg rublja. Zagreb: ALFA; 2011. [6] Gertrud L. A History of Fashion in the 20th Century. Cologne: Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH; 2000. [7] Easey M, editor. Fashion marketing. 3rd ed. Blackwell Publishing; 2009. [8] Burke S. Fashion Entrepreneur: Starting Your Own Fashion Business. Burke Publishing; 2010. [9] Malinowska-Olszowy M. Brand strategy in the Clothing and Textile Market. Fibres and Textles in Eastern Europe. 2005 Jan;13(1):8-10. [10] Vranesevic T. Upravljanje markama Zagreb: Accent; 2007. [11] Kojundzic I. Konstrukcija i modeliranje kolekcije luksuznog zenskog donjeg rublja [master’s thesis]. Zagreb: Sveuciliste u Zagrebu Tekstilno-tehnoloski fakultet; 2017. [12] Kotler P. Kotler o marketingu: kako stvoriti, osvojiti i gospodariti trzistima. Zagreb: Masmedia, Poslovni dnevnik; 2006. [13] The Marketing Mix. Marketing Mix Definition of the 4P’s and 7P’s [Internet]. 2015 [Cited 25 Apr 2018]. Available from: http://marketingmix.co.uk [14] Zgrabljic Rotar N, editor. Digitalno doba: masovni mediji i digitalna kultura. 1 izd. Zagreb: Naklada medijska istrazivanja; 2011. [15] Huynh T. Fashion Forward: How Digital Media is Changing the Fashion Industry Refugee Marketing [Internet]. Refuge Integrated Marketing Strategies. 2016 [Cited 14 Apr 2018]. Available from: http:// refugemarketing.com/fashion-forward-how-digital-media-is-changing-the-fashion-industry/ [16] Statista: The Statistics Portal. Social Media Startistics & Facts [Internet]. 2018 [Cited 10 Apr 2018]. Available from: https://www.statista.com/topics/1164/social-networks/

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Invitation Arranging the collection for spring and summer of

2019.

W

e invite all manufactures and wholesalers to arrange collection of footwear, accessories and related products for spring and summer 2019.

The arrangement will be held in Zagreb on 4th and 5th of September (Tuesday and Wednesday) 2018 at the Hotel Antunović in Zagreb, Zagrebačka avenija 100a, Croatia. We also offer the possibility of presenting this year’s collection for autumn and winter if there is any interest. This collection must be clearly marked as this year’s. Models are presented on the tables of approximate size of 1.50 m2. Table price for domestic exhibitors is 600,00 HRK + VAT. Table price for foreign exhibitors is 80,00 €. License fee is 15,00 €.

on 4 and 5 of September 2018 th

th

(Tuesday and Wednesday)

at the Hotel Antunović Zagreb

The application must be submitted by 17th August 2018 to the email address: pihler@infonik.hr Payment of the total amount is to IBAN: HR7823600001101300785 no later than 17th August 2018 Contact person – Ivan Pihler, +385 98 219 641 Organizer Ivan Pihler

For Infonik Ltd. Vladimir Dubović


Novak J, HIPPY GARDEN - a Brand of Creative Freedom and Challenges TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 73-77.

HIPPY GARDEN - a Brand of Creative Freedom and Challenges Jelena Novak Interview

The fashion market today comprises numerous brands, designers, collections, stores, concept stores and loyal customers. This figure is higher than ever in the history of fashion which has become an integral part of life, and shopping has become just as entertaining as going to a theatre, the gym or a concert. When it comes to fashion professionals, their circles are not closed as they once were, nor are they an island unto themselves. Some remember those times with great nostalgia, others believe that a bigger industry provides more opportunities . There are more young people who want to attend fashion universities, more upcoming designers, more founders and more brand owners. There are several factors that influence building a brand, but the most important is to establish a close relationship with consumers. Hippy Garden is a Croatian fashion and lifestyle brand that believes in innovative design and quality production. Hippy Garden’s story began in the late ‘90s when Durdica Vorkapic came to the idea of creating a fashion brand which would express her vision and strong desire to offer products that were much needed on the market. The brand quickly expanded and nowadays Hippy Garden is a household name standing for a great team of experts and professionals in the creative industries. It is not only a top fashion line but a comprehensive lifestyle brand that encompasses every part of the creative sector including ready-made and couture collections, fashion accessories, shoes home decor, food design, cosmetics, and more. Hippy Garden manages to delight its loyal customers and fans, as well as appeal to potential ones, with every new collection, by adding a new dimension to creativity and innovation. HIPPY GARDEN collections are inspired by the world apart, the creativity, the sense of beauty, the warmth and the energy of their own creation. They are made in high-quality materials and are characterised by technical perfectionism. We talked to Durdica Vorkapic, Hippy Garden’s creative director, about their outstanding success and future plans. Hippy Garden – what is the story behind the great brand, who created it? The brand was created 18 years ago, but how – well, that is different question (laughing). It was made by Divine Providence, nothing more. We started with sketches and we’re a right little empire today. Maybe the easiest explanation of the brand’s creation is its name, “Hippy Garden”, which represents our true idea of a brand that will continuously grow and create in its own world, be unrestrained and wild, and a unique place where we can be our true selves. You told us that the brand exists for 18 years. Was is it hard to maintain a good, quality brand and keep up with the fashion scene? Hippy Garden turned 18 because I have never let any obstacle jeopardize my vision and my creativity. I am nothing if I can’t create and that is why my brand started with just a few clothing items. Today, it is a big brand standing side by side with the world famous brands and offering almost all fashion and lifestyle

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products. Thanks to the same brand, out of love and desire to promote Croatia, we founded a sister brand, “From Croatia with love“, which is a real success among foreign and domestic audience. Nowadays, when you can buy almost everything online, it’s really hard to launch a brand especially in the fashion industry due to its specific work conditions and interpersonal relationships. So, when you own an eco-friendly business which doesn’t use animal fur and you are not following trends, you have to make an extra effort to succeed in Croatia. But, even after 18 years, we are still successful and we continue to believe it will only get better.

Hippy Garden’s first professional runway show happened in 2005. Did you imagine this level of success back then? The Croatian fashion industry as we know it today just started to form at that time. I can rightly claim that we were at the forefront of our fashion scene. Back then, we didn’t even think about the situation we have today. We didn’t have big expectations then and we don’t have them know. We just enjoy creating and continue to do so every day. Success comes with hard work and complete dedication to your work. I enjoy each challenge that comes along and that is true success to me.

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What does Hippy Garden offer to their customers besides clothes? Besides clothing and accessories like footwear, bags and jewellery, we started our cosmetic line a few years ago because we were aware of a huge impact of the beauty industry. As with everything we do, we began from our own desires and wishes as cosmetics users. This is the reason why our beauty line is made of natural ingredients like Croatian herbs and oils. The main vision is to develop a cosmetic line that will impose itself with quality and price on both domestic and foreign market. I can proudly say that we are achieving great results and have even greater expectations for the future. Tell us more about your project called “Wild Children of Hippy Garden”. The project was created and implemented as a completely new fashion project. The concept we introduced at HAZU’s Gliptoteka is an innovative project of „live scented pictures“. In other words, the audience had an opportunity to walk through the gallery, stop by every picture and enjoy the scents and the view. The pictures of nature motifs were installed on the gallery’s walls completed with Croatian native herbs: Lady’sslipper, Checkered Lily and iris. In front of every picture, there was a massive, 3x4 m, frame that was made just for the occasion, and the models in Hippy Garden creations were in the frame thus bringing the pictures to life. We added a special touch with the intense fragrance of rosemary which really woke up the senses.

You showed the magic of untouched nature in that project, and recently you have developed and launched an organic cosmetics line called „Hippy Garden Pure & Natural“. How did you make the decision to branch out into cosmetics?? We are creating something new every day. Most of the big fashion names have both make-up and care cosmetic lines besides clothes. This isn’t the case in Croatia, but Hippy Garden is always one step ahead, so „Hippy Garden Pure & Natural“ line was just a matter of time. I can say that we are completely satisfied with this big project of producing organic cosmetics. The products we launched are at the top of the biocosmetics spectrum and I wouldn’t settle for anything less. The fragrances that we use in our products are from native Croatian herbs - rosemary, chamomile and marigold. Tell us more about the development process for these products. We needed a lot of time to create these magical products, one of the reason being we didn’t want to make any compromises. Our wish was to offer our clients and buyers the best that nature offers, so every product has 0 % paraben, 0 % mineral oils, 0 % artificial colours, 0 % synthetic fragrance, 0 % silicone. In other words

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- pure nature. We didn’t want to launch until we were able to achieve this type of product. That is a story behind „Hippy Garden Pure & Natural“ cosmetics line. Do you have any future plans for expanding the range of “Hippy Garden Pure & Natural” products? What are your plans in general when it comes to natural cosmetic? Thank you for asking. We have already taken the next step of expanding our “Pure & Natural” cosmetics line. Soon, we are presenting a new product and you will be among the first to know when. This is a new world we are discovering and we want to show that we are ready for creating new things. Among all the fashion shows and participation in various projects, what was your biggest challenge to date and what left the biggest impression on you? I approach every new project with care, but in the last 17 years, I can single out two of the most challenging projects. One was at the Garden Festival in Petrčani where I created a runaway in the sea. I wanted to achieve a levitation effect, as if the models are walking on the sea surface. We hired the army and used floating docks. Another extremely demanding project was the one at Esplanade Zagreb hotel. It was the most exclusive fashion night ever to be presented in Croatia. It was magical, unforgettable, and had the most memorable ending when a completely white horse, Maestoso, entered the Emerald Ballroom of the hotel. What is your opinion of the Croatian fashion industry? Which is your favourite fashion event and what are the differences between Croatia and the rest of the world. Croatian fashion is so versatile which is why it is so special and its greatest value lies precisely in its versatility. It is extremely difficult to create and produce something in Croatia, especially in the fashion industry. It is really hard to survive in a climate that has always given greater value to foreign creations rather than 76 www.textile-leather.com


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domestic. So, to be able to survive in such conditions is a bigger success, in my opinion, than to be a world famous artist. It is really simple, world market consists of millions of customers, the competition is huge, but it also offers great possibilities if you work the only way I consider right – being original. Only then will you be recognized and people will be able to see your work. It’s easily possible that some of the millions of people will like your work and you can conquer the market. When we talk about the fashion industry in Croatia, all of my colleagues who created a new brand and made it successful in the last 10 years are real magicians. If we were to look outside the self-imposed borders, we would realize that the individuals creating Croatian fashion can work shoulder to shoulder with the world famous names. It’s not a platitude, I really mean it. However, there are so many bureaucratic obstacles in our small country that it makes it really hard to create something and be different. Do you follow the work of young designers? I have to admit that I’m more of a passive observer but I’ll support anybody who has a will and courage to enter into this business. I try to be supportive of our young hopefuls and I will always help as much as I can. I know a lot of them personally and I will always support them, privately and publicly if I recognize their work as having quality and potential. In the last 18 years of your journey in the creative waters you have developed numerous fashion collections, a home décor collection, an innovative bag holder and a natural cosmetics line. Do you have more innovative surprises for us? Creative universe knows no limits. It doesn’t matter if it’s fashion design, product design, cosmetics, innovation or music. It all stems from a limitless source of creation. The only thing that matters is whether you’re free and opened to new possibilities. Of course we are always thinking of something new and completely different!

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LEATHER LEATHER COMPANY COMPANY 25 YEARS ON 25 YEARSMARKET ON WORLDS WORLDS MARKET CROATIAN CROATIAN HANDMADE HANDMADE QUALITY QUALITY

WWW.GALKO.COM WWW.GALKO.COM


Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 79-82.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS EDITING YOUR MANUSCRIPT Please use our template to edit your article before submitting for review. • Volume of a manuscript should not exceed 10.000 words, without Tables, Figures and Images. • Title of a manuscript should not exceed 15 words. • Full names and surnames of the authors, as well as full names of the author’s affiliation – university, institute, company, department, town and country should be clearly given. Corresponding author should be indicated, and their e-mail address provided. • Abstract of a manuscript should be no longer than 250 words. • Keywords should contain 3-7 items. • SI units should be used throughout. • Abbreviations should be used according to IUPAC and ISO standards and defined when first used. • Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, they should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and appended at the end of the manuscript. • References should be cited using Arabic numbers in square brackets,  according to the Vancouver referencing style. Please use our Quick Reference Guide (or look at the next page) • Figures and illustrations with a title and legend should be numbered consecutively (with Arabic numerals) and must be referred in the text. Images should be numbered as Figures. Additionally, Figures should be supplied as a separate file saved as jpg or tif at 300 dpi minimum. Type size in the description of axes should be proportional to the size of the Figure. • Tables with a title and optional legend should be numbered consecutively and must be referred in the text. • Acknowledgements may be included and should be placed after Conclusions and before References.

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Conference paper is the work presented at a professional conference organized on local, regional or state level. It will be published if it has not been published in full in Proceedings, as a report, a study etc. Professional paper deals with the issues in the profession. It gives professional instructions and suggestions for how to solve the issue (technique, technology, methodology). Professional review is a complete review of a professional issue (technique, technology, methodology) based on already published work indicating the best ways for solving the issue. The papers that are not categorized include: Presentation and communication from practical experience deals with solving the problem of particular laboratory, institution or industry and serve to inform interested parties of the solution applied. Position paper is an essay that presents an arguable opinion about an issue. Commentary is paper connected with actual news and condition in science and textile/clothing industry.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 79-82.

In-text citation examples The in-text citation is placed immediately after the text which refers to the source being cited: ...and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1] Including page numbers with in-text citations: Page numbers are not usually included with the citation number. However should you wish to specify the page number of the source the page/s should be included in the following format: …and are generally utilized as industrial textile composites.[1 p23] Hearle [1 p16-18] has argued that... Citing more than one reference at a time: The preferred method is to list each reference number separated by a comma, or by a dash for a sequence of consecutive numbers. There should be no spaces between commas or dashes For example: [1,5,6-8] Reference List • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper • Begin your reference list on a new page and title it References • The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text • Use Arabic numerals [1], [2], [3], … • Full journal titles are prefered • Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source when you cite it Scholarly journal articles • Enter author’s surname followed by no more than 2 initials (full stop) • If more than 1 author: give all authors’ names and separate each by a comma and a space • For articles with 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. For articles with more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors then add ‘et al.’ • Only the first word of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalized. • Use Full journal titles • Follow the date with a semi-colon; • Abbreviate months to their first 3 letters (no full stop) • Give the volume number (no space) followed by issue number in brackets • If the journal has continuous page numbering through its volumes, omit month/issue number. • Page numbers, eg: 123-129. Digital Object Identification (DOI) and URLs The digital object identifier (DOI) should be provided in the reference where it is available. Use the form as it appears in your source. Print journal article – Ferri L de, Lorenzi A, Carcano E, Draghi L. Silk fabrics modification by sol-gel method. Textile Research Journal. 2018 Jan;88(1):99-107. ▪ Author AA, Author BB, Author CC, Author DD. Title of article. Title of journal. Date of publication YYYY Mon DD;volume number(issue number):page numbers.

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Instructions for Authors TEXT LEATH REV 1 (2) 2018 79-82.

Electronic journal article – Niculescu O, Deselnicu DC, Georgescu M, Nituica M. Finishing product for improving antifugal properties of leather. Leather and Footwear Journal [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Apr 22];17(1):31-38. Available from: http://revistapielarieincaltaminte.ro/revistapielarieincaltaminteresurse/en/ fisiere/full/vol17 -nr1/article4_vol17_issue1.pdf ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Title of Journal [Internet]. Date of publication YYYY MM [cited YYYY Mon DD];volume number(issue number):page numbers. Available from: URL Book – Hu J. Structure and mechanics of woven fabrics. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2004. 61 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of book. # edition [if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Pagination. Edited book - Sun G, editor. Antimicrobial Textiles. Duxford: Woodhead Publishing is an imprint of Elsevier; 2016. 99 p. ▪ Editor AA, Editor BB, editors. Title of book. # edition[if not first]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year. Pagination. Chapter in a book - Luximon A, editor. Handbook of Footwear Design and Manufacture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2013. Chapter 5, Foot problems and their implications for footwear design; p. [90-114]. ▪ Author AA, Author BB. Title of book. # edition. Place of Publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter number, Chapter title; p. [page numbers of chapter]. Electronic book – Strasser J. Bangladesh’s Leather Industry: Local Production Networks in the Global Economy [Internet]. s.l.: Springer International Publishing; 2015 [cited 2017 Feb 07]. 96 p. Available from: https://link. springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-319-22548-7 ▪ Author AA. Title of web page [Internet]. Place of Publication: Sponsor of Website/Publisher; Year published [cited YYYY Mon DD]. Number of pages. Available from: URL DOI: (if available) Conference paper – Ferreira NG, Nobrega LCO, Held MSB. The need of Fashion Accessories. In: Mijović B. editor. Innovative textile for high future demands. Proceedings 12th World Textile Conference AUTEX; 13-15 June 2012; Zadar, Croatia. Zagreb: Faculty of Textile Technology, University of Zagreb; 2012. p. 1253-1257. ▪ Author AA. Title of paper. In: Editor AA, editor. Title of book. Proceedings of the Title of the Conference; Date of conference; Place of Conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of Publication. p. page numbers. Thesis/dissertation – Sujeevini J. Studies on the hydro-thermal and viscoelastic properties of leather [dissertation]. Leicester: University of Leicester; 2004. 144 p. ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. Number of pages Electronic thesis/dissertation – Covington AD. Studies in leather science [dissertation on the internet]. Northampton: University of Northampton; 2010. [cited 2017 Jan 09]. Available from: http://ethos.bl.uk/ OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.579666 ▪ Author AA. Title of thesis [dissertation on the Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. [cited YYYY abb. month DD]. Available from: URL This quick reference guide is based on Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (2nd edition). Please consult this source directly for additional information or examples.

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Profile for Suvremena trgovina - online

Textile leather rewiev 2 2018  

Colour impression of woven fabrics, weave type, agglomeration, colour values, Medical fabrics, washing and sterilization cycles, absorbency...

Textile leather rewiev 2 2018  

Colour impression of woven fabrics, weave type, agglomeration, colour values, Medical fabrics, washing and sterilization cycles, absorbency...

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