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CRAFTS SEWING

The McCall Pattern Company designs, manufactures, and sells sewing patterns worldwide under the premier brands Butterick, Kwik Sew, McCall’s, and Vogue Patterns, and publishes the consumer magazine Vogue Patterns.

sixthandspringbooks.com PRINTED IN CHINA

Whether you’re just learning to sew or a seasoned expert, McCall’s Essential Guide to Sewing is sure to become a treasured part of your crafting library, a richly illustrated reference to the tools, materials, and techniques you need to sew, embellish, alter, and mend projects of all types. INSIDE YOU’LL FIND: • A comprehensive look at sewing supplies, including machines, tools, needles and thread, and notions • Facts on fabric, from selection to preparation to care • A guide to understanding and working with patterns • Illustrated, step-bystep instructions on a full range of techniques used in creating and altering garments and home décor • Advice on selling your projects online, at craft fairs, and in retail shops • Answers to 100 FAQs on topics drawn from every chapter • An exhaustive glossary of terms $24. 95 US • $2 6. 95 Ca nada

ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO SEWING Binder, Kühnle & Roser

Brigitte Binder consults for creative firms, publishers, and media outlets, designs embroidery motifs for prominent companies, and leads workshops on digital embroidery. Jutta Kühnle has had her own studio specializing in bridal, menswear, custom-made, and children’s clothing. Karin Roser is a freelance editor, designer, and author who designs pieces for numerous craft and home and garden magazines.

$24.95 U.S. • $26.95 CAN

An indispensable companion for sewers at all skill levels, with essential know-how on everything from fabric to finishing.

ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO SEWING Tools • Supplies Techniques • Fabrics • Patterns Garments • Home Décor

ISBN: 978 - 1- 93 60 96- 72 - 5 52495

9 781936 096725

BRIGITTE BINDER • JUTTA KÜHNLE • KARIN ROSER

ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO SEWING Brigitte Binder, Jutta Kühnle & Karin Roser

The perfect go-to reference for modern sewers from beginner to expert, McCall’s Essential Guide to Sewing is packed with knowledge, tips, and how-tos on every aspect of sewing. In this remarkable resource, you’ll find all the essentials right at your fingertips: detailed descriptions of tools, supplies, and notions; an exhaustive survey of techniques for machine- and hand-sewing; guides to choosing and using fabrics and working with patterns; tips on making patches and repairs; plus unique information on marketing and selling your designs, 100 FAQs, and a comprehensive glossary.


ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO SEWING

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ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO SEWING Tools • Supplies Techniques • Fabrics • Patterns Garments • Home Décor

BRIGITTE BINDER • JUTTA KÜHNLE • KARIN ROSER

sixth&spring

books

NEW YORK

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CONTENTS

Contents SEWING MACHINES Sew Many Possibilities Functions of the Sewing Machine Professional Finishing Sewing Machine Accessories

SEWING EQUIPMENT Essential Equipment Types of Needles Machine Needles Types of Thread Embroidery and Novelty Threads Helpful Extras Essential Notions Helpful Stabilizers Interfacings Recommended Ironing Equipment Pretty and Practical

10 12 16 18

30 34 36 40 43 46 48 56 60 62 64

S SEWING TECHNIQUES S Sewing by Hand 68 P Preparations for H Handsewing 70 A Assorted Hand S Stitches 73 E Essential Machine Stitches 80 Fundamental Machine Seams 88 Sewing with Specialty Fabrics 93 Finishing Seams 102 Handsewn Hems 107 Glued Hems 109 Machine-Sewn Hems 110 Specialized Sewing Techniques 114 Decorative Sewing Techniques 120

T TEXTILES 101 T Textile Manufacturing P Processes F Fabric Treatments a Finishes and F Fibers and Their P Properties Fiber Quality Marks Fabrics and Fabric Selection Fabric Care

138 140 142 147 148 158

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A ALL ABOUT PATTERNS Body Measurements and Figure Types 162 W What Is a Pattern? 166 The Paper Pattern 169 Pattern Alterations 174 Styling Alterations 179

PREPARING TO SEW Before Cutting Pattern Preparation Cutting Cutting Various Fabrics Cutting Interfacings and Linings Getting Connected Recovering from Errors

184 186 187 192

TECHNIQUES FOR HOME DÉCOR Handsewn Trims and Tapes Pillow Talk Curtains and Drapes Making Mitered Corners

258 264 274 281

PATCHES AND REPAIRS Mending with a Sewing Machine 284

194 196 197

CREATING A GARMENT Shaping with Darts 200 Specialized Stitching Lines 202 Facings 203 Neckline Treatments 205 Faced Yokes 211 Sleeves 212 Sleeve Closures 215 Comfortable Waistbands 222 Sewing In Linings 226 Closures 228 Practical Pockets 248

USEFUL KNOWLEDGE Marketing Your Handicrafts FAQs — 100 Common Questions From A to Z — Glossary Index

296 302 310 316

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PREFACE

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DEAR READER, Some books stay with us for a lifetime because they offer a wealth of knowledge at our fingertips. McCall’s Essential Guide to Sewing is one of those books. For beginners and experienced sewers alike, this colossal reference provides detailed instructions and information on every sewing topic, from the operation of your sewing machine to basic stitching techniques to making pattern alterations like an expert. The world of sewing is becoming not only more innovative, but also more international. Websites, sewing portals, and online purchasing opportunities provide a spectrum of sources, inspiration, and instruction in many languages. McCall’s Essential Guide to Sewing takes advantage of this global sewing community, offering a world of expertise in a single volume. The Internet also offers a variety of avenues for making money from your sewing. Perhaps you’d like to sell your designs online: our “Marketing” chapter guides you through the e-tailing process, explaining what to do and watch out for, beyond just the legalities. We hope that this book will be your go-to reference for years to come and will prove to be a helpful partner in your sewing endeavors! Yours,

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SEWING MACHINES

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sewing

machines

BEFORE BEGINNING TO SEW, YOU NEED TO BECOME WELL ACQUAINTED WITH YOUR SEWING MACHINE AND ITS CAPABILITIES. PROPER CARE OF YOUR MACHINE PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE AS WELL. A WIDE ARRAY OF PRESSER FEET MAKES IT EASIER TO ACHIEVE PROFESSIONAL-LOOKING WORK, AND THE RIGHT CHOICE WILL LEAD TO MYRIAD CREATIVE POSSIBILITIES AND PERFECT SEWING RESULTS.

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FABRIC TREATMENTS AND FINISHES

fabric treatments

and finishes

Fabrics need to be able to accommodate all kinds of uses and stand up to various demands. They get their specific qualities from specialized techniques. Chemical processing and finishing treatments can change the properties of a thread or weave, and mechanical treatments can create effects such as brushed surfaces. These treatments are mostly done for practical reasons or to make a fabric more versatile. Purely decorative treatments tend to involve dyeing and printing.

INDUSTRIAL TREATMENTS Various industrial fabric treatments are done before, during, or after the creation of the fabric, and many more are achieved using a combination of methods. The following section covers the most common treatments and explains their most important characteristics.

ACRYLIC-COATED

ANTI-PILLING

Cotton weave is sealed with an acrylic coating and thus becomes water repellant. Despite the coating, the look of the fabric remains unchanged and the weave stays flexible.

A chemical treatment introduces a binding agent to reduce the formation of pills.

ANTIMICROBIAL A chemical treatment makes these fabrics resistant to various bacteria and fungi. The fabric is moisture-wicking and discourages the buildup of odors.

ANTI-STATIC Because of their low moisture content, synthetic fabrics tend to build up static electricity in dry conditions and will then cling. This chemical treatment largely prevents this static buildup.

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BLEACH

SHRINK RESISTANT

When a white fabric is desired, natural colors and stains are removed with a chemical bleaching agent.

Fabric is treated to prevent any later changes in form or size. The fabric becomes denser and either does not shrink further at all with additional washings, or will not shrink beyond a certain stated amount. A patented antishrink treatment is Sanforization, which guarantees that a textile will not shrink by more than 1 percent.

BOILED Boiled wool gets its characteristic plush texture from a fulling process involving moisture, heat, pressure, and friction. The fabric weave becomes thick and dense as it shrinks.

BRUSHED Depending on the brush and the type of fabric used, this can create a delicate to heavy surface pile and increase the warmth of a fabric. The fibers are pulled to the surface of the fabric to varying degrees; this is a familiar texture on flannel and velour.

CRUSH, CRINKLE, PLISSÉ

SIZING In the case of permanent sizing treatments, a mixture of chemicals ensures that the fabric maintains its sheen or strength, for example, even through regular washings. In contrast, temporary sizing will wash out over time (but can be reapplied).

SOIL RESISTANT Typically these fabrics have a waterproof finish and are not vulnerable to dirt or oils.

A crinkled effect is usually fixed permanently through a chemical treatment. To maintain this look on fabric that is not permanently treated, the fabric should be stored, washed, and dried while twisted and folded up like a hank of yarn. It may also be dry-cleaned.

With this treatment, water-, alcohol-, and oilbased staining is inhibited, and the removal of any stains that do occur is made easier. Fabric care instructions should provide information about treating different stain types.

EASY CARE

TEFLON COATED

With this treatment fibers become more elastic and resist wrinkling; any creases that do occur smooth out again upon hanging. The fabrics are machine washable, quick drying, and require little to no ironing.

This chemical treatment makes textiles easy care and wrinkle resistant, as well as water repellant (moisture will bead on the surface). They are especially well suited for outdoor uses.

FLOCKING

WATER RESISTANT

Fine textile fibers are applied to the fabric surface with adhesive, creating a velvet-like, slightly raised pattern.

The fabric surface is treated with waterrepellant chemicals to prevent immediate absorption of moisture; moisture beads up on the surface, but the fabric remains breathable.

 ONLY PERMANENT FINISHES are washable; temporary finishes are not. Some treatments are not obvious or visible, so pay attention to the INFORMATION LABEL on the fabric bolt before making a purchase. If no label is attached, inquire further with the fabric seller, as treatments can affect the appropriate uses for a fabric. MECHANICALLY TREATED FABRICS that have NO CHEMICAL SIZING COMPONENT must be PULLED GENTLY INTO SHAPE WHILE STILL DAMP after washing. Avoid dryers to prevent shrinking.

STAIN RESISTANT

MERCERIZED Cotton and other natural fibers are made stronger and thus tougher wearing through a treatment with sodium hydroxide (lye). They gain an added sheen and increased break resistance, and their texture becomes pleasantly soft.

WATERPROOF The open weave of the textile is sealed, creating a waterproof, non-breathable fabric.

WRINKLE RESISTANT This treatment gives more elasticity to a fabric’s fibers, which prevents most wrinkling and allows any creases that do occur to smooth out again upon hanging. Cotton, linen, and viscose wrinkle especially heavily and thus are often given this treatment.

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PATTERN PREPARATION

pattern

preparation

Most commercial patterns include seam allowances, so you can simply lay them out on the fabric as is and cut along the pre-printed cutting lines. However, patterns in sewing books and magazines, and from certain manufacturers (especially in Europe), often do not include seam allowances and may require that you trace the pieces onto a separate medium and add seam allowances before cutting. This section offers guidelines for using these patterns.

STITCHING LINE METHOD With the stitching line method, each paper pattern piece is cut out along the stitching lines (i.e., seam lines), with no seam allowances added. Seam allowances will be added before the fabric is cut.  When ADDING SEAM ALLOWANCES TO SHARP CORNERS ON A PATTERN PIECE (for example, at the underarm of a two-piece sleeve), you can create long and UNNECESSARY TRIANGLE POINTS. You should cut these points back to ⅜" (1cm), which will decrease the amount of excess fabric during sewing and make placement of the pattern pieces more efficient.

SEAM ALLOWANCE/CUTTING LINE METHOD ANYONE CAN LEARN to use our SEAM ALLOWANCE METHOD. It does not require special materials or any additional skills. It OPTIMIZES EACH STEP in the process.

Pattern preparation using this method is somewhat different, because either the seam allowances are already included in the pattern pieces (requiring no additional preparation) or you add them to the paper pattern itself before the pattern pieces are cut out. A good rule of thumb is that seam allowances should be ⅝" (1.5cm) all around. There are only a few exceptions: • On hems that are relatively straight (such as on pant legs, narrow skirts, or jackets), 1¼" (3cm) hem allowances are typical.

• On hems where the piece widens (such as on full or belled skirts), the hem allowance may be narrower than ⅜" (1cm).

• Seam allowances around zippers should be ¾" (2cm). Beyond the zipper, the allowance tapers back to ⅝" (1.5cm).

Once the seam allowances have been carefully added, you can cut the pattern pieces along the newly drawn cutting lines.

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cutting Fabric, lining, and interfacing are cut out using the paper pattern pieces as guides. Be sure to work economically and avoid unnecessary cuts and waste. The pattern layout guide on the instruction sheet will show the optimal pattern layout. Be sure to have sharp fabric shears, pins or pattern weights, a measuring tape, and your pattern pieces ready and close at hand.

 SAVE USED PATTERN PIECES along with project information such as size, date made, and a scrap and description of the fabric, and store them inside CLEAR PLASTIC SHEET PROTECTORS. This will make it easier the next time you use the pattern. It is helpful to have a dedicated WORK SPACE where you can leave large pieces of FABRIC SPREAD OUT for the duration of the project.

PATTERN LAYOUT The pattern layout is a helpful drawing that shows the optimal positioning of your pattern pieces; pay attention to the location of fold lines, selvages, grain lines, and any directions printed on the pattern pieces. Unless otherwise indicated, pattern pieces are placed printed side up on the fabric.

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SPECIALIZED STITCHING LINES

specialized

stitching lines

At certain times a special type of stitching line or seam is required to stabilize a piece of fabric or to sew two pieces together correctly.

EASE STITCHING

GATHERING will turn out more EVENLY if you sew a line of EASE STITCHING at 1⁄16–⅛" (2–3mm) on each side of the gathering line.

To connect two edges of slightly different lengths (for example, a sleeve cap in a set-in sleeve to the armhole), the longer piece must be made slightly smaller beforehand with the help of ease stitching. On pieces with only a very small difference in size, such as the back piece on a shoulder seam, it may be sufficient to merely pin the pieces together and skip the ease stitching. To ease stitch, reduce the top thread tension slightly. Stitch using a long (about 6 spi*, or 4mm-long) straight stitch directly next to the seam line; do not secure stitching at the beginning or end. Pull on the bobbin thread until the additional width is drawn in evenly and any matching symbols line up correctly. (Usually the longer edge is pinned to the shorter one before the bobbin thread is pulled.) The fabric will be slightly distorted, but should not be allowed to form gathers or tiny folds. Once the seam is stitched, remove the ease stitching. *stitches per inch (see pages 12–13, number 6)

STAYSTITCHING If staystitching is done on a single layer of fabric, for example, on a slit, neckline, or armhole, it is to prevent the fabric from stretching out of shape while it is worked further. Staystitching can also reinforce completed seams at points that will be heavily stressed. This may also be referred to as reinforcement stitching. If a fabric edge is to be stabilized, sew with a normal straight stitch of about 13 spi (2mm long) next to the seam line within the seam allowance (as shown). To strengthen an existing seam, stitch directly next to the existing stitching using a slightly shorter straight stitch.

 IF YOU NEED TO SEW MULTIPLE PIECES together in a row, you can save time and thread by feeding the pieces through one after the other without breaking the thread each time. Snip the thread between the pieces after you are finished stitching all of them.

UNDERSTITCHING To keep a facing from rolling to the right side, such as on a neckline or arm opening, the opening may be topstitched (see page 17) from the right side. If a visible stitching line is not desired, however, you’ll need to understitch the facing. Sew the facing (shown here in light blue) to the main piece right sides together. Trim seam allowances, snip or notch curves, and press them toward the facing with the facing flipped upward. Stitch the facing from the right side directly next to the seam line, catching the seam allowances in the stitching. Turn the facing to the inside and press.

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facings A facing is a piece of fabric that lines and finishes outer raw edges such as at necklines or arm openings. Depending on the shape of the edge, the facing may be part of the main piece or cut out separately.

OUTER EDGE WITH APPLIED FACING For rounded or diagonal edges a facing is cut separately. (On some patterns, the facing will not be a separate pattern piece and instead will be indicated as a section of the main pattern piece. Cut the facing and interfacing with seam allowances all around (if not already included). Apply interfacing to the wrong side of the facing.

1 In cases where a collar will not reach to the end of the front edge, for example, when there are lapels (see page 208), pin the facing right sides together along the edges of the main piece and stitch to the marking (collar start point). Trim seam allowances and corners and press them apart.

AS A RULE, facings are cut out along the grain line to match the main fabric and are REINFORCED ON THE WRONG SIDE WITH INTERFACING to give the garment edges additional structure. ON UNLINED GARMENTS, the outer edges of the facing must be finished to avoid fraying.

2 The opening edge of the garment is shown from the right side with the (still unfinished) facing applied and turned to the wrong side.

OUTER EDGE WITH EXTENDED FACING For straight edges on blouses and jackets, facings are often included as part of the main pattern piece and need only to be turned under to the wrong side. The facing will extend from the front opening edge and needs to include seam allowances (if not already included on the pattern). If the neckline will not have a collar, the back neckline will have an applied facing, as shown in step 1.

1 Apply interfacing to the wrong side of the facing sections and stitch, right sides together, at the shoulder seam. Press the seam allowances open and finish the edges if needed. With right sides together, pin the facing onto the neckline edge and stitch; the shoulder seams will lie on top of each other. Trim seam allowances and corners and snip curved sections if necessary.

ON TOPS MADE FROM LIGHTWEIGHT FABRIC, an extended facing is often folded in double, in which case NO INTERFACING IS NEEDED. Facings must be completed before topstitching the front edges.

2

 Turn the facing to the inside and tack it down by hand at the shoulder seams; press.

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HANDSEWN TRIMS AND TAPES

handsewn

trims and tapes

There is a vast assortment of ready-made tapes available in stores. You can make your own, too, if you want them in the same fabric as your project or if you have a specific color, width, or unusual pattern in mind.

BIAS TAPE IF YOU WANT TO MAKE BIAS STRIPS out of satin, spray the fabric WITH SPRAY STARCH BEFORE CUTTING, and press flat— this will discourage the fabric from slipping and make it easier to work with.

Depending on the intended application, it is often necessary to cut fabric strips on the bias, i.e., diagonal to the fabric grain. Bias tape conforms well to shaping and is primarily used for binding raw edges. It is especially well suited for use on curved edges in place of a facing. Simply fold under its raw edges and it can be sewn directly onto fabric pieces as embellishment. Bias strips work best when made from lightweight cotton or jersey.

CUTTING BIAS STRIPS A bias strip used for binding an edge must be four times the width of the finished binding visible on one side of the fabric edge. So, if the visible finished binding will be ½" (1.25cm) wide, cut a bias strip that is 2" (5cm) wide. Cut it the desired length plus seam allowances at the short ends.

1 Fold one straight-grained edge of the fabric diagonally so the selvage edge aligns with the cut (crossgrain) edge. This is the bias grain. Press the fold.

2

 Unfold the fabric and mark lines of the desired width parallel to the fold line until you have the total length you need for your finished bias strip. Cut out the strips along the lines, ideally using a straightedge and rotary cutter on a cutting mat.

It is QUICK AND EASY TO MARK EXACT DISTANCES between lines with the help of an omnigrid ruler (see page 32, figure 6). It can also be used as a guide for a rotary cutter. A large triangular ruler works well, too. The instructions for USING BIAS STRIPS to finish edges are on page 103.

CONNECTING BIAS STRIPS If a long bias strip is required, you will often need to connect several shorter strips together. The short ends are pieced together on the grain so that the strip does not lose any elasticity.

1 Pin together the slanted ends of the strips at a right angle and with right sides facing; small ends of the seam allowances will stick out on each side. Stitch.

2 Trim seam allowances to about ¼" (5–6mm), press open, and snip off the excess corners to be flush with the strip edges.

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PRESSING BIAS STRIPS Depending on the application, bias strips may be used flat (unfolded) or folded. A bias tape maker is a practical tool to help with pre-folding; an iron is also needed.

WITHOUT BIAS TAPE MAKER Fold the strip in half lengthwise, wrong sides together, and lightly press the fold. Open the strip and press each long edge, wrong sides together, to the center.

WITH BIAS TAPE MAKER Insert the cut strip, wrong side up, into the wide end of the tool and then press the folded strip that emerges from the narrower end.

BIAS TAPE MAKERS come in a variety of sizes (see page 47, figure 4). The measurement shown on the tool indicates the WIDTH OF THE COMPLETED TAPE. If the measurement given is 1" (25mm), cut 2" (48mm)-wide strips. Add 1⁄16" (2mm) for very thin fabrics. The visible binding on the right side of an edge will end up ½" (12.5mm) wide. Instructions are printed on the packaging.

WELTING Welting strips are flat or have a rounded edge (this version may also be called piping) and are used as a decorative element. Welting is less voluminous than cording. Welting strips are made from bias-cut strips, often in a contrasting color. They can be inserted into seams or used to finish and strengthen edges.

DETERMINING WELTING WIDTH

WELTING IS INSERTED INTO A SEAM OR APPLIED TO EDGES just like piping and cording (see pages 120–122); you can use a zipper foot or edging foot.

To make welting, cut bias strips (see page 258). Determine the width for flat welting as follows: twice the desired finished visible width plus two times the seam allowance; for example, for a ⅝" seam allowance, ⅝" (1.5cm) x 2 = 1¼" (3cm). The length is as needed.

FLAT WELTING Fold strips lengthwise, wrong sides together, and press. You may topstitch along the seam line, although this is not absolutely necessary.

ROUNDED WELTING

1 To calculate the width of rounded/piped welting, add together the circumference of the filler cord and two times the seam allowance. To determine the cord circumference, lay the cord as pictured and fold a small corner of the fabric over it; pin in place. Mark a ⅝" (1.5cm) seam allowance, cut through both fabric layers along the marks, and unfold (this is the width for the starting bias strip). Depending on its fiber content, the cord may need preshrinking.

2

 Wrap the bias strip wrong sides together around the cord and use a zipper foot to stitch closely along the cord.

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PATCHES AND REPAIRS

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patches and repairs YOUR JEANS ARE TOO LONG AND YOUR FAVORITE TABLECLOTH HAS A HOLE? IN THIS CHAPTER YOU WILL LEARN ABOUT THE SEEMINGLY MIRACULOUS FIXES YOUR SEWING MACHINE CAN HELP YOU ACHIEVE. AND WHEN A REPAIR IS NOT TOTALLY INVISIBLE, MAKE A VIRTUE OF NECESSITY—A PATCH CAN BE VERY DECORATIVE.

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INDEX

Index accessory case 14 adhesives 55, 109 spray 55 alteration, length 174 alteration, multi-size pattern 178 alteration, width 176 animal fibers 144 appliqué 54, 57, 123 foot 24 scissors 31 3-D 271 attachment lines 172 awl 31 backstitch 72, 74 basting 196 basting stitch 73 basting tape 55 batiste 148 beaded fabric 101, 153 beads, sewing on 79, 134 belt loop 225 bias tape 52, 103, 104, 258 bias tape, fusible 60 binding curved edges 103 binding straight edges 104 binding strips 104 cutting 258 blanket stitch 74 bleach 141 blind stitch 82, 108 bobbin 18 bobbin case, specialty 19 bobbin winder 13 bobbin case 14 bobbin ring, silicone 19 bodkin 34 body measurements 162 boiled wool 141, 148 boning 54 bouclé 148 box cushion 272 brocade 149 buttonholes 84, 96, 97, 228–232 bound 232 buttonhole stitch 78 buttons 50–51, 85, 233, 236–237 backing 51 covered 233 knotted 235

laundry 50 sew-free 51 sewing on by machine 85, 237 sewing on by hand 236 care symbols 158 center back 173 center front 173 chain stitch 17, 75 chalk hem marker 33 chalk pencil 33 chenille 125–126, 149 chenille cutter 31, 125 chiffon 95, 149 circle cutter 31 coated fabrics 98 collars 205–208 band, with 207 flat 206 lapel 208 standing 207 copyright 301 cording 53 cording tongue 26 corduroy 149 cotton rib 149 couching 131 coverlock machine 17 coverlock topstitching 17 coverstitch machine 17 cross stitch 75 crushed/crinkle fabric 149 crêpe de chine 149 cuffs, aligned 219 cuffs, knitted 54 cuffs, single-piece 218 cuffs, two-piece 218 cuffs, underlap extension 219 curtains 274–280 arched tabs 277 clips 276 gathered 279 rod tunnel 275 tied 278 cutting mat 31 cutting shears 31 damask 149 darts 172, 200–201 cut, simple 201

simple 200 waistline 201 decorative stitches 73, 86 denim 98 disappearing-ink marker 33 dot stitch 76 double face cloth 150 ease stitching 202 easy care 141 edges, concave 105 edges, convex 106 edges, straightening 184 elastic 53 embroidery machine 11 embroidery floss 69 entredeux 128 envelope closure 265 equipment, basic 45, 63 eyelet pliers 47, 51 eyelet stitching 129 fabric grain 172 fabric shears 30 fabric treatments 140–141 acrylic-coated 140 antimicrobial 140 anti-pilling 140 anti-static 140 boiled 141 mercerization 141 water resistance 141 fabric tubes 260–262 facings 172, 173, 203–204 applied 203 extended 203 hem 52, 112 shaped 112, 204 faux fur 99, 150 faux leather 98, 150 feather stitch 76 feed dogs 13 felt 150 felting machine 11 figure types 165 finishing seams 102–106 curved edges 105 flannel 151 flat stitch 75 fleece 151

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fold line 171, 173 foot pedal 14 fray check 55 free arm 14 freehand embroidery 57, 132 French knot 77 French seam 90 fringe 126 frog closure 51, 235 fusible webbing 55 gabardine 151 gathers 116 georgette 151 gingham 151 glen plaid 151 glues 55, 109 gauze 151 handwheel 13 hem measuring tools 32 hemming tape 55, 109 hems, glued 109 hems, handsewn 107–108 rolled 108 hems, machine-sewn 110–113, 268 blind stitch 111 decorative 113 deep folded 111 flanged 268 rolled 112 single 110 sleeve, with elastic band 220 hemstitching 128 hem tape, weighted 280 herringbone stitch 107 hobby knife 31 Hong Kong seam finish 105 hook and loop fastener 240 hook-and-eye closure tape 230 hooks and eyes 51, 238 skirt 51 interfacing 60–61, 194 fleece 61 waistband 60 jacquard 152 jersey 152 knee lever 14 knit fabrics 94, 139 knots 71 lace 152 laced eyelet closure 234 lame 152 leather 97 linen weave 138

linings 156, 195, 226, 227 lining, sewing in 226 lining fabric 156, 195 loop closures 234 magnetic snap 239 marker, water-soluble 33 markers, fabric 33 marketing 296–301 marking pen 33 matching line 171 microfiber 152 minky 96, 152 mitered corners 250 motor, sewing machine 14 muslin (test garment) 181 muslin (fabric) 152 neckband, elastic 210 needle plate 13 needles, hand sewing 34–35 ball point 35 beading 34 curved 34 darning 34 quilting 34 leather 35 tapestry 34 upholstery 34 needles, machine 36–39 ball point 37 denim 37 leather 337 microtex 37 stretch 37 universal 37 wing 38 needle, self-threading 34 needle threader 13 nonwovens 153 notions 48 oilcloth 155 organza 152 overlap 173 overlock seam 92 overlock stitch 82 oxford polyester 153 patchwork 135 pattern grading 166 pattern layouts 187 pattern pieces, copying 170 patterns, paper 169–173 pick stitch 107 pile fabric 153 pillowcases 264–271 buttoned 267 flanged hem 268

quilted 270 ruffled 269 tied 268 zippered 266 pillows 264 pin basting 196 pinking shears 31, 102 pins 35 pinstripes 153 pintucking 114 piping 52, 120 placket neckline 209 plain weave 138 plant fibers 142 plissé 141 pocket flaps 252 pockets 248–255 bellows 250, 263 hip-yoke 253 patch 248 rectangular 248 rounded 249 set-in 253 side seam 254 zippered 255 poplin 153 preshrinking 184, 305 presser feet 13, 20–26 bi-level 24 binder 22 blind stitch 20 border guide 22 button attachment 21 buttonhole 21 candlewicking 24 chenille 26 circular 25 cording 23 darning 25 double cord 23 edge stitch 22 elastic 23 embroidery 25 felling 22 fringe 26 lap seam 22 looping 26 nonstick 24 open freehand/toe walking 25 pintuck 26 piping 23 quilting or patchwork 26 ribbon 25 roller 22 rolled hem 20 satin stitch 24 seam guide 24 sewing star 25 shirring 22, 117 317

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INDEX

standard (zigzag) 20 straight stitch 20 walking 23 walking, integrated 14 zigzag (standard) 20 zipper 21 zipper, invisible 21 presser foot holder 13 presser foot lever 13 presser foot pressure controller 13 quilted fabric 154 quilting 135 quilting machine 11 quilting seam guide 26 reverse (wrong) side 185 reverse stitch button 13 ribbon patchwork 57 right side 185 rivets 51 rotary cutter 31 ruffler 23 ruffles 118–119 rulers 32 running stitch 74 safety pins 35 sashiko machine 11 satin 154 satin weave 139 scissors, embroidery 30 seam allowance 172 seam binding 52 seam, raw 89 seam ripper 18, 30, 64, 84 seams, machine 88–92 denim 90 double saddle stitch 89 felled 90 French 90 mock coverstitch 92 overlap 91 saddle stitch, simple 89 simple 88 seams, securing 72 seersucker 154 selvage 173 sergers 11, 16 sequined fabric 101, 154 sewing light 14 sewing machine care 15 sewing machines 10–17 see also specific types sewing machines, mechanical 11 shoulder pads 54 shrink resistance 141 silhouette 165 size charts 163

sizing, fabric 141 sleeve placket 217 sleeves 212–221 flat 213 kimono 214 raglan 214 set-in 212 slip stitch 75 slit, darted 220 slit, faced 216 slit, seamline 216 slit with bound edges 215 smocking 130 snaps 51, 238 snap tape 240 spool cap 18 spool holder 19 stabilizer 56–59 heavy-duty 58 water-soluble 59 stay stitching 202 stem stitch 76 stitches, hand 73–79 see also specific stitches stitches, machine 80–87 see also specific stitches straight stitch 80 straight stitch plate 19 straps 260 stretch fabric 93 sweatshirt fabric 154 synthetic fibers 145 table, extension 19 taffeta 154 tailor’s chalk 33 tape measure 32 teddy fur 100 terrycloth 154 textile adhesives 55, 111 thimble 35 thread 40–44 basting 42 basting, water-soluble 42 bobbin 43 buttonhole 42 darning 42 denim 41 elastic 42 embroidery 42 pearl cotton 41 polyester (all-purpose/universal) 41 quilting 42 serger 41, 44 tension 13, 86 transparent 42 weight 40, 86 thread chain 78 thread ends, securing 72

thread guide 13 thread take-up lever 13 thread tracing/marking stitch 77 threading 70 topstitching, straight 103 topstitching, zigzag 103 tracing wheel 33 transfer pen 33 tucks 115 tulle 155 tweed 155 tweezer scissors 31 twill weave 138 underlap 173 velour 155 velvet 96, 155 vinyl 98 voile 155 wadding 134 waistbands 222–224 elastic 224 faced 224 shaped 222 straight 223 warp knits 139 warp thread 138 weft thread 138 whipstitch 74 widths, fabric 156 wonder tape 33 wrinkle resistance 141 wristbands, elastic 221 wristbands, woven 221 wrong side 185 yardstick 32 yoke, faced 211 zigzag stitch 81, 102 zigzag stitch, elastic 81 zippers 49, 241–247 centered 243 endless 49 exposed 246 fly opening 244 invisible 49, 245 lapped 242 pant 49 separating 49, 247 standard 49 zippers, shortening 241

318

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MASTHEAD / COPYRIGHT

sixth&spring

books

161 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10013 sixthandspringbooks.com Editorial Director JOY AQUILINO Developmental Editor LISA SILVERMAN Art Director DIANE LAMPHRON Editorial Assistant JOHANNA LEVY Page Designer ARETA BUK Translator KAREN BAUMER Copyeditor MARTHA MORAN Illustrations OTTO HABLIZEL URSULA SCHWAB Photography MICHAEL RUDER/ LICHTPUNKT

Vice President TRISHA MALCOLM Publisher CARRIE KILMER Production Manager DAVID JOINNIDES President ART JOINNIDES

Copyright © 2011 frechverlag GmbH, 70499 Stuttgart, Germany (www.frech.de) Translation copyright © 2014 by Sixth&Spring Books/Soho Publishing, LLC The original German edition was published as Nahen—Das Standardwerk. This edition is published by arrangement with Claudia Bohme Rights & Literary Agency, Hannover, Germany (www.agency-boehme.com). McCall’s name and logos are copyright The McCall Pattern Company. Used by permission. The Woolmark logo is reproduced with the permission of Australian Wool Innovation Limited, owner of The Woolmark Company. The Seal of Cotton is reproduced with the permission of Cotton Incorporated. The Masters of Linen logo is reproduced with the permission of CELC Masters of Linen, Paris. Text on pages 295–301 courtesy of Tina Hees. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following German sources: Coats GmbH, Kenzingen (embroidery thread, zippers), www.coatsgmbh.de; Freudenberg Vliesstoffe KG, Weinheim, www.vlieseline.de; Gütermann GmbH, Gutach-Breisgau (thread, embroidery and sewing stabilizer), www.guetermann.com; HOECHSTMASS Balzer GmbH, Sulzbach (tape measures), www.hoechstmass.com; KnorrPrandell GmbH, Lichtenfels (buttons, ribbons, beads, and closures), www.knorrprandell.com; MADEIRA Garne–Ulrich +Michael Schmidt & Co. GmbH, Freiburg, www.madeira.de; Pfaff–VSM Deutschland GmbH, Karlsruhe (sewing machines and presser feet), www.pfaff.com; Prym Consumer GmbH, Stolberg (various tools), www.prym-consumer.com; RAYHER HOBBY GmbH, Laupheim, www.rayherhobby.de; Ferd. Schmetz GmbH, Herzogenrath (needles), www.schmetz.de; Stoffekontor, Leipzig, www.stoffe-kontor.de; VENO–Hermann Veddeler GmbH, Bad Bentheim (Clover accessories), www.veno.com; Westfalenstoffe AG, Munster www.westfalenstoffe.de. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or information storage-and-retrieval systems—without written permission of the publisher. The written instructions, photographs, designs, projects, and patterns are intended for the personal, noncommercial use of the retail purchaser and are under federal copyright laws; they are not to be reproduced in any form for commercial use. Permission is granted to photocopy patterns for the personal use of the retail purchaser. Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN: 978-1-936096-72-5 Manufactured in China 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 First Edition

Chairman JAY STEIN

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Page 1

CRAFTS SEWING

The McCall Pattern Company designs, manufactures, and sells sewing patterns worldwide under the premier brands Butterick, Kwik Sew, McCall’s, and Vogue Patterns, and publishes the consumer magazine Vogue Patterns.

sixthandspringbooks.com PRINTED IN CHINA

Whether you’re just learning to sew or a seasoned expert, McCall’s Essential Guide to Sewing is sure to become a treasured part of your crafting library, a richly illustrated reference to the tools, materials, and techniques you need to sew, embellish, alter, and mend projects of all types. INSIDE YOU’LL FIND: • A comprehensive look at sewing supplies, including machines, tools, needles and thread, and notions • Facts on fabric, from selection to preparation to care • A guide to understanding and working with patterns • Illustrated, step-bystep instructions on a full range of techniques used in creating and altering garments and home décor • Advice on selling your projects online, at craft fairs, and in retail shops • Answers to 100 FAQs on topics drawn from every chapter • An exhaustive glossary of terms $24. 95 US • $2 6. 95 Ca nada

ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO SEWING Binder, Kühnle & Roser

Brigitte Binder consults for creative firms, publishers, and media outlets, designs embroidery motifs for prominent companies, and leads workshops on digital embroidery. Jutta Kühnle has had her own studio specializing in bridal, menswear, custom-made, and children’s clothing. Karin Roser is a freelance editor, designer, and author who designs pieces for numerous craft and home and garden magazines.

$24.95 U.S. • $26.95 CAN

An indispensable companion for sewers at all skill levels, with essential know-how on everything from fabric to finishing.

ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO SEWING Tools • Supplies Techniques • Fabrics • Patterns Garments • Home Décor

ISBN: 978 - 1- 93 60 96- 72 - 5 52495

9 781936 096725

BRIGITTE BINDER • JUTTA KÜHNLE • KARIN ROSER

ESSENTIAL GUIDE TO SEWING Brigitte Binder, Jutta Kühnle & Karin Roser

The perfect go-to reference for modern sewers from beginner to expert, McCall’s Essential Guide to Sewing is packed with knowledge, tips, and how-tos on every aspect of sewing. In this remarkable resource, you’ll find all the essentials right at your fingertips: detailed descriptions of tools, supplies, and notions; an exhaustive survey of techniques for machine- and hand-sewing; guides to choosing and using fabrics and working with patterns; tips on making patches and repairs; plus unique information on marketing and selling your designs, 100 FAQs, and a comprehensive glossary.


McCall's Essential Guide to Sewing  

Whether you're a total novice or practically a pro, this indispensible guide from McCall's is packed with instructions, tips, and fascinatin...

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