This month we sit down and speak with one of the oldest and well respected artists out of the UK psytrance scene, Marcello a.k.a. M-Theory!
Hi there Marcello! Thank you for taking the time to speak to Psychedelic eMagazine! Let’s dine in! PM: Do you want to give an intro for yourself to our readers? MT: Hi, Everyboby! I’m Marcello, Italian and electronic music fanatic. I moved to London in 1997 as I was totally bored with the Tuscan countryside. PM: How you started with Psytrance in the first place then? MT: I found Psytrance in 1998 at a Kundalini party in the most iconic London venue in those days, Tyssen Street Studios. I never looked back because that night I found the best music ever! PM: So how you got involved with producing Psytrance? MT: I started Djing in 1998 and after few years, about 2002, I started my own event “Fairy Tales” because psychedelic parties were taking a direction I didn’t really fancy. In the same year, I bought my first computer and started producing my own music. I dreamt of giving my personal contribution to the scene, hopefully, I achieved some of that. PM: What is your opinion about your evolve till today? It has been a long trip, ha?
MT: When I look back yes, it is a long trip started 18 years ago but time flies and it feels like is only a few years. Surely is the love for the music and the beautiful dancefloors that keep me going. PM: How you see UK Psytrance scene in general, from those days till today? And what is your opinion for the future? MT: The UK scene has drastically changed since I discovered it. It used to be beautiful with plenty of great club nights and amazing people attending but slowly we have lost most of it. It all started with the smoking ban in public places and the consequent rise of illegal parties. The level of organization fell down the drains and we were experiencing more and dirtier and darker events. Nowadays we are dealing with the closure of most of the capital clubs and there are just a handful of good promoters trying to keep our scene alive. PM: What you think about our scene, globally, nowadays? MT: I think the global scene is on a high for a few years now, there’s never been so many festivals and indoor events. Now we see Psychedelic areas in commercial multi-stages festivals and it’s more and more exposed to the masses, is that a good thing? I don’t know but time will tell.
7 PM: Let’s talk a little about music production. What are your fundamental principles when you sit at your studio to make new tunes? MT: Do not repeat myself! PM: As you can guess, a lot of the readers are involved with music production themselves. Is there any helpful tip you can give to them, for this early production stages? MT: Don’t get stuck! Don’t force yourself with finishing a track that doesn’t want to sound good. Just start a new one and evolve. PM: What we’ll see if we walk in your studio as of today? MT: A messy room (laughs!) Apart from that, I love my studio in the loft. I and a friend converted it from a disused and cold room full of rubbish. We worked hard to make sure the sound was going to be spot on and so it is. So far I received only good feedbacks from every artist who stepped inside my cave. PM: Favorite DAW? MT: Cubase for production and Ableton for Live sets. PM: Favorite Hardware and/ or Software synths? MT: I simply love my new Korg Mililogue and I enjoy Virus TI, Sylenth and most of the Native Instruments. PM: Back to your projects! Is there any personal work in the pipeline that we should know about?
MT: Finally, after 7 years I’m almost ready to blast the second studio album for M-Theory!! There will be some monster collaborations in there, exciting times ahead. PM: Aside ‘M-Theory’, you’re hitting the dancefloors with a sideproject, in Progressive tunes, branded as ‘Cimi’. Talk us a little bit about this project. The idea behind the “birth”, what is your targets, etc. MT: Cimi it was meant to be a crossover between full-on and progressive but I did put it on a side when I met Rob and together created the M-Theory sound. I reactivated the project in 2011 and concentrate more on the pure progressive but still psychedelic. I released one full album “White World Bridger” in 2013, loads of EPs and single releases since. PM: Is there any particular message you want to send to all the lovers of our scene out there before we wrap this up? MT: There is a lot of good music out there (also bad) and you shouldn’t limit your listening to famous artists only, expand your mind and be open to new ideas. I know free download is a common thing nowadays but I believe everyone should contribute to the scene. Support your favourite artists if you want them to keep on producing amazing music. PM: Thank you very much for your time Marcello! All the best!
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debate reboot Psychedelic Thinking!
That debate, unique in the developed world, has the potential to help the burgeoning field of psychedelic research in a way that no previous public debate has. For anyone interested in mindaltering drugs or drug policy more generally, it’s a fascinating and critical discussion.
MT is considered a Schedule 9 — that is to say prohibited — substance in Australia, putting it in the same very illegal class as drugs like marijuana, LSD, and ecstasy. This month, the Therapeutic Goods Administration within the Australian Government’s Department of Health is reviewing requests to make exemptions for small, naturally occurring amounts of the drug (approximately 0.25ml per milliliter, a relatively low concentration) for religious ceremonies.
Ph.D. at Imperial College London and scientists at the Beckley Foundation, continues to hit obstacles as words like LSD, psilocybin, and MDMA remain taboos in the mouths of the policymakers employed to deal with them. In Britain, where much of the research was taking place, studies have just hit a wall: A blanket ban on all psychoactive drugs that went into effect at the beginning of May has left the future of psychedelic research in limbo. A lack of funding post-Brexit doesn’t help.
Similar exemptions have already been made stateside, where DMT is classified as a Schedule 1 substance — meaning it has no legally recognized therapeutic use and a high potential for abuse.
While Australia waits for its Therapeutic Goods Administration to make its decision about DMT and ayahuasca, drug proponents like Caldecott have a rare opportunity to speak out without sounding like drug evangelists, which most of them are not. And this isn’t exclusively about DMT. It’s about psychedelic research more generally.
DMT shows promise as a therapeutic tool by enhancing self-acceptance and allowing safe The drug’s entry into the pubexposure to emolic discourse in Australia has tional events
provided a platform for openminded researchers to speak up about DMT’s potential as a therapeutic drug. Proponents like David Caldecott, M.D., an emergency medicine specialist and senior lecturer at the Australian National University, have been very vocal not only about the drug’s reclassification (and that of other drugs) but also about its importance in medicine.
The resurgence of hallucinogenic research, spearheaded by researchers like Robin Carhart-Harris,
The resurgence of hallucinogenic research, spearheaded by researchers like Robin Carhart-Harris, Ph.D. at Imperial College London and scientists at the Beckley Foundation, continues to hit obstacles as words like LSD, psilocybin, and MDMA remain taboos in the mouths of the policymakers employed to deal with them. “The reason why they’re hot is because we just haven’t done any of the research we should be doing because there’s been a blanket ban on all of them,” he told SBS and its national audience. “They are providing us with the keys that can unlock the human mind.”
FREEDOM” IS A STATE OF MIND!
2017 is here! You know what this means, right? Freedom Festival is coming up this summer!
This also means it’s time to serve you with a recap of our visit to the 2015’s edition of the festival. So, buckle up, the trip is starting! Before we start with this, we need to clarify that our mentions to the location, are for the old spot, near Elvas town. As it was recently announced and you may have heared till now, the festival is changing it’s location. Now the festival is going to happen into the Serra da Estrela Natural Park. But more on this matter at their official links at the end of this recap.
reedom Festival is held every two years, by Crystal Matrix family, at the sunny lands of Portugal. Crystal Matrix is one of the oldest Portuguese organization teams and holds an immense track record! Our first contact (as festival goers) with their productions was back in 2004, preFreedom era still, when they were responsible for the insane “After-Boom Festival” named Psybertech Festival. A mad party! Which as the above suggests, it was an after-festival for Boom Festival of the year 2004. After that endeavour, they held in 2005 the 1st edition of Freedom Festival and the rest is history,
as they say. Countless major parties, festivals, and a decade after we’re reaching the year 2015 and their latest edition of Freedom Festival, happened near a little town called Elvas. Not much can be said for the place, not only because it belongs to history by now, but also because there’s not much to mention about it, aside the great weather conditions, for a summer festival. So, as this is not a case for review anymore, the important is what we saw & listened in Freedom Festival of 2015! The town of Elvas deserves a notable mention, though, with its majestic walls. If you ever have the chance to visit it, take it! We’re not aware of the official number of attendees but if it’s to make an estimation we could say about 8000 people gathered up for this celebration.
ALL PHOTOGRAPHS AT THIS RECAP ARE SHOT BY OUR MAGAZINE. FOR THE COMPLETE PHOTOSTORY CLICK TO JUMP TO OUR WEBSITE!
FESTIVAL RECAP The build of the main dancefloor was obviously opted for comfort rather than anything else, as it is known, the Portuguese sun is extremely hot during day and shade most of the times is beyond necessary. A bamboo construction was set then, with enormous colorful fabrics serving precious shade to the whole area of the dancefloor. During the night some glowing constructions was adding color to the whole scenery, creating a beautiful dancing area indeed. Needless to say, the dancefloor sound was powered by none other than the popular Funktion One, with an enormous stack providing enough sound to everybody. The music kicked in with the legendary project of Prana and went on
until late the afternoon with some splendid projects such as Braincell, Atriohm, Tryambaka under the night sky and Bizzare Contact, Sesto Sento, Neelix, Vini Vici, amongst others, with the sunlight.
The second day of the lineup was no exception in preserving the high standards of music was set already from the first day. Into the night we listen to some top notch projects such as Rastaliens, Ajja, Kashyyyk, DarkFace, amongst others, and when the sun came up projects & DJs such as Z-Cat, Tsuyoshi, Sonic Species, Tinker, Spade, and others, blast it all the way to the afternoon where Zen Mechanics Ajja blasts the main stage! closed with a magical Live.
Getting a break from the dancefloor and cruise humanly possible to make the most out of the locaaround the area you would find Raja Ram performing as Shpongle! tion they had. Even the backeverything you could expect stage area was made with from a festival. Plenty of WC’s care, aimed to provide the and showers were scattered best conditions for artists around the whole festival & and guests alike. Conclucamping area, tanks with free sively by everything we’ve water were also available, a seen, the “unseen heroes” good amount of food installaof the festival dedicated a tions, a mini market, chai shops, huge amount of work, to and a variety of other shops. build the most they could. The chill-out metal dome along Remember that in every with several other cozy chillfestival, aside the success out spots made with care by the crew and a beachand size, some people worked over their limits for bar set next to a “lake” (more like a big pit with days upon days to make their best and they are the water) serving coctails & tunes below 130bpm, was ones getting the less credits in the end. No matter setting up the beautiful little “village” of Freedom what, you know you got to give some love to them. Festival. It’s fair to say the crew did everything They are the ones that make everything happen!
FREEDOM FESTIVAL 2015 RECAP BY PSYCHEDELIC MAGAZINE
eaving the chills and the shops to head down to the main stage for the third phase of the line-up, we found Raja Ram opening the night with a Shpongle DJ set, spreading his lovely energy all over the dancefloor. The night rolled with some local projects but also some more international ones like OxiDaksi, Twisted Kala, and when the morning came full-on artists took the stage with Painkiller, Ananda Shake, Cosmosis, and once more Raja Ram, this time with a TIP set, till they all gave their spot to the more progressive sounds of Skyfall, Coming Soon, and Pragmatic. Shout-out to the local DJ D-Maniac who hit the dancefloor with extensive energy and left sweating! This time, the timetable had no break and as went on into the night we saw the blind (!) DJ Paulo Lopes, warming up everybody for a monumental last day when XSI & Stryker, Talamasca, Avalon, Killerwatts, Tristan, Ace Ventura, Lucas, Outsiders, Swami and XP Voodoo respectively, created a 13h psytrance marathon that marked the end of the main dancefloor.
hat was not the last time we danced in Freedom Festival as the celebration continued to the chill-out stage serving as the “after-party” area where Chicago from 1200 Micrograms along with local DJs had it shaking till the early morning! And that was the end of Freedom Festival 2015.
with our love to Vânia (for going the extra mile over and over again for us), to Iko, to Deborah, to Amelia, to Fabio and Ruis, to Bruno, Vasco, Ronnie, Patricia, George and everyone else from the crew that helped us and we might forget right now! Obrigrado! You can’t beat Portuguese hospitality!
A big thanks to Nuno & Gonçalo as the heads of Crystal Matrix team, for the precious help and their wam hospitality! A special thanks goes out along
Last but not least, love also to everyone of you who shared the dancefloor with us, along with your smiles and your love, in this beautiful experiece!
The summer of 2017 marks the reborn of Freedom Festival into a new magical location paired with a massive line-up!
Here’s some helpful links:
Check some more unseen exclusive videos from Freedom Festival 2015!
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY ATTACKS ON HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT Chemical and pesticide industry lobbyists are striving to abolish the European precautionary principle in favour of a so-called ‘science-based’ approach. If the EU succumbs to the spin, human health and the environment will be sacrificed to corporate profit.
egulating potentially hazardous substances like chemicals and pesticides is an extremely sensitive policy area, since permitting them can have severe impacts on humans and ecosystems. Generally speaking, there are two widely divergent approaches to chemicals regulation. The first is based on the ‘precautionary principle’ and includes the possibility that in the absence of scientific consensus on the potential risk of a chemical or pesticide, regulators can opt to ban or restrict the product in order to protect public health and the environment. In Europe, the regulation on the ‘Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals’ (REACH) and the Pesticide Regulation are subject to the precautionary principle. Manufacturers must provide the health and safety data of many (though not all) chemicals and all pesticides to EU regulators. In addition, there are ‘hazard-based’ criteria that state that pesticides that are mutagenic, carcinogenic, or hormone-disrupting should be banned in the EU. All other substances have to undergo a ‘risk assessment’. This means that a product is allowed on the EU market up to certain doses that are seen by regulators not to pose an acceptable risk to consumers. These disparate regulatory approaches have very concrete repercussions for what consumers are exposed to. For example a total of 1,378 chemicals are banned for use in cosmetics in the EU, as opposed to a mere 11 in the US. Likewise 82 harmful pesticides prohibited in the EU are permitted in the United States. In 2005, a study evaluating the health and environ-
mental costs of pesticides use in the US estimated it to be $9.6 billion, annually. For obvious reasons, the chemical and pesticide industries prefer the US approach. This is why notorious lobby groups such as the European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) and the European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) use the TTIP negotiations, a potential EU-US trade deal, to attack the EU’s precautionary approach. CEFIC, which includes major players such as Bayer, BASF, Dow Europe, and Honeywell among its ranks, spent more than €10 million on lobbying activities in the EU in 2015 alone, with an overall budget of €40 million. While industry efforts to lobby over EU policies are old news, the ongoing Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) negotiations have opened the floodgates for business demands. The corporate goal in TTIP is clear: to remove discrepancies in laws and protection levels across the Atlantic - in short, quicker profits for companies and higher risks for consumers. Along these lines, while admitting differences between the European and US systems, CEFIC’s then Director General claimed in 2015 that “both result in a high level of protection of consumers, health and the environment”. But of course the wide discrepancy between the chemicals and pesticides permitted in the US versus the far fewer allowed in the EU tells a very different story. At the heart of industry’s wish list for TTIP is the provision of ‘regulatory co-operation’. Not only would this mechanism allow existing regulations to be attacked but it would ultimately give big business a voice in the very early stages of the regulatory process in both the EU and the US and thus directly override democratic decision-making.
By Oliver Tickell
Amazon: rainforest road threatens Peru’s last isolated tribes
eru’s Congress may soon approve a road through remote rainforest which is home to the country’s last uncontacted tribes. The link to the Inter-Oceanic highway would open the area up to land grabs, wood cutting and gold mining, and expose vulnerable indigenous people to diseases to which they have no immunity.
A new ‘death road’ is We flatly reject set to cut in two the this road. We in- land of several undigenous people contacted tribes in the won’t benefit from heartland of the ‘Amait, only the loggers, zon Uncontacted Fronminers, oil compa- tier’, a wide crescent nies and narcotraf-of rainforest along the fickers. It threat- border between Peru ens the lives of and Acre, Brazil. our isolated relatives. It will destroyThe road was rejected our animals and by Peru’s Congress in plants. 2012. Despite this, work continued illegally for many years, and now the project has been proposed again by Congressman Carlos Tubino.
The road, which would run through 270 km of the Amazon’s most biodiverse and sensitive protected areas, is expected to be approved by Peru’s Congress soon. There are estimated to be around 15 uncontacted peoples in Peru, many of them in the region where the road will be built. Survival International has lodged a complaint with the United Nations, citing the catastrophic impact on the uncontacted Indians and urging the Peruvian government to veto the plan. Of the 3-4,000 people in the area, around 80% are indigenous. Most of them are opposed to the road. Emilio Montes, president of the indigenous organization FECONAPU, which is based in Puerto Esperanza said: “We flatly reject this road. We indigenous people won’t benefit from it, only the loggers, miners, oil companies and narcotraffickers. It threatens the lives of our isolated relatives, like the Mashco Piro. It will destroy our animals and plants. They should, instead, respect our ancestral territories. We’ve always lived here, and our children must carry on doing so. We need another type of development which looks after our resources sustainably: so that we can live properly, and secure our future.”
ARTICLE Linking precious area to Brazil to BrazilPeru highway
he road will connect Puerto Esperanza to the Inter-Oceanic Highway, which runs through Peru and Brazil. The area is part of the Amazon Uncontacted Frontier, the region along the Peru-Brazil border with the highest concentration of uncontacted tribes in the world. Uncontacted peoples who could be wiped out if the road is built include the Mashco Piro, Chitonahua, Mastanahua and Sapanawa, who have all lived nomadically in the region for generations. Outsiders such as missionaries and loggers have forced several groups to make contact in recent years. Elsewhere in the Amazon, road ‘development’ projects have allowed an influx of colonists to access remote areas and threaten the lives and lands of uncontacted peoples. Six indigenous organizations in Peru have made a statement of mutual solidaity and defence. In it they state their determination to “reject all types of threats that threaten the rights of the indigenous people of the Yurua basin and the Territorial Corridor of Isolated Peoples, including transport project, roads and others, the presence of illegal wood cutters, drug traffickers, etc.” Survival’s Director Stephen Corry said: “If this road goes ahead, it will destroy the uncontacted tribes, and their “development” will be terminated for ever. Survival has fought roads in this part of Amazonia for decades. Who are they supposed to help? If Peru has any respect for fundamental human rights and the rule of law, it must stop these plans now.”
The project has been supported for years by a notorious Italian Catholic priest, Father Miguel Piovesan, who has described the local tribal peoples as “prehistoric”, and slammed international NGOs for raising concerns about the plan. Fr. Piovesan has repeatedly denied the existence of uncontacted peoples. His parish newsletter stated that: “Isolation is not a natural wish. We can’t prove that isolated people exist. They are dreamt up by those who barely know indigenous people, or base their investigations on unproven theories.” However uncontacted Indians have clearly expressed their desire to remain uncontacted, adds Corry. The project cannot be carried out with their consent and will violate their right to determine their own futures: “We know very little about uncontacted tribes. But we do know there are more than a hundred around the world. And we know whole populations are being wiped out by genocidal violence from outsiders who steal their land and resources, and by diseases like flu and measles to which they have no resistance. “Uncontacted tribes are not backward and primitive relics of a remote past. They are our contemporaries and a vitally important part of humankind’s diversity. Where their rights are respected, they continue to thrive. “All uncontacted tribal peoples face catastrophe unless their land is protected. We at Survival International are doing everything we can to secure their land for them, and to give them the chance to determine their own futures.”
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Astronomers Might Have Just Solved a Key Mystery About the Origin of Life If a massive solar storm struck the Earth today, it could wipe out our technology and hurl us back to the dark ages.
ucky for us, events like this are quite rare. But four billion years ago, extreme space weather was probably the norm. And rather than bringing the apocalypse, it might have kickstarted life. That’s the startling conclusion of research published in Nature Geoscience today, which builds on an earlier discovery about young, sun-like stars made with NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope. Baby suns, it turns out, are extremely eruptive, releasing mind-boggling amounts of energy during “solar superflares” that make our wildest space weather look like drizzle. That’s the startling conclusion of research published in Nature Geoscience today, which builds on an earlier discovery about young, sun-like stars made with NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope. Baby suns, it turns out, are extremely eruptive, releasing mind-boggling amounts of energy during “solar superflares” that make our wildest
space weather look like drizzle. Another early Earth puzzle is how the first biological molecules scavenged enough nitrogen in order to form. Similar to today, the ancient Earth’s atmosphere was composed primarily of inert nitrogen gas (N2). While specialized bacteria called “nitrogen fixers” eventually figured out how to break N2 and turn it into ammonia (NH4). The new study offers an elegant solution to both of these problems in the form of space weather. The research began several years back, when Airapetian was studying the magnetic activity of stars in NASA’s Kepler database. He discovered that G-type stars (stars like our sun) are like dynamite in their youth, frequently releasing pulses of energy equivalent to over 100 trillion atomic bombs. The most powerful solar storm ever experienced by humans, the 1859 Carrington event that caused worldwide power outages, pales in comparison. “It is a crazy amount of energy. I can hardly comprehend it myself,” Ramses Ramirez—an astrobiologist at Cornell University who was not
involved with the study but collaborates with Airapetian—Said.
paper is that nobody had really thought about looking at solar storms.”
It soon occurred to Airapetian that he could use this discovery to peer back into the early history of our solar system. He calculated that 4 billion years ago, our sun could have been releasing dozens of superflares every few hours, with one or more grazing the Earth’s magnetic field every single day. “Basically, the Earth was under constant attack from super Carrington-sized events,” he said.
It’ll be up to biologists to determine whether the exact mix of molecules produced via superflares would have been enough to jumpstart life. That investigation is already underway. Researchers at the Earth Life Sciences Institute in Tokyo and elsewhere are now using Airapetian’s models to devise new experiments that simulate conditions on the ancient Earth. If those experiments can produce amino acids and RNA building blocks, that would go a long way toward supporting the idea that space weather helped get life started.
Using numerical models, Airapetian then showed that solar superflares would be strong enough to dramatically compress Earth’s magnetosphere, the magnetic shield that encircles our planet. Not only that, charged solar particles would bust a hole clean through the magnetosphere near our planet’s poles, entering the atmosphere and colliding with nitrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. “So now you have these particles interacting with molecules in the atmosphere and creating new molecules—like a chain reaction,” Airapetian said. These solar-atmospheric interactions produce nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas with 300 times the global warming potential of CO2. Airapetian’s models suggest that enough nitrous oxide could have been produced to dramatically warm the planet. Another product of the endless solar storm, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), could have fertilized the surface with the nitrogen needed to form the early building blocks of life. “People have looked at lightning and falling meteorites as ways to initiate nitrogen chemistry,” Ramirez said. “I think the coolest thing about this
In addition to helping piece together our origin story, Airapetian’s models could shed light on the past habitability of Mars, which appears to have also been wet four billion years ago despite receiving even less radiation from the young sun. The study could have implications for life beyond our solar system, too. We’re just starting to figure out what constitutes a star’s “habitable zone,” where planets with liquid water oceans might exist. But the current habitable zone definition only factors in the brightness of the parent star. With more detailed information on a star’s explosive activity, we might be able to glean more about the chemistry of exoplanet atmospheres, and the potential for a strong greenhouse effect to take hold. “Ultimately, this will inform us whether the energy from a star is available in a way that can create the chemistry to create biomolecules,” Airapetian said. “Without that, it would be a miracle to have life.” Article by Maddie Stone
Cannabis Culture: The History Of The Joint
moking cannabis has a long history. Now learn about of one of weed’s darlings, the joint.
Every toker has his or her own story of learning to smoke green. The smoking apparatus scavenged out of plastic bottles and tinfoil … the first bong rip and wondering if you’re doing it right. Friends and music, camping out and staying in, learning who you were and how you smoke. Somewhere in that story, for most weed aficionados, is the creation of their first joint. It is etched into the history of every smoker’s experience with green, whether it be a fat chub-bellied behemoth, a skinny little lung sucker, or perfectly sculpted cone. Wrapped up in enjoying a good smoke, it’s easy to forget that cannabis has a dank history of its own. Even the instruments we use to toke our fine herb have their own backgrounds. It’s time to learn about one of a cannabis connoisseur’s favorite things to smoke … the joint. The joint was not among the original methods for cannabis consumption. History shows that marijuana was primarily smoked through pipes and hookahs. All the way back to 2700 BCE, cannabis has been
used for medicinal properties and mystic qualities across the world. • India: It is likely people in India used cannabis as early as 2000 BCE. It is associated with Lord Shiva and remains popular during certain religious festivals. • Ancient Greece: Hemp was noted primarily for its medical value in ancient Greece, though historians and poets acknowledge recreational use there as early as the 5th century BCE. • Asia and Africa: China documents using marijuana as an anesthetic in 200 CE. Medieval Arabia debated the benefits of eating hash back in 1200. Marco Polo reported assassins using hashish, and Ethiopian pipes held marijuana in them as far back as the 1300s. • Americas and Europe: In the 18th and 19th century, hemp plantations proliferated in Europe and across the Americas. While it remains unclear how much of that Cannabis sativa was for recreational use, there is strong documentation of hashish and marijuana being smoked by Napoleonic soldiers in Egypt and them bringing it back to France.
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