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JAGUAR XKR-S – THE ULTIMATE XK The new XKR-S coupe is the fastest production XK to date, providing the Jaguar enthusiast with an even more driver-focused high speed performance experience. Limited to 200 cars – available only in Europe, in both right-hand and left-hand drive The XKR-S is capable of 0-60mph (0-100kph) in 4.9 (5.2) seconds and has a maximum speed, electronically limited, of 174mph (280kph) – making it the fastest Jaguar since the XJ220 supercar.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009



Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009

Editorial My first electric car was a FIAT 500


great number of “green car” concepts have been popping up over the last two years as the auto industry moved in response to the looming economic, political and environmental problems of oil dependency. In spite of our love of combustion engines, their days are numbered by the imminent fuel shortage and we can foresee a time when the exciting rumble of the V8 and V12 will be a heartfelt memory - but with a “thank you” from planet Earth. I was always fascinated by the electric car. In 1971, when I was twenty years old, I replaced the engine of my FIAT 500 with the electric motor of a lift truck, removed the tiny back bench and loaded it with batteries recovered from junkyards. After a few days of charging batteries, I was rolling along at the wheel of my Electric FIAT 500 in surreal silence, and very slowly. All that could be heard was the whisper of tires on the asphalt. A passing cyclist was astonished to see this car advancing silently. With his eyes fixed on the FIAT, he ran against the curb of the pavement and took a tumble. I was sorry to be the cause of his mishap, but appreciated this testament to the magic of my FIAT EV. This issue of CarConcept Magazine* will introduce you to a number of electric and hybrid vehicles that you may see on the road a few years from now: the Renault ZE, Chevrolet Volt, Nissan NUVU, Mazda Kiora, Citroën Hypnos, Peugeot RC HYbrid4, Mercedes F700 and many more. In sum, they represent the current thinking of the major car companies in addressing this new and necessary direction in automotive technology, and promise to make our future adventures in the World of the Automobile as exciting as the past. (But quieter.)” Noël van Wilgenburg Editor

Fiat 500 EV

Nissan Pivo 2

Nissan NUVU

Chevrolet Volt

Mazda Kiora

Venturi Fetish

Renault ZE

Citroën Hypnos

* All “green car concept” models will be marked with this green TAG

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


contents 08 Fascination is the name

At the 2008 Paris Motor Show, Mercedes-Benz is presenting an exciting design study and two new, standard production saloons to demonstrate that automotive passion and environmentally friendly technology can complement each other very convincingly.

16 The BMW Gina Concept Successful design arouses desire. In order to achieve this, it is more crucial than ever before that car manufacturers create the conditions that allow customers to establish a close relationship with their cars. Therefore, designers seek ways to promote and intensify people’s identification with their car that reach beyond pure aesthetics. In the premium segment in particular, customers demand cars that stir emotions and allow them to express their individuality.

26 The Mazda Kiora Concept Mazda revealed the direction its new technology development would take when it announced the Sustainable Zoom-Zoom plan last year. In line with this plan, Mazda is focused on making cars that achieve harmony between Mazda’s hallmark driving pleasure and environmental and safety performance. Mazda Kiyora demonstrates how Mazda will achieve a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy in the near future and introduce new vehicles that are exciting to look at and drive.


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34 GTbyCitroën: beyond imagination Citroën is the first vehicle manufacturer to cross over to the virtual worlds: An original take on a road car, GTbyCITROËN is a style replica of a vehicle from the digital world.

44 The Audi A1 Sportback Audi is unveiling the A1 Sportback concept study: following on from the Audi A1 project quattro, the three-door show car presented in 2007, this is a concept for a five-door four-seater for the sub-compact class – once again exhibiting all the characteristics of a genuine Audi. The 3.99-meter long and 1.75-meter wide vehicle combines cutting-edge, dynamic styling with optimum economy of space and supreme quality. At the same time, a series of visionary technical solutions take efficiency, dynamism and motoring pleasure into new territory as only Audi knows how.

52 The Nissan NUVU Within just a few years, cities all over the world will be at near bursting point. If mankind wants to retain the level of personal mobility it currently enjoys – and if the city is to survive – the only way forward is for a radical rethink of the type of cars driven there. One solution could be a car like Nuvu, designed for the city of the not-too-distant future.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


contents 60 The Renault Z.E. Concept In parallel to its new TCe and dCi engine ranges, Renault is furthering its strategy aimed atcurbing CO2 emissions with the development of electric vehicles. Since the beginning of 2008, the Renault-Nissan Alliance has signed agreements with several states and regions (Israel, Denmark,Portugal, Japan’s Kanagawa prefecture, the state of Tennessee in the USA), which will lead to the mass marketing of this form of vehicle from 2011.

66 The Peugeot RC HYbrid4 The RC HYbrid4 is a concept car born from the passion and expertise of Peugeot’s stylists and engineers. This “GT” coupe is the missing link between the RC Pique and RC Carreau concept cars revealed in 2002 and the 908 RC, one of the stars of the 2006 Paris Motor Show. It is a real laboratory of future ideas, bringing together numerous stylistic, engineering and technological ideas in a single vehicle.

76 The Chevrolet VOLT Concept The Volt offers spirited driving performance in a remarkably quiet interior. More than 220 lithium-ion cells contained within the Volt’s battery pack provide ample power. The Volt’s electric drive unit delivers the equivalent of 150 horsepower, 370 Nm of instant torque, and a top speed of 161 km/h. The lack of engine noise, combined with special sound-deadening materials, makes the Volt an extremely quiet vehicle to drive.

78 The Audi Sportback A7 Concept The new concept is simply called the ‘Sportback’ and not only does it show the design of the A7, but it also previews Audi’s future design language. Furthermore, the concept also signals Audi’s determination not to limit the sportback bodystyle to the compact car segment. With its sleek profile and large rear hatch, the 4.95m long, 1.93m wide and only 1.40m high vehicle easily fits into the burgeoning premium coupe-sedan segment.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009


The Citroën Hypnos

Hypnos is a hybrid in terms of both technology and styling. The body combines the vitality and elegance of a saloon with the volumes of a crossover. Powerful, flowing and expressive, Hypnos’ unique proportions and balance promise a driving experience of outstanding emotion. The concept car’s rear-hinged doors and colour-splashed interior draw onlookers in and make them want to climb aboard. Premium cabin materials, exceptionally comfortable individual seats and dreamlike in-car technology are designed to set high standards in driving pleasure and passenger comfort.

90 The Mercedes F700 Concept With its F 700 research car, Mercedes-Benz redefines the idea of effortless, superior refinement: this concept for a future luxurious touring sedan shows how outstanding riding quality can be combined with high levels of environmental friendliness, and good performance with exceptionally low fuel consumption. Thus, the 5.17 meter long F 700 with its innovative and very spacious interior design enables an entirely new and exceedingly comfortable mode of travel.



arconcept is a new magazine on the horizon. A Dutch publication written in English. The first number will appear in the first quarter of 2009 than as a quarterly and later on 6 times a year. Carconcept (has a unique formula: it) is designed to share the ideas, the curiosity and passion of car lovers, of car makers and OEM* parts manufacturers, by writing about concept cars, future trends, exceptional automobiles, and (brand) new automotive technologies. It will provide a forum for the exchange of ideas between car lovers and professionals, between those who build the cars and those who drive them. It will also take you back to technical solutions of the past, the legendary cars and car designers of yesterday, with an eye to their influence on the future.

Carconcept magazine readers have an eye for improved design, high quality technique. In short Carconcept magazine readers are passionate enthusiast and Carconcept magazine gives them access to the world of cars they would love to create and to own. Noël van Wilgenburg Editor Nº 1 Car CoNCept MagaziNe


autoMotive teChNiques - prototypes - eNgiNeeriNg & desigN


JaNuary/february 2009

€ 9,95

CaR concept Magazine



MARCH/APRIL 2009 € 9,95


The Carconcept magazine target group consist mostly of men aged 20 to 65 with a more than average interest and passion for cars. Most of them are in the A, B1 and B2 income groups. outlook and lifestyle Carconcept magazine readers have a passion for cars in general and automotive techniques, prototypes, car engineering and design in particular. The enjoyment of cars design takes first place.

speCiaL itaLiaN desigN


aLfa 8C spider n Maserati graNturisMo s n bertoNe b.a.t n ts CodatroNCa n Carrozzeria touriNg n piNiNfariNa siNtesi








*Original Equipment Manufacturer.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Fascination is the name

Mercedes-Benz presen a ”shooting brake” C

Text Da


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009


t the 2008 Paris Motor Show, Mercedes-Benz is presenting an exciting design study and

nts Concept



Photography Daimler/Noël van Wilgenburg

two new, standard production saloons to demonstrate that automotive passion and environmentally friendly technology can complement each other very convincingly. The Concept FASCINATION study interprets the emotional appeal of a coupé with new, surprising proportions, and combines a sporty and elegant design with stylish practicality.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Sense and sensuousness – a compelling interpretation of a coupé concept With the Concept FASCINATION design study, MercedesBenz has given fresh impetus to the long-established (although now rarely seen) “shooting brake”. This meets two different requirements – a high utility value plus a coupé which appeals to the heart with fast, thrilling lines. Freed from the constraints of a specifications book, the designers have created an automotive sculpture with great aesthetic appeal which demonstrates Mercedes-Benz’s high level of design expertise. Concept FASCINATION is a unique jewel of compelling automotive design, yet it still offers the benefits of a large luggage compartment. A particularly notable feature of the design is that the practical load space develops organically from the exciting and elegant lines of this lifestyle coupé, giving it its special charisma. Attention to detail make this design study an incomparable gem which conveys at one and the same time a sense of sporty forward movement and elegance, savoir-vivre and exclusivity of the highest level. Dr Dieter Zetsche, Chairman of the Board of Management


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

of Daimler AG, commented: “This design study continues the long tradition of exciting coupés from Mercedes-Benz in impressive style. With its emotionally appealing lines, Concept FASCINATION offers a completely new interpretation of the coupé concept. Its aesthetic, dynamic looks and painstakingly crafted details ensure that this study meets the highest design standards.”

Taut, sharply contoured lines and finely sculpted surfaces The Concept FASCINATION design study’s elongated body is dominated by the dynamic front-to-rear sweep of its lines which gives it a dynamically charged look, evoking movement even when the vehicle is stationary. This impression is emphasised by the long, frameless, side-window line which describes a continuous arc from front to rear, uninterrupted by a B-pillar. As a result, the large load space in the rear is integrated in the vehicle body cohesively and harmoniously while also increasing the impression of length and creating a remarkable sense of lightness.

New twin-headlamp face and rear with a pronounced V-shape

Exquisite material mix and stylish luggage compartment

The distinctive front section of this gracefully built athlete is a picture of self-assurance. It remains loyal to the twinheadlamp face, but interprets it in a more contemporary way. The rhomboid headlamps which are set against a grey background reveal the fascinating technical details of the light units with LED technology.

Generous use of fine materials such as leather, wood and aluminium, as well as high-quality woven fabrics and many carefully crafted details, ensures that the sporty and stylish character of the show vehicle is also underlined by the interior.

Like the front section, the forward-sloping rear has a pronounced V-shape and features a spoiler, below which the third brake light is reflected in the rear window. Flat, horizontal LED lights which extend around the back, linking it visually with the sides, emphasise the width.

The floor of the load compartment, which measures approximately one metre square and folds up on the left and right, is made of wood with brushed aluminium protective rails. The centre of the load compartment is occupied by a folding smoked glass table which rises out of the floor at the touch of a button to reveal a refrigerated compartment for drinks and champagne flutes.

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009



Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009

Generous use of fine materials such as leather, wood and aluminium, as well as high-quality woven fabrics and many carefully crafted details, ensures that the sporty and stylish character of the show vehicle is also underlined by the interior

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009


study case

BMW’s Design Philosophy

The G



uccessful design arouses desire. In order to achieve this, it is more crucial than ever before that car manufacturers create the conditions that allow customers to establish a close relationship with their cars. Therefore, designers seek ways to promote and intensify people’s identification with their car that reach beyond pure aesthetics. In the premium segment in

Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

particular, customers demand cars that stir emotions and allow them to express their individuality. BMW Group Design has set another deepened objective for designing new cars that moves today’s consumers and their demand for enhanced utility and more versatility to the top of their agenda. An innovative concept introduced by BMW Group Design prepares the ground for this new

approach: the GINA (Geometry and Functions In “N” Adaptions) principle grants more freedom for car design. It allows the creation of products with a design and functional range that express individuality and meet the wide variety of requirements of those who are using them.

Gina Concept

2009 Car Concept nยบ2 nMarch-April Text BMW Photography BMW19


n the 21st century, customers approach their purchasing decision with a high degree of assertiveness, clearly defined requirements and subjective concept-tions – particularly when it comes to selecting their means of transport. In recent years, the interests and priorities that motivated them have changed and, more importantly, they have become considerably more diversified. This development will continue in the future. Today, the BMW Group is already responding to the highly diversified range of customer requirements and heightened expectations by providing services such as a substantially more varied product range, ever increasing possibilities for personalization and requirement-oriented production among others.

Future customer requirements as a benchmark By introducing the GINA philosophy, BMW Group Design presents ways of meeting these challenges in the future. The philosophy expresses the readiness and ability of BMW Group Design to consider individual customer requirements as an integral part of car development. Christopher E. Bangle, Head of BMW Group Design, speaks with conviction when he says: “Personal customer requirements will broaden the context of our products and change the core values that define our industry along the way.” For more than ten years now, these issues have inspired Bangle’s ideas. Time and time again, these ideas have been motivating the BMW Group Design team to break new ground and to find pioneering solutions. These results have spawned new customer expectations which in turn inspires designers to develop further innovations.

GINA: Geometry and Functions In “N” Adaptions The GINA philosophy offers designers as well as development and production specialists an opportunity to challenge existing principles and conventional processes. Solutions that will benefit the car of the future are examined without predefined rules and from as many perspectives as possible. This also involves questioning what is believed to be set in stone. Does a car roof really have to rest on pillars and be bordered by windows? Do all functions have to be visible at all times, even when they are not needed? How many personalization options does my car offer? Are there any possible alternatives to the rigid body shell made of steel or plastic? Questions like these lead to groundbreaking, cross-segmental solutions – and visions of the


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

future of individual mobility. An essential principle of the GINA philosophy is to deliberately integrate the potential of new materials and pioneering, innovative constructions into the creative design process, and the idea of challenging existing manufacturing methods and material concepts. BMW Group DesignworksUSA, a subsidiary of the BMW Group that operates globally and caters to companies across the industry, has greatly inspired the design team at BMW Group Design. The design agency’s extensive experience with projects for a number of industrial partners outside of automotive engineering, predominantly in the field of material development and production. It is in the nature of such visions that they do not necessarily claim to be suitable for series production. Rather, they are intended to steer creativity and research into new directions. This approach helps to tap into formerly inconceivable, innovative potential that reaches far beyond the appearance of future cars and takes into account not only materials and structures but also functions and manufacturing processes. The potential requirements of tomorrow’s customers serve as a benchmark. In addition to aesthetics, the GINA philosophy also deals with ergonomics, the functional range and all other factors that rule customers’ emotional relationship with their car. With the development of the GINA Light Visionary Model, the BMW Group presents examples of visionary solutions. For the first time, exemplary adaptations of various approaches described by the GINA philosophy are brought to life to illustrate the potential impact of this concept on the future of automotive engineering. The limits of current material properties and manufacturing processes are projected far into the future. All innovations that these cars present focus on the variable adaptation of form and function based on individual and situation-related driver requirements as well as the demands of the driving situation itself. Therefore, both the exterior and the interior are equipped with a variety of components that differ significantly from conventional solutions, not only by the way they look but also in terms of their basic properties. For example, the GINA Light Visionary Model presents features such as a virtually seamless outer skin made of a textile fabric that stretches across a moveable substructure. Functions are only offered if and when they are actually required. The drastic reinterpretation of familiar functionality and structure means that drivers have a completely new experience when they handle their car. Reducing the

car to its essentials and adapting it to the driver’s requirements enhances the car’s emotional impact and achieves a crucial objective of the GINA philosophy.

Visions spawn innovative concepts The strategy of challenging what is established, exploring new possibilities and focusing on customer demands and requirements has inspired the BMW Group to implement a wide variety of innovative concepts. It has also affected the design of production cars in ways that are completely new and unprecedented by any other car manufacturer. A wide range of innovations that have been acclaimed for their virtually revolutionary character is actually based on the GINA philosophy. On the way from vision to production model, visionary ideas have been turned into new concepts. Both the sculptural design presented by the BMW X Coupé concept car, for example, and the interplay of convex-concave surfaces that has affected the design of all production vehicles, are derived from visions with an innovative power. This power is generated by the unrestricted freedom that characterizes the quest for wider design possibilities. In the example mentioned above, the natural material properties of the outer skin have been deliberately incorporated into the design process. The design process has integrated the twisted surfaces and has used the specific sculptural aesthetics of the convex-concave elements that are created by the material’s reaction. The design of the BMW Z4, which has been modeled on the BMW X Coupé concept car, is a striking example. These visions could only be implemented because of the development of completely new manufacturing technologies. As before, the objectives defined by the GINA philosophy have been achieved thanks to the special expertise of production engineers and their ability to move beyond traditional methods. Their effort has allowed the creation of a form language that has not only significantly enhanced aesthetic standards and the significance of design as an expression of product substance, but also the manufacturing processes themselves.

Headlights like cats eyes and rear warning solutions with different colour led-patterns through the textile fabric

Versatility in function and form stirs emotions Some of the pioneering visions that are based on the GINA philosophy have also been implemented in the interior design of concept cars such as the BMW CS1 concept car of 2002. This car’s interior is equipped with control and functional elements that become visible only if and when the driver wishes to avail of them. Thanks to a flexible, Neoprene-covered instrument panel, the driver’s attention can focus on the required functions. This situation-oriented variability of form and function invites the driver to engage in a dialogue with his car. Using these functions, the driver experiences an emotional reaction. This is caused by the fact that he can adapt the car’s appearance to suit his personal wishes. In this application, the intelligent deployment of flexible material dispenses with the need for complex mechanical features. At the same time, the versatile appearance has a natural aesthetic appeal. The control concept iDrive, first demonstrated by the BMW Z9 and refined in the BMW CS1 concept car has long since become established as part of BMW production models. It is a perfect enhancement to the spirit of the GINA philosophy, as it is guided by the principle of displaying only those functions to the driver that are relevant to the individual driving situation. The cockpit adjusts to the driver’s needs. As he handles the car by interacting with it, the driver forms a strong emotional bond.

Integration of meaningful functions that are relevant to the customer It is one of the GINA principles to challenge existing solutions in order to broaden the context, thus extending the scope of possibilities for customers. In the engine compartment of the BMW CS1 concept car, the engine cover has been replaced by flexible stretch material. A graphical display panel provides information on the particular arrangement of the service functions, integrated zip fasteners facilitate easy, hands-on access to the filler caps of the cooling water and wiper water tanks. A number of functions – cover, orientation and access to service points – are integrated into one component in a logical and attractive manner. This deliberately minimalist approach to the deployment of components is an active contribution to the protection of resources.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009

“The GINA Light Visionary Model presents features such as a virtually seamless outer skin made of a textile fabric that stretches across a moveable substructure. Functions are only offered if and when they are actually required

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Rapid Manufacturing for more versatility As a result of our interdisciplinary cooperation, we have developed a method that allows manufacturers to decorate outer skin components that have been preformed by conventional methods with individually configured high-precision contour lines prior to their reintegration into the manufacturing process. The GINA design philosophy has been applied to Rapid Manufacturing to create an unparalleled method of manufacturing single components fast, cost-efficiently and with a focus on individual requirements. This combination of processes was first used during the production of hoods for the BMW Z4 M Roadster and the BMW Z4 M Coupé. These models received their distinctive contour lines at a separate production stage which differed significantly from conventional sheet metal processing. The lines were embossed into the hood with pin-point precision by a robot-guided steel pin. This approach allows for entirely new ways of individualized production.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

With Rapid Manufacturing, customer preferences can be implemented when car body elements and other components are designed to the specifications of designers.

New materials and manufacturing processes create a natural aesthetic appeal The cockpit surface of the BMW Concept Coupé Mille Miglia 2006, which has been influenced by the technology of industrial origami, is another example of vision-based, revolutionary design. It has produced solutions that reflect several guiding principles of the GINA Philosophy. The number of components is significantly reduced compared to conventional cockpits while completely new methods of combining different materials have provided valuable stimulation for the conception of innovative production technologies. The manufacturing process has deliberately relied on the expertise and technical skills of highly-qualified specialists, whose competence is a prerequisite for the practical implementation of design visions.

The exterior design of concept cars also reflects innovative concepts resulting from the practical implementation of visionary ideas. Both the sculptural design presented by the BMW X Coupé concept car, for example, and the interplay of convex-concave surfaces that has affected the design of all produc-tion vehicles (introduced for the first time in the Z4), are derived from visions with an innovative power. This power is generated by the unrestricted freedom that characterizes the quest for wider design possibilities. The design deliberately uses the interplay of splines as character lines and the natural flow of stretched convex-concave surfaces.

The number of components is significantly reduced compared to conventional cockpits

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009


Mazda Kiyora Co

The Eco-Friendly City Car 26

Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009




Photography MAZDA/Noël van Wilgenburg


azda revealed the direction its new technology development would take when it announced the Sustainable Zoom-Zoom plan last year. In line with this plan, Mazda is focused on making cars that achieve harmony between Mazda’s hallmark driving pleasure and environmental and safety performance. Mazda Kiyora demonstrates how Mazda will achieve a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy in the near future and introduce new vehicles that are exciting to look at and drive. Featuring next-generation environmental technologies, Kiyora was envisaged as a fun and cool concept for young European urbanites, and one that only Mazda could produce. Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Mazda Kiyora gives an indication where Mazda could go with a small, eco-friendly city car in the near future. It is highly fuel efficient, with a very small CO2 footprint, delivering ZoomZoom driving fun and high levels of safety. The car achieves this by taking Mazda’s acclaimed lightweight strategy to a new level by employing an extremely rigid and lightweight carbon-fibre body structure beneath a small, aerodynamic outer skin and a spirited, small-displacement 1.3-liter directinjection engine. Mazda Kiyora also features Mazda’s unique Smart Idle Stop System (SISS) and a newly developed six- speed automatic transmission with direct feel and fuel efficiency similar to that of a manual. With these technologies, the Mazda Kiyora concept would produce CO2 emission of under 90g/km. Themes for the Mazda Kiyora concept include cleanliness, health and safety. These key aspects are essential for young city dwellers as well as any compact car in the current global environment. The concept was based on Mazda’s sustainable technology vision, which aims to ensure customers can continue to enjoy a Zoom-Zoom experience in the future. Water was also selected as a theme for this concept, due to its association with the aspects mentioned above, and the car was named Kiyora (meaning ‘clean and pure’ in Japanese) to reflect this. It features next-generation technologies clothed in a friendly and cool design that is as functional as it is beautiful. This is the first concept to express Nagare ‘low’ in the patterns and colours of water.

Defining the Concept, “Urban Hub” – Advanced Product Strategy 28

Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Mazda Kiyora is a redefinition of the small coupe and is dedicated to embody the same fun-to-drive nature as every other Mazda vehicle, combined with innovative ideas that minimize its impact on the environment. This concept is the translation of Mazda’s Sustainable Zoom-Zoom philosophy into a lifestyle vehicle for progressive urbanites. The idea for this car was born from research that identified market opportunities to address future unmet customer needs with innovative concepts and ideas. The very first step taken by Mazda Motor Europe’s Advanced Product Strategy (APS) team was an in-depth analysis of the small city car segment in Europe. Having defined several potential customer profiles in this segment, the team focussed on the urban customer with a post-modern lifestyle.

APS found that exterior styling, compact size, manoeuvrability and flexibility were just as important to these young people as high fuel efficiency. European urbanites, then, will continue to commute and use their cars in the city of the future; but they will expect them to use less fuel and produce fewer toxic emissions, while still being fun to drive, easy to park and use. To achieve this, the vehicle must be lightweight and small. Kiyora is even smaller than the new Mazda2. Reducing vehicle weight is a key concept that is crucial to achieve the goals set out in the Sustainable Zoom-Zoom plan. Kiyora takes Mazda’s ‘gram strategy’ — that has been used previously to produce new vehicles, all of them lighter and more fuel eficient than their predecessors — to the next level. It should also be flexible, a kind of ‘urban HUB’ that would allow you to go to university during the day, go shopping in the early evening, and take three friends clubbing at night before driving home, thanks to its lexible interior that can be used as a two-seater with boot, or as a 2+2 seating arrangement. The car should have a next-generation cockpit and be fun to use on a daily basis. And it should be safe and environmentally

Loyer, Stenuit and Birtwhistle working on and discussing the clay model


Zoom-Zoom Experience and Environmental Performance Mazda Kiyora supports the active lifestyles of young people with its agility, cleanliness, and excellent economic performance. Mazda’s next-generation 1.3-litre DISI* petrol engine is an evolution of technologies used for the 2.3-liter DISI petrol engine that currently powers Mazda’s sports crossover SUV, the CX-7. Improved direct- injection technology and newly designed combustion chambers enable more precise ignition control. The engine’s efficiency is increased by a combination of advanced dual sequential-valvetiming (S-VT), variable-valve timing and lift mechanism, and optimal valve control. The engine is spirited as well as clean and efficient and, in combination with a compact and lightweight six-speed automatic transmission with manual shift control, it would make Mazda Kiyora powerful and cultivated, even at low engine speeds. In stop and go urban traffic conditions, Mazda’s newly developed Smart Idle Stop System (SISS) would save fuel by automatically shutting down the engine when the vehicle is stationary, and achieves a quick and quiet restart for stress free driving. The system injects a small amount of fuel directly into the engine’s cylinders and ignites it to generate downward piston force which, with the aid of an electric motor, rapidly returns the engine to idle speed. Emissions would be among the lowest thanks to a new catalyst that more effectively removes harmful exhaust materials by employing single-nanotechnology to control catalyst particles that are smaller even than those controlled by conventional nanotechnology. Combined with reduced weight and improved aerodynamics, these insightful technologies would result in CO2 emissions of 90g/km or less. * DISI: direct injection spark ignition

Peter Birtwhistle

van den Acker

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


The roof of the Kiyora is another example of how Mazda designers were able to combine functionality and design aesthetics. It is transparent, for an open-air feeling on the inside, and has photovoltaic solar cells which provide electricity for the car’s interior systems

Exterior – Fusing Form with Function “Mazda Design has been working hard over the past two years to develop an exciting new design message with its Nagare series,” says Peter Birtwhistle, Chief Designer, Mazda Motor Europe. “Mazda Kiyora is the latest iteration of that philosophy.” The Mazda Kiyora concept car is formed in the shape of a water droplet on its side, as are its two side windows. Its diminutive size and low roofline give it a small front crosssection. This is combined with an elaborate underbody that controls wind swirl, a rear roof spoiler, and specially sculptured body lines for a highly aerodynamic form with a coefficient of drag that is over 10 percent lower that of the current Mazda2. This outstanding fusion of engineering and the Nagare design was a key target. “The architecture of the car has been rethought,” says the concept’s lead exterior designer, Mickael Loyer. “The main structure of the car is an ‘in and out’ frame, like a shell that protects you from the outside environment, and lets you be opened and linked to it at the same time, thanks to the transparency of the top and the side windows, which also gives a lightweight feeling.” About 10 cm shorter than the new Mazda2 sub-compact, Kiyora is also an environmentally friendly city car that is cute and agile, and invites you to climb in for a ride. It uses a soft design language and lowing lines, while retaining an overall style that is really expressive and sporty. Here is the expressive


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

five-point grille first used on the Mazda Sassou concept three years ago – backlit when the car is on with soft, red lighting – but now further developed with Nagare low lines that are carved and more three-dimensional. They are formed to guide air into the interior of the car without the use of fans, which saves weight. Its silhouette features character lines that are sleek and smooth, and move upwards and rearwards, fusing into the rear spoiler. Combine it all with 18-inch alloys and extremely small overhangs, and you have a truly sporty look in a small package. Though small, Mazda Kiyora has a rear boot big enough to carry a large suitcase, a briefcase and a notebook. It is accessible via a liftgate that opens very high (with a low load floor level) for easy loading and unloading, and it’s flexible. When the rear seats are not in use, you can push your luggage forward and stow even more, while the strong yet flexible seat material stretched over the seats holds the luggage in place. This system also has the advantage that it hides whatever is stored in the boot from prying eyes outside the car.

The roof of the new Mazda Kiyora is another example of how Mazda designers were able to combine functionality and design aesthetics. It is transparent, for an open-air feeling on the inside, and has photovoltaic solar cells which provide electricity for the car’s interior systems. “Kiyora is about water fluidity and transparency,” says Mr. Loyer. “It’s all about layers of perception. You start with a shape and there is a shape behind and another one behind that. It’s like water; the deeper you go the more details appear. Nagare low here has different layers lowing into each other. Repeated layers lead you into the car. And because the inside of the car is visible, it becomes part of the exterior design.” The doors and side windows of Mazda Kiyora are fused into a single unit and function as both. These ‘windoors’ are made of plastic, which provides the same transparency and refraction properties as glass, and the strength of a thin-panel door, but with far less weight. They are also easy to use and practical. Touching the surface of the front tip of the door activates a sensor, which opens the doors up and away from the car, a plus when parking in tight city spaces. They also allow a view into the interior when the doors are closed. But looking into Mazda Kiyora is more than just looking through glass.

framework are also examples of this approach. Lightweight materials such as aluminium and a special resin foam, which is under development at Mazda, would be used not only for interior parts such as the instrument panel, but also for the bonnet, tailgate and sections of the chassis. Their effective usage contributes to improving the yaw moment of inertia and reducing the unsprung mass, and leads to superb handling.

“Using various layers of materials, combined with forms and colours on the inside, gives the impression of looking into water with its depths and lowing shapes below the surface,” says Luca Zollino, who assisted Mr. Loyer in creating the exterior. “For instance, there is a body shell side member shaped like sea grass that is visible just behind the surface of the doors and, when you look deeper into the car, there are the lowing shapes of the dashboard and centre console.”

The Mazda Kiyora has interior shapes that express Nagare ‘low’ by looking as though they are floating in a current of sea water that is moving from front to back. The instrument panel starts at a single point and lows around the driver and to the right of the front passenger as if it were several blades of sea grass growing out of a rock underwater. The front seats seem to float above the floor, and the arms of body structure twist like sea weed at the sides and top of the cabin. As well as being an integral design element, the door structure also functions as a side member and, in combination with the side sills, would effectively protect occupants in the event of a side impact.

The design of the wheels also supports the water theme. Its front spokes are convex and shaped like the blades of a boat propeller, while the concave back spokes are joined to the wheel rim and have a reinforcement that seems to grow out of the spoke itself. Kept very smooth, the wheels of Mazda

“Rapid prototyping was used for most of the natural shapes,” says Jo Stenuit, Assistant Chief Designer and Project Leader. “We have a very natural design with complex lowing shapes. Normal moulding processes would not have allowed us to produce such elaborate designs.”

The colour designers Greger, Kiehl and Silvares discussing how to match the interior with the exterior

Kiyora give a twirling, twisting surface articulation.

Interior Design – Visualised ‘Nagare’ Design and an Expression of Lightness The interior shapes not only provide aesthetic motifs, they also function to stiffen the passenger compartment with minimal weight. Mazda’s strategy of shedding excess grams wherever possible in its production cars was taken to a new level in Mazda Kiyora. The visible body structure is a real structural element of the car – stiff and crash-resistant. It is indicative of Mazda’s approach to conduct a thorough structural analysis to solve complex issues such as safety and rigidity requirements instead of simply replacing materials with more expensive ones. The rear seats that are integrated into the body

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


New Liquid-Skin Display IP Concept This display would be a simple yet very practical type of instrument panel that uses advanced touch-screen technology with tactile feedback. Using liquid-skin display technology, it would mimic the rippling that water makes when you touch it with your finger. When the car is off, the IP looks like ice, frozen and hard. When the car is switched on, the display appears to turn into water. Information icons would appear and float downwards to pre-programmed positions in front of the driver. The driver would be able to move the icons around with his finger and could even organise them however he wished. He could lip through menus, select settings for temperature, and even send an email. “We call Kiyora’s IP a liquid-skin display,” said Gergory Vera, who designed the interior, “because it is conceived to ripple like water when you touch it. Icons bounce off each other as if they are floating in water. This would be a logical next step in intuitive-feedback, flexible-screen displays and is a natural and easy way to operate the systems of a car.” From this touch-screen display, you could also control a hard-disk drive with advanced sensors that would provide environmental information like how much fuel you used and how many grams of CO 2 you released into the atmosphere on a particular day. It could also calculate how many toxins the car filtered out of the air and water during the same period.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Considerations for the Cabin Environment Mazda Kiyora would be able to filter out toxins from the outside air and use it inside the car. The right side of the dashboard consists of a large, single piece of thick activated carbon, which is a natural resource that has been used for centuries in Asia as a purifying material. The above-mentioned Nagare low lines at the front of the car guide outside air into the car and through this charcoal, which filters out and captures toxins better than most filter systems, without the need for an electric fan or inorganic materials. Taking advantage of rain as a natural resource the roof of the Mazda Kiyora channels rainwater firstly through an activated carbon filter and then into a specially commissioned drinks bottle designed for Mazda by LIFESAVER® systems. The LIFESAVER® bottle citi™ is located between the front seats for easy access, and uses state of the art ultra filtration hollow fibre membranes. With a pore size of 15 nano-meters these membranes remove microbiological contamination including bacteria and viruses without the aid of chemicals, delivering safe fresh drinking water to the user any time. The bottle is removable so can be taken out of the car and used to gather water from other natural sources such as rivers, lakes and streams.

Colours and Materials – A Triumph of Material Engineering Mazda Motor Europe’s Colours + Materials team has distinguished itself in the development of new kinds of materials for its concepts. In Sassou, it was translucent plastic treated in a way to match the body colour and to hide light effects, and in Hakaze it was the brilliant use of surface textures that mimic the feel of natural materials. With the Mazda Kiyora, the colours and materials team faced its greatest challenge yet – to express the theme of ‘pure water’ in visible and touchable ways. “Based on the extreme requirements of Kiyora, as a new ecofriendly car with a fully lexible interior, we needed to research in unusual fields,” said Maria Greger, Senior Designer at Mazda Motor Europe and head of the Colours + Materials team. “We looked for materials and processes that are not yet used in the automotive industry. We had to find materials that not only work in covering parts, but are directly related to function. The best example is the material used for the floor and rear seats. This is the same textile, but treated differently to best adapt to the function it needs to fulfil.” The exterior of the Mazda Kiyora is blue-green and has transparent, polycarbonate doors, chosen to underscore the purity of water. On the inside you can see forms – like the wavy side member of the body structure – that look like lowing sea grass. These were given a colour scheme that, when seen through the doors from outside the car, makes it seem as though you are looking into water.

Mazda Kiyora Concept Car – Specifications Body type Dimensions

Three-door hatchback Overall length

3,770 mm

Overall width

1,685 mm

Overall height

1,350 mm


2,495 mm





Next generation MZR 1.3-litre DISI* petrol with smart idle stop system



Next-generation 6-speed AT with manual shift

Suspension (Front/Rear)


MacPherson strut/Torsion beam



215/45 R18

* DISI: direct injection spark ignition

“We chose bluish and greenish colours, which is colour of water,” said Luciana Silvares, Senior Designer at Mazda Motor Europe. “The deeper you go, the deeper the colour of water gets. We wanted to give this car the feeling of water and ice, sea or lake (from the surface to depth), showing transparency and gradient.” The interior is a masterpiece of materials engineering. The body shell is visible, like an inner skeleton, and supports the water theme with its wavy, lowing shapes, while functioning as a true body structure. And the interior has a colour scheme that makes the front seats seem to float above a floor that looks like frozen water. For the instrument panel and door inners, soft coatings and light metallic effects are employed to enhance this impression. The rear seats are one of the concept’s most interesting features and a perfect example of how to combine material and design to express the theme of water, while saving weight and losing nothing in functionality. They are made of only two components: a seat skeleton that is part of the body structure at the back of the cabin, and a flexible and robust textile stretched over this. This textile allows a person to sit down into the seat and acts as a irm surface to sit on like a lawn chair, and then to spring back to its original shape when the person

leaves the car – effectively hiding the seats. This ‘hidden seat’ is designed for short trips in town, and is far lighter than traditional car seats. “The material for the rear seats is an extremely stretchable textile that we developed with the Company Straehle und Hess,” said Ms. Greger. “It is made of knitted polyester that has the ability to return to its original shape. With a special construction of two laminated layers, this material is, despite its extreme stretch ability, also extremely stable.” The rear seats also work in conjunction with the floor to contribute colour-wise to the overall theme of pure, watery depths. Both the seats and the floor are made of the same materials, but treated differently to maximise their functionality. Two-dimensional printing was employed for the colours and sea grass graphics on the seats, and a unique, threedimensional (3D) casting process was used for the floor surfaces. The 3D casting process was inspired by the PU micro-injection printing process used on textiles for sportswear. This allowed the team to give the floor surface the durability and abrasion strength needed to function as a real floor, and to create the image of deep and layered surface to express the image of water and ice.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



GT byCITROテ起 beyond imagination


Car Concept nツコ 2 March-April 2009


Text and Photography: Citroën/Noël van Wilgenburg Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009




Car Concept nツコ 2 March-April 2009

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009



ith GTbyCITROËN, a show-car presented at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, Citroën becomes the first vehicle manufacturer to cross over to the virtual worlds: An original take on a road car, GTbyCITROËN is a style replica of a vehicle from the digital world. The car is the result of a partnership between Citroën and Polyphony, designer of the driving simulation game Gran Turismo 5 on Playstation 3. Already shipped in more than 50 million units worldwide, Gran Turismo is renowned for its quality, design and realism. In the game, GTbyCITROËN features an electric drive train powered by a fuel cell with no pollutant emissions. It is a car designed to square up to the strongest competition.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Performance first and foremost The exterior is created by Takumi Yamamoto: GTbyCITROËN is geared to the world of motor racing, with its dynamic styling, sculpted lines and sharp graphics. The rear end is oversized, made exaggeratedly long in order to create an effect of retinal persistence. The idea is to make the concept car even faster visually. The white-to-grey gradation on the body side further underlines this impression of continuous movement.

Top-level driving The cabin of GTbyCITROËN created by Pascal Grappey, is designed to seat two adults, expresses the grand touring

vision behind this show-car. The on-board ambience allies premium, extensively worked materials with a more high-tech effect for the driving position. The layout of the low driving position was dictated by driving pleasure. The aim is for the driver to be able to concentrate on the road, assisted by a head-up display clearly displaying driving information.

Power and flowing lines The design of GTbyCITROËN reflects a quest for optimal aerodynamic design. The show-car is a vehicle of flowing, taut lines, stretched to the extreme. The cleanly drawn sides, ribbed at the top, and the pearlescent shade of the bodywork

enhance the vehicle’s sleekly muscled looks. The determined look of the front end is enhanced by wide air intakes and clear-cut horizontal headlamps. The headlamps feature penetrating blue LEDs in order to light the road effectively and keep rivals at a respectful distance! The chrome chevrons on the smooth bonnet express the Marque’s identity. The carbon rearview mirrors on their finely profiled supports appear to be suspended as if to cleave the air, giving GTbyCITROËN an excellent on-road stance. The large wraparound windscreen flows seamlessly into the roof and on into the rear mobile airfoil with its exaggeratedly long shape. The fast-flowing lines create the impression of

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


a car in perpetual movement. The whole body expresses performance and continuous movement. GTbyCITROËN also expresses strength and power through generous volumes, (length: 4.960m, 2.080m and height: 1.090m) underlined by strongly marked wheel arches. The diamond-effect 21-inch aluminium wheels enhance the car’s sporty personality.

Exceptional handling The interior design confirms the vehicle’s dynamic and powerful style. The interior of GTbyCITROËN, designed to seat a driver and co-driver, expresses the racing spirit of this concept. The on-board ambience allies rich, premium, extensively worked materials with a more high-tech effect for the driving position, inspired by the world of motorsports. Looking beyond the spectacular visual effect, the gullwing opening of the two doors gives GTbyCITROËN a level of


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

accessibility rarely seen on this type of vehicle. The driver and co-driver can therefore slip into their seats and get out on the track as quickly as possible. The dark interior of this show-car is a surprise, compared with the light bodywork. Upholstered in black leather with subtle touches of rare materials such as copper and steel, the cabin of GTbyCITROËN is distinctly sporty. Two padded racing seats upholstered in dark leather, each fitted with a four-point harness, enfold the driver and passenger for exceptional driving sensations. Placed low down to highlight the impression of speed, the elegant seats are a perfect fit with the rest of the interior. The top-stitched leather of the door panels and floor adds to the opulence of the interior. The driving position expresses the spirit of competition. The design was objectively guided by the motivation to win.

The dashboard, with its clean uncluttered design, flows into the receding lines of an imposing copper sculpture. The thrusting modern lines of the sculpture become the central tunnel of the vehicle, illustrating the power of GTbyCITROËN and appearing to catalyse its strength. Created in a twist of this same copper sculpture, the leatherand-steel steering wheel also reflects the sporting spirit of the cabin. To promote maximum concentration, the driver of GTbyCITROËN has a head-up display for driving information. Using red LEDs, this system projects key driving information – such as speed and navigation data – onto the windscreen in the driver’s direct line of vision. The head-up display makes a significant contribution to safety with its direct read-out. Drivers assimilate data more quickly and do not have to look away from the road.

Aerodynamics optimised to combine performance and driving sensations Special emphasis was placed on the aerodynamics and flowing design of GTbyCITROËN, these being key Citroën values. The objective was to enhance the vehicle’s dynamics and to create exceptional driving sensations. Looking beyond its taut, dynamic lines, this racing car features innovative equipment such as enlarged air intakes at the front, a flat underside, and a mobile spoiler and air diffuser at the rear. All these features play an active role in reducing lift and – above all – drag, to pin the car to the ground. With its flowing lines, original architecture and its use – in the game – of what is potentially the best environmental technology, GTbyCITROËN embodies the sporting spirit as seen by Citroën and underlines the Marque’s ambitions to meet new challenges.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


“ This project was the most exciting experience of my life Says Kazunori Yamauchi

“GTbyCITROËN shows how the worlds of virtual and real-life motoring can join together to create a truly innovative partnership. We were delighted that Citroen approached us and gave us the opportunity to combine our creative strengths to build this very special concept car. To see the car take shape in game and then for real has been a truly unique experience as our work normally stays in the digital world. I just hope I can get behind the wheel of GTbyCITROËN and drive it on a real race track!” Says Kazunori Yamauchi.

Kazunori Yamauchi, President of Polyphony Digital Inc and creator of Gran Turismo


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Takumi Yamamoto (left): “The rear end is oversized, made exaggeratedly long in order to create an effect of retinal persistence. This car is so fast, that on the end you will see only the rear. The idea is to make the concept car even faster visually” Pascal Grappey (right): “The cabin of GTbyCITROËN is designed to seat two adults, expresses the grand touring vision behind this show-car. The on-board ambience allies premium, extensively worked materials with a more high-tech effect for the driving position assisted by a head-up display clearly displaying driving information”

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Audi A1 Sportba

Compact five-door model with hybrid driv

Audi is unveiling the A1 Sportback concept study: following on from the Audi A1 project quattro, the three-door show car presented in 2007, this is a concept for a five-door four-seater for the sub-compact class – once again exhibiting all the characteristics of a genuine Audi. The 3.99-meter long and 1.75-meter w vehicle combines cutting-edge, dynamic styling with optimum economy of space and supre quality. At the same time, a series of visionary technical solutions take efficiency, dynamism and motoring pleasure into new territory as only Audi knows how. 44

Car Concept nÂş 2 March-April 2009

ack concept


wide eme m Text Audi


Photography Audi

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009



udi is presenting another version of the innovative hybrid technology in the drive unit for the A1 Sportback concept. At work under the hood is a 1.4-litre TFSI engine developing 110 kW (150 hp), whose power is directed to the front wheels by means of the S tronic dualclutch transmission. A 20 kW (27 hp) electric motor integrated in the drive train is able to deliver up to an additional 150 Nm of torque (110.63 lb-ft) when the vehicle is accelerating. During the boosting phase, i.e. when the TFSI engine and electric motor operate simultaneously to enable a sporty driving style, the two power packs deliver impressive propulsion. The tried-and-tested frontwheel drive – supplemented by the newly developed, ESP-controlled active front differential lock – ensures optimum transfer of power to the road. The electric motor is furthermore capable of powering the vehicle alone for zero-emission driving in residential areas, for instance. The capacity of the lithium-ion batteries gives the vehicle a range of up to 100 km (62.14 miles) in pure electric mode; the motor can be recharged from any power socket. The automatic start/stop facility, energy regeneration and phases of purely electri-


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

cal operation reduce the fuel consumption and emissions of the Audi A1 Sportback concept by almost 30 percent compared to when it is running on the combustion engine alone. Despite its sporty performance, with acceleration of 0 to 100 km/h (62.14 mph) in 7.9 seconds and a top speed of 200 km/h (124.27 mph), the AudiA1 Sportback concept requires only 3.9 liters of premium fuel per 100 km (60.31 US mpg); CO2 emissions are an efficient 92 g/km (148.06 g/mile).

The exterior design The basic proportions, with a high vehicle body and a flat window area bordered by a coupelike roof line, produce a virtually classic look for a vehicle bearing the four rings. The rear end is rounded off by a two-part spoiler with a striking centre groove, integrated into the rear window. The side-on view presents another typical coupe attribute in the form of doors with frameless windows and a glass-covered and thus homogeneously integrated B-pillar. The bold segmentation of the study’s side paneling with its gently rising shoulder line accentuates the styling. The shoulder line of the Audi A1 Sportback concept with its Daytona Grey paint finish is a new

interpretation of yet another trademark feature of the current Audi design. Here, the prominent double lines continue around the entire vehicle as a curvaceous band that links the front end – from which it seems to emerge – with the vehicle’s tail, which rises to create a slightly wedge-shaped effect. The aerodynamically designed single-frame grille indicates the sporty ambitions of the study, which are further emphasized by the flared fenders – a tribute to the legendary Ur-quattro design and the current Audi RS 6. The design of the three-dimensional main headlights in innovative LED technology is especially eye-catching. The completely new styling underlines yet again the amount of freedom that this technology has afforded to designers. All light functions – low‑beam and high-beam headlights, daytime running lights and turn indicators – have been located in one flat housing, in concentrically arranged, parallel and squared-off strips. The layout, with light segments of varying sizes – the low beam taking up most space – completely

changes the character of the front section, the “face” of the A1 Sportback concept. The rear lights, too, continue this theme and combine the function of tail and brake lights, turn indicators, reversing and rear fog lights into an unmistakable design. The interplay of acute and obtuse angles and the clear and colored glass areas create a particularly dynamic look. A large-dimensioned, transparent cover over the entire width of the vehicle additionally combines both light units and emphasizes the horizontal design of the rear.

The design of the three-dimensional main headlights in innovative LED technology is especially eye-catching

Like the three-door version, the body of the fourdoor Audi A1 Sportback concept makes optimum use of the small road surface area available to a vehicle from the premium compact class. Measuring 3.99 m long (13.09 ft) and 1.75 m wide (5.74 ft) with a wheelbase of 2.46 m (8.07 ft), it succeeds in combining sporty looks with impressive economy of space thanks to its short overhangs. The transverse installation of the engine also has a significant role to play in this respect. The third dimension of this compact, sporty car – i.e. the height – comes in at 1.40 meters (4.59 ft).

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


The interior design The interior, with its four individual seats and a surprisingly generous amount of spaciousness for this class, has a tidy, no-frills appearance. The curved, wrap-around section combines the doors and the sporty cockpit into one single unit. The dashboard and center console are designed entirely around the driver. Ergonomics and aesthetics unite to create an ambience of clear-cut architecture and high-class appeal. Details such as the turbine-look air vents and air conditioning controls seem to be straight out of a jet plane. This is where advanced form and precise function are combined in typical Audi fashion: air flow direction and volume can be regulated simply and intuitively by turning or pressing the control button in the centre of the vent. The center console accommodates the integrated selector lever, only extended in drive select dynamic mode, the start/stop button for the engine, the switch for Audi drive select and the armrest with an integrated mobile phone pocket.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

The sporty seats with integrated head restraints offer levels of comfort and ergonomics that far exceed the customary standards in the sub-compact class and live up to the expectations of a typical Audi. A transparent, mesh-like fabric covers the lightweight seat apertures, which further accentuates the airiness of the design. The materials used for the interior trim appeal with their high-class looks and feel. The contrasting color scheme for the interior – white and red – emphasizes the feeling of spaciousness.

The drivetrain Characteristic Audi sportiness plus a whole new dimension in efficiency – it is all down to the combination of a state-of-the-art turbocharged FSI engine with an electric motor and innovative control electronics. Under the hood of the Audi A1 Sportback concept sits a four-cylinder TFSI with a capacity of 1.4 liters and a turbocharger. This engine is an advanced version of the unit that made its series production debut in the Audi A3. Whereas the

1.4 TFSI musters 92 kW (125 hp) in the A3, it delivers 110 kW (150 hp) at 5,500 rpm in the study. Its peak torque of 240 Nm (177.01 lb‑ft) is on tap over a broad rev band from 1,600 – 4,000 rpm. The Audi engineers have long since proven the performance potential of turbocharged FSI technology, both on race tracks around the world and out on the road. Indeed, a jury of experts awarded the accolade of “Engine of the Year” to the 2.0 TFSI for the fourth year in succession in 2008. The new 1.4 TFSI builds on this very same concept in order to maximize efficiency and performance. Multi-hole injectors result in very homogeneous mixture formation and extremely efficient combustion. This is also an effective means of helping to cut pollutant emissions. The integrated turbocharger promises optimized responsiveness and even more harmonious torque build-up. 80 percent of peak torque can be summoned up from as low down as 1,250 rpm, in other words barely above idling speed. And de-

spite its power, the 1.4 TFSI sets new benchmark standards in its class for its acoustic output too.

Powertrain Power transmission to the front wheels is the task of the sporty Audi S tronic dual-clutch gearbox. It allows the driver to change gear in fractions of a second without the use of a clutch pedal and with no interruption to the power flow. If required, the transmission performs the gear changes fully automatically, too. If the driver wishes to change gear manually, he can do so by using the shift paddles mounted on the steering wheel. Reverse gear and neutral are engaged via the gear knob on the centre console. The park position is automatically selected when the electric parking brake is engaged. Between combustion engine and transmission sits the 20 kW (27 hp) electric unit, which cuts in automatically depending on the selected operating mode – or propels the vehicle alone. The battery unit – a package of compact lithium-ion batteries – is installed at the rear of the vehicle, which

makes for a good weight balance. When powered solely by the combustion engine or purely by the electric motor, and when both are used in the boost mode, the A1 Sportback concept operates as a front-wheel drive vehicle. The high torque of 390 Nm in total (287.64 lb-ft) 240 Nm (177.01 lb-ft) from the 1.4 TFSI plus an extra 150 Nm (110.63 lb-ft) from the electric motor – is transformed into the required level of tractive power when accelerating. Overrun, or the so-called regeneration phase, is one of the most important instruments of this vehicle concept for optimizing efficiency as it transforms the braking energy released during deceleration phases back into electrical energy, instead of it being wasted and released as heat. The Audi A1 Sportback concept can in principle run self-sufficiently, using mixed operation of the combustion engine and electric motor. Thanks to the intelligent management of both units, energy regeneration as well as the automatic start/stop function, fuel consumption is almost 30 percent

lower compared to a vehicle running on the gasoline engine alone. Although the components of the electric motor add around 40 kilograms to the overall weight, the study still only burns 3.9 liters of premium fuel per 100 km (60.31 US mpg) in mixed mode, while CO2 emissions average just 92 g/km (148.06 g/mile). Pure electrical operation over shorter distances, however, is a particularly attractive alternative offered by this vehicle that benefits the environment and the wallet alike – all the more so considering that the performance achieved in this mode and the range of over 50 kilometers (31.07 miles) are perfectly satisfactory. “Refueling” the Audi A1 Sportback concept from power sockets alone, therefore, produces an unequivocal result: even allowing for the relatively high costs of domestic electricity in Germany, it is still possible to achieve a saving or more than 80 percent compared with the price of premium fuel. Thanks to “zero emissions” the benefit to the environment is even greater, particularly in congested urban areas.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009


study case

Nuvu: NEW VIEW Surprise from Nissan in the shape of its Nuvu concept car. This cool little city car’s name literally translates as ‘new view’ and it’s Nissan’s view of urban transportation in the year 2015.

Text Nissan


Photography Nissan/Noël

RESHAPING THE CITY with the Nuvu Within just a few years, cities all over the world will be at near bursting point. If mankind wants to retain the level of personal mobility it currently enjoys – and if the city is to survive – the only way forward is for a radical rethink of the type of cars driven there. One solution could be a car like Nuvu, designed for the city of the nottoo-distant future. “Nuvu is literally a ‘new view’ at the future of the city car. It is electric, of course, but as far as Nissan is concerned, for tomorrow’s city cars that is a given. No, the most important aspect of Nuvu is the interior design which provides great comfort and space in an intelligent package designed to make best use of our crowded roads and limited parking slots.” says François Bancon. François Bancon is General Manager, Exploratory and Advance Planning Department, Product Strategy and Product Planning Division, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

At a glance

 2 +1 seating in compact 3m package  Unique platform for Nuvu  Zero emissions from EV drivetrain  Drivetrain previews production EV due soon  X-By-Wire control for all dynamic functions  Extensive use of natural, organic and recycled materials

 An urban oasis complete with its own tree inside, which: • provides shade for the interior, and • generates solar energy via its ‘leaves’

Overview There is about to be a seismic shift in the urban landscape. Within the next five to seven years, some 55 percent of the world’s population will live in the city, threatening total gridlock. Unless something is done, the irony of the phrase ‘personal mobility’ will be self-evident.

Look around at the cars in a typical city traffic jam today and the vast majority will have only one occupant and four empty seats. Some might have two occupants, a few three. But find one with four occupants or more and you’ll be doing very well. Today, we buy a family car knowing that we’ll only ever need to use it to its full potential one or perhaps two percent of the time. Tomorrow, things will be different. Tomorrow, things have to be different. “There is a new generation coming up who, finally, are questioning why we do the things we do. They are asking themselves, for example, why they are buying a large car when they know that for 99 percent of the time they will be in it on their own,” says François Bancon. “It is our job to provide personal transportation that is better suited to people’s needs and to what the environment – in all senses – can cope with.”

incorporates a witty representation of its green credentials: across its all-glass roof are a dozen or so small solar panels. Shaped like leaves on a branch, the power they generate is fed to the battery using a ‘tree trunk’ within the car as a conduit. Nuvu also uses natural, organic and recycled materials within the cabin. Nissan has already announced plans to introduce an allelectric car in Japan and the US in 2010 and to mass-market it globally in 2012. Nuvu is not that car, though it does share some of the technology that will feature in the planned production vehicle. Rather, it is a concept of how a Nissan EV might look in the near future. In the longer term, Nissan foresees a future based around a line-up of zero emission vehicles regardless of their size, category and usage. Nuvu – or its production equivalent – is just one element of this emission-free future.

Nissan’s vision for the future of urban transportation is encapsulated in Nuvu, a ‘new view’ of the type of car we will be driving in the middle of the next decade. Compact – it’s just 3 meters long – Nuvu is a concept vehicle with unique 2+1 seating. It is aimed at urban dwellers who don’t want to compromise on their personal freedom or their comfort, yet who appreciate that ‘something has to give.’ Nuvu is agile, easy to drive, even easier to park. And it is, of course, an electric vehicle (EV). As Bancon says: “We believe zero emission vehicles are one of the key solutions for tomorrow’s city car.” Nuvu is described as a moving oasis, a haven of green tranquility in the urban jungle. To underline this message, Nuvu

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Nuvu in detail The central thrust behind the development of Nuvu is not its motive power but its layout and use of space. Nuvu has been created for a city of the future, one that’s even more crowded than today. That’s why it’s compact on the outside yet roomy on the inside. Built on a unique platform, it’s just 3 meters long and sits on a wheelbase of 1980 mm but is 1700 mm wide and 1550 mm tall to create a large and airy cabin.

Interior package These dimensions provide all the interior room needed for the vast majority of city journeys. Nuvu has two regular seats and a third occasional chair that can be folded down when required. But, unlike some two-seater city cars currently on the market, it is a thoroughly practical proposition with an integral luggage area providing sufficient space for a typical supermarket or shopping expedition. “It is a real car,” says Bancon. “There would be no disadvantages to using a Nuvu everyday. For the vast majority of users, three seats are more than enough most of the time.” The packaging is designed to give priority to driver comfort with C-segment levels of space and the flexibility to invite one or two passengers on board. Cabin layout places the regular passenger seat beside but largely behind the driver’s seat, allowing the passenger to stretch right out. Ahead of this seat is a third occasional chair which, when not in use, is folded away into the dashboard assembly. But even when the third seat is in use, there remains sufficient legroom for both passengers. In the interests of saving both weight and space, the third seat has a center section made from hardwearing yet comfortable


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

netting. This hammock-like approach also has the benefit of allowing cool or warm air to circulate around the occupant’s body for extra comfort. Shopping bags, briefcases and smaller items of luggage can be stowed behind the driver’s seat while if the driver is traveling solo, larger items can be stowed in the passenger footwall.

City car research “We did a great deal of research into how people use their cars in the city. We found that for 90 percent of the time, the driver was alone. For five percent of the time there was one passenger and for four percent of the time there were two passengers. You can do the math to find out how often four or more people were in the car!” says Bancon. “We gave the second seat much more room than normal because when you take one passenger in your car it is usually someone you love and you want to make sure he or she is being carried in outstanding comfort,” he adds.

Natural materials Many of the materials used inside Nuvu reflect an increasing concern for the environment. The floor is made from wood fibers pressed into laminate sheets and is studded with rubber inserts made from recycled tires for grip. To create a light and bright interior, the windscreen and roof merge into one extended panel running virtually the entire length of the car. But undoubtedly the most unusual feature of the interior is the ‘energy tree’ which rises from the luggage compartment floor to the roof behind the driver’s seat.

Solar panels The energy tree is shaped like a thin trunk. As it reaches daylight it branches out under the glass roof providing occupants with protection from bright sunlight… just like a real tree. And providing a visual reminder of Nuvu’s green credentials, covering the branches are dozens of small solar panels shaped like leaves. The panels absorb energy from the sun which is then fed back down the energy tree and used to help recharge the battery and provide an extra power boost for the electric motor. As well as being genuinely green energy, it is estimated that the power generated via the solar panels will save the equivalent of one full overnight charge from mains electricity each month. Driver controls are as simple as possible. All the major functions – steering, braking, transmission and throttle – are ‘By-Wire’ while the steering is controlled by an aircraft-style steering yoke: with just one turn from lock to lock, the steering is very direct for agility and maneuverability in the city. Nuvu’s turning circle is just 3.7 meters. Thanks to its wide track and the use of 16 inch 165/55 tires mounted on lightweight, almost transparent, wheels, ride comfort, stability and agility is of the highest order. There are two pedals – for stop and go – stalks for minor controls and a digital instrument panel with dials for speed, distance covered and battery range. The instrument panel itself is formed of layers – rather like an onion – and like the energy tree is another example of design inspired by nature. “We call it bio-mimicry,” says Bancon.

Rear view/parking monitor Two screens on the dashboard display the view behind the car – there are no door mirrors to disturb the airflow, but small cameras – and double as monitors for the Around View Camera which give a bird’s eye view of the car when maneuvering or parking. Saving energy was the guiding force behind the use of lowenergy LED head and tail lamps, while Nuvu’s heating and ventilation system filters and cleans the city air as it passes through the vehicle. Not only does it produce no emissions at source, but Nuvu actually helps clean up the city environment.

Color and materials Nuvu’s visual impact is further enhanced by its unique body color. Developed by Nissan Design, the shade is officially called Soft Feel Sandy Gold. Matching the ecological values of an electric vehicle, the molded plastics and synthetic elements found inside a typical production car have been replaced by natural materials and organic alternatives, such as the wood fibers and rubber from car tires used for the flooring. The result helps create a relaxed, warm atmosphere within Nuvu’s cabin. During the design development stage, key targets were to develop an EV that encompassed obvious modernity with engaging ambience and a playful aspect – hence the energy tree. “You don’t need to be a car lover to fall in love with Nuvu,” adds Bancon.

EV drivetrain Nuvu is more than a styling concept of a future EV. It is a fully working mobile test bed for much of the technology that will be used in Nissan’s production EV to be launched in 2010. For this reason elements of its technical specification are being kept secret for the time being.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Its compact size allows the batteries to be mounted under the seats and the vehicle’s flat floor, thus helping to keep the center of gravity as low as possible. A quick charge from empty to full should take between 10 to 20 minutes while a full charge should take between three to four hours from a domestic 220v socket.

Typical users “The people who will be drawn to a car like Nuvu are many and varied,” says Bancon. “It is a cross generational car and not a signature vehicle for one generation. “There will be common threads, however. They will be early adopters but more importantly they regard themselves as urban citizens. They don’t just work or live in the city; they are part of the city. They want a car that somehow expresses who they are and which reflects their personal ideology.”



he electric motor used in Nuvu is mounted at the rear of the vehicle and drives the back wheels, though neither its exact specification nor the power and torque figures are being released at this stage. A driving range of 125 kms and top speed of 120 km/h are being made public, however.

Li-Ion battery Similarly although it can be revealed that the batteries used are of the latest laminated lithium-ion type and have a capacity of 140 Wh/kg (watt-hours per kilogram), the total capacity of the batteries and number of modules are not being disclosed at this stage. Nissan began research into high output Li-Ion cells as long ago as 1992, but today development is carried out by Automotive Energy Supply Corp. (AESC), a joint venture company set up by Nissan and NEC Group. Unlike a conventional lithium-ion battery with its bulky cylindrical cells, the laminated Li-Ion battery as used in Nuvu has thin laminated cells and fewer components overall. This boosts its power by a factor of 1.5 at the same time as halving its physical size. It also remains twice as efficient as a conventional cylindrical Li-Ion battery even after five years or 100,000 kms of continuous usage. Another bonus of the compact cell construction is that a thin modular design is possible with a commensurate improvement in battery cooling efficiency. Higher power outputs are achieved through material improvements made to its lithium manganate positive electrode and carbon negative electrode. The use of chemically stable spinel-structured manganese for the positive electrode also helps ensure safe operation.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Although clearly a concept vehicle exploring aspects of future vehicle design, Nuvu nevertheless embodies many messages for today. Its clever interior provides ample headroom, legroom and comfort for most everyday needs without occupying more road space than it needs. The use of recycled and natural materials underlines Nuvu’s environmental message and while the energy tree might be considered as a piece of whimsy, the use of solar energy is an entirely sensible and practical technological solution to aid an emission free future. “Nuvu is a concept car, for sure, but it is an entirely credible vehicle,” says Bancon. “It is light, clean and easy to drive. It is practical and a sensible size, yet it is also embodies an element of fun: the future doesn’t look so bad, after all.”

Nissan’s EV history Nissan is today one of the world’s leading exponents of EV technology and has announced plans to launch a new batterypowered vehicle in 2010, with sales starting in Japan and the US before introduction into Europe and other markets. But that EV is far from being the first Nissan electric vehicle. In fact the company can trace its EV history back more than 60 years to the “Tama” model, which was introduced in 1947. The Tama was a family four seater with a huge rear hinged door on either side of the body to ease access to the rear seats. The EV technology of the day was comparatively primitive so the heavy battery-powered Tama had limited performance and range. Top speed was 35kms, but it had a range of only 65kms between charges. It wasn’t until 1970 that Nissan looked again at battery power with the arrival of a tiny city car called 315X-a. This was followed three years later by the EV4 pick-up truck and, another year later, by an electric concept based on the Laurel saloon.

In the 1980s the company produced an electric vehicle aimed at the recreational market. Called the Resort, it was an open-sided multi-seater that was part golf buggy/part mini-bus in concept. In the 1990s, Nissan stepped up development of the EV, especially on the technological side. A smooth coupé concept, the FEV appeared in 1991. This led directly to the two-door FEV-II concept of 1995 which was powered by a lithium-ion battery. The first production EV with a lithium-ion battery was the 1997 Nissan Prairie Joy. Based on the conventional Prairie people carrier, Prairie Joy was used extensively as a mobile development test bed. Lessons learned were then put into two further EVs, R’nessa and Altra, both launched in 1998. Both were converted from standard petrol-powered cars while the Altra was sold to hand-picked fleet operators in California for further real-world testing. At the same time, Nissan started experiments in a car-sharing program in Japan. The purpose-designed Hypermini EV was built in sufficient numbers (around 220) for an extensive carsharing program to be instigated: cars were leased to the city of Yokohama with the aim of developing a new mobility program. The diminutive Hypermini was a highly advanced vehicle powered by a synchronized neodymium magnet type motor and a lithium-ion battery. It used recycled materials as well as resin panels and had a light weight and easy-torecycle aluminum spaceframe. Although the Hypermini car-sharing experiment went ahead, it wasn’t until after the Alliance with Renault was in place that further EV development took place. And that has happened at a rapid pace. The new millennium has seen no fewer than four concept EVs and the development of many new technologies designed to improve the practical performance and range of the EV. The revolutionary Pivo – revolutionary in every sense, thanks to its revolving cabin – appeared in 2005 and was followed two years later by Pivo 2, which incorporated X-By-Wire technologies, variable chassis geometry and four ultra-compact in-wheel motors. Also making an appearance in 2007 was Mixim, a powerful EV using the newly developed Super Motor which boasted a top speed of 180km/h and a range of 250kms. Designed to prove that EV could still have sporting potential, Mixim was aimed at a generation of future drivers who have currently fallen out of love with the car. Two more EV concepts have appeared this year: Nuvu at the Paris Salon and, earlier in the year, Denki Cube at the New York Show. Unlike Mixim, Pivo, Pivo 2 and Nuvu, the Denki Cube (Denki is Japanese for electricity) is based on an existing conventionally powered vehicle, showing how quickly an effective EV could be brought to market.

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creatiVe BoX iNc. Much of the research in the concept that became Nuvu was carried out by a maverick design studio called Creative Box Inc. Although wholly owned by Nissan, Creative Box is run as an independent offshoot where the company’s young designers are given a free rein to develop ideas and concepts for tomorrow. Opened in 1987 in the lively Harajuku area of Tokyo, the designers are influenced by the urban buzz all around them. Away from the constraints of Nissan’s corporate HQ, the designers set their own working hours so as not to limit their creativity. A youthful part of the city, Harajuku is home to unusual architecture, the latest in fashions and style, street theatre, new music and avant-garde food. The designers are a diverse mix of people from all over the globe, producing designs that challenge convention. Concepts developed at Creative Box are just the sort of cars the young designers would like to drive themselves: they are, in effect, their own target audience.

exterior and interior design “Nuvu’s design is further clear evidence of Nissan’s continued desire to challenge convention and to explore all the possibilities that the EV could bring us. In many ways it was inspired by our two most extreme EVs of recent times: Mixim and Pivo 2.


Pivo 2 “Significantly, though, Nuvu delivers a more realistic interpretation of two of the most important aspects of its forerunners – the ‘Friendly Innovation’ found in Pivo 2 and the ‘Sports Dynamics’ central to Mixim “The result? We have designed a radical concept car that with just a few changes could go into production tomorrow,” explains Masato Inoue, Chief Designer, Product Design Department, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.

Developed by designers at Creative Box Inc. – Nissan’s design think-tank – Nuvu’s green house has flowing lines with gentle curves inspired by nature. The distinctive shape of the door glass on either side gives the impression of a hot air balloon that’s being gently inflated by pressure from within, while tropical fish inspired the profile of the side window graphics as a whole. This contrast between the natural, fluid shape of the green house and the strength implied by the solidity of the lower body gives Nuvu a feeling of quality rarely found in a compact car.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

NUVU, perForMaNce & speciFicatioNs Driving range


Max speed

120 km/h



Capacity per kg

140 Wh/kg

Charging times

Quick charger: Home-use 220V charger:

Battery layout

Under seat & floor

Laminated lithium-ion battery 10-20 min 3-4 hrs

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009




Photography Renault/Noël van Wilgenburg

A GLIMPSE OF MOBILITY IN THE FUTURE In parallel to its new TCe and dCi engine ranges, Renault is furthering its strategy aimed atcurbing CO2 emissions with the development of electric vehicles. Since the beginning of 2008, the RenaultNissan Alliance has signed agreements with several states and regions (Israel, Denmark,Portugal, Japan’s Kanagawa prefecture, the state of Tennessee in the USA), which will lead to the mass marketing of this form of vehicle from 2011. Z.E. Concept (‘Z.E.’: Zero Emission) is Renault’s vision of the electric vehicle as an efficient, userfriendly zero-emission car. Based on the brand new Renault Kangoo be bop, Z.E. Concept features a design which has been adapted to the spirit of an electric vehicle, with the focus on minimizing energy consumption while at the same time providing core comfort features.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

The energy consumption of auxiliary functions such as lighting, heating, climate control, etc. is a key factor when it comes to an electric vehicle’s range, so special attention has been paid to optimize energy management. Z.E. Concept also incorporates several interactive information features which are easy to use.

Z.E. Concept is powered by a 70kW electric motor with torque of 226Nm, with lithium-ion batteries. Energy saving management at the heart of Z.E. Concept’s design Z.E. Concept is based on Kangoo be bop and its compact dimensions (length: 3.95m, height: 1.85m) favour manoeuvrability in and about town. This electric vehicle was designed to minimize energy consumption, without forgetting modern comfort-related refinements. The employment of heat-reflective paint and insulating bodywork featuring large surface areas contributes to the reduction of temperature fluctuations which traditionally prompt the use of climate control or heating systems which are big consumers of energy. Insulation is further optimized by the use of acid green-tinted glass for the glazed areas. The bodywork functions along the same lines as a Thermos flask. It comprises two insulating panels with a sandwich of air. This air, which is still the most effective insulant known today, limits variations in temperature between the exterior and the interior of the car. Solar panels, positioned on the roof, power a temperature regulation system. Cooling the inside of a vehicle uses a great deal of energy, but this system permits a pleasant temperature to be maintained in the cabin, even at standstill or when parking, and avoids having to switch on the climate control when starting the vehicle. Meanwhile, the layout of the heating and climate control functions has been thought through to produce

“Solar panels,

positioned on the roof, power a temperature regulation system

a particularly efficient trade-off between performance and energy consumption. For example, the impression of heat is especially felt on the face and hands. Accordingly, if the cabin temperature is 15°C but warmth can be channelled as close as possible to key zones (a heated steeringwheel, for example), the driver will feel comfortable while using less electrical energy. The conventional drag-producing exterior mirrors have been replaced by streamlined, low-energy cameras which are also powered by the roof-mounted solar panels to enhance allround visibility, especially when manoeuvring. The low-drag full-disc aluminium alloy wheels also improve aerodynamic performance.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



he headlamps use efficient, high-performance lightemitting diodes (LEDs) which are not only long lasting but also low consumers of energy. Optimizing energy management is consequently a key aspect of the research that has gone into the technology employed for this concept car. An interactive, user-friendly vehicle. The Z.E. Concept concept car offers motorists and passengers a pleasant, relaxing ride and thissensation is enhanced by a number of interactive communication features. For example, logos light up to signal that the vehicle recognizes its occupants as they approach. Z.E. Concept illustrates Renault’s vision of mobility in the future. As a socially responsible vehicle, it is equipped with polyurethane gel bumpers, for example. These deform easily to soak up minor knocks, while pedestrians are reassured by their absorbent aspect. A linear display on the outside of the door provides a visual indication of how much range remains even before the driver gets into the vehicle. This display is redolent of a cell phone charge-indicator. As a vehicle of the future, Z.E. Concept is seen as a simple link in the overall mobility chain. To facilitate getting around in areas where space is a premium, an electric scooter is packed into the boot and is charged via the car’s own system.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

To make loading easier, the rear hatch-type tailgate combines with a wide, folding sill which enables this scooter – or any other item – to be slid into the boot. Z.E. Concept contains very few fluids that need recycling at the end of its lifecycle. The smart navigation interfaces feature an innovative approach to alleviating the vehicle’s energy requirements. Indeed, electricity can be saved by making journeys easier. The MMIs (Man Machine Interfaces) are able to pinpoint the nearest car parks equipped with charging stations as a function of the remaining range, making Z.E. Concept a car which not only warns and calculates, but which also thinks ahead… Information is relayed from the vehicle to the driver and vice-versa via a cell phone which connects directly to the dashboard. Using a cell phone-based navigation system avoids the necessity for an energy-consuming onboard computer. The dashboard itself takes the form of two distinct functional units: n a new-format minimalist display which provides specific data relating to the electric motor, n a remotely-positioned control between the seats incorporating a touchpad to facilitate the keying in of data.

ALL-ELECTRIC POWER, ZERO EMISSIONS Z.E. concept is equipped with a 70kw electric motor which delivers torque of 226Nm, making it particularly flexible, responsive and comfortable to use. Batteries are lithium-ion type.

“ Z.E. Concept

provides a foretaste of the Renault electric vehicle which will be easy to use, practical and efficient.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



Dimensions Length

3,945 mm


1,856 mm


1,748 mm

Height (with tailgate open)

1,902 mm


2,406 mm

Front track

1,572 mm

Rear track

1,572 mm

Front overhang

794 mm

Rear overhang

745 mm

Unlade weight

1,520 kg

Technical data Power source

Electric motor

Power output Peak output:

70kW (95hp)

Continuous output:


Maximum torque


Battery type



Direct with front/rear reducer and inverter





Wheels Diameter:

21”/Width: 8.5”






Pilot Sport PS2 tyres


Samsung F480 cell phone for communication with the vehicle

Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009


the daWN oF a



The RC HYbrid4 is a concept car born from the passion and expertise of Peugeot’s stylists and engineers. This “GT” coupe is the missing link between the RC Pique and RC Carreau concept cars revealed in 2002 and the 908 RC, one of the stars of the 2006 Paris Motor Show. It is a real laboratory of future ideas, bringing together numerous stylistic, engineering and technological ideas in a single vehicle. The RC HYbrid4 is an accessible and versatile car, with four doors, four seats and four wheel drive, coupled with a highly innovative electric/petrol hybrid architecture (HYmotion4 technology). Its aim: a very high level of effi ciency both in terms of performance (with its potential 230 kW/313 bhp) and minimal impact on the environment (CO2 emissions of 109 g/km in the combined cycle or Zero in electric mode). 66

Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

a NeW era…

e Peugeot Rc hYbrid4

Text Peugeot


Photography Anthony Bernier/Noël van Wilgenburg

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


A miscellaneous car: rear-, front- or all-wheel-drive modes The RC HYbrid4 Concept has a turbocharged 1.6L four-cylinder in the back driving the rear wheels with 218 hp and 206 lb-ft of torque, while additional propulsion comes from a 70 kW electric motor situated between the front wheels. This way, the RC can operate in either rear-, front- or allwheel-drive modes. That means it can also operate using internal combustion, electric only or blended modes, respectively.


Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009

The Peugeot RC HYbrid4 concept shown in Paris is a hybrid concepts using a new through-the-road hybrid system Unlike the hybrid systems used by current production vehicles,like the Prius and Honda this one has no direct mechanical connection between the electric and internal combustion drive systems.


s, in the great tradition of Peugeot concept cars, this vehicle is an automobile first and foremost. Technologically ahead of its time. The 1.6 litre THP engine which is fitted at the rear of the vehicle is combined with a 70 kW electric motor under the bonnet. The end result is a maximum power of 230 kW (313 bhp), ensuring high levels of driving pleasure, combined with CO2 emissions in the combined cycle of only 109 g/km, or zero in electric only drive mode. Another major innovation made possible by the design is the vehicle’s four-wheel drive system,

on-board technology within the passenger compartment which directly benefits road holding and therefore safety. Many other new features are available on the vehicle, for example the original design of the suspension and the on-board technology within the passenger compartment, again benefiting both driving comfort and the wellbeing of its four potential occupants. These values, modernised or reinterpreted, remain fundamentally the same. In this cradle of design of future vehicles, there reigns a mood charged with emotion and passion, a genuine love of the motor car. Right in front of the eyes of these onlookers, a new page in Peugeot’s history is being written. The RC HYbrid4 is in fact the forerunner of many new traits: details, major trends, and also futuristic technologies…

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


The carbon “skin”, highlighting pure and sensual contou


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

its urs


ver the distant horizon, the already powerful rays of the rising sun strike the façades

of the buildings in their path. Among them, the expansive glazed façade of the Peugeot Design Centre which immediately embrace the new light of day. Daylight then fills the immense workshop where undetected activity has long been in progress. In fact, right here at this time, a small army of stylists are adding the final touches to their latest creation. As their eyes gradually adjust to the brightness, each stands back from their work, exposing the contours of the car’s body to the rays of the sun. Centimetre by centimetre the sun’s rays caress the car’s carbon “skin”, highlighting its pure and sensual contours. They illuminate the Lion badge at the front of the car, the strongly styled lines of the bonnet and the expressive design of the headlamps, bringing the shape to life. The latter also blend harmoniously together in an uninterrupted flow that emphasises the muscular design of the wheel arches, the raised window line and the two doors on either side of the vehicle. A second team of engineers also share these intense and short moments. They are fi nishing the installation of the particularly innovative hybrid traction system into this automotive sculpture.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



t the start, the idea was to reinterpret the codes of a “leisure vehicle” in the form of an attractive and exciting concept car which offered a level of modernity and technology in harmony with the times and with the environment. Next, came the notion of sharing and the ability to enjoy the car everywhere, from the racing track to the urban environment. The concept engendered by these considerations is a fourdoor coupé with a strong, dynamic and pleasing style. A vehicle which through its visual dimensions and interior versatility would be accessible to the largest possible number of motoring enthusiasts.Its proportions are governed by an original and innovative architecture allowing the incorporation of avant-garde mechanical assemblies. Mechanical assemblies oriented towards effi ciency, capable of combining high performance and environmental effi ciency of the highest order.


Externally, the vehicle’s architecture places the driver’s seat as far forward as possible, thereby benefiting style, driveability and available space for four potential passengers. The vehicle’s carbon skin conceals a petrol engine, the 1.6 litre THP, which offers a maximum power of 160 kW (218 bhp), the same as in the 308 RCZ concept car. This engine is located transversally in a central position at the rear of the vehicle, allowing suffi cient interior space to seat four occupants while at the same time ensuring a large boot capacity. But in addition to this method of propulsion, the vehicle also has another mode of traction.Under the bonnet is a 70 kW (95 bhp) electric motor. This is powered by “lithium-ion” batteries and is recharged by an energy recovery system which operates during both deceleration and braking. The batteries are ideally positioned in the central “transmission” tunnel running through the passenger compartment. On the latter, the driver will also find the gear change control for the electronically-controlled six-speed manual gearbox. With no mechanical connections between the front and the rear power units, the system is controlled entirely and automatically by electronics using “by Wire” technology as used for the first time on the Hoggar, the concept car which appeared in 2003 and was equipped at the time with two HDi FAP diesel engines.

The RC HYbrid4 can thus be driven in different ways:

I n electric only mode (to start up, in town at low speed and when decelerating), n In petrol engine only mode, at constant speeds on the open road or on motorways, when the engine can achieve its optimal efficiency, n With both engines combined: • During phases of acceleration for extra power (“boost” function), making possible a maximum power of 160 + 70=230 kW (≈ 313 bhp) and a maximum torque of 178 Nm at the front and 280 Nm at the rear, • In four-wheel drive mode, when road conditions warrant it. In fact the layout of this electric/petrol hybrid system allows four wheel drive under all circumstances, benefi ting safety and driveability. This hybrid technology, as well as its special innovative layout, is an important vector of research and development within the PSA Peugeot Citroën group. On Peugeot’s stand at the Paris Motor Show this innovative system called “HYmotion”, is presented in a number of different formats, featuring different types of engines. The “HYmotion4” n

The RC HYbrid4, result of the RC Series The RC HYbrid4 four-door GT, is the missing link between the RC Pique and RC Carreau concept cars of 2002 and the 908 RC of 2006, embodies the permanency of Peugeot’s values, focused on driving pleasure from every perspective. In this endeavour, the technology used to improve the environmental efficiency has in no way compromised the design, aerodynamics, style or driving pleasure.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

technology is represented here in its most extreme version.Finally, an additional benefit provided by the vehicle’s architecture is the optimal front and rear weight distribution, with minimal weight in both the front and rear overhangs.

Exterior style

The vehicle’s innovative architecture is above all a plus for the style of the car.Indeed technological developments required for the car’s dynamic and environmental efficiency, as well as the dimensions imposed by the presence of four seats in the passenger compartment, posed no constraints whatsoever on the flair of the stylists. On the contrary, the size inspires and immediately suggests an aerodynamic and finely sculpted vehicle. Every square millimetre of the bodywork has been carefully studied and modelled to give the concept a dynamic and appealing profile. This profile reinvents Peugeot’s inherent codes while going still further in the search for overall balance and modern, flowing contours. The sense of motion begins at the

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


very front of the vehicle, where the Lion badge is framed by air intakes that give indications of the car’s excellent aerodynamic efficiency. This expressive character is enhanced by the headlamps, designed with Peugeot’s stylistic genes in mind, but made even more attractive here by the use of LED technology. These headlamps are the starting point of a waist line which lends structure to the car’s overall dynamic and flowing profile, supporting the plunging window line and highlighting the muscular design of the wings. These lateral contours then come together at the rear to draw out a shape suggestive of the powerful claws of a lion. The rear lights are contained within this area and also make a passing reference to the manufacturer’s long history, the 504 coupé and cabriolet from 1969, the 307 CC, and now the 308 CC.From a higher perspective, we discover more original characteristics, such as the double glass roof, crossed by lines originating on the bonnet which merge into the Naca unit at the rear of the roof and end fi nally in an embossed area on the boot encircling the rear logo.

The interior

As for the bodywork, an original ambience reigns in the interior of the RC HYbrid4. The passenger compartment succeeds in evoking the world of sport and ultra-modernity, thanks to the finish of particular details and its contrasting play of light and shadow. The high quality materials of the passenger compartment (leather, aluminium, chrome, carbon) and the four lowslung seats create an ambience that will delight the senses of smell and touch of motor car purists everywhere. The very “aeronautical” design of the fascia panel helps give the interior space a modern feel, with a finish consisting of two horizontal sections. Between the latter, numerous items of equipment are housed on a uniform black-lacquered background: digital displays in front of the driver (for instrumentation and visual feedback from the rear view cameras) and in front of the passenger (for leisure activities). In the centre there is a large touch screen controlling the audio functions of the Triangle® hi-fi system, the satellite navigation, the air conditioning and the car’s various settings.In another original stylistic feature, the central “transmission” tunnel continues onto the roof, in the manner of a “scorpion’s tail”, making a passing reference to the RC Pique and RC Carreau concept cars. This feature can be back-lit, as can the digital readouts on the fascia panel, to create an original ambience which can be personalised according to the mood of the driver.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Structure and suspension

Weight is a key factor in the dynamic and environmental efficiency of any vehicle. The RC HYbrid4 has therefore been designed to optimise this parameter. Its structure thus comprises a “space-frame” type aluminium body ensuring overall lightness and rigidity, to which are fitted the mechanical assemblies and the suspension. Similarly, all bodywork components are manufactured from composite materials. The suspension, a field in which Peugeot has acknowledged expertise, consists of double aluminium wishbones at the front and at the rear. The system uses a particularly innovative technology known as “kineticTM H2 CES”. This

system, developed by the company TENNECO, allows a very high level of road holding with no adverse effect on comfort. The principle is to control body roll and damping functions by means of a hydraulic link between the right and left-hand shock absorbers. This system, which avoids the need for an anti-roll bar, ensures the car remains flat when cornering while at the same time providing excellent vibration filtration. Braking is by means of four ventilated brake discs, and in particular the front electric motor which recovers energy in order to recharge the batteries. The wheels are fitted with Michelin 225/45 R19 tyres.


The car’s aerodynamic specification has been studied with particular care to attain a measured Cx value of 0.24 and an SCx of 0.494. Air flows have been modelled in the wind tunnel to optimise the car’s performance and fuel consumption while ensuring the necessary cooling capacity for both engines. The four-part front air intake overcomes the problem of heat build up in relation to the lithium-ion batteries. It is also favourable to aerodynamic performance, with extraction of the internal flow taking place upstream of the front wheels. To optimise overall efficiency at all times, these air intakes are controlled by a system of movable flaps. Cooling of the petrol engine and its two intercoolers is by means of two side air intakes and the Naca unit located at the rear of the roof. Air is then extracted via two recesses in the lower rear panel. A system of carbon wheel “discs” improves the vehicle’s penetration through the air by covering and streamlining each wheel, while at the same time preserving their very dynamic style. Lastly, the flat under floor and the rear diffuser help enhance overall efficiency. This carefully designed aerodynamic specification also avoids the need for a spoiler, thereby enhancing the car’s pure profile.

An environmentallyfriendly car with passion

With its carefully designed aerodynamic specification and reduced weight, an electric motor at the front and a petrol engine offering excellent thermodynamic efficiency at the rear, the RC HYbrid4 is designed to offer a new level of environmental efficiency in its category and is fully in step with the times (4.5 litres/100 km, CO2 emissions of 109 g/km in the combined cycle or Zero in electric mode). However this technology also makes it possible above all to maintain the motoring passion and the values of the Peugeot Marque in terms of both style and driveability. Powered by a hybrid power plant offering a maximum power of 230 kW (313 bhp), four-wheel drive and an ultra-modern suspension, its performance is worthy of that of the best GTs (0 to 100 kph in 4.4 seconds, 80 to 120 kph in just 3.0 seconds) and all this with incomparable driving pleasure and minimal impact on the environment.

ENGINES Capacity (cm3)

1.6 litre THP (propulsion) ELECTRIC (front wheel drive)


Maximum power

160 kW (218 bhp)

Maximum torque

280 Nm ; 300 Nm with overboost

Type Synchronous with permanent magnets Continuous power / Occasional maximum power 40 kW (54 bhp) / 70 kW (95 bhp) 102 Nm / 178 Nm Continuous torque / Occasional maximum torque

TYRES Michelin

Type Dimensions

225/45 R19

TRANSMISSION Electronically-controlled six-speed manual gearbox (BMP6) PERFORMANCE (driver only) Acceleration: In-gear acceleration:

0 to 1,000 m (s)


0 to 100 kph (s) 80 to 120 kph in auto position (s)

4.4 3.0 295

Maximum speed (kph): FUEL CONSUMPTION


Fuel tank (litres)


Combined cycle (litres/100 km)


CO2 (g/km)


Fuel consumption (litres/100 km) CO2 (g/km)

ZEV * * ZEV: Zero Emission Vehicle

Maximum range at stabilised speed

0 0 12.5 kph

BRAKING - Electronically-controlled braking system: management of conventional hydraulic system and recovery braking by electric motor DIMENSIONS (m) Overall length (m)


Overall body width (m)


Kerb height - with full tanks (m)


Wheelbase (m)


Front/rear overhang (m)

1.011 / 0.805

Front/rear track (m)

1.670 / 1.684

KERB WEIGHT with full tanks (kg) 1,425 Cx / SCx 0.24 / 0.494 SPECIFIC FEATURES High-voltage Lithium-ion battery, voltage 200-400 V, Converter 150-400 V to 12 V to ensure supply of in-car network in ZEV mode Inverter: operating voltage range: 150 to 400 V; liquid cooling PTMU: power train supervisor ensuring optimal consumption

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



Form follows function The design of the Volt production car has evolved from the original concept that was unveiled at the 2007 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Because aerodynamics plays a key role in maximizing driving range, GM designers created an aerodynamically efficient design for the production vehicle. Many of the design cues from the concept vehicle endure in the production Volt, including the closed front grille, athletic stance, rear design graphics, outside rearview mirrors and more. The Volt’s rounded and flush front fascia, tapered corners and grille are functional, enabling air to move easily around the car. In the rear, sharp edges and a carefully designed spoiler allow the air to flow off and away quickly. An aggressive rake on the windshield and back glass help reduce turbulence and drag. Working closely with GM aerodynamicists to shape the Volt, design and engineering teams developed one of the most aerodynamic vehicles in GM’s history. They spent hundreds of hours with the Volt in GM’s wind tunnel, testing and re-testing parts such as the front and rear quarter panels, rear spoiler, rockers and side mirrors. Aerodynamic improvements enabled GM to reach the Volt’s target of driving up to 60 km (MVEG cycle) without using gasoline or producing emissions. Inside, the Volt offers the space, comfort, convenience and safety features that customers expect in a four-passenger sedan, and it delivers them in a variety of interior color,


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

lighting and trim options unlike any offered before on a Chevrolet sedan. Modern controls and attractive materials, two informational displays, and a touch-sensitive infotainment center with integrated shifter distinguish the Volt’s interior from other vehicles in the market. Some of Volt’s interior technological features include: • Driver-configurable, liquid crystal instrument display • Standard seven-inch touch screen vehicle information display • Touch screen-style climate and infotainment controls • Optional navigation system with onboard hard drive for maps and music storage • Standard Bluetooth for cellular phone and USB/ Bluetooth for music streaming

New era in automotive transportation The Volt is leading a new era of electrification of the automobile by creating a new class of vehicle known as the Extended-Range Electric Vehicle, or E-REV.


he Volt uses electricity to move the wheels at all times and speeds. For trips up to 60 km, the Volt is powered only by electricity stored in its 16-kWh, lithium-ion battery. When the battery’s energy is depleted, a gasoline/E85powered engine generator seamlessly provides electricity to power the Volt’s electric drive unit while simultaneously sustaining the charge of the battery. This mode of operation extends the range of the Volt for several hundred additional kilometers, until the vehicle’s battery can be charged. Unlike a conventional battery-electric vehicle, the Volt eliminates “range anxiety,” giving the confidence and peace of mind that the driver will not be stranded by a depleted battery.

Chevrolet VOLT - Technical Specifications

The Volt can be plugged into a standard household 230v outlet for charging. The vehicle’s intelligent charging technology enables the Volt’s battery to be charged in less than three hours. Charge times are reduced if the battery has not been fully depleted. GM estimates that it will cost less than one euro at night for a full charge that will deliver up to 60 km of electric driving.


Charge out of driving The Volt offers spirited driving performance in a remarkably quiet interior. More than 220 lithiumion cells contained within the Volt’s battery pack provide ample power. The Volt’s electric drive unit delivers the equivalent of 150 horsepower, 370 Nm of instant torque, and a top speed of 161 km/h. The lack of engine noise, combined with special sound-deadening materials, makes the Volt an extremely quiet vehicle to drive. GM estimates that the Volt will cost about two euro cents per km to drive while under battery power compared to 12 euro cents per km using gasoline priced at € 1.50 per liter. For an average driver who drives 60 km per day (or 22,000 km per year), this amounts to a cost savings of € 2200 annually. Using night-time electricity rates, GM estimates that an electrically driven km in a Volt will be about one-sixth of the cost of a conventional gasoline-powered vehicle.


5-door, front-wheel-drive sedan


Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV)

EREV competitors



independent McPherson struts front, compound crank twist axle rear, four-wheel disc brakes, full regenerative brakes to maximize energy capture, electric power-assist steering

Seating capacity


Manufacturing location

Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly (subject to GM successfully negotiating satisfactory government incentives)

Top speed (km/h)


EV range (km)

60 (MVEG cycle)

Dimensions Wheelbase

105.7 “ / 2685 mm


177 “/ 4404 mm


70.8 “/ 1798 mm


156.3 “/ 1430 mm

Cargo volume

10.6 cu ft/ 301 L

Battery System Type


Energy (kWh)


Electric Drive Unit Power (kW / hp)

111 / 150

Torque (lb-ft / Nm)

273 / 370

Exterior Tire and wheel size

specially developed low rolling-resistance tires on 17-inch forged aluminum wheels

The Volt is expected to be built at GM’s DetroitHamtramck manufacturing facility, subject to GM successfully negotiating satisfactory government incentives. Production is scheduled to begin late 2010 for models in the United States. Pricing has not been announced. Visit for more information.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


aUdi sportBack



hile many carmakers are either scaling back their 2009 Detroit Auto Show presence, or pulling out altogether, Audi has bucked the trend with a number of important unveilings at this year’s event. The German luxury marque has already released details about its new V10-powered R8 supercar, and now it has released full details for a concept version of its upcoming A7 four-door coupe.


The new concept is simply called the ‘sportback’ and not only does it show the design of the A7, but it also previews Audi’s future design language. furthermore, the concept also signals Audi’s determination not to limit the sportback bodystyle to the compact car segment. with its sleek profile and large rear hatch, the 4.95m long, 1.93m wide and only 1.40m high vehicle easily fits into the burgeoning premium coupe-sedan segment. Power is provided by the world’s cleanest diesel technology - a 3.0L v6 TDI that

de s-klasse coNcept Va Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

k coNcept

than a realistic vision Text Audi/Robert Martin

almost completely eliminates nitrogen oxides. This engine already meets the emissions limits of all 50 U.s. states and the EU6 standard scheduled to take effect in 2014, and in the sportback concept is expected to achieve fuel economy of 39.87mpg (5.9L/100km).As in the U.s. version of the Audi Q7 3.0 TDI and upcoming Touareg v6 TDI, the 3.0L diesel mill produces 225hp (165kw) and 405.66lb-ft (550Nm) of torque in the Audi sportback concept. Power is transferred to all four 21in wheels via a new 7-speed


Photography Audi

tiptronic gearbox and quattro permanent AwD. weighing 1,800 kilograms (3,968.32lb) and with a drag coefficient of 0.30, the coupe will accelerate from 0-62mph in less than seven seconds and reach a top speed of 152mph. New Audi styling features previewed by the concept include the reduction of the number of lines, especially around the roof and shoulders, a markedly horizontal shoulder, broad and at LED tail-lights, and a new interpretation of the single-frame grille.

aN Mercedes

Car Concept nÂş2 March-April 2009


The interior design has also been kept simple and elegant, with a large glass roof, a driver-oriented cockpit, and a retracting MMI monitor


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009


udi is unveiling the Sportback concept show car at the 2009 North American International Automobile Show in Detroit. With systematic refinements to the brand’s characteristic design elements, the five-door model offers a glimpse at the Audi’s future design vocabulary. With its pronounced coupé-like silhouette and large rear hatch, the 4.95 m long (16.24 ft), 1.93 m wide (6.33 ft) and only 1.40 m high (4.59 ft) vehicle is boldly progressive for the luxury class. The technology of the Audi Sportback concept is markedly futuristic. Power is provided by the world’s cleanest diesel technology: the 3.0-liter V6 TDI clean diesel almost completely eliminates nitrogen oxides. This engine already meets the emissions limits of all 50 U.S. states and the EU6 standard scheduled to take effect in 2014. And numerous measures to ensure top efficiency mean that the Audi Sportback concept is expected to achieve impressive fuel consumption figures of 5.9 liters of diesel per 100 kilometers (39.87 US mpg). Driving dynamics in a new guise – the idea Since its introduction in 2004, the concept of the Sportback has established itself in the compact class. The success of the A3 Sportback has exceeded even the expectations of its makers – far more customers choose the four-door model with the large rear hatch than its three-door sibling. But it is far more than two additional doors that sets the A3 Sportback apart from the base model. It is characterized by the sporting elegance of a coupe, the versatility of a five-door model, sophisticated technology and pronounced sportiness – driving dynamics in a new guise. It also offers even more space and variability thanks to a tail end that is a total of 54 millimeters (2.13 in) longer that of the three-door model. The launch of the first production Sportback marked the second time that Audi started a new trend in the automobile market. The development of the first Avant models in the seventies laid the foundation for a new class of automobiles far beyond the matter-of-fact utility of the classic station wagon. The marked accentuation of a futuristic and dynamic design, high-quality equipment and extreme variability have been the distinguishing features of every Audi Avant from the very beginning.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


The Audi Sportback concept show car is now rolling up to the starting line with a dual mission: As suggested by the name, it symbolizes the Sportback principle in its purest form in the combination of elegance, sportiness and variability. And the show car also signals the company’s determination not to limit Sportback versions to the compact segment. As previously indicated by the Audi A1 Sportback concept – the star of the 2008 Paris Motor Show – the brand with the four rings is going to dramatically expand the number of Sportback models on the market.

Design The design of the Audi Sportback concept is characterized by an almost monolithic clarity and a vast reduction of the number of lines. The roof, shoulder and sill lines appear to have been drawn with a single stroke. The window strip of the coupé with its four frameless doors was kept pronouncedly flat. Viewed from the side, the softly contoured wheel wells over the 10-spoke, 21-inch wheels reinforce the impression of the precisely defined surfaces of the body. One feature familiar from the two-door Audi A5 coupé is even more boldly accentuated here: The markedly horizontal shoulder area emphasizes the orientation of the vehicle body to the road. This effect is further reinforced at the front and rear by the broad, flat LED light units. The shape of the almost


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

fragilelooking side mirrors is inspired by the upturned tips – the “winglets” – of modern jet wings. The show car also offers a new interpretation of the single-frame grille. The decision not to use vertical struts and the low overall height emphasize the sporty basic proportions of the vehicle front. Also particularly striking is the modified outer contour of the single-frame grille as also featured on the A1 Sportback show car. The flattened top edges lower the visual center of gravity and provide a striking look for the front end. The aerodynamically designed air intakes under the headlights function as air deflectors which guide the required cooling air precisely into an intake duct. They have the stylistic effect of accentuating the impression of width. The tail of the show car is also evidently related to the A5 coupé. The high top edge of the rear hatch gives rise to a strikingly clear surface below the rear lights. The low separating edge and the horizontal lines – another characteristic feature – underscore the width and therefore the sporty nature of the Audi Sportback concept. The four tailpipes integrated into the body and an air deflector in the diffuser insert are cues borrowed from the sportscar sector. The interior design is tidy and downright purist yet elegant at the same time. The large glass roof underscores the width and feeling of spaciousness. In the driveroriented cockpit, the air vents, instrument cluster and retracting MMI monitor are outlined by a filigree aluminum border.

As with the exterior, the interior is characterized by the emphasis on horizontal lines and large surfaces. Especially the wide center console – stretching from the dashboard to the back – seems to be a pure expression of function. The flat display of the MMI system is realized as a retractable system in the show car. When the ignition is activated, it extends horizontally from a slot above the central air register before moving in an elegant arc into a vertical, easy-to-read position. The high quality of the materials and manufacturing-level fit and finish are obvious when looking around the interior of the Audi Sportback concept and when touching the surfaces. The interior trim is almost completely in leather: from the headlining, dashboard, doors and the entire seat upholstery all the way through to the trunk, with the leather stitching underscoring the vehicle’s design language. The large wood trim strips on the instrument panel, center console and doors are machined from oak blockboard and sport a delicate horizontal pattern of light and dark lines. With its surfaces of piano lacquer and brushed aluminum, the MMI control unit also adds to the exceptional exclusivity of the interior. The attention to detail even extends to the door opener: Its shape is a nearly perfect reflection of the distinctive lines of the small rear side window – giving the interior and exterior formal unity. Four sporty seats await the driver and passengers. The diamond-shaped stitching of the leather surface is reminiscent of a clas-

sic GT tradition. Shoulder, head and leg room are reminiscent of a premiumclass touring car. With a volume of 500 liters (17.66 cubic feet), the trunk is generously sized and is also appointed with high-quality materials.

Drivetrain The developers at Audi chose the world’s cleanest diesel technology as the unit best befitting the Audi Sportback concept show car. The six-cylinder 3.0 TDI clean diesel is equipped with a system for the effective reduction of nitrogen oxides. The diesel engine development engineers at Audi have combined an entire package of innovative measures for this latest TDI generation: The piezo common rail system with an injection pressure of 2,000 bar, highly efficient exhaust gas recirculation and optimized turbocharging result in significantly reduced raw engine emissions. One of the highlights are the combustion chamber sensors that enable even more precise regulation of the combustion processes in the engine – this is the first time that such sensors have been installed on any engine in the world, marking yet another Audi innovation. The status of the new-generation TDI as the definitive clean-running, hightechdiesel is sealed by the downstream exhaust emission control system, whichreduces emissions by up to 90 percent. The system uses AdBlue, a biologicallydegradable, waterborne additive that is injected in small amounts upstream of the DeNOx catalytic converter. In addition to the catalytic

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


converter, the exhaust emission control system comprises the metering module, the AdBlue tank and heated lines, as well as an extensive system of sensors. The additional oxidizing catalytic converter and the highly efficient, regulated diesel particulate filter round off the comprehensive emission control system. Thanks to their extremely low emission levels, these modern direct-injection diesel engines can be put into service anywhere in the world, even in the U.S. state of California, which has the world’s most stringent emissions limits. Compared with the fleet average of the gasoline engines typically found in the U.S., the TDI boasts a fuelefficiency advantage of up to 40 percent. The diesel technology thus makes a greater contribution than any other type of engine to reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. Audi will offer this engine in the U.S. and Europe beginning in 2009.

Driving dynamics The Audi Sportback concept show car took the basic architecture and many components of its suspension from the brand’s latest and most successful model family: the very dynamic A4/ A5 model series. The dynamic suspension sets standards here, as well, combining precision and dynamism with high stability and superior poise. The suspension mountings, steering, wheels and brakes have been developed for top performance and numerous aluminum components are used to keep unsprung masses to a minimum. The new five-link front suspension makes a major contribution to the car’s dynamic character. By moving the differential further forward and the clutch further back, the design engineers were able to reposition the front axle 154 millimeters (6.06 inches) further forward. The result is an optimal distribution of weight between the front and rear axles. The front suspension is made up of five links per wheel – a support link and a control arm at the bottom and two control arms at the top. The fifth link – the track rod – connects the steering box and the pivot bearing. All these links are made of forged aluminum, ensuring low unsprung masses, ultra-precise wheel control and a high level of crash safety. The anti-roll bar fabricated from a highstrength tube saves additional weight. The backbone of the rear axle is a subframe with high flexural and torsional rigidity. If sporty handling is to be combined with a high standard of ride comfort, the unsprung masses must be kept as low as possible. Audi has pursued this approach for all the rear-axle com-


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

ponents. The upper control arms and the track rods are of forged aluminum. Their high rigidity ensures that toe and camber angles change very little when dynamic forces act on the wheels. The CDC (continuous damping control) shock absorbers, similar to those that Audi already uses on the luxury Q7 SUV with air suspension, are twin-tube, gasfilled hydraulic units with an additional external valve and connecting pipe. Their operation can be continuously varied. An electromagnetically energized, proportionalaction valve regulates the flow of hydraulic fluid between the inner and outer damper tubes. A smaller flow crosssection makes the damping characteristic firmer, a larger one makes it softer. The control unit applies adaptive operating characteristics within the mode the driver has chosen via Audi drive select. It adapts to match the driver’s driving style and the road conditions. Even from the comfort mode, the shock absorbers can be switched in an instant to a firm setting if desired, though not to the absolute limit. They are fitted in conjunction with sports suspension springs, which still provide a good level of ride comfort, even off-road.

The markedly horizontal shoulder area emphasizes the orientation of the vehicle body to the road. This effect is further reinforced at the front and rear by the broad, flat LED light units.



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SUV, MPV, 2 or 4 wheel drive, electric or

citroテ起 hypNo


Car Concept nツコ 2 March-April 2009

r diesel, it’s up to you:

os coNcept

Text Citroën/Noël van Wilgenburg


Photography Citroën/Noël van Wilgenburg


Hypnos is a hybrid in terms of both technology and styling. The body combines the vitality and elegance of a saloon with the volumes of a cross-over. Powerful, flowing and expressive, Hypnos’ unique proportions and balance promise a driving experience of outstanding emotion. The concept car’s rear-hinged doors and colour-splashed interior draw onlookers in and make them want to climb aboard. Premium cabin materials, exceptionally comfortable individual seats and dreamlike in-car technology are designed to set high standards in driving pleasure and passenger comfort.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



itroën is revealing its new concept car, Hypnos, at the 2008 Paris Motor Show. An elegant and distinctive cross-over vehicle, Hypnos explores new avenues in the design of luxury ecological vehicles. Its creative technologies deliver outstanding performance and environmental efficiency, combined with subtle but powerful motoring sensations.

The special hybrid technology used on Hypnos highlights Citroën’s commitment to the environment and shows once again that this strong ecological focus is always accompanied by driving thrills and efficiency. Feasible from an industrial standpoint, the architecture of the concept car’s HYmotion4 diesel hybrid drivetrain features a rear axle-mounted electric motor. This innovative and particularly simple set-up is a perfect fit with the character of Hypnos, optimising dynamic performance and traction while delivering impressively low fuel consumption and emissions (4.5 l/100 km and 120 g/km of CO2). And Citroën has made this advanced hybrid technology even more attractive by giving it the form of a beautifully proportioned and boldly styled concept car.

Hypnos exudes exceptional elegance and strength with its dynamic, sculpted body lines that are both taut and fluid. Hypnos is eye-catchingly proportioned at 4.90 m long, 2.17 m wide and 1.58 m high. From the pronounced wheel arches to the tautly drawn bonnet and raised waistline, all the body lines reflect strong but sophisticated muscle power. Hypnos also appeals with its vitality, giving the impression of movement even when at rest. The pillarless “floating” roof, suggesting generous interior space, flows purposefully back to the concave rear window so typical of Citroën executive saloons. The feeling of movement is also conveyed by the powerfully sculpted flanks. Hypnos’ sleek looks are showcased by the deep radiant grey of the bodywork. Varying in intensity according to the light, this colour gives Hypnos an elegant and prestigious sheen commensurate with its luxury standing. The rear-hinged doors on Hypnos make access easier, revealing the vehicle’s prestige interior as if uncovering a jewel. A cargo tailgate at the back gives unrestricted access to the boot. Alongside their aesthetic appeal, these opening systems add to the car’s functionality and underline its identity as a vehicle for long-distance travel.

Spellbinding style

A luxurious welcome

HYmotion4 technology for guaranteed thrills and efficiency

Hypnos’ sleek, flowing body lines and high-set stance atop 22-inch wheels clearly denote a car looking for new driving thrills. The initial appeal of the exterior styling is confirmed inside. The cabin, with its original colours, makes the technology more human and approachable, as illustrated by the dreamlike clock, colour therapy and body-hugging seats. Passengers enjoy a powerful sensory experience, verging on the magical.


Innovative and elegant body style

Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

The ambience inside Hypnos is light years away from a conventional motoring experience. The cabin embodies the magical content of the concept car, making each journey an unforgettable sensory adventure. The shimmering interior makes a dramatic and eye-catching break with the deep grey bodywork. Onlookers will marvel at the rainbow hues of the cabin. Using these bright colours

in the interior of an executive car interior underlines Citroën’s creativity. Using premium materials such as leather and brushed aluminium, the Marque has produced an exceptionally refined cabin that creates a feeling of comfort and confirms the exceptional nature of Hypnos.

Creative interior design The cabin contains four seats positioned on either side of a central helix in a unique configuration that brings to mind DNA and organic life, reflecting Citroën’s focus on human values. The long, three-metre wheelbase combined with the original, staggered seat layout gives each passenger an astonishing amount of personal space. Never have the passengers in a vehicle of this size had this much room. Leg room, for example, is practically that of a limousine. In keeping with executive standards of comfort, passengers can customise their own space using the pivoting blades of the central helix, which include a range of controls, such as the air conditioning settings. The seats are made up of prism-shaped components that can be inflated and deflated to give occupants upper and lower back massages.

Citroën is committed to making technology more human, accessible and attractive. Giving fitting physical form to this technology and adding new, almost magical, content was one of the main aims when designing Hypnos. The instrument cluster in front of the driver is presented through prisms, like a diamond, with each facet displaying driving information. And like a jewel, the cluster is mounted in a metal setting of premium quality. This cluster is the main feature at the front of the cabin, embracing a touch screen in the middle of the console and encompassing air vents on either side of the dashboard. Using micro-diodes located inside the air-

conditioning duct, the air vents gently diffuse halos of soft light, in a colour that varies with the chosen temperature. Hypnos also innovates by bringing passengers the benefits of colour therapy. A ceiling-mounted camera films the driver’s face and regularly measures anthropometric data. The system compares these measures with pre-recorded data to gauge the driver’s state of mind and adjusts the cabin lighting and scented air-freshener fragrance in consequence. Travelling in Hypnos is a remarkable experience in relaxation.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


F700 study case


Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009

FroM Mercedes the future of touring sedan

ercedes-Benz the superior sedan

Text Daimler


Photography Daimler

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009



ith its F700 research car, Mercedes-Benz redefines the idea of effortless, superior refinement: this concept for a future luxurious touring sedan shows how outstanding riding quality can be combined with high levels of environmental friendliness, and good performance with exceptionally low fuel consumption. Thus, the 5.17 meter long F700 with its innovative and very spacious interior design enables an entirely new and exceedingly comfortable mode of travel. The F700 is the world’s first car that can anticipatively recognize the condition of the road and level out the uneven spots with its active PRESCAN suspension, further improving suspension comfort substantially. The forward-pointing DIESOTTO drive system introduced in the F700, a four-cylinder with a displacement of only 1.8 liters, combines the strong points of the lowemission gasoline engine with the consumption benefits of the diesel drive. Its CO2 emissions of a mere

127 grams per kilometer correspond to consumption of only 5.3 liters of gasoline per 100 kilometers (44.3 mpg), extremely low for a vehicle of this class.


Car Concept nÂş 2 March-April 2009

The new Mercedes-Benz research car: The definition of relaxed refinement In the words of Professor Dr. Herbert Kohler, responsible for Group Research & Advanced Engineering Vehicle and Powertrain at DaimlerChrysler AG, “With the F 700, Mercedes-Benz shows what the big touring sedan of the future will look like. It offers environmentally compatible mobility combined with utmost comfort and an effortlessly superior drive.” With that, the F 700 meets the growing demands on luxury-class automobiles. The focus is on conserving resources and protecting the environment: low consumption, low CO2 emissions, low pollution levels. For in future there will continue to be considerable demand for the comfortable mobility provided by large sedans. Making this kind of mobility sustainable is a major responsibility which Mercedes-Benz faces up to in an all-out way. The F 700 is an unmistakable sign of this: as a research car it demonstrates with innovative approaches and technologies not only how resources can be conserved and the environment protected, but also how driver and passengers can be relieved of stress and can travel completely at ease. “Sustainable mobility only can be realized by intensive research and development. Technological progress is decisive for creating suitable products for an increasingly more critical world,” says Professor Dr. Herbert Kohler.

The exceptional efficiency of the overall concept of the F700 is evident at first sight: its design is distinguished by soft, flowing forms. Aqua Dynamic‚ is the name the designers have given to this design idiom with which they translated the flow dynamics of a fish into the design. The design provides an immediately indication that much room has been given to the passengers.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



his is made possible by a forward-looking drive concept, the heart of which is the “DIESOTTO” technology – an advancement of the internal combustion engine thought up by Mercedes-Benz. With its novel controlled auto ignition (CAI), direct fuel injection and turbocharging, it combines the high power of the spark-ignition engine with the exemplary torque and great fuel economy of a diesel. The drive system in the F 700, as four-cylinder featuring two-stage charging, attains the performance level of a current S-Class car with a 3.5-liter naturally aspirated V6 gasoline engine or the 3.0-liter V6 turbodiesel. “Our goal is to make the gasoline-powered car just as economical in consumption as the diesel. The new DIESOTTO concept is a major step in that direction, combining the best properties of the spark-ignition engine and the diesel engine,” says Dr. Thomas Weber, Board member of DaimlerChrysler AG responsible for Group Research & Mercedes Car Group Development. The F 700 also sets standards in regard to road roar, tire vibration and suspension comfort. With two laser scanners the active PRE-SCAN suspension scans the roadway in front of the car. The hydraulically controlled active suspension proactively compensates for detected hindrances, enabling entirely new comfort characteristics –a “flying carpet” feeling. Equally innovative is the operating concept “SERVO-HMI”. The display is not only particularly gentle on the eyes; the number of controls also has been appreciably reduced and the menu structure has been made strikingly simple and self-explanatory. The driver can “discuss” more complex inputs, such as a destination for navigation purposes, in dialogue with an avatar, a virtual operating assistant.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

In the design of F700, inspirations from nature join together with consciously displaye into a harmonious overall shape ‚ the embodiment of an automobile which is as effici

ed technical innovations. Flowing, smooth surfaces and precise, tense lines merge ient as it is luxurious.

Car Concept nยบ2 March-April 2009


power afforded by a luxury sedan: a two-stage turbocharger system ensures good response and torquey pulling power. In addition, when the car moves off the internal combustion engine is assisted by the electric motor of the hybrid module. The maximum output is 175 kW (238 hp), the electric motor pitches in another 15 kW (20 hp), and the system’s maximum torque is about 400 Newton meters. The 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) sprint time of 7.5 seconds attests to the dynamics of the F 700, whose top speed is limited to 200 km/h. Despite these outstanding performance figures, the consumption of the F 700 in the standard cycle is only about 5.3 liters, equivalent to CO2 emissions of 127 grams per kilometer – extremely low for an automobile of this category.

Anticipatory intelligence packed into the suspension


he exterior design of the F 700 shows that with this concept an extraordinary amount of space has been created for the passengers. The very silhouette, characterized by the long wheelbase, is a clear indication of this. The design harmoniously joins together inspirations provided by nature with technical innovation. All the futuristic styling devices notwithstanding, the F 700 is perfectly compliant with the brand identity of Mercedes-Benz. The interior concept interprets comfortable travel and well-being in a completely new way. With its REVERSE seat the F 700 breaks up the firmly established seat arrangement of conventional sedans and offers individual seating positions facing, or with one’s back to, the direction of travel, always affording maximum spaciousness and supreme comfort. The F 700 provides inspiring ideas for the technological future of Mercedes-Benz once again – like each of the research cars which preceded it.

DIESOTTO provides a glimpse of the future of the spark-ignition engine The F 700 research car shows new ways to achieve resource-conserving mobility. The heart of the car is the novel drive system which combines the advantages of the low-emission sparkignition engine with the consumption advantages of the diesel drive. The diesel engine’s crucial advances to its current combination of dynamic performance and low


fuel consumption were made possible by turbocharging and common-rail direct injection – both pioneering achievements of Mercedes-Benz. The “DIESOTTO” drive takes this some decisive steps further: consistent downsizing through reduction of displacement and the number of cylinders makes for improved efficiency, and a hybrid module assists the internal combustion engine mainly in stop-and-go operation. Moreover, the diesel principle with controlled auto ignition (CAI) makes its debut in the spark-ignition engine.

Forward-looking concept – economical, clean and simultaneously powerful On starting and at full load, the air-fuel mixture is ignited by a sparkplug as in a conventional gasoline engine. The controlled auto ignition (homogeneous combustion) to which the DIESOTTO automatically reverts within its working cycle occurs under partial load conditions, i.e. at low and medium engine speeds. As a result of homogeneous combustion at reduced reaction temperatures, very low emissions of nitrogen oxides are produced. The rest of the emission control work in the DIESOTTO drive is handled by a standard three-way catalytic converter. In addition, in order to combine the individual subsystems into one drive concept, a highly efficient engine management and control system has been implemented. The drive unit of the F 700 is a compact fourcylinder with a displacement of 1.8 liters, and yet it ensures that feeling of effortless, superior

Car Concept nº 1 January-February 2009

Similar advances are made by the F 700 in the area of ride comfort. Mercedes-Benz has always been a leader in the area of road roar/tire vibration characteristics and suspension comfort: the Active Body Control suspension system in the CL-Class, S- and SL-Class sets the standard worldwide with its unrivaled combination of comfort, handling safety and dynamics. This system is now surpassed by the new technology of the F 700. For here, once again, the new research car takes an important step to the future: thanks to its active PRE-SCAN suspension, the vehicle not only responds with great sensitivity to roadway unevenness; more than that, it acts with foresight. PRE-SCAN uses two laser sensors in the front headlamp units as “eyes”. They deliver a precise image of the condition of the roadway. Based on the image supplied by the laser sensors and the information on the vehicle state, the control unit figures out a specific strategy which the high-pressure hydraulics translate into precisely calculated fluid flows and pressures for each single wheel.

Aqua Dynamic The exceptional efficiency of the overall concept of the F 700 is evident at first sight: its design is distinguished by soft, flowing forms. “Aqua Dynamic” is the name the designers have given to this design idiom with which they translated the flow dynamics of a fish into the design of an exceptional automobile. Besides, the design provides an immediately indication that much room has been given to the passengers. With an overall exterior length of 5.18 meters the F 700 is a little shorter than the current long-wheelbase version of the S-Class, but with its generously sized wheelbase of 3.45 meters the research car

excels the production model by impressive 28.5 centimeters. The side view of the F 700 is marked by the tense curves of the roof contour and shoulder line. This sedan puts a new interpretation on a design theme of Mercedes-Benz, for the current CLS also displays such tense lateral lines. The distinctively shaped front wheel arches likewise are inspired by a current model – the SClass. After all, even a research car is always a Mercedes-Benz and stands on the foundation of the automobile brand with the richest tradition in the world.

The eyes of the F 700 The headlamps of the F 700 are a futuristic interpretation of the Mercedes-typical twin-headlamp face. Two vertical rows of linear LED arrays with superposed lens have the function of driving lights. A third vertical row of single high-performance LEDs are the daytime driving lights. Together with the continuous contour lights they give the F 700 an unmistakable appearance even by night. The “eyes” of the F 700 are integrated into the headlamps: these laser scanners gather the roadway data for the active PRE-SCAN suspension. Unlike any conventional automobile this sedan “sees” the surface profile of the road ahead of it. The driver’s door also “observes” its surroundings attentively. In the base of the mirror of this PRE-SCAN door there is a very compact laser scanner which examines the area in which the door swings open for any obstacles. If collisions threaten, the door is arrested by a controllable hydraulic cylinder.

Car Concept nº1 January-February 2009


Elegance and lightness: the interior The extremely spacious and flexible interior concept is manifested outwardly not only by the long wheelbase. Two large glazed areas in the roof also emphasize the spacious design. Owing to the use of natural materials like leather and cork and to a harmonious brown and beige color scheme, the interior makes an elegant and light impression and appears very up-scale. The right rear door of the F 700 is hinged at the rear. Reversing the direction in which the door opens makes it easier to get into the REVERSE seat – another innovation in the new MercedesBenz research car. The REVERSE seat is the heart of the new seating concept, a completely new design thought out for the right rear seat. It breaks


Car Concept nÂş 2 March-April 2009

up the firmly established seating arrangement of a sedan and instead permits individual seat and rest positions, both facing the direction of travel and in the opposite direction.

Relax position and cinema atmosphere This provides the opportunity for very different kinds of use depending on the purpose and duration of travel. Four persons sit in the conventional way facing the direction of travel. If the front passenger seat is unoccupied, at the push of a button the right rear seat can be moved to a relax position. To do this one moves the front passenger seat forward and folds the backrest towards the dashboard. Another use is made possible by the special functionality of the REVERSE seat

(right rear seat). A new type of mechanism allows the passenger to sit in reverse direction and look out the back. He can chat face to face with his neighbor, work, rest, or enjoy the audiovisual entertainment. A monitor with an overall diagonal display measurement of 51 centimeters and a surround sound system create a cinema atmosphere. More than anything else though, the monitor delivers fascinatingly deep images with its 3D technology. The innovative operating concept conduces greatly to the clear, generous spatial impression: the displays of the information and control system are visible at the point farthest forward in the interior, but, optically, appear a bit further away, because at the bottom edge of the windshield there is a mirror; the display itself is horizontally

MERCEDES F700 - Technical Specifications The drive unit: compact four-cylinder with 1.8 liters displacement assisted by an electric motor of the hybrid module.

Headline figures Max Power

175 kW/238 hp + 15 kW/20 hp

C02 emissions

127 g/km


1700 kg

Acceleration 0-100 Km/h

7,5 seconds


5.3 l/100 km

Vehicle Description Engine

Rated power DIESOTTO 1,8 liter

Max Power

175 kW/238 hp

Electric motor

15 kW/20 hp

Max Torque

400 Nm

Specific power output



7 - G - TRONIC Automatic


AP-Racing four-piston callipers


Lightweight Alloy wheels R21”

Tyre Size

Front & Rear: 195/50 R21

Tyre manufacturer


Performance Acceleration 0 -100 Km/h

7,5 seconds

Maximum speed

200 Km/h

C02 emissions

127 g/km

Dimensions Wheelbase

3450 mm

Overall width

1960 mm

Overall length

5180 mm

Overall height

1438 mm

Vehicle mass

1700 kg

retracted into the cockpit. This technology not only makes for a very clear and tidily arranged instrument panel. Owing to the bigger distance between the driver’s eyes and the display as compared with a conventional cockpit, the need for the eyes to adapt their range for far and near vision is appreciably smaller. This reduces eye fatigue and makes a scientifically verified contribution to greater stress-relieving safety.

Dialogue with your personal assistant The SERVO-HMI of the F 700 presents itself in an appreciably improved version complemented by a special assistant. Operation of the navigation system, the communication systems and the telephone as well as the audio and entertainment systems is by means of the proven COMAND rotary/pushbutton controller, to which a slide function has been added. Preselections in the operating menu are made in three positions. The air conditioning system is operated by an additional touch-sensitive control.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Many systems in research cars that were considered revolutionary years ago are in use in Mercedes-Benz production cars today. They include, for example, the DISTRONIC proximity control. It was implemented for the first time in 1991 in the F 100 and premiered in series production in 1998 in the S-Class. The Active Body Control suspension system employed today in the CL-, Sand SL-Class is an example of successful technology transfer from research to production car, as are the windowbag and the active light function. The F 500 Mind provided the inspiration for further hybrid development. It combined the V8 diesel engine of an SClass with an electric motor. At the time this duo was the most powerful, torquiest hybrid drive for a rear-wheel drive passenger car. The F 700 will continue down this path and show the way to series production for significant innovations in drive and comfort technology.

The design New forms for an exceptionally comfortable and efficient automobile: F lowing lines as expression of dynamics and efficiency n Long wheelbase determines the proportions n Interior enhances personal freedom in a completely new way Advanced Design means giving shape to the future at Mercedes-Benz. Technically, every research car is a laboratory on wheels which, with new concepts, gives initial answers to the question of the further development of mobility. Parallel to this, Advanced Design as part of the Design unit of the Mercedes Car Group pursues research into the styling of the future: What trends n


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

in technology and society will change our perceptions of the automobile in the next years and decades? What messages should cars send out through their design to the world around them in future? And with what stylistic devices can the design idiom of Mercedes-Benz be refined and supplemented? “The research cars might be called the free program of the Design unit. The impact of formal elements can be tested in them without having a direct bearing on a coming production vehicle,” says Professor Peter Pfeiffer, Senior Vice President Design, Mercedes Car Group. But one aspiration always is the focus of attention: a research car should embody all brand values of a Mercedes-Benz. The preview of things to come always must be designed against the backdrop and with the awareness of being the most tradition-steeped automobile brand in the world. This applies to the F 700 even more so than to its predecessors in the line of research cars: the F 700 does, after all, represent classic core competencies of the brand Mercedes-Benz as a superior touring sedan – comfortable transportation in an unperturbed style especially over long distances, and at the same time a befitting and altogether status-conscious manner.

The exterior design: Inspired by nature The F 700 is a futuristic interpretation of the classic sedan theme. It combines generous spaciousness and outstanding comfort with a claim to particular environmental friendliness and intelligent communication through the innovative control and display concept. In its design, inspirations from nature join together with consciously displayed technical innovations. Flowing, smooth surfaces

and precise, tense lines merge into a harmonious overall shape – the embodiment of an automobile which is as efficient as it is luxurious. The styling of the F 700 took shape in the Mercedes-Benz Advanced Design Studio in Irvine, California. The basic form of the F 700 unmistakably is inspired by nature. As already had been practiced in the Mercedes-Benz bionic car, a 2005 concept car, ideas and construction principles from nature were adopted. “Aqua Dynamic” is what the designers term this design idiom. As direct quote a “back fin” adorns the roof; it is used for antennas, the reversing camera and the third brake light. The very first glimpse of the F 700 shows that an extraordinary amount of space has been given to the occupants here – technology takes a back seat as it were. The silhouette is dominated by the unusually long wheelbase: with overall length being 5.18 meters, the distance between axles attains the imposing length of 3.45 meters. For comparison: the overall length of the F 700 makes it shorter than the long-wheelbase version of the current S-Class, but the F 700 wheelbase

vative elements like laser scanners or LED driving lights they take up the twin-headlamp motif and interpret it in a vertical form with sophisticated stylistic devices. The laser scanners that gather roadway data for the active PRE-SCAN suspension are positioned on the outside. They make the light units veritable eyes of the vehicle: different from any conventional automobile the F 700 “sees” and reads the condition of the road ahead. Looks that reveal a strong character, by day or night visually separated from the laser scanner by a painted rib is the driving light function employing all LED technology. The light units consisting of linear LED arrays are arranged in two vertical rows. Each linear LED array has a lens superposed. A third vertical row of individual highperformance LEDs functions as daytime driving light. Together with the wraparound contour lights they give the F 700 an unmistakable appearance even by night. exceeds that of the current model by impressive 28.5 centimeters. The front end is correspondingly short – the particularly compact DIESOTTO drive makes this possible.

Tense lines create stretched elegance The side view is defined by highly tense curves. This is true of the roof contour, but especially of the concise shoulder line: it starts out by continuing the line created by the front wheel arch a short way, and then carries over in a sweeping curve to the rear end. This tense line gives the F 700, painted in ALU-BEAM technique in the color gold, its dynamism and elegance. The distinctive front fenders likewise are inspired by a current production model, the S-Class. But here again the theme has been taken further and the fenders have been very distinctly sculpted. The side skirts are gently integrated into the flowing forms. The door handles are recessed and the exterior mirrors are little works of art – nothing should unnecessarily resist the flow of air. The 21-inch wheels are designed like turbine blades. Luminescent strips on the wheel arches emphasize the contours and size of the tires. The transparent cover over the rear wheels enhances aerodynamic efficiency.

conventionally (hinges at the forward edge, handles at the rear), the fourth door is hinged at the rear. This facilitates boarding and leaving for the passenger when the REVERSE seat is positioned opposite the direction of travel. Despite the futuristic design idiom, the F 700 definitely is a Mercedes-Benz. An essential element of the brand identity is the clear-cut radiator grille, which emphasizes elegance and status. No other manufacturer has refined the radiator grille over the decades with such consistency as Mercedes-Benz. The headlamp units also clearly follow the styling tradition of Mercedes-Benz. Despite highly inno-

The rear end completes the flowing silhouette of the F700. The C-pillars are drawn far back and the backlight is inserted at a shallow angle. The lightly formed wheel arches and the gently molded trunk lid in turn bridge the gap between the rich history of the Mercedes-Benz brand and its future. The rear end is inspired by the vehicles of the 1940s and 1950s, but is reinterpreted with stylistic devices of the present and future: the tail lights take up the vertical LED light strips of the headlamps, the integral spoiler lip is aerodynamically optimized, and finally the diffusor in the rear apron permits the efficient treatment of air flow.

It is not only the long wheelbase which provides an indication of the unusual, extremely spacious and flexible interior concept – before one even sees the inside. The two large glazed areas in the roof, as a transparent link between inside and out, are suggestive of the inside breadth which the interior conveys. A special feature is the right rear door: whereas the three other doors open

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


and innovative power are crucial, for intensive R&D alone gives rise to new technologies and opens up ways to new solutions. The research car tradition of Mercedes-Benz documents the resolve and foresight with which the engineers from Stuttgart long have been dealing with the core topics of automotive engineering, developing innovative solutions for the future. The F 700 thus shows new ways to a highly comfortable and at the same time resource-conserving mobility: n The forward-looking DIESOTTO drive reduces the fuel consumption of luxury-class sedans to the level of compact cars. n The active PRE-SCAN suspension raises ride comfort to previously unattained levels. n The interior concept and the operating concept with SERVO-HMI guarantee relaxed travel even over the longest distances. The Mercedes-Benz F 700 thus redefines refined automobility.

The DIESOTTO drive:

The technology of the F 700 Forward-looking combination of refinement and environmental friendliness n “DIESOTTO” – innovative drive concept for the future of the spark-ignition engine n Active PRE-SCAN suspension raises comfort to entirely new levels n SERVO-HMI: new communication between man and vehicle Individual mobility requirements will continue to rise worldwide in the coming years, particularly in countries with emergent economies. Mobility will remain the most important foundation for the successful development of the economy and society in the future.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Mobility will change in character. More and more people live in huge cities; more time will be spent on the streets and roads every day. This raises the demand not only for economical automobiles, but also automobiles which are comfortable and relieve driver stress as well as being safe, of course. Moreover, mobility increasingly will be determined by limited resources and the duty to treat the natural foundations of life gently. Most of all, consumption and emissions will have to be cut further. Making mobility sustainable and compatible with humans and the environment is a responsibility to which Mercedes-Benz as inventor of the automobile has a strong commitment. Engineering spirit

A gasoline engine as economical as a diesel An automobile’s fuel consumption is determined by a great many factors. They include weight, air drag and rolling resistance (tires), or the management of the many energy consumers in a vehicle. But the central and most crucial factor of all is the drive system. Enhancing engine efficiency remains the primary and decisive factor in cutting fuel consumption. Mercedes-Benz is convinced that in the coming years, internal combustion engines will remain the dominant type of drive in automobiles – albeit appreciably improved in all dimensions. Depending on operating conditions and use profile, supplementing it with a hybrid module can be a sensible step. Mercedes-Benz offers a wide array of gasoline and diesel engines which can be complemented with different hybrid modules in the near future. So depending on field of use and personal preferences, every customer can select the drive which is the optimum for his or her purposes. Until now gasoline and diesel engines have had clearly distributed roles: the diesel was more economical, but emission control was easier to manage in the gasoline-powered car. “Our strategic objective is to make the gasoline-powered car as economical as the diesel, and the diesel as clean as the gasoline engine,” says Dr. Thomas Weber, Board member of DaimlerChrysler AG responsible for Group Research & Mercedes Car Group Development. One part of this strategy already has been implemented:

the BLUETEC technology, which reduces nitrogen oxide emissions, gives the diesel engine the capacity to comply even with the world’s harshest emission standards – including those to come in future. BLUETEC is already on the market in the USA and will be available in Europe from the end of 2007. “Researchers and developers need challenges and great goals,” says Dr. Thomas Weber. “For this reason we think much farther ahead at Mercedes-Benz: we are going to combine the strengths and advantages of both combustion principles in one innovative engine concept. The DIESOTTO drive is a major step forward.”

Unique system for reducing consumption The DIESOTTO drive in the new research car is a unique, integrated system for consumption reduction. It involves n Downsizing by reducing cylinder size and smaller displacement; n Turbocharging; n Direct gasoline injection; n Variable valve control; n Controlled auto ignition (CAI); n Hybrid module with integral starter-generator. DIESOTTO brings the benefits of diesel technology to the gasoline engine: in the CAI mode the air-fuel mixture ignites itself the same as in a diesel engine. And yet DIESOTTO makes no special demands on fuel quality: the engine runs on normal gasoline. Controlled auto ignition, moreover, not only is more economical than the conventional combustion triggered by a sparkplug, it is also cleaner as regards emissions. In controlled auto ignition, as the Mercedes-Benz engineers term their new process, hardly any nitrogen oxides (NOx) are produced. DIESOTTO thus points to the future of the gasoline engine – a future imagined, researched and developed by Mercedes-Benz.

three liters displacement are the standard. The sensation of effortlessly superior driving in the luxury class nonetheless is retained. The DIESOTTO drive gets additional power from a twostage turbocharger system. A larger low-pressure turbocharger and a high-pressure turbocharger of smaller diameter are connected in series and together optimally cover the complete engine speed range. The complex system makes for good responsiveness from low revs, provides high torque and pulling power and delivers high peak output. For driving off, the internal combustion engine additionally gets assistance from the electric motor of the hybrid module. The maximum output of the internal combustion engine is 175 kW (238 hp); the electric motor develops another 15 kW (20 hp); the maximum torque of the system is impressive 400 Newton meters. This guarantees performance commensurate with the luxury class, as the time of 7.5 seconds for the 0 to 100 km/h (62 mph) sprint documents. The hybrid module with its integral starter-generator helps to even further reduce the excellent fuel consumption mainly in urban stop-and-go operation. The internal combustion engine always is shut off when it is not needed. On moving off, the combination of internal combustion engine and torquey electric motor is a tandem that ensures a powerful but silky smooth start. Besides that, during coasting and braking the electric mo-

tor recovers energy which is stored in a special high-voltage battery and used for the next starting operation. This starter-generator is integrated in the housing of the 7G-TRONIC automatic transmission.

Direct injection and variable valve lift The next, decisive element in the DIESOTTO system is direct injection. With the CLS 350 CGI, Mercedes-Benz has pioneered secondgeneration spray-guided gasoline direct injection. Compared with conventional manifold injection this technology provides a consumption advantage of some ten percent, among other things due to lean-burn operation at partial load. In the DIESOTTO engine direct injection is used differently than in the CGI engine, which in leanburn operation needs an ignitable mixture cloud around the sparkplug. DIESOTTO operates with a lean mixture, but needs direct injection for a homogeneous mixture in the cylinder and for the free control of the injection cycles. Another component is variable valve control. The valve opening times can be adjusted over a large range, and the valve lift can be altered too. To achieve this, the camshaft is provided with two cams, a smaller one and a larger one, for each valve. The large valve lift is needed for full-load operation and high engine speeds, the small valve lift mainly for CAI at partial load.

Two-stage charging and hybrid module The first step to less consumption is to downsize the engine. Instead of a big-volume, naturally aspirated engine, a compact, turbocharged power plant is used. This leap backwards in cylinder size and displacement reduces internal friction in the engine. The smaller unit increasingly runs in a more efficient combustion range. The drive system in the research car is a four-cylinder with a displacement of a mere 1.8 liters. At first, this is somewhat of a surprise for a vehicle of the luxury class, where up to now at least six cylinders and

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Concept NIEUWS hyundai genesis coupe 300hp or more


strict one-off, this show car is based on the all-new, rear-wheel drive 2+2 Genesis Coupe, which is scheduled to join the Hyundai lineup in North America early in 2009. The Genesis Coupe will be the most dynamic performance car yet from Hyundai and will bring stunning styling and advanced chassis technology. The Genesis Coupe will become Hyundai’s second 300-plus horsepower, rear-wheel drive vehicle, following the unveiling earlier this year of the Genesis sports saloon. The Genesis Coupe show car takes the strong styling cues of the production model – its ‘Z’ bodylines and powerful curves – and exaggerates them to spawn a unique, arresting vehicle. The bonnet, grille and other details will be different when the production car reaches showrooms next year, but the proportions and overall character of the show car reflect the reality of the production model. ‘Sonic Orange’ paint work gives the show car a dramatic appearance, which is enhanced by its bare carbonfibre bonnet and roof, and other customisations which help to reduce weight. It is powered by an all-aluminium 3.8-litre V6 petrol engine, producing 303PS, mated to a six-speed manual gearbox. It uses the same flexible rear-wheel-drive architecture originally developed for the Genesis saloon, with a MacPherson strut dual-link front suspension and a fivelink rear suspension setup. Large front and rear Brembo discs provide excellent braking performance, while grip comes from Dunlop 255/35 ZR front tyres and Dunlop 275/35 ZR rear tyres. The powerful curves, surface detail and ‘Z’ bodyside lines come straight from the same underlying inspiration that guided two earlier, well-received Hyundai concepts: the HCD9 Talus and the HCD8 sports tourer. The undulating beltline borrowed from the Talus adds intrigue while enhancing outward visibility for both the driver and rear passengers. The HCD8 sports tourer’s sensual body forms influenced the overall design direction for the Genesis Coupe, including the assertive headlight and taillight designs.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

VeNtUri Fetish 100% electric ready to go


he motor’s 300 hp combined with a controlled weight of 1,125 kilos, road holding derived from the Venturi Atlantic 300 and super-size tyres with a width of 265 at the rear all make the Fétish a car with homogeneous racing characteristics, exemplary road holding and drivability. Attaining 100 km/hr in less than 4 seconds, the Fétish is a pure acceleration vehicle. Furthermore, the Fétish offers a range of up to 290 km. Thanks to its on-board charger, it can be recharged via a simple electrical socket or the fast charge terminals. A RACING-CAR CHASSIS The architecture of the Fétish is comparable to that of a racing-car with an engine ideally placed in a central position and resting on a single-unit carbon fiber chassis. The first chassis specifically designed to integrate a large volume of batteries, the carbon fiber bodywork developed by Venturi constitutes an exceptional protection cell for its occupants; this shell is complemented by two deformable cells positioned at the front and rear of the vehicle. This configuration ensures the integrity of the battery pack in the event of an accident and thus a level of passenger safety never before attained on an electric vehicle. With the same objective, the chassis of the Venturi Fétish has been designed and tested to protect its passengers from electromagnetic emissions from the car batteries.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Concept NIEUWS the renault ondelio concept


ndelios has been designed for lovers of long-haul travel who set store by comfort and refinement. Ondelios epitomizes Renault’s vision of the high-end crossover, combining a comfortable ride with respect for the environment. Clear illustrations of that vision are the vehicle’s ethereal design, its interior layout, and an original hybrid powertrain. a sleek design that answers the call of the open road The 4.8-metre-long, 1.6-metre high Ondelios has drawn inspiration from the world of aviation design to deliver high drag efficiency and a Cd of just 0.29. This long-distance voyager boasts sleek, smooth, amazingly fluid lines that make it appear as though it glides over the ground. It embodies Renault’s vision of high-end car. “Ondelios is inspired by motion rather than speed and is a whole new response to the call of the open road,” enthuses Patrick Le Quément, Renault’s Design Director.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Business-class comfort for a long-haul journey The elegance of the Ondelios interior is in harmony with the call of the open road suggested by its exterior. Its layout is designed to profit from all the available space. There are three rows of seats that offer individual seating for six.

Weights, diMeNsioNs aNd capacities Length (mm):


Width (mm):


Height (mm):


Height with doors open (mm): 2,230 Wheel base (mm):


Front track (mm):


Rear track (mm):


Unladen weight (kg):


Boot (dm ):



techNical data an environmentally friendly voyager To complement the extensive work that has gone into Ondelios’s aerodynamics, some of the car’s structural parts are made from natural flax fibre for greater recyclability. In keeping with the commitment to make the car as light as possible, its body is made from carbon and the glazed areas from polycarbonate. Ondelios is powered by a hybrid powerplant which combines a more powerful 205hp (150kW) version of Renault’s 2.0 dCi M9R with two 20kW electric motors at the front and rear. They operate in mild hybrid mode, giving the engine extra boost as required. They use a brake and boost system, recovering energy during braking then delivering it to the engine to boost acceleration. The front motor also uses fuel-saving stop-start technology. Similarly, the body, chassis design and hybrid powertrain contribute decisively to protecting the environment.

Internal combustion engine:

2.0 l dCi

Power in hp (kW):

205 (150)

Maximum torque (Nm):

450, from 1,700 to 3,800rpm

Electric motors: 2x 20kW electric motors: 1x at the front & 1x at the rear Power supply:

4kWh lithium-ion battery. Size: 40dm3. Weight: 50kg

Acceleration from 0 to 100kph:


CO2 emissions, combined cycle fuel consumption: 120g/km, 4.5 litres/100 km Transmission:

Double-clutch seven-speed automatic transmission

Internal combustion engine drive and electric motor drive Tyres:

255/40 ZR23


Diameter: 23”. Width: 9”

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Concept NIEUWS the zenvo st1 concept


he striking Zenvo ST1 is a limited edition supercar that has been in development for almost five years. Zenvo Automotive are a little-known coachbuilder with all the manufacturing wherewithal of a cottage industry. The car is 100% build in Denmark and the design is a result of Danish design. The developing and production are taking place in Zenvo’s hyper modern production hall with all the best equipment available. Since they are working very tight with most of their partners Zenvo try to use local suppliers. Only 15 examples of the car are planned, which will be sold to pre-approved customers. Visually arresting, the car is a pleasingly proportioned mix of Maserati GranTurismo and Audi R8 with a hint of Nissan GT-R towards the rear. Power comes from a turbo- and supercharged 7-litre V8, linked to a six-speed manual transmission and rear wheel drive. Where the engine comes from isn’t clear, but with such a large displacement, suspicions are immediately drawn towards one of the LS series small block V8s from the Corvette. There must be something in the water in Denmark, however. That V8 is tweaked to produce 1104bhp, with 1430Nm of maximum torque output. With 802hp per tonne, that endows the ST1 with a 0-62mph time of only 3 seconds. It will top out at 232mph, by which time your stomach should just about have caught up with you. Lucky then that the car comes with ABS, ventilated discs and 8-pot brake callipers, to quickly stop the 19” wheels. This is a driver’s car and interior refinements include keyless entry, a sat nav system and electrically adjustable seats. The limited options list includes a custom colour leather interior, a choice of paint colours, a fitted luggage set and tailored car cover. And that’s about it. Although the company will provide a roll cage and 4-point safety harness for any customers planning to track the car.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

Fisker unveils the karma The first of its kind four-door plug-in hybrid premium sports sedan will have a starting price of $80,000. Initial deliveries of the Karma will commence in the 4th quarter of 2009 with annual production projected to reach 15,000 cars. The sleek design of the Fisker Karma, which accentuates the long hood, is a direct result of the breakthrough all-new from the ground up chassis design with powertrain development. This unique design places the battery pack at the center of the vehicle between the two axles, providing optimal vehicle driving dynamics, maximum safety, and proportionate design. Both the interior and exterior of the car will be put to market as seen at the NAIAS. The all new from the ground up exterior design features a continual flow of sculpture and dramatic proportion. Similar in height to the Porsche 911, the length of the Mercedes Benz CLS, and the width of a BMW 7-series, the Fisker Karma’s structure and body panels will make extensive use of aluminum to keep the overall vehicle weight as low as possible. Additionally, a new drive train configuration will provide optimal weight distribution. The vehicle’s low and wide stance offers the driver a unique view of the fenders from the inside of the car. Additionally, Fisker Automotive will offer consumers an option to purchase a set of solar panels for their for their roofs or garages where they can generate electricity during the day to charge the car overnight.

& the beautiful karma s plug-in hybrid convertible Fisker Automotive, the new American manufacturer of premium green automobiles, unveiled the Fisker Karma S concept at the 2009 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. The four-seat, plug-in hybrid hardtop convertible furthers the company’s belief that driving style and performance need not be compromised for environmental friendliness. The open-air Fisker Karma S concept shares its aluminum spaceframe architecture and clean Q-DRIVE® powertrain with the Fisker Karma sedan. Designed and engineered by Quantum Technologies exclusively for Fisker Automotive, Q-DRIVE® provides 50 emission-free miles on a single charge to its lithium-ion battery pack, and up to 403hp from two electric motors. The power retractable hard top, a first for Fisker, glides neatly into the trunk and a unique design language sets the Karma S concept apart. “Our objective is to create a singular design language and heritage around our stateof- the-art Q-DRIVE® powertrain,” said Fisker Automotive, Inc. CEO Henrik Fisker. “The Karma S is an extension of the Fisker Automotive product range of ecoconscious automobiles and sets the tone for our future.“

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Concept NIEUWS m

ercedes-Benz and McLaren are adding the crowning glory to the model family of their highly successful SLR super sports car with a new, uncompromisingly spectacular car. There is neither a roof nor a windscreen to separate the driver and passenger from the outside world; they enjoy unadulterated high-speed excitement with all the attributes of a speedster. The new SLR Stirling Moss is also characterised by the most sophisticated technology and a breathtaking design which reinterprets the SLR legend. With 478 kW/650 hp the SLR Stirling Moss accelerates its V8 supercharged engine from standstill to 100 km/h in less than 3.5 seconds, and has a top speed of 350 km/h – no other seriesproduction car is at the same time so open and so fast. This extreme concept makes the new high-performance sports car a legitimate bearer of the name of the British motor racing legend and Mille Miglia record-holder Stirling Moss, who drove the legendary MercedesBenz SLR racing cars from victory to victory in 1955. The exclusive SLR Stirling Moss rounds off the current SLR family and is limited to 75 units. It is priced at 750,000 euros. The SLR Roadster will cease to be manufactured at the end of May 2009 as planned, and production of the SLR Stirling Moss will commence in June 2009. The SLR Stirling Moss, its entire bodywork made of lightweight carbon fibre, represents a stand-alone design concept. Whilst the MercedesBenz designers were working on the body of the new SLR Stirling Moss, they were fully aware every single moment that they were creating a vehicle with a top speed of 350 km/h. At the same time this supreme athlete is highly reminiscent of the SLR racing cars from the 1950s, whose design idiom still never fails to impress to this day. The SLR Stirling Moss sports an exciting, pronounced arrow-shaped form and is characterised by an elongated bonnet and a compact, muscular rear. As there is no windscreen, the exterior and interior flow smoothly into one. The bonnet also stretches from its striking tip right down into the interior, giving the vehicle body a distinctly sleek air. Even when standing still, the sports car radiates such dynamism that the observer immediately falls under its spell.



Car Concept nÂş 2 March-April 2009

the slr stirling Moss rem

Further eye-catching features include two air scoops behind the driver and passenger. They carry additional roll-over bars, also uniting the traditional and the modern. The wings are powerfully contoured. Blackpainted ventilation “gills” sitting facet-like on the sides and on the bonnet also cite the legend. A thrilling interplay of light and shadow ensues through the expressive lines, underlining the dynamic overall impression. Exactly as they were on the shining historical example, the side skirts on the new SLR Stirling Moss are also very high. This prompted the designers’ decision in favour of folding swing-wing doors which open forwards. The vehicle can be closed by two tonneau covers which are carried in the boot. When both tonneau covers and the doors are closed the SLR Stirling Moss resembles a sculpture.

miniscent of the racing cars


In keeping with the puristic exterior of the vehicle, the interior is also reduced to the bare essentials. Surfaces penetrating each other in the instrument panel and doors make for an exciting atmosphere and resonate perfectionism. A mixture of high-class authentic materials such as carbon fibre, aluminium and fine-quality leather sets the style here. An aluminium plate carries the engraved signature of Stirling Moss and covers the area around the shift lever. 1 There is neither a roof nor a windscreen to separate the driver

and passenger from the outside world 2 Mille Miglia record-holder Stirling Moss (insert), who drove

this legendary Mercedes-Benz SLR racing cars from victory to victory in 1955 3 The SLR Stirling Moss sports an exciting, pronounced arrow-

shaped form and is characterised by an elongated bonnet and a compact, muscular rear 4 The extreme speedster design, with no roof or windshield, is

inspired by the 1950s SLR racing models



5 The hood also stretches from its striking tip right down into the

interior, giving the vehicle body a distinctly sleek air


Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Concept NIEUWS audi r8 V10 Quattro


udi is launching the next variant of its top-of-the-line model. With the R8, the brand has established itself at the forefront of high-end sports cars from the very start – and now comes the R8 V10. Its 5.2-liter, ten-cylinder engine churns out 386 kW (525 hp) and 530 Nm (390.91 lb-ft) of torque, which makes for breathtaking performance. With superior Audi technologies such as quattro allwheel drive, the lightweight aluminum body, the innovative all-LED headlights, and its striking design, the R8 V10 takes pole position against the competition. The V10 engine in the production sports car will be almost identical in construction to the one in the racing version. Its displacement is 5,204 cc, at 6,500 rpm it delivers 530 Nm (390.91 lb-ft) of torque, at 8,000 rpm its power tops out at 386 kW (525 hp). The specific power output is 100.9 hp per liter of displacement – and each hp has to propel only 3.09 kilograms (6.91 lb) of weight, because the Audi R8 V10 in the version with the six-speed manual gearshift weighs only 1,620 kilograms (3571 lb). The engine accounts for 258 of these kilograms (569 lb) – that’s only 31 kilos (68 lb) more than the V8. The Audi R8 5.2 FSI quattro rockets from zero to 100 km/h (62.14 mph) in 3.9 seconds. In the version with the sequentially shifting R tronic it reaches 200 km/h (124.27 mph) in another 8.1 seconds. Even then its propulsive power hardly lessens: it’s sufficient to reach a top speed of 316 km/h (196.35 mph). The immense force, the spontaneity and the thrust of the acceleration, plus the sound of the engine – all these impressions coalesce into a breathtaking sports car experience. The V10 plays a concert with growling bass tones and powerful high notes, which grows into a grandiose fortissimo as the engine revs up. This sonorous acceleration doesn’t reach its limit until 8,700 rpm. The 5.2-liter powerplant uses direct injection according to the FSI principle developed by Audi. A common rail system injects the fuel into the combustion chambers with up to 120 bar of pressure. Direct injection


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

reduces the susceptibility to knocking and provides a certain amount of cooling through the evaporation of the fuel, which in turn supports a high compression ratio of 12.5:1. This in turn contributes to superior performance and improves fuel economy. The R8 V10 with R tronic gets by on an average of 13.7 liters per 100 km (17.17 US mpg). low center of gravity engine The technical refinements of the long-stroke ten-cylinder engine include dry sump lubrication, which allows the engine to be mounted low within the chassis. The wide cylinder angle of 90 degrees also makes for a low center of gravity. The crankcase is a high-strength aluminum-alloy casting produced in a complex process. The connecting rods are made of forged steel, the pistons of aluminum. The four camshafts are chaindriven and each is adjustable through 42 degrees. This provides great latitude in controlling the valve timing. In combination with the straight, flow-optimized ducts of the intake manifold, this improves the charge throughout the entire speed range.

The R8 5.2 FSI quattro has a six-speed transmission. A precise and smooth-shifting manual transmission comes as standard equipment. The sequential R tronic is available as an option. The high-tech gearshift conveys an authentic racing feel – with the rocker switches at the steering wheel and the short shifting times of usually less than one-tenth of a second. When the driver actuates the Launch Control program by pressing a button, the R8 V10 takes off in a vehement quick-start with electronically controlled tire slip – both with the R tronic and with the manual transmission. A contributing factor to the wide lead in traction and driving safety of the Audi R8 V10 over the competition is quattro all-wheel drive – it’s the superior technology especially for a high-performance sports car. Four powered wheels get more grip than two. They enable the driver to step on the gas sooner when coming out of a curve. It’s not only the traction that benefits, but also the transverse dynamics and the stability. sharp lines and an elegantly curved roof The wide, full shape of the R8 5.2 FSI quattro seems to hug the road. The brawny proportions and prominent wheel wells underscore its potential. The high-precision styling of the lines and the elegant curve of the roof are typical Audi features. A continuous contour optically connects the front, the wheel wells, the sides and the rear. Located well forward, the cab visually expresses the mid-engine design. The vertical air scoops (sideblades) on the sides are also indicative of the engine location. The massive aluminum gas cap is mounted flush within the right sideblade. The front air inlets, which feed air to the coolers, and the lip of the front apron are painted in high-gloss black. The number of cross-braces has been reduced from four to two. The vanes of the single-frame grille have a striking chrome finish. A very distinctive highlight of the R8 V10 are the all-LED headlights as standard equipment. Audi is the world’s first automaker to use LEDs for the high beam, low beam, daytime running lights, and turn signals. Each headlight integrates 54 of these high-tech light sources. With a color temperature of 6,000 Kelvin the LED light closely resembles daylight, which is less tiring to the eyes in night driving. Further advantages of the LEDs include brilliant illumination, low energy consumption, and a virtually unlimited service life.

the ichange concept World premiere at the Geneva International Motor Show (March 5th thru March 15th 2009): with the “iChange” the Swiss designers of Rinspeed present a “1-2-3-seater” powered by a 130kwelectric motor. The concept car’s striking body structure adapts via “electronic trick-tail” to the number of passengers: while the sporty and streamlined teardrop shape seats only the driver, two more passengers may join him once the car’s rear end has risen as if by magic. In the blink of an eye the full-blooded sports car turns into a compact sportsvan. With the Rinspeed “iChange“ the automotive jack-of-all-trades Frank Rinderknecht and his partners aim to provide thought-provoking impulses for the automobile industry: “Thinking about variability and the constantly changing energy demand, we have created an extremely flexible vehicle.” The result is a zero-emission car featuring both extremely low weight and aerodynamic drag, thus further reducing the power consumption. For Frank Rinderknecht the car’s name “iChange” means more than a flowery phrase: “If we want to preserve our individual mobility in the future, we have to re-think our conception of cars - above all we need to accommodate the ecological aspects.” The best possible answer the big automakers could find for the “iChange” woud be a strong “Yes, we can!” says Rinderknecht

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


Concept NIEUWS porsche panamera


he Panamera will have three engine choices - a 3.6 L V6 found in the 2008 facelifted Cayenne with 300 hp (224 kW/304 PS) in the base Panamera, a 4.8 L V8 with 405 hp (302 kW/411 PS) in the Panamera S and Panamera 4S, and a turbocharged 4.8 L V8 with approximately 500 hp (373 kW/507 PS) in the Panamera Turbo. There is even a hybrid version in the pipeline. Rumors suggest that the V-10 engine from Porsche’s limited-run Carrera GT supercar may be offered as well, although this is still extremely unlikely given the expense of manufacturing the engine and that Porsche does not currently have a facility capable of producing a suitable number of the V-10 engines per year. A rumor is also around that the V-12 diesel from the Audi Q7 could make it into the Panamera. The final assembly of the vehicles will take place in Leipzig. Engines will be assembled in Stuttgart, and the car’s painted body will come from the Volkswagen facility in Hannover. The Panamera is generally considered to be the long-awaited fruit of their 989 concept from the late 1980s; some argue that it also presents itself as a successor to the 2-doored 928, but there may be plans to develop a new 928 too. It will be marketed as a direct competitor to automobiles such as the Mercedes-Benz CLS63 AMG, Aston Martin Rapide, Lamborghini Estoque and Maserati Quattroporte and (to a lesser degree) a less expensive alternative to vehicles such as the Bentley Continental GT and Ferrari 612 Scaglietti. It is the first V8-engined sports car built by Porsche since 1995, when the 928 was discontinued and will be produced in the new plant at Leipzig alongside the Cayenne. The vehicle has been caught testing at the Nürburgring and the original sketches are a little more sleek than the taped up model spied testing.


Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

First sight of the new Volvo s60 concept


olvo Cars treats the automotive world to an early unwrapping of a car that will shine bright in the streets for years to come. The Volvo S60 Concept gives the car world a glimpse of what the allnew Volvo S60 is going to look like when it arrives in 2010. “The all-new S60 will be one of the strongest players in a segment where the competition is razor-sharp,” says Volvo Cars President and CEO Stephen Odell. The coupe-inspired lines that gave the original S60 its characteristic stance are even more pronounced in the next generation. “The sporty design gives visual promise of an enthusiastic drive and I can assure you here and now that the all-new S60 will live up to that promise. The driving properties are better than in any previous Volvo. The car’s technology will also help you to be a better and safer driver,” says Stephen Odell. The concept car reveals that the Volvo Cars design team is stepping up to the next level in the development of the products’ DNA. “The concept car’s exterior gives a clear indication of what customers can expect of the all-new S60. On the inside we’ve been even more daring - there the focus has been on creating a vision of the future in the slightly longer perspective,” says Volvo Cars Design Director Steve Mattin. interior indicates future design direction With the interior of the Volvo S60 Concept, Volvo Cars’ design director Steve Mattin and his team are displaying a variety of spectacular nextgeneration ideas. “You could say that we are showing the road we would like to take in the future. This interior is without doubt the most exclusive we have ever created,” says Steve Mattin. The interior is packed with exciting details, all of which together create a Scandinavian fresh light feeling, full of visual harmony.

Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009


The new BMW 7 Series. Sets the benchmark again! The all-new fifth generation of the BMW 7 Series radiates a natural presence, inherent sportiness and an elegance born of precision in concept and execution. A new V-8 engine with direct injection and twin turbochargers expresses BMW EfficientDynamics at the highest level of performance. The 4.4-liter, twin-turbo V-8 delivers 400 hp and 450lb-ft of torque. New, exclusive BMW driver-assistance systems and comfort-related features further add to a truly exceptional driving and riding experience.

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Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009



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Car Concept nº 1 January-February 2009

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Car Concept nº 1 January-February 2009


Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009

Car Concept nº1 January-February 2009


The new BMW 7 Series. Sets the benchmark again!

The new BMW 7 Series

The all-new fifth generation of the BMW 7 Series radiates a natural presence, inherent sportiness and an elegance born of precision in concept and execution. A new V-8 engine with direct injection and twin turbochargers expresses BMW EfficientDynamics at the highest level of performance. The 4.4-liter, twin-turbo V-8 delivers 400 hp and 450lb-ft of torque. New, exclusive BMW driver-assistance systems and comfort-related features further add to a truly exceptional driving and riding experience. Tel. 0800 777 137

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Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009

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Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009



Car Concept nยบ 2 March-April 2009

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