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Nº 3 Car concept Magazine

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Automotive techniques - Prototypes - Engineering & design

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Sept - Oct 2009 € 11,95

CAR concept

Magazine

SPECIAL Hypercars SPIJKER AILERON

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Infiniti Essence

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Mantide

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Ferrari 458

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Mercedes ESF

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GTBYCITROEN

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AUDI SPORTBACK


JAGUAR XKR-S – THE ULTIMATE XK The new XKR-S coupe is the fastest production XK to date, providing the Jaguar enthusiast with an even more driver-focused high speed performance experience. Limited to 200 cars – available only in Europe, in both right-hand and left-hand drive The XKR-S is capable of 0-60mph (0-100kph) in 4.9 (5.2) seconds and has a maximum speed, electronically limited, of 174mph (280kph) – making it the fastest Jaguar since the XJ220 supercar.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


www.jaguar.com


The new tire: safer, more economical, quieter.

LAST

MINUTE

LAST

MINUTE

BMW Vision Concept EfficientDynamics Super Green, super fast

Full-hybrid concept, the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics concept car is powered by a three-cylinder turbodiesel and two electric motors. Overall system output is 262 kW/356 hp, maximum torque 800 Newton-metres/590 lb-ft. All-wheel drive featuring an electric motor on both the front and rear axle. Acceleration from a standstill to 100 km/h in 4.8 seconds, top speed 250 km/h (155 mph) (electronically limited) , fuel consumption in the EU test cycle 3.76 litres/100 km (equal to 75.1 mph imp), CO2 emissions 99 grams/kilometre. Plug-in hybrid, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics is able to cover the entire fuel consumption drive cycle under electric power alone. Taking the sources of energy used for generating the electric power consumed into account (EU electricity mix), this reduces the CO2 emission rating to just 50 grams per kilometre.

Ultrac Cento. Low

Comfortable

summer tire designed by

Giugiaro.

drive resistance, ultra-light and quiet.

Excellent

4

handling on dry and wet road.

Car Concept nยบ 3 September-October 2009

www.vredestein.com


Editorial

MINI Coupe Concept T

My first electric car was a FIAT 500

he first classic Mini was presented to the public on 26 August 1959. Exactly fifty years on and nearly a decade into the life of new MINI, images of the stunning new MINI Coupe Concept are today released.

Fiat 500 EV

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For the first time on a MINI, the weightsaving aluminium roof is an unbroken bridge shape and flows smoothly from A to C-pillars. The steep front rake stops above the heads of driver and front passenger and descends gently to the rear of the car, emphasising the wedge shape of the car and its sporty poise. The low rear end of the car ensures optimum air flow across the vehicle when in motion and in combination with the roof spoiler, minimises any aerodynamic interruption. Inside, sports seats with strongly contoured side supports feature, as does a three-spoke leather sports steering wheel with multi-function controls. Two Chronoswiss clocks to the right and left of the rev counter provide a close link to earlier concept cars by MINI, bridging the gap between the analogue age of the classic Mini and the digital age of new MINI. One acts as a stop watch and the other a standard timepiece.

great number of “green car” concepts have been popping up over the last two years as the auto industry moved in response to the looming economic, political and environmental problems of oil dependency. In spite of our love of combustion engines, their days are numbered by the imminent fuel shortage and we can foresee a time when the exciting rumble of the V8 and V12 will be a heartfelt memory - but with a “thank you” from planet Earth. Anyway you will find a few stunnig supercars in this number for our own good.

‘We can foresee a time when the exciting rumble of the V8 and V12 will be a heartfelt memory’ I was always fascinated by the electric car. In 1971, when I was twenty years old, I replaced the engine of my FIAT 500 with the electric motor of a lift truck, removed the tiny back bench and loaded it with batteries recovered from junkyards. After a few days of charging batteries, I was rolling along at the wheel of my Electric FIAT 500 in surreal silence, and very slowly. All that could be heard was the whisper of tires on the asphalt. A passing cyclist was astonished to see this car advancing silently. With his eyes fixed

on the FIAT, he ran against the curb of the pavement and took a tumble. I was sorry to be the cause of his mishap, but appreciated this testament to the magic of my FIAT EV. This issue of CarConcept Magazine will introduce you to a number of electric and hybrid vehicles that you may see on the road a few years from now: the Renault ZE, Chevrolet Volt, Nissan NUVU, Mazda Kiora, Citroën Hypnos, and many more. In sum, they represent the current thinking of the major car companies in addressing this new and necessary direction in automotive technology, and promise to make our future adventures in the World of the Automobile as exciting as the past.” Noël van Wilgenburg Editor

Nissan Pivo 2

Nissan NUVU

Chevrolet Volt

Mazda Kiora

Venturi Fetish

Renault ZE

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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contents 10 Spijker C8 Aileron The C8 Aileron’s design is heavily inspired by Spyker’s aviation heritage, as was the case with all previous models, but with a clear emphasis on the second-generation aircraft propulsion.

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Infiniti stunning concept

Essence showcases many of the technologies, including hybrid, and design cues that will distinguish Infiniti production cars of the coming years. And by steering Infiniti’s guiding principle of “Inspired Performance” into the superperformance, super-luxury coupe market for the first time, it reaffirms Infiniti’s place among the world’s most exclusive and vibrant car brands.

30 The Mantide, Stile Bertone STILE BERTONE has a long history of creating one-off prototypes based on the mechanics of Chevrolet’s sporting automobiles, spanning over 50 years. Today, STILE BERTONE is proud to utilize the mechanics of the formidable 2009 Corvette ZR1, delivering almost 650 HP.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


52 GTbyCitroën: beyond imagination Citroën is the first vehicle manufacturer to cross over to the virtual worlds: An original take on a road car, GTbyCITROËN is a style replica of a vehicle from the digital world.

36 The BMW Gina Concept Successful design arouses desire. In order to achieve this, it is more crucial than ever before that car manufacturers create the conditions that allow customers to establish a close relationship with their cars. Therefore, designers seek ways to promote and intensify people’s identification with their car that reach beyond pure aesthetics. In the premium segment in particular, customers demand cars that stir emotions and allow them to express their individuality.

44 The Mazda Kiora Concept Mazda revealed the direction its new technology development would take when it announced the Sustainable Zoom-Zoom plan last year. In line with this plan, Mazda is focused on making cars that achieve harmony between Mazda’s hallmark driving pleasure and environmental and safety performance. Mazda Kiyora demonstrates how Mazda will achieve a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy in the near future and introduce new vehicles that are exciting to look at and drive.

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contents 62 Ferrari’s innovative new V8 While it’s true that every Ferrari is innovative by definition, it’s equally true that in the course of the Prancing Horse’s history, certain cars have marked a genuine departure from the current range. This is very much the case with the Ferrari 458 Italia, which is a massive leap forward from the company’s previous midrear engined sports cars.

70 The Nissan NUVU Within just a few years, cities all over the world will be at near bursting point. If mankind wants to retain the level of personal mobility it currently enjoys – and if the city is to survive – the only way forward is for a radical rethink of the type of cars driven there. One solution could be a car like Nuvu, designed for the city of the not-too-distant future.

78 The Renault Z.E. Concept In parallel to its new TCe and dCi engine ranges, Renault is furthering its strategy aimed atcurbing CO2 emissions with the development of electric vehicles. Since the beginning of 2008, the Renault-Nissan Alliance has signed agreements with several states and regions (Israel, Denmark,Portugal, Japan’s Kanagawa prefecture, the state of Tennessee in the USA), which will lead to the mass marketing of this form of vehicle from 2011.

84 The Chevrolet VOLT Concept The Volt offers spirited driving performance in a remarkably quiet interior. More than 220 lithium-ion cells contained within the Volt’s battery pack provide ample power. The Volt’s electric drive unit delivers the equivalent of 150 horsepower, 370 Nm of instant torque, and a top speed of 161 km/h. The lack of engine noise, combined with special sound-deadening materials, makes the Volt an extremely quiet vehicle to drive.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


86 The Audi Sportback A7 Concept The new concept is simply called the ‘Sportback’ and not only does it show the design of the A7, but it also previews Audi’s future design language. Furthermore, the concept also signals Audi’s determination not to limit the sportback bodystyle to the compact car segment. With its sleek profile and large rear hatch, the 4.95m long, 1.93m wide and only 1.40m high vehicle easily fits into the burgeoning premium coupe-sedan segment.

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Mercedes ESF Experimental Safety Vehicle

2009 is a year in which Mercedes-Benz celebrates several anniversaries in the safety field: in August 1939 the safety pioneer Béla Barényi started his work in Sindelfingen. He invented for example the principle of the crumple zone, a trailblazing innovation which entered series production at Mercedes-Benz in 1959. With the help of its in-house accident research function, which was founded in 1969, Mercedes engineers in the following years have developed several groundbreaking innovations in passenger car safety.

100 New Citroën C3 Visiodrive Coming out in November 2009, the new Citroën C3 has a strong ambition: to replace a bestseller that has sold more than 2 million units. “This is a major renewal for the Marque and gives us the wherewithal to achieve our target of increasing market share even more, among both individual and corporate customers,” says Frédéric Banzet, Managing Director of Citroën.

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concept news

LoLa - asTon MarTin LMP1

SPECIFICATION Chassis • Full carbon fibre monococque • Steel spaceframe engine and gearbox support Configuration • Mid-engine rear wheel drive Dimensions • Length: 4634mm • Width: 1990mm • Wheelbase: 2890mm • Minimum Weight: 900kg Engine • V12 Aston Martin – based on the original DB9 road cars i.e. block and cylinder heads. • Dry sump lubrication, twin over head camshafts and four valves per cylinder • Capacity: 6000cc (6 litres) • Power: 650+ bhp (Power to weight ratio 720+bhp/tonne) • Torque: >700Nm • Max. RPM: 7500 Brakes • Brembo six pot callipers are fitted front and rear • Brake discs are vented carbon 380mm diameter Suspension • Double wishbone suspension both front and rear with Koni adjustable dampers

The Lola-aston Martin was the star of the show at the Mans series Test days: First public appearance of the Lola Aston Martin LMP1, decked out in the iconic blue and orange of Gulf Oil.

TRAMONTANA R EDITION

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he factory is located not far away from Dali’s birthplace, in nothern Catalonia, in Figueres, Spain and near the sea. This geographincal area is characterised by strong winds, “Tramuntana”, therefore both names “Tramontana” and “Tramuntana” have something in common as the pronunciation of these two words is almost the same, this is a natural force modelling the Earth, the wind. Can you guess what comes afterwards? The Tramontana super sports

Wheels/Tyres • Forged magnesium BBS wheels • 18” diameter x 14” wide at the front • 18” diameter x 15” wide at the rear Michelin tyres

Peugeot 908 HDi FAP Engine

Aspiration Valvetrain Fuel feed Body / frame Wheel type Front/ Rear brakes Steering Weight Length/ Width Designers

Mid, Longitudinal Aluminum Diesel 100º V12 5500 cc, 522.0 kw, 1200 nm, 6S Sequential Twin Garret Turbochargers DOHC, 4 Valves per Cyl Bosch MS17 Direct Fuel Injection Carbon Compostie Monocoque BBS Magnesium Carbon Ceramic Discs Rack & Pinion w/Electric Assist 925 kg 4650 mm / 2000 mm Claude Guillois (engine), Guillaume Cattelani (aerodynamics), Paolo Catone (chassis)systems

after the announcement that prototype cars at LeMans would be restricted to coupes by 2010, Peugeot was the first to reveal a contender that conformed to the new rules. Like many French manufacturers, Peugeot have had strong ties to LeMans and named their car 908 to link it with the 905 which won the race in 1992 and 1993.

Audi R15 TDi LMP1

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udi is the world’s first automobile manufacturer to develop “second” generation diesel racing sports car. Audi aims to underline its supremacy and consolidate its expertise in car technology once more at the legendary 24 Hours of Le Mans with the all-new Audi R15 TDI. Drivetrain Mid-Engine, RWD Engine Direct injection turbocharged V10 diesel Induction Twin-turbocharged Horsepower More than 600 bhp Torque More than 1050 Nm Battery Lithium ion battery powering electrical and auxiliary systems Body Type Single seat endurance racing car, LMP1 class

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

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he Dino Rosa is a design study of a compact sportscar inspired by the 1967 Dino 246 GT. Designed by Paolo Rosa, it is on display as a 1:10 scale model at the “Dreaming the Automobile” Exhibition hosted by the Museo dell’Automobile Bonfanti-Vimar in the Veneto region, Italy. Created by Paolo Rosa, the project was developed in a number of subsequent steps: from the approach definition, to the delineation of the feature lines and main volumes, the CAS and CAD 3D modeling, ergonomic study, preliminary aerodynamic study and feasibility study for the bodywork components.

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he front end is made more dynamic by a generous lower air intake that speaks volumes about the temperament of the Lancia Delta’s engine. Innovative headlights have been chosen to emphasise the sporty, high-tech appearance of the model, that are enhanced by a row of LEDs on the lower profile. The same dynamism is evident at the side, where the main theme is a high waist line and trapezoid-shaped rear pillar providing a natural support for the Granluce roof (a nautically-inspired flying bridge). The generous glazed roof – with its pillars diverging in distinctive manner toward the rear – ends in a spoiler that blends perfectly into the original wraparound rear window that features an up-to-

FRAZER-NASH NAMIR BY GIUGIARO

NiSAN uNvEiLS “LEAF”

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amir is a concept car born of the collaboration between Italdesign Giugiaro and Frazer-Nash, a company specialized in the design, construction, and marketing of hybrid systems deeply rooted in the historical automotive manufacturing company founded in England by Archie Frazer-Nash in 1923. Presented during the 79th edition of the International Motor Show in Geneva, Namir represents the turning of a new page in the book being written by the Torino-based firm since 2004, opening with the Alessandro Volta project and followed up with the commemorative dream car – Quaranta - the result of research and development on sports cars fuelled by hybrid systems produced last year in celebration of the 40th anniversary of the company’s founding.

Compact overall dimensions: 4060mm in length,1570mm tall, 1780 wide and a wheelbase of 2530mm. Mean Qazana would be ideally suited to the urban environment. Yet its advanced specification and energetic styling suggest an ability that goes far beyond the city walls. By mixing SUV and sports car styling cues, NDE’s design team has created a highly individual Crossover quite unlike anything else on the road. The tall stance, truncated rear styling and short front and rear overhangs underscore its feeling of robustness and strength, but the low roof line, assertive side window graphic and broad shoulders hint at a sporting ability absent in traditional allwheel drives.

This Namir prototype was built entirely in the Italdesign Giugiaro plant

The goal was to reinterpret the original spirit of a classic sportscar from the past, rather than presenting a futuristic car or a classic shape adapted to the modern trends. Source: Museo dell’Automobile

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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he innovative Swiss engineering team led by Franco Sbarro (the man who ‘invented’ the hubless wheel) is at it again. And this time, it’s a four-wheeled motorcycle – the Pendolauto concept – which was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show. While it is fitted with transparent Perspex wheels, perhaps to make them look like Sbarro’s earlier hubless wheels, the Pendolauto’s calling card is that it rides on four wheels. The bike is fitted with independent front and rear suspension, which allows it to lean into corners like a motorcycle. And yet, given that four wheels are inherently more stable than two, the Pendolauto may be safer than a conventional motorcycle.

The new Delta, designed by the Lancia Style centre, features an imposing grille, an emblem of the brand, and a beefy and imposing front end.

QAZANA

Dino Rosa mid-engine Ferrari

Franco Sbarro’s Pendolauto

ELEGANT LANciA DELTA DEbuT

CROSSOVER FROM NISSAN

Efficient and economical cars are especially required for the French endurance classic. Lightweight construction, environmentally friendly drive concepts and well-thought out aerodynamics are the focus of attention at Le Mans just as they are during the development of production cars. For this purpose the regulations intentionally give the engineers plenty of freedom.

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cars are especially suitable for those bored with Lamborghinis and Ferraris. The R is an evolved version of the standard open-wheel two-seater, packing a Mercedes-sourced 5.5-liter V12 available in either naturally aspirated, 550 hp guise or a twin-turbocharged 760 hp version that delivers an astonishing 1.100 Nm of torque. The Group claims a 0-100 kph time of 3,6 seconds and a 10,15-second run to 200 kph. The wheelbase has been shortened by 50mm to improve handling and aerodynamics, and weight is down by 202 pounds to just 2,777 pounds. The R stretches 192 inches from nose to tail, is 82 inches wide and 51 inches tall, and weight distribution is a perfect 50:50 left to right and 42:58 front to rear. Tramontana fitted 20-inch carbon fiber and magnesium wheels at each corner, along with high-performance summer rubber sized 245/40 in front and 335/30 in the rear. 380mm, six-piston Brembos handle stopping duties, while a custom Öhlins suspension allows the R’s ride-height to be adjusted between 85 and 135 mm. The carbon body monocoque speaks for itself, as does the exposed carbon fibre interior, which features a chop-top steering wheel, an LCD instrument panel and the controls to the six-speed sequential gearbox. Production will be limited to 12 units per year with a price tag of e 385,000.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

date design without any surround structure. Lastly, cutting-edge technology is evident at the rear where tall, LED tail-lights accentuate the elegance of the Lancia Delta. The car’s slender lines are complemented by chrome mouldings that blend beautifully with the window seals and emphasise the flying bridge configuration – and the colour contrast of the lower part of the opaque grey side member that reflects the two-tone colour scheme of the Granluce roof. The two-tone livery so typical of great Lancia cars of the past now makes a comeback on the latest models through a laborious painting process (it takes 6 hours longer than the conventional process): once it was a crafted feature within the reach of a few but now Lancia offers it throughout its range.

UPSEttING CINqUE-NOvE-NOvE

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issan LEAF, the world’s first affordable, zero-emission car. Designed specifically for a lithiumion battery-powered chassis, The LEAF is a medium-size hatchback that comfortably seats five adults and has a range of more than 160km, says Nissan. Slated for launch in late 2010 in Japan, the United States, and Europe, the LEAF ushers in a new era of mobility - the zero-emission era. Pricing details will be announced closer to start of sales in late 2010; however, the company expects the car to be competitively priced in the range of a well-equipped C-segment vehicle. Additionally, and is expected to qualify for an array of significant local, regional and national tax breaks and incentives in markets around the world. As an added benefit, because the vehicle has less mechanical complexity than a traditional gasoline-powered car, and designed to be friendly to the wallet as well as to the environment. The LEAF is powered by laminated compact lithium-ion batteries, which generate power output of over 90kW, while its electric motor delivers 80kW/280Nm.

FErrAri FiorANo 599 GTb

he Ferrari Fiorano 599 GTB is named for its total engine displacement (5999 cc), Gran Turismo Berlinetta, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari. Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ferrari’s Designer Frank Stephenson (now styling director at McLaren). The V12 engine produces a maximum of 620 PS (456 kW; 612 hp), a 3.7-second 0-to-62 mph (100 km/h) time making it the most powerful series production Ferrari road car. Making its debut at the Geneva Motor show in 2006 (here at the Mondial 2008 in Paris) the Cinque - Nove Nove - Gran Turismo Berlinetta is really upsetting the mind. All car enthusiasts especially Ferrari amateurs are agree to say that: the 2007 Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano will go down in history as one of the greatest Ferrari road cars ever.

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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study case

Spyker C8 Aileron production car Ready

The design of the hand-crafted Spyker C8 Aileron represents the latest evolution of Spyker’s signature architecture, which is prominently inspired by the company’s aviation heritage

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


Text Spijker n Photography Spijker/Noël van Wilgenburg

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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a year we transformed that “ Within prototype into the production-ready car we show here today ” Says Victor R. Muller

W

orld debut for the production version of the Spyker C8 Aileron at the “Salon International de l’Automobile” in Geneva.

Spyker Cars, introduced the production version of its all-new second-generation sports car: the Spyker C8 Aileron, the prototype of which was shown at Geneva in 2008. Victor R. Muller, Spyker Cars’ founder and Chief Executive Officer said on the occasion of the unveiling: “When we unveiled the C8 Aileron prototype here last year, we wanted to make a clear statement to the industry that Spyker was about to take the next step in its short but intense history, by introducing its second-generation sports cars, developed from scratch. Within a year we transformed that prototype into the production-ready car we show here today. The first cars are being built now with customer production and deliveries starting in May 2009. The C8 Aileron’s design is heavily inspired by Spyker’s aviation heritage, as was the case with all previous models, but with a clear emphasis on the second-generation aircraft propulsion: the turbine rather than the propeller that adorned so many elements of the first-generation cars. Similarly the “Aileron” name pays tribute to that aviation heritage. It is the device that makes an aircraft turn and symbolizes the turning point that the Aileron is for Spyker: the car which will turn the company towards long-awaited profitability.”

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


SPYKER C8 AILERON: A COMPLETELY NEW CAR All-Aluminium Space frame Chassis The Spyker C8 Aileron’s all-aluminium space frame was completely redesigned from scratch with the objective to increase torsional rigidity and to incorporate an all-new suspension system. These characteristics provide an ideal foundation for enhanced vehicle dynamics. Moreover, the C8 Aileron’s dimensions have been optimised for more interior space and to accommodate the optional automatic gearbox. Compared to the short wheelbase of the firstgeneration cars - the Spyker C8 Laviolette and C8 Spyder - the wheelbase of the C8 Aileron is 150 mm longer, also providing for more driving comfort and stability at high speeds. Its front track has increased by 155 mm. The total dimensions of the front and rear track are now 1625 mm and 1645 mm respectively, which improves road handling significantly. Spyker has put tremendous efforts in the space frame performance of the C8 Aileron, specifically the structure’s efficiency. The utilisation of modern finite element and numerical optimization methods has allowed Spyker’s engineers to arrive at an exceptionally stiff structure of 22.000Nm/degree. Rigidnode and load-path technology

has been employed in order to ensure that the minimum amount of aluminium is used to achieve this performance, thus reducing the overall weight of the vehicle. The dynamic stiffness characteristics of the structure have been carefully tuned in order to minimize unwanted cabin noises and vibrations, which may otherwise detract from the driving experience. These technologies and measures have allowed Spyker to arrive at the most efficient chassis in its history.

Design The design of the hand-crafted Spyker C8 Aileron represents the latest evolution of Spyker’s signature architecture, which is prominently inspired by the company’s aviation heritage. In the first-generation cars, the propeller design was consistently applied to many elements of the cars. Within the design of the new Spyker C8 Aileron, the emphasis was shifted from the propeller propulsion to the turbine propulsion. As a result, for instance, the bright polished air inlets were converted into turbine-engineshaped air scoops. In order to enhance the aerodynamic performance of the car, several changes in styling were made, such as stretching the canopy backwards. Most of the shark-like gills have been abandoned, which results in a cleaner, smoother appearance.

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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The front end is now characterised by a larger grille that gives additional cooling. Also the rear diffuser was redesigned for improved functionality. An extra spoiler has been placed under the diffuser, providing additional downforce to boost the ground effect produced by the diffuser. Sometimes practicality gains over design: the split side windows with the characteristic metal frame have been replaced by single-pane side windows that are fully retractable, improving driving comfort. The outside mirrors, standard in body colour, were redesigned and the mirror body is mounted on two turbine fan blades. The rear lights are made of LEDs (light-emitting diodes). LED lights were also used for the indicators and the sidelights in the redesigned headlight units. The style of the headlights is particularly eyecatching as they follow the body design more closely. This characteristic styling can be defined as a part of the (future) Spyker identity first seen on the Spyker C12 Laturbie and subsequently in the Spyker D8 Peking-to-Paris. In fact, the latter will use the identical headlight units to those of the Aileron. The C8 Aileron is available in 16 standard colours, but customers may choose any colour they wish as an option, as well as the Spyker Squadron GT2 colour scheme. The standard colours have been developed by Sikkens Autolakken Nederland and AkzoNobel Car Refinishes. Spyker selected these companies because of their high quality standards and their flexibility to meet with special requirements. Some of the standard colours have been created especially for the C8 Aileron.

Power train The Spyker C8 Aileron will use the Audi 4.2 litre V8 engine, giving 400 bhp and will be available with two transmission alternatives. The first one is a 6-speed Getrag manual gearbox, with ratios perfectly matched to the V8 engine. This is joined by a ZF 6-speed automatic gearbox, which comes standard with paddle shifts behind the steering wheel, to progress smoothly through the ratios. Both transmissions retain Spyker’s trademark exposed gear change mechanism.

Interior Thanks to the longer chassis, the Spyker C8 Aileron has more interior space, which results in a higher comfort level and improved ergonomics. The interior, with its typical attention to detail, is made of the highest quality leather, from the Litano range of the Dutch Royal Tannery Hulshof. The leather interior is available in 14 standard colours, but any other colour – if desired by the customer – can be ordered as an option. Driver and passenger sit low, close to the car’s centre of gravity, where they can feel the car reacting to the input of the driver, for a direct and sporting connection between car and driver. The dashboard was completely redesigned to suit the new Spyker identity and to improve ergonomics and functionality. Air vents are designed in turbine style and the performance and distribution of the air conditioning was improved significantly. A multifunctional LCD display is integrated between the speedometer and the odometer. The middle

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

console accommodates the standard Kharma sound system (see In-Car Entertainment). Chronoswiss dials and switches are available as an option. More space was created around the Spyker characteristic floor-mounted pedal box. The impression of professional functionality and ergonomic styling is enhanced by the optimised positioning of the door handle and the hand-brake lever.

In-Car Entertainment With larger numbers of cars going into the market and the increased popularity of the iPod and similar products, the demand for a standard sound system fitted by the factory increased. As a result, every Spyker C8 Aileron will be equipped as standard with a Kharma sound system, incorporating a digital radio, Bluetooth interface, an iPod connectivity and a navigation system. The Kharma sound system offers joystick controls on the central console and a dashboard display, paired to 6 Kharma loudspeakers. It can be extended with two optional audio packages. The presence of a Kharma sound system in the Spyker C8 Aileron marks Kharma’s debut in the world of automotive entertainment. Kharma International produces high-end audio products and sells worldwide through a network of highly qualified distributors and dealers. All sound systems are developed, assembled and tested in the Netherlands, with the utmost care by a team of highly engaged specialists. These characteristics of high-quality products and exclusiveness are in line with Spyker’s brand values craftsmanship and exclusivity.

Suspension & Wheels The C8 Aileron is fitted with a brand-new front and rear independent double-wishbone suspension system. The new suspension system includes a new kinematic layout of the front and rear suspension, front and rear stabilizer bars, mono-tube dampers, coil over damper steel springs, anti-dive and antisquat setup for improved handling properties. The suspension components are made of forged aluminium where possible, to keep the vehicle’s unsprung weight as low as possible. Shock absorbers are now placed vertically within the wishbones. The Aeroblade™ wheels of the first-generation cars are replaced by newly-designed 19-inch alloy wheels. New 10-blade, 19-inch directional rotor wheels, branded Rotorblade™, are available as an option. These wheels are inspired by the turbine blades of a jet engine, which hints the new styling direction while respecting the aviation heritage. The 235/35 size tyres at the front and up to 295/30 at the rear provide the necessary road holding.

Brakes Brakes are supplied by AP Racing, a partner from day one. Black brake calipers with Spyker script are standard. Colourcoded calipers with Spyker script can be ordered as an option. Carbon ceramic brakes will be available as an option soon.


The dashboard was completely redesigned to suit the new Spyker identity and to improve ergonomics and functionality

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technique Technical Specifications Spyker C8 Aileron Engine Type

Aluminium 4.2 litre (4163cm3) V8 spark-ignition Engine

Mid-mounted engine Fully stainless steel exhaust system with active bypass valves

Exhaust

Two sets of single pipes with ‘Nulla Tenaci’ engraving

Displacement

4.2 litres (4163cm3)

Max. Output

298 Kw (400bhp)

Max. Torque

480Nm (354lb/ft)

Max. Revolutions

700 Rpm

Max. Speed

300 km/h (187mph)

Chassis

All-aluminium spaceframe chassis composed of extrusions and folded sheet aluminium

Body

Aluminium Superformed body Two-seat, two-door body. Extruded aluminium side-impact bars and integral rollover bars. Xenon headlights with LED sidelights and indicators. LED taillights

Transmission

Suspension

Weight

1425kg (3142lbs)

Wheelbase

2727mm (107”)

Length

4617mm (182”)

Width (exc. mirrors)

1972mm (77”)

Front track

1625mm (64”)

Rear track

1645mm (65”)

Height

1270mm (50”)

Fuel tank capacity

57 litres (15 US gallons)

Rear-wheel drive Manual

Rear mid-mounted 6-speed Getrag manual gearbox

Automatic

Rear mid-mounted 6-speed ZF automatic gearbox with torque converter.

F ront and rear independent forged aluminium double wishbone suspension system, including a new kinematic layout of the front and rear suspension Front and rear stabilizer bars Mono-tube dampers,coil over damper steel springs Anti-dive and anti-squat setup for improved handling properties

Brakes

Wheels & tyres

R adial-mounted four-piston AP Racing brake calipers. Brake calipers available in various colours with Spyker logo. Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). Electronic Brake Distribution (EBD), Front

350mm diameter vented and cross-drilled steel brake discs

Rear

332 diameter vented and cross-drilled steel brake discs

Wheels

Standard

19” alloy wheels

Optional

19” directional Rotorblade™ alloy wheels (10-blade design)

Front

8,5Jx19 inch

Rear

10Jx19 inch

Front

235/35 ZR19

Rear

295/30 ZR19

Tyres

Interior

Full-leather interior by Dutch Royal Tanneries Hulshof Brushed aluminium dashboard Air conditioning Driver and passenger airbags with passenger airbag deactivation switch Optional

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

T urned aluminium dashboard and Chronoswiss dials are optional, In Car Entertainment Kharma Sound System incorporating a digital radio, Bluetooth interface, iPod connectivity and navigation system


Car Concept nยบ3 September-October 2009

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600 hp Infiniti Essence: the World

The dramatic design, technology and performance statement is a 600hp, petrol/electric hybrid coupe with rear-wheel drive. What Essence is not is merely an indulgent birthday present from Infiniti to itself. 18

Car Concept nยบ 3 September-October 2009


d’s most powerful hybrid car

Text Infinity

n

Photography Infiniti/Noël van Wilgenburg

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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Presented as a concept at the 79th of Geneva, Essence is a celebration history as a creator of performanc inspiring exploration into the bran

T

his concept embodies Infiniti’s core values as an inspiration for the future as much a celebration of the past. Essence showcases many of the technologies, including hybrid, and design cues that will distinguish Infiniti production cars of the coming years. And by steering Infiniti’s guiding principle of “Inspired Performance” into the superperformance, super-luxury coupe market for the first time, it reaffirms Infiniti’s place among the world’s most exclusive and vibrant car brands.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

Infiniti ESSENCE: THE CONCEPT

Essence showcases many of the technologies, including hybrid, and design cues that will distinguish Infiniti production cars of the coming years. And by steering Infiniti’s guiding principle of “Inspired Performance” into the super-performance, super-luxury coupe market for the first time, it reaffirms Infiniti’s place among the world’s most exclusive and vibrant car brands. Essence began life not in the design studio but in Infiniti’s product planning department. François Bancon, General Manager Advanced Product Planning, (see Nissan NUVU insert) and his team might not, at the start of the project, have known


design language in a shape that the 20-year-old marque has never before attempted. The result is highly sculptural yet also very delicate. The bonnet is, as you would expect of an Infiniti, long, and the rear deck short. Together with a flowing “wave” profile between muscular front and rear wheelarches, Essence at first appears to be in the classic sports car mould. But there is nothing retro about Essence. The side window graphics bring a particularly innovative and distinctive edge to the styling. The window appears to be resting on a ledge, its razor sharp line in contrast to the concave sweep of the upper body just below it. Imagine juxtaposing flowing water with the stark outline of a canyon landscape.

International Motor Show n of Infiniti and its 20 years ce cars. But equally it is an nd’s future.

h

how Essence would look, but they did know what it had to be, why it had to exist – and who it would appeal to.

The rear section also features complex surfacing with concave “scoops” that flow down the rear pillars from one of Essence’s most distinctive design cues: a C-shaped kink to the side windows’ trailing edge. Outlined by a wide flourish of stainless steel, it adds instant movement to the car even when it is standing still. One of the most distinctive details is the trim around the side air vents. The simple yet delicate shape, finely finished in aluminium.

Essence’s front is characterised by Infiniti’s signature double-arch grille, set at an angle that suggests the car is about to leap forward. There is an illuminated Infiniti badge at its heart. Rounded corners effectively hide the front overhang and make this 4,7m long car appear anything but big in the flesh. The grille is framed by subtle strips of stainless steel but there’s little other trim and no other grilles or intakes, not even foglights. At the front as over the rest of the car, Essence eschews superfluous body embellishments that could interrupt the graceful strength of the whole. The door handles are slithers of push buttons flush with the body while even rear-view mirrors must make way for minuscule cameras teased out of the A-pillars. More familiar Infiniti cues include the lights. At the front the signature L-shaped modules taper back on to the bulging guards, picked out at their top edge by a row of LEDs. Slender fillets of red light curve around the car at the back, overlapping with the boot opening and framing the vestigial spoiler. Edged by more stainless steel, the spoiler appears to have been pushed out from within the car. The windscreen flows back into a full glass roof that then tapers down towards the boot opening – making just one more memorable view of a car that doesn’t have a wrong angle to it.

Shiro Nakamura, Senior Vice President of Design

“Essence is a brand icon,” François Bancon said and went on “We wanted a new way of mixing various ingredients to get a car that was reserved but with a big presence, something trendy but also indicating the next trend. We wanted a car that aspired to become a cult. It had to be exclusive, smart and mysterious.” The designers’ aim was to merge all existing Infiniti design cues with fresh

“The design embeds a sense of mystery, a sense of being in the know. Essence is not about showing signs of wealth and success.”

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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bonnet is, as you would expect of an “ The Infiniti, long, and the rear deck short ”

On design, Essence is simple and amazingly complex, classical and totally dynamic all at the same time. Most of all as the epitome of “dynamic adeyaka” it boasts massive presence. Once seen, never forgotten. For a driver’s car, the perfect driver’s

cabin. Essence’s interior is minimalist, ergonomic and totally focused on the job in hand: to give the person behind the wheel a feeling of absolute control. And yet all this driver focus goes hand in hand with a passenger area dominated by comfort, calm and elegance.

The asymmetrical cabin is divided into two areas separated by a large curving console between the seats that sweeps around to merge with the centre of the dashboard. The result is two very distinct cockpits. The driver’s side is themed black, the passenger’s one an earthy red. A flat-bottomed steering wheel and chronometer-style dials announce to the driver this is a genuinel performance machine. There are no gimmicks or sci-fi solutions here, just single-minded dedication to driving. Witness the technical nature of the displays, the short, alloy-topped gear selector and, just in front of it another finger-flick away, the bright red engine start button. The car wraps itself around the driver who can quickly relax with the Infiniti trademarks of supportive seat and perfect driving position. There are more Infiniti cues such as the big gearchange paddle shifters behind the wheel and the analogue clock in the centre of the dash.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


nfiniti designers believe the best functionality works behind the scenes, appearing only when needed. It’s the key to the functional minimalism that dominates the control layout. By not baffling drivers with buttons or overburdening them with information, Essence offers a sense of well-being to everyone, allowing them to focus entirely on enjoying the energizing driving experience. With the materials used – leather, Alcantara, hand-painted wood inspired by traditional Japanese lacquerware – the cabin exudes a rich and inviting warmth. Attention to detail is such that even the leather seams on the seat backs differ from left side to right side. Essence’s drivetrain is designed to meet the highest expectations of owners. In Essence that pleasure is taken to new heights, at the same time as previewing an innovative green hybrid engine. A mighty 592 HP engine guarantees high performance responses on any road, in any situation. However, Essence is not an intimidating sports racer. The hybrid system is a logical extension of Infiniti groundbreaking green commitments. It offers power with efficiency, and high performance with zero-emissions running, by combining a petrol engine with an electric motor. These can work separately or together as a “parallel” hybrid system. A key difference over some other hybrid systems is that both the V6 and the electric motor feed their power only to the rear wheels. Performance is more linear, response is crisper – and driving pleasure further enhanced – as a result. Essence previews a new type of electric motor, called 3D Motor, that was designed to meet tough requirements on size and power output. The result is a particularly slim, disk-shaped motor that has twice the torque of a conventional unit.

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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Optimized Energy, Safety and Vuitton In Essence, the electric motor is positioned between the engine and transmission and provides 160PS (158bhp), drawing power from a compact lithium-ion battery pack in the boot area. Because the 3D Motor operates in both propulsion and power regeneration modes, the battery pack is kept charged up. Optimized energy useage across the widest possible range of driving conditions is guaranteed by two separate clutches which “switch in” the motors as required. It is a system that needs no torque converter, further enhancing responsiveness and driving pleasure. On a global level, Infiniti is committed to building safer vehicles equipped with advanced safety technologies. Essence previews some of the nextgeneration safety features that will ensure Infiniti cars remain among the safest on the road. As a key element, there is a “Safety Shield” that goes a long way towards the Infiniti engineers’ dream of a collision-free car. The Safety Shield adds two new technologies to the Distance Control Assist (DCA) and Lane Departure Prevention (LDP) systems that are available in today’s production Infinitis. Side Collision Prevention (SCP) and Back-up Collision Prevention (BCP) extend the anti-collision shield all the way around the car. With SCP, when the driver decides to change lanes, side-mounted sensors activate a warning if an approaching vehicle is detected in the driver’s intended lane. A yaw mechanism is then activated through brake control of individual wheels

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to help prevent a potential collision. Backup Collision Prevention works in a similar way, sensing a vehicle behind, giving the driver a warning but then, if the warning is not heeded, activating the brakes automatically. The warning system and pre-emptive safety features are designed to help support the driver in an intuitive manner with minimal intervention. The team behind Essence harked back to an early motoring era to find the right solution for carrying luggage. The result is as classy as luggage ever gets, surprisingly practical and dreamily romantic. It also re-establishes the historic ties between a carmaker and one of the best-known names in luxury goods – Louis Vuitton. Vuitton first worked with a coachbuilder – the famous Kellner company – in 1908, equipping one of their early luxury limousines with a set of bespoke luggage. Other coachbuilders quickly beat a path to Vuitton’s door in Paris. Made-tomeasure Vuitton trunks were an integral feature of some of the greatest cars of the first part of the 20th century. The collaboration between Infiniti and Vuitton revives the idea of a set of the highest quality luggage made to fit exactly a car’s boot area. In Essence there are three rigid pieces: a matched pair of slender briefcases atop a large trunk. All are made in the new Damier Graphite canvas and feature sleekly integrated handles and an overall design in harmony with the car itself.

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

With the materials used – leather, Al by traditional Japanese lacquerware warmth. Attention to detail is such tha backs differ from left side to right sid There is hi-tech, too. A button on the key fob electrically opens the boot lid, allowing the boot floor to slide silently rearwards. This is one boot an owner will never have to struggle to access. The Essence concept is a distillation of everything that Infiniti stands for – has taken to reach its current state of perfection. All these values are perfectly summed up by Essence which is revealed


lcantara, hand-painted wood inspired e – the cabin exudes a rich and inviting at even the leather seams on the seat de. at the Geneva Motor Show of 2009 not only to coincide with the marque’s 20th anniversary, but also in the midst of the brand’s current challenge: to take on the European market. Text adapted and revised from the original by: Francesc F. Fontes

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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technique Technical Specifications Infiniti ESSENCE Petrol engine spec Config/No of cyls

V6

Fuel type Capacity Power

Petrol litre PS (bhp)

3.7 440 (434)

Electric engine spec Type

laminated lithium-ion battery

Battery layout

Lower trunk area

Power

PS (bhp)

Torque

Nm

160 (158) 500Nm

Total Power Total Power

PS (bhp)

600 (592)

Performance Driven wheels Combined fuel economy CO2 emission

Rear-wheel drive l/100km

estimated 8l/100km

g/km

estimated 190g/km

Dimensions Number of seats

26

2

Overall Length

mm

4720

Overall Width

mm

1960

Overall Height

mm

1310

Wheelbase

mm

2800

Wheel size

inch

22inch

Front Overhang

mm

880

Rear Overhang

mm

1040

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


The motor is positioned between the engine and transmission and provides 160PS (158bhp), drawing power from a compact lithium-ion battery pack in the boot area. Because the 3D Motor operates in both propulsion and power regeneration modes, the battery pack is kept charged up.

Car Concept nยบ3 September-October 2009

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Car Concept nยบ 3 September-October 2009


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Car Concept nยบ 3 September-October 2009


Stile Bertone new prophecy:

the Mantide Few, if any, automobiles have been as awe-inspiring as the showstopping prototypes and “fuori serie” cars designed by STILE BERTONE -the Alfa Romeo Carabo, the Lancia Stratos Zero and the Lamborghini LP500 Countach prototype to name just a few. Text Stile Bertone

S

TILE BERTONE has a long history of creating one-off prototypes based on the mechanics of Chevrolet’s sporting automobiles, spanning over 50 years. Today, STILE BERTONE is proud to utilize the mechanics of the formidable 2009 Corvette ZR1, delivering almost 650 HP. Employing know-how from the Le Mans winning Corvette C5R, the ZR1 is the greatest all-round performance car in the world, the undisputed “King of the Ring”, posting the fastest ever lap time for a true production car at 7:26:4seconds on the famed Nurburgring Nordschleife in Germany, long considered the benchmark for a car’s true performance. MANTIDE has been designed and fully engineered in collaboration with the renowned Danisi Engineering and aims to be the world’s greatest legal street performance car, wrapped in an iconic

n

Photography Stile Bertone

and radical STILE BERTONE design. MANTIDE’s futuristic design draws equal inspiration from modern aerospace and the world of Formula One. The iconic theme is clear to see: a teardrop-like fuselage which tightly encases the mechanicals and the passenger cell, which is embraced by two prominent wrapping aerodynamic appendages. While shockingly bold and technical, MANTIDE’s unique design maintains a sensuality unique to Italian sports cars, thanks to a futuristic interpretation of the classic Kamm tail, a two volume silhouette. The aerospace inspired design aesthetic is further characterised by innovative yet beautiful forms which are fully driven by performance: the low-slung nose, jet fighter style teardrop canopy and butterfly opening doors, as well as the numerous air inlets and exhausts for maximum air efficiency.

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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Safety and chassis rigidity have been increased with the incorporation of an FIA regulation triangulated roll cage, lightweight carbon fibre racing seats and 4 point racing harness for track use.

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Car Concept nยบ 3 September-October 2009


MANTIDE also boasts cutting edge aerodynamic performance fine-tuned in an advanced full scale wind tunnel. Features include a Le Mans prototype-derived flat floor and diffuser as well as “flying buttresses”, which help to increase aero efficiency, guarantee a lower drag coefficient and greater levels of down force. The final aerodynamic results are class leading, with drag reduced by 25% (Cd 0.298) and a 30% improvement in down force. MANTIDE not only delivers greater speed and stability, but also more efficiency and therefore lower fuel consumption. MANTIDE promises even greater performance than the ZR1, due to significant weight savings and its highly advanced aerodynamics. Using wheels, the overall vehicle weight has been reduced by 100 kilos. The result is a staggering 0-100 Km/h (0-62mph) in 3.2 seconds and a top speed of 351 kph (217mph). Text adapted and revised from the original by: Francesc F. Fontes

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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Low-slung nose, jet fighter style teardrop canopy and butterfly opening doors

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Car Concept nยบ 3 September-October 2009

Interior views


s of the Mantide...

...and the engine bay

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study case

BMW’s Design Philosophy

The G

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uccessful design arouses desire. In order to achieve this, it is more crucial than ever before that car manufacturers create the conditions that allow customers to establish a close relationship with their cars. Therefore, designers seek ways to promote and intensify people’s identification with their car that reach beyond pure aesthetics. In the premium segment in

particular, customers demand cars that stir emotions and allow them to express their individuality. BMW Group Design has set another deepened objective for designing new cars that moves today’s consumers and their demand for enhanced utility and more versatility to the top of their agenda. An innovative concept introduced by BMW Group Design prepares the ground for this new

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

approach: the GINA (Geometry and Functions In “N” Adaptions) principle grants more freedom for car design. It allows the creation of products with a design and functional range that express individuality and meet the wide variety of requirements of those who are using them.


Gina Concept

2009 Car Concept nยบ3 TextSeptember-October BMW n Photography BMW37


I

n the 21st century, customers approach their purchasing decision with a high degree of assertiveness, clearly defined requirements and subjective concept-tions – particularly when it comes to selecting their means of transport. In recent years, the interests and priorities that motivated them have changed and, more importantly, they have become considerably more diversified. This development will continue in the future. Today, the BMW Group is already responding to the highly diversified range of customer requirements and heightened expectations by providing services such as a substantially more varied product range, ever increasing possibilities for personalization and requirement-oriented production among others.

Future customer requirements as a benchmark By introducing the GINA philosophy, BMW Group Design presents ways of meeting these challenges in the future. The philosophy expresses the readiness and ability of BMW Group Design to consider individual customer requirements as an integral part of car development. Christopher E. Bangle, Head of BMW Group Design, speaks with conviction when he says: “Personal customer requirements will broaden the context of our products and change the core values that define our industry along the way.” For more than ten years now, these issues have inspired Bangle’s ideas. Time and time again, these ideas have been motivating the BMW Group Design team to break new ground and to find pioneering solutions. These results have spawned new customer expectations which in turn inspires designers to develop further innovations.

GINA: Geometry and Functions In “N” Adaptions The GINA philosophy offers designers as well as development and production specialists an opportunity to challenge existing principles and conventional processes. Solutions that will benefit the car of the future are examined without predefined rules and from as many perspectives as possible. This also involves questioning what is believed to be set in stone. Does a car roof really have to rest on pillars and be bordered by windows? Do all functions have to be visible at all times, even when they are not needed? How many personalization options does my car offer? Are there any possible alternatives to the rigid body shell made of steel or plastic? Questions like these lead to groundbreaking, cross-segmental solutions – and visions of the

38

future of individual mobility. An essential principle of the GINA philosophy is to deliberately integrate the potential of new materials and pioneering, innovative constructions into the creative design process, and the idea of challenging existing manufacturing methods and material concepts. BMW Group DesignworksUSA, a subsidiary of the BMW Group that operates globally and caters to companies across the industry, has greatly inspired the design team at BMW Group Design. The design agency’s extensive experience with projects for a number of industrial partners outside of automotive engineering, predominantly in the field of material development and production. It is in the nature of such visions that they do not necessarily claim to be suitable for series production. Rather, they are intended to steer creativity and research into new directions. This approach helps to tap into formerly inconceivable, innovative potential that reaches far beyond the appearance of future cars and takes into account not only materials and structures but also functions and manufacturing processes. The potential requirements of tomorrow’s customers serve as a benchmark. In addition to aesthetics, the GINA philosophy also deals with ergonomics, the functional range and all other factors that rule customers’ emotional relationship with their car. With the development of the GINA Light Visionary Model, the BMW Group presents examples of visionary solutions. For the first time, exemplary adaptations of various approaches described by the GINA philosophy are brought to life to illustrate the potential impact of this concept on the future of automotive engineering. The limits of current material properties and manufacturing processes are projected far into the future. All innovations that these cars present focus on the variable adaptation of form and function based on individual and situation-related driver requirements as well as the demands of the driving situation itself. Therefore, both the exterior and the interior are equipped with a variety of components that differ significantly from conventional solutions, not only by the way they look but also in terms of their basic properties. For example, the GINA Light Visionary Model presents features such as a virtually seamless outer skin made of a textile fabric that stretches across a moveable substructure. Functions are only offered if and when they are actually required. The drastic reinterpretation of familiar functionality and structure means that drivers have a completely new experience when they handle their car. Reducing the

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


car to its essentials and adapting it to the driver’s requirements enhances the car’s emotional impact and achieves a crucial objective of the GINA philosophy.

Visions spawn innovative concepts The strategy of challenging what is established, exploring new possibilities and focusing on customer demands and requirements has inspired the BMW Group to implement a wide variety of innovative concepts. It has also affected the design of production cars in ways that are completely new and unprecedented by any other car manufacturer. A wide range of innovations that have been acclaimed for their virtually revolutionary character is actually based on the GINA philosophy. On the way from vision to production model, visionary ideas have been turned into new concepts. Both the sculptural design presented by the BMW X Coupé concept car, for example, and the interplay of convex-concave surfaces that has affected the design of all production vehicles, are derived from visions with an innovative power. This power is generated by the unrestricted freedom that characterizes the quest for wider design possibilities. In the example mentioned above, the natural material properties of the outer skin have been deliberately incorporated into the design process. The design process has integrated the twisted surfaces and has used the specific sculptural aesthetics of the convex-concave elements that are created by the material’s reaction. The design of the BMW Z4, which has been modeled on the BMW X Coupé concept car, is a striking example. These visions could only be implemented because of the development of completely new manufacturing technologies. As before, the objectives defined by the GINA philosophy have been achieved thanks to the special expertise of production engineers and their ability to move beyond traditional methods. Their effort has allowed the creation of a form language that has not only significantly enhanced aesthetic standards and the significance of design as an expression of product substance, but also the manufacturing processes themselves.

Headlights like cats eyes and rear warning solutions with different colour led-patterns through the textile fabric

Versatility in function and form stirs emotions Some of the pioneering visions that are based on the GINA philosophy have also been implemented in the interior design of concept cars such as the BMW CS1 concept car of 2002. This car’s interior is equipped with control and functional elements that become visible only if and when the driver wishes to avail of them. Thanks to a flexible, Neoprene-covered instrument panel, the driver’s attention can focus on the required functions. This situation-oriented variability of form and function invites the driver to engage in a dialogue with his car. Using these functions, the driver experiences an emotional reaction. This is caused by the fact that he can adapt the car’s appearance to suit his personal wishes. In this application, the intelligent deployment of flexible material dispenses with the need for complex mechanical features. At the same time, the versatile appearance has a natural aesthetic appeal. The control concept iDrive, first demonstrated by the BMW Z9 and refined in the BMW CS1 concept car has long since become established as part of BMW production models. It is a perfect enhancement to the spirit of the GINA philosophy, as it is guided by the principle of displaying only those functions to the driver that are relevant to the individual driving situation. The cockpit adjusts to the driver’s needs. As he handles the car by interacting with it, the driver forms a strong emotional bond.

Integration of meaningful functions that are relevant to the customer It is one of the GINA principles to challenge existing solutions in order to broaden the context, thus extending the scope of possibilities for customers. In the engine compartment of the BMW CS1 concept car, the engine cover has been replaced by flexible stretch material. A graphical display panel provides information on the particular arrangement of the service functions, integrated zip fasteners facilitate easy, hands-on access to the filler caps of the cooling water and wiper water tanks. A number of functions – cover, orientation and access to service points – are integrated into one component in a logical and attractive manner. This deliberately minimalist approach to the deployment of components is an active contribution to the protection of resources.

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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Car Concept nยบ 3 September-October 2009


“The GINA Light Visionary Model presents features such as a virtually seamless outer skin made of a textile fabric that stretches across a moveable substructure. Functions are only offered if and when they are actually required

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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Rapid Manufacturing for more versatility As a result of our interdisciplinary cooperation, we have developed a method that allows manufacturers to decorate outer skin components that have been preformed by conventional methods with individually configured high-precision contour lines prior to their reintegration into the manufacturing process. The GINA design philosophy has been applied to Rapid Manufacturing to create an unparalleled method of manufacturing single components fast, cost-efficiently and with a focus on individual requirements. This combination of processes was first used during the production of hoods for the BMW Z4 M Roadster and the BMW Z4 M Coupé. These models received their distinctive contour lines at a separate production stage which differed significantly from conventional sheet metal processing. The lines were embossed into the hood with pin-point precision by a robot-guided steel pin. This approach allows for entirely new ways of individualized production.

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With Rapid Manufacturing, customer preferences can be implemented when car body elements and other components are designed to the specifications of designers.

New materials and manufacturing processes create a natural aesthetic appeal The cockpit surface of the BMW Concept Coupé Mille Miglia 2006, which has been influenced by the technology of industrial origami, is another example of vision-based, revolutionary design. It has produced solutions that reflect several guiding principles of the GINA Philosophy. The number of components is significantly reduced compared to conventional cockpits while completely new methods of combining different materials have provided valuable stimulation for the conception of innovative production technologies. The manufacturing process has deliberately relied on the expertise and technical skills of highly-qualified specialists, whose competence is a prerequisite for the practical implementation of design visions.

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

The exterior design of concept cars also reflects innovative concepts resulting from the practical implementation of visionary ideas. Both the sculptural design presented by the BMW X Coupé concept car, for example, and the interplay of convex-concave surfaces that has affected the design of all produc-tion vehicles (introduced for the first time in the Z4), are derived from visions with an innovative power. This power is generated by the unrestricted freedom that characterizes the quest for wider design possibilities. The design deliberately uses the interplay of splines as character lines and the natural flow of stretched convex-concave surfaces.

The number of components is significantly reduced compared to conventional cockpits


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Mazda Kiyora Co

The Eco-Friendly City Car 44

Car Concept nยบ 3 September-October 2009


oncept

Text MAZDA

n

Photography MAZDA/Noël van Wilgenburg

azda revealed the direction its new technology development would take when it announced the Sustainable Zoom-Zoom plan last year. In line with this plan, Mazda is focused on making cars that achieve harmony between Mazda’s hallmark driving pleasure and environmental and safety performance. Mazda Kiyora demonstrates how Mazda will achieve a 30 percent improvement in fuel economy in the near future and introduce new vehicles that are exciting to look at and drive. Featuring next-generation environmental technologies, Kiyora was envisaged as a fun and cool concept for young European urbanites, and one that only Mazda could produce.

M

Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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Mazda Kiyora gives an indication where Mazda could go with a small, eco-friendly city car in the near future. It is highly fuel efficient, with a very small CO2 footprint, delivering ZoomZoom driving fun and high levels of safety. The car achieves this by taking Mazda’s acclaimed lightweight strategy to a new level by employing an extremely rigid and lightweight carbon-fibre body structure beneath a small, aerodynamic outer skin and a spirited, small-displacement 1.3-liter directinjection engine. Mazda Kiyora also features Mazda’s unique Smart Idle Stop System (SISS) and a newly developed six- speed automatic transmission with direct feel and fuel efficiency similar to that of a manual. With these technologies, the Mazda Kiyora concept would produce CO2 emission of under 90g/km. Themes for the Mazda Kiyora concept include cleanliness, health and safety. These key aspects are essential for young city dwellers as well as any compact car in the current global environment. The concept was based on Mazda’s sustainable technology vision, which aims to ensure customers can continue to enjoy a Zoom-Zoom experience in the future. Water was also selected as a theme for this concept, due to its association with the aspects mentioned above, and the car was named Kiyora (meaning ‘clean and pure’ in Japanese) to reflect this. It features next-generation technologies clothed in a friendly and cool design that is as functional as it is beautiful. This is the first concept to express Nagare ‘low’ in the patterns and colours of water.

Defining the Concept, “Urban Hub” – Advanced Product Strategy 46

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

Mazda Kiyora is a redefinition of the small coupe and is dedicated to embody the same fun-to-drive nature as every other Mazda vehicle, combined with innovative ideas that minimize its impact on the environment. This concept is the translation of Mazda’s Sustainable Zoom-Zoom philosophy into a lifestyle vehicle for progressive urbanites. The idea for this car was born from research that identified market opportunities to address future unmet customer needs with innovative concepts and ideas. The very first step taken by Mazda Motor Europe’s Advanced Product Strategy (APS) team was an in-depth analysis of the small city car segment in Europe. Having defined several potential customer profiles in this segment, the team focussed on the urban customer with a post-modern lifestyle.


APS found that exterior styling, compact size, manoeuvrability and flexibility were just as important to these young people as high fuel efficiency. European urbanites, then, will continue to commute and use their cars in the city of the future; but they will expect them to use less fuel and produce fewer toxic emissions, while still being fun to drive, easy to park and use. To achieve this, the vehicle must be lightweight and small. Kiyora is even smaller than the new Mazda2. Reducing vehicle weight is a key concept that is crucial to achieve the goals set out in the Sustainable Zoom-Zoom plan. Kiyora takes Mazda’s ‘gram strategy’ — that has been used previously to produce new vehicles, all of them lighter and more fuel eficient than their predecessors — to the next level. It should also be flexible, a kind of ‘urban HUB’ that would allow you to go to university during the day, go shopping in the early evening, and take three friends clubbing at night before driving home, thanks to its lexible interior that can be used as a two-seater with boot, or as a 2+2 seating arrangement. The car should have a next-generation cockpit and be fun to use on a daily basis. And it should be safe and environmentally

Loyer, Stenuit and Birtwhistle working on and discussing the clay model

friendly.

Zoom-Zoom Experience and Environmental Performance Mazda Kiyora supports the active lifestyles of young people with its agility, cleanliness, and excellent economic performance. Mazda’s next-generation 1.3-litre DISI* petrol engine is an evolution of technologies used for the 2.3-liter DISI petrol engine that currently powers Mazda’s sports crossover SUV, the CX-7. Improved direct- injection technology and newly designed combustion chambers enable more precise ignition control. The engine’s efficiency is increased by a combination of advanced dual sequential-valvetiming (S-VT), variable-valve timing and lift mechanism, and optimal valve control. The engine is spirited as well as clean and efficient and, in combination with a compact and lightweight six-speed automatic transmission with manual shift control, it would make Mazda Kiyora powerful and cultivated, even at low engine speeds. In stop and go urban traffic conditions, Mazda’s newly developed Smart Idle Stop System (SISS) would save fuel by automatically shutting down the engine when the vehicle is stationary, and achieves a quick and quiet restart for stress free driving. The system injects a small amount of fuel directly into the engine’s cylinders and ignites it to generate downward piston force which, with the aid of an electric motor, rapidly returns the engine to idle speed. Emissions would be among the lowest thanks to a new catalyst that more effectively removes harmful exhaust materials by employing single-nanotechnology to control catalyst particles that are smaller even than those controlled by conventional nanotechnology. Combined with reduced weight and improved aerodynamics, these insightful technologies would result in CO2 emissions of 90g/km or less. * DISI: direct injection spark ignition

Peter Birtwhistle

Laurens van den Acker

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The roof of the Kiyora is another example of how Mazda designers were able to combine functionality and design aesthetics. It is transparent, for an open-air feeling on the inside, and has photovoltaic solar cells which provide electricity for the car’s interior systems

Exterior – Fusing Form with Function “Mazda Design has been working hard over the past two years to develop an exciting new design message with its Nagare series,” says Peter Birtwhistle, Chief Designer, Mazda Motor Europe. “Mazda Kiyora is the latest iteration of that philosophy.” The Mazda Kiyora concept car is formed in the shape of a water droplet on its side, as are its two side windows. Its diminutive size and low roofline give it a small front crosssection. This is combined with an elaborate underbody that controls wind swirl, a rear roof spoiler, and specially sculptured body lines for a highly aerodynamic form with a coefficient of drag that is over 10 percent lower that of the current Mazda2. This outstanding fusion of engineering and the Nagare design was a key target. “The architecture of the car has been rethought,” says the concept’s lead exterior designer, Mickael Loyer. “The main structure of the car is an ‘in and out’ frame, like a shell that protects you from the outside environment, and lets you be opened and linked to it at the same time, thanks to the transparency of the top and the side windows, which also gives a lightweight feeling.” About 10 cm shorter than the new Mazda2 sub-compact, Kiyora is also an environmentally friendly city car that is cute and agile, and invites you to climb in for a ride. It uses a soft design language and lowing lines, while retaining an overall style that is really expressive and sporty. Here is the expressive

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

five-point grille first used on the Mazda Sassou concept three years ago – backlit when the car is on with soft, red lighting – but now further developed with Nagare low lines that are carved and more three-dimensional. They are formed to guide air into the interior of the car without the use of fans, which saves weight. Its silhouette features character lines that are sleek and smooth, and move upwards and rearwards, fusing into the rear spoiler. Combine it all with 18-inch alloys and extremely small overhangs, and you have a truly sporty look in a small package. Though small, Mazda Kiyora has a rear boot big enough to carry a large suitcase, a briefcase and a notebook. It is accessible via a liftgate that opens very high (with a low load floor level) for easy loading and unloading, and it’s flexible. When the rear seats are not in use, you can push your luggage forward and stow even more, while the strong yet flexible seat material stretched over the seats holds the luggage in place. This system also has the advantage that it hides whatever is stored in the boot from prying eyes outside the car.


The roof of the new Mazda Kiyora is another example of how Mazda designers were able to combine functionality and design aesthetics. It is transparent, for an open-air feeling on the inside, and has photovoltaic solar cells which provide electricity for the car’s interior systems. “Kiyora is about water fluidity and transparency,” says Mr. Loyer. “It’s all about layers of perception. You start with a shape and there is a shape behind and another one behind that. It’s like water; the deeper you go the more details appear. Nagare low here has different layers lowing into each other. Repeated layers lead you into the car. And because the inside of the car is visible, it becomes part of the exterior design.” The doors and side windows of Mazda Kiyora are fused into a single unit and function as both. These ‘windoors’ are made of plastic, which provides the same transparency and refraction properties as glass, and the strength of a thin-panel door, but with far less weight. They are also easy to use and practical. Touching the surface of the front tip of the door activates a sensor, which opens the doors up and away from the car, a plus when parking in tight city spaces. They also allow a view into the interior when the doors are closed. But looking into Mazda Kiyora is more than just looking through glass.

framework are also examples of this approach. Lightweight materials such as aluminium and a special resin foam, which is under development at Mazda, would be used not only for interior parts such as the instrument panel, but also for the bonnet, tailgate and sections of the chassis. Their effective usage contributes to improving the yaw moment of inertia and reducing the unsprung mass, and leads to superb handling.

“Using various layers of materials, combined with forms and colours on the inside, gives the impression of looking into water with its depths and lowing shapes below the surface,” says Luca Zollino, who assisted Mr. Loyer in creating the exterior. “For instance, there is a body shell side member shaped like sea grass that is visible just behind the surface of the doors and, when you look deeper into the car, there are the lowing shapes of the dashboard and centre console.”

The Mazda Kiyora has interior shapes that express Nagare ‘low’ by looking as though they are floating in a current of sea water that is moving from front to back. The instrument panel starts at a single point and lows around the driver and to the right of the front passenger as if it were several blades of sea grass growing out of a rock underwater. The front seats seem to float above the floor, and the arms of body structure twist like sea weed at the sides and top of the cabin. As well as being an integral design element, the door structure also functions as a side member and, in combination with the side sills, would effectively protect occupants in the event of a side impact.

The design of the wheels also supports the water theme. Its front spokes are convex and shaped like the blades of a boat propeller, while the concave back spokes are joined to the wheel rim and have a reinforcement that seems to grow out of the spoke itself. Kept very smooth, the wheels of Mazda

“Rapid prototyping was used for most of the natural shapes,” says Jo Stenuit, Assistant Chief Designer and Project Leader. “We have a very natural design with complex lowing shapes. Normal moulding processes would not have allowed us to produce such elaborate designs.”

The colour designers Greger, Kiehl and Silvares discussing how to match the interior with the exterior

Kiyora give a twirling, twisting surface articulation.

Interior Design – Visualised ‘Nagare’ Design and an Expression of Lightness The interior shapes not only provide aesthetic motifs, they also function to stiffen the passenger compartment with minimal weight. Mazda’s strategy of shedding excess grams wherever possible in its production cars was taken to a new level in Mazda Kiyora. The visible body structure is a real structural element of the car – stiff and crash-resistant. It is indicative of Mazda’s approach to conduct a thorough structural analysis to solve complex issues such as safety and rigidity requirements instead of simply replacing materials with more expensive ones. The rear seats that are integrated into the body

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New Liquid-Skin Display IP Concept This display would be a simple yet very practical type of instrument panel that uses advanced touch-screen technology with tactile feedback. Using liquid-skin display technology, it would mimic the rippling that water makes when you touch it with your finger. When the car is off, the IP looks like ice, frozen and hard. When the car is switched on, the display appears to turn into water. Information icons would appear and float downwards to pre-programmed positions in front of the driver. The driver would be able to move the icons around with his finger and could even organise them however he wished. He could lip through menus, select settings for temperature, and even send an email. “We call Kiyora’s IP a liquid-skin display,” said Gergory Vera, who designed the interior, “because it is conceived to ripple like water when you touch it. Icons bounce off each other as if they are floating in water. This would be a logical next step in intuitive-feedback, flexible-screen displays and is a natural and easy way to operate the systems of a car.” From this touch-screen display, you could also control a hard-disk drive with advanced sensors that would provide environmental information like how much fuel you used and how many grams of CO 2 you released into the atmosphere on a particular day. It could also calculate how many toxins the car filtered out of the air and water during the same period.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

Considerations for the Cabin Environment Mazda Kiyora would be able to filter out toxins from the outside air and use it inside the car. The right side of the dashboard consists of a large, single piece of thick activated carbon, which is a natural resource that has been used for centuries in Asia as a purifying material. The above-mentioned Nagare low lines at the front of the car guide outside air into the car and through this charcoal, which filters out and captures toxins better than most filter systems, without the need for an electric fan or inorganic materials. Taking advantage of rain as a natural resource the roof of the Mazda Kiyora channels rainwater firstly through an activated carbon filter and then into a specially commissioned drinks bottle designed for Mazda by LIFESAVER® systems. The LIFESAVER® bottle citi™ is located between the front seats for easy access, and uses state of the art ultra filtration hollow fibre membranes. With a pore size of 15 nano-meters these membranes remove microbiological contamination including bacteria and viruses without the aid of chemicals, delivering safe fresh drinking water to the user any time. The bottle is removable so can be taken out of the car and used to gather water from other natural sources such as rivers, lakes and streams.


Colours and Materials – A Triumph of Material Engineering Mazda Motor Europe’s Colours + Materials team has distinguished itself in the development of new kinds of materials for its concepts. In Sassou, it was translucent plastic treated in a way to match the body colour and to hide light effects, and in Hakaze it was the brilliant use of surface textures that mimic the feel of natural materials. With the Mazda Kiyora, the colours and materials team faced its greatest challenge yet – to express the theme of ‘pure water’ in visible and touchable ways. “Based on the extreme requirements of Kiyora, as a new ecofriendly car with a fully lexible interior, we needed to research in unusual fields,” said Maria Greger, Senior Designer at Mazda Motor Europe and head of the Colours + Materials team. “We looked for materials and processes that are not yet used in the automotive industry. We had to find materials that not only work in covering parts, but are directly related to function. The best example is the material used for the floor and rear seats. This is the same textile, but treated differently to best adapt to the function it needs to fulfil.” The exterior of the Mazda Kiyora is blue-green and has transparent, polycarbonate doors, chosen to underscore the purity of water. On the inside you can see forms – like the wavy side member of the body structure – that look like lowing sea grass. These were given a colour scheme that, when seen through the doors from outside the car, makes it seem as though you are looking into water.

Mazda Kiyora Concept Car – Specifications Body type Dimensions

Three-door hatchback Overall length

3,770 mm

Overall width

1,685 mm

Overall height

1,350 mm

Wheelbase

2,495 mm

Seating

2+2

Engine

Type

Next generation MZR 1.3-litre DISI* petrol with smart idle stop system

Transmission

Type

Next-generation 6-speed AT with manual shift

Suspension (Front/Rear)

Type

MacPherson strut/Torsion beam

Tires

Type

215/45 R18

* DISI: direct injection spark ignition

“We chose bluish and greenish colours, which is colour of water,” said Luciana Silvares, Senior Designer at Mazda Motor Europe. “The deeper you go, the deeper the colour of water gets. We wanted to give this car the feeling of water and ice, sea or lake (from the surface to depth), showing transparency and gradient.” The interior is a masterpiece of materials engineering. The body shell is visible, like an inner skeleton, and supports the water theme with its wavy, lowing shapes, while functioning as a true body structure. And the interior has a colour scheme that makes the front seats seem to float above a floor that looks like frozen water. For the instrument panel and door inners, soft coatings and light metallic effects are employed to enhance this impression. The rear seats are one of the concept’s most interesting features and a perfect example of how to combine material and design to express the theme of water, while saving weight and losing nothing in functionality. They are made of only two components: a seat skeleton that is part of the body structure at the back of the cabin, and a flexible and robust textile stretched over this. This textile allows a person to sit down into the seat and acts as a irm surface to sit on like a lawn chair, and then to spring back to its original shape when the person

leaves the car – effectively hiding the seats. This ‘hidden seat’ is designed for short trips in town, and is far lighter than traditional car seats. “The material for the rear seats is an extremely stretchable textile that we developed with the Company Straehle und Hess,” said Ms. Greger. “It is made of knitted polyester that has the ability to return to its original shape. With a special construction of two laminated layers, this material is, despite its extreme stretch ability, also extremely stable.” The rear seats also work in conjunction with the floor to contribute colour-wise to the overall theme of pure, watery depths. Both the seats and the floor are made of the same materials, but treated differently to maximise their functionality. Two-dimensional printing was employed for the colours and sea grass graphics on the seats, and a unique, threedimensional (3D) casting process was used for the floor surfaces. The 3D casting process was inspired by the PU micro-injection printing process used on textiles for sportswear. This allowed the team to give the floor surface the durability and abrasion strength needed to function as a real floor, and to create the image of deep and layered surface to express the image of water and ice.

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CROSS OVER TO THE VIRTUAL WORLD

GT byCITROテ起 beyond imagination

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Car Concept nツコ 3 September-October 2009


D…

Text and Photography: Citroën/Noël van Wilgenburg Car Concept nº3 September-October 2009

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The GTbyCITROテ起 is the result of a partnership between Citroテォn and Polyphony, designer of the driving simulation game Gran Turismo 5 on Playstation 3

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W

ith GTbyCITROËN, a show-car presented at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, Citroën becomes the first vehicle manufacturer to cross over to the virtual worlds: An original take on a road car, GTbyCITROËN is a style replica of a vehicle from the digital world. The car is the result of a partnership between Citroën and Polyphony, designer of the driving simulation game Gran Turismo 5 on Playstation 3. Already shipped in more than 50 million units worldwide, Gran Turismo is renowned for its quality, design and realism. In the game, GTbyCITROËN features an electric drive train powered by a fuel cell with no pollutant emissions. It is a car designed to square up to the strongest competition.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

Performance first and foremost The exterior is created by Takumi Yamamoto: GTbyCITROËN is geared to the world of motor racing, with its dynamic styling, sculpted lines and sharp graphics. The rear end is oversized, made exaggeratedly long in order to create an effect of retinal persistence. The idea is to make the concept car even faster visually. The white-to-grey gradation on the body side further underlines this impression of continuous movement.

Top-level driving The cabin of GTbyCITROËN created by Pascal Grappey, is designed to seat two adults, expresses the grand touring


vision behind this show-car. The on-board ambience allies premium, extensively worked materials with a more high-tech effect for the driving position. The layout of the low driving position was dictated by driving pleasure. The aim is for the driver to be able to concentrate on the road, assisted by a head-up display clearly displaying driving information.

Power and flowing lines The design of GTbyCITROËN reflects a quest for optimal aerodynamic design. The show-car is a vehicle of flowing, taut lines, stretched to the extreme. The cleanly drawn sides, ribbed at the top, and the pearlescent shade of the bodywork

enhance the vehicle’s sleekly muscled looks. The determined look of the front end is enhanced by wide air intakes and clear-cut horizontal headlamps. The headlamps feature penetrating blue LEDs in order to light the road effectively and keep rivals at a respectful distance! The chrome chevrons on the smooth bonnet express the Marque’s identity. The carbon rearview mirrors on their finely profiled supports appear to be suspended as if to cleave the air, giving GTbyCITROËN an excellent on-road stance. The large wraparound windscreen flows seamlessly into the roof and on into the rear mobile airfoil with its exaggeratedly long shape. The fast-flowing lines create the impression of

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a car in perpetual movement. The whole body expresses performance and continuous movement. GTbyCITROËN also expresses strength and power through generous volumes, (length: 4.960m, 2.080m and height: 1.090m) underlined by strongly marked wheel arches. The diamond-effect 21-inch aluminium wheels enhance the car’s sporty personality.

Exceptional handling The interior design confirms the vehicle’s dynamic and powerful style. The interior of GTbyCITROËN, designed to seat a driver and co-driver, expresses the racing spirit of this concept. The on-board ambience allies rich, premium, extensively worked materials with a more high-tech effect for the driving position, inspired by the world of motorsports. Looking beyond the spectacular visual effect, the gullwing opening of the two doors gives GTbyCITROËN a level of

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accessibility rarely seen on this type of vehicle. The driver and co-driver can therefore slip into their seats and get out on the track as quickly as possible. The dark interior of this show-car is a surprise, compared with the light bodywork. Upholstered in black leather with subtle touches of rare materials such as copper and steel, the cabin of GTbyCITROËN is distinctly sporty. Two padded racing seats upholstered in dark leather, each fitted with a four-point harness, enfold the driver and passenger for exceptional driving sensations. Placed low down to highlight the impression of speed, the elegant seats are a perfect fit with the rest of the interior. The top-stitched leather of the door panels and floor adds to the opulence of the interior. The driving position expresses the spirit of competition. The design was objectively guided by the motivation to win.


The dashboard, with its clean uncluttered design, flows into the receding lines of an imposing copper sculpture. The thrusting modern lines of the sculpture become the central tunnel of the vehicle, illustrating the power of GTbyCITROËN and appearing to catalyse its strength. Created in a twist of this same copper sculpture, the leatherand-steel steering wheel also reflects the sporting spirit of the cabin. To promote maximum concentration, the driver of GTbyCITROËN has a head-up display for driving information. Using red LEDs, this system projects key driving information – such as speed and navigation data – onto the windscreen in the driver’s direct line of vision. The head-up display makes a significant contribution to safety with its direct read-out. Drivers assimilate data more quickly and do not have to look away from the road.

Aerodynamics optimised to combine performance and driving sensations Special emphasis was placed on the aerodynamics and flowing design of GTbyCITROËN, these being key Citroën values. The objective was to enhance the vehicle’s dynamics and to create exceptional driving sensations. Looking beyond its taut, dynamic lines, this racing car features innovative equipment such as enlarged air intakes at the front, a flat underside, and a mobile spoiler and air diffuser at the rear. All these features play an active role in reducing lift and – above all – drag, to pin the car to the ground. With its flowing lines, original architecture and its use – in the game – of what is potentially the best environmental technology, GTbyCITROËN embodies the sporting spirit as seen by Citroën and underlines the Marque’s ambitions to meet new challenges.

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“ This project was the most exciting experience of my life Says Kazunori Yamauchi

“GTbyCITROËN shows how the worlds of virtual and real-life motoring can join together to create a truly innovative partnership. We were delighted that Citroen approached us and gave us the opportunity to combine our creative strengths to build this very special concept car. To see the car take shape in game and then for real has been a truly unique experience as our work normally stays in the digital world. I just hope I can get behind the wheel of GTbyCITROËN and drive it on a real race track!” Says Kazunori Yamauchi.

Kazunori Yamauchi, President of Polyphony Digital Inc and creator of Gran Turismo

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


Takumi Yamamoto (left): “The rear end is oversized, made exaggeratedly long in order to create an effect of retinal persistence. This car is so fast, that on the end you will see only the rear. The idea is to make the concept car even faster visually” Pascal Grappey (right): “The cabin of GTbyCITROËN is designed to seat two adults, expresses the grand touring vision behind this show-car. The on-board ambience allies premium, extensively worked materials with a more high-tech effect for the driving position assisted by a head-up display clearly displaying driving information”

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Ferrari’s innov

The 458 Italia is the latest incarnation of

While it’s true that every Ferrari is innovative by definition, it’s equally true that in the course of the Prancing Horse’s history, certain cars have marked a genuine departure from the current range. This is very much the case with the Ferrari 458 Italia, which is a massive leap forward from the company’s previous midrear engined sports cars. 62

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


vative new V8

f the mid-rear engined berlinetta

Text Ferrari

n

Photography Ferrari

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T

he new model is a synthesis of style, creative flair, passion and cutting-edge technology, characteristics for which Italy as a nation is well-known. For this reason Ferrari chose to add the name of its homeland to the traditional figure representing the displacement and number of cylinders. The Ferrari 458 Italia is a completely new car from every point of view: engine, design, aerodynamics, handling, instrumentation and ergonomics, just to name a few. A two-seater berlinetta The Ferrari 458 Italia, as is now traditional for all Ferrari’s roadgoing cars, benefits hugely from the company’s Formula 1 experience. This is particularly evident in the speed and precision with which the car responds to driver inputs and in the attention focused on reducing internal friction in the engine for lower fuel consumption than the F430, despite the

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The new 4499 cc V8 is the first Ferrari direct injection engine to be mid-rear mounted

fact that both overall displacement and power have increased. However, Ferrari’s track experience makes its presence felt in the 458 Italia not only in terms of pure technological transfer but also on a more emotional level, because of the strong emphasis on creating an almost symbiotic relationship between driver and car. The 458 Italia features an innovative driving environment with a new kind of steering wheel and dashboard that is the direct result of racing practice. Once again input from Michael Schumacher - who was involved from the very start of the 458 Italia project - played an invaluable part.

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The 458 Italia’s Pininfarina design provides further evidence of the complete departure from the past that this new car hails. The Ferrari 458 Italia has a compact, aerodynamic shape, underscoring the concepts of simplicity, efficiency and lightness that inspired the project. As with every Ferrari, the car’s styling has been very heavily influenced by the requirements for aerodynamic efficiency, as can be seen from the downforce of 140 kg at 200km/h generated by the new model. The front features a single opening for the front grille and side air intakes, with aerodynamic sections and profiles designed to direct air to the coolant radiators and the new flat underbody. The nose also sports small aeroelastic winglets which generate downforce and, as speed rises, deform to reduce the section of the radiator inlets and cut drag. The new 4499 cc V8 is the first Ferrari direct injection engine to be mid-rear mounted. It has a very low piston compression height typical of racing engines which contributed to achieving its compression ratio of 12.5:1. Equipped with the traditional flat-plane crankshaft, the engine delivers 570 CV at 9000 rpm and, with an outstanding power output of 127 CV/litre, sets a new benchmark not only for the whole Ferrari range and the history of company, but also for the entire market segment. Maximum torque is 540 Nm at 6000 rpm, over 80 per cent of which is available from 3250 rpm. Specific torque is a record 120 Nm/litre. However, what is truly extraordinary is the amount of torque available while still maintaining high levels of power at low revs. The car’s soundtrack is also typical Ferrari, with an exciting, powerful growl emerging from the engine before it channels through to the exhaust’s three rear tailpipes. The 458 Italia is equipped with the sevenspeed dual-clutch transmission which increases performance whilst providing very smooth shifts even at full throttle. The engineers have developed specific, sportier gear ratios to match the power

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and torque curves of the new V8, guaranteeing high torque even at lower engine speeds and allowing the car to reach its maximum speed in top gear. a major leap forward This new Ferrari is also a major leap forward when it comes to cutting emissions. Despite the fact that the new engine is significantly more powerful than the V8s that

preceded it, the Ferrari 458 Italia produces just 320 g/km of CO2 and fuel consumption is 13.7 l/100 km (combined cycle), the best in the entire segment. The engineers also focused on weight reduction during the design phase for similar reasons. Consequently, the Ferrari 458 Italia has a dry weight of 1380 kg with a powerto- weight ratio of 2.42 kg/ CV. Weight distribution is also optimal with 58 per cent over the rear axle. The

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

result of the engineers’ endeavours can be summed up in to two simple statistics which together perfectly encapsulate the Ferrari 458 Italia’s exceptional performance: 0-100 km/h acceleration in under 3.4 seconds and a maximum speed in excess of 325 km/h.

A new chassis For the new chassis, once more in aluminium, Maranello’s engineers incorporated various types of advanced alloys along with aerospace industryderived manufacturing and bonding techniques. With regard to vehicle dynamics, the Ferrari 458 Italia’s suspension features


twin wishbones at the front and a multilink set-up at the rear tuned for maximum roadholding and superlative handling. superior ride comfort Along with a more direct steering ratio, the 458 Italia thus offers extremely rapid

faster and more accurate calculation of levels of grip, ensures even greater roadholding, better handling and ease of control on the limit. The same ECU also governs the highperformance ABS, providing even more precise control over the logic threshold

in true Ferrari tradition The driver is welcomed by a new layout and a revolutionary ergonomic interface where the main controls are all clustered on the steering wheel. With the Ferrari 458 Italia, Maranello has brought a highly distinctive new car to its 8- cylinder range. The company now offers two models that share a common, racederived DNA, both exceptionally sporty and fun to drive in true Ferrari tradition, but aimed at two very different kinds of client. While the Ferrari California was created for owners requiring a more versatile sports car with a practical edge, the 458 Italia is designed for owners for whom the priority is uncompromising onroad performance with occasional track day capability, but who still demand a car that is useable in day to- day driving like all Ferrari’s recent models.

turn-in and body control whilst maintaining superior ride comfort. The integration of the E-Diff and F1-Trac (now controlled by the same ECU) and their respective mappings is even greater, resulting in a 32 per cent increase in longitudinal acceleration out of corners compared to previous models. The evolution of the control logic, with even

and greater efficiency. The brakes also feature a prefill function whereby the pistons in the callipers move the pads into contact with the discs on lift off to minimise delay in the brakes being applied. This combined with the ABS has cut the 100-0 km/h braking distance to a mere 32.5 metres. The Ferrari 458 Italia’s interior is another area of the car that exalts its sporty personality.

Collected & Selected by: Francesc F. Fontes

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www.alfaromeo.com

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study case

Nuvu: NEW VIEW Surprise from Nissan in the shape of its Nuvu concept car. This cool little city car’s name literally translates as ‘new view’ and it’s Nissan’s view of urban transportation in the year 2015.

Text Nissan

n

Photography Nissan/Noël

RESHAPING THE CITY with the Nuvu Within just a few years, cities all over the world will be at near bursting point. If mankind wants to retain the level of personal mobility it currently enjoys – and if the city is to survive – the only way forward is for a radical rethink of the type of cars driven there. One solution could be a car like Nuvu, designed for the city of the nottoo-distant future. “Nuvu is literally a ‘new view’ at the future of the city car. It is electric, of course, but as far as Nissan is concerned, for tomorrow’s city cars that is a given. No, the most important aspect of Nuvu is the interior design which provides great comfort and space in an intelligent package designed to make best use of our crowded roads and limited parking slots.” says François Bancon. François Bancon is General Manager, Exploratory and Advance Planning Department, Product Strategy and Product Planning Division, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.

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At a glance

 2 +1 seating in compact 3m package  Unique platform for Nuvu  Zero emissions from EV drivetrain  Drivetrain previews production EV due soon  X-By-Wire control for all dynamic functions  Extensive use of natural, organic and recycled materials

 An urban oasis complete with its own tree inside, which: • provides shade for the interior, and • generates solar energy via its ‘leaves’

Overview There is about to be a seismic shift in the urban landscape. Within the next five to seven years, some 55 percent of the world’s population will live in the city, threatening total gridlock. Unless something is done, the irony of the phrase ‘personal mobility’ will be self-evident.


Look around at the cars in a typical city traffic jam today and the vast majority will have only one occupant and four empty seats. Some might have two occupants, a few three. But find one with four occupants or more and you’ll be doing very well. Today, we buy a family car knowing that we’ll only ever need to use it to its full potential one or perhaps two percent of the time. Tomorrow, things will be different. Tomorrow, things have to be different. “There is a new generation coming up who, finally, are questioning why we do the things we do. They are asking themselves, for example, why they are buying a large car when they know that for 99 percent of the time they will be in it on their own,” says François Bancon. “It is our job to provide personal transportation that is better suited to people’s needs and to what the environment – in all senses – can cope with.”

incorporates a witty representation of its green credentials: across its all-glass roof are a dozen or so small solar panels. Shaped like leaves on a branch, the power they generate is fed to the battery using a ‘tree trunk’ within the car as a conduit. Nuvu also uses natural, organic and recycled materials within the cabin. Nissan has already announced plans to introduce an allelectric car in Japan and the US in 2010 and to mass-market it globally in 2012. Nuvu is not that car, though it does share some of the technology that will feature in the planned production vehicle. Rather, it is a concept of how a Nissan EV might look in the near future. In the longer term, Nissan foresees a future based around a line-up of zero emission vehicles regardless of their size, category and usage. Nuvu – or its production equivalent – is just one element of this emission-free future.

Nissan’s vision for the future of urban transportation is encapsulated in Nuvu, a ‘new view’ of the type of car we will be driving in the middle of the next decade. Compact – it’s just 3 meters long – Nuvu is a concept vehicle with unique 2+1 seating. It is aimed at urban dwellers who don’t want to compromise on their personal freedom or their comfort, yet who appreciate that ‘something has to give.’ Nuvu is agile, easy to drive, even easier to park. And it is, of course, an electric vehicle (EV). As Bancon says: “We believe zero emission vehicles are one of the key solutions for tomorrow’s city car.” Nuvu is described as a moving oasis, a haven of green tranquility in the urban jungle. To underline this message, Nuvu

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Nuvu in detail The central thrust behind the development of Nuvu is not its motive power but its layout and use of space. Nuvu has been created for a city of the future, one that’s even more crowded than today. That’s why it’s compact on the outside yet roomy on the inside. Built on a unique platform, it’s just 3 meters long and sits on a wheelbase of 1980 mm but is 1700 mm wide and 1550 mm tall to create a large and airy cabin.

Interior package These dimensions provide all the interior room needed for the vast majority of city journeys. Nuvu has two regular seats and a third occasional chair that can be folded down when required. But, unlike some two-seater city cars currently on the market, it is a thoroughly practical proposition with an integral luggage area providing sufficient space for a typical supermarket or shopping expedition. “It is a real car,” says Bancon. “There would be no disadvantages to using a Nuvu everyday. For the vast majority of users, three seats are more than enough most of the time.” The packaging is designed to give priority to driver comfort with C-segment levels of space and the flexibility to invite one or two passengers on board. Cabin layout places the regular passenger seat beside but largely behind the driver’s seat, allowing the passenger to stretch right out. Ahead of this seat is a third occasional chair which, when not in use, is folded away into the dashboard assembly. But even when the third seat is in use, there remains sufficient legroom for both passengers. In the interests of saving both weight and space, the third seat has a center section made from hardwearing yet comfortable

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

netting. This hammock-like approach also has the benefit of allowing cool or warm air to circulate around the occupant’s body for extra comfort. Shopping bags, briefcases and smaller items of luggage can be stowed behind the driver’s seat while if the driver is traveling solo, larger items can be stowed in the passenger footwall.

City car research “We did a great deal of research into how people use their cars in the city. We found that for 90 percent of the time, the driver was alone. For five percent of the time there was one passenger and for four percent of the time there were two passengers. You can do the math to find out how often four or more people were in the car!” says Bancon. “We gave the second seat much more room than normal because when you take one passenger in your car it is usually someone you love and you want to make sure he or she is being carried in outstanding comfort,” he adds.


Natural materials Many of the materials used inside Nuvu reflect an increasing concern for the environment. The floor is made from wood fibers pressed into laminate sheets and is studded with rubber inserts made from recycled tires for grip. To create a light and bright interior, the windscreen and roof merge into one extended panel running virtually the entire length of the car. But undoubtedly the most unusual feature of the interior is the ‘energy tree’ which rises from the luggage compartment floor to the roof behind the driver’s seat.

Solar panels The energy tree is shaped like a thin trunk. As it reaches daylight it branches out under the glass roof providing occupants with protection from bright sunlight… just like a real tree. And providing a visual reminder of Nuvu’s green credentials, covering the branches are dozens of small solar panels shaped like leaves. The panels absorb energy from the sun which is then fed back down the energy tree and used to help recharge the battery and provide an extra power boost for the electric motor. As well as being genuinely green energy, it is estimated that the power generated via the solar panels will save the equivalent of one full overnight charge from mains electricity each month. Driver controls are as simple as possible. All the major functions – steering, braking, transmission and throttle – are ‘By-Wire’ while the steering is controlled by an aircraft-style steering yoke: with just one turn from lock to lock, the steering is very direct for agility and maneuverability in the city. Nuvu’s turning circle is just 3.7 meters. Thanks to its wide track and the use of 16 inch 165/55 tires mounted on lightweight, almost transparent, wheels, ride comfort, stability and agility is of the highest order. There are two pedals – for stop and go – stalks for minor controls and a digital instrument panel with dials for speed, distance covered and battery range. The instrument panel itself is formed of layers – rather like an onion – and like the energy tree is another example of design inspired by nature. “We call it bio-mimicry,” says Bancon.

Rear view/parking monitor Two screens on the dashboard display the view behind the car – there are no door mirrors to disturb the airflow, but small cameras – and double as monitors for the Around View Camera which give a bird’s eye view of the car when maneuvering or parking. Saving energy was the guiding force behind the use of lowenergy LED head and tail lamps, while Nuvu’s heating and ventilation system filters and cleans the city air as it passes through the vehicle. Not only does it produce no emissions at source, but Nuvu actually helps clean up the city environment.

Color and materials Nuvu’s visual impact is further enhanced by its unique body color. Developed by Nissan Design, the shade is officially called Soft Feel Sandy Gold. Matching the ecological values of an electric vehicle, the molded plastics and synthetic elements found inside a typical production car have been replaced by natural materials and organic alternatives, such as the wood fibers and rubber from car tires used for the flooring. The result helps create a relaxed, warm atmosphere within Nuvu’s cabin. During the design development stage, key targets were to develop an EV that encompassed obvious modernity with engaging ambience and a playful aspect – hence the energy tree. “You don’t need to be a car lover to fall in love with Nuvu,” adds Bancon.

EV drivetrain Nuvu is more than a styling concept of a future EV. It is a fully working mobile test bed for much of the technology that will be used in Nissan’s production EV to be launched in 2010. For this reason elements of its technical specification are being kept secret for the time being.

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Its compact size allows the batteries to be mounted under the seats and the vehicle’s flat floor, thus helping to keep the center of gravity as low as possible. A quick charge from empty to full should take between 10 to 20 minutes while a full charge should take between three to four hours from a domestic 220v socket.

Typical users “The people who will be drawn to a car like Nuvu are many and varied,” says Bancon. “It is a cross generational car and not a signature vehicle for one generation. “There will be common threads, however. They will be early adopters but more importantly they regard themselves as urban citizens. They don’t just work or live in the city; they are part of the city. They want a car that somehow expresses who they are and which reflects their personal ideology.”

Conclusion

t

he electric motor used in Nuvu is mounted at the rear of the vehicle and drives the back wheels, though neither its exact specification nor the power and torque figures are being released at this stage. A driving range of 125 kms and top speed of 120 km/h are being made public, however.

Li-Ion battery Similarly although it can be revealed that the batteries used are of the latest laminated lithium-ion type and have a capacity of 140 Wh/kg (watt-hours per kilogram), the total capacity of the batteries and number of modules are not being disclosed at this stage. Nissan began research into high output Li-Ion cells as long ago as 1992, but today development is carried out by Automotive Energy Supply Corp. (AESC), a joint venture company set up by Nissan and NEC Group. Unlike a conventional lithium-ion battery with its bulky cylindrical cells, the laminated Li-Ion battery as used in Nuvu has thin laminated cells and fewer components overall. This boosts its power by a factor of 1.5 at the same time as halving its physical size. It also remains twice as efficient as a conventional cylindrical Li-Ion battery even after five years or 100,000 kms of continuous usage. Another bonus of the compact cell construction is that a thin modular design is possible with a commensurate improvement in battery cooling efficiency. Higher power outputs are achieved through material improvements made to its lithium manganate positive electrode and carbon negative electrode. The use of chemically stable spinel-structured manganese for the positive electrode also helps ensure safe operation.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

Although clearly a concept vehicle exploring aspects of future vehicle design, Nuvu nevertheless embodies many messages for today. Its clever interior provides ample headroom, legroom and comfort for most everyday needs without occupying more road space than it needs. The use of recycled and natural materials underlines Nuvu’s environmental message and while the energy tree might be considered as a piece of whimsy, the use of solar energy is an entirely sensible and practical technological solution to aid an emission free future. “Nuvu is a concept car, for sure, but it is an entirely credible vehicle,” says Bancon. “It is light, clean and easy to drive. It is practical and a sensible size, yet it is also embodies an element of fun: the future doesn’t look so bad, after all.”

Nissan’s EV history Nissan is today one of the world’s leading exponents of EV technology and has announced plans to launch a new batterypowered vehicle in 2010, with sales starting in Japan and the US before introduction into Europe and other markets. But that EV is far from being the first Nissan electric vehicle. In fact the company can trace its EV history back more than 60 years to the “Tama” model, which was introduced in 1947. The Tama was a family four seater with a huge rear hinged door on either side of the body to ease access to the rear seats. The EV technology of the day was comparatively primitive so the heavy battery-powered Tama had limited performance and range. Top speed was 35kms, but it had a range of only 65kms between charges. It wasn’t until 1970 that Nissan looked again at battery power with the arrival of a tiny city car called 315X-a. This was followed three years later by the EV4 pick-up truck and, another year later, by an electric concept based on the Laurel saloon.


In the 1980s the company produced an electric vehicle aimed at the recreational market. Called the Resort, it was an open-sided multi-seater that was part golf buggy/part mini-bus in concept. In the 1990s, Nissan stepped up development of the EV, especially on the technological side. A smooth coupé concept, the FEV appeared in 1991. This led directly to the two-door FEV-II concept of 1995 which was powered by a lithium-ion battery. The first production EV with a lithium-ion battery was the 1997 Nissan Prairie Joy. Based on the conventional Prairie people carrier, Prairie Joy was used extensively as a mobile development test bed. Lessons learned were then put into two further EVs, R’nessa and Altra, both launched in 1998. Both were converted from standard petrol-powered cars while the Altra was sold to hand-picked fleet operators in California for further real-world testing. At the same time, Nissan started experiments in a car-sharing program in Japan. The purpose-designed Hypermini EV was built in sufficient numbers (around 220) for an extensive carsharing program to be instigated: cars were leased to the city of Yokohama with the aim of developing a new mobility program. The diminutive Hypermini was a highly advanced vehicle powered by a synchronized neodymium magnet type motor and a lithium-ion battery. It used recycled materials as well as resin panels and had a light weight and easy-torecycle aluminum spaceframe. Although the Hypermini car-sharing experiment went ahead, it wasn’t until after the Alliance with Renault was in place that further EV development took place. And that has happened at a rapid pace. The new millennium has seen no fewer than four concept EVs and the development of many new technologies designed to improve the practical performance and range of the EV. The revolutionary Pivo – revolutionary in every sense, thanks to its revolving cabin – appeared in 2005 and was followed two years later by Pivo 2, which incorporated X-By-Wire technologies, variable chassis geometry and four ultra-compact in-wheel motors. Also making an appearance in 2007 was Mixim, a powerful EV using the newly developed Super Motor which boasted a top speed of 180km/h and a range of 250kms. Designed to prove that EV could still have sporting potential, Mixim was aimed at a generation of future drivers who have currently fallen out of love with the car. Two more EV concepts have appeared this year: Nuvu at the Paris Salon and, earlier in the year, Denki Cube at the New York Show. Unlike Mixim, Pivo, Pivo 2 and Nuvu, the Denki Cube (Denki is Japanese for electricity) is based on an existing conventionally powered vehicle, showing how quickly an effective EV could be brought to market.

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Creative Box Inc. Much of the research in the concept that became Nuvu was carried out by a maverick design studio called Creative Box Inc. Although wholly owned by Nissan, Creative Box is run as an independent offshoot where the company’s young designers are given a free rein to develop ideas and concepts for tomorrow. Opened in 1987 in the lively Harajuku area of Tokyo, the designers are influenced by the urban buzz all around them. Away from the constraints of Nissan’s corporate HQ, the designers set their own working hours so as not to limit their creativity. A youthful part of the city, Harajuku is home to unusual architecture, the latest in fashions and style, street theatre, new music and avant-garde food. The designers are a diverse mix of people from all over the globe, producing designs that challenge convention. Concepts developed at Creative Box are just the sort of cars the young designers would like to drive themselves: they are, in effect, their own target audience.

Exterior and interior design “Nuvu’s design is further clear evidence of Nissan’s continued desire to challenge convention and to explore all the possibilities that the EV could bring us. In many ways it was inspired by our two most extreme EVs of recent times: Mixim and Pivo 2.

Mixim

Pivo 2 “Significantly, though, Nuvu delivers a more realistic interpretation of two of the most important aspects of its forerunners – the ‘Friendly Innovation’ found in Pivo 2 and the ‘Sports Dynamics’ central to Mixim “The result? We have designed a radical concept car that with just a few changes could go into production tomorrow,” explains Masato Inoue, Chief Designer, Product Design Department, Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.

Developed by designers at Creative Box Inc. – Nissan’s design think-tank – Nuvu’s green house has flowing lines with gentle curves inspired by nature. The distinctive shape of the door glass on either side gives the impression of a hot air balloon that’s being gently inflated by pressure from within, while tropical fish inspired the profile of the side window graphics as a whole. This contrast between the natural, fluid shape of the green house and the strength implied by the solidity of the lower body gives Nuvu a feeling of quality rarely found in a compact car.

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NUVU, PERFORMANCE & Specifications Driving range

125

Max speed

120 km/h

Battery

Type

Capacity per kg

140 Wh/kg

Charging times

Quick charger: Home-use 220V charger:

Battery layout

Under seat & floor

Laminated lithium-ion battery 10-20 min 3-4 hrs


LAURENS VAN DEN ACKER

WILL BE APPOINTED VICE PRESIDENT OF RENAULT CORPORATE DESIGN IN SEPTEMBER 2009.

A

fter 22 years with Renault, Patrick le Quément, Senior Vice President of Renault Corporate Design, member of the Renault Management Committee, will leave the company on October 30 2009. In September, Laurens van den Acker will be appointed Vice President of Renault Corporate Design and replace Patrick le Quément. He will report to Patrick Pélata, Chief Operating Officer.

USA and was appointed Chief Designer of the Brand Imaging Group in Irvine, California. In 2003, he was put in charge of the Ford Escape Platform as its Chief Designer in the Dearborn Design Center in Michigan (USA). His next position, in 2005, was Chief Designer of Strategic Design. Since 2006, he has been the General Manager of Mazda Design in Hiroshima in Japan where he has been in charge of Corporate Design (See Mazda Kiyora Concept) .

Born on September 5, 1965, Laurens van den Acker studied at the University of Technology in Delft (Netherlands), where he obtained a Master of Engineering at the Faculty of Industrial Design. He began his career in 1990 as a designer at Design System srl in Turin (Italy). In 1993, he moved to Audi as an Exterior Designer in the Ingolstadt Design Center in Germany. He then joined in 1996, SHR Perceptual Management in Newbury Park (USA) as a Senior Designer. In 1998, he was hired by the Ford Motor Cie in the

Here is Carconcept Magazine Nr 3:

C

Outlook and lifestyle Carconcept magazine readers have a passion for cars in general and automotive techniques, prototypes, car engineering and design in particular. The enjoyment of cars design takes first place.

arconcept is a new magazine on the horizon. A Dutch publication written in English. The first number appearing in the first quarter of 2009 than as a quarterly and later on 6 times a year. Carconcept (has a unique formula: it) is designed to share the ideas, the curiosity and passion of car lovers, of car makers and OEM* parts manufacturers, by writing about concept cars, future trends, exceptional automobiles, and (brand) new automotive technologies. It will provide a forum for the exchange of ideas between car lovers and professionals, between those who build the cars and those who drive them. It will also take you back to technical solutions of the past, the legendary cars and car designers of yesterday, with an eye to their influence on the future. The Carconcept magazine target group consist mostly of men aged 20 to 65 with a more than average interest and passion for cars. Most of them are in the A, B1 and B2 income groups.

Nº 1 Car CoNCept MagaziNe

n

autoMotive teChNiques - prototypes - eNgiNeeriNg & desigN

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JaNuary/february 2009

Carconcept magazine readers have an eye for improved design, high quality technique. In short Carconcept magazine readers are passionate enthusiast and Carconcept magazine gives them access to the world of cars they would love to create and to own. Noël van Wilgenburg Editor € 9,95

CaR concept Magazine

Nº 2 CAR CONCEPT MAGAZINE

AUTOMOTIVE TECHNIQUES - PROTOTYPES - ENGINEERING & DESIGN

MARCH/APRIL 2009 € 9,95

CAR concept MAGAZINE

Nº 3 Car CoNCept MagaziNe

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autoMotive teChNiques - prototypes - eNgiNeeriNg & desigN

n

sept - oCt 2009 € 11,95

CaR concept Magazine

*Original Equipment Manufacturer.

speCiaL itaLiaN desigN

SPECIAL GREEN DESIGN

aLfa 8C spider n Maserati graNturisMo s n bertoNe b.a.t n ts CodatroNCa n Carrozzeria touriNg n piNiNfariNa siNtesi

MERCEDES FASCINATION

NISSAN NUVU

MAZDA KIORA

speCiaL hyperCars 

BMW GINA

RENAULT ZE

GTBYCITROEN

AUDI SPORTBACK

spiJKer aiLeroN

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iNfiNiti esseNCe

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MaNtide

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ferrari 458

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MerCedes esf

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gtByCitroeN

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audi sportBaCK

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RENAULT Z.E. CONCEPT ALL-ELECTRIC CONCEPT CAR Text Renault

n

Photography Renault/Noël van Wilgenburg

A GLIMPSE OF MOBILITY IN THE FUTURE In parallel to its new TCe and dCi engine ranges, Renault is furthering its strategy aimed atcurbing CO2 emissions with the development of electric vehicles. Since the beginning of 2008, the RenaultNissan Alliance has signed agreements with several states and regions (Israel, Denmark,Portugal, Japan’s Kanagawa prefecture, the state of Tennessee in the USA), which will lead to the mass marketing of this form of vehicle from 2011. Z.E. Concept (‘Z.E.’: Zero Emission) is Renault’s vision of the electric vehicle as an efficient, userfriendly zero-emission car. Based on the brand new Renault Kangoo be bop, Z.E. Concept features a design which has been adapted to the spirit of an electric vehicle, with the focus on minimizing energy consumption while at the same time providing core comfort features.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

The energy consumption of auxiliary functions such as lighting, heating, climate control, etc. is a key factor when it comes to an electric vehicle’s range, so special attention has been paid to optimize energy management. Z.E. Concept also incorporates several interactive information features which are easy to use.


Z.E. Concept is powered by a 70kW electric motor with torque of 226Nm, with lithium-ion batteries. Energy saving management at the heart of Z.E. Concept’s design Z.E. Concept is based on Kangoo be bop and its compact dimensions (length: 3.95m, height: 1.85m) favour manoeuvrability in and about town. This electric vehicle was designed to minimize energy consumption, without forgetting modern comfort-related refinements. The employment of heat-reflective paint and insulating bodywork featuring large surface areas contributes to the reduction of temperature fluctuations which traditionally prompt the use of climate control or heating systems which are big consumers of energy. Insulation is further optimized by the use of acid green-tinted glass for the glazed areas. The bodywork functions along the same lines as a Thermos flask. It comprises two insulating panels with a sandwich of air. This air, which is still the most effective insulant known today, limits variations in temperature between the exterior and the interior of the car. Solar panels, positioned on the roof, power a temperature regulation system. Cooling the inside of a vehicle uses a great deal of energy, but this system permits a pleasant temperature to be maintained in the cabin, even at standstill or when parking, and avoids having to switch on the climate control when starting the vehicle. Meanwhile, the layout of the heating and climate control functions has been thought through to produce

“Solar panels,

positioned on the roof, power a temperature regulation system

a particularly efficient trade-off between performance and energy consumption. For example, the impression of heat is especially felt on the face and hands. Accordingly, if the cabin temperature is 15°C but warmth can be channelled as close as possible to key zones (a heated steeringwheel, for example), the driver will feel comfortable while using less electrical energy. The conventional drag-producing exterior mirrors have been replaced by streamlined, low-energy cameras which are also powered by the roof-mounted solar panels to enhance allround visibility, especially when manoeuvring. The low-drag full-disc aluminium alloy wheels also improve aerodynamic performance.

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T

he headlamps use efficient, high-performance lightemitting diodes (LEDs) which are not only long lasting but also low consumers of energy. Optimizing energy management is consequently a key aspect of the research that has gone into the technology employed for this concept car. An interactive, user-friendly vehicle. The Z.E. Concept concept car offers motorists and passengers a pleasant, relaxing ride and thissensation is enhanced by a number of interactive communication features. For example, logos light up to signal that the vehicle recognizes its occupants as they approach. Z.E. Concept illustrates Renault’s vision of mobility in the future. As a socially responsible vehicle, it is equipped with polyurethane gel bumpers, for example. These deform easily to soak up minor knocks, while pedestrians are reassured by their absorbent aspect. A linear display on the outside of the door provides a visual indication of how much range remains even before the driver gets into the vehicle. This display is redolent of a cell phone charge-indicator. As a vehicle of the future, Z.E. Concept is seen as a simple link in the overall mobility chain. To facilitate getting around in areas where space is a premium, an electric scooter is packed into the boot and is charged via the car’s own system.

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

To make loading easier, the rear hatch-type tailgate combines with a wide, folding sill which enables this scooter – or any other item – to be slid into the boot. Z.E. Concept contains very few fluids that need recycling at the end of its lifecycle. The smart navigation interfaces feature an innovative approach to alleviating the vehicle’s energy requirements. Indeed, electricity can be saved by making journeys easier. The MMIs (Man Machine Interfaces) are able to pinpoint the nearest car parks equipped with charging stations as a function of the remaining range, making Z.E. Concept a car which not only warns and calculates, but which also thinks ahead… Information is relayed from the vehicle to the driver and vice-versa via a cell phone which connects directly to the dashboard. Using a cell phone-based navigation system avoids the necessity for an energy-consuming onboard computer. The dashboard itself takes the form of two distinct functional units: n a new-format minimalist display which provides specific data relating to the electric motor, n a remotely-positioned control between the seats incorporating a touchpad to facilitate the keying in of data.


All-electric power, zero emissions Z.E. Concept is equipped with a 70kW electric motor which delivers torque of 226Nm, making it particularly flexible, responsive and comfortable to use. Batteries are lithium-ion type.

“ Z.E. Concept

provides a foretaste of the Renault electric vehicle which will be easy to use, practical and efficient.

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technique

Dimensions Length

3,945 mm

Width

1,856 mm

Height

1,748 mm

Height (with tailgate open)

1,902 mm

Wheelbase

2,406 mm

Front track

1,572 mm

Rear track

1,572 mm

Front overhang

794 mm

Rear overhang

745 mm

Unlade weight

1,520 kg

Technical data Power source

Electric motor

Power output Peak output:

70kW (95hp)

Continuous output:

50kW

Maximum torque

226Nm

Battery type

Lithium-ion

Transmission

Direct with front/rear reducer and inverter

Traction

Electric

Tyres

245/35R21

Wheels Diameter:

21”/Width: 8.5”

Partners

82

D3

Bodywork

Michelin

Pilot Sport PS2 tyres

Samsung

Samsung F480 cell phone for communication with the vehicle

Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


Car Concept nยบ3 September-October 2009

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CHEVROLET VOLT LEADS GENERAL MOTORS INTO ITS SECOND CENTURY

Form follows function The design of the Volt production car has evolved from the original concept that was unveiled at the 2007 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Because aerodynamics plays a key role in maximizing driving range, GM designers created an aerodynamically efficient design for the production vehicle. Many of the design cues from the concept vehicle endure in the production Volt, including the closed front grille, athletic stance, rear design graphics, outside rearview mirrors and more. The Volt’s rounded and flush front fascia, tapered corners and grille are functional, enabling air to move easily around the car. In the rear, sharp edges and a carefully designed spoiler allow the air to flow off and away quickly. An aggressive rake on the windshield and back glass help reduce turbulence and drag. Working closely with GM aerodynamicists to shape the Volt, design and engineering teams developed one of the most aerodynamic vehicles in GM’s history. They spent hundreds of hours with the Volt in GM’s wind tunnel, testing and re-testing parts such as the front and rear quarter panels, rear spoiler, rockers and side mirrors. Aerodynamic improvements enabled GM to reach the Volt’s target of driving up to 60 km (MVEG cycle) without using gasoline or producing emissions. Inside, the Volt offers the space, comfort, convenience and safety features that customers expect in a four-passenger sedan, and it delivers them in a variety of interior color,

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Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009

lighting and trim options unlike any offered before on a Chevrolet sedan. Modern controls and attractive materials, two informational displays, and a touch-sensitive infotainment center with integrated shifter distinguish the Volt’s interior from other vehicles in the market. Some of Volt’s interior technological features include: • Driver-configurable, liquid crystal instrument display • Standard seven-inch touch screen vehicle information display • Touch screen-style climate and infotainment controls • Optional navigation system with onboard hard drive for maps and music storage • Standard Bluetooth for cellular phone and USB/ Bluetooth for music streaming

New era in automotive transportation The Volt is leading a new era of electrification of the automobile by creating a new class of vehicle known as the Extended-Range Electric Vehicle, or E-REV.


T

he Volt uses electricity to move the wheels at all times and speeds. For trips up to 60 km, the Volt is powered only by electricity stored in its 16-kWh, lithium-ion battery. When the battery’s energy is depleted, a gasoline/E85powered engine generator seamlessly provides electricity to power the Volt’s electric drive unit while simultaneously sustaining the charge of the battery. This mode of operation extends the range of the Volt for several hundred additional kilometers, until the vehicle’s battery can be charged. Unlike a conventional battery-electric vehicle, the Volt eliminates “range anxiety,” giving the confidence and peace of mind that the driver will not be stranded by a depleted battery.

Chevrolet VOLT - Technical Specifications

The Volt can be plugged into a standard household 230v outlet for charging. The vehicle’s intelligent charging technology enables the Volt’s battery to be charged in less than three hours. Charge times are reduced if the battery has not been fully depleted. GM estimates that it will cost less than one euro at night for a full charge that will deliver up to 60 km of electric driving.

Performance

Charge out of driving The Volt offers spirited driving performance in a remarkably quiet interior. More than 220 lithiumion cells contained within the Volt’s battery pack provide ample power. The Volt’s electric drive unit delivers the equivalent of 150 horsepower, 370 Nm of instant torque, and a top speed of 161 km/h. The lack of engine noise, combined with special sound-deadening materials, makes the Volt an extremely quiet vehicle to drive. GM estimates that the Volt will cost about two euro cents per km to drive while under battery power compared to 12 euro cents per km using gasoline priced at € 1.50 per liter. For an average driver who drives 60 km per day (or 22,000 km per year), this amounts to a cost savings of € 2200 annually. Using night-time electricity rates, GM estimates that an electrically driven km in a Volt will be about one-sixth of the cost of a conventional gasoline-powered vehicle.

PRELIMINARY SPECIFICATIONS: 2011 CHEVROLET VOLT Headline Figures Vehicle type

5-door, front-wheel-drive sedan

Category

Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV)

EREV competitors

none

Chassis

independent McPherson struts front, compound crank twist axle rear, four-wheel disc brakes, full regenerative brakes to maximize energy capture, electric power-assist steering

Seating capacity

four

Manufacturing location

Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly (subject to GM successfully negotiating satisfactory government incentives)

Top speed (km/h)

161

EV range (km)

60 (MVEG cycle)

Dimensions Wheelbase

105.7 “ / 2685 mm

Length

177 “/ 4404 mm

Width

70.8 “/ 1798 mm

Height

156.3 “/ 1430 mm

Cargo volume

10.6 cu ft/ 301 L

Battery System Type

lithium-ion

Energy (kWh)

16

Electric Drive Unit Power (kW / hp)

111 / 150

Torque (lb-ft / Nm)

273 / 370

Exterior Tire and wheel size

specially developed low rolling-resistance tires on 17-inch forged aluminum wheels

The Volt is expected to be built at GM’s DetroitHamtramck manufacturing facility, subject to GM successfully negotiating satisfactory government incentives. Production is scheduled to begin late 2010 for models in the United States. Pricing has not been announced. Visit media.gm.com/volt for more information.

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Audi Sportback

more

W

hile many carmakers are either scaling back their 2009 Detroit Auto Show presence, or pulling out altogether, Audi has bucked the trend with a number of important unveilings at this year’s event. The German luxury marque has already released details about its new V10-powered R8 supercar, and now it has released full details for a concept version of its upcoming A7 four-door coupe.

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The new concept is simply called the ‘Sportback’ and not only does it show the design of the A7, but it also previews Audi’s future design language. Furthermore, the concept also signals Audi’s determination not to limit the sportback bodystyle to the compact car segment. With its sleek profile and large rear hatch, the 4.95m long, 1.93m wide and only 1.40m high vehicle easily fits into the burgeoning premium coupe-sedan segment. Power is provided by the world’s cleanest diesel technology - a 3.0L V6 TDI that

DE S-klasse concept VAN Car Concept nº 3 September-October 2009


k concept

than a realistic vision Text Audi

almost completely eliminates nitrogen oxides. This engine already meets the emissions limits of all 50 U.S. states and the EU6 standard scheduled to take effect in 2014, and in the Sportback concept is expected to achieve fuel economy of 39.87mpg (5.9L/100km).As in the U.S. version of the Audi Q7 3.0 TDI and upcoming Touareg V6 TDI, the 3.0L diesel mill produces 225hp (165kW) and 405.66lb-ft (550Nm) of torque in the Audi Sportback concept. Power is transferred to all four 21in wheels via a new 7-speed

n

Photography Audi

tiptronic gearbox and quattro permanent AWD. Weighing 1,800 kilograms (3,968.32lb) and with a drag coefficient of 0.30, the coupe will accelerate from 0-62mph in less than seven seconds and reach a top speed of 152mph. New Audi styling features previewed by the concept include the reduction of the number of lines, especially around the roof and shoulders, a markedly horizontal shoulder, broad and flat LED tail-lights, and a new interpretation of the single-frame grille.

AN MERCEDES

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The interior design has also been kept simple and elegant, with a large glass roof, a driver-oriented cockpit, and a retracting MMI monitor

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udi is unveiling the Sportback concept show car at the 2009 North American International Automobile Show in Detroit. With systematic refinements to the brand’s characteristic design elements, the five-door model offers a glimpse at the Audi’s future design vocabulary. With its pronounced coupé-like silhouette and large rear hatch, the 4.95 m long (16.24 ft), 1.93 m wide (6.33 ft) and only 1.40 m high (4.59 ft) vehicle is boldly progressive for the luxury class. The technology of the Audi Sportback concept is markedly futuristic. Power is provided by the world’s cleanest diesel technology: the 3.0-liter V6 TDI clean diesel almost completely eliminates nitrogen oxides. This engine already meets the emissions limits of all 50 U.S. states and the EU6 standard scheduled to take effect in 2014. And numerous measures to ensure top efficiency mean that the Audi Sportback concept is expected to achieve impressive fuel consumption figures of 5.9 liters of diesel per 100 kilometers (39.87 US mpg). Driving dynamics in a new guise – the idea Since its introduction in 2004, the concept of the Sportback has established itself in the compact class. The success of the A3 Sportback has exceeded even the expectations of its makers – far more customers choose the four-door model with the large rear hatch than its three-door sibling. But it is far more than two additional doors that sets the A3 Sportback apart from the base model. It is characterized by the sporting elegance of a coupe, the versatility of a five-door model, sophisticated technology and pronounced sportiness – driving dynamics in a new guise. It also offers even more space and variability thanks to a tail end that is a total of 54 millimeters (2.13 in) longer that of the three-door model. The launch of the first production Sportback marked the second time that Audi started a new trend in the automobile market. The development of the first Avant models in the seventies laid the foundation for a new class of automobiles far beyond the matter-of-fact utility of the classic station wagon. The marked accentuation of a futuristic and dynamic design, high-quality equipment and extreme variability have been the distinguishing features of every Audi Avant from the very beginning.

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The Audi Sportback concept show car is now rolling up to the starting line with a dual mission: As suggested by the name, it symbolizes the Sportback principle in its purest form in the combination of elegance, sportiness and variability. And the show car also signals the company’s determination not to limit Sportback versions to the compact segment. As previously indicated by the Audi A1 Sportback concept – the star of the 2008 Paris Motor Show – the brand with the four rings is going to dramatically expand the number of Sportback models on the market.

Design The design of the Audi Sportback concept is characterized by an almost monolithic clarity and a vast reduction of the number of lines. The roof, shoulder and sill lines appear to have been drawn with a single stroke. The window strip of the coupé with its four frameless doors was kept pronouncedly flat. Viewed from the side, the softly contoured wheel wells over the 10-spoke, 21-inch wheels reinforce the impression of the precisely defined surfaces of the body. One feature familiar from the two-door Audi A5 coupé is even more boldly accentuated here: The markedly horizontal shoulder area emphasizes the orientation of the vehicle body to the road. This effect is further reinforced at the front and rear by the broad, flat LED light units. The shape of the almost

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fragilelooking side mirrors is inspired by the upturned tips – the “winglets” – of modern jet wings. The show car also offers a new interpretation of the single-frame grille. The decision not to use vertical struts and the low overall height emphasize the sporty basic proportions of the vehicle front. Also particularly striking is the modified outer contour of the single-frame grille as also featured on the A1 Sportback show car. The flattened top edges lower the visual center of gravity and provide a striking look for the front end. The aerodynamically designed air intakes under the headlights function as air deflectors which guide the required cooling air precisely into an intake duct. They have the stylistic effect of accentuating the impression of width. The tail of the show car is also evidently related to the A5 coupé. The high top edge of the rear hatch gives rise to a strikingly clear surface below the rear lights. The low separating edge and the horizontal lines – another characteristic feature – underscore the width and therefore the sporty nature of the Audi Sportback concept. The four tailpipes integrated into the body and an air deflector in the diffuser insert are cues borrowed from the sportscar sector. The interior design is tidy and downright purist yet elegant at the same time. The large glass roof underscores the width and feeling of spaciousness. In the driveroriented cockpit, the air vents, instrument cluster and retracting MMI monitor are outlined by a filigree aluminum border.


As with the exterior, the interior is characterized by the emphasis on horizontal lines and large surfaces. Especially the wide center console – stretching from the dashboard to the back – seems to be a pure expression of function. The flat display of the MMI system is realized as a retractable system in the show car. When the ignition is activated, it extends horizontally from a slot above the central air register before moving in an elegant arc into a vertical, easy-to-read position. The high quality of the materials and manufacturing-level fit and finish are obvious when looking around the interior of the Audi Sportback concept and when touching the surfaces. The interior trim is almost completely in leather: from the headlining, dashboard, doors and the entire seat upholstery all the way through to the trunk, with the leather stitching underscoring the vehicle’s design language. The large wood trim strips on the instrument panel, center console and doors are machined from oak blockboard and sport a delicate horizontal pattern of light and dark lines. With its surfaces of piano lacquer and brushed aluminum, the MMI control unit also adds to the exceptional exclusivity of the interior. The attention to detail even extends to the door opener: Its shape is a nearly perfect reflection of the distinctive lines of the small rear side window – giving the interior and exterior formal unity. Four sporty seats await the driver and passengers. The diamond-shaped stitching of the leather surface is reminiscent of a clas-

sic GT tradition. Shoulder, head and leg room are reminiscent of a premiumclass touring car. With a volume of 500 liters (17.66 cubic feet), the trunk is generously sized and is also appointed with high-quality materials.

Drivetrain The developers at Audi chose the world’s cleanest diesel technology as the unit best befitting the Audi Sportback concept show car. The six-cylinder 3.0 TDI clean diesel is equipped with a system for the effective reduction of nitrogen oxides. The diesel engine development engineers at Audi have combined an entire package of innovative measures for this latest TDI generation: The piezo common rail system with an injection pressure of 2,000 bar, highly efficient exhaust gas recirculation and optimized turbocharging result in significantly reduced raw engine emissions. One of the highlights are the combustion chamber sensors that enable even more precise regulation of the combustion processes in the engine – this is the first time that such sensors have been installed on any engine in the world, marking yet another Audi innovation. The status of the new-generation TDI as the definitive clean-running, hightechdiesel is sealed by the downstream exhaust emission control system, whichreduces emissions by up to 90 percent. The system uses AdBlue, a biologicallydegradable, waterborne additive that is injected in small amounts upstream of the DeNOx catalytic converter. In addition to the catalytic

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converter, the exhaust emission control system comprises the metering module, the AdBlue tank and heated lines, as well as an extensive system of sensors. The additional oxidizing catalytic converter and the highly efficient, regulated diesel particulate filter round off the comprehensive emission control system. Thanks to their extremely low emission levels, these modern direct-injection diesel engines can be put into service anywhere in the world, even in the U.S. state of California, which has the world’s most stringent emissions limits. Compared with the fleet average of the gasoline engines typically found in the U.S., the TDI boasts a fuelefficiency advantage of up to 40 percent. The diesel technology thus makes a greater contribution than any other type of engine to reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. Audi will offer this engine in the U.S. and Europe beginning in 2009.

Driving dynamics The Audi Sportback concept show car took the basic architecture and many components of its suspension from the brand’s latest and most successful model family: the very dynamic A4/ A5 model series. The dynamic suspension sets standards here, as well, combining precision and dynamism with high stability and superior poise. The suspension mountings, steering, wheels and brakes have been developed for top performance and numerous aluminum components are used to keep unsprung masses to a minimum.

ponents. The upper control arms and the track rods are of forged aluminum. Their high rigidity ensures that toe and camber angles change very little when dynamic forces act on the wheels. The CDC (continuous damping control) shock absorbers, similar to those that Audi already uses on the luxury Q7 SUV with air suspension, are twin-tube, gasfilled hydraulic units with an additional external valve and connecting pipe. Their operation can be continuously varied. An electromagnetically energized, proportionalaction valve regulates the flow of hydraulic fluid between the inner and outer damper tubes. A smaller flow crosssection makes the damping characteristic firmer, a larger one makes it softer. The control unit applies adaptive operating characteristics within the mode the driver has chosen via Audi drive select. It adapts to match the driver’s driving style and the road conditions. Even from the comfort mode, the shock absorbers can be switched in an instant to a firm setting if desired, though not to the absolute limit. They are fitted in conjunction with sports suspension springs, which still provide a good level of ride comfort, even off-road.

The new five-link front suspension makes a major contribution to the car’s dynamic character. By moving the differential further forward and the clutch further back, the design engineers were able to reposition the front axle 154 millimeters (6.06 inches) further forward. The result is an optimal distribution of weight between the front and rear axles. The front suspension is made up of five links per wheel – a support link and a control arm at the bottom and two control arms at the top. The fifth link – the track rod – connects the steering box and the pivot bearing. All these links are made of forged aluminum, ensuring low unsprung masses, ultra-precise wheel control and a high level of crash safety. The anti-roll bar fabricated from a highstrength tube saves additional weight. The backbone of the rear axle is a subframe with high flexural and torsional rigidity. If sporty handling is to be combined with a high standard of ride comfort, the unsprung masses must be kept as low as possible. Audi has pursued this approach for all the rear-axle com-

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The markedly horizontal shoulder area emphasizes the orientation of the vehicle body to the road. This effect is further reinforced at the front and rear by the broad, flat LED light units.


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The ESF 2009 Experim The first Experimental Safety Vehicle to be built by Mercedes-Benz since 1974

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imental Safety Vehicle Text Mercedes

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Photography Mercedes

2009 is a year in which Mercedes-Benz celebrates several anniversaries in the safety field: in August 1939 the safety pioneer Béla Barényi started his work in Sindelfingen. He invented for example the principle of the crumple zone, a trailblazing innovation which entered series production at Mercedes-Benz in 1959. With the help of its in-house accident research function, which was founded in 1969, Mercedes engineers in the following years have developed several groundbreaking innovations in passenger car safety. Now it is time for a look behind the scenes, and in this anniversary year, MercedesBenz is using the ESF 2009 research vehicle to reveal what its safety specialists are September-October 2009 95 Car Concept nº3the currently working on – with a time horizon that often extends well into future. www.alfaromeo.com


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he ESF 2009 is the first Experimental Safety Vehicle to be built by Mercedes-Benz since 1974. Like its historic predecessors, it illustrates trailblaz-ing innovations in the field of safety and makes the progress achieved clearly visible. These amazing but by no means crazy ideas include inflatable metallic sections which give more stability to structural components within fractions of a second, as well as the so-called “Braking Bag”. This airbag housed within the vehicle floor is deployed when a crash is deemed to be unavoidable, and uses a friction coating to support the vehicle against the road surface. The ESF 2009 will be premiered on 15 June 2009, at the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Conference in Stuttgart. “Safety is a central element of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In this respect we have been setting the pace in the market for almost 70 years. For the benefit of our customers and for road users in general. The ESF 2009 shows that we still have plenty of ideas and the absolute will, to lead the automobile industry in this field even in future”, says Dr. Dieter Zetsche, Chairman of Daimler AG and CEO of Mercedes-Benz Cars.

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The ESF 2009 was developed and built completely in the test vehicle workshops in Sindelfingen. This safety research vehicle based on the Mercedes S 400 HYBRID features more than a dozen safety innovations, most of which are fully functioning in demonstration mode. “With the ESF 2009, we have chosen this particular time to clearly demonstrate the innovative strength of Daimler. Any-body examining the ESF 2009 in detail will recognise that more safety and im-proved energy efficiency are not necessarily a contradiction in terms. We want to make progress in both fields with new, trailblazing ideas “, says Dr. Thomas Weber, the member of the Daimler Executive Board responsible for corporate research and development at Mercedes-Benz Cars. The following five innovations on the basis of the S 400 Hybrid are among the highlights of the ESF 2009: PRE-SAFE Structure: The inflatable metal structures save weight or in-crease the stability of structural components. When at rest, the metal sec-tion is in a folded state to save space. If its protective effect is required, a gas generator builds up an


internal pressure of 10 to 20 bar within fractions of a second, causing the section to unfold for significantly more stability. Braking Bag: This auxiliary brake accommodated in the vehicle floor is a new type of PRE-SAFE® component. If the sensor system concludes that an impact is unavoidable, the Braking Bag is deployed shortly before the crash and stabilises the car on the road surface by means of a friction coating. The vehicle’s vertical acceleration increases the friction, and helps to decelerate the vehicle before the impact occurs. Interactive Vehicle Communication: The ESF 2009 is able to communi-cate directly with other vehicles, or via relay stations. Using “ad hoc” net-works and WLAN radio technology, it is e.g. able to receive and transmit warnings of bad weather or obstacles in the road. PRE-SAFE Pulse: This further development of PRE-SAFE® is able to reduce the forces acting on the torsos of the occupants during a lateral collision by around one third. It does this by moving them towards the centre of the vehicle by up to 50 millimetres as a precautionary measure. As an active restraint system, it uses the air chambers in the side bolsters of the seat backrests.

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The ESF 2009 is the first Experimental Safety Vehicle to be built by Mercedes-Benz since 1974. Like its historic predecessors, it illustrates trailblaz-ing innovations in the field of safety and makes the progress achieved clearly visible. These amazing but by no means crazy ideas include inflatable metallic sections which give more stability to structural components within fractions of a second, as well as the so-called “Braking Bag”.

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Spotlight lighting function: This partial LED main beam specifically illuminates potential hazards. If the infrared camera of Night View Assist PLUS e.g. detects deer at the roadside or pedestrians on the road, these can be briefly illuminated beyond the normal area covered by the main beams, as if by a spotlight. Mercedes-Benz is also presenting an innovative PRE-SAFE Demonstrator at the 21st ESV Conference. For the first time this simulator uses a linear motor for this purpose, in order to accelerate the vehicle cabin to up to 16 km/h within a distance of four metres before the impact occurs. The linear drive system, which is similar to that used by the Transrapid train, is freely programmable and also works in the opposite direction. This enables various acceleration profiles and also a rear-end collision to be demonstrated. The special feature of this system is that the ‘vehicle occupants’ experience the effect of the PRESAFE® functions live, e.g. belt pretensioning, NECK-PRO and the inflatable side bolsters of the seats.

Mercedes-Benz is continuing a longstanding tradition with the ESF 2009: for the ESV Safety Conferences held in 1971 to 1975, the safety experts in Stuttgart built more than 30 experimental vehicles and subjected them to crash tests to satisfy the visionary safety requirements of that time. Four of these ESFs (Experimental Safety Vehicles) were presented to the public, and many of the revolutionary ideas such as ABS or the airbag first entered series production at MercedesBenz.

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New Citroën

C3

Visiodrive Text Citroën

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Coming out in November 2009, the new Citroën C3 has a strong ambition: to replace a bestseller that has sold more than 2 million units. “This is a major renewal for the Marque and gives us the wherewithal to achieve our target of increasing market share even more, among both individual and corporate customers,” says Frédéric Banzet, Managing Director of Citroën.

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he winning formula: take the best of the C3 and make it even better. The new C3 is packed with seductive features: tauter styling, high-class trim, intelligent architecture creating exceptional interior space in what is still one of the most compact vehicles on the market, and superior on-board comfort and road handling, both in the city and on the open road. With the most advanced features in the segment, the new Citroën C3 will be ideal as the main family car or core fleet vehicle. But that’s not all. The Zenith windscreen makes the new C3 unique. As well as drenching the cabin in light and expanding visibility, this windscreen introduces passengers of our Visiodrive to a new driving experience. “With the new C3, Citroën is opening up a new automobile universe. A universe where reason and responsibility leave room for new driving pleasure. And new sensations,” says Vincent Besson, Products and Markets, Citroën.

These quality features are confirmed in the design and manufacturing of the new Citroën C3. Made in France, on the industrial sites of Aulnay and Poissy, the new vehicle meets high quality standards, both new and over time. To guarantee optimum reliability, and iron out the last imperfections, it will be put through more than 2 million kilometres of on-road testing before the market release

A UNIQUE, ALLURING PERSONALITY The new C3 is asserting its personality. The recognisable protective roundness of its predecessor is given a sportier edge with tauter, smoother lines. Exciting with a gentle touch: the essence of seduction. The styling and refinement of the new C3 are seductive. The materials are high class, such as the thermo-coated dash, highlighted by a cross strip in satin grey or gloss brushed aluminium, and chrome detailing. The new C3 takes trim level and quality to a new dimension. This is illustrated perfectly by care with gap and flush, attention to every detail and robust design.

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The Zenith windscreen makes the new C3 unique. As well as drenching the cabin in light and expanding visibility, this windscreen introduces passengers of our Visiodrive to a new driving experience

INTELLIGENT ARCHITECTURE The new C3 is one of the most compact vehicles in its segment. With a length of 3.94 m, a width of 1.71 m and a 10.2 m turning circle, it is perfect for the city. A compact exterior, without compromising on interior space. The new C3 has the roominess it needs to assert its new status as the main family car or core fleet vehicle. This can been seen in the generous 300 litres of optimised boot capacity, numerous storage spaces (console, glovebox, central armrest…), medium-height seats facilitating access and visibility, and optimised interior space offering more knee room. The new Citroën C3 is more spacious, but still compact. It’s a “real” car, with upper-segment features.

A NEW DRIVING EXPERIENCE The new experience goes further and gets better with the Zenith windscreen, a technological feat. This exceptionally long windscreen expands the front occupants’ field of vision by 80° upwards. Combined with slimmer pillars, the Zenith gives all occupants a sense of unlimited, high-definition vision. Total immersion. As a world first, the progressive glass smoothes the transition from the strong sun protection above the front passengers to the standard clear glass for looking forwards. The saloon with the biggest windscreen and the smallest roof on the market delivers more new driving sensations! The new C3 offers more visibility and light, for more safety and driving pleasure. Speaking of pleasure, our Visiodrive naturally benefits from the Marque’s know-how in comfort. Everyone will be extremely comfortable on board the new Citroën C3 for all the senses: not just low noise and low vibration, but 3 fragrant and nice to look at, with the many windows and air freshener. A relaxing atmosphere. A great car to drive and be driven in. The new C3 is a “connected” car. In addition to the RD4 mp3 audio system, the USB Box (USB slot + jack, full iPod compatibility, Bluetooth® hands-free kit) and MyWay navigation, the new Hifi System® surrounds passengers with sound, as if they were in a concert hall. The system offers not only exceptional sound quality, but comes with a competitive price tag.

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IMPRESSIVE AND REASONABLE DYNAMIC FEATURES The new Citroën C3 will make others green with envy… with more dynamic road handling, it is as comfortable on the open road as in the city, and has managed to keep a slim figure by not putting on any weight! An exceptional achievement given the convincing increase in comfort and interior space. This weight control, combined with optimised aerodynamics (a Cx of 0.30), the new C3 manages its fuel consumption and CO2 emissions intelligently. Right from launch, it will come in a version emitting 99 g/km de CO2, with the HDi 90 DPFS engine. That expertise in managing fuel consumption will reach a new stage with the arrival of new

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powerplants in 2011, incorporating secondgeneration Stop & Start. Coupled with five- and six-speed electronic gearboxes, they will equip diesel versions emitting only 95 and 90 g/km de CO2. In short, the new generation of three-cylinder engines will enable versions emitting less than 100 g/km CO2.


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The new BMW 7 Series. Sets the benchmark again! The all-new fifth generation of the BMW 7 Series radiates a natural presence, inherent sportiness and an elegance born of precision in concept and execution. A new V-8 engine with direct injection and twin turbochargers expresses BMW EfficientDynamics at the highest level of performance. The 4.4-liter, twin-turbo V-8 delivers 400 hp and 450lb-ft of torque. New, exclusive BMW driver-assistance systems and comfort-related features further add to a truly exceptional driving and riding experience.

Official fuel economy figures for the new 7 Series Saloon Range: Urban 29.7 - 17.2mpg (9.5 - 16.4 ltr/100km). Extra Urba 104 Car Concept nยบ 3 September-October 2009


The new BMW 7 Series

www.bmw.com Tel. 0800 777 137

The Ultimate Driving Machine

an 47.9 - 33.2mpg (5.9 - 8.5ltr/100km). Combined39.2 - 24.8mpg (7.2 - 11.4ltr/100km). CO2 emissions 192 - 266g/km. Car Concept nยบ3 September-October 2009 105


concept news Venturi Fetish 100% electric ready to go

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he motor’s 300 hp combined with a controlled weight of 1,125 kilos, road holding derived from the Venturi Atlantic 300 and super-size tyres with a width of 265 at the rear all make the Fétish a car with homogeneous racing characteristics, exemplary road

holding and drivability. Attaining 100 km/hr in less than 4 seconds, the Fétish is a pure acceleration vehicle. Furthermore, the Fétish offers a range of up to 290 km. Thanks to its on-board charger, it can be recharged via a simple electrical socket or the fast charge terminals. A RACING-CAR CHASSIS The architecture of the Fétish is comparable to that of a racing-car with an engine ideally placed in a central position and resting on a single-unit carbon fiber chassis. The first chassis specifically designed to integrate a large volume of batteries, the carbon fiber bodywork developed by Venturi constitutes an exceptional protection cell for its occupants; this shell is complemented by two deformable cells positioned at the front and rear of the vehicle. This configuration ensures the integrity of the battery pack in the event of an accident and thus a level of passenger safety never before attained on an electric vehicle. With the same objective, the chassis of the Venturi Fétish has been designed and tested to protect its passengers from electromagnetic emissions from the car batteries.

The Zenvo ST1 concept

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he striking Zenvo ST1 is a limited edition supercar that has been in development for almost five years. Zenvo Automotive are a littleknown coach-builder with all the manufacturing wherewithal of a cottage industry. The car is 100% build in Denmark and the design is a result of Danish design. The developing and production are taking place in Zenvo’s hyper modern production hall with all the best equipment available. Since they are working very tight with most of their partners Zenvo try to use local suppliers. Only 15 examples of the car are planned, which will be sold to pre-approved customers. Visually arresting, the car is a pleasingly proportioned mix of Maserati GranTurismo and Audi R8 with a hint of Nissan GT-R towards the rear. Power comes from a turbo- and supercharged 7-litre V8, linked to a

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six-speed manual transmission and rear wheel drive. Where the engine comes from isn’t clear, but with such a large displacement, suspicions are immediately drawn towards one of the LS series small block V8s from the Corvette. There must be something in the water in Denmark, however. That V8 is tweaked to produce 1104bhp, with 1430Nm of maximum torque output. With 802hp per tonne, that endows the ST1 with a 0-62mph time of only 3 seconds. It will top out at 232mph, by which time your stomach should just about have caught up with you. Lucky then that the car comes with ABS, ventilated discs and 8-pot brake callipers, to quickly stop the 19” wheels. This is a driver’s car and interior refinements include keyless entry, a sat nav system and electrically adjustable seats. The limited options list includes a custom colour leather interior, a choice of paint colours, a fitted luggage set and tailored car cover. And that’s about it. Although the company will provide a roll cage and 4-point safety harness for any customers planning to track the car.


SUV, MPV, 2 or 4 wheel drive, electric or diesel, it’s up to you:

CITROËN HYPNOS CONCEPT

UNIQUE BODY STYLING AND CABIN DESIGN

Hypnos is a hybrid in terms of both technology and styling. The body combines the vitality and elegance of a saloon with the volumes of a cross-over. Powerful, flowing and expressive, Hypnos’ unique proportions and balance promise a driving experience of outstanding emotion. The concept car’s rear-hinged doors and colour-splashed interior draw onlookers in and make them want to climb aboard. Premium cabin materials, exceptionally comfortable individual seats and dreamlike in-car technology are designed to set high standards in driving pleasure and passenger comfort.

Hyundai Genesis Coupe 300Hp or more The HCD8 sports tourer’s sensual body forms influenced the overall design direction for the Genesis Coupe, including the assertive headlight and taillight designs.

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strict one-off, this show car is based on the all-new, rearwheel drive 2+2 Genesis Coupe, which is scheduled to join the Hyundai lineup in North America early in 2009. The Genesis Coupe will be the most dynamic performance car yet from Hyundai and will bring stunning styling and advanced chassis technology. The Genesis Coupe will become Hyundai’s second 300-plus horsepower, rear-wheel drive vehicle, following the unveiling earlier this year of the Genesis sports saloon. The Genesis Coupe show car takes the strong styling cues of the production model – its ‘Z’ bodylines and powerful curves – and exaggerates them to spawn a unique, arresting vehicle. The bonnet, grille and other details will be different when the production car reaches showrooms next year, but the proportions and overall character of the show car reflect the reality of the production model. ‘Sonic Orange’ paint work gives the show car a dramatic appearance, which is enhanced by its bare carbonfibre bonnet and roof, and other customisations which help to reduce weight. It is powered by an all-aluminium 3.8-litre V6 petrol

engine, producing 303PS, mated to a six-speed manual gearbox. It uses the same flexible rear-wheel-drive architecture originally developed for the Genesis saloon, with a MacPherson strut dual-link front suspension and a five-link rear suspension setup. Large front and rear Brembo discs provide excellent braking performance, while grip comes from Dunlop 255/35 ZR front tyres and Dunlop 275/35 ZR rear tyres. The powerful curves, surface detail and ‘Z’ bodyside lines come straight from the same underlying inspiration that guided two earlier, well-received Hyundai concepts: the HCD9 Talus and the HCD8 sports tourer. The undulating beltline borrowed from the Talus adds intrigue while enhancing outward visibility for both the driver and rear passengers.

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concept news ELEGANT Lancia Delta Debut The new Delta, designed by the Lancia Style Centre, features an imposing grille, an emblem of the brand, and a beefy and imposing front end.

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he front end is made more dynamic by a generous lower air intake that speaks volumes about the temperament of the Lancia Delta’s engine. Innovative headlights have been chosen to emphasise the sporty, high-tech appearance of the model, that are enhanced by a row of LEDs on the lower profile. The same dynamism is evident at the side, where the main theme is a high waist line and trapezoid-shaped rear pillar providing a natural support for the Granluce roof (a nautically-inspired flying bridge). The generous glazed roof – with its pillars diverging in distinctive manner toward the rear – ends in a spoiler that blends perfectly into the original wraparound rear window that features an up-to-

FRAZER-NASH NAMIR BY GIUGIARO

Nisan unveils “LEAF”

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amir is a concept car born of the collaboration between Italdesign Giugiaro and Frazer-Nash, a company specialized in the design, construction, and marketing of hybrid systems deeply rooted in the historical automotive manufacturing company founded in England by Archie Frazer-Nash in 1923. Presented during the 79th edition of the International Motor Show in Geneva, Namir represents the turning of a new page in the book being written by the Torino-based firm since 2004, opening with the Alessandro Volta project and followed up with the commemorative dream car – Quaranta - the result of research and development on sports cars fuelled by hybrid systems produced last year in celebration of the 40th anniversary of the company’s founding.

This Namir prototype was built entirely in the Italdesign Giugiaro plant

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issan LEAF, the world’s first affordable, zero-emission car. Designed specifically for a lithiumion battery-powered chassis, The LEAF is a medium-size hatchback that comfortably seats five adults and has a range of more than 160km, says Nissan. Slated for launch in late 2010 in Japan, the United States, and Europe, the LEAF ushers in a new era of mobility - the zero-emission era. Pricing details will be announced closer to start of sales in late 2010; however, the company expects the car to be competitively priced in the range of a well-equipped C-segment vehicle. Additionally, and is expected to qualify for an array of significant local, regional and national tax breaks and incentives in markets around the world. As an added benefit, because the vehicle has less mechanical complexity than a traditional gasoline-powered car, and designed to be friendly to the wallet as well as to the environment. The LEAF is powered by laminated compact lithium-ion batteries, which generate power output of over 90kW, while its electric motor delivers 80kW/280Nm.


Franco Sbarro’s Pendolauto

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he innovative Swiss engineering team led by Franco Sbarro (the man who ‘invented’ the hubless wheel) is at it again. And this time, it’s a four-wheeled motorcycle – the Pendolauto concept – which was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show. While it is fitted with transparent Perspex wheels, perhaps to make them look like Sbarro’s earlier hubless wheels, the Pendolauto’s calling card is that it rides on four wheels. The bike is fitted with independent front and rear suspension, which allows it to lean into corners like a motorcycle. And yet, given that four wheels are inherently more stable than two, the Pendolauto may be safer than a conventional motorcycle. date design without any surround structure. Lastly, cutting-edge technology is evident at the rear where tall, LED tail-lights accentuate the elegance of the Lancia Delta. The car’s slender lines are complemented by chrome mouldings that blend beautifully with the window seals and emphasise the flying bridge configuration – and the colour contrast of the lower part of the opaque grey side member that reflects the two-tone colour scheme of the Granluce roof. The two-tone livery so typical of great Lancia cars of the past now makes a comeback on the latest models through a laborious painting process (it takes 6 hours longer than the conventional process): once it was a crafted feature within the reach of a few but now Lancia offers it throughout its range.

Upsetting Cinque-Nove-Nove

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Ferrari Fiorano 599 GTB

he Ferrari Fiorano 599 GTB is named for its total engine displacement (5999 cc), Gran Turismo Berlinetta, and the Fiorano Circuit test track used by Ferrari. Styled by Pininfarina under the direction of Ferrari’s Designer Frank Stephenson (now styling director at McLaren). The V12 engine produces a maximum of 620 PS (456 kW; 612 hp), a 3.7-second 0-to-62 mph (100 km/h) time making it the most powerful series production Ferrari road car. Making its debut at the Geneva Motor show in 2006 (here at the Mondial 2008 in Paris) the Cinque - Nove Nove - Gran Turismo Berlinetta is really upsetting the mind. All car enthusiasts especially Ferrari amateurs are agree to say that: the 2007 Ferrari 599 GTB Fiorano will go down in history as one of the greatest Ferrari road cars ever.

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concept news Lola - Aston Martin LMP1

SPECIFICATION Chassis • Full carbon fibre monococque • Steel spaceframe engine and gearbox support Configuration • Mid-engine rear wheel drive Dimensions • Length: 4634mm • Width: 1990mm • Wheelbase: 2890mm • Minimum Weight: 900kg Engine • V12 Aston Martin – based on the original DB9 road cars i.e. block and cylinder heads. • Dry sump lubrication, twin over head camshafts and four valves per cylinder • Capacity: 6000cc (6 litres) • Power: 650+ bhp (Power to weight ratio 720+bhp/tonne) • Torque: >700Nm • Max. RPM: 7500 Brakes • Brembo six pot callipers are fitted front and rear • Brake discs are vented carbon 380mm diameter Suspension • Double wishbone suspension both front and rear with Koni adjustable dampers

The Lola-Aston Martin was the Star of the show at the Mans Series Test days: First public appearance of the Lola Aston Martin LMP1, decked out in the iconic blue and orange of Gulf Oil.

Wheels/Tyres • Forged magnesium BBS wheels • 18” diameter x 14” wide at the front • 18” diameter x 15” wide at the rear Michelin tyres

Peugeot 908 HDi FAP

Engine Mid, Longitudinal Aluminum Diesel 100º V12 5500 cc, 522.0 kw, 1200 nm, 6S Sequential Aspiration Twin Garret Turbochargers Valvetrain DOHC, 4 Valves per Cyl Fuel feed Bosch MS17 Direct Fuel Injection Body / frame Carbon Compostie Monocoque Wheel type BBS Magnesium Front/ Rear brakes Carbon Ceramic Discs Steering Rack & Pinion w/Electric Assist Weight 925 kg Length/ Width 4650 mm / 2000 mm Designers Claude Guillois (engine), Guillaume Cattelani (aerodynamics), Paolo Catone (chassis)systems After the announcement that prototype cars at LeMans would be restricted to coupes by 2010, Peugeot was the first to reveal a contender that conformed to the new rules. Like many French manufacturers, Peugeot have had strong ties to LeMans and named their car 908 to link it with the 905 which won the race in 1992 and 1993.

Audi R15 TDi LMP1

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udi is the world’s first automobile manufacturer to develop “second” generation diesel racing sports car. Audi aims to underline its supremacy and consolidate its expertise in car technology once more at the legendary 24 Hours of Le Mans with the all-new Audi R15 TDI. Drivetrain Mid-Engine, RWD Engine Direct injection turbocharged V10 diesel Induction Twin-turbocharged Horsepower More than 600 bhp Torque More than 1050 Nm Battery Lithium ion battery powering electrical and auxiliary systems Body Type Single seat endurance racing car, LMP1 class Efficient and economical cars are especially required for the French endurance classic. Lightweight construction, environmentally friendly drive concepts and well-thought out aerodynamics are the focus of attention at Le Mans just as they are during the development of production cars. For this purpose the regulations intentionally give the engineers plenty of freedom.

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TRAMONTANA R EDITION

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he factory is located not far away from Dali’s birthplace, in nothern Catalonia, in Figueres, Spain and near the sea. This geographincal area is characterised by strong winds, “Tramuntana”, therefore both names “Tramontana” and “Tramuntana” have something in common as the pronunciation of these two words is almost the same, this is a natural force modelling the Earth, the wind. Can you guess what comes afterwards? The Tramontana super sports

cars are especially suitable for those bored with Lamborghinis and Ferraris. The R is an evolved version of the standard open-wheel two-seater, packing a Mercedes-sourced 5.5-liter V12 available in either naturally aspirated, 550 hp guise or a twin-turbocharged 760 hp version that delivers an astonishing 1.100 Nm of torque. The Group claims a 0-100 kph time of 3,6 seconds and a 10,15-second run to 200 kph. The wheelbase has been shortened by 50mm to improve handling and aerodynamics, and weight is down by 202 pounds to just 2,777 pounds. The R stretches 192 inches from nose to tail, is 82 inches wide and 51 inches tall, and weight distribution is a perfect 50:50 left to right and 42:58 front to rear. Tramontana fitted 20-inch carbon fiber and magnesium wheels at each corner, along with high-performance summer rubber sized 245/40 in front and 335/30 in the rear. 380mm, six-piston Brembos handle stopping duties, while a custom Öhlins suspension allows the R’s ride-height to be adjusted between 85 and 135 mm. The carbon body monocoque speaks for itself, as does the exposed carbon fibre interior, which features a chop-top steering wheel, an LCD instrument panel and the controls to the six-speed sequential gearbox. Production will be limited to 12 units per year with a price tag of e 385,000.

QAZANA

CROSSOVER FROM NISSAN

Dino Rosa mid-engine Ferrari

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he Dino Rosa is a design study of a compact sportscar inspired by the 1967 Dino 246 GT. Designed by Paolo Rosa, it is on display as a 1:10 scale model at the “Dreaming the Automobile” Exhibition hosted by the Museo dell’Automobile Bonfanti-Vimar in the Veneto region, Italy. Created by Paolo Rosa, the project was developed in a number of subsequent steps: from the approach definition, to the delineation of the feature lines and main volumes, the CAS and CAD 3D modeling, ergonomic study, preliminary aerodynamic study and feasibility study for the bodywork components.

Compact overall dimensions: 4060mm in length,1570mm tall, 1780 wide and a wheelbase of 2530mm. Mean Qazana would be ideally suited to the urban environment. Yet its advanced specification and energetic styling suggest an ability that goes far beyond the city walls. By mixing SUV and sports car styling cues, NDE’s design team has created a highly individual Crossover quite unlike anything else on the road. The tall stance, truncated rear styling and short front and rear overhangs underscore its feeling of robustness and strength, but the low roof line, assertive side window graphic and broad shoulders hint at a sporting ability absent in traditional allwheel drives.

The goal was to reinterpret the original spirit of a classic sportscar from the past, rather than presenting a futuristic car or a classic shape adapted to the modern trends. Source: Museo dell’Automobile

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concept news MAZDA KAZAMAI Mazda Kazamai means “swirling crosswinds” in Japanese, and was chosen to express the powerful yet nimble character of this stylish and compact crossover. Kazamai is dynamic and athletic looking on the outside and displays an evolved Nagare „flow’ design. Unlike previous concept cars, Mazda Kazamai’s styling represents powerful

natural movements that are emotionally expressed through three-dimensional motifs stretching over the whole body, representing a fusion of design and functionality. Mazda Kazamai is an impressive combination of packaging requirements and design aesthetics. With a width of 1,930 mm and a length of 4,520 mm, it is slightly larger than the current Mazda3, with room for SUV

comfort and functionality on the inside. Yet, because it is only 1,500 mm high, has a flat roofline and very short rear overhangs, it also has a sporty coupe look with the promise of driving fun. The innovative body design features flared fenders that emphasize SUVlike strength and a cabin befitting a sports car.

Hyundai Blue-Will concept

The beautiful Karma S Plug-in Hybrid Convertible Fisker Automotive, unveiled the Fisker Karma S concept at the 2009 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. The Karma S was also here at the Geneva rendezvous. The four-seat, plug-in hybrid hardtop convertible furthers the company’s belief that driving style and performance need not be compromised for environmental friendliness. The open-air Fisker Karma S concept shares its aluminum spaceframe architecture and clean Q-DRIVE® powertrain with the Fisker Karma sedan. Designed and engineered by Quantum Technologies exclusively for Fisker Automotive, Q-DRIVE® provides 50 emission-free miles on a single charge to its lithium-ion battery pack, and up to 403hp from two electric motors. The power retractable hard top, a first for Fisker, glides neatly into the trunk and a unique design language sets the Karma S concept apart. Fisker Automotive is a new American manufacturer of premium green automobiles.

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romising an electric-only driving distance of up to 64km on a single charge and a fuel economy rating of up to 2.2 liters/100 km with even less than 106mpg emission of CO2 per Km, Blue-Will is a test bed of new ideas that range from the unique profile to drive-by-wire steering and touch screen controls. Also codenamed HND-4, is the fourth in a series of highly innovative concept vehicles to come out of the Namyang Design Center currently headed by Oh Suk-Geun, Executive Vice President of Design. The concept is powered by an all-aluminum 152hp Gasoline Direct Injected 1.6L which is coupled to a Continuously Variable Transmission and a 100kw electric motor which is at the heart of Hyundai’s proprietary parallel hybrid drive architecture. Wheels are turned by power coming directly from the gasoline engine, or the electric motor, or both together, as conditions demand. This parallel hybrid drive architecture serves as the foundation for future Hyundai hybrids, starting with the nextgeneration Sonata in the U.S.


the Volvo S60 Concept

Interior indicates future design direction: With the interior of the Volvo S60 Concept, Volvo Cars’ design director Steve Mattin and his team are displaying a variety of spectacular next-generation ideas.

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olvo Cars treats the automotive world to an early unwrapping of a car that will shine bright in the streets for years to come. The Volvo S60 Concept gives the car world a glimpse of what the all-new Volvo S60 is going to look like when it arrives in 2010. “The all-new S60 will be one of the strongest players in a segment where the competition is razorsharp,” says Volvo Cars President and CEO Stephen Odell. The coupe-inspired lines that gave the original S60 its characteristic stance are even more pronounced in the next generation. “The sporty design gives visual promise of an enthusiastic drive and I can assure you here and now that the all-new S60 will live up to that promise. The driving properties are

DACIA DUSTER CONCEPT

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acia’s first concept crossover. Seen from the driver’s side, it is visibly a sporting coupé, yet passengers entering from the other side will see it as an MPV (Multi Purpose Vehicle) with a traditionally opening front door and rear-hinged rear door which suggest plush travelling refinement. Duster’s height of 1.49 metres, short front and rear overhangs (65cm and 80cm respectively), generous wheelbase (2.80m) and compact volumes (4.25m long, 1.64m wide) exude an overriding sense of robustness and sports appeal. The front end features a broad bumper with two horizontal air-intake slits that suggest power. The grille features evident Dacia styling cues and is flanked by headlamps which wrap over the front wings to form a tapering line of light that stretches rearward towards the doors. Viewed from the side, the clear-cut lines of the wheel arches and tall doors reinforce the impression that Duster sits squarely on the road. The Anthracite Grey bodywork and extensive onepiece glazed sweep – made possible by the absence of a central pillar – highlights the styling of the sides which are unmistakably reminiscent of Duster’s graphic identity. Duster is just 4.25 metres long, and its inherent agility ensures that it is perfectly at home in the

better than in any previous Volvo. The car’s technology will also help you to be a better and safer driver,” says Stephen Odell. The concept car reveals that the Volvo Cars design team is stepping up to the next level in the development of the products’ DNA. “The concept car’s exterior gives a clear indication of what customers can expect of the all-new S60. On the inside we’ve been even more daring - there the focus has been on creating a vision of the future in the slightly longer perspective,” says Volvo Cars Design Director Steve Mattin.

urban jungle. Meanwhile, its 21-inch, five-spoke aluminium alloy wheels, exterior mirrors positioned on the window surround and trapezoidal aluminium exhaust tailpipes are telltale signs of its sporting pedigree. Special care has gone into Duster’s aerodynamic efficiency (Cd: 0.30) and the fluid lines of the body sides enable air to flow freely along the vehicle’s flanks before being jettisoned through the rear lights. The aerodynamic, wing-like forms of the roof-mounted direction indicators also channel airflow towards the rear. The sum of all this work has naturally been beneficial to fuel consumption, and Duster stands out as a particularly environmentally-respectful crossover. Despite its performance potential, the particulate filterequipped 1.5 dCi 105hp engine (77kW) emits just 139g of CO2/km, equivalent to fuel consumption of 5.3 litres/100km.

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COLUMN Bill Radtke

on streamlining... I did not get the same feeling from the TD with its vertical grille, nor, I might add, from my wife’s MGA, which was certainly more streamlined. Streamlining, however, tends toward a common form and the auto moguls were interested in selling their cars, not someone else’s. Therefore, streamlining was restricted to models marketed for speed and performance, or the semblance of it, while marque differentiation became more important to statdard production models. This produced the weird and wonderful variety of the Fifties, Sixties and Seventies when every make and model could be identified at a glance, It also produced planned obsolescence where every model underwent cosmetic changes every year to encourage “trading up”, whether or not the machine had changed, and left one wondering whether or not the underlying machinery had also been designed to announce its obsolescence every three years or so.

I

n the styling of the automobile, streamlining emerged in the Thirties when the problem of building cars was largely solved and the problem of selling them moved to the fore. It was already established in art and architecture, the popular Art Deco movement of the Twenties having evolved into Streamline Moderne. The outstanding exemplar of this trend in the Thirties was Gordon Buherig’s Cord 810 and 812SC, the only automobile to be displayed in the New York City Museum of Modern Art as a “rolling sculpture”. Essentially, “streamlining” means airstreamlining. Functionally, it belongs to the spheres of racing cars and aircraft where it serves a performance function, and it partakes of their glamour. With respect to the passenger car of the Thirties, it could well have been asked: at what speed does airstreamlining come into play as a significant factor in performance? It didn’t matter. Streamlining gave the appearance of speed at any speed, even standing still. And that sold cars. My favorite car of the Sixties was my 1955 MG TF-1500, which was slightly raked compared to the previous TD but could by no stretch be considered “streamlined”. It was treat to step out of the house in the morning and see it waiting like a leashed whippet rarin’ to go.

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Marque differentiation is now a thing of the past. Except for low-production luxury models and concept cars, the common complaint today is “all cars look alike; the only way to tell one from another is by checking the badge.” Like streamlining, computerized design also converges on one optimal shape, and that shape is, in fact, streamlined. Hearing this complaint, I smile, thinking “Citroën’s revenge”. The Citroën DS of 19551975, my favorite in the Seventies, was certainly streamlined, with the lowest wind resistance of any passenger sedan, and it certainly had high marque differentiation, so much so that in the U.S. it was considered “freaky-looking”. Now most cars are beginning to look reminiscent of DSses. Stylists who yearn for marque differentiation turn to modernized “retro” designs like the New Beetle and Mazda Miata or go back to the very basic “box on wheels” like the Scion xB and Nissan Cube. All in retreat from “the jellybeans”. Bill Radtke Bill Radke, born in Rochester (New York) in 1925, has been fascinated by cars all his life. In his life he has witnessed the great history and development of the automobile. Bill will be our columnist on a regular basis. He was a paratrooper in WWII and fought for the liberation of Europe. During his career Bill was a Professor of Psychoanalysis, PhD, at the University of Hawaii. Bill now lives in Florida.


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Full-hybrid concept, the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics concept car is powered by a three-cylinder turbodiesel and two electric motors. Overall system output is 262 kW/356 hp, maximum torque 800 Newton-metres/590 lb-ft. All-wheel drive featuring an electric motor on both the front and rear axle. Acceleration from a standstill to 100 km/h in 4.8 seconds, top speed 250 km/h (155 mph) (electronically limited) , fuel consumption in the EU test cycle 3.76 litres/100 km (equal to 75.1 mph imp), CO2 emissions 99 grams/kilometre. Plug-in hybrid, BMW Vision EfficientDynamics is able to cover the entire fuel consumption drive cycle under electric power alone. Taking the sources of energy used for generating the electric power consumed into account (EU electricity mix), this reduces the CO2 emission rating to just 50 grams per kilometre.

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INTRODUCING

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The next generation of oscilloscopes designed by engineerswho understand the needs of all engineers Dont delay! See an online demo now at www.dlm2000.net Or for further information, e-mail us at tce@nl.yokogawa.com Bandwidths 200-500 MHz Switchable 8 bit logic (mixed signal) input Memory up to 125 Mpoints Waveform acquisition rates up to 450,000 per second Sample rate up to 2.5 GS/s

Higher performance, lower cost Car Concept nº 1 January-February 2009

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The new BMW 7 Series. Sets the benchmark again! The all-new fifth generation of the BMW 7 Series radiates a natural presence, inherent sportiness and an elegance born of precision in concept and execution. A new V-8 engine with direct injection and twin turbochargers expresses BMW EfficientDynamics at the highest level of performance. The 4.4-liter, twin-turbo V-8 delivers 400 hp and 450lb-ft of torque. New, exclusive BMW driver-assistance systems and comfort-related features further add to a truly exceptional driving and riding experience.

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Official fuel economy figures for the new 7 Series Saloon Range: Urban 29.7 - 17.2mpg (9.5 - 16.4 ltr/100km). Extra Urban 47.9 - 33.2mpg (5.9 - 8.5ltr/100km). Combined39.2 - 24.8mpg (7.2 - 11.4ltr/100km). CO2 emissions 192 - 266g/km. Car Concept nº 2 March-April 2009 Car Concept nº2 March-April 2009 117

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The motor hood of the Citroën DS was made from aluminium indeed. Credits: Agency: Mother London (GB) Client: Stella Artois Photographer: Nick Clements Photo Agency: WiB Designer: Cristiana Couceiro The Stella Artois advertising can not be published outside the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland.

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