A DAT O Architecture + Medicine
PROJECTS - EMILIA – The Trauma Machine (Cenk Güzeliş) -Prosthetic Architecture in the Nomadic Territory of the Alps, Pahoehoe Beauty & Co-corporeality in IS BODY ARCHITECTURE? (Daniela Mitterberger) ESSAYS -Liegende Körper in heilenden Räumen : Architektur als Medikation (Jérôme Becker & Lukas Vejnik)
POINT NEMO PUBLISHING •
ISSN 2658-9974 •
-Seven Scales for an Ecofeminist Reading of the Coronavirus Pandemic (Marta Catalan Eraso) - Die Häute, in denen wir wohnen (Anna Valentiny)
Fassaden mit Durchblick. Vom Wintergarten bis zum Großprojekt. Den Reiz des Natürlichen bietet der Werkstoff Holz. Mutige Ideen sind für uns eine
Fassaden mit Durchblick.Herausforderung. Vom Wintergarten bis zum Großprojekt. Den Reiz des Natürlichen bietet der Werkstoff Holz. Mutige Ideen sind für uns eine
Fassaden mit Durchblick.Herausforderung.
Vom Wintergarten bis zum Großprojekt. ANNEN plus S.A. · Route de Schorenshof · L-6850 Manternach
Den Reiz des Natürlichen bietet der Werk-
Tel. 0 03 52 /26 78 95-5 · Fax 0 03 52 /26 78 95-1 · www.annen.eu
stoff Holz. Mutige Ideen sind für uns eine Herausforderung.
ANNEN plus S.A. · Route de Schorenshof · L-6850 Manternach Tel. 0 03 52 /26 78 95-5 · Fax 0 03 52 /26 78 95-1 · www.annen.eu
ANNEN plus S.A. · Route de Schorenshof · L-6850 Manternach Tel. 0 03 52 /26 78 95-5 · Fax 0 03 52 /26 78 95-1 · www.annen.eu
_EDITORIAL _LOCKDOWN Photo Series Luca Fuchs
I N H A LT
Graham Brenton McKay
_DIE HÄUTE, IN DENEN WIR WOHNEN A n n a Va l e n t i n y
_SEVEN SCALES FOR AN 22 ECOFEMINIST READING OF THE C O R O N A PA N D E M I C Marta Catalan Eraso
_LIEGENDE KÖRPER 26 IN HEILENDEN RÄUMEN Architektur als Medikation J é r ô m e B e c ke r u n d L u k a s Ve j n i k
_EMILIA The Trauma Machine Cenk Güzeliş
44 54 60
_IS BODY ARCHITECTURE? Daniela Mitterberger
_A VIRAL GAME CHANGE? Dana Popescu
_ B E YO N D TA P E S Nikolas Ettel
In den vergangenen Jahrhunderten war es die furchtbare Gewissheit von Eltern, dass ein Großteil Ihrer Kinder, nie das Erwachsenenalter erleben würde. Wer nicht in den ersten Jahren an Krankheit oder Hunger starb, wurde einige Jahre später von den Machthabern aus Politik und Militär für den aktuellen Krieg geopfert. Manche überlebten ihre Jugend. Sie fristeten die verbleibenden Jahre als Arbeiter im Bergbau oder in den Industrien, ein von Ausbeutung und Verzicht geprägtes Leben für den Profit der herrschenden Klasse. Ihrem sozialen Stand entfliehen konnten nur die wenigsten - und
2020 könnte uns in Erinnerung bleiben als das Jahr, in dem viele zum ersten Mal das Gefühl hatten, nicht zu wissen, was die kommenden Monate bringen werden. Das wäre schlimm.
Hinterhof in der Liechtensteinstraße 117, Wien-Alsergrund (IX.) um 1900 / Zinshäuser (im Bildhintergrund) ersetzten im stark wachsenden Wien der Gründerzeit die dörflich geprägte Bebauung der ehemaligen Vorstädte.
Bereits sehr früh war klar, dass Architektur krank machen kann und krank wurde der arme Bevölkerungsteil. Die Berliner Wohnungs-Enquête der Jahre 1903-1920 wurde von der Ortskrankenkasse organisiert. Ihr Ziel war es die Wohnungsnot der Arbeiter in den Elendsquartieren fotografisch zu dokumentieren um, im Interesse der Kassenmitglieder, auf die krank machenden Wohnbedingungen aufmerksam zu machen.
Dieses System der Ausbeutung fand in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts ihre architektonische Übersetzung in dem Gebäudetypus der Zinskaserne. Als geschlossene Blockrandbebauung entwickelte sich das Mietshaus vertikal über mehrere Stockwerke hinweg. Im Plan offenbarte sich das Gebäude als Labyrinth an Innenhöfen. Die Formen von Lebensgemeinschaften, die sich die kleinen und oft fensterlosen Wohnräume teilten, reichten von der Großfamilie bis hin zu Untermietern, wie „Schlafgängern“, die sich zu verschiedenen Schichtzeiten arbeitend ein Bett abwechselnd teilten.
das war auch nicht geplant. Die Menschen starben früh und die nächste Generation übernahm; so funktionierte die Maschinerie.
Anna lives and works in Luxembourg, Brussels and Vienna.
Frauen mit Kindern in einer Elendsunterkunft in Deutschland, Weimarer Republik (Infaltionszeit 1922/ 1923). © akg-images gerlohn
Her most recent endeavor, Point Nemo Publishing, was launched in March of 2020.
editorial board of ADATO in 2017, Anna worked for the Zürich-based architecture magazine archithese.
der's sculpture class in the Kieffer quarry, Fürstenbrunn, Salzburg (2014). Before her appointment to the Anna Valentiny
scenography under Prof. Anna Viebrock in Vienna (2013) and participated in Prof. Peter Niedertschei-
2020 lebt unser System von Erntehelfern, die während der anhaltenden Covid-19 Pandemie zu Dutzenden in Zimmern mit Hochbetten und unter hygienisch unmenschlichen Bedingungen hausen, um für Hungerlöhne, den Kaufkräftigen im Lockdown, Spargel zu stechen. Auch heute noch ist es der wirtschaftlich schwache und oft ungebildete Bevölkerungsteil, der krank wird. 2020 sterben Menschen weltweit im Minuten Takt, weil sie anders sind als privilegierte Massen. Heute kämpfen wir nach wie vor für die Gleichstellung der Geschlechter, für die Würde und Rechte der LGBT Community, gegen
In Europa oder Nordamerika, wie die furchtbaren Vorkommnisse der letzten Wochen uns erneut vor Augen führen mussten, profitiert keinesfalls jede(r) in gleichem Maße von seinem/ihrem Grundrecht auf Bildung und körperliche, wie emotionale Unversehrtheit, kurz: Gesundheit.
Im Zuge des späten 19. und 20. Jahrhundert trugen zahlreiche Wohn- und Sozialreformen, sowie die Einführung der Krankenkassen und Impfsysteme zu verbesserten Lebensbedingungen in den wirtschaftlich starken Ländern der nördlichen Hemisphäre bei. Doch die Gesellschaften Europas und Nordamerikas sind nach wie vor tief gespalten und der Glaube an Chancengleichheit, im Leben und vor dem Gesetz, sind der Trugschluss einer aufgeklärten bürgerlichen, aber auch in sozialer Segregation und Ahnungslosigkeit aufgewachsenen Gesellschaft.
Die Bilder begleiteten genaue Angaben zu Wohnfläche, Bewohnerund Bettenzahlen,sowie Feuchtigkeit und Krankheitsfälle. Bestrebungen, wie die Gartenstadtmodelle von Ebenezer Howard, aber auch konkrete Wohnprojekte, wie die Gemeindebauten des Roten Wien, boten Jahre später Lösungen für die Wohnungsnot der Arbeiterklasse.
Anna Valentiny (*1991) earned a Master’s degree in Architecture from the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna in
mination of her overlapping interests in writing, design and the curation of thoughts through narration.
2018. Her thesis project, “Hortus Alienum – Scenographies of Nobody's Voyage”, can be read as the cul-
While always contextualizing architecture in conjunction with its neighboring disciplines, Anna studied
QR Code: Sehen Sie den Beitrag "Spargel, Schimmel, Hungerlohn - Bilder aus dem Erntehelferquartier der Firma Sulzmann im Marchfeld zeigen die Kehrseite der Spargelwochen. Eine Rumänin berichtet von ihrer Ausbeutung." im FALTER 25/20 vom 16.06.2020
Wir alle sollten 2020 und die Ahnung ungewisser, kommender Monate nutzen. In der Fragilität der falschen Selbstverständlichkeiten werden wir vielleicht dem Schluss ein Stück näher rücken, dass das schöne und erfüllte Leben, das vor uns liegt, ein Geschenk ist, das wir uns, als Mitmenschen in der Gemeinschaft, durch Solidarität, Zuwendung und Liebe und in der aktiven Ablehnung von Diskriminierung, Hass und Unterdrückung, machen.
rassistisch oder antisemitisch begründete Ausgrenzung, Stigmatisierung, Verfolgung und Tötung von Menschen. 2020 ist unsere Gesellschaft und die Menschen, die in ihr leben, keinesfalls angekommen, denn dieses Jahr, wie alle Jahre davor, leben diese vielen Menschen, die sich nicht zu den Privilegierten zählen können, in ständiger und oft Generationen prägender Ungewissheit über das, was die Zukunft bringen wird.
WATCH The Trailer of the Documentary The Pruitt-Igoe Myth
This system of exploitation found its architectural translation in the second half of the 19th century in the building type known as the "Zinskaserne", or "tenament" in English. As a closed-perimeter block development, the tenement apartment building developed vertically over several floors. In the plan, the building revealed itself as a labyrinth of inner courtyards. The forms of living communities that shared the small and often windowless living spaces ranged from extended
In past centuries, parents accepted the grim reality that their children might never reach adulthood. Those who managed to survive conditions of disease or hunger in their early years were too often sacrificed in war a few short years later by the political and military rulers. Most children in those days had rather miserable existences as workers in underground mines or in other dangerous industries; theirs were lives marked by exploitation and abandonment, sacrificed to the profit of the ruling class. Only very few were fortunate enough to escape their social status. People died early and the next generation took over, and so the machinery worked.
2020 may be remembered as the year when many felt for the first time that they did not know what the coming months would bring. That would be bad.
April 1972. The second, widely televised demolition of a Pruitt-Igoe building that followed the March 16 demolition. Author: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
Family moves in to Pruitt-Igoe, 1950s, St. Louis, MO. Author: Unknown, Courtesy of Missouri History Museum.
We all could see 2020 and the foreboding uncertainty of the months ahead as a chance. In the fragility of the false self-evident, we will hopefully conclude that the beautiful, fulfilled, and healthy life should be extended to ourselves, as well as our fellow human beings and our community, in solidarity, care, and love, and in the active rejection of discrimination, hatred, and oppression.
In 2020, people worldwide still die minute by minute because they differ in one way or the other from the privileged masses. Today, we continue to fight for gender equality, for the dignity and rights of the LGBT+ community, against racial or anti-Semitic exclusion, stigmatization, persecution and killing of people. In 2020, our society and the people who live in it have not arrived at all, because this year, like all the years before, many people cannot count themselves among the privileged; they live in constant and often generational uncertainty about what the future will bring.
In 2020, our system is sustained by the labour of harvest workers, living and sleeping dozens to rooms with bunk beds under hygienically inhumane conditions. During the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, these workers have been harvesting asparagus for starvation wages for those with purchasing power in lockdown. Today, it is still the economically weak and often uneducated part of the population that gets sick.
In Europe or North America, as the terrible events of the last few weeks have once again made us aware, by no means does everyone receive the same basic right to education and physical and emotional integrity — in short: health.
In the course of the late 19th and 20th centuries, numerous housing and social reforms, as well as the advent of more advanced health care and vaccination systems, contributed to improved living conditions in the countries of the comparatively economically developed northern hemisphere. However, the societies of Europe and North America are still deeply stratified, and the idea that everyone has equal opportunities in life and before the law is the fallacy of an enlightened middle-class that grew up in social segregation and ignorance.
families to subtenants, such as "Schlafgänger" who alternately shared a bed with others, working at different shift times in the factories. Very early on it became clear that architecture can make people ill and that it was virtually always the poor who suffered in this way. The Berliner Wohnungs-Enquête of 1903-1920 was organized by the local health insurance company. Its aim was to document the living conditions of workers in the slums photographically in order to draw attention to the prevailing conditions that made people ill. The Enquête was led in the interest of the members of the health insurance fund. The photos were accompanied by precise information on living space, number of residents and beds, humidity, and cases of illness. Projects such as Ebenezer Howard's "Garden City" models and concrete housing projects such as the community buildings of "Red Vienna" offered solutions to the housing shortage of the working class in later years.
P O I N T N E M O P U B L I S H I N G www.adatoarchitecture.com
Gartenpavillon Stift Melk, AT, Johann Wenzel B ÂŠ Architekturzentrum Wien, Sammlung, Foto: Margherita
Bergl, 2008 a Spiluttini
Point Nemo is the Pluto of the publishing houses. Also known as a pole of inaccessibility, its coordinates represent the most distant point from all coasts. Sometimes, the closest human beings are the astronauts passing over aboard the ISS. But down here, in the depths of the unknown, new lands are growing steady and persistently. On Point Nemo, space ships and satellites return home, shaping humankind’s narratives of the future. Point Nemo Publishing was founded in March of 2020 by Anna Valentiny. Its core product is the magazine ADATO, which discusses architecture in conjunction with neighboring fields: technology, theatre, film and the fine arts, always with an eye on the socio-political context of our times. In this way, ADATO very much reflects its publishing house’s values and motivations: True innovation of thought and image emerges when the limits of disciplines are pushed to the extremes. A totally new creation may take shape in cross-media language, when the neighboring and the distant become conglomerate: Point Nemo tells one big story composed of its myriad fractals. Whether it’s a scientific paper or art book, we want to develop unique projects together with you. We invite you to get in touch with us and begin an exciting new story.
Quarantine 1, 2020
Lockdown Series Luca Fuchs: "All photographs were taken in accordance with national and local Covid-19 regulations. The images reflect a sense of limitation, as well as other facets of my day-to-day reality."
Quarantine 2, 2020
Photographer: Luca Fuchs Model: Rosa Hassfurther
Since 2014 - Student at University of Applied Arts Vienna 2015 - Jan 2016 Internship / Assistance for Matt Lambert @ Iconoclast Germany
Quarantine 3, 2020
Directorial work: 2016 - “Davids Hand“ (short) 2017 - “Yukno - Blut“ (music video) 2018 - “Yukno - Prinzip“ (music video) 2018 - “Felix Kramer - Wahrnehmungssache“ (music video) 2018 - “At Pavillon - Stop This War“ (music video) 2019 - “Speak Softly“ (fashion film screened on NOWNESS China) 2019 - “A1: For The Likes“ (online documentary) 2019 - “Yukno - Die Wahrheit (Liebt Die Fantasie)“ (music video)
Photographic Works for PAPER Magazine, i-D Germany, Vice US, Wendy & Jim, Highsnobiety, Rondo / DerStandard >> https://lucafuchs.com
ALL THE PHOTOGRAPHS IN THIS ARTICLE WERE TAKEN BY THE AUTHOR
G R A H A M M C K AY
We take it for granted that our buildings should keep us safe. To this end, we have regulations governing structural integrity, construction standards, and the quality of materials, in addition to mechanical performance codes under both typical and extreme conditions. Similarly, to ensure our buildings aren‘t poisonous, toxic materials, finishes, and coatings are heavily regulated, if not banned outright. Beyond safety, buildings have often been constructed with the goal of improving health and wellbeing. For example, by the mid-1920s, we still hadn‘t developed a cure for tuberculosis (TB) but the medicinal properties of sunlight and good ventilation were known. The progressive architecture of the time aimed to promote health by providing TB patients with sufficient sunlight and natural ventilation, as well as dust-resistant surfaces or those which were easy to clean. If penicillin hadn't been discovered in 1928, our expectations of architecture might be drastically different today. Instead, its discovery made architecture as medicine a less pressing concern and in its place solariums and roof gardens became symbols of affluence and status. Le Corbusier was not stupid. I began my blog ten years ago with the following welcome and mission statement, the goal of which was to inspire my readers to think beyond questions of style and function, and towards a more holistic view of architecture with an emphasis on wellbeing and ecology. The word shelter implies physiological needs, as do the words “... makes us feel good because it is good for us.” Optimal standards exist for space, illumination, ventilation, and thermal comfort but to suggest these elements are all that one needs in architecture is not a popular stance. My blog isn't called misfits' architecture for nothing.
"Food and shelter are both essential for human life but food is anything from a bowl of rice a day to some exquisite mouthful for a moment's pleasure. Junk food is somewhere in-between but so too is just the right amount of nutrition our bodies need. "It's the same with shelter. We've got bread buildings that fill, cake buildings that thrill, and junk buildings that make us want more. All misfits' wants is a nutritious architecture that does the shelter thing well, makes us feel good because it is good for us, doesn't cost the earth, or cost us the earth."
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"Have you ever thought Rem Koolhaas might be just another person? Or Harvard GSD not the centre of the Universe? Are you unmoved by biennali and festivali, and don't like or 'like' anything on ArchDaily? Do you sense something's very wrong with architecture? We do too. Welcome.
Graham Brenton McKay is an independent architecture writer, critic, blogger and lecturer currently living in Dubai. His blog, Misfit’s Architecture, links an informal network of practitioners, instructors and students around the world. McKay deals with universal themes such as architecture’s relationship with art, nature, technology, society and education. Refusing to let the idea of social responsibility in architecture die, McKay highlights the foibles and dissects the statements of architecture media stars and the self-styled avant-garde. With equal regularity, he celebrates those misfit architects whose contribution to better performing buildings has never been fully appreciated, The Anonymous Architect being his most recent honoree. McKay is about to take up a position as Assistant Professor at the School of Public Architecture of Wenzhou-Kean University, in Wenzhou.
In general, people’s expectations of architecture go well beyond what we might think of as the bare minimum. After all, architecture is expected to (re)vitalize our cities and improve our lives, and this is definitely true at the level of function and amenity experienced and used first-hand. It’s also true that the people of a city can be proud of certain buildings or groups of buildings, and this kind of civic pride evokes a positive feeling often not even by direct experience of the architecture but by merely knowing that it exists. It’s an association and a possession of sorts, different from a virtual experience of a building which is intended to simulate in-person experience. Well before the advent of virtual tours and online media content, architects would show their clients sketches, perspectives and drawings that allowed to help them imagine the finished project and hopefully want it to exist. Still, we can say that pretty much all buildings are built with the intention of enriching people’s lives in one way or another. Not only this, we can still have speculative, imaginative experiences of buildings that haven't yet been built or never will be. There’s a certain kind of pleasure to be found in imagining either what a structure would have been like or imagining a world in which a certain hypothetical structure did exist. Unbuilt buildings that have an architectural presence are said to have advanced the field of Architecture. If a citizen can be proud of a building they recognize but never use, then an architecture aficionado can appreciate virtual additions to a virtual category. This may explain the huge amount of architectural content consumed online. My former professor Kazuo Shinohara advanced the notion that “houses are art” in 1963, and this has proven to be an idea that, once released into the world, grew wings and flew. The modern Japanese house with pretensions to art is a media staple that continues to shock, amuse, fascinate, and delight and, perhaps because of that, the art house as typology has spread throughout the world. What Shinohara was saying was that houses are architecture even though this was never really in dispute. But if houses/architecture are art and thus, by definition, capable of enhancing our well-being through mere proximity, then what is the content of that art? At what level do these arrangements of walls and openings affect our well-being? It's all very well to call for a nutritious architecture, but we need to identify the nature of those nutrients as well as the mechanisms that enable them to interact with and benefit the system. There's a certain kind of architect, however, who is not curious to explore questions of wellbeing. They’ll more likely prefer to spend days inside a magnificent building like Chartres Cathedral even if the nearest bathroom is a block away, as opposed to time spent in a more practical structure of middling aesthetic esteem. It's a variation of the form vs. function hobbyhorse that assumes form and function are mutually exclusive. Architects of this mind wish to create the impression that well-being is dependent on criteria more rarefied than those lower down Maslow's famous hierarchy. To me, it doesn’t say much about Architecture as Art if it is essential to maintain one's psyche in the same way that beta blockers manage cholesterol. Architecture is reduced to medication managing a pre-existing condition. When words begin to go around in circles, it’s usually because we don't have the words or language to process the subject. The truth is, once we're outside the objective realm of how buildings satisfy physiological needs, we simply can't say a cause-and-effect relationship exists between architecture and well-being. The common belief that access to great architecture will make us better people, or at least make us believe we are, is to treat architecture as a drug. We arrive back at the same place. If Architecture that satisfies physiological needs is essential for our well-being, then we need to envision what that architecture would look like and how it would function. We can't keep claiming our inability to isolate this quality and its mechanism is proof of its sublime existence. That is architecture as belief system. If houses by definition enable the act of habitation then any artistic quality should take this defining function into account, for without it, it wouldn’t be a house. The challenge is to design and construct a house in a way that nurtures artistic qualities along with the everyday act of habitation (and for one's well-being promoted by the experience of that art). There shouldn't have to be a trade-off between the experience of a house as art and how one lives in it.
G R A H A M M C K AY
One common way of reconciling the two is to stylize the act of living into one or more spaces along with the items required to use those spaces. This gives us houses or apartments where the living room is the space that is the primary architectural experience. Our understanding of a house as either art or architecture is largely based on how well such spaces and items are designed into a single composition. The problem with this is that anything not designed as part of the original composition has the power to diminish or destroy any sense of the work as either architecture or art. This is particularly true if the elements creating the art are those vertical planar surfaces called walls, for walls are easily hidden and their appearance can be dramatically altered by cupboards, bookshelves, televisions, pictures, fish tanks, cuckoo clocks, etc. With this approach, we have to conclude that houses can be art only if people don’t inhabit them. This is a paradox. (It is true that Shinohara said he had no interest in his houses once they had been photographed and their owners had moved in, but he may have just been being provocative.) Another approach towards reconciling living with the life-enhancing qualities of art is to assimilate all the paraphernalia of living into the design and to conceal all that can’t be in conceptually congruent storage cupboards. Oswald Unger’s 1995 House Without Qualities represents an extreme example of concealing architectural elements. In decades past this would have been called a Total Work Of Art. In passing, it’s remarkable how this rigid and ordered house functions just as well if not better than some of the more ostentatiously bespoke houses. The far more popular approach to harmonizing art with everyday living is a dilution in which architecture and living express the same principles or values. Modernist houses tend to have Modernist furniture, for example, but the downside is the same in that one has to make one’s choices and live with them. Much of this sort of art goes no further than simply announcing itself as art. The curated environment is what much interior design aspires to. It is our preferred method for creating a visual synthesis of architecture and lives led within. The act of living in the space is split between time spent appreciating it and time spent maintaining it. The occupant is an observer, not a participant. The trouble with the standard representations of Architecture as Art is that they almost always involve the selection and stylization of the paraphernalia of living into elements compatible with the architectural message as art. It’s a mutual compromise that produces bad art and bad living. I haven't been out much lately. At left is a photo of my studio apartment in Dubai taken from the corner behind the bed. I spend a lot of time at that table staring out the window, wondering what to write and, when I’m not doing that, I look at my walls and windows and wonder what they mean. In this photo you can see my three pleasures of cooking/eating in the distance, the television for music and film in the middle-ground and, in the foreground, my desk and laptop for writing and communications. That covers most of my life. The air is de-humidified, filtered and tempered to 23.5°C. It's my bubble, my shelf on the 45th floor, my space station. There’s food stored away in the cupboards. There’s sources of energy and water. There are options for entertainment and communications. This apartment meets my base physiological needs and goes a fair way to meeting my psychological ones too. It's not huge. For a while, I moved all the furniture away from the walls to give me options for getting from one place to another. I wasn't about to start running marathons but I did try to exercise using the fire-escape stairs as a Stairmaster and soon discovered I was pushing past my maximum heart rate of 160 bpm. Using the car park as a running track was less brutal, and the prospect of cardiac arrest there was less terrifying. I preferred level four as my running track because from there, I could see the frangipani and Poinciana trees on top of the neighbouring podium. It’s true – plants are good for us. It was good to feel the heat and hear what noises of the city were there to hear because my apartment has neither balcony nor openable window. I never thought I could live in an enclosed apartment, but, in Dubai, I don’t mind. It's now early May and already 40°C outside. For the past two days, there's been a dust storm.
All I ask of windows now is that they inform me of what's going on outside. I think it was Zaha Hadid who once said she could live in a small apartment if it had an interesting view. I appreciate how the long side of my apartment has the curtain wall and, though I never lack something to look at, there is such a thing as too much light between May and July. It was open space I was missing. Someone had left the stairwell door to the rooftop open, so I climbed the ladder and stood on the roof of the elevator shaft. This was no garden, but it felt good to have nothing but sky above. My desire for space and open space arose because of the building’s highly segmented design, but I was able to transcend these limitations by repurposing certain spaces within the building itself. The car park and rooftop weren't designed for me to use and enjoy the way I did. These experiences were elemental pleasures and not aesthetic ones generated and mediated by culture or education. I read that, in Berlin, people have been projecting films onto blank walls overlooked by at least twenty apartments. In the evenings, people go out onto their balconies and enjoy a building in a manner for which it was not designed. This is the creative use of buildings.
Back inside at my table, I admire the way whoever designed this apartment, used the 1.5 x 1.5 metre column to divide the kitchen and bathroom from the living space. I appreciate this column being there, what it does, and how it looks like it is holding up a building. It owes me no more than that. I don’t begrudge its size. I appreciate how the curtain wall is slightly raked and independent of the column. Between the two is a small space that doesn’t suggest any use but, if I had a cat, I bet it would claim that space as its own. Instead, it’s home to my ironing board, vacuum cleaner, and laundry drying rack. I’ve been thinking of an architecture in which different systems are simply juxtaposed and allowed to interact. Outside, my door is the building system that I newly interact with via the car park and rooftop. Inside is the apartment system that I move around and interact with in mostly expected ways as far as activities and the placement of furniture is concerned, but I also interact with the space in unplanned ways, as far as the column system, the curtain wall system, and my things are concerned. I’ve been carrying this idea around for decades and have only just been able to articulate it. When I was a student of Shinohara’s, I would often be asked to accompany visitors to the atelier on tours of houses whose owners were amenable to such visits. The owners of House in Uehara were very accommodating and I took visitors there at least three times. In the photograph below you can see this house has concrete struts rising diagonally from the floor. On one visit, the far fork held a month’s worth of newspapers prior to being bundled and recycled. Beneath the near fork on the floor were the two cats’ bowls where they wouldn’t be kicked.
G R A H A M M C K AY
If ever you lay down on a sofa to have a nap and you pull a throw blanket over yourself even though you’re not cold, it’s because your body is more comfortable when it’s allowed to find its own thermal equilibrium. I suspect a similar relationship exists between us and our living spaces, and that we’re more comfortable when we simply live in them in ways that make sense to us. An architecture that is less prescriptive, but rich in potential for us to arbitrarily engage with it, just might make us feel more alive in these places where we spend so much of our time.
Standbild aus Pedro Almodóvars La piel que habito, © EL DESEO DA S.L.U. Photo by Lucía Faraig
Die Häute, in denen wir wohnen
DIE HÃ„UTE, IN DENEN WIR WOHNEN
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* 1928 wurde Loos wegen des Verbrechens der Verführung zur Unzucht nach § 132/III St.G. verurteilt. Dies muss erwähnt werden, wenn über Loos im Kontext von Körper und Architektur geschrieben wird.
Hier finden Sie die gesamten Prozessakten: https://www.wien.gv.at/ actaproweb2/benutzung/ image.xhtml?id=HY25XrMBUMfxo7dlYe7M1OM0+8OkdD4Jp25sfgC2ACs1
01_ Beatriz Colomina, The Split Wall: Domestic Voyeurism, in: Sexuality & Space. Princeton Architectural Press 1997 02_ Adolf Loos, Das Prinzip der Bekleidung, in: Ins Leere gesprochen, Wien 1987, Original Zürich 1921, S.141 03_ Adolf Loos: Ornament und Verbrechen, in: Trotzdem Wien 1988
Looshaus am Michaelerplatz, 2017 © Eva Herunter
DIE HÄUTE, IN DENEN WIR WOHNEN
Der Körper [last lines] Mother of Vicente: Why are you crying? Vera Cruz: I‘m Vicente. El piel que habito, Pedro Almodóvar, 2011 Bei einer Stärke von 1.5 - 4 mm, setzt sich die Haut aus drei Schichten zusammen. Sie umspannt hervorstehende Knochen, wie ausbeulendes Gewebe, bildet die erste individuelle Grenze des Menschen zur Umwelt und eint seine(n) Bewohner*in als solitäres Geschöpf. Über dieses vielseitigste aller Organe empfinden Menschen wie Tiere Schmerz, Kälte oder Wärme. Sie wehrt Schmutz, Viren und Keime von uns ab. Neben der optischen Ebene sind es nicht zuletzt diese Funktionen der thermischen Hülle und des schützenden Gehäuses, die die Synonymität von organischer Haut und Fassade einer Architektur evozieren. Eine weitere Parallele drängt sich auf: Beide vervollständigen als letzte Schicht das Erscheinungsbild ihrer Bewohner, ob Mensch oder architektonische Funktion. Diese repräsentative Kulisse des Außen und das tatsächliche Innenleben unterscheiden sich in beiden Fällen oft grundlegend voneinander: Die Haut offenbart den nackten Körper schutzlos dem eigenen Blick und dem des Nächsten. Die Zahlen der Menschen, deren Identität sich von ihrem biologischen Wesen unterscheidet, bleibt heute schwer zu erfassen. Mit Tod oder Verfolgung bedroht, müssen Transsexuelle und Transgender in vielen Ländern der Welt nach wie vor unter dem Deckmantel des angeborenen, fremden Geschlechts leben. Der Angst und dem Risiko zum Trotz und mit Hilfe von Aufklärung und schützender Gesetze werden die Menschen, die aus ihrer ersten Haut heraus müssen, weil sie Ihnen nicht entspricht, langsam sichtbar.
Das Gewand Als zweite Haut des Menschen kann sein Gewand bezeichnet werden. Kulturen, ob alternativ oder mainstream drücken ihre Zugehörigkeit über die Bekleidung aus. Durch Modeattribute, mehr oder weniger verschlüsselte Codes, bettet sich der Einzelne in die identitätsaffirmierende und dadurch stärkende Gemeinschaft. Dabei übernimmt das Gewand, ähnlich der organischen Haut, eine Schutzfunktion, die über das Bedecken des nackten Körpers hinausgeht. Die Mode wird zur Strategie des Selbstschutzes seines Trägers. Bereits um die letzte Jahrhundertwende beschrieb Adolf Loos* die Mode als Maske, die die Intimität des Stadtmenschen nach außen hin verteidigt. Sein Zeitgenosse und Soziologe Georg Simmel verglich den Konflikt des modernen Menschen in der Metropole mit dem Kampf des „primitiven Menschen“ gegen die Natur. So findet der Stadtguerilla Schutz unter der Maske des schlichten Dinnerjackets. Sehr ähnlich sieht Loos die Funktion und die davon abgeleitete Erscheinung der Fassade, die unauffällig zu sein hat und nichts von den Reichtümern und Intimitäten seines Innenlebens verraten darf.1
Vom textilen Ursprung der Architektur Loos, der Pionier der (Wiener) Moderne verstand die Bekleidung als Keimzelle der Architektur, die Decke, einst aus Stoffen oder Fellen gefertigt, als ältestes Architekturdetail.2 Der Begriff „Decke“ bezeichnet sowohl das erste Bauteil - den Raumabschluss, eines, wenn auch noch so primitiven Unterschlupfes zum Himmel hin als auch den Überwurf. Somit verschwimmt die Unterscheidung zwischen der zweiten Haut - der Bekleidung - und der dritten Haut - der Architektur. Adolf Loos war jedoch nicht der erste, der vom textilen Ursprung der Architektur sprach: Bereits 1851 formulierte Gottfried Semper Die vier Elemente der Baukunst, in welchen er den Materialwechsel vom behängten Gerüst zum in Stein gebautem Haus nachvollzog und den architektonischen Raum in Boden, Wand und Decke teilte.
Die Architektur oder Das Haus ohne Augenbrauen 1931 erscheint die Niederschrift des Vortrags Ornament und Verbrechen, im Zuge dessen Loos die Ablehnung der ornamentalen Verzierung des Gebrauchsgegenstandes (und somit auch der Architektur) postuliert hat. Loos zufolge war das Ornament allein als Belohnung zu rechtfertigen, als Befriedigung des Gestaltungswillens des Handwerkers. In Zeiten der fortschreitenden Industrialisierung, während welcher die emotionslose Maschine den Menschen ablöste, hinge das von ihr gefertigte Ornament nicht länger organisch mit der Kultur zusammen und könnte so nicht mehr ihr Ausdruck sein.3 1911 war im ersten Wiener Gemeindebezirk ein Haus gebaut worden, welches das erste seiner Art sein sollte. Seine Fassade steht bis heute, kahl im Vergleich zum opulenten Kontext des Spätbarocks, als gebauter Zeuge von Loos theoretischem Werk. Allen Kritikern voran empfand der benachbarte Kaiser Franz Joseph I., auf der gegenüberliegenden Seite des Michaelerplatzes in der Hofburg residierend, den Anblick des „Hauses ohne Augenbrauen“ als „scheußlich“ - um nicht zu sagen unzumutbar. So wird erzählt, dass der letzte Kaiser die Fenster der Hofburg mit Aussicht auf den Neubau mit Brettern vernageln ließ und sich die Aussicht nahm. Tatsächlich steht das Looshaus in äußerer Erscheinung in absolutem Gegenspruch zum letzten großen Bauvorhaben der Donaumonarchie. Die Ringstraße wandelt auf den Spuren der ehemaligen Befestigungsanlage um den Wiener Stadtkern und reiht seine öffentlichen Bauten unter dem Mantel des Historismus: Die zu beherbergende Funktion der Gebäude wird über die Fassaden in den öffentlichen Raum gespiegelt. So wird dem Parlament als Versammlungsort der Volksvertreter die Haut des hellenistischen Tempels übergezogen und verbildlicht den Demokratie-Anspruch der Antike. Das Haus am Michaelerplatz, das Präsentationsräume, Verkaufsflächen und die eigentliche Schneiderei des Herrenausstatters Goldman & Salatsch im Herzen der Stadt unter seinem Dach einte, ging als erster österreichischer Bau der Moderne in die Geschichte ein. Die als Nacktheit empfundene Reduziertheit der dritten Haut des Menschen emanzipierte sich über die Jahre zum Ornament einer neuen Zeit.
7 Scales for an Ecofeminist Reading of the Coronavirus Pandemic Marta Catalan Eraso
Marta Catalan is an architect and urban designer, currently working at The University of Hong Kong in the Division of Landscape Architecture. She completed her PhD in the same institution. Her current research examines urban segregation, unequal living conditions, and gentrification, with a particular interest in transnational architectural and urban forms and norms. Her research, teaching and practice has taken place in Spain, Japan and Hong Kong.
Marta Catalan Eraso
While gender-sensitive urban planning has created more inclusive spaces for women in cities around the world over the past few decades, the recent coronavirus crisis has prompted more complex and nuanced dimensions to the discipline. To reflect upon this impact, this article draws from ecofeminist theories. These theories1, which depart from the critique of patriarchal science in combination with a concern for the environment, have illuminated the ways in which global structures have been biased, gendered, and unequalâ€” allowing certain areas of the world to dominate others, men to dominate women, and the devastation of natural resources for the sake of uneven capital accumulation. Around the world, multiple initiatives have emerged to tackle the effects of the virus, prompting critical questions about the oppression of women and nature amidst this health crisis. This kind of oppression, which can be seen as a form of â€œslow violenceâ€?, is gradually destructive, out of sight, and often not registered as violence at all.2 Following, this text examines 7 planetary scales to illustrate the inherent gender and ecological inequalities currently existing in our world and to argue for a more environmentally sustainable approach that respects our biodiversity:
AN ECOFEMINIST READING
01_ Mies, M. and Shiva, V. (1993). Ecofeminism. Victoria: Spinifex Press.
03_The poem was written by Mao Zedong in 1936 or 1945. It reads: “Rivers and mountains are beautiful and made heroes bow and compete to catch the girl — lovely earth.” English translation from Barnstone, W. (2008). Snow. In The Poems of Mao Zedong (pp.71-73). Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: University of California Press. 04_In 2019 China ranked 85 out of 189 countries in the world in the United Nations Gender Inequality Index (GII). For more details see http://hdr.undp.org/ en/indicators/68606 05_For more on the gender pay gap see Meara, K., Pastore, F., & Webster, A. (2020). The gender pay gap in the USA: A matching study. Journal of Population Economics, 33(1), 271-305.
Gender inequalities have also been present in other online milieus. As part of the much discussed panic-buying practices around the globe, the Karen meme became a widely discussed social cliché that actually perpetuates sexist stereotypes of the North American mother in the suburbs. One viral Tweet reads: “I’m scared for people who actually need to go to the store & feed their fams but Susan and Karen stocked up for 30 years” with Susan and Karen as substitute names for suburban moms. The quip works in reference to the female role as main caretakers for their families. But it also raises a question about the long Figure 2_Screenshots from CGTN (2020, February 13). Medical workers shave their heads in battle against coronavirus [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qccvoF7w3Vc17
07_The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has alerted that due to virus-related disruptions in prevention programmes, 2 million girls could be cut around the world in the next decade. See UNPFA. (2020). Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Family Planning and Ending Gender-based Violen-
Figure 1_Screenshots of female nurses in the video posted by Gansu Daily, a state media newspaper in Gansu province, China.16
Since the early weeks of the outbreak, women have been at the forefront of certain political agendas to assume administrative control of the fight against the virus on a national scale. In China, the state media released a video of female nurses willing to sacrifice their hair to endure long working hours. The video capitalized on the selflessness of the women in order to promote an image of egalitarian Chinese identity, to validate and bolster the rule of the central government during the health crisis. However, the video quickly prompted an online backlash in China, with commentators arguing that gender features should not define the discussion, instead calling for praise of the workers on the merits of their performance without an emphasis of their gender. Similarly, a campaign to inspire national solidarity, with animated cartoon mascots released by the Chinese state-managed Communist Youth League, was pulled within hours from its Twitter-like Weibo account. The female character, Jiangshan Jiao —“Lovely land” named after Mao’s poem— became a symbol of the everyday female struggles in China.3 Netizens began openly criticizing the mascot and prompting conversations about women’s rights to confront long standing issues of gender inequality in the nation, including sexual harassment, hiring discrimination and occupational segregation.4
02_Nixon, R. (2013). Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
06_ Data from the United Nations Population Fund (UNPFA). See UNPFA. (2020). Gender Equality and Addressing Gender-based Violence (GBV) and Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Prevention, Protection and Response. Retrieved from: https://www.unfpa. org/resources/gender-equality-and-addressing-gender-based-violence-gbv-and-coronavirus-disease-covid-19
ce, Female Genital Mutilation and Child Marriage. Retrieved from: https://www. unfpa.org/sites/ default/files/resource-pdf/COVID-19_impact_brief_for_UNFPA_24_April_2020_1. pdf 08_ Plan International. (2020, May 18). Girls in Somalia Subjected to Door-to-Door FGM. Retrieved from: https://plan-international.org/ news/2020-05-18-girls-somalia-subjected-door-door-fgm 02_Nixon, R. (2013). Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
09_For more on the demographics of foreign domestic workers in Hong Kong see Enrich and Experian. (2019). The Value of Care: Key Contributions of Migrant Doemstic Workers to Economic Growth and Family Well-being in Asia. 10_Wright, R. (2020, March 30). Hong Kong asked domestic workers to stay in to stop the spread of coronavirus. But some got infected at home by their employers. CNN. Retrieved from: https://edition.cnn. com/2020/03/28/asia/ domestic-helpers-coronavirus-hnk-intl/ index.html 11_Since the beginning of 2020, the Hong Kong Government launched 3 rounds of measures, totalling $287.5 billion to assist Hong Kong’s economy. More details on the exclusion of migrant domestic workers from these measures in Carvalho, R. (2020, April 9). Hong Kong Domestic Workers ‘Angry’ at Exclusion from Coronavirus Relief Measures. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from: https://www.scmp.com/ week-asia/politics/ article/3079281/ hong-kong-dome-
term impact of the virus on women in the workforce. What will be the consequences for those families with no access to childcare who, during the lockdown, will have to choose which spouse’s career to prioritize, when the gender wage gap most often favors men?5
IV. PUBLIC Interestingly, as the total number of deaths from the Coronavirus rose, Hong Kong was presented in world media as a success story in controlling the out-
III. DOMESTIC More harmful forms of gender inequality arose as the threat of the coronavirus expanded into almost every territory in the world. The menace of femicides at the domestic scale escalated in tandem with the virus.6 Countries across the globe, responding to the increased risks of gender-based violence under imposed lockdowns, have issued measures to mitigate instances of such violence. The efficacy of some of these measures has been debatable, as some state campaigns promoted gender inequality and perpetuated the concept of patriarchy. One example would be Malaysia’s women’s affairs ministry, which provided tips on how to avoid domestic conflicts by urging women to dress up, wear make-up, and stop nagging their husbands at home. Other efforts, such as the term “red mask” in Argentina, coined as a code
Figure 3_ Malaysia’s campaign urging women to dress up and wear makeup during the coronavirus lockdown.18
word women may use to seek help in the pharmacies across the country, have brought to the forefront of the civic discussions the ongoing and widespread damaging gender norms and discriminatory practices in the domestic realm. Unfortunately, in other parts of the world governments have been less proactive, and lockdowns have led to a critical increase in female genital mutilation (FGM) in the domestic realm.7 For instance in Somalia, where 98% of girls have been subjected to FGM, the highest proportion of any country, school closures and the economic downturn have contributed to a massive spike in FGM cases in the recent months.8 To tackle the various forms of gender violence during the virus outbreak, some of these and other feminist initiatives have been tagged under the hashtag #TheOtherPandemic.
Figure 4_ Foreign domestic workers’ gathering on a Sunday in Central, Hong Kong, 2020. Photo taken by the author.
break. Drawing from the 2003 SARS crisis, the government measures were prompt and largely unquestioned, allowing for a minimal infection rate. However, what has been less discussed about Hong Kong’s “role model” coronavirus response has been the silent oppression of the largely female group of migrant domestic workers in the public spaces of the city. In charge of childminding and elderly care, domestic workers represent 10% of the current workforce in Hong Kong.9 They have historically been regarded as lower class citizens who, unlike other workers in the city, must reside with their employers and, working around the clock, often only have one day off per week, typically Sunday. During the outbreak, the migrant domestic workers saw the wider public critici-
Figure 5_ Health Advice for Inbound Travellers during Compulsory Quarantine Period in English and Bahasa to inform Indonesian domestic workers, Hong Kong Center for Health Protection, 2020.
AN ECOFEMINIST READING
ze their Sunday outings, the sole weekly moment they have to take care of their personal affairs (some of them of critical importance, such as sending remittances to struggling relatives back home). Moreover, these workers were falsely accused of disproportionately contributing to the spread of the virus. Closer study, however, revealed that most infected foreign domestic workers had actually been exposed to the virus by their employers, who had become infected while traveled abroad, and not by their fellow migrant workers as it had been publicly implied.10 Furthermore, despite many domestic workers being terminated as a result of the economic impact of the virus, and unable to return to their countries due to lockdown measures, the government has also excluded them from the coronavirus relief measures.11 Despite these oppressive conditions though, the community of domestic workers has proved to be very resilient, and, during the virus outbreak, they have organized a number of self-care and mutual support initiatives among themselves, to inform, protect, and provide assistance for those in need.
12_ Wenham, C., Smith, J., Morgan, R. (2020). COVID-19: The Gendered Impacts of the Outbreak. The Lancet, 395(10227), 846-848. 13_ The measure ‘Peak and Gender’ [Pico y Género], was announced by the Bogota mayor Claudia López Hernández at the end of April 2020. See Febres, D. (2020, April 26). Días en los que podrán salir mujeres y hombres durante la Cuarentena por la Vida [Days in which men and women will be able to go out during the Quarantine for Life]. Bogota. Retrieved from: https://bogota.gov. co/mi-ciudad/salud/ coronavirus/pico-ygenero-en-bogota-enmayo-2020 14_ Ng, W. and Acker, A. (2018). Understanding Urban Travel Behaviour by Gender for Efficient and Equitable Transport Policies. International Transport Forum. 15_English translation by author. Mainguy, S. (19 Mars 2020). Nous ne sommes pas en guerre, et n’avons pas à l’être… L’ambition ferme d’un service à la vie suffit. La Relève et La Peste. Retrieved from https:// lareleveetlapeste. fr/tribune-nous-nesommes-pas-en-guerre-et-navons-pas-aletre/ 16_ Screenshots from CGTN (2020, February 13). Medical workers shave their heads in battle against coronavirus [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube. com/watch?v=qccvoF7w3Vc 17_ Communist Youth League (2020, February 17). Jiangshan Jiao and Hongqi Man [Weibo]. 18_ Malaysia Ministry of Development of Women, Families and Communities, 2020.
V. URBAN At the same time, the gendered impacts of various outbreaks have historically not been accounted for in urban policies and public health measures around the world and the Coronavirus response has been no exception.12 The outbreak has contributed to the emergence of uncanny gendered solutions in the urban milieu to cope with the de-escalation of the confinement. In Bogota, the authorities rolled out a measure to ease the lockdown based on an open gender divide. Female non-essential workers are allowed to attend their jobs on even numbered days and males on odd numbered days.13 This rule, which apparently aims to simply divide the population into two equal halves, has actually further perpetuated gender and health inequities. The creation of a gender-segregated urban landscape leaves women more vulnerable, Figure 6_ ‘Peak and Gender’ advertias studies have shown women are more likely to sement, Alcaldia Municipal de Agua de Dios, Colombia, 2020. use public transport than private cars, thus they are more exposed to contagion.14 To recognize that disease outbreaks affect women and men differently is a critical stepping stone for developing gender-equitable response policies for our future cities.
VI. and VII. MICRO AND GLOBAL To conclude, I would like to bring our attention to both the smallest and largest scales to critique the domination of people and resources in relation to the current coronavirus crisis. While the health emergency has brought many aspects of our world to a halt, certain voices have stressed the importance of reflecting upon the microscopic scale. Among them has been Dr. Sophie Mainguy, an E.R. physician who made a public appeal for an alternative understanding of difference and equality, in contrast to the capitalist-patriarchal perspective of hierarchy and uniformity: “We are not at war nor do we have to be [...] There is no enemy. There is another living organism in full migratory flow and we must stop so that our respective currents do not clash too much [...] Life forms that do not serve our interests [...] are not our enemies. This is yet another opportunity to realize that humans are not the only force on this planet and that they must sometimes make room for others [...] It is not a war, it is an education, that of humility, interrelation and solidarity”.15 And paradoxically, as we keep worrying about the impact that the outbreak will have on the economy, and watching videos of herds of animals venturing into (finally!) human-free cities, less circulated news on the indigenous populations of the Amazon region who have been infected with coronavirus prompt further discussions about the vulnerability of the guardians of one of the largest bio reserves in the world and the devastating effect at a global scale that this particular local outbreak might have on the ecosystems of our (only) planet.
Liegende Körper in heilenden Räumen: Architektur als Medikation Jérôme Becker & Lukas Vejnik
An die Fassade angedockte Sleeping Porch Foto: Mary H. Northend
A R C H I T E K T U R A L S M E D I K AT I O N
01_ Für biographische Informationen zu Edward L. Trudeau: Vgl. Trudeau, Edward L.: An autobiography. Lea & Febiger: Boston/ New York 1916. Für Details zum Sanatorium in Falkenstein: Vgl. Rundle, Henry: Note on Falkenstein im Taunus Germany. A health resort for consumption and diseases of the chest. Adlard and Son: London 1896. 02_Vgl. Woodward, Theodore E.: Edward L.Trudeau: Pioneer Climatologist. https://europepmc.org/ backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC2376713&blobtype=pdf (Abgerufen am 29.5.2020)
Dr Edward Livingston Trudeau 1895 in seinem Labor in Saranac Lake, NY
03_National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis (Hg.): Tuerculosis hospital and sanatorium construction. New York 1911.
Als 1873 beim jungen Arzt Edward Livingston Trudeau eine Tuberkulose-Infektion diagnostiziert wurde, begab sich dieser auf Anraten seiner Freunde und Ärzte in die Adirondack Mountains im Nordosten von New York, um dort so viel Zeit wie möglich an der frischen Luft zu verbringen. Während des Aufenthalts verbesserte sich sein Gesundheitszustand merklich. Drei Jahre später übersiedelte Trudeau mit seiner gesamten Familie an den Saranac Lake, der am Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts vorwiegend von Fischern und Jägern aufgesucht wurde. Aus dem medzinischen Journal Practitioner, erfuhr er von den Sanatorien Hermann Brehmers und Peter Dettweilers in den Kurorten Görbersdorf und Falkenstein. An beiden Orten wurden seit längerem Frischluftkuren für Tuberkulosepatient*innen praktiziert. Während Brehmer auf Bewegung als Teil der Therapie setzte, verordnete Dettweiler strikte Bettruhe an der frischen Luft. In Falkenstein lagen die Patient*innen auf speziell angefertigten Liegestühlen nebeneinander auf halboffenen Terrassen. Inspiriert von den Entwicklungen in Europa gründete Trudeau 1884 an den Ufern des Saranac Lake die erste derartige Anlage in den Vereinigten Staaten, die im darauffolgenden Jahr ihren Betrieb in einem kleinen Holzhaus aufnahm. Little Red bestand aus einem Raum und einer kleinen Veranda für eine Person.1 Trudeau schloss aus seinem eigenen positiven Krankheitsverlauf, dass die klimatische Veränderung, der Aufenthalt an der frischen Luft sowie gesunde Ernährung Einfluss auf den Genesungsprozess hatten. Um diesen Selbstbefund näher zu untersuchen, startete er im Sommer 1886 ein Experiment mit fünfzehn Kaninchen, von denen er zehn mit dem Tuberkelbazillus infizierte. Fünf der infizierten Tiere setzte Trudeau auf einer kleinen Insel im Saranac Lake aus, wo sie sich den ganzen Sommer über frei bewegen konnten. Die zweite Hälfte wurde unter schlecht belüfteten Bedingungen ohne Sonnenlicht eingesperrt und auch die nicht infizierten Kaninchen verbrachten die Monate als Kontrollgruppe in einem dunklen Erdloch. Das Ergebnis bestätigte Trudeau in seiner Annahme. Die Inselkolonie konnte sich über den Sommer hinweg vollständig von der Krankheit erholen. Vier von fünf der im dunklen Keller gehaltenen infizierten Tiere starben hingegen an den Folgen der Tuberkulose, während die Kontrollgruppe zwar ausgezehrt aber ohne weitere Erkrankungen überlebte.2
In den darauffolgenden Jahrzehnten entstanden zahlreiche weitere Cure Cottages. Das Sanatorium am Saranac Lake wurde zu einer zentralen Institution für die Behandlung von Tuberkulose. Neben wohlhabenden Gästen, die sich auch in bereits bestehende Hotels der Gegend einmieten konnten, wollte Trudeau mit Bauten wie dem kleinen roten Holzhaus auch für Tuberkulosepatient*innen aus ärmeren Gesellschaftsschichten den Zugang zur Frischlufttherapie erschwinglich machen.
05 Hütte für einen Patienten im Millet Sanatorium in Massachusetts Foto: National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis (Hg.): Some Plans and Suggestions for Housing Consumptives. New York 1909. S. 65.
Window-tent von Sigard A. Knopf Foto: Knopf, Sigard A.: Tuberculosis. A preventable and curable disease. Moffat, Yard and Company: New York 1916. S. 67.
1909 veröffentlichte die National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis Empfehlungen und Pläne für den Bau von Anlagen zur Unterbringung von Tuberkulosepatient*innen. Neben einer Dokumentation zeitgenössischer Sanatorien in den USA, enthielt das Buch ein Kapitel über selbst gebaute Sleeping Porches für die Behandlung der Tuberkulose unmittelbar außerhalb der eigenen vier Wände.3 Bis die Idee des Schlafens an der frischen Luft in privaten Haushalten vermehrt zur Anwendung kam, sollte es noch ein wenig dauern. Als die Nachfrage stieg, entwickelten Unternehmen Montagesysteme, die in bestehende Fassaden eingehängt werden konnten. In einer Anzeige aus dem Jahr 1917 warb eine dieser Firmen mit der einfachen Aufhängung ihrer Sleeping Porch, die praktisch an jedes Haus angefügt werden könne. Für Patient*innen, die in einer städtischen Wohnung ohne Balkon lebten, entwickelte der Arzt Sigard A. Knopf das sogenannte window-tent. Der zeltartige Aufbau wurde über das Bett gestülpt und direkt an ein nahes Fenster angedockt. Die Konstruktion war so angelegt, dass sich Frischluft und Raumluft nicht vermischen.4 Es ist anzunehmen, dass solche Frischluft-Prothesen bald wieder aus den Schlafzimmern verschwanden. Die Sleeping Porch, die bald zu einem integralen Element des Raumprogramms wurde, prägte dagegen in den folgenden Jahrzehnten eine an Gesundheitsaspekten orientierte Architekturlandschaft. Mit ihren Langfenstern wirken die Porches wie Vorboten der Moderne. Der luftige Anbau verkörpert das Bewusstsein dafür, dass sich ein architektonisches Element positiv auf Schlafkomfort und Gesundheit auswirken kann. Rudolph Schindler nahm ab den 1920er Jahren die halboffenen Schlafräume als integrales Element in sein Raumrepertoire auf. Erste Experimente damit lassen sich bis in die Zeit bei Frank Lloyd Wright zurückverfolgen. Auf den Entwurfsskizzen für das Eagle Rock House, das Schindler später in Eigenregie fertigstellte, ist das Schlafzimmer ein auf drei Seiten mittels Schiebetüren öffenbarer Raumaufsatz.5 Der Schlaf unter freiem Sternenhimmel und das Bad im eiskalten Wasser bei einem Campingaufenthalt mit seiner Frau im Yosemite Nationalpark inspirierten ihn dazu, auch sein privates Wohn- und Arbeitshaus nach Camping-Prinzipien zu errichten.6
Gonzales Cure Cottage, Saranac Lake, NY Foto: Mwanner
Im 1922 fertiggestellten Schindler-Chase House verwirklicht Schindler seine Camping-Vision in Form von zwei luftigen Sleeping Porches auf dem Dach. Nach dem Auszug der Chases bewohnte Richard Neutra mit seiner Frau Dione die zweite Schlafveranda, die Schindler zu einem über dem Haus schwebenden Nest weiterentwickelt hatte. Dione Neutra
A R C H I T E K T U R A L S M E D I K AT I O N
erinnert sich in einem Interview daran, dass sie selbst bei Regen draußen schliefen und dass das Paar, wenn der Wind aus der falschen Richtung kam, einen zusätzlichen Überwurf verwenden musste. Trotzdem schätzten beide das Schlafen an der frischen Luft als Teil der Kalifornischen Lebensart.7 Nach ihrem ersten Erscheinen Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts machte die Sleeping Porch also eine Serie an Verwandlungen durch: von der adaptierten Veranda über feingliedrige Anbauten bis hin zu einem im Entwurf integrierten architektonischen Element.
04_ Knopf, Sigard A.: Tuberculosis. A preventable and curable disease. Moffat, Yard and Company: New York 1916. S. 67-68. 05_Vgl. Gebhard, David: Schindler. Thames and Hudson: London 1971. S. 42-43. 06_Dies geht aus einem Briefwechsel zwischen Rudolph Schindler und Richard Neutra hervor. Vgl. Hailey, Charlie: Campsite: Architectures of Duration and Place. Louisiana State University Press: 2008. S. 224. 07_Vgl. Weschler, Lawrence: To tell the truth. Interview with Dione Neutra. University of California: oral history program 1983. S. 111. 08_Schindler, Rudolph: „Care of the Body, About Furniture.“ In: Los Angeles Times vom 14. April 1926. 09_ Die anfangs noch offenen Freiluft-Schlafkojen wurden später geschlossen. 10_ So wurde das Bundesland in einem offiziellen State Health Report von 1870 tituliert. Siehe: https:// www.latimes.com/books/ la-ca-jc-sun-seekerslyra-kilston-20190315story.html (Abgerufen am 29.5.2020) 11_ Vgl. Starr, S. Frederick: MELNIKOV. Solo Architect in a Mass Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1978, S. 179. 12_ 13_ 14_ 15_
Vgl. Ebd. Ebd. Ebd., S. 181. Ebd.
16_ Pavlov, Ivan P.: Conditioned Reflexes. New York: Dover 1960. S. 263.
In der Person des Gesundheitsgurus Philip Lovell fand Schindler später einen kongenialen Partner, für den er mehrere Häuser plante. Lovell verbreitete seine Gesundheitsideologie – Vegetarismus und Sonnenbäder als Gegenmodell zur Medikamententherapie – in seiner Kolumne ‚Care of the Body‘ in der L.A. Times. Auch Schindler meldete sich gelegentlich darin zu Wort: „The relations between home and health are such that their importance cannot be overestimated. We are what our environment makes us and if our environment is such as to produce excellent health, beauty, joy and comfort, it will reflect immediately in our lives.“8 Das wohl prominenteste architektonische Resultat dieser Zusammenarbeit ist das Lovell Beach House. Die Ideen des gesunden Lebens ziehen sich durch alle Funktionsbereiche und machen das Haus zum Prototyp einer privaten, den naturheilkundlichen Vorstellungen entsprechenden, physiologischen Optimierungseinrichtung. Auffälligstes Element ist ein über die gesamte Gebäudelänge auskragender Balkon: jedes der vier Schlafzimmer verfügte über eine eigene offene Freiluftkoje.9 Der Schlafplatz an der frischen Luft bedeutete auch, der umgebenden Geräuschkulisse ungefiltert ausgesetzt zu sein. Ein leises Pfeifen des Seewindes und das rhythmische Aufschäumen des Meeres; mit dieser Vorstellung, lässt sich annehmen, dass die nächtliche Symphonie von Newport Beach ein angenehmes Einschlafen in der Sleeping Porch ermöglichte. Die sonoren Eigenschaften des Ortes sind neben dem milden Klima ein weiteres essentielles Element der vorgefundenen Kulisse Kaliforniens als „Sanatorium of the world“10, welche Schindler die Umsetzung der offenen Schlafplätze ermöglichte. In eine ähnliche Klanglandschaft eingebettet, sollte die Moskauer Bevölkerung in Konstantin Melnikows Entwurf für die Green City ihren Schlaf finden. Der Wettbewerb wurde 1929 – ein Jahr nach dem Inkrafttreten des ersten Fünfjahresplanes durch Stalin – abgehalten und forderte eine für 100.000 Menschen ausgerichtete Erholungsinfrastruktur in einem dicht bewaldeten Gebiet der bereits stark industrialisierten sowjetischen Hauptstadt. Melnikow nutzte die Situation der nur minimal ausgeführten formalen Kriterien des Wettbewerbs für die Entwicklung neuer Typologien zur Hebung des physiologischen Wohls der Arbeiter*innen. Das Ensemble an Prototypen der Green City sollte zu einer Initiations-Anstalt für den sowjetischen ‚Neuen Menschen‘ werden. Eines seiner architektonischen Reproduktions-Instrumente ist ein kollektives Schlafhaus: die SONaia SONata. In Melnikows Entwurf – halb Hotel, halb Labor – war Schlaf der letzte private Rückzugsort des Individuums. Unmittelbar nach dem Aufwachen in einer der beiden zweigeschossigen Schlafhallen war jede/r Einzelne wieder mit der Anwesenheit von Vielen konfrontiert. Die insgesamt 220 Einzelbetten waren wie Operationstische fest im offenen Raum verbaut. Die Liegeflächen nahmen die leichte Neigung der längs zu den Betten abfallenden Bodenplatte auf, um eine “natürlichere” Körperposition ohne Verwendung von Kopfpölstern zu ermöglichen. Über eine Kontrollstation am äußeren Ende jeder Halle konnten die einzelnen Parameter für die perfekte Schlafatmosphäre durch technisches Personal überwacht und gesteuert werden.11 Temperatur, Feuchtigkeit, Luftdruck, heilsame Düfte: alles war wissenschaftlich definierten Mustern folgend regulierbar. Einschlaf- und Aufwachzeiten waren getaktet. Man ruhte gemeinsam. Ein weiteres Element des ritualisierten Ablaufs im Schlaflabor war das Abspielen von entspannenden Klängen. Isolierte Naturgeräusche – Vogelgesang, Regen, Wind, Wellengang – wurden zu einer artifiziellen Komposition zusammengemischt und über Lautsprecher zu den Patient*innen in die Schlafsäle übertragen. Ausgewählte Gedichte und Musikstücke konnten zusätzlich abgespielt werden und die wegdösenden Arbeiter*innen der Industriemetropole in eine künstlich hergestellte Gegensphäre der Entspannung begleiten. Sollte all das keine Wirkung zeigen, sorgte ein Mechanismus am Bett für leichte, regelmäßige Schaukelbewegungen, um schließlich das erforderliche Maß an Schläfrigkeit auszulösen.12 Unter technisch regulierbaren Bedingungen sollte hier die erschöpfte Arbeiterschaft von der staatlichen Regenerationsmaschine sanft in den optimierten Erholungsschlaf gewogen werden. „Schlaf ist der kurierende Faktor! Jeder der anders denkt ist krank“, stand groß auf einem der eingereichten Wettbewerbsplakate.13
A R C H I T E K T U R A L S M E D I K AT I O N
ÂŠ R. M. Schindler papers, Architecture & Design Collection. Art, Design & Architecture Museum; University of California, Santa Barbara
Rudolph Schindlers Lovell Beach House,Plans
Allgemein wurde dem Problem einer kranken und ermüdeten Arbeiterschaft mit einer Verbesserung der Wohnverhältnisse entgegen gewirkt: der Staat oder private Industrielle veranlassten den Bau von Siedlungen nach neuen hygienischen Standards und übernahmen somit auch die Kontrolle über die häuslichen Reproduktionsräume. Die räumlichen Bedingungen des Schlafens wurden so mitverändert, ohne jedoch explizit Thema zu sein. Der Ort des Übernachtens blieb also weiterhin dem Domizil und dem familiären Verbund zugeordnet. Eine Entkopplung von Schlafort und Wohnraum, wie sie Melnikow in seinem Projekt für die Grüne Stadt vorgeschlagen hatte, scheint selbst im Kontext der stalinistischen Umgestaltung der Gesellschaft eine radikale Vorstellung gewesen zu sein.
entsprechend inszenierte Intention des Entwurfs gewesen. Obwohl Melnikow hiermit direkt auf Programmpunkte der Partei reagierte, war sein Projekt heftiger Kritik ausgesetzt. Die Wettbewerbsjury wunderte sich, wie einer der führenden Architekten der Zeit sich mit dem Schlaf auseinandersetzen konn-
gang zum Schlaf kein romantischer gewesen. Das Konzept der Schlaflabore ordnete sich voll und ganz dem Zweck der Produktivität unter. Ziel war nicht der Genuss am Müßiggang, sondern die Effizienz mittels präzise entwickelter Reproduktionsinstrumente.
Die Überzeugung von der Wirksamkeit der geplanten Schlaflabore beruhte außerdem auf Melnikows Vertrautheit mit der damals aktuellen, medizinischen Forschung.15 Neben Ergebnissen zur Lernfähigkeit des Menschen in schlafendem Zustand kann davon ausgegangen werden, dass vor allem auch die Entdeckung der klassischen Konditionierung durch den russischen Physiologen Ivan P. Pawlow einen Einfluss auf Melnikows Entwurf hatte. Aufbauend auf den physiologischen Studien, für die er 1904 den Nobelpreis erhalten hatte, konnte Pawlow feststellen, dass Hunde bereits auf Rudolph Schindlers Lovell Beach House das Klingen einer Glocke mit R. M. Schindler papers, Architecture & Design Collection. Art, Design & Neben der medizi- ©Architecture Speichelsekretion reagieren, Museum; University of California, Santa Barbara nisch betreuten Erholung wenn dieser Reiz regelmäßig von den Strapazen der der Fütterung vorausgeht. Im Fabrikarbeit ist vor allem die kollektive te, während die Nation dabei war, das Zuge weiterer Versuche am Institut für Erfahrung des Ausruhens im nicht priLeben durch eine Reorganisation der Physiologie in St. Petersburg zeigte sich vaten Raum eine wichtige und demArbeit zu verändern.14 Dabei ist der Zuallerdings auch, wie der konditionierte
Konstantin Melnikov. Sleeping chamber (SONaia SONata) in Green City. 1930. Photo of the project model. © Melnikov House archive, Moscow
A R C H I T E K T U R A L S M E D I K AT I O N
Konstantin Melnikov. Sleeping chamber (SONaia SONata) in Green City. Ground and first floor plans. 1930. Photo of the drawing.ÂŠ Melnikov House archive, Moscow
Reflex des Speichelns unter gewissen Umständen – wenn der bedingte Reiz zu oft oder in zu kurzen Abständen ausgelöst wurde – ausblieb, und die Hunde stattdessen auf das Klingen der Glocke
chitektur auf die Architektur der Moderne ist ein breit rezipiertes Thema. Was eine nähere Betrachtung der beiden Entwürfe von Schindler und Melnikow jedoch zeigt, ist, dass es sich dabei nicht
Freien. Melnikow pflegte hingegen einen anderen Umgang mit den unkontrollierbaren Faktoren der Umgebung: er klammerte sie aus und führte sie mit technologischen Mitteln in einer künst-
Ivan Pawlow bei der Vorführung eines Versuches Foto: http://history-foto.livejournal.com/268684.html#cutid1
in der Testbox des Labors einschliefen. Die Beobachtung der Reaktionshemmung und der gleichzeitig einsetzenden Müdigkeit führte Pawlow zur Erkenntnis, dass auch Schlaf über konditionierte Stimuli abrufbar ist.16 Es gibt hier also Parallelen zwischen den in den 1920er Jahren durchgeführten wissenschaftlichen Versuchen und dem Entwurf der SONaia SONata. Den Glockenton, auf den Pawlow seine Hunde im Labor konditionierte, entwickelte Melnikow weiter zur Sonate. Der Einfluss der Medizin auf die Ar-
bloß um eine Übersetzung von abstraktem, medizinischen Wissen in generalisierbare Regeln oder Hygienestandards handelte, welche bei der Gestaltung, neben anderen Entwurfsmotiven, zu berücksichtigen waren. In beiden Projekten sind die wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse der medizinischen Forschung von entscheidender Bedeutung für den Entwurf. Was sich bei Trudeau als erfolgreiche Maßnahme gegen die Tuberkulose-Bakterien der Kaninchen zeigte, wurde in Schindlers Architektur zum bestimmenden Entwurfsfaktor: die konsequente Exposition der schlafenden Körper im
lich inszenierten und regulierbaren Atmosphäre wieder ein. Das Schlaflabor sollte den reizarmen Raum imitieren, in dem Pawlows Hunde mit gezielten Stimuli konditioniert wurden. Sowohl das Lovell Beach House als auch die SONaia SONata basieren also auf einer direkten Übertragung der räumlichen Parameter von physiologischen Experimenten in den architektonischen Entwurf. Der Aufenthalt in diesen Räumen wurde wie ein Arzneimittel wohl dosiert und auch präventiv verschrieben: Architektur als Medikation.
Jérôme Becker ist Universitätsassistent an der Plattform future.lab (Fakultät für Architektur und Raumplanung der TU Wien) und Gründungsmitglied des MAGAZIN Ausstellungsraum für zeitgenössische Architektur Lukas Vejnik geht mit den Mitteln der Architektur aus der Architektur hinaus und stößt dabei auf verborgene Lebensräume und Alltagspraktiken. Dieser Text gründet auf dem gemeinsam mit Florian Sammer initierten Forschungsprojekt Bedroom Exodus.
BECKER & VEJNIK
EMILIA The Trauma Machine Cenk GĂźzeliĹ&#x;
A digital entity with neuro-optical machine vision designed to help people manage Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Emilia, The Trauma Machine is a digital entity designed to help people who suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), particularly those with derealization disorder. Emilia is a neuro optical machine that uses apparatuses of capture and media to negotiate the symptoms of PTSD in virtual bodies and in virtual environments. This therapeutic tool was developed in the realm of machines and apparatuses of capture; that is, designed to (re-)wire body-mind-spaces for those who may have a distorted perception of reality. The Host and Emilia invite you to the Trauma Machine to see the world of traumas from the virtual body of a traumatized person, Soren, the guest of the machine. One can inhabit his virtual body, to perceive the symptoms of trauma that have altered his perception of reality and of his body.
Avatar Therapy_1_Dila Kirmizitoprak in the interactive installation of the Trauma Machine, experiencing the scene of symptoms through the virtual eyes of Sören. Interacting with the virtual human - Emilia, to learn how to navigate with the virtual body of Sören inside the experience and gradually gain control over the disturbing symptoms of the PTSD. Photo: Cenk Güzeliş
01_20 TRAUMA MACHINE
Cenk Güzeliş is an Innsbruck-based architect and a new media artist. He graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna and is currently a PhD Student and University Assistant at the Institute for Experimental Architecture ./studio3 at Innsbruck University where he researches interactive virtual environments with neuro-optical machine visions to help people who suffer from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, particularly those with derealization and depersonalization disorder. the Institute for Art and Architecture, and the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, and he has led various LIDAR and Animation Workshops in Denmark and Austria. In 2016, as part of the team from the Innsbruck-based Architecture Practice LAAC, Güzeliş contributed to the Architectural Film Project, “Coexistence,” for the Montenegro Pavilion at the 15th Venice Architecture Biennale. His award-winning short films have been screened at festivals across Europe and the United States. In 2017, his short film “The Aleph,” based on the
Güzeliş has worked in Computer Aided Manufacturing at the Platform for Analog and Digital Production,
Jorge Luis Borges short story of the same name, received the Best Short Animation FX award at the 45th Boston Sci-Fi Film Festival.
Emilia, The Trauma Machine probes the notion of virtual bodies, virtual environments and their effect on human perception by designing visions for traumatized subjects. The machine also aims to see how immaterial micro virtual visions can serve as a playground to access possible new experiences in physical reality. The project asks itself, is it possible to reshape one’s life story by adding commentary to life’s events? The main interest is to construct a digital entity that can communicate with any traumatized subject and focus on the approach of transfer of experience from the virtual bodies to the biological bodies. The machine considers the immersiveness of the virtual space and virtual bodies and the application of ‘presence’ in PTSD therapy. By observing how guests interact with their virtual selves in the virtual spaces, Emilia observes the influence of technology in shaping personal identity1. Emilia, The Trauma Machine utilizes technological immersion to create a virtual narrative site to reexperience trauma, to reformulate conditioning of stressful stimuli by offering the guests a canvas to relive a new life story. A digital entity was designed to help people dealing with PTSD, particularly those who suffer from derealization disorder. Emilia is a neuro-optical machine that uses apparatuses of capture and media to negotiate the symptoms of PTSD in virtual bodies and in virtual environments. This therapeutic tool was developed in the realm of machines and apparatuses of capture, designed to wire body-mindspaces for those with a distorted perception of reality. The trauma machine aims to show the world of traumas from the virtual body of a traumatized person. Emilia is based on a real person, a professional actress at theBurg Theater. We scanned Emilia at a photogrammetry studio and at that time, she was frozen, without eyes, ears, or programming. There was no ghost in the machine. To create her human body, she needed eyes, ears, and a means to interact. Over time, Emilia became a ghost hunter equipped with many tools and sensors such as motion tracking devices, voice recognition systems, gesture rec-
ognition, and spatial tracking in real time, which allows her to dive into our physical reality and conversely bring us to her digital world. She started seeing us and communicating with us. She is a product emerged from the realm of machines and apparatuses of capture, designed to wire body-mind-spaces for those with a distorted perception of reality – a digital identity born from the era of object-oriented architecture. Her therapy looks at the construction of the self-image and self-narrative in the virtual spaces. It connects this process to the explanation of the effect of therapy in virtual environments as a treatment method which uses motion capture devices, depth sensors, voice recognition to treat anxiety disorders. Emilia’s algorithmic architecture of screens positions her as the catalyst. In order to unlock the frozen energy bound up in the nervous system, nervous impulses are channeled into new circuits and coordinated with machines & media. Her neuro-optical machine vision favors the brain, the eye, the nervous system, the amygdala, and the gaps between the axons to modify the responsiveness of circuit at a neural chemical level. She insists on a disjuncture between the camera apparatus and the human eye, for her vision is an activity beyond and outside of the human subject. It is a product emerging from the realm of machines and apparatuses of capture, one that retroactively conditions & manufactures human vision.2 How is one to face this neural optical apparatus? How can critical practices intervene in this seemingly smooth multi-channel network where emotional pain, nervous stimulation, and visual perception are seamlessly integrated to condition human beings? What does it mean to encounter the realities of human suffering? Where are the limits of human perception? It is my challenge not only to expand the limits of human vision but to produce new ideas of species and territories of building that are immaterial, literally linked through nervous stimulation and speculation.
1_ Original Research ARTICLE Frontiers in ICT, 07 December 2017 | https://doi.org/10.3389/ fict.2017.00027 Trauma and Self-Narrative in Virtual Reality: Toward Recreating a Healthier Mind
2_ Pasquinelli, Mateo. “Alleys of Your Mind: Augmented Intelligence and its Traumas” 2015 meson press – The Trauma Machine: Demos, Immersive Technologies and the Politics of Simulation 53 Orit Halpern
3_ Perry, Philip. Been Traumatized? 2016. “Here‘s How PTSD Rewires the Brain Learn what PTSD does to the brain, and how someone can bounce back” https:// bigthink.com/philipperry/been-traumatizedhere-is-how-ptsdrewiresthe-brain
Trauma – Amygdala & The Avatar Therapies When a trauma occurs, the reptilian brain takes over. The amygdala, an almondshaped mass located deep in the brain, and the site of Emilia’s constructions, is responsible for survival-related threat identification, plus it tags memories with emotion. After trauma, the amygdala can get caught up in a highly alert and activated loop during which it looks for and perceives threats everywhere. When there is danger, the amygdala activates the fight or flight response. If the traumatic event is too much for the fight and flight mechanisms to cope with, the brain goes into a freeze state, a numbing response. All nonessential body and mind functions shut down3. What a person experiences during the symptoms of PTSD is the result of a frozen energy bound up within the amygdala. The task of therapeutic immersion is therefore to unlock the frozen energy bound up within the nervous system by utilizing the apparatuses of capture and media. The Avatar therapies look at the construction of the self-image and self-narrative in the virtual spaces. It connects this process to the explanation of the effect of therapy in virtual environments as a treatment method, which uses motion capture devices, depth sensors, and voice recognition to treat anxiety disorders. We invited Soren, the traumatized subject, to the photogrammetry studio to recreate him virtually. We used 50 cameras to capture him in one position. This technique
Lidar scan from the Installation at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, 2018 Credit: Cenk Güzeliş
Image_1_ Scanning Emilia in the photogrammetry studio by OLN
Image_2_Digital Reconstruction of the guest in the machine
Image_3_ Motion Tracking in Green Screen Studio to construct 1:1 human motion for the virtual avatars inside the experience Credits: Studio Totale in Vienna, Marvin Kanas
allowed us to work with his body on a digital platform. His frozen body was rigged in software in order to be given motion. Using animation, we simulated his symptoms of floating – of watching himself as if in a movie, being detached from his body and his physical plane – in a virtual environment. We then dropped his virtual body into a scene of symptoms. The camera that captures him in real time changes its position into a virtual camera that shoots from Soren’s eyes so that he can see his traumatic world from his virtual body. We confronted Soren with his symptoms and within that space of symptoms and gave him a new body that is attached to the rules of physics, which is the one that has control over the ones that are not attached to the physics. WATCH ON VIMEO
Proprioception is the sense of the relative position of the body segments in relation to other body segments. The previously mentioned technique of enabling the subject to gain control over his virtual body, virtual environment, and the physics of that environment could help the subject develop his proprioception because the sense of proprioception is disturbed in many neurological disorders. Due to this, we scanned Soren‘s body without any clothing in order for him to observe the parts of his body in virtual. My aim is to resolve the unseen symptoms in virtual by giving them space – a virtual space that can merge with the physical one. Soren did not know what was happening in his brain. He was frozen. Emilia‘s task in the machine is to assist Soren‘s virtual body and unlock the frozen energy bound up within his nervous system.
Credits: experienced by Carla Veltman
Avatar_Therapy_2_ This interactive scene is designed to shift the point of view to the virtual hands of the avatar to see the world of trauma from a different perspective. The user is controlling the virtual cameras with a different bodily motion.
Is Body Architecture? 07
This text tries to reverse the direction of the question asked in the title. Instead of enlarging the picture, we will dissolve systematically, and on different scales, our fragile idea of the "human body," the false truth of separated entities, and our concept of an independent subject.
Daniela Mitterberger is an architect and researcher with a strong interest in new media, Human/Body relationship, Digital Fabrication and Emerging Technologies. Daniela is Co-founder and Director of «MAEID - FutureRetrospectiveNarrative», a multidisciplinary architecture practice based in Vienna. Currently, she is a Ph.D. researcher and A&T Ph.D. Fellow at the Chair of Architecture and Digital Fabrication (Prof. Fabio Gramazio, Prof. Matthias Kohler) at ETH Zurich’s Institute of Technology in Architecture. Her work there focuses on intuition in digital design and robotic fabrication. Previously, Daniela has been a lecturer at several international graduate and postgraduate programs, including at the University of Melbourne (MSD), the Leopold-Franzens University Innsbruck, and the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna among others. Her award-winning work has been widely exhibited at various galleries, institutions, and events such as Ars Electronica Linz, Melbourne Triennial, Academy of Fine Arts Vienna and HdA Graz. She has studied architecture in Denmark, China and Austria where she graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna with distinction. >> https://maeid.com
Biological evolution, in comparison to technological evolution, takes time. The wish to break down the boundaries of the biological body with tools, apparatuses, and devices is, therefore, an almost logical desire. In order to understand and evolve our bodies, we need to look at the body as a curiosity, using stigmatization as a method to isolate the body from everyday view and perceive it as peculiar. The body, in itself unstable, in the process of alteration, can be seen as a continuously modified base, a carrier for physical, non-physical, biological and technical, human and non-human extensions. The concept of such a cybernetic organism has already been circulated for almost two hundred years in popular culture and theoretical writings, so much so that it feels somewhat outdated. Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline coined the term for such a conceptual being in 1960, "cyborg," which describes an organism with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term applies to an organism whose functions are enhanced due to the integration of artificial components and feedback-driven technologies. The body as a battleground and abomination of flesh and metal is portrayed in all its horror in the 1989 cyberpunk film Tetsuo: The Iron Man, written and directed by Shinya Tsukamoto. The movie unites with an extreme obsession the seemingly diametric poles of man and machine, desire and pain, biological and mechanical aesthetics. The film’s protagonist, “Iron Man,” painfully expresses the anxiety of facing the ever-growing acceleration and presence of technology in our everyday life. As technology and science advances, especially in the fields of bioengineering, neuroscience, and information technology, this classical concept of a cyborg requires a much needed re-examination and rephrasing. This novel expanded understanding of the cybernetic organism not only considers hardware prostheses as physical extensions, but also takes into account that the human brain can incorporate various types of other organisms, software, and devices into self-perception. As a matter of fact, cognitive scientist and philosopher Andy Clark asserts that the human mind is naturally disposed to develop and incorporate tools, and therefore has always FIGURE 1_[..] The drawing “architecture in becoming” explains the functionality of “skin” in the realm of the project Category Four. Besides being a protective layer, a second “skin” layer was designed to function as an information platform, interconnecting different citizens of Category Four. The top layer was designed to unfold itself according to different cutting patterns depending on the desired activity.
Figure 2_ This drawing analyses the co-relation of body, tools, and environment. More specifically, it describes the movement of a hiker in a snowfield breaking through the surface frost and fresh snow, thereby deforming the crusted snow, old snow, and swimming snow.
I S B ODY A RC H I T E C T U R E ?
been to a certain degree a cybernetic organism. Upon closer look, the inclusion of the human-made, the artefactual with the biological, is so ubiquitous in our everyday life that it accompanies us as a prosthesis in the way we dress, write, move, and live. Devices, which support the human body with lost or additional functionalities and capabilities, can be visibly attached or invisibly integrated into the organic body. The better the integration and embodiment of such instruments and tools into our own behavioral patterns and everyday life, the more we accept their presence as a natural disposition. Internal prosthesis such as auditory prosthesis, pacemakers, artificial hearts, and implantable electronics are widely accepted as embedded extensions of our bodies. External prostheses, such as exoskeletons and robots, still lack this intuitive acceptance and embodiment due to their sometimes non-user friendly interfaces and their difficult handling. That humans and robots collaborate in an intuitive way is therefore of great interest to both academia and industry, aiming to combine human and machine capabilities of decision making in an intuitive way. User-friendly interfaces, and easy handling, should ensure that complexity reside within the task, not the operation of the tool.
Embodied Cognition How matter can create cognitive thought processes is a research field investigated by neuroscientists, psychologists, and AI researchers. The traditional conception of consciousness equals the brain with the mind; the body and devices fun-
ction as peripheral support mechanisms which enable cognition to continue. In contrast to this traditional idea of consciousness, a relatively recent movement in cognitive science dealing with "embodied cognition" challenges that assumption and re-integrates the body and matter in the creation of consciousness. Embodiment refers to the body as a medium of physical agency. We, as humans, experience corporeality in different ways but mostly as a relational embodiment. Cognition, according to Humberto Maturana, is a biological phenomenon, re-describing the organism's interaction with its milieu. Embodied cognition states that the structure of cognition is deeply tied to and dependent upon the physical state, condition, and the subjective experience of being in a human body. A study conducted by Strack, et al in 1988 has shown that holding a pencil between the teeth produces a forced smile, inducing humans to feel positive emotions. The participants of the study were asked to watch and rate comics whilst holding the pencil between their teeth. As a result, they rated the comics as profoundly funnier relative to the ratings of viewers who did not hold a pencil between their teeth. The adjustment of body posture is likewise a common way to influence oneâ€™s sense of selfworth and confidence. These methods are not betraying our mind with an emotion but are building up these emotions within the very framework and constituent parts they are produced by. These research results can be seen as two sides of the same coin: cognitive processes stimulate bodily reactions and at the same time show how deeply dependent the structure of the human thought is on the subjective experience of physi-
Figure 3_ Throughout a three-week-long hike in the mountains, different tools used for mapping the body in motion were tested. This research resulted in the development of a custom-built mapping toolset, linking the human body with its current GPS location, mapping part of the hike â€œDolomitenweg Nr. 7â€?.
cally existing in the world within a human body. Considering the hypothesis that we can embody not just our own physical body but also devices, tools, and other organisms, we reach the conclusion that the creation of consciousness is therefore a constantly readjusted construct, binding us to the environment which surrounds us. A truly cybernetic organism therefore is not just the archetypal image of Frankenstein but a cyber-physical organism with an extended corporeality. This para-organism extends its main components, with which it is endowed from birth, and it incorporates and embodies all information, devices, and inputs with which it comes in contact. The human cognitive process and state extends into the world through various reciprocal relationships. An example of one such reciprocal relationship between the body, tools, and the environment would be our sense of geolocation. Even without devices, it is a two-way flow of information between our brain, body, and the surrounding environment. Our brain produces cognitive maps of spaces, while specific neurons are linked to real-world locations with a precision of up to 30 cm. These so-called “place cells,” discovered by John O’Keefe and his colleagues in the late 1960s, are marked to react to one location only and won't react to any other position in space. Currently, scientists believe that the brain uses three kinds of (mostly unconscious) cues to synthesize information in order to represent the conceptual notion of a “place”: first, external visual landmarks (the supermarket on the corner, the tree); second, our internal sense of motion (acceleration, feeling of distance, balance); and third, additional sensory stimuli such as smell, touch, and sound. Together all of these place cells form a map of the space. Our brain uses this map to establish the current and future positions and actions. The Hippocampus, where these place cells are located, can maintain multiple maps corresponding to different environments allowing us to extend our cartography system of places. If we extend this geolocation to current technologies, we inevitably include global technologies such as GPS and satellites, which allow us to perceive not just our position in space but at the same time a global location and the position of others next to us. As much as we are able to extend our vision on the macrolevel, we are still only marginally able to envision how humans are in fact perceiving the surrounding environment and how much of this perception is linked to our physical state. If we take a closer look at hikers as a case study, we find a subject which constantly has to reorient and adjust their body according to the conditions of the terrain and the hikers physical ability. (see fig. 2) As hiking routes can be physically strenuous, our perception and cognition of the landscape changes according to the state of our body. If the body is in extreme exhaustion, the hiker does not perceive the environment in the same detail but fo-
cuses on the stabilization of the body throughout this period. The hiker may neglect environmental cues and focuses in favor of sustaining the functionality of the body. However, dangerous areas such as steep stretches of the route or summits usually recalibrate the focus of the hiker towards the landscape and away from an inward bodily perception. The hiker perceives a body landscape, merging outward vision with inward perception, constantly readjusting body position and directionality. (see fig. 3 & 5)
The three-layered fabric The concept of cyber-physical bodies is contrary to common depictions of cybernetic organisms in that cyber-physical bodies are not just placed within an environment but are "woven of" and "woven into" their habitat. In the first collage novel from Max Ernst, Une semaine de bonté (1934), one finds a drawing of a female character submerged in a watery landscape, partially made of her dreams and partially tangible. The drawing illustrates a maze of landscape elements, of habitats and inhabitants connected via miles of invisible wirings. Rippling in time, all elements of this ecological entanglement drag objects and subjects into their sphere of influence. A similar effect can be seen in the painting The Fountain of Youth (1546) by Lucas Cranach the Elder. The painting does not depict a detailed outline of a building but shows us the order of actions within predefined regions. The surrounding natural elements become consubstantial, similar in nature, to the human body, to tools, architectural elements, and rituals. This close linkage between actions, inhabitants, and the environment creates an atmosphere of reciprocal dependencies, similar to the storyline of Woman in the Dunes, a 1964 film directed by Japanese filmmaker Hiroshi Teshigahara. Besides its allegorical redrawing of the modern human, Woman in the Dunes describes the embedded relationship between the main characters and their inhabited sand hole in the dunes. The psyche of the protagonist and his actions are manifested through the landscape that surrounds him. Neither Max Ernst, Cranach the Elder, nor Teshigahara seem to include technical devices, tools, or apparatuses at first glance. However, all of them acknowledge the role and dependency of architecture, rituals, and inhabitants in the existing ecology of things. Their work presents substantially different types of artificial as well as biological prosthesis, amalgamating the characters with their environment, co-inhabitants, and objects. In the case of Max Ernst and Teshigahara, one can see the subconscious as a non-technical human prosthesis, allowing us to cope with situations we cannot handle otherwise. These works show the human body and its environment as co-constituents. The more the body extends, the more we
Figure 5_ Category Four: “Mapping of Dolomitenweg Nr. 7”: The mapping device overlays environmental and bodily parameters and creates a map which shows the "perceived landscape" of the hiker on a specific day and time. This body/landscape creates a visual representation of this strong connection between the environment, the tools, and the hiker. The mapping device developed within this process accompanied a hiker on a 7-day hike, to create a novel hiking map, linking timely and spatially the body, tools, and the environment. The device, which combines heartbeat sensors with a GPS device and a camera, links bodily features to with the exact position and rotation in space at a specific time. Two Arduinos were carried to log specific data during a one-week hike. Arduino number one consists of an analogue temperature sensor TMP36, a barometer, air pressure sensor BMP085, a data logger shield, a humidity sensor, and an amped pulse sensor. Arduino number two consists of an internal GPS antenna, a GPS module for Arduino, and a micro SD 2G module for Arduino. It maps GPS data, including height and the number of satellites. The data were linked to Rhinoceros and Grasshopper to create the body map, linking the data with a 3D model of the alpine region around Belluno.
01_20 I S B ODY A RC H I T E C T U R E ?
Figure 4_ Category Four: “The Crewmembers: The Mechanic” is a drawing that depicts a section through the Biologist in the process of maintenance (repair and re-adjustment). The second skin layer inflates to enable the Mechanic to access the tools embedded between the layers of artificial and biological skin. The Biologist carries artificial organs inhabited by anaerobic bacteria that breaks down human waste material and makes it re-usable.
Figure 6,7&8_ â€œPahoehoe Beautyâ€? (MAEID with the University of Innsbruck and Marjan Colletti) is a robotic installation for Ars Electronica 2018. The installation placed the mechanic eye of the robot in opposition to the human eye. The robotic gardener, as well as the human one, investigates and cares for the soil environment. Cameras are mounted on the arm of the robot to scan the soil surface. The video image was analysed via image recognition algorithms to generate an immersive sound environment. As the soil surface changed overtime throughout the exhibition, so did the sound. The research on soil 3D printing using biodegradable binders to fabricate complex soil structures robotically.
I S B ODY A RC H I T E C T U R E ?
increase the network with the environment, engaging in a constant reconfiguration of the world. This three-layered fabric (human – device – nature) shows us how profoundly the constellation of our body depends on its surroundings, and how through tools and devices we are able to bridge the body with its habitat and other subjects. This effect of becoming one with the environment, dissolving the borders of the human body with its natural surroundings can be seen in the life-sized Baroque marble sculpture Apollo e Dafne (circa 1625) by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Also, Gabriele d’Annunzio poetically describes this moment of metamorphosis in his 1902 poem “la piogga nel pinento” with the term “sylvan” to depict the idea of the human body becoming an arboreal organism. Seen through this lens, the role of site-unspecific architecture as an isolating container, the sole function of which is to separate us from the environment, needs to be entirely redefined. Rather, architecture becomes a flexible construct able to absorbe specific traits of the environment and the bodily composition, as well as requirements of the inhabitants therein. One of the most extreme habitats to investigate this constellation is indeed outer space. As an environment, outer space contains a low density of particles, as well as electromagnetic radiation and cosmic rays. Our bodies have not yet evolved to such conditions, and, exposed to such a habitat, a human could only survive for about 15 seconds. A spacesuit, originally a symbol for a site-independent architecture, is in its core a hyper-local intervention, as it is an apparatus which allows the human to inhabit this particular environment.
Category Four – Prosthetic architecture in the nomadic territory of the Alps If we look for such an extreme environment on Earth, more specifically in Europe, we might stumble upon the European Alps. This region has hardly been conducive to continuous human habitation. Terrains above 1600m have an influence on the biological constitution of our bodies and in the long term can influence our biological evolution. Alpine topography confronts us strongly with the relationship between the body and the environment. Such extreme conditions raise the question of sustaining and protecting a body with tools, revealing the inseparable connection between bodily perception and the environment. Historically, the territory of the Alps was used as an open lab to study isolated bodily frequencies, such as brain functions, without disturbing influences from the city. The harsh nature of the mountainous Alps region was also used to provoke physical reactions of the test subjects. The scientists used the barren landscape to observe the body without any additional disturbances, using the natural environment to cut out the human body from ambient noise. To survive in this harsh environment, humans learned to support their bodies with additional specified tools and devices. Social classes in the alps (hikers, long distance hikers, climbers, etc.) could be categorized by the type and quality of equipment they carry, linking their range of action (duration of stay) with their geographical location. The qua-
http://papers. cumincad.org/cgi-bin/ works/paper/acadia19_586
READ THE FULL PAPER "Soil 3D Printing Combining Robotic Binder-Jetting Processes with Organic Composites For Biodegradable Soil Structures" by Daniela Mitterberger and Tiziano Derme
lity of these tools allows the inhabitants to extend and manipulate the length of their stay, tying them to certain geographic conditions such as vertical climbing walls, rubble hall or alpine fields. The length of inhabitation in the Alps is officially categorized in three stages. These categories range from no equipment/minimum stay with the highest flexibility, to technologically-advanced inhabitation/longest stay but with no flexible movement. This positional relationship and its resulting hyper-local architecture are discussed in the collection of stories of the project "Category Four – prosthetic architecture in the nomadic territory of the Alps." The project was realized in the framework of my graduate studies at the Academy of Fine Arts (2014). Category Four illustrates the scenario of a cyber-physical society inhabiting the European alpine landscape. The project envisions a new form of co-habitation, replacing functional spaces with tools and bodily prosthesis, redefining the meaning of the city and the house. The project, similar to a cabinet of curiosities, incorporates a multitude of designed and found objects, as well as new devices narrating a story of a potential future poly-organic agglomeration. Amongst the devices is a mapping apparatus for hikers to visualize the relation of body and landscape. The project Category Four follows the idea of individuals as the infrastructure of a city, instead of an universal independent grid. The essence of the project is the combination of technological advances, the supersurface by superstudio, and architecture as artificial nature like the blur building by Diller and Scofidio, combined with body architecture inspired by the cuishicle by Michael Webb. The scenario is narrated through the encounter Mr. Colerman has with three other main characters of this cyber-physical society; the biologist, the mechanic (see fig. 4), and the cartographer. All three of them belong to the crew of Category Four, which extends the logic of a tool-related mountain society. Contrary to the official category, which links hightech with less movement, Category Four enables its inhabitants to live nomadic lives through the intelligent combination of cutting-edge technology. The scenario describes a co-habitation as a dynamic reconfiguration between bodies, tools, and environment. The characters describe how their specific bodily alterations influence the way they live, move, and socialize. Subjects in Category Four become only apparent in the moment they use their tools in interaction with their habitat. Character A becomes the biologist through the tools they carry and the landscape with which they are linked. The devices and tools carried by the inhabitants of Category Four manipulate the body and at the same time influence how they perceive and move through the environment. Architecture, in this scenario, is freed from the sole task of protecting physical bodies and becomes a second skin layer, an interface between subjects, devices, and the landscape. (see fig. 1) Category Four is a city
without buildings, where bodily extension defines its society and its temporal and spatial articulation of co-habitation– the Umwelt.
Umwelt The German word Umwelt, in comparison to Umgebung, describes something with which a living being has a causal relationship rather than a purely spatial one. This causal relationship, this three-layered fabric, can also relate to many varied subjects, which can be human or non-human: Pahoehoe beauty, a project realized in collaboration with the University of Innsbruck (Marjan Colletti and Tiziano Derme) discusses these relational positionalims between all inhabitants and their environment. Inhabitants in this project are industrial robots, human gardeners, raichi mushrooms, and soil. (see fig. 6, 7&8) The robotic installation observes industrial robots after the creation of the soil landscape. The machines observe their creation, and almost as if they would give voice to their astonishment, utter loudly. The sound is produced through machine vision algorithms, activated through cameras placed on the tip of the robot. As the soil landscape changes, the cracks in the surface deepen and harden, the sound of the machine changes. The eye of the gardener is set in opposition to the machine eye, the one who produces (in this case the machine and the human) also inhabits and observes their creation. The weaving of two subjects, especially non-human and human, requires novel strategies of intra-subject-actions, as well as new modes of communication and translation. The act of discussing the relational nature of subjects is a political one, as any discussion on the body happens on a political level. Discussions on the body should also not stop at the surface of the skin but should extend to a micro level, as the human body is a landscape and vehicle in itself for other subjects. These bacteria that inhabit us, also define us in the same instance, interacting with a multiplicity of all human cells. New research into gut bacteria exposes how organisms influence us not just on a physiological level but also on a psychological level, describing the connection between a psychological and biological biome. The more we learn about bacteria, the more we start to understand that the state of our bodies could never be clearly described. How we can envision our co-habitation with other subjects such as bacteria is discussed in the recent research "Co-corporeality," where biological entities (humans and bacteria) and machines are combined to develop novel architectural spaces. (see fig. 9&10) “Co-corporeality” is a PEEK research project conducted at the University of Applied Arts, the University Vienna (PaCE-group) and the OFAI ( Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence).
I S B ODY A RC H I T E C T U R E ?
This research focuses on two key factors, the production of programmable interfaces between a human and a biological system, and secondly, the production of novel material systems. Furthermore, it investigates how reciprocal recognition becomes part of our consciousness. The mode of reciprocal recognition describes the typical social environment in which a group of individuals can seek identity through the presence of peers; however, in this context, identity formation is created through the presence of bacteria and humans. “Co-corporeality” aims to create architecture that reacts to the presence of humans, representing a radical departure from the traditional conception of “dead” architectural space and material systems. Architecture thereby becomes an interface to define and articulate relationships between individual organisms and bodies, by defining communication across different scales and temporal perceptions. “[..] we were exploring an organism that might contain a mysterious second organism, which was itself using yet other organisms to write words on the wall [..]” [Annihilation by Jeff Vandermeer] An entangled understanding of the body with biological and technological evolution entails a (human) body that does not exist before it engages with the environment and tools. It requires new methods of description, and theories on architecture and fabrication that include the idea of architecture as an interface related to bodies placed in a process, that are continuously and dynamically reconfigured. Thus, we can again ask: Is the body architecture? I dare to say, the question requires a radical yes.
MORE ABOUT THE PROJECT
Figure 9&10_“Co-corporeality” (PEEK – project, project lead Barbara Imhof, Daniela Mitterberger, Tiziano Derme): E-Coli bacteria on a petri-dish. Specific colouring techniques are used to visualise the behaviour of these bacteria. Escherichia coli bacteria are used to test reactive patterns of bacteria and to enable natural colour change of the Polysaccharide inhabited by the bacteria. As the bacteria are drawn to galactose, X-gal is used to visualise with blue colour the presence and population of the bacteria. The aim of this PEEK project is the creation of interactive space for humans and bio-material.
A Viral Game Change? 08
Marshall McLuhan, 1965 Â© CBC Still Photo Collection U.S. 97, South of Klamath Falls, Oregon, July 21, 1973 1973
A VIRAL GAME CHANGE?
How It All Started I wrote this article while sheltering in place at my home in Luxembourg this past April. Since the end of 2019, the whole world has been facing a health crisis, a pandemic of a new deadly virus. During this period, I have realised that I am living in a connected world, in constant interaction with other people in the virtual world, while being isolated in the real world. In this context, I felt that we no longer can approach the idea of a virus in a traditional way* (please see the note at the end of this article). I wish to define the term from a more radical perspective, with the « virus » as the spirit of our time, its « Zeitgeist ». This article will help the reader better understand how the world has evolved into a connected bubble, spreading ideas and western life models through media and the internet. Travelling is one of the habits of wealthy societies, and it has historically exacerbated the rapid spread of pandemics, to the point where this time around countries and regions closed their respective borders in the hopes of containing the virus. This article concludes by exploring how the world may develop in the future, in the near and long term. I wish to thank a good friend who wishes to remain anonymous for her help in writing on this subject.
A New Religion or “The medium is the message” Our understanding of the word “virus” has been evolving since the internet became ubiquitous in the late 1990s. According to Collins Dictionary, “Going viral” describes the phenomenon of a “video, image, or story [that] spreads quickly and widely on the Internet through social media and e-mail.” The most “viral” video to date has been “Despacito” by Luis Fonsi ft. Daddy Yankee, which has racked up nearly 7 Billion views on YouTube.
WATCH THE LECTURE Marshall Mcluhan Full lecture: The medium is the message (1977)
In his 1964 book Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, Canadian media theorist Marshal McLuhan explains his most-often-cited phrase: “the medium is the message.” Succinctly, with this idea McLuhan claims that different media, from books to radio and television, modify the effect of the message they convey. The word “message” refers to the idea of modern media (primarily television in McLuhan’s time) becoming an extension of the human senses. Information from a book, McLuhan would say, is more linear and oriented towards a precise idea and type of reader. Television on the other hand reaches more auditors in a so-called “tribal way;” it’s a much more sensorial method of communication, one that conditions the viewer to adopt a state of mind, from which it is difficult to take a step back. McLuhan anticipated and described the phenomenon of shrinking cultures with the expansion of technology as the “global village” we are living in today. The key idea is society’s shift towards immersion in electronic media, adapting to multiple sources of information that arrive simultaneously and becoming more concerned to integrate a group identity.
The Global Village in Isolation Since the end of the 20th century, globalized markets have flourished in large part due to the convergence of ideas and demand created by the media. Prior to globalization, people wanted more and more of the same. Technology pushed forward the virtual commercial platforms as an alternative to local vendors. Everything seems at our disposal to enable us to avoid direct contact with each other. The global community, however, encountered a new challenge in December of last year when China identified the spread of a novel human virus. By January, China had 11 million people in quarantine. As people continued to travel, the virus spread quickly to other continents. Soon Europe, Australia, America, and Africa recorded infections. Entire countries
asked their citizens to stay home, thus transforming the world into a “global hospital” of sorts. It has been a unique moment in the history of humanity when people from different continents experienced the same medical threats and actions. Habits, usage of space and technology had to evolve in real time. Virtually every corner of the globe has been affected by this situation, though some outlier countries without lockdown policies, like Sweden, attempted to take on the virus while preserving their ideal of freedom. Individuals, these less strict policies indicated, are responsible enough to make decisions for themselves. Conversely, some countries embraced new forms of “medical control” via mobile phone applications for contact tracing, which monitor when users come into contact with an infected person. In an effort to stem the spread, freedom of movement has been severely curtailed. This sanitary confrontation has created a luxurious (for a few) and soft version of the home as a hospital, and it has increased the self-sufficiency of the individual in quarantine at home. Today the “Zeitgeist,” and the machineries, lobbies, and political interests that shape it, suggests to us that we can heal ourselves, feeling safe alone and staying connected via the medium of the internet - alone but never lonely?
Ad from 1979 © 2020 Apple Inc.
Home Alone In the 1990s, the internet came into our homes, and today, we create our home anywhere in the world. Still, the choice of the phrase “going viral” expresses the fascination and the careful respect that we as humans feel towards the power of the ex08 panding internet, as it becomes hyper-intelligent using algorithms that learn by doing. Through this process of self-learning, technology feeds on our data: our hopes, fears, and wishes not to lose touch in a world of transcendental homelessness.
We may notice that it is the medium of the internet, and our high tech society, that allows the home to change its traditional functions. Home is the place where a family, individual, or collection of individuals find shelter and live separate from the rest of society. Our homes are becoming healing, protective places, as well as our places of work. By working from home, using computers and internet applications, we evolve and adapt our behaviour and needs. We may thus remain in contact with our outside social circles and transpose all the physical world gestures in a parallel virtual world. We have conferences, have dinner with friends, play with them online, get the latest news, and remain connected to the world. It all seems so natural!
"The VirBELA Open Campus is a free virtual world where you can host or attend immersive online events, meetings, classes, and more. In the Open Campus, we're building a community of people interested in the future of work and collaboration. We believe there's a better way to work online. Join us."
Screenshot from A Virtual Tour on Campus © Virbela
During this particular period, the world is reduced to a curious uniformity, from listening to only one type of information concerning the virus to being reduced to the same daily gestures. We are all working from home with the same tools, the same me-
Still out of "The Family Guide To Computers (1996)" © Diamond Entertainment Corporation
A VIRAL GAME CHANGE?
dium, and we share similar content. We get goods and food delivered by the amazing internet delivery giants. Suddenly, when we dive in the same media and the same external environment, we all start to act, or more precise re-act, in a very similar way. Our actions become similar and as that of a world group. Our lives and economy become res-
existence. We experience a new way to socialize, more dependent on technology and virtual connections, where medical safety imposes choices that limit individual liberty and value solitude and new ways of experiencing space and the community. In a globalized world, the internet created the possibility of uniting globally far-
haped around the concept of the new viral collective behaviour.
flung family members with a dinner Skype call. The pandemic has shifted the perception of the boundaries between us as individuals and our physical and virtual neighbours once more. Today, the World Wide Web does much more than allow us to keep in contact with our loved ones living far away, that we can’t be with because of physical distance. The patterns we develop during the pandemic might lead some to feel that human interaction with the people that live or work close with us can be replaced and shifted to the digital level on longer terms. The virus of the medium that aggressively developed during the pandemic has masqueraded as a “cure” for loneliness. It seems we are heading towards a viral game change in terms of what we are as a species and what we represent as a culture. Where do we go from here?
Still out of "Luis Fonsi - Despacito ft. Daddy Yankee" © 2018 Google
But how about the idea of collectivity itself? How about the city landscape? What happens when people must avoid direct contact with other persons and practice social distancing? The collective spirit of the virtual world contrasts somehow with real-world behaviour. Are common spaces being abandoned for medical reasons, or will they just be used differently in the future? Will new signs appear, like lines drawn on the ground, indicating safe distances, benches for one for example, objects of our separation?
A Viral Game Change? Do we want to return to the world as it was before the pandemic? Our connectivity and technology drove us to a new mode of
* Note of the author
About Viruses and Hosts
Encyclopedia Britannica defines a virus as „infectious agent of small size and simple composition that can multiply only in living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria.“ The name is from a Latin word for “slimy liquid” or “poison.” Viruses are „packets of DNA in a protein shell that can't reproduce on their own and that take over DNA and protein making machinery of a host in order to survive.“ This kind of lifestyle they have cultivated over 300 Million Years so - speaking in relation to the enormous time-spans of the world’s evolution - approximately since the time that the Tiktaalik, an intermediate creature between fish and for-legged land animal, first crawled on shore. Viruses existed unseen, invisible to the human eye until the 20th century when the German physician and microbiologist Heinrich Koch identified the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax under the magnifying lens of the microscope.
The industrial revolution created the need for powerful energy carriers, and after wood prices had skyrocketed, humans started to dig and hollow out the Earth in search for coal. Later on, the blood of the Earth took over and introduced very powerful international bounds and compromises, in short: dependencies that in the name of national interests had to stop. Humankind pushed the development of future and independent energy sources and welcomed the discovery, understanding, and splitting of the atoms that rang into the nuclear age. Today humans create their energy by the means of splitting the world’s smallest module / entity. The heritage bearing from this process is buried deep down in the earth body waiting for an external hiding ground to protect future human generations from their creation.
Haus-Rucker-Co, Günter Zamp Kelp, Laurids Ortner, Manfred Ortner, Klaus Pinter, Palmtree Island (Oasis) Project, New York, New York,Perspective, 1971 © 2020 Haus-Rucker-Co
Compared to actual viruses, the species of humankind has inhabited planet Earth for less than 0.01% of its existence and still we managed over these short years to shake the planet to its (literal) core: Various dates have been proposed for defining the Anthropocene, the geological epoch dating from the beginning of significant human impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems. If we would suggest a time range of 12,000– 15,000 years ago, since the Agricultural revolution, since humans settled in order to cultivate crops and raise animals for milk and meat production, the time of humans on Earth only represents a fractal of all times and the very crust of earth age.
Filmstills out of "The Truman Show", Peter Weir, 1998. © Paramount Pictures Corp. All Rights Reserved.
A VIRAL GAME CHANGE?
Dana Popescu (*1981) grew up in Romania and France. Trained as an artist during her high school years, she graduated with an architect diploma in France after a master degree study in Japan. She has been working in France and Luxembourg, where she currently lives. Her artistic work is a contribution to anticipative design, photography and video, with exhibitions and performances in France, Switzerland, Dana Popescu
Germany and Luxembourg. She defines herself as a passionate art and architecture explorer. >> https://danagabrielapopescu.wixsite.com/brili >> www.metamulhouse.com
The Unseen and the Search for Answers
WATCH TRUMAN SAILING TO WORLDS END
Deadly viral pandemics have tested humanity at several periods in history. The “Black Death” in the XIV century was responsible for wiping out 30 to 50% of Europe's population. The Native American population has experienced massive, deadly infections from the plague and other diseases like smallpox, cholera, typhus, and influenza that https://www.youtube. were introduced com/watch?v=Gn5kuD- sometimes indeGzs tentionally by Europeans conquerors. Today, the population of the northern hemisphere is, due to the improvement of hygiene and the vaccination system, protected in high percentages against the dangerous viruses we know. That this protection is tennous was exposed once more at the beginning of this year when Covid-19 turned the life we know upside down. It challenged our governments to act in times of uncertainty and insecurity. Most governments reacted with total lockdowns, one stricter than the next - because of how they saw the situation escalating in Asia and in the European south? Because they feared for their reelection chances and decided to go with the general flow of opinion? We can‘t answer these questions today, but the situation as it emerged at the beginning of this year helps us to imagine the terror and pain that our fellow human beings in less privileged corners of society and the world, in countries of development or on the borders of Europe in overcrowded refugee camps, are living in today. Along those lines, it helps to understand previous epochs and the omnipresent existential fear of
our ancestors when the source of death was not only unseen but also misunderstood and could only be interpreted as the workings of a higher force. Back then, God was called by all its names for help. If all the praying didn’t help, the miserable were isolated by being locked away from the rest of the society in barricaded houses, chased outside the city walls, or sent to abandoned islands, left to die. Today, some might come close to a scientific understanding of what holds the world together. This way Research and the Enlighment Movement emancipated the human mind and replaced God and most spiritual leaders. This is without any debate right and true. Nevertheless, it is a fact that the vacuum that the radical abundance of the old world order created has essentially been filled up with one thing: Neoliberal capitalism and all the attributes that follow it. The capitalist ideologies of profit maximization and individualization can hardy be called desirable values. The system supporting this development is the Internet and the energy that powers is provided by us, all its users. The Internet draws from the same omnipresent, existential fear our ancestors faced when the cause of their pandemics was not only unseen but also misunderstood and interpreted as eminating from a higher force, an unsatisfied creator‘s will.
Photo taken by the author. Elevator at One Hysan Avenue, Causeway Bay, Hong Kong.
BEYOND TAPES Nikolas Ettel
01_ Retrieved from https://nasa.gov/ feature/50-yearsago-houston-we-vehad-a-problem 02_https://www. universetoday. com/63673/13-thingsthat-saved-apollo13-part-10-ducttape/ 03_How Duct Tape Saved the Lives of the Apollo 13 Crew, Smithsonian Channel, Link: https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=eeEM_IBUv70 04_ https:// science.nasa.gov/ science-news/ science-at-nasa/2008/21apr_ducttape/
B E Y O N D TA P E S
Nikolas Ettel is a Lecturer in the Department of Architecture at the University of Hong Kong, where he currently coordinates the Faculty of Architecture Interdisciplinary Courses. Previously, he has taught design and theory courses in Macau, Shanghai, and Tokyo. His main research focuses on the interdisciplinary fields of film, philosophy, and architecture. This includes Asia’s back alleys, 360-degree films, and Language-games. Nikolas’ work has been exhibited internationally in Vienna, London, and Hong Kong among other locations. His latest Design Trust Seed Grant-awarded project "Alleys in Wonderland” will be exhibited at the Hong Kong Pavilion for the 17th Venice Architecture Biennale. Nikolas earned a BArch from the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna and a Master of Arts (Architectural History) from The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL. He is an editorial board member of adato, as well as a UCL Alumni Mentor in Hong Kong.
These thoughts came to me on the upward journey from G/F to 19/F whilst standing in a chic elevator cabin, looking at a floor carefully subdivided by gold duct tape. This was shortly after the ease of Hong Kong's lockdown. Behind those elevator doors are: Air-conditioned offices… Paneled meeting rooms… Small storerooms with household goods… Toilets cabinets with stacked toilet paper rolls… Floor by floor by floor… And staircases…endless staircases… Hence, this elevator cabin is different. It is carefully partitioned. Defused; yet beyond these lines, dangerous things may lurk. Duct tape warns us of gaps, holes, crime scenes, or in this case, a virus. ‘Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here’1 Duct tape can solve problems not only here on earth but even far beyond. It has been used regularly in Outer Space for almost 60 years. ’(…) [D]uct tape has been stowed on board every space mission since early in the Gemini days.’2 That was 1961. Later on, this handy adhesive tape saved the Apollo 13 mission,3 and it was mentioned at the Apollo 17 mission as ’best engineering tool.’4 However, duct tape itself can create space. Duct tapes can turn areas into sections. Sections into rooms. Elevator rooms into territories. It creates landscapes of secured segregation. In these taped spaces, I feel a spatial certainty; a feeling of ownership. A right of occupation that is only shared by household members and myself. And potentially COVID-19. This knowledge creates a sense of security. A welcoming warm feeling in unstable times. A contemplation of duct tape is the search for a shadow. A visual manifestation of safety measurements, pandemic recommendations, and politically engineered implications. A silent, sticky improvisational space maker that allows the right level of attention to a pandemic. The reshuffling of public spaces into private spheres draws attention to a new improvisational force of architectural governance applied by a household tool. In the end, what is the distance of one or two meters in comparison to our freedom of mobility? The elevator doors open. Excuse me, where is the tape to follow?
Erster und letzter Akt
Stille, außer Wind, verfolgt den Flug des Knochens - das Schiff.1
Also Sprach Zarathustra: Das Werkzeug und die Tötung des Rivalen
Sonne, dann Halbmond über dem schwarzen Monolithen.
Es stehen geschichtet am Himmel:
The dawn of Man - Again. Dann setzt der Chor ein.
Ein Angriff, Primatengeschrei - Die Vormenschen-Sippe harrt in der Höhle aus.
Der begehbare Museumskasten, die Savanne.
ADATO 2020.2 –War and Peace
CALL FOR PAPERS
Die ganze Zeit, war ich auf der Erde.3
Ich bin wieder auf der Erde.
Ich bin Zuhause.
Ich habs’ geahnt.
- Kupfer, das Ganze.
In meiner Erinnerung ist es ein Torso ab Brusthöhe und darüber nur mehr die Krone
Vor ihm kragt die Frauenstatue deproportioniert aus dem Sand.
Der Reiter aus dem All, über den Strand, hinter ihm, ein Affenmensch - seine Gefährtin.
neben der Schule oder dem Bistrot des Wohnviertels errichteten, massiven Sockel, der Befragung der Gegenwart einen
die Konfrontation mit nichtmenschlichen Gattungen ankündigt, so verliehen diese, in den Lücken der urbanen Freiräume,
bestimmten Science-Fiction-Romanen, in denen ein mitten auf der Straße gelandetes Raumfahrzeug den Krieg der Welten,
der Azteken. So als sei dieses Bauwerk der leichten Artillerie mit den Bestattungsriten identisch […] Etwa so, wie in
Eine ganze Reihe kultureller Reminiszenzen […], die altägyptischen Gräber, die etruskischen Gräber, die Bauten
Bild- & Tonbeschreibung, 1. Szene aus Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: Odyssee im Weltraum (1968) 2 Virilio, Paul: Bunker-Archäologie. München 1992. 3 Bildbeschreibung: Letzte Szene aus Franklin J. Schaffner’s Planet der Affen (1968)
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Filmstill aus Planet der Affen (1968)
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NEXT ISSUE 2_20
A DAT O PREVIEW
Intro Amphibienklagen, Grillenzirpen Der begehbare Museumskasten, die Savanne. Die Vormenschen-Sippe harrt in der Höhle aus.
Architecture & Wa r a n d P e a c e
The dawn of Man - Again. Dann setzt der Chor ein. Es stehen geschichtet am Himmel: Sonne, dann Halbmond über dem schwarzen Monolithen. Also Sprach Zarathustra: Das Werkzeug und die Tötung des Rivalen Stille, außer Wind, verfolgt den Flug des Knochens - das Schiff.1
Erster und letzter Akt Eine ganze Reihe kultureller Reminiszenzen […], die altägyptischen Gräber, die etruskischen Gräber, die Bauten der Azteken. […] Etwa so, wie in bestimmten Science-Fiction-Romanen, in denen ein mitten auf der Straße gelandetes Raumfahrzeug den Krieg der Welten, die Konfrontation mit nichtmenschlichen Gattungen ankündigt, so verliehen diese, in den Lücken der urbanen Freiräume, neben der Schule oder dem Bistrot des Wohnviertels errichteten, massiven Sockel, der Befragung der Gegenwart einen neuen Sinn.2 Abspann Filmstill aus Planet der Affen (1968) Bild- & Tonbeschreibung, 1. Szene aus Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: Odyssee im Weltraum (1968) 2 Virilio, Paul: Bunker-Archäologie. München 1992. 3 Bildbeschreibung: Letzte Szene aus Franklin J. Schaffner’s Planet der Affen (1968) 1
Der Reiter aus dem All am Strand. Hinter ihm, ein Affenmensch - seine Gefährtin. Vor ihm kragt die Frauenstatue deproportioniert aus dem Sand. In meiner Erinnerung ist es ein Torso ab Brusthöhe und darüber nur mehr die Krone - Kupfer, das Ganze. Ich habs’ geahnt. Ich bin Zuhause. Ich bin wieder auf der Erde. Die ganze Zeit, war ich auf der Erde.3
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