Annual Report of the Alberta Poultry Research Centre January 1, 2003 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; December 31, 2003
F. E. Robinson November 17, 2004
Research Scientists Frank Robinson
APRC Director Professor and Associate Chair AFNS Poultry Production and Physiology
Assistant Professor Poultry Embryology and Chick Quality
Professor Bio-Resource Engineering
Associate Professor Poultry Nutrition
Associate Professor Food Microbiology
Research Associate Reproduction and Metabolism in Poultry
Professor Poultry Product Technology
Poultry Specialist Bioeconomic Modeling
APRC Team Unit/ Researcher
Fasenko Feddes Korver McMullen Robinson Sim Zuidhof Poultry Unit Total
Research Associates PDFs
Graduate Students 1 3 4 1 2 0
Under Graduate students 3
2 2 1 2
2 1 4
Student Michelle Jendral
Degree Supervisor Ph. D. Feddes
Jennifer SaundersBlades Erin Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Dea
Julie Mori Johnson Viki Sikur
Ph. D. M. Sc.
Name of Project Hens Housed In Modified, Commercial And Colony Cages: An Assessment Of Welfare A Bioeconomic Model Of The Broiler Supply Chain Use Of The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique To Determine Amino Acid Requirements In Broiler Chickens Effect Of 25-OH Vitamin D3 On Bone Mineral Density And Immune Function Of Chickens Investigating The Effects Of Commercial Probiotics On Chick Quality And Broiler Production Efficiency. Cooling Strategies To Reduce Thermal Stress In Broiler Chickens The Timing Of Calcium Intake And Its Effect On The Calcium Metabolism Of Broiler Breeder And Laying Hens. Development Of The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method For The Determination Of The Metabolic Availability Of Lysine In Feedstuffs For Broilers Antibiotic Resistance In Campylobacter Spp Effect Of Nutrition And Age At Photostimulation On Growth And Reproduction In Fast And Slow Feathering Turkeys Identification Of Early Indicators Of Metabolic And Reproductive Dysfunction From OverFeeding Female Broiler Breeders
APRC BASE FUNDING (APRC Contract):
2003 APRC Base Funding ($ 1000’s) Industry, $14 Alberta Boards, $127
AAFRD, $215 U of A, $550
Total = $905,800
2003 APRC Base Industry Funding ($ 1000’s) Maple Leaf, Lilydale, $3,000 $11,300
Total = $126,900
APRC RESEARCH GRANT FUNDING:
2003 APRC Research Funding Prov Bd, Natl Bd, $63,473 $70,000
Ag Consortium, $438,786
Govt Prov, $10,000
Govt Natl, $467,516
Total = $1,440,691
2003 Industry Grant Funding Benefiting Commodity Groups $990.4
1,000 800 $655.5
$504.1 $389.6 $399.0
Breeders AHEP ACP ATP AEP Processors
200 0 Commodities
Total = $1,440,691
APRC RESEARCH GRANT FUNDING: LIST OF PROJECTS
TITLE OF PROJECT
PRIMARY SCIENTIST SOURCE
Egg turning duration and hatchability
Embryonic heat output of broilers
Establishing causative factors of clubbed-down
Hens housed in Modified, Commercial and Colony Cages: An Assessment of Welfare
Odour and NH3 emission rates from poultry litter, manure and buildings
Poultry barn environment in worker respiratory health
Amino Acid requirements of poultry
Breeder Vitamin D effects on Chick Quality, Immune Function and Bone Development
Dietary Botanical Products and Broiler performance Effect of Cereal Source on Broiler Performance Growth, Immune Function and Protein Metabolism in Broiler Chickens Bacteriocins for food safety Growth of E. coli Lactic acid bacteria for delivery of peptides Quality and Safety of Fresh Turkey Interaction Between Selenium Source and Vitamin E in Layers
Korver Korver Korver Mcmullen Mcmullen Mcmullen Mcmullen Renema
Identification of Early Indicators of Metabolic and Reproductive Dysfunction from Over-Feeding Female Broiler Breeders
Reproductive and Metabolic Efficiency in Broiler Breeder Females
A bioeconomic model of the broiler chicken supply chain
INDUSTRY PROCESSOR INDUSTRY INDUSTRY NAT'L BOARD ACP AG CONSORT
$15,365 $918 $4,600 $20,000 $15,000 $75,000
LIVESTOCK . Env. INIT. PIC AHFMR ACP AG CONSORT INDUSTRY INDUSTRY ACP AG CONSORT NSERC INDUSTRY ACP PIC U of A INDUSTRY ACP NSERC
$10,000 $10,000 $100,000 $15,000 $119,237 $5,500 $12,000 $10,000 $61,954 $15,000 $75,867 $5,000 $6,500 $19,215 $43,575 $8,473 $26,500
NSERC AG CONSORT NSERC CPEPC INDUSTRY PIC NSERC INDUSTRY PIC AG CONSORT AG CONSORT INDUSTRY PROCESSOR NSERC INDUSTRY AG CONSORT PROCESSOR ACP
$34,016 $55,391 $179,000 $50,000 $10,000 $7,776 $13,000 $57,800 $28,000 $50,204 $60,000 $20,000 $2,600 $100,000 $70,000 $17,000 $1,200 $10,000
APRC Facility Useage:
Facility Brooder House (48 floor pens) Breeder Hens Cages (288 individual) Breeder Male Cages (60 individual) Vencomatic Colony Housing (2 units) Nutr. House (32 pens) Specht Pullet Cages (chick trials) Environmental Chambers East House (12 floor pens) Test house Floor Pens (non light tight housing) Test House Conventional cages Test House Modified cages Broiler Processing Plant (3-day kills) Hatchery Lilydale Room Alberta Turkey Producers Computer Lab
Overall Utilization Rate 81%
18% (rare breeds)
38% 9% (teaching)
100% 100% 100%
100% (fertile egg program) 100% (rare breed) 90%
14 experimental 1 hatch (rare hatches breeds) ACP – 3 days Processors – 7 days AEP – 3 days APRC Team – 80 days ATP – 2 days U of A - 15 days Heavy use by graduate students, undergraduate students, technicians and researchers - estimated at 32 person hours per day
APRC Evidence of Productivity: A. Refereed Papers in Scholarly Journals: 1.
Ajuyah, A.O., Y. W. Wang, H. Sunwoo, G. Cherian and J. S. Sim, 2003. Maternal diet with diverse w-6/w-3 ratio affects the brain docosahexaenoic acid content of growing chickens. Biol. of Neonate. 84: 45-52.
Boersma, S. I., F. E. Robinson, G. M. Fasenko and R. A. Renema, 2003. Administering Oasis hatching supplement prior to chick placement increased initial growth with no effect on body weight uniformity of female broiler breeders after three weeks of age. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 12:428-434.
Cherian, G and J. S. Sim, 2003. Maternal and Posthatch Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Alters Tissue Tocopherol Status of Chicks. Poultry Sci: 82: 681-686.
Coleman, R. A., R. F. Bertolo, S. Moehn, M. A. Leslie, R. O. Ball and D. R. Korver, 2003. Lysine requirements of pre-lay broiler breeder pullets: determination by indicator amino acid oxidation. J. Nutr. 133:2826-2829.
Guan, L. L., K. E. Hagen, G. W. Tannock, D. R. Korver, G. M. Fasenko, and G. E. Allison, 2003. Detection and identification of Lactobacillus species in crops of broilers of different ages by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Appl. and Environm. Microbiol. 69:6750-6757.
Feddes, J. J. R., E. J. Emmanuel, M. J. Zuidhof, and D. R. Korver, 2003. Ventilation rate, air circulation, and bird disturbance: effects on the incidence of cellulitis and broiler performance. J. Appl. Poultry Res. 12:328-334.
Goonewardene, L. A., Z. Wang, E. Okine, M. J. Zuidhof, E. Dunk, and D. Onderka, 2003. Comparative growth characteristics of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae). J. Appl. Poultry Res. 12:27-31.
Jones, T., C.O. Gill and L.M. McMullen 2003. Behaviour of log phase Escherichia coli at temperatures near the minimum for growth. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 88:55-61.
Joseph, N. A., R. A. Renema, K. A. Thorsteinson and F. E. Robinson, 2003. Comb growth, carcass characteristics, and plama estradiol 17-B concentration during sexual maturation in female broiler breeders. J. Appl. Poultry Res., 12:7-13.
Kirychuk S. P., Senthilselvan A., Dosman J. A., Jurio V., Feddes J. J. R., Willson P., Classen H., Reynolds S. J., Guenter W., and Hurst, T.S., 2003. Respiratory symptoms and lung function in poultry confinement workers in western Canada. Can. Respir. J. 10: 375-380.
Rose, N.L., P. Sporns, H.M. Dodd, M.J. Gasson, F.A. Mellon and L.M. McMullen 2003. Involvement of dehydroalanine and dehyrobutyrine in the addition of glutathione to nisin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:3174-3178.
Sunwoo, H. H., Sim, J. S., Y. K. Kim and M. S. Kang. 2002. Studies of safety and health benefits of GlycosantTM as a Nutraceutical. In: Agricultural and Food Chemistry. Edited by T. Nakano and S.G. Pandalai, Kerala, Research Signpost, India. pp 93-102.
Wang, Y. W., A. O. Ajuyah, H. Sunwoo, G. Cherian and J. S. Sim, 2002. Effect of maternal dietary N-3 fatty acids on the spleen fatty acid composition and bovine serum albumin induced wing web swelling in broilers. Poultry Sci. 81: 1722-1727.
Zuidhof, M. J., C. L. Molnar, F. M. Morley, T. L. Wray, F. E. Robinson, B. A. Khan, L. Al-Ani, and L. A. Goonewardine, 2003. Nutritive value of house fly (Musca domestica) larvae as a feed supplement for turkey poults. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech., 105:225-230.
B. Conference Presentations (abstracts) 1.
Coleman, R. A., A. Hassanabadi, M. A. Leslie, S. Moehn, R. O. Ball and D. R. Korver, 2003. Retention of bicarbonate infused into broiler breeder hens. Prairie Poultry Meeting, Saskatoon, SK.
Korver, D. R. and R. Fleming. Bone Density in Laying Hens. Saskatchewan Poultry Industry Conference. Saskatoon, SK, March 7, 2003.
Leslie, M. A., R. A. Coleman, S. Moehn, R. O. Ball and D. R. Korver, 2003. Development of the indicator amino acid oxidation method in broiler chickens. Prairie Poultry Meeting, Saskatoon, SK.
McMullen, L.M. 2003. The effect of biopreservatives on food quality. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting. Chicago, IL, July 13 -16, 2003. (invited presentation).
Nadeau, K. L., D. R. Korver, M. J. Zuidhof, F. E. Robinson, and R. A. Renema, 2003 Strain and vitamin D source effects on egg production and bone mineral density of laying hens. Poultry Sci 82 (Suppl 1) 47.
Nadeau, K. L.*, D. R. Korver, M. J. Zuidhof, F. E. Robinson and R. A. Renema, 2003. Strain and vitamin D source effects on egg production and bone mineral density of laying hens. Prairie Poultry Meeting, Saskatoon, SK.
Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Dea, E. E., G. M. Fasenko, G. E. Allison, D. R. Korver, J. J. R. Feddes, and G. W. Tannock, 2003. Investigating the effects of probiotics on chick quality and broiler production efficiency. Poultry Sci. 82 (Suppl. 1):33.
Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Dea, E. E., G. M. Fasenko, G. E. Allison, D. R. Korver, J. J. R. Feddes and G. Tannock. 2003. Investigating the effects of probiotics on chick quality and broiler production efficiency. Prairie Poultry Meeting, Saskatoon, SK.
Renema, R. A., 2003. Effects of dietary selenium source on egg production, fertility, hatchability, and shell quality of broiler breeders. Poultry Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):51
Renema, R. A., and F. E. Robinson, 2003. The impact of varying nutrient allocation on carcass and reproductive traits of conventional and high-yield broiler breeder females. Poultry Sci. 82 (Suppl 1):13.
Sikur, V. R., F. E. Robinson, D. R. Korver, R. A. Renema and M. J. Zuidhof, 2003. Effects of nutrient density and time of photostimulation on reproduction in fast- and slow-feathering turkey hens. Poultry Sci. 82 (Suppl 1):14.
Wang, Z., and M. J. Zuidhof, 2003. Estimation of growth parameters using a nonlinear mixed Gompertz growth model. Poultry Sci. 82(suppl. 1):258.
C. Scientific and Industry Presentations (with or without Proceedings) 1.
Ajuyah A. O., S. Sotheeswaran, G. Li, J. Pryor, A. C. Ebenebe, and J. S. Sim, 2002. Perspectives on the Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Toxicological Characteristics of Kava (Piper methysticum). Pacific Kava Research Symposium, Held at the Forum Secretariat in Suva, Fiji from 6 to 7 November 2002.
Ajuyah A.O., Y. Wang, G. Cherian, H. Sunwoo and J.S. Sim, 2002. The Use of the Avian Model to Study the Impact of Maternal Dietary w -3 Fatty Acids Composition on the Brain, Heart and Spleen Docosahexaenoic Fatty Acid Status of Growing Broiler Chickens. Proc. Aust. Poult. Sci. Sym (14): 148-151.
Ajuyah A.O., Yanwen Wang, G. Cherian, H. Sunwoo and J.S. Sim, 2003. The Effect of Maternal Dietary Omega (Ď&#x2030;)-3 Fatty Acids on Hatchability and Growth of Broiler Chickens. Proc. Aust. Poult. Sci. Sym. (15): 154-158.
Fasenko, G. M., 2003. Turkey egg storage. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Turkey Reproduction. Raleigh, NC. Pages 109-113.
Fasenko, G. M., 2003. Egg turning duration and embryo survival. Manitoba Fall Hatching Egg Seminar. Winnipeg, MB. .
Fasenko, G. M., 2003 Chick quality and navel conditions. Manitoba Fall Hatching Egg Seminar. Winnipeg, MB.
Klasing, K. C., R. K. Selveraj, E Koutsos and D. R. Korver, 2003. The Role of Lipids in Modulating the Immune Response of Chickens. Proc. 24th Western Nutrition Conference. Winnipeg, MB.
Korver, D. R. and R. Fleming. Bone Density in Laying Hens. Saskatchewan Poultry Industry Conference. Saskatoon, SK, March 7, 2003.
Korver, D. R. 2003. Broiler chicken and turkey nutrition. Animal Nutrition Association of Canada Feed Industry Certification Seminar.
Korver, D. R. 2003. Broiler breeder and laying hen nutrition. Animal Nutrition Association of Canada Feed Industry Certification Seminar.
McMullen, L.M. 2003. Competing microbiota and its products on fresh and processed meat. Brazilian Journal of Food Science and Technology 6:91-95.
McMullen, L. 2003. 2 hour workshop on food safety issues in poultry products. Lilydale Foods staff.
McMullen, L. 2003. Irradiation to improve the safety of meat. Health Canada Public Information Session on the new regulations for irradiation of meat.
Renema, R. A., 2003. Factors Affecting Reproductive Function in Broiler Breeders. Invited Feed Industry Seminar. Hamer, Norway..
Renema. R. A., 2003. Growth and Nutritional Effects on Broiler Breeder Reproduction. Nutreco Seminar Boxmeer, The Netherlands.
Renema, R. A., and F. E. Robinson, 2003. Managing Breeders for Life of Flock Fertility. Lilydale Broiler Breeder Production Course, Airdrie AB.
Renema, R. A., and F. E. Robinson, 2003. Managing Breeders for Life of Flock Fertility. Lilydale Broiler Breeder Production Course, Edmonton, AB.
Renema, R. A., and F. E. Robinson, 2003. Managing Breeders for Life of Flock Fertility. Lilydale Broiler Breeder Production Course, Lethbridge, AB,
Renema, R. A., F. E. Robinson and M. J. Zuidhof, 2003. Managing Egg Production: Implication of the Effects of Genetics and Feeding on Broiler Breeder Reproduction. AHEP Annual Meeting, Red Deer, Alberta)
Robinson, F. E., 2003. The U of A Poultry Research Centre: Current Activities in Poultry Research, Teaching and Extension. Annual meeting of the Alberta Turkey Producers.. Red Deer AB.
Robinson, F. E., 2003. The Alberta Poultry Research Centre: Programs in Research, Teaching and Extension. Unifeed Breeder Symposium. Abbotsford BC.
Robinson, F. E., D. R. Korver, R. A. Renema, and M. J. Zuidhof, 2003. Management of laying hens for optimal productivity and bone density. Proceedings of the Eastern Nutrition Conference. Quebec (pages 4-19).
Robinson, F. E., and R. A. Renema, 2003. Management – nutrition interactions during growth and reproduction in female broiler breeders. Proceeding of the 14th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition of the World’s Poultry Science Association, Lillehamer, Norway, pp. 224-230
Robinson, F. E., and R. A. Renema, 2003. Managing Breeders for Increased Chick Production. Annual meeting of the Atlantic Poultry Research Centre. (6 pages).
Robinson, F. E., 2003. Considerations of Colony Housing of Broiler Breeders. Annual meeting of the Atlantic Poultry Research Centre. (3 pages).
Robinson, F. E.,and R. A. Renema, 2003. Manejo del Alimento de Hembras Reproductoras Pesadas. Proceedings of the XXIV Seminario Avicola Internacional of the Asociacion Colombiana de Medicos Veterinarios y Zootecnistas Especialistas en Avicultura (AMEVEA), Bogota, Colombia.
Robinson, F. E., and R. A. Renema, 2003. Manejo de la Luz en Reproductoras Pesadas. Proceedings of the XXIV Seminario Avicola Internacional of the Asociacion Colombiana de Medicos Veterinarios y Zootecnistas Especialistas en Avicultura (AMEVEA), Bogota, Colombia.
Robinson, F. E., and R. A. Renema, 2003. Managing What You Can’t See: The Role of Feed in Breeder Ovary Management. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Ontario Poultry Health Conference. (Pages 38-41).
Robinson, F. E., and R. A. Renema, 2003. Variation Between Strains of Breeders in Managing Sexual Maturation. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Ontario Poultry Health Conference. Pages (42-46).
Robinson, F. E., R. A. Renema and N. J. Wolanski, 2003. Post-Peak Broiler Breeder Management. Proceedings of the 28th Poultry Service Industry Workshop Banff AB. (pages 121-126).
Robinson, F. E., R. A. Renema, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2003. Precision Feeding of Female Broiler Breeders. Annual meeting of the British Columbia Hatching Egg and Chick Commission. Abbotsford. BC.
Robinson, F. E., R. A. Renema, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2003. Precision Feeding of Broiler Breeders. Annual meeting of the Alberta Hatching Egg Producers. Red Deer AB.
Robinson, F. E., R. A. Renema, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2003. Precision Feeding of Broiler Breeders: Unifeed Breeder Symposium. Abbotsford BC.
Robinson, F. E., R. A. Renema, and M. J. Zuidhof. 2003. The Influence of Light on Reproductive Performance of Female Broiler Breeders. Unifeed Breeder Symposium. Abbotsford BC.
Sim, J. S., 2002. Designer egg oil for functional food uses: supply of w-3 and w-6 fatty acids for infant food. Proceedings 1:139-155, The 1st International Congress of Belovo Egg science and Technology, Washington Mariott, Washington DC, US.
Sim, J., 2003. Antibody Farming and IgY Technology as Alternative Egg Production. 2003 Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council Convention, Keynote Speaker in the Egg Session, Halifax, NS
Sim J. S., H. H. Sunwoo, 2003. Antibody Farming and IgY Technology for Food and Biomedical Applications, The 2nd International congress of Belovo Egg science and Technology, Athens, Greece.
Sim, J. S. and H. H. Sunwoo, 2003. Exploitation of Avian Immune System and Diversification of Egg Uses for Functional Foods and Biomedical Agents, Symposium of Korean Society of Poultry Science, Seoul Korea,.
Sunwoo, H. H., and Sim, J. S. 2003. The egg antibody farming and IgY technology for food and biomedical applications. KSEA Annual Meeting. Pasedena California, USA.
Sunwoo, H. H., Kang, M. S. and Sim, J. S. 2003. The Use of Chicken IgY in a Sandwich Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. 2003 Poultry Science Association Meeting. Wisconsin, USA.
Sunwoo, H. H. and Sim, J. S. 2003. IgY Technology for Human Health: Antimicrobial activity of IgY preparations against foodborne pathogens. The 225th American Chemistry Society National Meeting. New Orleans, USA.
Sunwoo, H. H., Kim, Y. K., and Sim, J. S. 2002. Endocrinological studies and potential biomedical uses of antlers. Kor. J. Life Sci. 12: 1-8.
Zuidhof, M. J. 2003. Implementation of a bioeconomic model in commercial broiler operations. Alberta Agriculture Food and Rural Development workshop. Airdrie, AB.
Zuidhof, M. J. 2003. Static broiler breeder production cost modeling. AHEP annual meeting. Red Deer, AB.
Zuidhof, M. J. 2003. Implementation of a static broiler breeder model for commercial breeder enterprises. AHEP informal workshop. Westlock, AB.
Zuidhof, M. J. 2003. Economic modeling for broilers. Aviagen Tech Services meeting. Huntsville, AL
Zuidhof, M. J., and B. L. Schneider. 2003. Overview of the Alberta Poultry Industry. In: Proceedings of the Alberta Agriculture Lenders Workshop, Olds, AB. Farm Business Management Branch, Alberta Agriculture, Food, and Rural Development.
D. Community Service Presentations 1.
Renema, R. A., 2003. Classroom Agriculture Program (CAP) Demonstration/ Presentation on poultry, eggs, egg production, feed ingredients, and poultry research for a home school group of grades 3, 4, and 5 children (60 total).
Robinson, F. E., 2003. Chickens Topics to Bring up in Casual Conversations. Invited presentation (60 minutes). Edmonton Public School Board , Teachers with Disabilities Luncheon Speaker..
Robinson, F. E., 2003. Girl Guides Poultry Farming Badge Poultry Fest. Morinville Girl Guide Troop. A 3-hour presentation for 18 people.
Robinson, F. E., 2003. Girl Guides Poultry Farming Badge Poultry Fest. Devon Girl Guide Troop. A 3-hour presentation for 15 people.
Robinson, F. E., 2003. Girl Guides Poultry Farming Badge Poultry Fest. White Court Girl Guide Troop. A 3-hour presentation for 24 people.
Robinson, F. E., 2003. Classroom Agriculture Program (CAP) presentation – 3 classes (40 minutes per presentation) Lendrum Elementary School, Edmonton..
E. Granting Agency Final Reports, Technical Bulletins and Industry Reports 1.
Boersma, S. I., R. A. Renema, F. E. Robinson, and M. J. Zuidhof, 2003. P.I.C. Project #92. Uniformity in Body Weight and Reproductive Maturation in Female Broiler Breeders. 2003, 86 pp.
Fasenko, G. M., E. E. O’Dea, J. J. R. Feddes, F. E. Robinson, and J. H. van Middelkoop, 2003. Investigating the embryonic metabolism of modern and unselected broiler strains. Aviagen, Alabama. 2 pp.
Korver, D. R. and L. M. McMullen, 2003. Nutrient Enrichment of Poultry Products. Project final report for Lilydale Foods, Ltd. 30 pages.
Korver, D. R. and M. J. Zuidhof, 2003. Use of Triticale in Alberta Commercial Poultry Operations. Project 2000M630 final report submitted to the Alberta Agricultural Research Institute and the Alberta Chicken Producers. 36 pages.
Korver, D., M. Zuidhof, F. Robinson, and R. Renema, 2003. Research shows several factors affect bone mineral density in laying hens. Poultry Times (May 19). (pages 89).
McMullen, L.M. 2003. Validation that fresh turkey carcasses that are chilled by means of a continuous-, rapid-, deep-chilling process attain 4°C or lower within specified times. Confidential report to the Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council of Canada. 15 pages.
McMullen, L.M. 2003. Microbial and sensory changes in rapid, deep chilled or conventionally water chilled turkeys stored at -1°C and 4°C for up to 5 weeks. Confidential report to the Canadian Poultry and Egg Processors Council of Canada. 32 pages.
Renema, R. A., R. H. McGovern, F. E. Robinson, and J. L. Wilson, 2003. P.I.C. Project #76. Effects of Rearing Feed Intake on Reproductive Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Male Broiler Breeders. 2003, 32 pp.
Sikur, V. R., R. A. Renema, F. E. Robinson, M. J. Zuidhof, and D. R. Korver, 2003. AARI #2001J441. Nutrient Intake and Photostimulation Effects on Reproductive Efficiency in Fast and Slow Feathering Turkey Hens. 2003, 74 pp.
Sikur, V. R., R. A. Renema, F. E. Robinson, M. J. Zuidhof, and D. R. Korver, 2003. P.I.C. Project #121. Nutrient Intake and Photostimulation Effects on Reproductive Efficiency in Fast and Slow Feathering Turkey Hens 2003, 72 pp.
F. Books 1.
Robinson, F., G. Fasenko, and R. Renema, 2003. Optimizing Chick Production In Broiler Breeders. Spotted Cow Press, Edmonton, AB. 136 pp.
Robinson, F., G. Fasenko, and R. Renema, 2003. New Developments In Reproduction And Incubation Of Broiler Chickens. Spotted Cow Press, Edmonton, AB. 400 pp.
G. Computer Software 1.
Zuidhof, M. J. and D. Bignell. 2003. Broiler chicken supply chain model (BCSCM). Broiler module, version 2.46. Copyright © 2003 by Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development.
APRC Undergraduate Research- Animal Science 471 students) •
End-of-Cycle Bone Quality in White Egg and Brown Egg Laying Hens: A Welfare Problem
Assessment of Internal Egg Temperature in Response to Pre-incubation Egg Warming in Broiler Breeders and Turkeys
The Effects of Early Nutrient Intake on Residual Yolk Sac Re-absorption and Growth Performance in Broilers
Hatchability and Early Chick Growth Potential of Hatching Eggs With and Without Hairline Cracks
End-of-Cycle Carcass and Reproductive Morphology Traits in Female Broiler Breeders
Spiked and Original Roosters: What are the Differences?
APRC Staff and Students Awards and Honors D. R. Korver • Awarded tenure and promotion to Associate Professor (Effective July 1, 2004) • Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics Teaching Wall of Fame F. E. Robinson • Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics Teaching Wall of Fame •
Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Home Economics Teaching Excellence Award”.
E. A. O’Dea (Graduate student of G. M. Fasenko) • Graduate Student Certificate of Excellence for Poultry Science Presentation
APRC Significant Research and Development Outcomes: •
Bioeconomic Model: Martin Zuidhof’s bioeconomic broiler model predicts that the difference between the best and worst strain decision is worth $1M for a supply chain that produces 400,000 kg/wk for the whole-bird market. The difference is $4.1M in a value-added market. The model predicts that sex-specific marketing of broilers can increase profit by $2.8-6M/yr in a 400,000 kg/wk supply chain. The magnitude depends on how the sexes are presently separating into the different markets.
Broiler Growth and Yield: Ongoing determination of strain-specific growth curves and yield estimates have been determined and are part of Lilydale’s strain selection program. Maple Leaf has also begun to show interest in these data (Zuidhof).
Probiotic Development: Bacterial species isolated from broiler chickens intestines vary in expression of bile salt hydrolase (BSH). BSH can interfere with digestion and absorption of fats in poultry. Pro-biotic bacterial preparations may therefore potentially interfere with fat digestion and feed use in poultry. A better understanding of BSH expression will allow the development of new and superior probiotics for use in all poultry species (Korver).
Corn Versus Wheat: Wheat is often the most economical cereal grain for prairie poultry producers. However, the inclusion of corn in broiler diets may result in improved performance, such that profitability may be superior to wheat. At certain price differentials between corn and wheat, it may be worthwhile for Alberta poultry producers to include 35% corn in their diets, even when corn is priced higher than wheat (Korver).
Enzymes for Use with Wheat: New feed enzymes under development by companies in Europe have the potential to decrease the effects of variability in wheat quality on poultry performance (Korver).
Bone Density in Layers: A Brown-egg laying strain had improved bone mineral reserves at the end of lay than a white egg strain. This may have positive implications of managing osteoporosis in caged laying hens (Korver).
Amino Acid Availability Determination: A new, rapid technique for the analysis of amino acid availability in feedstuffs fed to poultry has been developed by Korver. This allows a more efficient determination of poultry feedstuff quality, and will also allow the more rapid selection and development of new crop varieties that are suitable for poultry.
Turkey Shelf Life Extension: McMullen has found that rapid post slaughter chilling of large turkeys minimizes microbial contamination and low temperature (-1°C) storage controls spoilage and extends the shelf life of vacuum packaged raw turkeys up to 40 days.
Dr. Sim’s New Avian Immune-powered EggsTM: The laying hen provides young with antibodies against pathogens, allergens and environmental pollutants. Egg antibodies immobilize the existing or invading antigens to protect the young from infection. “Antibodyfarming Technology” was developed to explore the potential of Avian immune system of commercially bred laying chickens and to produce immune-powered eggs. A technology package of antibody farming is available to an interest party.
Dr. Sim’s New SpiceGuardTM: A prophylactic food additive and/or food preservative to prevent bacterial growth on the surface of food before packaging or consuming. The product is a 100% natural, non-chemical, and non-toxic food ingredient prevent infection or extend the shelf life of food.
Dr. Sim’s New NutraGuardTM: A prophylactic functional food or food supplement of IgY product in the form of a capsule, a nutritional bar, a tablet and a liquid gel, infant formulas, beverages, providing extra protection from bacteria, viruses, pollutant or allergens.
Dr. Sim’s New TheraGuardTM: A prophylactic functional food enhanced with anti-allergen IgY products is designed for therapeutic, nutraceutical, and biomedical applications for allergy sensitive population. Anti-gluten IgY TheraGuardTM for the ever increasing glutenintolerant population (Celiacs) is available to be commercially exploited.
Dr. Sim’s New DetectGuardTM: As diagnostic kits for detecting environmental pollutants, food allergens, disease causing food pathogens are developed. High titre Avian antibodies against Salmonella, E coli, Camphylobacter and Listeria and their mixture as pathogen cocktail are available.
Dr. Sim’s New AnimalGuardTM: a variety of prophylactic feed formula containing high titre of IgY against enteric porcine or Bovine E coli were designed to prevent early mortality of infant piglets and weaning calves.
Probiotics: Antibiotic use is being more strictly regulated. Alternatives to antibiotics for use in the poultry industry must be sought out. The only two probiotics approved by CFIA for use in poultry did not provide an improvement in broiler growth (Fasenko).
Genotype-Incubation Interactions: Genetic selection for high meat yielding strains has likely influenced embryonic growth and metabolism. Fasenko has shown that embryonic heat output differs at various points during incubation when a modern strain and a genetic line from 20+ years ago were compared.
Single Stage Incubation: Multi-stage incubation has become the norm at commercial hatcheries in the past 25 years). Hatcheries are returning to single stage incubation as managers can alter incubation conditions based on genetic strain and parent flock age in an effort to improve hatchability and chick quality. Two hatches in multi-stage and single stage incubators (from the same breeder flock) showed varying results. Fasenko’s first trial showed improved chick quality in the single stage machines.
Embrex Physical Effects: Because of a lack of sufficient oxygen during the hatching process, embryos are vulnerable to mortality. The hole left by the inovoinjection system (Embrex) may improve conductance of oxygen through the eggshell and reduce mortality. No improvements in hatchability of eggs from a flock at near or peak production were observed. Inovoinjection of eggs from a younger breeder flock (lower eggshell conductance of oxygen) may be more positively affected (Fasenko).
Egg Turning During Incubation: Commercial hatcheries have noted that modern genetic strains have higher embryonic heat production than strains of 10 years ago. In order to
improve air-flow in large multi-stage machines eggs will have to remain in a horizontal position. The research conducted in small single stage research incubators showed that eggs can be held for 20 minutes out of every hour on a horizontal plane without reducing hatchability. This result means that the research can eventually be tested in large commercial multi-stage machines with minimal risk to hatchability. •
Daylength Effects on Broiler Growth: Broilers exposed to 4 h of light per day had superior growth, uniformity, and breast muscle yields than did birds reared on 8, 12, or 16 h daylight. Broiler chicks exposed to 4 h of daylight appear to be highly motivated to consume feed during the dark period. The use of 16 hr of daylight limits final BW by 200-300 g. Broilers raised on 4 hr days had a more uniform BW distribution and carried more breast muscle than birds of longer daylight period treatments (Renema, Robinson and Zuidhof).
• Hatchery Feeding Treatments: Exposing chicks to Oasis for 30 hr after hatch stimulated gut clearance, creating lower weight chicks compared to Control birds. Subsequent body weight gains and absolute body weight were improved in the Oasis-treated birds up to 4 wk of age. A second trial compared 24 hr treatments of nothing (Control), water, a suger-based gel puck, sawdust, or feed. Chicks initially given water or the gel puck were more hydrated at placement. By Day 14, birds initially exposed to feed or sawdust were heavier than all other treatments, demonstrating that early, solid, gut fill is important. (Renema and Robinson). •
Broiler Breeders: Dietary Additives: Organic selenium in the form of Sel-Plex is 4-times more effectively retained by the bird than sodium selenite form. Renema fed breeders diets with no added selenium (NEG), the inorganic selenite form (STD), or the organic Sel-Plex form. Reproductive traits were improved in both selenium treatments, while the SPLEX treatment also improved sperm survival in the oviduct, and settable egg production after 49 wk of age through increased egg production and reduced shell defects. At 58 wk, 100% of SPLEX birds were still in lay compared to an average of 89% in the other treatments. Chick production to 58 wk was 131 (NEG), 139 (STD), and 145 (SPLEX).
End-of-Season Carcass Traits in Female Breeders: Commercial, 62-wk hens were dissected following assessment for body size (Low, Standard, or High), footpad condition, and feather coverage on the back (as an indicator of mating frequency). Low weight birds were most frequently out of lay, while the Hight birds had more reproductive disorders. The STD hens had the lowest feather score (most mated). Some reproductively fit larger birds were not actively mating. Low BW hens had the best footpad condition. Poor footpad condition increases the likelihood of a bird ceasing egg production. Overall, the results indicate that birds in the Standard BW group weight category, with good feather and foot condition are likely the most productive birds in the flock (Robinson and Renema).
• Hatch and Growth Traits of Chicks from Hairline Crack Eggs: Transfer weights, hatchability, and broiler hatch weights were lower in hairline crack eggs due to greater moisture loss. Normal eggs (74.4%) hatched better than hairline crack eggs (50.5%), 14-d chick wt was similar for birds surviving to this point. Hairline cracks also increased the number of putrefied eggs and chick mortality. (Robinson and Renema). •
Sexual Maturation in Broiler Breeders: At photostimulation, pullets that are15% below target weight had thinner and narrower breast muscles, small combs, and low plasma estradiol-17β concentrations. They were still likely growing both breast muscle and reproductive organs after photostimulation. This meant they took longer to sexually mature,
had lower ovary weights and a lower number of ovulating follicles. Photostimulating birds that are underweight or under-fleshed too early can negatively affect the timing of sexual maturation as well as the reproductive fitness of the ovary. The target and 15 % high wt birds were similar (Renema and Robinson). •
Breeder Period Nutrient Management for Broiler Breeders: Traditional (1978 Randombred) versus modern, growth-selected breeder strains (Ross 308, Ross 508) were fed a standard feed allocation (100%), or 120% or 140% of this value from photostimulation. Timing of the onset of lay was affected by strain, with sexual maturation of the 1978, 508 and 308 birds occurring at 16.5, 20.2, and 27.4 after photostimulation, on average. The Ross 508 birds had the highest amount of breast muscle at sexual maturity, while the 1978 hens were the fattest. Overfeeding affected egg output more in the highest breast-yield strain. Selection for growth traits has altered the way hens are affected by excess nutrient allocation, which can influence persistency of lay. (Renema and Robinson).
Comb Size and Maturity in Layers and Broiler Breeders: Pullet comb growth can be correlated with blood estrogen concentrations during sexual maturation. Estrogen is the reproductive hormone that drives development of secondary sexual characteristics and processes fueling egg production. Monitoring changes in comb growth can act as a predictor of time to flock maturity as well as indicate stage of reproductive development. Nancy Joseph and Frank Robinson won the Lou Hydman Research Award for the contribution of this method to improved animal care. (Robinson and Renema).
Altering Male Broiler Breeder Growth Profiles: Males were grown on a range of standard and heavy growth profiles which converged at 24 wk of age. The early full-fed males had the greatest gains at the younger ages and maintained the greatest body weight through to 20 wk of age. When their feed was reduced to reach the 24 wk BW target, their testes weight was lower than that of any other treatment (12 g vs. mean of 27 g). A less drastic weight loss in Bonus30% birds at this time did not affect testis weight, fleshing or fatness, showing that some early weight loss may be tolerated. All growth curves produced males with similar semen traits and ability to fertilize. (Robinson, Renema and Wilson).
Turkeys: Growth and Reproduction of a New, Slow-Feathering Line: A slow-feathering gene to allow feather sexing (to reduce poult handling stress) was studied. Growth rates were similar until 16 wk, when the slow-feathering birds became more fleshed, but had a slower growth rate. A higher plane of nutrition resulted in increased frame size and muscle mass for both strains. Delaying photostimulation increased BW and egg production by allowing slower growing birds to increase body reserves. Ultimately egg production of slow feathering hens was below commercial levels. (Robinson, Renema, Korver and Zuidhof).
Laying Hens: Managing Sexual Maturity: Using 17 or 19 wk photostimulation ages had no affect on the later-maturing W-36 birds, since reproductive development had occurred yet. A descending light-period even temporarily stunted their growth, although rate of lay was not affected. Decreasing the day length slowed the reproductive development in the earliermaturing W-98 hens when it was used with a 19 wk photostimulation age. Their ovary weight and number of large yellow follicles already present at 19 wk was lower than that of 19 wk, constant photoperiod birds. While sexual maturity was delayed 2 days, egg size was increased without altering rate of lay (Robinson, Renema and Korver).
Laying Hens: Managing Bone Density: Early maturing W-98 hens favored egg production at the expense of structural, cortical bone. The smaller, later maturing W-36 hens maintained a higher cortical bone density, which may have been partly due to a lower rate of lay. Bone needs to act as a reserve for calcium for egg production to allow the bird to maintain a high level of production and skeletal integrity. Enhancing the ability of the pullet to create these reserves can be advantageous to egg size and to the long-term well-being of the hen. The Descending 19 wk photostimulation group matured the latest and had the greatest mobile bone calcium reserves. (Robinson, Renema, Korver, and Zuidhof).