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LEGAL WEED IN THE NETHERLANDS

THE KINGDOM LAUNCHES A “COFFEESHOP EXPERIMENT”

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Cannabis consumption in the Netherlands is now more transparent. Since 15 December last year, some Dutch cannabis shops – the infamous food-and-beverage establishments known as coffeeshops – have been able to explicitly sell legal marijuana and hashish to their customers. What was named “coffeeshop experiment” (also known as “weed experiment”) is intended make life a little easier for the operators of such establishments by supplying them with cannabis from state-controlled cultivation, i.e. legal smoking material, as part of the pilot project.

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To date, many people, especially tourists, believe that cannabis is legal in the Netherlands. However, this is not so. Since a reform of the Dutch Opium Act and the introduction of a new tolerance policy in 1976, the purchase of cannabis for personal use has been almost decriminalised (initially up to 30 grams, but since 1995 up to 5 grams) in order to relieve the country’s law-enforcement and judiciary systems. As a result, the sale of potent cannabis in the kingdom’s coffeeshops has been merely tolerated, but not legalised. The tolerance policy only applies to the purchase, possession and consumption by private consumers, but not to the cultivation and sale and certainly not to the profit-making trade in cannabis products.

Since then, coffeeshop owners have been faced with a problem, as they are dependent on supplies from black-market growers. So basically, they have been selling illegal cannabis products from underground cannabis farms for decades. As the goods offered in coffeeshops have to be organised practically through the backdoor, this practice has also become known as the “backdoor problem”. Politically speaking this is both arbitrary and inconsistent for a reason that can be easily explained. While operators of coffee shops are allowed to sell cannabis to their customers and, of course, have to pay tax on their income, they are forced to turn themselves into criminals at the same time by purchasing their cannabis supplies on the illegal market. Coffeeshop owners are therefore obviously operating in a legal grey area, but are publicly exposed because everyone knows that this type of business is not entirely untainted from a legal standpoint. For this reason, they are also not permitted by the credit institutions to open and operate a business account. Nonetheless, this is what the politicians in The Hague wanted - and decided – 48 years ago. The coffeeshop experiment is designed to put an end to this situation in the long term and finally create a regular chain of coffeeshops. As health minister Ernst Kuipers explained to the

press, the planned regulatory reform implies the advantage that the origin and quality of the cannabis can be better controlled. In particular, the cannabinoid content of cannabis flowers and resins will be standardised and the use of pesticides and other plant protection products avoided. In addition, certified marijuana would make it possible to inform consumers about possible health risks and effects of cannabis use in a realistic manner. However, for the time being, the rules of the pilot project do not apply nationwide but only to the southern cities of Breda and Tilburg. Over time, the pilot project will gradually be extended to a total of ten cities and one district of the capital Amsterdam, with the local cannabis shops in each municipality having to join the project. This test phase, during which coffeeshops are allowed to buy and sell certified cannabis, is scheduled for a total of four years, with each city being allowed to participate in the project for a maximum period of six months. During this phase, shop will be allowed to purchase and stock up to 500 grams of legal cannabis and up to 500 grams of ‘time-tested’ illegal cannabis. For this early stage, three cannabis farms have qualified for the government-authorised supply of the coffeeshops. At the launch of the pilot project in his city, Tilburg’s mayor Theo Weterings declared that this was a historic moment and the initial spark for the long-awaited legalisation of cannabis in the Netherlands. The mayor of Breda too, Paul Depla, is also positive about the project. After all, the press event for the start of the experiment took place in the Breda cannabis shop Café De Baron. The start of the coffeeshop experiment, announced in 2019, was originally scheduled to take place earlier but has been postponed several times. At the end of the four years announced, the experiment will be assessed. If it is successful, which looks probable, the Dutch government will consider the possibility of fully legalising cannabis.

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Sources: www.rijksoverheid.nl, faz.net, deutschlandfunk.de Markus Berger


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Gelato #45

In Cannabis Heaven

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The Benefits of Mother Plants With Stoney Tark

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Oklahoma Sungrown

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Air Ventilation and Circulation With Jorge Cervantes

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Newsletter Markus Berger

CANNABIS WORLD NEWS

4

INTERNATIONAL: CANNABIS IN SPORT

UKRAINE: CANNABIS LEGALISATION HALTED Originally Cannabis was about to be legalised in Ukraine, at least for medicinal, scientific and industrial uses, as decided on 21 December last year by the Ukrainian parliament with a favourable vote of a total of 248 MPs. Towards the end of the year, however, the implementation of the new law was blocked by the opposition party Batkivshchyna (Fatherland Party). The leader of the party, Yulia Tymoshenko, sees the decision as a kind of formal error claiming that the motions to amend this law were discussed in front of a half-empty chamber. No wonder, as one would assume that Ukraine currently has other problems to deal with than the release of psychoactive plants and substances. For this reason, the bill was blocked until at least mid-January when a decision will have to be made once again on the parliament’s approval of the new law and its signature by the Ukrainian president. No further information was available at the time this issue went to press. Sources: cannabis-med.org; www.reuters.com

GERMANY: NO LEGALISATION AT THE YEAR START Ever since the SPD-FDP-Greens coalition government in Germany announced that it had included the legalisation of cannabis in its coalition agreement, there has been great joy among consumers, patients and other cannabis enthusiasts. But nothing has happened so far. The original information was that at least partial legalisation would be introduced, with the new law coming into force on 1 January 2024. Due to the reportedly rich political agenda of the German federal government

as well as ongoing protests from conservative parties, the implementation of a possible ‘light legalisation’, as cannabis activists are already calling it will not foreseeably be possible until 1 April at the earliest. However, there will be neither legalisation nor a partial legalisation, but rather decriminalisation. In particular, Cannabis will be removed from the Narcotics Act (BtMG). Nonetheless, possession and cultivation will still be limited to a maximum of 50 grams per person per month and a maximum of three plants in active cultivation. In addition, production and distribution of cannabis products will only be allowed via cannabis social clubs, but Germany will still be a long way from full legalisation, as is the case with alcohol and tobacco. Source: hanfverband.de; zeit.de

JAPAN: BOTH LEGALISATION AND TIGHTER RESTRICTIONS Japan is changing its cannabis laws in two ways. On the one hand, cannabis medicine is to be legalised; on the other, the ban on recreational use is to be tightened. The amendments to the country‘s cannabis and drug control laws passed by Japan‘s upper house of parliament on 6 December pave the way for the lifting of the ban on cannabis-based medical products. The recreational use of marijuana and the like, on the other hand, will be prosecuted and penalised even more severely than before. While possession of cannabis was previously punished with prison sentences of up to five years, stricter rules will apply with the forthcoming reform. In addition to raising the upper limit for prison sentences to seven years, consumption, which was previously legal in Japan, will be criminalised. Japan‘s cannabis control law was introduced in 1948 during the post-war US occupation and is now being amended for the first time to meet new needs. This is good news for patients, but extremely unpleasant news for all other cannabis enthusiasts. Source: businesstimes.com.sg

Cannabis is not only considered a doping agent in professional sport. Anyone whose blood test is positive for cannabinoids has a problem as a professional athlete. The Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), the largest mixed martial arts organisation in the world, has now announced that it will remove psychoactive and CBD cannabis products from its list of banned doping substances. The UFC had already initiated a reform of its anti-doping policy in 2021 by adopting a new rule stating that THC detection in doping tests will no longer result in athletes being sentenced. The removal of cannabis from the antidoping guidelines came into force on 31 December 2023. This is a very clear deviation from the regulations of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Anyone familiar with cannabis knows that it is not really a performanceenhancing substance, especially for athletes. A ban on its consumption is against current trends, particularly on the American continent, in view of the large number of countries where marijuana and hashish have been legalised. Therefore, UFC Chief Business Officer Hunter Campbell commented to the press: „The UFC‘s goal for its anti-doping policy is to be the best, most effective and most progressive anti-doping programme in all of professional sports. Source: www.thetelegraph.com

INTERNATIONAL: TREATING CHRONIC PAIN WITH PSYCHEDELICS People with chronic pain can benefit from psilocybin, the active ingredient in magic mushrooms, and also from LSD. This is the result of a trial published in early 2024, according to which a full dose of a psychedelic substance alleviates persistent pain, while microdoses can also be effective against, e.g., migraines and cluster headaches. The trial was conducted among patients with arthritis, fibromyalgia, migraine, tension headaches and sciatica. With the exception of sciatica, the interviewed patients reported that psychedelics had led to better pain relief than conventional medication for all the surveyed conditions. Source: onlinelibrary.wiley.com


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You recently created a new outsourcing service. How does it work? We offer a logistics subcontracting management service with a global offer of reception, storage but also picking, order preparation and shipping. This solution was naturally proposed in view of our experience acquired over more than 15 years now. Our offer also includes packaging, access to our negotiated rates with our transport partners such as Chronopost, GLS for D+1 and D+2 etc..

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This seems like a great opportunity for European professionals, would you like to share any final words with them? Yes, last word for our professional friends: entrust us with your logistics and stay focused on your core business. We are at your disposal to study your project and personalize it, we will be your trusted partner for perfect, real-time management of your logistics on French territory.

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Medical Cannabis

6

Sebastian Daniel

Cannabis For Addictions Physicians and scientists have shown for decades that cannabis can be an effective treatment for people addicted to heroin, cocaine, nicotine, and especially alcohol. Not only as a substitute (smoking), but even as a one-time treatment (more potent edibles or extracts administered orally). Anthropologist Sara Benetowa (also known as Sula Benet) wrote in 1936 that cannabis extracts had long been used by European peasants “to cure drunkards.” She also noted that it was hemp that for centuries had prepared the ground in Europe for a new and exotic drug: tobacco from America. Shortly before the 2nd World War, hemp incense was often burned at the bedsides of old and sick people (thus reducing the danger or effects of stroke). So effective as medicine, according to our ancestors, were local strains of European hemp, which supposedly was only “for industrial use.” Today’s potent strains of “Dutch marihuana” can sometimes be effective even in the most hopeless cases of chemical addictions and help people already standing with one foot in the grave. In the 19th and 20th centuries, cannabis was often touted by doctors as a highly effective treatment for alcohol and opiate addiction. In 1971, the American Journal of Psychiatry published an article calling cannabis treatment “the most effective form of therapy” for alcoholism. It is worth noting here that cannabis medicines in the form of, for example, an extract, a drink or a food, are much more effective, but also more intense in their psychological effects. And while cannabis is an extremely safe drug biologically (it’s easier to overdose on water or food), the psychedelic experience can be quite strong. It is impossible to overdose on cannabis with fatal results, but it is possible to fall into a long and deep sleep, often lasting up to a dozen hours. However, symptoms of toxicity, or so-called hangover, are usually not observed upon awakening. On the contrary, sleep is described by patients as healthy and restorative. Doctors once praised cannabis as the best sleep remedy for alcoholic

Photo by Bermix Studio on Unsplash.

delirium tremens. Cannabis is remarkably effective in treating insomnia, tremors, depression and other symptoms of alcoholism, along with regenerating the brain and other major organs. Cannabis reduces cravings for alcohol and other drugs, and eases withdrawal symptoms. Smoking cannabis is often seen as a daily substitute for drinking alcohol. Even as a substitute for other drugs and medicines that are more toxic and addictive, from a medical perspective, cannabis use is a good example of harm reduction. Patients experience relief from and a reduction in the damage done to their lives by the far more dangerous drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, heroin, etc.

Gateway or Exit Drug? The link between marijuana and hard drugs like heroin is not biological or physical from a medical point of view: it is a criminal and socio-cultural link, which can be easily removed by lifting its prohibition. Research shows that it is actually cigarettes and alcohol that serve as a “gateway” to other drugs, and it is these substances that people use before moving on to the use of marijuana, cocaine and other banned drugs; a progression known as the “drug gate sequence.” Researchers at Columbia University Medical Center and the Mailman School of Public Health presented the first molecular explanation of the gateway sequence

in 2011. Nicotine causes specific changes in the brain that make us more susceptible to cocaine addiction. This significantly alters the body’s response to cocaine in terms of addictive behavior and synaptic plasticity. At the molecular level, nicotine also induces the brain to use cocaine by inhibiting the activity of an important enzyme. Data shows that most people addicted to cocaine were already addicted to tobacco. People who try cocaine after they have started smoking tobacco have an increased risk of addiction compared to people who first used cocaine and then started smoking tobacco.

start their use with marijuana - they started with alcohol and nicotine.” Only 1 in 104 marijuana users use cocaine and even fewer use heroin.

Science supports the “first step” hypothesis, but there is a shift from legal substances, especially alcohol and tobacco, to illegal ones. Researchers suggest that delaying alcohol initiation will have a beneficial effect on the susceptibility to addiction of younger generations. Comparing data of drinking and non-drinking high school students, researchers have found that students who had consumed alcohol at least once in their early lives were 13 times more likely to use cigarettes or cocaine.

Experts have shown that, in reality, it is participating in the black market created by prohibition that is the gateway to more dangerous behavior. The illegality of cannabis exposes its users to temptation: a dealer usually has many other types of illegal drugs and can ask customers if they want anything else. Medical research and historical data suggest that cannabis reduces the risk of drug use in both individuals and entire societies. Operation Intercept, the 1969 blockade of the border with Mexico, led to a marijuana shortage in the U.S. in 1969 and may have contributed to the high-profile heroin epidemic in the months and years that followed.

There are no properties of cannabis medicine that can push its user towards trying another drug or medicine. According to a report by the US National Academy of Sciences, “there is no evidence that marijuana serves as an introduction to hard drugs .... In fact, most drug users did not

In fact, cannabis helps keep people away from hard drugs – despite the fact that buying marijuana on the black market makes it easier to get in touch with other illegal substances. David E. Smith, an expert in addiction medicine and founder of Haight-Ashbury Free Clinics in San Francisco, was one of the first researchers to point out that it is in fact the lack of access to legal marijuana that opens the floodgates to hard drugs.

Each successful war effort against marijuana has been accompanied by an increase in alcoholism and the use of other dangerous drugs.


Background Alex Rogers

THE GROWING REGULATORY PROBLEM IN SPAIN with their unregulated sources in California, and the likelihood of that happening in Spain increases with every passing year of inaction by lawmakers.

In many ways, Spain is home to the most vibrant and amazing cannabis community on the planet. Various other parts of the world have their cannabis claims to the same to be sure, however, anyone who has traveled to Spain and took part in their many cannabis clubs knows that Spain’s cannabis scene is truly unique. Cannabis is not hard to find in many different regions in Spain, and the quality of it is as good as you will find anywhere on Earth. The hashish is particularly amazing, and being able to consume world-class cannabis at a club surrounded by other cannabis enthusiasts is a very fun experience. Unfortunately, Spain’s cannabis policies continue to lag behind other countries and will continue to hold back the nation’s emerging industry as a result.

to pass a comprehensive medical cannabis measure in addition to an adult-use measure. Spain’s legal medical cannabis industry is still largely based on exporting medical cannabis products to other countries, leaving suffering patients within the nation’s borders with few options for regulated sources. Instead, they must rely on the unregulated market to source their medicine, which is not optimal. Spain has an ‘urgency gap’ when it comes to overhauling the nation’s medical cannabis policies and regulations. Many consumers already benefit from the abundant array of cannabis club options in some parts of the country, so changing the status quo is presumably not as enticing in Spain as it likely is in other countries where cannabis clubs are not as common.

For many years, Spain seemed poised to be the first country in Europe to pass a national adult-use legalization measure, and yet that title was taken by Malta in 2021. Luxembourg has also passed a national measure, albeit the most limited version of legalization that is currently in place at a national level. Spain has moved at its own pace regarding cannabis policy modernization efforts, with lawmakers seeming to be reluctant to pass a much-needed, comprehensive adult-use measure. In the past, Spanish lawmakers operated in a sort of cannabis policy vacuum, with other European countries also clinging to failed prohibition policies. Those days are over.

The longer that Spain goes without passing a comprehensive cannabis policy overhaul measure, the less tenable transitioning the market into a regulated industry will be. Clearly, there is an opportunity cost involved, and a great comparison of the situation in Spain can be found in the State of California in the United States. In 1996, California became the first state in the United States to pass a medical cannabis legalization measure. The victory in California catapulted the state’s industry into the stratosphere, where it remained for several years.

Cannabis policy modernization efforts are gaining steam in many countries in Europe, as well as in other parts of the world. Germany is arguably the most notable example, with adult-use legalization expected to take effect in 2024. Many countries in Europe are watching and waiting for Germany to take the leap, with nations such as the Czech Republic drafting their own plans to pass measures once Germany implements its legalization model. Meanwhile, Spain is still struggling

Like Spain, much of California’s industry operated in grey areas of the law in a system that was built on a foundation of patchworked local policies. Eventually California’s legal industry would fall behind other states, both in legal market share as well as on the regulatory front. California eventually passed a legalization measure in 2016 after several other states beat them to it, and lawmakers and regulators have struggled ever since to try to transition California’s unregulated market into the regulated market. It is obvious that many consumers and patients prefer to stick

What Spain desperately needs are comprehensive, sensible cannabis industry regulations that are based on reality. It is no secret that people are consuming cannabis every day in Spain, both suffering patients and individuals using cannabis for recreational purposes. That is not going to change, ever. Rather than policymakers and regulators sticking their heads in the sand and acting as if cannabis use will subside, they would be far better off passing a comprehensive measure. Such a measure needs to strike the proper balance between ensuring the safety of cannabis products that humans are consuming

7

while ensuring that Spain’s amazing cannabis industry is allowed to reach its full potential. All of this will be featured prominently in the discussions and presentations at the upcoming International Cannabis Business Conference in Barcelona, Spain on March 14 th , 2024. The International Cannabis Business Conference is once again teaming up with Spannabis to form the world’s largest cannabis super-conference. Make sure to use the special discount link for Soft Secrets readers to get a discount on tickets to the International Cannabis Business Conference in Barcelona. I can’t wait to see you there! www.eventbrite.com/e/internationalcannabis-business-conference-barcelona-2024-tickets-677583790357?discount= SoftSecretsTake25


Seed Banks Green Born Identity – G.B.I.

GELATO #45

8

IN CANNABIS HEAVEN The golden age of the very

As an elite West Coast strain, Gelato #45 is also a great resin producer, with thick rounded buds covered with huge layers of trichomes, which are behind its white splendour. Another plus factor is the plant’s ability to develop beautiful violet hues on its leaves during flowering.

popular California West Coast ‘dessert strains’ began with the breeding of Girl Scout Cookies (GSC).

Gelato #45 put to a grow test by breeder The Doc

This epoch-making plant

The Doc’s new growing cycle was already four days into the vegetative phase when one of his friends asked him if he wanted to use a leftover Gelato #45 seed. As he had planned a fairly generous use of his garden, The Doc decided to add this feminised seed as a ‘party latecomer’, as he was naturally very interested in this promising Barney’s Farm strain.

has produced countless hybrids over the years. Many of them, such as Wedding Cake or Sunset Sherbet, have now achieved

The seed germinated after 2 and a half days only and the seedling took only two weeks instead of three to grow vegetatively, but The Doc had had positive experiences several times with such a short vegetative period and, indeed, his Gelato #45 plant showed lush and lively growth. It was 20 cm tall when The Doc set it to flower.

cult status. However, it is one of its descendants, Gelato, that takes a prominent position in this product

Gelato #45 proved to be a ‘trichome powerhouse’

family as flagship of the West Coast strains

The plant stretched quite a bit during the first four weeks of flowering, with internode spacing getting wider and wider, which favoured the growth of many flower clusters along the branches. The same happened, of course, at the top of the main stem and on the side branches, even the veteran The Doc was amazed by that view. Thick buds emerged and began to ooze out resin very early on. Week after week, ever-increasing amounts of trichomes sprouted.

alongside its superparent GSC.

This strain is closely related to Cookies genetics, as GSC (in the form of the “Thin Mint” phenotype) was used to create this strain as well as the other Gelato’s parent Sunset Sherbet. But despite sharing (at least formally) 75% of the GSC genes, Gelato is one of a kind with its unique qualities and has for this reason become a much sought after and loved strain. In the world of music, several hip-hop artists have even referenced it in their lyrics and released songs titled “Gelato”. It is to be wondered what has made Gelato genetics so popular. An explanation can be given by looking at the traits of the Gelato #45 variant offered by Barney’s Farm and, above all, the amazing aroma that this plant has been blessed with, which is multi-faceted and intriguing in both smell and taste. Gelato

#45 smells incredibly sweet, with Barney’s describing its enchanting aroma as “mint chocolate ice cream and sweet fruity berries”; as for its taste profile, they talk of “earthy pine, flowers and Skunk notes of citrus”. It is also the effect of Gelato #45 that leads users to delight; its high THC content of up to 26% produces a very intense and balanced high, providing both uplifting euphoria and physical relaxation. Of course, this strain also boasts excellent growing characteristics,

producing robust plants that beginners can easily handle to achieve good yields. After a flowering period of 65-70 days, growers may harvest 650-700 grams per square metre. Growing Gelato #45 under natural light can also work well, as in such an environment this superior West Coast strain completes maturity as early as the first week or two of October, and rewards growers with plants that, under optimal conditions, are capable of delivering crazy yields of two kilos per plant without generally exceeding 2.5 metres in height.

Near the end of flowering, after 65 days, The Doc wrote: “Gelato #45 has proved to be a trichome powerhouse! These super frosted flowers are among the most resin dripping and whitest I have ever seen in my grow room. No question about it, if these buds were mountains, you could ski on them! This parallel is particularly relevant as its buds are not merely crystal clear, but also rock hard.” “And I could also feel the typical Gelato smell being released from the plant, Yippee! Its buds have extraordinarily sweet scent; it is the ultimate sweet dessert smell you can get with marijuana. Under a blanket of sugary aroma is the rich bouquet of menthol, chocolate and fruity notes mentioned by Barney’s making it a full-fledged work of art.” In the second half of the flowering period, the top leaves


9 were partially tinged with violet, which further enhanced the visual appeal of the buds. The Doc waited until the end of the ripening period reported for this strain and harvested his specimens at 70 days. “Ten weeks of flowering is certainly not a short period, but it was worth the wait in light of the amazing yield of Gelato #45! The plant reached its final height of 51 cm.”

Dry buds made The Doc’s mouth water Quantity-wise, considering the short vegetative period of two weeks, The Doc was very pleased with the 72 grams of dried Gelato #45 buds he obtained, which were put in a big storage jar. The visual and olfactory quality of the buds made The Doc’s mouth water: “Plants are beautiful! They look like they are covered in an avalanche of ice, so the strain’s name Gelato, Italian for ice cream, takes on additional significance here. At this stage, the rich, deep smell is even more sugary and has a sort of creaminess to it now that a good deal of the chlorophyll has gone. I can’t wait to vape-test this weed!”

Genetics:

After loading his vaporiser with 0.5 g of Gelato #45, The Doc could feel a delicate, creamy smell. The bright flavour he had hoped for developed on his palate at various stages. Under a sweet outer layer, he discovered a fresh core of rosemary mixed with grapefruit. “A real treat!” enthused The Doc. After a second deep inhale, he felt his inner world come to life, as his synapses started to bathe in clear-headed euphoria and the effect made his soul leap with joy. “It was a state of complete serenity and happiness that I didn’t want to keep to myself, so I called my friend Mr. Knolle and asked him if he wanted to come and have a very special experience with the weed… Well, he said yes and, soon after, with a couple of puffs of

14 days (after germination)

Flowering phase

70 days/ 65-70 days in general Bionova Bio Soilmix, 11-litre pots

pH

6.2-6.6

EC

1.2–1.6 mS

Lighting

Up to 4 SANlight EVO 5-100 lamps set to level 2 of 3

A final hymn of praise

Temperature

19-28°C

As expected, The Doc’s verdict was a hymn of praise: “All this stir about Gelato definitely didn’t fall from the sky! Barney’s Farm’s Gelato #45 variant perfectly embodies all the great things this strain has become famous for: trichome-rich, catalogue-style buds, with a super sweet, sophisticated taste to savour and a soul-warming, blissful high. This strain leaves nothing to be desired.”

Air humidity

40-60%

Watering

By hand

Green Born Identity - G.B.I.

Cultivation data:

The vape test took The Doc to cloud nine

Vegetative phase

Substrate

Gelato #45 in his lungs, just like me, he was on cloud nine. We spent more than two hours in this marijuana heaven. While the weed also provided some physical relaxation, it didn’t nail us to the couch at all - if it had been a weekend, we could have gone out into the nightlife in top form”.

Gelato #45 (Sunset Sherbet x Thin Mint Girl Scout Cookies)

Fertilisation

Bionova Soil Supermix plus PK 13-14 in the flowering phase

Additives/boosters

Bionova Silution, The Missing Link, Vitasol and X-cel

Special equipment

CleanLight Pro for the prevention of mould

Height

51 cm

Yield

72 g


Grow

10

With Stoney Tark

SKYWALKER HAZE GROW REPORT Seedbank:

Dutch Passion

Strain:

Skywalker Haze

Pot size:

10 liter pot

Medium:

Coco + Atami Upgrade

Lighting:

2 x SANlight Gen 2

Nutrients:

Atami NRG line

Veg time (18/6):

4 weeks

Veg Temp:

24 degrees Celsius

Veg humidity:

72%

Flowering time (12/12):

9.5 weeks

Flowering Temp:

22.5 degrees Celsius

Flowering humidity:

45% humidity

As a fan of Haze and any type of sativa that gets me in a creative and upbeat mood, I got my hands on a pack of feminized Skywalker Haze from Dutch Passion. The genetic cross is their Mazari x Blueberry (Skywalker) and Amsterdam Amnesia, making her a large-yielding variety that requires plenty of room to grow. I planted one seed inside a 10-liter pot full of coco with Atami Upgrade added, which is a slow-release food with bacteria inside. SANlight LED. Thanks to the numerous oscillating fans inside my tent, the Skywalker Haze is gently blowing around and becoming strong and sturdy. After the 21-day mark, and continuing to feed Root-C, Growth-C, Cal Mag and Atazyme at a rate of 3 ml per liter, the plant was looking really healthy and growing with thin, serrated leaves that were expressive of a sativa. During the final week of the growth period, I increase the feed to 5 ml per liter, and notice there are white, fuzzy and thick-sized roots emerging out of the bottom of the pots. I now add bamboo canes to all the side branches, to help support the plants before they stretch and begin to flower. I measure the plant at a height of 61 cm, with a width very similar.

FLOWERING STAGE - 67 DAYS VEGETATIVE STAGE - 28 DAYS I germinated the seedling in a cup of water, and after 24 hours, I noticed the tap root was popping out and ready to be transplanted directly into the 10-liter pot. For the first week, I only fed a very mild solution of NRG Root-C, Cal Mag, Atazyme and Growth-C. The grow tent is 1.2 meters in size and set to a temperature of 24 degrees Celsius and 70–75% humidity with the lights on. The light-off temperature is 19 degrees Celsius, with a humidity level of 65%. By day 14 the small seedling was growing fast and responding very well to the nutrients and

After 4 weeks of 18/6 and letting the plants grow into an exotic sativa looking bush, I now switch my timers over to 12/12. From now on, the plants will focus on stretching as tall as she can, and packing on as much weight as possible. The relative humidity levels are adjusted from 72% down to 45% and the temperature will drop to just under 23 degrees Celsius. By the second week of flowering, the Skywalker haze plant had really shot up to a height of 118 cm, and you can tell she still has more to go! A very fast-growing plant that thrives on nutrients and optimal conditions. Day 28, and now I feed 5 ml per liter of the nutrients Growth-C, Bloom-C, Flower-C, Atazyme and Cal Mag combined with 3 ml per liter of NRG Flavor which is a molasses-based nutrient. So far, I am very impressed with both the nutrients and this strain from Dutch Passion. All the leaves are a metallic, lush and vibrant green, and there are pre-flowers all over the plant from head to toe. By day 35, there are an abundance of bright white buds forming, and when smelling the flowers, the aroma is a sharp, citrus kick similar to bleach and fresh lemons, The leaf shape is long, narrow, and frosted.

The start of the 14 day flushing period.

I expect the Skywalker Haze to go as far as 65 days, so will begin to flush on day 50. This means I will cut off all nutrients and only use plain water and Atazyme and allow the chlorophyll in the plants to cease and the plant to come to the end of flowering. The plants begin to really pack on the weight, producing some enormous

Massive buds on the Skywalker Haze.

top colas the size of my fist, with the lower buds also being fat and chunky. Day 67 and after checking the trichomes closely with a magnifying loupe, I decide to cut the Skywalker Haze plant down and remove the bamboo canes that I had tied at the start of flowering. The buds are massive and very greasy and sticky to touch. One final measurement reveals she is 137 cm tall. The terpenes are a mixture of antiseptic, earthy and citrus with bright green and chunky buds. The plant is then taken to my drying tent, where it will hang for 14 days at 15 degrees Celsius and 50% relative humidity.

MY CONCLUSION Overall, this brilliant hybrid is better suited for growers used to working with large-sized sativa. It was a massively yielding variety that reminded me of the old-school hybrids that always threw out giant buds. As far as the smoke report goes, it has a powerful effect that is perfect for keeping busy, creative and well-motivated, with an earthy but sharp citrus taste. Make sure you provide plenty of space and add support early on, as the side branches and buds can become very heavy and start to fall over.


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Grow

13

With Stoney Tark

The Benefits of Cannabis Mother Plants You may have watched cannabis garden tours on YouTube, and while being amazed by the size and quality of the facilities being showcased, you will notice they all have a mother room. This is the place where cannabis plants are kept alive in a vegetative state, in order to produce fresh cuttings as and when required. In this article, we break down all you need to know about mother plants, the benefits associated with them, the optimal environment to keep them in, and the best lighting options to use.

WHAT IS A CANNABIS MOTHER PLANT? Normally when growing cannabis plants indoors, we will start with a seed, which then grows under 18 hours of light. It is during this time when the seedling will develop roots, leaves and begin to produce a bushy structure and healthy green growth. When a cannabis plant is kept under 18 hours of light, it will remain in a vegetative state, meaning that after a certain time frame, the

THE BENEFITS OF HAVING A MOTHER PLANT • • • • • • •

Mother plants will provide a grower with fresh clones. Mother plants can be kept alive using low amounts of electricity. Home growers will not need to spend money on seeds. Clones that develop a root ball will be ready to flower immediately. Mother plants can be kept alive for decades at a time. An excellent way to maintain specific genetics and clones. Breeders will keep mother plants alive for preservation purposes.

HOW TO KEEP A MOTHER PLANT ALIVE The key to maintaining a mother plant that produces healthy and viable clones is to keep them growing slowly, and never change the environment. On the basis that the lighting schedule remains between 16 and 20 hours of light, the temperature is 22–25 degrees Celsius, and the relative humidity is between 60 and 80%, this is the formula for success.

This cheese mother plant is huge and ready to take clones from.

plant will produce an abundance of smaller growth sites that can be used to take cannabis clones from.

You will want to feed the plants a vegetative feed, which is high in Nitrogen, and avoid overwatering. Foliar spraying is also a great way to keep the plants in an optimal state.

WHEN TO TAKE CLONES AND RECOVERY TIME

The term mother plant originates from the fact that this plant will now be the sole source of that particular genetics and produce hundreds and in some cases thousands of children.

There will be a certain point when your chosen mother plant is mature enough to produce viable clones. Usually from seed, this process can take 8–12 weeks, depending on the strain, lighting conditions, nutrients and pot size.

The most common place where you will find mother plants are in large commercial facilities where there is a demand to hit a certain targeted plant count, and breeders who keep plants around for crossing, back crossing and general preservation.

Taking clones before you hit the sweet spot of growth and maturity, will only limit you to the number of clones that can be taken, and may temporarily stunt plant growth. It is always best to take clones from new growth sites, that are soft and avoid hard wood

Here are 3 separate mother plants of OG Kush hybrids.

clones, unless you have more experience, as these can take longer to root than soft wood. Once you have stripped your mother plant down to almost nothing, it is essential that you provide plenty of nutrients, fresh air and recovery time to allow it to fully restore and grow back with even more vigor and a bushy structure.

SO WHAT IS THE BEST LIGHT AND GROWING MEDIUM FOR MOTHER PLANTS? Not every mother plant needs to be kept alive under a 1000w of high intensity discharge lighting, and hammered with nutrients. As a home grower, you will be able to dedicate a spare cupboard or small sized tent to a mother plant, and use any of the following lighting setups.

CFL - Compact fluorescent, are cheap to buy, very efficient with electricity use, produce very little heat, and are great for keeping mother plants and clones alive. If you are going down the CFL route, then we recommend using the T5 strip light set up, and make sure the spectrum is the blue spectrum.

LED - LED lights are another energy efficient light which is an excellent option for growing mother plants slowly. Nowadays, there are many models of LED on the market, allowing you to dim the lights in some cases.

250 / 400w HPS / MH - High pressure sodium / metal halide bulbs combined with a digital ballast provide a good solution as a source of light. Normally a low powered HPS light would not produce much as far as buds are concerned, however for mother plants they are well suited and provide good light spread.

CONCLUSION There are many benefits to keeping a mother plant in your grow room, ranging from saving money by not buying new seeds every harvest, working with a strain that is already tried and tested, or making life easy for back-crossing and making new hybrids as a breeder. You can either grow huge mother plants capable of knocking out 250–500 clones every 3 months, or keep it simple and on a small scale. The choice is yours!


Cannabis Culture

14

Sebastian Daniel

HEMP: LIFELINE TO THE GREEN FUTURE friendly to the skin as hemp and other natural fibers, and they may be to blame for the current high rate of skin diseases.

The outlawing of hemp has contributed greatly to the global economic and

THE “MARIJUANA” PROHIBITION

environmental crisis of today.

Researchers have documented that the prohibition of such a strategically important plant had its roots in the political and family intrigues in big American business in the 1930s. U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote in 1933: “The real truth of the matter is that the financial element in the large centers have owned the government since the days of Andrew Jackson”.

Almost everything that isn’t glass or metal including paper, fabrics, plastics and concrete - can be made from hemp. Hemp stalk is a source of excellent building materials. Lime with hemp is firmer and 6 times lighter than cement. Hemp building materials are shock absorbent and mould/heat/ fire/rot resistant. As a wall material, hemp is not only carbon neutral – it is carbon negative. It removes more carbon from the environment than it contributes. Hemp requires little to no irrigation, pesticides or herbicides to cultivate, while cotton needs vast quantities of extremely toxic chemical fertilizers, much disliked by farmers and environmentalists. Cotton growing constitutes only 2.5% of agricultural land in the world, but takes up over 20% of the global consumption of insecticides. Eight thousand various chemicals are used to manufacture one T-shirt; one teaspoon of the mixture spilled over human skin could kill an adult person. Hemp is far cleaner, but not only. It is the most durable natural fiber on earth with 8 times the tensile strength and 4 times the durability of cotton. In ancient Japan, custom was for the Emperor’s Family and Shinto priests to use hemp textiles. In the West, priests, bishops, and popes traditionally wore cassocks made of the best fibers woven from hemp, flax, or ramie. The first Levi’s jeans were made of hemp. Today, clothes designer Calvin Klein believes hemp is going to become the fiber of choice in both the home furnishings and fashion industries. Giorgo Armani grows its own hemp for

The prohibition of hemp was closely connected with the introduction to the marketplace of synthetic fabrics like nylon and stylon, and with the development of the petroleum industry. All competition from hemp was outlawed. A new and unfamiliar term, marijuana, was cunningly used to help prohibit the cultivation and harvest of universally valued hemp. Plus, racist propaganda was used to justify the prohibition. This local Mexican word is known all over the world now. Until recently, the United States was the only developed country where even industrial (non-psychoactive) hemp had been prohibited, whereas in the European Union, cultivation of it is recommended and even subsidized. For decades, legislation authorizing hemp research or production had been blocked by

Hemp flower.

textiles. Companies like Adidas, Nike, Keen, or New Balance have introduced lines of hemp shoes. Besides hemp fiber’s superior strength and durability, it shows extreme resistance to ultraviolet light and mould, yet with good absorbency. Researchers marvel at the unique thermal, screening, and anti-allergenic properties of the fabric. Synthetic fibers cannot compete against the cheapest and strongest natural fiber. It was

no accident that a prohibition on cultivating hemp was introduced just two months after the invention of new machines and methods for obtaining hemp fiber. The time necessary to do so would have decreased from 300 working hours to one hour. A similar earlier invention – the cotton gin – caused a revolution in prices in the textile industry. However, natural hemp fabrics were to be replaced by petrochemical fabrics: nylon, polyester, and other synthetics. None are as

Hemp seeds.


15 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAGAZINE IN 1937 CALLED HEMP “THE MOST PROFITABLE AND DESIRABLE CROP THAT CAN BE GROWN

the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), which refused to recognize any difference between industrial hemp grown for fiber and psychoactive marijuana. In the 1930s, it was not only synthetic fibers that were being challenged by the hemp industry. Mechanical Engineering magazine in 1937 called hemp “the most profitable and desirable crop that can be grown”; the following year Popular Mechanics magazine envisaged that new technologies and ready markets would make hemp the most valuable raw material in the world – “a billion dollar crop”. Popular Mechanics wrote that American farmers were promised a new cash crop with an annual value of several hundred million

pany was creating charcoal fuel, creosote, methanol, and other chemicals out of hemp. Diesel bio-fuel engines have also been the invention of the beginning of the car industry. Rudolph Diesel produced his engine in 1896 assuming it would run off of vegetable and seed oils. The automotive industry was seen as a new branch of agriculture, which would produce a considerable amount of energy. Ford foresaw a future where cars were literally grown from the soil, where plastics from hemp were the building materials of almost all products, and where the fuel from hemp biomass provided the energy. In 1925, Ford claimed that ethyl alcohol was “the fuel of the futu-

In 1941, Henry Ford demonstrated the strength of a hemp-based Model T, the “automobile of tomorrow”. Ford was beating the car with a hammer to showcase its strength as it suffered zero dents.

THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY WAS SEEN AS A NEW BRANCH OF AGRICULTURE by farmers and that cellulose could replace steel. In 1941, after 12 years of research, Ford presented the “automobile of tomorrow”, a plastic car “grown from the soil,” made from 70% hemp, wheat straw, and sisal, with a 30% hemp resin binder. The car was much stronger, lighter, safer, and more fuel efficient than its steel counterpart. It weighed a third less but demonstrated 10 times the impact strength. The car can be spotted in many documentaries and books about hemp, and in newspapers of the period. Ford himself proved how strong the car was by publicly striking the car with a hammer to show it wouldn’t dent.

Hemp fiber.

dollars, all because a machine had finally been invented that would solve a problem more than 6000 years old. The magazine explained to its readers that hemp is the standard fiber of the world, with great strength and durability, used to produce more than 5000 textile products, not counting the celluloserich woody “hurds” which remain that can be used to produce 25,000 more products, from dynamite to cellophane.

It is possible to build a car body or a house almost entirely out of hemp, then use the hemp seed oil products to paint and power it. In the 1940s Henry Ford manufactured a car that we would call “eco” or “green” by today’s standards. A decade earlier Ford Motor Com-

re”. This opinion that was widely shared in the automotive industry. “The fuel of the future is going to come from fruit like that sumac out by the road, or from apples, weeds, sawdust -almost anything,” he told the New York Times. “There is fuel in every bit of vegetable matter that can be fermented. There’s enough alcohol in one year’s yield of an acre of potatoes to drive the machinery necessary to cultivate the fields for a hundred years.”

ARRESTED DEVELOPMENT Ford was inspired by the African-American inventor George Washington Carver and his idea that the world’s resources could be produced using raw plant materials provided

The heavy steel hammer trial looks really impressive: after a hard blow the hammer rebounds from the hood as if the body were made of rubber, without leaving even the slightest damage. Documentary footage of this remarkable achievement is available on YouTube. Ford recognized the vast economic resource provided by hemp. Not only would the company construct a “car that grows in a field”, the engineers even ran the cars on ethanol made from hemp. Henry Ford asked why “we would want to use up the forests which were centuries in the making and mines which required ages to lay down, if we could get equivalent forest and mineral products from the annual growth of the fields.” Ford can also be credited for introducing to the market a vast variety of products from soy beans. In the 1930s, researchers at the Ford laboratories reintroduced this plant to the Western world, inventing new ways to process

soy and use it as food, oil, or textile – which has resulted in a booming industry. Today, parts made from hemp can still be found in many German cars; the auto industry uses a large portion of the nation’s hemp harvest. In 2008, Lotus announced a new type of “green car”, the hemp-based Eco Elise. Major car manufacturers GM, Chrysler, Saturn, BMW, Honda, Mercedes and Ford all use hemp composites in their new models. Prior to the late 19th century, all the fiber, fuel, food, and medicine required to meet human needs was produced by plants during the process of photosynthesis, where solar energy helps convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars and cellulose, basic building materials of the natural world. Now much of this carbohydrate matter has been replaced by hydrocarbons generated by the coal and oil industries. Evolutionary biologist and author prof. Jared Diamond warns that soon we can also run out of solar energy-fueled resources. The photosynthetic ability of the Earth, calculated as an available green area, in comparison with demand caused by development and the rising birth rate, will reach a point that could well mean the end of modern civilization. Without plants there would be no food, no clothes, no timber, as well as no oxygen for breathing. The ecological crisis is one main reason why even hostile world leaders are beginning to work together against global pollution today: the air we breathe is for everyone, both for the rich and the poor.


Growing

16

Ed Rosenthal

Oklahoma Sungrown: Localized Breeding with Fungi & Hügelkultur

Photo: Andy Unruh

In 2018 Oklahoma voters passed State Question 788, which legalized medical cannabis use and possession, solidified the right of patients to maintain home gardens, and created a free market for commercial cultivation with low barriers to entry. The result has been a robust industry full of locally owned and operated businesses that thrives off constant innovation and community breeding.

Friends and farmers Jeremy Babbit and Andy Unruh are both licensed growers under the Oklahoma Medical Marijuana Authority (OMMA) and work together to explore and improve on permaculture practices adapted to the unique microclimates they live and garden in. Through a combination of regenerative agriculture techniques, including hügelkultur, and cultivating several strains of carbon-dioxide-produ-

cing mushrooms, they are producing localized varieties of high-quality sungrown flowers for premium single-source ice hash rosin. Hügelkultur translated from German means “hill culture.” It refers to a method of permaculture that involves burying wood in mounds or raised beds. As the wood rots, it becomes a sponge that retains moisture, thus reducing or eliminating the need for irrigation. While compost is typically bro-

ken down by bacteria, wood is digested by fungi. The use of both the rotting wood and compost creates a thriving living soil ecosystem filled with earthworms that reduces or eliminates the need for fertilizers. Andy says that he decided to use hügelkultur because the soil on his farm was really compacted and full of clay. He had cut down oak trees six months prior, and the logs and sticks were in varying states of decay. He created a circular pattern around a post hole to create mounds as well as a traditional hügelkultur trench. Andy and Jeremy have combined the use of the wood with helpful fungi that thrive in it as it rots: mushrooms. While some of the mushrooms grown in the gardens arrived on their own, others have been brought in by adding spores to compost tea to encourage the soil diversity and provide an ongoing source of carbon dioxide directly underneath the cannabis plants. Andy says the wild mushroom strains in his garden include bird’s nest, ink head, puff balls, and rose guild mushrooms, which seem to thrive in the iron-rich native “red dirt” soil in his garden that Oklahoma is famous for. As he forages in the woods around his farm, he picks mushrooms and places the fresh caps in the compost tea he feeds the plants. “By placing the spores, caps, and mycelium into the compost tea before feeding, I am able to introduce local native fungi directly to my plants. My best results so far have been with Stubble Rosegill (Volvopluteus gloiocephalus) and Bird’s Nest Fungi (Nidulariaceae). I have begun introducing porcini (Boletus Edulis) mushrooms, which form mycorrhizal partnerships with plants, but I have not seen any fruiting bodies to date.” To encourage the growth of bolete mushrooms near the cannabis plants’ roots, he has thrown spores into the compost heap. “I knew I had to get my soil mixed with more fungi because it is clay, dense, and anaerobic, and I want it to become aerobic. Fungi is one of the ways to loosen up the soil without tilling. The hyphae build pathways for oxygen, develop soil structure, decompose organic matter, and extract and hold nutrients,” Andy says. Andy warns that not all the mushrooms are edible, and many are dangerous if consumed, but his work with the fungus has inspired him to cultivate beneficial mushrooms that are also edible, such as reishis and shiitakes, which he plans to add to the hügelkultur beds under his cannabis plants by first inoculating the logs with the spore plugs and then burying them in the beds. Together Andy and Jeremy focus on permaculture methods and localized breeding programs with two end goals: creating thriving sungrown varieties acclimatized to the microclimates of eastern Oklahoma, and especially those that produce high-quality resin-rich flowers for Jeremy to process into single-sourced ice water hash, for both their farms as well as others using similar methods. “I need the right resin, the right trichome heads. That is what I am growing for,” Jeremy says. Unlike Andy’s farm, Jeremy’s property doesn’t have the famous “red dirt” Oklahoma is known for, but instead clay and sandstone. Jeremy uses traditional hügelkultur beds amended with compost, coco coir, worm castings, and spore-rich wood chips produced from trees cut down on his own property. Andy’s and Jeremy’s farms are about an hour away from each other in the greater Tulsa area. Jeremy’s farm, 918 Oklahoma Grown, is just northeast of the city in Collinsville; Andy’s is Sticky Flower Farm, to the southwest outside Depew.


17

Jeremy Babbit’s outdoor farm contains 100 plants of 12 different varieties. Photo: Jeremy Babbit.

They are quick to point out that the State of Oklahoma has many diverse microclimates, from the wetter and greener rolling hills in the east to the dry, arid land in the western panhandle sandwiched between Texas to the south and Kansas and Colorado to the north. While the goal of Jeremy’s garden is to produce high-quality solventless concentrates with locally bred varieties, Andy says the goal of his garden is to work with farmers and breeders throughout the state to create a community around producing genetics specialized to the region. “The community here in Oklahoma is really good, State Question 788 has given everyone the opportunity that wants to put in the effort, do it legit, do it right, and not put out a half-assed product,” says Jeremy. “I want to find genetics that grow well outdoors and produce the best hash rosin I can make.”

Most commercial cannabis varieties available in Oklahoma and other states in the East, Midwest, and South were the result of breeding programs and alliances that originated on the West Coast. While most states east of the Rockies have strictly limited the amount of grow licenses and the qualifications to grow, Oklahoma’s free market approach has resulted in thousands of small farmers like Andy and Jeremy, with the ability to breed and grow new plants that are more appropriate to the region. Andy says, “Oklahoma is absolutely incredible for having a local breeder community. If we work together as a community on cultivars and methods that work best in our state, we will find cultivars that Californians wish they could grow as well as we do, just like we wished we could grow specific cultivars as well as they do.” Neither Jeremy or Andy refers to himself as a “master grower,” but as farmers. Both seek to

transform the region’s current farming practices and have integrated permaculture and regenerative techniques into their gardens. “I am just a farmer. I don’t know anyone on my dad or mom’s side of the family who wasn’t a farmer. I am just going back to my roots. I saw too many people using ‘traditional’ commercial agriculture practices but always struggling and always fighting something,” Andy says about the decision to transition to using natural techniques. Both farms produce one yearly annual harvest under natural light. Although neither plans to use light deprivation, they have gotten creative with planting seasons and using autoflower varieties. Jeremy’s garden is 40 by 72 feet (12 by 22 m) and enclosed in a state-mandated 8 foot (2.5 m) fence. It contains 100 plants of 12 varieties. He is growing some for the first time and others that are reliable hash plants. He started some from seeds and others from clones obtained from local breeders.

He has a preference for sativa varieties but tends to grow more hybrid and indica-dominant plants because they are better hash producers, as are most Diesel varieties. Currently he’s growing Killer Cupcakes, Sundae Supreme, Watermelon Zum Zum, Glue Ball, Thunder Diesel, Durban Kush, Orange Mac, MorningWood, Strawberry Diesel, Cornbread, and Island Mimosa. Andy’s garden is smaller than Jeremy’s and includes a personal home garden where Andy does most of the breeding and experimentation. Unlike Jeremy’s, Andy’s is a seed garden. Its purpose is breeding and storing local-specific varieties. He has propagated feminized seeds from Morning Wood, a cross of Sour Diesel and Alaskan Thunderfuck produced by local breeder Pac-a-Punch. Both he and Jeremy say it produces great hash. Morning Wood was crossed with Green Crack, which will eventually be released as “Pepe Depew.” Local breeder Oklahoma Kush Collective has provided an Athena’s Wisdom that he is experimenting with. He has crossed two of these plants with Thunder Cheese from another local breeder, Shaggy Roots, which was crossed with Purple Urkle. There is also a cross of Green Crack and Purple Urkle and a new unique variety from out west: Freak Show, which looks more like a fern than a traditional cannabis plant. Jeremy must contend with all four seasons. It gets hot and humid in the summers. He irrigates the plants with just enough water to keep them from wilting. They are supported using netting and ca-

Mushrooms are encouraged to grow in the dirt as both a source of CO2 and below-the-surface fungal life. Photo: Andy Unruh.

Andy Unruh next to the beginnings of a hügelkultur mound. Photo: Jeff Hooten.

ges when the plants grow large. Beyond the heat, the biggest challenge is dealing with grasshoppers and caterpillars, which like to burrow into nugs and destroy them from the inside. Andy’s farm is a lot wetter, so he breeds for mold resistance and, when necessary, uses an indigenous microorganism (IMO) spray to keep mold at bay. Andy’s gardens are irrigated using a drip system. Jeremy uses several methods, including soaker hoses and gravity beds. Both farmers seek natural methods of pest and fungal control. Jeremy has attempted to rely on his turkeys and guineas to eat up grasshoppers and caterpillars, but they haven’t been too reliable. Both use natural foliar sprays to control pests and fungus including Dr. Zymes and IMOs. Both gardens are abundant with beneficial predators including ladybugs, praying mantis, assassin bugs, and spiders.


Seed Banks Jaypp

Red Mimosa XL Auto : a very tasty and productive purple autoflowering strain ®

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Have you ever wondered if it is possible to have marijuana plants with purple or violet buds? Just read on to discover for yourself the treasure that Sweet Seeds® offers you with this beautiful easy-to-grow auto plant with an excellent profile of sweet and fruity terpenes, the Red Mimosa XL Auto® (SWS104). Prepare your vaporiser and get ready to take off! Red Mimosa XL Auto® is among the most interesting autoflowering cannabis plants with purple and green leaves and a very special flavour, among those presented in the Sweet Seeds® catalogue for the year 2023. When this plant starts flowering, you will discover why it is so and realise that it is not only for the reddish colour in its buds, but also for its exaggerate production of trichome glands covering them so much so that they look entirely crystallised.

dried fruits, while being at the same time very sweet and full-bodied. When the terpenes are still fresh, these pleasant summery scents are fully perceivable. However, after a period of curing, the plant acquires much more intensity as well as hints of nuts, spices and arugula. When smoking or vaporising Red Mimosa XL Auto®, you can feel not only its complex terpene profile, but also the potency of its flavour, due to the heavy trichome load in the purple and green buds.

Not to mention its speed of growth and the magnificent size it reaches, with specimens exceeding one meter with little effort. I invite you to enter the wonderful world of this plant that mesmerizes expert marijuana growers and eager beginners alike.

Below is a list of its main terpenes, which determine its aromas and flavours as well as the ‘entourage effect’, i.e. a phenomenon whereby the effects caused by THC and the rest of the cannabinoids are modulated and enhanced. It has recently been discovered that a plant has more sativa or more indica effects depending on the different terpenes it contains, whereas the percentages of THC, CBD and other cannabinoids help enhance them. In this purple-coloured autoflowering plant, the following terpenes stand out…

GENETIC INFORMATION OF RED MIMOSA XL AUTO® Red Mimosa XL Auto® stands out as a plant with a large habit, impressive flowering and a unique terpene profile. Sweet Seeds® breeders developed this autoflowering plant by crossing an elite clone of the famous American strain Mimosa [Clementine (Tangie x Lemon Skunk) x Purple Punch (Larry OG x Grand Daddy Purple)] with the famous Cream Mandarine Auto® (SWS29), one of the most valued autoflowering marijuana seeds of all times, which in addition to introducing the autoflowering gene, has also enhanced the fruity and citrus aromas with a distinctive note of mandarin orange (as its name says). After the good result obtained, this year we have sought to intensify the bud colour for growers to harvest purple and reddish marijuana buds of great quality. The parent plant that contributes to this is another success called Red Strawberry Banana Auto® (SWS90), also from Sweet Seeds®. The result is a very stable plant with a strong hybrid vigour, making it very easy to grow, both indoors and outdoors (either on the balcony or directly on the ground).

RED MIMOSA XL AUTO® AROMAS AND FLAVOURS Red Mimosa XL Auto® from Sweet Seeds® has inherited all the traits of its parents, as can be discerned from its decisively fruity flavour, where the tones of strawberry and citrus fruits stand out, with a special touch of

- Limonene: A terpene also found in citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons. It is believed to have stimulant properties and can help relieve stress and improve mood. - Beta-caryophyllene: This terpene produces a spicy, earthy aroma, similar to black pepper and cloves. It is thought to have anti-inflammatory properties and may interact with cannabinoid receptors in the body, specifically the CB2 cannabinoid receptor. This property has led to research into its potential therapeutic use. - Terpinolene: It is behind the plant’s herbal, citrusy aroma with hints of pine. Some research suggests that terpinolene may have sedative and relaxing properties. - Myrcene: It is one of the most abundant terpenes in marijuana strains with an earthy, herbal scent, which normally enhances fruity notes. It has been associated with relaxing and sedative effects and can intensify the effects of other cannabinoids.

EFFECTS OF RED MIMOSA XL AUTO® AND THEIR DURATION As said above, cannabinoids are not the only elements producing psychoactive,


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with a good central bud, which is typical of the best indicas, and is adorned by many ‘satellite’ large calibre buds. In cultivation, it behaves very well and is particularly suited to both indoor and balcony growing. At the end of its growth, 8 weeks after germination, it will accept high doses of fertiliser. But please do not exaggerate and please use organic fertilisers, as they will leave a much cleaner and purer taste in the plant, in addition to being healthier. To enjoy its beautiful purple-purple buds, it is not necessary to expose the plant to low temperatures. What makes this autoflowering marijuana plant colourful are the anthocyanins that it naturally contains due to its inherited genetics. medicinal and recreational effects after consumption of cannabis. The function of terpenes in cannabis plants is to maintain their good health and ability to resist pests and temperature extremes. Humans use both substances for their own benefit, whether for therapeutic or recreational use. Red Mimosa XL Auto® has a high THC content of up to 25%, making it one of the most potent purple-coloured autoflowering strains of American origin on the market. This high THC percentage, together with its unique

terpene profile, translates into a very fast and potent effect. If you enjoy dabbing rosin (a special marijuana extract for those who do not know it), I assure you that the experience will be very satisfying because its flavour will pamper your palate. After this first hit, the effect changes to calmness and relaxation, along with an increase in creativity.

MAIN GROWING CHARACTERISTICS OF RED MIMOSA XL AUTO® Red Mimosa XL Auto® has a medium-tall size,

The strain is also characterised by the production of high quality trichomes, so you should not miss the opportunity to collect some of these seeds.

BE PAMPERED BY RED MIMOSA XL AUTO®! If you are still unconvinced, visit the Sweet Seeds®® website and you will see it for yourself. It is one of my favourite plants and I hope it will also be so for you. You will not be disappointed!


Grow

10 TOP TIPS FOR With Stoney Tark

20

FLUSHING AND HARVESTING CANNABIS PLANTS Understanding the correct time to harvest your indoor cannabis plants, should be a balance of a completed flushing period and the plants using up all their nutrients. It is during the final two weeks when resin production, terpenes and yield are at risk, so in this article, we provide 10 top tips to consider during the final stages of the plant’s life cycle, and what you can do to get the most out of your indoor crop!

Top tip #1 - Use only plain water Providing only plain water for your plants during the last 2 weeks of the flowering stage, will allow the soil to become clean of any undissolved salts, as well as flush out the Nitrogen from the leaves. During this time, plants will begin to fade expressing a multitude of rainbow colours, which will be a clear sign that the flush is going well, and the harvest day is only around the corner. Our top tip is to use only plain water and totally cut off the nutrients. Not only will flushing improve the final taste and overall smoking experience, it will also help to wash your growing medium out for recycling if needed. Reverse osmosis is an excellent option for flushing plants, especially for hydroponic growers.

Top tip #2 - Drying nets work great Drying nets come in various shapes and sizes, and are very practical for hanging up inside a small sized tent with a carbon filter inside. Drying nets can be used to place carefully trimmed fresh buds onto, or simply place cut

off branches inside. With a number of sections to accommodate for a large crop, or multiple strains at one, drying nets make life easy for a beginner grower and allow the buds to air out on the mesh net. Our top tip here is when using a drying net, make sure that you label each different section, to avoid getting the buds mixed up. Simply throw a piece of paper into each part of the net so you can easily see what is what when it comes to trimming and later on curing. Do not let fans blow directly onto the drying nets, as this will only speed dry the flower.

firmly tying it around the stalk makes life easy and saves you stressing out later on. Labelling the plants is also a good habit to develop if you have different phenotypes of various strains, or have taken clones during the vegetative stage for a breeding project.

Top tip #5 - Yellow and brittle leaves Plants will grow green leaves with a healthy glow and vibrancy during the vegetative and

the late flowering stage. Flushing will make sure that all the Nitrogen has been pushed out of the plants, and as a result the once lush green fan leaves and smaller leaves, are now turning yellow and brittle. This just means that the plants are at the very end of their life cycle, and will not need to focus on photosynthesis any more. Our tip here is to flush your plants until the fan leaves become lifeless, bright yellow and when you touch them, they effortlessly fall to

Top tip #3 - Try not to overwater There are two ways to flush plants, and they are to either use the same volume of water and cut off the nutrients, or the other is to give the plants 200-300% more than they are used to during the final 14 days. As a beginner grower, flooding the growing medium may have a negative effect if your growing environment is not dialled in. Our top tip is to wait until the growing medium has become totally dry again before watering. An oversaturated growing medium will cause problems and may even slow down growth. Try not to overwater your plants, and remember oxygen is essential for roots and beneficial bacteria and microorganism. We recommend sticking to the same volume of water method, and just cut off the nutrients. This way, you do not need to be concerned by a water logged medium during a crucial stage.

Top tip #4 - Always label the plants A good habit to get into as a beginner grower is to label your plants before chopping them down and hanging upside down. All you need to use is a cable tie and a plastic name tag to make sure each plant and phenotype is correctly labelled. There is nothing worse than going back to the drying room and second guessing what is what based on smells alone. Our top tip is to avoid harvesting plants and hanging them, thinking you will be able to remember each plant. For the sake of spending a few minutes writing a name tag and then

Here you can see the plant is fully flushed and ready for harvesting.


21 Top tip #9 –14 days is best If you are able to, then flushing for 14 days is the best option, and will allow plants to totally fade. There will be emergency scenarios when a grower can only flush for 7–10 days, which is not the end of the world, however most growers will swear that the 2-week mark is the sweet spot. In hydro flushing for a week is perfectly fine, and then again with soil, often times flushing is a pointless exercise. Our top tip here for flushing is to use plain water for 14 days. Do not get overzealous and hammer the plants with nutrients hoping to improve the final yield. Enzymes are also a great addition to the flushing process, especially when using a coco coir substrate that needs to be recycled for a second crop. There are actually some growers who do not flush at all, and others who flush for 14 days no matter what, however we would encourage you to flush until the plants are expressing a wide range of coloured leaves.

and money on grow equipment and seeds, just to fall short when it comes to the drying stage. Once you have harvested your plants and are hanging them upside down for 14 to dry, or want to freshly trim them and make fresh frozen isolators with the leaves, our top tip here is to make sure your drying room is odour controlled. The easiest solution is to buy a 1-meter sized net, small sized exhaust fan and carbon filter. Spending the extra money now will keep your plants drying in a controlled environment and keep unwanted attention at bay.

Conclusion Flushing your plants is very important, and combining the 14-day flush cycle with the optimal harvest window is a skill that can take time and experience to fully master. There are also signs that you can use to help judge the exact moment to harvest, ranging from calyx development, resin production, aroma and terpene levels, leaf colour and trichome maturity.

This grower has chosen to hang their plants on hooks to dry before trimming.

the ground. You will notice this colour pigment shift occurs from 7 to 14 days of plain water. When the fan leaves do begin to naturally fall off, take the time to remove them out of the garden and do not let them sit on the surface of your pots.

Top tip #6 - Save your leaves for hash

a magnifying loupe specifically designed for inspecting cannabis buds. These handy little devices are able to get close enough so you can see the colour and maturity of the trichomes. You should always keep the magnifying loupe in the garden, and whenever you are in the final 14 days, start checking early on and keep a close eye on the trichomes.

Even though as indoor growers the goal is to produce as many flavoursome buds as possible, it is also a good idea to save the leaves. Of course, not all the leaves left on the plant are worthy of saving, however there will be a majority that are packed full of trichomes and essential oils.

Our tip here is to check if the trichomes are clear, milky silver looking or are closer to the amber side of the scale. If you want heavy bodied and narcotic effects, then we recommend leaving the plants a little longer, until you can see 50% or more of the resin glands are dark yellow, amber or a hint of red.

Our tip here is to be as careful as possible when handling the leaves and sugar-coated trim, and either save them and place them in the freezer to make hash or dry sift. You man not end up with bin bags of trim from your first few harvests, but a good idea is to save all the leaves and smaller unwanted buds, and at the end of each year knock a big hash run. On the other hand, if you are into making BHO, then the same rules apply and gathering today as much intact high grade trim is key.

Top tip #8 - Resin production

Top tip #7 - How the trichomes look Following the flowering time that is provided by the seed company is not always the best way to determine if your plants are ready or not. One simple way that will take your indoor grow game to the next level, is to use

How big and fat your buds are is one of the main priorities come harvest time, but you should also be considerate of how well the trichomes are developed and if they are at peak development. How much resin is on the plants ultimately determines how many terpenes, essential oils and cannabinoids are available when consumed. When it comes to inspecting the resin, our top tip is to give the plants a little extra time to really push over the finish line. There are a few different tricks also that can be done to enhance the trichome production during harvest time, ranging from keeping the plants in total darkness for 48 hours, and using high stress tactics.

A perfect example of trichome coated leaves ideal for making hash.

Top tip #10 - Smell proof the dry room One bad habit that beginner growers can tend to develop is to hang their plants out in a spare back bedroom, or cupboard. There will be no environmental control, and the aroma the drying plants produce can be extremely pungent and attract the wrong attention. There is absolutely no point in spending all that time

Many growers unfortunately harvest their plants too early due to inexperience, meaning not only does the final yield reduce significantly, but the plants do not get a chance to fully express themselves at pinnacle terpene and production. You can always wait 5–7 days longer if you are not totally sure, and it is better to be safe than sorry! Good luck mastering the flush and harvest window.


Grow with Mr. José

22

Mr. José info@mrjose.eu

How to harvest, trim and dry cannabis Cultivation of cannabis has undergone enormous changes in the last ten years. In my opinion, everyone who is seriously interested in cultivation can now gather very expert information. Both small and commercial growers are becoming more and more educated, and that‘s a good thing. Recently, there has been much discussion not only about cultivation but also about improving the processing and drying of cannabis. Therefore, I‘ve decided to share my knowledge and experience with you. They might be useful to you. Probably every grower has their favorite method of harvesting, trimming, and drying. Each will tell you that their method is, of

prefer hand trimming and those who use trimmers. Let‘s go through it step by step.

SHOULD YOU DRY ENTIRE CANNABIS PLANTS OR IN PIECES? When you dry whole plants, you simply cut them at the base, turn them upside down and hang them in a dark room with good air circulation, a temperature between 16 and 20 °C, and relative humidity between 45 to 55%. Lower humidity and higher temperatures will dry the plants faster, and vice versa. Faster drying reduces the risk of mold, while slower drying helps preserve more terpenes in the resin. Whole plants will be dry within 7–14 days.

Fresh plants are tougher and more resistant during trimming.

than larger ones, so at the end of the drying process, the lower flowers might be overdried. Nothing is absolutely perfect. If you immediately divide the plants into stems, flowers, and large leaves after harvesting, you can shorten the drying time to 4–10 days, again depending on the conditions. The risk of mold is very low when maintaining the right conditions, and if you divide the flowers into approximately equal sizes, they will dry quite evenly.

Drying whole plants in commercial cultivation requires a lot of space.

course, the absolute best. Even at the time of harvest, people are divided into those who harvest and dry the plants whole, and those who immediately strip them and dry the individual, trimmed buds. At the same time, we can divide growers into those who

Most growers agree that slower drying positively affects the taste and aroma of cannabis. If you only have a small number of plants, I recommend trying the whole drying method at least once. However, keep in mind that smaller buds will dry faster

Some people leave the top buds whole. These naturally take longer to dry because they are essentially smaller buds gathered close together. Even after drying, there will be a relatively thick stem in the center of such a flower. However, you will always know which bud is from the top part of the plant, and you can also enjoy its size. When you have different sizes of buds, it is good to divide them into groups and finish drying the smaller buds earlier. In commercial cultivation, this method is more practical, takes up less space, and also allows for more efficient machine trimming, as I will mention a little further on. The moisture content in the dried flower should be between 6 and 9%. At lower humidity, the cannabis flower is too brittle

and loses more terpenes too. Higher humidity, on the other hand, creates suitable conditions for unwanted molds and bacterial activity.

DRY TRIMMING If you have chosen the method of drying whole plants, I recommend manually trimming the plants. Dried trichomes and leaves are very fragile, and machine trimming of dry cannabis will result in the loss of some buds. Although manufacturers try to develop as gentle machines as possible, capable of trimming even dry cannabis, you cannot avoid some losses. Another disadvantage is that for machine trimming of dry cannabis to be efficient, it needs to be a bit over-dried. Machine trimming of dry plants is more suitable for outdoor-grown cannabis, where the loss of some flower mass is not as critical because such cannabis is cheaper. These losses are not negligible. Typically, it‘s about 20–30% of the weight of the buds comparing to wet trimming, but for lower quality material, up to 50% may end up in the waste bin. Of course, the trimmed parts can be used for extraction or other processing.


23 In the flowers, there is a small amount of really tiny leaves heavily covered with resin, which in my view can remain on the flowers to protect the surface of the flower itself. This does not reduce quality, but here it‘s a matter of personal preference and subjective opinion.

TRIMMING MACHINES Manual trimming is always a labor-intensive task, regardless of the number of plants you need to process. Manually trimming healthy plants from one square meter can take about three to six hours, depending on how carefully it‘s done and the skill level of the person doing it. The work is monotonous and requires patience. For larger quantities, it‘s worthwhile to use trimming machines. These can trim several to tens of kilograms of flowers in an hour. The aforementioned square meter can be completed in just a few minutes. Trimmers for removing unwanted leaves use a vacuum and sharp blades. A powerful fan sucks the leaves sticking out of the flowers through a grid, under which are the blades that cut off the sucked-in leaves. For smaller volumes, non-pass-through trimmers are more advantageous. You pour the flowers into them and remove them after trimming. Or so-called tumblers. These are trimmers with a cylinder that rotates over the blade Automatic Trimmer L can process up to 12 kilograms of fresh flowers per hour.

For a high-quality product from an indoor grow, however, I prefer either trimming fresh or manually trimming dry plants. In the latter case, you get a truly premium product, but it involves a lot of work. With careful manual trimming, the final product is very uniform. Machine-trimmed flowers need to be visually inspected and possibly finished manually. If you‘ve never trimmed cannabis before, know that it involves removing large leaves with a minimum of resin, as well as removing larger leaves in the flowers, which are also less resinous than the flowers themselves. The result must be a flower where only tiny petals heavily coated with trichomes and resin remain.

WET TRIMMING When cultivating cannabis on a larger scale, especially under artificial lighting, fresh flower processing becomes more advantageous. Fresh plants are tougher and more resilient. This is not only true for their stems and leaves but also for the trichomes adorned with resin. This is especially beneficial for machine trimming, as you‘ll lose a smaller amount during processing. In this approach, you need to separate the flowers from the stems and branches immediately after harvesting and ideally get rid of the large leaves as well. This can be done manually or with the help of a so-called bucker, which quickly and precisely separates the flowers from the stems. Once

For outdoor cannabis, many growers leave more leaves on the buds.

Small petals can remain on the flowers.

you have the buds separated, proceed as in the case of dry trimming, i.e., remove leaves with a small amount of resin until you have a nicely clean, resin-coated bud. These trimmed flowers are then ideally dried on some fine mesh, where air can freely circulate around the flowers. In recent years, there‘s been a trend to remove all leaves from the flowers, resulting in completely bare buds. Perhaps customers demand this to ensure they‘re not buying leaf stems, but in my opinion, this reduces the mechanical resistance of the flowers.

and into which you can continuously add more flowers, which push out the trimmed ones into a prepared container. Tumblers are generally better, trimming flowers more evenly, and in my opinion, are gentler on the flowers. However, they are quite expensive and are usually designed for trimming larger quantities of material. For home growers who still don‘t want to deal with manual trimming, there are small tumblers on the market. If you are not concerned about the price, they serve excellently.


Grow

24

With Jorge Cervantes jorge@marijuanagrowing.com

AIR VENTILATION AND CIRCULATION The temperature in the grow room tends to stay the same, top to bottom, when the air is circulated with an oscillating fan(s). In an enclosed grow room, HID lamps and ballasts keep the area warm. A remote ballast placed near the floor on a shelf or a stand also helps break up air stratification by radiating heat upward. Grow rooms in cool climates stay warm during the day when the outdoor temperature peaks, but often cool off too much at night when cold temperatures set in. To compensate, growers turn on the lamp at night to help heat the room but leave it off during the day. Intake air is supplied in some garden rooms and small greenhouses via cracks and holes, but most enclosed rooms need a designated intake vent. Sealed grow areas require an intake vent or fan to draw in new fresh air. An intake vent allows air to passively flow into an enclosed area. An intake fan blows fresh air into the garden room or green-

house. Airflow through ducting is impaired. See the Cannabis Encyclopedeia for more informaiton on ducting dynamics. Negative pressure in the grow room makes life difficult for diseases and pests to live. Negative pressure keeps the atmosphere inside the grow room stable and isolates the fragrance of growing cannabis too. A simple way to check for negative pressure in a grow room is to open the door. The door should open and close easily when intake and vent fans are turned off. When the intake and vent fans are turned on and create negative pressure in the room, the door should be difficult to open. An air entrance/exit ratio of 1:4 will create negative pressure in the grow room for example a 100 cfm [m3/h] incoming fan and a 400 cfm [m3/h] exhaust fan will give the room negative pressure. Master grower Kyle Kushman always recommends negative pressure in all grow rooms.

Constant air circulation and a supply of fresh air are essential but often inadequate. There should be at least one fresh-air vent in every grow room. Vents can be an open door, window, or duct vented to the outside. An exhaust fan vented outdoors usually creates an adequate flow of air. An oscillating fan works well to circulate air. When installing such a fan, make sure it is not set in a fixed position and blowing too hard on tender plants. It could cause windburn and dry out plants, especially small seedlings and clones. If the room contains a heat vent, it may be opened to supply extra heat or air circulation. See the Cannabis Encyclopedeia for more informaiton.

HEATING AND COOLING Sometimes it is too cold for lamps and ballasts to maintain satisfactory room temperatures. Grow rooms located in homes are usually equipped with a central heating and/ or air conditioning vent. The vent is usually controlled by a central thermostat that regulates the temperature of the home. By adjusting the thermostat to 22 degrees C and opening the door to the grow room, it can stay a cozy 22 degrees C. However, using so much power is expensive and could cause a security quandary. Keeping the thermostat between 15-18 degrees C, coupled with the heat from the HID system, should be enough to sustain 24 degrees C temperatures. Other supplemental heat sources such as electric heaters are somewhat expensive and draw extra electricity, but they provide instant heat that is easy to regulate. Avoid

Wall-mounted oscillating fans circulate grow room air and are up out of the way durring maintenance.

diesel and wood heat unless it is vented properly. Propane and natural gas heaters increase temperatures and burn oxygen from the air, creating CO2 and water vapor as by-products. This dual advantage makes using a CO2 generator economical and practical. See the Cannabis Encyclopedeia for more informaiton on heating and cooling in enclosed areas. If temperatures drop more than 8 degrees C when the lights go out in a grow room, relative humidity climbs quickly. The humid air must be evacuated so that it does not condense. HIDs lamps and ballasts radiate heat, which lowers humidity. Heat from the HID system and a vent fan on a thermostat/humidistat are all the humidity control necessary for most garden rooms. Dry heat sources that lower humidity include hot air vented from a furnace or wood stove. Do not direct piped-in warm dry air to blow


25

The oscillating fan amplifies the air circulation from the heat pump (air conditioner/heater) above.

directly on foliage. Hot dry air dehydrates cannabis plants quickly. Increase humidity by misting the air in clone rooms, garden rooms and greenhouses with water or set out buckets of water to evaporate into the air in small enclosed gardens.

Usually irrigation water evaporating from soil surface adds more than enough humidity to the enclosed area. A humidifier is convenient and relatively inexpensive. Humidifiers evaporate water into the air to increase relative humidity. Set

Although placed a little high in the greenhouse, this heater keeps the air warm enough so that plants form big dinse flowers.

the humidifier control to a specific humidity level. This level of humidity is achieved when enough water evaporates into the air. A humidifier is not necessary unless there is an extreme problem with the grow room drying out. More often than not, high humidity results as a byproduct of irrigation and transpiration. Dehumidifiers are often used to discourage fungi. Relative humidity control is an integral part of insect and fungus prevention and control. Humidity above 80 percent discou-

rages spider mites but promotes fungus as well as root and stem rot. Humidity levels below 60 percent reduce the chances of fungus and rot. Lowering relative humidity during flowering to about 50 percent keeps plants growing strong and healthy. Dehumidifiers are more expensive and use more electricity than humidifiers. Air conditioners, although expensive to operate, dehumidify the air. Install an air conditioner in warm climates to cool and dehumidify the enclosed area.

A dehumidifier removes moisture in a room by condensing it from the air. Once the water is separated from the air, it is captured in a removable container, piped into a container or directed down a drain. Interestingly enough, the expelled water carries a strong enough fragrance of cannabis that can be detected by a sniffer dog. Use the collected water for irrigation, it has a neutral pH and low ppm value. You may be amazed at the amount of water in the air. For example, a dehumidifier will remove about 10 ounces (30 cl) of water in a 21.5 m2 room when the temperature drops just 5 degrees C.

This article was excerpted from the update of – Marijuana Horticulture “Bible” (6th Edition) by Jorge Cervantes. The new digital edition will be available as late, 2023. Jorge is very excited about the new digital edition that will help hundreds of thousands of growers grow more and better cannabis! © 2020, © 2021, © 2022, © 2023. Download the Cannabis Encyclopedia FREE in English and Spanish on my site, www.marijuanagrowing.com.


DOWNLOAD TODAY!

WE GROW CANNABIS Award-Winning cannabis cultivation author Jorge Cervantes teams up with Seedsman for a FREE, comprehensive digital book on home growing. 100-page digital book

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Co-Authors Chief Scientific Officer, Dr. Gary Yates Stefan Meyer Table of Contents • • • • • • • •

Cannabis Botany Life Cycle of Cannabis Cannabis Seeds & Seedlings Plan Your Garden Grow Room Setup Twelve-week Garden Harvest, Manicuring, Drying, Curing & Storage Diseases, Pests & Problems

JORGE CERVANTES Author Marijuana Horticulture. Legendary Jorge Cervantes, published in eight languages sold over a million copies worldwide.

/JoCerv

@jorgecervantesmj

@JorgeCervantes

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Jorge Cervantes

Jorge Cervantes

www.jorge-cervantes.com www.marijuanagrowing.com


Cannabis

27

Giovanna Dark

THE COMING OF AGE OF BILL MAHER

THE COMEDY GENIUS AND FELLOW STONER TURNS 68 AND BECOMES “CONTROVERSIAL”? Bill Maher, the irreverent and

dictions of the cannabis industry, Maher weaves cannabis-related humor seamlessly into his monologues and interviews. And, often, he smokes a couple of puffs while on air, too.

outspoken comedian, has long been a fixture in the world of

What is most important, though, is that his position on cannabis is not just a comedic element but a genuine expression of his beliefs: a self-proclaimed “’90s liberal”, Maher embodies a fusion of progressive ideals and pragmatic policies, and has often advocated for social justice, economic growth, and individual rights. The late-night host embraces this philosophy to its fullest, sometimes even to a fault. For example, when he criticized the decision to ban conspiracy theorist Alex Jones from Twitter, saying, “I don’t like Alex Jones, but Alex Jones gets to speak. Everybody gets to speak”.

late-night television. Known for his sharp wit, fearless commentary, and unapologetic humor, Maher has carved out a niche for himself as a satirical voice in American media. Beyond his comedic prowess, Maher is also

While Bill Maher is celebrated for his candidness, his outspoken nature and his strong opinions have indeed occasionally landed him in hot water. Maher’s critical comments on the #MeToo movement and the so-called “Woke culture” have sparked debates about the intersection of comedy and social justice. Some argue that, given his platform, Maher’s views risk undermining the progress made in addressing issues of sexual harassment and societal awareness.

closely associated with cannabis advocacy, weaving the topic into his HBO show, “Real Time with Bill Maher,” and openly expressing his support for its legalization.

“Selling pot allowed me to get through college and make enough money to start off in comedy.” This is how Bill Mahers describes his coming of age: an unapologetic middle finger to society’s constraints, sparkled with some good old realism and, of course, lots of weed. From his first steps at Cornell University in the late 70s, Bill Maher’s career spans now decades, and even though lately he seems to like podcasts better - Joe Rogan’s and his own “Club Random”, which started in 2022 - he’s among the most recognizable faces of American television. From his early stand-up days to hosting various television shows like the chaotic yet iconic “Politically Incorrect”. Maher’s brilliant comedic style combines political satire with cultural commentary, making him a distinctive and influential figure in the realm of late-night talk shows. Maher’s current show, “Real Time” is now in its 23rd season and stands out for its format. It features a panel of guests from diverse backgrounds engaging in lively discussions on politics, current events, and social issues.

But others think that such instances clearly demonstrate his willingness to tackle contentious subjects, even at the risk of alienating some of his audience. As with his cannabis advocacy, Maher’s commentary on these issues reflects his commitment to engaging with controversial topics in the public sphere.

WHILE BILL MAHER IS CELEBRATED FOR HIS CANDIDNESS, HIS OUTSPOKEN NATURE AND HIS STRONG OPINIONS HAVE INDEED OCCASIONALLY LANDED HIM IN HOT WATER One example of such guest variety can be former White House Chief Strategist Steve Bannon on the same episode with actor and current Captain America Chris Evans, where this improbable duo provided insight into the political divide in America: with Bannon representing right-wing populism and Evans offering a liberal Hollywood perspective. Maher’s no-holds-barred approach encourages open dialogue and often dives into controversial topics, including his solid vocal stance on cannabis legalization.

Bill Maher’s advocacy for pot is a recurring theme in his work. He has consistently used his platform to promote the decriminalization of marijuana and criticize the outdated policies surrounding its use. Maher infuses humor into the cannabis conversation, using his wit to underscore the absurdities and inconsistencies in the legal status of marijuana. From poking fun at anti-marijuana propaganda to highlighting the economic potentials and but also the contra-

But Bill is turning 68 this January 20th, and some - particularly the Gen Z Americans think that it may be time for him to retire. During one of his smoky conversations with Joe Rogan, Maher himself admitted that he’d be “canceled every other day” if he could express the way he really wants and stated that the podcast scene feels more like a “safe space” nowadays. Whether we will continue seeing him on TV or rather hear his sardonic voice on “Club Random”, one thing is for certain: as Maher continues to navigate the ever-evolving landscape of media and political discourse, his legacy as a satirical trailblazer and cannabis advocate remains firmly etched in the annals of American media. And this is why, like that problematic but extremely fun uncle, we will always have a place for him in our little stoners’ hearts.


Medical marihuana

28

Sebastian Daniel

Growing Your Own Meds in America Patients with medical marihuana prescriptions in New York are now able to legally grow their own medicinal cannabis at home. Lawmakers approved the new regulations at the end of 2022. They allow better access to cannabis for patients, especially those with a low income. For the first time in history, New York patients and not just their caregivers - can grow cannabis in their own homes. Patients can legally grow up to three “mature” female plants and three immature ones. The new regulations allow no more than 12 total plants per household. “This is a big step forward for medical patients,” commented Lyla Hunt, deputy director of public health for the New York State Office of Cannabis Management. She has seen tremendous interest from patients and their designated caregivers in being able to grow cannabis at home. New York’s medical marijuana program has

for a fraction of what it costs to buy marijuana from pharmacies and retail stores. Another important advantage is purity and control over your herb. If you grow your own cannabis, you know exactly how it is fed, and the quality of the water and nutrients. There are no secrets about what your plant medicine contains.

Home-Growing in Canada on the Rise Home cultivation is legal in most of Canada, with a few local exceptions. Unfortunately, not everyone has the right to legally grow their own cannabis - even in places that have announced legalization.

ABOUT 10% OF CANADIAN MARIHUANA CONSUMERS ARE ENGAGED IN HOME CULTIVATION been in place since 2016, and it just got better: lawmakers expanded it to allow more patients. The new rules apply to those registered as certified patients or designated patient caregivers. Patients can get a prescription by contacting a certified healthcare provider and determining with their doctor whether medical marijuana is necessary for them. They must be 21 or older to have access to the home-growing option. Then, once certified, patients must register online for an identification card to prove their eligibility. Growing your own medicinal marijuana can have many benefits, and one of the most obvious is saving money. If one has the knowledge and skills, he or she can grow their own meds

About 10% of Canadian marihuana consumers are engaged in home cultivation of the plant, according to data published in the journal Addictive Behaviors Reports. Canadian researchers studied home-growing patterns before and after the enactment of marijuana legalization for adults in 2018. Under this law, adults in most regions of the country can grow up to four cannabis plants for personal use (the provinces of Quebec and Manitoba have banned home cultivation). Researchers reported that the percentage of consumers who grew their own cannabis increased from six percent before legalization to nine percent in 2020. Those living in rural areas were more likely to grow at home. The majority of growers who engaged in home cultivation did not exceed the legally imposed limits of the plant.

Growing cannabis under the famous SANlight.

Nearly one in 10 Canadian cannabis consumers reported home cultivation of marijuana in 2020, with a moderate increase after legalization of non-medical marijuana. “The prevalence of home cultivation is related to provincial policies; in particular, Manitoba and Quebec, the only provinces that prohibit non-medical home cultivation, reported some of the lowest rates. While the current study reports an increase in home cultivation among consumers in the last 12 months after legalization, it will be important to see if rates continue to rise even if access to and price of legal marijuana decreases”, authors concluded. Data from the United States suggests that fewer than two percent of marihuana consumers admit to engaging in home cultivation, although the current percentage of home growers has

likely increased in recent years as more jurisdictions have adopted marihuana legalization policies. The prominent National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) has long advocated that consumers should be able to home-grow certain amounts of cannabis for personal use after legalization. NORML’s legal opinion reads that the enactment of legislation protecting non-commercial home cultivation of marihuana serves to ensure that the product available at retail outlets is high quality, safe and affordable. Additionally, allowing home cultivation provides adult consumers with an immediate source of supply - providing an alternative to the illegal market. Such a source is essential because it typically takes state regulators several months or even years to establish licensed retail operators.


Media

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by Giovanna Dark

SOFT SECRETS SELECTION Matthew McConaughey delivers a stellar performance, arguably his best yet, embodying the essence of Moondog. The supporting cast, including Zac Efron, Martin Lawrence, and the unforgettable Snoop Dogg as Lingerie, adds to the film’s impressive ensemble. Dubbed by some as the “happy stoner manifesto,” Harmony Korine’s creation transcends labels. “The Beach Bum” is an ethereal journey into a world of sun-kissed beaches, sunglasses, and a laid-back attitude. Like Moondog’s dirty poems, which, when woven together, create cinematic gems, this film is a unique and evocative experience.

READ“ARTIFICIAL PARADISES”: BAUDELAIRE’S INTOXICATING JOURNEY WATCHSUN-KISSED VIBES IN “THE BEACH BUM” If you’re in the mood for a feel-good blockbuster that celebrates positivity, optimism, and the “live and let live” philosophy, then “Beach Bum” is your ticket to a sun-soaked cinematic escape. Meet Moondog, our stoner antihero and poetic bachelor living the good life on the Florida coast. A relic of the beat generation, Moondog is a carefree philosopher and a bit of a free spirit, adored by all for his disdain of societal norms. His unique lifestyle is made possible by the ample financial resources of his fabulously unconventional marriage. Living apart, cheating with ease, and reveling in a playful, carnal love – Moondog’s world is a vibrant rebellion against bourgeois rules. However, when an unforeseen event jeopardizes the financial backbone of his carefree existence, Moondog is thrust into a series of unexpected challenges. To regain control of his wife’s finances, he must undergo rehabilitation and publish his long-awaited literary masterpiece. Without giving away too much, “The Beach Bum” doesn’t follow a conventional “path to redemption.” After all, a character like Moondog, the epitome of detachment, isn’t one to change or improve.

Step into the world of Charles Baudelaire’s “Artificial Paradises,” a three-part essay published in 1860 that delves into the pseudo-scientific exploration of alcohol, hashish, and opium and their impact on intellectual capacities. Baudelaire’s fascination lies in the augmentation of poetic creativity through artificial intoxication, a concept that takes center stage in this captivating literary work. His concern, however, revolves around the potential awakening, desolation, and the descent into the hell of degradation. The narrative unfolds the personal drama of the “cursed poet,” torn between the opposing calls of God and Satan, caught in the conflict between ascending to the infinite and succumbing to the

allure of descending through sin. Intriguingly, the experience of hashish, while not entirely embraced, is not outright rejected. Baudelaire recounts the effects of the substance, highlighting “the disappearance of time” and the synesthetic connections between sounds, colors, and scents. These “correspondences” embedded in his poetic exploration become an enduring part of his literary legacy. Baudelaire’s approach to drug use is pivotal to his poetic and existential journey. When he delves into hashish in “Artificial Paradises,” his intentions are not moralistic but fundamentally aesthetic. The book transcends mere stylistic exercise, offering readers a genuine exploration into the phenomenology of substance use. “Artificial Paradises” is a whimsical, quirky, and profound work-a prose masterpiece penned by a poet. Beyond its literary merits, the essay provides an extraordinary historical insight into a Europe on the cusp of modernity. It’s more than just recommended-it’s a highly recommended journey into the complexities of Baudelaire’s mind and the cultural landscape of the time.

PLAYHIGH TIMES WITH “GETTING DOUG WITH HIGH” If there’s one thing better than indulging in marijuana, it’s sharing the experience with friends. Enter “Getting Doug with High,” a podcast hailed as “the best cannabis podcast” by various trade magazines for its seamless embodiment of the perfect cannabis-friendly hangout. Hosted by none other than Doug Benson-yes, the same Doug Benson from the film “Super High Me”-this weed-infused podcast graced the airwaves from 2013 to 2019. The premise was simple yet brilliant: invite guests over, light up, and just chill. The guests, ranging from fellow comedians to showbiz personalities, all share a common thread-they’re avid smokers. And that’s precisely what each episode revolves around: unapologetic cannabis consumption. No predefined topics here; the host and guests tend to meander off on delightful tangents. Every episode is a rollercoaster of hilarity and unexpected twists, a testament to Doug Benson’s signature comedic style. Picture a blend of “dry American humor” and classic stoner wit. Due to the delightful amount of nonsensical banter, “Getting Doug with High” may not be your go-to for marathon listening sessions. Instead, it’s the perfect occasional treat. Imagine it like sharing a joint with friends in your living room-a laid-back and enjoyable experience that’s best savored from time to time, preferably with a little something extra in hand.


Colofon

Soft Secrets is published by Discover Publisher BV Galvaniweg 11, 5482 TN Schijndel, Netherlands Telephone: +31(0)73 5498112 E-mail: info@softsecrets.nl Web: www.softsecrets.com Editor: Cliff Cremer Contributors: Jorge Cervantes, Stoney Tark, Mr. José, Green Born Identity (G.B.I.), TricomaTeam, Tommy L. Gomez, Fabrizio Dentini, Ed Rosenthal, Sebastian Daniel, Giovanna Dark and others Photography: iStock, Unsplash Editorial adress: E-Mail: readers@softsecrets.nl Advertisements: E-Mail: info@softsecrets.nl

World wide there is a process going on of relative liberalisation towards the use of cannabis, be it for medicinal or recreational purposes. Several countries legalised cannabis as a way of separating soft and hard drugs, as it has proven to do in Holland. Other countries legalised the use of medicinal cannabis, including the right to grow cannabis plants for one’s own use. The publisher wants to highlight the process of normalisation of cannabis use. This assumes that the publisher does not necessarily agree with everything that appears in articles and advertisements. The publisher therefore distances himself explicitly from published statements or images that might give the impression that an endorsement is being made for the use and/or production of cannabis. Nothing from this publication may be copied or reproduced in any format without prior permission from the publisher and other copyright holders. The publisher is not responsible for the content and/or point of view of advertisements. The editor takes no responsibility for unsollicited submissions. The publisher has endeavored to reach all copyright holders of photos and/or images. Those who still believe they are entitled to these rights may contact the publisher.

A word from the publisher: Soft Secrets is a bi-monthly free magazine which is published in The Netherlands (called Highlife), Germany, France, Italy, Spain, UK, Poland, Czech Republic and Chile.

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Index of ads Name

Page

Advanced Nutrients........................................... 1

Cervantes.......................................................... 26

Advanced Nutrients........................................... 2

London Seed Centre.......................................... 1

Advanced Seeds............................................... 31

RQS...................................................................... 1

Amsterdam Seed Center................................... 7

Seedstockers...................................................... 1

Atami................................................................... 5

Sweet Seeds...................................................... 32

Barney’s Souvenirs............................................. 1

Tree of Life.......................................................... 1

Barney’s Souvenirs........................................... 11 Next issue out

April 26 2024

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