2004 Annual Report Alberta Poultry Research Centre January 1, 2004 â€“ December 31, 2004
APRC RESEARCH TEAM ........................................................................................................................................3 GRADUATE STUDENTS ..........................................................................................................................................7 APRC BASE FUNDING (APRC CONTRACT).......................................................................................................8 APRC RESEARCH GRANT FUNDING ..................................................................................................................9 APRC RESEARCH GRANT FUNDING: LIST OF PROJECTS ........................................................................10 APRC FACILITY USEAGE ....................................................................................................................................12 APRC EVIDENCE OF PRODUCTIVITY ............................................................................................................13 A. REFERRED PAPERS IN SCHOLARLY JOURNALS ....................................................................................................13 B. CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS (ABSTRACTS) .....................................................................................................14 C. SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRY PRESENTATION (WITH OR WITHOUT PROCEEDINGS) .................................................17 D. COMMUNITY SERVICES .......................................................................................................................................19 E. GRANTING AGENCY FINAL REPORTS, TECHNICAL BULLETINS AND INDUSTRY REPORTS ...................................20 F. COMPUTER SOFTWARE ........................................................................................................................................21 G. APRC STAFF AND STUDENTS AWARDS AND HONORS ........................................................................................22 APRC SIGNIFICANT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES......................................................23
APRC Research Scientists Frank Robinson
APRC Director Professor Poultry Production and Physiology
Assistant Professor Poultry Embryology and Chick Quality
Professor Bio-Resource Engineering
Professor, Co-operative Chair in Agricultural Marketing and Business
Associate Professor Poultry Nutrition
Associate Professor Food Microbiology
Research Associate Reproduction and Metabolism in Poultry
Professor Poultry Product Technology
Poultry Specialist Bioeconomic Modeling
APRC Research Team Unit/ Researcher
Research Associates PDFs
Under Graduate students/summer assistants
Fasenko Feddes Goddard Korver McMullen Robinson Sim Zuidhof Renema Poultry Unit Total
0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 3
2 2 2 2 8 2 1 0 0 0 19
1 0 0 2 1 2 0 2 0 4 12
3 4 0 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 13
Highlights of 2004 at the Alberta Poultry Research Centre The APRC Team had a very productive year in 2004. The Team was awarded the prestigious World’s Poultry Science Association Award for Education at the WPSA meeting in Istanbul, Turkey. This award is given out once every four years and includes a substantial cash prize. Plans are in the works to use the cash award to develop new teaching and extension materials. The APRC group received the award for their achievements in undergraduate and graduate education, youth learning activities (e.g. Girl Guide’s Poultry farming badge) and for poultry extension activities. Not all moments at the APRC were happy this year. The University of Alberta (U of A) and the poultry industry lost over 100 years of poultry research expertise with the deaths of Drs. Don Clandinin and Alex Robblee. These two internationally recognized individuals published hundreds of extension and refereed papers together, and passed within weeks of each other. The current poultry team has benefited tremendously from the outstanding programs in research and teaching that Drs. Clandinin and Robblee established. Our sincere condolences are with Don and Alex’s families. The APRC Team is growing. The APRC worked with Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (AAFRD) to fill a new poultry specialist position. Dr. Valerie Carney, a former U of A student, was recruited to commence work in January 2005. Val has a PhD in poultry genetics research from the U of Arkansas and was most recently employed with Aviagen in Huntsville, Alabama. Val’s main role will be to provide the poultry industry with leading edge technologies that will allow them to remain competitive at the production level. The APRC researchers and students continue to contribute to the research excellence at the Centre. Frank Robinson, Rob Renema and Martin Zuidhof have been working together on factors affecting reproductive and metabolic efficiency of commercial breeders, along with several graduate students. Ali Pishnamazi, an international exchange student, is spending a year with this group looking at effects of the timing of protein intake on reproductive efficiency in female breeders. Nick Wolanski, MSc student, is studying testes function in different weight classes of breeder males. He will also be researching chick quality and its impact on residual yolk content. Nick will also be monitoring several commercial broiler breeder flocks to determine factors that affect male breeder livability and productivity throughout a production cycle. Melanie Rustad, a PhD student, is investigating indicators of reproductive dysfunction in eight strains of breeder hens. Adrienne Herron is a new MSc student examining the sexual and aggressive behavior of floor-housed broiler breeders. The provision of funds from the AHEP to furnish the environment chambers with new slats and nests is gratefully acknowledged. Dr. Danilo Franco a new Post-Doctoral Fellow, recently arrived from the U of Nebraska. Danilo will be working with Robinson and Renema in several reproductive efficiency trials in breeders and layers. We appreciate the research grants that we have received from Aviagen, AARI1, ALIDF2 and the PIC3 this past year to make this program possible.
1 2 3
Alberta Agricultural Research Institute Alberta Livestock Industry Development Fund Poultry Industry Council, Ontario
Gaylene Fasenko continues to conduct research on factors influencing embryo survival, metabolism and chick quality together with graduate students. Erin O’Dea successfully defended her MSc thesis on the effects of commercial probiotics on broiler chick quality and production efficiency and is now working for Gaylene as a research technician. Jacob Hamidu recently arrived from Ghana to start Masters program. He will be conducting research on factors affecting embryonic metabolism in chickens and turkeys. We are very proud of our undergraduate students, Bryanna Kumpula and Janet Montgomery. Bryanna and Janet won awards for their research presentations at international meetings (Janet – Southeastern Poultry Science Society, Atlanta; Bryanna – Poultry Science Association, St. Louis). Bryanna also received a CBHEPA4 Broiler Breeder Research Scholarship that enabled her to present research to the Incubation and Fertility Research Group in Lincoln, UK. The support of the ACP5, ALIDF, Aviagen, CBHEMA6, Jamesway Incubator Company, Inc., NSERC7, Lilydale, Maple Leaf Hatchery, PIC, and the SCIDF8 has greatly helped to build this research program and is much appreciated. Sincere gratitude to the broiler hatching egg producers and turkey producers in Alberta who have supplied hatching eggs and have provided excellent suggestions for research. Doug Korver was awarded tenure this year and promoted to Associate Professor. Congratulations Doug! Doug has continued poultry nutritional research projects along with several graduate students. Jennifer Saunders-Blades, a Ph D student, is currently investigating the effect of the commercially available vitamin D compound HyD™ on broiler breeder egg production and egg quality traits, as well as on broiler immune function. Jennifer was awarded a Graduate Student Certificate of Excellence at the 2004 Poultry Science Association Meeting in St. Louis. The research into amino acid requirements of poultry, including broiler breeders, continues. Russell Coleman began the work on this project, but has accepted a position at the National Research Council in Ottawa. We wish Russell all the best in his new research, and welcome Jordana Manalang, who will be continuing Russell’s work. We appreciate the research funding and support received fro broiler breeder research from DSM Nutritional Products, ALIDF, PIC, Maple Leaf Foods, Lilydale Foods and Tyson Foods. Martin Zuidhof completed his PhD studies this year. Martin has been investigating the economic implications of the strain decision for the entire supply chain, from hatching egg production to value-added processing. He collaborates with Frank Robinson and Rob Renema on breeder research, helping to identify economically important management techniques, and characterizing the productivity of a variety of strains. In his broiler work, he has characterized in detail the growth and yield of several broiler strains. In 2004, he completed a computer simulation model of the broiler chicken supply chain. The hatching egg module is available to hatching egg producers at no charge for a limited time. Register soon! Initial planning was begun for a 2-day breeder production short-course in Edmonton early spring/summer of 2005.
Canadian Broiler Hatching Egg Producers Association Alberta Chicken Producers Canadian Broiler Hatching Egg Marketing Agency 7 National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada 8 The Saskatchewan Chicken Industry Investment and Development Fund 5 6
At the request of the poultry industry, Frank Robinson and Martin Zuidhof submitted a proposal on behalf of the APRC to the Agriculture Funding Consortium in December 2004. Benefits of the proposal include additional support to existing production research program at the APRC, and a significant move toward the development and commercialization of value-added meat and egg products. In closing, we would like to thank APRC partners: the Alberta Chicken Producers, Alberta Egg Producers Board, Alberta Hatching Egg Producers, Alberta Turkey Producers, Lilydale Foods, Maple Leaf Poultry, Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development and the University of Alberta for continued support of the Alberta Poultry Research Centre.
Graduate Students Student Michelle Jendral
Degree Supervisor PhD Feddes
Ben Shank Chris Panter
Jennifer SaundersBlades Erin Oâ€™Dea
Nicholas Wolanski Melanie Rustad
Julie Mori Juan Aguilar
Name of Project Hens Housed In Modified, Commercial And Colony Cages: An Assessment of Welfare A Bio Economical Model of The Broiler Supply Chain Pricing Games in Poultry Markets Canadian Demand for Chicken by Cut and Product Use of the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique to Determine Amino Acid Requirements in Broiler Chickens Effect of 25-Oh Vitamin D3 on Bone Mineral Density And Immune Function of Chickens Investigating The Effects of Commercial Probiotics on Chick Quality and Broiler Production Efficiency Effects of Parent Flock Age and Genetic Strain on Embryonic Metabolism Developing an Immuno-Magnetic Bead Test in Combination With PCR of MAP and Fingerprinting Data Set for The Detection of Johneâ€™s Disease Reproductive Efficiency in Broiler Breeder Identification of Early Indicators of Metabolic and Reproductive Dysfunction from OverFeeding Female Broiler Breeders Heterologous Expression Of Brochocin-C Carnobarctirium Spp. The Behaviour of Log Phase Escherichia Coli At Temperatures Near The Minimum For Growth Bacteriocin Production by Crnobacterium Maltaromaticum UAL26. Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacter Spp Response to Bacteriocin Resistant Listeria Monocytogenes Strains Tp Reservation Factors Heat, acid and salt tolerance of leucocinresistant Listeria monocytogenes Isolation of A Bacteriocin from Active Against Salmonella Spp. Detection and Quantification of Multiple Bacteriocins in Meat
APRC BASE FUNDING (APRC Contract) 2004 APRC Base Funding
Indus try, $14,000 Alberta Boards , $127,000
TOTAL = $1,206,000
2004 APRC Base Industry Funding Maple Leaf, $3,000 Lilydale, $11,100 ATP, $17,400
TOTAL = $141,000
APRC RESEARCH GRANT FUNDING 2004 APRC Research Funding
Prov. Bd., $93,080 PIC, $95,776 Natl. Bd., $19,000 Ag Consortium, $510,687 Industry, $187,129
Govt. Prov., $28,000 Govt. Natl., $209,133
TOTAL=$1,142,805 2004 Research Funding Benefiting Commodity Groups $700 $576
$200 $100 $Breeders
APRC RESEARCH GRANT FUNDING: LIST OF PROJECTS TITLE OF PROJECT
PRIMARY SCIENTIST SOURCE
AG Consortium (Co-operative Program in Agricultural Marketing and Business)
AG Consortium, NSERC, ACP, Dow AgroSciences, PIC, Agricore United
AG Consortium, DSM Nutritional Products, NSERC, ACP, PIC
Breeder Vitamin D effects on Chick Quality, Immune Function and Bone Development Midnight feeding and osteoporosis in laying hen
Growth, Immune Function and Protein Metabolism in Broiler Chickens
Producer Benefits, Consumer Willingness to Pay and Revealed Preferences for Different Chicken Production Attributes
Amino Acid requirements of poultry
Identification of Early Indicators of metabolic and reproductive Dysfunction in BB
The Impact of Timing of Protein on Protein Intake on Reproduction Efficiency in Broiler Breeder Females
A bioeconomic model of the Broiler Chicken Supply Chain
Table cont. TITLE OF PROJECT Reducing the Role of Oxidation Stress in AgeRelated Decline in Reproductive Hormone Status and Calcium Absorption in Comm. Laying Hens
The Impact of growth Patterns on Reproductive Efficiency and Livability in Male Broiler Breeders Interaction Between Selenium Source and Vitamin E in Layers
Micro Assessment of Broiler Barns
PRIMARY SCIENTIST SOURCE
PIC Altech Biotechnology Inc.
Micro Assessment of Farm Cleaning
Embryo yolk absorption and Clubbed Down
Embryo Metabolism: Strain and Flock Age
Further Research into Egg Turning
Impact of Growth on Male Broiler Breeder Microbial Assessment of Barn Sanitation Microbial Assessment of Barn Sanitation Microbial Assessment of Barn Sanitation
Fasenko McMullen McMullen McMullen
AG Consortium ACP SCIDF AG Consortium Total
$55,000 $4,830 $5,340 $10,170 1,142,805
APRC Facility Useage Facility
Brooder House (48 floor pens) Breeder Hens Cages (288 individual) Breeder Male Cages (60 individual) Vencomatic Colony Housing (2 units) Nutrition House (32 pens) Specht Pullet Cages (chick trials) Environmental Chambers East House (8 floor pens 4 cage rooms) Test House Floor Pens
Overall Utilization Rate (1) 60%
15% rare breeds
6% teaching 93%
fert.egg program 67% 33%
Test House Conventional Cages Test House Colony Cages Broiler Processing Plant (3-day kills) Hatchery
86% (rare breed) & fert. Egg program 50% 100% Fertile egg production
13 exp. hatches
Alberta Chicken Producers Alberta Egg Producers Lilydale Room Alberta Turkey Producers Alberta Hatching egg Producers Processors APRC Team U of A, safety, animal care, animal handling Industry Related Workshops Heavy use by graduate students, undergraduate students, Alberta Turkey technicians and researchers. Producers Computer Lab Estimated use 40 man hours per day (1) Days actually populated/days per year (2) Includes 2 wk cleanup time
1 Day 1 Day 1 Day 30 Days 20 Days
APRC Evidence of Productivity A. Referred Papers in Scholarly Journals 1. Barnett, D. M., B. L. Kumpula, D.R.L. Petryk, N. A. Robinson, R. A. Renema, and F. E. Robinson. 2004. Hatchability and Early Chick Growth Potential of Broiler Breeder Eggs with Hairline Cracks. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 13:65-70. 2. Chui, L.W., T. Chiu, R. King, P. Wu, K. Manninen, and J. Sim. 2004. Evaluation of Four Different DNA Extraction methods for the Detection Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 48:39-45. 3. Clark, O.G., I. Edeogu, J. Feddes, R.N. Coleman and A. Abolghasemi. 2004. Effects of Operating Temperature and Supplemental Nutrients in a Pilot-Scale Agricultural Biofilter. Canadian Biosystems Engineering, 46: 6.7-6.17 4. Fleming, R. H., D. R. Korver, H. A. McCormack and C. C. Whitehead. 2004. Assessing bone mineral density in vivo: digitized fluoroscopy and ultrasound. Poultry Science 83:207-214. 5. Jendral, M. J. and F. E. Robinson. 2004. Beak trimming in chickens: Historical, economical, physiological and welfare implications, and alternatives for preventing cannibalistic activity. Avian and Poult. Biol. Rev. 15:9-23. 6. Korver, D. R. 2004. Avian Osteoporosis: Measurement and Ethical Considerations. Introduction. Poultry Science 83:183. 7. Korver, D. R., J. L. Saunders-Blades and K. L. Nadeau. 2004. Assessing bone mineral density in vivo: quantitative computed tomography. Poultry Science 83:222-229. 8. Korver, D. R., M. J. Zuidhof and K. R. Lawes. 2004. Performance characteristics and economic comparison of broiler chickens fed wheat- and triticale-based diets. Poultry Science 83:716-725. 9. O'Dea, E. E., G. M. Fasenko, J. J. R. Feddes, F. E. Robinson, J. Segura, C. Ouellette, and J. H. van Middelkoop. 2004. Investigating the Eggshell Conductance and Embryonic Metabolism of Modern and Unselected Domestic Avian Genetic Strains at Two Flock Ages. Poultry Science 83: 2059-2070. 10. Petruk, A. and D. R. Korver. 2004. Effects of age at increasing dietary calcium and environmental temperature on eggshell quality and bone integrity in young broiler breeder hens. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 84:411-420. 11. Renema, R. A. and F. E. Robinson. 2004. Defining normal: Comparison of Feed Restriction and full feeding of female broiler breeders. Worldâ€™s Poult. Sci. J. 60:511-525. 12. Riczu, C. M., J. L. Saunders-Blades, Ă…. K. Yngvesson, F. E. Robinson and D. R. Korver. 2004. End-of-cycle bone quality in white and brown egg laying hens. Poultry Science 83:375-383. 13. Ryder, A. A., J. J. R. Feddes, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2004. Field Study to Relate Heat Stress Index to Broiler Performance. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 13:493-499.
14. Segura, J. C., C. A. Ouellette, J. J. R. Feddes, and G. M. Fasenko. 2004. Development of a metabolic calorimeter system to measure heat production of domestic avian embryos during incubation. Canadian Biosystems Engineering. (In press). 15. Sikur, V. R., F. E. Robinson, D. R. Korver, R. A. Renema, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2004. Effects of nutrient density on growth and carcass traits in fast- and slow-feathering female turkeys. Poultry Science. 83:1507-1517. 16. Wang, Z. and M. J. Zuidhof. 2004. Estimation of growth parameters using a nonlinear mixed Gompertz model. Poultry Science. 83:847-852. 17. Wang, Y. W., H. Sunwoo, G. Cherian and J. S. Sim, 2004. Maternal dietary ratios of linoleic acid to a-linolenic acid has no impact on the humoral immune response of laying hens but affects the passive immunity of hatching chicks. Poultry Science 83: 2039-2043 18. Wang Y., G. Cherian and J. Sim. 2004. Dietary lipids differently alter the polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of immune tissues or cells in chicks. Poultry Science. (In press). 19. Wolanski, N. J., R. A. Renema, F. E. Robinson and J. L. Wilson. 2004. End-of-season carcass and reproductive traits in original and replacement male broiler breeders. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 13:451-460. 20. Zuidhof, M. J., R. H. McGovern, B. L. Schneider, J. J. R. Feddes, F. E. Robinson, and D. R. Korver. 2004. Implications of preslaughter feeding cues for broiler behavior and carcass quality. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 13:335-341 21. Zuidhof, M. J., R. H. McGovern, B. L. Schneider, J. J. R. Feddes, F. E. Robinson, D. R. Korver, and L. A. Goonewardene. 2004. Effects of feed withdrawal and livehaul on body weight, gut clearance, and contamination of broiler carcasses. Journal of Applied Poultry Research. 13:472-480. 22. Zuidhof, M. J., R. H. McGovern, B. L. Schneider, J. J. R. Feddes, F. E. Robinson, and D. R. Korver. 2004. Effects of feed withdrawal time on the incidence of fecal spillage and contamination of broiler carcasses at processing. Journal of Applied Poultry Research 13:171-177.
B. Conference Presentations (Abstracts) 1. Fasenko, G. M., J. E. Montgomery, E. E. Oâ€™Dea, 2004. Establishing if the duration of egg turning effects the hatchability of broiler breeder eggs. Poultry Sci. 83: 1777. 2. Goddard, E., B. Shank, G. Griffith and J. Freebairn. "Optimal Advertising Budgets in Markets Where Processors and Retailers Play Vertical Stackleberg and Bertrand Games in Prices: The Case of Chicken in Canada and Eggs in Australia." Presented at the NEC63 Conference, Lake Louise, Alberta, September 30-October 1, 2004. 3. Guan, L. L., K. E. Hagen, T. L. Grayson, G. W. Tannock, D. R. Korver, and G. M. Fasenko, 2004. Detection of Lactobacillus acidophilus species in the gut of chickens. American Society of Microbiology, New Orleans, LA, May 2004. 4. Hailu, G. and E. Goddard. 2004. Nutrition and Health: Structural Analysis of Egg Consumption in Canada paper presented at the American Agricultural Economics Association, July 31st - August 4th, 2004, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A. 5. Jones, T., C.O. Gill and L.M. McMullen. 2004. The behaviour of log phase Escherichia coli at temperatures near the minimum for growth. Canadaian Meat Science Association Annual Technical Symposium Poster Presentation. February 2-5. Ottawa, ON.
6. Montgomery, J., G. M. Fasenko, J. J. R. Feddes, J. Segura, C. A. Ouellette, and K. A. Martin, 2004. Comparing shell and air cell temperatures of incubating eggs from modern and old broiler genetic strains. Poultry Sci. 83:1796. 7. Kanderka, A., A. Gehring, J. Lawrence, G. M. Fasenko, and F.E. Robinson, 2004. The impact of egg weight on hatchability, chick weight, chick length, and chick weight to length ratios. Poultry Sci. 83 (Suppl. 1): 75. 8. Kirschenman, R., E. Tong, S. Tam, D. Pink, W. T. Dixon, R. O. Ball and D. R. Korver. 2004. Dietary Lysine regulation of ∀-ketoglutarate reductase in broilers: A new look at an old problem. Proceedings of the Canadian Society of Animal Science Annual Meeting. July 20-23, 2004 Edmonton, AB. 9. Korver, D., D.R., Michelle Jendral, Frank Robinson, Rob Renema and Gaylene Fasenko, 2004. Optimizing public education: telling the world what we do. Twelfth Worlds’ Poultry Congress Book of Abstracts. Page 935. 10. Kumpula, B. L., G. M. Fasenko. 2004. Examining if the hole created by egg injection improves late embryonic survival. Poultry Sci. 83 (Suppl. 1:143). 11. Lawrence, J. J., A. D. Gehring, A. D. Kanderka, G. M. Fasenko and F. E. Robinson. 2004. The impact of egg weight on hatchability, chick weight, chick length and chick weight to length ratios. Poultry Sci. 83 (suppl 1):75. 12. O’Dea, E. E., G. M. Fasenko, J. J. R. Feddes, F. E. Robinson, J. C. Segura, C. A. Ouellette and J. H. van Middelkoop, 2004. Investigating the embryonic metabolism of modern and unselected broilers. Poultry Sci. 83:1773. 13. Renema, R. A. 2004. Reproductive responses to Sel Plex organic selenium in male and female broiler breeders: Impact on production traits and hatchability. In: Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries. Proceedings of Alltech’s 20th Annual Symposium (T. P. Lyons and K. A. Jaques, eds.) Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK, pp. 81-91. 14. Renema, R. A., F. E. Robinson, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2004. Reproductive Efficiency of Female Broiler Breeders as Affected by Genotype, Feed Allocation and Photostimulation Age 3. Carcass and Reproductive Morphology Traits at Sexual Maturity. Poultry Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):1785. 15. Renema, R.A. and A. E. Sefton. 2004. Dietary Selenium Source can affect Egg Production, Shell Quality, and Fertility Traits of Broiler Breeders. XXII World’s Poultry Congress: Book of Abstracts, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 521. 16. Renema, R. A., M. J. Zuidhof, and F. E. Robinson. 2004. Impact of genotype, growth profile and photostimulation age on the reproductive efficiency of female broiler breeders. Poultry Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):144. 17. Renema, R.A., F. E. Robinson, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2004. Reproductive efficiency of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, growth profile and photostimulation age. 3. Carcass and reproductive traits at sexual maturity. SPSS:97. 18. Renema, R. A., and A. E. Sefton. 2004. Dietary Selenium Source can Affect Egg Production, Shell Quality, and Fertility Traits of Broiler Breeders. Proceedings of the XXII World’s Poultry Congress, Istanbul, Turkey (Electronic publication) 4 pp.
19. Renema, R. A., M. J. Zuidhof, and F. E. Robinson. 2004. Impact of genotype, growth profile and photostimulation age on the reproductive efficiency of female broiler breeders. Poultry Science 83(suppl. 1):270. 20. Robinson, F. E., N. J. Wolanski, R. A. Renema, G. M. Fasenko, V. L. Carney, and B. Fancher. 2004. Relationship of physical traits at hatch with growth traits to 14-d of age in male chicks of selected parent stock and pure line products. Poultry Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):144. 21. Robinson, F. E., M. J. Zuidhof and R. A. Renema, 2004. Reproductive Efficiency of Female Broiler Breeders as Affected by Genotype, Feed Allocation and Photostimulation Age 1. Growth and Carcass Traits Between Hatch and 24 wk of Age. Poultry Sci. 83:1783-1784. 22. Robinson, F.E., R. A. Renema, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2004. Reproductive efficiency of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, growth profile and photostimulation age. 1. Growth and carcass traits between hatch and 24 wk of age. SPSS:95. 23. Rustad, M. E., F. E. Robinson, R. A. Renema, M. J. Zuidhof and V. L. Carney. 2004. Growth potential and carcass characteristics of eight strains of broiler breeder stocks. Poultry Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):144-145. 24. Rustad, M. E., F. E. Robinson, R. A. Renema, M. J. Zuidhof, V. L. Carney and B. Fancher. 2004. Growth and Breast Muscle Yield Potential of Selected Parent Stock and Pure Line Products. Poultry Sci. 83:1773. 25. Rustad, M.E., F. E. Robinson, R. A. Renema, M. J. Zuidhof, and B. Fancher. 2004. Growth and breast muscle yield potential of selected parent stock and pure line products. SPSS:52. 26. Rustad, M. E., F. E. Robinson, R. A. Renema, M. J. Zuidhof, and V. L. Carney. 2004 Growth potential and carcass characteristics of eight strains of broiler breeder stocks. Poultry Science 83(suppl. 1):272. 27. Senthilselvan A, Feddes J, Cherry N, Beach J, Bentham A, Ouellette C, Wenger I, Willson P, Juorio J.A prospective study of workers' respiratory health and indoor air quality in poultry operations. International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health. EPICOR.October 13-16, 2004, Melbourne, Australia http://oem.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/61/11/e29. Abstract. 28. Sim, J.S. 2004. Immune-Powered Egg for Celiac Disease: One step forward to “functional” Columbus Egg, 3rd International Belovo symposium, Brussels, Belgium, October 6 - 8, 2004. 29. Sim, J.S. 2004. The Amazing Egg as Nature’s Perfect Functional Food for Health, 10th World Congress on Clinical Nutrition. 30. Sim, J.S. 2004. Nutrition in the Next Decade: Nutraceutical/Functional Food; Product Performance in Health, Disease and Safety, November 30 - December 3, 2004, Phuket, Thailand. 31. Saunders-Blades, J. L. and D. R. Korver. 2004. Effect of vitamin D source on broiler production and carcass composition. Poult. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):268. 32. Sunwoo, H.H., G.A. Sadeghi and J.S. Sim. 2004. A Comparison study on different organic acid solutions to extract egg yolk antibody. 3rd International Egg Symposium, April April 18-21, 2004.
33. Sunwoo H.H., and J.S. Sim. 2004. IgY as Ovo-Nutraceutical: Anti-Gluten Specific IgY Enforced Egg Products for Celiac Disease. 3rd International Egg Symposium, April 1821, 2004. 34. Wolanski, N. J., R. A. Renema, F. E. Robinson, and J. L. Wilson. 2004. Analysis of Endof-Season Carcass and Reproductive Traits in Original and Replacement Male Broiler Breeders. Poultry Sci. 83:1776. 35. Zuidhof, M. J., R. A. Renema, and F. E. Robinson. 2004. Reproductive efficiency of female broiler breeders as affected by genotype, feed allocation and photostimulation age 2. Sexual maturation profiles. Poultry Sci. 83:1785.
C. Scientific and Industry Presentation (with or without Proceedings) 1. Coleman, R.A., M.A. Leslie, W.L. Bryden and D.R. Korver. 2004. Determining individual amino acid requirements in poultry by the indicator amino acid oxidation technique: a review. Australian Poultry Science Symposium 2004. February 10, 2004. Sydney, Australia. 2. Fasenko, G. Hatching egg research at the University of Alberta. Tyson Hatchery Managers Meeting-Atlanta, GA. January 27, 2004. 3. Fasenko, G. Optimal egg storage conditions. 2004 Mid-West Poultry Federation Proceedings. 7 pages. 4. Fasenko, G. Broiler hatching egg and chick quality research at the University of Alberta. Alternatives to antibiotics research session. Red Deer March 1, 2004. 5. Hailu, G. and E. Goddard. 2004. Media Coverage of Health, Food Safety and Nutrition: What is the Impact on Egg Consumption? at the 3rd International Symposium on Egg Nutrition for Health Promotion, April 18-21, 2004, Banff, Canada. 6. Hoon H. Sunwoo, Sadeghi, G. A. and Jeong S. Sim, A Comparison study on different organic acid solutions to extract egg yolk antibody. 3rd International Egg Symposium, April April 18-21, 2004. 7. Hoon H. Sunwoo and Jeong S. Sim, IgY as Ovo-Nutraceutical: Anti-Gluten Specific IgY Enforced Egg Products for Celiac Disease. 3rd International Egg Symposium, April 1821, 2004. 8. Jendral, M. J., J. S. Church, and J. Feddes. 2004. Assessing the welfare of layer hens housed in conventional, modified and commercially-available furnished battery cages. In Proceedings, 22nd World's Poultry Congress. Istanbul, Turkey: World's Poultry Science Association. 11 pp. 9. Korver, D., M. Jendral, F. Robinson, R. Renema, and G. Fasenko. 2004. Optimizing Public Education: Telling The World What We Do. Proceedings of the XXII Worldâ€™s Poultry Congress, Istanbul, Turkey (Electronic publication) (Invited Plenary Paper). 10. Korver, D. R. and R. A Coleman. 2004. Amino acid requirements of broilers: Relationships with growth and meat quality. Australian Poultry Science Symposium 2004. February 9, 2004. Sydney, Australia. 11. Korver, D. R. 2004. Modern poultry production and avian bone biology. Australian Poultry Science Symposium 2004. February 10, 2004. Sydney, Australia.
12. Kumpula, B. L., G. M. Fasenko. 2004. Comparing incubation duration, hatchability, and chick quality parameters of chicks from three egg sizes and two moderns strains. Incubation Fertility Research Group Meeting, Lincoln, UK, September 6, 2004. 13. McMullen, L.M. 2004. Biopreservation to enhance meat qulity and safety. Canadian Society of Microbiologists Annual Conference. June 20-23, 2004. Invited presentation. 14. McMullen, L. 2004. Food Safety in Perspective. Alberta pork Seminar, November 28 in Calgary, November 29 in Edmonton. 15. McMullen, L. 2004. Food Safety and Quality: Challenges and perspectives, UofA, November 8, 2004. Presentation to visiting scientists from China. 16. McMullen, L. 2004. Food safety in perspective. Lunch and learn, UofA. August 12, 2004. 17. O’Dea, E. and G. Fasenko. The effects of commercial probiotics on broiler production efficiency. Alternatives to antibiotics research session. Red Deer March 1, 2004. 150 people. 18. Panter, C. and E. Goddard. Estimating the Demand for Disaggregated Chicken Products and Parts in Canada: An Application of Scanner Data. Canadian Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meetings, Halifax, June 2004. 19. Renema, R. A., and F. E. Robinson. 2004. Managing Breeders For Life-of-Flock Production and Fertility. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Poultry Health Conference. Kitchener, ON., Nov, 2004. 5 pp. 20. Renema, R. A., and F. E. Robinson. 2004. The Influence of Light on Reproductive Performance in Female Broiler Breeders. Proceedings of the 2004 North Carolina Broiler Breeder and Hatchery Management Conference. Statesville, NC., 6 pp. 21. Renema, R. A., F. E. Robinson and M. J. Zuidhof. 2004. Manipulating Reproductive Potential: Growth Profile and Photostimulation Age Effects in Broiler Breeders. Proceedings of the 2004 North Carolina Broiler Breeder and Hatchery Management Conference. Statesville, NC., 7 pp. 22. Renema, R. A., and F. E. Robinson, 2005. Examining the Impact of Nutrition on the Fertility of Layer and Broiler Breeders. Maximizing Poultry Performance in the Face of Low Cost Competition. Oct 18, Dublin, Ireland. 23. Renema, R. A., and F. E. Robinson, 2005. Влияние кормления на репродуктивные показатели кур родительского стада. Maximizing Poultry Performance in the Face of Low Cost Competition. Oct 19, Dublin, Ireland. 24. Robinson, F. E., R. A. Renema, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2004. Manipulating Reproductive Potential: Growth Profile and Photostimulation Age Effects in Three Breeder Strains. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Poultry Health Conference. Kitchener, ON., Nov. 2004. 5p. 25. Robinson, R.E. Reproductive Efficiency of Female Broiler Breeders as Affected by Genotype, Feed Allocation, and Photostimulation age. Aviagen Technical Service Meeting, Huntsville AL, June 17, 2004. 26. Robinson, R.E. Understanding the Role of Feed, Light and Uniformity in Female Breeder Management. Aviagen Technical Service Meeting, Huntsville AL, June 17, 2004. 27. Robinson, R.E. Strain-Specific Management of Female Broiler Breeders. Manitoba Hatching Egg Seminar. Invited 60 minute presentation. Winnipeg. MB, November 17, 2004.
28. Robinson, R.E. Relationship of Physical Traits at Hatch with Growth Traits to 14-d of Age in Male Chicks of Selected Parent Stock and Pure Line Products. Broiler Hatching Egg Producers Meeting. Airdrie AB October 4, 2004. 29. Robinson, R.E. University of Alberta Research in Broiler Breeders Management. Annual meeting of the Alberta Broiler Hatching Egg Producers. Red Deer AB. 30. Robinson, R.E. Manipulating Reproductive Potential: Growth Profile and Photostimulation Age Effects in Three Breeder Strains. Ontario Poultry Health Conference. Kitchener ON. 31. Robinson, R.E. The U of A Broiler Breeder Research Program. Saskatchewan Broiler Breeder Workshop. Saskatoon, SK, March 4, 2004. 32. Robinson, R.E. Optimizing public education: Telling the world what we do. World’s Poultry Science Association Annual Meeting, June 10, 2004. 33. Shank. B., E. Goddard, J. Freebairn, G Griffiths, Pricing Games in Poultry Markets: the Cases of Eggs in Australia and Chicken in Canada, paper presented at the Australian Agricultural And Resource Economics Annual Meeting, Melbourne, Victoria, Feb 11-13, 2004. 34. Sim, J. Immune-Powered Egg for Celiac Disease: One step forward to “functional” Columbus Egg, 3rd International Belovo symposium, Brussels, Belgium, October 6 - 8, 2004. 35. Sim, J. The Amazing Egg as Nature’s Perfect Functional Food for Health, 10th World Congress on Clinical Nutrition. 36. Sim, J. Nutrition in the Next Decade: Nutraceutical/Functional Food; Product Performance in Health, Disease and Safety, November 30 - December 3, 2004, Phuket, Thailand. 37. Zuidhof, M. J. and B. L. Schneider. 2004. Overview of the Alberta Poultry Industry. In: Proceedings of the Alberta Agriculture Lenders Workshop, Olds, AB. Farm Business Management Branch, Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development. 38. Zuidhof, M. J. 2004. A bioeconomic model of the broiler chicken supply chain: Implementation. Lilydale production meeting. October 13, 2004. 39. Zuidhof, M. J. 2004. A bioeconomic model of the broiler chicken supply chain: Implementation. Maple Leaf production meeting. October 20, 2004. 40. Zuidhof, M. J. 2004. Research Update: Bioeconomic Modeling of the Broiler Chicken Supply Chain. Alberta Chicken Producers Research Committee meeting. February, 2004.
D. Community Services •
APRC has been involved in WISEST (Women in Scholarship, Engineering, Science and Technology) and IAESTE (International Association for the Exchange of Students for Technical Experience) as well as summer student training.
APRC researcher involvement in WISEST and IAESTE programs enables young women and men to gain experience in scientific research, stimulates interest in the field of poultry science and fosters development of international relations. High school and international exchange
students who typically have little prior experience in the scientific process, and most often have no prior experience with poultry, become involved in an ongoing research trial for a two or three month period. Students are mentored by researchers, graduate students and technicians, and gain experience interacting with and handling birds, collecting and interpreting data and presenting their research findings. In this short period of time, students develop an appreciation for the rigors of science and the importance of poultry research, and are simultaneously eager and excited to determine the outcome of their hard work. Researchers also benefit from the high level of quality these students bring to the research, and the infusion of fresh ideas, perspectives and questions. •
Gaylene Fasenko was involved in SCIberMENTOR - an email mentoring program for girls aged 11 to 18. The program matches girls with women students who are studying science and engineering, or practicing women scientists and engineers.
John Feddes organized Canadian Poultry Research Council meeting in Edmonton March 12 and 13: Priorizing environmental issues in the poultry industry.
Jeong.Sim co-Organizer for The 3rd International Congress of Belovo Egg Science and Technology on the Columbus Concept held in Brussels October 6 – 9, 2004. He also organized a special symposium in an affiliation with the 10thWCCN conference in Phuket, Thailand, on “Egg Functional Food for Health”, November 30 - December 3, 2004.
Frank Robinson hosted a public event titled “There’s a Heifer in Your Tank – Science Answers to Questions you Didn’t Know You Had about Animal Agriculture” as part of Animal Science 200 course. Students had four weeks to find science based answers behind 50 questions and present their findings in front of an “American Idol”-type panel of industry and community representatives. Over three hundred people enjoyed this informative and humorous event at the Telus Centre on November 25.
• Frank Robinson visited Rundle Park Elementary School in Edmonton as part of Classroom Agriculture Program (CAP). • Rob Renema delivered presentations as part of Classroom Agriculture Program (April, 2004).
E. Granting Agency Final Reports, Technical Bulletins and Industry Reports 1. Korver, D.R. Effect of cellulitis on production characteristics and meat yield of modern and unselected broiler lines. AARI project # 99M495. February 10, 2004. 70 Pages. Funding sources: Alberta Chicken Producers, the Canadian Broiler Hatching Egg Marketing Association and the Alberta Agricultural Research Institute. 2. Renema, R.A., F. E. Robinson, D. R. Korver, and M. J. Zuidhof. Optimizing Carcass and Reproductive Traits in SCWL through Decreasing Photoperiods and Vitamin D Source. AARI project #2001J440. February 15, 2004. 92 pages. Funding Sources: Alberta Agricultural Research Institute, Monsanto Animal Nutrition, the Alberta Egg Producers, the Poultry Industry Council, and Hyline International Inc. 3. Korver, D.R. and M. J. Zuidhof. Comparison of Performance of Broilers Fed Local Ingredients in Standard or Prairie Feeding Programs. August 16, 2004. 26 pages. Funding Sources: Aviagen NA, Lilydale Foods.
4. Korver, D.R. and M. J. Zuidhof. Comparison of Performance of Broilers Fed Corn or Wheat. September 8, 2004. 26 pages. Funding Sources: Aviagen NA, Lilydale Foods. 5. Robinson, R.E., R. A. Renema, D. R. Korver, and M. J. Zuidhof, Alberta Egg Producers Final Project Report. Optimizing Carcass and Reproductive Traits in SCWL through Decreasing Photoperiods and Vitamin D Source. 2004, 92 pp. 6. Robinson, R.E., R. A. Renema, D. R. Korver, and M. J. Zuidhof, P.I.C. Project #110. Optimizing Carcass and Reproductive Traits in SCWL through Decreasing Photoperiods and Vitamin D Source. 2004, 89 pp. 7. Robinson, R.E., R. A. Renema, D. R. Korver, and M. J. Zuidhof, Hy-Line International Final Report. Optimizing Carcass and Reproductive Traits in SCWL through Decreasing Photoperiods and Vitamin D Source. 2004, 92 pp. 8. Sim, J.S. 2004. Final Performance Report on The 3rd International Symposium on Egg Nutrition For Health Promotion, April 18-21, 2004, Banff, Alberta Canada, supported by the Keynote Speaker Program of Agriculture & Food Council of Alberta (10 pages, November 16, 2004 to Ms. Alana Wilson, Agri-Industry Development Officer, CARD, Keynote Speaker Program , Agriculture & Food Council of Alberta. 9. Sim, J.S. 2004. The 2004 Interim Progress Report of NSERC TPPPJ 256185 – 01, entitle “IgY Technology Transfer Program for Commercialization (Immune-powered egg product against E. coli 0157:H7)”, November 8, 2004 to Dr. Guy Drapeau, Research Partnerships Program, NSERC, 10 pages. 10. Sim, J.S. 2004. IGY Incorporated Business Plan to the Ventureprize Competition 2004, Economic Development of Edmonton. 30 pages. 11. Fasenko, G. M. Using Embryo Metabolism as a Tool to Optimize Hatchability of Broiler Breeder Eggs. PIC 122-01. February 2004. 36 pages. 12. Fasenko, G. M. Investigating the embryonic metabolism of modern and unselected domestic avian genetic strains. AARI #2002A078. February 5, 2004. 33 pages. 13. Fasenko, G. M. Investigating the embryonic metabolism of modern and unselected domestic avian genetic strains. Aviagen, Alabama. February 5, 2004. 32 pages. 14. O’Dea, E. E., G. M. Fasenko, G. E. Allison, D. R. Korver, J. J. R. Feddes, and G. Tannock. The effects of commercial probiotics on broiler production efficiency. Alberta Chicken Producers Final Report. February 11, 2004. 4 pages. 15. Fasenko, G. M. Examining avian embryonic cell viability from eggs exposed to cold topor using flow cytometry. AARI #2001J452. October 21, 2004. 29 pages.
F. Computer Software 1. Zuidhof M. J. and F. E. Robinson. Egg Production and Sequence Analyzer. Version 3.0 © 1999-2004 by Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. 2. Zuidhof, M. J., and D. Bignell. BCSCM (Broiler Chicken Supply Chain Model). Version 2.46-2.47. Copyright © 2003-2004 by Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development.
G. APRC Staff and Students Awards and Honors Staff Receiving Award
Formatted: Bullets and Numbering
D. Korver •
Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics Teaching Wall of Fame
J. Feddes •
AVAC/Dow AgroSciences/ASTech Innovation in Agricultural Science Prize
J. Sim •
The Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA) Egg Research Award to Dr. J. Sim, at the 3rd International Symposium on Egg Nutrition for Health, Banff Alberta, April 19, 2004
The Patel Memorial Award to Dr. J. Sim at the 10th World Congress of Clinical Nutrition, Phuket, Thailand, December 3, 2004
F. Robinson •
Rutherford Teaching Excellence Award
Listed in the Who’s Who of the Canadian Poultry Industry as “one of the top 20 leaders of the Canadian Poultry Industry over the past 50 years”
F. Robinson, D. Korver, R. Renema, L. McMullen, G. Fasenko, M. Zuidhof and J. Feddes •
World’s Poultry Science “Education Award”
Students Receiving Awards J. Montgomery •
Graduate Student Award of Excellence for Poster Research Presentation at Southeastern Poultry Science Society Meeting
B. Kumpula •
Canadian Broiler Hatching Egg Producers Association Broiler Breeder Research Scholarship. Travel Scholarship to attend Incubation and Fertility Research Group Meeting in Lincoln, UK Sept. 6-7, 2004.
Undergraduate Student Certificate of Excellence for research presentation made at the Annual Poultry Science Association Meeting, St. Louis, MO, July 2004
J. L. Saunders Blades •
Graduate Student Award of Excellence (Nutrition Section) ), Poultry Science Association Annual Meeting, St. Louis, MO, July 2004
Getu Hailu (student) and Ellen Goddard (professor) •
Media Coverage of Health and Nutrition: What is the Impact on Egg Consumption? The Alberta Agricultural Economics Association Visions 2004 Conference “Managing Risk, Resources and Development” held in Red Deer, May 6-7, 2004 in Red Deer, Canada. (1st Place Award Winner – poster presentation)
APRC Significant Research and Development Outcomes Broiler breeder egg production and quality are affected by timing of increased dietary Ca. Switching broiler breeder hens from a low calcium pullet diet to a high calcium laying diet before the birds are ready to deposit medullary bone can result in decrease egg production and eggshell quality. The optimal time to switch birds was found to be between 2 weeks prior to the first egg and the first egg. The experiment was only conducted to 30 weeks of age, but presumably the detrimental effect of switching birds too soon would accumulate as the bird age. The APRC is a world leader in Quantitative Computer Tomography (QCT). QCT can be used to measure changes in bone distribution and density in turkeys, broilers, broiler breeders and laying hens. The use of this technology involves sending X-rays through a bone at multiple angles in order to measure the distribution of bone mineral. The use of QCT means that individual birds can be followed throughout production, rather than having to kill and sample different birds at various times throughout a trial. Modern broiler chickens appear to regulate the immune system differently than randombred birds from 1977 and 1957. Increasing our knowledge of how the avian immune system is regulated may help with challenges related to avian diseases and the use of various drugs. Feeding 25-OH vitamin D3 (HyDâ„˘) to broiler chickens improved bone mineral density, consumer acceptance of thigh meat, and reduced the incidence of discoloration of meat next to the femur, or thigh bone. Release of the Broiler Module of the Broiler Chicken Supply Chain Model (BCSCM). This computer simulation model represents a powerful decision support tool for the broiler chicken industry. The program enables the user to simultaneously alter variables that represent alternative management decisions, and evaluate the economic consequences of those decisions. This tool will be a powerful tool for individuals within the broiler industry to support their own decisions. It will also have a substantial role in consultative decision making processes with industry, as it provides objective answers to questions with economic implications for broiler production. Completion of broiler feed withdrawal research program. Publication of three papers on the subject of pre-processing feed withdrawal in the Journal of Applied Poultry Research marks the conclusion of a five-year effort in this area. In addition to the original technology transfer after this research was originally completed, there have been numerous international requests for these papers, signifying the importance of this subject from a food safety perspective. Modeling analytics. The publication of a paper on nonlinear mixed model analysis of broiler growth curve marks a significant advancement in our ability to predict with accuracy the growth of individual broilers. This is foundational for ongoing research into the effects of strain, sex and nutrition on broiler growth and yield dynamics. The accuracy of these predictions is vital to the effectiveness of the Broiler Chicken Supply Chain Model as a predictor of profitability along the supply chain, as it enables a high-resolution picture of the ever changing and highly variable broiler carcass the dynamic raw product of the processing plant.
Broiler hatching egg economics. It was an honour to be consulted by the George Morris Centre to contribute to an Ontario hatching egg cost study. This consultation led to further developments of the Broiler Breeder Module of the Broiler Chicken Supply Chain Model, and shed objective light on the economics around a decision being considered by the Ontario Broiler Chicken Hatching Egg Producers' Association. Economics of feeding triticale to broilers. For the first time, using the Broiler Chicken Supply Chain Model, we published a paper in the Poultry Science Journal that gave specific economic conditions under which triticale could be substituted for wheat in a broiler diet. The analysis incorporated live performance data, including mortality, growth, and feed conversion rates, as well as processing information such as condemnations. The point at which we determined that triticale would be economically viable was when the price of triticale is 95% of the price of wheat less $18. Hatchability and early chick growth potential of broiler breeder eggs with hairline cracks. Eggs with hairline cracks are often placed in incubators, as they can appear structurally sound and, hence, capable of producing a saleable chick. This study examined relative incubation weight loss, embryonic mortality, hatchability, and early chick growth rates associated with normally shelled broiler eggs and those with hairline cracks under practical conditions. The study concluded that hairline-cracked eggs should not be incubated. Heat stress index and broiler breeder performance. A total of 50 broiler flocks across 4 regions in Alberta were used to identify factors that contribute to heat stress. Misting improved carcass quality and broiler microclimate as well as reduced condemnations at the processing plant and total mortality. In the southern region, high ventilation rates did not reduce heat stress; only misting was effective. When heat stress is low, broilers can be grown at stocking densities >35 kg/m(2) without compromising carcass quality. Maternal dietary ratio of linoleic acid to alpha-linolenic acid affects the passive immunity of hatching chicks. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of dietary ratio of linoleic acid (LA) to alpha-linolenic acid (LNA) on the humoral immune response in laying hens and further on the passive immunity of their progeny. The study concluded that the dietary ratio of LA to LNA has no effect on laying hen humoral response but affects the passive immunity of hatching chicks. End-of-cycle bone quality in white versus brown-egg laying hens. Broken and weak bones of laying hens are major welfare concerns in the table egg industry. Bone quality at the end of lay of brown- (Shaver 579) and white- (Shaver 2000) egg strains were compared. The study concluded that the brown-egg strain may be more resistant to weak and broken bones at the end of production than the white-egg strain. Effects of nutrient density on growth and carcass traits in fast- and slow-feathering female turkeys. Chickens have been sexed based on feather development at hatching for many years, but the slow-feathering gene has only recently been incorporated into a commercial line of turkeys. Female turkeys of a fast and a slow-feathering strain were compared with regard to BW, gain, and carcass composition to 29 wk of age. Strain did not affect BW of the CON-fed birds until after 112 d, when FF birds were 3.1% heavier than SF birds. From 11 to 112 d, feeding the HIGH diet increased BW of SF birds significantly compared with birds fed the CON diet. From 170 to 198 d, FF birds were approximately 0.8 kg heavier than SF birds. At 42 and 84 d in FF birds, and at 84 d in SF birds, increased diet density increased measures of frame size and decreased liver weight. Breast muscle weight, area, and thickness were greater
in SF than in FF birds at 42 and 84 d. Increased nutrient density increased feather score in SF birds at 32 (9.8%) and 56 d (7.1%). Eggshell conductance and embryonic metabolism of modern and unselected domestic avian genetic strains at two flock ages. The objective of this study was to determine if broiler strain and breeder flock age affect eggshell conductance, fertility, and hatchability parameters; heart and hepatic glycogen concentrations at hatch; and embryonic metabolism throughout incubation. The 3 broiler strains investigated were HBY, a modern commercial broiler strain selected for high breast yield; WBM, a modern commercial broiler strain selected for the whole bird market; and UN78, a female broiler parent strain unselected since 1978. The study concluded that genetic differences in embryonic metabolic rate were dependent upon breeder flock age. Moreover, the strain and flock age did not influence any of the fertility or hatchability parameters. Strain had no effect on conductance, but eggs from the 37-wk-old flocks had higher conductance than eggs from the 45- or 53-wk-old flocks, which did not differ from one another. The data also demonstrated that in the 3 strains examined in this study, genetic differences in embryonic metabolic rate were dependent upon breeder flock age. The behaviour of log phase Escherichia coli at temperatures that fluctuate about the minimum for growth. Log phase E. coli cultures were incubated at constant temperature or fluctuating temperatures simulating commonly occurring conditions during retail display of chilled foods. The cells behaved differently under fluctuating than at constant temperatures. Such variation may significantly affect understanding of appropriate temperatures for the safe storage of chilled foods and for predictive modelling of bacterial growth in such foods. Designer Egg Concept for Egg Industry. Through the uniqueness of chicken’s lipid metabolism, Dr. Sim’s Designer Egg concept with respect to modern human dietary recommendations has been successfully launched in the markets around the world. Now by understanding the uniqueness of avian immune system, a research program has been initiated to develop specific egg yolk antibodies from laying hens as potential immunotherapeutic agents which prevent or treat the enteric infectious diseased caused by E. coli O157:H7 and/or Salmonella. This research has established a comprehensive technology package, so called “Antibody Farming Concept” as value-added egg industry in Canada supported by NSERC TPP program for the last three years. Based on the NSERC TPP program, IgY Inc., a UofA spin-off company was created to explore the IgY Technology for the egg industry. Four pre-commercial platform products have been developed and were presented at the Natural Products Expo Asia 2004 in Hong Kong: SpiceGuardTM( a prophylactic food additive and/or food preservative to prevent bacterial growth on the surface of food before packaging or consuming), NutraGuardTM ( a prophylactic functional food or food supplement of IgY product), AnimalGuardTM ( a variety of prophylactic feed formulae containing high titre of IgY against enteric Porcine or Bovine E coli strains to prevent early mortality of infant piglets and weaning calves and DetectionGuardTM (as diagnostic kit for detecting disease causing food pathogens). Optimizing Carcass and Reproductive Traits in SCWL through Decreasing Photoperiods and Vitamin D Source. The results from this study indicated that the use of a pattern of declining day lengths prior to a 19 wk photostimulation age can potentially delay the onset of the sexual maturation process in early-maturing strains, increase egg size, and enhance bone quality indicators, with no negative impact on productivity. Early feed intake prior to lay is important for setting the stage for calcium metabolism during lay. The development of bone to act as a reserve for calcium for egg
production is critical to allow the bird to maintain a high level of production and skeletal integrity. Enhancing the ability of the pullet to create these reserves can be advantageous to egg size and to the long-term well-being of the hen. Dietary Selenium Source can affect Egg Production, Shell Quality, and Fertility Traits of Broiler Breeders. Fertility, hatchability, and hatch-of-fertile demonstrated the beneficial nature of dietary selenium, but did not differentiate between selenium sources (inorganic [Standard] or organic [Sel-Plex] sources). Selenium in the diet was also important when comparing early embryonic mortality (114 d of incubation), when 5.33% of the negative control embryos died compared to a mean of 3.62 % in the other treatments. A beneficial effect of organic selenium was expected for the late incubation and hatch period, as this is the time of the greatest oxidative load for the embryo, and when the protected antioxidant effects of the Sel-Plex may be most apparent. After starting from the same point at peak production, late embryonic mortality stayed almost constant in Control and Standard hens as they aged, while it actually decreased in Sel-Plex hens. As feed allocations were reduced with age, the micronutrients would have been in shorter supply. Protective effects of the more easily absorbed organic selenium may have become more apparent at this time. Ultimately what determines the success of a broiler breeder management program is chick production. Chick production was calculated to be 131.3 (Control), 139.1 (Standard) and 145.3 (Sel-Plex) chicks/hen-housed by 58 wk of age â€“ a range of 14.1 chicks/hen.