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Andt)leseworda were carved over his mantel: HI am an oldman olta halJe hacfmanytroublea, but the mOlltot them n9verhappenea. u When·the worldseem& dark and you seem to see trouble ahead-read the above.

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OF

~f

A SON R Y. BY

WILLIAlf PRESTON, ~.f.As路rBlt

1)A81"

OF TIlE LODGE OF .A.NTIQUI'.ry,

.\C'rI~GDY r:\nU~~IOIU...\r",

CO::S-STITOTION".

nnl"f!U :nun

lot1.<l,

.A.ND ADDlrrIONS, DY 'l'lIE

RI~~\r . PAST

n.

Ct,. OI.lIVER, D.D., 1'. G. JIIf. li'Olt

LIXCOL~SIIIIU~~, ~;frc.,

At7THOn. 01"

h'rns

IusrOlUC' .H~ . t.'\~aa(,Anib:;'l.路' n 'flU' nrS1'On'f" OF rSX1'I.\TION'. u

....\~'I路H~t:'tTU:~"'S.路lU:g)[ASONlt.!'." "Stilt. IN TBEi':.AST." t.T("~.,

~jXO.

,V'.

$Te., :&'ro.

NE"\V YORK: LEO~AJ~D &;

CIJAIUi:,

CO., .t\'}tlBRIC.A..:\ ![ASONIC AGENOY.

Aus'rI~ &.

SMITIr. 3 PARK RO'V..

1855.


lSlf:,.tot!I1)t~tl

by

liOLMAN ! GRAY, N1LWl'OBJt.

IJ'ri'llfNI and Bmmtl by ;].. "I. :BRIUUiAN, I,OCtSnt.LI, .ItT..


TO HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS

AUGUSTUS FREDE11IOK, DUKE OF SUSSEX, EARL OJ!"" INVER~ESS,

BARON OI!' ARKLOW,

KNIGHT OF 'l'HE l\!OST NOBLE ORDER OF TEE GARTER,

COLONEL OF 'l'HE HONOURABLE ARTILLERY CO::\IPANY OF LONDON,

PRESIDENT OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGE1\tENT OF ARTS,

:MA~17FACTURES,

AND COl\IMERCE,

AND :MOSfl"f "\YOnSHIPl"UL

GR.i;lND

J'tL\Sfl'l~R O~'

TIlE UNrrED OnAND LODGE Ol!'

ANCIE.~T

l."'I'tEE::\,tASOXS 01" l~XOLANP;

PI~INCE

A liIGIILY

ENDEAU1~D

TO

IlUT IN AN

I~V'RRY ~'lUEN'!).

1I0NOUnABLE

TO 'rIfE ANCIENT FRATER:'\I'rY OP

OF HUMANITY,

}~S:P}~CIAI.. 1\LA.NNli~R

~"REg

ASD

ACCEPTl~D

MASONS,

ON ,VIIO:J.I lIE HAS GO~l~Enll~~D IN'DBLIIH..l!1 Onr..lGA.'l'IONS;

'l'IIIS NE'路V路 EI)rrl():N of u llo.pu.ln-c t!ttentfse on IS

INSCltIrn~n,

,,"r.rlI

~aSOlltR

:pn.O~"'I()UN1)

lU~SI)"HCTt

Ill'" nIS ]'l;OYAI.I IIIGlrN:f~SS'S MOSTI>1'1V(Yrl~D

In;l\tUI.lH SEn.V ANTt

TIlE

l~r)ITOR.


PREFACE THE favourable reception this Treatise has l11et with, in the several Editions through \vl1icll it llUS passed, encourages tl1C.A.utl1or to hope tllat its appearance ona 1110re enlargeO:i'scale "viII 110t render it less deserving the countenance of his J~retlll"~n. He ","ould be ,vanting in to his friends, Il0t to nek.no\vledge llis obligato for Inany c,uriOllS extracts, anc1 the r)erusal of SOl11e 'valuable IIlanuscriIlts, ,,,,,hicIl.路 have enabled hirn to illustrate his 8U bject \vitll greater ReclI.... and l)recision. ..... .i.\.... U;.."'I.. I. ....,,\."""

rI'his 'I'ractis divided into four llooks.-In the First ]3001\., the excellency 'of lVfasol1ry is displayed. In the Seeorlc113001\.~ the general plan of the snbjectstreated in tIle tllree is illustrated, '\vith oceasicrnal re.nHlrl\.s; Rnd of the 1\,11 thor con... I110St for instruction irnprovernent of his IlretlH~en, is eonsid,erahlyextclHled in the later l~ai~rhira Bool\. tIle of a curious Ul,llJ.VLt.lil,lVJll;:)"l tl10

t1

l]'l()st

The .l\Iasonry路 fl"oru y(~ar 1812,' in oceurren (~,es

1.10lne

"'.~ . . . . . --'...... \vitll SOrlIe

]~llg'1 alIt],

1

Tho<1at 0 of tilt:':

l:Jdilion.-l~Drr.


PREFACE.

V1

account of the principal Patrol1S and Protectors of the Fraternity at different periods. The progress of Masonry on tIle continent,. as well as in: India and An1erica, is also traced, vvllile the proceedings of the Brethren in Scotland particularly claiIn attention. Tbrougl1out tIle vvhole are illterspersed several explanatory notes, containing 80111e useful infornlation; and ., few generall"e111arks are introduced 011 some of the late publications against tIle Society of Freemasons. At the end of the ,rolun1e is g'iven a collection of Anthel11S and Songs; "i,vhich, being occasionally introduced in our assernblies, Ina:y tend greatly to enliven. the proceedings. The success of tllis Treatise l1as far exceec1ec1 its Inerit; the Autllor, therefore, shall only observe, that should his additions orcorrectiol1s he considered real iznproveInents, lIe ,viII be an1l)ly gratified foranj1" pains he rnay have tal\.cn. Dean Street, Fetter Lane,

Feb.. ,路l822..


INTROD'UCTION. WHOEVER attentively considers the nature al1d tendency of the l\lasonic Institution, 111l1st readily perceive its general utili tJr• FrOIll all anxious desire "to disl)lay its value, I have been induced to offer the fbllo\ving sheets to. the. Public. 1fuI1Y reUSOllS luight have withheldnle fi·onl the atte111pt; rny inexperience as a ~"riter, 111)"" attclltion to tIle.- duties of a laborio"C1S l)rofesslon, and the Inany abler hands \vho have. treated the subject before 11le: yet, u.nder all tlH~se disac1v~n1tnges, the })ersun.sionof friends, added to a \Varnl zeal in the eause, have stiululated 111(; to risk. 111)7' reputation on tIle f11te of n)y performanee.. "VVhen I first had the 110110Ur to be elected l\fa.sterof the Lodge,I thong)ht it prol,er to infor+nmyself fully of the genernl rules of the Society, that I might.MI:lB.better enab led to execute lIlY O\VIl duty, UI1<l e.specially-enforce obedience in others. rl"hernethods \vhicll I ado})ted \vith this vie\y, exeited. in SOUle of sUI)erfleial kno\vledge all absolute dislil\.e of ,~v'hat they considert~d as irUIOyutions; and in others, ,vho "vere better intorn1cd, a jealousy of IJre-erninerlce \vhiell the l)rineiples of l\fasonry ought to have eh()e k.ed. N ot\lli t hstandi ng tllese discou ragenlents, 110\Vf~vel·, I l-)ersever(~~d in rny intelltion of .suIlporting the dignity the S·oeiety·, and of discharging \vitll fidelity the duties of Illy office.. i\.S eandonr" and integrit}:r, llllinfllleIlced 1))" interest or favour, ,viII ever sUllllort a good caus(~, SOl11e oflny opponents (IHlrdon tlH~ expression) S()(Hl began to discover their error, ('lJlt.1 eheerfLllly eOlleurred in the execution of nleasu tOes; \vhil e otllers, of less lih(~rHlity, taeitly appro\"ed \vhat their fOl"nler declared 0lJinions forbad tlleln .llllbliely to .udopt. Tllis success, \vhich. exceeded 111y 1110st sanguine wishes,


viii

INTRODUCTION.

encourngec11ne to exauline \vitl1 n10re attention the contents of our Lectures. The rude and ll11perfeet state in \vhich I found thenl, the variety of 1110des established at our rneetinQ;s, and the ditliculties I had to enC01Hlter in Iny'" researel~~s, rather diseoura,gecllny first atternpt: persevering-, ho\vever, in the design, I continued the 11ursuit; a~;d, \vith the assistance ~of a fe\v I3rethren, \vho llad careflllly l)reserv"ed \V1Hlt ignorance and degeneracy路 had rejected as unintelligible and absurd, I diligent1)T sought for, und at length haI)pily acquired, S0111e of the ancient and venerable landll1tltks of the Order. Fortunate in the acquisition of fi-iends, and fhlI)! deterrnined to pursue the design of efleeting a general reforn1ation, \ve persevered jn an to correct the irreU'nlarities \vhieh had u

at a]1 onr

irlto our nsselllblies, and

the

utilit:.y路


CONTENTS .

••* The Lines

in Italics ,vere not inserted lmtil tIle fourteenth Edition.

BOOK I. The Excellency of lVlasonry displayed. SECT.

PAGE

I. Reflectiollson the synlInetry allclproportiol1 in the works of N atllre, and on tho l:13.ru10ny and atrection aUlong

the various species of being ... ~. 1 II. The resulting f"rorn Frienclship 3 III. of I\Iasoln'y, HIld its general advantages 4 fJo,oul'.al;/on, ~d' the Irin"Zd.. . 5 note. lt~iJ,lan'{88 and a,tlt:n.tio'}z, to distressed lltasons 6 note. Iv...... 1Iasonr'v' eonsidereil unclE.. r t\\"o ilcnonlillntions .. • 7 ])/"CSClll appcara.Ju't:. ttl the sile o..f King "Solomon's . . . . . .. . • 7 note. ,\T. The G'crvernrnent of the Frafcrnit},.. I{ea~ons,vhy

..

..

8

the Secrets o~ l\lasonry ougl1t not to he pliblielyexposed; thefirnportance 'of those secrets ' denlonstrat(~<1 . .. 9 "'II. }t"'ew' S(leic~ti('s exelnpted frorn censuro. Irregnlarities C)f l\Ia~(H1S no argulnent tho Institution. 11 LC1WS t.o' 'initiation 12 note. \III!. the 14 broth cr '1.Dho had been im,the .Jnt7UI.sUi~.on. .. .. .. .. 15 note. disc'('rnnH'nt hy l\fasons in the choico of of ehnrity .. 16 impostors iboo note. X. Friendly adrHouitions 17 'lI.

... 1.,,(,(..1.,)1.'1{ {I,,·

BO()K II.


x

. CONTENTS.

PAGE On the n1anagement of thti Craft in working; to be rehearsed at opening the Lodge- • 22 Law's for the governn1cnt of the Lodge .. ib. Charge on the beht1Viour of ~1asol1s, to be rehearsed at closing the Lodge 23 Prayer used at opening the Lodge 24 ib. - - - - - at closing the Lodge III. Remarks on the ~'IRST LECTURE • 25 First Section ib. Second Section . • 26 Declaration to be assented to by every Candidate ib. previous to Initiation;. . . . . ib. Fernl0f Proposition .. ib. Prayer used at Initiation 27 Third Section ••• ib. Charge at Initiation into the First Degree . . 30-32 note. A new Charge on the saUle occasion • 3! E UI.-OGIUl\I • Fourth See tiou • 33 ib. Origin of nUt-sonic IIieroglyphics ib. note. (lath (~fPythagora8 . .. '34 Fifth See-doll • ib.. Sixth Section. .. ib.. Granc11)rinciples eXl)lrdned • " 35 .. . , . . Cardinal "Virtues explained Instance. q/' kindru?8B to a 1,risoner t!/" 'war 'who 'was a Free/nason . . .. .. ib. note. Equality tunong nIasous cxernplifiec1 36 • 37 IV. Renlnrks on tho SECoND LEcrruru~ First Seetion . . . 38 Charge at Initiation into the Secolld Degree :39 S(~(~ond. Section... "'1 .. .. .... 40 {.)rigiu. of Orc1ors in Architecture 41 }'i ve Ordors explained. • ib.. 1\Io17td ad vantages of Geonu}try 4:3 SECT.

r,I'hird S(~(~ tioll . _ .. 45 Invoeation of Solornon at the Dedication of the 'renlple (Jf J'flrusnlcrn , .. 4t3 Duri?Tent Ordt.:rs cnlJ.1loyed in building the '1T/~'mplt; Soltnnon • ..... 45 note.

]\nnth

v..

47

SQven liberal .\rts explained rrhe Glolws explain(H:l

..

ib .

48 4;9 50

the ~enuu) LEC'relUJ :First Se(~tion . . . .. at Initiation inh5 the, Third at Initiation into the 'rhiI'll I)egree •

ib.

rrhir.l SeeticHl }"()urth St·etion

ib. ib.

RQllUU'ksfHl

l~ifth S(l(~tiun

Sixth Sectioll

..

ih..

51

ih..

52


CONTENTS.

SECT.

Seventh Section

o

• .. • •• of this· Section enumerated . • • ....

xi PAGE 52

Hierogl~?Jphics ib. note.. Eighth Se(Otion ib. Ninth Section ib. Tenth Section ih. Eleventh Section ib. T,velfth Section . .. 53 J.\"rurnber of ]l.{asonic Degrees on the Continent • ib.. note "IVf the ancient Cerl~moniesof the Order ... ih. ~fanller of constituting the Lodge 54 Application for a Constitution . ib. Cerel110ny of Constitution . 55 Cerel11011Y of Consecration 56 .. 57 Cel'elnony of Installation.. .. .. .. 58 Aneiellt Charges from an old l\-fS... Chnrges delivered at the Constitution of a Lodge 59 ... 60 Regulations delivered at ditto.. E:cposition of the Lazos relating to "V-isitors • 61 note. E:t]){)si,tlorL 0./ the LenD 'telaling to the tinGe of a Master's continuance ,in t.he Chair . ... . .63 note. Cerelnony ()f laying a ~"oundution-stone .67 Splcndo'MI" })'1"ocessions on the Co'ntinent .. 68 note. Cereulony (;f Dedication . . ... 69 Relnarl~8 on the l?urniture of a Lodge.. • 70 note. C(~relnony n,t :F'ullerals .... • 72 General l~ernarks on Funeral Processions .. 73 note.

or

Funeral Service .

74

BOOIC III.

The.Princil)les of J\Iasonry Explained. I.A LettEr froln the lOllnled :3:Ir. Jolin Locke, to the Earl of Pernhroke (Hd Dialogue on l\Iasonry • .. G"lossary b) ditto .. . . •. ..... .. ..

II.. Remarks

011

79 80 84

an old Dialogue., and on· j\Ir. Locke's ...Anno-

tations ...... 85 Benne nec()unt of Pythagoras 86 Ct?fonr)]l'ies of P1Jlhagoras.. .. . . . 87 note. 'l"h(~ ,vise P()lIey of '~Ia,sonB y\l'ithroapect to Religion rind Governlllent. . . . . . . 90 ..A..rchite?cture Olll! of the "Secrelsoj Freemasons . 92 note.. I{e111urks on S{~cr(.ltcy . . . • " .. . . 93 Iustances of the V cucration paid to it by the Ancients . . . . . ill. Entbll?ln (1 Siltm,ce H ?.trule'r the rose H .94 note. 'The StOf)iI" of I>apyrus " . • ib. CuriollsExpln.nation of the word AnnAC 96 Astrulogy ()l:iginally prac,tisc<l by l\{asons 97 Advantages derived fl'Ofil this Study ib.


xii

CON'XENTS.

BOOK IV. The History of :I\fasonry in England, &c. SECT.

PAGE

I. J\1'asoury early introduced into. Englalld.-Account of the Druids.-Progress of 1\拢tlsonrjt in England under tho R01l1ans.-~fasons highly fa youred by St.. Albf:~ll The Acacia~I)Orshipl)ed 'in Arabia.. . ih. Superstitious Usages o.f t~le Druids . . 101 St. Alban procures a Charter for the l\Iasons froIn Carausius. .... Some account of this yenerahle l\Iartyr.. . II. History of J\Iasonry in England under St. Austin, Kings Alfred, Echyurd, ...l\.thelstane, Edgar, Ed'ward the Confessor, "THliaul theConqneror, Henry T.. , Steph,en, and floury II.; and also unc1erthe Itnights rrernplars Austin patronis(~s tho l\Iasons Alfred fn,yours the J,Iasnns Chnracter of that First Grunel Lodge Athelstane grants Clahns of the alnil1ed A General or Grand '" .. nlurdering ]lis hroli..t.l~lstt1n(>, falsely flier

'\'1

]~d,vin

.. Charta first obt:.linet1

~li:::.nl""("

I.

.

.

..

.

100 n,ote. note. 103 ib.

105 ib.. 100

ib.. 107 ib..

108 10E~

ill.

the Norlnansfrorn

.

111

under fhp Ctrnnd :\Inster of th(~

~

-J"lo"..A.A路.;";';'I.\\I..

ib.

III. 112

l1a ib.

aUlfJIl;~lHnrr

114 ',,,"""',1 ""'",,",,"

U

of:\Iasons

117 ib. 118

120 i}).

lV11:cnCrll.t:t, and

n.neellot:o

(:011-

ib. the i}).

125


xiii

CONTENTS.

SECT.

PAGE

IV. Ifistory of "A{asonry in the South of England from 1471 to 1567 . • . • • . . • 125 l\la8o~ry under the 11atronage of the Knights of Malt~t·

.

.

.

.'.

•.

126

Description of I-Ienr.y the 8eve.nth's Chapel. . Its pecul iar and exclusive bea'uties . • • ib. Queen Elizabeth sends an' armec1 force to break up the annual comull.luication at York . • . A Grand 11aster first· appointed for the South· of England; Sir T. Gresham elected.. . . . Foundation-stone of the Royal Exchange laid by Sir T.Gresham .. . ...... . .. V. Progress of ~lasonl'Y in the South of England from the reign of Eliza.bet.h to the Fire of LOlldon, 1666 InigoJones a zealous patron of }rlasons Sorne account of this artist.. • . . .. Theappellatiol1.· of· Orand ·l\Iaster ·ofEngland.:first

ib. note.

128 ib.

ib. 129 130 ib.

given. . .. .. .. . ib. Banqueting-house, \¥hitehnl1, described ib. Other \Vclrks exeeutcd by Inigo Jones .. .. 133 Extl'a,cts f1'orn Elias ..:\.shrnole'sDiary.. .. ib. Sir Christopher '"VrQn presides over the ~!asons 134 Short necount of this architect . .. .. ib. ib. l~egulntionsof the ~Iasons in the reign of Chro:les II. VI.. IIistory of l\Iasonry in England fl'om the of Lon136 don to thf\ .A.ccession of George 1. . It

London visited by the plague.. . Fire of London.. .. . . . ." • Dr. 'Vren prepares a. plan for the new city Citizens avers<.~ to it.. .... ..... li'oundatiol1-st(HIE': of the ne'v Royal Exchange laid Deseription of the building .. . .. • Custolu-honsH of I-ionc1on built . . • .. 1'heatrtllll Sheld(~nitun nt Oxford built 1\lonuIllPnt ill L()lldon erected; description of it Dr. \Vren dt;signs St" f)aul's cnthedra.l -. • 'rhe Poundation.. stnne laid hy I{ing Charles • Accurolte desc,ription of the buildillg .. Betbleherll hospitnlin l\I001'fiplds built ". .• . • Parish churches ill London rebuilt,or repaired, after the Fire • .. .. . . State of ~rasonry at the Itovolution .. .. .. VII. lIistory of the Revival of J,iIasonry in the South of England. . ...... . IIistnry of 1\Iasolu"y in London . . • • l~stablislunentofthe present Gru,nu Lodge ill LOll don Nature of its (~stublishlnent ~ . .. • . Pn.rticulu.racc<)tlnt of the fCHU- old r...,o<1gos whioh first f01"xned the Gran<lLodge, and th(~privileges retainedby t1H~~In ........ Duke of ~!ontagt1 the first NobleGrand ~raster after the Revival <I

<I

ib. ib. 137 ib.

138 ib. ib. ib. ib. 139 140 ib.

145 146 148 149 ib. 150 ib. 151 156


xiv

CONTEN'rs.

PAGE State of ?tlasol1ry in the North of Engla.nc1 from 1705 to 172~), inclusivo . . 156 The Grand Lodge of York c1eelned the l\Iother Lodge of the kingdorn . . . . . 157 First divhiioll bet\veen the IJodges in the North and South, ou account of innovations Ina-de by the ib. latt.er . . . . . • VIII.. History of l\1u.sonry· frorn its 11evival in the South of England to the death of I\'.ing George I. . . 158 Book of Constitutions first published . 159 COffiUlittee of Charity establislH~d • 160 lVlasons of \Va.les unite under the banuer of the 161 Granel· Lodge of Euglaud ib. Provincia'! Grunel l\lasters first appointed Office and Privilege of a Provincial Grand l\iaster explained ib. Regalia of P. G. Officers.. 162 note. IX. IIistory of l\Iasonry in England during the reign of l{'ingGeorgt: II. . 162 Masonry. first established in India, und its progress t.here . . . • . . . 164 Duke of Norfolk's IHlutlsolne present to the Society ib. l~eguln.tions in the COllllnittee of Charity 1{)5 I)rivileges granted ttl tho Stewards ib. Francis, late EIIl!)CrOr of C:}erlnany., il1itit~ted into l\l~onry • 1GB First (~ountry feast held at ITarnpsten.c1 ib. ()rigin o,/"lVlason:ryin A,merica . ib. note. Lodge at IIarnburgh opened lUHler tho ]~nglish Constitution . . . . . IG7 Andorsoll's Editiouf')f tb(} (;onstitutio)1sptlb1ifjh(~d 168 llegulutions estn,blished, n.nd furtherprivileges gra.nted ttl the,Stowlttds. ..... ib.. Encrotu~ll.l'llent on jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge at York .. . .. .. . ib. 'The I..Jodgo at York :nekll()w'ledgecl to net independent under its o'vn (i·rand :\Iaster . . .. .. 169 Stew·n.rds first appear at the Grand Lodge in their l~egu.liil. . ... . . . . • ib..

SECT.

Certain privileges of the Ste'\vards (ll~n)llte(l Rerna.l'ks on these privilegt~s . ~'red(?riek, tho late Pl'inee r;f """ales, inidutcd

Palutl nu.ll and 1Edict Iu.to l\,ing of Grand Lodge in

rrht~

l"rccm.asollry initiated

170 ib. IiI ib. nol;; ..

..

Undf)l"

ib.

£x:or11, Seotlund

Regulations the Ris(~

eS1tnt)1U~lhE~~d

gO\~erllln(~nt

of' the Soeit~ty

. .4nc it,m/..J.vltlsons },{oues

They

to

ib.

calling thenlselves

. (~h(\ek

{'L8StUUe

the

172

nOOl1stitutioll

tlH"ir nrll)£r:r(~~IS

174 ib. ib.


xv

CONTENTS. SECT.

x.

. PAGE Harmony of the Society restored through the influence of Lord "\Vard.. " .. .. .. .. . 175 Grand Lodge of Antigua instituted 176 Public Processions discontinued.. .... ib. The foundation-stone of the New Exchange at Edinburgh laicl .. , .. .. .. .. • .. 178 Particulars of that cerenlollY • .. .. . ib. N e\v regulations respecting the irregular ~Iasons in Londdn .. .. 184 Death of King George II. .. .. .. .. . ]85 History of l\lasonry in the Soutll of England from the Accession of George III. to the end of the year 1779 186 Subscriptions. voted for purchasing flu·nittu·e for the Grand Lodge .. .. • .. .... 187 Dukes of (i·loucester and Cumberland initiated . 188 COlnplirnent voted to the Dukes of York, Gloucester, and Curnbetland. . . ... ib. Treaty 'of Union with the Grand Lotlge of I~rance '" 189 I>lan of Incorporation laid before the Bociety ib.. Caveat entered against the Incorporation . . . . 190 COlll pn.et ,vith the National Granel Lodge of the U nitedl>rovinces of llollancl.. . ... 191 Bill for incorp(,rating tho Society brought into l?arlialllent., and on tlH~ second readillgreJected . 192 IIali Conunitt,?e instituted . .. .... ib. I~eportto tb(1Gl~in1(l I.Jodgo of the purchase of ground andprt~rnises for the lInll · . . · .li .. ib. Five thousand pounds· raised on tontinG by subscription, for building- the 11a11.. .. .. ., . 193 The 'ravern robuilt, and expenses incurred .. ib. note. li'raternal Pitly oj' the Brethren in Am,erica ib.. note. Foundation-stone of tho N €ny l'1a11 laid

• 194

rrheOfIiee of (]orand Chaplain institu.ted FIaU cornplet(~d ttl 1d aE~dicate<l.. .. Dt~scriptiol1of tho 110.11 Decora lions (1 ditto ... .... . ' Brethren of ~t. John's Lodge at Newcastle build a lInll for their ~IE~(rtillgs .. .. .. ... • Proposals for an uUiance ~·ith tho Granc.1Loc.lge of B("lrliu a.pproved.. . . .... .. Deputy (Jr .A.ssistant Socretary appoiut,ea . .. l>nst Graud()tHo<~rs· to be distinguished by a jewel

195 ib. ib. 196 197

198 ib. ib. Obs(~rvationstllercrHl • .. .... .... ib. }:;"nrth(!r rm;pocthrlg Ancient 1\Iasons·· .. • ib. 1'hn C(lnstlr(~ against ~h~:Hn n()t £~x,telH1t:ld tt) tl~e Lodges under thp bUlnH~r()f Sc()tland, Ir(~ln.lld or York.. 199 Appendix to the llook of Constitutions ord(~re(l to be . . . "." ib. printod FroeUU1Sf)US' Cnl(~naflr £rst published ib.. Fees of C~(~n8tittltiolls, &c.. , raisQd .... .. ib. 1t!asolls at 8tUHl(~~1'luud build a 1In11 for their ~feetiDgs, which Isdestl"tt'jYed by nrc t and rebuilt. 200


xvi SECT.

CONTENrrs.

PAGE 200 note. irlterrupted by pri,"ate ib. C()11t'(>quenee ()f thf1se c1i~sen8iolls • 201 .Hi~(> (If the diSlHlt{~S in the.. of Antiquity . ib. Proeeeding;~ ()f

XI.

tho (~rand I~odge on tlUl.t <)eea:--:ifHl 202 I ..odge of ":\.lltiquity separates frrnn tho Grand I.Jodgo, n,nd fnrlns an allirtnee with th(J r:"rand l:""odge at 1:" ork ib.. l{.esolution of the G-raud in justification of its proceedings in gi \'irlg u suuctifHl tt) three oxpelled luernhers of Lf)(lg(~ of l\..ntiquit,y~ \vith their aS50eiates, to bpar the rank and· title of thntLodge ib. Ilpf!ectit)11s on that event ib. of ..:\.ntiquity rene,Ys its alliance '\\-itll the Grund and hartnony is r("shJred 204 the IlHtst rornnrkalJle cYents in thn S()ciety fr'Hn li79 to 17tH iuclu;-;ivn 205 1:'·1()nl·1~lnll2' ~tat(~ ()f in llndel" th(~ Eng...

ib. ()f

ib. ib. initiatf~tl

\ ' Lllli:L I - 11..11·' 11111. • 1lJ.

ib. 20()

207 ib. ib..

ib. 200 ib..

ib.

210 ib. to

nl(~ct

in

ib. ib.

\vith

tll(~

ih

211 ib.

ib. ib


CONTENTS.

SECT.

xvii

PAGE for the increase of the flail Fund. . 212 Office of' Grand Portrait Painter appointed.. . 213 Lodge erased for making )Iasons in the !{ing's Bench I)rison . .. .. .." ib.. Fin8s to be levied 011 Deruty Grand ~Iaster and Grand \Vardens when absent .. . . . • ib. Great itllprOYeluents in the city of Edinburgh ib. ib. Foundation-stone of the South Bridge there, laid.. ... 214 Cerclnony observed on that occasion 215 Inscription deposited in the s t o n e . Plan for building the nGW College of Edinburgh approved 216 Cere!nony observed at .laying the foundation-stone of that structure • . . .. . . . ib. Address of the Grand l\Iaster on that occasion to the Lord Provost ~tud~Iagistrates . .. . . 217 Principal Rubertson's speech, in answer to the Grand l\laster's tl(ldress . . 218 Inscription placed in the stone 220 No\\rBridge at ~lontrose opene<.1. .221 Duke of Ular(~ll(~n initiated intoI\fasonry . .. 222 Grrtnd Chapter of the Ord('r of flarodirn institutc<l at 1.. on don .. .. ib. N atur(~ of itsestablislunent .. ib.. I:>rince of .\V {t1E~8 initillted int.o lIasonry 223 Duke of York initiated . . . . . . . ib. l~oyal .Fre(~nutsons' Charity for :b"'emale Chi1dl"el1 instituted .. .. . . .. .. .. .. j,b.. 11ous0 built f()r the Children inSt.. George's Field~, at the expense of 2500l" .. . .. .. .. 224 C}eneral 11l·gula,tions of the Charit'l' ib. I)at1"ons of th 0 Sehool . .... . . . . . 225 t1en(~ral principles upon 'which the Charit.y is COllducted . . . ib. Ofiic(~rs of the institution . . .. .. . 227 !)ea.th of his Iloyul Ifiglulcss the Duke of Cumberland 228 Priu(~e I~d',,"ard, la,to I)uke of !{ent, initiat.ed .. .. ib.. Princ(~ Augllatu8lt"'rederick, now Duke of Sussex, initiated . . . . .. . .. .. .ib. I>l'illees of tIle Inood honoured 1v.ith the clothing of (}rand.. . . . . . . . . . ib" 1\rt~lnb(·r~ (If Lodge (If Antiquity restored to their" lirivileg-es at theG:rund I~·\~H.8t in 17f)O ib.. Prince of \Vules elected Grand ~Il1stel" ib.. '.[ hr(~e ehn.irs and- Cundlesticks provided for tht~ (~rand ..,...... 229 XII. Hi~tory of ~1 'ls'.nry fr.:nn tIlt) Insta,l1n.tion of the Prineo of' 'ValeS't5 Grand:\lastet" to the Gran.d Feast of 179:> inelu.sivo ...... ib. lu~tnnat;ion of the l)dn(~e ()f' \V"n.Ies .. .. " ib.. l~rl~thr(~n in ["inc()ln tra,usrnit an ttdclrcss to his Royal .fIighuess in n coiulnn of heart ()f oak.. .. .. 230 l~(\g'ulations

:2


xviii SECT.

PAGl'!1

Freenlf1sons of

COfll\\"UU

ad<1ross his

l~oynl

IIigh-

l1ess..

...A.ddress of tI10 Grand I~()(lg"3 to the l{ing ...t\.ddre~:!s of tho (j-rand I.Jodgo to the Prince of 'Vales l(ing of S weuell illitiated . . . ... Brethren in .A.rnerico. presellt tt l1LnV edition of their Constitutious to General \'Vashington .t\c1dress tohiln ollthat occasion . General 'Vashingtoll's answor IIis death, and the cerernony observed at his funeral I~espectpuid to his nlenlor.}~ by the I-Iouse of 11epresentatives . Founc1ation-stone of the bridgo over the 'Ve,n1' laid. First. stone of the N tHY eha,pel at Brighthehnstone laid Freenlusolls' ~Ingazine published Shaksltcare Lodge at Stratford-on-.A.von constituted I~,o:rallJrunswick Lodge at Shefiield C\Hlstituted Lodge of l\.l)(.llo at ~\.leestel" (~ollstitntea i~.tldress of the Grund I.J()dgcOll the I'rince of."'alcs's ~Iarringo . . . IIis Ito,ylll l~.ns'N'el" I)roenedings tho Gl'andPeast ill 17D5 rrhe I-listorv 1\.Iasourv frOtH tho (*,ra11<1 I~"east in 17!)5 to tl;c end ()f thc~ ,rear 1800 Tlhe pul.,lication of S(H~lQ traebs th(~ l\Iasons, for 801no tinl(~ tho progress of the in <I

<I

XIII.

..

..

l~tJd g't':8

Zitlunerlntl,n'S

.. .

ib.. 234 ib.. 233

2:36 ib.

2:3i 2:.33 ib. ib. ib.

2a!) ib. 240

ib. II•. ;2·1:1 2·J:.!

I~eUHtrks

on tho I.,;ife (If ZilllllH:'rrnan Sorno aeeountc)f the Ilhuuinati l~t;jfetion by

230 2:31 232 2;3:.3

t.:nul llrench

..

.. ... irri tnhl0 1l(~rV(nlS

of ()7 I)al"ti(~ular8 of his aeath at the l~elnH.rks on the i\..bb(~ I.~arruel's ;.H.(Cll11nn~s iSlll in ]~'raneo

English :r..Irtsons not

of .Jaeohinih.

in the

the Illtnniunti . 'l'he of )'lasous fully exonerated front the ib.

th()ll1

,.,

,,.,

',,,,.

}~nbison's

(Hl th(~;

s uh-

l\InscH1S in tho ;:,oelPtH!'S t:stubli~h(ld ftHO so...

t rc.<u:-±on,atl.le

pllrp()s(~s

251


xix

CONTENTS. SECT.

PAGE

Forrn of Certiileate :F\ltrn of I~e,:';'i:c;ter

General Infh'rnarv Sh(:Hh,ld Instituti()U ()f tl1~~ ::'\ew .:\lasonic fc)r the l'elief of :;..:iek, or di~tressed 13rethren, their 'wia(nn:~, ehildren,

orpltans

..

..

.

.

.

Prudent rnodeof ~(.. lecting \he 1ne1nbo1's of this Society rrhe Itules :'11H1 ()rders .." ... ., I .. etter fr01H the X ational Grana Lodge of S,vedcn . Prillcenf \Vales's .=\.118w'or. •••. .AttC'rnpt to assassilHltc the l\'.ing at prury I ano rTheatre I-Iis l\Iajesty's dignified conduct on that occasion Ind'ignatk~n of the populace. . .. Prh;uh~ eXHnIination of tbe assassin Is tried, and as a hlllUlic . ..:-\.L1dross of the Lodge to his l\Injesty on the event l~egulati(lus

252 ib. 258

ib. ib. 254 255 257

258 ib. 259 ib. ih.

260

the debts uf the So-

ciety

261 .1Slll1(.iln!!~ at

the East India. ~{)2

ib.

263

XI"V'.

.

.

..

.

to tIle year

ib.

at laying the foundaHon .. stonc of

at L(~ith.. . ... . . l\Iastc'r's address to the Lord Provost nn<ll\Iu1·r."'i(!fU"KS

264

266 ib.

I,Jord Ih.'OY();-:t's .i\.rlS,Yc:r

Earl ()f )'I"IJirrl nth'lH]S the ({rand ()f SeotlarHl, and the eondu.et the irregular l\IllscHlS (.• f l~~nglanc1 . . .... 267 ]'Ir. I.trUlrie's neeonut of tIle origin of the CtJrr(~SlJI01JlCl'" {~nee eurried (Hl l.etwpen tlHi~ irrt·gulnr l\Ia~ons of the C*rantlLodgo of Seotlnnd .. 268 note" of th(~ Society lUldel" the lHltr()IUage 268 c)f ,jI nira. .. . .. . . in IJerlin 8()lieit, ft f"rieudly in.tercourse\vith the C~rnna (If" ib. :B"our stitutirHl

Ofliee

{Jf

269

frlllll l,:",l,I~,lUU\"

(~r,ln(l

"'"lI. ...

'~'.j."' .. "j'"' ..,

irl'(l gular l\!a..

!:'l'oe '('C(,lUI!.!S of the C;ruud S(H1S

}~(Lrl

XV.

of

io.

..

·:\.r(~ira's T>ortrait ol'(]ered

toile

e:nlhH~nt nrtist, tHHl put np in the lInll IIistofY of l\Ia~onry 1.'1'0111 18tH to

by an

,," l"fl'UlltflU.t'lflIU-8t(H'HJ of the Bridgo OVt:H' , . Spey laid " "as(~s presentf~d to8ir ..John IJoyle by

271 ib.. ib.

in Jersey, Qucrnsoy,nnd ..l\..lderney ..273


xx

CONTENTS.

PAGE

SEC1'.

Grand I..Jodgc enters on t.errns of confhlential connnu-

nicutiDn w'ith tlH~ Grand [.lodge of Seothtnd 274 Ch'and IJIHlge of Pru~sia. desires t() correspond '\vith ib. the G-rand Lodge of England . • Tlhe fOl1ndittion-stone of }l'raserburgh Ne"r IIarbour laid ib. 275 Cerernonv observed on that occasion 276 Inscripti~n and writing deposited. . . Earl of l\Ioira infornls the G'ranc1 Lodge of Scotland of the origin and situation of the Ineetings of l\Iasons in England under the Dul~e of .A.thol • 277 His lloyal flighness the Prince of \Vales elected Grand 1\Iaster of Scotland . ib. Resolutions of the Grand Loc1ge in l'0Spect to the }\Iusters anc1 "rarclens of the Scottish Lodges 278 Grand I.lodge of Scotland cornrnullicates its proceodings relative to Dr. nlitehell, ttncl the resolutions of the (}rand Lodge of l~nglanc1 on the oeension . ib. The G-rand Lodge of Ireland apprdves the pr()(~eedings of the Grand I..loc1ge of Englund, and pledg(~s itself not to

r(~ceivn

as a 13rother any persoll standing

UIH1tn- tho interdict of the Grand Lodges of l~[tgland or Sc()tland . . • 1'he foundation-stone (,f Coyent Garden rrhcatre laid

the })rince of

"r

al(~s,

as Grand l\la.ster of Eng-

land and Scotland \,J(l:rel:n{)IlY obser\"ed on that oecasifHl Inscription 011 tho l\Iedals deposited in the founda-

tion-stone

279

.

."

.

ib. :~Sl

l'lle rneLI Slu'es respeoti:ngthe irregular 1\10.80n5 abolish-

XVI.

ed . .. . . ....,. . .. _ 28~3 ffhe (j'rnnd Trott,surer's account stu.tt1<l ib. 1'ho lAquidntion-fund discontinued ib. of T\Iu8nnr,r froI11 1812 to 1813 284 Jlighnr.ss the Duke of Sussex appointed (~ra.nd ~I(tster . . . '" . ib. ""'''••• '11 ~.....,.... given by the ~"rnternitY' to the Earl of :\roira, on his being r),ppointetl Governor G'cueral of

Il1dia '" Farewell Stanzas, vn·ittc'u In.. . l..y .I~rother llelImnv"

"T. It ""right, E~8q.., and .....

l;ln~()nictJew('l" to his I..J()rtlship on ()eeasion ........ . lIis Il(fval the Duke of Sus:"iex on the tieC(~SBieHl ;Jf rtf to tho elect-

ed, in nHHl;';

()IH~H

Grn.nd

G'rnnd ..

ib. ~88

2139

U1HUli-

'"

The

(~(')nt1l:S(~(lntls to tho title of I>atl'on. of the ()rd(~:r • rrheir Ih.yal IIigllnessCls the I)ukcs of }{cut anc1 SusSCX 1 rtlHl his (h'nea the I)uko of .t\thol, (~onCl1r in nH:tt.. aures for bringhlg about the so dpsired tJ nion

(~raJltl

ilJ. 2C~;)


xxi

CONTENTS. SECT.

PAGE

Articles of Union het\veen the two Grand Lodges of Englaud .. . .. 295 Brethren norninated by tho Royal Dnkes to forln the LODGg OP I~ECOXCII..IIArrIoN .... ..301 'rhe ordf~r of I~roceedings at the Re-unio:Q, detailed 302 PhLn of Prcenlasons' Hall at the solernn cerelll0nialof the Re-union . 309 X\7'II. IIisttn'y of :\IasonrJ fr0111 1813 to 1820 .. . . 310 ~'-\.gross irnposture exposed, in a La\v Case on l\lasol1ry, ~:hnith Y. Finch . ib.. ReL~ical oj" FreelltaSonry in Russia . . . . . ib.. Solenln Dedication, by the Grand J\Iaster, of the !Ia.. sOllie Hall at Bath ... 311 The Grand jIaster's Adc1ress to the C()l:poration, on being' presented 'with the Freedom of the City . 316 Cerernonial at laying the founc1ution-stono of a 1\I011UInent to the l\IeIllory of Robert I~urns" the Ayrshire I->oet,~Jnn. 25, 182(), boing the ,il.nuiver5ary of his Ntltal1lay.. . . .. .. 317 Sketch b'ru::m,asrnrr,Y ,in ~Sc{;"land • . . ib. note• . ., i.dtlress of the l)eputy (.}raucll\Iuster, .liJeXtlllder Ik)s\vell, l~sq., of J\.uchinleek 319 XVIII.. .11I.lsOJlt.,Y ji-om" 1820 to 1823 .. 3:'2] •.1l(:~ef;'~;Blom, (~rKi'ngGcorge 11/". . . . . ib.. .ilddrcss jhnn tlu3 ClraruL Lodge to the Throne. . ib..

"r..

Ins J.llajest,1J condescf:'nds to accept th,e o.Dice of Grand l'atron oj' lYlasonr:1f . ." ... • 323 Sj)b:ndid prest:n,l.fron~ his Royal l-ligltness the Dulce of )Susse:l: to the Grand. Lod/(c.. . . . . 32l~ at Lit'cJ])ool '... ib.. J..llonorial to the G~tand Lod{{l! fron?' the P . G. Lodge fur the Coun!:'! Pdlali/u! t!l' Lllncaster . • . 325 'l'he J.llcmorialwitJuira len .. ... ib. Char,get"> f.::rhibitect aga.inst the Lod.ge Jrlo. 31.. ih. 1Vw l~odge 1'~) .. 81 Sus}Jt:ndt:tl ... ib. Tlw Brethren l\'!O. 31 issue a lnardjesto to all the Ladg":s in, the ..... . 326 .i1n,i'f~/lUM to the SUlll1nOnS {~/' the Prorincial (~~rand ih. . :1 at L'i:t~erpool. to tuljust the dispute 327 ' l l h e G r t z n c t J\;faster summons the jlla.~·t('r ib. lIe ib. ..ilnd ib. 'J'Jz,e fu ~ :['"he . ib. ;.'5e.t.:eral " . . m.elllbcrs sllf:t'}Jcnde<l. .. .. 331 'l''lu: IJod,!.ff~ 1''''0. ~~l erased, and its 1nen'tl}(;rs I}.l:pelled ~'I<'lsOnr!l .... . . .." ih. thee;l'1Jelled lklasons 1"csto7"Ctl on tll,eb· lu3ti.. t

tion Protest

.

.

.

.

ql the Lodge ]\lo.. 140

332

. 333


xxii

CO:-iTENTS.

SEc'r.

PAGE :3a;~

That LOllge erased jr.rr co;/rUmt;tCl/ XIX. I.Jislory of' j1(ls:)nryj~'oln OripJn f?f the J>rince '!l J'Jl(llcs't s Lodge

J.11enlorial to his 1\laj£:l3l.'l il:Icnurriallo his ROHa.llIi.{!.'hnc88 the

'1

'jll,

])uh.~e

Installation (~f his RO'yall:liglulc8s tile as J.)Iaster l!/the l'rince cU' n·~ll(.:8'8 Address oJ' the Deput.lJ ]t,Jaster at that c'urt/non'y .11ccount oj" 13rother 13el:oni Loses his lUe ,in .A~rrica ~Iasonry respected by Pirates . Donation (!l" .Rl't.y jJOUJu.ls j"torn the (irand 7l)idow oj' 13rolher Belzoni "

the

;5;~·.}

"

:JaG ib.

.,' In.

;)·10 ;3·13

OI)I~S.

I. II. III. I\r.

a;;() il).

,r"

'lI. 'TIl.. VIII.

IX.

x.

XI. XII.

A·X'I'lIE~IS

..

I. II.

1. II. III.

IV"" \r.

ih


xxiii PAGE

SEcrr.

,,.1. 'Ye dull, ~tupid Inortals, t\:,e. ,rIf. In tirnes of old date, &e. 路V]II. ./1. 11101'0 pure, &e. IX. of l\Iasonry, de::::{'ewl . X. "'The'n 111V t1iyinQ . Alth::r3a~:s eharrns

XI. Chl\ on, lilY dear 11rethrc'll, t~e. . XI1. lIaH. }\In~;)11ry, thou eraft eli ,tine! XIII. I . . et :JIn sonry "'fro In t.o

XI\-. lInil, 1\Iasonry! thou .A r t . . . XV.. . "\Vhcn heaven desiZll~d, &e. . . . XV"'I. 1~ e son~ of fair Set(~nee, irnpatient to learn XV'll. lIn.n, ~Insoury divine! ()f ,vine . XV"III. IA?t drunk\trds boast tlH'~, XIX. let us prepare XX. ol'i(int \Vis(ioln, c.\:f'. XXI. of ~\:e.

XXII. XXIII. X X,I \'",

h)hl,

! .

a(), a68 :36D ib.

370 371

ib. 37~ 37~3

ib.

374 375 ib.

37G 377 :..l78 :37H ~80

ib..


~ IIndratXlllts OF

MAS 0 N R Y. BOOK I. THE EXCELLENCY OF

~I{ASONRY

DISPLAYED.

SFJOTION I .. Reflecti()1~S01't tile Symtnetry an(l P'~路ol"}Qrtion in the Works of ~at1JI'楼fJ, 'and on tht Harmony anll AJJectiQn amo1'tgthe 1Jariotts Speciet10f .B~i'2g8.

attentively observes the objects路 whicllsurround ,hiru, \vill fiIH.l abundant reason to adnlire the \vorks Nature, and to adore the Being \vhodirects operations; he ,vill be convinced that could alone desigll, and infinite Power eOI'XlTJI6tIB, such. anlazing \vorks. {~Juan l)laet~d, in, ~:~ beautiful garden, w()uld.~ot Ilis llliud be afie<;ted, \vithexquisite deLigbt,oB&~ealm its richeollections? Would not the groves, tllO artful the ,flowery parterres, the the lofty' the \Yinding, streams, hissensihi Iity,anti (~xt11tecl ideas ?When!,he nice sylnmetrYf,lnd bettutiful dispositiol1 of t~very l)nrt, aeenlingly co~plete in itself,yo,t reflectinguc\v beauties 011 theotber, and all" eontributing tOlnakeonepel~fectwhole~would not his Inind be agitated with the 11lost agreeable sel~sations;

1.;li,TI-IOEV'Elt

,",'lI"""."路.f"t"''''''''''kICI


2

ILLUSTH.A'rIONS

and "\vould not the vievv" of the delightful scene naturally· lead hirn to adnlire and venel'"a,te tilE} happy genius "vho eontrivec1 it? If the productions of l\.rt so f()rcibly in11,ress the tn.ind \vith adllliratioll;\vitl1··how l'nuc.h greater astorrishnlent and rC\Tcrence l~lUSt v-\re b'ehold the operations of Nature,

\vhieh I)resents to vie\v unbounded scenes of utility and delight, iu\vhich DiviIle "risdortl is Illost strikingly eonspicuous? These scenes are, indeed, too expanded for the nalTO\V capacity of ll1an to c0111})rehend; yet \vhoever eonten1plates the general systeul lYlust naturall)r, fronl the uniforulity of the p 1an, be directed to the original source, the SuprenleGovernor of the \vorld, the One perfeet and unsullied Beartty! Beside all the pleasing prospects that every' \vhere SUITOll1Hlus, and\vith \'vhieh our senses are every rnornent gratified; heside the synl111ctry, ' order, ~ni'd prcfportion, \'lhich appeal" illU] 1 tIle \\701'1,8 creation, sUl'nething further attraets tIle reHeeting and its atterltfon nearer to the I)ivinity;-that is, tIle universal llarl110nyalld aflectiou HlnoTlg diHl~l'ent s})eties of ofever:y' ranI\. and rl"lH~se are the cernellts ·of' the rational \vol"ltl, ant] these a]ollc it Sllbsists. \\?"hel1 thev cease, Katttre rnllSt. be dissolvetl, and 1llan, the inlage of' his 1\1ake1", nut! tIle cllief oflIis \1,"orks, he ovel"\vhelnled in the general

In the

wholeor~er of

. Cron'! tIle seraph \Vllich burns, do\vn to tIle l11eanest insect, nli, according totl1eir rank in the of existence, have, I110re or less, in1])lanted in theln the l)rinciple of nssoeia.. . tion \vi tIl otllers of the saIne speeies. I~ven the rnost anilnals nre into di 1':111ks rnutual benefit nnd Need 'V·.(~ ·narne.the eareflll HIlt, or tIle .... J"'I.:':.i~:T,,:~"''''''''<:·~ v\'"hiell tho\:\tisest of ull rnanl\.iucI of uB\vearied '\". ...,.,.JC\"",.A...

,;",·our


OF MASONRY.

3

Such are thegelleral princi})les \vhich pervade the whole systeul ofc.reation~;hG\vforcibl}r, then, ll1ust suell lessonspredoUlinateirl: ourassenlblies,~Therecivilization and virtue are Illost zealously eherished, under tlie sanctiOll of science and the arts?

SECT. II. The ./-ldrantages ,路esult'inp,路 jl"01J/; F1"iendship.

. No subject Crall nlorelJl"operly engage the attention, than the benevolent disl?ositionsvV"'hich. indulgent Nature has besto\ved ul)on the. ra,tiol1al sl)ecies. 'l]leseare replete \yith the h8:ppiest ,effects, and aifordtothemind the Inost H!:,rreeahle re,fleetions.. The breast \vhich is illSIJi reel \VitYl tender feelings 'is naturally I)ro111ptecl to a reeiproenJ . of kind and generous actions. .c\s hnrnarl IHlttlre rises in the seale of beings, the social nfi(~ctions like\vise arise. '\,V-rhere friendshil)isul1kl~ov?n, jealousy and. sllsl)ieion}Jrova:il;~ut \V here that vil"tue is the cernent, truel.1al>!)inesssubsists.Ill cyery breastthero is{1 propensity tofi'iendly acts, '\Vl1ich, beirlgexerted toeffect,s\Veet~llS. every teu1l)oralenjoyulel1t; and, although it does 110t renlove the disquietudes, it tends,at lea,st, to a11ay the calarnities, of life.. J:i'riendship is traeed through the circle of private conneetions to t,}le grand of universal benevolence, \Vllich no lilnits cancirculrlse,ribe, as its inf1uenc~t1xt~nds to branch of the hurnan race. l1ctuated by this sClltirnent,. e~leh .individual connects his huppiness'\vitll tlH~ hal)1~~lles8.of his Ileighbour, and a fixedandl)~erIl1a颅 nent union is established U1110ng n1eu. 13ut, though friendslri.p, consid(;l-ed as the source of ulliversal benevolcnce,he unLixnited, it exerts its infll.lenee lIlore or less l)o,\"erfull;y,ns the objects it favours H.l"e nearer or Ul0re renlote.. lIenee ihelove of friends and country takes th;~ l.eadin our aflBctiollS, Ulld gives to that true .l)[ttriotisrn, \vhich. fires the soul\vith tIle fhun.e, (~reates the best andl)]Ost disintervirtue, and insl>ires that l)ublic spirit~ and that lleroie nrd01.1r, \Vl1ieh enable us to sUl)port a good cause, and risk our lives in its def{~nce. 1'his eon1rnenclablevirtue crO"'~l)S the lover of his ''"l'i:lln,Ull"i\lli;J


4

ILLUSTRA'rIONS

country \vith unfading laurels, gives a lustre to his actions, and consecrates his naJYle to latest ages. rrhe ,varrior's glory 1~1ay consist in 111urder, ::Lnd th~ rude ravage.?f the desolatIng s\vord; but the blood of thousands \\'lll not sta.in the hands of his country's friend. IIis virtues are oi)en, and of the noblest kind'. Conseious integrity" 81111ports hinl against the arnl ofpo\ver; and should he bleed by tyrant-hands, he gloriously dies a 111artyr in the CRuse of liberty, and leaves to l)osterity an everlasting 111onuInent of the greatness of his soul. Though friendship a.ppears divine, ,vhen en1ployed in preserving the liberties of our COllutry, it shines\\lith equal splendour in more tranquil scenes. Before it rises into the noble flanle of patriotisrn, airningdestructiol1 at the heads of tyrants, thundering fC)f liberty, and courting danger ill defence of rights; \ve heholdit caIrn nne! lnoderate) burning ,vith an even glo\v, ilrlIH"Oving soft hours of l)eace, and heightening relish.. ~v.irtue. In those happy" 11101uents, contracts are i:orrnecI, societies are instituted, and the vacant hours of lifE) are Q111ployed in the cultivation of social a,nd polished rnanners. On this general l)lan, the "trniversality of systeln of }Iasonrv is established. ,"V"ere fi"i(~ndsllin eordin(>(l to the spot of"' our nativity, its operation\votd~l l)e and irnply nkind of enn1ity to other llatiolls. the interests of one country interf(~re\v:ith thosB of another, Nature dictates an adherence to the ,\;-clffu·e our o\v"n in1111ediate connections ; but such apart, the true }\Iason is ftcitizen of the \vorld, and his philanthroI)Y extends to all the huu1an race. Uninfiueneed bv locnl . . '·I·Kl,~.rl'_ Ilrejudiees, he kno\,rs no prefcrencf:~ in ing to its degree, fi"oIn \vhatever eountry or elinle it /1.

spring-. SI~c~rr.

III.

()rigilt ~"'\RO:\I tl'18 eOlnlnenCell)(~llt \yorld, the foundation of .Thlnsonry.I and iter ,"~n(jY"'ll'"''-'

\Ve

CPt" ,••'.•., ...•,.,

1

D1Y

The argunl(~nts fo1" this high ".A.nti<luities of l\lttsonr)"," ~pp • .L'.'--_Ii.iI ..-'..\...I~.'J.J. 'L'.J·~ ..

rnn,r traee " ..

at

"begall, h\~id a


OF 1\1ASONRY.

being. During nlanyages, alld in ll1any different countries, it lIas flourished. No art, no science: })receded it. In the dark periods of antiquity, \vhen liter.a.ture \vas in ~t lo\v state, and the ru,de Il1anUel-S of our forefilthers 'Vvithheld frorn thern that kno\vledge \ve lJO\V so tttnply'" share, l\Iasonry~l~~,~l~s~d its influence. 1'h18 science unveiled, arts aro'se'," cTviTizatioll took place, and the progress of kno\vledge (1[ld ph.iloSOI)h~y gradually dispelled the g100111 of ignorance and barbaris111. Goverrllnent being settled, authority ,vas given to la\vs, and the assel11b lies of the Fraternity acq uired the patronage of the great and the good; \vhile the tenets of theprofession diffused unbounded pllilanthropJf. Abstracted froln the !)ure l)leasures \vhich arise froln friendship so \visely' cOllstitntedas that vvhicll subsists arnong ::\1a80n8, and \\rllich it: is senrcely possible that any ciretUnstallce or oceurrence can erase, J.\Iasonry is a sciene(~ e(lldirH~d to 110 IHlrticular . country, hllt(;xtends over terl"estrial globe.~ 'V"herever arts Hourish, there it flourishes too. l\dd to this, that by secret and inviolahle carefully lu"eser\路cd alnong the fi"aternity, it l:>ecolues arl universal language.. llence nIuny iLdvautuges are gained: the distant (jhinese, the \vild Al"nb,aiHl 1\.ulericnnsuvagE:1, ,~"ill elIlbl-ace t1 brother IlritoIl, nlHI l'-.u 0 \V", tlHlt besides the COUl III 011 ties of IH.lIIH1U 1ty, there is still a stronger obligation to induce hinI to kind oHiees. rrlle spirit of the fuhl1iHIltl a 11101"uibl"other, though IHH'SlHlsion, Iris esteeln: fbr rn u tual in reli,gious opinions one of the 1110St distinguislrilJ~ and valuable charaett}ristics of the (~raft. As all reli~"ions teaeh lnorality, if a l)rother be found to act the pai;t a t~ll]r honest" mun, his privatespeculativc opirIions are left to (:lotI hirnself: 'rhus, through tIle illf:Iuen(~e of l\Iasonr)r, reeol1cilahlc to the best ~ '.1'11(11'1 HlrH\'IUn' arraU~[f'l;nQrlt Inunnll race into e1:1SS(~g llulrked lu '.f'l' il.n'l'11't" r<~na~lotl:;'; l):l'01':(:~~SI,()n, taking' the IHJIHllation

J,.r tJlf~

to nI)pr<Jxhnu.tevery

f>f the\vorhl t('l

t}lt~

trnt.ll.

240 Inilliol"18 .l\lnhornetans,:120 lnillions I~l"alHuanh;ts,! 115 Inini[Hl~ l~uddhi8t8, I..,uuulitm;, :38 ulHUonsNank.nists, C()U fueia.u:-::,

5 luilliollS

luilHons lnillions

170 tnillions 4 Inillions Zoroastrians.,~} nlillioll

EnrroR.


6

II"L USTR.A:l'IONS

policy, all those disputes \\thich clnbittel" life, and sour the ten1pers of n1en, are avoided; \vhile the Conl1110n good, the general ohject, is zealously pursued. FrolH th is vie\v of 0 ur systenl, its utility' 111 ust be sufficientlyobvious. rrhe universal prineiples of the .t.\rt unite, in one indissoluble borld of affection, 'U1en of the lI10st opposite tenets, of the Inost distan t countries, Hnd of the 1110St eontradictory opinions; so that in every nation a 11ason Il1ay finel a friend, and in every eli111ute a horne.3 Such is the nature of our institution, that in the lodge, \~lhich is confined to no IHtrti?ular spot, ullion is cen1ented by sincere attachU1el1t,and l)leasure recil)rocally e0111tYIUnicatocl in the cheerful observanee of every obliging: office. ,rirttl€, the grand object in vie\v, lu111inous as th~ n~~ridian sun, sbines refulgent on the rrlind, enlivens the hen.rt, and heightens cool aI>probation into \VarIn sYlnrHltl1Y and cordia,! attention. :1 On tJ:tis unfortunate in and aceidc·ntaJly (,'.·ast on a distant ~lHlre~ are particular (If nttCll1r:IOla, aIHl sf·ldrnn fail to indu]gell(~(~ frcnn :l\IUPCH1S; antl it is rernarkallle thnt there is lICIt an. instan('(l Oll reeord ('~f a In'(?aeh or (If where tlutt indulgC'ncp has been liberally eXl:ell(le4 l. rIlle facts are (lxtl';u,·t(·d frnln Ln\\Th·'s IIi:>;In tIH' l:r·I~, ,:\l(Hl~. i?n'vt"rot, i

1\1... "',-,:'"",,-,,,..,/",,1"


7

OF MASONRY.

SEC'!'. IV. MaS01t1"Y considered undc/r

t'lOO

Denolntnations.

~fASONRY passes under t\yO deno111inations,-olJeratit,e and slJeculative. 13y the forlner, \ve allude to a proper al)plieation of the useful rules of architecture, ""vhence a strueture derives figure, strength, and beauty; and \Vl1enCe result a, due proportion and a just correspondence in all its parts.. By the latter, \ve learn to rule and direct the passions~ act upon the square, keel) a tongue of good report, rnaintain secrecy, practise charity, and every other virtue that can adorn the l\Ian. Spec.ulative l\Ittsonr~r is so fill' inter\~I"oYel1 with religion, as to lay us under the obli,gations to pay th<1t rational hornage to the I)eitv, \vhicl1 at once COIlstitllte,s (Jur (hlty and ()urhnppiness:' It leads tht~ eontelnplative t(~ vie\v \vith reverence and adrnirntion the glorious\yorks of inspires theln \vith the 1110st exal ted ideas of the of the Divine C~reator.. Operative l\Iasorn"y furnishes us \yith dvvellings, and convenient sllelt:er 'froin the ineleulencies of sea~ons; and \vhilst it displa)'s the efleetsof hUll1al1 \visdolll, as \yell in the choice as in the arrang:enlent of the Inaterials of v~r}lich an edifiee is e(Hl1rH)Sed, jt~'derl1onstrates, that a fund of science and industr)" is irnplan ted in 1nan, for the best, 1110st snJutary, nnd purposes. 'ITte of tilne, the I'u tbJess hand of jgnon.l,nce, and the of,Yar, have laid ,vaste ~'nd destroyed rnonurnents of antiqllity, on '.""hiel! the utllJOst exerti{)l1S ofhurnan genius have been elllployed.. I~vell the rI'errlple of SOLO:UOX, so spacions Utl(11nagnifi(111\1 so Illt:Lny celehratedartists, ll.ot the ravag(~s ofbnrharous force.'!

Its destruction by tho ,vas fuHilled in the lllost Ininute (IU the Wl~ are quito (1(ll'taill that it "~till IH:H'(lr It IHJt, 11(nYf'\,er, lle unhlter(lsting to notice th(路 ;t(.~(~(Hlnt "'lrieh tl'av<llers givefrf the site of thiscelellrnSt. gtf1pherl's srtvs l\.t.N[nuntlr(dl, tpd Inusrrnie '4 staru]s Ull 'fnrki:.;h to lu;~~o -1;(路on the spot '''(~hi''I'''''l'U'''I''' sto()d the (.If Pilnt(l. the terr~l{~e ()f this house nfhirpro~IH~etof all \VhereOll the rI'olnple stood'1 ']'h1:"\ (In(~e fanl0U~ I~i)nlilU~, a:o: pret1ie,ted

r:relnple

i8110 Ul!n'e.


8

ILLUSTltATIONS

Freen1tlSOnry, not\vithstul1ding, has still survived. 'l'he attelltive ear receives the sonnd fr0111 the instructive tongue, and the sacred Inysteries are safely lodged in the repository of ftlithful breasts. '1'0018 and llnplernents of architecture (syrnbols the 1110St expressive!) are seleetec1 by the J.i'raternity,to inl11rint on the rneUl0I'.Y路 serious and soleu1u truths; and thus the excellent tenets of tIle institution are tranSll1ittec1, uninJpaired, under cirCllnlstances precarious, and evel1 udvel-se, through a succession of ages.

SECT. V. The

Go~~crnnlcnt 0/"

the Fratcrnit!l路

TaE

\vill.give 1na80 nicin sti t uti 011. !J'hl"eC elasses are established anlong

difi(~rellt appellations. rrhe \,., distinet; al'lcl particlllar Ineans aloe those privileges to the just and rneritoriolls. lIonour In'obityarc reeonlHleUt]atiollS to the :ITir:.:;t ('lass; t.he praetiee of 'virtue is nru1 therhlties ityare ; ,,"hile the rnind is Irrepnred lar progress in the l)rineiI)les.of kno\vledgt~ J)llH()!so'onv

l)iligence, assiduity, nndu,l)plieatiol1, are f,)l" the Second (~lass; in\vhieh is given all aCel.1rate eh.leidatioIl both in theoi~y l1UlTHliTl reason is tt intel1eetual I)o\vers and ; nice and ries are explained; ne\y discoveries are

lG


OF MASONRY.

9

those already kno\vn beautifully elnbellished. The Third Class is restricted to a selected fe\v, \Vh0111 truth and fidelity have distinguished, vVhOlll years and experience have ilnproved, and \Vh0111 111erit and abilities have entitled to prefernl€nt. 'Vith thenl tl1e ancient lal1d-ll1arl~s of the Order are preser'?ec1; anel fi·onl thenl ,ve learn the necessary instructive lessons ,vhich dignify the .1\rt, and qualify the professors to illustrate its excellence and utility". Such is the established l)lall of the masonic system. By tJlis .judicious arrangeuJent, true friendship is cultiYated alnong diflel"ent ranks of nlen, hos11itality promoted, industryT re\"\:"ardec1, and ingenuit)1' encouraged.

SEC1\ 'lI. Reason;;u7hy the ~Secret.'S (fl" .J.lfaBonry ought not to be lJublicly and tho IllllJortanc() qt" tllose Secrets de71zonstrated. t,.Li,fU"",t:,;!f,';

11:1' the secrets ofl\Ias()nry are replete \vith such advantage to rnankind, it lIlay be. asked, "Thy are tIley not divulged f()1" the general good? 1'0 this it In3)~ be ans"Yvered-,\Vere theprivileges of l\fasonl"Y to be indiscrinlinately dispensed, the I)Ul~poses·of the institution ~rouldnot only l.>e subverted, lrnt Ol:tr seerets, beingfiLITliliar, like other irnportant rnatters, v,;ould lose their value, and sink. into (lisregard. It is a \veal\.ness in hllIllan nature, that n1€11 are generally n'lore ehar111ed "rith noveltv than \vith the intrinsic' ..' things. Innun1erabl~ testiulonies l11ight be adduee<l to eOIlfirrn this truth. })o \ve not find tllntthe lllost\vonderfuloperations of the DivinB .A.rtificer, ho\vever beautifu.l, In agoniti cent, ancI usefhl,areover]ookecl, beeause eotnlllon H.nd HUlli1iar! 1'he~,aun rises and sets., the ebhsund flows, rivers .gIideaIong their channels, t~~ tu}d plants llien lLnd,~~,,~.~~sts net; these, helng pel].>etuu,Uy open to vic\v, I)USS unlloticed. 'rhe IDost aSl~Ont18111rlg lJrO(ln(~,tH)nS of N atlu'8, on the saU18 acc,Qunt, and excite no elnotiol1, either ill adnliration the great C'ause, or of gratitude for the blessing I~ven 'v"irtue herself is not exell1pted from unllrtpI))r bias in the hurnan fraule. Novelty int1uences 3


10

ILLUS'l'RA~rIONS

all bur actions and deterrninations. \'~\That is ne,,\v, or difficult in the acquisition, ho\vever trifling orinsignificant, readily eaptivates the inlaginatioll, and ensnreH a teluporar,' adnliration; vvhile \vhat is f~1111iliar or easily attained, "'ho,,\vever nob'Ie or erninent, is sure to be disregarcled by the giddy and the llnthil1king_ Did the essence ()f l\:Iasonrv consist in the l\.uo\vledge of

partieulal· secrets, or pecllli~lr fornls, it 111ight, iIlc1e(~t, be

alleged that our pursuits \vere trifling and superficial. But this is not the case; they are onlv the keys to our tre~lSllre, and,:hasing their "llse, are ·'1)reserve'"cl; \\' 11ile, froll1 the recollect,ion.of the lessons \vhich the~y incuJcate, the \vell-inf(,)l"rned )Iasol1 derives instruction: dra\ys thern to a near ins!)eetion, vie\vs thenl through a n1ediuID, adverts to tIle eireurl1stanees \vhieh gave thern rise, tllld d\vells upon tenets they convey- r'indiIlg' theln replete'\vith infornultiorl, h.e J>rizes thern as saered; and,being eonvinced propriety, L'"·~) their' value by tlleir utility". l\Iany are de'l uded by tile tlUlt ()ur !nvsterios are lIlerel y non'"lirlal.~ lis'hed arnongsti us a~'e frirolou~; :,uHl lIU1Y be adopted or \vaived at: ph~asure. (hi tIllS Jidse basis \ye find too 111an\"c)f th(~ I~rtdhren hUITyiut!., ,,",.n ..' ." .........

......,.J

all the degrees of th;':~ \vi th(Hlt .. \. propl'iety of one stel) .tl.~ey . ()r J)()iSS~f:~S~~lng qtH:ditication to entitle, thorn t() advnneernent. tllrougll the usual f()rrnalities, consicler Utl'tll 0 rized. .to as 0f oflieQs, and even assnrrH3 the . of th(,~l(H]ge, eqllally llnnefluaillted \vitll the rtLIes oftheinsritllti()nthat tbe,Y pl"ett:'lld to l'latlll'(:~ ()f' tl'llSt

\vhicll

arc

obviot18; anarellY and ,·. . r •• ·' '[',. 1oSl~il~ 8h a~] () \\'.

",t."

un. luana:,rf1 l1fWXlt

~('l"if)ng ('1)Il~hl()ratiilll of nn:i(*eiH!\hu~jHlry. f ha,'(~

(If

..

Hu\l nrn


11

OF l\tIASONRY.

l\fasonry lIas long laboured under these disadYuntages, and e"ery ze,11ous friend to the Order 111Ust earnestly \vish f<:n' C1 eorreetioll of the abuse.. Of· late years, it nll.lst aekno\vledged, our assernblies have been in general1Jctterregu lated; of \vhich the good effects are sufficiently displayed in .the j udieious selection of our meulbers, and the luore IJro11er observance of Otll" general }·eg'nlations. "Tert~ the 13retbrerl vv"'ho l)reside at our Ineetings to be prol)erly instructed previous to their apIJointnlent, and d.uly al)prized of the iInportance of the offices they are chosell to Sll}Jport, a general reforulation \vould speedil~y' tn,kc rfhis condl1et \vould establish the I)l"opriety of our goverl1nlent, .nllcl. lead n1Cll to ackno\vledge that our honours "",ere notundeservedlv (~()nferred; the ancient of tlle ()rder \vou!cl be restorerI" and the . . ,'.... ~ . .,.. ~, . ,.,., .. of the 'rill genuine rnerits shall distinguish our to th.c honours of l\Iasonry, and regtIlarity of deportment display the influence anti of our rules, the ,\'"o1"ld in general \vill llot be

led to

our

our professions. Sl~CT•. v'rII~

societies e~re'urvltCtt ji'Oltl sons no

Ccn~"u1"e.

Irregularities the Institution.•

of..·Ma--

,,t\:\10XG the variolls SOcietIes of rneu, fe\v, if any, are froln CeI1Sl'lre. E'riendship, ho\vever universiil IlHLvbe its selOOltIl operated so pO\\i'erful1JT~'in genetllat sine-ere attaehrnent to each other\vhicb neces'J1his Illuybe. ascribeCl to .11one\vith .Ill0re propriety than "1Ilichf're(lllentl:l lead lnen to H. l)artieipation of social entertaiurnents. If to all idl€~ hour to ohligea friend, or llfobahly' gra... .. ·............ " ....."10,·\·.,.'·1'10

in tho nc,butltlis801ution olthe ninein~t.tUHJ(IS out of tell,· to H. \veU as tn1ent, in the llresiding offioer.Vido Sib'"Ils nnd S)'lnhols, by the Editor, sect.. 11, on the goverlUn(~nt of(~ ludge.. -EDl'ron... Rll<l· flW(lquently estnblii~ll(Jn(IIlt, is· tolt(~ ·fitt:rilH.1t:(~d, defi(~iell('Y ill pohlt of jttdgulcnt,. as


12

ILLUSTTRAIONS

tify an irregular illdulgence, be tIle onl)! inducenlent to nlix ill C0111pany, is it surl)rising' that the irnportant duties of society ShOllld be l1eg~ected, and that, in the quicl~ circulation of the cheerful glass, the 110blest filculties should be SOllletinlâ&#x201A;ŹS buried ill the CU1) of ebriety? I t is un obvious truth, that the privileges of l\Iasonry have long beel1 prostituted for ull,vorthy c.ol1siderations, and 11ence tlleir good effects llave been less conspicuous. lVlan3i have enrolled tlleir l1allles in our records for the mere 11urposes of conviviality, \vitllout inquiring into the nature of the 11articular engageu1el1ts to \vhich they are subjected b JT becoll1ing 1\iasons.6 Sev'eral have beeIl pro111pted by 1110tives of interest, and 111 UnJ!" introduced to gratify an idle euriosity, or to l)lease as jolly cornpanions. j\. general odiull1, or at least a carel(~ss inc1iflerence, Innst be the of snell evil stops not here. .Persons of tllis description, ignorant of 'tIle true nature of the institution, I)roba,hI3t ,vithfYU t real def{~ct in their o\vn Inorals, are indueed to rCCOll1rnend others of the saIne cast to .10111 the for the sarne purpose.. lIenee the true knovvIedge the art


OF .MASONltY.

13

decreases 'rvitllthe increase of its nleUlhel"s, and the nl0st valuable 11art of the institutioll.is turned into ridicule; while the dissipations of luxuryanc1 intelnperance bury in oblivion. principles vvhicll nlight ]lave dignified the most exalted characters. \Vhen \ve consider tIle variety of n1emhers of vvhich the society of 1.Iasons i~ C0111})osed, and the snlul1 nunlber \VIIO are really conversant ~Tith the tenets of the institution, \~Te nee'"d not'\vonder that few sllould he distinguished for exenlplary lives. By persons WllO are precipitately introduced into the nlysteries of tIle art, "\vithout the requisite qualifications, it cannot be expected that ll1uch regard \viII be paid to the observance of duties \vhieh they 11erceive to be oJ1enly violated by their o\vn initiation; and it an incontrovertible truth, that,such is the unhapp)T bias in tIle disl)ositions of SOUle Inen, though tJle f~lirest a,ntl hest ideas ,vere in111rinted on the rnind, are so caTeless of their o\vn rel)utt1tion as to disl"t1gaxd ruost instruetive lessons. 1Ve have reason to re~gTet, tlul,t even 1Jer80n8 \vho are distingtlishec1 fOr a kno\vledge in the art, are too frequently induced to viola.:te the rules, n pretended eOnf()l'lnity t.o \vhich IlU1jT have guined thern al)plause. rrbe 11ypoeris~r, 110\VeVer, is speedily unveiled ;110 sooner ftr.ethey liberated fi·om the trallllnels, as they conceive, of a regular and virtuous ill tIle ternporary g'overnn1ent of the lodge, tlull1, by abllsing the innoeent and cheerful repast, they beeOl1le slrtves to 'vice and intclnperC:lllce, and not only disgra.ce tllernselves, but ft?Hect dishonour on the Frater~ity. 13v such indiscretions the best of institutions is l'nto COlltenlpt; and the lllore deseI"vingpart of eouHnunity justly coneeives ~1 IH'~judiee ngninst the soeiety, of \vhich it is difIieult after'\vards to do away irnl)ressioll. lJu t if SOllIe do transgress, 110 ,vise Ina]l ,viII thence tlH~ instittltion, or eOndelYlll the \vhole ~:'\t'l"1 ,·\.',t·'l(" f~:lrthe elTors of a fevv Hll.Sguidec1 individual.s~ liv(!sof l11en ad111itt:t;d as an argt1nlt~nt '[·~··~I·'iI'·"·':J·'\\'··» \vhieh prof(~ss, the uncI j lulieious esttlhlisll1nents Inight be t3xposed t(};c(~n­ sure.. lJC in :fitvoul" of l\Iasonry, that, whatever irnperfections nrc f<)"und arnong its professors, eountenal1ces no devhttion fronl the rules oi'

f,j·I ..

.....

'l\"'\t::lt't"'1t'l11'·11i1·.. "'\


14

ILLU$TRATIONS

of right reason. Those ,:vha violate .·the lavvs, or infringe 011 good order, are kindly adu10nished by seeret 1110nitors; \vhen these 11leans have not the intended efiect'l)ublic re!)rehensionbec0111eS necessary; and, at last, \Vllen every 111ild endeavour to effect a l"ef(1rlIltltiOll ill their conduct is. of ·no avail, the}T are eX11cllec1 the lodge as unfit 111enlbers of the societ~y. Vain, t.herefore, is eacll idle surl11ise against the plan of 0111" governlllent: \vhile the la\ys of the Craft are l)roperl}T supported, they \vil1 be })}"oof against every attack. l\Ien are Dot a\vare, tllat by· decrying any laudable institutioll, they" derogt"bte fronlthe dignity of llulllan nature itself,alld fronl the good order alld \-vise disposition of things, \vhich the alnlig'hty' ll.uthor of the 1vorld has fraIned for the governl11EHlt of l1Hlnkind, and established as the basis of the 11loral systenl.. l:-"riendship al.ld sochtl delights call never l)e the object of rel)~"oach; nor c.an that wisdo1l1 \vll'ich lloary rl'in1t~ has sanctified bo a subJect of ridicule. \\Thoever attcHl11)ts to eenS1.1re '\vhat he does not eonlprehelld, degrades ··hin1seIf~ urld the generous heart \viII llity the lllistakes of such ignorant presu1l1ptioll.

SECI\ \TII1.

CJtaritytlte distilzg21islt.ing .Cba1-Clcte'l-istic 0/-'

~fasons.

CHARrry is the c.hief of all the social virtues, and the l\.Iasons.. rl'lds virtuo includes a suprcule degree of love to the gTeat an,d of the universe, UJld an, Ull1iluited ,.........".. . . """., to thebeirlgs of his creation, of all eharaeters and of denOlJlinntion.. l'his Instf{)reibly the exanlple of tIle iiberal1}"r disI)(~Ilses Ins benet::ieenee to , , .....,.,,.,.,.'.....'.,. , ...... It is Dot ))articularlvollr disq llisitioll of' (~very brill]eh

distinguishing characteristic

"-".,·.r;.'-.'.",Ii'IWi

·"'.

.1.,.1..

shall,

therefor(~,

onlybrieHy disI)osi tion

charity, exerted on proper sure luau C,tl,11 possibly (H]joy. rl'!Ie bounds of t.hH gTcatest,

Ilt'ttioll

or

rnost exten-


OF· IVIASONRY.

15

sive enlI)ire cannot CirCU111SCribe tIle generosity of a liberal Illind. 1\Ien, ill "Vvhatever situation the)'" are placed, are still, ill a great llleaSllre, the sallle. They are eXIlosedto sin1ilar dangers and lllisfortunes; they have 110t \visdo111 to foresee, or l)o\ver to })reVel1t, the evils incident to llU1l1'L.ll l1uture; tIley l1ang, as it \vere, in a perpetual susl,ense het'\veen hope and feaT', sicltuess und health, l?lenty and \Vflnt. ..::\.. l11Utuul chai.n of c1ependenee subsists throughout the anilnal creation. . ..:\.11 of the hUIIHlll species are, therefore, 1)fo11er obje.cts for the exercise of ehal~ity. 13eings \vhopartal\.e of one COlnnlon nature OUgl1f to be actuated by the sanle Illotives and interests. l-Ienee, to soothe the l1UhalJl)}:' by synlf)uthizing \vitll their ll1is... "'.... ~,... "'... '-',.,;>, and to restore !)cace and tranquillity to agitated spirits, constitute the general and great ends of the l\Iasouic ~ystenl. 'fhis 11U111ane, this generous disposition, the breast \vith. rnanly and e111ivells that . of eOlnpassion \"hiell is glory of the hurnan ii-arne, nIHl \vhieh not only rivals, but Olltshines that Jnind is cap[tble of enjoying• . A.II hurnal1 llassions,. ,vhen directed by the superior l11i.nciIlle. of reason, tend.· !lrtjnlote .SOl1le useful purpose; btl t eOlnpassioJl to\,~arcl IJrol)er objects is the Ulost beneficial of all the afleetions, and excites. 1110re las'tillg of lUtppin.ess, asit extends to greater- nurnbers, 1.··.. '··'1.·"l"'.·.. the infirrnities and evils \vhieh are incident to h tlr:nnn existellce. this this godlike disl)ositioll, )Insolls are S11ockcc1 atllrisery under every fOfluunc1 nppearal1(~e. 'V"hen they behold an ol>ject r;iuing under tIle of a body or Jnind,healing necents \vhich flo\1i/'" frorn. tongue Initigate tIle I)ain of the unhappy suflt:rer, and liluke even adversitJr, in its grty. 'Y\lhen I>ityr· is til e :VInson griet~ and elteerfully relieve distr(~ss. If a \vant, every heart is lIlove<1;7 \lvhen is ...... ' ...q ........ , •.•. , ......,

'''1

"".~'f •

.1:.J.u;;.,:.elJlliU:'" hud i:;;snedhis hun "lga.illst~"'Iree­ a Prec"lnason,wa::.;inlprisoued at l~'lor(meo lly

t:uul th(~ rnost llrulH·rito\l (~ru(~Hies, for InaiIlthe inlHH'.mn(}(~of the assoei.atioll. ,~rh'en· tho G·rH.lHI IJodgc of:E.nglalld ,vas iufclrl'ned of hi:5 nliserable situntion, tho)'" recollected H.!•.."

• • ., ..••• ,


16

ILLUSTRATIONS

11ungry, ,~ve feed hinl; \Vl1en he is naked, \ve clothe hiIli; when he is in trouble, ,ve fly to his relief. Thus '\ve confirlIl the propriety of the title \:ye l)ear; and convince the \vorld at large, that BRo'r:HER, alllong l\iasons, is

more than the na111e.

SECT. IX. The D'iscern1nent dislJlayed by .Ll1asons Oqjects oj" Clza;rity.

~n

the Choice

of

THE rnost iIivetel"ate en€111ies of 1\Iasonry ll1USt acIino\1r lec1ge, that no soeiety is 1110re ren1arl\ab1e f()1" the pruetiee of charity', or any association of 1I1en 1110re fiuned for disinterested lilJeralit,,,.. It cannot l)e said, that" l\{asons indulge in· eonvivial n1irth, ,vhile the l)oor and Ilcecly ··pinefor relief. Our ·ellaritable estnblislllnents and ql1arterly contributions, exclllsi,:e. of IJri'l'nte subserilJtions, to relieve distress, prove that \YO are ready, \vitI1 cheerfulnes.s, in IH'oIloItion to our eirCUlllstances, to nl1eviate the Inisfortnnes of our fel1o\v-ereatures. C\),l1sicleriug, ho,voypr, the variety (Jf \vhose distrflss the dictntes of Natnre, as \v(~]1 as ties of l\IasCnlry, incline us to relieve, \ve firHI it neeessary sornetinles t~) inquire into tIle eause of Inisf{)rtulle; lest tt tCllderness ofdispositioD, or all impolitic generosity of 11£~t1rt, rnigllt preVt~ntus i"i-C)}11 rnaking fL I)rol)el" distinetioll in thB choice of objects. rrhough our ears are al\vays open to the c1istressesof the deserving poor, elUlrity· is not t() l)e dispensed \vith a l)l"ofuse liberality 011 irnpostors. 3 rIhe I)arents of a nurnerous oflspring, \vho, through

and l!("yever distant his n.hod(~"

trnnsrnittod to hirn and every elUu~ltnl),W ""\\" 't'i"',,~.II: • ..:!. (if

the

pro'~'l

in J,}Lt.irll.H::".L~, tf) th(~

T....r·t\(ln4:··rl .;: fr(nn th!: 111UI1Prited rn i8f(~rtllno.

clistinguishing e~tilrHl.t(·d

renl

frorn sueb CaS()8

H1Hl n:48UnH~d

tho

Ti'l!Jf','l'{'IHO'

of u:~trae1:ea


OF MASONRY.

17

age, sicl\.ness, inJ1rnlity, or any unforeseen aceident in life, l11a}T be reduced to ,vant, 1,articularl}T clairn our attelltion, aIlc1 seldolnfail to ex})erience the ha11py effects of ourfrielldly associations. To suell objects, 'Vvhose situation is 1110re eas~y to be' cOl1ceived than ex!,ressed, \~"e are induced liberally to extend relief.. lIenee \ve give convincing proofs of vvisdo111 and discernn1ent; for, thougl1 our benevolence, 1i1"e our la\vs, be unliInitec1, yet ollrhearts glo\v principally ,vitIl affection to\vard tIle deserving llart of l11a.nl\.ind. FraIll this vie,\7\;'r of the adva.ntages \vhich result fr01TI tlle 11ractice anc111rofessiol1 of 1\Iasonry, every candid a.nd ilnpartial 11lind ll1Ust acl\.l1o\vlec1ge its utility and inlportance to the State; and surely, if the picture here dra\Vll be j nst, it In lIst be 110 trifling acquisition to anJt g'overnIllent, to have under its jurisc1ietion it society of 111en, ,vho are not only true l)atriots and loyal Sll bjeets, but the 11atrons of scienee and tl1e friends of rnanl\.ind. SI~CT.

x.

l~riendly.lldnzon'itio'Jl.s.

.1\.s

let 118 steadily

Let

no~t

kno\vledge is the great objeot of our desire, apply to the practice of the art, and to the prineiples \Vl1ich it irlculeates. difliculties that '\ve.have to encounter clleck

lJ[l~art:crl,v'

CorllrHunicatioll for Decelnher, ,182:3.. '" .A. Report Q"eneral :Purl)oseS 'Y~lS stating tlutt :111 inc1ihiIns(:-lf Sitnon l~~llnus, had en<1ea\'oul'ing to Ul),onlSl"etJll"e:n., UI1C1 to obtain pecuniary assistance, tInder colour inIJ,rle路ate~(l C~t路rt111c:at.:, stating hinl to IH1\1e bc(~n n lnernht~r of the forlnerly No.. 280, but 'vhich certificate had been the Lodge No. 288, and transU"litt.ed to the also, that ttnotherinc1ividual, caning hhnsclf to be one t,loseph IJftl'kitlS, had, in a en,deavoul'ing to irnpose upon I~rethren'l Undt1ir CPI'tl!J,ea1le frenn tho Grand Lodge of Ireland, nnd acor路 No. 145, at N orwieh, hut ","hich certificates SOl of tho ]~odgo No. 779, nndtrans: the l~onrd stated that they w(~re inducecl a vie\\T to guard 13rcthrel1 against further llIllPosnl(J~n by. those indivit.luals, nlthougli their ll1eal1S Ineasure, <.lestroyed by the detention of the certifi~路

"r.


18

ILLUSTRATIONS

our progress, or danll) our zeal; but let 1.IS recollect, tllat the "\vays of ,visdonl are beautiful, and lead to I>leasure. Kno\vledge is attained hy degrees, and cannot every vvl1cre be found. ,Visclorn seeks, the secret shade, the lonely eell, designedforconten1I)lation. There enthroned she sits, delivering licr sacred oracles. There let us seek her,an(l })ursuethe xealbliss. rr110ugh the l)assage be diflicult, the farther \\re traee it the easier it ,,,,,ill becolIle. Uliion and haTn1011yconstitutet~leessence of J.:"reelnasonry: \vhile "\ye enlist lIn del'" that ha1111el';, the society must flourish; anc1·11rivate aninlosities give l)laee to IJeace a,ndgood fellovvsllip. Uniting in one design, let it be our airi1, to be happy ourselves, and eontribute to the hal)piness of others. I.. . et us rnark. our superiority and distllJetion t1nlong 111eu, tIle sincerit:f of our profe,ssion as 1\Iasons; let us cultivate the nloral virtues, and inlIJrove in all that is good and arniable; let the (j'enins of l\Iasonry preside over our eOllduet, and, under bel' S\\'UYO, let us perJorrn our part \vith beeorning dignity; us an elevation of understanding; a poUterless of 111all1H~r, and an even:ness of ; let our reel·(~ntions 1)0 il1110eent, ·and l)ursued '\\'itll 111oderati()Il; lle'ver let irregular indulgcllees lead t() 1'110 srdJyersion of our systern, by irnpairirlg our. or exposing our eIluracter to d(~rision. III COnl()rlllity to our llreeer)ts, as !)utterns \Vorth)7 of inlitation, the respectability· of olll"characteT lJe sUllport(~d .l»)T the regularity of our eOndl]ct and urrifc)rrnity (rf our de!)ortrnent: as citizens of tl1e ,vorlel, and friends to every \ve shall be living exaIllples of virtue and t)enevolence, equally zealous to lnerit, as to obtain, universal approbation.


OF l\IASONRY.

19

ROOK II. GENERAL REl\IAllI\:S: IKCLUDING AN ILLUSTRATION OF '.rEE LECTURES; A P.A.RTICULAH.DESCRIPTION OF THE ANCIEN'r CEREl\IONIES; .A.ND TI-IE CHARGES USED" IN THE DIFFERENT DEGREES ..

SEcrr.. I. :BI.t\.SONltY is an art useful and extcnsiv·e.. III ever~r art ther'e is a Inystery, '\vhich rerp.1ires a progress of study andapplic.ation befbre\yeean arrive at an,y degree of perft~ction.. '\'Tithout rnueh instruetion, and lIlore "exercise, no THan can be sl\.ilful in any art; in like lnalluer, '\",ithollt an assiduollS HI)l)1iention to the various subjects in the diiierent leeturesof l\Iasonry, no l)el-SOll can he sldlicielltly acquainted \vitIl the true value of tlte institution. ~Fronl this reulurk. it is not to be inferred, that those \Vl10 labour llneler the disadvantaue of a eonfinedec1uea-

tion, or \vhose sphere of life reqt~Ires assicluollS attention to business or 'useful e1Y1l)loyrnent, are to be discouraged in their endeavours to gain tL l~no\vledge of 1\Iasollry. rro qllalif}r an individual to enjoy the benefits of the soeiet't at large, or to l)artake of its privileges, it is not absollitely ne~€~ssary that 11e should be acqnainted \~vitll all :intricate l)arts of the sciel1ee: these are only· iIltended f<:n" I)ersons vir hon1a)r ,have leisure and 0PIlortuIlity to indulge the pursuit. ~Olne be 1110re tible than otllers, Borne 1110re enlisornel,:nore useful; but all, in their <liflerentsIlheres, lllay Ilrove ndyuntageous to tIle e0111111Unity ;.' "'and our ne(~essities,as\vell as our eouseienees, hindus to love one rUlother. '1'0 persons, llo\vever, \vhose early years have bee:n dedieated to literary pursuits, or ,vhose cir-' Cll111stances and situatio,n in life render thern independent,


20

ILLUSTRATIONS

tIle offices of the lodge ought l)rincipall)T to b'e restricted. rrhe industriou,s tradeSl11un proves hirnself n valuable l11enlber of society, and \vorth)T of ever)' hOIlour that'Yve can confer; bllt the nature of every 111 all' s 1)rofessiol1 ",viII not achnit of that leisure vv lliell is necessary" to qualify hill1 to pecome an expert l\Iason, so as to discharge the official duties of the lodge '\vith propriety. ..l~11d it ll1ust also be ad111itted, that those \\Tho accel)t offices and exercise authority in the lodge ougllt to be ll1en of 11rudenee and address, enjoying the advantages of a ,vellcuItiva ted 11lincl and reten ti ve 111elllory. 1-\.11 111el1. are 110t blessed ,\\rith the saIne IJo\vers and talents; all 111 ell , therefore, are not equall~y' qualified to g'overll. lIe ,vho \vishes to teach, 111ust SUbUlit to learn; nnd 110 one can he qualified to support the higher oflIees of tIle lodg'e, "\vho has not previously discharged the c111ties of '\vhich are subordinate. Experienee is the hest }n"ecHI)tor.. Every rnal11nayrise by gradation, but nlerit nnd industl)r are theflrst steps to IH"efel'lllent.. ~Itlsollry is \visely instituted faT di'tlerent ranks a u d o f I11en; and every路 brother, aecol"ding" to his station andahility, IlHljl l)eenlI)]oyed in the lodge, and elass \vith his equal.. Actuated b~l the best prineiples, no is found iUl10ng the I)!"ofessors of the art. l~n.eh elass is 1U1l)1))l in its ptl1'ticular association; a.nd \yhen all the classes Illeet

in general COllvention; 0118 pla11 reglllates the \vhole: neither arrogance nor 11resulIll>tioll apI)ear 011 the O!lt~ lland, nor .difBdeIlce nor iluLl)ilitv .011 the other; hut everyhl"other vies to excel in IlrOlxloting .that endearing happiness vlhicll constitutes tIle essence of civil society'.

S]~C1\

II.. and . . ' ....,.." ...,.

0=.:

tlu~

IN alll"egularassenlblies of lnen \vhieh art~ eOllveneil for \vise 路and useful . ptll'l)osns, the cOllunencelnent . and conclusion of IJusinessisaccon.lpanied "vith SOl1lO fbrrn.

III

country路 of the

the

!)revails, and

is cleelned essential. F'rorn. 1110St l"elllote 11eriods of antiquitJ. it is traced, alld the refined iII11)fOVClllcnts of llloderll tilnes have not aholished it.


21

OF l'vIASONRY..

Ceremonies, silnply considered, are little nlore than visionary delusions; bllt their eflects are sOlnetillles irnportant.-,Vh,en they in1press H.vve Ul1c1 reverence 011 the ll1ind, and attract the attentioll to solenln 14ites by external fornls, they' are interesting objects.. 'l'hese 11Ull)osesare effected \~"'hen judicious cel"en1onies are regularly conducted Ul1d prol)erly arranged. On this gro1.111c1 they 11ave received the sanction of the \visest ll1en in all ages, and, cOl1seq uently, eould not escape tIle 110tice of l\Iasons. 'ro begin \vell, is tIle lllost !ikely lneans to end \vell: and it is justly re111arked, that ,vhen orc1el" and ll1etllod are 11eglected at the beginning, they "till be seldon1 f()und to take IJlace at thf~ end. Thecerenlony of 0Ilcning and closing .thelodge vvith solernnity and d(~C()rUnl is, therefortj, uni'v'ersally adoJlted an-long }\Iusons; and thongll the rnode in S0111e 111eetings J'uay vary·, and ill every Degree lrnlst vary, still nn uni" " " '.• i" .. in tIle g;eneral Iu:aetiee in the lodge; and the (if any) is by a ,,"ant of Inotllod, \vhieh a little tt}lIllication v~~il1 easilJT rernove. fro eonduet this eereruonv \vith. propriety', OUgllt to b(~ . IH3cllIiar . . of all ~i\Insons; €speeia1lyr of" those ,~rhoh'ave the honour to-rule in our assen1blies. 'Ito IJersons'\vho " thus dignified, .. is directed for regularity of conduct and' behaviour ;nnd by tbeir exanl})le, other lrrethren, less 1LlforlTled , 11H1)'" naturally expeet to derive instruction.. .F'rorn :1: slHITe ill eereillony no 1\Ia,8on is exernpted; it is~t concern, ill \\'llieh all assist. 'l'\his is the of the Ilrelude to l)nsilH.~SS. No soorH~~r it tlH1Ile,~ery oflieer }-epairs to st«'ltion, nnd l)rethren I'unk aeeording to their 'rhe intent of the 1l1ceting the attention; and tIle rnind is tIle indiscrirn'Inate suhjeets of are uI.t to illtrude on onr nlcnnent.s. external avenues of "'M~,,,."'\'~·"l"'·' it is to disfi<leHt:r. 13y of no recent date, it is intinluted that,~'e n'H1Y snfel.y I)roeeed.. '}'o deteet inlpostors 8JlloIlg'ourselves, an!dherenee to order in the character J"ltl''''


22

ILLUSTRATIONS

of 1}fasons ensues, and the lodge is openedl or closed ill solellln fornl. 1

Charges and Re,g;ulations jorthe COJid-uct and Behal-~io'Ur oj" J.l!£asons• .A rehcarsaJof the .il.ncientOharges 'IJI'operIy sllcceeds the opening

and precedes the closing of the lodge.. 'fhis . was .the constant Pl'~H~­ tice of our nncicnt Brethren~ and ought l1evcr to be neglected in our reguhtl'" asselnblieR. A recapitulation or our duty cannot be disagl'eeable to those who are acquainted \vithit; :lnd to those to \VhOln it is not kno,\Yl1, should any such be, it luust be highly proper ,to recommend it.

On theJ.llanageinent oj the Crafl in .lJi'or7'ting. [To be rehearsed at opening the Lodge.] nlasons employ" thernselves diligenlty in their sundry 'Vocations. live creditably, and ('oufornl ,,"ith cllecrfulncss to the go~... ernlllent of the country in \yhich they reside. 1J~he "'tllost expert Cfl'afts1l1un is ehosen or appointed :l\Iaster of the ,york, and is duly honoured in that charD.at-or by those orer ,\-v'halll he presides.. 'l'he l\lnster, kno\ying hhnself qua.lified, undertakes the govcrnlncnt of the lodge, and truly disp(~ns(~s his rewards to ruel'it. i\ Craftsnutn \r ho is appointed ,rarden of the 'work, undc'r the nIaster, is true to i\I:lster and E\:l1o\vs: carefully oversees the\vol'k~ and tht:~ brethren obey biln. T'he l\Jaster, "Yard(~ns, and Brethren. are just and ihithful, and carefully finish the work they l.H:::gin, \vhetherit be in the I;'il'~t 01' SC('(ll1d I)egree; but nevel' put that ,vorl, to the whidl has been appropriate.l to the St..'eund Ih'gl'l.'e. Neither enyy nca' censllre is diseclvered fUllOIlg l\fasons. No brother is supplanted, or put out of his \vork, if h(~ be <:npable to fillish~ it; fhr he '\\,"ho is not perfectly skill(~d in the original design, can never, 'w·ith equal aclvt'llntage to the 1\Iast{~r, finish \Y()l,k \vhich has b(~en begun by another. .An crnployed in !\~asoln'r Ineekly recei\"c their l'c,,"ards, and use no disobliging nnrne. •. Brother"is the appellation they best.o\v· on each other. The)'" behaY(~ c(mrteonsly \,~ithin and ,vithout the and never desert '/"he .l\Iaster till the ,,-ork he flnisllet.1. *

Lau's

the C:ot~fnvncnt

the

You tire to salute ()ne another in a courteous l1UUH1Cl\ agreeabhr to thn f')l"tns established ~Iason., aro ' tf;s'uch lllutuni instructions as be or not being overseen or oyerheartL ,,"j thcnlt eneroilching UI)on each or· J.n'''''·''·'·.·I1·\'',.·.. froTH that re8peet 'whiehis due to u.. gentlenulll not n. l\Iasoll ; thongh:<ns~1as~)nB, \1<:0 rneet as brethren ()ll n ,yet


OF l\fASONRY.

23

At opening the lodge, t\yO l)urposes are effected; the 1Iaster is re111inded of the dignity of his cl1aracter, and the brethren of tllehoI11uge and veneration due. to him in theirsunc1ry stations. rrhese, IrO\VeVel\ are not. tIle only advantages resulting frC)l11 a due observallce of the cerenlony; a reverential a\ve for tIle Deity is inculcated, and the eye is' fixed 011. that object frolll \VllOSe radiant bean1s alone light can he derived. lIenee, in this cere111ony, ,ve are taught to adore Goel, and supplicate his l)rotectioll on our \vell-nleant endeavours. 'rhe l\Iaster aSSU111CS his governl11ent in due fo1"111, and under hiln his \Vardens; \vho accept tl1eir trust, after the custonlary salutations.. Thell the Brethren, "\-vitI1 one accord, unite iIlduty and respect, and tJle eerenlOl1)1" concludes. At closing the lodge,2 it sinlilul" forIn takes place. 1Iasonry deprives no ruan of the honour due to llis ra,nk or cha.racter, but ruther adds to his honour, especially if he have deserved ,vell of the Fraternit.y", who ahvftys render honour to \yhorn it is due, and avoid ill-nlanners. Ko private conunitt(~es are to be alIo\\?cd, or separate conV'ersations encouraged: the l\Iaster or "'\fardens are not to be interrupted,or any hrother w'ho is speaking to the !\Iaster; but due decorurn is to be obser\re(l, and H, proper respect p~lid to the ~Iaster and presiding officers. 'l'hese Ia\,'s are to be strictly enthrced, that ha.rul0ny In~'ty he preserved, and the business of the. lodge be cal"riedoll'\vith order alld regularity. $olnote it be. 2 C1JlargtJ on the Bt:hariour [if .L1Iasons. ['ro be at closing the L()dge~] 'Vhen the lodge is closed: :rou are to yourselves \vith innocent rIli.rth~ bntcarefhlly nvoid excess. You are not to cOll1pel any brotller to act contrary to his inclilltlticHl: or giyc: ofJence 1.))" \vord or deed, but n. free easy eonYersati(~n. 'r Otl a.re to Rvoid inunoI'nl ox' fHElIC01Lu·se. ane! at all tilnes support lvith prolH·k~t.y· the dignity of char~lcter. arc to be c3.lltiotls in yonrw'ords :ll1d carriage, that the nlost ptUlctrating stranger may not disco't'er'what is not pI~oper to be intiand, if necessary, youa,rc to w'uive the discourse, and Inanagc 1'·,.,'9'.1 •• for the honour of the 11"'1ra t(,'rnitv. and in your sc,"ernl neighbol1rhot;ds~ you are to helutve as ,vise and lllc>ralluen. You nre never to eOIlnnunieate tC) vour fiullHies fri(~nds~ (H~ neqrm..intaI1ces, the pl'ivate tXTlllsacti<,H1Sof "our different ftSSt~lnbli{:s; but~ on c,"ery occasion~ eonsult .):our o\vn honour, and the r(~putntitJn of the l~'I'at(~l'nit'yatl:ll'g(·. Y'on are to the prescrvaticHl of health, by aYoidiJl~ irregularity a.'nd in t(~lnperance; thnt your ftunilics nitty not be neglected and injured, ?ryourseh"cs <lisa bled froln attellding to your 11ccessaryelnployments '1'·,. . "'·....

1

In Ufe.


24

ILLUSTRATIONS

Here the less important duties of ,the Order are not l)ussed unobserved. rrhe necessar3,r clegree of subordination \vhieh takes l)lace in the governll1Cnt of th~ lodge is peculiarly Inarked: \vhile the !Jroper tribute of gratitude is oHered U1) to the beneficent Author of lite, \vhose blessi ng is invoked, and extended to the \vhole ~'rt1ternity.3 Eaeh brother then fttithfully locks up in his o\vn repository the treasure \vhich he has acquired; and, pleased \~lith his re\'...-ard, retires to enj 0y, anel c1issen1inate an1 on g tIle private circle of his friends, the fruits of his labour a11d industry in the lodge. These are faint outlines of a ceren10ny \~~lhich universally prevails al110ng l\Iasons, and distinguishes all their If f1 str:lnger a.ppl,r in the character of n, :.\IasoI1= you arc cautiously to exarnine l1irn" in sneh a luethod as prudence nU1Y and ~\gree­ ab1)7 to the forrns established :ul1ong ~Iasons: that you lllay not be inlpOS(~(l upon by an ignoralltfhlse \vhotn :lire to reject

'\vith

et)ntc~nlpt;*

and beware of

hinl a.ny

hints of kncnv-

But if' you discover hinl Hoi true and genuine I3rr,.ther, :.you are to respect hiI'n; if he be in \yant, :vou are~ \vithout to relieve hiI'n, or diI'ect hin1 ho\\' he llW.y be relieved; you are ernploy hil11~ or recornrnend hitn to elnployrnent: hO\rever~ you are never chargel! to do be,yond :your ability; only to prefer a JIlv,;on, ,,,,ho ledg·c.

is ::t stanees.

rnan and true, before all.Y other perf'\)i)ll in

ciretul1-

]!'inaHy~T'IH~se rules 'von arc a h\~n.YS to observe fl.lHl and also the ·dntieswhich h~{'ve bcen eOlnlilunicated in th(~ lecture; eultivu.tingbrothel'ly love, the foundation arldctl.pe-ston(~, the eerncllt 1U1tl glory (Jf thiR aneient .~'rntcrnit.Y; n\"oiding, onevcry '\Tftngling and c[llarrelling, slandering and baekbiting; not perlnitting ()thers to slander' honest brethren, but defending their Ch::ll~lcters, n,nd doing thern ofllces, so Hlr us lUa,y be .consistent· '\vith your IHJll0Ur and

safety, but no .fttrther. II('nee nIl .nulY see the berlign influenee of" l\fasonry; as all true ~lnsons have done fro III the bC'!!,'inning of ,,,",orIel, :ind \vill do to the end of tiInc. So ?notc it be.....' '..:11~ra .?jer

used at l\Iay the itrrour of lIeaven be UP(}ll this !. it is happily begun: 1m"y it be cOIHlueted in 01'(1(11', and elosed in hnrlllony! So 3

11wte

it

bf~1.

..11. .1)'r(1~ljt]J' 1;u:cd at (~r I:lc~tvcrl

rest

the wndd ! Inav with every IlH)l',ll n~nd

Tn~r'IHll.'!"I, ,.Ilt·

I'..... ,t'I> ..... I ..

the


OF MASONRY.

25"

nleetings. lIenee, it . is arranged as agellel'al Section in evel"}T Degree of the Order, and tak.es the lead ill all OUI' ill llstra tio nSf

SECT. III. REl\L\RltS

on tlte

FIRST LECTURE.

IIAVING illustrated the cerelllon Jr of opening and closing the lodge, and inserted the Prayers and Charges, usually rehearsed in OlIt" regular asseulblies on ~hose occasions, \ve s11all no\v enter on a disquisition of the difierent Sections of the Leetures "\vhicl1 are approl)riated to the three Degrees of the Order; giving a brief sunlmary of the ,~vhole, and annexing to .eyery reu] ark, the 11urticulars to \vhich the Section :'11Iudes. 13ythese Ineans the industrious 1\Iasol1 '.vill be better instrncted in the regular of t110 and be enabled '\7\lr ith InOl"e ease to acquire a,~ COlllpetent l\.llo\vledge of the

Art..

1"110 l;-'irst I..leeture is divided into sections, and cael1 section is Slll)divided into elauses.. In this Lecture, ,;-irtueis l"Htinted in the 1110stheautiful colollrs, and the duties of 1110rality are strictlvenforced. IIere \ve are taught sneh vvise--and useful lessons us })repare the 111ind for a regtllar adv:l11cc'rnent in the 111'inciples of kl)o\vledge and philosopllY; find these nre llllprinted on the 11lernory Ibf~e1v anrl \vell enlculated to inHuoui路 e<:HHIuet in In'oIler dischn.rge of the duties of social life. 1"'he j?irst /3cct ion.

of this is suited to all nIH1 orHl'ht to l~llO\"Tl bv every persoll \\'ho\vishes to rutlk ~isa l\Iason. eOl;sists of' general \rhieb, though they be . and. silnple, to e,arry ,\;""eig:h1i \vitll thenl. rfhey not \vin only serre ~)f di~i~ineti(nl, but "' llset~lll and krH)\vledge \\'hen th(ry arB r..rhey (lualifJrus "t:o try and eX:llnine to our IH-i'vileg'es, ,ylrile they路(h~1l10nstrute ; arld as they induce us to inquire Juinutely particulars of greater i 1111) cH'"ta nc.e, serve 路rrhe IT'irsi;

VtNI.'''l',.,'J, \.,1'-,.","1

Ullli

'I

4


26

ILLUSTRATIONS

as a proper

intl"~duction

to subjects \Vllicll are

1110re

an11)ly" eXI)lailled illth'efollo\\'ing Sections.4 1''flte Second Section.

The Secol1tl Sectioll Inakes us aeq1.1ainted \vitll tlle peculiar forrns andcerenl0nies \vhich are adol)ted at the initiation of candidates into l\Iasonry; and convinces us, beyond the po\ver of contradiction, of the propriety of our'rit~s;."\vhilst it,~denl0nstrates to the Inost .sceptical and- hesitating Inind their excellence and utility.5

.J.4. Prayer 'Used at the In£r£ation. "\T oucllsafe thine aid, Alnlig'hty }"ather of the Univ'erse, to this our present c.onvention! and gra,nt, that this Candidate for l\Iasonry rnay dedicate and devote his life to thy service, and beCOll1C a true and faitllful13rotber 4 ··J.:\S \VO can annex. to this r(:lUtlrk l"l()othcl" explann,tion, consistently with tlH~rules of1Itlsonry~ '\"'0 lUUSt refer the 11101'0 inquisitive to our regular nssenlblies for further instruction. '5 rl'hc fc)llo\\-ing pal'ticulait'5, rel:1th'c to the ccrernony of initiation, fila}'" be introduced here '\vith pl'opriet.~r.

~["he

to be assented to to Initia.tion, and to be sllbscrilJed at ,: FJ~o the \Vorshipful ~Iaster~ 'S"ardells. Onieers~ and l\fernbers of the Lodge of · No. . ,~ I f.AJ3. J~ l)eing free hy .l>irth, and of the full age or tw·ent~v· . . one :years, do <lechtl'c, that,unhiassed by the hnprr..)per solicitation offriend.s, alld unir~tlu(~ncedbynlL~rC(~nary Qt· other unworthy Inoti ves~ I freely and \:uhn1tf1rily nf!ur Dlyself n. candidate f()l' the tnysteries of nlasolu'y'; that :[ nnl protnpted by n f~tvourablc ctpinion coneeived of the institution. and ::t desire of kno,ylcd~'e: and that I 'will cheerfully cOnn)rnl to 11.U the aneient usages and est;tblished custorns of the Order. ,Vi tness Iny hnnd~ this . day of [.A.B.] "V{itness~

N. B. tary.

[C.D.]"

of this Declaration Inav he had ot the C}rand Secre-

.-

The

is then in open lodge, as fo11o\'\"s : \V..~raster c: .At the l''''-''"'' "."q, •.• ...... his C~hristiannal'ne ·(lnd name, tnt 1)}rifHPJl:Jl,mL tlbodf.~.l I Pl'OPOS(),~ hhn, 't"I\'~O;;:f.lr·Yfli~ of l,htsollry. I l'(~eotnj07rn... u.s ft" proper t; a··nUl.(lal~(~ "n""" 1.'Ii"'I"J~lQ. of the~'rafernity; :uul! Jnend llirn~ as \\'orthy to share in C(Hl:-:cdpwnce (If a dedu,ratiou of lut.entl()ns. volunt:u'ilv nlade Hnd ~"."I.·· ~"""''''""it." ...""", I belicye he w'HI conforzll t(> tho rules of the ,~

"·U"f·,'t1''ii.•

l.'ho

U~rn(ll,cUlte':lS

then ordered tabe preparecl fbI' Initiation.


OFIV.IA.SONRY.~

27

all10ngst us! Endue hin1 vvitil a competellcy of thy Divinevvisdoll1; that,by the secrets of tIlis Art,. he may be the better enabled to c1islJlay-thebeautie:sofgodlil1ess, to the Jlonour of thy holy Nanle lSo1noteitbe."6 : 'l"he Third Section. The rrhi.rc1 Section, })y the reci:proc.al cOlun1unication of our Inarks of distinction, proves tIle regularity of our iui tiation; and inClllcates tbosenecessar~Y'and inS.tructive d~lties \vhich dignif}T our cllaracter, ,in the double capacity of rnen and .l\Iasons. . , \Ve cannot better illustrate this section, than'by in-

serting the

follo\~ving

Charge at Initiation, into tlte First Degree.7 I3J10TH.En,

[.i\S yOtl are no,v introdueed to the first 111'ineiples of 0111' ()rder, it is Ill}'" duty to congratulate you ·011 being aeeepted tL Ineln'ber of an aneient (1n(l h.onourable Societ:yr-; anc.ien t, as haviIlg' subsisted j'i'onl tiU18 iUl1Ilculorial; und llollourable, as tending,. in every particular, so to render all 111en \V]lO ,viII beconforillahle to its precepts. No institution \vas ever I·aised onn better principle, or 11101"e solid foundation; l1or,,"ereever Illore excellel1trules and useful 111tlxirns laid c1o\vn, thall are inculeatedoll every person \vhen he is iIliriated into our 111ysteries. ~Ionarcl1S in all have been eneoul'ttgers and 1)l'o1l1oters of tl1e IH1,~e never deell1cd it derogatory frOll1 their dignities, to level· thernselves \vith ·the brethi(~n, to· extend thl.(~ir privileges, to patronize their. assenlblies.] . '

l1S tt l\.Iason, yon are . to study. tIle Sacr(~dLa\v;8,to

consider it :ls,the 1111erriugstanda~rdoftrutlland"just~ce, and to regulatt}. }"'out life <;1nd nctions by its Diviue.l)recCllts. 'Ilhe three great llloral dt:~ties, toG'oel, YOllr neighbour, °It is a dnt.y'inculnhenton the 1\laster of the lodgc') before the ,cereHhmy of initiation, ta.ktl.sl'laee~ to infol'ln the GiUldi(htte% the " a u d o f the inst.itllti(~n; to expla.iIl. ·thf1. nttture.• of. his cn~rng:lenl~ents; and. in u, nut nner IJeCllUar to Mnsons, 'to require Re('ll11leSCl~Il(~e to th(~ tenets of the ()rder.. l'he l>:u'n.graphs enelosed ill .brackets f).mayb.'·· c)ooasionaUy Oillitted, if'titue \vill llot adrnitQf deliveril1g trH~ whole Charge. s In ]~~ngland, the Isible ~ hut ill countries 'whel'e thtlt hook is unkllown~ w'hatcver is understood to c()ntain the "will or la\y of G·od. In Franco and G'el"many the Bible is of the l'Iebrew text..-EDITOR.


28

ILLUS TRATIONS

and yourself, YOll are strictly to ohserve :-To Goel, by llolding his lltLl1Je in a,ve and veneration: viev\7'ing hin1 as the chief good, irnploring; his aid inlandable I>ursuits, and supplicating his protection on \vell-111cant endeavours:'fa your neighbour, by al\vays acting UI)OIl the square; and consideril1g,,~li111 equally entitled ,vith yourself, to share the blessings ,of providence, rellc1ering unto hirn those favours alld friendly oJfices, \vhich, in a sirnilar situation, you \i,,"ould ~xpect to receive fronl hirn :-.-:\..nd to yourself, by not abusing the bounties of Pl"oviclenee, impairing your faculties by irreglllaritJr , ord.ebasing our profession by inten1perance. In the state, you are to be a quiet tlnd IJeaeeable subject, true to your sovereign, and just to your country; Y'ou are not to countenttnee disloyalty' or rebellioll,but patiently subrnit to legal autll0rity, and cOnfC)1'lu \vitIl cheerfulness to the governlnellt under }:rielding obedience to the la\vs \Vlliell anDreI tion; hut never forgetting attnchrnenl~ the l)lace of your nati'vi(r, or allegiance sovereign or protectors of that spot. [In J"our Qut\Vt.ll"d denlcanour, you are to eensure or reproach; and beyv'nre of nIl \vho rnnr artfully erld(~n­ your to insinuate tllcll1selves into \"0111' '\vith n vie\v to betray )'"our virttlOllS .' s\,~rerve fr0I11 tile' prineiplcls of our interest, favour, or .11rpjlldicB hias ence yOll tobn guilty of a dishonourablc ; }rour conduct he u nifor111 , and :rour deportlnent to the dignity of tIle })rofession.] 'Above all, l)ractise benevolence and charity; f<)r these virtues have distinguished l\Iasons in every age (~OUlltry. ['rhe h1c.Ol1cel..ivable I)leasure eOllT}:iln'iting to\varc1 the relief of our is trn]v b:l persons of ~1 llulnane \vl10" exeited, hy syrnllathy, of the ll1iseries of oth.ers. 1\1a80n to distrilJutehis ("...·"'," . . }10sing hirnself in the , all listens to tIle tale of "rOH \vith ~~,'~.~.·'~"l.,:·.~~~:1'~~,.;'~,'''l~, I",n''t,··.':~tl, (:• .nllSI.'I'. tune, aIHl speedily The ·(~onst~itutiol1s t() ellgage i·'I:''I'

or

BHITister


29

OF l\l'A.SONRY.

your attention. [These consist of tvvo parts, oral and ,Yritt~n eornnlunications;. the foruler c0111prellending the ll.lysteries of tIle .A.. rt, are onl~y to be acquired b~y practiee and experience in tIle lodgt~ ; . the latter includes the 11istor}"" of genuine l\Iasonry; the lives and characters of its I)atrolls, and the ancient charD:es and g:eneral regulations of the (]raft.J ~ ll. punctual attendance on tIle duties of路 the Order \ve earnestly enjohl; 1110re especial1~y in that asseulbly in \vhich your nan1e is enrolled as <.1 111en1ber. [There, and in all regular 111eetings of the Fraternity, J7'OU are to behave \vith order und decorull1, that harn10ny ula}rhe I)reserved, and the bllsiness of l\Iasonr~y be l)rol)erly conducted. The rules of g'ood-hreeding you are never to violate, llsing 1111hec01l1ing language, derogation of IHune (~'od, or to\ynrd the corruption of -good nUUIliers; 11either are ~?OU t() enter into any dispute about or polities ;llor lJcl1a ve irreverently ~ "\vhile tIle is ill \vhat is serious nnd in11)ortrlnt.. ] On you are to fH1Y cl: l.)rol)(~r def(~renee a.nd respect to tIle 1\.Iaster ,and IlTesiding ()fHeers, and diligently HcI)ply to the \vorkof l\.IascH1T}", that you 111ay the sooner UCICOJille U profieient ; as \\"'ell fbr 0\V11路 credit, a.s for honOllr of the \vith 'V}10111 )70t1 assoI-'

l..-

at. our regular your necessary c111ployIllents lit(~ are not to l)e nCLdected on that account: neither UTe 'lOll to sufler your ze~'tl f()l" :l\IasOllry to exceed the ~)f discretion, "or lead. :you into arglllIlcllt \vith ridicule our institutioIl; lyutextencl those \vIla be [tpt, througll igno~,;l"J.~ .oI""'''''.\,,'''''''~I.,! .

eOllt(~ltnn

tr:H~(!~

IH~ver lHtd~ an

op11ortuni t~l

required for your general the liberal arts at leisltre: seiellee in the \vorks cluinent Inasters; nIH} inlthe disquisitions ()f th~~ s.,?stern, hy the COl1ver'\v"ell-int(}rlned bretlll"ell, \yllO ,viII al"~Hysbeas as you can to receive instrnction.

l'~f'l'I)"ll'\l",n.ni':路I,1\n

at I<lu"v" 1\1. I').. for 'Y(~vnlOtlth, and P. (}.. 1\I. f(n掳 I)()rsetshir(~~ n, l1e'w" edition' of the Book: 0.1" Consiitutions has been prepared, and pttrtly publislu.:~d, order of th(~ Grand since the ,,'leT OF UKION took

plac,e.


30

ILLUSTILATIONS

Finally: Adllere to the Constitutions; and S1111port the privileges \vhicl1 are to distinguish you as t1 l\.Iason above the rest of the COll1111Unity, and 111ark vour c.onseqllence an10ng the Fraternity. in the circll{ of your aequaintanee, you fillc1 tt persoll desirous of being initiated into the Order, be l'lal"ticularly atte,ntive not to reeornnlend !linl, unless :rou are convinced that he \vi11 confornl to our rules ; that the value of l\fasonry lIlay beenl1aneed by· the difficulty of the l)urchase; the honour and reputatioTl of the institutioll be established on the firnlest basis; Hl1cl the\vorldat large he convinced ofits benigll influence. [Froin the attention you have paid to the recital of the duties' of the Order, \ve are led to hOI)e, thn t yOll \vHl foru1 a proper estin1ate of the value of l:~r(~ernasonry, and iluprint on your lIlirid the dictates of trutll, 110nOt1r, find justice.] 10

It

10 The late Lodge (1 .Rt~conciliation I).D.; l\Instpr) r€eOIlllnCnded the use ()f recited to everynlasou inlJ11ediateI v' SUDS(:fllWlll t. \vhich\vas IH)!1()"ured \yi th the approb;l tinIl of . . tTllited(~ l'nnd their .Hoyal IIighnessC's the DukE~5 of I{ent aucl Sus.~ex tIeing

the .f~.n·rner iUustl'icHlS I)rinee Past. and tlw lattor I)l'eS(~l1 t G'rnnd 2\Instcr. rrIte Brlitor, hc)\vevcr. did lHH think ltinl~\..~lr in oluitting the Charge to \,~hiclll11'uthl'r Pl'estun's r('~ulc1'8 hu.d hitherto been ~lccustolned. Bn.OTHI~n,

,As you have I10\V passed through tl).'t~cereln~nlies of :rour illlthltion; anO\V lne to congratnhtte JOu on being adnntted tt llllllnlyer of ()HI" aneien t and hon()tu·~thle society. ..r\..llcien t. Df) it sullsisted f'l'orn tilllC inu~:;(mlOrhtl; :ulCl hOIlI,::ll.u'u.b]e it rnust ledged to be-bec:luse, bY' fl natural tcndeney~ it eonduces those honounl.hlc \\;-ho are strictIv obe~lient tel its no instit.ution eanboast tt 1110!'Q soli!'l fhnrHlatiun Free'.lna,sonr)" ~'csts-'lrrte (~r 8tHdal nIH1 to SO 11lgll an en)H}('IH~e has been ata\'~UH't'l~. 't Iwt Ul ('Yt:IT a~:e~ nlon:jrehs theln~dv('s haye beeolne th(~ of the Art ~~lHiy(~ not it frcJlu their the' £4)1' the trrnvel OUI' J'J'l,·'~tl'l""'iO.: ,

l

our assclnblics. l\Iason~ I ""'(lulcl first "f\fl'.nl'rll'll(-nlt the voluln(~ of the ·Sn..cred I.. n\".: 11lH.~rrhH! standard of truth and tLetions tYie divillC prec«pts it CUlH'U.ll~. tlu~ dutit.~s you oW'(~ to ne,-cr rrleu tJ(JllHH! and re'Ver(~ne{~ urc due fZ'(nn the ert:'a.tn l'P il:nplcn'iug his aid on nIl yeltlI' lawful

. As a

l'llliIPlr'r'!tl'll1rl''''

. :


31

OF l\JIASONRY.

This section usua11y closes with the following EUI.,OGIU:M:.

l\Iasonry C01111)rehellds \vithin its circle every lJra,nch of useful kno\vledge and learning, and stanlps an indelible rnark of pre-eulinence on its genu'inc professors, ,vhich neitJleL" chance, l)o\ver, nor' forturle, can besto\v. \\Then its rules are strictly observed, it is a sure foundation of tranquillity tllnid tl1e various disappointlnents of life; a friend, that \viII not deceive, but \vill cOll1fort and assist in prosperit)T and adversity;" a blessing, that \viII. reulain \V'ith all til11es, cirCUlllstances, and places; 'apd to \vhich recourseulft3T, be had, \vhen, other earthlJ~ conlforts sink into disregard.. nfasonry gives real and intrinsic excelleney to r.oan, and renders hirn fit for the duties of soeiety. It strengtl1ens the rnind against tIle storrrlS of life, IHlves the \vay to to bhn in eyery' (~nlergenej"", forCOlnftnt and support, ']'0 your neigh ... bout, by netin~ \yith hhn upon the seplUte; by rendering. hhn every kind of-nee \,~hieh justiee or nlerc~y Inn)" require; by relicwing his distresses, RUfI Soctthing his nftlietions; a.nd by doing to hiln, as~ill silnilar ca.ses, you \"il"onld \vish he should do to ~vou, ..And to yourselJ: by stIch a prudent and ,\"eU-regulnted cQurseof discipline~ asrnay l)(~st eonduce to the prC'servation of :yourcorporenlltud 111entalfhculties in their fnlle:-:t ; ther0byenabling you to exert the talents 'wherewith ({od has you, as \vell to his g:lory, as to the \vclfttre of" your fello\v'-creaturc¡s. ..ds a I tun next to enjoin yon to ly~~ exclnplary in the civil lty never proposing, or at all eountenallein~. that lunJ hav(~ a t(~ndeney to subvert the peace aJHI oI'd~'r ; pnsing ol)edience to tht~ la.vrsof nn.r lnay ii..n" a tittle be(~( >llle plac<!. of your residence, or . ,:rou its lwoteeth)n;alld nho\"e all, by nCY('f losing sight of the n llegiuIlce, due to the. Sovereign of .;YOUI" .Ilativoland; ... ever reuH:rnbedng. that Nn,ture has irnpln.nted in your l)reast it saered and inllis~olnble attadnnent to that country,fi"olJl w'hieh :rou derived your hirth and inf'ilnt nurtureâ&#x20AC;˘ .As an . I :un further to rc(~onjnH:~nd the praetice of every dOHlt"stie a~\\'l~1l as virtue. L(lt,Pnu!t:'ucc direct Y(Hll 'J:'empt:ranl:l:(~hnsten BUppOI't, you! and Justh~e he the gUlde of nIl aetittl1s! (~spedany careful to llutintuin, in their fullest ulasonieOrnanl('nts: 'whi<~h already been arnrlly ilhlstrnted, 13t:nt':ro!cnce {nul Stin~

n.3 a

tJi(II'C

are

exc(~lh~ncc~s of

character,

to .\,-hic-h )'onr atttmtirHl luay he pc:culiarl~y and ....f'orcibIy. directed. Among tlH~ fort~lrH,'st. of th...!se al'e~ Sl:crec.lJ, 11'1idelit.1j, Obedi~;nce. Secrecy Il1UY be St\id to consist in an inviolable adlH:~rence to the


32

ILLUSTRATIONS

peace, and ,pron1otes c10111estic happiness.

It ll1eliorates the telnper, and in111roves the understanding; it is COll1pan)T in solitude, and gives vivaeity, variet:r, and energ~r, to social conversation. In youth, it governs the passions, and ell1ploys usefully our 1110st activefhculties; and in age, \vhen siel(l1ess, inlbecility', undc1isease,have benun1 beel the corporeal fraIne, and rendered the union of soul and body alnlost intolerable, it yields an aUlple fund of c0111fort aild satisfaction. These are its general advantages: to enll111erate then1 sel)arately, "\votlld be all endless labour. It 111ay be Sllfficient to observe, that he, \~"ho cultivates this science, and acts agreeably to the character of a 1\lason, 1H18 \vithil1 hin1self the spring anel SUp}10rt, of e"'l,·ery" social virtue; a subject of conten1plation, that nrind, and eX11ands all its pov\'~ers; a then1e is inexhaustible, ever ne\v, anclal"vays interesting.. 41

obligation :you have entered in to, neyer irnpropcrly to reveal of those l\Iasonic Secrets ,,,hieh have nCH~{ b(len~ or nury ~tt nny future bc~ intrnsted to your keeping; ~1nd cautioilsly toW SllllU "all oceasions v.."I"hich 111ight inadvertently lead you so to do. Your }"Iideli(tj rnnst be eseulplitied 1))" a strict observance of the constitutions of the Fraternity; by adhering t() the ancient l:uldnlarks of the (>I·del'; b.y never atternpting' to extort or otlW1'\,·isc undrllv obtain~ the ~cerets of :1- superior ; and l,y refraining: to l'econi... Inend an5~ one to a partieipation of our secrets, unless :ycnl ha'''l: grounds to believe that,b)'" a shnil:u- fidelity, he ,~"iU ultiln.ately honour on our choice.. SO,llluSt yourObctlience be proved by HI dose eonfi:)l-nlity to our Ia,,"s and regnlations; -by prompt ~tttention to an Stnnrnonses; l)v modest [lnd correct derneal10ur \'\;bilst in the by abstainin r ;' fi;Ol11 every topic of rc~ligious or political discussion; re;tdy ;:, cence in all Yotes and resolutiolls duly passed by the brethren: and by perfeetsubnlission to the :l\Iaster and his ,~·hi1st in the discharg€.~ of their respecth"rc ofHces. And~ as a. last reCOtnrnendation~ let Inc exl10rt you to dedI... cateyourself to such pursuits as lna..v enable you to beconic nt {)nee respectable in your rank of life~ useful to rna.nkin(l~ and :lin orn:nnent to the society of '\vhich rou lutve this been adrnitted n. lllenl1H:~I' that yon ,vould t:noreespecially dcyote your Icisurellours to the or such of tIle liberal nrtsal'lcl scielH~es ns rnay lie ,,~ithin the of your attainlnent; and that, ,rithout neglecting th.e ordinary (f your station: you ,\\roul<:lc{)nsidcr J'ourself called upon to lanke a<!ynnccnwnt in InasoDlc kllo,vledge. [Fronl t he very con:nllcndable attention ,v"hich you appt'fu' t() hayc giveu to this charge, I alIl led that you "liB duly nppreciatc tho excellence of 1!'recIllflsoIU·'y", and irnprint indelibl..y on Jour lllind the sacred dictates of 7'~r'Uth, of Ilonou,r, and of 1l "irtzle 1]


OF J\IASONRY.

The

FOllrt}t

33

Section.

The Fourth Section rationally accounts for tIle origin of our l1ieroglyphical instrllction, and points out the advantages vvhieh accon1pany a f~lithful obseryance of our duty'. It ill ustrates, at the san1e tin1e, certail) particulars, our ignoranee of \vhich 111ight lead us into error; and. \vhich, as 1\la80n8, \ve are indispensably bOlllld to Itno\v. To 111al\.e daily pl"ogress ill the Art, is a constant duty, and expressly required by our general lu'\vs. vVhat end can be n10re noble, tllan the l)ursuit of virtue? 'Vvhat 1110tive IDore alluring, than the practice of justice? or ",,"hat .instrnctioll 路111ore beneficial, than au accurate elucidation ofsYIrlbols路 \vhich .tend toin1lirove and eUlbellisl1 the, rnind? Ever:yr thing that strikes the eye, 1110re innnediately engages the attention, Hlld irn11rints on the Inernory serious and solenl11 tl-Ltths" l\Iasons have, theref()re, ll"hiversal1y adopted the plan of inculen.ting the t(~nets of their ()rder b~Y' typical f"igTlrt~S and nllegorieal ernbleuls, to prevent their rnysteries frorIl deseending vrithin the ftuuiliar reach of inattentive nndunprepared novic.es, frorn \vhorl1 they' lilight not receive due veneration. 'l'he 11snQ:es and Ctlstolns of J\Iasons have ever corl"esl)onded \\:ith those of the ancient l~gyptians; to \vhich, l:.lear a near affinity'. rl'hose I)llilosophers, un'\villing to expose their rn vsterics to v u1gar eves, c.oneenJedt:l~eirparticular tenets~ and r)rineiple~of I)路~lity and })hiloSOl)hy Ilnder hierog'lYI)hical tigures; Ulld eXI)ressecl their notions of gOVernlrl(~nt bv si~ns arHl SVlllhols, \vhicll theY' \..~. to their In"'agi~llone, "dlo vv~ere bound by oath H neverto reveal thern. Pythagoras seenlS to 11ave ! 1;,; The oath proposed to the aspirant for the l).Ythagorc路an lllysteries, ,vas lultde()ll the IHllnl)(~r J?orn, or 'llelraclyt<:,vdlieh \YUS expl'e8s{~d by 'rJ::N eQnnnas or jods, (supposing it to be deriverl feon\ the Tttl'agnunllHttou the !l';J(~\V8) disposed in the forln of all cqllilaternl trhtugle, each side <:ontt:\.1ning ns foUo\ys: or the actiy(~ prindple. " lJiuul~ passh'1"c prineiple. , " '1'thul~ the ""01'1<1 proceeding iron1 their nuiou.

, , , , (.~uatcrnary, the liberal scit~nces. This trinngle, as SOUle authors supposc, hore n. rcfer(~nee to the ,]~riune G'oa~ ,vhellce it ,vas tCrIncd Trigonon 1nyslicu71L Iaxnblichus gives us


34

II.. LUSTRATIONS

established his systenl on a si111ilar plan; and n1an:r Orc1~rs of a 1110re recent date have copied the exarnple. ~Iasonry, hO\7\Tever, is not only' the 1110st ancient, but the r.nost rnoral Institution that ever subsisted; as every character, figure,ancl enlbleul, depicted in the lodge, has a 1110ral 111eaning, .and tends to inculcate the l)ractlce of virtue 011 tllose \lvho behold it.12

The F'ij2h ISection. The Fiftl1 Section explains the nature and prineiples of our institution, anel teaches us to discha.rge \vithpropriety the duties of the different departlnents \vhieh \ve are appointed to sustain in the governrnent of the lodge. frere, too, our ornan1ents are displayed, and our je\vels and furniture specified; \vllile a proper attelltiol1 is paid

to our ttllCient and venerable I)atron. rro expla.in thesubjeets treated in this Section, and assist the industrious :nlasc)n to acquire then!, \ye eaa only ree0111111end a I)ul1ctunl attendance on the dtlties of the lodge, and a diligent app}ieation to the lessons '\vhicll are there inculcated.

The Sixth Section, though the last in rank, is not tIle least cotlsidern.l)lein in.1portance. It strengthens those w'hiehprecede; and· erlf{)!."ces, in the r110st engaging rnal1ner, a due regard to elUtr:leter and behaviour, in ptlblic as ',veil as in private life ;in the lodge, as \vellas in the generaI eOrfUl1 eree of society. rrhis Section foreiblyinculeates tIle Inost instrllctive lessons. Brotherly Lor~~, lleliU; ntH1 1'rl/l/l, tire thelues on \vhich\ve here expatiate. I~y the Lore, v,,·e are taug'llt: to rc)gnrtl tIle ,yhole hllrnarl speeies tlS (HH~ ih,r!lily, the high uIHl l()\v, tIle rieh ; \vho, as ehililren of the sallie parent, und inhabitants of tIle Ov /Ul" "lOP /(,u'rl.:'o't &e. I~r the whc) hath COU1;tllluic:tied the "ibunllist. Init., ·in,

the \"(Irds of this trm:ncndous (~!U:;.\T 'I\:THACTYS,

tain

(tf

j

or naUlO

eternity to ·Ollr

:·,

-l!~DITOR. 12

14.

This section closes ,,·ith ~\ ~lefinitiOl1 of Charity, for '\vhieh see p.

.

.

.


OF 1vIASONRY.

36

salue planet, are to aid, support, and protect each other. On this principle l\Iasonry unites rnen of every country, sect, and opinion ;13 and conciliates true friendship an.l0ng those '\1\:110 rnight other\vise ha,ve renlained at a l)erpetual distance~-Reliql'is the next tenet of the profession; .and, tllOUgh to relieve the distressed is a duty incLunbent 011 all rnen, it is rnore IHll"ticularly so on nIasol1s, '\vho are linl<.ed together by an indissol ub1e chain of sincere affection. "-£0 soothe calal11ity, alleviate 1l1isfol"tune, c01l1passionate Iniser3T, and restore peace to the troul)led Blind, is the grand ainl of the true l\fason. On this basis he establishes his friendsllips, and forn18 Ills cOllneetiol1s.Trutlz is a divine attribute, and the foundation of every 'virtue. . To be good and true, is the first lesson '~teal:e taught in l\Iasonr~r. ()n this· then1B \\re ·conte111!)late,·and by its flictates endeavour to regulate our conduct: inHueneecl by this principle, 11ypocris;/ and deceit are unkno\vn in the lodge, sirleerity alHl 11\ain-den1ing distinguish us; '\vhile the ll.eart and tongue join in IH-ornoting: t11e general \velf~lre, and rejoicing i~ en~~h otller's l)rOSpt~-ity. r:ro this illustration an explanation of the fbn!" e,arclinal virtues, 1 lmqJCrancc, l?ortitude, .1J yzuZ(Jnce, and .lils,tice.-l~y··1'clnlJcrance, \ve are instructed to govern the IHlsHions, and check unruly desires. 'rhe health. of the body, and the dignity of the sI)ecies, are equally concerl1ed ill a fhithful observane(~ of it.-.-By }t'ortitude, "\ve are tallght to resist ten1ptation, and encounter danger \VitJl spirit and resolution. rrl"ris virtue iseqnnlly distant frorn rashness and co\ytlrdieo; and IH:~, \vho l)ossesses it, is shaken, Ilever o\"erthrO\Vll, by the stOl"111S thttt slrrround hirn.-I~v }>rudencc, ,ve are instructed to regulat~;()t1r:, the of l·eaSOll, and to jl~'(Jg(~ and deterrnine,vtth l)r()l)}-iet~y in the execution of tIling that tends to !Jro111oteeither our 11resent or l

';,r

13 I cite a Sill!!le instane(\ of this :filet frOIll IAHvrie. ·;,A Seottish gentJernan in th(; Prl18sian s('rvlce W"lts tnken prisoner at the battIt~ of' IJutzen~ and ,vas COI1V(~ved to Prague along \'dth four hundred of his COIUp:ulions-in..anlls. '",A8800n as'- it \vas l\.\)(l\Yll that he \vas :'~~'lason~ h(; vnts releused rx'fHll eonlineUH,!l1t; he \\":t8 invited to the t.a;hlE:~s of th~ rnost. distingnish(·d citizens~ and to consider hhuself its ~l" !1'reetnaSOIl; :uld not ns HI prisonee of \nu.. ..A.oou t three nu)uths after th(~ (mgagcIllent, an ()f pI"isoners took plaee, al1dthe Scottish ltraternity \vith u. purse of sixty ducats officer w'u'sprescmtorl by to (l(;~fray the expenses of his journcy.. "-ED'lTOR.


86

ILLUSTRATIONS

future well-being. On tl1is virtue, all others c1e})end; it is, therefore, the chief je\vel that can adOl"ll the hU111an frarne ..-Justice, the boundary of right, constitutes the celnentof civil societ)"r. This virtue, in a. great measure, constitutes real goodness, and is therefore represented as the l)erpetual study of the acco111plished l\Iason. ,'Tithout the exercise of justice, universal' confusion \vould ensue; lavvless force lnight OVerCQlne the l)rinciples of equity, and social intercourse 110 longer 路exist. TIle explanation of these virtues is accor.npanied \~vith son1e general路 observations 011 the eq uali ty observed among l\Iasons. In the lodge, no estrangelnent of be11aviour is discovered; influenced by the salue principle, an unifor111it~yof opinion, vV hich is useful in exigeneies, and pleasing in fan1iIiar life, uni versal1y prevails, strengthens the ties of friendship, and I)rOll1otes love and esteenl. lVIasons(lre .brethren by a double tie; Hndalllong then), as brothers, no invidiousdistinctiol1s exist; Inerit being al\vtlYS respe(~ted, UTld honour rendered to 'VhOIll honour is due.-A king, ill the lodge, is ren1inded, that although a cro'\~!n rnay adorn the head, or u, sceptre the hand, the blood in the veins is deri'ved fronl the eOrnl110n parent of Inankinc1,and is no better than tlHlt of the I11eanest subject.-rrhe stateslIHlu, the senator, and the artist, are thert~ taught that, equally" \"ith others, they tlre by nature exposed to intlrll1ity (1n<1 diseflse; and that an ullforeseen 111isfortune, . or a. disorderedi:r~~111e, UluJr in11)air .their fhculties, and level tlleUl \vith the .lnost ignorant of their 81)ecies.This cl1ceks pride,und incit~s courtesy of behaviour. 1\Ien of inferior talents, or \vho are not placed by f{)rtulle in suell exalted s'tatiorls, are instructed to regtlrcl their superiors \vitl1 rH:~culiar; \v11en they discover thenl voluntaril)r divested of traI)pil]gs of external grandeur, and condescending, ill the badge of innocence and bond of f'riendshil)' to trace \visdoll:l, and folloV\r virtue, assisted by those "vho are of ft rank beneath thern. v""irtue is tr~le nobility, and ,\risdoIll is the channel by which \Tirtue is clireeted and conveyed; 1i1""isdorn and \7irtue, only, lnark distinction urllong 1\1,180118.

8tl011 is theartangeInent of the Sections in the ~'irst IJeeture ;'\vllieh, irH~iuding forrns adol)tedat opening and 路elosing the lodge, cotnprehends the vllhole of the


OF MASONRY.

37

First Degree. This plan has not only the advantage of regularity to recorrin1end it, btlt the support of precedent alldauthority, and the sanction and respect Wllich flo,,\-'" fro 111 antiquity. TIle \vhole is a regular systelnof lnoralit)r, coneeived in H, strain of interesting allegor~y, \vhich readily unfolds its beauties to the candid and industrious inquirer.

SECT. IV. REl\tiARKS

on tile

SECOND LECTURE.

JYfASONRYisa progressive science, and is divided into diflerent classes, or Degrees, for the more regular adval1ceInent in the kno'\vledge of its n1ysteries. According to the progress \ve ll1al\.e, \ve liInit or extend our inquiries; and, in })l'oportioll to our talents, ,ve attaill to a lesser or greater degree of pe;rJeetion. l\.Iasonry includesalnlost every brancll of polite lea.rl1ing under the veil of its rnysteries, \vhich conlprehend a regular systelll of virtue and sciellce.~Iany of its. illustr/l,tiol1s ma.yappear uniJ.nportant to tl.l.e cOI.lfined g.. enius; but the luan of Inoreenlarged filculties .\vill "consider theln in the highest degree 1.1seful and interesting. To l)lease the aCC0l111)lished sehalar and ingenious artist, the institution is\vell suiteel; and in the investigation of its latent doctrines, the l)hilosopher and Ina.tllenlaticial1111av experience equal satisfilction [lInd delight. . '1"0 exhaust the various subjec.ts of \vhicl1 l\Iasolll路y treats, '\vould transcend the l,o\vers of the brightest genius: still, ho\;vever, nearer approaehes to l1erfection 1nay be rnade ; and the luan .. of \visdonl ",,,ill not ehecl,the progress of his abilities, though the task he atteulpts at first, seenl insurrnouutable. Perseverance anel \vill renlove each difl1cult.y as it oceurs; every step he advances, ~le\V pleasures \viII 0l)en to 11is vie\v, :,uHl instruction of the noblest kind ::Lttendhis rescar(~hes. In the diligent pursuit of kno'\vledge,great discoveries are 111ade; and the intellectual faculties are \vis(}ly elI1ployed ill 1)fOlll0ting the glory of God aud the good of Inankilld. 01

SUCI-i IS r.rI-IE TENDE:NCY OF ALL THE ILLUSTRATIONS


38

ILLUSTRATIONS

IZi 1\1 ASONRY.

H.EVERENCE POR 'rIfE DEITY AND GRATITUDE FOlt TIlE BLESSINGS OF l-IEAVEN. ARE INCULCATED IN EVERY DEGREE. 'rhis is the l)lall of our systell1, alld

the result of our inquiries. The First Degree being intended to enforce the duties of IDorality, and in1print 011 the l11enl0ry the noblest }1rinciples vvhich can adorn the hunlan rnind;the Second Degree extends the plan, and conlprehends [L Illore diffusivq systenl of kno\v ledge. Practice and theory are united, to qualify the industria us l\Iason to share the pleasures \vhich an advancel~lent in the .l\.rt necessarily affords. Listening \vith attention to the opiuions of experienced 111 en on in1portant subjects, the luind of the CraftS111al1 is gradually fan)iliarized to useful instruction, and he is soon enabled to investig'ate truths of tIle utnlost coneerll in the general,tra,nsacti~nsof life. ~"ronl thissystenl11l"'OCeeds ttl"ationalaU1USenl€11t. vVhiletheulentalllo\vers are fully elilI)loyed, the judgInel1t is properly exercised: tt spirit of elllulation prevails; and every brother vies, \vho shallll10st excel in prOllloting the design of the Institution.

'rhe J?irst Section of the Seeond Degree elucidates thenlode of introductioIl intothiselass ; and instructs the' diligent· Craftsman how to proceed in the I)f()per arrangement of the cerernonies \vhiehul"e used on that occasion. It enables hilIl to jlHlge of the inlportullce of those rites,and convinces· hiIn of the necessity of adhering to all the established usages of the Ordt~r. I:Iere he is entrusted \vith particular tests, to prove his title .to the privileges of this I)egree; und satisf1tctory l"easonsare given for their origin. 'I'he ·duties \\yhicHl eenlent., in the firrnest union, \vell-informed brethren, are illustrated; and an .opportunity is given tonluke suell ad vnllces . in the Art,ns. \villal\vlty'sdistiIlguish the talerlts of able Craftsmen~ 13esides the . . cerernonyof iIlitiatioll ill. the Second Dt~gree, this Seetion contains Illany hnportant partieuhtrs, witll vvhich no officer of the lodge shouldbeunacquainted.


OPMASONRY. >

路Charge at Initiation. into the Second Deg1路ee. 14

BROTHER,

89


40

ILLUSTRATIONS

As a Cl'UftSlTHll1, in our pl~ivate assenlblies yOll l11ay offer your sentinlents and opinions on such subjects as are l"egulttrly hltroduced in the Lecture, under the superintendence of an experienced lVIaster, \vho "viII guard the htnd-Iuark against encroaehU1ent. By this llrivilege you n1ay inJprove your intellectual l)o\vers; qualif}r yourself to becolne anusefllllneulber of society; and like C1 skilful Brother, strive to excel in '\vhat is good and great. [15 Alll"egulal" signs and SU1111l10nSeS, given and received, you are duly to honour, and punctually obey; inasnluch as they consist ,,:rith our professed principles. You are to encourage industry and re\vard ll1erit; Sl11)ply the wants and relieve the necessities of brethren and fello\\'s, to the utnlost of :rour po\ver and ability'; and 011 no account to \vrong theIn, or see then1'\vronged, but tilnely to apprize tl1elll of . approaehing' danger, and vie\v their interest as insept1rable fi'0111 your o\vn. Such is the nature of yourengagclnent, as a Craftsluan; and these duties J.Totl are no\v bound, by the rnost sacred ties, to observe.]

111,e Second /Section. 'l''he Second Section of this Degree l)resents an uInple field fbr the 1nan of genius to !)erarnbulate. It eursorily specifles the particular classes of the Order, andt:1xplains the .' recluisitQ qualifieations' ii)!" I)refen:nent in eaeh. In the路 eX,planation of on I' usages,. nlarlY ren1arks are illtrodtlC(~d, '\vhich are equally useful to the experienced artist and the. sage rnoralist. The various operations of the 1n1n<1 are denl0nstratec1, as fur as they \viIl adrnit of elueidation, and a fund of extensive seiellee is explored throughout.. IIere \ve find ernploynlcnt f<:n" leisure hours; traee seienc.e fi.路0111 its original SOllree; andhy dra'\ving the attention to the 811111 of perfection, e0t,lteull?late \vith . adrniration the \vonderful\vorks of the C~l"eator. (}eonletry displayed, \vith all its and !)roperties; and in the disquisition of .. '. the luind is {illod \vith rapture and delight.. ~ueh is the latitude of路 tllis Section, that the rnost judicious 111ay fail 15 'l'his and the fCi II C) wing paragraph are used in the courS(~ of the cere:IX1ony.

tt)

be ornitted, if previously


OF MASONRY.

41

ill an attenlpt to explain it; the· rationalpo\vers being exerted to their UtUlost stretch in illustrating the beauties of Nature, and den1011strating the 1l10re i1TII)ortant truths of In orality. As the Orders .oj" rlTchitecture corne 11nder consideratioll in this Section, the follo\ving brief descriptioll of then1 lIlay not be in1proper: By order, iu architecture, is llleant a systeln of tIle luernbers, prOl)ortiol1s, ana ornanlents of C01Unll1S and

pilasters; Of, it is a regular arrange111ent of tIle projecting parts of a building, ·,vhich, lUlited ·\vith those of a colurnn, fornl a beautiful, 1lerfect, and e0111plete '\vhole. Order in architecture I11ay be traced fi-Olll the first formationofsocie(y. "Vhen therigour ofseasQns obligedn1en to contrive ·shelter fi"OD1 the inclenlellcy.of the weather, \ve learn that they first l)lanted trees on end,. and therl laid others ac,ross, to support u, eovering. rrhe bands '\vhich connected tl10se trec)s at tOll anel bottorn, are said to have suggested the idea of the 1)use and capitals of I)il1ars; ul~d~ froll1 this sirllple hint originally l)roceedecl the .l110re inlfn"oved art of architecture. 'l'he five orders are thusclass.ecl; the TllsCan,Dol"ic, Ionic, C!orinthian, and COllll)osite. l'he 1~llscan is the 1.110st sitnple frlld solid of the five orders. It \vas invented in 'I'usctlny, vvhence. it derives its narne.. Its col UIl1Il is seven dian1eters high; and its capital, and elltablrtture, have but fe'\v 111ouldings. The silnplicityof the eonstruc.tion of this C01Ulllll renders it eligible \vhere solidity is the ehief object, and vlhere ornarnent \vould be sUllerfluous. 'I'he Doric order, \vhicll is l)lain and 11atural, is the 1110St tlneient, ttnd\vas invented b yr the Greeks. Its coltlrnn is eightdiurneters high, tlnd it .hus . seldolll any ornanlo11ts on base or ctlj)ital, excel)t Illouldings; though. the frieze is distinguished by trig])~l)hs anel ll1etoIles, and tbetriglyphs COlll pose the orn,Llnents of the frieze. rrIle solid COlllposition tl.lis order gives it a I)Tefel"ence ill \vh(~re strength and a noble but rough sbn~ plicity are chiefly required.!6 16 1'110 I>oric is the best proportioned of all the orders... lJ.'he several parts of Vdlicl. it is c()~nposed are founded on the natural position of solid bodies. In its first. invention it \V~lS rnoreshnple than in its present state.. Illafter..tirnes, ,,·hell. it began to be adorl1ed, it gained

5


42

ILLUSTRATION"S

The Ionic hears a kind of luean proportion between the 1110re solid and delicate orders. Its COIU11111 is nin8 dialIleters high: its capital is adorned ""lith volutes, and its cornice has denticles. 1'here is l)oth delicacy and ingenuity displayed in tIlis pillar; tIle invention of \vhich is attributed to the Ionians, as the falllous terl1I)le of Diant"t at Ephesus \vas of this order. It is said to hl1ve been fornled after the 1110del of an agreeable young \VOlnan, of un: elegant sllal)e, dressed in her hair; as a contrast to the Doric order, "rIlieh "vas fornled after that of a strbng robust 111a11. The C~oTinth'ian, the ricllest of the five orders, is c1ee111ed a lllaster-piece of art, and ,,"vas invented at Corinth by Callin1achus. Its COlUll111 is ten dianleters high, and its c3I)ital is adorned \vith t\VO rovrs of leaves a~ld eight volutes, \vhieJ.1 sustain the a.bacus. The frieze is ornaInented\vith curious devices, and the cornice \vitll路denti... cles and Inodillions.. rrhis order is used ill stately und sUJ)f~rb

structures..17 'l'he ()onlJlosite is COII1I)ounded of the otller orders, and \vas contrived by the Itornans. Its capital has the t",ro rO\,,"8 of leaves of theCorintbitll1, and the volutes of the Ionic. Its COlU11111 has the quarter-round as tlH~ 'I\lsean and Doric orders, is ten diallleters high, and its cornice has dentieles~ or sin1ple Iil0dillions. TI'hisI)illul" is gt~ne颅 rally. found in buildings \\~here strength, elegance, and beauty .are Ullited.18 the n:llueofDoric;, for ,,,,hen it '~'ras constructed in its priuliti're and sinlple f()l'll1, the nalue()fTuscan 'was confer路red 011 it.. lIenee the 'Tuscan precedes the Doric in rank, on account of the resel:nblunee to thnt pillar in its original state. . 11 OaUinl3.ehns is said to ha,,"c taken the hint of tIle (~apital of this pillar frorn the fbllovdng rC111urkable cirClunstance :-.l\ccidentJ,y- pass.. iIlg tIlt: tornb. of n YOtUlg lady, he perceived it bnskct of toys cO\'ered ,vith tL tile placed oyer an aean thus root; ha,'ing been . left there by her nnrst'. }"s the branehes up, they (\ncoluJ)nssed the bttsket: till~ nIort.\1'ing at the tile~ they with ~ln obstruction: ~uH:ll)ellt dOWln,'u.rds. ... Cal1ima(~hus, s tlouck ,,~ith the oltiect~ set ttbout hnitn ting the figure ; the V~Lse of thE.;) eapital h(~ nUHlc to represent the llHsket; the",abacus the tile; andtht~ volutes tlle bending leaves. 18 rrhe orh.dnnl orders of arehitectnre thnn thrc(~ :-the Doric, Ionic:"' and Corinthia:n..To thc$e the addt~d two :-th(~ 1'u8enil~,\"hich they rnndeplainer thnn the ])ol'ic; and theConlposite, wh~h was rnoro orntuueutfLl, if not lUOrQ benutifhlthnn the Corinthit\u, '11H~fint thr('e orders n.lone 'sho,,"invcntiol1 and I)iu路ticulnrchul'ucter andeSScIltinHydifl:er frolne:tchotber; the tw'O others lU1VC nothing


OF· MASONRY.

43

These observations are intended toinduee the industriousCraftsrnan to pursue his researches into the .rise and progress of architecture, by consulting the \vorks of the best writers on the subject. 19 1'rorn this theIne \ve proceed to illustrate tIle nl0ral advantages of Geoll1etry: Ge0l11etrv is tIle tlrst and 110blest of sciences,and the basis on \vhich the superstructure of FreelIlasonry is erected. ' 'rhe conteu1platioll of this sciellce in a Inoral and COlnprehensive vie\v fills the n1ind \vith rapture. To the true G·eo111etrician, the regions of I11atter \vith which he is surrounded afford alnple scope for his adn1.iratioll, \vhile they open a sUblinlefield. for his . inquiryalld disquisition. Every blade of grass \vhic!lcoversthe ' field, every Ho\ver that blo\v's, a.nd every insect\vhich \vings its \vay in the hounds of expanded space, l)roves the existenee of aC~ause, und yields pleasure to tIle intelligent ·u1ind.. ~rhe beaut;l, and order displayed ill tIle various 1)urtsanill1ate and. inunirnate creatioll are l)leasing and delightful tl.lenles,(lnd naturally lead totlle source ·wheuce the \vhole is dE~rived. "Then "re bring V\"ithin the focus of the eye the variegated carpet of the terrestrial cret1tion, and survey .tIle ·.progress.of thevegeour adrniration is justly excited,. Every 111ani; that gro\vs, eyery flo\ver tlHLt displays its l)eallties or bl"eathes its s\veets, afrords instruction and delight. vVhen \ve extend our vie\vs to the aniulal crerLtion, and conten1I)late the varied elothirlg ofever~y s!Jeeies,\ve are equally. . . \vitll astonishrnent! and when 'VB· trace the lines of G eOl.ne try drU\Vll by the Divine l)encil in the beautiful pltlnlf~ge of tIle feathered tribe, how exalted is oure()nceptio~l of . he:.t'venly work! The' adtnirable . structure of l>larlts and aninluls, and the :infinite nUlnber hut\vha.t is differ only accidentally; thc1'uSCllnistbe D01'i(~ in its (~at'Iie::rt state; and the Cornposite is the (Jorlut.b.i.n enriched \,,"i th the Ionic. '1:0 the Greeks, and XH)t. to. the .1~olnan$, we lnf~,t~t)1te(1 f.n," ,vhutis judici(.n.1S~ and distinct, in.arcldtecture. 11luch soever I nULy regret the loss·· of ,the fil1~ a.naiysis of '~the which.:\Ir. l'reston h~\d introduced here; yet,aa it (OfIns nOJ)n,l't of' th(~ present systen) ofl\lasonry, it is necessarily ,expunged ~otht~r\'~~ise this volulue 'would have a telldencyto . mislead rather than· in:fonn.-E DITOR.


44

ILLUSTRATIONS

of fibres and vessels \vhieh run tl1rOtlgl1 the \vhole, \vith the apt d~spositjol1 of one part to another, is a perpetual sllbject of study to tIle true Cteonletrician; ,vho, ~v'hile he adverts to the changes vvhicl1 all undergo in their progress to lllaturity, is lost iri ral)ture anclve~leration of the ~Jreat Cause that pl-odueed the \vllole, and \vhich contlrl'UeS to govern the systelll. ,Vhen he descends into the bo\vels of the earth, and explores the Iting'doll1 of ores, ll1inerals, and fossils, he finds the saIne instances of Divine \visdo111 alld goodness dis111aYQd in their fornlation and structure; e,';ery gem and every pebble proclaiIns the handy-\York of an 4拢\.1Inighty Creator. \~rllen 118 sl~rveys the \vater:J'" elenlen t, and diree ts llis attention to the \vonders of the deep, \vith all the inhabitUllts o~r the !11igh ty' oeeal1, lle perceives ernJ?!elnsof the sanle SupreIne Intelligence.. 'rIle scales of the largest \vh.n.le, and the pencilled shell of tIle Inost dirninutive fish, equalljr yielcl a therne fbr hiscontenlplation, on -VVl1ich he fondly cl\vells; ,,\ihile the syrnlnetry of their forrnation, and the delicaev of tIle tints, evinee to llis discerning ejre the 'v\;risdorn$l of the Divine ,",Then he exalts his v.ie\v to the 1110re noble ntH] eleva.. . ted parts of Nature, and surveys the celestial orbs, ho\y 111uch greater is his astonislullent ! If~ on principles ofG'eolnetry and true I>llilosoIlhy, lleconternplates the sun, the 11100n, the stars,. and the ,vhole concave of heaven,路 his llride is 1111nlbl<:~d, and .lle is lost ill R\vfill adn1iration.. The inl111ense lllagnitude of those hodies, the reguhtrity路 and ra!Jidity of tlleir Illotions, and vast extent of space tllfOUgh \vhich tIley 1110ve, are equall)r ineol1ceivable; and, as fhr as they' exceed hun1an eOlll!)relJ.ension, bafHe his Inost daring arnbition, till, lost in the iIllUlensity of the tllerne, he sinks into his llrhnitive insigllifici1nce. 13.y路 GeoIl1etrJt, tllen, \ve curiously traceNa~ure, through her vtLrious\,rirldings, to her rnost (~oncealed reeesses. it V\iB discover the !lO\Ver, the \visdonl, and ness the (treat Artificer the ,,"ith delight tIle Ilfol,>ortions \vl1ich conneet this vast By it ~re diseo\;(~r the planets ill tlleir difIerent orbits, and denlonstrate their various revolutions. By it \ve account for the return of seasons, and


OF lVIASONRY.

the variety of scenes \Vllicl1 eacll season displays to the discerning eye. Nunlberless \vorlds are around us, all frallled by the sanle Divine .L~rtist, "\vhich· 1'"011 througll the 'rast .exIJanse, and are all conducted by the sallle tlnerring' Itt vV" . A. survey'" of Nature, and the observation of her beautiful proportions, first cleternlined l11tUl to i111itate the Divine plan, and study syn11l1etry and order. 'This ga.ve rise to societies, and birth to every useftll art. rfhe architect began to design; and the plans \vhich he laid do\vn, inlproved byexIJerience and tirne, produced \vorks which have heen the adU1iratioll of every age.

Tile Thi1y].Section. The 'fhird Section of this D~jgree hus reference to the origin of the institution, t1lncl vie\vs l\iasonry under t~~o denOlninations, Operative and Speculative. rl"'hese are separately COl1sidered, and the l)rineiples on \vhich both are . f()unded are IJarticularly eXI)]ained. Their afliuity is l)ointed out by allegorical tiglires and t:ypica1 represel1tations. Ifere tlH1 rise of our govern111cnt, or division into clttsses iseXanlin(~d; the aiSI~osition of our rulers, supreme and subordinate, is traced; and rea.sons are assigned for the establishrnent of several of our present practices. The pr<?gress 11lade in architecture, l1articulal~ly in the reigIl of 80101110n, is l~elnarked; the l1ull1her of artists20 20 I copy frorn Book of Constitutions," the. nUlnbers and elasses of all the Cruftsulen ,\')ho \vere eluployed abOl1.t this

'w'ork:-

rulers, or proyosts .

• .

.

..

..

.

.

~In.ster l\lu8011S

..

..

..

..

..

..

300

8,300

st()n.. e.~ Sq."W.' r. e.\ T.S alldsc'tllptors~ ~.:. • l]1e11 of hcw"ing,. . .. able· Follo'\v Crafts . 80,000 or builders,.. .... ... . out of Israel, appointed to ,york in Lebanon one in three, 10/JOO. every Inouth, under the clirc,..ction of

t:

the IH)ble ,,\donirarn, ,"rho ,vas the Junior Grand '~arden . 30,000 I~~l'eenl~lsons Clllplo,Ycd ill the \york {~'S:t'lm::;:l\C(~ ()f th{~ tw'O G'r~tnd "\Vttrclens. .

. .&\..u the

of the Tcrnple, • . . . .....113,600 Ilt\sidt~5 .r:;,;h J,.Sabbal~ or Ul(:\U of burden, the !'(u".uains of tIle old aUlountln t')'" to 70.000. \yho are not nUlubered. among ~lasons. So!oIuon distrib~lted tIle Fello\v Crafts into septl,ritte lodges, \\ri tIl ·ll. Iun.stet' ~uldW::ll'dellS in each, that tllE:~Y rllight receive couunands


46

who \yereen11)loyec1 in building the Tenlple of J erusale nl, with their privileges, are slJecitled; the stipulatec111eriod forrevvarding l'nerit is Hxed, and the ininlitable 111ora1 to which that eirCUll1stance alludes is explained; the creation of the\vorld is described, and luau;'?" ~partiell1ars are recited, '\vhicll have been eareflilly IJresel"ved aInong l\Iasons, and trans111ittec1 fi'on1 one age to another by oral tradition. In sllort, this Section contains a store of valua.ble kno\:~rledge, founded 011 reason and sacred record, both entertaining and instructive, and is vv'ell calculated to enfor~e the veneration due to antiquity.21 in a regular Innnner, Dlig-ht take care of their tools and je\YeIs~ rnight be regularly" paid every w·eek. &c., and the FelIo'\v Crafts took eare of their succession by educating Entered ".:\"ppl'entices.~'-EDITOI~. 21 'V c ean afford little assista,nce~ by \rriting, to the industrious nIason in this Section, us it can only be acquired by f,Hoal COluluunication: for an explanation~ how·evt.!l': of the connection betw"oell t~ndSp(;~culative :Ufasonrr, ,veref(~r hitl} to the Section of IlQok

I, pRgC 7. 'l'lle 1~)llo\\~ing Invocation of Solcnnon, att ])edieation of the '1'e111pIe of rJerusaleIl1, particularly clairns our att:entlon in this Secticln: IN,rOOA.'l"ION. Anti 8010111011 stood lJcfc)1'c the altar of the ull the couf!regatlon of Israel~ and ii,nth his Loi'd (}od, there is nCI like unto in. hett\'cn or in eal'th beneath: ",vho and shen"est Inercv unto servants \\"110 \valk hcf~Jt'e ,Yord IJC verified, rny futher. I..et ~\,U the people of theen.rthknou'l', thttt there is none·else. flll(lfear thee. Lc:t nIl the people of the earth knoY~'" I hu.V'e built this Let ~dl the people of the enrth kno'\\"', and consecrated it to thy n:une. Ilnt 'win indeed. -d \ltell upon the (~:.u"th '1 l>ehold-t he and heaven he:1v(m~. call1lot contain thee; h<HV lunch \\·hieh I have built.! have respect unto Illy prtlyer: and to lIly ·suppnc::lt1.IOn~ and

o

Of

Illy

cry: be open tovnl I'd this of \v hich thou


OF . ~IASONRY.

47

The. FOUTth Section.

The Fourth and last Sectiol1of tllis Degree is 110 less rel)lete \vith useful instruction. Circnulstances of real in11)ortauce to the Fraternity are l1ere I)articularized, and 111anV traditional tenets and cnst0111S confirUled ·bv sacred and 11rofhne record. rl'he celestial and terrestrial globes are considered \vitll accllracy ; and here the aceo1l1plished gentlenlan ll1a:y display his talents to advantage in the elucidation of the sciences, \yhich are classed in a regular arrangernent. rrhe stinlulus to preferment, and the n10de of re\varding lnerit, are l)ointed out; the 111Hrks of distinction \vhicl1 vvere eonferrec1 on Ollt" ancient Brethren, as tIle re\vurd of excellence, a~'e explained; and the duties, (~s,YeIlasprivjleges, of the first branch of their ll1ale o1i~I)ring defined. In short, this Section contains SOlne ellrious observations on the v:ilidity of our forms, and eCHlcltHJes \vith tIle I110st 110\verful il{centives to the prac.tiee of l)iety and virtue. ./\.8 the seven liberal ilrts andSeiences are illustrated in this Section, it IUajr' llotbe i111prOper to give a short eXI)lau:'l:tion of tlten1: (i/'tun.nulrteaclles the proper arrangelnent of\~rords, according to tlle idionl or dialect of Ul1}T l)articular l)eople ; and that excellency of pronuncia.tioll,:vhicl1 enables ,us to or \vrite a lar'lguage \vith accuracy, agTeutl,bly to reason <lnd eorreet usage. lllleloric teaehes lIS to ~i)(~ak copiously and fluently 011 ~Hl:nf):er:. not Ulere]y' \vith l)ropriety, but \'vitll all the a(tva,inti(.tu·(~S of force ill-tel ; \visely COlltriving to ........ , .• +-..•.•••.•. the bJ strength of argunleIlt H11<.1 be;tuty Hxpression, \vhether it be to entreat or exllort, to adn10nish or·ap'I>laud" . us our reason diseretiollHllv in things, and direct our inquiries eOJllS18IS of a l:egulal" trnin of arglHIlen t, j •.•.•

'\\~e inf(~r,

deduee, and conclude, aeeording to "laid do\vn, adlrdtted, or gnlnte{l; and ill fitCltlty of eonceiving, judging, ..retiSOIlil1~ ; ·\vl.liell n.l"e naturally.·led on froll1 one gradation another, till l)oint in question is final1~l deternlined.. Al:ith11U~tic teaches the po\vel"s and. }1fOperties of I1Ulll-


48

ILLUSTRA1'IONS

bel's; \vhich is variOtlSl}T affected h)T letters, tables: figures-and instrulnents. By this art,· reasons and c1enlon..

strati<?ns are given fCH" fiuffing out any eertain l1u111ber, \vhose relatiorl or affinity to others is already kno"\vn. C';coJlzetry treats of tIle l)o\yers and 11rol)erties of 111ugnitudes in general, 'Vvhere length, breadth, and thickness are consid.ercct.22 13y tl1is science, the architect is enabled to construct 11is l)lans; tlle general, to arrange his soldiers; the eilgineer, to ll1ark out grollnd for el1C3rll1Pl11ents; the geogrull}lcr, to give us the c1inlensiol1s of the \)?'orld, delineate the extent of seas, and sllecify the clivision8 of enlpires, kingdoll1s, and 11rovinces; and b)r it, also, the astronOll1er is enabled to 111ake his observations, and fix the duration of tiJnes and seasons, ycars and c~reles. In short, (~-eOlnetry 1S the fonndatiol; of arehiand the. root of the 111<lthelnatics.. Jlusic tert(~hes tlH:~ art of forrninp; (~OnCOras, so as to '~r\'t·'\~-I deJightfNI lUU'l110Ilj", by a rU'opol'tionnl nrrangeof tleut(~,grave, and rrrixed sounds.. '1'11i8 art, by a series of exptIl'irnents, is redueed to a seience, \\'ith to tones, and the intervals of s011nd only. It inquires into the Ilatul'e of coneords and discords, and olHlbles lIS to lind out the pro!)ortion het'\veen tl1enl l)y' 11ul·nher's. is that art b y\\~ hi ell \ve are tallg'ht to read the \\"()rks of tIle .A.hnight)r in sa{~red pages, thH eelestial IH~rnispllere.. .i\.ssistedhy Astro!'lorny,'\ve . . IneaS'tll"C the distane(:,~s, e0111I)rehend the lungnitudes, and calculate the periods and eelip~es, of thehe~,Lv·enly· bodies. it ,,"c learn the use of the globes, the systenl of the \vorld, and tIle I)rirnary la\,~ of Nature. '\!hile \ve are errl1)loyed in the ." of tllis seit,~nce, , v e . lHlpnrul1f~led installees 01' \visdorn [lIld ~rOOd11ess, and throngI1 tIle \vl101e of traee the g1o~.:ious ..::\uthor llis ~'vorl\.s.23 •.

...,.. rll"'U"1

,.,,, (.','·/'"ilniJln 16

1..-.

nr(H!r~;"\sS'i()n is fronl ~l.

linc. f1'0111 a line to ~\ ,A,poinl has DCI tliulenllHjllV]SllJl(~ part of space. ..A.is the eorltinnution enllJL'Il,elllll!: th(~c:upaeity of length, A BU.lu:1:licies n nd l~ solicl hus thrt:;c dirneuSUl)(il't:iCU}S tfJ

to fl.

a stiNt!.

~tnd thlel\1:1es;:;..-·-.l~~1 [l!'.ron

Splwl"(ls,wlde his

of in this 1){)(1h,~s, on the COllvex surfnc€.

u l:--:f)ll~lrtieularlY' (.~Oll~ii](,l'ed

nre t,,;o n,rtHi<:inf


OF MASONRY.

49

TllUS end the different Sections of the seco11d Lecture;

\vhicli,\vit~l the cerenl0ny used at opening . alld closing

tile loqge, cornprehend the vvhole of the Second Degree Besides a cornr,lete theory of philosophyand l)hysics, this Lecture 'conta.ins a regular systeul of sGi~ncf?,dernonst~'ated on the clearest principles, and ~st3.:blislledon the firIllest fOllnc1atioll.

o.f l\~aso.~~ry.,

SECT. V. REl\lARI{S .on

tILe

THIRD LECTURE.

'IN tre'ating'\-vitllpropriety 011 any subject, it is necesSar)T,to obser~lea regular course; in the forlner Degrees ,ve have reeal)itulnted the COIl tents of the several Sections, ahel .Shotlld "\villingly' pursue the stune • 11Ian in this I)egree, did not tile variet,y of particulars, of\vhich it is C0111posed, render it irnpossible to give an abstract,\vitllout violating the. rules of the Order. It rnay 1)8 sufficient to rellHlrk, that, in t\velve Sections, of \vhich this ~ectur€ consists, eyerycirclllllstance thatrespects governlll.ent and systel.ll, ancient lore and dee!> researc.h,eul'ious inyentiouand ~ngeniousdise()ver~y,." is collected, and accur~'tely,tra(}ed; \"'hile thelnode of I)ractising our rites, on public as \"vell as I)rivate ,occasi()lls, is satisfactorily eX111ained. i\.I1101Jg the brethren of tl1isDegree, the landrrHlTks of the ()rder are preserved; and fi'on1 then1 is that fund of intorrnatioll '\vhicll eXI)ert and (~raftslnen only can atiord, \vhose judgnlent 'been rnatured by years andex:pericl1ee. '1'0 a eOlllrer)1"(~:~eiltt~(l

the eonntries, seas, ana ,'nl'ious parts of the planetaryrevolutious, . and at.her r-rhe ,\\'ith .thH pnrts of th~ ~'arth deli... (HI is terrestinl glQbe; and that 1yith the C()llstelIations, aud hou.venlj"" bodiE$, the eelestial glC)l:H:e 'rheir prineiJHll 11:50, serving as to .. distingui~h the outward parts of the and the situlltion fixed stal·5, is, to illustrato nucl flxplilin'the arnlunl revolnticHl and diurnal l'()ta,ti(H10f the earth round own axis. 'l'I1{~Y are' .th(} instrulncnt.s for the Inost distinct. idea of any prohlclu " ... ,""t,,, ....,.., ..•, .. ,,,.' .•• ., tlS 'weil H.8 enabling us to solve it.ContenlI)}ating inspired \vilh a duo rC~V(~rCllCe .for' tho, Deity to apr~ly \vith diligence aud attention navigation, p.nd allthe urts dependent on heen so nluch bellt'fitcd.


50

ILLUSTRATIONS

pl.ete l\.no"\vledge of this Leeture, fe\v attain; but, it is an infhllible truth, that he \vho acquires by ll1erit the 111ark. of Ilre-enlinence to \yhieh this I)egree entitles lriln, reeeivesa revvarcl \vhicll t11J1I)ly con"l!Jensates f(:n~ all his past diligence ~1nd assiduity. ]'roIllthis class of tIle Order, the rulers of the C~raft aloe selected; as it iSOIlly frolJ1 those \vho, are ,c~ll)able of giving instruction that \ve call properly expect to receive it \vith advantage. TIle Fi'rst Section. The cereul0ny of initiatioll into the Third Deg'reez't is particularly S11€cified in this branch of the Lecture, and nlanv useful illstl"uctions are given. Such is tIle irnportanee oi' this Seetion, tllat v~Te Inuy aver, '\vhoever is '\Ivith . ·.it, is iII.qualias a .1~llleror governor ",rork ofl\lasonry·..

J>raye1" a.t Initia,tion the 1'''Jtird Degree. () Lord, direct us to krlO\V and serve thee arigl1t! our laudable uJldertakings! and gnl11t that, as i.n kl10\,--ledge, \ve rna):' \'~in still firrther 11rQlnote thy honcHlr i111\1 J.So 1nole it be. \ve

the1'ititllDegree.

{)Ul' ..\tneri(~ilU hreHlrc~n U8t.' ,,·tUI·"'·.f~"tH··11'ttlr'r and. eondu{,~t

nn uJJlUHhulee of of tbis

I~jng SOlOU10il

~(~rjntl1ro ou~)ta1t:ior18

suhlituo

xii.,1-7.


51

OF . lVi.ASONRY.

and affitbility; to superiors, kin(1ness and condescension. Universal benevolence· you are to inculcate;. and, by" the regularity of your o,vn behaviollr, a.fford thehestexanlple for the conduct of ot}lers. The arlcient lundll1arlts of the Order, \vhich are llere intrusted to yOll!" care, yOll are to r)reserve sacred. alld inviolable; and, never sufler an infi:ingcInent of our rights, or a deviation from established usage anel. ellston1. Duty, 11onour, and gratitude, now bindyotl to be faithful to e\Tery trtu:;t; to sUPl)ort "vith becolllingdignity your nevv character; and to el1force,b~r exa.n1111e and preee11t, the tenets of the systel11. Let no Illotive, therefore, ·nlake :Y-0u svverve froln your. dut)T, violate . your YO\VS, or betray your trust; but be true andfa~thful, and inlitate the exanlple of that celebrated artist'\vhom :rou llave onCH represented. 13y this exernplary eonduct you. ,v.ill convince the \vorld, tlu:rt lIlerit has been YOUi'" titJe to our privileges; and that, OIlyOU, our favours llave not been undeservedly besto\,"ed. 1'lle Second /3ectio1l,. The See-ond Section is an introduction to tIle 111"Oc.eedings of tIle Chaipte;rof l\Iaster-Inasons, and illustrates severall)oints \vhich ~ll·ewell known to experienced Crafts111ell. It investigates, in theeeremonyof opening the Chapter, SOllIe ilnportallt circunlstallces in trle t"vo preceding Degrees.

17te

1Y~i'rdSectiQ1t

The Third Section conlll1ences tIle historical traditions of the Order ;\vhich are e}liefly collected from sacred l"eeord, and other uutl1entic docur.ncl1ts.

Tile Fourth, . Section. rfl1e E"'ourth Seetiolr fhrtller illustrates the 111storical traditiollSof the Order ; andlH"esents to vie\va finished picttlre.of tl:le lltlIlostconseqltenCe to the .Frateruit1·' Tile Fifth Section. The Fifth Section continues the explanation of the historical traditions of the Order.


ILLUSTRATIONS

The Siith .Section. The Sixth Section concludes .tIle llistorical·traditions of the Order. .'lTJteSeventh Secti01t. The Seventll S~ction illustrates the l1ieroglJrphical emblenls25 restricted' to the rrhird Degree; and" inculcates nlany useful- lessolls, \vhich are iIlt-ended to extend knowledge and pr01110te virtue. 1'flte EiglLth Section. The Eighth Section treats of .the g'Oyernll1ent of the Fraternity, a.ndthe disposition of our rulers, supreule and subordinate. I t is generally" rehearse.d at installations.

1"'Jtc})l'int1l, sScctiOn,.~t3 'rho Ninth Section .recites the qunlifi.cations of Ollr rulers; and illustrates the eerC1l1ony of instul1atidn in the Grand Lodge, as \yell us in the private ass81ublies of l\Iasons. 1Vte 1'(}nth l)('c·t'ion. The rrentll Section eOl11I)rehell(.1s tIle eerer110Ilies of constitu tion and consecratio 11, aral' tt variety-' of llartictllars explanatory of thosecereulonies. The Elct'fJlltlt J,.\)fJction.

The Elevelltll Section illustrates the atlt1ying tIle foundation-stones of ehurehes, elHtpels, pal,tees, hospitals, &c.; also, tl1C eeren10nies ohserved at the Dedication of the Lodge, and at the Interlncut of I\Iaster-lYl<1S0ns. 25 Aznougsttheso ,n- find, fhe I'ol ot Incense, ns un ernbleru o( t1 J)U'1"(~ hoart. ; n. ~;f industry; lliJ'ur.. glass, to poiut out the rapidity und vinee us of tho unoertainty ()f hUllUUl life. thc..ttuchor illY igoratetts 'wit.h It()Z~e.8 of future re\vttrd 9f rotriblfltt"e ~Just,ice; the All-.w.:cing ply.e; tlH~ Tkr/::e of l~outh, ll.ltlll1l1()()C:::f'l and Old ,.Age., &c., &c. VidoStar in the .East, by tho Edit()r,-I~IH­

1X)U.•

27 For nlany particulars to 'vllieh this and the two fQUo,vhlP' Sections r€~late, soo. tl~e Cel'{,",llloniesof Coustitutioll, Cousecration, L;.stallation ~c., annexed t() these rernurks.


OF' :MA.SONRY.

l"heTu'elftlt. Section." T11e T,,,~elrth Sectioll, cpntt1~ns ,~ rec~pi~,ula~~oll of the,

es,s.el~t!~l P9i~ltS ,().f t~e, I~~~t~lrt3s.

corroborates the

\v}101e

by

ip all the Degrees, and

infalli~le testilnony.

. ~favi~?g il~1.1sgiven, a geneTal ,SU111111aJ·y of the ~e~t~:re~ restricted to the .tll.re~ ~1t?gJ;ee~9f tIle Order,27 and n1ade such reIl1arks on each Degree as ll1ight illustrate the subj-ects, treated, little 1110re cail be wanted to encourage the zealQ:US ~ras9n to l)erSeYel~e ill his researches. He who lias traced the Art in a regtllar progress from the C(}111111erlcell1elltbf the' First to the conclusion of the Third .Degree, ac.cQl"diugto the plan here laiddo\Vll, D1ust have n,rnass.€rl an aU11) Ie store of l~nowledge, and "viII reflect \vith pleasure on the, good effects of his past ·diligrace and attention. 13y applying the irnproveluents lle ha~ l1}uc1e to general advantage of soeiety, he ,viII secure to hinlself the apl)l"obation of all good Il1ell, und velleratioll l\Iasons. 1

S"Eo~r.

VI. oj" tlteOrder.

Q( . the

'~'7 E s11n11 110\V !)l"oceed to illustrate the Ancient Cerenlonie~ of. the (}rder; l)tlrticularly t11088 observed at the C~Qnstitution C:~o.nsecratioll of the I.Jodge, and at the Ins'tnllaticHl of Officers, ,vitII tht~ usunlcharges delivered

27 On the Continent, the' 13i·ethreil (~xt(:lld :VI[t"sollry totlventy-ollc 1: 1~. A.. ·1:>. '2. l'. (1~:1. 1\-1. M.. 4. ft l\Iost Excel1~)Jlt ~rnstet... 7. ROJral Areh. 8. ]{nightsof the I~ed (~l~O~S. 9. Nigbts'remplars. l~ ~Ialta.· 11.. "Setn·(tt,,~:tast!~r.. 12. Perfeet: lVlaster. 13.

Degre€~s~' w·hich'area.s'f;)H<,)\,t~' h~ilrk: ~:Ias~n~. ~ . l)f~~tl\lnl.iter.

1~!. !>.rovt)st

and (ludf.,ro.. . 15. 1\:Ia.ster in IsraeI~ ] 7.. ,J\lt:ctod Grfl4ld l\Iaster. 18. Illustrious IH.. i\IasterArchitt,ct. ~O. Nights of the Ninth 21. l?rn:f(:etiol1. Ilut ·f;Qr.ne enthusia~ts, . wh<> identify .·tho Itosurl"UClans, t1H~ }{nights .of theS\y::ul, and thovVhito E~u,gle,-dlo rC,fvolting t1egre(~s wllieh art" praetis(Hl in the l~1lst, under the denonli.. l:ln.tion (~f 'I'urkish }'fnsonry, >L\:c., &c., <.\::c.. ~t1ugIl1cutthe nllmbe'r to Inor<f t:.htll1 a hundred. 1\11 b(~.rond th(~ l~oynl .:.\.rch, ho'wover, ought tob(~ from ~el1uirle·· MusoIlr.y,as· they are rnostly fOllIUl(~d ollvagU(: (tnd UllC(~rtajn traditious, wbieh· possess not· the shadQwof authority to recornnlellcltholl1 to our lloticc.---EDI'l'OR..


54

ILLUSTRA'l'IONS

'1

T on those occasions. e shall lilte'Yise annex an eXl)lanation of the Ceren10nies used at laying the Foundation-

stones of Public Structures, at the Dedicatioll of Public Ilal1s, and at JTtlnerals; and close this part of the treatise \vith the !t'tilleraISeryice..

Tile .Jlanner if constituting" thp Lodge, includinf5· the CeTe'1nony

0/.

()onsecrat£on,

(~(:.

Anyllulnber of regular1:r-registered l\lasons, not under seven, resolved to fornl the ne\v Lodge, Illust apI)ly, by l1etition,28 to tIle. Grand l\Iaster. rrlle petitioll ll1ust be ree0111111ended b)T tIle officeT's of SOllle regular Lodge, and be tranSll1itted to the Grand Secretary; unless there be a Provincial G-rand l\Iaster of the distr'1et or province in \vhieh the I.Jodg·e is proposed to holden; in \vhich ease, it is to he sent tohin), or to hisdeI)tlty;··. 'Vvhois to for\vard it, with his reeonllllendation or 0l)inion thereOl'l, to the Grand I\faster. If the IH'ayer of the petition~>9 be granted, t.he provincial 'rhe nlcH.1,:~ of applying,. l)y petition, to the Granel l\Iaster, for n. w'arrant to rneet: as H, regula.r .Lodgo, cOllnnenc.ed Oll1~y in the year li18 previOtlS to 'which tiIne, I.lol...lges wer(~ eUlpolc;ered, 1::1)" inlH'rent "'\l·''1~'1I.CH'·I·i:lio:l' vest(?d in thePraternity at large, to lIlQ('t, and act occa~ion­ the (lil'e<~ti()n of sorne able arehite(~t, und the acting county ; and the lU'oceedings of· those :U1€~€~tllH:r:8~ tho nlojority of thE' I~r{~threI1. c()nven(~d at the saIne district, were. dceulcd coustitutional.. 13y an inhorentu.uthority, the l~()dge of Antiquity ill London no\,\r aets; huv'ing no ,varrant frorn the· Grand Lodge, bu.t an f:Luthorit;y traeed frorn thno in11uclnorial, .\yhich has been long and universally adnlitted ana ackn(r\yl(~dged by· tho ~whole Fraternity. 29 'l"he .following is the J()rn~ cd" the })etilion: ,; To the 7\1. ,\~. Grand l\Iuster of the lJnited .Fraternity of.A.llcient. and .l\lasons of Bnc.:land: .. .~~ the tUH]ersign(~d, being ~·egularly~registered.:ftIasons of the 'Illentkuu:~d.against our respective nalnes, ha.\"'iug the prosperitjr of ern,ft • at heart, art~ nnxious to exert OUf. best endea,tours to 111'OlHote nnd diflhse the genuine principles of the Art: nnd~ for the c{)nYeni(~ney of our respective (l\YelliI1gs,. and other good reasons, \va nre dE:sirous of· fhrIuing & new Ludge, to he natned III consequence of tbjs desire, '\,·e prtl.yfbr a 'wnrl'R11tof eOl'lstJtt,n'LI01[1~ elnp(),\~cl'ing us to 'Ulec't n.ail. rCbrular Lodge, at on the·· of every n1.c>llih; nnd there to discharge duties c.f l\Iasonry, in a. constitutional accc)rding to the of the and the h~\\"sof the Grand ; and ,\"e ha,"'e nOllulHttect, (lIlt! <lo l'CCOIDIUClld, Brother .tl. B. to first ~lu.~ter ; #


OF IHASONRY.

Gralld l\Iaster lllay issue a disl)ensatioll, authorizing the Brethren to Iueet as it Lodge, lll1til a v;ral路rant of constitution shall be signed by the Grand 1Iaster. In. consequence of this dispensation, the lodge is formed attheplace specified; and its transactions, beipg properly路 recorded, are valid for the tiIne being, provided they are after\vards approved l)y the 13retllrell convened at the tinle of Constitution. ,'then the Grand Lodge l1as signified its 31)probation of the ne\v Lodge, and the Grand l\laster is tllotoughly satis.1lecl of the truth of the allegations set forth in the I)etition, he appoillts a da}T and hour for constituting [and consecratingSO] tIle l1e\V Lodge; and for il1stalling the l\:Iaster, . '''T"arc1ens, and Oflicers~ If the Gra,nd.l\Iaster in })erson attend 路iheeerenlony, the Lodge is said to be constituted I~ AMPLE PORM: if the Deputy C~rand l\Iaster acts nsGranc1l\Iaster, itis said to be constituted I;.\; DUB I;'ORl\I; and if the po\ver perforrning the cerell10n:r be vested in the l\Iaster of a I)rivute Lodge, it is said to be constituted IN l~Onl\I.

of

Ce'relilony

o/~

Constitution.

On the day. and houra})l)oillted,th.e Grand l\fastei" and his ()fHcers, or the l\Iasterand ()fficers of any l)l"ivate Lodge authorized by the Clrand l\Iaster for that l,ufl)ose, Illeet in a cOl1yenlent 1"oorn; anc1,\vhen l)l"operly clothed, ,valko in procession to the I.todge-roo111; \vhere, tIle usual Cere1110UleS be.ing observed, the Lodge is opened by tIle Grand 1\Iastcl", or 1!\Ittster ill the chair, i1l all the Degrees Brother 0.1). to 1JO the first Senior ,r~trden; nnd Brother E. F. to l:>e . the first J unior'iVarden' of tbe said I.Jodge. :,~ 'l'he prayer of this petitiQIl.being. grtultl~d, ~"e promise strict obedience to the C0111UUlnds . of the .Grand l\lclster) and the l~t\ys and regula tions of the Grand Lodge." 'l'his petitiol1~ being signed by at least se"Cll regular 1\Iasons, and recouunendedby the ~Iasters of three regular lodges adjacent to the placc\vhere the new' lodge is to he forlued, is delivered to the Grand Secretary ; who, on presenting it to theG rand l\1n.stcr, or itl his absence to tile ])eputy, fl.nt! its beingappl'oved~ is ordered to grant a dispensation, alltllorizing the brethr-en speeitied in the petition to ass~mble as :rrlasolls in Opel} lodge, for forty .d~l'yS, ~tl1d practise the rites', of the Order~ lUltil such tinle as a constitution can be obtained by cOlumand ,of the O'1':tnd Lodge~ or tlwt authorit.y he recalled. 80 rl'his is frequently olllitted.

~


56

ILLUSTRATIONS

of the Order. After tt short prayer, an ode in honour 'of 1Iasonrv is sung. rI'he (frand ~Iaster, orl\Iaster in tIle chair, i~ infornl~,d by the Gran~l Seereterjr, or his loe/an tenens," T'hat the Brethren then present [nanling theln], being duly instructed in the 111ysteries of the .i\..rt, desire to l)e f()rrned into the l1e\y I~odge, uIHler tIle CtranJ lVIaster-'s I)atronage; that a dispensation has been granted to thern ibr the l)urpose; and that by" virtue of this authority they had assernbled as reglllnl" l\Iasons, and duly recorded their proceedings." rrhepetitioll is read, asis also the dispensation, and the "tarrant or c11arter of constitution, \vhich had been granted in consequence of it. T'he rninutes of tIle ne\,t Lodge, \vhile lJnder dispensation, are like,vise read, and, bcirlg approved, are deelared to he regular, valid, nnd eonstitutionnl.T'he Clrand l\Iaster, c;'i~ ill tIle then takes \varrant in his hand, and requ.ests IH~\,r_Lodge I)uhl'iely.路to signifY.their .appr()bation or of ()fHeers \vho arenOlllinated ill to l)reside OV(;.I' thern.. 1'his being signitiedaeeol'diLlgl)~,an anthern is sung, and a1'1 ol"ation on tIle nature Hlld design of tIle Institutioll is delivere{l.. 1'he ce.relnony路 of COl1sec,ration ; \\,-hieh IS never to he used but \vhen it is sp(~eially ordered.

~rh(~. (}rand. l\fasteraIHl Ids ()fIieers, aecoITlpnnjed b)1' sorne (lignified Clergvlnan, having take.n tll(~il" stations, and th(~L~ Lodgt~, ,vl~i~ll is l)la,ee(l in . b<.~in\g eovere.d '"~lith\vhit(~ satin, the eerernorlY of e()118t~eratj(nl eornrnenees. ",\11 t:levontly kneel, alJd'" the prayer is r~:~hearsed. 'fhe chul)laill (n' on~ tor IH'(Hluees his arrtll(}rit.y,:路n and, lll'0IH~l'ly assisted, to e()llSeerate.z;~ Solernll 111 llsie is introdllef~d, \vhile tIle pl"epa.ral~i(n.]s flr(~ 1llu.king.. I..o(:lge being th(~n ulreovered, the first ehulse [)f tht~ eonseerati(Jllprclyer is all rrlu:~ bein,g Jnade, lIIGH:, "illt'lerlse over ll()uonrs are Invo-

cons tlt'lltion l'()ll. 32 Corn, \yine~ and oil, al'C the clelnents

31

(If

consecration.


·

,

OF l\'IASONRY. I

"

'

.

t

cation i~ tl1el1 pl'onoul1ced,vvitll tIle 11ol1ours; after \ivhich the consecration-i)rayer, is" cOl1cliiaed, and ,the response rel)eated ,as :" before,togetllei- "\vitllthe. 110110l1rs. l'he Lodg(~ being again :covercc1, nIl the Bi-ethren rise up, solenln'" nlusic is resurnec1, (1: blessing is" given;~l1d ,'the res!)onse rnade as' before, ace0111 panied \vith the 1l<Jll0urs.; An anthenl is then sung; 'and the Brethrell of the new Lodge having adVhneed :accorc1i~ig" to rriilk, ul1cl'offered llonluge to, the Grand. l\lastei', tJle cerelnO'ny of consecra-' tiOll ends. '

The above ceren10ny being finislled, the Grand l\Iaster the l)edestal, 'and constitlites the ne\v Lodge, in'the fOll0\\ringfolTn:~·,'. .". , .' .' , "1u £dc,\rated charttcter of,.flraucll\faster,to ~l'hich the sufrrages of bretl1ren have raised 111e, ·r iu'Voke the N ~i\:I\Ii of t() '\vllorn be glor:r alid' ! lIe be \vithyou. your begin.ning,' :,~ you in th.e Ill-ineil)les our l"oyTtll\..rt, prosper yo 11 '.. all.. RIHl, direet YOUI· zealous efiorts to ': the good of the ! I3,r the Divine aid, I COllstitute and ~h)rII1You, lU:r 13rethren, )It)sters,',andFellqvvs, in.to.... xegulur I-I.o,dge of .I~"J;eeand, .1\cc.e:ptecl l\Iasons;: and. hen(~efortheml)o\ver .:you,to net in ~ont?rn}ity t()tl~e rites of VthlerabIe {)rder; and. tIle <3,harges . of . our" aneieIlt l\Iay, (}ocl be '\vitll"VOll!" .,,;dnu.~n. Flourisll \vitll no-nel trllrnpets. r!'he are theIlgivel1; and tIle c.eTe111ony ~dvanees to

'-'

J,'- •.

"JL

6J

of

..LUQt;(,t,L14'"~,;1.'.lVLJ. Sllcc.~:.e(IS..

11lstallation. his, delluty', "v~;'he'ther"11eh8s, ,_.,.....,~,.," ' . . '~_ nOft'linatod'in tbe warrailt, ~tt'1d TIl1ds led in the nobl'e and rovhl i\rt?'" h:.L,"ing ans~vet~ed',i'll' nfl1rrn'ati.\:e,3'1 the order takes,' the candidate frorn ulllong (11)(} hilIl at the sil,yiIlg, 8SIn t.his and siIllilar instmlcCS ,vhere the Gl~and '1\Iustcris specified luay be any l\Ius ter of a. Lodge \\t 11,0 !)erfornls ':, Cet'elll,on'v..

"'....,'_...,:~~~~~~.:~'na.tlon is Uh\"ai~Ts ullderstood to precede the il1staII-';

6


68

ILI..USTRATIONS

" l\fost '\vorshil)ful Gra.nd l\Iaster, [or "Yvorshipful lVIaster, as it hal)pens,] 11)1~esel1t Iny \vorthy brother A. B. to be installed l\Iaster of the· Lodge. I find hinl to be of g'ood 11101"a1s, of great skill, true and trusty"', and a lover of the whole Fraternity, \vheresover dispersed over the face of the eart·h ; I doubt 110t, therefore, that lle ,viII discharge the duties of the office "tith fidelity." The Grand l\faster then orders a SU1Y1TIlary of the Ancient Charges35 to be read by the Grand Secretary [or acting Secretary] to the l\iaster elect. 35 ....~s the curious reader may wish to know the Ancient Charges that were llsed. on this occasion, w'e shall here insert thenl, ve1"batim" as they are contained in a 1\18. in the possession of the Lodge of ..A .ntiquity in London. ,vritten in the reign of J~\ll1eS the Secund. ,.. * * *' * ifnd fllrthernlo~'e, at dh.·el'se asselllblies ha,ve been put find ordained diverse Cl'afties, by the best advise of nHlgistratcs and fellow's, 1"'unc 'unuse:c sen'loribl.lS tenet librun~:et ilU l)(:nzenllnan'lun ,l3uam" sUl)crlibrlun. h. Everyn13.n that is a l\!nson tn ke good heecl to these cluu"ges (\,·ee pray), that if n.ny lnan find hiIns(·lfe guilty ofnny of these charges thnt he nUL,Y arncndhinlselfe~orprineipan'y f()I' dread of God: JOU that be charged~ tal(e good heed tlUlt you kecpe nIl these charges \veIl; for, it is a great evil for a Ulan to fClrswear hiInselfe upon a bo()k.. '~1'he first charge is, 'I'bat yee slulll be true 111en to God nnd the Ifoly Church~ and to use no err'or or hcresie by your understanding and lJy 'wise rnen's teaching. .A Uso, "Secondly, 'Chat Jce shall be true liege lnen to t.he I(ing of Englu.nd, ,,"ithollt treason or any fltlsehood, a.nd tha.t ~i"ee kno\v no treason or trefl,ch()ry ~ but .yee shall give kno'wledge th(~rc()f to the I{ing, or to his counsell; alsoyce shall be true one to· another, (that is to say) Mason of the Craft that is1\Iason allolvcd,:yee shall doe to hirn ns yee "\vould be done unto yourselfe. " Th.irdly: A.nd Jee shaH keepe trnely all the counseU that ought to be kCIJt in the ,,,,ayof ~Ia.sonhood, und all the counsell of the Lodge or of the eha In ber..- . l. \.llso, that 'ye(~ shall be no thiefe, nor thic'ves to your knowledge free: that :rec sh~U be true to the king, or Il1t1.ster that yee serve, and trllely to see und 'w'orke for his aclvtlntage.. ';,[I'ourthly, 1"ee shall call nlll\.ra~ons .your or your brethren, and no (lthcr na.lues. "Fifthly,Yco shall not t:'lke j'OUl" feUo\v's ,vife invilluny, nor deflow'er his daughter or servnnt, nor put hinl to Ill) dlS\\"()fship. c.~ Sixthly~YOtl8hn.H trlH.:ly· rmy for your nH~:nt ordl'inke \\"hcres(}(~v(~r yee to table (~rbord. ,Aliso j'et~ shall doe no yiHullY tllere, the or science lnay be ,8hul(ler(.~d. ,; The~e h(~ the charges geu(~I':ll ft,:>ev(.lry true 1,[a80n, l)oth :.\.lasters and Pt~llo\\"s. (~No\,," will I rehearse othtu' single for 1\f1l.sons tulo\,·cd or acceptt:d. ''If'irst, That 110 l\Iusoll take 011 hhn DO lql'd's worke, nor any other 'I:''{··h.l'11p'''''ltVII''


OF

~IASONRY.

69

I. You agree to bea good 111an and true, and strictly toobev the B10ral la\iv. II.Y011 a.gree to be· a peaceable subject, and cheerfull~y to conforul to the la\vs of the country inwhicl1 you reside. III. You prolIljse not to l)e concerned in l)lots orCOl1spiraeies against goverrH11ent, but patiently subnlit to the decisions of the suprerne legislature. 1,\1. You. agree to pay a proper respect to the civil 111agistrate, to \vork diligentl)", live creditably, and act 11onourabl)" b}T all 111en. Olan's, unless he kno\V' hill1Selfe "'rell able to perforln the worke, so that the Craft hrn'"e 110 slt~nder. '~Secondly, .A 0, that no Inn-stet" take· \v'orke, but that he tako reason~Lble pay for itt; so thnt the lordrnay he truelyser\,1ed~ and the rna-ster to live honestly, anfI to rmy his fellows t.ruely....c\.nd thn,t no Inastc:l' c)r- fellow supplant others of tllcir \vorke; (that is to Stll,)") that if he hath taken a \yol'ke, or else stand llUtster of any worke, that he shall IHlt put hilU out, url1e.~s he be unable of cunning to rnn,ke anelld of his worke. .t\..lld no rnaster nor Ji:llc)\v shall take no apprentice for less than seavcn year.5. .A.nel thn.t. the npprentice befree born, and of hlnbs \\"hol0 as ~1 Inan ouglit to be~ 1tnd no bastard. .t\.nd that 110 nUlster or felIct\v take no nHo\\'"nnce to be 1.11ade 1\:Iason w"ithout the

ns

assent of his feU(),,·s. at the least six· or SCftVC11. ~~ Thirdly, rl'h~tt IH~ that be 11lftde be able in all degrees; that is, free born, (\f n good kindred, true, and no bondsolau, and that he ht\vehis right Hrnbs, as :1UU11l ought to hn~ve. 4~ Fourthly; 1~hn.t a rnaster ta.ke no flpprentico, \\'!'ithout hehaveoccupati~n to ocenpy t\VO or three fellc)\ys at the lenst.. ~~ .Pifthlr~ That no rnastcl' or fello\\"" "put a\vay any taske thnt Ollg:ht to 1)0 journey-\\~orke.

lord's \\·orke to

'~Sixthly, That eve!')!' rnastcH" give pay to his fello\vs and ser,,~nnts as theyrnay deser,,'"e, so that h(~ b(~ not defarned vdth false \,"orkeing• . J. \nd that none slander another behind his hacke, to mako hirn loose his good luune.. 4; Seuvcnthly, That nt> It:llo\v in the hOt1se or abroad answeareanother ungo(ll..v or feproV"cably ··without .~t cause• .• Eighthly, 'rhat every ~Iaster .t\Iason doe reverence bis elder; and that a l\ItlscH1 be no conUllOU pla.iQr t\f, thecftrds, dice, or hazard; or at auy oth~l' unlawful plfties, through . t~le' ,'\'hich the science and Craft nUlY be (Hshououred and slandered.. ,.. . ,NintJlIy, 'rha.tn.o fel1c)\\" goo into the t(HYll hy night, except he httve a fblltH\'" with hin1: \vho UUl.,Y hearhirn recc;Il'd that he .,yas ill an honest pIneo. Tenthly, 'rhnt cveryrnastur nnd £e11o\\· s hall conu~ to thoa.s~l1:1,hIie, if itt lJ(~ \vithin fift:.}~ rllill~s of hilll. if he h:1ve a.ny \varning.. .A..n d if he have against the Craft.) t9 tlbide the a'\vard of Masters and f~,U(),,,vs. "ileventhly, 'fbat, every 1\faster ~Iasoll and fellow that hath trespassed against the Oraft sh~~U stand to the cQrrection of other nUl,sters


60

ILLUSTRATIONS

v.

You -agree to hold in veneration the original.rulers l\Iasonry, arid theil' regp.lar sllccessors;' sUlirenie a.nd subprdinate, according to tlleir station:s·; anct t.o,subrnit· to thea~vard ,and resolutions of your brethren in general ehapter convened, in every' case consistent \,;itll the cou:stittitio'i1'g of the Oi~der. VI. You ·agr.eeto,·avoid private piques and quarrels, anq. to guard against il1teth'pe'rance and excess. VII.·Yoil agree to·be cautious in carriage an.dbehavion,y, courteous· toyollr brethie'n, andfitithfhl to the lodge. . . VIII. You pro111ise tO,respect genuine lJrethren, and to discOlIlltenance 'i111pOStOl.iS, c1de1' alldis's€llters, fi~ohl the Qrig~nal J)lUl1of tile Institution. .. . IX. You .agree to pr01l1ote the genera.l good of soelety, to cultivate . the soej,il virtttes, and to. propagate the kno\vledgeof the Art of<l\Iasonry, as far:as your influence andabil~ty carl extend. On the l\fastereleets'igni(yinghis assent. to these Oharges,t,he Secrett1r:y 11roceeds to read the l(Jllo\ving Regulation~: '. ' I.' Y o'il adIl1it that it is not in the r.O\ver of any rnan, or body of Iller}, to ll1ake innovation in tIle of anc11)atr~ns of ~heOrc1er of

~Iasonrv.

II. You prol111se to pay hOlnnge to tIle (~rand l\faster for' the tiule bGing, and to .hi~ otlicel"s, '. \V11tHl . <luly· 111stalled; ~tt1dstriotly ~o confornl to edict of the and feUo\vs to Iuake him accord; and it they cannot accord, to go ·to the conuuolllaw. ~'T",relfthly, ''l'lhat a mf~stel'or,feUo,v r~1al~e nota.nlot11d-stone~ nor rule, to no lo\veu, nor let no low'en w'orke '\vithin th6ir Lodge; nor ,vi th'Oti t, t6 111 QuId sto he. " ,; Thil'tcenthly, 'l'ha t every 1\:[:180n receive and cherish strange ii~no\vs '\\;"h'eIi the",; co'rnc 6v(1r the t~ollntrie. :tnd set thetn on \"'ork(~ if th(~y 'will 1,,"orke, 8.s"the Il1UUnCl" is; (tlUtt is t:) if the l\ItlSCHl Hlouldstotl~ in ,his phtee he shall hhn ~1 .hhd hhn on ,yorke; and if he. have none, :Un,soll shall llhn\,-i th unto the next Lodge. . , "Fourteenthly, Thatcyery !\Inson SlU1H truely se!"\"'(~ his Inash~t,. for his pay. "I~'il"tE-entilly, ~rlatt .ev~rYlt}a.ster· shan :In end of his or journey~ whitherl:H)(~ it be" be uH th(~ .1ClH~iPgeSt~Jld .' (~(JV(:~lUll!t$ thnt()ught, tobfJ r<m,d at tl~~. installrnent of ,nuLstcr~ or ynaking of.ti. Pr(~el:nnS(?)lOr }i"rt,.'eru:tsons.. The AhilightyCtod of Jilcob, lwho ever hn:ve )·ou and l"ne ill his keeping, bless us now" n,rHI e\·cI....A.luen..'''


61 Grauel I..Jodge, or Gen~r~l As~enlhly, oflVIason~, ,th~t is notf$ubversive of the IH"incil)les a~ldground-,vork of Masonry. III. You pr0111ise reg·ula~·1y to attend the ,con1111ittees and eornll1unications of tl~e (}ral~c1 Lodge, on r~ceivil~g l)rpp~l" notice; an,cl to P~1Y o!Jed,i,ence to the duties of the Order on all convenient occasions. I\T. You ac1nlitthatno ~1e\V lodge;can h~ forrnec1 \vith.. out pernlissioll of the Grand1\Iaster or his Deputy; no,) any countenance given to a~l)~ irr£(gular L~dge, or to any person clandestinely initiated tll~r~il1. .. . V. You adn1it that no persq,n, can be ipiti,a~ed in~o Masonry' in, or adlnitted 111enlber;of, th~ l*egul,ftr,Lo;~lge, "\vithout l)revious notice, and clue inquiry into his charac-

ter. VI" You agree that no visi~orsGG shall be ,received into the Lodge \vithout passing uIHler due extun~nation, al:lCl produeing proper ofa regtl1ar initiation'" rl:h(;~se ,lre the of I.Jodg(~·6f Free

and ltecepted l\Ia~ons. 1'hH Cj'rand:lllaster then addresses the l\Iastel l~lect in tIle fol1o\ving lnanner :-:-" I)oyoll.subinitto those (jhH.l~ge·s, andp,rornisetosupport those l~egulations as l\I~1,sters have done in all nges berOl~e Y9U Y'" ITclvirlg signified his eordial SUbUlissioll, the. Gran~l ]\{aster thus 11 i ni ::.." " I3rother . A.J3., in 'consequence of y'our cheerful COil;'" w

IIalL oil. of . G'exlcrul


62

ILLUS rrRA1'IONS

forlnity to the Charges and Regulations of the Order, I approve of you as l\laster of the Lodge; not doubting of your care, skill, and eapacity." 'l'he ne\v IVlaster is therl conducted to an adjacent rOOIn, \vhere he is regularly installecl,37 and bound to his tl'Ust in ancient forrn, 'in the presence of at least three installed IVlasters. On his return to the Lodge, thellevv 1\Iaster IS conducted by the [Grand] Ste\vards to t~le left hand of the Gran:l l\faster, ~rherehe is invested\vitl1 the badge of his office, and the vvarrant of constitution is delivel~d over to hiul in f01"111; after\vhich the Sacred La\v, \:'ilith the square, and C0111paSSes, the constitutions, the Ininlltebook, the rule and line, the tro\vel, the chisel, the nUll-

let, the 11lovable and irnn10vable je\vels, and all the insignia of his difierentOfficers, are separately preserlted to hiIll, \vitll suitable cl1arges to eaehP3 fIe is' then 31 rl'his part of the cerernony can only be COlll.nll.lnicatcnl; IHn" can an V but installed 1\Iasters be present.-ErHToR. 39 Tile saIne cerelllony and charges attend c,,"ery succeeding instal... lation. For' the accoIlllllodat.ion of Brethren. ""hose distance 1"1'0:01 the

ll1etropoHs rnay deprive thelll of gaining' the lleC(~Ssary in;.;;tl·IH~ticm in tJlis ilnportant rite, 'we shall here insert aft:'w IHoral ()b::;:el'vations (In the instrnrnents of l\Iasonrr. \lllhich nrc usually to th<.}, l\!u.stCl" of the IJodge, at instnllath)n. .. 'fhe various hnplernents of the profession, eluhlernntical of our (~on­

tluct'in life.aro upon this occasion carefully enlnneratt~d. t, 'rhe Ru.le directs, that \~~e· 8~lould punctually observe our duty; press for\V'ard ill the path of "'irtue, and. neither indining to th,e right tlor to the left~ in ftll onr tlctions hnve }]lernit!J in view". ,; 'I'heLine teaches the criterion of nloral rt~ctitt.1de. to avoid dissinnllation in conversation and action, uncI to direct our' steps in the path

\vhieh leads to hnmortali(lf.. "'rhe 1 Trrnoel teaches, that nothing cnn he united 'vrithout pl1op,er celnent. arHl that the of the HUlst (Hl the stlitn.hle dispositi()l). eernent; , and soein.1 uni()n~ Inust link sepnrate lninds and sep~lrftte ; thnt~ like theradH of a cirele~ \vhh~h extend (I"otn thec(lntrc to t~very pa,. rt.,.. <.If. t l,l.C.·' circu. n.lfere.l.1C(.~_ ..the . of benevolence lU3.Y (1iffu~ed to every InelUl)er the eOl,nnHnlit·\~. ;~ The (}hisel dClllonstratt's the advantages d iseiplinc and ednca.. 1'ho Inind, like the tlhut),ond~ in its . state, is unpolished; as the (df(~cts of the chisel on the (~~xtornnl e(:m t soon IH'("sent to vit~W the IH~n.uties of tht~ (lianHlnd~ (~(hH::~nti<Jn {liscov(~l"S the

be

la.tent \'il'tnes of' the lnind: n.rul drtl\v's thetn furt.h to range the la.rge field ()l' IHatter and in order" the 8ununit, of hUl11an CHII' ~tnd ruan. :u]lucinishes

t()

walk l11H'ight in ':.H11·

to hold the


63

OF l\'IASONRY.

chairec1 aillicl the acclan1ations of the Brethren; after '\vhieh he returns his becorning ackno\vledgnlents to the G-rand 1faster, and the acting officers, in order. The lnernbel"s of the nevv Lodge then advance in l)rocesslon, pay due h0111age to the Il8\Y l\laster,S9 and signif.y their scale of justice in equal poise, to obserye the jnst n1edinrn between illternperance and pleasure, and to n1uke our passions and prejudices coincide \,,"'ith the line of our dut.y. . ~ The Level de1110nstrates, that V\~e are descended fraIn the same Etock: partake of the sanle nature, and share the san1e hope; and that, though distinctions anlong nlen are necessary to preserve subordination~ yet no elninence of station can n1ake us forget that,ve aro brethren, and th~tt he \vho is ph1ced on the lowest spoke of Fortune's "\vheel Inay be entitled to our regard; bec:lusea tillle ,yin . canle, anel the \1j ispstknows not ho\v' soon, \vhen all distincti()ns~ but that·. of goodness, shall cease; and De:t th~ the grand leveller of hUlnan great... l1ess~ reduce us to the sarIle state. . '" the Square teaches us to regulate our actions by rule and linc, and t.o harruouize our conduet by the principles of ruorn1ity and virtne. ~;The Con~lJlZsse.S teach us to lirni t our duty in every station; that., to cUline-nee by rncl'it., \ve Dltty Iive respected~and die 1

J.l!lallet teaches us to lop off excrescences, t"tnd sn1ooth. surfaces; or~ in otller ""ortis, to eotrect irregularities. and redllCenUtll to tt proper level; so tlutt,hyqtiiet deporttnent, he llW,y, in the schoolof discipline, learn to be. content.. ,~rhat the l\Inllet is to the 'worktllan, enlightened reason is to th·e p~\ssions;itcurbs., nUlhition, depres~es envy, Inoder'ates anger:~t1id encourages good dispositions; lv-hence arises that cOlnely order: Which notbing earthly f~ives, or can destroy; 1.'hc souPs calm sun5bhH~, ami the heartfelt joy."

brother shall continue in the office of l\Iaster for tnore thall in unless by n dispensation, '\vhich nluy be gra.nted Ch'and l\Iaster l or thepr(rdncin,lGra.nd~.rnster,in cases of real np(~(~s:slt,~·: but he ruay be eleeted after he has been outof th~lt office 4~ p.. '.rhe of this· law·'was S9"N0

t'\:V{)

"Y1~,o,··ti.:H.I'tr

5: ·1817, \\1hen, " . A.

rend, stntin~~ that. ~t of the Pnst~nulsters had. in Novern... for "the current

and

and the


64

£iubj-ection thre~

al1d'Obeqiel1ceJ~Lr tll~

degrees.

usual ;salutations'in·the

.

This cerenlony being concluded, the n8\V' l\Iaster enters in1111ediately oif' thed~lties ()f'llis, oJnee,l)y' appointirlg his '\vardens, \v110 are sel:>arately:conductecl to tlie pedestal, presented to. the, Grand J\Inster, , and installed ·10 by ,the Gr,allcl.'Va~·del~~; after \vhi¢h he·11 r~roceec18to "invest tllenl \vitIl their' badges of otIiee in tl1e follo\ving

rnann:ei- :~' .

.

"Brother 0" D:.,,, I ,appoint }TOU Senior'v'Tarden of the Lodge: and il1vest you "llvith ·the ensign of office.,42; YOllr regulin-o attenc1alice on our ~tated liieetings is essentia:lIy' necessary; as, i11111y al)senee, Y'ou rire to rule the ana, in lIly to as;sist Inein tIle it. I flrnlly ,rely', on your, dttacl1Hleiit ',to' tho" ,L6dge, for the tIle duties of tIle "office.'" . " Brotl1:er, E; ]'.. , 'IfbppfJiut y'Oll Junior ·"\,:rarden of t110 Lodgn ; and .invest yOll 'Vit'}l' the badge Y()llI entrust, the. e~anlinati()1~ v'isitors, duction of eaildidates." , attendance' is' ,particularly doubt trrat VOIl "rill filithfull,r execute duty \v,hich yOll O\'\""o "to ·)~Oll'rar)p·~~)iiitl;nerit.,"", '" " The ne\y ~Iast~r tiddressestlicp, \'~arde~'lstogf~ther : "Brpth~r ,\Vl~r.(1en.s, ,.~lO\larebotl~ tq()cxpert ill prilicir)les'ofIV[usollry, toreqtlire rIlllc}l,inf()l"rnation' as the dutiesofyotir' resl)ectivc' it 'to 111entiOll, that \~rlUtt ~rou 'ha:\ir(~ SeE:~11'J)t[,fise,vorthy in it isexI~e(;ted yOtl \,~ill ~,ftr~fu}l)ril,,~;ita~t€~ ': and'" . . 11lay to yOll have appeal"eel defeetlve, y(n] \\"111111 selves arnend.. Gbod order and regula,Tjt~rYou InllS!, oi,

to present tllCi,r 111eruorial, h)~ rt desire so luateria.l a f<lUestioI1, and~n regard to hud prcvniledin .the Cl'~Lft."-:EDrron~ ·10 'rho are Ul~:talle(l as the reTlresellta,:tl v,;.~s (rf' all tho are -II "Vhen IHl\V

'Wardens in\'ost the 'rreasul'pr


65

OF 11ASONR1,".

endeaVOllr topron10te; and, by (1 clue regard to the 1aws ill your own conduct, enforce obecliellce to thenlill tIle conduct of others." The 'Va,rdens retiring to t.heir seats, the Treasurer~13 is next invested. 1'he Secretary is tl1en called to the I)edestal, and invested "\vith ihe je\vel of his office; upon ,vhieh tIle l1e\V l\Iaster thllS addresses hin1 : " I appoint you, Bl"otller G. II., Secretary of the Lodge. It is your province to record the 111inutes, and issue out the SUIlllYlOllSeS for the regular l1)eetings. Your good inclinations to l\Iasonry and the Lodge "viII, no doubt, induce you to discharge the duties of the offi.ce \vith fidelity; and by so doing Y01.l· ,viI! 111erit the esteU111 und aJ.plause of your brethren." l']le])eaeorls i<! are then 11tlJlled and invested; on \vhich the l\Iaster addresses thenl HS folIo\vs:"13rothers I. 1(.. and L . 1\1", I nppoin t I)eaeons of the I~(Hlg'e" It is your province to on the l\Iaster, and to the\\Tardens ill the aetive tluties of the I.Jodge; sllell :lS in the reeeption of candidates into the difiererlt I)egrees, arid the inll:nediate ()f our rites.. 1l}lose eol urnns,.t~ the badges your office, I entrust to YOU1· care, not dOllbting your ·'vigilance and ttttention." ~ l'lle next officer appointed is, the Inner (;tualod, W}lOln tIle n(:~,v "::\Iast(~r addresses thllS:"I3rother 1\ app(}int YO\.1 inller guard of tIle Lodge. ')~our atlrnit l\Iasons on proof~ to receive eandidatf~s in fUld to of the J unior""Tarden . " 1'he Stf~\Van:1s'lt; are next called U])t tllH] invested; Ur,orl \vhiellfhllovvh.1g' charge is delivered to tllCUl bJr the 1

W

.

...

"'!

lle\-\' "

,I>,'

"

•• , .

the I.,()(1ge.

I). tll1dQ. I~., I Ul)l)()int; )"on of 'rhe duties of youX' o:tii(~le are, to irltroduee

().

.. ~~ "rhis oflieer is lH,t Lo<1rr e.

h.y· tIl<)

l\Itl.,;;t'C'l·,

4·~.rhe IJ(~:teOI1S ore the aeting-

"tteUr('l~Sf.nlta·tlV(·8

th(~

tUHl

of ull tlHl absent Craftsnlen. 'Vhen w(~rk (If in the colunul (Jf the St"nir,r:[)(~UeOll i:-; l"ais(~d; when mc'nt thl~ cf)hunn tJf tht.: .J unior I)eaeoni:-i rai:-;etl.. 4drriH~ Ste·wa.. rdB ar(~ tl8sistunt8 t<) tll(~ I)eu.(~ons, n:Ild the representa..

tives of un the absent

I~ntereil .A'PI",rentices..


66

ILLUSTltATIONS

visitors, and see that they are prol)erly aCCOlnlnodated; to collect subscriptions and other fees, and keep an exact account of the lodge expenses. Your regular and early attendance \vill aflord the best proof of your zeal and attaclnnen t." 'l'he . new J\Iaster then ·appoints t1le Tyler, and delivers over to hinl tIle instrurnent of his office, \vith a short char'ge on the occasion; after \vhicrl lle addresses the n1ernbers of tIle Lodge as fo110\v8 : " BRETHREN,

"Such is the .nature of our constitution, that as SOlne must of necessity rule and teacll, so others lllust of course learn to subnlit and obey. Ilull1i1ity, in both, is un essential dut3r. 'l'he Bn;thren ,vhonl"' I have ar>pointed to assist Ine in the goVel'Tlll1ent of the Lodge, are too ,vel I· acquainte<l,vithtbc IHinciples of J\IasOlll'Y', and the rules of good Inanners, to extend the po,\ver \vith \vhieh they are entrusted ;ttIlc1 you are too sensible of propriety of their ullpointrllent, and of . too generol1s dispo'sitious, to envy their preterrnent.. lTrorn the kno"\yll~dge I IHlve of both OfIicers and I trust that '\ve shall have hut one ninl-to please eneh other, uIHl unite in tIle !J:reat design of C()1111n l.lllieating· happiness." '1'he ~C~rand l\Iaster the I31:ethren joy of their OfHeel's, reeornrnenc1s IU.lTlllony, and a ,visll that tllconlycontention in . . I~odge 111~Y llo,.a generous ernulation to vie in cultivating th(~ roval l\..rt, and the moral· virtues.. l'h(~ LodgB th~;n joins'" in sal ute, and the !le,vlv-in~~talled l\.Iaster thanks to the (}rnnd ivlnster J01"~ the 11011our of the (;oI1stitntion. rrhe Grand tlH:~ lHl\V three tiHH:S; ,vi tIl the h(H10UrS of ~ anda flfHJrish of horn~, each tirne: \\'lri(~h the (i rUIH] thc to in the tlle (}rand tf) Ilotif\,. Lodge~ . s()ng· \'fli tlltt •. chorus, ,.t~,." '.1((.4"."""'" cltHles the cerclnony of is \vith tlle·usual solenluiti(ls irlthe three·l)f~ar(~cs the <JranJ l\Iaster and his ()fiieers; after \~llli{~h t~he IU"o(~ession is resuIIled, and returns to the tLIHi.rtlIlcllt ,vhence it set out. ' ..•",Iiiil."


OF 1vIA,SONRY.

67

This is the llsual ceremony at the Constitution of a new I.Joage, \vhicl1 the (Jrand Master may abridge, or extend -at pleasure; but the n1aterial points are on no account to be omitted.

The Cercn~ony ObSerlJed at laying tlte FO'llnda.tion-Stones Public Structu,rres, by the 1\1.. W. Grand lrfastefr.

qt:.,

of

This ceren10ny is conducted by tlleGrand l\Iaster a.nd his Officers, assisted by the ll1en1bers of the Grand Lodge only.. No private l\Iason, or inferior officer, of any Lodge, can he adrnitted to join in the cerernollY.. Provinchtl G-rn,nd 1vlasters are autllorized to execute this duty ··irl their sCI)arate llrovin(~es, vvhen they are acconlI>anied by their oflie el"s, and the 1\Iaster and Wardens of the regular IJodges under their jurisdiction; but the Chief ];Iagistrate and eivil oHieers of the place vvhere the huilding is to be ereet(~d Blust be invited to ~Ltten(l 011 the oceasion.. 'l'ho c.erelIloll~y" is tllUS condueted: rI'he G"rand Lodge having been o!Jel1cd at a convenient place, and the necessary direetiolls and instructions given, it is adjourned. l'he 13rethrell being in theit: proper c.lothing and je\vels, and ,vearing white gloves, the processiorl rnove sin the' follo,ving o!"(ler, viz.: Grand 'I'y l(~rs, \vith <1ra\vl1swords; l\lusic; Brethren,· not nlernbers of any I.Jodge, two and two; 'rhe Lodges, accnrding to th(~ir numbers; J Lluiors goingfirs't; Metnhers of Q'Tnnd Stt~,vn.rds'Lo<1ge; Officers of Grand Stewards' Lodge; Arehitector Builder, with the Mallet; Grand Organist; G'rana Bu perint(~tldent of \Vorks 1 with the plan; Ctl'tll1d Direotor of (J<.~reIlloIlies; (~rand Deacol1s; Grand Secreta.ry, ,vithBook of· Consti tutinus 011 a cushion; (]'rn.nd llegistrar \vi th his bag; Grll.ud rrr(~tl.8urer'l with hiBstaft'; rr'\\l'()

Grttu(l·Clluplnin;

Pa8t Gruua \V ar(h~ns ; Past I)rovin(~iul G'ra.lld l\tasters; I>rovincinl Grand ?tfasu~1"s; Past Deputy G'rn.ndMnsters;


68

ILL USTRA'XIONS

~·ttelw~ll~dd

'VI 1

wan ·

Vi~itors of Distinction; Junior Grand 'Varden, with Plunlb; l Standard of the Grand L. odgo; 5

S

!

Steward ,vith wand.

Senior Grand \Varden, '\vit.h Lovel; (Volume of the Sacred Law, Squaro, 5 Steward with ,,,and. S and Compasses, on a velvet cushion; l ,vith wand. Deputy Grand l\tIaster, 'Yith Square; Steward ~ . S Ste,,"'arc1 with wand. S Sta,ndard of the Grand l\.Iaster; ( with wand.. Grand S\vord Bearer; Ste\varc1

~{OST ':VOl~SHIPFUL GRAND l\IAS1'ER;

Two Stewards with wands; Grand Tyler, ,vith drawn sl\"ord. 4 7

Having arrived "Vvithin a proper distance of the spot, the procession halts, the Brethren open to tIle right and_ left, so as to leave roon1 for the Grand l\Iaster to pass nIl the centre; he beillg preeeded by his Standal"dand S\-rord Bea~rer) the GrandOfflcers and Brethren I()11o\ving in succession frorn the real'", sons to invert the order of tb(~procession.. The Grand l\fnster havingnrrived at his station, on a 111atforln, an ode is sung or 111 usic l)layed (as previously arranged). 'I'he stone being l)repared, (lnd the !)late \vith the 11Toper insel'iption, the ul?Iler IHlrt of the stone is raised by a,n engine; the C~ralld CnHlplain 47 1'hcse processions are cOllclueted ,vith 1nuo11 gre-ator splendour on tho Continent; although it is uluch to he douhted ,vhet1:H~r 1ll<;Ilted degree of pomp be Xllnre consistent vdth rcnl <1ignity than the. shnple ceremol1ies which tho .. ,visdorn of ourgoyeruors has prescribed ana sallctioned by the . eflicncy of their O\Vll exaul1)le. TIlle 8nperiOl" Officers of foreign I.Aodges ,veal.~ 8ph~n(~hl robes of silk .and velvet, of the threepuro· coloul"$, de(~orat(ld ,Ylth gold and preelOUS stones. I copy fronl u. ritual of. IIclvetian (,Pl"r-rnonies in Iny PO~S(~s... sion, SOlllO other· attendant 'whieh areei:llcuhlted to s\vell out the gorgeous c>f~ a procession. H rrhe Great 1\Iaster lvalks under a purple, }.!ue, and erirnson eunopy, ,vith fiue linen and bells. 'rho staves rtf his enllopy are four or which aroborne.by l\Inster 1\lasf:1ll8 f)f tht~ oldest "Lodgo the right hand of tbeGreat l\:1aster is ns,vor<1... bear(~r, and (.In his hand is a sword-beurur.. }jofore the Great l\I,lster i~ :::t sttllHlard, behind hin} is· a sb.tlldard. An 1VI:ttsters of Lodg~~spreselltare under blue canopies, each borne by four l\lnst:('l' l\lusons of his tfWn COIn.. pan)". 'rhe canopiesara aix feot long.. and three fe(~t brc)ud: the stu.V(~S are six feet long; tho franlc-,vol~k is of eedar, or pine, or hoxwood; the eovering htl.IlgS do\vn not h~8S thun three f;~et (~n ea(~h and in th(~ front likewise.· In thellliddlo of th~ prc')(:(-ssion i::; the l\rk, (}overed over with the veil of blue, purplc\, a.nd crhnst);n, by four of tho oldest l\insons present. "-EDITOR.


69

OF MASONRY.

repeats a 11ray'er; and the . Grand Treasurer llaving, by the Grand l\faster's COIDl11and,deposited 011 the plate various coins.路of the present reign, the cement is laid on the lovver stone, and the ullper on'e is laid c1o\~'n slowly, solemn ll1usic playing. Being properly placed, the Grand ~faster descends to the stone, proves that it is properly adjusted, by the plUlYlb-rule, level, and square, which are successively delivered to him by the Junior Grand 'Varden, Senior (-frand "rarden, "311dDeputy Grand lViastel"; after \vhich" the Architect or Builder delivers to him the n1al1et, '\"vith \vhich the Grand l\Iaster gives three knocks.

The Grand J\laster then delivers to the Architect or Builder the several illllllel'nentsfor his 路use. Theplan and elevHtionof the路 building are presented by the Grand Superintendent of the\\'orkstotheGrand Master, for his inspection; and, having aflpt路oved thern, he gives them to tile Architect f()l" his ~.:.:uidt1nee. Tfhe Grand l\Iaster l"e-aseends the platf()1"lIl, n1~:tsie r.1aying. All oration suitable to the oceasion is d(~li vered. t)olrle rnoney for the \VOrknlen is I)laced on

'l'he llrocession tIltH1 it set out, and the Lodge

The

"i'l'''"L':l'l1")rn),}1

stone by' the (}rand rrl"easurer..4.8

to the lllaee froID which closed. .

obserrcd at the Dedication of ftfa.S01ZS' lIalls.

()n tlH~ c1aji a})pointe<1 for the celt~bration of the ceremony of I)edieation, tllO (~rand und his Officers, .acconllHHlied by all the l~l"ethJ"en \vho are ulerubers of the (tr{Lnd.Lodge, lneet in Jl<:onvenient rOOln ltdjo~ning to the Jllne,e wbere the ceremollY is to be performed; and the (i'rand I.Jodgois op~~n(~d, in arnpleform, in. all the Degree~ll' r1'11e Qrder of. I)rOct~ssion'! being rend l)y the

(Jrand S<1eretury, and a generul c}utrge respecting prollriof behaviour g'I\'en by Deputy Grand J\Iaster,

the lodg(~ is fOUO\1\1S : -

adjourned, and the procession fOl"lned '1\"'0

~rylers,

"rith

clrtlW'll

~as

s,\"'01*<1s;

l\ll1sie;

"J.uernUC1"S of the (}runtl

t\VO u.nd. two;

If' the lruilding b(~ for n"clHlritul)h~ institution? n 'VohlI1b1ry subscription is'made in ahr(~fits fl.uuls.

.


70

ILLUSTRA'rIONS

ATy lor in l1is unifornl; Past Grand Ste'\vards ; Grand '1'yler; Present Grand Ste'\vards, '\vith ,vhite :rods; Secretary of the Ste'\vards' I..Iodge ; Wardet1S of the Ste,vartls' Lodge; Master of the Stc\vards' Lodg(~; Choristers; One Brother carrying a gold pitcher, containing corn; Two Brethren, with silver pitchers, containing wine and oil; Four Tylers carrying the Lodge, covered with white satin; Architect; Grand Sword-bearer, with s'\vord of state; Grand Secretary, 'with his bag; Grand 'I'reasurer, ,vith his staff; Bible,49 Square, and Compasses, on a, crirnson velvet cushion, carried by the l\Iaster of a Lodge, ,~tho is supported by two Stc\vards ; Grand Chaplain; Proyincial Grand l\Iu.stel"s ; !Jla8 t Grand \楼 ttrd(~ns; Past Deputy Grund ~fttsters; 1:>n.stGrand l\lasters ; Chiof l\tlagistrato and Ci vil. Ot1ic(~rs of tho place; 'I\vo largo Iights ; Grand \Vurdens; Ono larg(~ light; D~put.Y {'i-rand l\Iastcr, Constitutions, carried by the l\laster of the oldest Lodge; G路U,AND l\IAsTBJ::,;

rfwo Stewurdsclose the procession.

The.ladiesarethen introduced,and tl1e Inusicians repair totheirstation.Ontheprocessiol1 reaching theG"I"alld l\Iaster's chair, the Grand Officers are separately prochtimcd according to rank, as they arrive at that station; an(l on tlleGralld l\:I:aster's being proclainled, the 111usic strikes up, and continues during tIle procession three tinles ronnel the lInlL The Lodge is then placed in the centre, on ,1 orimson velvet cOllell;5O and tIle Grand ~Iaster having 49

Where the Bihle is nlCIltioned, it

to.. be the lu.'\v of God.

to \vhutover is considered

so 'fhe llclvetin.n 路ritual... alren.c1y refel路r(~(l to, contains s()nlf~ rClnarks relative to the furniture "c)f u. Lodge, 'which. bH insertea in this pln.ce.. u A. Intt,Y be well OrrHl.tl1ents; ill IlltU9r Lodges .sorts d(;~c()r[ttioas are ther, without tho slIghtest ttttention to propriotJr.. There n()picture, statue, nor ~tnblem of hca.tht~n(lcities; no bust, pietur(~,or statue of the hen,thon phil()s()pher.s. 'rho proper hno.ges or (~lnbleIns aro to be tu.ken from the Bible, and tho Biblo only; U8 it contuins th(~


OF MASONRY.

71

tal(en the chair,under aCanOp}T of state, the Grand Officers, and ·the J\lIaster and'\Vardens of the Lodges, repair to the l,laees "~lhich ,have been l)reviously prepared for tlleir reception: the three great lights, and the gold and silver pitchers, \vith the corn, \vine, and oil, are placed on the Lodge, at the head of \vhich stands the pedestal, on vvhich is laid a crilnson velvet cushion, \'lith the Sacred La\v, allen, the Sqllure and COll11,usses })ut thereon, and the Constitut.ion Roll. Anantheln is then sung, and an exordiu111 on l\Iasonry delivered: nftel" \vhich, the Architect, addressing. the Grand l\Iaster, retllrns tllunks for the honour conferrec1 on hin1, and surrenders up the irnplelnents vvhich had beell entrusted to his care at laying the Foundation-Stone. The Grand l\Iaster expresses his approbation of the Architect' SCOIld net;·· anode in honour of l\Iasonry is sung, acco111panied by"" the band; and the ladies retire, as do also sueb of the ll1usicians us are not 1fasons. rl'he I.Jodge is theIl tiled, and the business of l\Iasonry resulued. rl'he Grand Seci-etary infornls theG'rancllVI,'1ster, that it is the design of the E'raternity to IH1ye the IIall dedicated to l\lasonry; he then orders the GrandOffieers to assist in the cerenlony; during 'Vvhich the organ continues playing solelnn rnusic,excepting onJyat the interauthentic records of ancient ttlasonry. l'>aiutings offigures,to represent tho virtues or properties of the 111iud, such as CharitJ, &(~., are in bad taste. '1'he decorations sllonld be rnn:sonic cll1blerns, inter8~cting triangles, squart.~ and COIn pass, <.\::c. These, if properly Inannged, call be rnade highly ornUluenta1. J.l. picture of Sololnou or l\foses \v~)uld he appl"oprinte. A Illn.rble sial), containing tht: na.lnes of the founders of the I.Jodge, and the .lute, should be lot into the north wall \Vindo\v..curtnhlS, as in roorns,. there are none; but one great curtain, v(~r)," thiel\., draws across nlI tho ,,~inc1(nvs, nlong a brass rod, on brass rings. rrhere is 110 vn.lallCt~, or fringo, or. other ornatnent. 'rhe colour of tho curtain is purple,. crhnsoll, and blue, in alternate stripes; (~anh the C(lllUnOll hreadth of rnorenu, ()r othf'r stuff furnituro. ·Th{~ is rnude of ,,,"oollen.. and llot of linen. Silk lnay be used, if \vorI4(~c1 is not liketl, but no cotton or Ii Hen: the lining is bhtck. rI'he ::\ra~ter's thl'one is 011 three steps. I~Qhind it should bo u, screel1, threo 8ides ()f CL S{lul1re,untl higher thall hi~ heau '\vhCll S(~{ltod. Tbis SCrflon should helHtinted hy n l\Ia:-::on, ,,,,ith a death's head, intor.seeting trinngles una in white, as the ground of the screen is bla(~k, (n° n dark purple. l~ueing the 1\Inster's throne is an orp;a.n, or &gaU{~l"Y for tuul nlu~icianR '\vhoftre hrothprs;. and behind the thrOtH~, n,t t1H~ of the Loc1ge, ana high up in the ceiling, should be tl. weU..toned bell, or Indian g(:)ug."-EnrroH..

fIt,

trf,


ILL USTRATIONS

vals of Declicatioll. 1"'he Lodge being uncovered, the firstpl'ocession is Inade round it, arId the Grand l\Jaster haiving reached the East, the ,organ is silent, and he proclainls the IIa]l, duly dedieated to ThfASONR1:"', IN '£HE N.AI\'IE 011' TIlE GRBA'l' JEHOVA'fI, 'ro \VII01\I nEAIJL G-LORY AND

upon \:v'lli.ch the Chaplain stre\:vs corn over the Lodge. 'rhe organ plays, and the second procession is nlude round the Lodge; \vhen, on the (jrand l\lastel"'s arrival at the East, the organ is silent, and be declal"OS the Hall dedicated, as before, to VIR'ruE; on \'vhich the Chaplain sprinkles \-yine on the Lodge. rl"'he organ plays, and the third proeession is rnade round the Lodge; '\vhen, the G-rand l\Iaster having reached the East, and the Il1usic bejrlg silent, the I-Iall is~'dedieatec1 to lJNlVEHS1\.L BENl<;VOLEXCE; upon \\rbieh the (Jhttplain dips his fingers in the oil,nnd sprinkles it over the I.Jodgc; and at each period of I)edieation the grand honOlri·s nrcgiverl. A solernn invoeaJ:ionis then Inade, and all nnthern sung; after\~~hieh,·the I.Jodgo heing the CtTUl'ld }InstHr retires to Iris chair, a.nd the In.lsiness of ~Iasonry is adjourned. 'rhe ladies are ngain introcll'.leed; an ode fen" the oecasieHl is perfc)lTnecl ; "..antI an oration delivered b:r the ()rand Cha}Jlain, \vhieh is sueeeeded by an antbern. Donations for the e,harity are then eollected, and the grand procession is resulned. i\ftor rna,rehing three .tirnes round ·th"e Ilal1,pre<;eded by the Tylers carrying the Lodge as at entrance, and the 1l11lSic continuing to l?lay <1 gra.IHl I_ieee, the J3rethren return to tlH~ l')lace ,,!henee tlley set out; where, the lt1\vS of the ()l·der being rehearsed, the Ciraud Lodge is closed in a,ul!)le fornl in ~ll the Degrees. IiONOGH;

l'/UJ (fi;re'1nonyob.~e')·retl a,t Fune'rals,. cl.ccofrdi1lg to ()uslom;

t(,,'itlt

tlu.~

on t}tat ··()ccasl~on.

N() l\Iason ean.·,be ,interred .\vith forn'ltlJities of the ()rder, u[11 ess it nthis.ovV'rt 8rH~~('dal req.uest, (~OrIlnru rd . . cn.ted to the ]\;[:lstel· of the I . o(]ge of'\vhieh, l}(~ di(~d a M(~tnber; f()reigrletS anr.l S()joul'·n~i·s; nor unless he has b·e(~11:1(1 vrtneed t() tile 'rIll rd of l\Iasonry, frorn\vhich restrietion there CUll be no exception. li'eHo\,t-


73

OF l\IIASONRY.

crafts, .or apprelltices, . are l10t entitled to the funeral obsequies. The l\Iasterof the Lodge having received notice of a l\.faster-Inason's death, and of his request to be interred with the ceren10nies of the Order;s1 he tlxes the day. and 5 t By an express la\y of the (}ranc1Lodge, it is ellt1ctrd, 'That no l'egular ~la.son do attend any funeral, or other publicilf< proce~sion, clothed with the badges and ensigns of the Order, unless a dispensation for that purpose hus been obtainec1 froln the Grand l\Iaster, or his deputy; uncler the penalty of forfeiting all the. rights and privileges of th'e Society,nnd of being depl'ivod of the benefit of the general fund of charity, should he be reduced to "want.. " D ispeilsations for. public processions are selc101n granted hut upon

verypa.rticular occasions; it cannot, therefore, be thought that these will be fr(~quent,orthat regul~trl\{n.sol1S ,yin be induoed toil'lfringe an la,v those whiclt aronot properlyau:thor... ized.l\Iany public under this ehnraoter hn:vo heen 11laile of late year$; IHlt these hay(: re(~eived the sanction of the Grand Master, or the eonntenanee any regular ~I:lson conversant ,vith the laws ()f the Of this the !)u})lic eC)!1vineeil, when they advert to the that the of the whole I,"Iratprnity "\vould h(~ at risk on :such an ocension. It cannot be inulgilled, that the \vho is geIH~l"nlly of KohlH 01' I~oY(lJ llirth, the dignity of his or .the charact(~r as to grant It disponsation fora. public procession UpOll so .. . as n private hetHi,fit 路..o .ta . pla.yhouse, or of llt~ithel" the interest ooneerot.Ki; and \yhieh, it call never redonntl to the eredit honOU1" of its patrons. rrhe aboye law \va::; con'vputh:H1S (d~ tll(~ insigtlia cd' the portan t ()ceasions lag(~8

of

a thern

to l11ixE d and irregular to derision on uniul1

the privi-

()f

I n8t:nJ,1<~a

JU路\.I路I,,路"~OiIU,~!U

i. :Oleaut a. general convention of 1tlasotls for the purpose of

a'p'p~a.ranc~~.

7


74

ILLUSTRArrrONS

hour for the funeral, and issues his C0111111and to 8U1111110n the Lodge; if Brethren fi路o111 otl1cr Lodges are expected ,to attend, he 111USt 111ake application through the errand Secretary to the Grand l\Iuster, or his deputy, for a dispensation, to enable hinl to SUl)ply the place of the Ciralld l\tlaster at such funeral, and to regulate the procession, whieh is to be solely under IllS direction; and all the

Brethre,n present ll1ust be properly clothed.52 The dispensation being obtained, the l\Iaster IDay invite as l11any Lodges as he thinks proper, and the fnernbers of those LodgeS111uy aCC0111pany their oflicers in fornl; but the \vhole ceremony ll1ust be under the direction of the 1vIaster of the Lodge to \vhieh the deceased belonged, for which purpose only tbe dispensation is granted; and he and his officers Illust be duly honoured, and clleerfully obeyed, on the occaSOl1, as the repres,ent[1tive, for the tirne being, of the G-rand l\laster, or his Depu ty路.. The Funeral Service. 53 The Bretln-en being assernbled. at th.o "\vherc the body of the deceased lies, the l\luster of the L()dge whieh he belcmgecl opens the Lodge ill the rrhirc1 !legree, '\vit.h the usual ft)1"rns, and an anthem is sung. 'rhe b()dy being [,laced in the eC'ntrcl (HI a. eoueh, a:ld the ooflin in \,yhich it is laid being uncovered, the ~thster proceeds to t.he head of the corpse, and the service b(~gins. "l\iASTER. \Vhat Il1Un is he that liveth, allaslu~n not seec1cath 1 shall he deliver his soul fronl tll(~ hand of the gra.ve1 'Man \'\l'alketh ina vain shado\v, he heapetll up riches, ana cannot tell who shall gather theill.. lo

occasion, or without approbation; 'wHll kucrwing that he is anlenable to tho General ASSGlllbly for his conduct, and, ~l)y the clH1.rges of his office, Inll~t subtnit to their n\yard; should ho, hOY(j"'ever, be so iInprndent as to aet on this oecasion hnproperly, the 13rethren of the I.Jodgo are \varranLed by the laws to refuso obedienee to his sununons; but they路 are Ul80 arneuable to the Grand Lodge for contul.nu.ey.. 5:l All the Brethren \vho ,valk in procession should ()hserve, us 11111eh as possible.. nn uniforrnity ill their dress. D0cont rnourning, with 路white

stocking8,glovt1s,tl.ndapr(H1S, is luost suitable f.lud beeonring. No person should be c1h;tillguished by a J(;~\\"el, Vdl0 is not un oflicer qf ono of the LodgH8 invitedtQ attend in forIll; and all the ofHeers of s'u{~h Lodges should be ol-rUlllleuted '\vith sashes and ha,thtulth; ~ n.s alsu the oflieer:; of the ]~odge to \yhCHn the dispCllsatioll is grunted, '''''ho u.ro, moreover, to be di~tingl1i8ht:~d with w11ite rods. 53 I retain the funeral serviec as prf!scribed by 13rother I)reston, though I greatly doubt whethcl: it could be consistently perforlned,,EDl'l'Ol~.


OF MASONRY.

76

'When he dieth, 110' shall carry nothing a,vay; his glory shall not descend after hhn. , Naked he caIne into the '\Yorld, and naked he must return: the Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken a\yay: blessed be the name of the Lord!' 'fhe grand honours are then gi von, and certain forn1s uSl~d, 'which cannot be hero explainod. Solclun 111usic is introduced, during\vhich the J\lastor strc'.. . . s herbs or 110\ycrs oyor the body; and, taking tho SACRED nOLL in his hand, he says : 'l.Jet us die the death of the l'ighteous, and let our last end be like his!' • 'rho Brethren answer:, God is our God for ever and ever; he 'will be our guide even unto death !' 'rho ~raster then puts the ROLL into the coffin, and says : ' ...t \.lrnighty Father! into thy hands 'we cornmend the soul of our loving Brother l' 'rho .Bl'ethren tU1S\Ver three titll€S, giving the grandhOllours each tilne, "rho 'will of God is aecornplished! So be it !' 'rhe I\laster then repeats the follo\ying :(, !\lost gl~Jri(nt~ (intI! ..f\..l1thor of all of an rnercy! pour do'\vn a n d . all our 801eInn engagenH~l1ts 'with ties affection 1\la)" the pr(~sel1t instance of nlortality rcrnind us (d" our appr{}tlching fatn; and dra\,r our u,tt.ention to rrhee,()111y in thne of need! that \\then tho u\vful tnOUlellt shall that \ve nl.H)ut to quit this trltnsitory 8C(~nC, the enliv(ll1ing Pl"OSlH~ct of thy Inerey lnu)" dispel the glOOll1 of death;

and tlult, aft(~r ollr·depu1"t.uro henc(~ in peac(~, .and iu thy favour, ,ve may be received into thine everlasting kingd()Il.l, and .• thex(}enjo,Y', in uniOll,vith the souls of our departed friends, tho just rewaI'd of tl pious aud virtucHls life! ...·llnen . '" . .-'\. n anthern bt·ing sung, the ?!Iaster l'etires to the pedestal, ana the coflin is e()v(~T(ld" ..:\.n f)rati(~n, suitable to the oeen.sion, is then d(:.livorcd; and the i\lrtster love ana the 13rethren join hands, and rene\v' to eaeh ()ther pledged vows. 'fhe Lodge is the 11 adjourned, <lIld tho to the :place of iIlt(~rnlent is forrned ..

'l'he different Loages I'auk according to seuiority, the. jtlIljor preand each· ]~odge f'Ol'filS on(~ divisioll, 'rhe following order is then observed : rI'he rry lor, ,\yith his s'\,"'()r<.1 ; The StEr\vards, \\rithwhito rods; 'fhe 13rethren, out of ot1ic(~, t\Yt) and two; 'rho Sc!('rebu"y, u roll 'rhe ,vitli his (.tHee; 'rho St·uior and ,Jullif)1" 'Va.rden.,;;,hand in hund; c(;~ding:;

'I'ho,Pu:-:.t ·:\Iustc·r; 'rhe l\Ia~ter: The Lodge to 'which decea:-;ed Brother bt~l()nged, in the following ia11 the hn.viug fk>wcrs or herbs in their hauds;

'l"'he try ler ;


76

ILLUSTRATIONS

The Ste,varcls ; Martial Music [DrtllTIs IllUmed, and Trtunpets covered;] rrho ~Iernbers of the Lodge; 'rhe Seeretaryand rrreasurel"; 'fhe Senior and Junior \Vardens ; 'rho Ilast l\1a.st.er; The 1101y Writings, on a cushion, eo,"ered ,vith black cloth, cal"riedby the olclest. h1enlber of the Lotlge; 'fhe l\Iaster; The Choristers, singing an anthem; The Clergylnan ;

The 130DY, 'with the regalia placed thereon, and two s\yords (~rossed ;

Chief ~IourIler; Assistant "l\Iourners" rr,vo Ste\'~~1l"d8; ..:.\ rry'ler..

I

One or t"vo Lodges advl1uee, before .tIt c procession. begins, to the cllurch-yard, . to prevent COllfusion, and lnakn the necessary pr(~.ptt1路a.... tiollS. IThe 13rethr(~n arc IH)t to d(~scrt their ranks .)1" places, but keep in their different depnrtrnents. "\'lh(ln tho arrives at the gate of the ehurch-yard, the IJcHlge to which . Ih'other b(~longec1, the nlourlH.~rs~ nnd attendants on the c(n~p:.;e halt, tin thol\:Ic-rnbers of the ()tIH~r ]~odges hayo forrned a cirelo round th(~ grave; when :111 opening is Ina.de to receive thern... They then advnnee to the grave; und tht) Clergynuul and ()fncprs of tho a~ting Lodge t.aking thoir sta.tion at the head of the grtlvc, vvith the chonst\crs on eaeh side, and tltemollrnersat the foot, the . is resu.Illt?d, an antheul suug, n.n<1 the following exhortation given : "IIero\vo '\riew a. striking inst.ance of'the uncertaint.y of lif(~, and tIle yanity路 of nIl hurnan pnrsuits.. 'rho last ofHees paid to the dead nrc only useflll as lectures. to the living 1 frorn therll v.e are to derive instruction, and consitler every snlernni tV" of this kind as a sununons to prepare for onr approaching dissolntic;n. "N()twithstnnding the various Illfllnentos (If ulc>rtaIitjt ""ith 'wltlch we. daily Ineet, llotwithstnnding denfh has estaLIHshed Itis etnpire overall th(~,vorks ()fNu.tul"e~ yet, -throngh S()lneU!Hl(~C()tultnhlo路 infatuution, \Vl? art'3 apt" to forget tlint we are "born tt) dic~. 'Vo go on froBt ()ne design to an()th'(~r, add hopo to and lny ontpla.ns for the ernploJ"rnon! OfU1311Y years.. till w'e are 8~lddcnly ularlnedwith the approaeh of <l(~o.th when we least htn1, an.d at an llour \vhi(~h, !unidst tho gaieties of life, we (~(nlchlde to bt) tho IlH?l"'hliuJl of (an" (~xisteneE~. ,., \Vhat are all the externals of InaJnsty, tlH\ !)'tidt' of '\veulth, or chn.rxlls of beuuty, '\v11on Nu..t.ure bas paid her just de})t?Pix your oyeg on tho last scene; vio'w Ufo stript of her ()l"lHU1'H~ntR, aud c:qloscd in her llaturalll1CtlnUess; yon ,vill then be et)ll\"il1efld of dIP futility


77 of those en1pty delusions. . In the graYG aU fallacies are detected, all ranks levelled, and all distinctions done aw·ay. ,~ vv'"hile 'we drop the s.Ylnpathetic tear over the grave of our deceased friend, let charity-incline us to thro\v· ::lveil over his foibles, ,,·lu1tev~r they tna.)'I'.havc been, Hnd not ,vithhold frorn his nlemolJ '" the praise

,vhich his virtues rnny· have chtirned. Suffer the apologies of htnnan nat.ure to plead in his behalf. Pcrfi~etion on ear~h· hus·never ···been attained; the 'wisest, as ""ell as the best of rnen, have erred. Ilis meritorious actions it is our duty to itl1itate, and fr0111 his ,veaknesses ,ve are to derive instruction. "J..Iet the presentexanlple excite our 1110st serious thoughts, and strengthen our resolu tion of aInt:ndlnent. Life being uncertain: and all earthly pur-sui ts vain, let us no longer postpone the hl1pol'tant concern of preparing for eterni ty; but ern brace the happy moment., w'hBe time and opportunity offer, to provide ugainst thntgreatchange \vhen all the pleasures of the '\vorldshall cease to delight, and the reflections of. a ,~irtuous conduct JiE~ld the oply cOlllfort and consolation. Our expectatious \viUnot then he frustrated~ nor. shall ,\<ve be hurried, ofanaH-\visc andpo\\TerfnIJudge, to ullprepared, into the WhOlll the Sl~cretsarekn()w'n, nlld fron). \""hose dI'<:~ad tribunal no ean "Let us, vdlile in ,dth proprIety the character' of our advert of our solernnities.' and pursue with sacred tenets cd' the Or-eler : ,,·ith beconl~ illg lt~t ns the I>ivine nnd (-nsure the fa"our of ,,-hose ~lnd po\\'cr lU10\Y no bOUIHls; nnd In(nrH~nt. that \\'c ~u·e ttbouttiO tak(~ oUt" be itSOfHl or Ia.t(~'\ nUl'r W'l~ to prosecute OUt" journey, .. drl~ac1. or·nPl:lrehcIlsion, .. to that fuX" distant country froul ~which nO tl':lYCUel' .retuI~ns.. l~y t}H~ light of the IHvine countenancc,'w'e lnuy pass, ,\~itbout tr,ernbling, through thosegloolny Inn.nsions \\~hC're aU fcrings are forgotten; and at the and tremen'" dons trial and retribution. when arraigned btu" of l)ivine ~J"u~tice, ,re . "rill be In'onounced in our fhvour., and that "'{~ receive our in the of an. inunortnl ""here stre:l1u, nnd no lllouncl can cbed,;, trhe 'tllflr·I1.:l"tnl('l" invoeati()ns are then ultlde the the usual hOlHH.U'S t~ach : l\IAS'l'RU.. ~; ,,~e be true and faithful; Ulltllnay lve live die in love!" ",J\.:,\S\\·Cll.

what is _... '...,......"......,... alw'ays nct agreeahly

I\'IAsTcn. t()

OUI" lH·loh.:SSlfHll

us and.prosper

; a.nd lua.}"'· aU our

success!" .... ,~:, .,....,........ and thro\v their rolls l\Iaster l'(lpeats, ,\,,.ith ,"oiee:~

"

he to God on

men !" ANSWF:R..

So

Il10te

it

on earth

good will to\'"ards

IlO'\V: frou1 llenCI~l(l'rt.tl~ and for

evermore.. "


78

ILLUSTRATIONS

The 1.faster then concludes the cerenlony at the grave, in the following "Tords:"Frorn time irnmernoriaJ it has been a custotn anl0ng the Fraternity of Free a.nd . t. \.ccepted l\Ia,sons, at the request of a Brother on his deathbed: to accornpany his corpse to the place of interulent; and there to deposit his rClnains "\\'ith the usual fornlalities. 1.1. In cont'iJrll1ity to this usage, and at the special request of our deeeaBcd Brother, ""hose Ulcmory \ve revere, and \vhose loss 'we 110\V d(~plore, we are hC['B assenlblecl in the character of l\Ia.sons, to resign his body to the earth whence it canIe, and to offer up to his menlory, before the world, the lfi.st tribute of our fr'aternal affection; .thereby demonstr~\t颅 ing the sincerity of onr past esteem, and our inviolable attachUlent to the principles of the Order. "With all proper respect to the established cllstonlS of the country in which \\~e live, \yith due deference to onr superiors in church nnd sta.te, and wi eh unlirrli ted good-\vill to all Inankind, "c here appear clothed as l\Iasons, and publicly express our subnlission to order and good goverrnuent, ~nd our\yish to prOIllote the general inter(~~ts of Inankind..

Invested \vith the

of innocence, \ve hurnbly bow'

to

the universal Par(~nt, irnplore his all all OUt" zealous endeavours to extend peace and good-\\"ill~and earnestly pray f<..l1' his. grace to ena.ble us to perse,"ere in tho pl~inciplcs of piety and virtuE'. "'rile great. Creator lwsing bc~cn pleased, out of his rue!"e)'.: to ren10VO our \,rorthy Brother fron1 the CUI路es and troubles of this transitory life, to ~:\. state of eternal duration, and thereby to '\yeakenthe elHlins by '\vhieh \ve are nnited~ nUlll to 'Inan; \\"'ho survive hiln~ anticipating our uppronching fitte, be 11101'0 ccunentetl in tIle th.:~s of union and friendship; and during tIle

our present existence, \\"'isely and

space vrhich is allotted to

our tiIne in the

reciprocal intercourse of kind and friendly acts~ ruutnaHy prOlnotc the welfltre and happiness of each other. ,; l3' nto the grave \ve have resigned the hody of ourclecea..c;,ed t"t'icnd,

there to rcnulill until the genernJ I'e6urr{~ction; .in f~~v()ura.ble路 expectationthtl..thisitnulortal sOl.ll\\路iU then I)3.l'take of the joys 'whieh lHt\~e been prepnred for the righteous fronl. t.he beginning of the : and nUlY AhnightyGod, of his infinite goodness~ at the grand tribunal of tlllbiu.ssedjustict): extend his Il1Crcy to\ytu'd hinl 1'l.n<1 all of us, n.nd cro\vu our hope \'lith everl:lsting bliss~ in the expanded reahns of a boundless eternity! This \ve beg,ibr the honour of his Nn.nle~ to Vdlculbe g'!Qry, no\y and for ever.. .A,nu:n.=' 'rhus the service ends; nnd. the ustwl tho procession returns in fornl' to the IJlace whence it. set \\'h<:-re 'ltv necessary duties are coulplied w'ith. and t.he business IVIu,sonry If;. renc\vcl.l. ~'he rl~gali(J, and ()th{~l' Ol'n:ln1ents of the deceased. if lu.~ has been:1Il otlicer of 'the Lodg'e: :1,l'e returned to thc1\laste1": 'tsith th(~ usunl cercluonies; after \\"hich the for the <:tJIH..lnct of the Brethren are rehea.rsed, auu th<.~is the Third Degree ''lith a blessing..


79

OF l\JIASONRY.

BOOK III. THE PRINCIPLES OF 1\IASONRY EXPLAINED.

SECTION I. A Leuerfrora tlte learned jlfr. John Locke to tlze Right H01~~ lV"ol1za,<J Earl (?l' Pellzbroke, u)itltan old ~la,)l:ltScTil)t 0111 the subject (1- F路recJJzasonry. t}rII ~{AY,

1696.

~ry LOTtI>,

I have at length, by the hell) of l\fr. Collins, procured aeopy of that 1'18. ill the I30dleian library, '\vhich you \';zere so cllrious to see; and, in obedience to your Lord.. . ship's cOlnnuu1ds,I. here\vith send it to you.. l\Iost of the notes annexed to it are what I TI'lade yesterday [01tlle reacting of n1Y Lad)T ]Iashanl, who is beconle 80 fond of l\Insonry as to say, that she no\v nlore than ever \:vishes herself a rnan, that she Illight be capahle of adnlission into the l?raternitv. . The nIS. of \vhicll this is a copy, appears to 1)e about 160 yea.rsold; yet (as vour Lordship ,vill observe by the title) it is itself"a C,O!)y "'of one lllore ancient by about 100 years ; fbr the original is said to be the httud-\~rriting of 1(. Ilenry VI. "There that }Jrince 11ad it, is at, !lresent an uneertainty; 11nt seelns to 1l1e to beanexalnination (taken perhaps before tbeking) of sonle .one of tlH~ brotherhood. l\Iasons; tllnong ,vhJorn he路路 eIltel"e(1 lli rnself~ as it is said, \vhen he carne out of his rninoritv, and thencefortll ~.~ stop to a perseeution that lla~l lJeenraisad agltinst theIn: but I 111tlst not detain your Lordship longer by IllY Iu-efitee frorn the thing itself. I kno\Jv not ",,"ha.t eft~:,~et the sigllt of tIlis old paper Inay h~l,v(~ uI)on your IJordship; but for Iny own par-t I cannot deny, that it has so 111Uc.h raised 'tHy curiosity, as to induce &!


so

ILLUSTRATIONS

nle to enter ll1yself into the Fra.ternity, \vhich I an) deternlined to do (if I ll1a)7 be adlnitted) the next tinle I go to London, and that \viil be shortly. I aln, " }\Iy LORD,

Your Lordship's Blost oberlient, and Illost htunl)le servant, JOHN LOCI(E.

Ce-rtayne Q'lIestyons, 'with . .4.7lsu'eres· to tIle scone, conclTnhlg'tlte Mystery if l\IA~oNRYE; ?})rittene by the lza1ulc qj" k~lnge HENRYE, the s'i~rtlte oj'" tlte n(l'7ne, ll'lul jlLitly':tdl!./e c(~P!/ed by 1Jze1 JOIIAN LEYLANDE, l\.ntiquarius, by the COJJlJJul.unde ~f It is2 JligIt nesse.

'l'hey be as follo\vethe : QUlis'r. '\Vhat nlote ytt lJe?S ANs,"\r. Ytt beetll the of Nature, understand... ynge·.of thf~ rnyghte tlUlt hereynne, its \verkyuges: sonderlyehe, sky-lle of reekt~l]YIJgs, of \valghtes and rnetynges, and the trlle Innnere f'il~(nlnyrlge al tllyIl,gS f<)r 11H1nne8 lise; ., (l\vell and buvldrn~.res aIle kindes, and all other n.luke !!.:·ud(~le to rnall11C. "There d v d ? dydd ·begynne Uyrstolnellne yn tIle este,4 ""vhycll \vere before thea fl:yrste IJlenne t}le L'

1 tJOHN IJJi:YJ"ANIlE~"nSHppointed IIenry at tll(~ <Hss()lut.ion of· monasteritfS. to 8enrch fbI" 3.11d suye sneh books anrll'eeOl',}snS\yere vnlnal,Ie anll)ll2:thenL. lIe ,,,"as a rnan of U'l'eat lalHJur antI inrlustrv. , Ilrs IIrc:IIN··l:SSE:, u1(:nning the said :Kii:lg IIeury V'IU. Oru' ki"ngs had not then tIle title of l\Iajesty.. :) 'Yha.t nHlte ytt l,e?] That i~~ \\'hat this InyFtel'y of ::\lasc"nry' be'r 'fhe ans\yel' iluptH'tS. ~rhat it ill nahu'uI. InatJU!lnatienl,

and

In('~ehanienl kno\\·I(I~lg:(\.

Scml(~ l':lJ't.

Aiasons IJretend tt.. have

of \\' hif~h (us

the

\\i.hn.t

and


OF MASONRY.

81

\veste; and comyinge 'Vvestlye, ytt hathe broughte her~ \~vythalle com fortes to the "vylde andeOlufortlesse. QUEST. Who dyd brynge ytt \vestlye? ANS\V. The \7" enetians,G \vhoo beynge grate mercl1aundes, cOHled fl\rrste ft-'r0111nle the este yn11 Venetia, for the C01111110dyte O'f Inerchaullc1ysynge beitl1e este and \veste he~y the redde and 111yddlonde sees. QUEST. }Io\ve conledeytt 3tn Engelonde? A:r\"S'1l. Peter C+o\ver,7 a Grecian jOllrneydde fibr kunnynge Jln Egypte, and in Syria, and yn everycllelonde, '\vherens the ,Tenetians hadde plaunted nla~ol1rye, and \vynnynge entrahIlce )rn al lodges ofnlu<:;onnes,he lerned 111uche, und路retournedde, and "",\loned yll Q'recia l\iagna,8 ,vacks:rnge and becornmyngea ll1yghtye wyseacre,9 and gratelych.t~ reno\vnecl, and her he fi"anled i1 grate lodge at

,r

5 The enetinns, &0.] In the tirnes of 1110nkish ignor~lnce it, is no \vonder that the Phccnicians should be rnistakcn for the 'V" cnetians..

Or, perhaps, if the of sound lnight

,vere not takpl1 one for the other, siriiilitude clerk "rho first took dCnYll theexaUlil1ution. The PhcQnieians \vere the gre~ttest. 'Voyagers alnong the ancients,. and '~~t)re in ]~nrope thought to be the inventors of letters, \vhicll= perhaps) they IJrougJlt fz'oul'the (lnst ,vith at her arts. 7 P(~ter(,,:~n\,"(~rJ ~[,ll'is 11lUSt. be .another Dlistako of the ,,"riteT. I ,,"as puzzl(id nt first to gue::;;s\\tho }">eter Gow"er should be, thcname being pc~rf(~ctly English;. or llowa (freak should COlIle by such a n;:une.. I~ut. as Sflon ns 1 thought of Pythagoras, I could scarce forbear smiling, to 'Hncl tha t llhilosophcr had undergone a lnete111ps)'chosis he never dre~nnt (If. ",ro need only eonsider the l?rench pronunciation of his 11anH~\ that is. Petac;ore, to conceive ho\v easily such a 11118ta.ke an" unle~,~rncd clerk. 'l'hat. P.Ythagoras travelled for iuto &c., is kno,,~n to all the learned; and that he 'was into8(~vcral di:tIcl'ent Orders of priests, \vhoin those all theie 1<::路~\.l'llil1g sccr"ct frOl11 thc~ is as\\?cll l<nown. l . I ... 'rhn..... lnadc e,,(~rJ- goetJlnetricuJ thcorern n.. s(.~cr(~t, und adl.nitto the kno\Yledge of thern ns had first undergone a five lIe is SUPPoSt~d to b(~ tht~ iUVE:ntorof the 47thproposi()f the iirst hook of Euclid, i~or 'which, in the joy ofbis henl't~ it is snjd he sael'ifi{-ed a beeatolub. lIe ulso knc\\" the true sj'Ett.:ru of the world, rcyi veil by (:~opernicus; afld was certain 1y a Inost '\vonderfni tnnn.. hisL,itc by 1)1()~. lIA1.t. 8 (. Jt r:c L\ a ptll't of Itnly so eaIlcd~ ill ,,-hie}} the h:ul tt large eoloI1y. r-rhiswo1"d at present shnpleton~ hut fo,rmerly ecmtl'ul".Y lucaning. \Vis{~a('re, in the old Saxon, isp,hiIosophel"~ :nn'\路,n wizard; and having been fI'(iquently used ironically, u.t k'ugth (~~HHe hu.ve u. direct, lIumuing in the ironical sense.. l'huB DUllS Seotus~ H, luan fallied for the 8ubtHty ulld acuteness of his under.. standing, . the Stlll1C lucthod of siven a general llUOle to r.,nnL't

U.路l ..

Inodcrn dunces.


82

ILL US'rRATIONS

Groton,lO and 111aked lnanye l\Ia<]onnes, SOl1le \vhereoffe dyde journeyeyn Fraunce and Illaked 111anye l\1a,<;onnes; vvherefl"on1rne, yn I)l"oeesse of tyrne, the .I\.rte })ussed in Engelonde. (l,uEsrr. DotllO lVIa~ollnes descouer llcre artes llnto odhers? J\.NS\V. Peter Go\ver, "vhelllle he' journeyecle to Ierne, ~~as ityrste TIlade,ll and anOllne techedde; evenne SOH shulde all odhers beyn rech t. Natheless l\lasonnes hauethe12 al\veys, yn everyche tynle, fr0l11 ty1l1e to tynle, COll1111unycateddeto lnannliynde Boche of her seerettes as general1yche 111yghte be usefulle; they haueth keped baek soche allein as shulde be harnlful1e yff they eOllled 3711 euylle haunc1es, oder soche as no 111yghte be holpynge ,vythollten the techynaes to be jovnedde her\v,-the in the lodge, oder soche do bynde tlie fi-eres rflore"stronglyche togeder, bey.·the Ilro1i:Jttte and e0111ynge to the eonfeeric 'herfrounne.

as

(l,I~S'lt..

\Vlu1tte artcs

the

ulank ynde? .A.. ?.;;~\v. 'rIle artes ngriellltura,Vl nOlll'in, geornetria., nUITletes, 111u~ieu, governernente, and relygyoune. (lUEsrj~. Ilo\ve eonlnletlle 1l.10rC than odher InenllC? l\"NS\Y. rrho 11eIllSelf(~ ,..l.~'''i'.L\Il,.,· "'' '.A. ttllein ill arte offlyndynge neue artes,H'\vllyche ·arte 'flyrsto ~Ia~onnes reeeuiued 10

G'l'otOl1,]

Groton is

th(~

here Incant is Crotona, u. city of 1-')' thagoras ,,,,as pO!)tllous. 1l F'i\Tsre 'rho wort1

in:; :1 111 Ijng; the i\Iasons; !l:Utlf~t.kl(l'-(.~nl}lnl'~H) '~·e:l

12

artes that

UZll1erlttl1.r~

tht~i l' (n\"n

tht:tH.

fot· Dtl t \vha.t appen.l"s 11lOSt

tlu~nrts~ 14

"A.rte

c('rtuinly be

tl

~,rho art, of IJ01'd I~aec!n':s

::s 0\,U111

arL;;;~

lntlst

'...... ,..,'.'HI.\4l"'"


OF l\IASONRY.

83

Goc1de; h)l' the whyche they fyndethe '\vllat artes llern plesethe, and the treu,vay of teachyngetll€ san1e. "yVhatt odher 111enne doethe flJr nde Ollt, Y's onelyclle bey ehaunce, and herfc)l'e but lytel I tro. '(~UEST. \\That. dothe the nla(~~onnes concele and hyde? "':\.1'\8 \V'. 'Tlhnv concelethe t~he arte of flync1vn rye neue artes, and tlHl.tt ys fc)r llere o\vne proffytte, Hl;d preise :15 tIley' cOl1celethe the arte of kepj7'nge secrettes,16 that soe the \vorlde 111aJeth nothinge cOllcele fr0111 thenl.. '1' hay concelethe the arte of \vunder-\verckynge, and of foresayin,ge thynues to conl111e, that so thay sanle artes Inay not b~ use(ldeuof the \vycl{.edde to an euyell ende.. Thay alsoeoncelethe the arte of ehaunges,17 the \vcy ·.of \vynnynge tbefileultye of .1\.hrac,lBthe skylle of becomolynge gude and IHlrfYghte \vythouten the holpyngesof fere and ; and the universelle longagl1 of 1\la<,;onnes.19 \\T y lle he techc lllC thay S:'Ul1e artes? frOtll

an ntternpt t,c)\vards sOlll<nvhat of the 8tUne kind. But I nrllch doubt, that if ev(~r the ~Insonshad it~ they have now' lost it; sinec so fe,v I1CW' arts have been Intelj"invcnted, and so. nlan,y nr(~w'ant(~d. .Tho idea I hilve of su(~h an art is, that it rnust be sOInet.hing proper to 00 (Ulli~rll()''''''(J!ct iUl\Il the sciences gen(\rnHy, ns. algebra is in lltunl:lers,b.)T 'whieh ne\vfules of arithrnetic nrc, and nUL)" b(~ fQ~lnd. :] It, ~(;~elnS the l\'Iasons have great regard to the reputation as \yell as tIle profit of their Order; since they nUl.ke it one reason for not an fll't in cornrnOll, that it rnay do honour to the posses... SfH'S or think in this particular they silo"., too luud1 regard fol" thl~il' 0\\'11 tl,nd too lit,tle fen' the r(~st ()f Inankind. Hi,Al'te of secl'ettcsJ \Vhat'ldnd of un nrt this is, lean hy no lncan,:; I~tlt c(.lrtainl y suchan urt the ~lnsnns ltlllst hn,\'c: fi.H· as St,rne snpp<:,;Sc) they 15hould h~Lve no secret ~l. taU, even nnl~:t })O n s(~cret, '\vhich, b(~ing discover{~d:,v()uld therll the rhlicule; tl.nd therefore it req uircs. tho caution to it" 17 ..:\rte of not ,vhat tbis mCA.lls,\tnlcss it be the

IIere I

uttcl'ly in the dur-k. uni v(: r~al Ittn~unbc has learned of tunny ages. It is ~L tlung rather Hn·. But it 8cerns thcl\l~lsons IH'ctend t()bA~e If it l.e· true, I gl1e~s ituH1St lJe ::;:oluetbing the Puntolnhn(ls. n.rnong the u,l1'eient IttlUln':Ils" 'Who hy tc: express n.nd d(.I1i\'eranyor~.tion Int(~llilU:U:,)lV t() nwn of nations H.nd languages. .l\ ItlaD "'l'ho hns nIl these tU't~ and certainlr in u. condition to bectl'\.. i(~d : hut "va ~u-c told tha.t this is not the case ~~:ith uU ~Itnsons; for though these nrts are :unOlHI" and nIl have n, nnd all opportunity to know tlH~ln, yet son~, and indu~t!·.r, to .aeqnirt.~ ,them. Ho\ycvcr, of ull thell" ~u'ts nnd8ccrets, that "PInch I IUOSt. deSIre to ()f

RIH

l\fn.~()IU1CS~JAn


84-

ILLUSTRATIONS

ANSW. Yesbal1e be teclledde yff ye be \verthye, ,and able to .Ierne. QUEsr.r.Dothe all Magonnes kunne 1110re then odher menne? ANS'V. Not so.. Thay onlyche hauetll recht and occasyonnemore thenodher l11enne to l\.unne, butt Inanyedoeth fale yn capacity, and Inanye lI10re doth \vant industrye, that ys pernecessarye for the g'aynynge allkunnynge. QUEST.. Are Maqonlles gudder Ine11 than· odhers? ANS'V. Some Magonnes are not so virtuous as· sonle odher luanne; but,yn the nlost parte, thay be more gude then tIley '\-vould be yf tbu)r \var not ~Ia<;onl1es. QUEST. DotIle l\{a<;:onnes love eidher odher ll1yghtylye as beeth sayde? l\'KS\'Jt. Yeaverylyche, and yt Inay not odher\vise be: for gudeul,enne and true) kennynge eidherodher to be soche, doethalways love the nlore as they be 1l10rC gude..20

[flare endethe the questjronnes and a\ynSlYCres.]

Irno\V' is, "The skylle of heconunynge and pn.rt:rghtc ;" and I ,vish it 'were c()nnnunica.ted to all Inft:ukind~ since there is nothing 11101'0 tX"U(~ thnn· the beautiful sentence contn.incd in the htst ~'TIHtt the better InCll nre, the nlore they love one n.nother :" htlving in itself SODlething so amiable :lS to churn}. the hearts of nil that behold it. 20

A· GLOSSARY t:J/ antiquatetlJ~Tords

Albcin, only .AluMJis,alwa.ys IJeitht?, both (Jottanodytc,convenienco ConFreric, fraternity Fafonn.ynl!,"e, forming ll'ort.;saHin,gc, prophesying brethren ehicfly they l)loaso 1:1~~m .•S:Bt1e,

themselves their

~f.llglUt:?,

power .. ()ccasyonlu7, ol)porhtlllty Odlu:'r, othe:r

Oru{ychc,

neces-


OF MASONRY.

89

SECT. II. Re1narks on tlte pTeceding Manuscript, and on the ..t.4nnotat'ions qf jll'r. LOCI{E. TfllS dialogne possesses a dou bleclaim to our regard: first, for its antiquity; and next, for the notes· added to it by 1\11". Locke, \vho, tllOUgh not at that time elll"olled in the order of ~1(tsons, offers very just conjectures on their history and traditions. Every reader ll1ust feel a secret··satisfactioll ill tIle peru.sal of this ancient manuscript, especially the true Mnson,\vho111itmore nearlv concerns. 1'be reconlnlendation of a philosopher of great merit and penetration as this nation ever produced, added to the real value of the piece itself, 11lust give it a, sUrnctionand render it deserving a serious exarninatioIl. r!'he eorljeeture of the learned annot<.ttor concerning its being an exalnination taken before ICing IIel1ry of one of tIle J~"1raterni tv of lVla~()ns, is accurate. 1'he· severe ·cdict passed ·at tJnlt tirne "against the Societ~y) and the disc,(5)uragelnent given to tIle 1fnsonsby the J3ishop of Winchestersnd his party, induced that prince, in his riper years, to Inake astrict scrutiny into tbenature of the :l\Iasc)1Jic Institution; \vhich was attended with the happy eirC1Ul1stance of gaining his flLvollr, and his l)atronage. JIad not tIle civil COH1111otions in tIle l\.ingdoln during his reign att.l-a,eted the notice of governrnent, this net \'1ould probal:>l;l hnveheen rCI)ealecl, tllrough the intereession of tlle Duke of Gloucester, ~"hose attacllInent to the l~"raternity \,,"as COllSI)icuous. Pn,ge SO.. \Vhnt Inote·. ytt be?] }\ifr. I.iocke observes, ill his anllotatioll on· this qu(~stion, that· thean8,,~er irn... POl""ts, }\lasonry . of tlQ.tural,mathernatical, and kno\vledge; SOUle part of whieh, he says, to havetanght. rnankind, and sorne the l\:Iasons part th(~y e()lH~eal.-rrhe arts \;vhich th(~y have cQln!Ylunieatetl to tht~ \vorld., are IHtrticularly SI)(~(ified .an t1nS\\"cr to one of the follo\ving questions; us &re<also those \\'hi(-.h they have rest.rieted to thernselves for \vise :purposes..-1\.lortllity, ho\vever, llligllt have been included 10 this ~LnS\~'er, as it constitutes a principal l)urtof the Inasonic systenl.

as


86 Page 80.: ,Vhere dyd ytt begynne?] In the annotation to the ans\ver on this (luestion, 1\ll'. I.Jocke ,seen1S to suggest, that l\lasons believed there \vere Inen in the East before .l\d~ln1, 'Vvhich is, indeed, :,t Tnere conjecture. This opinion may be' eountenanced by sorne learned nutl1ors; hut Masons cornprehend the true Ineaning of l\Iasollry '·taking rise in the east and spreading to the '\lv'est, \'vithout having recourse to the Preadanlites. East and \vest a.re tern1S peculiar to their Society; and vlhen ll1asonically adopted are very intelligible,21 as they refer to certainforn1s and established eustolllS aU10ng thell1Selves. Froll1 the east, it is \vell kno\y'n, learning 'extended to the \Vesterll ,vorlc1, and gradually advanced into Europe. \"" .. 81. "Tho dyd ?] jtldicI0us correction of an il the HJ1S\Ver to tJlis question as V\rell as in eredit ingenious annotator. 'I'he is just, and the elucidation ae(~nl"ate. I)age 81. lIo\ve cOll1ede yn l·eeol"ds of J:t""raternity irlforrn us, regularly initiated into instrueted in the rnysteries pr()pagat(~(l tIle I>rinei pIes of the Order ill other eoulltries into \vlrich lie travelled. Pytllagorns lived at in

the '"last. king of the Rornans,. the or,accordingto Livy, in tho reign rrullius, in the year of the ,vorld 3472. He \vas the sonaf a seulptor, and ,vas educated under' one of the 111en of Ilis tirne, l:>hereey·des of Byrus, '\vl10 the inlfnol'tality of the soul. ()ll tIle death lle deterrnined to trace seienee to its S(Hlree, llirnself \vi tIl fresh stores in every part; the \\~orld these could b:e obtainerL l\nilnated by a, d.~sire of kno\yhe travelled into and to tlH\t .......\ •••• ,J ..... and discoura.ging eOllrse \,~as rE~quisito ·to obta.iIl iJle 'Vhen he badllltule hirnself:L ... "'.'1'1.."' ..... ,.'1'·.... '"

'I "J\.nd l>choldEzok. tho glory of xliii.,

at tIle Enst." I~ditor"

Tll,r'.\".'\lliV'1'\

God of Isrnc-l

Caln(~

froxn the "tay

"Signs nnd 8Yln},,018," by

tll'0


OF MASONRY.

87

ter of all the sciencesthnt \vere cultivated in the sacerdotal ·colleges of Thebes andlVIenlpllis, lfe pursued his travels throug'h the east, conversing ,vith the1,fagi and Indian Brachnlans, and rnixing their doctrines with those he. had learnt in Egypt. lIe after\vards studied the laws of l\Iinos at (~rete, and those of Lycurgus at Sparta. I-Iaving spen~ the earlier part of Ills life in this useful ll1unner, he returned to Sanl0s ,veIl acquainted with every· thing curious either in Nature or art in foreign countries, illlproved v~7ith all the advantages proceeding frolll n regular and laborious cou.rse of learned education, alld adorned ,vith that kno'\vledge of ll1ankind ~vhich was necessary to gain the ascendant oyer thenl. .c\ccustomed to fi-eecloll1, he disliked the arbitrary governlnentof Polycrates, then tvral1t of Stunos,:lnd retired toCrotona. in Italy, \vhere h~ 0I)ened a school of philosophy; and, hy the gravity and sanctity of his l11unners, the i111portance of his and the peculiarity of his il1stitutions~ soon sI)read his fhn1c and influence over Italy and G-reece..22

Alnong projects \vhich.llC 11sed to create respect, and g'ail1 credit to his assertions, he concealed hilnself in ttcave,. and caused it to be· re]Jorted that he '\vas dead. After S01110 tirIIC he eUllle abroad, and I)retended that th(~ intelligence ,vhich Ilis friends gave hil'Tl in his retl"eat,of tIle transactions of Crotona, ,vas collected duringbisstay in the other "\vorld alnong the shades of the departed.. IIeforrned his discjI)les, \"'\7ho canle froln all parts to put under Ids dircetion, int9 a kincl of republic, \vhere none \vero adn1itted till a severe In"ohation had suflieiently exercised their patience and docility. H{~ after\'·tlrds divided thenl into the esoteric and exoterie, classes:· to the forIller he entrusted the Inore sublinle,anc1 ~2

The eerelnony of opening his lodges. concluded \vi th an exhorta,,,"'il ence and and to keep ~lt tongue of good repox·t; and ~tt. HULDY duties w'eroenjoincd :-1. '1'0 abstain from brawls and qtuirrcls; to defend tho. (~haractel's of honest cOlnpanion8: tlwi r approy(~d '~lorth.. 2.Not to revile or slnnder •. each other; and if, unt(.>rtunately, they could n,ot apphtud, to be silent; forsUencl~ was consider{~d t~ distingTtishing cluu'uctcristic of theirprofessinn.. :3. 1'0 be <~antious in the use and applica.tion of words and phrases~ nud . to abstain frotll using any. word of nlalignant irllPCH't 'ill COUIU10llconvers:ttion, fUld forstlch \vords as prison, traitor, murdet", poison, rebellion, dea.th: &c., to substitute otherR of mndeI" interprct~ltion. ·Vide Ialllblichus pa~sil1"l. Cic. de Divin.. , L 1, &c..-En. tiCHl


88

ILLus~rRATIONS

sccretdoctrines, to the latter the 11lore silllple and l)OPUlar. 'rhis great luan found hirnself able to unite the eh~tracter of the legislator to that of the philosopher, and to rivid LYGluogUS tllHl ()rpbeus in the one, Phereeydes and 'fludes in tIle otller; follo\ving, in this partieular, the pacterns set hirn by the EgYJltian priests, instrl.1etors,who \Verellot less celebrated for settling the civil than the religious econolny of their nation. Ir1 irnit~ttioll of thetn, Pythagoras gave Ia \VS the repu bIie ofCrot0l1t1, and brought the inhabitants a state of luxurv and dissoluteness, to be elninent order and sobriety- 'Vhile he lived, he \vas frequently consulted by the neighbouring rel)ublics, a,s the of difIertJnees, and the refornler of their lllunners ; sinee . his (\vhich ha,ppened abollt the f(Jurth year the 70th ()lyrnpia,d, in a. turllult rarsc:d :lgainSI., hilll by one Cylon,) the~:ul[niuistl'ation of aHtlirs has be{~n rally intrusted to SOUle of his '."',A,'"l"'i".I".'I!>"'",~} I)foduee tIle ttutllority of \vas to establish the truth

inquil"y. 'J1he 1110St eelehrated. of tho !)ytbagol'tLS aloe those the tl"lLnSl'lligratioll so illto he bOITO\ved frolll tlH:~ 13rrt(_'hnlalls)~ . tl1e . of the world. lIe \VtlS th.e first \\7ho took tJIC lla.lIH~()f JJ!l.ilo.sol}}u~t, that i8,t~ lover of \visdolll. IIis nl0TaHtJ~ wasadrnirrtble. lIe· luac1e the aLl things, and irnaginedthat bet\veen yver~· variousor~.lersof spiritual beings, \\"ho -,.. , " "' ... to the divine \vilL lIe believed in tIle d()(,~trine ()f the or tr~tIlsrnigratioll of sotlls: tllitl \\~as diffused tbrOug~rl all ()f of u rli versu.l SOld:"'" .... I'\.t·~·.!'I.·,1 nlatter, anitnatirlg (~\·ery livitlg }Jlost(~Orlternptible .' to rnankiE'ld shared :1 of the Spirit. J"r\l'll',I\::ll"ll' II

A'J\,"lA.'II'~',""'.

on

tllat as


OF l\'IASONRY.

89

creature.. lIe asserted· that he had a pal~ticular faculty given hirn by the gods, of renlenlbering the various bodies his O'VVl1 soul· had passed through, and. confounded caviUers by referring thenl to his 0\V11 experience. In his syste111 of the \vorld, the third doctrine \Vllich distinguishes his sect, "vas a supposition that the sun was at rest in the centre, und that the earth, the 1110011, and the other planets ll1QVecl round it in different orbits. He pretended to have great skill in the ll1ysterious properties of nUlllbers, and held that SOllle lJarticular ones contained a l)eculiar force and significance. lie \-vas a great geonletrician, and adl11itted only those to the kno\,dedge of his systelll, \vho had first undergon~aJlrobatioI1offive years' silence. his discovery is attributed the 47thproposition of tllcfirst book of Euclid,2S w hich, in geolnetrical solutions and dernonstrations of quantities, is of excellent use nrulf()r \vhieh, as nlr. Locke observes, in the joy of his he is saiLl to have sacrificed a hecat0111b.. Jlis extraordinar)t of kno\vledge, the pains he took to 11ropngttte his systenl,have justly transl11itted his faula to posterity.21 rl'he pur.ils \vho \Verehlitiated by llinl in the sciences and study Nature att1:lt~ Crotoniunschool, bl"ought'all their goods inton cor.nnlOIl stock, contelnned. the pleasures of sense, f),hstailled fr01l1 s\Veu.rillg, and ate 110thing that had lif(~. Steady to the tenets and l,rinciples which they had they dispersed alJroad, and taught the doctrines of tJleir in all the countries thro'Clgh Wllicll Pa.g(~ Dothe l\Ia{2oI111es descouer here urtes unto odhers 1] l\Iasons, in all ages,lHlve studied the general good of ruunkirn!.. art '\vhich is necessary· for th,e support good. government, orwhioh

couhl

.cheerflll1y com111unicated

to \\·orld. l?oints publieutility, as their peculiar tenets, lnystic forIns, and Bolenl11 rites, they have In flU)" right-angled triangle, the the side subtending the right squares. (ltl:::;I(~rJ It)t~(l upon the. sides w'hieh contain EtH,·lid. IiI). L, pr~p. 47. 24 ~"(H' U. Inore particular aecount of the systenl of Pythagoras, I nl3.Y rer~r the CtlriOU8~la£oll to I'Oy IIistol·Y of . lnitiation, Lecture xi.EDITOR.

8


90

ILLUSTHA'rlONS

carefully concealed.

rrhus J\Ia.sons have been distin-

guished in various countries for disseUlinating learning

and general l~no\vlcdge, \vhile the;:" lULve al\vaJ~s kept th~ privileges of their O,\V11 Order suered and inviolable arnong

theruse IYes. Pai~:e 82. \Vhatte arteshaueth the Thiat;;onnes tcchedde

nlal1l~rnde?] rrhe arts ,vhicll the l\lasons have l)ubliely taught, are here specified. It appears to have surprised the learned annotator, that religion25 should have been ranked Hlllong the arts taught bv the Fraternit,y; but it I1Jay be observed, that religioll the only tie \,:hich can bind 1'nen; and that ,vhere there is no religion, there can be no l\Iasonry. li.rnong ho\vever, it is an art, \vhich is ealcula.tecl to unite ft)}" a

is

\vithout perv"erting or inf'luence of this the

those

of the

efiect~nally

ternlinated.. l\Iusons have ever IHlid due ol)ec1ienee to the 11101路al1a\v, and ineulcated its. \vith 011 disciples. CrCtltor preserver of the Jirrn belief in every Ufre; and tl1eir co 1,1 ci"tle t"11H,S l~eglllated rfhe I>}'ogress of knoyvledge philosophy, Di vi.ne 11evelation, having {l.nlightened 111inds \,rith '. kno\vledgeof the true tenets of theChristial1fitith, llu,\"e aequieseed in [1 religion so \visel y calculated to lne:n happy; hut in those countries the llot reaehed, or Christianity displayed her J_''\,,'l,.L~,:IIL..I.'l.,.I..J_ hnvt~ ineuleatt:d tIle universal religion, or rhe reIig10n of Nature tlHlt to be n;"eu denornination CJ!" , by this universal systern, their condvet 113.S al \\'uys been ; \ "路'I~r',",.\1f路t.,

the

~S\路ide St1'U~

in the East. 26 Vide .Antiquities of I,'reClnaSOl1ry, I>. lOll


OF lVIASONRY.

91

th.e laudable purpose of conciliating true friendshil) UlTIOng ll1en of every persuasion, vvhile it proves the cenlent of general union. .." 13y l\lasonrvr "le fire tnug'ht not to devIate froll1 the lIlle of iristructioli' in \vhich \y~ have been educated,ordisregard the pr'ineip1es of religion that \ve have orig~inal1y irnbibed.. rrl10Uu-h it i3 our rule to suit ourselves tocirCUlllstanees and ~ituation in the character of l\Iasons, vve ::u"e never to forget the \vise 111tlxinlS of our parents, or desert tIle i1rith in ,vhich \ve have beelll1Urtured, unless frorn conviction \ye ll1ay" be justified in l11aking the change; and in efieeting that change, l\Iasonry can have 110 share.I'he tenets of the institution, therefi>re, inter.;., fere \\;"ith nOI)aiticular fhith, but are alike reconcilable to a.1l. :lnd l)olitiealdisl)utes never engage the attention of in their private sen1inaries: those l)oints aru left to the disetJssion and deterlnination of otl1er 'for \V110111 the theine is better ealculatetl truth, tllat the \visest sY8ten1S have il~jl.lred than benefited by religious ()t'i\,·ltAlstnj.ldjn~the

happiest events hfLY(;~ arisen in Inany periods 'w'()ltld, fron:l the eH()rts of n,. ,vise, pious, lenI1:led, a.nd lnodcrate clerg''y~ seconded bJI" the influence nnd ttuthority of religious \\'hose eOtlnsels and exarnplc have ah\tuys had:1 eomthelll to do w'ith a 1hcility peculiar a generous concl~rn., that extinguish the unhappy spirit ,,,,hose eHl'cts a.hno5t eyery uge has :Enthusiastical sects have been perpetuallJ inv('~nting: of relig'iull in various countries, by working on the of the ignornnt :1.n<1 unwtuty, and deriving their rules of ntith anclnUUlnc-l'S. frotH the Hllhu:iol18 snggestions of:t \~. . arrninl~i­ nn.t,ij:>n. rather that.l front the (~lcll.r and infallible dictates of the \'Vord .ofClod. ()ne set of has cov(~red r(,~Ugion\vith it ta \vdry hn.bit of has e()nv(~rtedit into an instrllnlel1t diseerning luind, ho\ycyer, 111 a)' (;"'asiljr truce the uniull'PY eonsequencesof d(~partingfroln the di,\,ine siUlplieity of the nnd its PU1'C and hea.venly d()C'tl'ines '\vith tho and of Inen.. The tcrl(]eney of true 1"tdiO'ion 8tI'lencrtt:H:~n of g()Yel'rnnent by purifJring the nlotives u.n(lt!lnl:lna.tH:~~ the \vho to IJrmnote the virtues cxaIt~;t l)'y rendering its g()od sul.Uectsan<1 true pntriots, and COnfirll\ing all the cssentittl bonds and obHgatia!1s of civil society- 'rIle ellt:.~lnies of rt·ligi~ln nre the enenlies of nUl.nkincl; and it is the natural tcnd(~ncy of infidelity and licentiousness to dissolve the lliostSftcl"cd obligatit;I1s~ to renlovc tllC Inost po\Verf'ullllotivcs :uHl

'l'h€~


92

ILLUSTRATIONS

Page 82. I-Io\ve cOlnnletl1e lVIa(;ounes Inore teachers than odher 11.1enne ?] 1'he fU1S\Ver ilnplies that l\lasons, fron1 the nature and goverull1ent of their Hssoeiation, have greater opportunities thnn otllcr 11len to irnprove their talents, and tllerefo1"e are allowed to he better qualified to insfruct others~ . !Ir. Locke'sol;>servation on Thiasonshaving the art of finding l1ew arts is jlldiciol1S, and his explanatioll just. The Fraternity have al\iv'a}Ts 111ade the study of the arts a principal part of their private anlusement: in their asselnblies, nice and difficult tlleories 11ave. beell can vassed and explained, new discoveries produced, and those already kno\vn illustrated. The different cla.sses established, the gradual progression of l\.l1o\vledge cOlnn1unicated, and the regularity ohserved throug'hout the \vhole of their governrnent, are evident l)roof:~, that those \vho are initiated into the rny"steries of tIle ~Iasonic Art, rnay discover rlew arts ;8.nd this 'knovvledgeis Required by instructioll from, and f,huliliar interconrse '\vith, 11len of geniusaud abilit~r, "vho have, in theit Innson'ic disquisitions, an op})ortunity of clisp laying their talents to a,dvantage OIl alrnost every irnportrult krraneh I)age v S3 . \Vhat dotlie tile l\Iut:onnes eon(~(~le and llyde ?J 'l'he ans\ver the art of finding new arts,23 for their 11rofit and IH'uise; tltllc1 then l)articula,rizes to virtue, and,. by corrupting. the principles .of individuals, to poison the sources of publieorder andtI'll.11quillity. Such are the rnischiefs. arising fr"ou) zeal and (~ntbusia8nl cal"ri(~d to excess; ,. but when· theprincipI(~sofMnsonry are better understood and practised, the Fraternity ,~ill be found tu be the best correctors of misguid.ed zeal and unrestrained licentiousness~ and the ablest supporters of every "relI-r(~gulat.t·d governnlen t. ~8 'There can be no doubt but our (;~celcsitlstical edifices 3,re indebted for thei r splendour to the exertions and fine tn,ste of tllC E'rC (1nlRsons.. . 1. \.11 cur intelligent an.:l best infornled arehitccts and untiqun.ricB ft~eely it. Sir ,JitlneS lIall says, tlw,tpointed ~u~ehitecturo 'w'ason{~ of the secrets of and origiunted fl*orn an irnitntioll of \\"icker\\"()rk; and that it ","as In'uetised(~nrlier in Scotla,ul] thnn in l~~nglnnd.. ~Il·. I~ro\1vnc, of York~ St1'yS~ that· the· \V'orl\ ing llrinciplcs of ecdesiastical architeeture foulldt~d on schelnes ~ulalogous to th(~ IH'lnCllpH:S of the doctrine Trinity; nn(l that "tlH~~l'e~' is i~ gl~eat .. . ()f tll(~.sel:(~lneS in oldon tinlCIS, 'coru~titutecl (,[, 1.1rin.c~l>al '. sublune and that, the bisllOpS, priests, nnd <:lthcr p(~r8onnges the l~onuul Cntholio Ohurch, w·crc nearly the sole prOf(~8S0r~ of that degree; and that they tht~ir (Jrder, the '~Art of iinding new styled tbeprincipal secret Arts."-( Gent. l\lng., J Ull., 182tt )-}~I)rroH. 4

or


93

OF MASONRY.

the different arts they carefully conceal.}Ir. Locke's renlurk, "That this shovvs too llluch· regard for their OWll

society,and too little fbr the rest of Inanl\.ind," is ratller severe, \vhen he has before adrnitted the prOIrriety·of concealing fr0l11 the \vorld ,vhat is of no real IJublic utility, lest, by heing eOl1verted to bad uses, the COllsequenees llJight be l)rejudieial to society.. By the \'lord praise is here ll1eant that hOI).our and resl)ect to 1Nhicll 1\1a.80n8 are entitled, as the fi"iends of science and learning, and \yhich is absolutel~y' necessary to give a sanetioll to the \vise doctrines they l)l"o!Jagate, \vllile their fidelity gives theIn, (1,. clainl to est.eCll1, and the rectitude of their nlal1uers dernunds veneration. Of the arts \vhich tbe1\Iasolls practise, tbeurtof secreey l)articularly distil1guishes thenl. 1'ueiturnity.is a : r ) r o o f a n d is allo\,\"ed to be of the utrnost irnportanee in tllC transactions of life.rrlle best ,;vTi tel'S lUive it to Ul1urt of inestiul,tblc value; and that it, is to Inavbe easily fl~onl th,e gloriotlS eXC11I1I)le '\vhiGh gives, fi"onl Illankiucl the secrets his !lrovidenee. 'rIle of rrlen Cflnnot llryinto the . of 11{~aVen; divine to-day vvlHtt to-Jnorro\v Inayr bring nor ean fortll. 1\.IarlY instanees nlight be adduced from bistory to show the high "veneration \vhich \YHspaid to the art of secre cy29 the ancients. infoflns us, that l\l1axarchus, ''''''·."··\,·,c•.t·~,.,·",,·,,rt \vitll n to extort froTH hin1 SOUle '\vhich he been uncI dreoding hiln to betrny his Iniddle, UIHl it ill to the face of (~yprus.~No. torrllents could of l)lancus betray tIte of their lllast(~r; they encountered every pain ,vith and tlleir fidelity,runic1st nlost I>ut a I)eriod~·to their ~;:l\ ~ilJ.'.'''.'''.LJ;':'::.C. toastlttll(~ l:)l"ass, \\'~h.ieh . . ,"' . . . _,.. "".', to

he

in

.•

StroHl" 2. .L.JUl''V()o(t.;;

Lueh\ll })emon.-l\feurs. Eleus. 1 c•

(>lJfilA.&()'#) tUOl'ti

&,c.

8i quis

nl'cn.n~;c lIl)'StCl'itlt

nddicobntur.-EDITOR.


94

\vho '\vas al \V<ly"'s represented 1101ding his finger at Ids 1110uth.30-1'he 110111(1118 IHld fheir g;oddess of sileTlee, narned .iing'erona, to \;VhOll1 tlley oH:~~red \vorship_-I.JYcurgus, the celebrated la~"'giver, as ,veIl as l)ythngoras, the great scholar, I)articularly recollullellded this virtue; especially the last, \vho, as \ve have before observed, kept his disciples silent during five years, that they lllight learn the valuable secrets he had to cOll1rnunieate unto thenl. rrhis evinces that he deerned secrecy the rarest as ,veIl as the noblest art. S1 30 lIenee, probably, originated the expression of ~, Under' the Rose;" for the rose \vas the syrnbol of silence in ancient tin1cs. LenHtius [lnd others hare recorded tht1t it. W'us the flo',ver of 'V" cnus. ""hit:h conseCI'n te<l unto IIarpocratcs. the of and \\·n::;~ t h,i",y'r.,. an ell} blelll thereof, to CClI1ccTJ the p1oank.5 of rnischicvons little urchin: as is ded,\red in this tetrastieh~'l"f)

E.Jt

l~()SlJ.

Hos

l:Is.rpocrati Inde rosam

Couvivm

81 The folltH'V"ing story is related tt :Roluan hL~t(nOian Gcllius), ,'\'bieh~ as it rnay be equ"lll'y pleasing and instruetive, \ve shu.a insert at. full If'ng;th. ;~ The :::.enators of 1101110 ha.d 'Y1<"",,,' tlleli' e(nl~ul tati()ns ",)O,'j.)

in the eaeh sena.tfH' 'wi th hiln. who ,,"as to if

IJe

nelT1IIUUci t<)

his ;-::on

but f~lvour ,vas not' being only to thenoblernen; 'Yho, in thc}sc \rcre tntOl'el.l fronl their inf'ancs in and th(~I'ebyqtutlinod) in their rip(~r ye~u's!' to hnportunt ofliecsof govenuncnt ,,"~ith ~fld(llit.r and this tirne it' happened that the SEmators lnet on ft r(lrS lnlnt'IJ·t"l' n t and the nUhir requiring InatUI'C deliberation, \vel'(~ tlct.alucri thttll usual in the senate-house, nrld of 11o'f',u'rrl'Il'l':I_ tiou ,yas adjourned to' the fullowing caeh lncnnher en.!!aJD~lnj!!. the Inean t.iHH3: to keep se(~rct the of the Il1e(~ting. other noblernen's sons 'who on oeeasion~ ,vas the gl'a ve Papy l'llS-a, farnil.v of great rencnnl a:nd youth \vas no less relnnrl.;able fur the extent his theprurlenee of his depot'trnent. (>n hi:~ rcttll'll t\nXiollsrt) kno\y "W'lint in11lOl'ta.n t. lUHlbeendel.m ted \yhieh ha,d detained the sena tors Sf)

en itrea t(1~(1 hiru to l'\:httethu her it

oeCaSil.lH

Th(~

:t busiuess not in his to silence. On hearing; hor lfnno'r·tTI1.."tIP':;: l':~nl··I" and her inql1iri(~B rUOl'e, l'uinnte. libera.l she tC) c>f St:creey; but Ilroving inetl(~ctttnl, u.dopted lne:15tn'es~ and had re{~Ol,U'se stripes and v-iolent thl'('ats dl:t"'~l'lnin(~d tlw.t l(Jree sl,H.luhl (~xt(H·t.wllat lc-nitv could '-rho finding llis ulothcr's threat.3 VC'l:J but \\"118


OP :\I.ASONItY.

96

l\fr. I.Jocl{c has TI1acle several judicious observations on the HJlS\Vel" \vhich is gi\}en to the question here prop~sed. IIis being in the coneerning the nleuning of the fheult Jr of .Lt\.brae, I anI not surprised at, nor can I oonher stripes 1110re severe, with fl, notlle and hcroie ;:;pirit: thus endeavoured to relieve her anxiety. ,vithont his fidelity: ,~ •J[adarn. yon In:i)~ \yell bhullc the senate for tlieir IOi1g 81 ttillg; at le:lst. f(H' pl'CSUHlin:; to call in quest ion :1 ease so truly ilnpel'tinenL: except the wives of the senators are allowed to consult on it, there ca.n be no of a conclusion. I tllis only· from n1Y o\vn opinion: I knc)\v gravity \"Vill easily eonfound Illy juvenile apprehensions; yet~ \yhethcr nature or duty instruc.ts Inc to do so, I cu.nnot tell. It seeIns necessary to f(H~ the incl'ease of and the public good~ that every senator be allovredhYo ;01' their y\~ives t\vohusbands. I shall hardlr ineline to eal!. under- one roof. t\\"O rnen the nanlC of ntthel'; I \\"0"u1d rather "Nith t~heerfulness saInte t\ro \VOlnen the ll:lnlC of u10ther.. This is the quostiorl, and to-nH)rrO\\" it is ttl 1)0 deterrnined.' ;~ His HlfJtJwr. thi.-:. an(l hp she it ft)!" iUl truth. Blor rage enStHqJ. \Vithout ~iny t'urth("1·


96

ILLUSTRArrIONS

ceive hovv he could other\vise be. .I\..BHi\.C is an al)breviatioIl of the '\vord 1\BRACAD.ABI1A. III the days of ignoranee and sUI)crstition, tbat \vard had a rnZlgieal significaltioll; hut the ex!)lt"tnation of it is 110\V lost.s2 w'hiIe the nol>leyonth1 ,vhohadprov(\d hilnaclf lrorthy of his trust ,vas highly cornnlended for his iidclity. '1'0 avoid a like turnult in future, it ,vas resolved, that the CtlStCH11 of introducing the sons of

senators should be abolished. Papyrus, ho\\·evcr, on acconnt of his attachlnent . to his \v'ord, and his discreet policy, \,"as excepted fi'onl this restriction, and ev'crafter\vards freely adIl1ittect into the senatehouse, ,,,here n1a.ny honours \vere conft1.rred upon hirn." The virtue and fidelity of young Papyrus are, inde(~d~,Yorthy of hnitation; but the nlnsol1s have still a tnore glorious in their o\vn~)od'y, of a brother~ aecolnplished in erery art, than forfeit his honour, or betray his trust, fell ~,t sacriflce to cruel hand of a barbarous assassin. 32 ~Il'. IIutchinson, in his ingenious llfasonry: the foIlcHving explanation of u.s it is I here insert in that. L",."l''l , .....''", '.'1,.lnf"

~,

\y~~S n lUlIne

or

the century, g~t"n~ to ,vhc~, said, \vas the three hundecd and sixty-fiv-o.. "The nuthor of tJlis superstition is s:lid to have lived in Adrian.. and tha t it had, its nanlC after c~r denonli'nation \\~hiell 13nsilitles tel the

nnd HEcribed to

Suprerne 'w'ho the

over the in the ll0\Vcl'S1 cn' or nUllH:rieal

ancieut Greek

seven su:ooI,·cfl.na:t,c

:dso. ·'\,·,(! I"" .... t.hl''',·(' hundt'cd existed as enHuHlticH1S of of th(: klttl~rs in the word, aejl:Ol:'(11n~ }Jlade ;JfJ5. A

he~lYen.;;: UJHl

"l i·'•• ·••

1

l"ll"'lnr"H\'fP::.

to \yhorn it narue it sn.fbtr..

the w'earcr deriyerl

'~~I:lH~reis {lCl:)O~3;lt,t\Cl

besil stone. of ill intaglio: '~In

chnreh

the dl'erl and

of

fl'CaH ,,·as enlilS\}(~1·'atI2tl.

God;


97

OF MASONRY.

annotator has taken l1ol1otice of the the art ~vorkil1g 111iracles, and foresaying things to COlne. this \vas certainly not the least inlportant their doctrines; astrology "vas ~tdnlittcd [18 one of tIle arts \\'rhiell taught, and the study it "\vas in former tinles. .. 'l'he ancient T)hilosophers ul1plied ull'\vearied diligence to discover the aspects, l11ugnitudes, distances, lllotions, and revolutions of the bodies; al1d to the pretended to concerning the became a '''lTt",tc:ll-''I::l',')'lI'''''"llo


98

ILLUSTRATIONS

Page 83. WylIe he teche 1118 thay sanle artes?] By the ans\ver to this' question, \ve learn the necessary qualifications vvhich are required in a candidate for ~Ia­ sonry-a good charncter, and an able CHJlucity. Page 8·1-. Dothe all l\iagol1nes kunne nlore then odher ll1enne ?] The ans'\ver only in11)lies, that Masons have a better opportunity than the rest of 111a,nkind to iInpl"ove inusefull\.llovvledge; though a \vant of capacity in SOlne, and 'of application in otllers, obstructs the progress of luany. Page 84. Are J\fagonnes gudder Inen then odhers?] lIasons' are not understood to he, collectively, 1110re virtuous in their lives and actions than other IT1"'en; but it is nn undoubted fact, that a strict conforlllity to the rules of the profession nlay· 111ake thenl better l11en than they othervvise \vould be. Page ·84. Dothe l\fa<;;onnes love eidher odher 111yghtylye as beeth sayde 1J rl'he ans\vet- to this question is truly great, and is judiciously renlarl\.ed ripon by the learned annotat.or. By the ans\vers to the tllree last questions, the objections of eavillers against l\Iasonryare alnply refuted; the excellency of the institution is displn,yed; and every censure against it, on account; of the transgressions of its professo r8, en tirel y ren10ved. j\. bad nlun, if his character be.kno\vn, can rlevel" be enrolled in our .records ;. and should we be unwarilyled to receive an ilnproper object, thenoureIldeavQurs are exerted to refbrm hiul: so that, by being 11 lVlason, it is l)robublehe 111ay beeorne n better subject to his sovexeign, and a 1110re valtlable Inenlber of being.. Finding his ,vay through the palpalJle obscure to the t"'isible diurnal and nocturnal sphere~ he nUlrks the presages a.nd predictions of his happiness or rniscry. 'fhB lnyster-ions and recondi te doctrine of sylnpathies in Nature, is adIllira.Lly illustrated rronltlH~s'ylnpil.thy betw"'een the rnoon and the sea; by which the '\vaters of the oeean art:', in u. eertain though inconceivable rnanner, dra'w'u after that ltuninar..r. In these celestial and tcrr()strial sylnpathies) there is no doulJt. that the vegetable souL of the \,\l'orld tr::tnsfers a specific vir·tue f1'OIu the IW:l.vcns to theelelnents~ to aniInals, and to 11')(,111. If the 11100n alone rules tho world of toaters,\vhat 'effects nHIst tIle cCHuhination of sl>lal"~ stellar, and lunar influences hn,ye. UpOl1 the land? In short, it. is universally confessed, that astrology 18 the luother of astronorn;;; tlln} thuugh the daughter rnay have rebelled against the rllother, it has been predictcdandexpcctcd that thevoIlern.bleauthority of the parent. \vould prevail in the end.


OF MASONRYIt

99

society, than he "1lould have done had he not been ill tIle way of those advantages. '1'0 conclude, irlr. Lock.e's obserY~"Ltions on the '\"\1hole of this curious l11unuseript deserve n, serious and careful exanlination; and though he "\vas not at the time one of the 13rotherhood, he seerns clearly to haye com-prehended the value and irnportance of the sJ"'stenl v\Thicll he endeavoured to illustrate. e rna}r, therefore, fairly conjecture, that the favourable Ql)inion '\vhich lle conceived of the society of l\Iasons before llis adlnission, was sufficiently confirrned after his initiation.

"r


100

ILLUSTRATIONS

BOOK IV.. THE HISTORY OF MASONRY IN ENGLAND, &0.

SECTION I. ltfasonry eat路Z!! -introd1,{.ced -into .E'llgland.-Llccount 0/- the ])ruids.-PTogress 0/ l1fasonry ,in En(glancl untlcr;" tlte Ronu.l1ts.-lllasons highly j'拢l.l:oured by Ait...lllban.

Idstory of Britain, previous to the invasion of the is sOIllixed\vith fhble, as not to a(tcH-d any satisfactory account, either of the original inhabitants of the island, or of the artsprnctised by thenl.. It appears, ]lO\VeVer, ii'onl the vvritings of the best l:ristorians, tlutt they vvere not destitute of genius or taste; and there are yet in being the ren1tdnsof SOUle stupendous \vorks executed by thenl 111uch earlier than tIle tin1e of the RornaIls; which, tll0ugh defaced by tirne, displn.y 110 sInall share of ingenuity, and are convincing proofs that the seience of lVlasonry .was not llnkllO',V'U evell路 in those rude ages. The Druids retained ar.nong the111 111anyusages sin1ilar to those of 1fasons;1 but of vvhat the~y' consisted, at this ren10te l)eriod, 'Vve cannot with cert:lint~y discover. In conforn1ity to the ancient I)ractiees of the l~'raternity, we learn that tl1ey held their assenlblies in ,\'loods and groves,2 and observed t.he lllost inl})enetrable secrecy in THE

ROlna~ls,

1 A路 full description of the Druidical ceremouies 111ft)! lJC found in the lIistory of Initiation, by the Editor.. 2 These sacred groves were usually of oak, lJut, in l\rt~biu, SOU10 of the tribes worshipped'the ACACIA. "J\. tree," says in his pre.. linlinnry discourseto the KOrtlll (sec. I), ':cuJled the l~gyptia.n thorn, or acacia, \~"US 'worshi.pped by the tribes of Ghatfan, nIHl(~l' the ntl.m(~ of .ill Uzza, first consecrated by olle I) hAlclll,\yho built n. chapel over it, called Boss. so contrived as to give a sound \vhen any person entered. I(htded Ebll 'Valid being sent by ~Iohan1.n1ed, in the eighth year of the IIejira, to destroy this idol, denloHshed the ch~tpcl, and


lQl

OF lVIASON.RY.

their principles und orJinions; ~l circulllstal1Ce ,,vllicll ,\;ve have reason' to l~egret, as these, being lino"vn only to thelnselves, 111ust have perished ,vith thenl. 'fhe Druids \vero the Drit~sts of the 13ritons t (~·(·tuls~ and other Celtic natioI18,.L and \vere divided into tllree classes: the Bards, ,vho \vere poets and 1l1usicians, f()rll1ed the first c.lass; the \vho \:vere IH-iests anel l)hy81.ologists, cornposed the second class; and the third class consisted of the Druids, \vho added 1110ral I>hilosoI>hy to tIle stud)T of physiolog·y. .l\s study and sl)eeulation \vere the fhvourite I~ursuits of those I)hilosophers, it hus been sug'gested that they' chiefly derived their of governll1eIlt frCHl1 PjrtlH1gora.s~ 1\l(111)'I' of his and doctrines to ~have been adopted theln.. In their I)rivateretreats, tbey entered int() n. origin, Iavvs, l)ToIler" ties of llHttter, the forIn uHu.rnitude of the nnivers{~, and even venttn'(~d to ~-", the rnost~ stl.blil110 n.l:1d hidden seeret:·~~ these f()rnled a to their diseiples in verse, in orcler tlH~J!' lllight be Inore easily retain(~d in ll'lCnlory; nIH.! aalninistert,~d un oatIl not;· to COIX1[()it to ,vriting. In this nHl,nrH~r the I)ruids COIIU!lU11icuted their particular tenets and. · o f Dlystery' eVt1ry branell of lu;efull\.llo\vledgo ;:3 \vhiel1 tended to secure to burnt it; he also 81c,\" t.he priestess, antI her hands on lier u.s deriv(ld frcun the l'tH)t a:zt:l,

fl~~hf·'~·f·UPfL

people, and the pr,·ci8o nAture

(~or'rcc:tl v UltiorU1C<,1

but 8onH:.~ id(~c\ used in HUll')'"

!)r'lI idj(~al


102

ILLUSTIlA'I'IONS

their order universal ac11niration and r"espect, \>vhile the religious instructions proIH]gated b~y thell1 \vere every 'Vv here l'cceived ,vi th reveren ce and su b ll1issio n. . rrhey vvere entrusted \vith the education of vouth; and ii'onl their senlinuries issued n:lany curious flild valuH bIe 111"0ductions. l\.S judges of lu\v they' deterInined all causes, ecclesiastical and civil; as tutors, tl1eytuught .l)hilosol)hy, astrology, politics, rites~ and cere111onies; and as bards, in their songs they recon1n1end~d the heroic deeds of great ll1en to the in1itation of posterity. '1'0 enlarge on the usages that prevailed 3Inong those ancient philosophers, on \v hich \ve can ol1er at best but l)robable conjectures, \vauld be a needless v,,~aste of tinle; \ve shall therefore leave the 1\1a80n to Inake his O\Vll reflections on the of their to the rites established tlrnong the and to a c1isquisition of otherIHtrticulars Hlldocc.urrellces, \vhich are· bettBr· authenticated, and Illore ·'1't·"\~.'1·"J"··,'1·r··.t"'·l[~r~ ()n the arrival of the Itornans in enees began to flourish. eivilization, I\.Iasonr~y rose tJJat and several succeeded in the as

HIld

this period, the lTra tCi'Ili ty \,vera \valIs, f()rts, britlges, cities, l)ahlCeS, justice, and other \7\"01'k8; but l·especting their .nlode . governlDent, und hlfonnatiun.\vitll reguTd to the and Cllston1S lent al110ng thel11. r:rheir lodges or regula1'l y held; bu t being open to a strIng. \"'dt.h the Il10uth

'with no tub

of ,vat~i'; eaeh throwing fL nut into the that burn bright bet oken prosperi t.r tn the o~:rners year, hut those thatbul'll black, and denot.e Inisfol"tune. the folltn,ving lllorning, tllc stonesar'c f(.)l" in the fi 1'0, and if any

be ll'lissing they betide ill '\vhc> thr(~\v tlH~nl in. Another rern.nant Or.DI'uidimLl superstition, 'with \\·hich ,,"c are \yeU acquainted, as .aU over' ]~Ilghuld: is the gathering of thClnistletoe at nnd tnanyothers, as d~lncing round the l\ln,ypole &c., rnay be traced to the nbcrrn,tiol1a 1'1'ot11 th(~ir doctrincs.'s -I~nI·r~)n. 4 J.\cal'eful

fortHer part,

of Iny lIistory of Initiation, (~olnptl.rcd ,\~ith tIle the present \'itork, \vill sll,tisft1ctorily dctcnlline tbis

point.-l~I)rron.


OF lVIASONRY.

103

legal l*estraints they ,vere under l)rovented tIle l)ublic COllH11unication their l)rivate transaetions. rorhe \V::Lr"S \vhich after\vards broke out bet'~'reen the conquerors (l,nd considerably路 obstructed the progress of Thfasonry so that it eontinued in a very ]ovt state till the tilne t11(~ C~arausillS, bv \VhOll1 it v,,"us reviycd llis 0\,""11 auspIces. IIavin.f! shtl~en of1' the I~on1an yoke, he contrived

1l10St enec~tual rneans to render his iJCrSOIl and governU1ent Hceel)table to the ; a.nel, by asstuning the cllarueter of a he Dcquired the love and esteeIl1 of t,he nlost enlightened part of his fIe poslearned tnen, sessed real l11erit, encouraged learning und hnproved the eountr.y the eivil arb~.. In of(Ier to establish an in.Britain, broug'ht into his OIlS \vorkrnen frOln all of llis "".:"""," ,.. ,.. litv. the first fbEl, .l\InstHls: f~')r their nntl

the

\.I,'J.U.lJ.UJ,,"-

<,.

.A.1barl's,. in }IS. 'whieh 'was destroycci. in 1720. said been in the possession of Niehr)las . Stone, a eul'ious setilptor ecnrtained the fhlIo\\'ing pnrtiellhll's: \\"~C'll.. alld <:~herjshed thern he


104

ILLUSTRATIONS

Hertfordshire), of a noplefan1ily". ,In his youth he travelled to R0111e, ,vhere he served seven years 'under the Emperor DioeJetian. On his return hOHle, by the ext'LlnpIe and persuasio11 of Arnphibalus of Caerleon (UO\y Chester), vvho had uGco111panied hin1 in his tl"HVels, he was cOIlverted to theChristiall faith; and, in the tentll and last persecution of the- Christians, ,"vas bellcadcd A.D. 803. St.. Alban ,vas the first "\7ho sllffered n1art~yraonl forthe Christian religion in Britain, of \vhicll the ,l"enerable Bede gives the follo\ving' account :-The ROl1Jan governor having been infornled that St....t \lban harboured a Christian in his house, sent a party of soldiers to uI)prehend . A.n 1phibalus. St. i\Jban i111111ec1iately· I)ut on the habit of his guest,6 and presented hinlself to the oHlcers.. Being carried before a rnagistrate, he behaved '\v'ith suell I11anlyfreedonl, ftud so po\verfully supf)ortcd the cause of his friend, that lle not only incurred the displeasllre of t}le judg~,but brought upon hinlself thepnnisllnlcut above SI)ccified.. rrhe old Constitutions aHlrrn, that St..A.lban ,,",,us en11)loyec1 by Cnrausius, to erlviron the city of \r erularn with n \v,tll, and to build hinl a sl)lendid that to rc\vard his dili,gerH?c in exeeu til]g the Elnperor appointed hin1 of his household, :tnd chief ruler of the real Ill.. this Illay f1.-orn the eorroborating testitnonies of aneierl't histoi·ians, weare iIrisknigllt \vasn r.I"'"l.f"'\,·~·"··11Mr tect,and a r(~alellcouragel· of able \VOrkIUen; it ca,nnot, therefore, be supposed tbttt ~"'reenlasonrJr\yould ben(~g­ lected under so erninent t1 l''H.1Jtron. ,t....

•. '.,1

6 The gnrrnen t which ..l\lban ''\l'ore upon this oc:eusion \yn,s called a Caracalla; it was a kind of cloke \""ith a CCHYl, the vestnlcntof tlw l!Jewish "\VaIsinghanl ' that it \va;:.; 1"lt"/".;;:jiQ"\'{\I'J ill n. large chest in . church of Ely, \\'hich ,,';as in of Echvunl It! A.H. liU4; and T'lloulas arlother \\Tit£H" equal ttntht.)l·lt.y ;col1Hrnls this relatiun; :uld t.hat there 'was f<:nlnd, with his garrnent, an old \\Titing in these,vords: '·This is Caraealla. ()f St. J\.tnphibalus, the rl"lonk and (Jf St. .Alban; in '\Thieh that pro~',o-rn;lrtyr of :F~ngland sl1Hbred und(~r the crllcl pCI'.sccution or IJiocletian against the Christians."


OF MASONI1.Y.

105

SECTION II.

Hist01-y of J.1fclsonry in England unilerSt. Au~ti71" King Jfllj,j-ed, Ed2ca:rd, ~4tllelsta'l1Ie, Edga,,-, Edu~a'rd tlteL~onjes30r, lVillia,ln the ConqucroT, IIenr!l J~, ~'3tcphen, and Hen1"]J IL; and a2so 'under tlte ](nights 1"'c1nlJZars..

the l.look of OonstitutiollS, edit. 1184, p. 90.

9


106

ILL USTR.ATIONS

Rocllester in 602; St. p[tU 1'8, London, ill GO,l; St. Peter's, Westnlinster, in G05; and InaJ1Y otl1ers~~ Several I) laces and eastles \vere built under his fttlspiees, a~3 \ven as other fortifieations on the borders of the kiIlgdorn, ',yhiel! very considera.bly increased the nrnnber of l\.f'asons in }~11g1an(1. Borne ex})ert brethren, ,vho hac1 ITrclonce in GSO, fOrlYled thenlselves into a Lodge direction of Bt;unet, l\bbot of 'Virral, \vho ',"as soon a ppoin ted py I~enred, king of l\iercia; inspecter of the lodges, and general superintendent. of the l\Iasons. During the I-Ieptarcb}r, 1\Iasonry continued in a 10\y state ; but in the year 856, it revived the patronage of St. S\vithin, \vho\va,s enlployec1 Ethel\volph, the Saxon king, to repair SOUle pious houses; ~~I!d froH1 that tirne it gruduaUv irnprovec1 till the reiQ'n of ~\lti'ed, A.. D. 872, \vhen, in the that l)rine~~, it found a zealous protector.. J\lasonry has .genernlly learn! ng; the p~ttronsalld ,.... ,~,,..IV,,.'\.,\.,\,,;,;,,"_,,.~,} been reIunrkable fbI" forlnel~. ~J 0 prince studied rnore to the understarldilJg'S of one ever provecl u, deftl,t'igable nssiduit.y in exalnple llUd po\vel"t'ul ~!.,I,''''~d".,'.l.'.,('-." and barl)u,rous I11rillnerS . 1.\.8 tllis prinee \VtlS not ,_._, '_'.~ .. rnent to tile Inechanieal pnft of his attention. lIe See the l\Ionasticon _.... ",'.... '..... "'....... lIurne, in his IIistory of thi,..; eelebr:1ted prince: {, A lfl'(路d ll~jUtll1.\... divided his in to thn:e emploYf..'d in and then.~n..'eti(Hl cd' Ids 8

9

anot.lH.'l\ in the

of

~

a rill

tion. rrha t .ho rnore 'lneaSnl'(~ of burning; ()f equal \\'hieh he expedien t to thu.t~ rude the art and tlle tneelul.nislrl of <:10('k8 this r\:~~HlurdistI'ibutionof thnl'. bodily , , intil'lnitim~~ this ll'utl'tial" battles bv sea and laIH1. w'as tt length, tl; rnorc kno'wieclg;e, and c"ven to Inoz'e than lHost. rneu, blessed with grc~1.tcl' leisure tl.ud appIica.tion, have done III rueJre fortuna.te


107

OF 1\!ASONltY.

industrious foreigners to repeol'lle his country, vvhicl1 had been desolated the ra\!ag'es of the Danes, and introduced ,lnd eneournged rnanufttetul;es of all kindsaInong tl1cnl. No inventor or itnprover, of Hny ingenious art, did he suHer to go unre\val"ded; and he Dl)pror>riated a seventh part of his revenue HHlintain a nlllTlbor of \vorkrnen, vVhOIl1 he constantl~y ern[)Ioyed in rebuilding his ruined cities, palaces, and 1110nasteries. 1"'he University of 0 xford \vas founded hv 1lirn . ()n the of .i~Jfrcd in 900, Ed\\rard succeeded to the thrOlJe; during \vhose reign the l\lasons contirl1.1ec!' to

hold their Lodges uuder the sanction of Ethred, his sister's hughand,

his brothel", to

~\lholn

the

11""raternitv had hef~n intrusted.. Ethel\varcl ,vas a prinee of iellrning, an able arebiteet: 11(; cure of

founded the l<{~dv~'nrd died in

his ~la,son8.

of C~n,lllbridge. nnd \vns succeeded b)J" 1\the1stalH~ lti~ brotll(~r }:d\"!.'irl I)u,tron of n eIlll rter

the ~H路ln(路ll'jfl路!4.

whcl"eun it is

A thcllst:lkne f()l' the ~la::HJns ; ~wns a,ncicl1tly expressed),


108

ILLUSTRATIONS

Athelstane kept llis court for SOI11e ti.n1e at York,where he received several eU1bassies frorn foreign princes, '\vitll rich presents of various kinds~IIe\vas loved, honoured, and a,dtuiredby all the I)rincesof l~urol)e,· \vho conrted 11is friendship and alliance.. IIe Vlas 11, rnild sovereign, a kind brother, and a true friend. 'rhe only blernish \vhich historians find in'his'\vll01e reign, is tije sUPI>osed 111urder or a freedonl and po,\ver to regulate thernselves, to {unel1d ,,:-hat might happen amiss, and to hold a yearly con1IDunication and general assembly. . ' "That; accordingly, Prince Edvvin sununoned all the l\Iusons in the r~alnl to meet him in a congregation at York, \v ho caUle and cou1posed a general Lodge, of ,vhich he "l'as Grand l\luster; and having brought '\ivith them all the "rl'itings and records extant. SOHle in (:treek~ SaIne in Latin, SOlne in ]french, and other languages, frOtH the c011tents .thereof that assenJbly did fruIne the Constitution und Charges of all English Lodge, Inude ~1 ht\y to pI'eSeI~Ye and observe the' sanlC in all ti111C .cOIning, .andordained good.pa.y for \yorking l\lasoI)s,"&c. Fl"Onlthisera ,ye date the re-cst~tblishrnent. of FrcenU1S0l1ry in I1}ngland. 1'here is at present a Grund Lodge of l\Iasons in tIle' city of' Yprk,\yho' tra;cc their existence ft'OUl this of Echvin's charter, it is said, aU the l\fasons in vened at a general assclnbly in that city, \yhere general or !!:7 a'lul Lodge tor their future O'j'"1't~.::'l··""I')(,ll,t patronage and jurisdiction of this G·rallcl teI'l1ity considerably increased; and persons \vho had beep initiated inte) that Grand A.ssClnbly~ Bll't, as the events tirncs ,,·(~re various and fluctuating, that assembly w"as 1110r(~ or less resp(.~ctnble; and, in proportion as ?fasonryobtn.ined .its influence was rnorc Q:r les8 . extensive.. ·'rho .appellation' of is ,,·C'11 known in I relandandScoth\ud; ~l.nd the that the brethrol1ofth.n.ta!)peUatioll originn,ted ~tt frhis carries. vtithit 801110 InarksofconfirUlfttion; scnt of Ed\vin. ,. 'There is every reason to believe that 1·ork seat of rnasonic" gOyernluent in this tended to claiIll it.; and the \vholc universally ackno\vledgod allegia.nce to the but. v'dl(~ther the present asso(~it\tion in that gia.ncc) is a subject of inquiry ,vhieh it is gate. fro thatassClnhly recourse Inust llluch, ho\vover, is certain, that if n 'VilS held there, ( of \vhich thert; is Httle records and constitutions, as it is said to hnve Blizabeth's tiu1C:) there is llO . cvidenee of its other place in the· kingdom; and upon that York mar probablyclahn the privilegcof aSE;Oclmtllng A nUlllber of respectable Dlcetings of the been convened at sundry thnes in different parts of ... ,\\"e calluot find an instance Qn record, till 3. ycry .oIAAj.;,.UI.A.l\..(


109

Oli"" MASONRY.

of hi~ brother Edwin. This youth, who v;.ras distinguished for his virtues, having died tvvo years before his brotIJ.er, a fitl13e rellort ,vas spread, of his being wrongfully put to death hy hinl. But thjs is so impl"ohaille in itself~ so inconsistent \yith the clluracter of .i\thelstane, and, indeed, so slenderly attested, as to be undeserving a l)lace in 11istory.11 fJ..eneral nleeting (so called) being held in a.llY other place beside York.

To' understand this matter more clearly, it nlay be necessary to a.dvert to the original institution of that assenlbly called a Ge'neral Qr

Grand Lodge. It was not then restricted, as it iSllo\\r understood, to be) to the1\Iusters and "\iVardens of private Lodges, ,V'ith the Grand :.\Iaster and his w'nrdens at their head; it eonsisted of 118 nlanyof the Frnternity at large, as, b~ing ,vithin n. convenient dist.ance, could attend, once or twice in :.1 :rOil!". under the auspices of one general head, w"ho ,vas the thne bod~l.

eleet(;~d andinstallt~d nt

rl~he

of cert~1in

one of these rneetings; a.nd w'ho~ fOl· recc.. iv('(l as the sCJle of the \\"hole of conflning privileges or by a "'!HTant certain iIHlivi(luals conv('ned on certain davs at then no existence. Tht're 'wns but one 1b.rnily

:uul every l\Inson \vas a. branch. of that, 1ttnlily.. It is of the diflbrent dt.. grc(~s of the Order n.h\fnys CClllnetnbcrs of the Fraternity ;\Yho, Recording to their adYfLllCeUlent in tile art, ,,,"ere u'llthot'izCf! by tlll~ n:ncient charges to ass(!tnble . and rule :rt thldr w'ill. . discretion, in such ~lS bes t . tht·ir. u,nd 'W hen so· ussenl bled, to reel~h'e and deliver instructions the but aHtbe tribute froID these and colleetiYely. rested ultinltltclv in the Gen".~rnl Assernbly~ to whieh nll the floaternit}: tuight repair) an(l to alUOn()'

true. thu trccf in

,,"'hose n\\"a.rd all ,ycrc bounrl to pay sublnisslon. 11 The excellent writer the life of King .Athelstn,nc* has given so clt~ar and :t "rio\\" of this {~v('nt. that the l'eaflcr cannot receive grenter than in th~lt ftuthor's own \v()J'ds: ~"l.rhe !~d\\~in)s death is n point the lIlOSt. (}bscure Ule story'of and to sn..y the truth, not on(~ eV(~ll of our historians hath clonrls, or· vdth due nttt'ntion,C(lrlCerning 'rbe fact us receiv(~d,isthis: 'l'ht) king,sllspcctinghie j'oungcl' " brothel·, Ed'W'in~ of deslgningto(h:·lwiv(~hhn of hiscro,,-u,causcd hinl, no h\r ithstnnding his pt'otest.athH16 of· inlH)e(i,nOr~ to l)c pnt on boartl u len.ky \vith his and pug(~. The :young unable. to th(~ tl.nd ,,"un t ()f f~,.H)(]~ tl(\ST)(~rnt(:I\1'

or

*'

lliog. Brit., "01. 1., p. 63, 1st

t~di.t~


110

ILLUSTRATIONS

The activity and princely conduct of Edwin qualified him, in every respect, to preside over the l\Iasons \\7ho '\vere enlployed under hilll in repairing and building 111a.ny churche~ and superb edifices, \vhich had beell destroyed by the ravages of the Danes, and other invaders, not only in the city of Yorl(, but at Beverle)r, and o.ther places. On the death of Edvvin, Athelstane undertook. in person the direction of the Lodges; anel under his sanction the art of lVlasonr3T \vas 11ro11ugatec1 in peace and

security. When Athelstane died, the l\fasons dispersed,···and the Lodges continued in a very unsettled state till the reign his brother had been fa.lsely accused, caused his cup-bearer to be put to ft, cruel death, endured hitnself seVE'n years' sharp penance, and built the tw·o nlonastcries of l\liddleton and ,jIichelness, to atone for this base and bloody act.."* Dr... llow·el, speaking of this story, treats it as if vei"y indifferently fbunded, and, on that account nn\yorthy of cl'cdit:f' Sin1(lOn of I>urluan and the Saxon Chronicle sav no lIlore than t,ha t Edwin \vas drow'nell by his brother's eonl1naild in the year 1)3:3.; Brornpton places it in the first" or~ at farthest, in the second year of his reign: and he tells us the story of the rotten autl of Lis punishi ng the cup-bearcl'.§ 'Villianl of l\lahusbuI'y, ,,,ho ,'('cy eil'culnstantial, says he only tells us 'w'ha t he heard :Ii but l\latthc\v the Flo\vcl"Mga thc:l·(..lr1'[ stulnps the w'hole down us an indubitabk~ truth. Yet th(~sc discordant da tes arc not to be aec()unted fOl". If \\tns dro\vued in the second he could not be aliv<.1 in tho tenth yeatthe king; the first is the more proba.ble date, beca,use .ahotlt thllt thue there certainly \\~~lS a conspiracy against I(ing Athelstane, in order to dethrone hinl, anfI put out his eyes; yet he did not put the author of it. to death it likelYt then, that he should order his brother to be thrcrwn ihto sea upon bare suspicion 1 But the reader U1USt rernelnber~ that we cite the snlno historians \,·ho have told us this story to In'ove that .A.theIstane \yas unaniIl10usly ackno'\vledged king, his brethren IJeing; too to goverll; one w'ould think, then, that could not (H;;: old to conspire.. If "le take the second \vhole story is t1p~~h-iVVfl'fl the king could not do seven years' pCll:lnee 1 for he did not lh'e 80 and as for the tale of the cupMbearer, and his stullibling; at tll{.~ table, the same story is told of Earl God\viu, ,vho Inur~:Iered the ther of l~d\,~ardthe Oonfessor. Lastly ~ nothing is clearer frolH histOI'..'r, than that Athelstane \vas reu1arkably kind to his brot.hcl'S and sisters, for whose sakes he lived single, a.nd therefore his brother had less tenlptatioll to c01l8pireag~Linst hitH. Speed's Chronicle, hook t Gdl. Hist., P, he·•• c. 2.• i: Simeol1 Dunehn" p. lu,t § Chronict'Hl.• p. 82g. n Do Guest" It. A. lib. ii. 'I! Ma.tth. flodh~J:.

-If.

chap. 39.


O:B"MASONRY.

l11

of Edgar in \vhen the Fraternity'- \vere again collected by St. DunstaI1, under ,vhose ausI)ices tlley were enlployed on sorne IJious stl~uctures; but it ,does not apIlear that Inet \yitll any en couragel11ent. rCHTlained in a lo\v con~ 1041, it revived under \17ho superin-

try,

'Vh0111

The Aljhevof

by

finished ",Villianl the England ill 11o~'hester,


112

ILLUSTRATIONS

of the king's yvorks, acted as his deputy.

Under the

auspices of these t\:vo nrtists, l\fasonry flourished in England during the reluainder of this and the following

reign.

SECTION III. Histo1"Y of Mason'ry in England, durin,g the Reigns 0/ Henry III., "Edu'ard I., Ed'wa,1"d II., Edu'ard Ill., RichaTd II., Henry IV., Henry V., and IIen'ry VI. ON the accession of Edvvard I., .A.. D. 1272, tIle care of the lVInsons "vas entrusted to \'lalter Ciiftirrd, .A.rchbisho}) of York; Gilbert de Clare, IDarl of Gloucester; and Ralph, Lord of ]\fount I-Ierrner, the progenitor of the family qfthe Montagues.. l'hese architects superintended ,the finishil1gofWestrninste1" Abbev, \vhiell, had begun in 1220, during the rninority IIel1ry" III.. 1'110 collegiate chapel of estnli nster, in 110nour of St. Stephen, \vas begun to be rebuilt by I(ing }~dv~~an.l; at which the nIasons \vere ernployed rnore tl'H111 t\yO

"r

yeal"s.. J2

of

'l'hat the b\lilding of this chaI)el \vas C01111)leted \ve are not inforllled; l)ut vve learn fl"OlnSto,\ve, tlHtta great fire broke 9ut in the Jesser hall of the rO}ia1 Indaee at Westrninster, which eonlnlunic~tecl to the adjoiniI]g monastery: andconSUllledthe \vhole. It does not appear that the buildingV\1H.s restored during this l'eign, the wars in Seotland, in \vhici~ the king \vas not :1110\17' hirn leisure to rene\v llis labours; nor sufficient "\vealth to carrv on sueh [l> \~lork. In the reign of l~cf"rard II.. the:F'raternity' \\7ere employed in building Exeter, and Oriel Colleges, ()xford; 12 In ,the Exchequer rolls is preserved a curious tlcConnt of i;JXpenSes incurred on thnt occasion. It appears, thut the tho carpenters ,\",as5a.; thu.t of the other workrntHl 2·~d. .Although the \vcekly w·cl·ebut triHiull' the \"\'"ho1e \va~ consider~~ble.. 0' rl'lhornas of CanterbuI'y, l\!aster~;rllson, is supposed to been the principal architect; UJld IIugh .dc St..l\.lbnns, ~Lnd John de Cotton, werethechit::fpuinters, and had the highest "W~lgcS, viz., fL shillings, day.. -EDITQR.


113

OF l'tIASONRY.

Clare-hall, Canlbridge; nnc1nHlny other structures; under the auspices of "T(.llter Stullleton, Bishop of Exeter,\vho had appointed (jruud l\Inster in 1;.~07. ltIaS()llry flourished in l~:ngland during reign of Ed\vard III., \;II·ho becarne the

of seience, and the

TIe applied \vith indci:ltigable assiclu i tv to the of the ; revised and Ineliorated the .f\.neient (~harg'es, and added" useful regu lations to the original (~o(le la\\'rs.13 lIe patronized the I...Iodges, and al)pointed five deI>uties under 11irn to inspect the proceedings of the Fraternity; viz. 1~~" John de Spoulee, '~'rho'rebuilt at, \\¥indsor1 enCOU1"Hger of

13

.A.n oldl'eeord of the

~.,,~;.~,L ••

',._.,_.__

"In the 1001'0

consent

..... ', ....".,.•• ,.,_ (Jf

Ultlsters

"'ll'llfl'll'l'lfl"

or

to' serve

honour hH'ds; for

and


114

ILLUSTRATIONS

where the order of the garter ,vas first instituted, A.D. 13liO; 2. ",Villianla Wykehanl, after\vards bishop of Winchester, "Vvho re..b uilt the castle of 'Vindsor, at the llead of 400 Freenlasons, A.D. 1357; 3. Robert a Barnhaln, who finished St. George's Hall 3Jt the head of 250 FreeIUUrsons, \vith other . worl{,s in the castle, A.D. 1375; 4.. I-Ienry Yeuele, (called in the old records the !Cil1g's FreeInason,) who built the Charter House in London; King's hall, Can".lbridge; Queensborough Castle; andrebl.lilt St. Stephell's Chapel,14 Westll1inster; alld 5. Simon 14 On the 27th of ~Iay, 1330, in the 4th year of Ed,vard III., the works of this chapel were recolnmenced. Fronl a charter presel,,"'ed in the Tower of London, it is evident that this chapel \vas not finished for several years. In this charter, the motives \vhich induced l{.ing Ed,,'"ard to rebuild and endo'w it, are expressed ,vith peculiar elegance and neatness. On the 1st of Ja.nuary, 1353, he granted to theDe~tn and Ou,nons of this collegiate chapel a spot of groulld, extending to the rrluunes, ,vhereon to build cloisters; he 'also Inade a grant of SOIne houses in the neighbourhood,. and vested several Inanors :u,n- the cndow'tnent ~f the.路 college in John, Duke of L~tncnster, as trustee. rl'he college of St. Stephen was -valuec1 at its suppression at .1085l. lOs. 5d.; and 'was surrendered in the first year of ]~{hva.rd 'VI.. The chapel 'W'us after\vards fi ttecl up for the Ineeting of the House of COln111ons, to whose use it has ever since been appropriated. 'l'he follo\ving account of the plan and orIHlIllonts of this chapel~ \vhich, inconsequence of SODle pr(~ccted alterations in the IIouse of 001111110118, have late}}"', after a lapse of ages, been unveiled, lllU,Y be considered as curious and interesting; as there is no contemph\tion that iInparts a higher degree of satisfllctioll_ thAll that which presents to the mind images of ancient and departed splendonr. rrhc eastern part of this chapel serves for the IIotlse of COllUllons_ and the . western is occupied by the.lobb,Y', and adjoining rOOll1S and offices. In the latter, there are no traces of any enrichments; hut in the forlner are. the relnains of the altar, stone-seats,nnd other rich \vorks.. The elevation of the ,vestern front, or entrance to the chapel. presents these observations. Fronl the gr(~und line in the centre rise tw路o arches~ supporting the open screeu. On the right of the screen is the elltl'ance into the porch 3,c\joining, w路hich is the wnlI of the Court of Requests. On the left is a space~ corresponding once, it lllay be presumed,lvith the perfect side of the screen extending to the south "vall of the hall. l\.bove the scrt~en. BODle remains of thec(;~ntre building are still visible. On the south' front, the centre ,,"indo,\v is c01l1plete; .five othersarefLlled up ,\"it~l the brick-~vork bet\YCQl1 the windovrs \vhichat present light the IIouse of Conunons. rrhe buttresses are entire, as w'ellas the trueing in the spandrels of the arches. On the east front, froln the. ground line, ",'ere three vdudo~~'s of the cht1nCe 1, the cas t windo\v of W' hieh is 110"V fined up.. r,}'he btlttr~sses are entire, as well as the octn:ngular towers. On .the right is pnrt of all ancient \vall, which now belongs to the Speaker's house. ()n the east eud were three ~tindows frolu the ground of the chancel; over


OF lVIASONRY.

116

Langhanl, abbot of Westminster, who rebuilt the body of that cathedral as it l1owstands. At this l)eriod, the groins are part of the renlains of the altar; and on each side stone-seats, and clusters of colulnns~ the capitals of which rise to the present ceiling of the Ilonse of Oon1mons. 'rhe ,vhole is of the . ricbest workrnanship. On the south side, from the grounclline in the centre, is a perfect ·w'indo\v, painted with the arms of Westminster. On the left of the chancel are clusters of colulnns; on the right side of the left clusters is the eastern window, and without is the profile of the buttresses. .i\.t the east end of the column is an open part; to the right is the chancel, and the bases are t\VO feet below the pavement, '\vhich shows that there must have been a great ascent to the chancel. The whole of the undercroft is perfect, excepting the bases of the outer columns, and forms a flne superstructure of gigantic support to the light and delicate. parts above. In the inside you behold the east '\vindow,the altar, and the stone-seats, which. are broken through. 'l'he clusters of colunlns, the hnpostsof the windo,\fs, thearche8~ the spandrels, the entabla.ture, the beautiful proportion of the windo\vs. nnd the enriclunents of the ,vhole, crowel 011 the sight, and fill the Illind w'ith 'w"onder and adrniru.tion. .t\.t the upper end of the chapel, near the altar, on the south side, there are c'vidcntly the rmnains of ~ black luarble IIlonunlent; but to \\"'"hose nl€Ulory it \vas erected, 'W'C 3.re left to conjecture. Oyer the rnonUUlent are three angels, standing upright, ,,"'ith their ·w"ings hnjlf-e:xpal1ded~ and covered with golden

eyes, such as are 011 .thepeaco(:k's tail. r:rhe se. paintings, \\l'hichmust have been d()ue in the reign of Edwu.rd III., are 1brtha.t period, when the nr'tofpainting ","as in its infancy, wonderfully· ,,,"!'ell executed; the colouring has preserved aconsidel"able portion of its original freshness. 'l'he expression and attitude of the angels are singularly interesting. You Inay suppose the body of the deceased stretched before theIn, the three angels are holding pans or ll1antles before them, which theJT are preparing to thro'\v oyer the body, and at the saIne tinlC the one in the mid.dle seems to sav, "Behold aU that remains on earth of hitn \\"ho ·W·tlS once so lIlight;:r ! ,r ,~thile the countenances of the tviTO others are epxressive of regret and comnliseration. The stretched-out pall in the hands of the centrnl angel is powdered oYer\~rith the irradiated gold circles, in the nliddle of which. are spread-eagles \\""ith t,vo hea{ls. This affbrds rOOIIl for a. supposition \vhose the tonlb lVl1S: the arm 0'" ria.! henrings of Peter of Savoy, uncle to Queen}'1Ieanor,. the wife of Henry III., wrho beautified thecha.pel,cOllsistedof an ea.gle with two heads: but his shield disphtj"'ed "Or, an eagle) '\vith two heads. ~;able.)' No\v us the eyes of the peacock's tail a.re painted in gold, so different froln the natural colouring, it is not improbable, that for the sake of a.dding elegau~e to the p~iU, the ~a.inter pr~ferrecl repre~el1ting the eu.glE;1's hC1td In gold rather than In s~l.ble; It Iuay, therefore~ be the tOlnh of St. l)eter of So.yoy tl.Utt \ve are descril)ing. Ontbe left side of tho altar is it pain Hng of th(~ ll.doration of the shepherds. 'l'hough the group is not disposed in the Inost. accurate style of design., yet there is something in it '\vhich highly interests the itna.gination; the ''''irgin on one side is described holding the neW-bOI'11 infant, while fJoseph. isextel1ding the swaddling clothes. 1'he cattle behind are not ill expressed; and the devotion ·of the shepherds with


116

ILLUSTRATIONS

Lodges 'Yvere nUl11erous, and the COll1n1UlTications. of the Fra,ternity ,vere held under the 11roteetion of the c.ivil ll1ag-lstrate.

iiichard II.. succeeded his g;randfatl1er I~d\vard III. in 1377, and'Villia.lna ",Vykel1ulll \~laS c.ontinuec1 Grand I\faster. I-Ie l"ehuilt Winchester-hall as it no\y stands; and elTIployed the Jj"'raternity in building' Nc\v-College, Oxford, and vVinchester-CoIlege; both of \vhich he founded at his own expense. Henry, Duke of Lancaster; taking advantage of Richard's absence ill Ireland, got the parliarnent to depose llin1, and l1ext year caused hinl to be 111urc1ered. Having their flocks is very a,ppropriutely delineated; the shepherd's l)oy~ hlo,ving the double flutes to his dancing ~l.nd the fighting ranls', seen} but ill to accord \vith the subject; but, as the painter has placed. th.eu} 'without the stable, perhaps the inconsistency Inny be overlooked. rl'hert~ Ul'cscycrul pt\iutings on the side of the altar: theyuppear to figures of different kings tlnd quC(;nlS~ tolerably \\"en dt:t\,"n, n.nd in good proportion", and strongly rnark the dUrtlbiIit~J" of the colouring of tlUtt <.hty. On the nOt,th side of the ehnpt:l there nre of men in al'tnour; bene-nth t\~,ro of thcln nre the IltUnes of" and liJustacc. In shortt the \Yhole of the architecture and enrichll')(~nts~ coloul'~ and gilding~ nrc extrelnely fresh and ~'vcll It is rernarkablc. that the colours nre decorated wi th n of and scyern.l of the 1110uldings n,re filled up with ornanlents so that those of the spa.ndrels and ground enta.l.)laturc could hardly have been perceived fronl the chapel.. 'rhe blockings and frieze of the entablature o\"cr tln.,l')vindo\'rsof the chapel, contain, sonle of dlcul,'lcu:res find others rnasl\:s, and others shields, with thearrns of ]~dward the Uon1t~ss()r. \ ':·PHP'lrlllt". :rvIallde\'iHe,~lndBruyerc,-thenrzllsof Castile and Fl"allce:-thearms.of t.he kingdom of the 'Vest, Saxons-ville lC~lV(\S HInd gl·tlpes~ supported by a figure issuing out of a (~loud---nJld shields 'with the arlllS of Strabolgi,earls of .Athol~ in and lnu'ons of Chilharn in l{ent, together w'lth the shields of severnl ba.I'ons.

1'hc artist 'sas, doubtless~ desirous that the 'whole \vork should have tll(~ stnne attention) ftnd that unifornl blaze of In:lgn1111eelH~e a.nd splendour should shine this ultra of the tl.rts, \vorthy tIle saint 'whose IHunc it founder ·Edw~nI"d Ill., the great patron of nr(;tHte(~tUl'e. So\reral clu'iousfragulcnts of the diseovercd on tho ,'''a.Ils vi' this chapel haveb(;~(~n preScl1tcd the of .A.ntiql1n;x'ies; of' \vhich body a conunittee \vas appointed to superintend the cxeeution of dra\vingsofal1 (~urious rcrnnins that have l)('en bronght to light by the late altera.tions in this .celebrated old Ut4j:.lU1U~.•

'*** Since the above description ''''':18 'writt.en, this l)eautifnl specimen of ancient nUlsonry has been entirely destroy(~d b.y n. devastating fire, \vhich occurred on the 16th of Octt.)ber, 1834.


117

OF l'vIASONRY.

supplanted his cousin, ·11e n10unted the throne by the nan1e of fIenry IV., and appointed Thomas Fitz-Allen, Earl of Surrey·, Grand l\Iaster. After the fUlTIOUsvictory ofSbre\vsbury, he founded Battle-a,bbey and Fotheringay; and in this reign the Cfuildha11 of London \vas built~ '1'he king died in 141a, and Henry V. succeeded to the CTO\Vn; \VhCll lIenry Chicheley, Archbishop of CanterbUfJr , obtained the dii·ection of the Fraternity, under \Vh088 auspices Lodges and cOl11munications \vere frequent. I-Ienry VI., a TI1inor, succeeding to the throne in 1422, the parliaU1ent endeavoured to disturb the J\:lasol1s,by l,assing tIle follo\ving act to prohibit theirc,llupters and conventions·: g IIen.\!I., eap. 1., ~f.o:\.SO:N s .~ltall

not

COJ} fCtl[!rale

A.D.

1.425.

in (JlullJter8 o'r

Congl·e2°ations.

congregations and confedertheir generaJ assell1b lies, the good course and eflect of the sttttutes of labourets be openly violated and bro.k€l1,in subversion of the luw; and to the great danluge of all the comn10ns; our sovereign Lord the I\:.ing, v~'illing in this case to providea.reuledy, by the ndviee and consent aforesaid, and, at the slleciul of the C~on1nl0ns, hat.h ol"dained anel estab lishecl snell chapters and congregations shall not be hereafter llol(h~n; nral if St~ch '-he Inude, they tllat cause suell OJld eongr€~gations to be assen1 bled and holden, thereof be cotlvict, shall l)e judged 101" felons: ntHl otherl\IasollS thu"t corne to su(.~h chapters or eongregtLtlouS he IJunishedby ilnprisonlllent of their and rnake fine andransonlo at the king's

\vilL"l.5 U J rulge C(Jko gives the foll<nving opinion <?Il thi~ statute: " AU the statutes In bour<::l"8 before tins act.. and 'Nbere... unto this net dt)th :.lre: by the statuto of 5 Eliz.,cap. 4, about, ; w herelt)' th(~ ernlse and ena ulaking· this act . . is and cOllsequ(mtly the u,et is h(~corne of nOf()1"C~;Ce$8a11Ie 'rfltitnu: C/:'S,sllt 'il)Sfl le~r .. and the iudi(~,tlnont()f" fclon! upon the

or

eontaill, rrhut cJlu.pt~}r8 and 'CQngr(~gn.hous are to violating and br(.~nkiIlg(}fthe good c()urse· and eftect of the statutes of lab()ur(}rs; ,vhie.h no,,'- eannot be so alleged, because these &tatutes

statute tlH~


118

ILL USTRATIONS

This act ,,"vas never put in force, nor the Fraternity deterred froll1 asSelllblil1g, as usual, under Archbishop Chicheley, \17110 still contintled to preside over thenl. 16 Notwithstanding this rigorous edict, the effect of prejudice and 111alevolence路 in an arbitrary set of ll1en, Lodges were forrned in .diflerent 11arts of thel\.ingdo111, and tranquillity and felicity reigned anlong the Fraternity. As the atte111pt of parlianlellt to suppress the Lodges and C0111nlUnicatiol1s of J:\fasol1s renders the transactions of this period vvorthy attention, it ll1ay not be inlp ro11er to state the cirCU111stances \vhich a.re supposed to have given rise to this harsh edict. The Dul~e of Bedford, at that tin1e Regent of the ltingdon1, being in France, the regal po\ver \vas vested in his brother Hun11)hre~y', Duke of G"loucester,17 ,vho \vas styled Protector and guardian of the kingdonl. The care of tIle young king's person and education ,vas entrusted to be rel)ealec1. rrhcrefore this 'w'ouId ho pat out of the charge of justices of the peace. "-INsTrru'l'Es, I>art III.. , fol. 19. It is pla.in, fro III the ahove opinion, that tbe above aet, though never cxpr(~s81y repealed, cun have no force at present. 'rho l\Iasons llln.y rest very quiet, continue to hold their nssPlnblies, and propagate their tenets, as long as a confonnity to tJl(~ir prOf(188ed prineipl(~s (~ntitles theln to the sanction of g()verrunellt. l\Iasonry is too w"ell know'u in this c.ouutry, to raise any suspicioll in the Ipgislatllre. Th(~greatest personages h~1 va pr(~sidcd over the Snciety; and Undt~l" t,h<"ir nuspi(~ious goV'(~r.xlnlent, at <1iff(1rent thnes, ltll Uc.(luisitlOll of .patrol1s, both great and nobl{,~, has heen, ultule. It \vould therefore be absurd to iluaghle, that .any legal路 att.elnpt will ever he llul.c1e to <1isturb. the p(:~ace and harmony of a路 Society so trl1.ly respe(~tal)h~, und so highly honoured. 10 The Latin Register of 'Villirun l\Iolart, prior of Cantt~rbury,.in nlanu.script, page Hd, entitled, U I.Jiberatio generali:5 Dnrnini Guliehni Prioris Ecclesit'e Christi Cc.Lntuarit"nsis, erga Pest urn N atalis DOluini, 142H," inforuls U8, that in the year 142~), during the Ininority of this prince, it l'esp(~etaJ)lG !.I()(lge was held at C1intQrbury, uIH.ler the pntronngc ()f Flenry Chicheley, the tll'chbi~hop; at w'hich n~erC present TI10111tlS Stnpyltc)n, the JIaster; John l\Iorris, eMS/OS de fa lodp;e lathontorurn, or 'warden of the Lodge ofnlasons; with fift'<'!cn fello"\\1'-crtlits, andthree(~llterea upprelltice's; ull of whrHn are particularl v IHllned. j'i~' 'This prince is sait} to huv(~ r(~ceived a 11101'0 learne<1 (~aucnti()ll than 'was usual in his llgO, to hu.vet<Junded 0110 of the first pul.lio libral"ies ill England, and to lHtv(~ hEH.;~n u groti.t patron of HHu'rH:1d Inon. If!~ho records of the S.ociety Ina.y b(~ relied on, wo havo reason to belu;~ve thn.t IH~ 'was pa.rtiCularly attachHd to tht) l\Iasons; ~u1ving been adlnitt(~tl into their Order, and tts$isted nt the initiu.tioll of }{iug Henry in 1442


OF MASONRY.

119

Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Wincllester, the duke's uncle. The bishop was a llrelate of great capacity and experience, but of an intriguing and dangerous character. As be aspired to tIle sole governnl€nt of affairs, 11e had continual disputes with his ne11he\v, the l)fotector, anclgained frequent advantages over the vehenlent and impolitic tenlper of that prince.. Invested \vith po\ver, 118 soon began to sho\v his l)ride and haughtiness, and wanted not follo\vers al1c1 agents to auglnent his iDfluen~e.18 The ani1110sity bet\veen the uncle and nepheV\"'" daily increased, and the authority of parlianlent "vas obliged to inter}10se. On the last day of April, 1425, the parlia111ent 11let at Westnlinster. The servants and fo1lo\vers of the peers conling thither ar111ed \vith clubs and staves, occasioned its being narned TIlE BAT'r PARLIAIVIEN'r. Several la\vs \-:v"'ere Inade, and, a1110ng the rest, IS In a parlirunent held at 'Vestminster, on the 17th of November, 142a, to ~ln8\\l"er a particular end, it w"ns ordained, "That if any person, ccnrllnitted. fbr grand or petty treason, should wilfully break out of prison, und esen,pc froI11 thH saIne, it sh()ul~l he decIned petty treason, and his goods be fc)rfeitod. "~ .l\.botlt' tbistinle, one William I{iIlg, of \Votnolton, in Yorkshire, servant of Sir Robert Scott" lieutenant of the 'rower, pretend(ld that he bad. been offered by Sir J o11n ~IortiIner, (cousin to the lately deceased· Ed\vard ~Iortimer, Earl of 1\.Iarch, the nearest in bloocl to the English .cro\vn, and then a prisoner in the rr(f\ver,) ten pounds to buy hhn clothes,with forty pounds tl-yc>,ur, l111el to be lnade tin earl, if he woulc1 assist ~lorthnerin Inaking his escape; thatl\Iorthl1er said, he would raise ,10,000 lnen on his enlargernent, ana. ,vould strike off the heads of the. lich Bishop of '\Vinchestcr,. the Duke of Gloucester, and. others. This felltHv undertook to prove upon oath the truth of his ussertion.A short thnc after, a SChell1€1 ,vas f()rlnedto cut off n.!ortitller, and an opportunity soon·. offer(~d to curry it into (~XpcutiOll. Jt.lortilner· being penni tted one dlLy to walk to the 'l\n\"er wharf, was suddenly pursllcd, s(loi:i~ed, brought back, accus()dof brao/king out of prison, n.nd of nttelIlptirlg his eseape. 110 '\vnstried ; and the evidenee of ICing IH:dllg adrnitted, was convicted, agret~ably to the late statute, und nftfll;;vards belH~aded. 'rho death of ~,rortilner occasione<1great, Inurn1uring. and c1i8conte~t nlnnng the people, and threa.t~ned a speedy sUbV{~r81()n of those In Po\\,,(.'r'.l\lany hints W(.lre thrO\Vll out, both in public t.Llld private nss(nn,bli(~s, of the fatal consequences \vhicb \Vt:re (~xpected to succeed this ~(~uullotion. rrh~ .ttlnazin&, progress it nUl.(le justfy alarmedt~e SUSpiCIOUS of the lunbltl0t18 prelate, \vho slHlred no pams to exert his

p'Qwer on the occasion.

* Wolfets.Ohroniele. pu.blished by Stowe.


120

ILL USTRATIONS

the act for abolishing the Society of1Iasons ;1fl at least, for preventing their assernblies and eongregations. rrheir meetings, being seeret, :lttraeted the attention of the aspiring prelate, \vho deterlnined to suppress thcln. 20 19 Dl:' ..:-\nderson, in the first edition of tho I3001( of Constitutions, in a l1ote, uH1.kes the followinf~ observation on thi~ !tOt.: " 'fhis nct ",vas ll1ade in ignorant titnes, ,vhen true learning was a crime, and goon1otry COl1denlneu for COlljnration ; but it cannot derogate f'rOll1 the honour of the ancient .Fraternity, ,vho, t<) ho sure, would neyer encourage any such confederacy of their w'orking brethren. By tradition, it is believed, .that th~ parliarnc\lltwcre then too n1uch influenced by the illiterate clergy, \vho ,yore not accepted Masons, nor understood nrchitenturo (as tbe of SCHrl'e forlllcr ages), und ,yore generally th:ought un'worthy 11l"()therlH)()d.. 'l'hinkillg they hn.d an indefeasible rigllt tf) klH.nvaU spcl'ets, t>.y virtne of auricular and tho ~Iaso1l5 n(:~\'er thereof,. the :,~nid clergy ,,,"ere ~hifl'hly nwlnt thorn of '\viekodnoss, represent(~d" thern as during that rninoritv, and SC)()l1 influellet:·d the of su(;h suppo~edal'gllnH:nts of tho 'working act that Inight seern to· re'fleet. di::-Jlonour nity, in "WhUt30 favour several acts had period Illude." 2r) '.rhe bi~hop wns di'''t~rtea frcnn his pe-rs·eC1Lltlon an affair in vlhichhe ,\~as rnorr~ of St.. 8itnon aud Jude's day, after rcf,urnetl t<.) the ·'V t'~'3tHliHst(lr, where he usual (:harges of hig;h (IHiee, bo r\.~e(liv(~d t1 sea.ted ft.t dinner, fronl ~{he I)uk~e of Glouc(~stel", l't"~tlUl1'lU!! diatc uttondance. .lIe inUl'lec1iatelyl'('pnircd to tlH1. pa]ae(~; intl".odneod.into thepresenee, the duke c,(Hl1JnRnded hi~; h:n'd~hip t<J ~,eo tha.t the eity 'VttS pr()p<~rly,va,tchea the following night, a~ .1HJ f'X'De~:}te'n Ilia uncle '\voulclendea.vour to lna.l~(~ hin1self nUlstf:r of it by fo1'(:(::, unless SOlne D1cans '\vere adopted to·· stop his ',VIlis COla... llland wa:-; obeyed; and, at nine o'cl~)ck tho lUshop (If '\vith hiB servants and h) (~ntcr the were preventol1 citizens, "Nho repelled thCIU by fm:ee. 'l'his trnc'~:pc~et,e(1 rlLged tho haughty l)l'clate, \vlu) body of arelwrs, and other lllen-at-:ll'll1S, and cOIHlnnn(h~t'l assault thn ga.to \vith shot. rrhe eitizen~: direetl.r shut up and C,l'."()\vded to t.he l.n·id::l:0 in \vhen it. nut for tho \vould eertainly have ensued, tion aud prudrmt adrninistrution of and nl,}(·rnH'u,wlH.) pily stClpt an violent lnen:-;tn·(~.~, and great eifu:~i(t11 (If rrll{~ . Arehb.i8hop of (:~untl(~rburJ' a.nd l)uke of eld(~ht SfH} of thel(in;g' or l\ntugal, with en(1PHV'Oillrf!d to nppeaso the (>f tho t'Vi) , parties! bring abOtlt a ree()neilia.tion between tlH~rn; neither party 'would· yield~ rrh(kY l"odo


OF l'rfASONRY.

121

The sovereign authority being vested in t~e Duke of Gloncestel·, as Protector of the realnl; the execution of the lavfs, and all that related to the civil ll1t1g'istrate, eonla dovL;o to prev0nt further suececded thoir rnediation, and brought the parties to a when it 'was ngl'ecl1, that all hostile proceeding::; 81h"l'uld drop on :-:ides, and the rn:lth~:r be refe.rred to the award "·of the .Duk? of .Bedford; 011 ,vhich \'V"as restored, and the l'cnnruued Iil qtuet. 'rhe l()st no tirne in transu1itting his case to the Duke of Bedfora ; in orae:~ to gloss it. oyer Yvith the best colours, he 'Vl'ote

a.nd

extrernitie~;; ::It

the t"nllnv\;'ll~n' " I~IGIrr and one leIuest [earthly] my heart. ..A.nd as

lord, and

[health],

his ~.·dth

an

tarrv'

Buell rL lnY~iht'i' your ,velfare in grc:nt

1425. '"['his

had. the desired offeet, and

Dllk(~ ()f BedfcJr<l to ary, 1~125-fL Cht the

Alba,n'H, the ;!;")rh hibited, stones hI a

;21 h)

,,:here he arrhr(ld on tho 10th of Janu... li'obruary he held a greRtcouneilat St. 15th of i\larch at Nortillunpton, t1udto Batts and shty·es being IH)'\,V pronH.:rn.bprs of prn'1iarncnt attpndt.~c1 \vith o:f le,~d.. rrhe I) uk:e of I)pdford ernrf'(:~()rlel.LO thl~ I.lHl'ercnees ,vhich \Vin(~hestor ; a~sernhly, that they wished-for peaco U11'llP'(u'anee:s i '¥ UC'(~OIn-

;.. 'I'hi1t he 1l(~V(.~r llnd of the or rllisH o.. r(~belI)tlk.e of Bodford to 80lieit . his settle ull tho~~c dH'f\~relH~('s which W(;lru so pre.. of the killgdoUl: he hn<lhlde(:d he Jrltl the land Vl. ; llo did not lneall

St:ditiotls assenlbli.es


122

ILL USTItATIONS

centred in hinl; a fortunate cirCUll1stance for the l\fasons at this critical juncture. The Duke, l\.l1o"Vving thenl to be innocent of the accusations ,,,11ieh the Bishop of '1Til1chester haid laid against thenl, took tllenl under his protection, and transferred the charge of rebellion, sedition, and treaSOll, frol11 thenl to the bishoH a,nd his follovvers; vvho, he asserted, vvere the first violaters of the 11 ublie peace, and the Inost rigorous promoters of civil discord. The bishop, sensible that his conduct could not be justified by the'la\vs of the land, prevailed 011 tIle king, through the intercession of the parlial11ellt, whose f~vour l1is riches had obtained, to grant letters of pardon for all offences C0I111l1itted by hin1, contrary to the statute of pro visors, and other acts of prrenlunire; and five years after\vards procured al10tber l)ardoll, under the great seal, for all crilnes whatever, froll1 tlle creation of the \\7or1<1 to the 26tll of July, 1437. N ot\vithstanding these l)recautiollS of tIle cardinal, tIle Duke of Gloucester dre\v up, in 1442, fi-esh articles of iUll1eachrnent a.gaiIlst hirn" and present.ed thenl in I)erson to the king; earnestly entreating that judgrnent lnight be Iltlssed upon hirn, according to his crirnes. 1'ho k:i ng referred the 11latter to his council, \vhicll \vas at that tilne cornposed l)l"incipally of ecclesiastics, \vho extended their favour t~) .the cardinal, and 111ude such slovv progress in tIle bUSIness, that tIle duke, \vearied out witht11eir tedious dehtys .and fraudulent evasioI1s,droppecl the prosecution, and tIle cardinal escaped. Nothing could .no\v rernove tIle inveteracy of the ,carof ]}!asons, carpenters, t~Flers, anel plasterers: 'Yho, being distasted by the late aet of parlhunent against the excessi YO \vages of those trades, had given out Il1f:lUY seditious speeches and U1ClULCes against certain grea.t 111en, ,vhich tended 11lueh to reb('llion:~ 'rhat the I)uke of Glollcestor did not use his endeavour, ns he ought to have dune in llis. pInce, to suppress sueh u.nlnwfnl Hsselublies; so t.hat he f;~ar(~d the king, unc1 his good subjects, lllllst haye Ina-de a field to v~,.ith,staud theln; to preVcIlt which, he chit:fly desired the Duke of Bedf(n"d to corne over." .A.s the l\[USOllS. ltl"(, uujustly stl.speetea of lUlying given rise to the aho\:e eivil e.orrnnotions, I thought it, I~ecessa:'yto insort th(~ forpgoing ,pu,rtIcnlars, In order to elt~ar tb€lnl h'oln thIS false cJHtrg(~. l\tost of the cireurn~tances here ulontioncd art) extraetnd froln "'rolfe's Chronicl("~"pubHshed by Stowe.

* The ahnvo particulars are extracted frolt1 ouo of Elias Ashmolo'a rtrss. on tho subject

of }"f,,·ema.8onry.


123

OF 1VIASONRY.

dinal "against tIle duke; he' resolved to destroy a man whose popularity 111ight become dal1gerolls, and '\vhose resentulerlt he had reason to dread. The duke ha路vi.ng always proved a strenuous fi'iel1d to tile pllblic, and, by the authority of his birth and station, llaving hitherto prevented absolute po\ver froI11 being vested in the kil1g's l)e1'S011, \Vinchester ,vas enabled to gaill l11any l)artisans, who \vere easily brougllt to concur ill the ruin of the prince.. 21

,

.

.rro acco111plisll this I)u11Jose, tIle bisho}) and his l)arty cOl1certed a plan to l1.lurder tile duke. A })arliament \vas sUlnrnoned to 111eet at St. Ed1110ndsbur;r in 1447, ,vhere they expected he ,vould be entirely at their lnercy. Having arll)eared on the second d(~ty of thes.essiolls,be ',,"'TiltS ace-used of treason,. and thro'''1'l1 into l)l"isOll; where ht~ \,~as f()und the next day路, cruelly lllurdered.lt ,vas pretended that his death ,v'as natul"al; but though llis bodY',\vhich \vas exposed to l)uhHc vie\v, 1:>o1"c no lnarks of our,\vnrd injury, there \vas little doubt of llis having fallen a sacrifice to the vengeanee of his enel11ies. .t\fter this dreadful catastrophe, five of llis servants \vere tried for aiding hirn in h.is treasons, a.nd condenlned to bt~ hanged, dl"tl\vn ant.] quurtered. They ,vere banged accordingly, cut dO\Yll alive, striJ)lled nak.ed, and lnarked "vitIl it knife to be quartered; \vhen the ~Iarqui.sof Suffolk, tllrollgll a rneun and I)itiful afiectation of I)opularit:y', produeed their pardon" and saved their lives; the 1110st barbarous kind of luerey that call possibly be inlagilled! !.:llThe bisllop planned the folIo\ying SCh('nle~ at this titne, to irritate tho ])uke of (HOu<:l~8ter: his duehess. the daughter' of llcginahl Lord Cobhcun, ha.d been accus{~d of the CriUl(~ of \vitcbcrnft; and it ,was pretended that a w'ax{~n figure of the king \\~as found in her possess... ion, \vhieh and her Sir ltoger I~oHllghl'oke, a, priest, aud one Sordan Illelt.ed, in n.xuagicul Inanner. b(~fore HI 8h'I\\~ nrc, an int<;~nti()n Inaking IIenr.r's force and \'igollr ,vnstc u\ya,Y by like insensible d()grecs. 'rhe aeeusatinn 'wtls\veH calculated to nifcct the \"(~ft.k ~lndcre(lul()usInirH,l (,.1" the ldng, and gaill The duchess was brought to trial, "~ith belief in un. her and prisoners \\-ereprtHHHlnced guilty:., the dudlCSS \\路ascOIHl(~Inned to do publie p('nan(~e in London for three <Inys, and t.o sullbr pcrpetu:~l iruprisonrnent; the ()thers w"m"eexecuted. ;rlu~ protcctor~ provoked at such.. repcn.ted insult&offer,cd ~o his ~ duchess, nuule a noble and stout resIstance t(:> these nl()st ab(nIUnabte an<l shalueful proceedings; but it. llnfortunatel.r ended in his own destrltetlf)n..


124

ILLUSTRATIONS

TIle Duke of Gloucester's death \vas universally lamented throughout the kingdo111. fIe had long obtained, and deserved, the surnaU1e ofa·ooD. lIe ""vas a, lover of his country, the fl"iend of l1lerit, the protector of l\lasons~ the IJatron· of the learned, and tIle eileourager of every useful art. I-lis inveterate persecutor, the hypocri tical bisllol"st.ung vvith renl0rse, scarcely survived hiln t\VO 111011ths; ,vhen, after a long life spent in fa1sehood and politics, l1e sunk into oblivion, and ended his days in Inisery.22 After the deatll of the cardhlul, the l\Iasons continued to hold tl~eir Lodges\vitllollt danger of interruption. Jlenry established various seats of learning, ,vhic h he enriched \vith anlIlle endO\V1l1cnts, and distinguished by peculiar inll11Unities; thus inviting his subjects to rise ahove ignorance and barbaris111, and ref~)rnl tl1eir tllrbulent an~l licentious I1Htnners. 1r1 1;1.:12, \vasinitiated into ~{asonry, and, fronl that tirne, spared no IHlins to obtain a cornplete kno\vledge of the l\rt. lIe perused the Ancient Charges, revised the constitutions, and, ,vith the consent of his council, 11onou!"t£:d thorn \yith his sanction. 2S Encouraged IJy the exarnple the sovereign, and allured by ~11 tunbition to excel, lIHtnv' lords arld'- gcntleInell of the court\vere initiated into~ 1Iasonry, ar~{l l)urfl2"fhe'w'ickedIiess of the. cft.rdinal's life, and his rnc>Utn, base, aud unmanly death, \vin ever he ~ bar against. any vindication of his Inenlory, for the good \vhichhe did ,,",hile alive, or ,vhieh the Inollf;;y he had all1:1ssed could do niter his death. 'Vhen in his last 1l10lllcnts he was heard to utter these 111et111 expressions: :; '''lhy should I die, .",·110 arn possessed of so nluch ,vcalth '1 If the \,~hc!le kingdOlu could save Iny life, I aUl a.ble by nlY policy to preserve it) or by IIl..)'" rnoney to purchase it. 'Vill not death be brUJed, and 1110ne'y" do c~verJthingf~" 'fheinhnitable Shal\:speare, nftcl' gi'dng :t Inost horrible pieture of despair, and a tortured in the person of the cnl'dhu~], introduces ICing IIenry to hinl ,vith sharpn.n<1 piercing ·w()rds: '~Lord

Cardinal. if thou th iukt!:!t. on hen. \1Cn'8 blil3S, Lift up tby bund t Innke ~igua,l of thn.t h(lrJc. .. IIEm. 'VI" A(.~t.

-He dies, and ll.lake'J no sign!'

~1.

"The 1l1Clnory of the· '\vickedslm.n rot., but the unjustly pers(~cuted shall be had in cvcrlusting.renlCnl.'brance." "'.' ~3 .c\. record in the reign. of Edw:lrd ['T. runs thus:'; The c0111pany of Masolls, being otherwise terrned Ii'l"(~emasol1s, of aunti{~ut staulldinO" and good reekoninge, bYlnenus·of utlh.l)le and kind JncetVIHl'S dvvers~ tyrnes, and as n. lovinge hrotJl(~rhode use to did i're;luellt this


OF MASONR.Y.

sued the Art \vitl1 diligence an"l assiduity.2'1 rrhe l\.ing, in person, presided over the Lodges, and ]lOll1inated "\Villianl ,\ranefleet, 13ishop of 'Vine-hester, Ctraud l\Instel"; \vho built, at his o\vn expense, l\IagdaleneC~ollege, Oxford, and several pious 110118es. E:ton CollegB, near ·\IVindsor, and l\:jng's (]o11c[!'c, C~a111 bridge, \vere J()unded in this reign, and tinishe(l~rHlc1" the di~-ection of \"fanefleet. IIe~-ll·.Y" also f()unded C~hrist's (~ollege, C<lnlbl'idge; and his quecn,l\Iargaret of l\..rUou, Queen's (;ollege in the sanlC university. In short, during- the life of this prince, thB arts Houi'ished, and rnany 'sagacious sta.teslnen, cOnStUnlnate . and adluired \vriters, \yere SUl)IJorted by royal lllunificence.

SECT. IV. tIle /S()utll. 1507.

!listoT!I

th(~se

tra:nsacth,H1S \\rere

'''Ul"'".~·-i'" .....·,,

were conntcnaneerl lLlH.l ·nl'I-lf't''\t··t~'I.d Aftc'l' Ius return 1'1'0111 r' ....... d·,·,'l',if,,,, :t

he

tIIViH'H] I'f'j, 1'1

in th(~ la \'r-(~tmrt5. 'rohinl :llJl)\}att'rl and when a,t pl,ens; tUtd~ in his tb(·y apIH.·alcd Warden: tha.t resided n(~xt the l)r~Inises.

Itl71 to


126

ILLUSTRATIONS

during \vhich it fell intean aln10st total neglect, that continued till 1471, \vhen it again revived under the auspices of liichard Beauchan1p, Bisho}) of SarU111, \v ho

had been appointed Grand 1\laster by Ed,Yurd l'l., and llonoured ,vitll the title of Chancellor of the Garter, fOlrel)airing the castle and chapel ,of .\Vindsor. During the short reigns of Ed\vard V. and Richard III., lVIasonry \vas on the decline; but 011 tIle accession of Henry VII., A.D. 1485, it rose again into esteenl, ullder tIle patronage of the lVlaster and Fello\vs of the order of St.John at Rhodes (no\v Malta), \VllO assen1bled their Grand Lodge in 1500, and cll0se Henry their protector. Under the auspices of this prince, tIle Fraternity once 1110re }路evived their asselnblies, and l\Iasonry resu111ed its pristine splendollr. ()n the 24th of June, 1502, a Lodge of l\laster l\IasoIls was fOr111ed in the l?alace, at \vhich the king r)resided in l)ersol1 as grand .l\Jlaster; who, havi11g a'l)pointed,JolIn Islip, a.bbot of '"\Vestnlillster, ancl Sir l~eginald Bray, l\.night of the garter, his wt"Lrdens for the oeeasioll, proceeded,in an1ple fornl, to the east end of 'Vestrrlinster Abbev, where. he laid the foundation-stone of that riell 111aster-piece of Gothic. architecture, knovvn by the IlUlne of, Henry the Seventh's Chapel. 25 rrhis chaI)el is supported by fourteell Gothic buttresses, all beautifully ornanlented, and projecting frol11 tile building in, different angles; it is enlightelled by a double range of 'Vvindo\vs, which throw the light into sneh a happy disposition, as 2b This chapel ,vas erected by Williatn Bolton, prior of St.. Bnrthololuew's, who is denominated the" 1Iaster of the '\vo:rk," in the \vill of I{iIlg IIenry VII.. Lelnnd styles it the nliracle of the \vorld~ o1"bis lnitacul'Unz.; and Britton (Ar(~h. Ant., vol. 5, p. 178J adds, 路路IIo\vever extravagant that euloghnn ulay appear: there is probably 110 other edifice 011 the globe in 'which snch profound georuetrical skill has been displa.yed, nlingled with such luxurin,ncy of orluuuexlt and such aspiring lightness of design. It ,V'ould seem, indeed,. as thOUgl:l the arc.hitect h{td intended to give to stone the characterofclnbroidery, a.nd enclose. his walls in the lneshes of lace-work.. 1'he buttress to~"'ers are crested by ornaluental domes~ and enriched ,vith niehes :lnd elegftnt tracery; the parapets are gracefully '\vrought \itith pierced ,vork; the cross springers路 are. perforated into airy fornls; and the very cornices are charged; even to profusion, 'w'ith arrnorial cogni.. zances, and knotted foliage. The. interior is yet more en1bellished ; and, at the san18 time, altogether unpn,ralleled for its surrounding rttnges of rich statuary, and the gorgeous elegance and peculiarly scientific construction of its vaulting."-EDITOR.


127

OF lVIASONRY.

at once to please the eye, and afford a kind of solenll1 gloo111.These buttresses extend to the roof, and are 11lade to strengthen it, b~y being cro\vlled with G'othic arches. The entrance is fronl the east el1cl of the al>l)ey, by a flight of black ll1nrble steps, under a 110ble arch, leading to the body of the chapel. rrhe gates arB of brass. The stalls on each side are of oak, as are also tbe seats, and th~ paven1ent is lllack and \~~lllite Inarble. The cape-stone of this building ,v"as celebrated in 1507. Under the direction of Sir Reginald Bl'1t:jr, the palace of. Itic.hn1ond "vas also built, and Inal1Y otller stately works. Brazen-nose College, Oxford, and Jesus and St. John's Colleges, Ct1111bridge, vvere like\vise finisht~d in this reign.

IIenry,rIII. s11cceecled llis fitther in 1509,. rt1HralJ-

"l

pointed Cardinal olseyGrand l\Iaster.. rfhis I)reln.te built IIaulptoIl (;ourt, \\Thitehall, (:hrist-cllurell ()ollege, ()xl(Jrd, and several otl1ernoble E~dific(~s; all of \Vllich, upon his disgrace, \vere .' to .t\.. D. 1580. Tbornas (;rorn\velI, l~:arl of Ess(~x, ~nIPi·':l")t"!I.:){l ill the of-lice of G-rUIH! l\Ias tel"; and elnIlloyed tIle l~'raternity in building St...Jalnes's IJalace, Christ's lIospital,alld G'reen\vich... Castle. In 1534, the king and I)arlinlnent tl1re\voff allegiance to the }lolle . of I~olue; uncI }{ing being deelared SUllre111e hea<i of the CllUl"(~ll, no ,926 l)iollS llouses \yere 8uI11)ressed; lIlflny of \vhich ,'·ere after\YHl'ds eon~·erted into stately Inallsions 1()! thenobHitjT and gentry.. Under the direction of J 01n1 rrouc11et, l",ord l\.udlev, 'V~TI10, on Croul\vell's b(~headed in hud sli~~'eeeded to the oHlce of tile nity \vereeluployed in building l\:Iagdalt'!ne . . . bridg(~, and St~verul other structures.. J1~(1 \,rard '\rI.,n rninar, to ' V ... l,'I,..,·;;;.;.""','.

and llis gllal"dinll and SOlnerSt;'t:, undertook. bui It Kn1tn PJ"Sit t-l 1rH) ~f:>'. l

~~(lwar<l

1

death 'I'he \vitllont the reigu of }:lizabeth, \Vhell accepted the oUice of G'I'ttnd ~luster.


128

ILLUSTR.4..TIONS

during this of Eng'land; but the General or Gr[uId in Y'Or1:".. , \Vllere the J.1"'raternitv\vere llUlnerOUS a.ud respectable.

f~ehe follo\vhl~: is recorded of . . . . . . . 'I.l.J'~L IIearing' that the :Thlasons \vere in \;vhich they\vould llot re-veal, secret assernblies, sent. an ~1rllled \vith intent to break up their annual (+rand Lodge,?i 1'his design, ho\vever, v,,"'ns llappily frustrated by~ the interpositioIIOf Sir 'rhorans Sackville, \vho took. care to initiate 80111e of the 'VhOll1 11Ud sent on this duty. They joined in v~:,itll the .J..1.J.l~(,'~;"J~J.IO'l and. 111ac1cso ntvourable a report tho on their ....V'LJLLJ.

return, that ::dter\va rds Jj"ratel'ni t,/..

sht~

her

and, never of the

tlH~

rr 114=;rnns the of (]rand till 15G7, \'vhen he ""'~""",,,.~,"''''.'''''' in ffl,vour of lTrnneis rtussell, rrhon1US G'resl1aln,~i7 an. el11inent Earl of I~edforc1, in a forrncr

notc~;

on the existence

c·t "eo

tt:)' -c~:ect

n)I'

tt

the sPITice

Bpot for that lH~tn'een rjllj['('llnS(~f1 (>n

that

pf SCHnet's(·t-hou£c dilled with 1)JE;ho'n8i!:!,.at:,e-~;tI'(;}et; nnd, after' tHnHPr. her ,""""'''''''. ent('re(l the Bour;:;c (in tbr· s(nlth Threfldrlc(~dlc-st,·l'('(,t

of the pflJ,ti(~nl:Ll'lr the ·whole structure, nnd which w'as


129

OF IVIASONRY.

111erchant, distinguished by his abilities, and great success in trade. '1'0 the forrner, the care of tIle Bl'etbren in the northern pn,rt of the kingdorn Vlas assigned, while the latter \vas appointed to sUl)erintend the 111eetings j n the south, \vhere the society had consjde.rahly increased, in eonsequenee of the honourable re})ort ,vllich bad heen ll1ude to the queen. N ot\vitllstanding this nc\v appointrnent of n, Grand l\Iastel" for the south, the Uellernl l\ssenJbly continued to ll1eet in the city of York, as heretofore, \vhere all the records \vere kel)t; and to this

assenlbly appeals ,vere 111ade on every in1portant occasion.

SECT. V. J:>Togrcss 0/" J.1fasonT!I ,in the South of England, frorn tlte llcig'n (~( lEl£zabctlt to the Fire (1' London, -in IG(i6 .. 'rIlE f[tlCtlll, being assured that the Ii'lraternity \\"ere eOlrlposed of skilful architeets tlnd lovers of tIle arts, and that stilte aflirirs ,,'ere points in \vhieh Ilcver interfered, ,vas I)cl'feetly' reeonciled to their assernblies, and ~fasonrvnHlde a great I)}"ogress (luring her rei~u. Several ,Lodges" v..' ere held in different I)arts the l\.h~gdorn,pnr­ ticularlv in I-IorH:lon and its environs, \Vll{}re tile llrethren inCl'enSE;'a eOIlsiderabl)r., nIH1 lllnny!!rent \\"orl,s "'eft) earried (~n ulHler the :lusrriees of Sir~'Th()]:nas (iTesIH1I11, fi'OIll ,vhout the l~"raterrritv received everv ertcouragernel1t.. CHlarles Jlo\\·ul'd, 1~al:1 of }:fnngllurrl, slJeeee~led Sir rrhornns ill the ofliee l\Inster, and eont.irnled to preside over in the south, ti II 1~3SS ; \vhen . IIn.stings, }:url of Iluntingdol'l, \vns (~bosen,

ot

Vvho

r(~lrltrined ill

that oftiee till the denth of the qlu~en,in

:tHO;).

of l~lizabeth, el"o\vns l~~nghrnd and Seotland \vere Ilnited in ller sue(~essor, (.1 UHlfiR 'TT .. of Scotland,\vho ,vas proelainledKing of }:ughuHl, Seotll11ed \Yitll all sorts of the finest \\"::Lr(IS the edHiee to bt~ pro('Inirned~ in lK'r prt;·8(,lH~(·, herald and t,rulnpet, ~"I'he l:toyu.I I~xcharlg(~ ;~' {llltl, OIl this ()c(~lsinn, it is said, Sir 'Tholnas n.ppenred l)ublicly in the (~h:u'tl·cter of OJ'uncI l\lasteZ'. ~rheorigillal buiJding stood till tile nr(~ in Lundon~ in 1(,(j6, \yllt~U. it \vus('1estl'oyed, aud n, 111flgnificent building ('r<\etl~d in itsplaco, w'hich~ ,,,,us burnt to the ground on the 10th Ja.nuary, 1838. ftlrnisllt1Cl\'tith

eitr, she

(~aused


130

ILLUSTRATIONS

lalld, and Ireland, on tIle 25tll of l\Iarch, 1603. .At this period, l\fasonry flourished ill botll kingdolns, and Lodges vvere convened under the roy"al patronage. Several geutlenlen of fine taste, \V110 had returned fr0I11 their travels, full of laudableexllulation to revive the old R0I11HJl and <ll"ecian Masonry, brollght 110nle fi"ngn1ents of old COlU111IlS, curiousdravv"iIlgs, alldbooks of architecture. i\111011g the llunlber· ",vas the celebrated Inigo Jones, son of Inigo .Jones, a citizen of LOIldon, "vIlo was l)ut a!)11rentice to H, joiner, and had ·a l1atural taste for the art of designing. ·Being first rellO\;Vned for his skill in landscape l)ai~lting, he \V(18 patronised by the learned vVilliarn IIerbert, after\vards Earl of Penlbrol\.e. I-Iaving' Illude the tour of Italy at his lordsllip's eXl)ense, ftncl irnprovec1 under SOIne of the best disciples of the f'~tnl0US .l\..ndreaJ Palh1c1io, on his retrll"n to l~nglal1d, he laid aside the l)eneil, and, conHnbIg; his studv to architeeturt~, beCftIne the Vitruvius of 13ritain and tll(3 rival of l">aillaclio. ~rhis eelebratedartist\vas UI)poiuted general survey'or to ICing tlanles I., under \VllOSe fLIISI)iees tIle science of ::\1a80111")7 flourished. lIe \vas 1101I,linated (ttlJnd 11,lustc'r 0/<0 England, and \,\7as del)utised by his sovereign to I)reside over the Lodges. During his adrninistration, several learned Iuen \ivere initiated irlto the ()l'der, and the society considerably inereused in cOllseqtlCIlce and rCIHltatiou. Ingellious artists daily' resorted to England, \vhere they· :rnet \vitI1. great. enCOltragclnent; Lodges \vere instituted as selninln"'i(~sof instructiolliIl the sciences u!l1d polite arts,. after the ll10del of th(~ I taliau schools; the COlllIllUnications of the ]j""raternity ,vere established, and the annual festivals regularly observed. }\Iany curious and luagniticent structures \verefinislled under t.he direction of this aceOllll)lisbed architect; and, <ul1ong the rest, 11e \~?u,s enlployed, by e01Unl[Uld of his sovereign, to .1)1 an a ne'\'v l)alace at \Vhitehal1, \VortllY the residence of the kings of l.~nglan~.l, \vhich h~ aecordingly' executed; hut, for '\;vant of a parllunlentar)r fund, no Hlore of the plaIl than tb.e l)resent Banqueting-l1ouse~l~ ,vas fin"" 'rhi:; l.Hlilding is sll.id . • to ,contttill the finest rOOIll of .its (~xteut siuee the <.1:ty's of Augustus, und ,vas f()I' the recont,lon of'urul)tissndors, nnd other u\ldionc(~8 of state. rrlu} ''''hole is u In.r atld 8tat£~ly building, of· threllstories; .the 1()'Vt~st has 0. rusti(~ with snutllsquare wIudows,a.n<l by its strength haI)pily serves as t\


OF ·l\JI.ASONRY.

131

ished. In 1607, tIle fo'undation-stoneofthiselegantpiece of true l\Iasonry \\ias laid·.by King James, in presence of (}runcI l\faster tJones, and his Wtlrdel1s, "Vil1iam Herbert, I~arl ofPelnhroI{e, and Nicholas Stone, Esq."MasterInasonsof·Englanc1, \Vl10 \vere attended by Inanybrothers, clothed in {orn1, and otller eminent persons, "\vho had been invited on the occasion. TIle cerenl011)'" \vas conducted \ivith great pOInl) and splendour, ~nc1 a ptlrSe of broad l)ieces of gold laid tlpon the stone, to enable the l\Jlasons to reo-ale. Inigo Jones continued in the office of Grand ~faster till 1618, when he \\7as succeeded b}T the Earl of P,embrolte, under whose auspices lnany elllillent, \vealthy, and learnedn1en \vere initiated,and. the 111vsteriesof the Order held in higll estirnation. ~ ()n the death of ](ing Janles, in 1625, Chtll~les ascended the throne.. The Earl of Penlbrol"e 11resided over tIle Fraternity tin 1.6:30, \\~hen he resigned in friVOlll" of Ilenry l)anvers, Earl of Danby; \;vho \vas succeeded, in 1633, b)r 'l'hornas. IIo\vard, Earl of l\.rundel, the progenitor of the Norfollt fUlniI)r. In 1635, If'rancis Russell, Earl of Bedford, accepted the ·governnlent of tIle Society;· but Inigo JO!lesJl~lving, ,vith indefatig<lble assiduity, continued to patronize the Lodges during his .lordshil)'S acbninistra-

is

Upon this l"aiSE~a. t.ho lonie, \vith coltunns anel pilasters; and boi':\V'el:-n the coltlnlIls are ,,""ell-proportioned ,,,indows, 'withareheli ancl poblted pedhnel1ts: over these, is placed the proper ontabltLtul"o; on ,vhic~h is raised lh second sories of th{~· Corinthian (n-der., consisting of COltUlU1S and pilast.ers, like the otll(~r, colmnn being plaeed over (~OlUlnn, and pilaster over pilaster.. E'rolu the capitals ar(~ (~n.rl'i(l,a· festoons, ,vhieh Ineet with xnnsks n.nd other Orllanl{~nts in the Initldlo" rrbis series is also crowned with its 11l'OpOrclrtabla,ture, on ,\\,.bieh i.s raisc)<1 tho bnlustrade, with Attic po<.1estn.ls betwee:ll,which erown the ,\~ork... T'he"\vhole if nnely proportioned,al1dhnp,pily exe.. euted. 'rhe prnjeetion of thocolulnns froul tbo wn.ll has n fine effect ill the entahlatures; ,vhi(~h, b(~illg 'broughtf()rwu.rd in ~he stnue proportion, .yic-lds that happy diversity of light and shado so (~~sentinl to true arehite<oture. 'rhe internal decoratiolls are also striking. rrhe oeil... ing rrr .tlw grtuld TootH, in particular, ,,{hi(~h is 110\V . u~(~d as u'chapc,J, is "riehly lwhlt{'~,~l bJr tho(~plebruteu Sir Petf:!" I)atll,I~ubells, who was ftlllblt8S(tdor in Englulld iu the tiuIC of Charles I. 'rho subject is, the entrallCO, inanguruti()11, and coronation of ](ing .Jul'nes,represente<1 by l.>UgtUl elnblel1l8; nlul it is justly (~ste,{~n'l(~d (~ne·of themostcRl>itll.l pel1;'(}rnU1UCes of this (i,IlliIlent lunster" It has been !lronottt1ecd OIle of the futest ceilings in the world..

basis f(H' the Orders.


132

ILLUSTRATIONS

tion, he was re-elected the follo\ving year, and continued in o~ce till his death, in 1646.29 29 That Lodges continued regulal·ly to nssenlblo at this tin1e, apppars fronl the Diary of the !€'arned antiquary Elias .A.. slunolo, where he says :-" I ,vas made a ~'reemason at \Varrington, Lancashire, 'with Colonel Henry Maitnvaring, of I~erthinghal'n, in Chcshh-e, by 1\11'. Kichard Pel1ket, the Warden, and the Fellow Crafts, (all of whOln are specified,) on 16th Oo~ober, 1646." III another place of his diary he says: "On 1\iarch the 10th, 1682, about 5 hoI". post merid., I received a SUlnnlons to appear at a Lodge, to be held the llext day, at :rtfasons' Hall in London-:M':arch 11. Accordingly I ,vent, and about noon was adu1itted into the fellowship of Free-nUtSOllS, Sir \Villiam '\Vilson, Knt., Captain Richard Borthwick, 1\11". 'V'illiam 'iV"" OOdlnal1~ ~ir. VVilliam Gray, l\Ir. Samuel Taylour, and 1\11". "rillianl 'Vise. I was the senior fello\v ulnong theIn, it being thirty-five years siuec I 'vas adlnittec1. 'rhe1'e ,,,,,ere present, beside Inysl'lf, the felknvs after narned; 1\11'. Thornas '·Yise, l\Iastcr of the Thlasons' COInpally this prescutyear, l\1r. rrhornas Shorthose, and seven rnore old FrCPll1asons. 'Ve all dined a.t tho llalf-luoon 'ravern, Cheapsicle'l at a noble dinner l)repared at the charge of tho I10'\.V neecptcd l\:[asr~ns." An old record of tho Society describes it coat of arrns rnuch tho salue,\vith thnt of the London company of freernen l\Iasons: '\.vhence it is generally believed that this cOlnpuny is fL braneh of that allcient ]j"raternity; and in foriner tiulOS, 11f' rnu.n, it also tlppenrs, 'vaH Inude free of that cornpany, until he ,vas initiated in sorne lodgo of fi'(~e ana accepted IV[asons, as a necessary qualifieatifHl. rrhis pnletic(~ still prevails in ScotlUlld arnong' the ()perutive l\1::LsfH1s. rrhe '\Triter of i\1:r. Ashmolc's Life, ,vho ,vas 110t a l\[ason, befol't1 his IIistory of Berkshire, p. 6, gives the following account of l\Iasonry: "lIe (l\Ir. Ashmole) ,"vas elected t1 brother of the cOlnpan)YofFreeInnsons; tL favour esteorno<l so singular h:y'tllC l\Ielnb(~rs, that kings thenlS(~lveshave.not disdained. to (~lltt~l" tben'1s{~lve8 ()f this Soc-jetSr. ~"rom these are derived the adopted ~1ttsons, accept(~d l\1U.SOllS, or l~"r(~e­ nlusons;.·whoarekno'wn tOQne another. all over the 'world, by certain .signals n,n<1 watch 'words kncnvn to thern ahH10. l'hey hav(~ St~Yerul

Lodges in c1iffercntcountries f"or thf~ir re(~eption; and,when any of

thern fa.ll into dcca~y', the 13.rotherhood is t(l rp}jflvo thern. 'rho nUUll1t~r of their adc)ption or ndnlission is yery forrnal and solernn, and with the adrninistration of an oath '\vhieh hns hud ht~tter fate tha,D all other oaths, and has Inostreligi()llsly obsorved : nor has tho,vorld been yet able-, by the intldvertt7!'u(~y, surpris(', or folly of tiny of. its lnembers, to <live into tllis or Innko the least discovery." . In SOine ofl\rr.. AS}llnole's· InalltUwripts, there are nuulY valuahle collections r(~lati:ng to. the history {)f the. l·t' rocmH180J1S, noS UHly be gathered fr6m the lettt~rs of Dr.. l\.nipe, ofCllrist-ehurch, (hdi)l~l, to th(3 publisher of Aslnnole's I...tife; the folhnving extracts f'rf\I)l ,vhich will tLl.lthellticato. ana· illustra,tornany faets in thi::; hist<')1-y : 4.' .i\.S .1:0 the nncient . Society of.·Pl-ee.. ulu.sOllS, Clnl(~(~rlling Wh(Hn you are d(~:,drous of kno\ving wha.t may be .kno'wu 'with (~ertainty, I Hhall only tell you, that if Ollr 'worthy Brother, E. Aslunole, "g8q., bad exe-


OF

~!ASONRY.

133

The taste· of this celebrated architect was display'ed in many curious and elegant structures, both in London and the country; particularly in designing the magliificent row of Great Queen-street, and the \vestside of Lincoh1's 11111 :E'ields, \vith Lindsey-house in the centre; the late Chirul-geol1s'-hall allc1 theatre, no\¥ Barbers'-hall, in J\ilonkwell-street; Shaftesbury-house, late the London Lyingin-llospital for l\Iarried ,Vornen, in Aldel'sgate-street; Bedford-house, in Bloon1sbury-square, \vhich is now taken do\:vn to 111ake 1'00111 for the ne\v buildings ill the irnprovement of tile Duke of Bedford's town estate; Berkeley House, Piccadill)T, lately' burnt, al1d rebuilt, no\v in . the possession ·of the Duke of Devonsllire ; and York-stairs, on the banlt of the 'rhnrnes, L~C. Beside these, lIe cuted his intended dr·sign, our 'Fraternit.y hac1 heen as rnuch o,bliged to hirn as the l~rethren ()f the UH):-:;t noble Order of tlu; Gart,or. I ,vo111d not have you 8urpri~eil at thi~ expreS~i(}11, or think it at all too assuluing. rrhe Sovereign:-; ()f that ()rder IUlv(! not disdained our fello'\vship, and thero IHLye been tittles ,vhon I~:Jnper()r8 'were ul~o I~"ree­ IfUl,8ons. \Vbat, frotH ,1\11'•.l\.shn1<:Jle'::; collection, I (~ould gather \vas, that the report of our Socic~ty tlt&,,"!ng rise {roln n. bull gro.i'ltec1 by. the pope in the reign of IIclu·y ·V"'I. to SOIHO I tnliun archit(~ct.~, to travel over all I~tlroIH.1 to (~rect clHl.pE~18, was ill· fotuHled.. Such ~1 bull there ,vas, a.nd those architects ·wer(.~ ~In,solls; but, this bull, in the opinioll of the learned 1\11'. Aslunole, \vas confirnuttiv(1 ollIy, and did not by any Ineans ereate our l:('raterllity, OJ" ovenost.u.bH~h thern in tbis kingdOln.. llut as 1;() the tirn(~ and lnanner of tha.t (~sta.blisllInent, 8(nnething- I shaH relatt~ fr(Hl1 the saIne c()lleetic)n~. " St" .t\.lbnn~ the pr()t(J-nulrtyr, esttLbli;-;hedi\<ra~onry her(~, a,ucl fronl his titne it fi()ln·i:...}l(~(l, lllore or ll~ss,. aecording tl~ the world ,vent, O()WlJ to tho days of ICing . A thelstane ,\~ll(~, for the~mkc of IIi::; br(}tIH~r Ed\vin~ gruutt·d th(1 aInS(H18 fl! ehnrt.er. tTnder ottr Noruuul tJU\Y f~l"(~" quently l"eeeived .t~xtrnordillary H1Ul"ks()f r()yu.l fu.vour. ~rhere is JIG doubt. to bB 1l11Ulc, that tho skin of1\IIasons, whh~h \vas always tran... s~el,H]ently grE~nt, even in tho JV()st bnrbnroust!n'!HS ;thtlir \vo~l.dtilrf111 klndnHss and attael.uncllt to {~t.lch oth(+r, h<HV dlfforent soover In ef'ln· dititHJ; nnd their invioln,hle fide)ity in keoping. religiou~ly their secrets; IHust have tlHUU, Itl· ignorant, trouble~<Hnf:, and 8ul)pr.. stitioU8 tinl(~s, ton vast variety oftte]ventures, according to the dif...

()f ana other~tlt€lrntiollS in gov(lrnln(~ilt. .B.v the '\vay, it UU1,Y be that. t}H~ l\Ias(u:ls \v(!re nhvays IO'ynl.,.\"hk·h<~x. . posed UH:~rn to grfla.t 8evorltles when l)(J'wer ,voro tll(~ nPP(:~ul"n.U(~E~()f jtl8tico.. a.n<l those ,vht) eOlntnitted tr(~asnn pl1ni~hp<1 truo t:nen tt~trni­ tors. rl'hus, in •th(~:~~rd year of JIerlry \'1 -, an net l')(tsa(~d t<) nhoUsh tho ~()(~i(lty ()f~lu.~ous, aud to hindpr, under h".i(~v()uS pennltie8, the h()lding Chapt(n~s, r.. odg(~s, or ()tIHn" r(~guIRr tls:-;ctnhUes ~ yet this nct WU.8 nftcrwnrds [virtually] repeu.l€-d ; nndeven before that,l{ing 1:1(1u1"'y and· severallor(h~ of his court been-Ino feUo\vs (}f the Craft. -

ferent'stato


134

:\ LL USTRATIONS

designed GUll11crsbury-house, near Brentford; "V\!"'"ilton11ouse, in'Viltshire; Castle-i\.bbey, inN orthaulptonsbire ; Stolte-l)ark; part of the quadrangle at St. J ahu's,. 0 xford; Charlton-house, and Cobllurn-hall, in I~ent; Coles-hill, in Berkshire; .alld the.G-range, in flan1pshire. 'l'he breaking out of the civil \\'"ars obstructed the progress ofl\Iasonry in Englalld for S0111e tinle; but after the . Restoration it begall to revive under the 1)~trQ~lage of Charles II., "vhohad been received into the Ordel· during his exile.so On the 27th Decelnber, 1663, a general assenlbly \~"'as held, at \-vhiell Flenry Jernly·n, Earl of St. l\.lban's, ",Tas elected Grand l\Iaster; ~1' ho aplloin ted Sir John DenhaJ11, lent.. , his deputy", and l\lr. (after\vurds Sir) Christopller vVren,Sl and John \Vebb, his \vardens. Several useful regulatiol1sS2 "\vere Inade at this assenlbly, for tIle better 3D SOllleLodges, in the reign of Chark~s. II.,\\tere cousti tut(~d b.y leave of the scm:;ral noble Grandl\In.stcrs, and nUlny gentlernen and

fatuous scholars requesteel at this tirne to be n,dnlitted ~UUOllg the Fl·a.ternity. 31 fIe \VRS the only son of I)r. Christopher \\!ren, dean of ""'indsor~ and \\1US born in 1(i:52. IIis genius for al'ts and sciences :.ll)p{~nred early. Jt'\t the age of thirteen, he invented a n€\v ust,t'onolnieal instrument. b~y the n~une of l)an-or/iranunl, and w·rote a treatise on the origin of'rivers. lIe invented a new IH1Punultic enginc~ and a peculiftl" instruUlent of' use in gnoluonies, to solve this probleln, viz.: ,;. On a kno,\Vl1 plnue, ill a kno\vn elevati(jn~ to describe such lines \vith the expedite tUl'lling of rnndles to cCI'tain di visi()ns~ as by. the shu.do\\r the. st), Ie runy sho\v the equal hours of the du,y." In IH4H, a.t the age of fourteen, he \vas adulitted. a· gcntlclunn conunoner in \Vudharll-coHegc, Oxon, where hegr·eatly inlprc)'ved undeI' .the insu·uctiol1s and friendship of Dr. John V\Tilkins and Dr. Seth "rard, \\'ho \ver(~ gentleluen of great learning, and after\'~:ards prOllloted by !(ing Charles II. to the Initre. Ilis other nUIllerous juyenile productions in Inathernaties prove hiln to be a scholar of the bighest ernineuce. lIe assisted l)r. Scn.rbor'ongh in uuutornicaL prepa.rations, tllld expet:inlcl:ts upon~he In~scles of the hUluan body; \vht~nce nre dated the fU'Bt llltl'oductlon of g(~O­ rnetrical an.d. luechanicttl speculations in anatolny. II(~ ,,·rote discourses on the longitude; on thE- variations of thcJnagnetic~tlneedle; de 7enauticaveterut1iJ; how· to find th(;~ Yc~l()city of a ship in sniling; of the inlpl"'OVem,<::utill gaIIeJs; ~lnd 'how' to tecover \\Tccks.Bcsidc thC'se, he treated 011 th(j (~onvenient\v':ty of using ul'tillcry on shiphoard; ho\v to build on. deep water;. how to build fl, xnule into the sea, '\"ithout Puzzola.n d\lst, 01- cisterns;· a.ud of the irnprovernezH, of river ·llavigation, by the joining of l'ivers. In short, thE" \vol'ks of this excellt~nt genius u.ppearto bex'nther the unit(.~d e!lbrts of ~Lwhole century tha.n the production of one Ulan. 32 An.long other regulations lnad(~ at. tillS assembly ,vere the follo\\"ing: 1. 'rhnt 110 person, of w·hut degree soever, be made or a.cceI>ted a


OF MASONRY.

136

govern111el1t of tIle Lodg'es, and the greatest harmony prevailed anl0ng the brethrell at their various meetings. trholnasSavage, l~arl of Rivers, having succeeded the Earl of St. J\.lban's in tIle office of (iI"and 1\faster in June, 1666, Sir Christopher '"\Trell "vas aI)poillted dellUty' under his lordship; in "\vhicll offi.ce he distillguished hilllself 1110re than any of his l)redecessors in })roll1oting tIle pros... perit)~ of the to"v Lodges that occasionally Inet at this tirne, l)artieularly the old Lodge of St. Paul's,,33 no\v tIle Lodge of Antiquity, \vhich be 11atrollized up\ivards of eighteen years. "The hOnOtlrs~"llich tllis eelebrated eharacter after\varc1s reeeived·ill tIle Societ}"'", are evident I)roofs of the attac.hll1ent of the ]'raternity to\vards hilIl• .F'l'CenH1Son unless in a regular Lodge, ",rhe-reof one to be a ~rasteror a "\V'ar(len in that lirnit or division ,vhere sneh Lodge is kept, and ano... ther to be :1, eraftsrnan in the trade of Fl'eernRsonry. 2. 1'lUtt no person hereafter shall be aC('(lptea a Freenl:lS0n, but suell as are of ahle bolly, honest parentage, good reputtl.tiou, and an observer of the Ia \VS of the land. :3. rrhat no person, hereafter" "\",ho shttllhe accepted a Fr(\elnaSOn~ shall headndtted int() uny IJodge or nssclnbl.r, until he has brought certific(lte of the th:neand plnce of his aceeI.ltation frorn the ,Lodge that ncc(~pted hitn, unto the l\laster of that lhnit or diviSion 'where suell Lodge is kept. And the said l\Iastcr shall enrol the Baane in a rollof parelunent to be kept for- that purpose~ and shall give all ~l.CCOUIlt of all sueh acceptations at every gener-ttl asselnbly~ "to THat (l,'ery person \\'ho is IHY\V a FreetnnSOll, shnH bring to the ~Instcr n IHJte of the titne of' his acceptation, to the end the snrne rna.y be enrolled in sueh priority of pinee as the Brothel' deserves; tl.n<l that the whok~ cOlllpany 31Hl1011ow8 Inay the bett(.lr kno\\" <mch other. 5. That. for the future, the said Fratel'riitv of E'r(~en'laS()1l8 shull be rcgulat'cd lU'lcJ by one Grund l\Iust(!r, und ns llUlUY '\Vnr"dl"flS :ts the s~lid think fit to appoint at every allnua.l general

a

nssetnbly~

fL 'fha,t, no person shall he a~cepted, unless he be twenty-one years

old

01" nlOI'(~~

S(~veru.ll'ecords

or

the Society, of this and the preceding reign, ,,"ere lost at the llcy()lution: :l11d not a fe'\\" ,,"ere too hastil v burut in our o'W'n titnes by SOllle scrupulOU8brotll(.~rs, frOID a fear (;1' rnaking dis.. IwejutHciuJ to the interests of the Order. l.t ilI)P(;~lu·8 £"1'Oln tht~ l't'eords of' the lAHIg;e of l\ntiqui(y, thatMr.. \'Vreu ut this tinw u.ttended thcl'nectings reg-nIn!"l)': und that during his pt·t~sidcue.v,h(~ pres{~nted to that Lodgt~ three nUl.hognny candle.sticks, 'NIl iell tU··(~ Etill uud higlll,y prized, as a memento of the esteem of· the donor.


136

ILLUSTRATIONS

SECT. VI. The History

0/" lYIason'ry .in England j:j-o'in the Fi're of' London S4 to ·tlte ..(1ccess-ion 'q/' George 1~

THE year 1666 afforded a singular und a\vful occasion for the utUlost exertioll of l\lasouic abilities. rrlle city of Londoll, \1V hich had beellvisited in the preceding year by the plague, tOV\Those ravages, it, is cOlnputed, above 100,000 of its i.nhabitants fell a sacrifice,st; had scarcely recovered fi"o111 ·the alarnl of that dreadful contagiol1, when a general 'conflagration reduced the greatest part of the city \vithin the \valls to ashes. 1'his dreadful fire broke out on the2d of Septernber, at the house of a bak(.l;!, in I)uc1ding-lane, a \vooden building, pitched on the outside, as "vere also all the rest of the houses iu that narrovv lane. 'l'he house being' filled \vitll<faggolsand brusll\Vood, soon added totJH~ rHI)idity of the fhtnH~s, Wllich raged witIl suell fury as to spread four \vays at T

Ol1ce ..

Jonas 1\1oore anel Ralph (latrix, \vho \vere ul)pointec1 surveyors on this occasion to exaruine the ruins, reported, that the fire over-ran 87;3 acres within the \\"a}18, and burnt 13,000 houses, S~) parish churches, besides clHIIlcls, leaving only 11 parishes standing.rrhe lioyttll~xchange, Custorn-house, (luildhall, Blucli.wall-hall, St.})ttul '8 cathedral, Bridcvvell, the . two ·cornpters,. Hfty... t~vo city conlpa.nies' halls, and three city gates,\,\rere all delnolished. Th,edarnage "vas cornputed at 10,000,000l. sterling.5O After so sudden and extensive a cahunit}~, it became 34 lunny of the particnlnrs containerl in this s(~ction, I fun indebted to 1\1r. N oorthouck's edition Qf the Book of Constitutions

iJ

published in 1784; which: Il1uch to the hOl10ur of tbat g(~nth,·nul.n, executed ina ruasterl.y lnanner, and interspersed "'lith several judiciotls renlal·ks.. 35 The streets ,~rerc nt thi~ titne narro\\", (~J'()oked, n,nd incorntnodious ; the houses built (~hicfl'y of wuod, close, d~lrk~ 11nd ill-contrived ;\vith several stories pl'<.~ecting b(~J~ond ench other ns they r()s(~. O\'~l' the contraeled st[·(;~ets.. Thus the fI"tH.1. (dr(~ulntinn of :Lir w·us obstrueted, thf: people breathed a stagnant andUll\vholesotne (~lenu:~nt. rcpl(,~te \vith fonl. t.'tIlu via. sufficicn t of' i ts(;lf to gellt.~ratc putrid di8ordcrs~ Froln this eiretUn8tancc~ the inhabitants ,,'ere <:ontinuall,ycxposed to con.. . 'Wi1ous (,lisordcI's, ~nd the l!l~ildings to the r~l_vages ~)~ £'ire.. lJ Anderson's IIlstoTY of Conunerce, V(Jl.. 11., p. 130.


OF MASONRY.

137

necessary to adopt sOllfleregulations to guard against any such catastroI>he in future. It was tllereforedeterInined, that in [LII the Ile\V buildings to 'be erected, stone and brick should be substituted in tIle 1'00111 of timber. 'fhe I\:.ing and the (~路l'and l\Iaster iU1111ediately ordered ~Deputy ';Vren to dra\v up the !)lau. of a ne'\v city', with broadalld regular streets. lIe \,.,..us also apl)ointed surve~yor-gellel~al and princil)al architect for rebuilding the city, the cathedral of St. Paul, and all tIle parochial cllurehes enacted by~ IJarlian1ellt, in lieu of those that were destroyed, ,vi tIl other public structures. This, gentlenlUll, cOIlceivingthe charge too ill1portant for a single 11erson, selected 1\11'.. llobert Hool{, l)rofessor of Geoll1etry inG-resht1111college, to assist hilll; \vho ,vas iUlnlediately

emplo:yed in IneaSl,lring, adjusting, and setting out the ground of the private str(~ets to the several pro})rietors. Dr.. ,\rrell's 1110df:~land 1)1an \vere' laid before the }(ing and tho lIotlse of C~olnn1ons, and tIle Ilracticahility of tIle whole schenle,\vithout the infringenlent of })rol)erty, clearly denloustrated: it unfortllnately h:1Pllelled, ho'\vever, tlUlt, greater part of the citizens \vere absolutely averse to alter their oldpossessiolls, and to l"ecedefrom building their hous{~s again 011 the old foundations. Many were ull\viHing to give UI) theirl)l"op(1rties, into the hallds of publie trustees, tiH they should receive an equivalent . of Inore advantage; \vhile others eX111"cssed 'distrust. All rneans\~rel'e tried to cOl1vince the citizens tllat, by rernoving a]l the ehllreh-yurdg, gatdeuR, &c.. , to the outskirts ()f tIle eity, su Hlcien t roonl \\:"ould be given to auglllent the streets, and properly to disIlose of the churches, halls, and llul)lie buildings, to the I)crfect satisfae. tion everj~ I)ropri(~t()r; but tlH~ rCl)resentation of all thesH ilflpl"O,"enlents路' hOld .no ,~reigbt ..' 'rile ,citizens ,chose to have their old eity again, under all itsdisadvnntages, rathel" th,Ul a lle\V one, tlu~ princil)les of' "Thi(~h th,ey \vere un\v'illing t() uIHlerstand, and considered as inllova.ti(H1S. Thus nIl opI)ortunity "vas lost~ of nlul,dng then,e\vcity the Inost. lllagnificent:, 'Yell as the rnostciolnrnodiollS for health 11IH:l trade, , an:.r in, :E: urope. 1'1hearcbite'ct, crnrnped hI the ex(~eution of his pIau, Vla.S obliged to abl"idge his seheulP, and 'exert his ntrnost 'labour, skill, ana ingenuity, to rnodelthecity ill the manner in which it has sinceal)peared.. 11


ILLUSTRA'l'IONS

Qllthe:2~rd ·ofOctober, 1667, the I{ing, in person, ley~lled ill fOTnl tllefounc1ation-stone of the 11e\V Royal

Exchange, novv allo'¥ved to be the finest in Eurol)e; and on the 28th of Bel)ternber,1669, it 'Vvas 0I)ened y,by the lord ll1ayorand alderrnen. ROUlld the inside of the square,ibove.the arcades, and between tIle vvindo\vS,ill"e the statues of tlleSQVereignsof England. III the centre of the$quitreiserected the, King's statue to the life, ill a Ccesarean habit of white l'llarble,executed in a rnasterly llla~lJler.b.y }Vlr.Gibbons, thell Grand Warden of tIle society. In 1668~ th~ c.ustoln-llollse for the port of London, situated on the south sitle of Thalnes-street, "vas built, adorned. '\vith an ul)per and lo\ver order of architeeture. In the latter nre stone colurnns and all entablen1cnt of the r.I'u8ctM10rder; and in the forlner, are pilasters, entabliLtllre, and five ~lledilnents of. the Io'nic order. rI'lle wings are elevated on colurnns, forrniIlg I)iazzas; a.nd the leugth of the. huilding .is 189 feet; its breadth in tIle 1l1.iddlH,27;and at the west end, 60 feet. s7 This. year also, Deputy 'V\l'ren, a,uc1 his "rarden "rehb, finished. the 1Vuxllruln SJz.eldo}l,iullZ at ()xford, designed and executed t,lt the private eXl)ense of Gilbert Sheldon, Ar,ehbishop of (;allterbury', an excel1t~nt architect,- and able designer. On the 9th of July, 1669, the cape-stolle of this elegant building \vas celebratedwitb joy and festivity by ·thecraftsulen, and an 'elegan,t oration deliveredon theoocasion by Dr. SoutlL.

Deputy\VrAIl, at the saIne tiule,bllilt, at the eXIJense of the <university, that other Inaster-IJiece of architecture, the I)retty 111useUU1, near this theatre. In 1671, Dr.\Vren began to build that grent i:luted C01U111n called the l\Ionulnent, in nlernory of the burning an<l rebuilding of the eity of London. This stupendous pillar wa.s finishe(l in 1677 "ss :l7 trhis 'buHding.\vas destroyed llyfire ~~ fc\v years ago, and an elc!.! ant structure erected in its stcu.cl. -'I~ nITOH.. 3S It 1824- feet higher th~Ul rI'rajan's piHnr at ROlne 1 and Inlilt of l?ortland stono, of. the .Doric ol~d€~r.. 1ts ~),ltitude, frolll the ground, is 202 feet; thQ greatt~stdia.lneter of the shnft or bod'y~f~he cohnnn, 15 feet; tllcgr()und plinth~ or bottoxn of. thep(~(]cstnl, 28 fet.\t. squux'o ; ar\<jl.the. pedestal, 40 feet. high~ . O\'(·r the eapit~tI is nn iron balc()uy, cncomp~u~sillg. tt cone 32 fee'e high, supporting a blazing urn (Jf ~ilt brass. "\Vithin is a lar~e staircase of' black marble, ·containing345


OF MASONRY.

189

The rebuilding of the city of Londol1 wasv~gorous]y prosecuted, .and the restoratiol1 of St. Paul's, cathedral clailnedparticular attention. Dr. vVren drew several designs, tb discover \VlUlt \vould be most acceptable to steps, each step ten inches and a half broad, and six inches thick. 'rhe ,\yest side of the pedestal i8~ldorned\\;"ith curious emblerns, by the Inasterly hand of l\'Ir. Cibber, father to the b.te poet-laureate, (Jolley Cibber; in \vhich eleven principal figures are done in alto" and the rest in basso reliet'o. l'hat to which the eye is pa.,rticulal'ly directed~ is (l, felnale: representing theOi(y of London, sitting in a languishing posture, on a heap' of ruins Behind her, is 111ne, gradually' raising her up; and at her side, a 'w'onlan, representing Pr&vidence, gently touching her "w·ith one hand, while, "rith a \vinged sceptre in the other, she directs her to regurd t\VO goddE.lsses in the clouds; one ,\'ith a cornucopia, denoting !)lenty; the other, with a paIn1 branch. the (~lnblelnof Peace. At her feet is a bee... hivc, to show that,. by industry n.nd app1icntion~ the greatest Inisfortunes lnay be overCOIllC'. Behind 1Ymc l are the ("!ill'Z£ns, exulting ~lt his endeavours to restore her; and bencath~ in the rnidst of the rni1l8~ is 3. dragon, the supporter of' the dty nrrns. 'whoen(letrronrs to presprve theln wi th his paw'. .A.t the north' end, is avic\y of the Gilll 'in jlarnes l the- inhabitnnts il1 eOllstl\rnatioll, \\~ith thc'il' :1.rlllS· exte·ndcd upward,. crying for assistance. Opposite t.he cit.Y~ on RX1 (\lt~Yated pavenlent, stnnds the King. ina ROnUtIllla.hit, \\"j th a laurel on bishe:td, .and:~ trlUl(1heon in his hand; \yho~oI1approachingher, cOlnmands tbree of his attendants to de~eend toht\f r~~Hef. 'l~he fhtst rCIH-esents the Seie'1lcea,\vitb. 8. winflcdhead, and circle of naked b()~Y'8 daneillg thoreon, and holding Nature. in her hand, \,"ith her nUrl1CrOllS hreusts, r(,~adyto give assistanco to aft. 'fIle sec\Jud is .ilrchitl?ctltn~, \\-ith tt plan in one hand, and a square and pa.ir ,)f cOlnrmsses in the other. rrhe third isLiberty~ wRvinga hat in the tt.il', and shc)\\"ing ll(n" joy at the ploa8in~ prospeet of the City's speedy recovery. Behind the king, stands his brother the l)u}~'e 9/' 1""01"/c, with fl, garland in 01}e hand, to (~ro\vn the rising city, and a S\\"o1"<1 in the othet" f~)r htu" d(~fence~ ~fhe t,vo iignrE\s bphind the!u nre J1uslice RlldJi'ortitu.de; the fOl'U1Cr ,\\"ith n,COfonet. a.nd the lu,ttcr 'with a reined lion; while, nXld(~r th(~ pln"(nnent, in ~t vunIt. ~lPfJearsE1lt~y gnawing a

lu\art.,. In the upper I)urt (If the buckgruund, the re...constru~ti(,u of the city is r(\prcsellte(~byscaffhldsand ullfinisbedbouses,~'ith builders at \vork on thern. 'Ihc north and soutbsidf'S of the pedestalhtt.:ve each a liat.in inscription, oIlcdescribi.ng the desolation of the cit)', the otht~t" its rt~stor~ttion. Th(~ enst side of tbe podestal has an inscription CXl:>rCSfirU.t!. the t.iInc in ,vhich the .piUar~.. t\s begun, c()lltinut~d, suui brought p{~rf{~etion. In one line, continued l'oU1H.l the ave du.~sc \\"orrls :-~~ This pinnr w'ns S(;}t tIp in IJl'rp(·tnaI r<.lrnerubranee·&f thcJuost. dI'eadflll Lurningof this l)r(Jt(~stant cits, b(~gun and a'~Pied onhy thu tl·c~u,h(~r..r an<l·lualice of the l>opish fa(ltion in the. ~iftllblg of Septculber, in tlle J(~nr of our Lord ItjGU: in order to theeat'x")'hlg g the. PI'.(.>t.(l8.~.t. •,u.t re~. hli.un•. ' &.'.lId. old (.',.',1.1... .t,.,.,.J.lei.l' I.l~ ;rrh.l plot. 1,01' ext.il'patil.1 B.ngJil:ih lib(~rt,r1 and. intruduciu. g PoP<.'l'.,y ,aud s.·ltl.'1\'~ry.". On the DUk.e Qf York)s nC(~t'ssion tothecro\\"u, this inscription was· eras..~d; but 1'&8 .again restored soon after the .Revolution.


140

ILLUSTRATIONS

the. general t,lste; and, finding IJersons of all deglltees declare for 11lagnificence and grundeur, he forulec1 a design according to the very best style of (.ireek and R,0111tlD architecture, and caused fi large 1110del of it to be ITulde in V\;rood; but, thebish.ops deciding that it \vas not sufficiently in the cathedral style, tIle surveyor \vas ordered to arnend it,: and be then l)roduced thescherne of the present structure, ~"hich was h0110u.red witll the King's approbation. The ol'igina]nlodeI, ho\vevel', vvhich ,,,"as only of the Corinthian order, like St. Peter's at Ronle, is still kept in an apartIn elltof the cathedral, as a real curiosity. . . In 1673, the foundation-stone of tIlis ll1ugnifieeIlt cathedral, designed by Delluty 'Vren, \vas laid in solelnn · forul by the l{ing,39 attended by' Grand 11aster l-tivers, his arehitects and craftsll1 en , in the l)resence of the nobility all(l gentry, the lord 111UyOl" and aldernlen, the bisho11s andelergy,&c. During the \vhole tinle this structure was building, Dr. "Vren acted aSlnaster of th·(~ work, and surveyor, and \vas ably assisted by his v~rarde'D8, ltlr. Ed\vardStrong and his SOl1. St. Paul's eathedraI is }Jltlllned in the forn1 of a long cross; the vvalls are \-vroug"ht in rtlstie, and strengthened, as \vell 3,8 adorned, by tvvo rcnvs of eOl1!Jled l)ilusters, one over the other; the lo\ver C~orinthiHn, and the ul1 per COll1110site•. r~rhe s11uees.bet\veen the arches·of the·\vindows, and the architecture of thelo\vel" order, as \vell as those above, are filled with a variety ofeurieh III ents. '1'he west front. is graced\vitll a rnost ll1aguificent l)ortico, a noble pediment,al1dt\~o stately turrets. There is a grand flight of steps of black rnarble that extend thH whole length of the portico, \vhich consists of t\velvc lofty Corinthian COIUlIlIlS belo\,r, and eight of theCOlllIJosite order above; these are all coupled and fluted. The u})perseries Slll)port a noble l)cdirneI1t!, crowl1(Hl "\ivith its acroteria; and in this l)edinlent is un elegant rel)resentationin bas~relief of the convel·sion. of St.l1 aul, executed by Mr.. Bird,.all artist \vhose nanll1, 011 aeeounf; of this l)iece alone, is. worthy of being trallS111itted to 89 'rIle rnal1et ,vith which the king levellt~d this foundntion..stone WU delivered by Sir Christopher \v"ren to the old Lodg~ of St. Paul, DO": t~e Lodge of .Antiquity, where it is still preserved as a great

curIosIty.


OF 1\IASONRY.

141

l)osterit)r. 1'hefigures are well executed; the 111agnificent figure of St. I'>nul, on the apex of the l)edinlel1t, \'vith St. Peter 011 his right, and St. Jalll€S on his left, !)roduce a 1'he four l~vallgelists, "'Titll their prO!ler fine effect. enlblenls, on the front of the to\Vt:~rs, are judiciously disposed, 'and skilfllily finished; St.l\lat~lle\v is distinguished by all angel; St. ~Iurk, by' a lion; St. Luke, by an ox; and St.. J obn, by all eagle. 'ro the north l)ortico, there is an ascent by t\ve1ve eirenlal" steps of black. lllarble, and its dOlIle is SUIll)ol'ted by six grand COllnthian colurl111 s. U 11011 the donle is a ,\yell-proIJoliioned urn, finel)'" ornan1ented \vith it~stoons; over the· urn, is a I)edirnellt, SUI)!)orted, by' pilasters in the wall, in the thee of '\vhich are carved the royal HT'U1S, \vith tIle regalia sUI)ported bv anuels.... Statues of five of the aI)Ostl~s nre placed on the t(~i), at })l"o})er dist~l1]ees. 'l'he south portico ans\vers to the north, and, like that, is supported by six noble Carinthiarl colunuls; but as the ground is considerably lo\ver on tltis side of tIle church ~"than other, tht~ aseeIlt is a fligllt of t\venty-iive ster.s. rrhis llortieo has also a pedilnellt above, in \vhieb is a I)lHl~nix l"isingollt of the fl.~llnes, witl} the:rnotto, ItESURGAl\I,40 undCrll(~ath it, as an enlblem of rebuilding the church. On this side of the build.ir.lg l~re likc\vise five statues, \vhicllcol'resI)Ond \vith those on the apex of the nort!l !1ediluelli:. 1\ t the east end of tlH~ Chl.ll"cl1 is a s\veeI), or circular projeetion, f<.-.r ~~ltar, finely orIlUlnented \vith the orders, and ,vitll scul!lt'ure; :particuJarly ft noble I)iec.e inhonOllr of l~ing ,\,rillialll III. rrile (lorne, ,vhi(~11 rises in tlie centre of the ,vhole, is sUI)(~rlativH]~Y grand. 1"VCIlty feet nbov(~ the roof of the churell is a circular range of tllirt.y'-two .co]ulnns, ,vitil niches lllnced exactlyaga.inst others within.. 'l'h(~se are 40 .l\. eurit)us aeddeut il':i sai<1 to have givt~n l'ise to this device, '\'hich wus IHu·ticul:u·ly olH3erved by the arehiteet as fl, 1hvoul'ahle trr:OOD.. When 'Vr(~n \'''US nUlrldnp; out the din1(~nsioI1s (.f'tlu! litlildiIlg1 and had on the of the grt·at dornc, a ec)IUnlOJl 1al)(Hlre:rwas ordl'l'cd to hriX1~ hhnn stone 1i·Olfl n.IllOUg tIw ruhlli8h, to h;:'l,vens flo dil'eetion to the lUUSo1l8.The stone vdlieh t.he IIUlU hrought bappened to he u, piece of tl. gTf1vestQne, '\\~ith notlrin~ ~en~ain_ing' of the inscription but thi8singl(~ 'word, in Inrgt capitnl8, ItIt~St:;ll(~A.l\I; and thisciI-cUIIlsta:nce It.'ft 1'tH hUpl'cssioll OIl Dr.'Vreu's nlind, that could lo

ne've'r a.lterl\l'ards be erased.


ILLUSTRATIONS

terlninatedby tIleir entablature, \Vllicll S'llPI)orts [t ha,nd.. . SOUle gallery., adorned \vith a balustrade. Above these COh.llYlllS is ~1 range of I)ilasters, with v··vinc1o\vs bet\~7eell ; and fi'OlIl the entablature of these, the dianleter deereases very considerably ; and t"vo feet above that, it is again con&itructed. Fr0l11 this part tlleextl~l'nal sweep of tIle dorne begins, and the arclles nleet at 52 feet above. On. the SUlnulit of tIle d0111e is an elegant balcony, and frorn its centre l"ises the lantern, adorned \vitIl Corinthian colu1111ls. The ,~yhole is terl1Jinated by a ball, on \vhich stands H cross, both of vvhich are elegantly gilt. This noble fabric is surrounded, at a proper distance, by a d\varf-stone \~lall, 011 ,vhich is 111aced the 1110st nlagonificent balustrade of cast iron l)erhaps in the universe, four feet six inches ill height, exclusive of the \vall. In this enlcosure are seven beautif\:tl ir011 a;ates, \Y Idch, together \vith the balustres, in TH,unber '~[ll)out 2500, weigh 200 tons and·S5. IJounds.. Iutile eentre of the area of the grana '~lestfront, 011 a pedestal. of excellent \VOrknlanship, strtnds a statue of Queen l\nne, forrnec1 of \vhite 1l1arble, \vitl1 I>}"oper decorations. The figures on tIle h(lse reI)resent l~rilannia., \vith ller sl)ear; C";aZlia, \vith tIle ero\vn in her laI); Hibernia, \vith her harp; and ..t1. 11U: rica , \vith her bo\.y. These, and the colossal st;:Ltues \vith \vhicll the church is adorned, \vere executed by the ingeni.ous l\fr.. lIiII. A strict regard to the situu.tion of this eathedral, due eastttnd\vest, hasgiveIl it an oblique· fJl>l)ea.raneB vritb respect to I~udgate-stl"eet in front; so that the great front gate in the surrounding iron rails, being rnade to regard the street in front, rather tlUUl the chureh to '\vhiell it belongs, the statue of the Cineen . A.nne, \vhicll is exa.ctly in the llliddle of the \vest front, is thro\vn 011 one side the straight approach fr0111 the gate to the cllurch, and gives a.n idea of tht~vvhole. edifice being a,vl'y. Under tIle· grand pOl"tico, at tlle"'''est end, are thl"e·c doors, ornanlented .at . the t01) "rith bas-relief: .. 'fhe 111iddle door, \vhich. is by f~lr the largest, is cased \vith white 111arble, and over it is a fine l)iec.e ofbasso-relievo, inwhic11 St.. IJ,tul is represented l'lreaching to the Bereans. ()n entering the door, tIle nlind is struek by theE!xtent of the vista. .t111 arcade, supported by' lofty and luassy


OF l\iIASONRY.

148

11illars on eacll lland, divides the church into the body

and t\voaisles; and the view is tern)inated by the altar

at the extrelnity' of the choir;'. subject,

ne,~ertheless, to

the intervention of the organ standing across, whic.h forn.ls a heavy obstruction. 'rhe :pillars are adorned "~litll . colurnlls Hlld pilasters of theCorinthiall ul1dCon"lI)osite orders; and the arches of the roof are enriched ,,,-rith shields, festoons, ch3J)lets, and other ornanlcnts. In the aisle, on one hand, 18 the e.onsistol";y; alld, 0111,osite, on the other~ tIle 111orning-IJrayerehal,el. ,These have very beautiful screens of earved ,,""ail1scot, \vbich are Jnuch adrnired. Over the eentre, '\:vhere the great aisles cross cac1I other, 'is the graIHl eupola, or dorne, the vast coneave of \vhieh insI)ires a pleasing a,ve. lTllder its centre is.fixed, in the floor, n brass plat(~, rotlnd ,vhicll tIle 11avernent is beautifully Varil!gated; lrut fhe into \\'lliell it is forlned" ean n(~\vhere be so \vel1 seen us fi"can the \~~hisl)erillg-grlllel路y路above.

IIere the sI)eetator l'lHS at

onee a full '--:vie\v of the orgal1, riell})'" ornurnented,vith car'ved ,vork, and theelltranee to the choir direetlv l1ndt~r it., rrh(1 t,'S)lO i,dsles on the side of tIle choir, as ~'\\~ellas theiehoiritself~ are inclosed V\'ith ,rer)r fine iron rails and gates. rrl~-'e al tar-Iliece is adorlled "Titll fO'ur noble fhlted

pilasters,pail1ted and veined ,vith gold, in inlitatioIl of lalJis la.zuli, <11H.1 th(~ir eapitnls are dOllble gilt. In the intereolrnnniatiollS belo\v nre nine Innrble pUllels, and above are six \,,~indo\Ys, in tile, t\VO series. rrhe floor of the '\vhole ellureh is paved \vith ; und \vithin tbe ruils of the alt~tr ,\~v~tll IlOl'I)hyry', llolished, and laid in several geolnetrlCu.l flgur(;~s .. In the great cupola, \vhi(~h is loSfeBt jndiulnet(~r,the ~ll'elliteet sef~rns to haveinlit.~l,t(HI I:>nntheoll 'at ROlne, exeeptillg tllUt fIle uPllerorder"jg tllere only, ulnl)ratile, and distinguished l>y diHe.rnJltcol()ured rnarbles; \vh'ile., in 1)aul'8, it is extant out of thn,,'"al1. 'Ith,e J:>antbeoll is un higher \vithin than its diarneter; St. ]?eter's is two dianletH~8; the ft1l"lner sho\vs its eorlcuve too low, th(~ lattt~r to 'bigll ;8t. l)aul's is I)roIH)rtioned bet\VeCll' both, and tl1erefbi~o 8110\\"8 itsconeave, way, and is very ligl'rtsorne by tlH~ Vw~indo\vs of the \lIll)er ordHT. 'rhese strike do\vn tIle light through tIle great colonnade thtlt


144

ILLUSTRA TIONS

encircles the dOll1e \vithout, and serve for t11e ubutn1cnt, \vhich is bricl\. of the thiekness of t\yO bricks; but as it rises every vvay five f(~et high, it has a course of excellent bricl~ of 18 inches long, banding fhrougll the vvhole thickness; and, to l11ake it still 1110re secure, it is surrounded \vitllrt vast chain of iron, strongly linked together at ever~jT ten ft~et. The chain is let into a channel, cut into "the bandage of Portland stone, and defended· fi'orn the ,veather by fining the groove \vitll lead. 1'1'ho cone-ave \vas, turned 1.11)on a ceiltre, "vhie11 "vas judged necessary to keel) the \-vork. true; but the centre ,vas laid \vithout allY standards belo\v for SUl)l)ort. Every" stOT'r of the scaflolding being eireulnr, and the ends of all the "ledgers l11eeting at so l11uny rings, and truly ,,~rought~ it supported itself: l\.S the old elu.ll"cl1 of St. l')tlul had a lofry sIJire, L)r. Wren \VUS obUg{\d tc; give his bu"ilding an tlltitude that Inight secure it ii-OIH suffhring by the COIIIIJarison. 1'ro do this, he l11uc1e the dorne vvitll0Ut 111l1Ch higher than ~ritllin, bv raish]g· a strong l)rick eone over the internal cupola, S~~) eonst~"ucted a~ to slJl)port :111 elegant stolle l~.lntel'n OIl the apex. 1'rhis bricI\. cone is SllI)portecI by n, (~upoln, 1"o1111ed of' tinlber, and eovel'ed \vitll1ead: bet\\"een vvhieh and the cone are easy st:lirs llI> to the larltern. IIere the spectator llH1Y vie\v contrivances that arc truly' astonishing. rrhe out\vard ClII)oh1 is onl:y rH)hed, "yhicll the architect thonght less Gothie than to stick it ftlll of su(~h little .liglJ ts as are in tIle cUl'01a of St. I)eter's) that could not \'vithout difficulty he Inended,alld, if neuleeted, nlight soon darnnge the tilnbers. As tlie al'ehit~et ,vas sensible that l)uintings are liable to decay, he intende(l to 11uve heautitied the inside of tIle eupola \vith niosa,ie "vork, \\"hieh,\yithout the least fiu1ing of colours,\"ould be as durable as tIle building itself; bIlt in tlris Itf~ ,vas over-rtlled, thOltgh he had undertak(~n ,to procure ... .of the lIlostelniuerlt artists in th,at profession ItnI)!, for tIle purpose.. rrhis part, tlH~re1()re, is no\\", dt'~e(Jrated r }))7 the pelleil.of Sjr•• ~J aII1CS rhorrllli'l1, VltrllO has rerH'(IB()l!t(~(] the pril1c'ipul passnges of St. I)aul's tife, in eig"ht eOluptn~t­ nl~ut:8. 'fhese paintings aTe all seen to (H.l\"autHt~e by lllfHU1S of a eirc.tdtll" opening, throllgh \vhiel1 the light is tl'nnsrnittec{ \vith adn1il'ub-le frorn the Iarttern above; but they are 110\V cracked, and sarlly decaycrL,


OF

1\'IASON.RY~

145

Divine service \vas 11erforrnecl in the . choir of this catlledral, for the first tirne, on the thlinksgi\ring -da.y for the peace ofRys\vick, Dec. 2, 16H7 ;41 and tile last stone on the top of the lantern laid b~y nfr. C~hristopller-Wren, the SOIl of the archi teet, in 171 0:12 'Vhile the cathedral of St. Paul's \vas carrying qnasa uational undertaking, the citizens did not neglect ,their o\vn inllllediate concerns, but restored such of their halls und gates as had beell destroyed. In April, 1675, \vas laid the foundation-stone of the late Betblehelll-hospit,al for IUllaties, in ~Ioorfielc1s.. This \vas a ll1agnifieent building, 5 Ll0 feet long, and 40 broad, besides the t\vovlings, \vhieh \vere not~ added until. several yrears after,var~Js. rrhe rniddle· and ends of the edifice· I,rojected a little,. ~tlld \vere adorned \vith pilasters, entablatul·t~S, foIiages,&c . , \vhich, rising above the rest of the building, had each a, fiu t roof, \vi til a handso111c lJalustruclo of stone. In the C{~Iltre \vas .aJl eleg:an t ado l"l]ed \vith n· eloe1\., gil t ball, and ·vane. "~rrlle \\'1101e hnildilH! "rns bricl\. ~lna ston'e, inelosed l)y n handsonle\val1, GS() feet long', of the sarne rnateri:lls... In the centre of the .\v'al 1 \vagl-' a large pair of iron ; Hnd on piers on \Vllieh tbese '~,"ere hung, \vere . j"I:nages, in ltre~~liniug OIlE~ relrre... senting lJ"l/,vin.g, t.he other 7lll:lanchiJb" {~xI)ression c;r' thes~~ fL!.rllres is adillirnbfe ;alHl they\vere tbe \'vorklnunship of"' 1\11". C1ibber, the :fhtlaH" of "the ]aureat bef()re rnentioned. rrlris building is no\v destroyed:td 'I'he I>11vsieians ah~o, UJ)(Hlt this tinle~ disi'''''O'~''\'·,-\Fr S0111C taste in"' their in \\,. (n·\~dcl\.lane, \vhieh, thOllgh litt1e kI10\Vn, is by good judges a delicate building. ...

·n IIo"'clI's ~re(lnn~1 l1ist. ..:\ng;. l.fhi..,; noble lofty <,;'nonghto l)c. tliSCCtllC(l at sen. east'l~al'd, ~\nd at \riudsor t ( ) w ' a s begun and cOlnpletE~d in the space of .thirt,y-1h'c years, ar(~l~itect, the· great Sir Christopher 'Yren; ol~,e prineip:.tl HUlson, 1\11'•. Strong; nnd one. of ~Jond(m. Ill"" Ifenl'~" COluptf)n; \,"'horeas, St. at 11onlc\V'flS 15f.y(?(1I'S in huilding. nuder t,\"ch'e suceessive ul'ehiteets, assisted by ti'H~ pt)li{~t~ and inttorest of the l~On)tHl ;.,;ec~ anfl :ttt.ende'd by the 'best artists in statuary, p~tinting. and :rnosai(~ 'work. rfhe va.ri()us parts of this 8npQrb edifiee I have heel! tbus pnrtieular in as it reHe(·ts honour on the architect \\'ho there isnt.)t an instn.nee OIl WOl'k of equal eOlllpleted hy one rnan. ,A ne\v edifiee. fhr the saIne purpose, has been (~rcctt:ld in St. :115

n'n').~nlturte hnvin~ t~\"('r ht~ell Georg(~'s Fields.-J~nlTon.


146

ILLUSTRATIONS

'l.'he Fraternity vvrere 110\V fully eIl1ployed; and. by then1 the following parish cllurches, which had beerl eonslllued by the great fire, \vere gradually rebuilt, or repaired: AlIlwllo,,"s, Bread-street, finisl1ed ·1694; and the steeple completed 1097.

.::\Jlhallows the Great, Thames-street, 1683. Allhallows,! Lombard-street, 1694. St~Alball, Wood-street, ] 685. St. Anne and Agnes l St. .4.-\nne's-lane, l\.ldersgate...street, 1680. St. A.ndrew's. Wardrobe, Puddledock-hill, 1692. St. '.Andrew·'s: IIolborn, 1687.

St. Anthony's, "\Vatling-steet., 1682.

St. l\ugustin's, ,,,-ratling~street, 1683; and the steeple finished 1695. St. Bartholonle\V'S, Royal Exchange, 1679. ,:~ St. Benedic t's, Grtl.cech urch-street~ 1685. St. Benedict's, 'fhreadneedle-street, 1H73. St. Bennet's, P~lUl'S vVhar~ 'l'haulcs-street, 1683. St. Bride's, ]rleet~street, 1HSO; ~lnd fltrther adorned in 1699. Christ-(~lltlrch~ New"gate-street" 1687. St..Christopher's, 'l'hl-eadneedle-street, .(since taken ,down to n1ake ~OO1l1 for the Ban1<,) repaired ill 16HH.. St. Clt;:ulcnt ,Danes, in the Strand, taken dO'wn 1680, and rebuilt by Sir Christopher '\Vren, l682.. St. Clen1ent's, East Cheap, St. Olenlcnt's-lane, l080. St. IHonis Back, LiIl1e-street, 1674. St. IJunstnn's in the East, Tl'o"..el .....· trcet, r(~paired in 10n8. St. EdulO}Hl's the King, l~olnbard-street, rebuilt ill 1674. St.. George, Botolph-lftlle, IG7~1. St.. Jrunes, Garliek-hill, 1688. St.. Juntcs, 'VE~stlninstor, IG75.. St... I.I(.t~vrClloe Jewry, Cateatou-street; 1677. Qt.1vlagu;ts, LoudQu-hridge, 1676; u.nd the steeple in 1705. St~ .M~:L!gal""et,. Lothbury, 1690~ St... Margaret I->ttttens, IJittlo rI'ow(}r.. str(~()t, 1687;0 St. Martin's, I.ludg'clte, 1684.. St.. l\fary Ahchurch, Abc.hureh-la.ne, 1686. St.. 1\'larJrt s at hill, St. ~I{Lry's-hin, 1672. St. l\:[ar.y's, .A.lderrnary, Bow'-lane, It)7~. St. ~Iary l\Iagdalon, (Hcl I~ish-stre(~t, IG85.. St.. M,ary S<lnlersct,(~tleenhitl1e, 'I'luunos-street, 1()83. St.Mary.. le~bo'v, (~hen,psi(le, IG8;3.. This church 'wns huilt on. the wall of, tt veryanclcl1t ouo in. tlH~ eru'ly thne of the Ronuul colpny ~ t.he roof is· arched,. u,lul supported lvith t*~ll Corinthian colurruls; hut tlH~priuoiptL1ornatnentis the stooplo, which is <1eclne<1 an ud... luiruble !)iece of architectufo, llflt t() bo pttrnUelcd by that of anv other parochialohurch.. It rises frOll1 thegrounil n squnro trnver, plain at bottoIu"and iscs.rri(·~d up to a, (~ousideral)lo height in thi8 81Hlp(~, but with Illore ornalnc~nt u.s it ntlvanees.. 'rile prin(~ipul (le.. aoratiotl Qf the lower l>art is the door-eO-so; n lofty.. noble nr(~h~ facetl with tt bold and .well-wl·()u~ht rusti(~, l"UiSHd on .a. plain solid courso from the foundati(Ul. \Vithin tho arob is u. portul of e


OF MASONRY.

147

the Doric ordo.r, 'with w(~ll- proportioned columns; the frieze is ornulnented with triglyphs, and with sculpture in the· metopes t There nre SOUle other slight ornaments in thispa.r~.wbich is terminated . hy. an. elegantcoI'uice, over' which rises a plain oourse, from which the . dial projects. .Above this, in . each face, there is an arched Willdo,v, '\vith Ionic pilasters at the sides. The entablature of tho order is 'well \vrought : it has a s"welling frieze, and supports all the cornice an elegant bolustrnde, with Attic pillars over Ionic C01UlllI1S. These sustain elegant scrolls, on which are placed urns with, flarnes, and froln this part the steeple rises circular. There is aplail1 course to the height of half the scrolls, ana upon this is raised an eleganteirculal" series of Corinthian columns. These support a. second balustrade with scrolls; and· above there is placed another series of columns of the Composite order; .whila, from the entablature, rises tt set of. scrolls supporting tho spire, which is placed on halls, and terlnillated by a glooe, onwbich is meda Yane.. St. Mary Wo<..)}noth's, .Lombard-street,. repaired ill ·]677. St.l\Iary, Aldennanbury, rebuilt It377. St. ~Intthe~",·, Friday-street" .1685. St. 1\{ichael. Basing-hall-street, 1679. St. l\Hchnel Royal, College-hill, 1694. St. l\1ichael, (~ucenhithe, rrrinity...lalle, 1677.. St. :\Ii(~hael, \Vood-str€~(~t, 1675. St. l\Iiehuel, Crooked-lanl~, 1(,88. St. ~fiehaeI, CJonlhill, 1()72.

St. St.. St. ,8t.. St.

l\Ii1clt-ed, I~reacl-strcet, 1083. Mil<1red,.I:>oultry, 161,6. Nicbolns,Cole-ftbbE~y;OId }4'ish-street, 1677. Olave's, Old Jewry, 1673" Peter's, Cornllill, 1681.

St. Sepulchre's, Snow-bill, 1671. St. St(~phen's, Colenlan-streot, 1676. St" Stephen's, "\,yTnlbrook, behind tIle ~ra])sion..house, 1676. Many enc·.(nniUlns have been befO;tnwed 011 tllis church., for its interior beauties. 'The c10rne is finely proportione(l to the churcll, and divided into sInnlI ("ornpn,rtnlents, decorated witll great elega.nce, nndcrownf~d ,vitb n lantern: tho roof is also tlhided into OOlnpartInents t and sUPj)orte<lhy noble Coriuthiuncolumns raised on their pedestals" Frins church llas three aisles Rll<l n crossaisl~, ~ 75 f(~ot long, 36 broac1,34 high and 58 to the lantern. .It i~~IGU8 nn over Europe, wld justly reputed the. master-piece of .Sir: s(niIristopher'Vren. rrhero IS not a bel\uty,ofwhioh.t'b&.p1an WG'bld admit, that is not t,,) 1)<~ foun<l herein its greatest perfection~ St. S\vitbin's, Ca.nnon-street, 167:J. St.. V~1dast, I~"'(.ster-lo.11e, 1697"

"\Vhile these ehurch<~s, and otller rl"llblie buil~.t were going fOl'ward,under the dire:ctiol1of Sir O'l;rri$topherWren, King Clul"rles ditl not COIlfiue his" Ove-

menta to }~nglaIldalone, but (~omlnand.d .. ... .illialn Bruce, llart.,Grand Master ofScotlan:d, to rebUIld tIle paJace of IIolyroodllouse, at Edinburgh, which was ac-


ILLUSTRaTIONS

cordingly-execllted by that architect in the best Augustan ~~..

. '

.

During ,the prosecution of the great \vorksabove described, the ·private business of the Society ,vas not neglected: Lodges we.reheld .atdifferent places, and manv new ones constituted, to which the best architects resorted. . 1'111614, th'e' Earl of Rivers resigned tIle office of Gra.nd Master~and was succeeded by George Villiers, Duke of B~cki,ngham. lIe left the care of the Brethren '" to his wai-den.s,·and .Sir Cllristopher \Vren, \vho still continlled t03l~tas deputy.. In 1679, the duke resigned in favour of I-fenry l:~ennet, Earl of Arlington. rrhoug'll this nobleluan '"vas too deeply engaged in state aflhirs to attend to the dU1~ies of l\Iasonry, the Lodges continued to 111eet regularly under his sanction, and lnany res!)ectabIe gentlernen joined tIle .Fraternit~r. On thc.deatll of the'kirig, in1685, ..Tanles II.. succeeded to the throne, during\vhosereign the:F'raternity\\rere much l1eglected. The Earl of Arlingtondyillg this year, the Lodges ll1et in con1nlunication, and elected Sir C1hristopherWren Grandl\rlaster, 'vvho Hl)pointed :I\fr. Gabrh~l Cibber and lVIr. Ed\vnrd Strong 4,i his \varclens. l\.Insonry continued in a declining state for Inany years', and a fc\v

,[..;odges only occasionally l11et in ditlerent places. At the Itevolution, the Society \',vas ,so Inucll reduced irrthe. South of EnglU!nd, that no 1110re than Seven l·t~gu­ laiLodges met in London. and its suburbs, of "\vhich t\VO onlywerewortl1yofn'Otic~e;the .old IoJodge of St. I)i1ul's, overwhiohSir:Christopher had' presided . during the Dllildiilg ofthatstrncture; and a Lodge at St. Thornas's IIospital, Southvvark, over \,vhich Sir llobert Clayton, th~Il.I.Jo~"d~ l\Iayor of. LOl1..doll, 15resided during the rebul1dulg of thatlloslllta1. 4" ]{ing .WilliaIll, having been llrivntely initint~~d into :i\Iasollry in 1695, al)proved the choice of Sir ChristoI)her \Vren. as GralldM~tster, and hOlloured the Lodges,vith his:.l~oyalsallctiol1!particularly Ont~al; flaIO!)ton Court, at ,i4 . .

Both of those gentlem.en were rnelnbers of

th(~

01<1 Lodg«) of St.

Pat,l, with Sir Christol>herWren, n.nd bore n prineipnl impr\)velXl(~ntswhich

aftf~r

shar(~

I'n nIl

thE~

thofil'e of London; the latter, ill Rarticular1 displayed his nbilith;~s iu tho' cathedral of St. I'Ulit. S 'Seatho 'Book of Constitutions, 1738, pp.. 106, 107. took pliwQ


149

OF MASONRY.

which, it is 'said, his majesty frequently presided during the building of the new !Jart of. that palace. Kensington Palu.ce"'''ns· built during this l"eign,ullder the direction of Sir Christopher; as \vere also Chelsea IIospital, and the PaJaceof Greel1\vich, the latter of which had been recently converted into an hosI')ital for sea!nen, and finished after the design of Inigo Jones. At a general assell1biy and feast of the Jrlasons, in 1697, man}T noble Hurl erninent Brethren ,\\"'ere present, and among the rest, Charles Duke of Richlnond and Lenox, ~"ho vvas· at that till1e ~Iaster of the Lodge a,tChichester. His Grace was }Jroposed and elected Grand Master for the following year; and having engaged Sir Cl1ristopher Wren to ,aetas his de!Juty, be appointed Edward·Strong, senior, and Edward Strong, Junior, his ··wardeIls. llis Grace continued in otUee only oneyeal"', alld wns succeeded by Sir ChristoI)her,,\vllo continued at the llcadof the J:!'raternity till the deatll of . }\'..ing ill 1702. Durir]g the fbllowing reign, }\Iasonry Blade no eousider-

ulble In·ogress. Sir Christopher's nge and infirrnities drawiu~ off his attention from the duties of his office, the IJoages d,e,creased, and. the annual festivals were entirely . negl~~cted46.rrlle old Lodge of St. Paul, and a ff~W others, continued to Illcet regularly,butcoDsisted of fe\v In(~nlbers47. 1'0 inerease their nunlbers> a 'proposition "vas nladt~, and after\vards Hg!·e(~d to,1'HATTHE PHIVILEGBS OF· ~IASONRY SIIOULDXO LO~GgR BE UES'I'RICTED TO OPgRA,TIVE 1\1.ASO::\iS, llC'£ EXTEXD 'rOl\IEN 01" VAltlOUS PltOl~"lESSIONS, PHOVID'BD 'rIIBY \VBRE HEGULARl... Y APPROVED .AND INITIJ\'.rED IN'l'O rrllE on.DBIt. In cOllsequence

of tbisresolution, llHln.y nc\V' regulations took. . plaee,alld "the Society once lIlore rose into Ilot.iee and esteem. S}i~CT.

lIistory

VII.

(?!. tlu:: llezoiral r1" J.1f(;u~onr!lin

tlu~

J.,'ioutl"

of ,E7"g~tL

()f(teorgn I. thei\la~ons.iu·LondoIJ environs, finlling thernselves. del?riv~ cit'. Sir Chr"istoph(:~r \Vren, and their 'lItHluti IIH~tln.gS diseontinued, resolved to C(~lnent thenlS(~IYes 'under a ne\vG'rand ON

and . ..

•• IJo<lk. of Constitutions, 1138,

p~

108.

47

Ibid"


160

ILL USTRATIONS

:rtfaster, and to revive the COnl111nnications and annual festivals of tbeSociety. "\Vit.h tllis vie\v, the Lodges at the Goose al1d Gridiron, ill St. P"1Ul'S Churcll-yard-the Crown, in Parker's-lane, near Drury-lane-t.he l\PI)letree Tavern, in Charles-street, Covent-Garden, and the Runlll1cr and Grapes Tavern, in Channel-row, vVestn1illster, (the only four Lodges in being in the South of Englal1d ,a,t that thne,)vvitll SOUle other old ,'Brethren, n~et at the Apple-tree l'avel"n, above-n1entioned, in Febl-uary, ,1717; und, having voted, the oldest l\faster-n1ason then, present ~nto the chair, constituted thel11selves a Grand Lodge, .'pro tempore, in due fornl. At this 111eeting it ",Tas resolved, to ,revive the Quarterly C0111nlUnications of the ]fraternity, and to hold the next annual asselll bly and feast on the 24th of "June, at the Goose and Gridiron, i.n St. Paul's Churc.h-yard (in eon11)lin1ent to the oldest Lodge, \vhicll then 111et tllere), for. the PU1"!)OSe of electing a Grand l\iaster aU10ng thelnselves, till they should llave the honour. of a Iloblebrotber at their bead. .A.. ccOl"dingly, 011 St. John the Baptist's dily', 1717, in the third year of the reign of IZing CJeorge I . , the assen1hly' and feast ,vere held at the snid house; "vhen the oldest l\tlaster-ll1ason, and thel\Iaster of a Lodge, having taken the chair, a list of proper candidates fo路r the office of Grand l\Iaster \va,s produced; and the nanles beirlg se}:)a~ rately proposed, the Bretllren, by a great Ifutiority of hands, elected 1VIr. Anthony Sayer Grand l\Iastcr of 1\1aSOllsfortlleensuing year, WllO vvas forth\vith invested by, tllosaidoldest Master, installed ,by the l\Iaster of tIle oldest' Lodge, anddu ly congra,tulated b~y' the 3:ss(~n)bl:y", \vl1o paid hinI homage. The Grand ThIuster then entered on the duties of his office, appointed his "lardens, ana C01111nanded the Brethren of the four Lodges to nieet hi111and his ,~rardens quarterly in cOIlllnunication; enjoiniIlg thenl, at the sarne tirne, to reeornulcnd to nIl the E"raternity a, punctual attendance on the next annual assenlblvand'fenst. J.\.n10l~gstavariety of regulations \Vllich "r{~re proposed and agreed tout this 111eetitlg,\VaS the follo\ving =. "That the privilege ofassernbIing us ~fasons, ,vhich had been llitherto unliInited 48 , should be vested in certain '" AsufIicieut number of l\1:a..~on8, met together within' n ,certain


161

OF J.\iI.A.SON RY•

Lodges or AsseInblies of l\Iasons convened in certain

places; and that ever~y· Lodge to be 11eI'eafter convened, except the four old. Lodges at this tinle existing, sllo'uld be legally authorized to act by n ~"arrant fi"oln the Grand lVIaster for the ti111e being, granted to certail1 individuals by l)etition, ,~\tith the consent and aPI)robation of· the Grand Lodge ill COl11111unicatioll; and that \vithout such \varrant no Lodge should be hereafter deenled regular or constitutional." In cOllsequenee of this regtIlution, several nevY Lodg'es \vere S0011 after COl1yened in different parts of Londoll and its el1virons, and the }lastersand \Vardens of these Lodges \,,"ere C0111!llanded to nt-tend the llleetingsof the ("{rand Lodge, nUlke a regular report of their l)roceedings,and tral1S111it to the Grand l\Iaster, fronl tinle to tirne, U COllY of any by'-la\vs they Illigbt forlIl for their O\\7n govern1l1ent; tlutt no lavvsestablished anlong thern lnight be contrary to, or subversive of~ tlH~ general regulations, bv \vh.iell the l~l~atel"nity had been long- go\"e~I1ed" and \,:hiell had been sanetiorl(~d bv th,'~ f'C)ui; L'-odges \vhen eonvened as a (~Tand Lodge in i717.. In compliment to the Brethl'cn of the fou~old Lodges, by. whorn the G-rand I.Jodgc \vas . first forrned, it . \\'tlS resolved,. "'rhntevel"y. rH'i vilege \vhich they collectively enjoyed by virtue of their itnnlelllorial rights, they should still continue to enjo:r; and that no la\v, rule, or reglllation, to be hereafter rnade or,l)tlssed in tho. G rand Lodge, should ever deprive thelll of sneh IH'ivilege, or (~nCrOacll on any landrnark \vhieh \vas at that tirne established us the standard of Inasonie governrnent." 'l"his resolution being contirnled, th(: old l\I.asons in t11e l\Ietropolis, agreeably to the resolutaons of the 13rethren at large, 'Vestt~d all their inherent privileges, us irHlividuals, in the fhurold Lodges, in trlustv, that they \\'oul<1 IH:~V(~r suUerthe old clHu~gcs and ancient Iundl'narks toheiI1fringed•.. rI'h(i ftltlr old lodges then agreed to.cxtend their IH:ltronage to~n:(~ry lodg{~ \vhicl1 should h(~reaftt~r bec.onstitutedby th~ Cirand I.Jodge, Hccording to the new regu)atioIlsof tbe Society; distl"1<:~.t,

pl(U:~t~,

''lith t1H~ consent of ~he. shedir elllpo·W(~rf:~d,n.t

fH"

.

.

lnngistr~tte

or

~h(~

tlus tunC', tt) llUiko, ~fnsons, &:udl)l·n(~tu:m t}l(~ rib~80f 1\-ht80xlry, without \vnrrant of Constitution" The privne~e ,\<vtlS hlh(~reut iu th(:'U1S(?lvcs as individuals; and this privilege is still enjoy!ed hy tho t,vo old l""odges IlQ'V extant, whieh act by inullcruorial

w('rc

coul:>tituti'Ju.


152·

ILLUSTUATIONS

alldwhilesuch lodges a.cted in conforrnity to tIle ancient CQBstitution of the Order, to adlrJ it their l\Iusters ancl Ward~ns and to share '\vith thelll all the l)rivileges of the G,rand Lodg'e, excel)ting I)recedenceof ra.uk.. l\latters being thus alnicably Htljusted, the Bret.hren of the l(Hll" old lodges considered theil'~ attendance on the future COIHll1unlca,tions of the Society as unneces.sary ; and therefore, like the other lodges, trusted illlplicitly to their l\laster ~nd \V in"dens, resting' satisfied that no 111easure of iJnportance \vould be adopt~d \vithout their apIH"obatioll. Theofiicers of the old lodges, ho\vever,sooIl began to discover, that the new lodges, being equally represented with thelllat the COl'nrnunications, Inight, in process of tiuJe, so far outnlullber the old ones, as to have it in their po\ver, by a Inajority, to en<;roaeh 011, or even subvert, the privileges of the originall\lasolls of l~ngland, \vhiell had beeu centred in the 10ur oldlodges,\~lith the COnOlll"... renc{~ of the···.. Brethren at •. Ittrge, therefor(~, they very wiselyforrued<:L code of.la\v8 f()f the future governrnent of·· the. Society; to \\~hich. "vas Ilnnexed a eonditionnl clause;~g '\l\thich the Gr·auct l\Iaster fhr the tirne being, his successors, ttnd the l\Iaster of every lodge to be hereafter constitJuted, vvere bound to preserve inviolate in all thtle c0111ing. 'ro e0111111elrlorate this cirCUlllstancc, it has

.9

rrhc conditionnl Ckl.llSe rnns thus :-"E\'cry annual (Jrand Lodge has lui inherent po\ver and authoritj' to tnake new tcgubl.tions l or to alter tkeS€,(lr. the1"eal ben.efit ofthis'an.c'ient "b"'ll"U,tel'Ilit:,y ; l'1rol,iid(:d al'ways, THA,'f"TH£OI~D l.. AND-MA~{KSn£ eARE1"tJlJl~Y l')n.ESl~RVl'~D: andthn.t sueh altel'atiolls. and uc\vregulal ions be pre tposcd nndagrt~cd to., nt tJlcthird qnarterl.t conlu~unication preceding the unnunl grnndfeast; and that, they ·I)€ 'otferedalso to thepl:lrUSttl of all the Brethren bcf()re dint)(~r itl writing~caen (lIthe J.lolln.g,~s(aJ)prentice; the approba.tion antI COIlsent of the 'm,aJority of aU tbe Hr(;"thl't~n pt'esent beingnhsolutely necessary to nlake the snIne binding and obliga tol'y." .. 'l'his ·l'tHnarka,blc c1anse~w'ith thirty-eight I't~guhltions preceding it. ~n ()f'\"hieh~u'e pl'inted in th~ first edition {)f the Book .ofOunstitu~ tions:wct"(~appI"u\·~~da.ndeonHrllleclhy one hundl"ed.andUfty brethren.. at au annual asselubly and fenst. held tl,t, St.n.t.ioners'... haII. on St. tJolul the Baptist'::; day, 1721,* and 'in their r)l"l:st~neesubs(;rilJcd by the !\Iastel's a.nd \Vnrdeusof the f~)nr old lodges on th(~ one IUll't; and by PhHlp:lJuke or \Vhal'tun, tbenHrand l\hlster~ 'rh(~ophilus !).:sugnIiers, J\LI>; nndE'.H.S.,' l)cputy' G'r;and l\It~ijter, ~1(J8hua 'l'irnsoll tuul \VUIi1~m 111i.wkiHs, Ci l'and \V t~l·d~us,a.ftd the ,. ulttstCI'S .and, \Vardcl1s of sixtt'en l()dWJa~o wbich 'had been consQtittted between· 1717 and 1721, on Lbo oth~r'~t.'

'

'* See the first edition of the nook of Oonstitutions, p. 68.


OF MASONRY.

ID3

been cust0111ary, s.inee that time, for the Master of the oldest lodge to atteucleveryGrand Installation: and taking I)recedeneeof all present, the Gra.nd l\Iasteronly exeelJted, to deliver the bool(of the original ConstitUtiO~lS to tlte ne\vl)T installed Grand l\Iaster, on his engaging to sUI)port the ancient charges anc1general regulations. . By this prudent precaution of our ancient Brethren, the original Constitutions '\vere established as the basis of all futurenlasonicjurisdiction in the south of England; and the ancient lal1d-lUarks, as they are ell1phatically styled, or thebounderiesset Ul)8S checks to innovation, were carefully s(~cured against .tlle attacks of future invaders. The fhur old lodges, in consequence of tho above cornpact, in \vhich.they oonsideredtherrlselves asa distinct IHlrty", COlltiuut:d to net by their original a.uthority; and, so fhr fr'o111 surrendering any of their rights, had thern frequently ratifh~d a"utI eonf:il"lned l)y the ,vhole ~"riLtel"ni(y in (lrand Lodge nssenlbled, \vho al\vays ackno\vledged. independent find inllllf:.HUOrhll l)ower to !>raetise the rit£~s of l\Iusonrv.. :K 0 regulutions of the Society which Inigl:lt hereafter tilke I)]nc(~ could, therefore" operate \vith respect to tllose lodg(:~s,. if su<:b regulations were contrary to, or subversive of~ tbeot"iginal Constitutions, '\vhieh only they\\~,ere governed: and while their Iu·oceedings \yere eonfornlablt~ to tll0se Constitu.. tions, 110 po\ver kno\vn ill I\IasoIlry could legally deprive theln ()f right or I>rivilege \vhieh they had ever

enjoyed.

·'rIle ... of Hxi,ng the original C~onstitutiollS, as the standard by \'\ihich ufi future hL\VS in the Society are to be r(~gulated, was socleurly understood and defined by the \vholH :F'ratertlity.,. 8,t tIllS tilne, tJlatitwas establisht\d as an lUlerring rule, ateYcry··installation, public and private, rnany yeiu"slafterwards, to llluke the (Jraud l\lnster, nnd thelViasters. and \\Tardens of every lodge, engag(~ to support tIle oligiualC'Ollstitutious; tf? the ObSt:H·vluleeof \\"hieh, u180, I\Jrlson \vu,sbouDd

at his "lh{u;~vt~r tl,.l.·~Ulliv~:~rsaliiy ofl\Iasonry to b(~ itshigIH:~st glor)r, 11lUst ndtrlittb,e propriety of thiseOIlfluct; for ,",~(~ren() standar4fix~d for thegO'1lernnl(~lltof the Society, ~Iusonry lXlight beeX}lOSed to llerpetual variuftions, ,vhich ",~ould effectuaUydestroy 12


164

all the good effects that have "l1itherto resulted fr0111 its universality ttud extended progress/it) During the adnlinistratioll of 1\Ir. Sayer, tIle Society 111ade little progress. Several Brethren joined tIle old lodges; but there appeal" to have been only t\yO ne\v lodges constituted under his auspices. J\lr. Sayer "vas succeeded, in 17l8, by George Payne, 50 'Vhell . the earlier editions of this book were printed, the author was not sufficiently acquainted with this part of the history of ltlasonry in England. The above particulars have been carefully extracted from old records and authentic manuscripts, and are, in many. points, COnfil'nled by the old books of the Lodge of Antiquity, as,vell as the first and second editions of the Book of Constitutions. 11'he 1"ollo\,\"ing account of the four old lodges Inay proyc acceptable to Ulunv readers. 1. 'file old Lodge of St. Paul, no\v nall1cd the Lodge of Antiquity, fortnerly held nt the Goose and G'ridirol1~ in St,. Paul's Chnrch-y~trd,is still extant (in 1820,) and rc\gularly rneets at the Pre(~tIUlSOnS' Tavern, in Gren,t Queen-street, Lincoln's-Inn-Irields, on the fourth ednesdn,y of J:l1llutry, ]'ebruury:, ~rarch, ~rn.y, Junc,October, t1nd Novernber, every year. 'rhe lodge is ill ::t very flourishing stutl"t:, tlnd possesses SOllleva.luable records and curious ancient relics. 2. The old Lodge, No.2, forll1crly held at the Cro,\vn, ill Purkcr'slane, Dl'ul''y-h'lne~ hus been extinct above fifty )"e:i1'8, by tlle death of

"r

its nlC!ubers.

8. The old Lodge, No.3, fOl'lnerIy held at the .A.pple-trec Tavern, in Oharles-str(let. CoYent-gnrden, hus b<.~en dissolved luany Y<.lnrs. By the list of Lodges inserted in the-Book of Constitutions, print()din 17a8~ it appears that in Fcbrnnry. 1722-8, t.his lodgo vntS rcuHJ,-ed to the (~ueell's. IIead, in Knnye's i~Cl'e, onuccount. of sonlC . difference

anlong: its nlt~lnbers, and that tbt~ ulelIlbcrs '~"ho ruet there c~une under 8t1tew Constitution ; though, sa:vs tht~. book ofConstitutions~ tlu:7j

wanle,l it not, and ranked as N ()~ 10 in the list. Thus tlu~y hl(~()llSid(~I:­ ately renounced their fOftllCr rank under aninlnlcn10Iial Constitu tiOll. 4. The Lodge No,. 4, formerly held at the Huunnernnd Grapes rruvcru, in Cha.nnel. Row', \Yestrnlnstel", ,yas tht.'IlCC rcrIlovcd to the IIorn 'l'avern\ in New Palace Ya.rd, ,vhere it continued to Ineet till vdthin t.hese few' years; when, finding tlltrns(~l yes in a. (1C1C!llUU2 the lllclnbcrs agreed to incorporate with n l1C\V and thYUrlShllI1g: under the constitution of the Grand intitled lunJ.se Lodge~ \vhich .illuuediately assunlcd rank . It is n question that \vill ndrnit of Borne \\'hether nny of the; above old l(}d~es while thC)f £~:xi6tas lodges, surrender £ht~ir rights, ns thoSCflghts to ha'vc been grunted boY t.he old j\Jasons of the l\1(~tropolis to thenl in trust; UIHI nus individuRl 111eIUI)ea" {)f the four' ()ld lodge8tnightobjet~t to the and in thnt (~aSl~ they never could be given up.. The LEHIr old ah,'uys t.h(~il' ()ri~ln:tl IH)wer of nuz~ing'1uIs8ing~ and '" turnH.:~d ~Iustl'rs' IJ(ldg(~s; \v'lule the other lodg($, fbI· llUtny yt·al's hnd '. no such p()\ver; it having bt~en tiie (:nst<Hll t() ",Ji.zss nndraisc Jlasons nUl-de b)' theln n,t the G'ran:.l Lodge only..


OF MASONRY.

165

Esq.; who was very assiduous in recoll1mending a strict observance of the Comnlunications. fIe collected Inany very valuable, lllu,nuscripts 011 the subject of Ma~onry; and, being deternlil~ed to spare 110 11ains to n1ake himself acquainted vvith the original governnlent of tIle Craft, he earnestly desired that the Brethren \vould bring to the li-rand Lodge any old \vritings or records concerning the:F'raterl1ity, to sho\v the usages of ancient tin1es. In consequence of this general intinlation, several old copies of the Gothic Constitutions \vere produced, a.rranged, and digested. ()n the 24th of June, 1719, another assembly and feast \vas held at the Goose undGridiron before-luentioned; ,,"'hen Dr. Desaguliers \vas unaninlously elected G-rand l\Iaster. At this feast, the old, regular, and peculiar toa,sts or healths of the FreellltlSOnS \vere introdueed; and fronl this tiI'ne \~~e Inay date the rise of l路;'roelIHlsonry 011 its present l)lan in the SOU tIl of England. l'he lodges, \vhicll had considerably inerensed by the vigihlllC.t;-of the (Jrand:\Ittster, ',"ere "'visited by UHlliy old l\Iasons, \\"ho had .long neglected the (iruJt; several nohlernen vvere initiated, and a nurnber of !levV lodges consti tuted. At an assenlbly and feast, held ut the G'oose aIld Gridiron,ou the 2,:ttfl June, 1720, GeorgePa~rne. Esq., was re-elt~eted ({rand jIaster, and under his IIlild and vigilant adlninistr~ltion the lodges eontinued to flourish. rrhis year, at son1e of tlH.~ l,rivate lodges, to the irreparable h:>88 of the J:-'raternity, several valuable rnanuscripts, cOllcerlling the lodges, regulations, charges, se.c.re,'ts,. all(.l . ll.s.a.g.路~s o..f .1\. a,S.~O. 1.1. s..(..I.>artiCl.. ll.a. r.lj.'r (.')ne.. ",.路.Tit.".t.e.,. n..:.' by 1\1r.. Nicholas Stone, tlle\\~arden UUdCl- IuigotJones,) \VHie too hastily btt l"utby SOUle seru!>u]ous 13retbren, \vIla \vcre alurrned at the intellded IHlbli(~ation of the 11lHsonic I. ..:."

Constitutions.. a (~,uarterly (~onlnlunication, held this year at the (loosennd (}ridirou, (~n thefestivnl of St. John the I~vttngclist, it \VUS Hgreed, rl'hnt, in I'Ll tur(~, the new (Jrana" l\Iaster Sll()uld be narned and prol)os{~d. to the (lrand SOlne tilue before feast ;51 and, if l

-'

~llly nll 01<,,1 reeord of' tlloI.if)dgE~ of Antiquity, it appears, that the new (,}rttnd }ftl.st(H~ ""as alw"ays proposed, and presented for approba...

tion in. that lodge, b(~fbre his election in tho Grand Lodge.


156

ILLBSTRATIONS

apl)roved,. alld present, lH~ shall he sa,luted itS Granel Mu,ster elect路; arid that every Grand J\Iaster \vhen he is instill1ed, shall hav'c the sofe l)o\ver of HI)pointing his del)utv and '\vardens, according to ancient cu~tOITl. i\t tt, Grand Lodge held in alllple forn1 on Lady-aay, 1721, Brother Payne proposed for Iris successor, Jobn)

Duke of lVlontagu, at that tinle l\Iaster of a lodge. IIis GTuce, being present, received the C01111)lin1ents of the Grnnd IJodge. The Brethren expressed great joy nt tIle prospect ofbeil1g once 1110re 11utronizedby the nobility; and Unal1inl0usly agreed, that the next asselnbly and feast should be held at Stationers'-hal1 ;3nd that a proper nUll1ber of stC\"VHTcls should be ul)pointed to l)rovide tIle entertain111ent. nlr. Josiah \TillellHll, an upholder in the Borough, ho\vever, generousljT Ulldertool,- the ,vhole D1anagen1ent of the business, and received the th,anks of the Society for bis attention.. '''liile :6Iasonry '\-vas spreading its inflllenee Oller the Southern路 part of thekingdonl, it ,vas Ilot negleeted in the North.. rrhe Genernl.A.sseTnbly, or (Jrand I..iodge, at York, continued regularly to lnef:t ns heretof(:n~e.. III 1705, under the. direction of Sir <3eorge rl\~n1pest, liart., thell Grand l\Iaster, several Lodges lnet, and rnnny \vorthy Brethren "vel"e initiated in York nnd its neighbourhood. Sir (Jeorge being succeeded by the llight JIo!!. }lobert Ben~on'~ lord tnayor of York, rnany nleetings of ,Fl路ltterllity \vere l:1el<.l at difI(~rent tinles in that city; and the grarld'feast .during his 1113stership is said to have been very brilliant... Sir~Til1ianl I~obinson, I3art., sllceeeded Mr. I3ellS0l1 in the office of C4rand ]'Iaster, and the :F'raternity Sl~enl to have COllsiderably increased in the North under his auspices. lie \vas succeeded by Sir a.1ter IIa\vkes\,rorth, Bart., \vho governed the Soelety \~ith great credit. At the e:xpir~ltion of his ulustersliilJ, Sir George'l"en11)est ,vas elected,. a seeond tirne, (jrand }\lIaster; aIlClf1."Olll the tirne of his election ill 17 1~t to 1725, the Grand Lodge continued regularly to .assemble in York, tlnder the direction of Charles l~'airfux, I~:sq., Sir "Talter Hawkesvv()l-th, I~a.rt., .E:d,vard 13clI, l~:sq., Charles 13athurst, Esq., l~d\vard 'l:hornson, l~~sq., 1\:1.1>., John J o11nson, l\I.D., and J o11n l\Iarsden,. I~sq.; 311 of whom, in rotation, during the above period, regula].路ly filled the office . of G'rand JYIaster in the North of ]~~Ilgland.

,,"r


167

Oli' lvIASONRY.

Fronl this account, \vhich is authenticated by the books of the Grund Lodge in Yor!<, it a11pears, tha,t the revival of l\Iasonry in the, South of .England did not interft~re ,vith the procecdirlg's of the Fraternity in the 'North.. J?or. a series of years, the Inost l)erfeet harrnony subsisted bet\veen the t\yO (irand .Lodg~es, and llri,"ate I...todges flourished in both IHlrts of the kjngdolll under their separate jurisdiction. l'he only distirlction ,vhiell the Ci-l'i.lnd Lodge in the North appears to have retained after the revi\'al of l\Iasonry in the South, is ill the title \vhich tIley clainl, viz., 1"!le" ({rand Lodgeqj"all Enf};'laucl; \vhilo the Clrand l.Jodge in the South IlHsses only ullder thedenoll1i.nation.of ~l'he (}rand Lodge ill" Eug:land. .'rhe latter, on aecount ~)f its situation, being eneolll~Hged by SOl11e of the 1)l"iuei.pn1 nobility", soon aeclllired eOllseqtlcllce and rel)utntion, \vhile the f()rrner, restri(~ted to t(:~\ver, though not ]essrespectable, lnernJJcrs, seerned gnldtHllly to 'rill \vithirl these t{~~\V y{~ars~ 110\VeV(~r, tlle authOl'ity tIle I..lodg·e in y·'()rl\. llas lleverbeen . . "..... ,""j .. ,.<.... ~~" ; on the eontr~ll')~~ every l\Inson iu tlH~ kingdorn hasa,!\,"u,,;,s IH~ld. it in the 11ighest veneration, and considered hin'~self bound by the clu~rges \vhieh origiually S!>,rt1l1gfronl " 11'0 be ranked as descendunts of the origilltll ,vas tll(~glory nnd honst of the .l3rethren in aln10st ·every countr,? \vhcl'e'l\IusoIlry has been regularly established; and fr0l11 the I)1'evalence and llrtivevsality of the idea, that in tho eity of York 1Ias(Hu·y \vas tirst authorized by eharter, the l\lu8ons of I~lH:dalHI have tribute-- frorn tho first states in 1~ u rOI~{~. 52 r{~~~reit,teIU.

arC'

the

that flny .s(\parat(~ int(.lr(~sts should of l\Iusous; bllt. it t,x'U(\,. the l:Sr.Jth:l·(~n the North in 110\\', in it lUnnlHH\ uukno\\"u to <fnch other. N'otwith"f)f . 'nnd 8plcnd<.Hu"nt 'whiell the(; l'und has arI~iv(~ft the .Lt,>dges of' Seutlalld not.. unfortunate eirenlu~tallt~t~ hus llloflez'u innl :l\"nti(.~l!~

tIle


·158

ILLUS'l'ItATIONS

SEC1". VIII. Hist01Y of Afason'!·!! j1·orn it.~ Rev'i~:al in tlte South qj'" Eng;lanll, till the deatlt oj" ](ing George I. THE l"eputation of the Society being no\v estab1islled, mallY noblenlel1 and gentlernen of the first rank desired to be rec.eived into the Lodges, \vbich increased considerably during the adlninistration of l\fr. Payne. rrhe duties of :fiiasonr:yr \vere found to be a pleasing relaxation froIl1 the fatigue of business; and in the I.;odge, llllinfluenced by I)olitics or Ilarty, a }u.ll)I\Y llllion ,vas effected alTlong the lnost respectable characters in the kingdoll1. On the 24th of June, 1721, Grand l\Iaster I)a,Ylle and his '\Tardens, \vith the forlner grund o-flieers, t~nd the l\~IasterSttlld vVttrdens of t\velve Lodges, lIlet the (~rtul(l Mast(~r elect at tbe (-l,ueen's .Z\ruls 'ruvern, in I)aul's Church-yard,,53 '\'lhere tIle (~'rand Lodge ,vas 0l)ened in ull1ple forn1. Ilaving confirnled the proeeedings()f the last (~'rand I..Ioclge, several gentlelnen \vcre inititlted into l\Iasonry, at the request of~i:he I)uke of :Jlontagll ;und, t11110ng the rest, l?hilil) Lord Stallhor)(~, after\vnrds ]~,:ar] of Chesterfield. ]~"ronl the (~,ueen's 11rlus, the (~Ta,nd Lodge rnarched i l l IU'ocession, in their elotlling, to tioners'-hall, ill Ludgate-street.,,'vhere they \vere joyfully receivetlby oue hundrednnd fift,y lJretlll"EH1, I>roperly clothed. 'fhe G'rall(I l\iastel", }u1ving lUtHlo the first Ilfocession round "the hall, tool\. an afleetionate of his Brethren; and being returned to his plac~~, the I)uke of l\Iontagu \vas proclairned his successor fbr the ensuing year. 'rhe general regulations \vhiell had been COll1!Jiled

seceded fronl their nncient Lodge, rant of cOIlstitutioll; and, \yithout inquiry their application '\·308 hononred. Inst(~ad the ~I()ther Lodge to be r(~stored to fu,v<')fu', these \\'(~re (mc(rurngc~d in their· ra,"olt; nod pcrrnitted:. und(~r the bnnner of the Grand I;odge in London, to openn. 11(~\V Lodge in the of 'rork itself. rj"his unguarded act Justly oUcndcd the Gr:lud and occasioned a breach, v..hi(~h tinlc: and it proper att!entlon to the rules of the Order, only call l*Clntir. 83 The old I.Jodge of St. Paul's) no,v the Lodge of Antiquity, haviDg been rernoved ·tbither.


OF l.IASONRY.

159

by J\fr. Payne in 1721;S! and con11Jared with tIle ancient records and inl111elnorial UStlges of the. Fraternity, were read, and lllet with general Hl)probation; after\vhich Dr. Desaguliers delivered an elegunt oration on l\fasonr.y. Soon after his election, the Grand l\Iastergave COIlvirlcing proofs of his zeal and attention, by COnl111anding Dr. Desag'uliers and Janles l\nderson, 1\.1\1.. , ll1en of

genins an'a education, to revise, arrange, and digest the Gothic Constitutions, old charges, and general regulations. '1'his task. they faithfully executed; and at tIle ensuing Gral1d Lodge, lleld at the Queen's Arlns, St. Paul's Chtlrch-yard, on the 27tll of Decell1ber, 1721, being the festival of St. J Ohl1 the JiJvangelist, the sanle \vas presented. for approb~LtioIl. 11 conllIlittee of fourteen learned 路Brotllers \vas ar)l)ointed to exarnine the IllUIlUscript, alld nlake their report. On this oceasion several very irlstructive \vere delivered, and Inueh useful inforrnation giVCll by aJ fe\v old J\Iasons. ..clt fL (j-rai11d rJodge held at the :.E'OUll tainTavern in the Strand, in aUlple 1'01'1'1'1, on the 26th. of l\Iareh, 1722, the COlnrnitt.~~e r(~l)ol"ted, tlUlt they had perused the rnan 1.1script, eontniuing the history,charges,l"egu]utions, \.~c., of l'Iasoury; and, after SOlrle u111endnlents, had aI)11rOved thereof: 'I'he Graud Lodge ordered the \vhole to be pr~~pared for the press, and printed \vithallpossible expedition. 1.'his order ,vas strictly obeJ'ed, and \vithin less than t\VO yezu's, the Book of (jonstitutions apI)eared in l)rlnt, l.lnder the l()llo\virlg title: "rrbe I~ook of C~on颅 stitutioI1S of the E'ree-:JIasoIls; eontainil1g the 1-1 istory, Charges, .. Itegulations, &c., of that I\lost .ll11cient alid liight \Vorshipful:E'raternity. n-'or the use of the Lodges." .London, 17'23. Il~ JarlUary, 1722-3, the Dnk.e of l\fontagu resign{~dthe ofIiee (jra~ld l\Iaster in favour of tbeDuke of 1Yhurton, wh() \~~a~ very tllnbitioustoattujn it.llis resignation proeeeded frolH th(~ 1110tjye of rt~C()I1Ciling the lJretl1ren to this IH)l:.)'lernUll, \Vl10 IHld jneurr(~d their displt~usure, by lU1Vir)g in opposition to tllC resolutions of the G'rnnd I.Jodge on tl1l1, 25th of l\Iarch, ar~ irregular ussell1bly of lVIasons at Stationers'-hall,. OIl the festival ofSt.. John the Baptist" in order to get hiulself elect~dG路randl\ras.. :H

See the Book of Constitutions, printed in 1723.


160

ILLUSTRATIONS

ter; The Duke ofv\ThartolJ, sensible of the in1prol)liety of·hisconduct t pllblicly aekno\vledged his error ;und, pron1ising' ill fi.lture a strict conforuJity and obedience to thetesolutionsof the Society, he \VUS, \vith the general conseu t of the Bretlu'en, allI)roved as (~rand l\Iaster elect {or the ensuing year. Ilisgraee ,vas reHularly invested and installed 011' the . 17th of January·, 1722-3, byr the Duke of Montagu, and congTatulated by u!)\vards of t\venty-five Lodges, "\,,"ho \vere l)resent ill the Grand Lodgt~ on that occasion. The diligence and attention of the Duke of 'v\rharton, to the duties of his ne\v office, soon recovered and established his reputation in the Soeiety; and, under his IH1trol1age, l\Iasonty 111ade it considerable progress in the South of England. Ihlring lds presi~ency, the ofliee of C~Tand Secretary ,'vas first established, and \V·illiaul C1()\vper, }:sq", appointed, \v110 (~xeeutetl the duties of that dopartruent several years. 'rhe l)ukooflJuecleugh succeed(~d tlH~ ])uke of Wharton in 1728. 13(,~ing absentonthennnuuJi'cstival, he' \va!-1 instt~11ed .by proxy at l\lerclla~lt-taUors'-llall,ill presence of fCfttr lrtlndred nIasons.rrhis noblenHUl \vas no less attaehed to l\Iasonry tlurn his r~redeees8or. In thet()llo\~ving :vear his grace \vas b}'" the l)uke of Iliclunond, under \vllose udrninistration the COlIlll1ittee of C;IHl.rity55 \vas illstituted.5H Lord l?aisley, No\v called the IJ()dge. of 15(\nevolonce.-JiJurI,·oIh l'he Duke of'Buceleugh "fIrst Pl'o}){)sed the Seh€'1l1C of raising no generalfnndfol~distressed' 1\ln80ns... Lord l)aisley, 1)1'. I)e~ng:ulicrs, OoIonelJIoughton, and a fe\v other brethren, supported the 1.hl}\0'8 proposition; and the Grand Lodge appointed u, conunittee to consitlcr oftheulo:;t effectual Dlcans of currying the seht'lne int() l·xe(,~ution. 'rho report of the c0I111nittec was translui tted to the ~ulCl afterwnrds apl/r'ovcd by the Grand Lodp:e. The of tht.· \,\1"us first vested in se\'cnBrethren ; but this being {(Huul too sn:ulll. nine ruore \,'ere added. 1t V\·HS aft(~r\\'ards l'es()lvt'<l that tWt~lvc I\[.u.sttH"S ofcontribnting l.iodg.:s... in rohttl<Jn,with the ' should fuml the OOlunlittec ; ~uld~ by :l11<>th(:1' 1'(,~gl1Jntl(}n sirH.\(.~ has been. deterrnined,thrtt nllPnst, andPrt~8entGrn.ncl(Jnkl~r's~ the l\'lustt,rsofflill regular whiehshall lUl\'e (~ontl'HHlt(·(l within twelve ulunthsto the eha.ritv. shun IJC Ilu.'lnl.wrs ()f th(~ Ct'Ullllitt<·t~. ~rhe COlllluittee meets fqUl~ tilllt~S in tho )'CiU\ bv \'irhlt~ of U 8um... Inons frolll the Ch'and .l\Iast('r 01" his:Dt1Pllt.r. 'rrl;t~ petitiolls tlf the Brethren who appl..r fot" charity arc considl~r{~(l at tlH~8(~ and ifthe petitioner llt, found a dE.~b,"\rvingol~jt~(~t. he is innu(~dhltt.·ly \vitb fh'e pCJUIH1s: if the cirCUln~t(UH.~t'8 (,f his ease n1'{~ of a IJ(~enhar nn.turc, his petition is l't'fbl'rcdtu tlu.:~ nt.'xt he is f)5

00


161

OF MASONRY.

afterwards .Earl of Abercorn, having been active in prolnoting tbis l1e\V establislll11eIlt,\VaS electedG"fal1d Master ill the end of the year 1725. Being in the country at the tiule, ]lis lordshil) \vas illstal1ed by· l)roxy. During Ilis "absence, Dr. Desaguliers, vvho llacl been appointed his Dep'uty, \vas very attentive to tIle d1.1ties of his· office, by visiting- the Lodges, alld c1iligentl:l prornoting lVlasol1ry. 011 his lordship's retufl1 to to\Yll, the EfiTl of Inchiquin \vas Pi"0l)Osed to sllccecd 11im, and ,vas elected ill February, 1726. The ,Society l1o\vflourished ill to\Vll and country; and llllcler the patronage of tllis nobleman the Art vvas l)rollagated \"lithconsiderable success.. This period \vas rendored rell1arkable, by the Brethrell of Wales· first l.luiting under tIle bUllrler of the Gralld Lodge iIi London. III ':Vnles (tre found S0111HVenernble rell1ains of aneient l\Iasol1l"Y, and lllany stately ruins of cnstles, executed in tIle (lotllic style, ,,,"hie}l evidently Oel11011strnte, tlHlt in 1'()rlller tirnes, the ~B'raternity nrnst have rnet \vith eneourag'ernent in tllat part of the island.. Soon after tllis llnioll, the oHice of I>rovineial (.Jrand l\Inster~j7 ,vas iIlstituted, andtlle .1irst derl'utatioJl grflllted rcH~ved

with nn.y Stun the CQIDlIlittce Inay have specified) not exceed... ing t,,'ent5r guineas at ont~ tinl(~. l:~y those lllcans the distressed bave always ihund ready r(;~lief frolll this general charitY,'\vhich is solely suppc)rted by the voluntary contributions of clHlbrent Lodges out of their private without bein~; burdcnsorne on an}" xnember of· the Societv. '"' .. ']:lnis the Cormnittee of Charity hus been established U1l1ong the Pree and 1\las:on8 in LOIl<lon; and tllOUgh tho Sll1l1S a.lJ.lluu-Uy cxpE~lHl(.~(l to dh,tressed l.lrctllrc:u hn,ve, fur severnl ;,yE:ars past, :lIIlount.cd to :UH1BY thousand pt,unds, thc re still rCluains i~ <'~()llsidc). a hIe stun in r(,~s(~r\'e~,ybich. is cl"'llltinuaHy nceuluulatiug b.y· freshcontri... 1

but ions.

\

..:\.11. c(Hnplaints nnd inforolations arc considered at the Comulittee of ; frOlll 'v hich a x·t.~port is Iu&do to the next Grand Lodge, it gen(~l'n.lly npproved. M' ..A:J?royineialG rand ~Iaster is th(~ iuunedintc rcprcscnta.tiyc of the Grand !\Iu.ster in the IHstriet oY(~r \vhich he is !ifni ted to ; ll.od, being invested 'w'ith the pow'cr nnd hOl1our of [t ],Ia,star ill . his IlUlY constitute Lodges therein~ tIll: COnS(~Ilt of the ~Iaster:i ~uHl of three Lodges constitut(~d l,'"itbinhis distriet lu~s l)ccn ohtnlIlcd. and the Grand in :LOlldoXl has not disapprO"lled ther(H.Jf. IIt.~· ,,·(~ars thedothing. tt Gmnd ·Of8eer, and ranks, in all puhlic a8selnblies~ imIllcdiatcly after Past Deputy (~ru.nd Masters. .1It~lnust~ in pt-rSOll, or by d(;~puty~ attend tbe qua.rterly Inl~ting of th(,· !\.Iasters ulld 'Vard(~ns of tho Lodges in his distriet,and trnu81nit to the Ctrnud l~odge, once in ever)r :ycnr, the proceedings of


162

ILLUSTRATIONS

by Earl Inchicluin, 011 the lotIl of l\iay, 1727, to Hugh Warburton, Esq., for Nortll 'Vales; alld on the 24th of .fune fol1o'\vil1g, to Sir Ed\vard l\Iallsell, BaIt., for South 'Wales. The Lodges iTl the country 110W began to illcrease, and' deputations \vere granted to several gel1tleInen, to hold the ofl1ce of Provincial Gra.lld l\Iastel· ill different. parts of Englalld, as ',veIl as in SOille places abroad .\vhereLodges· had 1)eel1 constitutedl)y Englisll ~fasons; and, during the Earl of IIIChiquhl's n1astership, a\"\rarral1t "vas issued for opelling a ne'\vLodge at Gibraltar. Anl011g~ the noble edifices vVllicll v~iere finished during the }1residency of this noblenlall, ,vas that excellent structure, the cll'ureh of St. ~fartill ill the Fields; the foundation-stone of \vhieh, it being ~1 roJral parisll church, \vas laid, in the Iting's nUUle, on the 29tll of 1farch, 1721, by Brother Gibh, the architect, in 11resence of the Lor4 Alrnoner, thesurveyor...gelleral, alldn largecolupany of tIle Bretllren.

SEcrr. IX. Histo?"!}

qj~

lWasoll/ry 'in Englan(l dUTing tlte Reign (;e(n~:c

II.

0/ ICing

TIlE first Grulld Loc1geaftertl1e aceessionofG-eorge II. to tIle throne, Vias lleld· at the Devil r.ravern, Tell1ple-bar, . orl tIle 24th: of ~ une, 1727; .at \vhicb· ,\vel"C present, the Earl of Il1chiquin, Graudl\faster, hisofllcers, and the :Masters and urclens of forty Lodges...A.t this' 11leeting, it ,vas resolved to extend the l)rivilege of voting in G'rand

"r

those rueetings, 1vith ~l. regular stntc of the under his jurisdicLion. 'rho provincial H;egalia is as follo'lNs: 1). J.11.. , the cornpnsses and square, v.'ith a fiyc-pointed star in the centre.. D." l:>.. G!. lJI.. , th(~ square. Allotlle1" P.. (1\ .()jJiC(t8,~J cf\vcls of tIle sa.me description as thoscvvorn by the officers of the Gr~tnd Lodge.. r:I:he ~le\~els of the

p" G..

~I.

and other I>.. G. Officers, are to be placed ,,;!'Uhin a drele,

011

\vhieh the name of thoprov'ince is tt) b,e ellgrn'\1'(~n.. All l>ast ()flicCl!S: t~h(~ jEr\rcl of theirreapective ofllccs on ahlucen~l.molled OYill nl(~dal . ,All these jcw"els to 'be go.ld o.r gilt; and t.he collars to b.(~ gu,rter b.'·llle. fi)\u· inehcs. broad. Theaprolls, a "rhite lalnhskin, 14 to 1 t'i incbes wide, 12 to, 14 decp, .lined ,,"ithgarter blue; edging 2 inches ""ide. ()nlalllt~nted "\vith gold, and .blue strings, ancll:nay have the (~Inblelns of th.eir .• offices ill gold or blue in the centre. (Canst. of l~gnlin. )EDITOR ..


OF MASONRY.

163

Lodge to past Grand Wardens; 53 tl13t privilege having heell···.heretofore restricted to Past G-rund Masters, by tt resolution of 21st Novenlber, 1724; and to Past Deputies, by- another resolution of 28tll Febrllary, 1726. The Grand l\Iaster, having beell ohligedto take a journey into Ireland before the eX11iration of his office, his lordshi11 tr<1l1s111ittecl a, letter to Williall1 Cowper, Esq., llis Depnt.y, requesting hinl to eonvene a Grand Lodge f(>l~ the l)urpose of 110n1iuutil1g Lord Colerane G-rand l\Iaster for the ensuing y'etli. 1\ Gralld Lodge\vas accordillg1y convened on tIle 19th of Decemb,er,'1727; \vhen his lordshil) \vasreglllarly J?roposedGralld }\faster elect, al~d, being uliauiulously approved, on tIle 27th of tbesfLlne IIlonth,\vas duly invested\vitll the ensigns of rlis lligh offIce at tt grand feast at}IercoliOs'-hall, in the presence of t1 IltlJnerous C01111Jany of tIle Brethten. Ilis lordship attended t\voCornrn1.111ications during llis ltIast'erslriI), and to pay' considerable attentjon to tho duties of his oUiee. lIe COIlstitlltec1 several ne\v I~odges, and granted n deputation to hold a Lodge. ill St. Berna.rc1street, 1\{adrid. At the last (}rand Lodge llIl(ler his lordship's auspices,Dr.. Desaguliers 1110\red,that the ancient office of Stewards might be revived, to assist the Grand Wardens in preparing the feast; ,,~llen it was a.gl"eed that their al)poil1tn:lent should be n,nnual,and the number restricted to t\;'\Telve. Lord ICingston succeedecl Lord Colernne, unel ,vas il1v€stc(l ,v'ith the ensigns of l1is high. office on the 27tll of Decelnber, 1728, at tL grand feast lleld at :urercers'-11all. lIis lordsbil"s zeal and :1ttacllllleIlt to the Fraternity '\vere vel")r e0l1S!1icuous, not only by his regular attendance on the Con1111tlllications, but by a geIlerolls present to the Clrnnc1 I.Jodge, of. a curious pedestal, 3, ricL} cushion, .,\ri tIl gold l\.nohs tllld fringes, tt velvet bag,and a Ile\V je\vel set in. gold fbr tIle use of. the . SecretnrJr • During his lordshiI)'S adnlinistra,tion, tlleSociet)T flO\lrisl1ed at llonie sS This ,,,,as certainly a peculiar favour; fbr the Grand :Lodge, by . Constitutions~ could consi~t, o111yor tbeJlMte~s and ardcns of regular Lodges1 \\'ith the (Jrand llaster and Ius Wardens at t,llt.:dr hend; and it had been cllstoroaryeven for these Officers, at thci;· .annual election, and 011 other pnrtieular occasions, to withdr&~!and. lc.ayc the 1.•fasters and W ll.rdens of the Lodges to oonsuIt togetner,. that no· undue influence might. warp their opi:llion.

"r

<


ILLUSTRA..Tl0NS

alld·abroad.. Many Lodges \vere constituted; and, alnong the rest, a deputation vvas gra.nted to (feorge P0111fi·et, Esq., authorizing lli111. to opell a ne\v' Lodge at. Bengal. This gentlemall first illtroducedlVlasonr}"" into tIle Englisl:t settlements in India,where it lIas since Blade such rtlpid progress, that,witl1inthese. fe\v years, lll}\\7ards of fifty Lodges have been constituted there, eleven of \vhicll are no\v held in. Bengal. The annual renlittances to the charity and public funds of the Society, fronl this and tIle other factories of tIle East India C0111pany, alnount to a considerable sum. At a Grand Lodge held at the Devil.Tavern, 011 tIle 27tl1 of Decenlber, 1729, Nathaniel Blackerby, Esq., tIle Del)llty Grand l\Iaster, being in the chair, ill the absence of. Lord Kingston,prodll.ced a letter fronl his lordship, authorizing hin1 to l)ropose. the Dul\.e of Norfolk to be Grand ~IfLster for tIle ensui.ng yet1r. l'llis nornirH~tioll 111ceting w,itll general consent, the llSUalco111I)linlents \vere pai(l to Ilia Grt1Ce, \Vl10, being prescIlt,V\rns saluted Grand ~Iasterelect; and, at an a.ssenlhly and feast fLt l\lerchant-tailors'-hall, 011 tIle 2Dth of ~January follo\Ying, 118 \vas duly invested and installed, aceording to aneient forrn, in the presence of a llU111erOUS and l)rilliant coulpany of l\{asons. IIis absence in Ital)'I", soon after llis electioll, prevented hiDl frorn attHIH:1ing rnore tllall olleCoIlllllunication during his l\fastershiI1 ; but the l)usil1ess . 0£ theSoeiety was diligently exeeuted by 1\11". Bl1tckerby, . llis Deputy, on '\vl10nl the \vhole Inanageluelltdevolved..· AlXlong other signnJ· Irroofs of his Grace's attachment to the Soei(~ty, 11e trallsrnittedfi"olll VCl1iee to Englalld the follo\ving noble presents for the use of the Grand Lodg'e: 1. T\ventypounds to the cha.rit,Y" :2. A large' folio book of the finest \vritjng :pal)er,fof the reeords of the (frand.Lodge, riellly l)ou.nd in.'r llrkey,C:1nd gilt, vvith fL curi()us frontispieee iuvelluul, containing the arms of Norfolk, an1!)lv displayed, und n, Latin inscription· of the falnily titles," \"lith tiie arrns l\Insonry. elegantly elnhlazoned. ~3..4\. svV'ord state for the G-rand lXt1ster; being the old s\vord of Gustavus . A.dolphus, King of S\;vedcn, \,"ns llext worn by' his brave successor in I3ernard, ·Duke Saxe-'Veiular, \vith both. their IHtrlles OIl tho l)lade, tlild further enriched ,vitl1 thenrlIls of Norfolk, in silver, 011


165

O}t' 1.tIASONRY.

theseabbard.. · For these preaeutshis 'Grace\vas voted the IJublic tllanks.ofthe·Society. It is not surprising tllnt l\Iasonry should Houris}l under so 'respectable a banner. IIisGrace appoineda Provincial Grand lVlaster over the Lodges in the Circle' of Lo\ver SaxollJ'r, and establislled by del)utatiol1 a Provincial Grand Lodge at Ne\v J erse:y, in America. A ]?rovincial. patent \\}'as also made out, under his auspices, for Bengal. Froln this period vve may date the conlmencenlent of the consequ,ence and reputation of the Society in Euro11e; as daily npplicatiolls were·· made for constituting nevv Lodges, and the nlost respectable charHcters of the age desired theirllanlcs to be enrolled in our records.. 'The Duke of Norf()lk \va.s succeeded by Lord Lovel, ufter\vards Earl of Leicester, \vho vvas installed at l\Iel"eers'-hall, on the 2Htll of l\Inrch, 17a1.. 11is lordshil)' heing ~.Lt the tirne rnueh indisl)osed \vitil an agu.e, ,vas obliged to soonnfter his installt1tion.. I..J01-a Colerane, ho\\"'ev(~r, as proxy during the feast.()n the 14th of l\fuy, theCtrund Lodge,after Lord LoveI's election, \\;1asht~ld at the I{ose Tavern 'in Mar:r·...Je-bono; \v'hen it ,vus voted, that in future ull1'ostGralld lIasters and their DelJuties' shall be ~ld111itted Menlbers of the (~uarterlyCon1n1ittee of CharitjY,nnd that every' ()onl.. . Initte~ shall hUY'e to vote five pounds for the reliefofan;l l\Iason but no larger sur:n, \vithotrt the'consent of (trand in C~ornrnunieation iirsthad rrllis resolution is still in During the kH"esidencJ!' of I~()rd I ..ovel, nobility made .~ poil~t .of hOl1ourhl~ ..... GrllndLodge with their l)resenee" rrhe I)ukes of Nor,folk and Ricfunond, the ]i~arl of In ehiqtlin, I... ordsColerane and.1\fontugu, ,vith . IJerSOlls ofdistillctioll, generally attended; though tll(~ ~ubst~riptiollSfroln tlleir . . .oIi',.. I'~ ".::.:.·~.:;,;O ","ere ,vas t.o .


166

ILLUSTRA'.rIONS

The 1110st renlar}.(able event of Lord Lovel'sadmillistration ,vas, tile initiation of Jj"rancis, Duke of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, afterwards Enlperor of GernlfUl)T. By .virtue ofadeputation fronl l1is Lordship, a Lodge ",,"as held at the lIague, \vhere l1is Highness \vas received into the First T","'o Degrees of the Order. At this Lodge, PhilipStanllope, . Earl ofCllesterneld, tllen alnbassador there,presided; - - Stricltlancl, Esq., acted as Deputy, and Mr. Benjanlill I-Iadley, with . . a Dutch Brother,· as Wa,rdens. Ilis 1-ligllnesscolning to . England the saUle year, ~"'as ac1vallced to the third Degree, at an. occasional Lodge convened for the ·purpose, at Hougllton-hall, in Norfolk, the seat of Sir Robert Walpole; as ,,,"-as also ThoIllas Pelhanl, Dulte of Newcastle. The Society being 110\V in a Ver}T flourishing state, de11l1tatiol1s were grunted fronl Englancl. for establisl1ing Lodges ill.RtlSsiaand Spaill. Lord Viscount . IVlolltagu· was iIlstal1ed . Grand . 1\laster at ·an ·asse111bly 31ndfeast at' l\fercllant-tailors'-llall, on the 19th of Al)xil, 1732. Among the distinguisl1edperSOIlages present 011 that occasioft ,,'"ere, tIle Dul\.es of l\fontagu and Richnlond; the Earl of Strathlllore; and Lords Colerane, Teyl1han1, and Cal''lJenter; Sir Francis Drake and Sir v\Tillianl I{eith, 13al"ts., and above fOtll" hUllc1rec1other Bretlll~ell" At tllis 111eeting it ,vas first l)ropos~d to .have a country feast, and. agreed that tIle Brethren slloulddinc together at Hal11pstead 011 the 24th of June, for W . .·.. hichpurp.ose cards of illvitati.on .w. ere sent to several of the nobility. On the day appointed, the Grand Master and his Officers, the Dultes of Norfolk unc1 Richmond, the Earl of StrathnlOTe, I~ords. Carpenter alld l'eynhaln, and above ~'t .11undred other Brethren, 1l1et at the Spil{es, at IIal11pstead, vvhere [tn elegal1t dinner \VUS provided. . S0011 after dinner, the Grand l\faster resiglled the ~hair to Lord TeYl1hanl, allc1 froln that tinle till tllC expiration of llis office never uttended another .1Ileeting of the Society.·.... Ilis lordsllip. granted ~t deputation for constituting a Lodge at Valencierlnes, in ]'rench Jj'lallders, and another for opening a, new I~odge ltt the IIbtel de Bussy, in Paris. . Several other Lodges '\vere also constituted under his lordsllip's auspices; 60 but the Society GO(,

Freemasons' ,Lodges in America date their origin from this

I


167

OF l\i<IASONRY.

was particularly indebted to T~~ol11as Batson, l~sq., Deputy Gra:nd l\faster, \VrlO W~ts,;!"ery atteIltive to duties of l1isoftlce, tUld carefully sllperintended tlle

tl:h~ th~)

ernwellt of tIle C~raft . The Earl of Stratlnl10re suceeeded Lord 1\Iol1tngu ]11 tIle office of Grand l\Iaster, and, being in Scotlanc1 at tIle tinle, "vas installed by l)roxy [rt anassclnbly at l\Iercers'hall on the 7th of June, 1733. On the lath of Deee111her a Grand Lodge \vas held at the Devil r.ravern, at\V'111cll 11is Lordshil) alld his offIcers, tIle EaT! Cra\'vford, Sir Robel·t l\Iansel, a 11U111ber of Past Cll"tlnd Officers, and fh(~ Masters and 'Vardens of fifty-three Lodges, \vere !)resent. Several l-cgulrttions \vere confirn1ed at. 111eeting respecting the; (jor!llnittee of ·Chari t~Y"; and it \vas deterInined that; all COlllI)laints in fllture, to be 'brou\ght l,eforf~

the ({rand Lodge, should be Ilreviously'" by the COll1111ittce, and then.ee to the next cation. 1'11 e .,-.'1' ' relnarkal)le llations \rv'(n:'e collect~], ana distrilluted ~Iason8, to .ellcollrnge the 8E~ttlernent of n nnw colony, whicll llad been jllst esta.blishE~d at (J(·.~()rgia,Anlericn" Lord Stratllrnore sho\veduttention to duties of Ills ofilc,e, and regularly the tlu' Grand Lodge : l1nder "aU81l1C{~S at h(nne and abroad, nIHl 1. "J ,""l1'".;'""

received

fi"OIll

l~:nst

I\Iasoll~

allplied for llUtll01"ity to opell rt 1H.'\\"" I.Jodge. atlltlrnlJurgh ~ under the ltutronage of' th,e ({rand IJodg(~ I·~ug'hu)(L for which I>urpose his \vns grant it . . t.J.. l 0 a.I. J.p.·...licl.lItiOll ..()f 0, JUI.. n'. .11,)(,r of .Lord Master of:\Iasolls in th(~ ing the It '\\!'. IIt~nry power" und authorit.y' to ·.... ,·t . ~.• ~..,....·.. ~ ....

Jle.'t"io.. d... I~oston.

n. 'w'arrturt 'W'us

n.ecessnry if,n" forxui ng a. of Free and .,Accept(;'d In conseqtWllee of this COlltlln:lS3i('lll. I"odge n.tBostoll, tl,lC :HHh or .t\Ildl'o\v . Belcher, tt ~I.. :U:l(l

Grand

'V'ard(~ns.

The

'Qesiguntion of' St. ~John's ins~ittlting r(~gultn·

lodges in various Monitor, p" 288. )-EIHTon.


168

II"L USTRaTIONS

deputation; and S0011 ~fter, several other Lodges were COIlstituted in Holland under the English banner. 1.'he EaTI of 路Strathnl0re \vas succe~,dec1 by the Earl of Cra\vford, ,vho ",Tas installed at l\tIercers'-hall 011 the 30th of ~Iarch,17a4. Pl1blic affairs attracting his lordship's attention, the COl111TIUllicatibnsduri:ng his adnlinistration \vere neglected. After elevel1111011ths' vacation, 110\VeVer, a qrandLodge was conv~~l1ed, at vvhic11 llis lordsllip attended, and apologised for his long absellce. To atone for past o111issiou, he cOlnnla.nded t'V\.'-O COnl111Unications to beheld in little rnare than six ,vee!\.s.'l'he Dukes of Richn10nd and Buecleugh, tile Earl of Balcarras', 'Lord Weyn1outh, and otller eluinent l)ersons, 110nourec1 the Grand Lodge\vith their I)resence during the Earl of Ora\vford's 11resideney. 'l:'he 1110st re111arl{able l)]"oqeedings of the Society, at this period, related toane\vedition of the Book of (~;O]l颅 stitutions, \vhicll BrotllerJanles Anderson ~ras ordered top:repare for. the press :tll1c1 \V ll'iell Inade. its 8J)pearance in.January, 1738, considerably enlarged and in:lIH'oved. Anl0ng the ne\v reguh1tiollS ,vlllicll took place under the adrninistratiol1 of IJord C~ra\\rford, \,7i:tS the fo]lo\ving: That if any Lodg'e\vitlrin tIle bills of rnortality shall cea.se to ll1cet during t\velve calendar Illonths, tlle said Lodge shall be erased ii'01T1 the list; alld, .if reinstated, shall lose its forll1er rain 1"" Sonleadditiorlal privileges were granted tQ tIle Stewards, in conseqllellce of an applieation,forthat.purpose; and,. to . encouru,ge gentlemen to serve the office, it \vas agreed that, infllture, all Grand Officers, the .Grand .JVlaster excepted, shall'be elected out of that body. Afe\v resollltions il1so JHlss(~cl, resI)ecting illegal conventions of l\fasons, at vlllicll it \VIlS reported lllallY persons had been initiated into l\Iusonry on 'snlul1 and ull\v'orthy considerations. The Earl ofCravvf{)rd seeU1S to llave lIlade another encroaclln1enton the jurisdiction of the GTund I.. odg(~ in the city of York,. by constituting t\VO Lodges ,vithin their district; andl>y granting, "lithouttheil- eonSollt, fhre路e deputations, one for LtlJ,ncashire, a seeond for IJurlunn, and a, third for Northumberland. This eirCUlrlstance tile Grand . Lodge . in Y orkhighly resented, nnde"v'er 'af~er se~nls tohavevie'Vved the proceedings of the Bretbren ill the South with a jea.louseye, as all friendlyintercourse


le9

Ol,i" IVIASONRY.

ceased, and tIle York Masons, from tllat moment, considered their interest distinct fromtlle·.·Masons.under the Gxarld Lodge· ill· LOIlclon.fil Lord \Veynlouth sueeecded tIle Earl of Crawford ·in the office .of G'raIld l\laster, and ,vas installed at IVlercera'hall on tIle 17th of j~.pril, 1735, in presollce of tIle Dukes of Richnl0nd and .A.thol; the Earls of C~ra\vford, Wincllelsen, Balearras, ,Venlys, ana Loudon; tIle l\Iar(luisof BeaUlll011t; Lords (1athcart and V~ere Bertie; Sir Cecil Wruy and Sir Ecl\vard l\-Iansel, Barts., and u splendid cOlnpany of otller Bretllren. Se,reral Lodges were COllstit"llted during Lord \Veynloutll'S l)residcllcy : and" anlong tl1e rest, tIle· Stewards' Lodge. l1is lordsl1il) gralltecl a deputatioll to hold II Lodge at the seat of the Duke of Ric}lIll0 IHI, nt Aubigny, in France ;1111<1, lluder h'is llatrOl1age, l\Iasonryextcllded COllsiderttbly in for(~ig:n countries. lIe also iSSlle(l,\varrullts to ttne\v Lodge at LisboIl, . at Sa:vnnnal1, in ; and, l)y ilia special ·aI)poiIltnlcnt, I)r~)vineial ,\vere Illfl.do out. for SOllth J\Inerica rUld (Jarnbay l\fri(~u..

Lord·"\Veynlol1th n()f'(:~r h'oBourc"'a nnvof

nicatioI1s\vitil llis during" llr~~SUl.er.lCV his 011 account· of lance and attention of 11is DeIHlty,JohllWard 1 after\vards ])udley alld ,\,tard, \\rbo n.nll)lle~a. ,vitIl the tlt1l1ost to thf:~ prosperity ()n(~ eil"elllllsttlllee

was (}rulld

of

notie(~.

Mastel" for the held

tilne, in their n(~~r the I)nvil 'I'avern .ou

81 In eontlrIuation of the ,fthov'(~

copied

f'1-IHn

inserting

It

list

'[Jc)(}k of C()1:1sti,tut:ion,s'I ·J)iUrJ,118%lett

J)roviuchll

places ~Lbroll(l, it thus (~Xl)l'leSSt~d under the patrolulga c»f ()ur .Lodge at )~'()rkcit)1;·, and tlw

of . •,..J\il~"'Ulllil'.A\

Italy,afihcting hlde!){\ru.l(~ll(~Y:! arc lulder tJwu" u\\~n though tl1t~Y have th(~ stUne corl!~titution,8. (:JtU\rgcll\ ftWOlatli()O:l.. .Ito., su."ta.nco, \vith their UrlL~thren t~,Au~uat4n .styl(~~ tl.nd 'Fraternity.. " Book of COllst.itutit·)ua,

13


170

ILLUSTRATIONS

On this occasion" tl1ey \vere not IJerlnittec1 to vote as ,individuals: but, it being afterwards proposed that they s110uld enjoy tl1is privilege, and that the Ste-vvarc1s' Lodge should in future be represented ill Grand Lodge by t\velve 111enlhers,' many Lodges objected to tIle l11easure as an el1crOaChnlellt ,011 the privilege of every other Loc1ge wJliclll1ad beel1 previously constituted. "\V11811 tIle 1notion ,was 'lJut for,' confirlnation, suel1 a disturbance ensued , that the Grand Lodge was obliged to be closed hefore the sentiments of tIle Brethren could l)e collected on the subject. Of late years the punctilio has hee11 \yuved, aild the t\velve Stewards are 110\V })erluitted to vote in every C0111111Ullication as individuals.G2 The ,Earl of Loudoll succeeded LOl~d 'Veyll101.lth, and was installed Granel l\Iaster at Fishll10ngers'-11all 011 the 15tll of Al)ril, 1736. The Dult€ of Riclllnolld; the Earls of Albe111nrle and Cravvfbrc1; Lords Ilarcourt, Erskine, and Southwell ; l\Ir. Ant~s, garter kil1g-at~arnlS,l\Ir.. Brady, li011 k.ing-at-arnls, and a 1111111el·OUS cornpany of other Brethren, ~v"ere present on this occasion. 11is lordshil'l cOllstitllted several Lodges, and granted three l)l"ovincial deputations during its presidenc~y, viz., one for Ne\v ~~ng­ land, ·another for South Carolina, and a third for Cape Coast Castle, ill Afriea. The Eurl of Darnley· ,vas elected GTalld l\Iaster, and <luly installed at Fishnlongers'-hall 011 the 28tll of AI>ril, 1767,.in presence of the Duke of Richnlond, the Eatls 62 It was not till the ye3:l" 1770 thnt this privilege was', strictly'll,'"arranted; ',vhen, at a Grand Lodge, 011 the 7th of~'ebruary,atthe 01'0\'"11 and'" Anchor 'Tavern, in the Strand, the foUo~1"ing -resolution passed: ~: As the right of the' ~fembers of the Stevvards' Lodge in genernl to attend the Couuuittee of Charity appears doubtful, no Incntion of such right being !uude in the lrtlvs of t.he Society~ the G-ranc1Lodge nr(~ of opinion, 'lYlat they have no lfcncral right to attend; but it is her<:hy resolved, That the StEr~vards' Lodge be itUo\ved the privilege of nnunl~er of Brethr?ll, equal to anoY' other: four Lodges~ tOt~very future Conlmlttee of Charrty; and that, tlS the l\laster of each priY~lte only has the, right, to ,',attend, to Il'Htke ~L proper distinction JUj,l'·'~pn".'l", the Ste\vnrds' Lodge and the oth(\1" Lodges, that the l\:Ia.ster nrltl thre(~ other l\Ieu1bers of.that Lodge be perluitted to attend ut cvcrv sncceeding OO1l1111ittee on' hehaif of the said Lodge." 'l'his rescJfution, how'ever,. \va.s declared no~ to be illtellded to deprive ~Lny IJodge, ,\"hk~h had prevIously been constItuted, of its regular r:ulk and lH·(~Ce(.telJl{~C.. Notwiths~randin~~ thisex:press provisio:l, a privileg(~ luts lfttel)r granted', to the Stewards'Lodgc) of t~~klng precedence of nIl the othc:r :Lodges~ the t,vo oldest not excepted.


OF l\IASONRY.

171

of Crawfoxd· and 'Vel11ys, Lord Giay, and lllany otller respectable Brethren. The lXl:ost l-enlurkable event . of his lordsl1ip's adnlinistratiol1 YY""as, the initiatioll of the late ]'rederic Prince of "Tales, his late l\Iajesty'sfatller, at all occasiOl1al Lodge~ cOllvened for tIle· l?urpose, at tIle llalace of I{e\v, over "\vhicll Dr. Desagulicl's l)resided as lVIaster. Lord Baltiulore, Col" Llunley', t!lC 11011. 1vIajor JYfadc1en, and several other Brethren, \vere 11resent. Ifis Royal Higllness \vas advanced to the Second Degree at the san1e. Lodge; and, at another Lodge, cOllvened at the sal11C place S0011 after, ,vas raised to the Degree ofa }traster 1Iasoll. There cannot be a hetter proof of tlle flourishing state of. the Societj1 at this tiU1C, tlu1n l)y adverting to the respeetable allI>earal1ce of the 13rethren in G:ra.u(l Lotlge, at \vllieh tho G-rand l\Iaster never fhiled to attend. lTl)\,·ards of sixty Lodlges \vere rel)r(~sented at ever:y COnl1l1Unie:,ltion dllrillg I~ord I)arnley's adnlinistration; and Illore provincial \vere issued 11irn than b): allY. his ])el)utations ,Yer(~ .,.gra,nted for l\fontserrat, .:the (~ircle. of lTl)per Saxon~r,· the Coast of l\.fi-ica, N (~\V York, Ulld the Islands of i\.rnerica.f>3 'l'he ~Inrql1is of Cnrnar'von, aftel"\var<ls Dul(H of OhOIldos, sueceecled Lord Darnley' in tile office of (il":111cl 1\Iastel'", and\vns dul:r . . and installed at nIl assclllbly and feast held at ]{,isllnl011,gers'-hal1 on the 27th of i\llri1, 17aS/H .A.t this assernbly, the Duke of l~iehlorlOJH1, the (~l,At this thn€~ tho boY p::lh:nt a Pr()\'ilH~inJ Gr:rnd I\laster was lhnited OIle\'C'nr fr(un his first alH)(~a l'a ll<~(~ in CX]:)lI":t ti(')Il (,f tbat that chnrnett~r vrit.hin his" and it~ at period. n. nt~'\~ (~leet,iIJn uIHl'cr did not tnkeplaee~ . to t}l(>, . ot the patent. 'was novnlid. IIene(~ ,\Y(lflnd'l ,,'ithin IUI~~ ·£·IJIUrtoU'~ diflt-reut app(JintrnentH to the EtllnestaUfHl; Inancnt. and the selle ~)f the Grand .li4 •• In tJ H.~ y('tu' n 1'01'111i d~tl).le buH ,,~as tlnuHlered ff(llll nr.t,"· thenJsph"t}s. Inlt

<::tllSt1--,\V ll() ill rc~pe(,·t~ (:~f.IUICQtertl


172

ILLUSTRATIONS

Earls' of Inchiquin, Loudon andI{intore; Lords Colerane~ and Gray, and a l1UlnerOUS compa11y of ·other Brethren, were present. The ~Iarquis SIlO wed every attention to tIle Society d"uring l1is presidency, and, in testin10ny of ·llis 'esteem, presented to the Grand Lodge a gold jewel for the use of the Secretary; the device, t\VO cross pens· in a, l~not; . the knot al1dpoints of tIle 11cns beil1gcuriously enan1elled.T\vodeplltatioDS for the office ·ofProvincialGrallcl l\Iaster were granted by his lordship, one for the Caribbee Islands, and the other for the West Riding of Yorkshire. This latter appointlnel1t was considered as'a tllird encroacll1nent 011 tIle jll1"isdiction of the Grand Lodge at Yor1\., 3:l1cl so vvidenec1 tIle original breach between the Brethren in tIle N ortll al1d the South of England, that froI11 hencefol"\vard all corresl)onde11ce bet\iveel1· the Grand Lodges totall JT·ceased. On the 15th of AUgllst, 17:38, Frederic tile Great, afterwards .1{Ing of Prussia, was initiuted into l\{usoury in :L Lodge at Brunswick, tInder tIle Scots constitution, being at thattinlePrillce Royal. So higillydid he apI)rove of the institlltion, that, 011 his accessioIl to the throne, he COTIlll1anded a G-rand Lodge to lle forl11ed at Berlin,G;3 and for that purpose obtained a IJatent fron1 Edinl)urgh. In religion in~o their society, and that the,Y bound their IUCll1bers by an oath, to preserve, with inviolable. secresy, the luysteries of their order. These circun1Stances~ indeed, ,vore sufficient grounds for excitillg the church of Rome to· oppose a sysk~mso contrary to their superstitious and contracted views in religion and governtnent. .'l'his bull . \vas foIlowed by an . edict~ da,ted. 14th January, 1739, containing sentinlents equallybigoted,andenactmentseq ually severe. The servitude of the galleys, ·the 'tortures of.·the rack,and a fine of 1,000. crowns in gold. were threatened to persons of every description, w'ho ,,'"ere daring enough to breathe the infectious air of a nltlsonic assenlbly." (L:l'w'rie~ p. 122.)-EDITbR. ' 65 His ]\{ajesty's attachment to the Society soon induced hhn to establish several new regulations for the advallt.age of the :h'ruternity; and, among others, be ol·aained, 1. rI'hat no person should bH Inllde n. Maso.n,tlnless his character was uniulpeacho.ble, aud his nnU1tH~l'" of living'andp:roiession respectable. 2. r.rhat ev(~ry Inexnbnr shoul<l

pay 25 l"ix-d<>llars (or4l.. 88.. ) for tho :B'irst Degre(~; 50rix-dolhlrs (or Sl.. 68.) on. his beillgpassed. into the Second I)egrcn; and lOU rix:-

dollars 011.· his being. raised a 1\;Iaster ·l\{aSOll.. :3... That 110 should retnain at least three months· in each Degret'; anll tIlat every sum received should bedividedb:r the·· Granel ri'rea8Urt~rillto thre(~ "parts; one to defray the expenses9ftho Lodgo; another to he o,pplied to the "relief of .distressed Brethreu; and the third· to be allotted to the poor itrgeneral.


OF

~IASONRY•

173

..SO£ htte y(~urt4'l IHl\~~t':v'(jr, all institution lUt8 hetHl (~stul)1i;;;:lH}d for edu.,oaullga,nd (~lutbiug th(~ SOllS (.f :Fr€jeUltl.SOUS in I..Ilontlon.


174

ILL USTRATION~

continued to prevail ; and several \VortllY Brethren, still adverse to the encroachrnents on the establislled 8vsteln of the institution, seeuled to be 路11igll1y disgusted the proceedings of tIle regular Lodges.00111plaints vvere preferred at every succeeding Conl111ittee, and the Communications were fully employed in adjusting differeIlces and reconciling animosities. 1\101"e secessions tal\.ing 111ace, it becallle" necessary to pass votes of censure 011 tIle路lll0st refractory,路 alld enact la\vs to discourage irl"egulal" associations of the Fraternity. . TIlis brought the power of tIle Grand Lodge ill questiol1; and, in oppositioll to the lavvs which llad bee11 established ill tl1at assen1bly, Lodges were forr.ned witlrollt any legal vvarrant, and l,ersons initiated into 1\Iasonry for s111ull find Ull\\rortllY COl1sider~t颅 tions. To disal)point the vievls of these deluded Brethren, aIld to distinguisll the I)CrSOl1s initiated by tllern, the Grand Lodge readilyacquiescec1 in the inll)l-l1dent Illeasures whicll the regular Masons llad adopted, rneasures \Vllicll even the urgency of the case coul<l not V\rarrallt. 'l'hough. this had the~intellded effect, it gave rise to a ne\v subterfuge'.. The Brethrell \vho 11ac1 seceded fronl the regl11ar Lod.ges iI11111ediatel y announced jndependene}i, and assUllled thettl)!1ellatioll of ancient l\fasol1s. rrhe~r l,ropag'ated all Opillion, that the ancient tenets and l)ractices of l\Iasonryvvere preserved by thern: and tllut the regulul" Lodg(lS, being C0111posed of l1zode:r1?~ l\fasolls, llad adopted neU1 plaus, and '\verenot to be ,considered as acting under. the old establishlnent. TocQunteract tlle l"egulationsof the Grand IJodge, tl1ey instituted a 'JL-c'1.v(jralld Lodge iu London, professedly,oIl tllea22,cienJ s~ystern ;. and, contrary to their duty as l\lasons, under tlHlt assulned banner eonstituted several ne'\v I.Jodges, in oppositioll to tIle regular establislled authority. 'I'hese irregtllar l)roeeedillgs tlley !lretend to justify llnder the feigIled sallctioll of tIle .l:1n.c'ienl York Constitution; ftnd lIlfiny gentlenlell of reI}utatioll, being deceived by tllisartifice, .\vere introdueed a.lll011g thenl, so that tlleil" Lodges. daily increased. 'Vithout authority from the Grand Lodge ill York, or fronl any' other established power. in 1\1asol1I'y., these refractol-y Brethren persevered in thB Illcasures they had adol)ted, f9rll1ed eornlnittees, held COlnU} uIlie~ttions, t:tnd even appointed annual feasts. lJnder the fhlse fiI)pellntioll of

at

T

the York banner, they gnhled the conntennnce of the


OF MASONRY.

175

Seatcll and Irish J\fasons; who, placing implicit confidence in the representations made to them, 11eartily joined ill cOIldelllning the Ineasures of the regular Lodgesjn London, a,s tellding, in tlleir OlJillion,to introduce novelties into the Society, und to subvert the original plall of the institution. TIle irregular ~Iasons in LOlldon having tllUS acquired a nOl1Tinal establishll1ent, l101)lenlel1 of botll kingdonls, 1111acquainted witll the origill of tIle separation, 11oIloured thenl \vitIl their patrollage, alld SOUle resl)ectable narnes anc1 Lodges were added to their list. During the }l1"esiclel1cy of Lord Raymond, no considel"ableadditioJl\vas rnade to tIle list of Lodges, 110r\Vere the Conl1nllIlications often 110nOul"ed ,~vitl1 tIle C01111)UIIY of the ll@bility.. 11i8 lordshil) granted only 011e deI)utationfor a Provincial (jrall<1 ~Iuster eluring llis I)resiclency ; ·viz.~ for Savo~r ana l">iec1nlont. 1'he l~nrl of l{:intore I~ord Itnyrnonc1 in l\l)ri1, 1740; and, in inlitation of his predeeessol", continued. to discourage irregularities. IIis lordsllil) apI>ointed 8eY(~ral provin(~jals, particularly one for l~,ussia; Olle f<lr lIanlhurgll ttnd the (Hrcle of Lo'\verSaxony; 01H3 for the 'V(~st Riding of York, in the roolnof Willht111 florton, Esq., deceased ;nndollc fOl~ tIle island of Barba<loes. The I~arl ()f l\forton \vas eleeted on the ·19th of l\Iarell follo\ving, and installed. \vitll great solenlnity 8Um(~ day at Ilaberdashers'-hal1, in lll-esence of areSr)ec.t~11)le COlnpany of the nobility, foreigIl~l1nhassa:dor8,and others. Several seasonable 1al\\"'8 V\'!'ere l)tlssed during his lordship's Inastership,. and SOII1C regulations rnncle eoneernillg 1)1'0eessioI1SUIHl otller eerernollies. .' lordshil) IJresented a staif of office to the 'l'reasul"er, of 110at \VOrklnnnshi11, blue and tipt \vitIl gold; and the Grand Lodge resolved, th.at this oflicer should be anllually elected, arld, with. the anel S\vord-boarer, be IJerlnitted to ranI\. future us a ll'l(nnber of th(~ G'rand Lodge.. A large cornolian senl, \'lith tIle arIl1S of Masonry', sot in gold" \vas r p.'. ,lI..~e.s.··(~.n. t(..~.d to th"e..8,1.' o(tiet.'J. " t.:t.t this,. t.ilIl.,'. e.", bJ,r b. 1"(,)t1.1,. 01 "'.i\.,ri.n.i.,a..m.•. 'Vaughan, . Senior Q·rand 'Varden, ,,"ho ,vas ltI)point,oo by his lordship Provincial (~Tand l\Iaster fbr North Wales. I~oT'(l \Vnrd SllC(~(H:~dt:{l tho 'Earl of l\fortoll i.n AI)ril, 1742. His lordsllill being ,yell uequainted ,vith the l)atUl"t~ ~tnd goverUluent of theSociet~y, IH1ving served every office,


17p

ILLUSTRATIONS

frQm.theSecretary in a llrivate Lodge to tllut, of Grand Master, lost no tirne ill al)plying etIectual reuledies to reconcile the aninlosities \vhicllllrevailed; 110 reco111rnended to his officers vigilance U:lld care ill their difIerent del)artments; and, by llis O\Vl1 conduct, set UJ lloble exul11ple 110vV .the dignity of the Society ought to ])e SUl)l)orted. Many Lodges,whicll,vere ill adeclill1ng state, by his

advice coalesced "vith others ill better eil~eU1118tances; SOUle, ,",Vllich 11aclheen negligent in their attendance on the C01l11nuniea.tiol1s, after lll"oper adnl0nitions, \,"ere restored to favour; and others, \vhicll l)ersevered in the COl1tullIUCY, \vere erased fi"o111 the list. Thus his lordSllip rnallifestec1 a siIlcere regard for the interest of the Societ~y, \1'hi1e his lenit}T arid forbearance "\vere Ulli versally adrnired. The unal1illlit"T tlnd hUflnOn\r of the ..L".j'-'''~''...~,•• l:'~J·"i·\"·'''\i''J-t be pHrf(~ctly restored. HIlder his lordslrir"s '.. ·.·",,,+·'i·.,',i··'ii.. The l~'reernasonsat ~A.lltigUtt lJuilt· fL large .hall islandftJr their lneetings, and apl>lied. to the (lrfUlaI.Jodgt.~ for liberty to be styled tIle Clreat Lodge of St. Jolin's, in ..c\.11tig'lUl" ,yllicll th vour,vas to in .i\l)ril, 1744. Lord "Ta,rd c.ol1tinued 1:.\\'"0 years at the of the Fraternity; during \vhiell tilne he constituted Inany I...lodges, tUld appointed several Provineial (Jl'and .lUJlst;erlS, viz.: one ffn· La!ueaster, one for Nortll .A.JIH.H·ien, and for t11e . island of J UlrHtictt. lIe \~Tas succeeded l:>:l the I~arl k)

[,I.,.. '", ..

""Oc".

ofStratlp1101"e; during whose aclrninistrntion, IH~heing absellt the whole tillle, thecnrf~ and JnUIHlgenlent of tlH~ Society devolved on the otht~J:(Jrand ,~v'ho carefully studied the g'eneral good of tIle lordsllip Ul)pointed··· n Provincial G'TRIld

isla,nd of l~erlnuda. Lord C;ranstoun ,vas elected 1745,alldpresided over the }'raternity \vitTl tati 0 11. t\i\tO years. IT nder his l\Iasonry , '" "', , , . . severalne\v' I..lo(lgt~S 'vern and one ,.. "J.•••• Grand 1\Iaster "yas tlIlpointed bOllrg. I~y ~1 resolntioll of the (~rand it \vas ordered, that puhlie proeessiollS r~-n ·Tf··~t«U::J"1'· r·i."\ be diseolltilll1ed; b'y S(Jrne Inoek, l)roeessions, wldch, a disg'tlsted ~f lUlf] iII order to burlesque those pu.blic apr*earanees" "p, ••••

__


177

OF MA.SONRY.

Lord Byron succeeded Lord Crallstoun, and was illstalled at Drapel"s'-llall oIl'the.30tIl of April, 1747. .The laws of the Comnlittee ofCharity\vere, by his lordsbiI)'S order, revised, l)rintec1, and distributed anlong the Lodges; and a handsonlC cOl1triblltion to tIle general cllarity Vlas received froln the Lodge at (i·ibraltar. During five years that his lordshil) presided over th e Fraterni ty, 110 diligence, \vas spared to preserve the l)l"ivileges of the Order illViolate, to redress grievances, and to relieve distress. 1V11en b}lsiness requirel.-d his lordsl1il)'S attel1dance in the country, Fotherly Bal\.er, Esq., his Depllty·, and Secretary Revis, were l)articularl~y attentive to tIle business of theSociet:Y'TIle forn1er ,,,"us· distinguisIled by 11is kno\vledge of the htvvS and reglllations: the latter, by his long and faithful serviees. lJnder the aus11ic,es of Lord By~ron, l)l"ovineial patents \vere issued for Denillarit alld Nor\va:y, l?el1l1sylvania, 11inorea, and 'Ne\v Y ol'l~. (}n tIle 20th of 1\Iarch-; 17'52, I..lord. C;arysfcn~t ac,ceptc(l tIle of 1\Iaster. 'rhe good efI(~ets of his lordshil)'S applieation to the real int~rests of the l~raterI1ity soon beeanlo visible, by the grt~at increase of the rHlblic

fund. NoG-rand Oflicer ever tool\. l"norc pninsto IJreserve, or \vns IIlore attentive to re(~omnlend, and decorurn. lIe "las l·cad Jt , on every occasion, to visit the Lodges in fJerson, and to pr01110te harnlOI1}~ UIJlong the rnenlbers. 1)1.. . l\Ianningllanl, his Dt~pl.1t}r, ,vas 110 less vigilant .. in the exeeution. of his dut)'!': he eonstantly visited the I..Iodges in his lordship's ahsenee, llsccl every' endeavour to eClnent 1111iol1 tll110Bg- the Ilrethren. ~rhe" \vhole of tllis a,etiYc oilicer ,\"(;~re condue ted 'Yiill ; gained llinl€~sipeln. rl'ho (]rnlld ~ TT·on~~·'""" lnent to the Soeiety'l" \vns so obvious, that the 13rethreIl, in . of their gratitude t'()l- his. l()l"dship's great s(~rvice~~, on the 3rd of April, 17;],i>; uncI during his pr(~sideney, pr(.rv'inciall)utents \vere . for (libraJtar, the l~nlHUlHt Islands, No\\r l~orl~,. (hlerln~(;~y, J(~rsey, l\.lderne)r~ and l\lnnn.; fCJr (~orn\\'aU and the eOl]nti(~s 1\IonnloutIl, :11'1<.1 II(~refbrd . At this tirne the Soeiety in Scotland appears to have bOOIl. in avery flourisl'ling state. Under the uus!)iees a a .....-.T'..-.........

..


178

ILLUSTRATIONS

of· George DrU1111110nd,Esq., tIle Grand l\Iasterof tIle Masons in that kingdonl, the Lodges l1adconsiderably increased in l1ulnbers. Thisgentlellltlill had thrice served the office of Lord Provost of Ed.inburgll; and, being a t thellead of tIle seuate in tIlat cit}T, he ,vas anxious ·to.proluoteevery .sc}lelne \vhich could.add to the cOllsequellce ·and·splendour of the metropolis of his native'country. With tllis view he planned, and after... wai"ds completed, tJ1at elegant raugeof buildillgscalled THE.NE'V EXCHANGE OF EDINBURGH, the foundationstone'of\vllich llelaidon the 13th of Sel,telnber, 1753, as Gralld·l\faster.An event so ·renlark.ablein the annals of <L\Iasonry justly Inerits attention, and cannot fail to rel1del~an account of a ceren10ny so sl)lelldid, and conducted vvith so rl1uch reglllarity, interesting to every Brothervvho has the honour of the Society at lleart. ~Jaldy in the Iuofning of the da,y appointed f()r the oelebration of this cereIllony, ::t. Inagnificent triulnphal arch, in the true Augustan. style, ,vas o!)ened to l,ublic view: it ,vas erected nt the eIltranco leading to\vards the place ,vhere the f()uI1clation-stone of the intended building \vas to be laid. In the niehes bet\v"een the COlU11111S on eacll side of tll(~ erltrance \vere t,vo figures, representing G"EO~IE'rRY and i\.RCIIITI~c"rU.H.E,each as large as life. ()ll the fi'ieze of tho erltablature, \Vllich \vas of the Corinthian order, \vere tIle f()llo\ving ,yords: {~UOD FELIXl" AUSrrUMQUE 81'1'; tlul,t 'itiJnay be halJl'Y and IJrOSjJer... f)U$. ·011 . tllelniddle p,tnel·of the attic bo,lso, r)laced over the.·entablftture,. ""vas ·l'epresented the (JENIUS OF' EDINBUllGl:I:, in a curule· chair, unde"r.a .<:.anopy ; on her rigllt haudstood a grOUt) of figures rei)resentillg the lord .provost, Inagistrates, and couneil, in tlleir robes; on ]}CI" left \vas al1otlH"~r group, representing the noblclllCIl und gentlelnen elllI)loyed in tIle direction of the intended structure. In fi'out \vas l)laced the (}rau(Il\Iaster, ofter.. ing i~ plan of the Exclutnge, attended .b~y s{JY(~ral of hois l~retln'(nl·I)roperly clothed. rl'he ,vhole \vas decorated \vith laurels, bays, nnd other intersllersed \vith festoons of flo\vers. .A.t three o'clocl,- ill the aftel·noon, the several Lodges, \ivitb. their l\Iasters at their llcad, 111et3t l\lary'scI1&1)elt inN,iddry's "VVind;and at balf-l)ast three, t.Ile procession <


OF J.\IIASONR'¥.

179

began to 1110ve from the cllapel in the following order, the city guard covering the rear: 1.0peratiYel\fasons not belonging to any Lodge present. 2. A band· or French horns. 3. The Lodges present, arranged as fol1o'vs : The l\Iilitary Lodge belonging to General Johnson's regiment. The Thistle Lodge. The Scots'· Lodge in Oanongate. Holyrood-house Lodge. Vernon I{ilwinning Lodge. Canongate froln Leith Lodge. Dalkeith Lodge. Lodge of J otll"neymen l\{asons.. . Canongate and Leith,. Leith andCanongate Lodge.. Leith }{ilwinning I.Jodge. O~lnongnte .Kihvinning Lodge. ~iary's Chapel Lodge. All the Brethren properly clothed, anel the },{asters and Wardens in the je,,-els of their respective Lodges, "rith their. badges of dignity= forrned the last r~\Ilk of each Lodge.. -:1. (ientJernell l\Iasons belonging to foreign I.Jodgcs. 5~ A band of IIantboys. 6.. The Golden COlnptlSSes, earried by nn <..)pemtivc ~fason .. 7.1'lhreeGralld Ste'f':trds. 'w'i th rods . 8. rrho G'ralld Secretn.I'y, Gl"andfJ.'ren.snrer, and G'rand Clerk.. 9. 1'bl'ce G'rand Stewards, ",,,jih rods.. lO~ The Golden Square, Level; andPlumbt carried by threeOperativG ~fasons. 11.. A band of French horus. 12. ':rhree Grand Ste"wnrds, with rods. 1:3.. The (h'and '\Vardens. 14. The CornUcOl)ia, anclGolden ~faUet, carried by an officer of tIle (~rand Lodge, and an ()perative l\Iuson.. 15. The GRANI> :ilIAsTER, supported by n, I)ast Gra.nd l\fn.ster.. and the present Substitute.. ·

'fhe !)roeeSSiOIl \vas closed \"\1itIl a body of Operative }rttsons; and the wJlole Brethren, UlllOullting exactly to ()72, '\valkeduncovercd. J:\t the bead of Niddry's ,",V'illd thecavalcnde was reeeived by 150 of thenlilitary, and a compan:y of grenadiers, tlra\vn up in t\VO lines, underarnls, 'VI10 escort'ed the . 11l'"ocession; one h::~l;" of the· grenadiers H1arcl1ing in front, theotllor .llalf ill the l·(~al", \vitIl bayonets tix,ed. As theprocessioll IJ[lssed tbe city gu~:u·d,a cOIllI>any was (ira\Vll out, \vith tbet)l~Oper o'Jlicers attlleir llead,wbo salt\ted the 'Grand1.taster '\vitll nlilitary honollrs, drums beatillg, and nlusic playing. ,,\Vllen the processioIl


180

ILLUSTRATIONS

reached路 the ,Pc:trlialnellt Olose, tIle troops fornled a line, as did also the lVlasons ',vithin that line. 'rhe Grund Master and the officers of the Grand Lodge then Blade a stop at the nortll-vvest corner of the Olose, and dispatcl1ed a 11lessage to the Council-house, to acquaint the nlagistrates that the Brethren were ready to receive thenl; OllWhicll the lord provost, Inagistl-ates, and COUllCil, ill their robes, preceded by the city OffiCt:1fS,'\iv"itll the sword and ll1ace, accolTII)anied b~y' sevel"alof the gentlemen in the direction of the intended buildings, proceeded through the lines fornled by tIle soldiers and the ~Iasons ;\vhen the Grand lVIaster, properl:y' supported as before, preceded by his officers, and having his je\vels borne before hilll, 111archecl to tlle l)laee \Vllere the cerenlon~y ,vas to be 11erforl11 ed, and IHlssed throngll the triulnphal arch erected for the occasion, the Lod\ges follo\lving according to seniority. On the \\yest side of theplace\vhere the stone ,\Vi1S to. be laid,was t~rected H. tlleatl'e, covered\vitll tapestry anti deeltcd ~'ith flovvers, for thelordl)l"oY013t, rnagistrat(~s, couucil, a.nd attendants; on the east "Tas erected another tl1eatl'e 'f()r tile (i-rand ~faster and his oflicers, on \vhich \~ras set a clulir f()r the Grand JVlaster. Before the chair ,vas (1 table covered \vith tapestl"}r, ou\vhich \vere plaeed t\VO silver vessels, filled \vith "vine and oil; the golden je\vels; the cornucopia., \:vhicll had been carried in . the I)rQcession. The Masters, \Vardens, and Brethren of the several Lodges. were tllCl1arranged in galleries rH'ol)erly fitted up for the occasiol1. rrhe cerel110ny of laying tIle stone 110\V COlllI"neneed. By .order of the Substitute GTalld l\Inster, the stone "vas slung into ~1 tackle, and, after three regular stO!lS, let do\vn gradually to the ground; during \vhich the :illasollic anthern ,vas sung, aCCOl111)unied by the rnusie, all the Brethren joining in the chorus. rrhe Grand l\Iaster, supported t1.S before, preceded hy his of-lieers, tho operative.路路l\:1asons c,~rrying路 the je\vels, then deseended fi-orn the theatre to the spot \vhere the stone hty', UJld passed through a line forrnedby the oflicers of the (jrarlHl Lodge. 1'he Substitute Grand l\:Iaster deI)osited in t'he stone, ill cavi ties 111ad(~ for purpose, three Inedals witll the follo\ving <.leviccs: On one side \vere theeflTgies


181

OF MASONRY.

of tIle .Gralld Master, in profile, vested witll tIle ribbon officially worn· by hilD; ::LIld in fi"ont, a vie\v of the Royal Infil"lllary, with the follo\ving inscription: G.

DRUMMOND, .ARCHITECT. SV.Ml\IVS ~lAGIS EDIN. TER

Sco'r. Cos.

DRUMMOND, q{ the Society. of Free-J.1Iasons in Scotland Grand ll:Iaster, thrice Provost of Ed'lnburgh. On the reverse was a perspecti~e vie\v of the Exchange, on which was inscribed in the circle, VERBI EXORNANDlE CIVIVl\1Q.VE COM1\IODITATI, For adorning the Oity, and the conveniency of its i'nhabitants; and underneath, GEORGE

FonI :NOVI EDINBVn.Gl<~NSIS Posrro LAPIDE PRIMO RDO PElt SCOTIAM ARCHrrI<;CTONICUS EXCUDI Jussrr, xiii. 8}4~PTEMnRIS 1753.

o

The first stone l?f the 1,rew l!1.rcluznge of Edinburgh 'being laid, the

brotherhood ql .1)[a80n8 tllrough Sicotland ordered this 13th lSf~:ptcnzbc;r, 1i5a.

to

'be struclc,

1'he .otllel" Inedals con tained the effigies as above; n.nd on the· reverse the llasollS' Arnls, inclosed within the collar St. Andrew, \vith tIle· fol1o\ving inscription:

or

IN

"rIfE l,1ORD IS AI..L QUIt 1,·ItL~T.

The fornler ({rand 1\faster and the S1.1bstitute retiring~ t\VO Operative l\Iasons ealne in their place, an<lassisted the Grand l\Iaster to turn over the stone, and lay it in its proper bed, '\vith the illscription 67 ullderrnost. 81

The foUo'W'iIlg is the inscription on the stone:

IN

(~}:OR.GniS DRlJMMONDUS ARCHITECTONICA. SCOTIJ1.~ ItltPl.T:S.

OURIO l\IAXIMl7S ,(In.lH~ EUINllO RO! T,l~R OONSUI.. Ans'rAN'rraus It'RA.TIUBUS· Al~ClII'r,F:C'rONICIS ceo. PH.igSl;~:NT[nCS 1\IUl.. TlS ·n.J..~GNr l\'l'AGNATIBCS S}~NATU ]~'rIA1U l)OI)UI..OQUE EDINF~NSI :g'I' HO::\HNUM OH.IHNIS CUJUSQUl'~ !\[AGNA S'l'IPANTJ.:; F'l~,F:{iUESTIA CUN<iT.ISQU,I': PIJAUln~NTrnus

AD

EI:>INgNSIUnt COMMODITAT:f::l\l ~E'r Dl!:(:US 1)t7DI.. IC01U il£l),Ii~ICIOllUM NOVORnM PRINCIPIU)f I.J.AJ:)lDF~M HUNG l'QStTrl' GUI",IEI",MO ..A.IJl':XANDItO Cos. Inun.1s SEPTEMBR. A"D. l:tDGOLIII.


182

ILL USTH.ATIONS

The Grand· l\faster tllen taking Ilis station at tIle east

of the stone, with the Substitute on the left, und his Wardens ill tIle west, the 0l)erative 'VIlO carried tlle square delivered it to the Sllbstitute, \vllo 11resented it to the Gral1d Master; and, he, having applied it to that part of tIle stone wbicll was square, returned it bacl\. to tb~:Operative..· TIle Operative wbocarried tIle plumb, then delivered it to. the' ·Substitllte;wI10presented·it also to the,'{irand lVlaster'; and he,having applieait to the edges of the stone, holding it upright, delivered it back to tIle Operative. In like l11alll1er, tile Operative ",rho carried the level delivered it to the Substitute, and lIe 11resented it to the Grand '1Iaster, \vho ul)pliec1 it above the stone in several positions, and returned it back to the Operative. The 111allet \,ras thell presented to the a'rand l\Iaster, who gave three l\.Ilocks tlpOn the stOlle, which was followed' by tllreehuzzas· frolll tIle Brethren. An antllelll was tllen su,ng,aCC0111pallied by the lllusic; during whicll the cornucollia, ~lna the t,vo silver vessels containing the wine and oil, \vere brouglltdo\vn to tIle stone.. The cornucopia "vas delivered to the Substitute, and the vessels to the 1)Tardens. The anthenl being concluded, the -Substitute l)resented the corllllco11ia to the Grand Master"vho turned out the ears of corn upon the stone. rrhesilver vessels \vere, tllEHl delivered by the Wardens to theSuhstitute, and by bim I>resented to the Grana: Master,whol)oured tIle contents l1POIl tIle stone, saying, HMay the bOlll1tifullland of Ileaven supply tlliscity with abundance of corn, wine, oil, anc1all the JERE ARCIII'l'ECTONIClE ,rJ.\iIDCCLIII. I~IPERIIQUEGEOnG-lI II. BRrrANNIAuUM RI~GIS ANNO XXVII ..

'11ranslate£l:

DnUMHONl),ofthe Societyl)( F1"ee-]l,[asons in Scotland. Granf.l Master, thrice Prcn,,"O$t of Ediri"burgh, three hundred brother ]Jfasons attending, i,tl presence of rmany J)(;TSOTl.t; c1 distinction, tlte },{agistrates andOiti7ena of Edinbll,rgh,and, (!.llU2(>.plt~,(!f l~m;ry rank an innum,erable Multttude, and all al'plaullin,g, jbr the con:1H}niency of the i-nhabitants o..f Edinburgh; andtlu; JHtbllc arnarncnt, as the beginning cif the new Building,~" . laid this Sl,one, 'WU.JI..IAl\{ A 1.1 F.;x, AN,Dl'~R,t bei~g P'fO'VOSt, on th~ 13th, 8epte1'ttber, ,,175:!,. 0..( the .(Era cif ¥a~onry, 5753, and oftJze re~gn ifGEOBGE II., K'lng (1 GTeat Brtlazn, tJie G'EORGE

2~hy~~

.


OF MASONRY

183

other convenienees of life 1" Tlliswas "'succeeded by three huzzas, afterwllichananthem was sung.. The Grand :Master then repeated tllesewords: qAswe llave now laid this fOUl1datioll-st0l1e, ll1ay the Grand Architect of the universe, of his killd 'l)l"ovidel1ce, el1able us to carr,Y on and finish tlle wOTk vvhicll "Vve flave now begun; ma:r he be a guard to this place, and the city in general; and Ina}" he preserve it fi"onl decay and ruin to the latest posterity." The ceremony was concluded '\vith a sllort prayer for the sovereign, the senate of the city, the Fraternityof l\fasons, and all the people; the music '\-vas reSl1111ed, and the Gralld ,!fasterreturned to his chair, amid the plaudits of the Brethren. 'l'heGrandl\1aster"then addressed tIle lord provost, nlugistrates, and COUI1Cil, ill all al1propriatespeech; in Wllich he thanked thell1 for the, llollour '\vhicll they had done hiI'n ill \vitnessing the act of laying tIle foundationstone of the intended strtlcture, and expxesseclilis earnest. \visll tlu1t they and their suceessors l11igllt be happy instrulllents to for\,,"arcl路 the great aIlcl good "'torI\. 'Vllich was n,o\v begun" and offered sofili,r, t1,l)rOSI~e,'ct of sue, c,,e,s,B, ;,' nndhe sincerely 110!}ed, tllat it Inight add, Ilot only to the' ornalnent" and advantageo! tIle ,city of Edinburgh, but be tIle Uleans of insuring., to thenl lasting llollour, and translnitting tlleirnlelnories to the latest 'I)osterit)... He next addressed the llndertakers of the \vork 011 the illl.portance of the trust rel)osed in tIlel!l, and recommended diligence and industr:r to all tIle "\vorkrnen \VllO might be elnployed under theln. rrhe rnagistrates then took their leave, and the Bretllren resuuled tbeprOCf~S8ion to the Ilalace of I-Iolyrood-; honse, escortedb'y themilita.ryasbefore,anlidstaD

iUll'nenSe cro\vdof .spectators. ()narrivingat the palace, the E*rand J!tlaster, in tbenanle of hhnself and llis llrethren, l"etllrned his lnost grateful.

aekl'lOwlt~dgnlel]ts to

tl]e

COlllfllunding' officer of the troops for the assistaIlee \vhich hehud~ gi"v<nl, , 'l'he Bre~hren. elltered th~, itUler (~ourt of the !Jalace, and fOl路uled ~-t sfllH1Jre, to receIve the Grand lVluster nnd his officers \vith all due honour; who, fol1o\ved by t;he,l~()dgesaeeording to seniority; pl-oeeeded to tile great gallery, where an elegant eIltertalument vva~ provided, ,'alld the greatt~st harInouy l)rt~vailed. At nine o'clock in the eve,lling the COlll}lanybroke up.


184

ILLUSTR.A.TIONS

Such was the regularity observed throughout the cerenlon y. of the .da jr, that, l1ot\vi thstanding the ero\vds of peo!11e WI10 ,:vere collected on the occasion, tIle \vhole was concluded ,~yithout <.1 single accident,.68 l'he l\larqu.isof Cnrnarvon (afterwards Dul(e of (;handos)· succeeded LordCarysfort in. the offiee of Grand l\rfaster of ·England, in JYl~Lrch, 1754... lIe began hiB adrninistration by ordering the Bool;;. of COIlstitutions to b.ereprinted, under the il1spectioll of a conlmittee, consisting of the Grand Officers, and sonle otherr~sl)ectable Brethren. The Grand l\laster's zeal and attention to the true interests of the Society. "vere ShO\Vll on every occasion. lIe l)resentec1 to tIle Grand Lodge a large silver jevvel, gilt, for the use of the Treasurer, being cross keys in a l\.l1ot, enarnelled '\vith blue; and gtl,ve severnl other proofs of his attaclllueIlt. Soon after the election· of the 1\1,trqui8 of Cu,rnttrvon, the (JrandLodgetook illtoconsideration acolnI)laint against certain Brethren, for assenlbling, without any legal authority, under the dCIlolIlination·of ancil:nt 1JUlSOnS; alld \vho, as sneh, considered then.1selves independent of the Society, anel not sul~ject to the la\vs of the (}rand Lodge, or to the eontrol'()f the (~rt1:nd l\Iaster. ])1". J\Iannillgharn, the De!JutyG-rul1d l\Iaster, IJointed out the necessi iiy of discouraging suc.h 111eet.ings, as being COlltrary to the l~'t'VS of the Society, and opeuly subversive ofthe allegiance due to the Grand ~Inster. ()n this reI)resentatio1ntlle ·Qrand Lodg~ resolved, that . the 111eetiIlg of any Brethren under ~lleaenominationof Masons, other than as Brethrell of tlH~ancient alld IlC?l1ourable Soc.iety of Free und Acccllted 1\1ason8, established IlI)on the Ulliversal systen1, is inconsistent vvith the honour and inter{1st of the oraft, and a high insult 011 the G"rand l\Iaster and the 'Vvhole body of l\fasons.. In consHquence of this resolutionfourteel1 Bretllren, V\Tho \vere rnen1bers of it Lodge lleld itt the J:3el1 ,J 01180n'8 hHad, ill !)el1uLl'n.. strcet,Sllitalfields, ,:v ere expelled the Society, and t.hat I~odge \vas ordered to be erased froIll the list. No l)receding Grand l\faster granted so Inany liroviilcial ,.GStI have. boon thus Ininutein tho nlb()V'(~do1;(:l;il, llOt. only that all w.eut o·f Buell hnportance to tlH~ Society x:uight he r(~corded, but that it mightsc;rve as an exaul:Qle .worthy of iInitatioll ·iu cerclnonies of a simihtr kiud 011 a future oCCaSi(lu..


OF MASONRY.

186

deputatiollS· as the lVlarquis. of Carnarvon. 011 tIle 7tll of October, 1755, his lordship appointed aPl"ovincial Grtlnd l\Ialster for Durhau1, and soon after a very resl)ectable Lodge \vas constitllted at Stlnderlul1d under Ilia lordship's au.spices. In less than t\VO ~yeal·s the following patellts ';v'er~ issued 1))' his lordship; 1. for SouthCarolina; 2. for South ",Tales; 3. for . A.l1tiguit; 4. for all North Alnerica, \vhere no forlner llrovincial \vnsapI)ointed; 5. for Barbadoes, and all other his l\fajesty's islands to tIle wind\vard of GU::Hlu}ou11e; 6. for St. l~ustatius, Cuba, and St. l\lartin's, DutchCaribbee islands ill Anlerica; 7. for Sieily, and tIle a<ljacellt islands; S. for all his l\nfajesty's dOlninions ill GernUlll)r, ,vitIl tIle llovvcr to. c}loose tlleirsuccessors; and 9. for the COtlnty Pn]atine .of Chestel", and the City ·and County of Chester. The greater part of these tlIJpointrnents a!)pear to IH1V'C lleen Inere llollol'ury in of illdividuals, of then'! having "beeI:~ attended \vith any" ndvantage to the Society.. 'rhe l\Iarquis offJarIHlrvon to l)r(~sidc over the ]'rutt~rnity till the 18th of 1\lay', 17'67, \vhen he 'was succeeded by Lord Abel"(lour; during Inastersbip tile G-rundLodge voted. arnong otllt.~r chn,rities, tho surn of fifty I)ounds . t<> best~nt to (ferluany, to be distributed among suell of the as \v"ere }\Iasons in Prince Ferdinand's :lrnJ}', \Yhethcr l~nglish, lIanoveriuns, or Hessians ;und tllis surn \vas soon after rCl11ittc(1 to (lenoral l(ingsle~t ibr the intended l)ul"pose. . 'rllese \vere tIle })l"illeipal })l"oceedings during r(~ign of II.. , \vho, 011 of ber, 1760, ~rxpire(l at Ilu'luce at ]{.ensington, in the 77th yearhis·llge, t b e o f his l·eign. rfllis seenlS to have golden rers. of Masonry in }:ngltuHl; the sciences. vv'ere cultivated and improved, art ,vas tliligentl)l" true ·nr(~hiteeture clearly l1ndt~r8t()od; were llonoured and esteelXlcd; the I.. odges ')'~n't'l"f~,t\l'"t'l#"l I"li.'!tl"ltill"r~,j't .'.'In:II~'I,£.r~:1~'~,",';

lence, uIlpearc(! to

of Mas,oIls.

14

clla~it)r,

bt:~

llurnaIlity,'ben.e.,o-

the distinguishing chara'eteristicB


186

ILLUSTRATIONS

SECT. X. fron~ the Accession oj" George·III.to tlte End· 0/ t}ze Year 1779.

Hist01"Y oj-- Masonry· in· the South qf England

ON the 26th of October, 1760, llis late l\tlajesty, GeOl"ge III., \vas proclain1ed. No prillceever ascended the throne, whose private virtues al1d amiable character had so justly. endeared hinl to 11is l)eople. To see a native of· England the sovereign of these l~ealnls, afiorded the nlost g'lorious prospect of fixing our happy COl1stitution in cllurch and state 011 the flrlllest base. Under suell a patron, tIle l)olite arts could not fhil of 111eeting ,vith every encouragernent; UI1<1 to the 110nOU1" of his l\Iajesty it is to be· observed, that, after Ilis aecession to tIle throne, by his royal munificence 110 pains ,vera spa-re'd to eXI)lore distant regions in pUl·suit of 11seful l~no"vledge, and to ditruse science tb.roughoutevery" part of Iris c101ninions.. l\IasonfY no\v flourished at hOll1e ·anCl abroad llnder tIle EnglishOollstitution; and Lorc11\..berdour continued at the llead of the ~F'raternity five years, during ,,'hiell tinle the public festivals and quarterly COUlll1UIlications \\1"ere regularly held. flis lordship eCllutl1ed any ofhis!)tedecessors intlle Ilumber of appointments to the office of Provincial Gl·andlVlaster, llavlllg grahtecl the follo\ving deputations: 1.. for Antigua and the· LeeV\Tal·dC~tl·ibbee islands; 2. for .tIle town of Norv..'icll RIld COllnty of Korfolk; ;3. for the Bahanla islands, ill·the r00111 of tlle ~ov­ ernor deceased; 4. for IIan1bul"gh and IJo\ver Saxony; 6. for G'uadalou!Je; 6. f"o1" Lancaster; 7. for the 11rovince· of Georgia ;8. for CaJHtda; 9. fbI" Al1dalusia, and l)laees adjacent;. 10" for ·lleruluda; 11. for Carolirut; 12.f()t lYlusquito s11ore; and 13. for least India. The second of these 11llpoiutrueuts, viz.,f()!" Nor\vich, is one l)y,\~hi(~}l :theSocietyhasbeeul1111terinlly llenefited. By tIle dili!g~nee H11<1 attention of the late Ed,v:ll'd Bacon, l~~sq., to . ·OIll the patent \\ras first granted, th(~ IJodges in Nor... iLnd Norfollt considerably inereased, and l\lasonry regularly conductea in that IJroviIlce, under his in~pection, for nla.ny years.


OF···· MASONRY.

187

Lord Aberdour held ·the. office of Grand~astertill the

3rd of l\fay, 1762, wIlen llewassucceededby Earl.Ferrel·S, during whose presidency, nothing reularkable occurred. TIle Society seenlS at this time to have Iostnlucll of·.its consecplence; the general asselublies and cOlnmunications not having beel1 h0110ured ""'lith the presence of the nobility as forn1erly, and ulany Lodges being erased fi"o111 the list for non-attendance on the duties of the Gral1d Lodget39 • By the diligence and attention, however, of the late General John Salter, then Deputy Gl"and l\laster, the business of tIle Society was carried Ollwitll regularity, and tIle fund of cbal"ity.considerably increased. Provincial patents ·"\yere 111ade out during Earl Ferrers' presidency;l. for tJt't111aica; 2.. for East I~ldia, vvhel"e 110 partiClllar l)ro~'rincial ,vas before al)pointed; a. for CorIlvvall ; 4. for Arlnellia; 5. fc)r "restplHtlia; 6. for B0111bay; 7. for the I)ukedo1l1 of 13runs\vick; 8. for the Etrenadas, St. Vincent, I)o111iniea, rrobago, &e.; und 9. f()r CanaJda. Frol11 these. appointnlents no considerable enlolulnents have resulted to the Soeietv, exeeptillg fro 111 the third and sixth; . G·corge Bell f()rC(;rll\v;:Lll; aI~d .J'aules rrodd for Bon:lbay. Boththesegentlc111Cn 'V\rere particularlyatte'ntiveto the. duties of their resl)ective offices; eS}Jecially the fornler, to\VllOlll the· Society is ill a great measure indebted for tJle flourishing stute of l\Iasonry in Corllw"all.. On the 8th of l\I~lJ'~ 1764, at an assenJbly a:udtfe,tstat Vintners'-llall, Lord l)laney\vtls Hlected Grand'l\Iaster. Lord ~'errers in,"ested JOill1 Itevis, Esq., late DelJuty Gr,uHIl\Iaster, as proxy for his lordship, \vhocontinued in oflie(~t\\"oyears; during \vhich tirne, hebeingcbiefly inlreland,tJl(~busiIlessof tho Societ)~\Yasfaithfullyexecuted by big l)e,put)T, General SuIter, anaetiveand,vi~... lant otlieer.. The scbenle of olle'mngasubsc,riptio:nfor the purchase of furnitur(~ for theO'randLodge was agitated nl)()llt; this tinle, and SOllle lnoneycolleetecl for the purI)()St:~; but de~i$'n dr~)pped for. ,v~:~n~ of ~~ll(~?llr... agenH~nt. .A. nc\v edItIon. of tfle .Bool\. of (JOllstJtutlO~\ was ordered to be llrinted, lIlleler the insl?ection of a CQ. .Aft-or this 'p(iriod, ne,v Constitutions hud h{~eutoo 'on.sily heynlld I)rOpol'tiol1.. A ,l>f9perQne,ck, 'no is no,\v l~ut . to thIS prnctic(~; the legislaturo ha,viog pr()llihit(~ late Act of Parlituneut, the constituting of any-new Lodges.. 19

an(lLodg(~Snl\lltipliea


188

ILLUS'.FltATIONS

mittee, with a continuation of the proceedings of the Society since the publication of the last edition. During Lord Blaney's presidency, the Dukes of Gloucester and CU111berland, his Majesty's brothers, \vere initiated into the Order; tIle forlner at an occasional Lodge assenlbled at the florn Tavern, Westillinster, on the 16th of February, 1766, at which his lordship preside{l in person; the latter at all occasional Lodge assembled at the Thatched House Tavern, in St. James's-street, llnder the direction of General Salter. Thefollo\ving deputations for tlie office of Provincial Gra.nd l\iaster were granted by Lord Blaney: 1. fc)r Barbadoes ;2. for Upper Saxony; 3. for Stockholn1; 4. for Virginia; 6. for Bengal; 6. for Italy; 7. for tIle UIJper and Lovver Rhine, and the circle of Franconhl; 8.. for Antigua; 9. for the Electorate of Sf1xony; ] o. for l\Iadrn.s, and its dependencies; 11. for lIarnpshirc; u11(1 12. for Montserrat.... Thefifth, tenth, and eleventh of these appointments have been filithfullyexecuted. By the indefatigable assiduity of that truly nlusonsie lu1l1inary, the late Thonlas Dunckerle)r, Esq., in vvhose fhvour the apI)ointnlent for IIan11)shire \vas first ll1ade out, l\Iasonry made considerable }1rogress in that province, as \vell as in nltlnyother counties in England. SOOIl after his appointlnent to tllis office, heacce:pted the sllllerintendence of· the",Lodgesin IJorsetshire, Essex, . Gl.ollcestershire, SOlnersetshire, and IIerefordshire70• The revival of the BengaJ·and Madras appointments llas beerl also. at.tended with considerable advantage to the Society, .as is evident by the late liberal remittances froln the East Indies. Alnong several regulations respecting the fees of Constitutiol1s, anc1 other lnatters, \vhich passed during IJord Blaney's adnlinistration, \vas the follo\ving: That as the Q-rand·Lodge entertained the·}lighest sense of the hCHlol1r conferred on the Socie.ty by tbe initiation of the Dukes of Glou,cester and. Cumberland, it 'was resolved, tl1atcnch of 'heir royal highn~sses sbould be presented witll an apron, In grateful testimony of the zealous and indefittigabl{) exertions lis gentlemen, for many years, to promob~. the honour alld interest Society, the Grand Lodge rosolv(Rl, that he should rank as a enior Grand Wa.rden, and in aU processions take place next the Senior Grand Warden for .the time being.. In NOV(~lnber, e died at Portsmouth. .


189

OF lVIASONRY.

lined '\vith blue silk; .and that, ina11 future processions, they should 1"(1n1\. as P(lst Grand }\<!(\sters'l1ext totheGrul1d Officers, for the titHe being. 'l'he· salne cornpliment. ,'vas also paid to their royal brother, the Jette Duke of York, who was initiated into l\Iasonry abroa:d, \vhi,le on his

travels. . 1'11e Duke of Beaufort succeeded ,Lord Blaney in the office· of Grand l\1aster, and\vas installed by proxy at I\ierehant Tailors'-hall on the 27th of l\.l)ril, 1767 ; alld under his l)utronage the Society flourished. . In the beginning of 1768, t\VO letters "''"ere received fr0111 tIle Grand Lodge of France, eXI)ressing a desire . of opeI.1in g.•,.. '.t. ,.I.-egul,Jtr.. cO.,rresp.0, 1.1de,n.,ee,". \,;'\Y.ith.the. C.ira,r,l. C.l ... L.,0. c.Jg.e.' . of Englund. 'rll'is ,vas cheerfullJ!' agreed to; and a ]30~k of Constitutions, ,vith. a .list of the Lodges under the Constitution of England, and the fOrtll of a del"Hltation, elegantl;T bound, ,vere 9rdered to be se~lt as a present to tIle (i-rtLlld I.lodge of I T r a n e e . ' Several regl~lntiolls f()l" the future governrnent of the Society \,~ere also lnnde out ahoul; this titHe ; particularly one l"(;sl>eeting the oiiiee of I)rovinci~\. (lrand ~Iaster... i\t a G-rand Lodge, held at the (~ro\vn and Anchor rl'~LverIl in the Strand, on the 29th of A}Jril, 1768, it \vasresolved, tllat·ten guineas slloul<1.be pUld to the fund of charit.Y1on tIle 'apI)ointnlt1l1t of every I>rovincial.Grand l\Iaster who had not served the ofliee of (fraud Ste\vard. . : The most remarkable. occurrence during.· the n inistration the Duke of I~eautort ,vas, the plan ol'''~un illCOl1l0l"tltion of by royal ClHlJ·ter. j\.t a G-rund Lodg'c, held at the C~ro,,\rn Hlia i\ilehor rravcrn on the 28th of ()ctober, 17HS, uireport\\"Hs rnade ii'onl the C~olllnlittee of (Jharity, beldon the 21s·t of that 111onth, at theII0rn Tavern in ]~'leet..stt'eet, of the Gl"and Master's intention.s to llave the Societ)T incorporated if it met with the upprobntion of 13:rethrcl1'; the advant!l,ges of llleasure \vere fil11y oxplained, all <1 a !>1(111 for (~tLrrying it into imn1(1diat(~ eflhct\vas snbruitted to tho eonsideratiol ~rhis plU.llbeing npprov·ed 'in. (Jr \vere voted to the t~T:lrHl l\Iaster for attention to the interests and IH"ospcirity of theSo,cl 'rhe ..lIon. (ihurles I)iHon, the I)eputyGrandl'last.e fQ,rIIH~dthe llrethren,tJlnt he had subxnitted to the Inittee a plan for raising a fund to build a hall, ant

6t


190

ILLUSTRATIONS

chase-jewels, fUl'niture,&c., for tIl? Gra11clLodge, ir:dependent of the general fund of Charlt}r; a Illeasure ':,111ch, heapprehellded, :-vould be a.proper l)r~:U(~e,to the In~or­ poration, sho?ld It be tb?WlSh of the Socle~y to O~)taln a charter. Tlnsplall bCIllg also l11aturely InvestIgated, several anlendnlellts were ll1ade, and tIle \vhole referred to thellext Grand Lodge for eOllfirmatioll. .III tIle nl~an time it ~as resolved, that tIle plan should be I>rinted, and transmitted to ev~ry Lodge· on record71 • 1"'heDtlke of . Beaufort, finding that the Society approved of the Incorporation, contributed llisbest endeavours to. carry the design into execution; at first he \vasopl)osed by a few Brethren, \vho l11iscol1ceived llis good intelltiol1S; but tIle 111nJority of the Society l)ersevering in the 11leasure, a copy of the intended charter \vas printed, and ordered to be disl)ersecl anlong the Lodges72• . Fronl the return of tIle different Lodges, it appeared that one hundred Rnd sixty-eight had voted for the iucorl)oration, fi11donly forty-tllree against it"; l.lpan vVlliclla Inotiol1 was 111tlde in Grand Lodge, 011 tIle 28th of i\.pril, 1769, that the Society should he inCOIIJort.d, and it ,vas carried in the uJfirnlative lly a great 111aj orit)r. ..A.ttL Q"rand Lodge, held at the .CrO\VIl and AIlcl10r 1'avern, 011 the 27th of October, 1769, it ,'~as resolved, That the SUUl of 1300l., then standing in tIle naJnes of Ro~rltl· d Berkeley, Esq., the Grand Treasurer, and l\Ir. A'rthll . Beardmore and l\fr.Ricllttrd Nevison, 11is sureties, nrrhis l)lan consisted chiefly. of certain .. fees to . bo. paid by the Grand ()fficers annually, by u<nv,Lodges at their COIlstitutioIl iuia by Breth~'en at initiation illto l\iasonry, or adnlissioll iu I~oages as Inenlbel'S, &c. 7:Z Before tho Society hac1 come to any deterlnhuttc 1"esolntionOll th(~ btlsiu(~ss, the rnolnbers of it l'espectable Lodge,. then held at the IInlf-

lfoon Tayerll, Cheapsic1e, entere<1 a caveat in tht3 .A.ttorney-G(~llcr(tl's office t\gaillst tho incorporation; nnd, this circtullstance being reported

to the Grand Lodge, an hnpenchnlQllt was laidngninst the (:>ffieersof that L~{lge, for un,varrtLutahly CXpOShlg the privute rosolutiollS of t}l{~ c1 ~odge.. (Jll tl~(~ business beiugh1"ol1ght b(~fore tht:1 (Jrn,ud (;\, It 'was d(~termlnetl, that the nleulhers of the said I~ot1go hud guilty or t1 grea.t· offence, ill pr()su.1l1ing to oppose the resofutiou8 l!le (lrancl Lodge,o.11d frustrt\h; the intentions of the Soeit)ty.A on ,vas therefore nlade, that the I.Jodge shoul(l be emsc(! fronl the Hlt, on, t!lO .1\Iasteraokno",:lledging the fault, f\Utl, in tl11~ name of a.nd lu8 ]3rethr(~n, lunluug 0. proller a.pologj", themotiouwas wn, and the of!encc forgiven.


OF l\IASONRY·.

191

in the three per cent. bank consolidated anlltlities, in trust for the Society, be tra.nsferred illtO the nanl€S of tIle present G-rand Officers; arld,· at ·anextraordil1ary .Grttnd Lodge, on the 29tll of N ovell1ber following, tIle Society was informed, that l\'1r. Beardlnore had refused to join in the transfer; 'upon ,vhicll it ,vas resolved, that letters S110uld be sent, in the 11,1111e of the Society, signed .by the aeting a-rand Officers, to Lord Blane~y, the Past Grand l\faster, and to his Dep·uty and 'Vardens~ to '\VhOI11 the Grand Treasurer and sureties llad given bOlld, requesting their concurrence in the resolutiollS of the Grand Lodge 011 the 29tll of October last. 1\1r. Bearc11TIOl"e, hO\'~lever, dying soon after, tIle desire of trle GrandLoc1ge\vas COlllplied \vith by l\fr. Nevison, his executor, and thetranafer regularly Iuade.. Tl1e Duke of Beaufort constituted several nevv I..Jodg(~s, a.nd granted tl1e fbl1o\ving provincial del)utations during bis I)residenc.y: 1. for SOll th C~ar()liIl:1; 2. J arnaiea; 3. Barbadoes; ~l. Naples and Sieily; 6. the }~rnl)ire of Ilussia; aneI 6. tl.le l'\.ustriall K etherlalHls. 'l'he increase of foreign I.Jodges occasiolH:~cl tIle institution of a ne\v oflicer, a PrO\rilleiul Grand l\fastel'" fbr foreign IJodges in general; Ulld his gr(1ceaccordinglynotninuted a gel1tleIllun for that office. lIe also apI)ointed Provincial Grand ]'Iasters for Kent, Suft()lk, l~ancashire, anclCrullberlaud. Another 11e\V appointu1ent like\vise took l)lace during Iris grace's adlninistl"ation, viz., the office of General lnspe"etor or Provineial (}-rancll\.Iuster for Lodges \vithin thf~ hills of Il10rtality ; hut, tIle 11ltljority of the I..;odges in I .. ondon disu-!)llrovil1g tlhe aI)pointIIlcnt, th.e authority \vas soon after \,"ithdr~1\Vn. l\t a (i-rand I.Jodge~ held at. tlle(~rO\Vll and .AIlchor TttYCrn,.oIl tIle 25th. 'of AIlril, l770,.tbePro¥inciaIGrand }Iaster for f()reigll I"/odges ae(luuhltt~d tllcSociety, that he hud lately received· ~.t lettt~rfi·orIl (:hal"Ies I3aron de I~oetzelaer, (~rund of Nutional (~rand of the 'United l)l"ovillees ofllolInnd and thei r del){,~~H:lell­ cies, rtHlllesting to be acl\.llo'\vledged as SllCll hv the (Jra····· . Lodge of Englaud,\vhose SUI)e~iorjtye(;nfh8sl~d; pronlising, tlH1t, if the (lrand I...Iodge }~ngh~nd ~1, a~ree in future not to constitute any lie", Lodge wi his jurisdiction, tIle Graud Lodge of IIolland ~.


192

ILLUS'rRAT,IONS

observe· tIle SUIYle Testriction\vith respect to all parts of the\:y""orld \vhere Lodges ,~rere already'" establislled lllHler tIle' patronage of England. U pOll tl1(~se terllJS, he re.. quested that a firnl and friendl)!" alliance rnight be established bet\veen· the Offieers of hoth Grand Lodues., an annual cOITes11onc1ence k.ept 111)' and eacll ()rancl'--'Lodge regularly l1Iucleacquainted once in ever)~ year \vith the most Inaterial transactions of the other. ()n this l"er)ort being . 1nade, the' Grand Lodge agreed that snell all alliance or cOlnpaet ShOllld he entered into, and executed, agreeably to Baron de Boetzelaer's reqllest. III 1771, a bill \vas l)}"ougllt into l)arlial11cnt by the lIon. Charles Dillon, the De.puty (}rand fCrr incorI)orating' the Soeiety b~{ act of ; but, on the second i'cading of the bill, it haYing0I)Ilosefl by nIl'. ()llS]O\V, at the desire of severnl J3rethrell \vho had petitiol1Cd the 1101180 against JIr. to 1)08 tpC)l10 . tIle eOIlsi.deration of. sine the desigl1 of an Ineorporatioll fc"ll to the t~t"ou nd. I~ordI)etre sueeeeded the 1)uke of ]1ealdcH't on 4tll of ·l\Irl:Y, 177:2; \vhen \vere for better securing- the property· ft. the ty. .1\ eOllsiderable SUll1 IHlvirlg' "been snlJseribed f(~H' tIle PUII)ose of buildillg a hall, ,1 eOr111Jlittee ,YUS :l:pIH)irlteiI 1;0 superintend the l1uuulgelnent of lneasure \vas adollted to. en'for(~e the . . . . tL no'v fund to carry the designs of Society' irlto exeeutiOll, and 110 IHlins \VC1"t1Spnred by the eornnlittee to cornplete . the I'~urI)ose .their . ullpoin trneIlt. report to tIle (~'l"inlcl Lodge on the 27th. of .l1TH"iI, appeared, that they had eontraeted for the IlurelHtse plot of ground arId I}rernises, consistiu,g' t\V(} eonllnodiollS c1 \Yelling-hollses and n ,··.y.,..·•••··.·~i·· .... in Clreat Qt.lcen-strcet, posseSSiO!l of l?hilip C~arteret \V'ebb, }~S(l., fteee:1S[1I(j particulars of \vhiell \vere s})eeifled 'in n delivered; that real to least,bu.t that \vas tll(~ snrn .·~J···.··I·\ f(.Jl" the prernises; that tIle frcHlt-hol1se l'night ~)Ol• .ller annU{lZ, and tllobaek-house. \\"011"1(1 ·.·.,,·01·, eornnlittee-roorrls, &e. ; garden \vussldiiciently a COln·1

.L--'.l.Jlil'l.... \.I ..l.lJ.

r1r'n

1')'1'"·,··,;

I

1', .... <.·..


193

OF l\IIASONRY·.

plete 11:111 for the use of the Society,. the expense of 'Vvhiehvvas calculated llot to exceed 30001.73 7I'his report having 111et \vith general a'1'probation, Lord l)etrt~, the

Duk.es of Beaufort and C~handos, l~arl Ferrers, anel Lord Viscount Dudley and ,Yard, \yere apI)ointed Trustees for the Society; and the eonve~{ance of the prernises which had been }Jurchased \vas 111ade out in their nanles. On the 22nd of February, 1779,7.1 the hall-co111lnittee reported to the Grand Lodge, that a plan had been proposed and approved for raising 5000l. to c0111plete the designs of the Society, by granting 31111uities for lhres, ,vith benefit of survivorsl~ip; a 1)1a11 no'\\" kno\vn under the nalIle of 1"ontine. It. \vas accorc1ingl~r resol v{~d,

r:rhat tllero should he one hundred at [jOl. each; that the "\vhole rH"CIIlises belonging to the SoeiHty in ~'(,b"ithstnnding this estirnate, it appear~ lJ~( tbe Gra.1Hl 'rren.ae(·oul1t;-:~. tIlaJ ill :I it)~ ~lho\'e ~O,lHJ(JI. hnd ;)('('1] (·xp('ntl(~d ()Il this lHlilding ~ alld thtlt, f'xelIJ:"iy(' ( I f an . clf ~5U!., (Hl \l(x~ount of n tuutinc', there then r(i[nainf:1d dew fr(Hll tlH~ ll.dl-t\uuJ h) tradesuH:.·n, a eon~i(h..ral.le t.1ebt, the of whi(~h has sinee

;,;

surer's

been pa.id ('iiI'. rI'he taverrl hus b('on nnd,\"ithin few' ,vhieh. has irHn'Oas(~d theeXp(U1SB b) H ,,' A.t hattIe of Ihlllker's lIill,ou th(~ 17th of ",lune, this l\.rns~)nry in ..:\.lneriea. ulet '\\rith n. hea,vy }()SS in the death c.f l\Iast(lr\Varren, who ,vns slain eOllt('nding' for the lih(lrties of his country. Soon aftror tho f~Yaeuation of 130s't(lll by the Briti8h unny, and ttl tHIY' rpgulnr ecnnnnluieuti(Hl, tho l~rethren, iufhlPneed te, flu' of tho late (}rancl ~la~ter, Wt~re infen' his had h(lC'll und indi~crilni... natelv llul'ic'd in tht. fic·ld to the HIH.!, (]in,(·tiull Clf a ppr:"on ,vhn wn:-; on tho tiule lli:--; burial, a SfH)t w'as found 'w}u'rc' the flarth turned 111). t;pcm r(~lunvillg the fru-f, nnd upening thc' whielt 'wa~ on 1h(~ brow of n.hill, and {H.Uae(~llt to H salaH tln:' l'(·tnains ,,,ere dis<:~o\,{irpd in tl (~OlHliti.nl, but\\"(irn lly Hleaus (If un Hl'tifieifll nutl, lJPi ng . 1"'·Ul.~·.I+ I ... thes(~

o

the re~:,rH."('t:tllJlle lHlrnhf!r

; f'rrl lil

llret:ln:{'n, 'with thp latr' tlw,l' ''',('1"0 ('tn"ripfl to tb(l chttIlel, whpr(~ an (~i.llr.gitun 'WtlS d(!liV(·rf' 4.} I ~!'ntht'r !\Iorton. 'flit, bCH]y was tlHYU dt'IH.'H;;ited in tho vu uIt .. 8culptul'f·t1 :,tnlH~ til Inn.rk tlu· spot ~ IHlt n~ tllr· whctl(· ('artIt is sepulehre of iUu~trious Ulen, his fanlfi, hi::; lH,·tioH:O:, l.U·P (~u .. gra,\,f-n on thf· tahh..:t of universal and will 8UTyivl): luarLlle luonUUH.·n{s, fir h}eal 1\fonitor.) 1 lat\-'€: b(~(~n ind ue(~d tu insert au of this as it rr·dcHuHls so rnu('!t to tho honour {unl fl"atel"Ilal I~r(~tltrell ..


194

ILLUSTRATIONS

Great Queen-street, V\;rith the hall to be built tllereOll, should be vested ill trustees, as a security to tIle subscribers, "vho should be Ilaid 5l. per cent. for tlleir llloney advanced, the vvhole interest alnounting to 2501. IJcr anrl/llln; that this interestshotlldbe divided alllong the suhscribers, and the survivors or survivor of tllenl; and, upon tile death of the last survivor, tIle \""vrllole to determine·for the bellefit of tIle Society. The a-rand Lodge approving tIle plan, the subscril)tiol1 inl1nediately· COlllmel1ced, and in less tllun three 111011ths it \-vas C(1111)lete; upon '\Ivhiell the trustees of the Society con,\reyed the estate to the trustees of the Tontine, ill pursuance of a resoluti.on of tIle Q"rand Lodge entered into for that PU11)ose. 011 the 1st of l\fay, 1775, the fOUl1datioll-stone75 of the newhall ,vas laid in solell111 £o1"n1,76 in the presence 75 Within . the foundntion-stone\vu,s following inscription:

(1e'PO~31te~(l

u. plate, with the

ANNO REONI OEonOII 'l'l~:rt'l'II QUI:NDECI:\:IO, HUl\fANig :MIlCCLXXV.. 2\IENSIS :MAII

SAJ~U'l'IS

DIB PRIl\IO, HUNC PIUl\IU.l\l LAPIDEl\r, AUI~.tl~~ !JA'rO::\10RUlIt.f, (ANGl.lICI~, l;~IU~B .AND ACCI~~prrRD :MASONS) P()SUl~Rrr

HONORAr.L'ISSIMUS n013..

l~D'V'.

1')E'1'H.}<1,1)I-~

I>O}{. llETRE.,·BARO

\x,""Itrl"rIJl<1,

SUMMUS ItA1,'OMOIUJM AN(HJI1F~ i\IAGIsrrBll.; ASSII>EN'rIBUS VIOO 01l.NATISSIMOl~O\Vl~ANDO HOLT, A.RMI-

GERO, SU:M:MI MAGIS'J:'UI DEPu'rA'ro; Vll7tIS OH.:.NATISSIl\US ,JOU. HA'rOll 1,:'rlfEN.. HAGGE, SU:.\Il\IIS G UJn~HN AfrOHIDUS ; PI.JEKOQVB C()RAl\[ }I'RA'I'H.Ul\f CONCUI~SU; QUO ETIAlvr r!'El\IPOl:tE UEOlrlU:, I.)nn\{;IPU?:\;£QUE

VIRORIT1\{ F .AVOln~, .STUDIOQUFJ SrS'l'l~N'rA'rUM-1\fAXI:U()S PBn. BUUOPA1\! I::rONonl~S 0(1 ('lTl:) AVl~I~Arr

NOM:foJN IJA'r().MORtJ~r, eUI IN8UPER NOMINI Sli1\tMUl\'1 A:\(H"llil~, CONVENTUM, I)n.ll~l~SSH E'BCICHAT

UNIVERSA FRA1'H.UM: l)KH. f)RBg:\I 1\tl;l.lrrI'UDO, 11 COI<1I.lO l)l'~s(~gXDrl'.

rNOeH

~F~ATrrON.

'fG For the cerelnony observed on this oecasioIl, sec p. 67, &c


Oli' MASONRY.

195

of a nUluerous company of the Bretllren. Mter the cerenl0ny, the cOIIlpany proceeded in carriages· to Lea-

thersel1er's-hnll, where 3Jlelegantentertainll1ent was provided 011 the occasion; and at this 1l1eeting tlleofficc of Grand Ohal)lain \vas first instituted. The building of the llall WBllt on so Tapidly, that it was finished in little 1110re tIlt'lll tvrelve 111011ths. Ontlle 23c1 of l\Ia}r, 1776, it ,vas 0llened, and dedicated,77 in solen111 forn1, to J\IAsONRY, VIRTUE, and UNIVERSAL CHARITY and BENEVOLENCE, in the presence of a brilliant asseI11bly of the Bretl1ren.Alle\vOde,78 V\"ritten and set to nlusic 011 tIle occasion, ,vas })erfOlmed,before a n1.unber of' ladies, ,~"ho llonoured the Society witb their company 011 that day. An Exordillul011 Masonry, not less elegant than illstl"tlctive, \vas given by t}lC Grand SeeretnX)i., and an excellent oration deliv€l'ed by the Gl"andChaplaiIl. III COlllll1e,11101"ation of all event so l)leasing to the Society, it \~"as ngreed tl1at the anniversary?' of this cerernonysllo'ulc1 be ever after regularly kel)t. 'rhus was cOlllpleted, under the uuspicesof a nobleman, whose aOliable cllaracter asa Jnttn, and z;cal as a 1\Iason,may. [leequalletl, .but cannot be surpassed, that elegant and highly finisllcd room in Great Queen-street, in\vhich the nnnual asseIllbly and quarterly ComInunications of the E'raterl1ity are he"ld; and to the acconlplisllInentof \vhicl1 111uny Lodges, as "veIl as private inc1ividuals, 11aVt~ liberall:l sulJscribed. It is to be regretted, tllat the finances of the Society ,viII 110t adruit of its l)cing solely reserv(~dfor lllusonic Ilurposes. 'I'he hallns elegant and higl11y finished. a. room as the Inetropolis cUllsllOW. 'l'hoentrance into it is from the. Cornlllitte."e-rOOln, tbrougll. a sm.,all gallery~ on the right of '\\~hich is :L comrnodious flight of stells leading to the uru]er-croft, or groundapartnlents, and on tlle left asn:lu11 1"00111 apprOllriated for tbe rece!>tioIl of "tines on grand festivals: above this iss large lnusic gallel"Y, capable of containing three llun<1re<l sI)ectntors,exclusive of t. he band .of music, supported by pillars and.·.. ·.p •. ·ila.s ters of theCOln})osite order. 1'he length of tllis building within 77

1&

tIle Cer(\Dlony of <1e<1ication,· seep- &J. See Ode II., tovnud the eud of the volume..

}'1or


196

ILLUSTRATIONS

the walls is 92 feet; it is 43 feet broad, and uI)vvards of 60 feet high. At the upper end of the hall there is a place allottpd for the Grand Officers and their attendants, when the Grand Lodge llleets, Wllich takes up about one-fourth of the whole length, alld \vhicll is higher than the rest by two stel)S; at the extremity路 of \vhieh is a very beautiful alcove of a senlicircular forn) , in which is fixed a fine organ. On the rigllt alld left of this el~vated placenre t\iVO gaJleries, supported by beautiful fluted l)illars of the Corinthiall order, either路 for rnusic, or to adlnit ladies to the sight of SllCll cerelll0nies as the la\vs of the Society will pel"111it. The rel11aining 11urt of the hall is for the use of tIle Grand Ste\vurds, and Brethren in general, '\vhen the Gral1d I..Jodge asselllbles. The 11ilasters on each side of the IudI are fluted, and othervyise ll10St beautifully decorated. Bet\veen tllese llilasters there are l)laces aI)I)roI)rhtted for the reception of full-length l)aintingsof tllcGrtlnd l\fasters, &e.79 Above thernare l)laces for suell historieal Iluintings as have SOlne affinity to tIle royal art, or are eXI)ressive of the virtues of ~"'reen1asonry. A 1 the other interrnediate Sl'Hlces are elegantly decorated \vith the rnost beau tiful elnhlenlD,tical, syrnbolical, and hieroglypllieal figures and representations of the 111ysteries of the royal art. Itound the top of the side-\vttlls rUllS a srnall balustil路aae, or rather a~ l~ind of ornanlcnted iron palisades, c81Hlble of holding a, vastllun1ber of sI)eeti~tors; ab<.yve,vhieh l\ nurnberof semicircular windo,vs are l)laced, so eontrived as tOOI)eJl~ndsllut witll the greatest ease andfhcilit~y{, to let in fresh air. as often as Inay be required. 1'1;0 reason ,vhy the \vindo,vs itre l)laced so Idg'h 'is, no speetators frorn the adjacent houses 111tl)T vie\lv the Inasonic cerernonies. rrh~ roof of: t.llis nln~nificcl~t hall is, in ::11 k)rohal)ility, the lughest fInIshed pIece of \VOrklnanslrlll In }3urope; having gained universal applause frolll all helloldel路s, and has raised the character of the arehiteet (I~ielHu'd C~ox) beyond expression. In the een tre of a. Inost sl)lendid sun is represented in bUl"IllShed gold, surrounded 'i~l rrbosc Hit present nxcc1, are tho I)rincc of 'Val()s, the l~url of Moira, the late Dukes ofCulnberlu.nd fUHl.:vranehc~ster,the Illt(~ Lord l>etr(,) the late Duko of !{ent, tho Duke of Sllssex, and the Dttko of Athol.


197

OF MASONRY.

by the twelve sigl1sof the Zodiac, with their respective characters; viz.,Aries,er ; Taurus, .~ ; Gemini, IT; Cancer, §; Leo, SL; Virgo, rtJl; Libra, ===; Scorpio, 111; Sagittarius, t; Capricorn, 11.:9; Aquarius, : ; and Pi,s-

ces,* . 80 Whenever the Grand Lodge assembles, this hall is further ornaulented \).rith five brilliant and ricl1 cut-glass chandeliers, the 1110St ll1agnificent of ","hich hangs above that part of the hall allotted to the Grand Officers; the other four are distributed in .pairs, at equal distances. These lustres, "vitIl a sufficient number of sconces, ill which only ,\\'-ax ligllts burn, illuUlinate the hall witll it great brilliancy.sl 'l'he Brethren ofSt.John's Lodge in Newcastle, ani.. . 111ated hy the eXiLl111,!e set theln in the rnetropolis, opened a subseriptiol1 alTlong theIDselves for the purpose of building, in the Lo\V' E'riarChair, in that to\vn, ane\\'" hall f~)r their 11leetings; and, on the 2;3rd of Septenlber, 177(>, the fOUl1dation-stone82 of that building \vas laid by Pcrsin~ where

so 'rhe 1¥Iitbrntic cavern in

tl1e Initiations were per..

fbrrlled. was adorned in a similar ·ma.nner, to. represent· the· Mundane systCln'; Bave that the t.hreeobJects of their idolatrous worship, the Sun, the. Bun. and the Lion,\verc larger and Dlore conspicuous than the rest. (,ride IIist.. Init., I.Ject.. vi.) Tbeemblematlc meaning of the snn is ,veIl know"n to the enlightenecl and inquisitive Freclnason; and as the real sun is si tuftted in the centre of the universe, so is this enlblenlatic sun fixed in the centre of real l~rasol.1ry. 'Va nIl kno\v that the sun is the fountain of light, the source of the seasons, the en-use of the vicissitudes. of' duy and night~ the parent of vegetation. and the friend of Juan; llut the seientHie l?reenlftson only Inl0\\1S tllt~

reasou \\1'hy the sun is thus placed in the (~entro of this b(~~Ultiful halt 81'l"hotaV(;1rn is a XllOSt cornlnodious suite of rOOU1S; and, under its present conductor', possesses that large portion. of the . publicfAvourt,;o which his civility, liborality, diligence, and attention, xnost justly entitle hhll. 81 trnd(~rncanth this stono was placedlt copper plate, with. the following inscription: J

IV

~IVTYA1\!

.~~ ~. IIVIVS AJ.fICITIAM·· Sf!" AnIrJn~NnA~I ,,'

,1

1)n.()SVMM:INAl'rVn}f~

Altcn.rrl~e~rI n.l:~(~NAtrOn.IS

NV:?tUNIS

VRN1·:nA'I'IONE

l'UO V'l::RI INV:J;1s'rICJATIO~g KOnYM SCIEN1'IEAU.''rIVl\l(J. nONARVK INOFJNVO C'VI./l'V I.IVMAN! GENEHIS nF~NJ..;l"'XCIO SOLATIV}{ TEMP14:STIVVH PR~jBENDO OONVENTVI }"RATERNO SACRI


198

ILLUSTRATIONS

Mr•. Francis Peacock, then ·l\Iaster of. tile Lodge. This edifice. was speedily cOlnpleted, furrlished,alld dedicated; but we learll that it has been since sold, and ~tpproI)riated to other· purposes. TIle flourishing state of the Society ill England at.. tracting. the attention of tIle .• Masons ill Gernlany, tIley solicited our friendship:and alliance. TIle Grand .Lodge at Berlin" under the patronage of the Prince of Hesse Darmstadt, requested a friellc1ly unioll and corres!)ondence witll their Brethrell of "England; \vbich was agreed to, on the Grand Lodge of Gernlal1yengaging to l"elnit an 81111Ual·donatiol1 to·.the fund of.cllarity. The business of the Society having 110Vv" considerably increased, it was resolved, tl1at tIle Grallcl Secretary shouldbepenllittedill future to eU11)loy a deputy, or assistant, at an anlltlUl salary pToIJortioned to llis labour. 011 the 14th of February, .1776, . the Grand Lodge resolved, that in future all.Past.·G-rand Officers sllould be permitted. to. weal" . & ··particular gold jewel, tlle . ground enalnelled blue; and eacll officer be distinguislled by the jewel whicllhe vvorewhile in office; \vith this difference, that such 11onorary je\~vel should be fixed vvitllina eircle, or oval; on ··the borders of \vhich ,,:ere to be inscribed his· naIlle, and the year hI "",hieh lle served the . office.

Tllis jewel ,vas intended to be worn in Grand Lodge, pcndanttoa broad blue riband,; and, 011 QtQar :oceasions, tobie nXied.to the··breast by··s,narrovv blua riblll1d. 83 ¥firtyre,g111atioftsre:specting thegoverI1Illcrlt .of. the Frat,ernitYw-ereestablished .du'ringLord Petre's. adlIlillistrationll .The.lueetings, of irregular· Masons again ·attl"itct.. lUg notice, 011 thal0th of April, 1777, the follo"ring la\v' \vas enacted :" 1'hat the persons who asselnble in London, and else\vhere, in the c.llnracter of .1v!asons, calling thenlselves Ancient .1Y[a8Q1ZS, andatllresentsaid to FRANCISCYS PEACOCK

Pl~..a<J:F'ECT..

nONOltAND.

FYND,Al\{,:l'IN'rA . 1>OSVI1'

IN

CAL}~ND..

00'1'011.

U.. SAL..UV!{.. YnCOLXXVI. A~. "OONSORT. htMl\IMM:I>CCLXXVI.. $3 IIow far the introouctiollofne,,' ornaments is reconciIeable to th .· e original pr.actices of t.he. Society, I \vi.ll Jl.ot presutne. to determine; Qut it is the opinion or many old l\!fas 0115, thatlll'llltiplyiI1g }10norary

distinctions nlnong

~raSOll$

lessens the value and

i.portanc(.~

of the

real jewels by which theactiBg otRcers of the Lodge are distinguished.


OF MASONRY.

199

be under thepatronageef the .Dulte of Athol, are not to b,e countenanced or· acknowledged .byany regular Lodge or Ma,son under the COI1Stituti·()fl of England :DOX s·hall any regular Masoll be present at any of theirconventions~ to give a sallctioll to their proceedings, under the penalty of forfeiting tIle privileges of the Society;. nor shall any persoll initiated at any of their irregl.llar nleetings .be ad111itted into any lodge without being re-lnade.8.~ That this censure sllall not be extended to allY Lodge, or J\,Iason made, ill Scotland or 11"elalld, ul1der tIle COIlstitutioIl of either of these 1\.ingdo111S; or to any Lodge or l\Iason made abroad, under the patronage of any foreigllGrand Lodge ill alliance ,vitIl the GraIld Lodge of England; but that suell Lodge and lfasolls sllal1 be .deelned regular and constitutional." An Appendix to the Boolt of Constitutions, containing all the I)rinci!lal l)roceedings of the Soeiety sinee the publiet1tion of the last edition, "vas ordert~d to be printed; also a ne\v tUl11tUtl publieation, entitled 'l-'IIE ]"'ItEE1IASON'S ,CALENDAlt; ttIld· the profits arising 1r0111 the sate of both were to beregulttrly brol1ght to aecount in the cllarity fund. To presel~e theconsequenoe of: tIle Society,tke following lawwas . a189 enacted at this time: Thatt.e fees for constitutions, initiations, &c., be advanced; that no person be initiated into Masonry in any Lodge unser the constitution of ]~nglt1I1d for a less sunl than two guineas ;S5 and that the IHune, age, udc1itioIl or l'n-ofessi9n~ and place of l-esiclellee, of every IJcrson so initia.ted, and of eVCl"Y ndnlitted lnenlber of a regular Lodge, sinc.e tIle 29tll of ()ctol)er, 1768, be registered; . uIlder the I)CIlttlty of such Masollmade, ornlenlber adulittcd, being deprived of. the. privileges of the Society" '!'he 1vlasons in Sunderland in1'l\&"lrr''II'rirJrI

only cxtJnds to those irrogular' Lodges ill I"oudon. \vhich fronl the rest of the .lrraterllity in 1738, n.nd S(~t up ar:i ind.epende.'nt government, in OpeD de1la.n .... c:e of the established ll.ut.hon.·.ty. 0.£.'. the. k.ingd.·0111~ an.d . th. e ge."llcraJ.l"ulas (l.~ the inst i,.tl.l ti 01:." ..See.'1'......•.Ii<p.'.. 173-115.. It cannot apply to. the Gralld Lodge of York Clty) 01 Lodges under that tl'llly ancient and resp(~ctablt~ banner; the independenco ani! regular proceedings of that ass~Inbly,b.ve been fully. admitted and autheu~icate<l by. the GralldLodae in London, in the Book of Constitutions l>rinted under theil'sanction in 1738.. 86 trht} .usual Cha.l"itablo donation at initiation in many Lodges is now seldom under fiye guineas, and I110re frequently double that awn

>_ aD,.


200

ILLUSTRATIONS

creased during his lordship's adnlinistration, 311 elegant hall was built in that tOvvn for their lueeting·s. 86 On the 16th of July, 1778, this hall \-vas dedieatecl in solernn forIn before a Burneraus cornpnny of Brethren; on \yhicl1 occasion a very anirrlutted oration on l\iasonry \vas delivered in the pi'esence of above 120 ladies. , ()n the lBtll of Novelnber, 1782, this hall \vas destroyed by fire, und 111unyva}uable books and papers \vere burllt.1'he zeal of the bret:hren, however, induced thern tIle following year to build anoth,er hall, nauled Phrenix-llall, of "\vhicll the f-oundation-stone "vas laid in great pOnl}) on the 5th of l\..pril, 1784; and 'in thefollo\ving year it vvas finished, and dedicated in solen111 fort11. . Lord l">etre grantedprovineial deputat~ons for l\Iadras and \Tirgillia.; also for I-Iants, Sussex, and Surrey. Du.ring Ilis lordship's presidency, SOlue .Lodges \v(~re erased fi~orn the list for l1oneonforrnity to tIle Itt\vs, but lllHny nc\v ones ,vel"cadded; so tha.t,underhis banner, the Society beeanlc truly respectable.. On the 1st of May, 1777, 1,..,01"<1 Petre \vas suceeedecl by the Duke ofl\In,lJchester; duriug \vhose ndnlirristration the tranquillity of the Soeiety'\vas interrupted by SOlne private dissensions. l.\n unf(}rtunate dispute having arisen. an10ng the Inernbers of the Lodge of .A.ntiquity,oll neeount of sorne proeeedings of the Brethren of that I~odge on the festival of St.John the' Evangelist, after his, grace's S6The foUo\\"ing directions, tespecting the building of LodgE~s~are contained, in, the, boo1! of llelvetia,n Cerernonies, already ,oft(~n cited, and, I. believe, ,are strictly attended to in Gerluanyand JI"'rancc : "rrheprc)pcl" thllc for beginning to l)uiId a Lodge, is frotH the 15th of l\pt~il to the 15th of l\Iny. SOll)C think the 18th of' Arn·i} is the Inost nmsonic dav. ~Iasons should build their L()dg'(~ 'within fLCOtll't of high walls; b~lt t.hat not being easily ncquired, its'vdndo\,'s should be high fI'(Hll the gr-ound; the bottOH1S of the \vind(yws shcntld not, be less thnn five cubits high, nlcasul'ing frotH the superfIcies of the Hoor '\vithin. 'rh(, fhundation-stone is in the corn(;~l' of the AllUllC)uites. rrhe proper height of a Lodge is eighteen cubitR; the length and breadth are not deternrin(~d. 'fhehnll is for tl.e great congregations.. l'1he lUU11CS (>f. Lodges,' are sOlnethnes ill ch(}~en.. 'l'he Apon()~ the l\Iincrv:1, the esta~ &c., ftre htl.tlthen, n:unes~ inspiring ideas of idoht try and superstition, and carlhavc nothing to do ,,~ith l\lu8(iru·y. 'Tho narnes of great l\Iasons of old Inns be ch()scn; and the huildcI:S ,~"ould do \veU to find out \\ihn.tgreat DUllI or bishop built the nearest c~lthe­ dral, Rnd ,nalne the Lodge ,after hhn; for this is certain, that every cathedral Wfts built by the· ancient Society of ~'tree and. Accepted

,r

1tlasons.. "-EDITOR.


OF MASONll.Y.

201

election, the complaint was introduced into .tbe Grand Lodge, \vhere it occupied the attention of everyconlmittee and comnlunicatioll for t","elve months. It originated frolll the l\faster, "ra,rdens, and some of the rnenlbers, ill consequence of a resolution of the Lodge, having attended divine servic.e at St. DUl1staIl'S church lrlFleet street, ill the clothing- of tIle Order, and \valked back. to the Mitre 'ravern in their regalia, not having obtained a dispensation f<)r the PU1l)ose. The Grand Lodge deternlined the IIleasure to be a violation of the general regulations respecting public processions ;87 and various o})inions being fOTI11ed, several Brethren vvere high ly (lissatisfied. All0ther cirCUlllstance tended still further to ,viden this breach. rl'he Lodge of Antiquity having expelled three of its nlcnlbers for ll1isbehaviour, the Ci-rund Lodge interfered, and, as ,vas thought, "'ithollt l)roper inYestigation, ordered thenl to he reinstated. \V路ith this order tfle l..lodge refbsed to cornply, the Ineu1bers c.ol1ceiving thenlselves COlnpetent Hnd sole judges in tIle elloice of their o\vn private Inerubers. ''I'he I)rivileges of the Lodge of AIltiqnity,Hll ueting hjT inlrnenlorial constitution, began to be set u11, inoPI)()sitioll to tIle SUI)pos(~d uncontrollable anthority of the (Jrund. Lodg~ (~stablished by themselves in 1717; and in the investigation of this 1') oint, the original eause of tIle disl)ute wastotal1~y' forgotten. l\fatters ,vere no\v carried to the extrelne on both sides, resolutioIlS J)reeipitatel)renterecl into, and edicts inadv,ertentlY issued; Inernorials and relnonstrances \vere present(;d in vuin, and at last n ru!)ture ensued. TIle Lodge of ,l\.Iu:,'iquity, 011 one hand, sUPI)orted its ilIll'l1emoritll I)rivileges; n,ppointed COUllllittees to exanline records; apl)lied to the old Lodge in York city, and to the Lodges in ~cotland and Ireland, for advice ;cntered a Iu"otest against, and Ile1"Clnptorily refused to conlply" V\"ith, tlH~ resolutions of the Grand Lodge; discontinued the attendance of the 1\Iuster und Wardens nt the COlnInittf~es of (~hnrity and (1 narterly COnl111Unicutions as rellresentativ(~s; !lublishedl;t lnanifhsto in its vindicatioD'; l10tified its sE~I)arution fi"0111 the Grand Lodge; and avowed 1 8 I~'()r an explanntioll of the nature of l>ublic prooessiolls at funerals, seepp.. i2-74.

88

For n.naecount of this Lodge and its privileges, see pp. 151 to

164.

16


202

ILLUSTRATIONS

an alliance witll tIle Grand Lodge of all England 11eld in the city of York, alldevery Lodge and 1fasonwho wished to. actinconfor111ity to the original constitutiOIlS. 'I'he Grand Lodge, 011 the other lland, enforced its edicts, and extended protection to the'fewBrethren vvIlose cause it had espoused,bypermitting tIlenl to assemble as a regularLodge withyout' any warrant, 'under the den01l1ination of tIle Lodge of Antiquity itself, and sufrerillg thenl to appear by their representatives at the Grand Lodge as the'real Lodge of Antiquity, froln which they llad been excluded, ·and· which still continued to act by its own irnmell10rial constitution; a11atllenlas \vere issued, . and several worthy Brethren expelled the Societ~y·, for refusing ·tosurl"endel'" the pr0l:lerty of the Lodge to IJersous who had beell regularly expelled fro111 it; \vhile printed letters were circulated, witll tIle C}rtlnd Treasurer's aecounts,derogatory to the dignity of tIle Societ)T. ~rhis prQduced a ·sehism,wllich·g'ubsistedfor the space of ten years. To justify the proceedings of theG'ral1d Lodge, ·the follo\ving resolution of the C~onlnlittee of C~hnrity, held in lf ebruary, 1779, was I>rinted und disl)orsed Rl110ng the 1

Lodges:"llesolluJd, rrh(tteverYI~rivate Lodge derives its authorityfi"OHl the ·G'rand Lodge, and that no authority but the Grand Lodge can withdraw or . takeaway .that Ilower.. That· though the nlajority of ,a Lodge may deterrnine to qnittheSociety, theeonstitution, or po\verof asselnbling, l~m'in$.w'ith,'and is vested in, the •rest of tbe Inenlbers who nlulybedesirou8of continuing tbeir allogianee; and that if all the melnbers withdrt~w then1selves, the eonstitution is extinct, and tll<e ttuthority reverts to the (1:rand Lodge.. " Thisl"6so1ution, it ","as argued, Inight 0llerate -vvith respeetto any Lodge which derived its constitution ftom thee-rand Lodge, but eould not apply to .on(~\vhieh derived its &uthorityfrolll unother clutnnel, long bufore tbe(~stabllshmeDt . ef ·the (jrund Lodge, ~tlHr\llhi!ch autllority had never been superseded, but r€~peatit~dly adnlitttHl nIH! ac.knowledged. IIad it ~tl)pearefl. rIpon le(~ord, that, after the estabIishnlcllt of the ClrandLodge, t4i~,.()ri!5iual authority .. hud been surrendered, forft~itod, or exchnnged f01" a \varraut fi"orn the Grand Lodge, the


OF MASONRY.

Lodge of Antiquity must have adnlittedtlle resolution of the Grand Lodge ill its full· forc'e;, but as DO such circumstance appeared 011 l"e:cord, the membersQf the Lodge of Antiquity were justified in considering their immelnorial constitution sacred, while tlley cllo~e to'e~ist asa Lodge, and act in obedience to the allcientcOD$titutions. Considering the subject in this I)oint of vie,v, it evi'" dently' a11pears, that tlleresolutions of the Grand Lodge could have no effect on the Lodge of Antiquity, after the publicat.ion 0,f tb.".e 111anjfestowhich av."ow.ed its....sep.a.'.',r,a.t. 'on; nor \vhile tIle lnembers of that Lodge continued to Ineet l"egulnJrly as lleretofore, and to . . promote the ,laudab~e pur.po. s.es.of Ma.sonry on,',' tl1eir, old independent found.•,.~ti9A1­ The Itodge of Antiquity, it'W"asasserted,couldnot be dissolved \vhile the lIlajority of its melnbel's kept together, and acted in c.onfornlity to tIle original constitutions; and no ediet of the (lrand Lodge, or its C0111111ittees,!could delJrive the 111(-;1'11 bers of tlHtt Lodge of a right \\"rhicl1 llad been adnlitted to be vested in thcIIlselves, colle(~tively, fron] thne ilnIl1e,1110rial,a right, \vhicll llad not been derived from, or ever ceded to,anyGraod Lo~s:~.wlj~t­ ever. To understand uloreclearly the nature of that constitution by \vhich the Lodge of Antiquity is'uph.eld,we lllUst IHrve reCOl1fse to the usages and custonH3 which prevailed arnong l\Iasons at the ellcl of the 17tl1 and beginning of the 18th century ..TIle ]j'raternity then 1.

had

11,

<liseretionary 11o\ver to rneet as 1\Iasons, in eertain

nUlnbers, according to their degrees, ,vitIl tho npprQbatiO . l.l.of the n,Ja.'.,st.e.'·.r . ()f th. e.,." . ,\\.'o. rk...w.rhe.:l.re.,.. . 8.,r.1Y .'", 1.:mb.,.1.·.i,C.'. l~~i~d­ ing \v'asc~trrying OD,as often as they fO.und it lle~j~·QQJ~

so to do; and when so Inet,to recelv6 . intotJl8 brotlH~rs and fello""'"s, and practice tnerights of l\fasonry.. Tht~ . invt:,sting l\fasters and 'Vardens of Lodges in Grand assernbled,or the Granel 1\Iastel' hinlself, with 1L I){)\vcr to grant \varrants ofconstitlltioll toeaI" .. Brethr(}11 to Jneet as lVlasonsut c,ertain houses" Obscl'vunee of conditions, 11ad no exla·!.oc·e. 1'he li"rnterl1ity \\"ere under Tl0 such rcstrictious.,'The Arlcient ('harges \v(:re the only standard fo,theregulation of conduct, and no law \vas known in the Soeiety which those cllarges did not inculcate. To the a\vard


204

ILLUSTRA'l'IONS

of the Fraternity at laJ'ge, in general meeting assen1bled, once or t\vice in a year, all Brethren V\iere subject, and the authority of the Grand l\faster never extended beyond the b9unds of that general meeting.. Every private asse111bly, or Lodge, was under the direction of its l)nrticular lVlaster, chosen for the occasion, "\vhose authority

terminated '\vith the meeting. When a Lodge \-vas fixed at any particular place for a certain time, an attestation fronT. the Brethren present, 'entered on l~ecord vvas a sufficient proof of its regular constitution; and this practice prevailed for many years after tIle revival of l\lnsolll'Y in the south of England. By this utlthority, \vhiehnever proceeded fi"Olll the Grand Lodge, unfettered b}T any other restrictions than the constitutions of l\Iasonry, the I.Jodge of Antiquity has al\vays acted, and still contiuues to act. .W hilst I htlVe endetLVOured to expluin the sul)ject of this unfortunate dispute, I rejoiee in the opportll.nity Wllich the proceedings oftl1e grand feast in 1790ufforded ofpromotillg llarln()uy, by restoring to the privileges of the Society all the Brethren of tIle Lodge of Antiql1ity WllO had been fa..Isely accused and expelled in 177D. 13y the operation of 01.11 professed principles, and through the nlediation of a true fi-iend to genuine 1\Jasoury, the late'Villianl 13irch, Esq., Past l\laster of the路 Lodge of Antiquity, unaninlity \vas happily restored; the Dlanifesto 9

published by that Lodge in17~l9 revoked.; and the lIaster and Wardens of that truly an ". tassoeiation resunled their seats in{}ran~.,,<"dge asbe:etofore;' "rhil? the Breth~en, who had reeeiv:~ the 路sanctlonofthe SOcIety RS Donllnal

members of the Lodge of Antiquity during. the sl~paration, were re-united vlith the original men] hers of the real Lodge, and the privileges of that venerable body limited to their original channel.. Although I have considerably abridged myollservationa on this unfortuna.te dispute in the latterf~ditions of this treatise, I still think it proper to record IllY sentin1ents on tbesubject,路 in justIce to the gentlen1(~n \vith "Thorn I have long associated; itnd to convince nlY 13retllren, that our re",ullion with. the Society'" has not induced me to vary a -vvrell-grounded 0lJinion, or deviate fi~onl the tt{ict line of consistency which I have hitherto pursued.


OF MASONRY.

206

SECT. XI. E~~ents i'n tlte Society from 1779, to 1791 inclusil7e.

History of the most 'rernar7cable

J~~[ID tllese disagreea~le altercations, intelligel1ce arrived of the rapid progress of the Society. in India, and that nlany ne\v Lodges had beencoJ;lstituted, ~rhich were amply supported by the first characters in the East.. Omdit-ul-()rnrah Bahauder, eldest son of the nabob of the Caruatic, had been initiated into 1Iasonry in tbe Lodge at rrrichinopoly, 11ear Madras; aIle1 had expressed the highest veneration for the institutioll. 'l'his news llaving been trans111itted to I-cngland ofIic.ially, the CfraIld Lodge deternlinecl to sent {L congr('ltulatory letter to his llighness on tIle occasion, aecornl)anied \vith a blue apron, elega11tly decorated, and. a copy of the 1300k ofConstitutions, superbly bouud. To Sir John Day, Advocategeneral of Bengal, the execution of this cOlnmissio;Q. was \entrn$ted.S9 In the beginning of 1780, an answer wasreoeiv'ed from his highness, acknowledging the receipt of the !)resent, and expressing the warmest attachnlent and benevolence to his Brethren in England. '!'his letter,. \vhiell is \Vrittcl1 in tIle Persian language, was in(~losed ill an. elegant. cover of eloth of golcl, and addressed '1'0 the (;rand .J.l1astcr on{Z (lrand Lodge 0/ Englfuul.. .' ... 路 'l'his flattering mark of attention,frorllsodistil1guish,ed

a personage .~broad,~was p~cul!,ar)y &tefilI to tbeGt Lodge: \v110 unroedw.tely resolved, tat a.n answer should

be prepa.r(~d nnd transrnitted to his liighness, expl"cssillg the high opinion \vhich the Brethoon in I::ngland entertainf~d of his 111erits', 3nd requ!esting the eontintH1IlCt~ his fi~ieudship and I>rotection .to the rnasonie in the l~~ast. rI'he thanks of the (~rand I..lodge \vere to Sir J'ohn l)a~y; ltnd a translation fits .At the grand feast in 17B2, Sh路J Ohll \\"as honoured'\vith a blue aDd the rank of a Grand officer, as a compliment for his lneritoxieus services on. this occasion.

&J)itoU


ILLUSTRATIONS

letterOO was ordered to be copied on vellu111, and, with the original, elegantly frauled and glazed, 11tlng up in the haIl at every public Ineetil1g of the Society. The first testiulony which Onldit~ul-Omrah gave of his regard to the institution, was by the initiation of l1is brother Onlur~ul-Onlrah, who seems to be equally active. with himself in ,promoting the welfare of the Society. 90 .As ,this letter is replete with genuine good sens~ and warm benevolence, we shall .here insert the translation for the gra.tification or out-Brethren:

h~sG'race the Duke if 1.11anchester ,G'rana if the illust'rious and bene?Jolent Society of Free and AccejJted Masons unller the const'itution of England, anclthe

"To tlte rright worshilfful ]J[a~~te'r

Grand Lodge thereof. " 1vIuch honoured SIR· and BRE'flIltEN, ".All. enrly knowledgeandpa1 ticipatk)n of the benefits arising to our house, froln its intimate union of councils and interests '\vith the British nation, and a deep Tene ration for the laws, :constitution" an<.i manners of the latter, have,· for many years of my ··life, led Ina· to seize .·every . opportunity of dl~awing the ties. het\veen us still closer and closer. (.~ By the accounts 1vhich ha're reached nle, of the principles and practices of your Fraternity, llothing can be 1110re pleasing to the sovereign Rulel'of the Universe, ,,,,horn \ve all, tho"l1ghindifIerent ways, adore, or Ulore honourable to his creatures;. for tbey stand upon the broad basis of indiscrinlina te and universal benevolence~ "tTnder thisconvictiol1, I had lon~ wished to he ~qllti,~~dof your Fraternity; and. now that I am initiated, I consid6,t··,tie titleot.aJ1 BngliBh Mason as one of the mostbonourable th,t I possess; for it is_t (i)~ce a. oomentof the friendship between your n.ation audme~ the friend of·mll-nkind." "I h~e·· reeeivedfrom .theadvocate~generalor Bengal, Sir ,John Day, tIle ,"'ery acceptable mark of s»ttention and estecln ,,"ith· ,~rhich you hnve favoured Inc; it has been presented with every cirCUl11stance of deference and respect that the situntion of things here, and the temper of the thnes, ,vould ad.lnit of; and I do assure your grace, and the brethren at large, that he has done 3.111p1e justice to the cOlllmission lou11£tve confided to hinl, and has executed it in such man:l1er as to do hOBour"to himself and me. " I· sbatllavail myself of a proper opportunity, to convince ~·our grace alld the rest of the J~rethren, that Omdit...ul"()Inrah is not an unfeeling Brother, orbeedless of thepreceptB he has imbibed; and that, ,,·hiIe he. testifi'eshis love and esteem fC)f his· Brethren, by strengthening the bonds. of llunlanity, he means to Ininist(~r· to .the 'w'&nts of the distressed.. "M~l.Y the COlllmon Father of All, the one OIuuip()tellt and xnerciful God,take you into his holy keeping, and. give you health, peace, and 1ensth of years, prays your bigly honoured and affectionate brother.. 1O

'~OM.DIT-tJL-OnIBAH BAHAUDItR."

"


OF MASONRY.

Another event has· also taken place at Madras,whicll must be very satisfactory to the Brethren'of England. The divisions and secessions which originated ill London in 1738, having unfortunately reached India, by the inter... venti 011 of Brigadiel"-GeneralHonle, "Vl10 had be'en appointed by 11utent fron1 the Duke of' Clllnberla&d, Provincial G-rand l\Iaster 011 tIle coast of CorouuulJel, an union of the Bretllrell in that part of the "\vorlc1 has been effected; alld tIle Lodge, No. lS2, styling theulselves Ancient York l\{asons, has joined· a regular Lodge ullder bis auspices, Ul1d voluntarily surrendered tIle irregular warrant 11nder which they had formerly acted. This desirable object being accoln!)lislled, al1d tIle vvislles of the Brethl"en fulfilled, the General requested their assistance to f01"111 aG-rand Lodge; ,,"hen tIle followingo~cers were apIlointed and instuJled in due fbrln : 13rigadier-Gen. IIoRxE, Prov. Grand l\Iaster. Tel". G-ahagan, Esq., I)eputy.Grnnd l\faster. J os. I)u I)re l)orcher, ]~sq., l\.ctillg C1-rand l\faster. Lieut.-Col. Ross, Grand Archit<.1et. Lieut.-Col. J. Call1pbell, Sen., G'randWarden. -.- IIamiltol1, Esq.. ,Jtlnior Grand Warden. J ames Grierson, Esq'" .G'rand .Secretary. Jarnes AU10S, Esq., Grand Treasurer. Lieutenant-Colonel l\Ioorhouse and Colonel L.Lucas,

Esqrs.,Grand Stevvards. J.lajor 1\Iallle, Grund Orator. Charles Brolnley', Esq., a-rand S'-'''ord-Bearer.

l'he (~rand I~odge having been ]·eglllarl)T establish(~d, a proposal was made tl1at 11 llC'\V Lodge should f()<l"med at 1\ilHlrns,· tInder the:narne ofPerfectUnaiIlil:nity,~o"~J! This \,ras unanim?usly a~ee,d' to; .and the Provillcial Gritud l\Iaster, givIng notice that he ah,ould perforrn the cerelHony of eonsecration onS,aturday, tllB 7tll of ()etobel", 1787, in Co1111nelnoration of the union \yhie.h had been sonluieably . that day, l"equested . !n"oEer officers to attend 011 the occasion. .1\.ecordinglr~oIJ tbe morning of the dny UI)Ilointed, up\,"a1"ds of fifty 13retbren nssellll:)lEHl at llouse on (JholI1try 1)la1n,. iu Wllic,h the publi(~ rOOl''US were 11(~ld, and· atlullf-pust eleven o'(~locI'\. theCt~relnony cornrncllced... After the . prepa,ratory busi,nesa had been gone through in GraIldLodge, a l>roces-


208

ILLUSTRATIONS

sion91 was fOl"'lTled, and marched three thYleS round the Lodge; after vvhich the business of consecration comluenced, and "vas c0111pleted in tt ll1anner suitable to the SOle111Ui ty of tIle occasion. Several old l\lasons,\vho were present, declared that tlley never SC1\V t1 Cere1110ny conducted \vith 1110re dignity and propriety-. TIle following Brethren were then installed officers of this new Lodge, viz.: Colly Lyol1s Lucas, Esq., l\laster; Pullier Sl)encer, Esq., SeniorvVarden; George R-obert Lathan1, Esq., Junior "rarden; J 01111 Robins, Esq., Treas'urer; Georgel\faule, Esq., Secretary. At t\VO 0' clock the Bre thren sat dovvl1· to all excellent 91

I-Iere follo\ys the ORDER of the PROCl~SSION : 'r\VO Ty lers, with draJ WTl s\yorus. J\.IUSIC.

Brothers Elphinston8 and l\.foorhouse, Grand Stew'urds, '\vith lvhite 1vnuds. Brother Gillespie, us· :Y'0Ul1gc~st np pronticc,carrying. the· X'ough. stone. .A:ppr(:~n tiCOH, two und two. :b"ellow-crafts, two and t,vo. l\{aster..rnasons, t,vo and two.. Brothers Lathaul· and I\obson, as Seer(~tar'y aud rrreasurer of the llO'V I..iodge. PAST-l'IASTElt.

Brother 'l'aller, carrying a sHyer pitcher '\vith corn. Brothers GCHllOllcl and G"oree, carrying pitchers containing wincand oil. Bl~others !-I0111C and IIorsitnan,earr:ring t\VO grea.t lights'! CHORIS'l'EltS.

Brother Ross., Grand Architect, currying the IH:.Usht"Ad stolle>. Brother;Donaldson (36th rf'giment), as GranuS,,"ord...bearer, carrying. the SlV01"clof stutc_ Brother G-rierson.··Grand Socreto.ry, with his bag. Brother .A.rnos,. G"ran<1 Treasurer, '\yith hi::; staff. The LODGg coyered with :whitc sntin, carried by four 'rylers. The '\yorshipfuI Brother I...rucAs, as DH1ster of the ne'w Lodge, carry.. ing the Bible, cornpasses, and square, 011 it crirnson velvet cushion, sUPl)orted by Brothers Dalrylnpleand Chase, ..t\ssistallt Ste,vnrds. Brother Sir Gt.~orge l\.oith, carrying tho silver censer. Brother ~Iaule, l1raud Orator. Third great light, ctl1'ried· by Brother. Gr(~gory.. Brothers Calnpbell ~l.nd IInrnilton, ~ollior and J tllliorG'ru.Ild 'Vardeus,with.their colutnns and t.runeheolls.. l~rotherPorcher,_A.cting t}rand }\Iuster.. . Brother Sadlier. as C~hief l\Iagistrate~ Brother SIl' IIenryCosby,crtrrving the 1300k of COllstit1.1tious.. Br.igadier-Gt:neral !-IORNE, .Provhl(~iaf (}rand l\-la,Bh~I" .supported by . Brothers IIowley Sind Jlnrris, .A.ssistant Steward~.


209

OF MASONRY.

dinner, whicll· ha:d been provided .bJr !llC· Grall(l I~(~d~e; and many masonIC .and loyal toasts beIng drunk, tIle day was concluded with tllat pleasing festivity, 1l,arI:llony, and good fellowship, vvhich has always distinguished the Society of Free and Accepted 1\lasons. We shail 110'YV retlll"ll to the history of 1\1a80111"Y in England; and recite the partiCtllars \Vlliell are I110St deserving attention. During the pl-esidellcy of the Duke . of ~Ianchester, new Lodges \vere constituted in different·· parts of England, and considerable ,additions 111ade to tlle general funds of the Society. Tl1e 8111118 Yote<1 to distressed Brethren fitr . ·exceeded those of <lIlY f01111e:r IJeriod;and among otller instances of liberality", lllay be sl)ecified a gen,erolls contriblltiol1 of one llundred !)ounds, voted by the Gran(l Lodge to\vards the relief of our Brethren in AluericH;, \vhohad. cOIlseqtlenee of the rel)el1ion tl:lere, alHl '\,,"'"asvery feelingl:r described in ~L No.1, at IIa1ifax, ill NOVtL Seotiu. A singul~tr 11ro!losition '~l'a8 .JrHtdc in. (traIu:! the 8tll of April, 1778, that. the Grll,lld Master officers SllOllld be distinguislled ill· future at Iltlblie 1l1cetings by l"obes, to, be provide<l at their O\Vll (1XI)(~llBe; and that l?ast G~rand ()fficersslloul(l llave theprivilege.. rfb is rneasnre at first ,vas favorabl.)' ;bu t, 011 further investigatioll in the IIallCoIl1luittee, to\vhi(~11 it vvas ref(:~rred, it '\'~as .f()und to be so clialnetrically posite to tIle original plan of the Instittltioll, it\vus very properly laid asith:~. rrl1C HUltllCes of tht~ . . . . . ~""~·H' .. 't·'(T

proeeedings of during .llis

.. . hall uPl>earing to.

The

.

OIl

"very consicIeruble> it \V~lS deterl~lined·to l:nuke an".. ap~licl.l.t.,i~n to . to raIse 2000l. to IUt.Y' thenl oft, ~~or thIS III eOI1se<fuence tb I)}a11 to Grand Lodge in ~:rlnle, 1779, it \vas scription should opened, to the

accourrt of

witholltintert~st,

at the discretion ; that 25l. shouh:l l>e the sun), lir:nit(~d for eaoh subscriber, and the nUll1ber of to be Olle : and that thc Inonies sosubscribcc1 shoul<lb,c re!lnid, hl(~q nal


210

ILLUSTRATIONS

proportions, aIl10ngthe subscribers, at suell times ns the hall-fund would adlnit. I t ,vas also deternlined, that an honorary nledal should be presellted to every subscriber, as a 111ark of respect, on account of the setvice "Vvhich he had rendered the Society; and tllat the bearer of such ll1edal, if a Master· Mason, should have the In~ivilege of 'being ,present at, and "Toting in, all the futnre ll1cetings of the Grand Lodge. rl'his nlark of attention pronlptedsome Lodges, a~ well as individuals, to contribute; and the greater part of t~e 1110ney was s11eedily raised, and applied to the purpose Intended. The Ste'rvards' Lodge, finding their finances ll1uch reduced by, several n1erhbers having '\vithdra\vn their annual subscriptions, al)plied to the Grand Lodge for relief; upon \vhich it ,vas resolved, that ill future 110 Ctrn.nd OfBeer ShOllld be appointed, \vho\vas not at the thiie a subserihing TIlenlber of th~~ Ste\\rarcls' Lodge. A 'lIleasllre,llO\VeVer,' ofll1ore ,ilnportance, attracted tl'lc attel1tioIl of •tIle Society at this 'p(~riod.. ,It hurl been obsel'ved ,vith re,gret, that a nUlllbeeof \vorthy I~Tethren in distress had been subjected to JJ1ueh ineonvenience tLnd disappointlnent fron1 \vant of relief during the long SUlnrner recess; as there \vas s?Jdorn any (~onllnittt~e of Charity heldftorn tIle heginning of ..:\pril to the end of October.. rro reIned.y' this cOfllplnint, the G'1"a1'1<1 Lodge unaninlously resolv(~d, that an ~~xt'-H.ordinary ConUl1ittee shouldlneet annually in the last "reek of Jul~y, or first ,\v~ek.bf"August,toadrnillister tCl1111orar.y relief to such distressed objects as might regularly apply", not exceeding five pounds to onepersol1. 'I'he business of' the Society lUl'ving of late very COnsidernblyinereased, the (~·Tund Lodge \vas indllced to appoint, lJro tC1111Jorc, an to the (~Tand S(~cretarYt to hold equal railit and Ilo\yer \~lith biu1self in the Clrruia LodgClO l\rnollg nJllI1Y r(~gulations \vhich \vete no\v estahlished, it.\V~:t8 deterlnined, that in' future 110 Ilerson should hold t\voofllces at the saIne tiule in tJle (}rand I..Iod,ge. 1'heC:irnnd Lodge' of Clerrnany llavi)lg nl)plit~d' for l~~ave t(~ ~enda represe.ntn~ive t~.) the Clrand, ]~odge "of I!Angland, ,In orderrnoreelleetually to e(Hl1(~nt th€~, Ulllon and friendslrip of tIle lSrethrcll ()f both countries, llrother John I"eonahrdi was8.!)l)ointed, to that ofHc{~* 'fIle request beingcoDlplied wlth, a resolution passed., that,' in


OF ]\[ASONltY.

211

compliulent to the Grand Lodge of Germany, Brother Leonahrdi should wear the clothing of a Grand ()fficer, and rank next to l)ast GrandUfficers in all the public meetings of the Society. This additional cernent was highly r)leasing; and led tIle .Brethl"en to regret, that no intercourse or correspondence should have subsisted nearer honle, bet\\"een the Gra.nd Lodge of England and the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland, though all the nlenlbel"s \vere no\v su bjects of the sarne sovereign, and 1U11Jpily united in the encouragenlent of the .A.. rt. At theUOl11munication in A11ril, 1782, this i111portanthusiness c0111ing under consideration, after it variety of opinions llad been delivrered, it \vas. unanill10usly resolved, that the Grand l\{uster should .be requested to adol)t suell llleans us his \visdom 11light suggest, to IH"Olllote a good understttnding arnong the 13rethren of the three 'united kingdonls.N ot\\vithstanding this resolution, the \vished-for unioll \vas not then fully accornplished. l\t this Ineeting also, tJ1C })leasing intelligene(~ "\vus conl1Tlunicated, . tllut I)uke. of . (Julnberlund intelldc(j to aceept the governnlent of the Society. Tbis having been regularly to the Gr!\nd Lodge, his 路Itoyal Ilighness \vns proposed as Grand l\:fasterelect ;und, in COIIlplirnent to JIlrn, it \vas resolved, that he should lluve the priyi1ege of norninating a peer of tht1 realrn as Acting Grand l\IasteI", \'1'ho should beernl)O\vered t() sUI)erintend the Society in his absence; and that at all)? futur('~ period, ~'I'hen. the J!'ratcr.nity luight honoured \vith a ,Prince of the blood at their 11ead, the sal.n(~ I)l路ivil(~geshouldb(~ grant(~d.

At the nnnuul grand feltston thelstofMtl.y,l782,the (JullJberland was unanhnousJy el~cted. (~ran<l and it being signified the Society, that Iris Itoynl Ilighness Ineant to 31)!loint the :EJarl of .I~~nirlghanl Acting {jrand 1\Iaster, tIle appointment; \VttS eonfil"lned, and Iris pr(~8ill(~d t1S proxy f()rh:is 110yal lligh-

~)ul,e ~Iaster;

llHSS

O,nthe . .January,] . .anlotion Wa8nlllde in Q路rand.Lodge, after\vul"ds (~onfjrnlt~d, tlu~t the interest of' five per ~cent. on lOOOl., which had been advanced for the !lUrpOScs of the hull frolH the charity fund, should oeaae to bepaid;l~ndfurt.her,tlu~t the priIlcillal should


212

ILLUSTRATIONS

be allnihilated, and sunk into the hall-fund. In, consequence of this l~esolutioll, tIle n1011ey ,vas regularly brOtlgllt to account in the hall expenditures. , l\:Iany other regulations were COllfirn1ed at this l11eeting, to render the llall-fundnlore l)roductive, and to enforce obedience to tIle laws respectillg it.92 IIo\v far SOllle of these regulations are consistent 'Vvitll tIle original plall of the institution, ,luust be left to abler judges to detern1ine: but itiscertaiIlthat, in earlier periods of our l1istory, such compulsory regulations were unnecessary. The regulations established at this meeting were as follows: 1. That no Brother, initiated since Octobel' 29, 1768, shan be appointed to the honour of wearing a blue or red aproll, unless the Grand Secretary certifies that his nalne has been registered, and the fees paid. 2. 1'hat no Brother, initiated since that titne, shall be appointed Master or .1Varden of a Lodge, or be, pernlitted to attend any Oomnlittee of Oharity, orGrandJ~odge, unless his 11:11110 has been regis.. tered, and the fees paid.. 3. That, every petitioner forcharity,initiated sineo that time,sball set 'fQtthin his petition the Lodgo in which, and the time ,vhen, he \vas made a n[nsol1: in order that the Grand Secretary llIttY certify, by indorscnncnt 011 the back of the petition, \vhcther his narne has been registered, and the fees paid. 4. 'l'hat CVel)i IJodgeshall transnlit to the Gra.nd Secretnry, on or before the grand feast in every year, a list of all persons initiated, or nlelllbers admitted, togetber with the r(;~gistering fens; or notice that they h:'1VC not initiated or admitted any, that their silence DUty' not be imputed to contempt. 5. That, to prevent the pIca of ignorance or forgctfullless~ n. blank form sha.ll be printed, and sent to' each Lodge, to he 1111ed up, and returned to' the Grand Secretary. S.That'the ,Grand "Secretary-shall lay before the ,:first' qunrterljr Conlmunication after each grand feast, an account of such Lodges as have not registered their nleInbcrs within the precedhlg year, that they Dlay be erased n'onl the list of Lodges, or be other\1 ise dealt '\vith as the G-rand Lodge ,lnay think expedient. 7. 'rhat, to !lrevent any injury to indi,'idunls, by hcing' e.xcluded froluthe pl"ivilegcR of the Society through the neglect of their Lodges. in their .llanles not having heen duly registered, any IJrcthreu) producing sufficient l1roofs that they hu.vc paid the duol'egistcring fees to their Lodges, shall be capa'ble of enjoyh1g ttll the pl'ivil('ges of the Society; but the offending Lodg;cS shall be rigorously proceeded agitinst, for detaining fees that ,are the property of the Society.. On the 20th of March, 1188, an' .additional regulation was "nlac1e, ;~That, ten shillings andalxpence he paid to the Grauel Lodge for 'registering the name of every~lasoXl initinJecl in any Lodge' under the constitution ufter the 5th, of l\fay, 1188." .And at this meeting Ii,Dlothe,r r,esO,I"utiOl1 pa",ssedt. "'r.'l,.lat n,',0 L, O,dge shOUld, ,be P" crm,it,ted, t',> .attend ",or vote in ,Grand LQQ.ge, which had not complied with this ' regult'Ltion." 92

t

on


OF MASONRY.

At the Grand Lodge' 'held on the 23d

213 o~'November,

1783, an addition was Inade to the Grand Officers, by the appoint111ent of a Grancl Portrait Painter; and, at the request of the Duke of ~fanc}lester, that hOllour was conferred on the Rev. \\Tillian1 Peters, in testimony of ··the services which he had rendered to tIle Society, by his elegant present of the portrait of"Lord Petre.. During the l"elnainder of this year, there was scarcely any further business of in1portance transacted. .On tIle 19th of Novel11ber, information was given to tIle Grand Lodge, that. two Brethren, ullder sanction of the ROjTal Military 'Lodge at vVoolwich, which claimed the privi-

legeofanitinerunt Lodge, had lately llel<l an irregular meeting in ·the I{ing's Bench !1rison,and had there unwarrantably initiated sundry persons into J.\Iusonry. The Grand Lodge, conceiving this to bean infi~iI1genleIlt on the priv'ileg(~s of every r(~gular constituted Lodge, ordered tJle said Lodge to be erased ftoIll the Jist; and deterluined, that. it \vas .iueonsistent \vith the })rinciJ)les of l\Iasonry to hold !lIly I.lodg(~, for tll(~ !)'llr!)OSes of lxlaking, passing, or raising Masons, in any prIson, orplaee of confinement. At this Grand Lodge also, it was resolved, to enact certain regulations, subjecting·the Deputy Grand l\{aster and Ci-rand "Tardens to fines, in case of 11on-attenc1ance OIl the I)ublic Ineetings of the Soci(~ty: ana these reglllations \vere confirrned in Grand I..odge, 011 the 11th of

February f<:,)110,,,·illg. "Tllile these 11roceedjngs ,vere earrying on in England, tIle Brethren in Scotland "'~t~re I)rOSecllting their labours with equal zeal fbI" the good of the Craft.. The great

iInI)roVenlents

llHlde

in the' city . of .Edinburgh . aftorded

anl!lle roonlf()l" ingenious urchiteetsto . display tll(~ir l11asonic talents and abilities; andin that city the 0l)(~­ l"ati-v-e part of the I~'r(ljternity ,,"ere full~Y' occupied, in rearing stately Inansions,llud IJlanningE~legalltsquares. ()n the 1st of .i\ugusr, 1785, a very· pleasing sight was

exllihited to

\vell-wisher to theernbellishnlentof

Edinburgh, in th(~ (~t~l"ernony of lnying the foundation... stone of the SOllth13ridge, being the first step to further improv(nnent. In the Inorning of that day, the llight lIon. ·the Lord Provost and l\Ia~istra.tt1s.,· attendee] by tIle Grand ·~Iaster l\Jason of Scotlnnd, and a nUlllber of nobility and gentry, \vith tIle Masters, Office-bearers,


214

ILLUSTRATIONS

and Brethren of the Several Lodges, \valked f1'"0111 the ParliuJnent-holise to the bridue in })foeession.9S '-rhe streets were lined by the 58th regirnent, and the city guard. Lord l-Iaddo, Grt1udl\Iaster, having arrived at the place, laid the fou ndation-stone. vvith theuSUH 1 solenlnities. His lordship standing on the east, \ivith the Substitute 011 his right hand, and the GTUlld v\Tardens 011 the '\vest, the square, the plU111b, the level, and. theulullet, were. successfully delivered by an Operative 1\lason to the Substitute, and by hinl to the Grand J\faster, \vho al)plied the square to that part of the stone \vhieh\vas square, theplunlb to the several edges, the level above the stone in several positions, and then '\vith the rnallet gave three knocks, sayill a , "l\Iay the G-rand .A.rehitect of the Ulli~lersegranta bl~ssing on this foundation-storle, \vhich ,\ve have 110\V laid; and by his providence enable us to . finish this, and .every other \vorl\. 'At"hieh IIlay be undertaken for tlle elnbellishrnent and advantage of this city!" On this the Brethren gave the honours. r!'he cornucopia, and t\~l"O silver vessels \vera tholl brought frOll1 the table, and delivered, the cornueopitL to the Substitute, and t\VO vessels to the ,~\rardells, \;vhieh \vere successively presented to the C~Tatl'ld :&laster" \vIlo, according to ancient forrn, scattered the corn,arJd l)oured the ,vine and oil whieh they contained, on tllBstone, sa.ying, "lVlay the All-bounteous Author of Natu.re' bless tIl is city \vith anabundallee of corn, "vine, and oil; aud witll all the necessaries,conveniences,~:tndcoulforts of life!. and ll1ay tIle sarne ,Alnligl1ty Po\ver preSel"Ve tllis city froln ruin a~ld decay to the latest posterity!" The fo!low'ing Order of Procession ,vas obser\l'cd : Thel:roper Officel's: bCt\ring the city insignia. 'Ihe l::'lght lIon. Lor'd Provost and .}J!ugistrates. Band of instrutnentll.l ruusic" A band of SIngers. 'l'he Lodges3.ccording to s(~niority, Brethren 'w'al1dng tbtee and three. Lodge ofG ['an.d S te\,,~rnrds" Nobility and Gent.ry. thr(~e and three. Office""be~l'el's of the Ol'and I.,odge~ in tht路ir' badges of Office. Officers of the (i-rand Lodge ""ith insignia. Grand ~...at'dens. D'eputy Suhstitute GRAND MAs'rEn~ G. ~iaster. G. l\laster.

9.'3


216

OF :r.iASONRY.

The Grand l\Iaster, beingsul)ported ontherigllt hand bJt.the Duke of Buccleugh, al~d on the left·by the EtLrl of Balcarras, addressed hbrlself to the I.Jord Provost and ~Iagistrates in a suitable s11eeell for the occasion; and the(". coins of present reign, and a silver-11Iato\vith the follovving inscription, ',"ere deposited in the stone: A:~n"UENTE DBO OF"rI:\IO MAXLUO, REGNANrrE GEOHGIO III., I'ATRE PA'l'RI..£~ nUJUS PO~TIS, QUOYleI ]~XTRA .1\fCENIA EDINBURGI, Ul:1BI GOitI:aIODE ADJUKGERE:NTUR, ADI1'U:\fQUENON IXDIGNlr:M T.ANTA URBS HABERET, :PRI:JIUl\I LAPID1~ThI POSUIT NOBILIS VIR G.EORG·IGS r)O~{INUS IIADDO, AN rrIQ'UISSI1\II SODALrrlI AltClIrrl~C'rO:NTCI ,APUD SCOTOS CIlUI0 l\IAXr:.UUS, p1.JAUIn;~!\'l'g AMPLlSSI:JL\F'UATHU::\! (:.:ORONA, Il\[:\rE!\S.\.QCI~ POPULI PIU~(~ug:srrIA.

OPUS, CIVIBUS, GJ:.ATU:\1 Al)YBXlS, l:n·~eOlUr:\l, PATIU.iE· .ll(l~:C~S~r[j1\I,

urrILl~

I)l'~S I I)I'~ 'RA'rUM,

CONSUl..I:;.JACOB() llUSTgn In,,AIR, 1~CF~P1'I AUC"rOlUi; IND:gPI~SSO, SANCIENrrg REGg S'Ir.XA~'U(~UE lJRrrANN1.t'E,. A.PPRt)BAX'l'IBUS ()l\lNIBUS, TANDE~

INCHOATUM EST

IPS18 KAI..:KNDIS AeGUs~rI A. D. l\1DC(~I.JXXXY• .ll~I::',l~ AHC IU'l'BCT():SIC..:E 5785. Q.P. }'. (l. 8.

in tho reign

George

lI()n.G:f~OttOE

tlu.~frbircl,

I"oRn lIA l) DO, F'ratt-rn.ity of }'rC(~mH~SOlls in8cotn r:rand laid ,lht, first,

of the Brethren, of this .

Cou1111unicaticHl between ana au t\(~cess not (~on\"(~nient

useful to the

to 8trangl'l'S~ ortUUllt'ntal t() the country, so long arlt} Inueh \\"nnted n,nrJ w·ished.. \\"as at hUl,lt hegun~ \\'ith the sanction or the and pat'liarnent ()f ( .• ['eat. (nul \"ith unh'ersal OftJall1t's lIunt(~r the author and of the .AUl!llst the 1st.. in t.ho

J"'car

our

God Ilrospcr.

of the

a~rn.of l\lasonry

5785.-\Vhich xnay


216

II..LUSTRATIO+,"S

An antheln ,vas tllen sung; allel the 1)l"ocessiol1, being reversed, returned to the ParliuIl1ent-house. After \vhich tIle l.JordProvostand l\Iagistiwates gave an elegtlIlt entertainlnent at Dunn's 1'"001n8 to the Grand Lodge, and the nobility and gentry who had assisted at the cerel11ony. 1'11e next public cerenl0ny ill w"'hich the Society bore a prineipal share was the laying the foundation-stone , of thtttvaluable sell1inary of learning, the ne\v College of }:dinburgh.. This University has for l11al1Y :years been esteerned one of the Illost celebrated in Europe, a.nd has attracted n great nUlllber of students in physic, and otller branches of scienee, frolll all 11arts of the \vorld. rfhe en1,inence of its professors in路" every branch of learning is universallyadn]itted; ulnclit is 1110St fervently to be \vished, for the honor ~of the kingdoln, that the "rhole plan 111ay be cOIIlpletely executed ngreelJly to the intentioll. of tIle origina1l)rornoters.. As this is un event ~vorth)r of recol"d in tIle arHHLlsof1Insonry,.1 shall describe Ininutely the cerernony observed 011 tIle occasicnl.. Orl th.e 13th of October, 1789, l\Ir. Rohert AttaIn, arcl1iteet, presented the plans of the intended lruilding, at (1 public breakfhst given by the Lord Provost to tIle l\fagistratesand the l?rineipnl and I)rofessors of the University of EdinburgII; and eXl,lained their US{~S, for the various sc.hooIs, halls, and houses. The \vhole cOlnpany havirlg expressed the highest satisfitction at 'the desigIl, it vvas in11nediatelyresolvcd, that a SUbscription should, bt~ opened. to carrytheI)!an into execution; .and 1\fol1da~r, the 16th ofNovember,~vns路fixed for .laying tIle foundationstone of the ne\v structure. On the 1l10rning of the day appointed for l)erfornling the cerernony, the 13rethren assenlbled at eleven o'clock ill the l>arli'Llnent-house, to ll1eet Lord Na!>ier, who \vas atthe tirne Gl~and l\laster of Scotlalld. When the Lodges were arranged, the Grand l\faster sellt notice to the Lord Provos~ alld~Iagistr:'1tes,\vho hadttsSClnbled ill the COUIlcil-cluUll bel" ; and to the Princ.iI)al, !'>rofessors, and Stlldents of the University, \vho hadnlet in the High Church. At, half~past t\velve the !)lwocessiol1 began to l1~ove in the follo\ving order: 1st. ~l'he Principal, Profeasors~all(lStudents of the University, with their Inacacarried before them; Principaillobertson bein~Bupported on the right h!1nd by the He'lr~erel~d Dr. IIunter, professor of divinity, and 011 the left by the l~eY. })rw lIardy'I professor of Church flistory.


OF

~!.ASONRY.

217

The Professors were all robed, and each of the Students had a sprig of laurel in his hat. 2nd. 'l'he Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Council in their rohes1 preceded by the sword,· ulnae, &c.; the Lord Provost being sl.1pporteCl on the right and left by the t\VO eldest Bailies. Srd. A complete choir of· Singers, under the direction of Signor Schetky'l singing nnthems as the procession nloved. 4th. "The Lodges, according to seniority·, juniors preceding, \vith their different insignia. 5th..A. cODlplete band of instrumental music. 6th. The Grand Stewards, properly. cloth.eel, with white rods. 7th. The Noblelnen and Gentlemen attending the Gr'and l\Iaster.. 8th. A large drawing of the East Front of the New College, carried by two Operative l\Iasons. 9th. The grand jewels, borne by the Past l\Iasters of Lodges. 10th. Officers of the Grand Lodge~ properly clothed. 11th. Past Grand ~fasters. 12th. LordN APIER, present G'ralld 1\fastel-, supported on the right hand by Sir Willialn b'orbes, Bart., Past G'rand l\Iaster, and OIl tIle left by the Duke of Buccleugh. A deta.clullcnt of the 35th regiInent from the castle: together 'with the city guard: lined the streets.

At one o'clock tIle ({-rand 1\faster reaehed the site of the college ; \V11011 the found~lJtion-stoue\YUS laid \vTith tIle usual cerernonies.u,! After\vhich the G"rand l\faster addressedhirnself·to··the·Lord .1)rovostand.Magistrates as

follows: My LORD PltOVOST, and l\'IAGIS1'UATES, of the City of Edinburgh, In cOlupliance \vith your request, I havo now had the bon our, in the capacity of Grand nlaster ~rason of Scotland~ to lend Iny aid towards In.ying that stone, on \\""hich it is your intention to erect a nc\v Oollege. I 1l1'ust ever consider it as one of the fbrtul1nt(~ events in nlY life, that the Craft of ~'ree and ilccepted rtlaSOlls should be called forth, to assist at an undel'tn.ldng so laudable, and so glorious, duriug the time that, from their affection, I hftVe the honour of sitting in the chair of the Grand Lodge. The att{~Iltion to theiwllrover.nent of this city, manifested by ·tbe Magistrates, your· predecessors in office, has for many ye&rs excited the adIniri\tion of their·· fellow-citizens.. Thepartieular exertions your Lordshi p ttl1d your Collesgl1es have nlerited, and it gi'\l'cs Ine infinite satisfaction to sa)"', hn:~te ohtained, tho universal npIJ!'ol)atioll of aU rtul.ks ofmeIl. The business of this dny, equally to be rcmelllbered itl t.he lunul.lsof this city and of ~Iasollry, '\viU transmit your narnes vtith IU8treto posterity.. Thousands yet unborn, learning to ndIlliro Jl'ourvirtues, will thereby be stiIllulated to fOUOlV the great (txaxnple you have set them, of steady pa.triotisIU, love of your country, andanxiolls

or

"'.The particulars of this part of the ceremony were exactly similar to those· observed at la.ying the foundation-stone of the South Bridge, see p. 214.

16


218

ILLUSTHATIONS

desire to advance the welf:1.re, and increase the fame, of. the city of Edinburgh. In the nalne of the Craft of Free and Accepted ~:rasons. and in my own, I sincerely iInplore the prot(lction of the Supreme Architect of the Universe on your lordship and your brethren in the Iuagistracy ! l\fay you long continue here the ornanlents of civil society; and lllay you hereafter be received into those mansions, those lodges, prepa.red in heaven for the blessed!

To this address·· the Lord Provost, in tIle narne of the l\'Iagistrates and· Town Council of the City of Edinburgh, made a suitable repl}". . The Grand lVIaster then addressed the I->rincil)ul, as representing the University of Edinburgh, in the follovving \yords : REVERl~ND SIll,

Perrnit rne to congratulate you as Principal, and your brethren as Pro..

fessol's~ of" the 'University of Edinburgh, on the \\-"orkin 'Nllich ,YC have this dt1)t been engt\ged ;-a"1'ork \yorthy of your Patrons, ty ho (eyer

cOllsi.:1ering the public good) ,\\riU not pel'lnit the senti of learning, est~~hlished in. this ancient nlctropolis 1 to l>cnr the appearance of d~ca.y, a.ta thllewhen so much attention is besto\v'ud ou the elcg1tDceand convenience botb. ofpuhlic and priv:Lte edIfices. I>errn.it rne. Iike\vise, to congratulate roy countrs· on the probability of seeing the differe11t chah's of tlH~ rnagnificent. structure l1fJ\V to be erected fHlt~d by l'nen so distinguished for t.heir piety, 80 crninent for theil' lenrning.:lnd so celebrated f()f their abilities, as those to '\vhonli IlO\V ha've the honour to addresf.. tnysc~lf. Any panegJl"tc thnt I cnn prOiH;Un(~e l11USt fan so fi\f short ,of ,,"11 at is due to ;you, Sir, and )rour honouri~ble andlcnrned bret.hren, that it would 110 pl'esunlption in D1C toattexnpt toexpres8 IDy sense of your deserts... Suffice it to say, thatthe Grand Lodge of Scotland: and the Lodg(.\s depe.n~ing on it, are most happy in having ·t bis opportunity of assisting at~u.ud witnl1ssing, the laying tho. foundation,. \vlu'nc(,~ it is their enrnestwisha building may arise, w~bich in future ages Inns be as reno\yned for the excellence of its teachers, and as llluch respected for the propriety of conduct in its students, as the University IIO\V is, over \v hich you have the peeuliar satisfitction of presiding.. I\fn.y the Ahnip;hty Architect, the Sovereign Disposer of ~l.n E~"ents, grant, that the l)rincipnl and Professors of this College Inny continue to dE:~livcr their instructions, and the students receive. theiradulfH"litions, in suoh a uJ.annsr 115 lUtty redound to the glory of God, theprollloting of science, and the extension of nIl useful learning.

To vvhich th.e !"{ev. Principal lnade the follo\ving reply:~Iy

LonD,

Frorn ,'ery hUlnble beginnings~ the tTnivcl'sity of Edinburgh has attaiued to SllCh crninence,as <~ntitlos it to b(~ ranked ~tlnong tht), most celeb;c·att~ds~~ulinariesof le~trnin~. Indt~hted to the bounty()fsevel~nl of our SO\1ereigns-distinguishcd particulttrly hy the gracious Prince


OF, l\{ASONRY.

now seated on the British throne, whom, vtith gratitude~ we ,reckon among' the Inost u111nifieent of our royal benefactors-and cherished by, the continued attention nnd good offices of our honourablePat.rons, thislJniversity eRn llO\~"'·'boast of thc'ntlInber:andvarietyofitsinsti... tutions fbr' the instruction of youth in all the branches.of literature and' science. With \vhat integrity and diseernnlent persons have been chosen to preside in each of these departnlents, the character ofn1y lea.rnedcolleagues affords the 1110St stttisfying evidence. Fronl confidence in the abi Ii ties and assidlli ty in di8Ch~l.rging the dutIes of thei r respective offices, the University of Edinburgh 113$ become a seat of education, Dot only to youth in every part of the.British dominions, but, to the honour of our country, students have b(~en attractedtoitfrcUlalulost every na.tion in, Europe, and every State in Anlerica. One thing" stilt wns "I'untillg., 'rhe apartnlents ,;appropriated •. ,for the accol1llllodation of Professors and Students w'ere so ex trell1ely unsuitable, to the flourishing state of the University, thnt it had ,long been the, general \",ish to have buildings more decent andcol1venient erected. 'Vhat your lordship has nu\v done gives a prospect of having this \,"ish accolnplislled; and \,ite consider it as a nl0St, auspicious cirCUln~tance. that the foundn,tiol1-stonc of this ne\\r Iuansiol1 of science is laid by your lordship, \vho, nrnong your alleestnrs~ rcekoned a nHln, '\vhose originn.l nnd universal genius plaees hinl high U1l1ong the illustri()us pel'sons ,,-h!) 11:1 \'econtributed lllost "Clnillently to enla.rge the boundaries of huulnn kno\\-ledge. Porini t Inc to ReId, "'hat lrl~gtl rd as xuyo'\'t'"n peculiar felicity, that by lU1.ving rcnm.ined in. Utj'!' present f'tationmuchlonger than any ufnlY predeccs50rs. I !lave ,lived to,,"itneRsa.n event sobeneficiaito this , lJnjv~rsity, the IJrosperity of w'hieh is near to IllY heart, and has ever been the ot~ject of 111y 'wnrnlest \vishes. 1\1ay J\.hnighty G'od, 'without iln;'ocation of whom no action of importanec should be begun, bl(~ss this undcrtaking,and. enable us to carry it on with suceess ! l\lny he (~ontinue to protect our tTniversity; the oltjeet of \vhose institution is: to instil into th~ n1inds vf youth principles of sound kno\vledge; to inspire thelu w'ith the love of reli.. gion and vit·tue; and to pt'epare thE.~111 fur filling the various situations ,~n soci(~t.y, 'with hOllour to tht~lnSeIYes, und \vith benefit to their

(}ountrv! All this ,ve ask in tbe UfUl1C of Ghrist;, and nnto the Fnther, the Sou, H,nd tht~ 11011 Spirit, we ,8lscrib<; tbe kingdQl1l..,'po~Tet',anug!ory ! .Anten.

After the PrincipnJ had Hnished his speech, the Brethren coneludetl the eerenlony \'V'ith the honours. '1'\vo erystal bottles, e·nst on purposent the glass-house of I.Jeith, \vere deposited in thefoundation...stone.. Inone of ,,\\"ere put difii~rent coins of the l)resent reign, each of whi(~h \vnspreviously envelopeditl'crystal in Buell all ingeniOtlS Inannel" thllt the legend on t,beeeins cot! ld be distinctly read \vithout breaking the crystaL In the other bottle were dC110sitedseven.roUs of velluIl1, con-


220

ILLUSTRATIONS

taining a short account of the original fo 1.111datio1l and present state of the University, together witll several other papers; in particular, tIle different newspapers, containing advertisements relative to tIle college, &0., and a list of the names of the present Principal alld Professors, also of the present Lord Provost and Magistrates, and officers of the Grand Lodge of .Scotlal1d. The bottIes, being carefully sealed up, were covered \vith a plate of copper wrapt ill block tin; and, upon the under-side of the copper, wel*e engraven the arms of the city of Edinburgh, and of the University; like\vise the arnlS of the Right Hon. Lord Napier, Grand l\Iaster !fason of Scotland. Upon the uP11er-side, a Latin inscription, of which the following is a copy: ANNUENTE DEO OPT. M,A.."x:. REGNANTEGEORGIO III. PRINCIPE l\1UNIFrCENTISSIMO, ACAD:mMI1E EDINBURGENSIS JEDIBUS, INITIO . QUIDEM ·lIUMILI.lIMIS, ET JAM, POST DUO SECULA, PENE RtTINIS, NOVI nUJUS .tEDIFICII, UBI C011MODITATI SI1tlUL E1' ELEG,ANTIlE,. TANTO DOCTRINARUM DOMICILIO DICfN"E,

CONSULERErrUR, . 1)RI1I:!UM LAI>IDEl\! POSUIT, PLAUDENrrE INGEN'rI OMNIUl! OI:tDINU1I FREQUENTIA, vm NOBILISSIMUSFRANCISCUS . DOMINUSNAPIElt, REIPUB..ARcmTECTOh'rJ:CiEAPUDSCOTOS CURIO MAXIMUS. • XVI ).tAL·. DECEMB• ..A.m(O.SALUTIS ·nUHANlE· MDCOLXXXIX. JERE ARCHITECTONIClE IOOIDCCLXXXIX.

CONSULE THOMA ELDER; ACADE},!IlE PRlEFECTO GULIELMO ROBERTSON ARCHITECTO ROBERTO ADA}!. Q. F. F. Q. S.

TRANSLATION.. By the blessing of ALMIGHTY GOD, In the reign of.· the most munificent Prince GEORGE 1lI.. Thebuildin~ of the University of Edinburgh, BeIng originally very mean, Ana now, after two .centllries, alxnost a ruin, The Right Hon. }i"UANCIS LORD NAPI~}R, Grand Master of the Fratemity of Free 1r!asons in Scotland, Amidst the acclamations

Of a pro<ugious concourse of people, Laid the foundation-stono


OF MASONRY.

221

Of this new fabric, In which all union of elegance路 with convenience, Suitable to the dignity of such路 a celebrated seat of learning, lIas been stueJied, On the 16th day of November, In the :rcar of our Lord 178D, Anc1 of the tera of l\lasonry 5789 ; THOMAS ELDER being the Lord PrOvo8t of the City; WILLIAJ\{ ROBERTSON, the Principal of the University;95 Ancl ROBER'r ADA1\!, the Architect. 1Vlay the undertaking prosper, and be crowned 'with success!

An anthenl having beell sung, tIle brethrell returned, the whole 11l'"ocession being reversed; and when the junior Lodge arrived at the door of the Parlianlent-house, it fell bacl~ to the right and left, within the line of soldiers; \vhen the Priucil)al, Professors, and StudeIlts, the Lord Provost, l\Iagistrates, and r.eO\VIl Coul1cil,ancl the Grand Lodge, passed throngl1 \vitll their llats ofT: The rn"oeessiol1, on this oecnsion, ,~vas one of. Inost brilliant and nU1l1erOUS that e'ver \vas exhibited in the city of Edinburgh. The ProvQst and l\.Iagistrates had very properly iuvited II1anyof the lIobility UIld .gelltry frorn all l)arts of tllcCOllutry', to witness the solemnity 路6f laying the. foundation-stone ofaCollege, the urchitectllreof '\Vllich, it is agreed by all WllOha"ve seell the plan) ,viII do honour to tIle city", to tIle nation, and to Etlrope. But the l1UIll1)el" of llersolls invited ,,'as far exceeded l:>y the inlI11enSe Illultitude of all ranl\.s, \vho, desirous of vie'\ving so 111ugnifieent a spectacle, filled. the streets, windo\vs, and even roof's of the hOllses, all the \vay fi"Olll thePtlrlitlllleIlt-c'lose, dO\VIl the Iligll-street and I~ridge颅 street, neal" tlle south end of \vhicJl the foul1datio"n-sto118 was laid. Above 20,OOOV\~eresupposed tobe,vitnesses of this Ct~renl011Y; and,.. notwitbstauding this illl111enSe cro\vd, tllcgreatest order and decency \vere observed; nor did the sllutllest accidenthal)!)Cn. Orl tIle 7tll ~January, 17G,5,tbe Bretllren irl Scot],{tlld had another 0l)I)ortullity of exenll)lif}!il!g skill in the rules .l\.rt, at 0IJening IH~\vbridge f()l" at l\foI1tl'ose. 'rhi8 llIHlertnking had beeIl long deelned ilul)racticlltble, on aceount the extent Q&

&0.

Tbe la.te elegant IIistorian of Scotland, ofCbailes V_, .llmerica,


222

ILLUS'rR.A. TION S

being near half a mile, across it ra11id influx and reflux of the sea,; but "va.s at last hap1)ily accolnplished under the supedntendence of the Fraternity, and the great post road fron1 the south to the north of Scotlul1d is llOW united. ..c\.. publicproeession vvas fornled on this occa... sion; and the Grand l\Iuster, Hillidst an in11l1enSe concourse of people, having critically exanlined the \vark, declared it V\;"ell built, and ably executed. Hclving described the principal \vorks in \vhich the Brethren in Scotland vvere enlployed, \ve shall now reSUine the history of 1\Iasonry in Engla,nd, and tra.ce the occurrences that tooli place there, under the auslnces of the late Duke of CUlnberland, and his successor, the Prince of ,?\rales, after\vards his l\Iost Gracious J\1tdesty"

I{ing George IV. On T'upsday'l the 9tll of l\Iarc.h, 178G, Ills Royal IIigh.. ness Prince ,VilHanl I-Ienry, no'Vv I)ulte of Clarence, \NaS initiated into :ThIasonry, at the Lodge No. 86, 1101c1 at the Prince George inn, at Plynl0uth. On the 4th of January, 17S7,\vas 011ellcd, i~'}London, the (-fraud Chapter of IIarodinl. 1'hough this ()rder is of ancient dute, arId had been patronised in difJerent parts of EUTope, there appears not on r~cord, previous to this pCl路iod, the regular establishrnent of' such an association in England. I?or S0111e years it \vas faintly encouraged; but after its lIlerit had been further investigated, it rt~ceived the patronage of sever~11 exalted 111ttsonic c.haracters. 96 9BIThe l\fysteries of this order arc peculiar to the institution iteelf; while the lectures'oftheChnpter include every In'unch of the rnnsonic systelll, and represent the art of nlasonry ill a finished and con1plete fOfln.

DifIercnt classes nre established, and particular lectures l路es'tricted to each class. The lectures are divided .into sections, and thesections into clauses.. The sections are annually assigned, by the Chief IIarod, to a certain nUlnber of skiI{ul conlpanions in each clnss. who are denorninated Sectionists; and they nre eUlpo'tllcred to distribute the clnuses of their respective sections, \I;lith tht~ approbation of the Chief IIarod and General Director, an10ng the prhlttte of tho Chapter, ,vho .are. deu(,}lnillt'Lted Clauseholders. SUCll cOlupanions as by assiduity beC01l1C路 pof-sesscd of aU the sections in the lcetnre, are ca.ll(~d Lecturers; . and out ()f tbese the General Director is .nl \\"a.ys chosen. Every Chtuseholder, OIl his app()intrnent. is presel1t(~d with a ticket, signed by the Chief IIarod, specifying the clause allot.ted to hitn. 'fhis ticket entitles bin) to enjoy the rank and prh'ileges of n. Ohl.useholder in the Chapter; and no Clauseholder can trnnsfcr his ticket to another


OF 1\fASONRY.

223

The Grand Cbu,pter is governed by. a GruIldPntron, t,\1oVice-Patl-ollS, a Chief Ruler, and t\""'~O Assistants, ,~"ith a Council of t\velve reslJectable Conlpanions, vvho are chosen annually at the Chul)ter 11earest to the f(~stival of St. John the Evangelist. On 1'hutsdny, the 6th of l~ebrufiry, 1787, Ids Royal Ilighness the l)rinee of \\! ale.s \'Vas 111ade a. 11n80n, a~ an oceaslonal J-Jodge, convened for the purpose, at the Star and Garter 'l'a,';'ern, Palll\Iall, over \vhieh the late l)uke of Curnberland presided in person.. ...~nd 011 Fridny~ the 21st of Nove In bel" follovving, hisRoyalllighness the Dul<.e of York \Yt1S initiated into l\I~sonry, at a special Lodge, convt~ned for the !)urpose, at the StUlle l}lnce, over \vhich the Grand l\Iaster also presided in person. Ilis I~oyal !Iighness \vas introclueed by his royal brothel", the }>rince of 'Vales, \vho assisteci at the cerel110ny of his initiation. ()n tbe 25th of .l\Ia.reh, ] 7 J8, nnothei- (~vent, \Y(Htl1V of notieeill t,he annals ofl\Ins(Hlry took place-tile 'irn~tit:n­ tiCHl of 'i. 'l'he ltoval F'rt:ernnsons' (~lJaritv rOl' }~ernale Chil<]ren," !.)r Ina1rltnilliuQ', elotbing, and Jedtleating tJle fernale children anci orph~l"ns of iu~ng(~nt l)1·ethrerl.\~~ '1'0 thebenevolcllt ,ex(:~rtions of late (;hevalier I~art h010nle\V l~.uspini, the l:"raternity are, in thef'irst: IllttCe,. hldebted f<)r this establishnlent. IJndet- the IHltrollnge of 11el- Itojral l:ligllness the late Duehess of' (;lllnberlal~l, the selH.Jol \VHS originallyforilled; and to her f(lstering

hand is o\ving U1Clldi ng It to the 110bi I ity alld

llourishing Il<Yl" l'ceornF\nnily, as \vell as to IHall)' of the botl'l sexes. ()n tIle] st ()f' tJ ,ill ual'V 17SH, {iftt~en \vere t~lken HI lIOllse l)fuvi<'le(l for theJu at Sorners 'rO\vn, l>aneras; but· sinee th~Lt tilne, the 'libt~l'nl en(:ourug(~rnent' \vhieh (*hu!'ity has rpceived fi-onl tIle lfruternity in India ns \vpll ·flS in }~ngland, the (ioverl.H)l's. beeI'~ll erlublt:d to nuglnel1't the nurnber of clnl(lren, tit ddiercn t IJeriods, to 'I

sixty-fi vc. CtnulmIlion! unless the e()llScmt of' the Couneil hns b(I(l11 ohtninccl for thllt IHtI'P(IS';~, und the (".t'lltlJ'alDil'cetol'has apIH'(,v(~d lJH~ COlltpanion to '\\'horn it is to be as qualHied ttl hold it" In r~nseor the dl~ath. sieknl)SS, 01' n()ll~rl'sidt~n('C' in I.cmdon, of any l.. tICtUHII". Scctionist, (J1* Cluu~elH)ldt'l', nrHJt}it'l' (~(Jll)p:rltirnl is uI')I.)ojnt(.~d toliH up the ,·acancy ft... the tiuw tlutt the h~(~tures nutybt." nhynys (~(nnptct(~; and, during the session, a public k'ctul'e is usually delivered at. stated

tiInes..


224

ILLUSTRATIONS

The object of this charity is, to train up cbildrell in the kno'Vvledge of virtue and religion; luan early detestation of vice and its unhappy consequences ; in industry, as necessary to their condition; and to i111preSS st.rongly in their ll1inds, a due sense of subordination, true hUl11ility, and obedience to tlleir superiors. In 1793, the Governors,anXiOtlS still further to extend the henefits of this Institution, hired, 011 lease, a lJiece of ground in St. George's Fields, belonging to tIle City of London, OIl \vhich they have erected a C01111l10dious and spacious school-house; at the expense of up\vards of 2500l., in 'v~Thich the children are no\v placed. This building is sufficiently, extensive to aCC01111110date one hundred children; and fi路Olll the exertions of the }'raternit}r, at hOTHe and abroad, there is every reaSOll to 110pe that the Ci'overnors vvil1 soon have it in their pOvver to provide for that Ilulnber. 97 91 Thcf()l1o'vdllg is an .A.bst.rnct of the Rules and Regulations established for the government of this Institution : 1

QU.A.LIFIC.A.TIONS FOR CtO\.7E.RNORS. 1. Every subscriber of 011e guinea., annuallJl": is dcenlcd Ut G'overnor during the continuance of such subscription, and is entitled to one vote at aU elections for children. 2. The l\Iaster, for the tinlC being, of every Lodge:, whicrl subscribes

one guineu. per artlltUl1, has the smue privileges. 3. Every Benefttctor of, ten guineas Qr up\vards,at once, or' within a .year, is therebycollstituteda Governor for life, and a Illenl her of the general cOll1mitteo, and is entitled to oIle vote ;cvery additional ten guineas given will entitlehixn. to another vote~ 4.. The~faster, for the路 thne being, of every Lodge, subscribing ten guineas within a year, becoxnes a G"overnor, and a meluber of the general conlnlittee for Afteen yea'rs, with the privilege of one "Vote. 5. The l\faster, for the tilne being, of every. Lodge, subscrihing twenty'guineas at once, or in t~路o donations '\vithin ten years~ b<.:ltc(n!lcs a Goyernor, and a mernber of the general conlnlittee, so long as that Lodge exists, with the privilege of one vote. 6. '. E'\tery Lodge, which has already subscrilJed twenty gnin(\:ls, "till be entitled to one vote, in nddition, fbr oyery further SUlll of guineas subscrihed. .N.B. l'1he sunl of ten guineas, at any tiUl(lo by any-snch Lodge, ,,-rill entitle it to an additional yotefbr

years. 7. 'rhe physi.cians, .. surgeons, and other nlcdicul gelltlt~Inen 1vho n.t'tend this charit.y, and ndnlinister tlteir advice and ilssist:uwe gr~ttis, arc therehy eonsti ttl tedGo,rCl'I10X路s for lift':. 8~ ]~very c1,~rgYlllan 'w'ho beIlt~volcntl.r advocates the C:l.llse of this charity froruthe .pulpit, is, in cOllsidertttioll of such service, ell titled to the same privilege"


OF

~IASONRY.

220

To the benevolent and indefatigable exertions of William Forssteen,. the late Antony Ten Broel\.e, Adam Gordoll,Esqrs., and a fe,v other respectable Brethren, tIle Society' are principally indebted for the cOlnplete estab9. The executor of any person ,,,"ho pays one hundred pounds to this charity, thereby beconles a Life-governor; and the payn1ent ofa legacy of two hundred pounds, or upwards, constitutes aU the executors, ,vho have proved the ,vill: Governors for life. 10. Eyery G·overnor has a right to vote at all quarterly and special general courts. 11. Every new subs.cri?er will be (;ntitled to vote~ irnnltediately· on payment of his subscrIptIon. 12... No annual subscriber can 'rote at any election, till his subscription for the current year ('ll-hich always convnences at Lady-day)· an.d" all arrears are· paid. 13. Lodges, havhlg votes, are required to .give l1otice· to "the· Secretaryof the election ()f their respective l\fasters_ before they can be entitled to -rote. . 14. 1\11 GoYernors, (except annual suhscrihers residing ,'~~ithin tl1c bills ofnlortnlity~) and aU laclies~ lloblenu:n, InCll1.bers of parliament, ~Iastersof having the privileges of Life-gO'vernors, and :l\Iasters of foreign or country Lodges, (being suhs(~ribers~) have n, to -rotc by proxy, n,t all elections for childreu.. r 15.. rheGovernor .giving the proxy Inust insert therein. tho IU1Ules of all the children for WhOlU he intends to vote, as only one Pl~OXY can be u(hnittcd.. lIe lnustnIso sign it "lith bis natnc,· &lld iIlsert bis placc.of residence and the date of the proxy, together 'w'ith tIle na.nle of the G'overnor to ,t..-heHn it is given, as such pro X)" can only be given to it GoYernor, nndbe used at the next ensuing election.. IG. All fr>reign Lodges rna)" vote by general pro:x:y, to lJerene,,"cd eyery years; and country I..Lodges Illay have the sa1ue priyilege~ t(> be rene\ycd nnnually;-stlch general proxies being given to (1o,"ernors only, and b(;iIlg signed 1)~Y' the ~rnster, "~urdcus, and Secretary of ouch Lodg(~ respcctiYcly. <;..

(llIALIFIOATIONS, Al)~IISSION, . }1DUCATION). AND DISPOS.ALOlt TIlE CHIIJDREN* Children, fI'OIll any of th(~ ki]1~(;t0t1(l5 are· adlnittctl into the school, fl"(,Hrl the age to ten and tIle)" r(~rnnin in the school till lw;re nttained th(~ 'Vllicb th~~y n.r(~ enrefnUy hlstI"Uct(\'d nef~('H(:~..W'''o rR:. and all kinds of d()llHi~stie pn1t'nllDV1rnet"lt.

returned to Or' ns dOIl1estic , ·..''''''l''''i'''I''''+1:.! respeeth,.t~ Cfl}l{tCitics; at ","hiel}, presented\\"ith a Bible, a l)rayer-Book~ and Dr. th(\ ; and further supplied '\\"ith 1,""0 snits these 1 as RllCnC()tlragcIl1?utand "to each .girl apprellticeahil> ,,,,ell und ftuthfnlly, a prernnun of fiye


226

ILLUSTRATIONS

lishlnent of this trH.ly laudable institutioll; and such have beellthe care alld pains besto\ved 011 the education of ·the children, that the sunlS arising frolll their worlt, for several years past, have exceeded 200l. alll1Ually. On the 10th of Jj"ebrllary, 1790, tIle Grand Lodge neas is given at the expiration of her tern1, on her producing due t.estiInonials of her good behaviour during that period. Children applying to 'be adtnitted into the school, nlust. be the daughters or orphans of indigent., Freemasons; .thy must be full six years oj age, and not '11201"8 than nine, 1'rhen their petitions*are pre.,. sented-nlust have had the small-pox, or cow-pox-be in perfectly good health-and free from all infirmity and deformity• No child can be adrni tted \vho is under se'ven, or above ten years of age. r.rhe petitioner must have ~he fullo-rdng certificates, viz. : 1.. ,11.. certificrl.te from the ~faster and WtLrclens of the Lodge in which her fhther \yns made a ~fason, or fronl SOlne Lodge of which he JUtS beell a. nlcmher, to prove that he has been three Jlears ft. J\Iason. N. B.~rhis proof "ivill be dispensed\vith if the child he an orphan. 2. .l1.cel"'tificate fronl the Grand Secretary, of the fh.ther's having been dnlyregistered as a I\iIason ill the books of the IJnitedGrand

IJodge 'of En~Iand .. H..A. certificl1te of the 111a,rriage of her parents. 4. 1\.11 n.ttestcc1 copy 01 the register of her birth, extracted fronl the hooks of the parish ,,,,heroin she vras born; 01'" SOUle other s:ttisfftctOry of her age. 5.lt eertificate~ signed hy tw'O respectahle housekeepers, or other In'oo~ of the parish to '\vhich she helongs.. G....A. eertif-ieate of the state of her health, under the hand ofon'c of the l\fedicnl (tOverllors of the charitr. The petitions anel testinlonialsof th~ can<1hlntes foradlllission are to be exanlined l)y the General Comlllittee, who are to nlake report thereof to the Quarterly General Court,\ '\vhieh court alone. can order the admission of chUdrey). into. the· school. 'VhCll there are lnore approved candidates than there are vacancies in the school, their adxnission is to 1)8 c1eterulined bj'" ballot. . £\J1 the children 'w'ho are candidates for adn1ission~ arc to be SUlllrnoned to attend the General Conunittec n,e.1.:t out one 'preceding every 1~1t~ction~ in order to be eX~l1nincd as to the stat(~ of their health, and I)ther (~irCunlstunces: [Lt that tirne; :lnd each child, '\yh(~n elected, 'is to hoexalnined by t)V'oof the nledical (J()verno~rs of the chnrity) ltnd their certificate of. the state of h~r henlth is to he laid hefore th~lt next IIouse Cotnlnittee,""~ho, if not sntisHed, I1UtJ suspend her adluission till further inquiry be mn,de. :Eyerr child . is to be . brought to th(~ school f(JradIUissiol1, at the next IIonsc COlurnittee, or at sorne (ltber titlle to be app()inted~ ,vithin ()n(~ 1110nth after her election, and she is not nfterw'ltl"ds to dt~part froul the SCllool ,vithout leave on p:tin of' t~xc1nsi()n. No parent or friend of any child ,.vill he J>crluitted to visit her, at the school, except on a Thursday, bct,\\r<~en the hours often and two,

* :Bb,nk forms otpotition Xl'Ul.y bo had. at the scho.ol.


OF 路MASONll.Y.

227

voted an annual subscription. of 26Z. to 路this charity, and particularly reconl1nellded it to the Lodges as deserving ofencouragenlent; in consequence of whicll, considera... hIe Stl111S llave beell raisec1 for its support;' and among the very liberal sllbscriptions from the Lodges, the Shakspeare Lodge is particularly distinguished; 11aving, as a and then only by nlcttns of an order, obtained for that purpose, from one of the House Committee: and they are forbidden to speak to' or join thelll in their procession to and from. church. No child can be taken out of the school by her friends, before the expiration of the titne limited by the regulations of the charity, except in case of illness, unless her board, clothing, &c., be paid路 for from the time of her having been admitted.


228

ILLUSTRA'l'IONS

Lodge, and fro 111 individuals. belonging to it, paid above atbo.usand pounds to the fund.. Franl these .donations, and the increase of annual contributions, an Institutiol1 which .• reflects gxeat honour 011 the Fraternity, promises fair to 11ave a perlnanent ·establishnlent.98 The late Duke of ·Cu~berlal1d continlled ill the office of Grand Master till his' death, in Septenlber, 1790. It m,ayb·e ·trulysaid,tbat such a valuable acq"uisitioll was 111adetothe "Societyduring his ro:yralhighness's adminis.. . tr~ti911, as· is almost· 1.1l1pal"al1eled in' the .annals of

Masonry. ." 011 the loth of February, 1790, regular notice was given in Grand Lodge, that his Royal Highness Prince Ed,vard, late Duke of !{eut, while on his t~·avels, had been regularl y initiated into l\fasonry in the ITnion Lodge at Geneva; and \va \vereafterwards inforlned, that llis Ito)ral Highness PrinceAugustus]'rederick, 110\V Dul"c of Sussex, had been likewise .initiated into tIle Order ~lta Lodge ··in Berlin. 'l'he Grand Lodge, highly sensible of the grea.t 110ll0l.1r conferred ,on the Society by the initiatio!l of so lllany royal })ersonages, Ul1Uninlously resolved, that each of theln sborl1d he presented \vith an apron, lined "\yith blue silk, the clothing of a G'rand Officer ;anc1 that the)i'" should be placed, ill all pul)lic nlcetingsof the Society, 011 the right hand of the Grand Master, und rank inal! pl"oceisions.as Past Grand 1\Iasters. 011 tIle '2nd of:l\fay, 1790, the grand feast was llonoured witb. the presence of the D keof .Oul11berland, .the Gralld l1 by.llisroyallle!Jhe,,:rs, tIle Master, in tIle chair ; .attended PriIlce of 'Vales, an.dtheDukes of. YorI( nntl Clarence, \vith above fivc llundred other Brethren. l\.t Clralld Asselnbly\vas confirn1.ed tIle re-instateulent of the nlembers of the Lodge of Autiql1,ity. ill all their 1l1usonic llrivileges; after an unfortunate sel)uratioll of ton years; l:tnd arnong those "\vho were re-instatec1, Allthor of this treatisehoo. thebonour to be included. ()Il the 2~i:th of Novernber, 17BO, Ilia l=toyal IIighness the Princt:1of "rales was elected to the high and in1portunt office of Clrand ~s '\Yil~ialll I)re~ton: ESqlo" the author of this bo?k, beques:thed to thlscbarlty~ by Jus 'w'I11, 5001. three per c{~nts" consoIs;anda like sum

to the . Genoral Charity )J'und of the Grand L()d~e.-EDrroR.


OF MASONRY.

229

Master; and·,ll.e, was pleased to· appoint· Lord Rawdon (now l\farquis of IIastings) Acting Grand Master ; .,,~ho had 11reviously filled that. office under his late royaluncle, Oll··the·.resignatioll of the Earl of Effingham,wbowent abroad on his accepting tl1e goverl1orshipofJanlaica. On the 9th of February, 1791, the Grand Lodge resolved, on the Illotion of Lord Petre, that, ill testimony of .the higl1 sense tIle Fraternity entertained of tIle 11onour done to the Society by Ilia· Royal· Highness the Prince of Wa.1es's acceptance of the office of GrandMaster, three elegant cllairs· a~ld candlesticks should be provided for the use of the Grand Lodge; .and at the grand feast ill Ma.y folIo.wing, t,hes. e.•...·.wer.e. accor.. ding.l. y fl.•. n,·ished, and P.· res.e.n.. ·.t.e.d to pnblicvie\v ; but, unfortunately,. the Grand Master's hldispositionatthattiule preventedhilnfi~omhollouring the Society\vitll his presence. .LordRa ","don, llowever, ofliciat<3d as l)roxy for IIis Royal Higlluess, \vho ~~as re-elected ,~rith the 1l10St joyful acclanlations. SECT~XlI. Hi~,tory

qfMasonry jrom tILe 11b8:tallatit>noj" tltePri13ce of as GR.AND J\fASTEll., to the Grand }]'east qI" 1796

WA"LES

incl'zMtive. A '1' the Gral1d Feast heldatFreemasons'-Ifall,onthe 2nd of1Iay·, 17fJ2,. IIisRoyal Highness the Princeof\i\Tales vvas installed G-rund ~laster, to the inex!)ressil)le joy of the:E'raternity, in 11rescnce of his royal l)rotherthf:~ Dul(e of YOl-}\., the Right Flon. !,Jord llavvdon,nowllttr(luis of IIustings, and. above 500. other respectable. Brethren. The.· relleated iapplause$.·.. bestow~d."br.,tbe·6ompany.,upoll the royal brothers 'were, highlygratreful !to·. their' feelings; while the aflitbility andlloartfelt satisfaction of the Grull<1 Master at.,. 11eltd()f!hisBre~bren were l)articu]~-ly noticed. IIis ItoyalHighnessperforme<l tIle duties of hie oftice.in, a .style. superior to most of l1is r)redeCE~ssors:' observations Vlere clear, acute, nl1d l)(~rtin(~nt ; his~~pres.. sion wus fluent, tnanly,itnd distinct; ~lIld biel 6U!'ogiufll on his deceased llucle, the last Gralld . laster, l'lathetic, graceful and elegant. rrhecomI)lizneflt,thathe conferred on Lord .Rawdo.n, as Acting GrandMaster, was truly Muonic;and to all 1118 Ofneers,on their appointnlents, he paid the .pro1161 tribute to their respective nlerits. In


230

ILLUSTRATIONS

short, during the whole cerell10ny, llis delneanour was courteous, l)leasing and dignified. All era so i111portant ill tllealluals of l\Iasonry lllust be recorded with peculiar satisfaction. Testilnonies of loyalty and attachlneut to.tl1e fanlily on tIle throne, and to the llappy constitution of the country, ,vere translnitted to Ilia Royal IIighness froln the Brethrell in every quarter. The Lodges in town· and country vied v;ritll each other in expressiol1sof duty and affectioll to the Grand Master; ana •. in various addresses to l1is Royal Higllness testified su.bmission and obedience to the la\vs, and an ardent wish to support that well-l~egulatedforln of government, from whicll they and their ancestors had derived tIle invaluubleblessings of liberty, so truly" essential to the l1appilless of his l\Iajesty's subjects in general,anc1 to the propagatioll of those 1,rinciI)les \Vllich c1istinguisl1 the Craft ofl\;fasons i11l)articular-ulliversal charity, brotherly love, and peace. 011 tlle 21st· of June, tIle Bretllrel1 in the C011nty of Lincoln trallsmittedth,eir grateful acltl1o\vledgnlents to his Ro:yal Ifighness in a COlUnll1 of heart of oak, \vhicll ,"vas l)resented by the Rev. \1Tilliaul Peters, their ProviIl.. . cial Grand l\Iaster. Stinlulated b)r the sanle 111otiv"e, several other Lodges cOI)ied the exaulp]e ;anclon tIle 7tIl of January, 1793, the If'reClllaSOl1S of Corn-vvall 1111alliInouslyvoteclanAddress to his Royal IIighness, ""Thiell was presented by Sir John St. Aubyll, their Pr.ovincial GrandMaster, and most graciously reeeived. In short, one spirit seemed to animate the, whole:E'raternity, ,vho joyfully hailed the rising splendour ar~dpros!)erity of the

Craft. TIle Frencll revolution, which, in extent t111cl ilnportef1ect, is 1.1Ilquestionably the 1110St 1110111entous event· that has. happened since the religiolls ]~evolutions in.'Europe at the .begillning of the sixteentll centul"y, having unfortunately given rise, at tllis tinle, to Inany unha!)py disse'Dsions, whicll spread their contagion lUll0ng S0111e of the inllabitants of this island, it heeaule necesS8l1-y to counteract the measures of those lllistaken individuals vVllO vvereendeavouring to sow the seeds of anarchy, and l)oison the minds of the 11eol)le against his Majesty's goverllmel1t t and the excellent constitution under which theycl1joyed the invaluable blessings of liberty and property. l'his induoedmost of tIle cOflJorate bodies

ance of


OF MASONRY.

231

in the kingdonl,· and all the true friends to the constitution, to stem the torrent of opposition, and, promote, ill their different departnlents, a just sellseof tIle advantages enjoyed under tIle present government. Hence,addres·ses to the throne V\TeTe· daily preseIlted, \vitll aSSllrUllces of a determination to support the nleasures of adnlinistration; and anlong the rest, it "vas c1eenlec1 pro!)er that the Society of l\fasons, by adding tlleir Illite to tIle nun1ber, shoulcl show that attachnlent to the King and Constitlltion \Vllicll the lavvs of the Order enjoilled. Accordingly, on the 6th of Februar~y", 1793, tIle Grand Lodge unanimously resolved that tIle following Address should be presented to. his ~Iajesty, by his Royal Higl1118sS; \vho, ill cOlnpliance with the request of his Brethren, condescended to present it in . person to his Royal Parent, by vvhom it ,vas most graciously received: rro the Ii-lNG'S l\Iost Excellent l\IA(JI~Sf.rY. The hun~ble .ilddrt;S8 of the Grand Lodge (~r the Ancient Fraternity Free and ..i1.ccepted J.llasons under the Cons titution if

England. }\:fost (§raciotls Sover(~igll, 'At it thno '\Vh011 nCl,trly the "\VIlolo nlussof the people ·anxiQusly press forward, and ofthr, '\vithonc lloart nnd one voice,. the most anima.. ted testhnonics of theirattaelnncl1t to your 1\Iajesty's ])erson &ul Goverl1Illent, and of their unabated zeal, nt this period of ~l1l1oYnti()u and anarchy in other countries, fOl" t.h(, unequalletl Constitutioll of their OW'll, perIl1it n hod,r of nlCU, Sire, ,vhieh:- though not blown to the la,\ys, has heen ever obedient to t.hem-lnen ,vIlo do not yield to any descriptio1l of your l\Iajesty's subjects in the love of the'h~ conn... try, in true allegiance to their Sovereign, or in any other of the <1ntics of It good Citizen-to upproneh you "with this public, deelaration of their politicall)rinciples. 'rho Urnes, they think, clernnnd it of theul; and th(~y 'wish uot to be anlollg the last, in sueh tinl€S, to· throw thei'r weight, whato'1'erthat Illaybe, into tilO settlo of Or<.1(~r, SubordinAtioll~ alId good· C~'ov()mment . It is ,vritten, Sire, in the Institute of our O:;rder, that wo shnlI not, at our 111.eetings, go illtO· ~elig.i(}us or politieal.discusS~Oll; bocH"use) cornpoRed (as (nl! FraternIty IS) of Inert of . varlOUS natlons, professing ·<1iffercllt 1~ule8 of faith, and attachod to opposite 8'ystclns f)f govemIneut, such. diseussiolls,sha.rpening the rnin<1 of I1HUl against. hi::; hrotl:l(~r, luight offend ana disunite. A cTisis, hfrwevor, sfJuulooIted for as th(~ p'i'(~sent, ,justifies to our juagln(:~nt n l*c\luxn.tion of tha*rule ; u.nd, our fh'st duty u.s Britol1s supors(~ding aU othc'l'oousidHrations, ,yO add, "tithout fw,ther pauso, our yoico to tlu~t of ou,r fellolv.. subjects, inft(!elttring one ('couunOll and forvent o.ttaohment to n. government hy K,ing, 1~ora8, a.nd C{)1nrn.(H1S, ns established by tho glorious Revollltion·of 1688. The excenence of all human illStitUtiOllS is comparatiYe and fleet..


232

ILLUSTRATIONS

ing: positive perfection, or unchanging aptituc1e to its object, we know, belongs not to the "work of luan; but, 1vhell '\ve view the prin... cipI(?s of governrnent 1vhich have l'ecently obtnillec1 in OTHER NATIONS, a.n~l then look upon OUR O'VN, '\ve exult in possessing, at this tiIne, the wisest and best poised systeul the,Yorld has ever kno'\\"ll:a systenl 1vhieh affords ]~QU.AL protection. (the only EQUi~,LrrY ,ve look for, or that, indeed, is praoticable) .and iUlpnrtial justice to all. It Inay be thought, perh~tps, being whatwoare,a private society of 111eU-COlll1€cted by invisible . ties,--professing secrecY-lllysterious in our lueetil1gs,-sta.mped by no .A.ct of I)rerogative,-and acknow-

l<:dgBd by 110. ht'\v, we

aSSUU1C t1port and hold a lnnguago upon this occasion, to '\vhich ,ve can urge 110 legal or adulitted right. 'Ve are thefi-eecitizcns, S~re, of ttfree state, and number llluny thousandsof ourbody.-The Heir . .4..pparent oj. the emJ)ire is our ClzieJ: We fraternize for the purposes of social intercourse, o.l111/utual assistance, oj· chari/II to the distressed, and gOOd-'lDill to aU: and jidelity to a tr'ltst, ?-everence to the 'lnagistrate, and obedience to the la/las, a·re sculptU1"ed in capitals ulJon the jJcdirnent of our Instil'utio'n. 1'\11(1 let us add that, ptlrvacUng as w'e do every class of the cOlllInunity, und cVQry walk of life, auel dissCll1illating our principles '\yhercver ,vo strike root, this . A ddross llHty be eousidere<.1 as speaking, in epitolne, the sentinH~nts of It people.. lIaving.t.llUs . attHstetl .Ollr prillciplc..s, 'va. lUlyconlyto irnplore the Suprmuo J.\rehitect of theUlliverso, whose Altn(ghllf luznil ha.th laid fn the dct']J· thc)irln .loundation. of thi_s country's ij;re;zlncss, and 'whose p'totect.in/;5' ~shielcl hath covert?d her llJnidst the crash oJ" nation.s', that lIe willcontinne to shelter and sustain her. J1:1(0/ her sons be contented, and her dall..ghters ha~PP~1J! and lilay your l\I[~j'esty, the inuneditlte iustrulnellt of 1H:1" pr(3Sent })l'osperity ana p<.Hver,-to ,,,110n1 ul1biassed posterity shall thus inscribe thecolulun : Y

'ro GgOROB, the Frien<1 of the People, and l)n.tron of the .A.rts which brighten and ombellisl1 lifet

'Vith your arniablo Queeu,. and your l'oyal Progeny, long, .long .colltinuo to he the .hlt~ssing nIld tho boast of u. grateful, lUtppy, ll.n(l unitotl people! G.i.YCU u ..·nunitn.ous,:.ly , in Grand Lodge, at :V""re'enlasons'-I:Iall, this

6th of

~'obruarr,

1793.

(Cuuntersigned) WILI.IA:\!

WUl'rg, G·. S.

(Signed)

RAY~l"l)ON,

!)ErrER

A.. ({.. l\I.

I) ARKEU, ]).. G . l\f.

For the Grand l\faster's attention to the interests of presenting the above lo}'"alaI1d afIectionate Address, the (lra.nd I.. odgcllnaninlously voted tIlt: following . A.ddress to his RO}Tnl IIighness: tlleSoeiet~y, in

'1'0 his lloyal IIightu.s8 the :PRINCl;J q( \VAI.lES, C{.rfuul 1lfastc'r of the 1110sl ,.Ancient aru:l . Rt>llourablf! Societyqj"· It'ree alul.A.ccepted lifaBtJUs.

~lost \Vol"shipful

and 1~()Y1U Sir, Accust()llle<1. tLS w'e have boen, from the hour WhOIl your lUlIne first adorned tho roll of our Orat~r, to the mauly vigour of ,your Irliu(1, and


OF MASONRY.

233

,the winning benignity of your lnanners,we didnot look for any event which could. raise you in our estimation,. or draw. yOll nearer to our affections. 'Vith you. at our head, ,ve have seen our reputation advanced. in the opinion of our felloyv~stlbJects,our system expand itself, and.Q.(lc1ec1 honour ttllc1 increasing prosperity lie ill unclouded prospoct before us. . rrhesc things 've nscribe~ to you, Sir, as to th.eir !,rollcr source ;anc1 yet the silent hOlnag(_~ of the heart has b'3en hItherto·. the only l·eturn V{t1 haye lnac10 you. Snch, ho\vever, has been the generous alacrity 'with \yhich y()<ur I~oj'"al lIighncss has offered to present to flis ~Iajesty the accolupallyiug tribute of· our fervent loyalty to him, and of our unshaken attacilluent to that Constitution, 1vhich (happily for these nations) at once con:6.rnls his possession and your inheritance, ancl all the rights of all the people; and such the sense we entertain of the proud distinction you have thus conferred. upon our Body,. that it ,vere inconsistent ,vith our honour, we· think, as well as irksonle to our feelings, to' continue .longer silent. Accept. then, Royal Si.r, our ,,'"[~rlnest aud lllost dutifulacknowleogments for your graciousoondescensiol1 upou' this (to us) rnost momentolls occasion. l\Iay lIe, hy 'wholnkillgs govern tLn<1 clnpires prospE~r, shower upon yonl" l=toyal Pt~rcnt, yourself, tUHl tho "wholo of your illustrious line, his choicest blessings! l\la:v you all long {;xist in the hearts of n. bravo and people; ancI Britain trh.lul.phallt, hereneulies bo debased! her aekno,vledged superiority, re... turning peacp, unu tho l'evereneo of resenled nations, per.. petuute thef~:Llne of her virtlles, t.he inilu(~n(~t1 of her eXfllnple,and the \v(~ight Hndauthority of h(~l~ douliniou'! .By tho ullanhnous order of the (j.ratl<1 Ltldga, (Collutersigned) ' . (Signod)~A'VDO;N, A.G.l\tf" WILLIAM

·'Vllrrlll,G·.S..

.

!)E'l"En I)Al!I~l~l~,D"G.. M.

While tllese l)roo£~' of the prosperity of the Society in England \vere llniversally sllreac1 tl1rougllollt the kingdom, accounts ,\vere dajly~ transrnitted of the raIlid l)rogressof the Institution in difl(~rent parts of the \vorld. 1\.Iany respeetable and c1igniH.ec1 elurrrteters llad Cl1rol1ed their ualnesul110ng the !:'raterI1ify: ancI it is \~litll SOUle degree of satis!itetion, that tllllong thern \ye 118ve .to record the name of the King .Sweden,\vllOWas illitilttt~dthe Order at I~odgeof Stockbolm, 011 22u(lof March, 1793, tIle ausIlices of Cbarles I)uke of Btlderrrlania, of the kingdonl, Wll0 pr(~sided as (~'ra!la Master on occasion. j':>l·'etllren in ,AJ11eriea at tllis 11criod seenl' to zealous in eXl)ressing a at*h~ llrotectors (.frand lJ01Xll][lOIl\V«ZHLt:tn of in No'rtll Amt~riea,hnving nearly ~ltrraIlged their Constitutions, tranSlllitted a cOllY oftheru to Genal'al Wasllington, with the following Address: 17


234

ILLUSTRATIONS

Address of the Grand Lodge qf Free and .AccelJted Masons of. the Oomn~onu)ealtho..rMa8Sachu$(:tt8 in "llorth .l11nerica, to their B'rother GEORGE 'VASIlINGTON.

'\Vhilst the historian is describing the career of your glory, and the inhabitants of an extensive empirearo made happy ill YOtu' unexampled exertions; ,yhilst SODle celebr£1te tIle IIero, so distinguished in libera.ting United America, ancl others the Patriot ,vho pl'esides over hel' councils; a band of brothers, having nlways joined the acclaluations of their countrymen, DO'V testify their respect for those IllUder virtues whichhave ever graced the nUtll. Taught by the precepts of our Society, that all its membe'J's stand upon a LEVEL, we venture to assume this station, and to approach you with that freedom which diminishes our diffidence, without lessening our respect. Desirous to enlarge the boundaries of social happiness, and to vindi,cate the ceremonies of their Institu.tion, this Grand Lodge has published a "Book of Constitutions," (and a copy for your acceptance accoillpanies this,) which, by discovering the principles that actuate, ,yill speak the eulogy of the Society, though they fervently wish theconc1uct of its Inenlbers Ina.)'" prove its higher 00111Inelldation. COllyinced of his attachment to its cause, und readiness to encourage its ·bcnevolent designs, they lw.ve taken the Iibel"ty to dedicate this ,vork to· one, .the .qualities of whoso hea.rt, and the actions of 'vhose life, .hn.ve cOlltributed to impro,\r(} persolllll virtue, and extoll.d throughout the 'lvorld thH lllost endearing corc1iaUties; and they hurnhly hope ho 1vill pardon this £rGedOnl~ and accept the tribute of their ostporn an(l hornnge. 1\10,)"' the Supreille .A.rchiteet of the Universo protect ana bless :Y'()U, give you ·length of days und increase of felicity ill this 'world, and then l'eceive yot! to the harmonious and exc:tltecl Society in IIon.Vt~ll! JOHN. CUTLBR, G.M..

1.30ston, Dec. 27, .A... L.5792.

JOSIAIIBAR'l'LET,S .. G.. 'V..

l\IuNoo

MACI~A'~r,

J.G;\V..

To this Address, General \Vasl1ingtoll returned the following Answer.: Answer to the G:U,AND LODGE 0] Free and Acce1Jle,l J.1[asons oj

JJllassach 1/,setls.. J:t'lattering as it ITU1Y he to the hurnal1 rninc1, ancl t,ruly honourable as it is, to recoive frorH our feIl<:nv-citizells testimonies of approbatiou for exertions to prOnl()te the public welfare; it is not less pleasing to know, thut tho rnild(~r virtues of the heart arohighly r<~speotcd l:>yn Society ,vhoso liberal principles are founded in the 'ilnm,utllble laws of truth . j lt8ticl~ .. '1'0 enlarge th<1 sphclro of social happiness is ,,'orthy thl3 l}(l)u:;~,~olcnt design of ~t l\lnsoIllo. Illstituti<:nl; u.nd it i~ ·lnost'ft~rV(nltly b> be ,vish.. ed, th:lt the conduct of ~lvery nU'lnbel" of thn ~'raterllit..Y''' as 'V'ell as those p uhlieatiollS thatdi8(~(JYel' tIlt, principles \vhich aetru~te t]U31U, may teHllh> e()llvillCe nULnkind, tluLt the grand objt.?et ql j~Iasonry is, to l~t!Jntole the ha.ppines8 qf. the hzunan raCl~. Whilo I beg :rour acc(~ptatlce ()f Illy thauks for the "Book of 0014stitut'ions," ,vhieh you httve sent nUh aud for the honour you have


OF MASONRY.

236

aone me .in the Dedication, permit me to assure you, . that I feel all those emotiollsof gratitude which .your affectionate Address and cordial wishes nre calculated to inspire; and I sincerely pray, that the Great Architect of the Universe may' bless you here, and receive you hereafter into.. his irnu10rtal temple! GEORGE W ASmNGTON.

Fronl this we perceive that the Society of Freelnasons in AU1erica continlled to flourisll under the auspices of

General 'Vashington, who continued his patronage to the Lodges till his death. Tllis·great Inan,who displayed in his OvVll person tIle rare c0111billation of military and pacific talents, of general and stateslnan, and evinced ··in private life the IllOst endearing Inanners and unblemislled probity,diec1at llis seat at l\IollntVernon, ill Virginia, of all inflallllnation ill his· throat,oll the 14tll of December, 1799. ()n the 18t}1, his rell1ain.s were consigned to the tOlllb ,vitIl the 1110St solenll1 funeral pOlllp. TIle processiol1 froll1 l\IOUIlt \T ernOl1 \vas forlued about thl-ee o'clock. in the afternoon, and rnovecl to the place of .his internlent ill tlle foll()''\;ving order: ill. tho rivet- anuounced the conuuencernent of tho ceremony. Cttvalry, Infa.ntry, and Guards, nUl,ro}lod with arms· reversed. l\lusic-Clergy;. The General's horse, 'with hissacldle, .holsters, &1(1 :pist-ols.. Tho Corpse, supported hy Colonels Little, 1\farstelle, GilpIn, Payne, l~anlSa}"', HIla SimlUS, as pall.. bearers. At the head of the coHin ,vas inscribed, Surge all ju.cliciu'rn; ..:\.bout .the rniadle, CfZoria Deo; A.11d on the silver plate, ,. C;'eneral GEORGE '\'tASHINGTON departed this tije on the 14th oj" Dl;cem,ber, 1799, ..JEtatis 68." 'fhe l\Iourllcrs, ~Iasonic 13rothrell, and· Citizens, closed the procession.

l\iinute guns fronl

tt .vesst\l

Hl1ving nrrivedat tIle l)ottonl of the elevated lawn on the l)an}is of thePotoIl18C, where· the family vault is placed, the Cilv~11ry balted,all(lthe infantry mar?hed to'Vvard the 1\lount und forrned their lines. TIle clergy, l\Iasonie Bretllren, and eitizens, then descended i.nto tIle vault; when the ftlneral service \YUS 11erforn1ed. Afterlvhich thr(~e general diseharges ,\tel'e given 1))l" the infantry, \vhile the cttvalr:l and eleven I)ieces of artillery,which liIled the bnnks of tIle !>otolnac at the buck of the vault,

paid the last trihute of respeet to tlleir venerable departed lu~ro, aIld tIle firing ,vas repeated from the vessel in the river. .


236

IuLtTSTRA TrONS

At a llleeting ofthehollse of represelltatives ill Philadelphia,onthed,ay follo\ving thiscerenl011Y, it ~?as voted that aC0111111ittee should be appointed, in conjunction witll one fronl the senate, to consider the nlost suitable 111e8,118 ofpayil1g honour to the 111e11101"Y of this great .111t111, Wll0 ranked first . ill \val'",first ill peace, and first in the llearts of l1is countrynlen; it was also re.. solved, that the hOllse ShOlllcl "\vait 011 the Presidellt of the. United States, to express their COllc1olenceon the lnournful evellt; that the speaker's. chair should he covered witll black, -and that all the 11le111bers and officersof tIle house should appear ill deep 111ol1rlling during the session. Thus were denl011strated the \Varll1est testimonies of affectioll of [1 grateful 11eol)le, to the 111elTIOry of their truly benevolent oilief, vvllo justly l11eritecl the esteeul of llis CoulltX)T, his brethren, and llis friends. Ullder tIle auspices of his Royal Higllness the Prince of Wales, ~lldtll(iilldefatigableexertionsoftheEarl of Moira, tIle progress of tile Societyin.EIlglall{lfal"ex~eed-. cd at tllis tinle tllatof any forlller l)er~od. The Lodges 110t Ol11y considerably il1creasecl in lllunbers and Cronsequenc.e, but \vere in gel1eral l.)etter regulated; and, the principles of the InstitutioIl being lllore clearly understood, the Brethren, both in to,\vn and COuIltrJ.r, vied ""vitll caell other ill prOll1oting the 11seful purposes of the Society.. 011 tIle 24tll ofSeptenlber, 1793, tIle Lodges ill the eonn1ty ofDurham made a grand procession tl1rougll the town of Sunderland, on layrIlgthefoundation-sto:ne of the bridge over tIle river Wear, WlllCh \VUS aftel路\v""al"ds 0l)elled 011 tIle 9tll of Allgust, 1796, in tllepresellce of his l~oyal Highness Prince 1Villial11 of Gloucester, the ll)agistrates, a Dl.llllerOUS assen1blage of l\fasolls, and ~1 vast concourse ~fspectators. .()n tIllS occasioll, agl~and triuIlllJlutl arch, decorat'ed'\vith flo,~rers,'W~as raised, .thrall,gIl "\l\rhich the l)!oeessionpassetl, .and l)l~OCeecled along the llridge, to the n,orthside of .tIle river, tIp to the lirnekilns, al~d returned by路 the' low road tlll"Ougll the dry~ nrcll o~路. tIle bridge to the. Pan Ferry, tllel1C(~to the路 of the bridge, ,~"'llere the Lodge 'vas forr.ned, ana an orlltion delivel~ed by tIle Rev. Mr. Nesfield.. rrhe,vholt~ cernul0ny was conducted u,!ld~r ~he l)atronageof Ro\vland Burdon, Esq., M. P., Provlncutl Grand J.\cfaster for the county.


OF

~IASONRY.

237

The Lincoln l11ilitia attel1ded, and·fired. three volleys on the occasion. '1'he Brethren thell proceedec1 to churcll, .wl1ere an apIJrOIJriate serlllOll was l)Teaclled by tIle Rev.1Ir.• Brewstel". Fronl cl1l1rch the l)fOCessioll was resull1ed to tIle Asselnbly-r00111, wllere the evelling ,vas eOllcludec1 with -the greatest harlnony. , 011 l\lonc1ay, tlle 25th of NOvcll1ber, 1793, the Prince of 1l{ ales laid tIle first stolle of tlle N e\v C11a11el at Bl"igl1thel111stolle. fIis Royal Higll11ess was accompanied frOlll the Pavilioll to tIle appropriated place by tIle Rev. IVIr. I-Iuc1son, tIle vicar, Th1r. Saulldel·s, &e. On cODling to tIle grouIld, 1\11". ··Saunders. addressed his RO;TaIHigllness, and said, that:rus constrnctor of the building, tIle higll llonour was allotted to hinl of pointing out to the Prillce tIle situatioll \vhere the stone \vas intended to belJlaced; and he resl)ectfull~y' requested that, as Grand l\Iaster of the Masons, he \vou1d he l)leasec1 to signify \\~11etl1er or not it. 111et ''lith his 3I)pl"ohation.. ()~l receivillg assurance that it did, tIle ston,o,. "\\'rith the follo\ving inscril)tion, ,vas laid in dueforlll:~ " 'l'his stone \vas laid l)y his I~oyalIIighneS! GEORGE PRINCE of'v"'ALEs, Novenlber 25, 1793.. " On l\Ir. Sal1nc1ers covering it \,"it11 a plate of l:netal, he desired leave to say, 'rhat ho\vever late the period l:night be before it \vas again eXI>osec1 to the fhee of day, and he sincerely' ,,,,ished that it 11light l)e t1 vel~Y distant one, lIe l10pefl tllat tIle descendants of llis Itoyal IIighness's august fillnily' \vould he found, as no\,", hapl?ily goV(~rlling a happy' !)eoI)Ie.. l\Ir.. IIudson then. respectfully addressedtllBP11nce, and. desired l)er:rnissiol'l to returIl .llis .•' nlOstsincere and gratefhl tllHl1ks to his Royal. IIighness for tlH:~ honour he

y t '..o' 1.1i.ll.l..i. 1.1. 1.')(..··l.r. .tic.•..l. J,.lu.T t.l.S 1. \.1·0.. -. 1.'.1.,a. d.· t.].'.l ~:.l.t (.].·.~.l.. ,J i dol1el1."Jo.t.I <.)1.11 prietor, b\.lt to to\vn ~~t large; and 110 hOIled tlHrt <3oel wOll1dgive his blessing to the undertaking- thus beg'uIl" and long I)resprve his lioyal .1Jiglllless, their l\I[~jestjes, and every bl"clneh of royal furuily, to our invaluahle, lllu:~qualled,

u11<l long-errvied Cionstituti~)n in churehrlud state. The day !)rovec1 fhl'e,arld acClan'lu.tions of the 8urroulldillg cro\vd· sllo\ved ho\v Inucll they "\vere gTutified


238

ILLUSTRATIONS

with suchan instance of goodness i l l the Pl~illce, \VllO, at tIle saIne tiIne, was both a residellt in, and a protector of, tlleir town and liberties. The Prince ordered a handsome distriblltion to the worklnen, &c. ,TIle promenade gardens \vere laid 011en, and the cornpanywasentertained witll refresllInents. A party of gentlemen dined at the Castle, and some lines were, composed and sung on the occasion. Among' the' masonic OCCllrrences of this year, it may be proper to Inention the publication of a periodical l\fiscellany, entitled, The Free1nasons' ]}[agazine; or General andCOlnplete Library: the first nllll1ber of 'Vllicll appeared ill June, 1793, and a Illlmber was contillued to be published Inonthly till tIle end of Deee111ber, 1798, ,,,hen its title "vas changed. Illclependent of tllis }\lagazine being a general repository for every tiling curious ~lnd ilnportaut in Mason'ry, it contained a, cll0iceselection of miscellaneol1s and literary articles, well calculated for th'e purpose of general instruction and ilIlpl路ovenlent, and ,vas for sorne time honoured with 'tIle sanction of tIle Grand Lodge. On the 4th of June, 1793, the Shakspeare Lodge at , Strutford 011 A VOIl was opeIled, and dedicated ill solemn fOfIll, in tIle presence of [1 Illl111erOUS assembly of Bretllren froln different Lodges. The cerenlouy "vas conducted with the gre!ttest order and regularity, under the direction ()f Mr.'路Jalnes Till1111ins, ,D. P., G. 1\1. for the County of Warwick. On路 the 28th '"of July, 1794,' the Royal Brunswick Lodge at Sheffield was constituted in due fOrill. r!'he Brethren nlade a very elegant procession to St. Janles'schurch, ,vhere an excellent sel路1110n ,,~"'as preached by tlle ,Rev. BrotherChad\vick: after Wllicll the !)l"ocession was resunled to the Lodge; \Vllen theeeremony ofdeclicatioll took place. Severalantbelns and, !'>saI111Ssuited to the occasion' were sung, and the \vhole' "vas concluded V\rith a liberal subscriptioll to the poor girls' Charity School. On the 31st of July, 1794, the Lodge of Allollo at Alcester ""vas' constituted in dueforln, ill tbe'I)resence of 121 I3rethren.At ten in the morning, a I)rocession was made to the church, where ~1 serlnon Vi,rasl)reached before the Lodge by the Rev. Brotller Green. After whicll the Bretllren returned to the Irall; vV1H~Il the cel-enloniesof


OF MASONRY.

239路

consecr<ltion and dedication toolt place, according to ancient usage. The Prince of Wales's 111arriage with the Princess Catoline of Brunswick 11avi11g tal\.en place on tIle 8th of April, 1796, the Grand Lodge 011 tIle 15th of tllat Inontll unanimously voted tIle following Address to his Ro~y路al IIighness 011 the occasion : To his Royal Hig;7zness the PRINCE of \VALES, Grand: JJ!faste'r of the 7nost Ancient and I-Ionowrable Society of Free and Accepted Masons unde'r the Constitution of England. l\:fost \Vorshipful and Royal Grand ~Iaster : Upon' anevellt so, important to your own happiness, and to the interests ,of the British empire, as the late,lluptials of your Royal Highness, we feel ourselvespeculiaxly bound to testify our ,joy, &lcl to offer our hUlnble, congratulations. . To affect a degree of gratifica.tion superior to that professecl" by others, when all his ,lVIr0csty's suhjects exhibit such heartfelt satisfaction at the union ,'v'hieh ron have fOl1.nec1, '\voulc1, perhaps, bo in us au undue pretension; '\,'0 cannot, IH)'\vryv'er, but be proudly conscious, Sir, that we possess fi title beyond 'what any other elass of luell can advance, to approach :y路OU Up011 an occasion like the present ,,"ith r" tender of our, particular duty. \V'hen your I~oyal,Ilighness deigned so fttr to hOIlour the Craft as tQ, accept tho trust of prcHsidiug over us, the condescension not ' "only autllorized,' but, denutndedfrom all" and each of us El.' peculiar ,sonsibility to whatever might oOlloern'1our ,velfare;andthe tit)sof brotherhood, with which you invested your... self ill beconling ,ono of' our lluulher, "entitle, us to eXJ,>ress, without fear of incurriug any chnrg(, of prosumptioll, tho satisfaction w-o fecI in conteu1plating such an accession to tho prospects of the nation, ana to those of your O'Vll felicity. rrhat tht) interests of" your l~oyal JIighness and those of tho British people lOUy (~Yor continue as strictly united as ,vo feel thClll in this Inost auspicious is the wn,rrnest ,visIl, Hud, at tho sarne thllc, the confident trust, those who hold it the highest 110Ilour ttl have your lHU1l0 enrolled in the records of theh" Institution. rro the oblign.ti.OllS which tho Brethren already o,\votoJou, Sir, it will bt~ a nutterlal"additioIl", if will' rendera.ooeptable tG' your royal Consort the humble homage, our von-emtiQD,&11d ()f our' prayers for ev(~r'y possiblo blessing upon your union.. By the llIU1nlDlOUS order or the 'Gr~u.Hl1~otlgu, (Signed) :rrrOIUA, .li. G'. 1\.拢. (C(}unt(~rsignea) (L. 'S.) WILLIA){Wl'lrrl~, fl. S.

l'he l'tight lIon. tIle ]~~arl of1\foira at the lwequest of the' Gr~ln(lI..lodge, I)resented the to'tbe P-rin(~e of ,~rales, "Iris Itoyal lIigltuess was graciously pleusedto return thn The Grmld l\I&'5tf~r oftheCnt.f't; which

follo~riIlg answer:-

r<~ceiv'ea 'with bJT(~nt

satisfaction the Address us tlotindioating solely th(~il" senti~


240

ILLUSTRATIONS

Inents to\yarcls hiln, but us also repeating those declarations of devotion to their Sovereign and attaclUllellt to tho I-Iouse of BrUllS\vick, heretoforeso beeorningly expressed by theln. lIe has had peculiar pleasure in' explaining to the Princess of Wales their' loyal congratulations; and he desir(~s to COllyey to the Brethren the sincere thanks of the Princess for their generous wishes..

, A grand feast \vas held at Freenlasons'-I-Iall 011 the 13th of 1\lay, 1795, tlie Grand ~Iaster in the chair. I-lis Itoyal Highness was aO'colnpanied by the Dllke of Clarence, and Prince -VVilliaul of Gloucester, \Vyho had beell initiated at an occasional Lodge convened for the purpose on tIle preceding evening.. Five hundred Brethren ,\yere also present at this feast. Happiness "vas visible ill every countenance, and the benevolent principles of ~Iasonry cheered the heart. IIis RO'yal lIighness thanl\.ed tIle Brethren fbr the Ulan)" instances he had receiycd of their attacl1111ent, alltl fbr the repeated honours they' had conferred ·011 hiul.J1.fter expressing his ¥larlnest. vvislles for the l>l"osperity of tlleSociety, 11e COI1Clude(1 \vith it handSOUleCOlllplinlent to· the Acting G-rarlc1 l\:~aster, the Earl of l\Ioira, \VhOlll he styled "rl'he luan of his lleart, alld the frit~nd he uc1nlired;" and sincerely 11ol)ec1 that he 111igllt long live to 8uI)erintend the governrnent of the Craft, and exte:nd the 11rinciples of tIle l1rt. .'

SECT. XIII. TkeHistoryoj-'Jfason1?J!j-oln the Gt'and. Feast i'it 1796 to the encl· of the ·lreai, 1800. No relnarkable event took l)laee in the Society frolll the festival in 1795, till the year 1797. rrhe ~.Y''',,'.Jt',..'\+'.. . 0+ har1110ny prevailed arnong the Brethrell dllrin~ period, and lunny' nvaluable additions \vere n-u~Hle to the list of Lodges. 'fhe general eorltributions to table fhnds ,vere like'\·vise eonsideral)l y'" extend(~d;· and the anul.Htl reI)orts· frOIl1 the l)rovineial (}rtrnd l\.fnsters, in their respective clistricts, announced the prosperity" the

Craft. TIle only'" cirCUlustallce ""hiell tended to ardQllr of i~he I3rethren for the !)rol)agation of either at hOlllC or abroad, ,,~as the !)ublicatioll

the

Art, some


OF MASONRY.

241

tracts, which stated that a new sect of·philosophers had ill Germany alId France, who ·had a:'ffiliated tllemselves to the Society of l\fasons, and llac1,under that sanctiol1, established· Lodges, for the 1110re extended disselnination of tIle princil)les of tlleir rie\V theory. To these philosopllers ,vas attributed the design of destroying Christit1l1ity,U9 and subverting all the regular govern111ents arisen

of Eurol)e.

The degrees 'of l\Iasonry were understood

to be IJreparatory steps tothisne,v establisll111ent, and fronl tl1at Society \vere selected the pril1Cil)al ll18Inbel"s of whiell tl1is sect ,~vas composed. In their occult Lodges, as they were terlnec1, \vere inCtllcatec1 the seeds of those dangel'ous prinpil)les 'W~11ich llUd brougllt about tIle FreIlc}lrevollltion,al1d produced all tIle evils vVllich had resulted. il·OIll it.. TIle circulntioll of tllese l)llblicatiol1s excited a general nlarnl, and for 801110 tinlecheelted the l)rogress of the Society in Europe; till, tIle rnystery l)cing' . it \yas fOllnd, that the constitutions of ?,Ias()nr\" did not 'vvarrallt the }lfOCeedings of this Ile\V systen.l: ·'and that, therefbre, ne,v degrees ]1ucl beell irlsti tnted lUlder tIle saUle appellation, to carry into efri~c't .the. !)lllI)oses of these l1e\v nssocit:Ltes.The l\Iasons of this C01Jl1tl'")r, and nIl the Lodges under the Englisl1COllstitution, "\vere. fully ex.en~ptec1 fi'OIll allY slHtre ill the general c.ensure; but, as tIle Society v~tas nluell injured by' tllcse l)llblicatiollS, fL fO'\v rerna1'k8 on their contents Ina:>' llotbe lllHlcceptable to the reader. The first tract \Vllieh excited a1arnl \vrts un ()ctavo

VOh.1nle, entitled " I,..jif(~ of Liiullnerll1an, first Physieian to the ]~ing of l~ngl~lll(l atlIullover. J3y l)r. ~rissot. ". lfrornthis v~lork it apI)ettrB, that 01l(~ of the Hlost distinguished. ineidellts .of Zl1l1111ern13Jl'S lif(~ '~I'US n.. snnlll10nS\vlriell he rt~ceivoa frOtll the great ]'rederick, I{in~ ()f l?russia, to attend l:liul in his lclSt 1786. rl'hi~~opportunitythe doctor inlprovod, to a eonfidenthtl intereourse ,vith illustrious iroln \vhich he derived nUltt?ria]s an llarrath(~ ~.rst<~nl by t'xpuuging Y(~8tige of Christi. l(lehll'(l~, und px(~ludi.ng' thn 'I"esta,lIlont altogether fr<HU the I..iodges. . ()no of their fUIHlanH~utnl rul(~s ,vas to tho I()llowing (~fl:\:et :-u'I'ho:Bihle is to he of thn Jlobrew 'l'ext, UIla the l\lcw 'l'festam.ent 'is not £0 be bound up 'u,t it h. 'it. "-EDrron.•

99 rrhflY anity froul

.


242

ILLUSTRATIONS

tive, that he after\vards published. The partiality of this prince in favour of Zin1n1erman disposed hinl to a Teciproc~lgood opinion of. tllat.ln~narcll,·and in 178~ he

published "A Defence of Fredenck the Great agaInst the COUllt de lfirabeau ;". which was followed, in 1790, by "Fraglnellts. on ]j"'rederick the Gxeat," ina vols. 121ll0. The.PllplicatioI:lsofZimmerman relative ·to this lting gave offencetosolne individuals and s11bjected llim t~maIl,.Y severe criticisms, which he felt withlnore sel1sibilitythanaccorded with his peace of milid. The religious and political opinions whicll he had imbibed in his latter years, were in wide contradiction to the princil)les which had so generally spread over Eurolle, and,vhich operated as perpetual fuel to· tIle irritabilit:y of ·llis nervous systeul. About this tin1e the rise of the· Society'- of the Illuminati in Ger111any, ""'rho were said to have coalesced with the FreeInasons, excited a violent C0111Inotion aJ.uong.ulen of letters,alld . ·reflection. The Soeiet)T \vas supposed,to llave in view Ilothing less thalltllt' abolitioIl of Christianity,al1d· the subversion of uJl constituted authorities. Its 11artizans expected fi"onl it th,e rnost beneficial refornls of every kind; and its 0l)l)Ollonts i~reac1ed fronl it every nlisehief that COllld haIlI)ell to mankind..Zin1111ernlan, "\vho is represented to IU1ve been a 11unter of sects, "vas arnong the first wh~ tool\.. u1arlnat this fornlidable association, alldsteppedforth to 0I>pose itspr()gre.ss., IIis regard for reIigioll, and social order, led llilll to see in.thenlost obnoxious light the pernicious principles ,of these newpllilosopllers. Deterlnillcd, therefore, to sUP1)ress tIle influence of their systenl, he painted in the strongest COloul;'ing all the ll1axinlS of this ne'v sect, a.nd addressed a 111enlorial to the IDnl!)erOr Leopold on the subject) \vitha view to cheek· theix further progress. The en11)eror very graciously" reeeived thislnemorial,ul1d returned 11illl all Ulls'Vver in Ids own hand-writing, acco1l11)anied wit}l asplelHlid I)resent.1oo Leopold seelued to be \vell-inelined to use tlecisiye interference of civil authority 011 this occasion,a.nd\xlould J)robably 11avehad recourse to violent JneaSllres the Illu111inati, had ,not the death of ZinlIllernUtn prevented it. 100

Thia wa.s a locket, adorned with diamonds and the ernperor's

cypher.


OF l\IASONRY.

243

The-numbet of tbenffiliate..d n1elnDers of tllisSociety, Zinl111erIl1an-says, increased daily, chiefly by the assiduity of·Baron de I{nigge, ,vho, ·in ·1782, first suggested the idea of illnnlinating the Society of li'reen1asous, and,\\rbo succeeded ill that object, frcnn IIanover to Copenhagen on one hand, and to Nal)les on the other. In 1788, the Brotherhood, he observes, \vere lIn ulaske<1, an<l drive:n Ollt of Bavaria; and in 1791 theil" pUI>ers \\.~el"H seized ut ]'funich and printed, but· IHJ discovery of iln110rtance ,,'8S lnade. 101 PreviOllS to tllC deatllofZimnlernlall,incolljtlllction \vitll·M. Hoffmann of Vienna,. he began aperiodicaJ work

011 the old principles. In this\vork all his fornler 'was disl)}ayed, and tIle lle\V philosophers '\vere attacked 101 Of this '" "rhether this sect the sarne \vith the (J(~suits,botll of '\vhich 8111)1)(.511'l01lt8 but in 177·1 or 1775" a Bavuria,of,.vhi(~h a ('~,(lletn'jltt(~tl regarded as thef~nlndel'" 'rhis :'"OI.£"\,'-·l"'T"'{T·"·ctl"l.,l

IHl.pI)in(~ss. of tho pt)opl(~t lUll} 8Ul)Pt)'~U1Jl inC()lnputiblo·with()v(~ry8I:e(~i(lsof rf~1.lij41.)'U8 at prosent existing, suid wItb ()JH~

the

ra:c the'ir

1~(':1'-r1

fo'urulatiotls" ·TIH~

{~hlded nnloug Itsn~yst(D;ious 'wbol(~ 'world, 'thf~ \vhole of

Sf~(~rt' .. t

lJ.t preS,t1nt expoSt~d

the whichtbe J(l.(~(:.hilla 'hn;\'(1 since put in practice; it has proved, l)y th(} lnost; fragnble dtlCllruents, that they Inaintained unintiluntn COJrI"eHJ)()n(l(~I:IC(l before tll(~ }'rench ~['lu'~ d(lgtru(~tiou religion, ana the ()f thr(UlO· n,nd()f uU gO\'('l'U" 't· ....\t"it"nr·I'H'l ....

)uents have

be(;~u

their

the

since y(~ar liiH.. ], t \vn;..; )\"pU u:::;s()(~iat(ls (tf this"" tlUtt th(~

niui (}Vt,"r

IHl\V


ILLus':rRATIONS

"vitI!' vehemence. This. occasioned a violellt repulse on their part; and the writers of tIle Bibliotheque Un.it~erselle, or Universal ~ibralry, as well as sonle of the l)est journalists, bore a cons,iderab Ie share ill the contest ill. 011posi tiol1 to' Zilnmerxnan and Hofflnaull; till the forlll<;l" got hil11self embroiled in a court of law, by a l'lublicatioll in the journal, entitled, "'The Baron de .Knigge unn)usl(ed, as an Illuminati, Democrat, and Seducer of the People." This charge was founded on a \vorl,- which vvas 110t openly a.vowed by the baroll, who cOlnnlellcec1 a suit against Zimlnerman on this aCCOuIlt as libeller; in \vhich the doct()r, being unable to exculpate hi111self, "vas cast. This state of warfare proved very unfj:ienc11y to the doctor's nerves, alld sensibly anectecl his Illind, '\vhich had been ll1uell agitated fronl it personal fear of the approach of tIle ~"rel1ch to\vards l!anover in 179.:1. rrhe idea of his beconlinga poor ernigrant pe11)etunlly' haunted hhIl.; llor could tlle negotiations \vhicl1uftel'\Varc1s tool.;. place, .and secured t11at country, restore lli111 to tranquillity. .lIe路 used' various rernedies to overcorne Iris ul)l)rellensiol1s, and even tool\. a jOllrne~y' for that l)urI)ose; but it ",vas fruitless.. 011 his return h01118, he en tered Ids habitation ,vith the saIne idea \vith \vh{cll he had left it, persuaded that he sa\v it I>illaged, and f~tneied tlult he ,vas entirely ruined. 1'his notion so strong1:y' irnl)ressed his Il1ind, that, togetberwith his abstinence fro III food, for fear of poverty,11e worea\va~r to 11,; sl\.eleton, l)eeanle decrepit, ~a,nd'at last died 011 the 7th of OctolJer, 17~)6, atthe age of 67. 1'he next tract Wl1ichdeserves notice is u translationlO~ of "The l\feuloirs of ;facobinisnl in E'rance," in II vols. 8vo.. , by the Abbe Barruel. In tllis w~ork tlH路~ Abbe endeavours to sho\v t that there existed on the cont.inent, long before the~-'rench revolution, a threefbld consl)irac)T to effect the ruin of the altar, the throne, and all social order. rl'he first consI)irncy \VUS forlned b)r ,a sect of philosophers, wbo airned to destroJr the altars of tJt~SUS Chris~ and his Gospel,,: tille s~cond '\vere tIle sophists of rebellIon, '1\'110 conspIred agaInst. the tlH~OlH~S of and \Vll0 had afliliated thcrllselves to the ._I路~".lIT"路"" masons, engrafting on that institution 10:t

By tho IIou..

l~oborrClifford

.


OF MASONRY.

245


246

ILLUSTRATIONS

e:xhi,pitiQn, he is obliged to

havel~ecollrse

toa strange

Ia:a'guage and to'a ,Bavariall cloister for their origin; and

froll1 a, vvallt ,of facts, to sUI-li,ly, frol11 llis O\Vl1 i111agil1atiOll, ,by ingenious il1terpret~1tions,.the lessons \Vl1ich 118 can Dowhereelse discover. . The,Abb,e's infor111atioll"\vith1,4espectto "the Illulllinati may,perhaps,bej'ust, in.so far' 'as respects tIle establishment of that sect, anc1 their deviation frOll1 the Englisll

Lodges;,but betweellthe genuil1el\Iasons of Gerluanyanc1 thei~Brethren ill

Englalld there has long subsisted tIle nlQst friendly intercOllT'Se; alld it cannot ,othervvi,se 1)8, in any country '\vhere ]yfasonry iSCOllducted according to th~pure principles of the institlltion" The next publication wllich clain1s our attention is, a

,vorl\. entitled, "Proofs of a Consl)iraey against all the Religions and Governnlents of Europe, carried on in tIle

Secret IVleetings of lrreelnasons, IIIlI1Tdnati, and Reading Societies. By John Robison, l\f. A.., Professor of Natural ~hilosopl1Y, and Secretary to the ROY'al Society of J~din颅 burgh." This worl\:,like tIle fornler, aiuls at l)roving that a seeretassociatioll had been fornled, and f()l'" rnany years carried 011, for rooting out all the religious establishluents, and overturning all the existilJ.g governnlents of Europe: and that this association lul.cl en11)loyed, as its chief instruIi1ents, tIle Lodges of Freenlasons, vvllO ,were under the direction of llIll\.nown, sllperiors, and whose' enlissnries were every\Vl1el"e busy to.' con1I)lete tIle schetne.pr" the"rise "路and l:)rogress, of ,this soeiet~y in F.ranoeheaffeets.togive an aCCOlIIlt, ",rllic}lagrees in tl.le 111aill witIl' that of the Abb6 Bal~ruel, 11y alledging that several of its 111ostingeniolls alld indefatigable 111ernbers were ,active Jj-'reen1as'ons, \vho spread their infE~ctious principles in Blost of tIle FreelnaSOl1S' Lodges in Eu!"ope. l-Ie then enters into all historical detail of tIle orig'in of the SCOtCl1 路degrees, and gives thenl a consequel~ce to whicll I hope they are not el1titled,as belongillg to all institution forlned., ,hy craft, founded in the deeI)est nlotives, and ca11able of effecting the l1l0st illlportant events. It is ,veIl known, I believe, to the lvlasOllS of this country, that someluen of'VarIl1anc1 enthusiastic imaginations have been disposed" "1ithiIlthesefevv' years, to amplify parts, of tIle Instittltiol1 of FreenlllS0Dl;t; and


OF MASONRY.

247

in their supposed inlprovements tollave elevated their discoveries intone\iV degrees; to whicll tlley have added cereulouies, rituals, alld dresses, ill~suited to tIle native sinlplicity of tIle Order of l\IaSOlll'Y as it vvas origiIlnlly' practised in this country'. nut in all these degrees, though probably deserving reprehensio'l1 as lIlll)l"operinnovations 011 the original s)'T"stenl of l\Iasollr:r, lean never believe that they have either l)roceeded frOlll bad Illotives, or cOl11d be vie'\ved ill any other light than as innocent and inoffensive c::unusenlents. TllUS luuell I call aver, that all the degrees of J\fasollry practised in England under the EnglishConstitlltion, are }Tllre and genuine, and that .110 l)art of tIle SystClll estahlislled anlong liS is lnjurious eitller to Cllurell or State.. 10.! In order to refute, ho\vever, the flinlsy l)foofs \vhich are produeed b}T the learned I)rofessor, I callnot do better than use the language of a,n '\"rho entered into u serious illvest'ig;atioll of tl1eln tt rnolltl11v 111iscellany.. 10G If the IH'irl~iI)les w l\IasoIlsbe sneh (sttys lie) as the ,vhence is it tlJ.at so Inftuy loyal and :piOllS lnen~bers 'bhe <F'raterIlity continue. tlleir I'uttronag(} of ~oCif~ty, and are still ignorant of tllC real quality of our prillci... 111es? Is it that l\Iasollr~l is Olle· thing 011 tIle (~ontirlent, and another in 1~ngland1 rl'his canl1otbe; is a universal cstablishrnent,·and a nllltual cornlIlunicatiolt and agreenlcnt has betvveen Ilritish and E\)reign Lodges. of \visest lllost upright l~nglisll l\Iasons l1ave visited their I~retllrer~ abroad, and have not to the ·~T"'·""'" ,.,',,,'.... disparitjr, ·01" beell shocked at abolniuable 1)rneti(.~e8 said to becRrried 011 nUlollg tlH~~ln" ]JVf:;ll 1\fr. I~obisol) hirnself sa,,,, notl~ina of nIl tIll's ·JnlS(~ln(~'V'()tU:; g,r~1',f;:l:rJl. ho \vas in the elos(~st habits intin:luey l\Iasons; and this surely 111USt be SOlne ~'l)roof tlUll: ry, ns it "vas tlten Ilraetised, badllot tIle "t~r·il'IJ1J.'"'lt\tl''('" he hassiJlee beell Illeased toattrilnlte to i L 1\11 the theref,ore, V\.rhieh lie to Hit In the ,; 11~uwnit~ on this sultieet, by lilr.. PIU~S'I'OS'. 103 Dr. "\V·atkins..

1~

Soe :b"'reemasons'

Jlls(~~(;'llanies~~'

edit. 181.1... ,,;-ill htJ found u.n 221,)

~JoNES, p. ID,); an~danotb.er,

l\ragazilu~,

vol. x., p. 25..


248

ILLUSTRATIONS

coveTed, if it ever did exist, l11USt be charg'ed to other causes. It ll1ust strike tIle llliud with astollisl11l1ent, that all·· illstitutioll like l\lasollry, organized .allcl reclu.ced to a complete systenl, should suddenly be changed feolll a har111less and i11110cent appearance, to one tllenlost ferocious und "vicked; and that, from <being in the higllesii degree frieIldly to·. order'· and religion, it should all ato nee becOllle tIle Inost l)owerfulallcl illveterate ene,llly to both. Whoever considers this, and attends. to thegreatnU111bers ofelninent cllaracters "vho contilllle to give the Art their COul1tenance, and to IJatronize Ollr assB111blies, and "'\vhoever· COll trasts \vitIl thenl the na111eS of the persons brought for\vard as the agitators· of this conspiracy, ,viII be led, not only to question the trllth of the assertions, but allo'v that botll the Professor and the Abl)e have gone too ,viele in their charges, and suffered a 11eated ilnagination to teenlvv"itll prejudices that have no foundationin truth. SOllie foreign l\iasons Iuayprobablyl1ave. givel1 in to ' the lTIodel"n wretched pllilosophy; and, Inore effectually to propagate their tenets -w-rith safet}r, Inay l1ave erected a false banner under the apllel1atioll of l\IasOnl~}T, toentrt1I) the 1111\Vary; but shnl1 \ve, on that nccount, a,ttribute to the institution of Jj'reel11ftSOl1ry the dreadful acts of tllose individuals, or the haneful consequences of tlleir 0011spira,cies?· Certainly llot; for, in 0Pl)ositioIl to all tIle Professor's assertiolls, it remains to be IJroved, that M81sonry ever was, is, or can be, fl'tvourable to infidelity or inaurrectioll. That a. regular confederacyeverhasbeenfornled upon this basis, or that the corruptions of the institution of Freenlasonry have beell so fhr systen1atized as to .hav·fl, produced that shock \vhich l'eligionand governlllenthave lately received by the Frel1cll revolution, can never be admitted... Thosewho vie\v tIle \vonderful. changes ,vhicll have recelltly tal{ell place in JI~urope, and which are still going on, will. naturally be led to· exallline fllrtller into the causes of so stupendous all event. vVhatever opinion the Abbe or the Professor luay hold of their o'\vn sag;acity, future historians wi~l have li~tle r~asor~. to cOl11pli111ent thenl. Possessed of greater lIghts, It '\v111l)robt1bly befbund, th.at 110 conspiracy, or ingenious scllenle of any· body of IneH, has brought. fLbout the lategreataltcl"!\'"


OF l\'IASONRY.

249

tions. They will, on the contrary,seemucll ill tIle natural constitution of things-much in tIle -veryprinciI)le of society itself--nlore in the corruptions of society -a great part in the general diffusion of 1etters-.-llot a little in· the v31rious arts of life, and ill tIle extension of cOlnnlerce-auc1, fLhove all the rest, in tile increase and higll pitch of lllxury. Connecting all these \vith circunlstances and persons, they \villco111e to a fairer conclusion tl1an either the A.bbe or the ing,ellious· Professor. Upon the Illu111inati, or the enlightened, I shall 111ake no renlarks. Ik.no\v theln not, nor their principles. They may, or lllay l1ot, have arisen from· Freem.asonry. It is a Inatter ·.of· little nl0Illent to the l11un ,vilo is v"'lell acquainted witll tIle lu"inciples of llis Society, "\vhat ambitious or corrupt 1l1inds lIlay have devised in imitation of it. It is ellough forhi1l1 to kno,v that the doctrines of the institution to \vhicll he belongs are siu11)ly good, and no natural tendcIlcy to evil. If bad lll€ll have pe,rvertecl tIle extt~rnal parts of the to \viel"ed purposes, . he hUnelJts depravity of llUlnu,l1 lUlture, ana regarc1sthe genuine In:inciI)les of his ()rder '\vithgreater affection. '1' he best of doctrines has beell corruptt~d, and the III {J,stj sacred of all :institutions ·'l)rostitllted to base nndunVlorthy l)urposes. rl'hegennine l\Iason,dl.dy considering this, finds u consolation in tIle rnidst ofreproaeb and ; and, "\vllilo lIe despises the oue, ,viII endetLVOrlr, his O\Vl1 exulnple, to refl1te the other. It is to be that a Leeturerin Natural I)bi1080})h y, of \vhorn has the ]llost opinion, should :1 \~'fork \vhicb (~an do 80 little to his kno\\"ledge or

judgIllent.. WHre Iris volurue to be stripped of .declar:· nlation and . · would be too insignifieant irrvestigation. In n postscript to ..edition, the 1·"I""''''\tli·.~Oc.trl''' of tllO 13arru(~1, has l:h(~, English fi-om the orVlfUl t of attllehnl(~nt iIlIlOe(.Hl(~e and ackno\\rledges IH"ineil)les tion as practised. by then]. rrhis, ho,vt.~ver, is but It flimsy evasion; it being frOIU \vhole tenor of llis book, that 118 intendc(l to sound trumpet of nlarlll in 18


ILLUSTRATIONS

~ .ears of his ~faj es~'s ministers, by the thunder of his e:,Xltraordinary denunciations... We ·are 11appy, however, todiscover~that after al.l.·· the. proofs a. gainst the 1\la.sons whieh ,he. ~has attempted to produce, 110n8 of our illustrious patrons l1avebeen induced on that account to desert the Society. On the contrary', at the Grand Lodge on the3rdofJune, .1800, we find· the Earl of Moira tlluS addressing the Brethren:5tfJertainmoderilpublications have been holding fortll to tke w0rld the Society of Masons as a league 'against eonstitutedauthorities ;an imputation the more secure, .because theknowl1constitutionsofour fellowsbil) make it certain th.at:no ans,vercal1be published. It is not to· be. disputed, ,tllat in countries where inlIJolitic prollibitions restrict . the com111unication of sentinlent, tlleactivity of tllehuluanlnind Inay, alnong other JlleanS of haffling the C'olltrol,bave. resorted to the artifice .ofborro\ving the deI1Qmin atiol1 of Freemasons, to cover meetings for f!tiJitiousl?urP9ses, Just as &nyothocdescriptionmight be $iSUme~ :tor the same objeot.. But, in the first place,' it is. the· invaluable. distinctioll of this free country, that such a j lIst intercourse of opinions exists "vi tllOU t restraint, as cannot leave to allY Ilulllber of In en tIle .desire offoruling or frequellting those disguised societies where daugerousdispQsitiolls ll1ay be ilnbibed. And, 2 11dIy, the.profiigatedoetril1es, Wllich ·nlayhavebeennu.rtured inaI lysllchself...establishedasse111blies,. could never have t,Qlerated,JoT a nlomentinanyLodge ll1eetiIlg lInder ,".ti~lMth()rity.,'V6 aver,. thel"efore, that 110t .only SftteEt,1jaxity' of:opinion.··haa?oo"J,~ri:"t)f oennexioH. with thee t~netsof.Masonry, but is diametrically 0P11osite to the j~llction'\vhich.we l~egard as .the foundation-stone of Lodge; llarnely, FEAR G"OD, AND HONOUR THE KING. In confirnJation ··of this solenln assertion, ~that CUllvve aj"~ieie' ,ooorein-efragably, than thfLt so 1l:U~I1Y of his Mlbj$~¥rB:t)illustrious]j'arnily stand in the higliest ()rder of l\lasoh~,~~·efullyinstructed in all its tendencies 1 . and have.· an, intimate knowledge of· everyparticu]ar in. its current adrninistl:a.tion tlnd,er the Grand Lodge QfJ~nglO

lanit" . Aft;er:so public 1& testimony ·of approbation of tke ~iety,andofthe·pnrposes . fotwllieb. it is illstituted, l*l~·me:t:eteanbe ~&nt6dtorefutethe ungenerous


251

aspersions

~~ipll

hav,e .' b~:g.

,wanton\:Y;lt,~PtOwn

out

against it~, '. ... '. . ' ,., ' Ontllt112th ,of July, 1798, an aciofp~li~P1~~t'Was passed for the more effectual. suppression of societies established for . seditious. and treasonablepul1?os'~s~aI1'd for preventing treasonable and seditions practices.Itn . 107 In this nct the foHo,ving clauses in favour of the Society of Masons arc inserted, exempting their Lodges from tIle pena.lties of the act:"And, w'hereas,certain societies have been long a~tomed to he holden in this kingdoln. under the denomination of .Lodges. of Free.. masons, the meetings whereof have been in greatmeaSuredireeted to ch.a.r.i.t,.able .pu.TP.··.·oses.: 13.eI t.t.'.herefore. enact.C..d.l.. thatnothin.g in tbiSact .•. . '. shall extend to theIIleetinga of any sucb.tiociety orLodge(w~i. shall, before the passing of this act; havebcenusuaUy Boldeni' the said deuon1ination,and in confOflnitytothe rules prevail . amoBg the said socit:ties of Freeluasons.. "Providt;d, al\X;"a;ys, thn,t this exemption shan not extend to such Soeiety, unless tw'O of' tl1(~ IllcIllbcrs . tho sarne certHy l1p()n ('which oath nny the or

u.lagi6tl'llt(~ is

Lodge


252

ILLUSTRATIONS

On our cOllfornling to whi ell, as I aln convinced every lIasoll in this country will Illost cheerfully do, v~."e Inay, in defiance·' of all the false charges against the Society, held, not'\vithstallding .such· order. of discontinuance, and before the same shall, by the like authority, be revoked, the same shall be deemed an unlawful combin.ation and confederacy under the provisions of this act." FORM 0]' CERTIFICATE. '~. Here insert} ••... the name of TO ,vrl', the county. We the underwritten .Ai B.. of in the county of and C. D.of &c. (Here insert the full na,'lnes and description of the two Bret7z,"en, certifying) two of the mCIllbers of the Lodge of }'reemasons held at . called the Lodge of and being No. in the list of Lodges, do hereby, I)ursuant tOM act of the .39th year of his present j)r~\jesty, entitled, ".An act for the .more effectual stlppressiol1of societies established for seditious and tr~asonable purposes1 a.nd for better preventing. treasonable and seditious practices,"certity upon. oath, that the •said Lodge, of which we are respectively nlernbers asaroresaid,bath, beforothe passing of the said act, been usually held under the denOlninatiol1 of a Lodge· of Freemasons, under the constitution of England, and in confornlity to the rules prevailing among the Societies or Lodges of L'reenlRsoIls in this kingdom. A.B.. O.D.. Sworn at the day of in.the year of our·Lord 1800 before FORl\I OF .REGISTER.

l!:*:;n ~o

WIT,

A register to be enrolled, pursuant, to an act of the 39th year of his present·}rfajesty, entitled,. "An act for the more effbctual suppression. of societiesestablishecl for seditious and treasonable purposes, and for better preventing treasonable and seditious practices," of a Lodge of Freemasons called tho Lodgo o~!, being No. and usually held at the House of in in the county aforesaid, (Here state t}UJ time oj meeting) and. composed of the foHowing nlcmbers, viz. Ohristian andSurnamCS./ Place of Abode.

I

Title, J?rofession, or Business..


253

OF MASONRY.

rest secure in our' Lodges, and practise our rites, under the sanction of the'best constitution' and the Dlildest legis1atu re 011 eart11. On the 4tll of 'October, 1798, the GOllcral Illfirnlary atSheflieldwas openecl~ and c1ec1icatec1 ill solen1u form, in the presence of ,t sI)lendicleol11pall)1" of Bretlll"en from all the Lodges in the count:Jr of York. Lord :E'itz,\yillianl, Lord Gnl,vay, the trustees of the charity', and 111any of the Inost respectable gentlell1Cll in the neighhonrllood atteIH.led on the occasion. The accounts frolll the Provincial Grand Lodges at this tiule afforded tIle 1110st l)leasing prospects of tIle future prosl)erity of tIle Society', ·and. of .tIle great illcrease of IIlenlbers in t.he I.Jodges 1111der. their se}) urate jurisdictions.. The U-1111iyersary· festivals in tIle different counties ,vere observed vvith tIle strictest regnlarity'; flI1(1 all the Bretllren seelned to vie in their exertions to add splendour to the C~raft, and to rescuo the institlltioll frolll. the Ullj ust charges and il1ihel~al asr.ersions \,~ll'ieh had been thro\vn Ollt it. Several ,luimated by afirUl attaeln:nent to tlleir~\.ing Ulld e()untry, liberal].Y CC.J.' llt. I.~ib. t.. .l.t. e.. t.l. t..o tb.o..•. s.~.upp. Ol.•-t..'.o.f g.YO'.~e.,t.1.U1.l.e.nt•.,.~. ·.l..'.I.ld. testified their loyalt:y-, and adherence to thoI)rinciples of the constitution, by tIle lllost uflhci:ionnte :u]dresses ·to their Sovereign.. .. l\.n ~}vent of real hl1portance to tlH~ Society 11ow.I)ar-ticularly elairns our attclltion,nnd further I)rov(~s its benevolence: it is the institl.ltioll of a 11(~\V 1\ItlS011ie Society, 1:01" the relief of siek, ag(:~d, and irnl)risoned Brethren, and for the rn~(?t,eetion of their \vido\V8, <:,hildreu, nnd ofIl!laus. rrhe ~ocinty ,vus estu,blislled the 11tttronageoftllcl>liuce of '~lal(~s, the. .. "of and all the otlleracting Officers of the Grand Lodgc; who, in order to render its advtu'ltnges. nlorc gfHH:~rally kno\\~n, IJartieularly reC()lllIneIl(l(~d it to ull the l)rovineial Grand l\lasters in their several districts. 'I'he iudi\'iduals whour(~ enrolled llH:nIlhers of this Soeietv·, and nTe in (:~ln­ barraS8(.~d eirCll1l1stances, have eY(~ry reaS{;rl t(> nlOrE.~ anlpll~ than is llBunlly giv'en in other ',.'Cj;.J.\.~,1.II· 8C:.,.• Clletl.~S': as the IUlrt ,of tllO stock res!)eetahle eharaeters, \VllO distunt~fbecolIling bnrdens01l1e to f\lnd. 'rho mode ofselocting the Jnenlbers is also highl)r jlldicious .llUoY'l.I'Il.l'\./'ti


264

ILLUSTlt.A.TIONS

and proper; as no. one can: be adnlitted 11~11ess,lle be'reCOlTIlneuded by the l\Iaster of a Lodge, "VI10 rnust vouch for hinl as being a Ulan of ixreproachable cl1aracter and regular habits ; and so strictly is tllis rule observed, and so cautious have "bee'll tl1e',original institutors of' the Cl1arity,thatno ilnproperpersonsbe ellT'olled, ~"e are infornled, that severalllul1dl'ed nan1esl1ave been already rejected. This institution, therefol"e, 111ay operate toward the il11provelnent of nIDI'als and strict regularity of •conduct; while the sub~cribersaregratifiedwith the pleasiiig prospect of extending relief to the truly indtlstrious alldde~erving. Above 3,000 l1a111eS ate enrolled, and the subscriptions already received anlOllut to several tllQUSand })ounds. rrhe funds have also considerttblyincreased, not only b}Tluany voluntary dOllutions fi"olll"a nunlber of eluinellt Breth,rCll\vllO huve I)(1tronisedthe Charity, bllt l)y tIle addition of one. guinc(1 to the first allllualsubscriptioll havilllJbeell paid, by every lllelllber adrnittecl since tIle 25th of June, 1800. 'l'husllfiS been estal)lisl1ed, llIlder tL, very respectable l)Unller,. the }fasonic Benefit Society', \~rhich., l1nder ,,,iso H.lld !)rUc1ellt regulations, 111a}r be l)rotluct~.ve of the rnost beneficial

efiects.

The follo\ving is an a\,>stract of tIle I{llles and Orders of this Society:ch~trt\Cter, bCUlg a subacribing mt~Inber 'of a regular Lodge under thQ Conatitutiop ·of England: and recommencled,by a melllber of this Society, who is ~:Iaster of a Lodge, is o/.pableof admission.. No ,person above 45,yes.rsoroge,.isadmitted a'member of this Society, unless he give proper' se~uritythathe,,;villnot bcconle chargeable in his own person to the fund; ~\vhich, though ul1derthis restriction, shall ahfarS be liable to the provisions for his w'ido,v andehiIdren after his decease. ThA subscription is one guinea l)er annurn; uncI at the eud of tV~,ren,ty'four Inonths the subscriber beeolnes a free nlember, and is entitled to all the benefits of the Society. 1tIelnbera, when sick, lanle. or blind, are to be entitled to fourteen shillings per wack., · Members in l'cducedcircUulstanccs, and ilnprisoned fo·r debt, are to be allov\"cd a sum not exeeeding four shillings per "~tcek" if found, not Ul1,\votthy ofai d. Members ,v-ho, through ',old" age, l;ecoIne illcttpnbleof earning their living, are to be aJlowc'd six shilliugspcr week till the' first' general 'llfourt; Rlldafter\vardssl.lch s. pension fbr life as their situation may require, alld. tllc funds of the Society will admit.

.Any Brother of fair


Oli" l\w!ASONRY.

The widows of members, if their circumstances 'require it, are to be allowed thesllmof four shillings per ,veek, and' two shillings per ,\'eck for every 1a""Tful child under twelve years of age. ':rhe orphans of members, not other¥\"ise·· provided for, are to be entitled to the SUIll of four shillings per ,veck for their maintenance, and a further Butll at a proper ago as an apprentice fce. A general court of all the subscribers is to be held once uyear, to fill up any vacancy 'which nlay have happened anlong the trustees~ choose committee-InCll, u1ake by-la'w's, &c. 'l'he other afill.irs of the Society are to be Inal1aged by a quarterly and ruonthly C01l1nlittee, a COIDIllittee of .A.uditors, and an Actuary.

I-Iaving stated in a pl·ooeding part· of this ···.history the initiation .of the I{ing of Swedell into Masonry, tInder the auspices of tIle Dulie ofSu,derI11al1ia108, it lllay not be ttuinteresting to Ollf Tenders to lay before tllenlthe result of a· correspondence \vhich ,vas· opened tllis year between tIle ({rand Lodges of S"ledel1 and ]~ngland. Nothing can lllore truly sho\v the lligll estilnation in '\vllieh the l~nglisll 1\Iasons are h,eld abroad, than tIle reI}(.)tl,ted .:.tPl).li.c.~a, tiOI.1S .,t,".l.Hl,t are ,C,·.o. nS.',.tll. n,.',·,t,.J.Y.,.111fl.de. to,t.l.l.'e Gran,d .Lodge of England for the l)urI)ose of eflhcting a soeial union andcorresI)ondeuce_ ',. At tb,oGraud ".I..odgeheld at :&'reel'naSOlls'~llall, ?Il Wednesday, tIle 10th of Al?ril, 1799,pres,entthe Right Ifonourable tlle I~iarl. of ~Ioira, Acting Grand Master, as Grand. l\1aster; tIlt) BUil"Ol1 de Silverhjeln1, Ininister fran) llis l\Injesty the ICing of Sweden to the COtll"t of Great Britain, presented to the ({rand 1faster ill tl1echair the follo\ving Lett(~r the Natiollal· Grand Lodge of Sweden, ,vhich \vas read:l

"..

TO THE GI40n. Y

OF THE. G'RAND ..A,n,crUTECT Oli' 'I'Hl;=

UN IV1:ltSE.

"reOharles. by the grace ot(jod IIeretlitary !?rineloff;tie .Sw~des, Goths, and 'Vfanoals, l)uke ofS.dennania, IIeirt1l.NOr9V&y, Duko of Sles,,-iek, lIolstein, StofIllart'ic, and Dittmardh~~{Q()untofOlden,burgh and ])ehilcnhorst Gr~l.nd.A.dnlirnl of S\yeden" Vicar of 8010111011 of the 7th and 9th l'rov'iuce,'tludNational Grtlud l\!astcr of aU the I.lcHlgcs reunited under the (h'and I.lodge of S\\;·cden ,V'orking ill the Itoyal .Art ,vithin Ule Sttttes tllld DOlninions dependent 011 our august Sovereign, ].Iaster, and l)rotector, IIis l\I1~(~sty the I\'ing of Svreden. J.

,&,".J;,A~' ""I' '" ...... '1""'J~' ...,...

J ... ,. . . . . ., .. ,

AND PROSl)l;UI~rY ..

To tbe Most Inustrious,~lostEnlightcllea, 1\Iost Sublime, Most Venerable and Vel!Crable the Nationul G'rand Lo'dge of~11g1and. the 108

See page 233.


266

ILLUSTRATIONS

National Grand l\faster, Depu tJr Grand }\iIaster, Grand Wardens~ Grand Dig'nitaries,Gl'al1d Officers superior. and inferior, and W or~ shipful l\felll bers, UNION, (!ONTENTAND "\1'!""ISD01'lI..

Most Illustrious a.nd ~1ost Enlightened Brethren, To contract an intimate, sincere, and· permanent tie betvveen the National Grand Lodge of S,,"edon and that of Engh\nd: has long been ardently our ohject; but if temporary CirCU111stances havedehlJed the effect·of our wishes, the present nl0Illent ~ leaves us at libertJ". Our Order, '\vhich enjo.ys in the two States the saU1C privileges and the same protection of goveulment, is Dot obliged to seek for security in darkness; and our labours approved as kl1owntopron1ote the public good, are protected l)y the po\ver of our Sovereigns; enjoying the sacred rites of true liberty, (their essence,) in l)eing able \\"ithout danger t.oexercisethose charitable deeds tOVl,"'urds' the unfortunate, \vhich arc the principal objects of our duty. This lUliforrnity of situatiol1,) tlS ,vell as the fnndtunental principles of the Craft, Vdlich \ve equally profess, authorize us to consolidate and to draw' closer ~l. confIdence, fi'iendship, and reciprocal union bet\yeen t"ro bodies, 'whose eOll1!!lOn oltlt~ct is the good of lnunnnitjr, \""ho lnutnally consider fI'ielldship as thcnel'v€-, and the love of our neigh... bour as· the. pivot of. nIl .our labours.. I)eeply .•. penctro.ted . these principles,. ,YO •. send the1tfost Illustrious. Brother Cieorge J.3aroll de Silverhjehn, decor:."tted \vith the hig·hest. !)egrees of 1\Iasonr..r~ flS our Plenipotentiary, to present to tIle l\!ost I~nlightencd~ ~Iost Snhlirne, and l\iost\'r enerablc the National Grand Lodge of England, our nffec... tionttte greeting. lIe is charged on our pnrt to express to yOll tho sinccreesteelll vV'O bear you, and h01V desirous ,YO nrc to contract ,v'ith you a fixed and pCrIUl'tnellt union.. '\Vc prilty, therefore, that )"(>11 ,v'in receive hixn atnongst you as the bearer of onr fraternal sentiulents: aud that Jrou 'will be ple~1.sed to give fait,h and credeneato aU that he may say 011 Ol.lf pnrt,conforn1ahle totheso our cordial professions. rrhe UUiOl1, '\V hich is .the basis of our labot1rs~ llciug once es hl.blishe<l between two nations '\vho· reciprocally esteem ench other, nnt! "rho are . both known . to possess the requisite qtUllitics of nUFreennd Accepted .l\Iasons, it "lill consolidate. for ever the foun.dation of the Masonic ~eenlple, \vhose 111ajestic edifice \vill endtu'c to future ages. l\fay the ~rost IIigh, the (i-rand Architectof the deigtl to be faYoul'H,blc to the w'islles '\ve offer for the success and \ve relIutill ah\"ays, ~Iost Illustrious aud lJrothers, by the Sacrccl Nl.nnhcrs, Your devoted I~r()t.her, CIIA.llLES, IJuke of'SudcrtllaniQ... OralldLodge· of Sweden, G. A. H£:t1·rgJ[tno'I..l\r~ 2~1thJ an., 5198.. · . ChanceIIof.

This letter being read, it 'vas resolved that the Cjrand Master he l."equestcd to return ~ln iU1S\Ver on the pnrt of the Society to the ])nke de expressive of every sentirnellt eorrespondent to the \varIll and brothel"ly l\ddress received; and that the 11nrOll de


257

OF MASONRY.

Silver}~jelln

be received as . the re!1resentative of tlle Grnud J...todge of S\veden, and 路have a seat "Tith the G-rand Officers at all nleetings of the ({ral1d Lodge. At the next Grand Lodge, vvhicll ,vas held at Freell1aS0l1s'-halI, on Wednesday, the 8th l\Iay, 1799, l)resent the Bright Hon. the Earl of l\Ioira, Acting Grand l\Iaster, as Grand l\faster, in the cl1air; the Earl ofThloira rer,orted, that his Royal Highness theGTand l\Iaster llUd becll pleased, on the l,art of the Society, to return the fo110\ying Ans\ver to the Letter l-eceived fr0111 the Duli.e de Sudernlania, (tTt.lncl ~Iaster of S\veden :-.In tlte nanz.e of the Grand ..ilrchitcct cif tlze[Tnit~e1路se. GEORGE, P'rince oj'lTl{tles, &c., &c., &e.4 STRENGTH',

To our vcry dear, very Charles,

ANn PnOS1)1:;:RITY..

IIlustriouf~,

Duk(.~

and very Enlightened Brother: &,c.

of

t\

of :t is flJUnded

111('1111)('1'8

"-'~_'11.11j,;J. 4""',;;:;:路.

(ll)

the existence (,f beneficence n1~Ul-


258

ILL USTRATIONS

1\!ay the great A.rchitect of the Universe be propitious to the vows which w'e will unceasingly offer to Ileaven for the ,velfare of th()se two magnanimous Protectors of our Brotherhood: and n1ay be shed upon you, most illustrious and most enlightened Brother, and upon your worshipful fellow...labourers in the Craft, the inexhaustible fruits of his. benevolence! I salute you by the Sacred Numhers.

(Signed)

G'EO~GE,

P.

London, 8th 1\1ay, 1799. . By c01nmandofthe Grand ~faster, (L. So) 'VM. 1,iVHITE, G. S.

Fronl tIle above cOl~resl)Olldence, al1d tIle 11appy opening of a regular C0111nlUllication betvYeen the Gralld Lodges of England, Scotlal1c1, and S'\veden", there is the greatest reason to believe that the best effects ""viII result; and that, agreeably to ihe ,v-ish of ever~y zealous Brother, a friendly and lasting intercourse "\viII be l)l"esel"\'ed· \vith the If'reelIulsoI1S of all the l\.ingdorns. III detailing tIle furthel' events of this l)eriod, the follo\ving CirCn111stance is too ill1110rtant to escape notice. On the 15th of l\iajr, 1800, just as his late l\Iajesty (Jeorge III. el1tered his box at Drury-lane fheatre, Hlld \vas ho'\ving to the audience \vith his usual condescension, a l1erson \vho sat ill the sec-and ro\vfi,·0111 the orchestra, to\vards the 111ic1dle of the pit, got IIp 011 the seat, and levelling t1 horse-IJistol to\vards the I{ing's box, fired it. :B""'ortunately at the 11101nent, tt gcntlel11:l11 \vho sat llextlliu1 ra.isecltlle 31 111 of the assassin, so as to direct the contents of the I)istol tovvards the roof of tIle b.ox, by.whicllll1eans the life of his ~If~iest~{ \Yf:1S hHl1pily'r' llre... served.rrhe ll1Rll dl'011t tIle pistol, uIld,vas inl111ediately seized. lIe ,vns cOl1yeyed to·the(}r(~en-roorn, \yhere ]le under\venb a private exan1in:atioll. l'error, d:isllHly', and rage ,vere Inarl(ed in every courl.ten~,tnee, exeept that of his l\Injesty, '\",ho sat ,\yith the utInost serenity', \vhile (lueen, \vho \vas just Ileal" enougll toheur t1le report of t.he· "pisto]allc1 see the Hash, collected frorn his Inagnaninlity. The royal frtu)ily sat out the play of ~She lcould a'lul~~lte(lCOul{l 'not, ,,"ith the of 11111n()ll'ri.~t, and. enjoyed the hal)piness of . f1'0l11 individual the vvarn1est testiulOl1ies of the eonclnsion of the Illay, (tad sal,~C tlu:..Kiu{!;' \vas sung, Qlllpanied by the ecstatic plaudits of every' part of the ience ;. and at tIle· elld·· of the fhree, it ,vas ~lgain 0


OF l\i:IASONRY.

269

l·epeated, wit11 the follovving lilIes ,annexed, written by ~Ir. Sheridall OJ1 the spur of tIle 11101uellt: Fronl'C'very latent foe, Franl the assa.ssin's blo'v, G-od save l{ing ; O'er hinl thine ar111S extend, For Britain's sake defend Our father, prince, and fL~iend­ G·odsa YO the I{ing.

Nothing could equal the indignation Wllich "vas universally felt by the pOl)ulace at tllis daring attellll)t on tIle life of a Sovereign ""vho justl)rl"eignecl in the llealr.ts of his :people, and who never by one act ofllis lifeprovoI\..ed their l"eSelltluent. The na111e of the assassin ,vas JalYleS IIatfield, \VllO had served his aI)Ilrenticesllip to t)l \vorking silVCl"Sll'litll, enlisted in the 15th. regilnent of ligllt dragoons, in\vhicll he had boldl)T f<ytlgllt fc>r his l\.irlg arId eountry.. ()rl his eXrlnliuatioll at the theatre bef<')l"e the Duke of York, he tUl"Iled to his Royal IIighness and Stlit1, H I. l\.llO\V YOllG·od bless YOU-)~Oll are n good "f€~110\\r. I have s(~rved \vith YOUl" lIighlless, alia (l)ointing to cleol) (~ut OVE~r Ilis eye,and another long scar OIl his elleek,) I got these, and 1110re than these, in fighting- by your side. _At I-iillcelles I ,-vas left tllree hours tlI110ng the dead in a ditch, and \vas taken 11risoller by the E'rcl1cll.. I lUHI InJ'" arID brol\.e b}T a shot, and f'rot eigllt sahre \vounds in rny head: but I reco-\'el"ed~ d here I urn." }'rOIl1 this he began to shcnv rnanifest signs of lnental derullgenlellt.. lIe ,vas eOll1111itted to Cold' 1~atl1 l~'ields In:ison f4Jr evening, nnel in the 11lorning brought before tllt~ J?riVjrCounc-ll for fUl·tller exalnint~tion . , (,'·'Vllcn ,l"ninisters ,verf~ pressing hinI to ans't\"c'r, lnal1Y ,questions, lIe sul1el:tJ Y' replied, "I fIred the Ilistol, loaded \vitIl, t\VO slugs, at ICing ;-\vhat \vould yOll lU1veulore?" lIe ref'tlserl to ans\~er allY other (!"uestious, and ,\vas fully to Ne\vgt1tofbr trial. ()n 2()tll of June, he \v.as IJl"Otlght up to 1\Testnlinster-l1UU, and tried in thf~ t.()lll"t ()f ]{iug's 13ene'h. After au lltUnbe1" of \vitnesses, and a trial eight hc)urs, fbund the llrisoner "Not gllilty, heing . . oJ insanity at tIle tinle the act \vas done." lIe \VUS then reInoved to Ne\vgatc, and ordered eonfinelllent for lite..


260·

ILLUSTRATIONS

On this happyescap'e of 11is lVIajesty fronl so daring all .attelnpt 011 his life, addresses }Joured in froID every

quarter of the k5ngdol11 ; and ill such general testiulonies of loyalty and attachnlelit, it C0111d scarcely be expected that the Society of FreelllaS0118, over vvhieh the IJrince of Wales was the professed Patron, "\vould be bacl\.\vard. At a special Grand IJodge, therefore, convened at Ifreemasons' hall 011 Tllursda,y,' the 3d of June, the fol10,ving Address was unaninlously voted, and aJter\vards l,resented to his l\lajesty by the Prince of 'Vales in person at the first levee : Most Gracious Sovereign, The danger. to tV hich your ~1ajesty was exposed in the atrocious attempt lately nlade against your sacred person, ,,,,hUst it filled the hearts of all this country ,vith alarrn and abhorrence, has' authorized every class of your suluects to oflbrntyour throne the of their ardent attachnlent, "rithOl1t fear of incurring thechnrgc of intrusion. Vouchsafe, Sire, under·' this constructiol1, to ad.1l1it the hOlnnge of a description of Ulen '\vho, in orclinarycircunlstances,.could not· as a body tender the profession of that devotion to your royal p(~rson, and to your governnlent, w'hich it is their boast to cherish~ not in their individual capacities alone, llut in their peculiar association. 'rho hnv, by perlnitting~ under certain regulations, the In(:et:ln~~s of Freeluasons, has defined the of the· Society; hitHling~ tho same tinlC, the Ill<;.'l.nlbcrs of it., by nne,,," oblign..tibn of gratitude for t,hc confidence extended t()\vards theIn, to labour, as fnr as their. f{'chle pQWerslnay ttpply, in inculcatillp; loyalty to the ](ing, and reverence to the inestimable fabric of the 13ritish constitution. Being so acknowledged, 'weshould .think ourscly'es \\·unting ill the first dUiily towards yourM~ljesty,an<1 towards that constitut.ion, did wenotappro,ach YGur<1\Iajesty \'vith the testiulouyof ourf(~clingson thisa,vftlloccasion. ' Your ~Injesty is therefore ,iolploretl to receive the· hranhIe cOllgrofttl... lations of the C*RAND LODGli~ of· FHl'IEl\IASON'S under t.he constitution of :F~ngland, (the Ilepresentntive .Assenlbly of un the IJodges undel" that constitutiol1~) in thCURlllC of thenlselves RIHI of nJJ theirBr(·thr(~n, on your having'l)cen sllielded by the IHtl1d of Providence frolll the desperate fUld execrnblo ntternpt of tlJe assassin. When principles WCl'e first l)J·olnul~fl.tedin ~vhieh, to our conception, tended to the overthro\,'" of nIl peRco and order ill v;re felt oursclvescnU(~d upon to dopurt froul. :1 rule ,,"hieh hnd ll(~Crl then religiollsly observed in· our nssodation..

As a 'feU

conceals the trnnsactions at

our

fello\v subjects ha'\'c no assurance that there rnay not b(,~ in OUr association ~1 tendency injurious to their . other than tlH~~ g(~lltH"l~l tenor of our conduet,1111d It notori<:ty that door of lrreenl0snnrv is not closed n,gains~ nnyclnEs, profbssi(Hl~ or seet, provided the individual ~iriXlg admission be ullstnined in 'Iuoral (~haracter. ~l\) . rClnOYC, thdrelore-, as thor us 110S.sibh.~; any ground for sus!>icion,it husbecllirom


OF MASONRY.

261

time inlmelllorial a fundamental rule~ most rigidly maintained,路 that no political topic shtLll, on any pretence~ he mentioned in the Lodge. The singular juncture to which 'W'e have alluded. seemed to call for some positivedeclal'ation, wbichmight distinctly exhibit-our opinions; we thence ventured to profess to your l\iajesty the loyalty with which the Freemasons of England glo\ved to,\yards your royal Person, and their unalterable attachluent to the present happy fornl of government in this country. But as no foresight. could devise a motive of equal imI)Ortancewith that ,vhich then actuated us, the recent occurrence being of a nature too horrid to he in supposition as a possibility. it was strongly declared that no precedent should be drawn fronl tlult step; and that on no future occasion should the Grand Lodge exercise an advertence to events \vhich might entail upon Freemasons the chttrge of assuming the privilege to deliberate RS a body upon public affairs. Hence, Sire, our present Address has not been so early as our individual anxiety would ha:v:e dictat~d; for it was requisite that a general concurrence should sanction the -Grand Lodge, ill a.second relaxation of its rules, before Vle could jointly express that which we severally felt in the rnost ardent nlanner on the solemn sul)Ject. "\tVe have poured forth to the Grand .A.rchitect of the Universe OUl" hUlnl)le thanksgiving, that, to the other hlessings sho\vered on this country, he has added that of defeating n. crilne, the sole n.ttelllpt at )\"hich produced universal disutn,y throughout these rC:lltns: and 'W'O cflrnestl.y confide in his I)ivinc ll(Hln ty to prC!5(1l"YC to "Us ftl1<1 to our feIlo\v suluects for 1n:1.n)"', \"ery lunny years tocolnc, It life so bnp()rtant in its cxtunple, and so inestinullll<.) in its superintendence over our hapI>iness, as that Gf ,your l\!njesty. .Wn"LIAM vVurrE, G. S. GEORGE,P.

Several salutul"Y regulaJioIls 'Vvel"e udopted this year to liquidate tIle debts of the <)n a strict exanlination of the nccounts, itnpl)eared that those (l(~btshad considerably inere:'lsed: that 7,0001. rernail1ed due froIll the Society 011 aCe(Hlllt of the hall and taVt~rn, besides the tontine of 250l.. jlCl' .anu?on; and . theavt~rage ineorne of the hall-fund, HftCl" pllJing the interest of the debt, tlle tontine, and irleidentnlexpenses,left but a very sInall StHll to\vards . the reduction of the princilJul; nnd that lIH1UY years lllUst elapse hefore tIle debt (~ou]d be 11lflterinlly redllced. In order to disehnrge this d(~bt, tlleref<::n-e, HIHI to rende'r the eharit:r Inore extensively llt~nefl{~lul, it \vas in (Jrailld IJodge, tlUlt E~very IJodge in tIle list,lllltil del~t be extin~uislle(1,8bould l)uy ~innuu]ly, in the IHonth ()f :F'ehruarY1 to the ball-fund, two shillings j'()l" every 8ubseribhlg. of each Lodge; and that any 140dge negl(~C:ting to conforln to this regulation, should be eOllsidel"cd in contenlpt, and


262

ILLUSTRATIONS

be.subject.to erasure froln the list. It "vas also resolved, tl1at 'a. dechLra,tion, signed by the l11aster, vvardells,·· treasurer, and secretary, of eacl1 Lodge,oranytvYo of then1, certifying the nUlllber of subscribing Ule111bers at Ch1"istnlas,yeal~ly, should be transnritted to tIle Grand Secretary, witIl a list of th,e' In embers, containing their Christian and surnanles, age, profession, and resic1ellce, whenmademasol1s, or adn1itted 111e111be1"s, in order to be registered i l l the books of ·the Grand Lodge; and also the fees prescribed by the regulations to be.l'laid for that purpose into the hall fund, viz., for everyl\fason l11ude in London, or within ten nliles thereof, tell shillings .and six~pence, and in all other Lodges be:yol1d tlut t distul1ce, five shillings; and for every brother luac1e in one Lodge and joining allother, t,yO shillings an(l sixpence; and that no Brother whose n[lIUe had 110t been registered, and the fees paid as above, SllOlllcl be entitled to relief froln t.Ile fund of charity, adulissioll to the be.llefit society as a Illenlber, or lU1Vc·hisdaugllter receiyed into the Freelna,sons' .8011001. . Tllis Il1easure l1ad the intended effect.; tIle Lodges readily'" concurred in the l)lan of liquidating the debts; the debts \vere paid, and the annual subscril)tion ceased. AJl10ng the nurnerous irnprovenlents in the city of I-Iondon this year, tIle Inagnificent range of building at the East India 11ou8e, in Leadenhall-street, deservedly claiuls our attention. The elegance of the structure ooufersec!ual llonour on tllC C0111pal1Y for \VllOSe use it was huilt,~tlld 011 the· persollsw!lo,v;ere . elllployed in. its erection. too 'l~he. architecture· is tIle design of Ricllard 109 rrho following is a description

()f

tIl0 !)cc1imcllt :

.

CO:\Il\!l~RCl~, 'which is represented by IV[l~rcu,ry, attendecl b}'" NAyr.. GA'rrON,. andfolltHvod by 'l"rito12s and Sea-horses, is introducing .l~..slA to Bltl'rAMNIA, at ,vhose foet she pours out' h(~l" tronsures. r.rhe KINO is holding tho shield of protH(~t.ioll ovor the he.atl of llnrrA~NIA, and ofJ~HlER'l'Y, 'who is (irllbrtLC(~<1by her. By tho sid{} of !lis l\luj(~sty sits OU.DII1R,attend(~d1')y l'tELIGION fllld Jus'rlcl~. In thebnek ground

is,the CilJl.. .l3arge,. &c.. ; nenr to 'whieh stand uud "IN'rl~­ Gurry. rl'hetI'HAMEs fills theu,ngle to the rigllt luuHl, nIHl the GANfH~S the anglo towards the :F~nst. 'The sentirncnt of thocox:npositiou is, "That tto nation can only.be truly prosperons ,vheu it has a l<'ing 'who llutkes I~eligi(Hland .Justice the hasis of his G·()vOrnl1'U~Ilt, and u, Constitution whi(~h, Wl1ih~ it 8e(~Ures the Libcl'ti,es of the p(~oplo, maintains u. due suhordinath)ll hI the 8(.~veral l'1U.lks of .sooiety.; ~:.l.11d. ·W'l.l.clltD.e Integrify.of th, (.'~ I,), oo,p.le 8eCUr(~8 t() ouch indivitlual the ac1va.ntagps ,Yhich Industry ereates antl cultivu.tL~S."


OF ·MASONRY.

263

Jupp, Esq.,theaOnlpa,~ly'ssurveyor,and tIle work is finish·ed in avery good style. Tlloextendec1 progress ,of the Society· of MasOllS at this period -VYUS sufficiently c1isplayec1by tIle erectioll of some new halls for the Lodges in the COulltry, and the institution of a school in London, for the education and su!)port of tIle SOIlS of distressed Bretllrel1. On the 20tll of A1Igllst, a l1e\V llull, built at Hllll by the ll1eU1bers of the Rodney Lodge, \vas dedicated in solernIl forIl1, according to the rites of lVlasollry, ill the presence of tllree llundred Bretllren. The great zeal which was 111unifested, byihe Lodge on this ;occasion justly· nleritecl the l11arked distiIlctioli "\7hicll ,,-ras C011ferred 011 it by the Oorporation of IfIlll, \VIlO, \vith a nUlnerous assenlblage of the nlost enlinent characters ill the neighbotlrhooc1, 110n01Jrec1 the l\Iasolls ,vitIl their corupany. .l~nelegallt dinner \vas I)rovided at the to\Vl1hall, at ',vhich all the l)rincil)al civil and luilital"y ofli.ceTs attended; and the entertailllnellt concluded early in tIle evening \vith the greatest corclinlitJr and friel1dsllil).

SECT. XIV. Tltellisto?*y qf"1ffasolt'l'Y j:j-cnn

t}le

yea 1" 1800, to tlle end oj" tile

yea')" 1801.

'l'HE B.rethren of Scotland, ever enlulollS to excel in prOIlloting the bellcfit and ilnprovenlcnt of their(~,Oulltry, had all Olll)ortunit)1" of disr)la~ying their zeal in 1801, by

giving tlleirassistance· in theerectioll of tIle 'Vet-docks at Leith; a lnCQStlre well calculated for theconVcllienee and aCCOlnnl()<l~ttioIlof the nUIl'Jeroustradiug '\T£~ssels v,,·hieh du~ily arrive .in that !lort froln diflerellt 11Ul"ts of the \vorlel.

'rhe Lodge received a 11lcssage fronl the l\Iagistrutes of l~dinbul"gh, requesting tlltdr cOlnpauy and. nssistanee ill laying the fbu.ndation-st()rH~ oftllose l)o(~ks on the 14th of l\I~ty, 1801. 'rIle l~arl of ])alkeith, the (]rand l\Iaster, being al>sHrl1;, tIle direc,tioll of the eererno.ny \vas vested in .hi8 I)eIHlty, Robert Dundas, ESfl-, of l\Ielville, who conducted it in l\ very able and

lnasterly style.


264

ILLUSTRATIONS

On the day a})pointeJ, the Brethren, l11nountingto about 1200, rnet in the ll.ssernbly-roollls at Leith, wh~re the Lodge \vas opened; and frorn thence they 111arclled irl procession to the I)oeks fLlittle before nine o'clock in the 11101'ning, preceded· by the I.Jorc1 Provost, l\fagistrates, and couneil of Edillburgh,\vitll the ~Iagistrates of Leith, in their rohes; the Engineers and l\.rc.hitect.s of the l')l'oposedhuilding; the l\faster, \Vardens, and Brethren of the rrrinity-house; and a llurnbel" of respectable nler~ chants and inhabitants of the to\Vl1 of Leith. The Grand l\Iaster \vas sU11ported by Sir J alnes Stil"ling, Bart., the l)ast G-rand nlaster, and Sir Patrick l\lurray, Bart., \vho acted as Deputy Grand J\faster. Lord DOVll1~, and soveral other respectable characters, \vere l)resent. The SuhstituteGi'and l\Iaster, the Provincial Grand l\:Iasters for I)eebles, Selkirk, L~C., and the l\iasters of the Edinburgh Lodges, aecorclirlg to seniority, vvith tlleir ofHeers and . Inelnbt~rs, \valked iu IH"o(~ession, having a band of rnusic attached to eneh septU"ltteLodge.. "Then they arrived at the spotvvhere tllC stOI1e,va.s intended to be laid, the Lord I)rovost and l\Iagistrates l"etired to a theatre cl"eeted -{(}r thern on the "\vest-side; and the Grand l\Itlster \vith his otlicel's to another on the east-side, \vhere a table \vas plaeed, on \vhicll ,¥ere laid the je\vels and other enlblerns of the C1rnft. rrhe SubstituteGrand l\Iaster then ordered the stone to be slung, and letdo\Vl1 gradually, nUllo;.ing tllree regular st~)PS before it 'caIne to th~· ground, dnring\\1hicll cer<:I1l0ny an anthenl WasSUIlg.. IIe . then··.!llaceda larg-ephial in the centre of .• theundf~r-stone, .contaiuingall the ·!)resent current coins of the country, \vitIl t1 1l111nber of beatItifuI n)(~daJ8 of the first eharacters of the age, nIl of \vhich had beell previously enclosed in crystaL l~bove the l)hial ,,·ere also deposited t\VO plates, on one of "rhich the follov;,'iIlg ir~scription ,vas engrtLved : In the rei gIl of the l\Iost (~r:leious Soyorcig-l1 GEOH.GE III.. , and . under the n.uspices of tho H.ight 1-Inn.. '\VU.4IJIAM 11"1Erl"1'J;~S, IJord Provost of I~c1inburgh, 'rho 11a,1"1Jo1.11' ()f I..eit:h, ~rhough f()rrned nt a r(nnote AUl1, as Connneree in. tI10 COln"SO of ugns increased, oftenrepnircHl ana extended; Y t1t he.ing still Ila,rr()\V and ineounnoc1'ious, l~OBI~H:r DUNDAS, of l\Ielville, l~squire,


OF MASONRY.

265

In the absence of the ll.ight lIon. CHARLES, Earl.o拢 DALKEITH, Grand l\faster-~Iason of Scotland, ]~aid the foundation-stone of these Docks; In ""hieh th<:1 nUll1CrOUS vessels. arriving from every quarter of the Globe 1\Iight receive Hlllple and secnre nccolllluodation; On the 10th day of ]ilay, .A.. I). 1801, A. L. 5801. JOI-IN l~El\NIE being Engineer. I\Iay the undertaking prosper, By the blessing of .Almighty God!

On tIle otller IJlate "\J'vas engraved-.路 ,The names of the present T01Vl1 Council of Edinburgh. The Right Hon. 路HENRY DUNDAS, 1\cIember for the City. rrhe l\iIagistrates of Leith. 'rhe 'Vat-clock Conuuittee. The Engineers. 'rho Contractor for the Work. 'rho Grand Lodge of Scotland; and l'hc l\Iasters and ,\rardcms of the rrrinity.. hotlse, Leith.

The Gral1d :alaster, llreccded l)y' tIle ofIieers of the Q'rand Lodge, IltLving the je\'v~ls, t~e., borne lJefc)re tlleUl, vvascOIldueted by the I)nst G'rulld l\Iaster, I)erruty, and Substitute, to tlle site of路 the stone, where, witllthe assistullce of t-vvo 0llerative l\Iasons, lIe turned the stone, and laid it in its IJrol)er bed. 'rhen, l)lacillg lliluself on . tIle east side, ,vitth the l:>astG~rand l\Iuster on llis right, and the Subst.itute 011 his left, his "rardens being ill tIle west, tIle 1)lull1h, level, square, ttncl ll1al1et, '\vere separately de1ivcred to hirn by tIle Substitute, and (1111)lied to tho stone in several r>ositions; after "Vllich. he gave three knocl\.s \vitll the Inallet, sttying, ":ilIa,y' the (treat Al"clliteet of lJlliverse us suecessful1y to carry 011 1 and finish tllO work, of which ",~e 'now laid the foundation-stone, and overy other undertaking that may tend to .ad\raut~tge the (~ity of Edinburgll und its harbour! l\IaJ~ FIe be [L guard ana l)rotection to theIn, and. Inay the)" long he I)reSel"v,edfrorll l)eril and decay!" The c,o~rnucopia, \vitll tIle vessels containing . wine and oil, were then delivered, in the usual fOl"l'll,totbe Graucll\{ttster, \V110 llonred out the COlltell'ts successively 'upon stone, saying, "~In,y the bOUI1tiful hand of Ileayen ever supply this country \vith nbundanceof corn, wine, and oil, alld all the necessaries and c0111forts of life!" The Brethren theIl gave three cheers; after \vhich

19


lLLUSXRATIONS

the Gr8lnd Master addressed. the Provost alld lIagistrates as fol1o,vs : i

,; My Lord Provost and Magistrates, "It is with the highest satisfaction that I have now availed myself of the opportunity which the situation I have the honour to hold in the Grand Lodge of Scotland has' afforded me, of assisting at the COlnmencement of'a worksd essential to the welfare of this metropolis, and which, I trust, will contribute, in anenlinent degree, to the extension of the commerce, and the general prosperity of this portion of the united kingdom. " The respect and esteenl which you. enjo:,," in the community over which you have the honour to preside, are the surest pledges that nothingl,villbewallting 011 your part to second the efforts and fulfil the wishes of. those public-spirited individuals who have promoted this undertaking, and that the Just expectations of the legislature, to whose liberality you are also indebted, ,vill not be disappointed. "It is itnpossible to contemplate the auspicious period at w'hich this work is begun, without the strongest senstltions of gratitude to that Providence whichhos inspired his l\Iajesty's councils ,vith tenlperate firlllness~ t\l1dhis fleets with irresistible valour, to assert and lnaintain the just rights of his subjects 011 thateletnent which has ever been the scepe qf their triunlphs, and the. source of their envied prosperity and power. . l\fay the . sall1e bountiful l)rovidenco, in the blessings. of an honourable and lasting peace, secure to the Inerchants of this, and of every other port ill the British dOll1illiol1s, the free and uninterrupted enjoynlent of their trade, and the \vell-carned f'ruits of industry and enterprising activity. "Ill. the nftlne of the Craft of Free and Accepted l\In.sons, I ha,,'"c to offer our hUUlble SnpI)licatious to the Supreule Architect of the Universe, that lIe ,,~iU atlbrd his protcctioll to j""ourLordship, and your Brethren ill the. ··~fagistrac.Y',and thatyotl Inay· continue .to· .be . the instruments, through lIit'Il, of promoting the happiness and '\velfare of the· Q0n1111unity entrusted to your charge."

"£'6# whieh the· Lord Provo,stmade the following rep1y:"l\Iost 1\Torshipful Sir, " Leith. has long had reason to he proud of the enterprise and success oflts merchants and sailors. 'l'he rapid increase of its conun{~rce has made it necessary to <~xtcud the httr'bour, and iInprove the conveniences f0rits tr&d(~... '1'l1e plan of that able engineer, l\'lr. l:teullit1, has been adopted'iandI think it 011e of the happiest events ofnlY life, that I have theho:nour toflll the~hair of the city vvhen the fOtllldation.. stoIle is laid of thes@. extensive 'V~~.. docks, ythich" I conceive, will not only be of great benefit to 'the CIty audIts port,hut to the country at large, as well.as convenient for the adxIlission of large ships of his "Ma-

jesty's Nav.Y'.

" I iS~t~re you, Sir, th~t it is highly l7ra:tifyhtg to 111c:and to my . QW-cltlzens, thr~t tlte ftrst stone of thIS nnportant work has been 1...• ,?y you.. Allo\v lueto rCtnark, that there appears 8- forttlnate propriety in this oeremonybeing perfarlned by the son of $. man, to


a,'p,MASONRY.

whom ourOity, the Navy of Britain, and the whQl~Eropire,areunder so many obligations. " Permit me, in the name of the MagiS'tratesand Council of the City of Edinburgh,to return our 1rvarluest,thanks to you, to yoar Brethren, and,to the gentlemen who have honoured us with their attendallcoQn this occasion. And may that Ahnighty Being, whom windsanÂŤ seas obey, tlCConlpany this undertaking with his blessing, and crown the ,""ork ,vith success F'

The cerelllony was tllen concluded; alld the Brethren ,having given three cheers, a salute of twel1ty-oneguns V\.1"as fired fronl tIle 'vessels ill the roads, under the com111und of Cal)taill Cleluents, of the Royal Navy ; after \vhich, the procession was rene~Tea, and returnf3d to the Assenlbly-rooms at Leith, "rhere the Grand Master received the thanks of the 13rethren for the 118Jndso,me lllanner in \Vllich he bad, conductedtllecerelTIOnyof the day. 'rIle Substitute G-randl\Iaster tllell addl-eSse(l tIle Ope.. rativo Brethren to the follo\ving :"\V"et-doeks at Iolci tIl, pla.nnedin Illtlch \visdorn. the arelu t(;~(.,t., no\v' Ittid, ~Lnd rnents iu your b(1(~11 t<:> it by the Grand and approved ' they are to you, with COIltid:en~~e tl:u~t, as skilful and faithful workrnen, you will use dIem neI", that the building xnay rise in, order, }l;o.r:mony, a.nd .&nd, being perfected in strength, ,,"'iU ans\ver every purpose for it is intended, to Jour credit as Cx"t1ftslucn, and to the honourQ.f our ancient Fraterni t.y."

1'he I.Jodge \vas th,en closed

atlO

form, 'and' the

B,rethren del)tlrted in the ~''''''"l.4.'''''''<lV'' order and regularity, llighly gratified ,vitIl the of tIle cluy. Not\vitllstanding nUlllber of Sl).ect:at<,rs who assenlbled oceasion, no aCCl(le:tJLt

pened. l'ae and harbour .!Uit"V!1l11l

at;l!:erllde:(! )

condllct of l\Iusonsofkingdoln, Grand Lodge of Scotland had .&nintereourse. He stated, that the hearts and arU18 the Grand Lodge '\vhioh he had, the }10nour to rep?esent, had' ever heen


268

ILLUSTRATIONS

open fortl1e reception of their seceding Brethren; ·but that they had qbstinately refused to ackll0wledge tl1eir error, and returrl to the bosonl of tlleir Mother Lodge. He further observed,that t110Ugll the Grand Loclge of Engli1nd differed·ina few.triflillg observallces fi'onl that of Scotland, the fornlerhad ever entertained for Scottish Masons that aflection and regard '\vhicll it was the object of Freelnasonry to cllerisll, and the duty of Freenlasons to feel. His I~ordsllil)'S speeell was received witll loud an:drepeated applause. Frol.n this cirCUll1stance, therefore, we ll1itY probably anticipate the l·enewal of all alliallcebetweentheGrand Lodges of Scotland and England. 110 '1'he state of tl1e Society ill England, f1'0111 the year 1800, vvas regular and progressive. UncleI' tIle patronage of the Earl of l\Ioira, l\Iasonry \~ras cultivated Ulld conside1"ablyextended. lVIany erninent and illustrious eharacters eIlrolled . t heirnanles. arnong· the ]j~raternity; and,· throng}1 . various ·brancllesof the RoyalJ:l'alnily, application wasnlade to tlleG'rand Lodge, froul the Mar sonsin foreign countries, for rCl1e'\ving recillTocnl nllianees of per111anen t· friendshil). At the GrH11dLodge ill Jj'ebruary, 1802, the liJarl of no Fr()ln ~Ir. Lalvrie's vahutl)le trcntise on :Preclnasonry, lately published, the above p~lrticulars have heenextracted. This gentlcxnan has given averysatisnl.ctory account of the misunderstanding between th~iL~egubtrand.irregula~" l\fn,sonsof Londoll.. After stating that the ,acbismcommenced with the secession of, E\ome ]~rt1threl1 frolil. the Gntnd Ladle, in 1739,he observes, that tho active promoters of it) oMling. themselves Ancient Masons, not only formed Lodges, in 'subversion of the rules ·of the Order, but actually estahlished in Loudon a nominnlGr::tnd Loclb.(~e, in open defiance. of the . Ancient Granel Lodgo) on\vhom they invidiously bestowed the appellation of i\fodern·· Masons, on a.ccount of a fe\v trifling innovations in thecerCIDonial abserv... anc~s, which had been inconsiderntcly sanctioned. The irregular Ma"sons encouraged the re,""olt; and having chosen as their Grand' !v!L.<3ter .the Duke of.l\..thol, thel1 Grand J\itlstcr elect for Scot11~nd, a friendly. intercourse was opened between them and the (irn.nd IJodge itl Edinburgh.. . From this CirCtllusta.nco Dlore than from any pr{~dileo. . tion in their favour, a correspondence has, since that titne, been kept up,. and the same prejudices hl1bibed by the Brethrell ()f Scotland against. the regular Masons of Enghl.Ild. 'J:ll0 business'l ho'WeVel\ beiIlg now more clearly understood, it is expected that a,' gen(\ral 'union will soon terminate all. differences" and that t\ reguh"Lf couununioati~n will be .speedily .effected &Illong the regular 1v!asons of both. king...

doss.*

"

'.

.. Ins. subsequent pttl't o.f tllO work it will be fOUD.{l tha.t tllll veiy doalrabl<!tobjoct aa.. been ha.ppily e1feeted,-EDXTon.


OF MASONRY.

269

}\foira stated ~o the Brethren, that the Lodges irlBerlin, under the auspices of the I{ing of Prussia, bad .solicited the influence of the Duke of Sussex to carry ona friendly cornnrunication \vitll the G-ral1c1 L'OQge of England; and had eXl)ressed n Teadiness, 011 their 1) art, as fall" as was consistent vvith the duty th,ey o\ved to their o\vn l\Iasonic jurisdictioli, to act in unisoll \vitll their J3rethren of England, in proluoting all the general princi111es of the Institution, and in extending relief "'to distressed l\Iasons; on ,\V'11icll it "vas i111111ediately resolved,t.hat a friendly C0111111Unication should be·keI)t IIp "Vvitb our Brethren in Prussia, and every attention 11aid to their ,future reeonl. Inelldations. At the Grand Lodge ·in l\Iay following, another application ,vas Inade, through the sUlnechannel, f1"Qr11 four Lodges in Portug·al, \vhich had· enlI)ovvered Thl. II Yl)polito J oseI)ll da Costa to net as their rC11resentative in tl1H Grand Lodge of England, und in their IHU11C to 8()lieit a regulari.tllthority to rites of the ()rcler under the l~llglisll banner and protection. ..t\..fter Inntnre delib(~tation, It ,vas c1eternlined that every encouragelnent should he given to the 13rethren in Portugal ; and a t~eaty was. irrnnediatelyentered into and signed by·· Brothers Da (~ostaand lIeseltitle" then Grand '!'reaSllrer of the Grand ~Lodge, and a!Jproved b)' the' Grand l\faster, \:v l1ereby it \vas agreed, that as long as. the POl"tl1guese Lodges should eonf()rrn to the ancient COIlstitutions of the t)rder, the~y' should he elnpo'\vered to have a l"epresentrdire in the (}ranc1 Lodge of ]~ngland, and tha.t the G·rau(11Jodge. of l~ngland should. have a reI}resentntive in r

the Clrand' Lodge. of pOI"tugal; nucI .that the . 13retl\.r~11 belonging to ~h Gran~ .• Lodae l;lhou1.d equally e~ti­ tIed to the prIvIleges of the other. In the I)riv~lteproceedingsof tIl 0 Society, few ll1aterinl incidents occurrec!., In .conseqttcuce of the death rrhoruas Sundby, l~sq., the offiee of (~TfuHl renlnilled vaeant till 17H9, \Vllell I{obert l~rettinghanl, l~sfl.' \vas appoirl ted, his sueeessor-. "Tilliarn r!'yler, ~'sq., tllt~ J\rt~hiteet of the 'ravern, . ha,ving l)ee~l proposed us n ealHlidute the oflieeat the (}rand It"'ea,st, in l\lay, 1801, t}l~.~ (}IwUlldl\fnster olOlserv(·(1, tlutt of .']·ralld Arehiteet lUl(l been '(~onfbrl"ed OJ) Sandb.:r ()uly as a rllarlt personal he having heen


270

ILLUSTRATIONS

ArehitectoftheHalI, hut th~lt it waSllever illt~nded to bea>pernlanel1toffice in tIle, Society. The Grand Lodge, therefore, resolved, that the office of G'rand Architect should be discol1tinued ; 'but tllat, in con11,linlent to Brothers Brettingl1anl Ul1c1· rryler, botll these gentlernen should be permitted to. 'attelld tIle· Grand Lodge, and wear an honoraryje'\"\"el'asa l11ark of personal res11ect. In November, . 1801, a. cb:argewas presented to the Grand Lodge against sonleof itsnleUlbers, for patronizing, and officially actirlg as principal officers in an irregular society, calling thelTISelves Llncient JJ{asons, in open violation of the la\vs ·of tl1e Granel Lodge. The charge being fully supported, it was deter111ined that the la\vssho'nldbe enforced against tllese offending Brethren, unless .tIley inl111ediatelyseceded fro 111 suell iI-regular lneetil1gs. . Trhey solicited tIle inc1ulgellce of the. Grand Lodge for three lllonths; ill llopes that, during the interval,theyll1igllt be enabled t()~flect,a union of tlletVv"O Societies.'l"bis l11easurewas agreed to; and that riO impedinlentnligllt l)revent so desirable Rl1 ohject, tIle charge' against the offending Brethren ,vas vvithdra\iVI1; and fL C0111111ittee, consisting of the Earl of 1\1oi1"a, und several other ell1inent cllaracters, -v\ras al)pointed, to 11tlve the way for tIle intended union ; and every~ 111eans ordered to be used to bring back the erring Brethren to a sense of their duty and allegiance. Lord Moira declared, on accepting llisappoilltment asamelnberofthe COIIllIlittee, thQt lle, should. COlisider.•. . tlle day 'on . Wllicll. a coalition should be formed, as one of the most fbrtunat.ein his life; andtbat he was empowered by the Prince of\Vales to say, his Royal Ifighlless's arlns would ever be open to all the JYlasons in the ltiugdonl indiscriluinately. ()n the 9th. of Jj-'ebruary, 1803, it being rel)resented to the G-rand Longe that tIle. irregular lVIasons still continued l'efJ~ac­ tory,ll1 an,d tllat, so far fi~Olll soliciting re-adlnissioll uIIlong the Craft, they had not taken unysteps to effect an union, 111 It affords me thenlost heal'tfelt pleasure to observe, thatall recollection of the bitterness '\vhich characterized' this revolting controversy, is so entirely obliterated, that the distinction of ancient alld 'rnodernare kno'wn onlY.&8 matters of history, and remclnbered but, \V~tp the sigh of regretthatstlchdisputes should Iltl:ve ever occurred t&.clond.the amiable and decent spirit '\vhich onght al\vRys to distin... guish the science of ]'reenlttsonry.-EDITOR.


271

OF J\ilASONRY.

their condllct was deemed lligllly censurable, and tIle laws of tlle.Gralld Lodge wereol"dered to be enforced against theln. It was also tlnuninl0usly res.olved, That whenever it sllall apl,ear tllat any l\:fasons, u,nder tIle English Constitution, shall in future attel1d, or Coul1tenance, a~y Lodge, 01" llleeting of 11ersons, calling thenlselves Anci""t ]tfasons, under the sanctioll of any 11erson"clainling the title of Grand ~Iaster of England, WllO slut'll 110thave been duly elected ill the Grand Lodge, the laws of the Society shall not only be strictlyenforeecl against thel11, but their nanles shall.be erased froln the Lists and trans11litted to all the regular Loclges under the Constitutioll of England. III .February, 1804, tlleG-raucl·Lodge, desirous of cxpressing in the Inost !)llblie. luanner tlH~ lligll SeI1S(~ entertained of the serviees tlleR,ight tIl() l\Ioira, the aeting Gran(l 1\Iaster, l.luuninlollsl:l resolv(:~d, that his I....lorclshiI)'S I)ortraiti. should IJairrt:ed by (111 artist, and I)ut up in. the .flaIl, \'lith those of the l)ast (frand 1\Iusters, asa the and esteeul of the . . . Earl afterwards J'"".. ",..' ... ·liT"..,;'l'"

port.rait~paillted bySllee.

SECT. XV. jjy.nn 1801 to 1812.

Scottish. l\Iasons had nJtaclU11Hnt; the ~Oelt:~tV being the birtll-day of .his the I)ukn of Gordon ; wllcn the foundation-stone of the bridge over ,the Sl>ey Vtl'as laid. The·concourse of ,vns irnlllcn8e. All the I.Jodgesl"ound.wE~re their diHbrent the of 'n·l)f·'·.~~·1r'"'n \vas arrallgod. !)rovineial (~rnud l\Iast(~r for &e. ]~()dges, Soeieties,. and rH-ivnte gelltlelnen, \\!(~r(~ forlued Oll·the squnre of .·l~'oehabers, '\vhich ,vas JhH~{l by tIle 11(~ighbol1ring volunteer cornpani.es; and an, ex(~ellelit band of 111usie, IJelonging to the 1,'ocbabers' cOlllpany, ~\dded lnuch to the solelnnity of I)focession. l~'ronl TIlE

elll1}lit}ring their the 29th oftJune,

'I'· .........,·'·''''"''',I· ..''l

C·\('ll"I"I.'Ii .. '\i1.I·,'·, .. 1


272

ILLUSTRATIONS

the. square the whole ll1archecl, according to their established rules, to tIle river, wIlieII the Provilleial G'rand Master, \vith his office-bearers, &c., passed 011 n tel11}10rary bridge of boats, as tIle stone \vas to be laid on the opposite side. rrhe volunteers "vere drHs'~lll lIl) OIl the south sicle,as the 'steeIHless of tIle rocl\., and tIle 11arro'v~ ness ·of.,the· ground wllere the foundation-stolle "1"as. laid, prevented rnorefr0111 crossing tIle river than ,vere absolutely necessary. The G-rand }\faster thel1 laid the first stone with theusualsolenlnities.. T\vo inscriptions were deposited in it. The first was engraved 011 l)late, and is ·as·follows : ' In the reign of r£he most graciolls Sovereign GEORGE' III. And under the. auspices. of His Grace, ..t\.Ll~XA'NDEH, Duke of (i-OltDO~, And the other I>atro118o£" tho undertaking, TfIlt). ~lost 110ble (j'EOHGl<J, l\Iu.rquis of. IIuntly P:rovineialGrand~laster.for J3atnffshire, &c., Laid tho fiJundatioIl-stone' of tll0 llridge over the. Spey, On tJ1C 29th of June, Being the· day on lvhich the I)uke of G"ordoll entered his 5!)th year, In. the year of onr Lord 1801, l\nd of the :.l=~rtt of l\Iusonry5801.

The otl1er inseril'tiol1 "vas sealed UI) ill g'lass,alld is as 'follows: D }~O .'ANNU}~NrrE, , Pontis hujus In· Spey•. olimr'J.'uessi, 'flumipe, . \ DuelS de', GORVON, ma:gnoper(~, CiviwnquG :finitixnorum, .' Dlunincintia, lEque fie ::ere publico, Extruendi, Lapidenl hunc primarltlln Nobilissinlus OEORGltTS 1\-Iarchio de IIuN'rLY, }"iIius pr~'eulti potentissinlique Ilrirwip'is, ALEXANDl1r l)ucis c1e GOHDON, &c.. ArtiWll onuri un} . bonarunl ot utilissinutrurn, '. l~tinlnquo salutis pubIica~ Belligno, vintlieis et uluiei, J)osuit; GEORGIO III... I)ei (jrntiar(~gl:lahte; Anllo Christi l\II)CCCa

iErmque" A.rchitectoniea.1 Vl\:IDCCCI. Viutor! Perga et· plnudc..


273

OF MASONRY.

A nllluber of coins were deposited at the SUllIe tirne. The Rev. lIr. Gillon, of S!)eYlnoutll, 8S cllap1ain, IJ}"onoul1ced .a very. appropriate prayer; and tIle Provincial Grand l\faster, in a verJ elegallt speecll, expressed his felicity in seeing all undertaking, so 111agnificent and llseful, at lengtll happily' begun. The \vhole ,,~ascon颅 eluded \vitIl a fel1-de-joie by the YOluIlteers. The procession returlled ill the sal11e order to Fochabers, ,vllere anlple stores of every thing necessary \vere provided, and the day was concluded ~~ith the llighest festivi ty and 11appiness. The inhabitants of the islallds of Jersey, Guernse)r, and Alderne:y', b,eillgextrell1ely satisfied with the COl1dtlCt of Sir John Doyle, during 11is residence anlollg them as governor, l)resented hiln 'VvitIl t,'v'O haxldsollle gold cups; and the t,vo Lodges of Freelnasons ill those is'lallds !lresented !lin1 V\Titll t\VO elegant gold vases. TIle fol1o\ving is a descriI)tion of theln : T

.A.:N l~.n"liX~A:N'r G{lI..D Cep.. -()n tho foot nro r('rlrt:~sent(ld :F'tdth~ lIope, and Charity; in one (~Olnpnrtn1(ll1t of tho body, tho hattle of lIobkirk IIill, April 25, 18tH; .in tho. BUU . Mnsollic ettlbl<~Ius; in the tldrd, an inRcription. . Thnhulldle isa casecl crocodilo; tbe lip, the Prineo of 'Vales's crest. ()u (nu:~, side of tho enYt,\t' t\1"O the Earl of l\!()irn's arrns; 011 t'lu:~ reverse, G(~n(l,ruI I)oylo's; the top \vas lJIllO t~nnnH~llea, set rOUIHl 'Yith verjl' Itu'ge brilliants" INsenIP1'IoX.-To the IIonourablo 1\{l\lor-G路cncral Sir ltJor(~ 1)OYI~r1, 13art., Colc)1u)! of th(~ 47th (or I>l'blce of ",Vftlos's II"ish) l~ebwim(:nt, I..tieutenant-(}overnor HIla Connrulnder-il1-Chic,f of tho Islnllds of Guernsey and itlderney" e, the ]~ree and .i\.eceptedl\Iw~onsof ~larillet N(L penc!trntec1 ,vith u.. livel.Y' and shlcpre sense Ilf grntitnd(1 (IShlflin, adrnirntiou, of your c:rnhl('nt tnlent8 1 )'()ur public und prh-ato "irhu:'R, \yhieh 1u1':-o heHu xnost ()u(lrgntieally disphlyOtl '\l"'it,h th(~ hiA'hest ltd. vantage to lIis Maj(~stY'8 ser"ico, the grea,tnst b(~llClfit to this iSllLlld, und t(> the g(~nernl int('rest of humanity,which ()ur Loc1gn JUtS (\xpf.)riene(~a in e<:nnlnon with every in<lividunl under the sphern of go\"(\~~nnlflnt, 0.11(1 with profoun<1 (leferenct.~ tlud \\"0 to offer yon a l)()x,.'\vith prnblHtos" in slunll (,~.[ll:Inl.ert. ln~;ne of your "~1iHtingllishea and unliahle hut HHH"O lusting f(lsthll(}lly of our grntihH]e and l"Pgnl'.I: uua Ina)' tIn,T...,ightantl Truth "\",ateh (I'YOl", prot~ct, nna prc)sper nIl Y(.lll路 private und(~rtukings, is the I'l"uyer of, Sir, Your gru.tt~fnl ana nttucllE.1d Pri{lnds nlla lnunbln ~tU"'Vj\'I"ltt:.t. ~rh(1 l\If'lnlH-r::; of r",lo<lge Nt). 222..

"r

1

TllC second ({old (Jup is silnilur to the forlner, and l1resented 1,y I~odgeNo. 11(>'


274

ILLUSTRATIONS

The third is a most superl) Gold Vase, presented by the inhabitants of the i~land of Guerl1sey : ;The foot is richly chased, 1vith laurel1eavesround it; onthe bottom of the vase are represented the rose, thistle,and shalnrock; 011 one side the body, GeI1cral Doyle's arms, supporters, crest, &0.,&0., chased; on the reverse, an inscription, and elnblems of victory ; on the neck of the vase are two battleswllich the General fought in Egypt, and a view of two forts which he captured; on the lower are chased the arms of the island of Guernsey; and on the top is l\Iars, holding in his right hand a wreath of laurel.

The inscription on the al)ove vase is Ilearly thesanie as on the first. 011 the 10th of April, 1805, the -Grand l\Iaster in the cl1air (001. Sherborne Ste\vart) stated, tl1ata cOlnu1unicatiOll l1adbeen received by the Grand Secrett1ry froIn tIle Earl of ~Ioirtt, Acting Grand ~Iaster, relating to the Grand Lodge in Scotla,11d; \-vhereupon it \-vas I·e-solved, That, as the Grand Lodge of ScotIan,l lIas eXI)ressed, througllthe Right lIon. the -Earl of l\foil"a,. its {~arnest wish to be OIl terms of confidelltial cornnlUll'ication witll the Grand Lodge of En{51and, under the authority of the Pl'ince of vVales, this G-rand Lodge, therefore, ever desirous to concur ill a ff'aternal intercourse "'lith l·egular Masolls, doth 111eet tllat disposition ''lith tile lltlllost eordialityof sentinlellt,und requests the honour of tIle ActmgGrand l\faster to lllake sue}l declaratiolls ill their ntune to thc'G-ralld I..lodgeof Scotland. 011 the 27th of NOllernber,. 1805, lL letter llad 11een received by the Acting Grand Master from th,e Grand Lodge of Prussia, stating· their . desire to correSI)011(} on terIllS of alllity andbrotllerly communication ,,;ritll the G'ranc1 Lo~ge of Englund; \vhereulloIl it ,,:ras resolved, that the Acting Grand l\Iaster be requested to eXJlress tIle wishes of tlle Grullc1 Lodge of England towctl"ds tlleir llrethrell in Prussia,und tlleir desire to correspon(lwitll thenl on terms of fraternalalnit:y. , ()nTuesday, tIle 1st of Septeulber, 1807, an,other instance of the ze,al of the Scottish l\fasons oecurre'd;wh:~n the founc1ation.stone ·ofthe Norfh I~ier of .E'rasel~burgh New flarbol1x '\vas laid, vvitll.great SOleI1111ity, by Tholnas Burnett, Esq., l\Iaster of the Aberdeen I.. odge, ·andDr. Alexander DalI:ney, Deptlty 1faster, iJ~ In·H8cllce of tIle Magistrates and TOvVll Council of l~'r(tsel·burgh.; tllP


OF MASONRY'.

276

Masters, Office.. bearers, and Brethren of several Lodges, and at least 1000 spectators; .aluong wllom were the Earl of I{intore,Lord Inverary, Alexander Harvey, Esq., of Broadland, and many other persons of distinction., The Brethren and l\fagistrates assenlble(l in the parisIl churcll at one o'clock, wIleIl a serInOl1 was preached by the Rev. IV!r. Sinlpson, for the occasion. .On leaving tIle churell, the procession 1110ved tlll"Ough the principIYI streets of Fraserburgh, which. were lined by l1early 300 of the Fraserburgll Volullteers, on permanent duty, under the cOilllnand of Lieut.-ColoB.el Fraser, in the following

order: .A Guard of Volunteers. Music. Ke,ith Lodge, of Peterhead.. ~'rasorburgl1

I.../odge.

Sololnon's Lodge, }'raserhurgh. ~Iucdt1ff Loc1ge. Operative I.Jodge,Btt111fI. :l\Iusic. Forbes 1.../0 <lge, l~osehearty. St. Andl·e,\v's Lo~(~, 13sudf. M:~istrates, TowIlCouncll, .. and Subsoribers. Supcrintt€ludent of the lll.tilcling,oarrying the plan..

Clerg)Txnen. rryler of the Aberdeen Lodge. Inscriptioll .I)late, Cal"riecl. by an Opero,tivo Brother. Tho Cornucopia, filled with oo1":n. Two sHyer Cups, filI(~d with wine. 'The Brethren of the Ab(~rdeen Lodge. 'rho S(~cretary and r£reasurer" The Sell.iOl" and J l1nior 'tVa.rdens. The IIoly Bible, carried hy a Brother. The l\Inster ancl l)eputy l\Iaster. '".rbreeGrnnd Stewards. A· Guard of Volunteers.

On arriving at the spot (\vithintheold harbour) "rhere the stolle Wt~'3 to be laid, the Lodges filed oft flleiIlg in... w&rds; tl1rougl1 \vhicll tlle Magistrates, To\v.n ()ouncil, tIle stone, Subscribers, llloved to the west side w the Clergylnen, the 1\faster, DClltlty lVltlatt~r, and O'Q.bearers of the Aberdt~erl I~oclge, 1110ving the east. Thesto.DC beingslung, o.n apP.T·ol)riate ad.dress was delivered by the I~i~ht Rev. 13ishop Alexander Jolly; after wlticIl he invoked tIle blessing of God upon the und,er.. tak.ing in a suitable prayer.


276

ILI,USTRATIONS

The ·Deputy Master·then proceeded (after a suitable address to the Brethren and Assembly) to place in the base-stone the inscription-plate, several coins of tIle present reign, an Aberdeen newspaper of tl1e preceding week, all alluanack of the year, and a writing 011 parC}lment, containing a list of ~he subscribers, <:l,nd otller particulars relative to the undertaking ; which writing was inclosed in apllial,and the whole deposited ill niches. made in the stone for the purpose. The following inscription and writing were previously read by the Deputy }Iaster: " The present Harbour of Fraserburgh, which was bUilt, about 200 years ago, by Sir Alexander Fraser, ancestor of the present Lord Saltoun, being originally small, and of bad access, and now much de'cayed, the foundation-stone of the North Pier of the Ne'\v Harhour of Fraserburgh, designed by John Rennie, of London, Esq., Ch,"il Engineer, was laid 1st of September, 1807, of the rera of l\fasonry 5807, and of the reign of Geo. III. the 47th year, by the Right Worgl1ipful Thomas Burnett, Esq., Master of the Aberdeen Lodge, ana Alexander Dauney, Esq., D-eputy Master, the Right Hon. Alexander George Lord Saltoun, being .Superior and Provost of the Burgh; William Kelman, Esq., Baillie .Alexander Dauney, LL.D., his Lordship's COlnmissioner; 'Villianl SU1ith, 'rreasurer; Sebastian Davidson, Dean of Guild; Willialn Fraser, Esq., of ~Ienzie, II.. C.. ; John Dalrymple, seu., Willianl 'Valker, John 'Valla.co, William Milne,John ~rihlC, Jaules Gray, Alexander Buchan, WilIhLm Cooper, William. Greig, Charles Wenlyss, and John Alexander, Merchant Counsellors; John Dalrynlple, jun., llobert ~1:atthew, and John 13arnett, Trades COUDsollor:s; Lewis Chalmers, Town Clerk ; Mr.'. W. Stewart, from Mid Lothian, Superintendant. Q..F.F.Q.S."

The Master now ordered the stone to be lowered, making three ···regular·· stops;Whell.,with the assistal1ce .of two Operative Brethren;heconductedthe stone to its bed. The lVIaster, vvith the Del)uty on l1is rigllt, standing towards the east, and the vVt1rdens 011 tIle west, the square, the J>IUlllb, tIle level, and the mallet, being successively delivered by the DelJuty to the l\faster, were by him applied to tIle sides, top, and square of tl1e stone, in several pQsi.tion.s: \vitll the mallet he. then gave thre.e knocks, saying, "May the Grand Arcllitect of tIle Universe grant a blessing 011 this foundation-stone which we have novv laid, and by his Providence enable us tof1nisll this and every other work vlThicll Inay be.undertaken for the good and advantage of this to"'\"Il and harbour!" On vvhich the I~rethrel1 gave three lluzzas.


O}i" MASONRY.

277

The cornucopia and the two silver cups. were then brought and delivered, the cornucopia to the Deputy, and the two vessels to tIle Wardens, and were successively presented to the l\faster, WllO, according to ancient custOlll, poured the corn, \vine, and oil, whicll tbeycontained, on tIle stone, saying, "J\Irlty tIle all-bounteous Autllor of Nature bless this town \vith abundance of corn, \vine, and oil, and with all the necessaries, COllVeniences, and cOlnforts of life !"On this the BrethreIl gave three Iluzzas. After the ceretnollY, the l\faster, Lodges, and Magistrates, returned in reversed order to the Saltoun-inn, where nearly one llundred persons sat down to a dinner given by the town in honour of the day; and the remain... . ing part of tIle evening "vas sl)ent· witl! tIlat agreeable cOllviviality which so well Crlal"Hcterizes tIle ancient Order of 1\1a80Ur)T• ()n the evening of next day', n ball and supper ,vere given to the ladies of li'raserbtrrgh, and Ilcigllbourllood also~ in hOllour of the ut W,.llicll itnlay well be said no small share of the beauty of· the North was present. Ninety'-t,vosat down to SUp!ler. Dancing bes-an after supper, andcontinu,ed withmuell spirit till five 0' clock in tl18 111orning.. 011 the 12th oflf'ebruarr, 1806, tlle Earl of Moira, in the chair, inf()l"lned the (frnnd Lodge, that during his residence in ]~dinbtlrgl1.he lUHl visited the Grand IJodge of Scotland, and tnkell tIle 0PllortuuitJT of (~xplainiug to it, the extt~nt and .hll portun.ee of this Ctl"nnd Lodge, also the. origin ~uld situatioll of those l\Iasons in Engla,nd who met .under the tllltllority of the Duke of At

tllat the Brethren ,of the Grand Lo,dge of ~C()tlsLna expressedtllemselves, till then, greatlymisinfonned tIl 0.. se circumstances; having been a.lways led to think, that this Society was of a recent date, no magnitude; butno\v, of their error, tIle)r \\rel"e desirous that unio'I1 most intiInnJe cOlllrnUllieation should subsist between this Grand Lodge and G1"luHl and as the ·first ste;p so . an .. and tiulony of the ,viah es of the Masons, Ilia h~~ss .the l?ljnce of vVales hadbecIl una!linlo11s1y Grand Master of Scotland. '!'!le 1\faster,


278

ILLUSTR.ATIONS

in ··.the ·ohair, further informed the· Grand Lodge, that the Grand Lodge of Scotland had expressed its con,cern that any difference should subsist among the Masons of England, and that the lodges meeting under the sanction of' the Duke of Athol sh.ould have withdrawn th,em selves from the protection of the ancient Grand Lodge of Englalld ; but hoped that measures nlight be adopted to produce 8i reconciliation and that the Lodges now holding irregular meetings would return to their duty, and again be received into the bOSOlll of the Fraternity. That, in reply, his Lordship 11ad stated his finn belief, that this Grand .Lodge would readily concur in any measures that might be proposed for establishing ullion and 11arlnony alTIOng the general body of Masons; yet, after tIle rejection of the p·ropositions made. by this Grand Lodge three years ago, it could 110t now, consistent with its hono'ut, or the dignity of its illustrious Grand 1'Iaster, make any further &dvanees; but that,as it still retained ita dispositiolt 10 promote the general interests of the Craft, it would always be open to accept of the mediation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, if it ShOl11d think pro!)er to interfere on the subject. 1Vllereupon it was resolved, that a letter be \Vrittell to the Grand Lodge of Scotland, expressive of the desire of this ·Grand Lodge, that tIle strictest union In<1Y subsist between the Grand Lodge of England and tIle Grand Lodge of Scotland; and·fot that purpose, that the· actual Masters and. Wardens of tIle LOO«BS under theaut"h;orityoftha Grand Lodge of S.oofland whomay b. 6 i;a Lo.nd~.t 011 pr()ducit1~ proper testimonials,shal1 have a seam in this Grand LOdge, and be perlnitted to vote on all occasions. The. thanks of the. Grand Lodge were unanimously voted to the Earl of l\foira, for tbehappy settlenlellt of this important business, On· the 6th of April, 1808,. a communication was made from the Grand Lodge of Scotland relative to Dr. Mitchell ; when the thanks of the Grand. Lodge were voted for the. communication. At this meetillg it was resolved, That it ifS absolutely l1ecessary for the welfare of Masonry, and for the pl"eservatioll of the ancient landmark.s, that there be a .super~ntending power, . cOJnpetent to 6ootrol the proceedIngs of every acknowledged Lo,dge ;

and tnat the Grand Lodge, representing by regular del...


OF MASONRY.

gation the will of the whole

Craft~

is;ihe . proper and

unquestiollable depository of such ~ower. That it is contrary to the princIples of Masonry, for any Lodge to publisll its sentiments on political subjects, inasrnucll as the agitation of any I)olitical question,or the discussion of any public affair, is strictly forbiddell among lVlasons; tl1e Grand Lodge itself~ thOllgll acting for the \vllole Craft, not being justifiable in dCIlt\rting froln this rIlle, unless in some cases of obvious and extrelne Ilecessityr • . That the Grand Lodge concurs entirely in the justice of the opinions which the Grand Lodge of Scotland

thougllt it·self boul?-d ·toenforce; and trllsts. that no Lodge. under tllB.Constitution of England ,viII, any shsJle, countenarlce resistance to an authority exerted upon principles universally by all trtu:~ and faithful brethren. On the 23rd Noveulbcr, 1808, the acting (jrand 1\fnster inforn1{~d the llrethroll, that h() had r(~ceived n (~on·Hnuni ...

cation.

tIle

Gr~'tlld I~odge

principles l)fofessed by tion to the Grand Lodge of eo-operate with this rand IJodge in every particular l\"hieb might support the anthorit}'r IlE~cessary to be nlnintllined by the representati,rE~boayof the wl10leCrnft over2~ny individual Lodge. r!'hat the (Jrand IJodge Irelnnd pledged itself Ilot to C()llnteu~ln(~eor as n llr~()tller any !)erson standing, lUHler Lodge of }Jngland 1<,)1". nlusolrie tl"ulu;gressi()n. which it was resolved, that the Actin~ Grand . ster be

requested to 'express to the Grand I.. oage of Ireland the due sense whietl.Graud

efttertail1s

cor-

COlnmlun~lea'tl;O~n.. 31st of .LJeee'InD;E~r ('ovent-Garden The~ttre was

dial a ()n of ltless

I)rinee of Wales, t\s

lfJngland nnd Seotland. The fOlln('l~ltioll-stolle\\'~'S ted Itt tht~ north-eust angle of . grfHuld, . w(~ight nearly tons, contaiuhlg sixty cubio t. l?l·C.. . vious to the it

over 1\ Diu)enJell t


280.

ILLUSTRATIONS

assisted at the cereu10ny; the other was appropriated to the spect.ators. Surrounding scaffolds \vere covered ,vitIl Inanv hundreds of 'VOrl(Inen, '\vho\vere engt1ged in the building. .A.· detachuJent of the first reghllent of guards ,vas posted as· tt guard of honour, at tIle Prince's entrance, \vitll a band of 111usicians; aIldfour other military bands \verestationed on elevated platfornlS, near tIle cOlnpany, to enliven the scene. At tvvelve o'clock the Grand Lodge was opened at Freen1asons'-hal1, ill Great Queen-street; Charles Marsh, Esq., in the chair, attended- by the lVlasters and Wardel1:3 of the regular Lodges; and at half-past twelve they vvalked in processiol1 to Bo\v-street, tIle junior Loc1ges first. 'rhe representative of tIle Grand lVIaster \'1alked last; being preceded by the Chevalier Ruspini, bearing the Grand Svyord, and by the l\Iaster of tile Lodge of Antiquity, No.1, bearing the Boolt of Constitutions. On their arrival at" the Tlleatre, they wereV\ elC01l1ecl to theplacesassignedtheul,. by tIle ban,dplaying the old tune of " 1\ Free t1nd Accepted l\Iason." rrheGrandOffieel'S proceeded to the lnarquee, and \ver~ arranged ill otder. rrl10 l\Iaster, ",rardens, and nine lIlen1bers of the Ste';~lanls' Lodge, anc1 nearly four hundred 'Thrasters and T

Wat"dens of' Lodges attended, llabited iIl the insignia of the Order. 'fhe several bands IJlayed,alternately, airs till one o'clock, the hour fixed for the ap11earanee of the Prince; \vhenhis ROjral Ilighlless in his coach, aCCOIllpanied hy the Duke of Su£sex, attended by' General HulseandColollcls . lVf~Mahon and BIQomfield,. arrived under an escort of horse...guards. .IIis·Royal IIighness "vas received, 011 his entrance at tIle Bo\v-street door, by the Earl of l\Ioira, acting Grand Master, the detachrnents of guards· saluting, \~Titl1 grollnded colours, and beating the "Grenadiers' l\Iarch. 111". Ilarris and lVIr. Kell1ble, after paying their respects to his Ro)ral I-lighl1ess, ushered. him to the Inarquee, \vhere his atrival was announced by loud plaudits, the royal standard lloisted, and. the discharge of a royal salute of artil1eryr. Iris Royal IIighness, \vho was dressed in blue, \vi th a scarlet colla.r, \veal~ing the insignia of his ofi1cc as'G-ra.nd 1\Ia,ster, a pair of gold cornpasses set \vitll brilliants and other jewelry, andtt white apron bo..rde~~ed \vith l)urple., . and friljge~ \vitll gold, apl)(~ared In 1ugb. health und SpIrIts. PrOC,eedlng,uIlcover-


281

OF MASONRY.

ed, 'Vvith his suite, through ~ raile!dplatfonn':'ry,~preadwith superfine broad green clot}1, botl..~a with scarlet andyel10,v, forty dislnounted life-guards:rnen, Wll0 were Ma~ons, \vithout arnlS, lining the sides of the railing, the company all rose as his I~oyal IIighness IHtssed the platfornl to the 111arqllee, and gave hinl three. cheers; \Vhell tIle Ullited ballc1s inl111ediately struck. up, "God sa.ve the l{lng." Iris Royal Highness, ashe l)assed, srnilingly bo'\ved to the ladies ,vith the 1110st f11scinating aflability. The Grand Officers had previously placed the Inasonic instrulllents 011 a tal)le ill the Iuarquee. A ,plan' of the building, witll its sections ul1delevations, "vas now presented to his Royal Highness, by Robert SInirke, Esq., the architect ; and a gilt silver trowel by lVlr. Copeland, the btlilder of theec1ifice. Ifaving passed a sllort .time in cOllversatioll V1r ith the prol)rietors, and ,vitIl the G'rancl Masonic Officers in the 111arquee, his Royalllig1111css proceeded to the cerernoniaL Ou a sig;u111 given, thc"'corner stone "rus raised about four feet; the 11"odulen, in '\'''llite aprons, instantlyconveyc{l quantity of filla cenlcntingluortar, Wllich ,vas l1:e11tlysl)read on thebas;estone by theworklnerl of tIle building,similiarl:ydrcss,ed. Ilis Royal IIighness now adv~tneed, unco路;Tered,. to the llortl1-eust corner of the stone ;\VhCll J Oh11 13ayford, Esq., as (iran.a Treasurer,depositec1, in a space cut for it in the haseIIlent stone, t1 brass box, containing tIle British gold,. silver, and COI)llBr coins of the lirescnt On a llairt of the stone "I~Ol1g live G'eorge, Prince of "Tales," "'1'0 " '\Ivith a Inedallion of Prince. Ther~) ,\vere . t\VQ .. large nlcdals, one of. bronze, bearing a of llis lloyal IIi~llness on one side,alld on theotber, following iDs,onpti,on: GEOItGIUS PlnNCEI>S THI;~A1.'l"tI

REenIS INS1.'A UltANDI A USPICIIS IN UOR1'IS 1~E~NED!C1.'INI8 I..ONDINI SUlt

l\[anu. JitDCJCCY111I.

bo,re on one side

The otller medal, engraved in

this inseriptioll : UIlllcr

t]10 aUSpiC(N:J

His l'rrostSaorcd I\Ifticsfy

20

of

III.


ILLUSTRATIONS

King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland" The Foundation-stone of the Theatre of Covent Garden Was· laid by his Royal Highness GEORGE PRINCE OF WALES. :M:DOCCVUI.

On the reverse is engraven : ROBERT SMffiKE,

Architect.

His Royal Highness" now, as Grand Master, finished the adjustlnent of the mortar with his trowel; vvhen the upper stone was lowered ···in the sling to its destined positioll; all the band~ playing" Rl1le Britallnia," a dis charge of artillery beillg fired, alld the people with the Inostanimating cheers applauding the spectacle. The junior" and senior Grand Wardens, and the acting Grand Master, the Earl of ]\{oira, now severally presented his Royal Highness vvith the plumb, the level and tIle square; and the Prince, ha-ving applied them to the stone, pronounced the. work correct, and gave the stone three strokes with bis nlul1et.. Three elegant silver cups \yere then presented, suc... cessively, to llis Royal IIighness, containing corll, ~~ille, and oil, vvhicl1 he scattered and pOllred over the stone, all th€ bands playing "God save the King." His Royal Higllness theIl restored the' plan of the .building iIlto tIle hand,s of the "architect, approving that specimell of bis

=~l;n:ll~::~~g~t~~c()m l:S~ytht~~i:;tu::cM~: Harris and Mr. Kemble,hshed prosperity to the building, and the objects connected with it,and sueceS,B and happiness to its proprietors and Inanagers. The cerel1Jony being fil1islled, the band played" Rule Britannia :" and the Prince, the Duke of Sussex, and the Earl of lVloira, were esc.orted back. to the Prince's carriage by tIle managers and the Grand Officers, under a second royal salute of tweIlty-oIle guns. Thus passed a cerenloniaI, which, by the excellent l)rearrangeuleut of its managers, nnd. tIle gracious yet dignified ll1anner ill Wllich the illllstr01.1S chief actor !lcrforlned his part,exllibitedan interesting spectacle, tht\t excited general adn1iration and applause.. All who 11ad the honour toapproacll the Prince speak i~ ra!ltures of his polite and captivating Inanners Oll the occ,a,sion. AI-


thougll tIle neighbouring houses were oovered to. the roof-tops, and many thousands of ,people wereasserobled in tIle street, it is with greatsatisf&Ction we statet that not a single accident happelled to interrupt the splendid ternlination of the cerell10nj'-. 'l'he Masters and Wardens of th~ 1Iasonic Lodges then returned in procession to their 11all in Great Queen-street; vvhell tIle Grand Lodge was closed, after III akin ga formal minute of the proceedings, and receiving, througl1 the 1l1ediunl of the Grand 'l'reasurer, the thanks of tIle Prince for the favour of their attendance. ' TIle Brethren, after the Lodge 'was closed, sat down to a splendid dinner at Freenlusol1s' Tavern; when mirth and conviviality closed the n'leeting. TIle 11roprietors of Covent Garden Theatre soon after"vards l·eceived a letter fronlColonel 1\!'Mall0n, dated fro 111 Carlton-house, in vVllicll he stated, that 11e had it in COIllluand fronl his !{oyal IIighlless the Prince of 'Vales, to express Ilia high apI,rolntftioll of tl1e very great order and regularity \vith whicll the wholeal"rangel!leIlt of tIle ceren10nial haa been fonned. andcOIldueted. On the l2tll April, 1809, it was leS()I~ved, Tkat this Grand ,Lodge do 8,gree ill opinion witll. the committee. of charity, that it is not necessary any longer to eOIltinue in fhree those 111eaSures. which were resorted to ill 'Of a.bout the :ycar17~39, respecth'lg irregular Masons ;3nd do therefore enjoin the several Lodges to revert to the ancient,landnlarks of tlle Society. This nlcnsure was carried into efiect hy tIle appointnlent (witll the sanction of tlle G'rand ]\Iaster) of an oc(~asionalLodgel1Rlned "The .ge of P.'fO,mu.lga.. ti.o.,n," w..,h.ie..It .\Vil..!•.'. . a.,. . . p L.·od .•.:IP.·.".".,.e·.•e,"ara:r . ', . ·, ... t,.,o., l\&ve b'8:en a step p·reparatory the Sfl-mQ·ohrdBWed of· ~It'lsons Aneie:m.t aDd JlU':.'Qem. Ita!lllCariIlg.from the Grand Treasurer~s account, that "ij);,e liquidation fUlld f01" discharging the debts of the &,eiety baa efiectually a,nswered the pUJ.1>ose for \,dlieh it was established, and tbat all the principnl demands had beeu, discharged, 011 the 7th of :E'ebruary, 1810, tlte Grand Lodge,. being desirous of relievir'lg tbe ll'r:aternlty frOtH the payI'nent of aeontribution. whi,eh I., pressing arn(~rgenoy at the tilne ren:dered necessary-, ior4el·ed, Tllst the llaynlentof two shillings per annum, fron} every member, to the liquidation fund for the discharge of the


284

ILLUSTRATIONS

debts ·of the Society, iUlposed by the ,Grand Lodge on the 7th of Febrllary, 1798, sllould, fronl and after the 21st day of December l1ext, cease and deternline. It ,vas further resolved, that the thanks of tIle Grand Lodge be given to the Fraterl1ity at large for their ready com.. pliance in the l11eastfte of the liqllidatioll fUlld, \yhich had been the means of relieving tIle Society fi"o111 its difficulties. The Grand Lodge, hOv,\Tever, l"ecomluended the London Lodges to continlle the subscription till the expenses of the Lodge of Promulgation "rere discllarged.

SECT. XVI.

Histor"y of lJ.fasOn1"y, jl"onz 1812 to 1813. ON the death of Sir Peter Parker, Baronet, Adlniral of the Fleet, Dec. 21, 1811, IllS .Itoyal :flighlless tIle Grand Master was 111eased to confer the office of Deputy Gl·and ~Iaster upon his Royal Brother the Duke of Sussex, Master of-tIle Lodge of Antiqltity. To no 11ersol1 had l\fasonry for ll1uny years been 1110re indebted, thaIl to the Earl of 1\Ioira (novv l\farquis of Hastings). Towards the ella of the year 181.2, his 1;01"<1ship was al)poillted Goyernor General of India: :lIld it was considered by. the Fraternity as ollly a jllst nlark of respect, to invite his Lordshil) to a fhre\vell ban(luet, prev.ious to his.departu.,refrom .England; and to present him ··with a ·valuable Masonic. Jew~l, as a memorial·of their gratitude for his eminent services. The 27th ·ofJanuary, 1813, was the day a})}1ointed, whell a most SUll1ptuoUS dinner was served tIp in Freemasons' IIall, to above five hundred Bl"ethl·en, including six'Royal Dukes; viz., Sussex,D. G.lVI., York, Clarence, Kent, Cumberland, and Gloucester. l:rlle gnHery was filled witll ladies of the first fashioll and respectability, including 'theCOulltess of Loudon and Moira. The Duke of Kent's band attended in the music gallery; an<1 the following professional gentlemen occasionally delighted the company with their vocal exertions: viz., Messrs. Bellamy, Hawes, Neild, Leete, Goss, Terrail, Taylor, Evans, Elliott, Clarke, Doyle, alld Master

King.


OF MASONRY.

28b

The Dul\.e of Sussex, ill proposing the healtll of tIle Prince Regent, said, "I aln commanded by his I{oyal Highness to eX11ress his l~egret that lIe is 110t llere an10ngst yOll this day; but 路llis hearty good ,vishes are witll YOu; and I also beg leave to recall to :yOUl" recollection the Inany obligations \vhicll'are due to His Royal Highness for llis having brought for\vurct the Noble Lord whonl ,~'?'e tllis day have tt1110ngst us." In a 1110st eloquent ol"atioll, the Duke of Sussex afterwards proposed the health of " The Earl of 1\Ioira, the frielld of his Prince, the friend of Ilis COllntry, and tIle friend of lllanl(ind." To vvhicll the Noble Earl replied in the following speech; for the report of "Tl1ich, and of those that follow, we are indebted to Brother Alexallder F:razer, of Thuvies Inl1:'~BRI:~THn:EN, it has been said, that out of the fulness of the heart the tongue sptl,aketh. I kno\v not upon '\vhat grounds that sttltelnent was f()undcd ; hut, at present at least, I ct\llI),ot youch for its accuracy: never did I tnore ,yish for a COllunand of ,yords, tlud never \V'lS I less confident of" lUy J)0,\,""ers, than I ~un upon this occasion; ;yet, (~od kno\ys, Iny heart is full enough.. But the o,,"erlvhelming Illarksof regartl and attachnlcnt with "vrhichyou have honoured me, and still nlore, the exaggeratedcottlpliInents ~w'hich I hat\"c just receiyed from the Illustrious l)ersollage ,,,,"ho presides hero this day, leave me little of that s!>ring of spirit~. which is necessary to\\"ards ans'w'ering adequately. I thank that Illustrious Personage for his high enconliuln, though he has l(~ft Inc a difficult line to tIro.".,. bcb"reen apparent acceptance of so overcharged an eulogy, and failure in due recdgnition of your kindness.. I thank tlu'lt Illustrious }")ersonage, becnuse I kno,v the cordiality of

his soul, nnd tritul1phin the hnpulse which it has given to his expres-

sions, though it has raised biln to t1 strain of eloquence, aft('r ,,,hich any language of nline luust S(!Clll tHule and. feeble. You) }3rethren, "well kno,\v the n1(~ditul1 through ,,,hieh our Illustrious ChairnUl.ll bas vie'\\""cd IDe, and will thence not beat & 10s8 to account for his fervour; but th(~y '\vho cannot construe those expressions by that key, which aU of J ou understalldj ought to be apprised, that路 there exists in the Society of 1\fasolls a brotherly affection, nay, . an affectiion i1tr nlore than brotherly, 'w'hich delights in slackening the crest of jndgnH:nt, and evc'u rioting ill the field of fnney, \vhcn the ol{ject is cHIlL}!' to exalt the lllCrits or to extenuate the defects of a Iuenlber of the Cndt (A.pplnuse~) Sueh hns l)(~en the practice of the Illustrious I'(orsonage ,...ho .has just t\ddresscd you. lIe hns ul1<nycfl fra {<:rnal partinlity to seduc(~ hint into nll the indulgence of luxuriant hunginatiun. lie has sketehed a pi(~ture 'with fttir,Y' tints. lI(,~ has exhibi t<:d the handoftt llUlst(.~r in tll(~ portra.iture; [nIt. he has n1;.::o路 displtLyed a, IUllster's liceu(:~e; trusting thatelegu.nc(~ of outline and brilliancy of (~oloul's would atOl1e for dcf'icicn(~~.r of 1"cs(~nlhlnnce. ''''hat the ItoyaI I)uke hns been l)lenscd tottscrihe to lne, has heen only the CllUlllation of the


286

ILL USTRATIONS

principles cultivated in this halIo\ved Institution,-the prn.cticaI effect of those lessons which J\iasonry inculcates, not for purposes of mysti... CiSUl but in the hope of their influence on the interests of society. His'Royal lIighness has been pleased to dilate upon my humble services in the armJT. I am sufficiently conscious of the exiguity of ihescale upon which it has been my lot to act. I have no pretensions to aught beyond creqjt for zeal; and with that I can be satisfied. If I know Inysel~ I have ever held it of far higher value to possess the silent esteem which attends an useful member of the cOlumunity, than to be followed by the clamorous, but unweighed and transient, applause of the multitude. Only believe of me that I have honestly considered myself the servant of the eountry, always liable to be called upon to support its interests, and always ready to·obey with fervour the sumlnons. That merU is all that I can be entitled to claim. The Illustrious Chairman has praised me as the friend of the Prince. Can I assume merit for my attachment, when all the honour of such a connexion through a length of years must have been bestowed upon me 1 If I had the happiness of being distinguished by such partiality, adherence was but a slender return, though the only one I could make. But 1vere it possible for me to forget every other cause for pride and gratitude in such favour, there is' one obligation which the circumstallces of this day would present Ulost emphatically to my memory•. It was the Prince Regent who placed me in the situation whence I have· derived all the flattering testimonies ofyol.lr good-will.. '1'0 him I O\lle the opportunities of endearing myself to you, if I dare indulge myself ill listening to your friendly assurances of my having done so; to hinl I stand indebted for the Ineans of manifesting "v hat I thought ought to be the tenor of his representath~e in the Craft. You have approved luycollceptioll of that character. You have gone further-; you have rewarded it by making this the proudest day of nlY life; and see ho\v much hi,s influence· contributes to that pride! When I look round nle and observe so many individuals of the Royal Farnilypresent on the oc(~asion, I must feel, what an indication it is of his generous \vish that your kind enthusiasm should have his implied concurrence; not that I eIJl thence be less gra.teful to each of these Illustrious Personages, for allowing me the ·boast, thattbeir countenance on this night l)ore testimony to their ratifying your approbation.. This, as· a man, I feel deeply, but with ,no inferior sensibility as a·, }\{tlSOIl. Dignifyhlg, indeed, it is to the Craft, to see those elevated Per-soIlages exbibi t their fello'\vship with us. But it is not merely a superficial honour to which your minds should be alive. No, you ought to feel the incalculable benefit which the serious obJects of :M:asonry must derive fronl this public display of the sentiment of Royalty towards the Brother.. hood; this avowal from so Dlany of those immediately connected ,\","ith the Throne, that they make common cause with your \velfare and your affections.. ' Let us carry this thought farther. Let us exult in the advantrtge w'hich may ensue to every class in l~ritaiIl, iraul the circumstance, that these elevated individuals could not have l>een present here had they not previously recebted all those solemn inculcations with v;rhieh ~rnsonry endeavours to dispose the heart of each of the initiated to promote the. comfort of his feHo'\v" Everyone of these Illustrious :Persons hns hnd the important lesson whispered into hie ear, 'lle Sitnplc:, be Benignant) be ~Ian !' And the gerln planted in


287

OFl\[ASONRY.

minds like theirs cannot be unfruitful. They Qomprehend their rich reward. They share with us in the glowing confidence. that the beneficence ofa superintending ~'atherperpetuany shields They participate with us in that sure hope of the future, which makes our present existence appear but a speck in the immensity of our immortal heritage. They are assimilated to us ill all the generous affections of that charity, which tells us, that kindness to all must be the ohlation most acceptable to IIim, \",ho, in creating all, could have .E;O nlotive but their happiness. lYl1cn Ro}"alty cherishes such senti.. nlents, its comlnixture "rith social life is a blessing. Need I remark, hO\\1" proud the distinction is for our own beloved country, that the presence of these Illustrious Persons, in meetings of convivial society, so far fronl being a check upon hilari ty, is an encouragement which renders enjoyment luore grateful. Yes, the influence of Royalty Britain is never felt, but as the genial zephyr ,,~hich cheers and invites to expansion every bud it breathes upon; while in other realms, it is the ,vind.from the desert, withering all over which it passes. "One word upon a point more inlnlediately referrible to myself: I have called this the proudest day of Iny life. I ought to feel it so. For above one-and-twenty years I have had the llonour and satiSL'lCtioD. of presiding in this society; a society forlne~l to stinnllnte mtnl to the practical application of doctrines, at ,vhich I have slightly glanced, but on ,vhich I should have been happy (had it been allo,,"ttble) to expatiate. 'l'be prodigious extent of this Society in England is little iInagined bjr those ,,,,110 arc not called upon. to look to its IlUnl1)crs.. Its perfect tranquillity attracts no attention.. That so vast :1 hodyshould exist in such silenee,and Inove with such invari~,'ble regularity, 'vbile it would apI)car to tho casual observer that no,eye ,,"ntches or hand directs its procedure, is the best proof of its rigid adherence to principles, in their nature unalterably adva.ntageous to societ)T.. I t is, thOll, a pride to hold a leading station anlo11g such Inen.. l~ut vthile I have enjoyed that distinction.. I have,oll the other hand, been subjectc(l to their scrutiny.. It bas been not only the right, but the duty of ~rUSOl1S to keep a ,~igilant eye over In)" couduct in lifo, thn.t., if consure ,';rere <1ue~ their rcrnonstrallce ~tn(l rqjcction rnight prev'cut the credit of the Craft frolll being tainted 11y the ostensible superintendence of an un,yorthy individuaL ..t\fter that observation of nlC f(JI- ollc-alld.. t\venty years, Illy Brethren ha"e this day })ronoul1ccd their. judgment. i therefore o.ught to kn.ow how to a.. Pl)reciate this testimony or your. approbatio~.. I do. appreoiateitjusfJy.. I should believe your verdict to 00 ~i&l; ~rhaps I must be conscious it is so ; but in tlle eyes of the world it is the stamp of honour affixed upon llle; and I thank you, Brethren, 'w'itha gratitude connuensurate to the Innglli tude of the boon." '

us.

in

r!'his SI)eecll ,vas, as nligll t .11aturnJly.. exrH~ct(:d, fo1lo\ved by the Inost elltlll.lsiastic l)u1"sts of HI),plause. 'l'he Duke of Sussex tl1en rt~(p.H:~stea the nttentioIl of the company to n song, \Vrittell expresslyfof the occasion. '1'ho fol1o\,;,ring (~l(~gallt and npI)ropriatestaIlz8S, written for the occasion by 'ValIer I~od\vell Wrig}lt, l~sq., (the


288

ILLUSTRATIONS

author of Horce Ion-ieee, a'11oenl descriptive of the Ionian Islands, v~There he fornlerly resided as his l\iajesty's C011suI, and of \vhich he has lately had the honour of being appointed CiTand l\Iaster), .\yere accordingly sung b~y' l\ir. Bellan1y, \vith 11111Cll and deserved apl)lause; tIle· last versebeillg encored by tIle cOlnpany, und again encored by the RoyalCllai1"Ulall:OCCASIONAL STANZAS, ADAPTED 'ro IrHE GER:M:,AN AIR,

"E1"schall, 0 Gefilhl." FREE-:MASONS' HALL, JAN.

27, 1813.

soft-hreathing I-Iyre, for n ,vhUe be suspended The soeial delight \yhich thy nUlnbers irnpart: \VIllIo sighs of regret ·with. our raptures are blended, And strnins of nffection f!(nv ,vnrrn froIll the heart. lInil! hail! hail! to eV'ry hOSOIXl doar, rrhou, to '\vhoso honour'd name "\Ve eOllsecrnte the parting tear.. Ye reahns, '\yhero the any-star first springs £rol11 the ocean, No'w ,·velcorne the dtuvn of l::>hilanthropy's ray; Yo nations that trmnblo in tll~jeet de,'otioll, By Gallgus or Indus-rrtioiee in her s,\v'n,j'". ITa-il! hail! hail! &e.., &e.

THOU,

Go on, n()l~lo Spit'it! still guerdnn'a 'with glory, PU1'sue the l}J:'ight track 'whi(~h thy fnte JU1S assign'd; For thus shall thy lUtnlC live euuolJlec1 instol',y-, Of Britain the !'ri<le, and tho· ~"riel1t1 of· }lnnkilld. IIu.il! hail !hail! &0., &c. Oh,deem not our hearts can e'ero«~ase tore'V'ore thee, Or'still on thy virtues with rapture to d,vell, Recalling" those scenes to our souls that end(~ur thee, Ana the pain of that hour ,vhen we bade thee farewell ! Irail ! hail! haill&c., &c. E'en then, w'hile hetwQ<:l1 us ,vido OCCtl11S are rolling, 'Vh(~n(~' (~r 'we aSSPln hlo tl}(::,so rites to r~~!lErl\", With magic illusic)u our senses o()lltrolling, Shnlllfancy restore theo again to our vievr.. IIail! hail! lULil! <.\:c., <.~c. Ana '\vhell on that hr(~nst"vllf~re.hright houour, still beaming, Sll<:ds lustro,excelliug''\1lhnt I{ings (~all b(~sto,v, The l)k'dgo of ]'rnh:\!nul .Aff(~etif)n is glenluing, WIth kindl'e(]ern.otiol1s f,lly hCJSOln ~hull glo,v", I'Iail ! hail! hail !,'x:e. t (.\:(~.


OF· MASONRY.

289

Oh, think, while glad millions their gratitude. breathing, For Fx:eedom and Justice, thy nalnesball adore, Fond Friendship tl.lld J OJ rosy chaplets are wreathing, To greet thy return to thy lov'd native shore. Hail! hail! hail! &0., &0.

On a signal being given, which had been previously Inentioned, the ladies I"etired fronl the gallery; and the Duke of Sussex opened the Special Grand Lodge. After several of the accustomed toasts had been given and drunk, the Jeu'el which was to be presented to the Earl of!loira,as Acting Grand l\faster of the· Fraternity, was l)araded round the Hall by the nlanagers in procession, carried on a velvet cushion by T. II. ~E'arquhar, Esq., P. S.G.W., as Master of the CereIl:lonies, in order that all the· Brethren nlight have an opportunity of bellolding it.I12 The Duke of Sussex, after addressing the Brethren in the usual n1anner, spol\.e as fol1o\vs:- . "I no\v rise with those sensations ,vhieh are nlore en.sily conceived than expressed. fro have boen l>la.ced by :Y0ll in. this eli air to COlnInUlli(~ate, or to be th.e Ol"gltll of your rospeetful, ltlffectionato. H.nd

grateful feelings, toward your lnost wOI-thy Acting Grand Master, when so· xntulY Inure a.ble Masons than. xnysolf are hero collected.. and 80 UHUlY eldor 13rethroll. of" tho Royal .Parnily are hero pr(~sent, is an hOllour conferred upon. nlC of greater maguitude than I enll express; I consid(lr it us ono of the highest con.lplhnents Iny h1u8011ic zoal ct-.n eyer nhn at attaining.. 1vIost. '1Northy Acting Grand lVlaster, (the RoyalClutirInan turning tffwards and addrc8siug the Earl of l\loirtt,) nluch as I esteeln, ttnd runch as I respect you as Iny friend., still you lnust, upon this occasion, be convineed thttt I nlU not speaking rnerely Iny own 8entirnent~, but that I mn ellc1(~uvouring to utter HlP feelings :UHl to express tho sensatiolls of the 'whole Craft, in no\v uddre8sing you individually. '\V (~, having ltthoured for 110 1(~s8 than t·wonty.. one yenrs under your vigilant care aud suporiuwndellco,. f*lel ourselves IDost closely a.t:tachedby. sentiments of gt(ttitud~ &Ild. .esteer;n t()\vards you; impressed tL'J w~axG with tho conviotion that we owe llluch to 11;.t rrhi~ superb J(~"vel is suspended fronl a collar three feet long, eOlnpoB(~<1of s(~v('n rows ()f fiue ~o]d Maltese chain, iutersect(~d by five gold parall(~logrn.rns, with hrilliant contrps. , rl'he li'r(l.u\rnity ·w(~re illd(\htf~d for the <lesiguau<1 (~X(leutioll of this

cllf~sto &lu1 elegant productiou of art to13rotGer J. C.Burckha.rdt, of Ntuthulllborlalld str{~t;t, Straud: whe) Inost. lib(lrrdly OXtwutedit in the very first stylo ofwf.rknutl:lship- at the cost [a-jet.\ of· the rnntt~rials and lahour. 'rhe Collnr nnd J (~w(\l wpre (~xalnined by one of thE) rnost clnhH~nt je\Vell{)fS in th(~ nl(~trop()lis, ,.... ho estiInu.ted it a.t n,bout.fiftt~en hundred pounds: whcretl.S I~rothel- Burokhardt's charge was under six bundred and seventy poullds.


290,

ILLUSTRATIONS

you for your constant anxiety and unabating zeal for the welfare of the Brethren collectively and individually. l\1'asonry, as you well know, is one of the most sublime and perfect institutions that ever ,vas formed for the udvancenlent of happiness and genetal good to lnanldnd, creating, in all its varieties, universal benevolence and brotherly love. It holds out allurements so captivating, as to inspire the Brotherhood ,with. emulation to .deeds' of glory, such as must comlnand, throughout the world, veneration and applause, and such as must entitle those who perform them to dignit.y and respect. It teaches us those useful, wise, and instructive doctrines, upon ,vhich alone true happiness is founded; and, at the same time, affords those easy paths, by 'which we attain the rewards of virtue; it teaches us the duties which we owe to our neighbour, never to injure him in any one situation, but to conduct ourselves vvith justice and ilnpartiality; it bids us not to divulge the mystery to the public, and it orders us to be true to our trust, to be above all meanness and dissimulation, and in all our avocations to perform religiously that which we ought to do.. ks :rvfasol1s and Brethren, ,ve ahvays stand upon a level by the principles which we are taught; we are all of the sarno familyhigh and low, rich "and poor, created by tho same ..t\..lmighty l?ower, and presl~rved ill existence by a consolation and support originating fronl the same source. Still, however, Masonry tea.(~hes us to show respectaud honour to each lllan to whom respect ana bonour nrc due, according to the respective oharacters of each inclivic1ual; and, ~vheIl indivi<luals desel've well of the ,vhole It"1 raternity, it displays that additional lustre, that l\fasolls unite heart and hund, to evince conjointly their high estinHttion of I'llerit.orious serviees. 'Vo, therefore, rny Lord, behold ill you. that illustrious character ·who·· calls forth the respect and approbation of the 'whole ]"ru,ternit}t; l\"110, for~aking Y(HU· o'\vn cOlnforts in your native" country, and, as it 'were, tJvcn your higll station in society, deigut1c1 to turn your philosophio IXlind, 'with all its energies, to prQInote the welflu'e ana luq)pillCSS of this particular Associntion, ns if sent by the bounty of !'rovidence to f:,~ard .' the lJGst interests of this .people" , You, ·w110 l)ossess that oharootor,COlllmanding re~pectand c()nn{lence, ha.vo laboured with ():fIect to impose .and toellforce those duties. whioll are necessary to the welrarean<1 suceessof the Craft.. When we hehold such a charftcter~ ,ve cannot help feeling how much virtue has bt?on llid in the shade, and, at tlH3 saIne tirne, ho,v rnuch your high intellect hns been exerted for tho advancenlcnt anel prosperity of this Society. rrhesc are the scntilneuts, rnost ''W'ot"'shipful ..t\.eting G'ra:nd l\Iastl"r, ~"hic·h 1, on behalf of In'y8{!H~ ana of the Society at largo, eonununi.. cat~) us ()ur fe(~lings upon this hnportunt nee-asion ;. iIl1x)-rcssecl '\vith n convictiou, thnt. to you, above all others, W(' o,ve obligations lyhich wo nevor clui forget. . .i\t u. 11lOlnent '\V11011 t.his Society ,vas pregnant with total destruction, your patriotic exertions excitea and ere ate<1 lH~\Y energies, and, like the I)hronix ,vhich rises iroDl the fhune,.we rose again. (.Ilppl<:t:uses.) Ilnpress(~d, I say, with these ideas, ana 8l:dug the wlH)le Craft inspired by shniIar SCIltimonts, I have been <lopute(l by thorn tCt invest you, as the :r:nost 'worshipful Acting Grand 1fagb~r of this ()rcler, with this badge I,,)f hODour, tlS il, sInnll testhno.. nial of our velleration and estccln. (Here the llolJal G1uzi'nnan invested the Noble Earl 'uJitli the Jewel, l}urchased by" the twluntar11


OF MASONRY.

291

(ontributio1'lS 路of the Society at large~ The applaU8e and cheering 'were here so great,that S01ne observations whick fell (r()111, the Chair could not be distinctl:7J heard. ) "\Ve wish," continued liisRoyttl Highness, "that you should carry this Jewel asa signal of our marked attention and favour; .and that that bright star which is in the centre of it,lnay conduct you to that shore to \vhich you are destined, and also to that glory. ,vhich \ve, as Masons, earnestly wish may he ever attendant upon one of our number who has rendered himself, by his meritorious services, so deal- to us... Brethren, I shall now propose to drink the health of路 our most worshipful Acting Grand Iv1asOO1"; after which, I shall give up the hamm,er into his LOl"dsllip's hands, craving him to take that situation in which I am sure he will", as he has hitherto done, afford satisfaction and joy to the Fraternity." His Royal Highness then concluded with drinking " The Health oftke Earl of Moira, our worthy ActingG'rand Master."

This toast was drunk by all tIle Bretllren witll the utmost enthusiasm, and witll tIle accustomed hOllours a; after which, his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex resigned tIle chair to the Earl of 1t'Ioira. '!'he Earl of 1\Ioir~1 then rose, and addressed the Breth.. . rell froIn the Cllair, to the follo\ving purport: u Brf~tl1ren, it would at any InOlnent give nlO infinite pain alld con.. cern to remove from this Chair Olle WI10 soahly fills it, and one "lvho so firrnly possesses th~ admiratioll and affeotion of路 this .Fra.ternity ; and it r.artioularly grieves Die upon this occasion, when, in doing so, I may ttppero; ungrateful, after the generosity of his effusioll towm-ds Inc. 13ut I anl not nt lib-erty, no,v that the Lodge is resumed, to waive that v~"hich is not to be regarded as (L right, hut as the duty of xny function. It is lour authority'\vhich I represent, and I must not !t)t ]}ly personal, feelxngs comprolnise it. The station in which I all} placed, and the Jewel whicll I no\v 'wear, adluit of no deviation, UpOl1 my plLrt, from that 11rillciple in your regulations, "which giyes nle hero superintendence. I shall thereby be enabled to offer myself Inore COI1Spicuously to your notice, and be heard more. distinctly in. tIle professi()n of that gratitude \vhichis imprinted upon my heart to the ubnost extent of hUlnanfeeUngs. It will be everlastinglyengraven

there; for so long as I exist, it is impossible there oan ever be the slightest deduction' from that extraordinary deg1ee of obligatioll I mllst f(~el towards ?/OU, ,vhose kindness has been so unprecedented and ullnleasured. 13elievo me, if the most trnnsient shade of rel)'llgnt1UC(l pn...c;sod over nlY min<1in regard to acceptingn. present of so luuchilltriusic value, tho hesitation was instantly chastened by a cor... reeter sentiment, I must htl,vo felt the unworthiness of It doubt about Ineeting withconfi,dence tho wishes of my Bretllren; althou~h I tnust regret tbat they bave suffered their kiudness so to tax theIr pU1"Ses. I sllould be unworthy of your fraternal (~steeln, could I notansW01it with 路n.s cordial aconfideIlce.. As long as I weuthis badge of honour upon my breast, the recollection of your extraordinary kindness H,nd regard shall be 7nost l'i't'ely, lUld shall animate my spirit to any exertion which Inay give nlC the cluUloo of justifying to the


ILLUSTRATIONS

world your opinion of nle.. It shall be my constant Monitor in all my future duties.. In it I shall nnda perpetual adn::onition to prao-. tise, ·with still gl"oa,ter activity thanevel", those philanthropic and benevolent principles of Ma.sourr in the situation of Rule which I arn ·about to hold over that vast territory whither I am destined.. I will appeal to. it. withaconsoiol1sness of having, at least, endeavoured to fulfil rnyduties; if everooy spirits flag, that they be roused anc\vby refl(>;cting on the testimony of those sentinlents you have been pleased to entertain of my exertions for the advancelnent of the interests and welfare of this Institution. I felt a diffidenct? iuaddress-ing you upon the occa.sion of the first speech of our most Illustrious Deputy Grandl\faster; and if so, what must be my f~elings now? I feellnyself totally unable to enter iutoany minute discussion; I can only say, that, when he is pleased to represent !l1e in such a flattering light as he has c1oua, I think· he has slidden into some COllfllSioI1 as to the object of his applause.. rrhe lustre whieh he praises.. and \vhich his friendship Dlisleac1s· him to ,consider as essentially rnine, is only the splendour of l\1:asonry refleoted fronl me. rrhe prorninent station whloh I llold he-re, cOllcentr~Ltes all the rays of t.he Craft UPOll Iny person, as it would upon the person of allY other placed in the saIne eleva.tion; and the Ilhtstrious· Deputy Grand 1Yl~tster ruakes an (Jffort to persuatlehixnself that this lunar brilliancy is the genuine irl'adiatif)n of the sun.. My rottlr<)lation. to you ulay be .b(~st exphtined by an Asiatic apologue. t1!~ In the ba.ths of the east, IH.:~rfunlE~d clay is used instea.d of SOUl).. A poet is introduced, who bl"(.~alt8 out int() nn enthusiastic flow of adllliratioll at the odour of flo IUlnp of elay of this sort. ".l\lasl" [U1S\VerS the c]u,y, "I lun only n, piece of ordinul".Y earth; but I happoned to corne in COllb;1ct ,vith the ros(~. and 1 htLvO b(Jrrowed SOIue of its fra,granco.." I have horrvwed the cha,ra(~ter of the virtues iuhereut in this InstitutioIl; n.nd . xl'ly best hop() is, that hQwcver minute be the portion ,vith 'whicll I have bHen thus inllHlcd, at least, I tun ll()t likely to- l<)Sc;~ what has boeu so fortuit~JU81y R<?quired.. Gratitude .holds a high rank alnoDg thoso virtues; tllHl if 1 can he cOllfid(~nt of any thing, . it. nlust be(?f this, tha.t eu.rrH~s.t grutitude t()"~vards you. CfUluot depart from Iny breast but with the last InI1:C;t' of life. With the sil1cerost attachment, and ansffection trulyf·rnterllal -withn, just return of soul to aU that you hn~rehe(nl jllettspd to express through our ,vorthy Deputy Grand l\1aster on 111J' uccountin regard to all the kindness you hu.ye exhibit.~d t:o'w,lrds lne~ I. beg IeaYt~ to drink lIealth and IIappluess to eVt1r)1' individual pr(~sent.. u (The most UUbr)lllUled aPlilause ensued.)

After a variety of appropriate· toasts and songs, Lord Moira, in 11is capacit}r of Chairrnanand Acting Grand ~faster, .then proposed usa toast, " l"lle Kingoj'Sweden, ,Gfrand Mas.,," 0/ tlu; l1fasQ71,8 oj tlte 1'./ortlt." l'he S"vedish Ambassador then rose, and U Bretlu'€\Il, for t~l(1 King, D1Y rn.u,. ster, I .beg IClLvo to 1'0 t·,u.rn 1.Ion oll my hearty thanks for the Aonour you btl-va dOllC hiu1- IshaJltake

It s'I'he

prophecy of Sudt


OF l\ilASONRY.

care to embrace the first opportunity I may ha.ve, to acquaint my master, the KiDg of8weden, and all the Brethren of my country, with the hononr which this grand and nohle Society ha$ been pleased to confer upon hun, and also upon them."

1'he healtll of Lord. I{innaird, D.G.M. of Scotland, was drunk, who returned thanks ina very handsome n1anuer. The officers of the Grand Lodge were afterwards drunk. Lord l\loira then said,U Brethren, I should be deemed . deficient in that attachment and regard usual uI10l1 such occasions, if I did not drink the Health of the Provincial Grand ~fasters, Sir John Doyle and his colleagues, who attend us upon this occasion, and whose sentiments I know are those of reciprocal attachment and fratenlal love, both upon their own part, a.nd on behalf of the provincial lodges w"hich they superintend."

This toast beingdl"unk wi tIl great cordiality and joy, Sir John Doyle rose, an.d addressed the Bretllren nearly to the follo\ving effect:" ~Iost w'orshipful .A.ctLng Grand l\Iaster, and 13rethren-Jlol1oured as I have l')cen by trle I)(wsonal noti.ce. of the Chair, and deputed by my colle~l.gues'l the })rovincial (lrand ~Iasters: I rise to return out

joint thn,nks for the honour which 11a,s becnconferred upon us.. The value of thecOlnplinH~Ilt isconsidern.blyenbanced by the kindness with \~7hich the toast has been received by all the worthy Brethren prcse!lt.~ and the graciolls approbatioIl given to it by our Illustrious 'Visitors; it is doubly grati(ying to us in cOIning from a body, the basis of w'hose Institution is, to fear God, to h01tourthe King, and to lot~(.~ 0121.;',') neighbour. a,fJ one' $ $e~r; an Institution ,,"hose principles, if universally diffused, v.rould tend to caIrn thoseangrystonns that agitat.e f1nd c()nvulse~\n afrt~ighted world, and man \vould no longel~ b(~ the bitterest enenlY of his fellow lunD. lJpon the interesting occasion \vhich has brought us togctll(~r this da,y, and \\~hich has excited the best, f(.~elings of the huulnu breast, it is inlpossible to b(~ whoIlysHellt. I aI'n, indeed, sensible of the ditliculty, lULJI', theiInpossibilit.Y ofengnging your at.tention, unless you could do, what YQU never \\~in d()~ forget the brilliant. display of imp~essive eloquence which )"(JU have hoard from the 'Chair, and from the distinguished person \"ho has been. the. subject of its just a.nd elegant eulogum.. But,nr(fthren~ difHcultas the task nlay be, that heart IllUst be cold and C11UUt1S indeed that eQuId retnaill unmoved at sncha set~ne as this.. and notcltteh SOUle spal-ks路 of tbatenthusiastic fire yvhich Set:U1S aninutte the \vholt:..-an c11thusiasxn which nnlst be us hOllollr:thle to those whf) feel it,'us grati(ying to l1itn \vhose virtu(18 ha'vc called it forth.. "i\luch, llpplause.) If this could be appIienble to Oucasual ()bseFYcr, h<lW' Uluat it nJicct the feelings ()f OlU.~, who, from earliest youth, b~ug been honoured with the unvarit~d Iricndship or this highlygifteu nUll). I know hhn well, :l.nd he \vho kn()'ws hitn best lllust love him lllost; I know his virtues, but I also know tho refined delicn.cy of his manly mind) and I am fearful" tha.t, in Endeavouring, llo'w'cyer

to


294

ILLUSTR4TIONS

inadequately, to describe the one,_ I should insensibly inflict a wound upon the other. Were it not for fear of this offence, what countless instances could I state of modest merit brought forward and s.ustained; of rising genius fostered and protected; of human misery relieved and comforted. The helpless orphan, the wretched widow, the aged parent, the houseless stranger, the prostrate foe, all shared the bounty of his generous hand-(here ensued loud and reiterated applauses and joyful apprt)oation) :-thus em.bracing in the 'last scope of his comprehensive and philanthropic mind every gradation of human woe, from childish infancy to decrepit age. He was in heart a true Mason, 'and every child of sorrow was a brother; self was the only being tha.t seemed by him forgot.' Happy Hindoa! how will thy sable sons have cause to bless the power that sends them a father and protector to diffuse happiness among countless millions! But I dare not trust my. feelings further; delicacy forbids me to say more, -truth and justice would not allow nle to say less."

The Grand Lodge was soon afterwards closed in the usual form. Lord JVloira, on retiring, said, "May God bless you all;" and, agreeably to a previous hiIlt, 110 person remained after his Lordship had quitted t.he Hall. Whell, by the.accession of the Prince of Wales to tIle RQgencyof the United l{ingdom, etiquette seemed to require l1is resignation as Grand l\Iaster, the Duke of Sussex was, by the ullal1illl0US acclanlution of the GraIld Lodge, elected to fill that higll and iU1portalltsituation ; and the Prince l~egent. S0011 .l1fter graciously condescended to acceI)t the title of GRAND PATRON of the Order.

It wttsearly discovered, that the Duke of Sussex's whole heart was bent on accoln:plishiIlg that great desitkrat'um of Masons" the Union of the two路 Fraternities

who bad been mis-termed An.cien.t and Modern ; and his

high station in life. certainly carried路 with it an influence which could llot路 have beell found in an humbler indi.. .

vidllaL It has beell already said, tllat his Grace the Duke of A.thol was at the head of 'tile Ancient Fraternity-fol", t,o b,e explicit "vitllOl1t circululocutioD, we nlust at present make .use of these terlns relatively.. The fact is, that the Ancients, after their 'secession, continlled to hold their路 Ineetings vvitllolltacknowledginga supel"ior~ till 1772; vvhellthey chose for their grand master tIle Duke, of Athol, who "vas tl1eIl Grand lvIaster Elect for Scotland.

This venerable llobleman, we Inay presume, was con-


OF MASONRY.

296

vinced by路ihe Royal Duke's arguments,.strengtllened by

his own goodsense路and benevolent mind, bow desirable must be an actual and cordial union of the t\VO societies under one head; because, to 11ave the way for tlle Ineasure, his Grace, ill tIle llandsomest nlan11er, short.ly after resigned his seat of Granel lVIastel", reconlmending his Royal Higness tIle Duke of I{el1t ('VI10 l1acl l)een Inaae a Mason ullder that constitution) as 11is Sllccessor; \Vll0 was accordingly elected and installed Grallc1 lVIaster of that. body of Masons, at Willis's Rooms, St. James's Square, 011 the 1st of Decen1ber, 1813: 011 Wllich occasion Ilis Royal Higness most liberally professed, that he had accepted the office with the sole view of cooperating, more effectually, perhaps, with his illustrious Brother of StlSSex, in promoting ancl celnenting the 80llluch-desired Union. Zealously did the two ROyt'11 Brethrel1 devote thenlselves to the arduous task.; al1d, taking to their council three dsitinguisllcd Brethren belonging to eacll society) they at lengtll afra11ged the following 芦Ul1011g other) ARTIOLES

of

UNION

betwoenthe

TvvOGRAND LOOOESOf

ENGJ.,IAND.

In tho name.of GOD, Amen. The J.\;!ost Worshipfuillis H.oyaillighness Prince EDvvAn.D, Duke of

Kent and Strathearn, Earl of Dublin, Knight Oompanion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, and of the l\Iost Illustrious Order of Saint Patrick, Field i\!u,rshal of his ~Iajesty's Forces, Governor of Gibraltar, Oolonel of the First or l:1oJ"al Scots Regiment of Foot, and G'ranc1 Master of Free and Accepted l\Insons of England, according to the Old Institutions; the Right vVorshipful THOMAS HARPElt, l)cputJ' Grand Master; the Right vVorshipful JAMES PERRY, Past Deputy Grand Master; .&nd, the Right. Worshipful J A)[lt$ AGU, PMi. DapQty Grand ~raster; of the sameFraternity: for themstlves and on beb&lf of the Grand Lodge of Freema.sonsof Engl:utl:id, according to the Old Institutions: being thereto duly constituted andempowerecl :-on the OIle part. l.'he 1\Iost':Vorshipfal His Royal. Highness l:>rince .A.VGUSTU8 FRED~;lUCK" Duke of Sussex, Earl of 11lverness~ Baron Al"~l()w, Knight COlnpanion of the Most Noble Order of the G'arter, and Grand 1vIaster of tho Society of Free and Accepte<1 !\fasons. under theOonstitutionof Englanll; the ltight 1Vorshipful 'VAJ'"LElt ItoDW:f~LLWRHarr, Provillchtl Gralld l\faster of Masons in the Ionian Isles; the ltight Worshipful ARTIIun. TEGAR:r, Past Grand Warden; and the Right \VorshipfulJAMEs DEANS, Put Grand 1Varden; of the same :b"raternity; for thenlselves and.on behalf of the G'rand Lodge of the Society of FreemasoDs under the Oonstitution of Eng:,


ILLUSTRATIONS

land: being thereunto duly constituted and empowered :-on· the other part, IIave agr-eed as follow'sT. There shall be, from and after the day of the festival of Saint John the .Evangelist next ensuing, a, fult perfect, all~i perpetual Union of and hetween the two Frau~rnitiesof ]'ree and Accepted l\1a.sons of England ahovc.. described : so as that in all tiU1C her(~after they shall forIll and constitute but one Brotherhood ; and that -the said COIn.. munityshall be represented in one Grand Lodge, to be solenll1ly fornled,· constitu ted, and held, on th~ said day of the festival of Saint J oho the Eva.ngelist next ensuing: and fronl thenceforw'ard for ever. II. It is declared and pronounced, that pure Ancient l\[asonry consists of three degrees= and no 111Ure; viz.) those of the Entered Appren tice, the Fellow Craft and the 1faster l\1ason (including the Suprerlle Order-of the Holy l~()yal Arch). But this article is not intended to prevent any Lodge or Chapter froul holding a lll(~eting in anJ' of the degrees of the Order of Chivalry, according to the constitutions of" the said Orders.

III. ~rh<?te shall be th~ nlost perfect unity of obligation, of discipline, of '\voI'king the lodges, of Inaking, passing, and raising, instructing and dotillng, Brothers; so tlutt but one !)UI"C, unsullied systern, necording to the genuine. Ial1dlnarks, laws,alld. tr'n.ditions, of the Cr1tft, shall be nlaintained: upheld, andpraetiaed, throughout the Maso111cWorld, froln the day &lld date of the said Union until tim. shall be 110 Inore. IV. To prevent all

controv(~rsy or dispute as to the genuine nnd fonus, rules, and aneiellt. tt'nditions, of· ~f:tsonry, and further tt) unite and bind the V\-hole Fru,ternity of l\ias()·ns in one indissoluble bond, it, is :\grccd~ t,hut tht} obligations and forIlla that hav(.~~ fro 111 tirnc inUlletl1orhtl, been established, used, and practised, in the Craft~ shall borecognized, acceptod,nnd taken, by thexnelnbers of both PrateI'nities~ as the puro . and .genllineobligations and tonus by which the incorporated •Grand Lodge of }jngla~d, and its depend... ant ~ge8 in every part of the World, shall he bound: and for the ~r~'e or receivingandootnlOunicating .due light, .andsettlllg this aDifol~ity of r~gul&tiQn and instruction (a..it fJartiadt1.rlg fit matters 'Wltich, can n.either be £:rpres8edn<Jrdtscri.becl ,tntDTiti:/2,g)., it. is further agreed, thttt brotherly application be Ina-d,e to the Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland! to auth()rize~ delegate, and a.ppoint, any two or more of their (l.nlightclledrnelubers to be present at the Grand Asscm.. bly on the solcrnn occasion of uniting the Fraternit.ies; and that the respective (trand l\Iasters, Grand Officers, 1\lasters.Pastn.iasters, Ward~rls,.and Brothers, then and there present, shall solcxnnl.y engage to abide. by . the true. fortl1s and. obligations (particularly in '1natleTS u)h,ich can. neither be dt~~eribed'not written), in the presence of the sa id l\-!ell1hers of the Gra.nd Lodges of Scotla.nd and Irela.nd; tha t· it llHty be decl&red,. recognized,and known, that they are aU bound by the salne solemnI)lcdge, und 'work under the saIne hlW.. V. .For the pUl'poseof establishing nnd securing this perf(~ct uni... f~rlnity .in aU the ,vnrra.nted Lodges, and a.lsoto I)rep~u'e for this Grand AS!l;l~tnbIYll and to place all the IXleIl1.bers of OQ'tb ~"rtltcrnities on the It-vel of ()qualityon t.ho <iny of Re.. uniol1, itis agrt'cd, that, as soon as these present.s shnU 1111,-e rccei-..d tho snnotioI1 of tho resPf'(}o purt~ ol)ligations 1


OF MASONRY.

tive Grand Lodges, the two Grand Ma.sters shall appoint, each, nine worthy and expert ~faster .Masons, or Past Masters, of. their respec.. . tive Fraternities, with -w~arra.nt and ip.structions to meet together at SOlne convenient central place in London; when, ea.oh party having opened (in a separate upartnlent) H. just and perf(~ct Lodge, 3greeably totheir peculiar regula.tions, they shall give and receive mutnally and reciprocully the obligations of both Fraternities, deciding by lot which shall take priority in giving and rccei'ving the san1e; and, behlg thus all duly and equally enlightened in both forms, they shall be empO"1"ered and directed, either to I,lold a Lodge under the warrant or dispensation to be entrusted to them, to be entitled "'rile LODGE of REcoNcr LIATION;" or to visit the soveral Lodges holding under both the Grand .Lodges for the purpose of obligating, instructing, and perfecting the ~Iaster, Past -l\lasters, Wardens, and Members) in both thef(Jrms, and to make,a return to the Grand Secretaries of both the O-randLodges of the nanles of those WhQlll they shall have thus enlightened. And the said Grand Seicretaries shall be' empo"rered to ellfo11 he.11ames of all the members thus re-made in' the register of both the Grand Lodges, without fee or reward: it being ordered, that no person shall l)(~ thus Qblig:a.ted and registered whom the l\rl~tRter and v~rnrdens of his I~odge shall l1otcertify, by writing under their hu/nels, that he is free on the books of his particular Lodge. rj~hus~ on the day of the j\sselnbly of. lH)th ~'raterllities, the GrandOtiicers, ?vIujsttlZ's, !)ast l\Iasters, and \Vardens, \\"110 are alone to be prt-sen t, shan all ha, ve taken the ol)ligatioll b,Y 'v hich each is bound, and be prepared. to Inakc their solclnn engagenlent, that tbey ,"ill tbereafterabide .by that· wbich sha.lI be recognized and declared to be the true a.nti nnhrersally aecepted obligation of the Master I\lason.. VI. As soon as t~e Grand l\IasterB, Grand Officers, and Members, of the two present Grand Lodges, shall, on the day of their Re-union, have l'uade the solernn declaration in the pres,ence of the deputation of grand orenlightent~d l\'Iasons fronf Scotland and Ireland, to abide and net by the universally recognized obligation of l\laster Mason, the l\lcxnhers 8hall fhrth\'·ith proceed to the (~lection of a Grand l\last(~:r for the Jear ensuing; and, to !)l'c\·cnt delay, the 1:lrother so elected shull furtlrwith be obligated, J>ro t(1111)ore, that the (~ralld I~odge IXlay be forlned. '£110 said Grund l\la8t(~r shall then DOll1inate andapp(~int bisDeputyGlwand blaster, together\vith aSenibrand Junior Grand Warden. Graud Secretary, or 8ec:reta;ri.~, G,..t4 Treasurer, Graud Ohaplain; Gnlad8i.0Dd~~r,·QNPd PtJtaai'faf:t't, and Grand Ty ler, whosb.U all be <:ltdy obligated an"~(j ; and the Grand Incorporated Lodge shall tbem be opened,in ample lorIll, under the sty Ie and t~tle of 1:, 'l'he U'NrrEJ'.)GRA.ND LOJ:)'G~ OF ANCIENT FItEEMASONS (HI" ENOI"AND.

rfhe Grand ()fliccrB \vho held the several offices h~fol'e (unless such of them as Xl'l&y he rc.. allpointed) shall take their places, fS l)astGrand Offioers, in the respective degrees which tht~y held before; and i8. case either or both of the present Grand Secl'~tu.ries, PUr8uivant6: and f1')' l(~I'R, should. not be. re..appointed to their ~rmersitnations, then annuities ahan be paid to theul duriIlg theIr respective lives out of th(~ Gl'"audF'und. VlI..·· The IJ NIT£D GltJ.ND LODGli: OF.A:NCI]t~T FaEEMAsoNS 0:1' E:NGLAN:D" shaJl be COIl1p,os,ed) except on the days of festival, in the

21


298

ILLUSTRATIONS

following· manne:, as a just and perfe.ct representative of the whole' Masonic FraternIty of England; that IS to say, of The GRAND ~IASTER. Past Grand ~Iastel"s. Deputy Grand lVlaster. Past Deputy Grand l\fasters. Grand Wardens. Provincial. Grand Masters. Past Grand War@ns.. Past Provincial Grand Masters. Grand Cha-plain. Grand Treasurer. Joint Grand Secretary, or Grand Secretary, if there be only one. Grand S·ward-Bearer. . Twelve Grand Stewards, to be delegated by· the Stewards' Lodge, ·from among their Members existing at the Union; it being understood and agreed, that, from and after the Union, an annual appointment shall be mnde .of the Stewards, if necessary.. The actuallvfasters and Wardens of all Warranted Lodges. Past l\lasters of Lodges, who have regularly served a.nd passed the chair before the day of Union, and who have continued, without secession, regular contributing Members of a Warranted Lodge. It beillg understood, that of all Masters who, froln and after the .day of the said Union, shall regularly pass the chair of their respective Lodges, bu tOIle at a time, to be delegated by his Lodge, shall have a right to sit and vote in t.he said Grand Lodge; so that after the decease of all the regular Past l\fasters of any regular Lodge, who ha.d attained that distinction at the time of the Union, the representation of such Lodge shall .b e by its actual 1Iaster, Wardens,ttnd one Past l\faster only. And all Grand officers in tHe .said respective Grand Lodges sha.ll retain and hold their rank and privileges in the United Grand Lodge, as. Past Grand Officers, including the prescllt Provincial Grand Masters, the Grand Treasurers~ Grand Se9retaries, and .Grand Ohaplains, in their· several degrees,&ocording to the seniority of their respective a.ppomtments; and "There such appointments shall have been C'ontemporaneous, the seniority shall be determined by lot. .In all other respects the above shall be the general order of precedence in aU thl1e to come; with t.his express provision, that no Provincial Grand 1\lastcr~ hereafter to be appointed, shall be entitled to a seat in the Grand Lodge, after he shall have retired from such situation, unless he shalt have dischnrged the duties thereof for full five yea.rs. . VITI. The ,p.epresentativcs of the several Lodges shall. sit under their respective ba.nners according to seniority.. ':rho t'\fO f:irst I.. odges under each G'I~alld Lodge todra'\v a, lot in the first place for priority; and to ,vhich of the two the lot No.1 shnU fall, the other to r~l.nk as No" 2; and all the· other Lodges shall filII in alternately; tha.t is, the Lodge whieh is No.. 2 of the Fraternity whose lot it sha.ll be to draw. No.1 shall rank as No. Sin the United Grand I..lodge, and the other No. 2 shall rank as No.4, and soon alternately, through all the


OF MASONRY.

~99

numbers respectively. And this shall for ever after be the order and rank of the Lodges in the Grand Lodge, and in Grand Processions, for which a plan and drawing shall be prepared previous to the Union. On the renewal of any of the Lodges DOW dormant, they shall take rank after all the Lodges existing at the Union, notwithstanding the numbers in which they n1ay now stand on the respective rolls. IX. rrhe United Grand Lodge being now constituted, the first proceeding~ after solemll prayer, sliall be to read and proclaim the Act of Union, as previously executed and sealed 'with the great seals of the two Grand Lodges; after 'which" the same shall be solemnly accepted by the l\Iembers present. A day. shall then be appointed for the installation of the Grand Master, and other Grand Officers, with due solemnity; upon which occasion, the .Grand Master shall, in open Lodge, 1,vith his own hand, affix the new great seal to the said instrument, which shall he deposited in the archives of the United Grand Lodge, and to he the bond of union among the Masons of the 'Grand Lodge of England, and the Lodges dependant tllereon, until time shall be 110 more. The said new great seal shall be made for the ocoasion, aud shall he oonlposed out of both the great seals now in use; after which, the present two great seals shaJl be broken and defaced; au(l the ne,v seal shall be alone used in all warrants, certincates, and ()ther dOClUn(!uts, to be issued thereafter. x. 'rho I~egalia. of the Gruna Officers shall be, in addition to the 'white gloves, und aprou, and the respective jewels or ('~lnblems of distinct~on, gn.rter-bluo t\nu g()hl; and these ulone shall hCtlong to the Q-rand ()ffic(.~rs, pr(~8eDt. and past. XI... Four Grand Lodges, representing the Craft,· ,shall be held for quart,el'ly c()!nnlunie~ttion ill each yea.r, on the first Wednesday in the 1110nths of lVIaroh, June, Sept'ell1b{~r, aud Decem.ber ion eaehQf which oocasions t.he :rti£tsters and 'Vnr<1ens of all the warranted Lodges shall deliver into the hu.nds of the Grand Secretary. and G'rand 'rreasn.rer a faithful list of all their contributing Members; and the wan-anted Lodge~ ~n and adjacent to Lonc1on, shall pay towards the grand fund Qno slnlhng per qUH.rtel" for each l\~Iember, over and above the sum of half-a-guinea. for onch new rnade l\Iember,. for the registry of his llatlle; together 'with the BUIn of one shilling to the Grand Secretary, as his fee for the sarne: and that this contribution of one shilling for each ~IJJrnbor sluu.l be Inade quarterly, aud each quarter, in all time to oome.. XII. At the Grand Lodge to be held annually OIl tlu~tirstWed­ nesday in Septemb,er" theGJ"&nd LoQg&shaU. ~lee.aG:r&tld Master for the y(~n.r l~nsuing, (who shall nominate aad appoint. his own Deputy Grand ~IashJr,Grand Wardens, and Secretary,) and they shall a.1llo nominate three fit and proper persons for each of the offices of rrl"easurer, (~haplaill, and Sword-Bearer; out of which the Grand ~fastor shull, on the first Wednesday in the month of llecember, chooseaud appoint one for each of the saia offices; lUld, on tbefestival of St. John: tllt3 EV~lIlgelist, ·thcIl next ensuhlg, or on suohother day as tll(~ said· Grand )!a.ster shall appoint, there shall be held 3. Grand Lodge for the solemn insttl11n.tion of nIl the said Grand Offioers t according to- ancient-custom. ,XIII. After the day of the Re-union, as aforesaid, and wIlen it shall be ascertained what are the obli~tions,· forms,. regulations, working., and instruotion, to be universally established, speedy aad If


300

ILLUSTRA'1'IONS

effectuflll steps shall, be taken to obligate all·the Memhers of each Lodge. in all ,the degrees, according to the fonn taken Rnd r(~cognized by tbeGrul1d Master, Past Grand l\laster8, Grand (H!icers, and Representatives' of Lodges, on the day of Re-union; and, for tlIi, purpose, the lvorthy and expert l\laster l\fasons, npp()int(~d as afore said, shall' '1isit andattrnd the several Lodges, within tho 13ilIs of Mortality. in rotation, dividing themselves iuto quortnns of not less than three each, for the gr(;'uter expedition: and they shall assist the IVIaster· and Wardeus· to promulgate 'alldenjoin the pure ancl unsullied system, thntperfect reconciliation, unity of obligation, law, working, language, and dress, nlay be happily restored to the E:qgli~: Craft.. XIV. When the l\laster unc1 Wardens of a ,varranted Lodge sl~aIl report 'to the Grand ~iaster, to his satisfnetion, that the l\Ien1bers of such Lodge have taken the propereujoined obligation, and have conformed to the uniform working. clothing, &c.. , then the l\fost W Ol'"shipful Grand ~Iast~r Fhall direct the new great seal to be affixed to their warral1t~ and the Lodge shaH be adjudged to he regular, 811(1 entitled to all the privileges of the Critft; a certain tprnl shall be allowed (to be fixed by tIle Grund Lodge) for eBtabliRhing this unifbrmity; and all constitutional pro(~~('dings of any r()gular I,.Io<lgo, which shall take plnce hetween the date tbe {Jninn und tho terrn so appoi~ted, sllall l)e c1e(~nled valia, onconditioll that Ruch Lodgo snallconIoml to the regulations of the Union within the thne appointed; and' means shan be tak(,'l,Il to aseert.ain the regulul'ity., un(~ ~~stab­ !ish the ul1ifonnity, of the I>royineiniGrancl I",odg(~s, 1\1 ilit'ary I..Iodges, and J..Joc1ges h(~ldil1g of the hvo present Grand I.Jodges in distant parts; alld it shull be in the power of the G'rand I~fldge to take the most e·flectUtll nleURurps for the e8tabli~hment. of" thi8 unity (If doctrine throughout thE~ wlH)le cornlnnnityof }\;{nsons, and to deela.fE3 tile warrants to be forfeited, 'if the DlCUSllres proposed ~llaIl be rt~sisted or negleeted.. . XV.. Tho property of the sRid tW() Fratenlities, w}u~ther freehold, le.aehold, fund(~d, re~ll, or personal, shull remain 8acr(~(lIynpproprinte Wi ..p,ul"posesf6r which it wasoreated; it shall constitute one ~.'•. •. ...'···,d, by w.'.hiohthe', hies. sed obJe'ct of masonic benevolence may &e ttt&Jteenensively obtained. '.' Itsh(lll0itberoontm ue tftlder the trusts in which, wbf\ther freehold. leaaeho},d, or funded, the separate parts thereof now stand; or it sllall he in the power of the said lJuitfcl Grand Lodge, at any tir:ne hpreafter, to add other JUlnH:~S to the said trusts; or, in case of the death of anyone Truf;tee, to noulitHlte and appoint others for perp(~tuathlg the s(~ctlrity ·of thf) Siune; and, in no event, and for no purpose, shal.l the sa.id united property he. di.v(),.rted fromits onginaI.p. urposc. It being understood and declared, tb.ttt t any time aft~r tho Union, it shall be· in tlle pow(·rof thE' (Jra.nd Lodge tiO incorporate the wll01e ()f tl)(~ said property flnd funds in onf and the 8ftIne set of TrusreeR, 'who 8hall gIve bond, to hold tlH~ samt in the llUlne sud on thebelutlf of the {Jnited Ii'rat(~rnity. And iti& further ngr(:led, that the Freemnsons' lInn he the in whi(~h tile United I.Jodge shall he held, with Bueh additions 11Ut<1e th(1r(~to 8B the increase'd llUlubers of tlle ~"ra.ternity, thus to be l.ulited,ma, ret}'alre• The fun!! appropriate to the ohjects of roasoni0 benevolence, not be infringed on for a.ny purpose, but shall bt:~ kept strictly

or

8..

. XVI.

nall


OF MASONRY.

301

ana solely devoted to charity; and pains shall he taken to increase the same. XVII.. A revision shall be nutde of the rules and regulations no,\v established and in foree in tho t'wo !t'l'aterllities; and a Code of Laws for the holding of tho (:trand Loc1g(~, and of private Lodges, and, generally, for the 1vhole conduet of the Craft, shall be fortlnvith prepared, anc1 a new book of CQnstitutiollS be cOlnposed and printed, under the supt;,:rintendence of the GrandO:fficers, and vdththe sanction of tIle Grand Lodgo. Done nt the }"lalace of Kensington, this2:>th day ofNovenlber, in the Year of ollrLord 1813, .and of Masonry 5813. ED\VAItD, G.1\1. rrHO:\IAS HARPER, D . G.. l\I. JAMES PERRY, P . D. G. 1\1. JAMES AGAR, P . D. G.. ~{. In Grancl Lodge, this first day of December, A.D. 1813. Ratiiied and路 Confirmed, and the Seal of the Grand Lodge affixod. EDWAI~D,G. M.

ROBI~n.'r Iil~~SLlh~,

G.. S.

AUGUSTUS li'RE~1)Jt~ItlCK, G.1tI. WAI~LERRo.DWELL -WRI(H:!fl'~ P. AR'rHU1:t 'l'EGART, P. Ct W.. JAMl'~ DEANS, 1>,.G'.

G.l\I.. Ion.ian lales..

'V.

In G-rand Lodge'i this first dny of DElceulber, A.I>. ]81:3. and COIlfir010d,ttud tho Seal of the Gra,nd Lotlge affixed..

l~atifie,a

AUGUS'I'US ]"ltEDEltICK, G'.1\{..

WII.-LIAl拢 H. W:nrrE, G路. S. A. meeting (~ . the t . w o e s , in wag h(~l(l on the 1st of 8" at 'I'nverIl, in th(, Stl--and. The of Union wer. Lodgps, una r(llct~ived with tnasonic acclanlfttion;

of Artiole V .., and Anchor before these .l\rticles were unn.nitnousl'\'r ratified and eOllnrme<1.. u, TliE I.JOl)OJI~ (lP l~g(:oN(nI .. IATION ",,~nt8 then. constituted; th~~ . R()yal Grn:nd Mush:-rs, re:-:pnctivE~ly, having nOrUhlu,ted tho following Brethren to forlH thp HUJ1H~ :

Oltllnstitulions. L(.agn No.1. 1.. ,'1.. II. Goldsworthy I. '\楼, .F\)x 4. J. Ronnlds 16. William Oliver 77.. l~\:rvreRt8.y~~r, of thl~ IIt\rpE~r~ Jun..


302

ILLUSTRATIONS

Michael Corcoran - 194. R. Bayley - 240. Jam.es M'Cann - 244. And Brother Edwards Harper, Secretary thereof.

Oonstitution of England. Rev. SamuelHernmi~g, D.D., of the Lodge No. 384, R . W. M. William Meyrick, P. M. 1, S.. W . William Shadbolt,G. Stewards' Lodge J. W. Stephen Jones, P. l\f. 1. Laurence Thomson 54. J'6seph Jones 66. 118. Jacob Henry Sarratt Thomas Bell 180. J. Joyce 453. And Brother William Ifenry White, Secretary thereof. Their Royal H.ighnesses the Gl'andlVlasters then signed the Articles of Union, and each affixed the Great Seal thereto in Grand Lodge; and the same was countersigned by the Grand Secretary of eaoh of the two Grand Lodges respectively. GRAND ASSEMBLY OF FREEMASONS, FOlt'l'HE UNION OF '1"HE GRAND LODGESE>F ENGLAND..

Two

On St.John's Dn.Y1 27th December, 1813. The important event of the Re-unioll of .A.l1cicnt Freeluasons of Englullc1, nfter a long separation, took place, w路ith great solemnity, this day. The following order of pl路ocecc1ings, which haa beon previously settled, was strictly observed: Freemasons' Hall having been :fitted up agreeab.1y to U plan ana drawing for the oooasion, and the whole houso tiled from the outer poroh; the platform on the East was reserved for the Gra!ld 1rIasters, Git Offioers, and. Visitors. .' ,Masters, Wardens, and Past Masters of the several.Lodge.s, wh ,d been previously re..obligated andoertified by the LoDGE OF RECONCILIATION, and .provided with .tiakets, signed and countersigned by the two Seoretarios thereof, were arranged on the two sides in the following manner; that is to say: 'rIle l\:Iu.sters were placed in the front. 'fIle '?{urdens on benches bollilld. rThe Past Masters .on rising benches behind them. And the Lodges were ranked so that the two }"'raternities were completely intermixed.. The ~rasters, Wardens, :Lnd Past Masters, . all dressed in black. (regimentals excepted,) witli their respective insignia, and . in white aprons a.nd gloves, took their places by eleven o'clock in the forenoon. 'l'he Q路rand. Ma.sters,Past Gralld .1\.fasters, Deputy Grand l\JInsters, Grand Officers, and .distinguished Visitors of the two Fraternities, assembled in t"ro adjoining rooms, in which thcyopenod t""o G~rand Lodges, each according to its peculiar. solemnities, and the Grand Procession moved to,,"ards the Hall of Assembly: in the foUo,,"ing

order:

Grand tJahor wltb, bis Staff. . Grand Ugher with hisSudf. Tho Dukeo拢 Kent)a Band of 1\tusic1 15 in number, all Masons, thrc1iO und three.


OF :MASONRY. Two GrandStewsrds.. A cornucopia, borneby aM:aster Mason Two Grand Stewards. Two Golden Ewors, by two Master Masons. . The nille worthy an,? export Masons, formIng

The Lodge of ReconeiUation,

Insi.ng-Iofilo, rankoppositetorauk, with

'rho Enlblems of Masonry. Tho Gralld Secretary benring the Book of Constitutions, and Great Seal. The Grand Treasurer, with tho Golden Key. The Corinthian Light. The Pillar of theJ nnior GrandWarden 011 a Pedestal. The Junior Grand Warden, with his Gavel. The DepntyGrand .Cbaplain, with the Holy Bible. The Grand Chaplain. Past Grand Wardens.. Tho Doric Lig-ht. The Pillar of tho Senior Grand "\Vardell 011

a Pedestal.

The SeniotOrnnd Wardon ,vHll his Gavel. ~~~~~~~~

Two Grood Stewards. A Cornucopia.horne by a, Master Mason TWo Grund Stowords. Two Golden E\vers, by two Master . Masons. 'rho nine '\vorthy all.d expert Masons, fannIng The Lodge of ReconciUation, In single file, rank opposite to rauk,with Tho Emblems of JVlnsonry. Tho Grand Secreta.ry, bearing the Book . of CqnstitutiollS, and Great Seal. The Gra.nd Treasurer ,vith the Golden Key. The Corinthian Light. ThePilla.r of the Junior Grund Warden on a Pedestal. The Junior Grand Warden,·with his Gavel. The Grand Cha:Plainw.ith the Holy Bi.ble PatltGra.nd Wardene.. ProvincinlGrand Masters with their Gavels. The Doric Light. The Pillar of the Souior <:trand Warden on 0. l)edostal. The Sellior Orand ,~,.arden, 'vith his G·nve!. .

'

.. 'j'he .t\ctingDeputyGrnnd Master. de ~dj'e, the Swedish AmbUS$ador,GrlUld Mastol" of the :first LOdKe of the North, Visitor" ' The Royal Bnnner. The IOllio L i g p . t . . T h e Ionie Ligl1t.• The Gra.nd Sword Bearer. The Grand Sword noarer.

rIlbe.. . I)Opu .• tya·rand. Maste.r.

HisEx06~enol the Coant

THE

GRAND 1\fASTEl1. OF ENGI.~AND, IUs R. :U. the DUKE of KENT, wHh the Act of Union, in duplicate. r~... o Grand Stewards. Grand'l'yler.

THE

GRAND MASTER OF ENGLAND, His R. 1-1. the DUKE of SUSSEX, with the Act of Union, induplieate. T"fvoGrand Ste'\V'nrds. Grand Tyler.

On entering the IIall, the Procession advanced to the Throne, and opened and fa.ced each other, the music playing a march composed fo,r the occnsion. The two Grand .Masters then pro,eeeded u~ the~t1t1e,f()llowedby the Grand Master Visito~, the Depnty Grand .M~,6e., all in the order reversed; those the most advanced returning single. file, turn, re-advance~ and talce their plaoes. The musicians ranging them~ selres in the galler..v over the Throne. The Brothers hearing the Cornucopins 1 ·Vas'es, &c.,! plncing themselves in the seats assigneel them.. The t,vo Grand Masters seated themselves, in t,vo equal chairs, on each side of the 'rhrone.. The Visiting Gmnd Master, and other,risitors of distixlOtiOft, 'Were seated oneaoh side.. " 'rhe other Grand Offieersand Visitors aUaccol\diDg to degree. The Director of the Oeremonies, Sir Geo.rge... N.ylert having proclainlcd silenoo, the Rev.. Dr.. Barry, Grttnd Ohaplain to tne Fraternity 'Under the Duke of Kent, commenced the impol"tant business of the Assombly wi··· 'y prayer, in a most solemn manner..

in .

to


ILLUSTRATIONS

1;he Act of Union ,\yas then read by the Director of the Ceremonies.. "The Rev. Dr. Coghlan, Grand Chaplain to the Fraternity under the Duke of Sussex, . proclailned aloud, after sound of trtnnpet-'; I-lear ye': This is the .t1et ofUllion~ engrossed, inconfirrnation of ,'/A.rticles solemnly concluded betl1reen. the two Gx·and Lodges of }l'ree and Accepted }\fasons of England, signed, sealed, and ratified, by the hvo Q-rand Lpdges l.oespectivcl.y ; by "'''hich they are to b.e IH.~~reafterl and for ever' known and ack,nowledgedby the style and title or i!Cbe anltelJ Gt'anlJ i.,obge of ilncf£nt· jjrcenul,Sons of mn!llanlr.Ilo~" say you, Brothers, ltepresentatives of the t,vo }j'rater uities'1 Do yot! accept of, rati(v,and confirm the saIne? To \vhich the Assenlbly answered, "\Ve do accept, ratify, and confirnl the same." 'fhe G~a,nd Chaplain then said, ." .And Inay the Great Architect of the Universe nl~ke the 'Union perpetual !" To. which all the .AsSell1bly replied, t; So Inote it be." The t\yO Grand l\:Iasters and six Commissioners signed the Instrunlents, and the t\VO Gral)d l\I~l,sters then affixed the Grocn.t Seals of their respective Grand Lodges to the same. The Rev. Dr. Barry~ after sound of trulupet.. then proclahn.ed-~'Be it k:p.own toa.ll rnen, rrht1t the.A.ct of Union bet\vcen the t\VO Grand I.Jodgesof Ifree and .l\.cct~pted l\Insons of England is solelunly signed. seale,?, ratified. andcontirnled, and the t\,,.o Fraternities are one~ to b(~ from!' hencefortll knO\Yll andacknovvl(~dged by the style R,nd title of ftbe mln(telJ@;tttntJ ~nllne of a ncietltgteemasrnu; of· E'nglanb; and may the G'reat.A.rchitcact of tho Universe make their tJnionperpetual·P' And the Assetnhly said," .Anlcn." Brother Wesley, w'ho ,,,,,as at the organ, perf()MllCd a s y r u p h o n y . . ' 'l'he t\V'oGrand l\Instel's, \vith their respective Deputies and 'Vardens~ then advanced to the .Ark of the l\fnsoulc Covenant, pr(~pa.:red under the direction of the 'V. Brother I'John S(mn(~, R. 1\... Grand Superintendent of the'''''' orks. for the Bditice of the Union'\ and in aU time to come to he placed b<dbre the rrhrone. " 'l'he Grandl\fasters standing in the East, vdth their Deputies 011 the right and l(;'ft; the Grand'Vardt~ns in the '·Vest tUHl South; the square, the plunlh, the level, and the lnallet, lsere SUcc<i+ssively deliver~~, to tbeDeputy Grand l\fasters, and by-them presented to the t~o"rG...and.. Masters, \vhQ.s.. eve.rall y applied tbe ,to that paf.t.... of the ··said .Ark which is sq:u"re, the . p.lumb •to . the same, and the level ahove it h1 three p'ositions; la.stly, tht~J gave it three knocks with the nU1Uet; snying, " 1vlar the Great.A,I'<:hitt),ct of the Universe enable us to uphold the Gl'~l.nd Edifice of lTnion~of which this Ark of the Covenant is the sYlnbol, '\vhich slmll contain within it, tbe instrllnlents f)f our bl'otherly love, and hear Upt:>ll it the IIolj" IUble:sqnare~ a.nd .eOlllpnsS, us the. light of our faith, and the rule of OUf works.. M;ty lIe dispose our hoar tsto xnake it perpetual !" And the brethren sa.id, 4.. So lll.otc it be.. " The two Grand ~Iaster8 placed the saId Act OfUl'lion in the interior of the sahl Ark. ~rhe cornncupiu'7 the ·~ . . . 'ine,.nnd·oil, '~tere.· in like nla. nn. (~l". I.')reS(~ntcd to the Grand l\Ia$tcrs~ ,vho, according to ancient rite, pour(~d wine, And oil. oli the said Ark, saying-" Asv\re pour \vine. t\nd oil, on thi8 A.I-k of the1\1aRtJnie (J()vennnt~ bountiful hand or IIcnvcn ('ver 8upplythis tTnited l\Jngdoln of o

or

wino" und oit \vith~tH the necesstLries nnd ma.y He disposcuur hearts to be grateful for all

e0Illn1

sn<i the


OF.

MA.SONRY.

305

Assembly said, "AMEN." The GmJJ.dOfficers then resumed their places. A letter was read from the R. W. Brother Lawrie, Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Scotland, transmitting Resolutions of ;that Grand Lodge, inans"rer to the letter of theM:'V. the Grand Masters of the tw'O Q'rand Lodges, .announcing to them the happy cvent'ol~e Union~nl1d requesting thenl to appoint 11 deputation, agreeably"to Art. IV. of the Act of Union. And it was ordered that these Resolutions be inserted on themillutesof this day. A letter ,vas also read frOIn the W. Brother W. F. Grahaln, Deputy Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Ireland, transmitting Res"",, lutions of that Grand Lodge, in answer· to a similar communication froln their l~oyn.l IIighnesses the two Grand Masters of the respective Fraternities in England. It was ordered that these. resolutions be entered on the minutes of this day. In consequence of its. having heen found impracticable, from the shortness of the n()tice, for the Sister Grand Lodges to s~d deplttations to this Assem.bly, according to .the urgent requestt\f ~• •. tw() Fraternities, conferences h&d been held with aU the moat'di8tinttd . 'ii-SSe,d Grand Officers and enlightened l\tIasons resident in and ne&, London, in order to establish perfect ngreenlent upon all the essential points t()f Masonry, according to the ancient traditions and general practioe of the Craft. The 1\lelubcrs of tho Lodge of Reconciliatioll, accompanied by the 1\Iost '\V orshipful his Excellency Count de Lagardje, Grand Master of th€~ !t'h"st I.~odge of E'reernusons in the North, the ~fost Worshipful Dr. v"'"an IIess, of the Grand ]~odge of IIambul''gh, and other di .• . lVIasons, withdre~v .. to an .~djoiningapa.rtment, wh.ere, and tiled, the :result of'a.ll 'the previous c'omerenoes wase'.ijl'fQ..

'

The· Menit~8r's of the Lodge of I~econcilintion..and the distinguished Visitors,· on their return. proceeded slowly up the . centre in.· double file; alld as they approached the t,YO Grand l\fastersthey opened, and the G'rand 'V"isitors advanced; when his Excellency the Grand ~raster of the First Lodge of the North audibly pronounced that the' forms settled and agreed on by the Lodge of Iteconciliation were. pure and correct. rrhis being decln,red, the stl,me ~"as recognized as the forms to he aloIieobserved and practised in the United Grand Lodge, and all the Lodges:dependant thereon, until thnc shall be~ll() lllore.. The .oloP ~'le. spread. open,_ with the. square ·f¥1d 90~~~ there...... on, ,\~as laid on the At-kof the Coven~n~,and .tbet!o~:md, Ohaplains approached ~he SAme. !Thereoogrli~d 1Qj .*ifm i~. then pronounced tlloud by the 11ev. Dr.lIemlning, one the Masters of the Lodge of :Reeoneiliation; the whole Fraternity repeating the same, with joined hands,. and declaring, "By this solemn obligation ,YO vow to. abide, and the· H.egtilat~ons of Ancient :H'reemasonry no\v recognized B y to ()hs(~rve." ASSt'lnblv then proceeded to constitute one Grand Lod ; . h1 orde~. to 'w'hieh,"the· Grand . ~fasters) ])epllt.yGrnnd l\Iaste,rs, ....•. ·.d Wardens, and other ltcting Grand Officers of. bo~h .·Fraternities, divested thenlselves or their insignia: and Past. Gran6' O·fficers took the chairs; viz" the It 'V. PaRt Deputy' Grand Master Perry in the chair, as l)eputyGrand Master; the R. 1V, Robert Gill, as Senior ~nd Warde~",and

Warden.

"

the R. W.James Deans, as Junior Grand


306

ILLUSTRATIONS

His Royal Highness the Duke of Kent then, in an eloquent address, stated that the grent view with which he had taken upon himself the important office of Grand Master of the Ancient Fr~ternity, as declared at the time, was to facilitate the in1portant object of the Union '\vhich 'had been that day so happily'concluded.. .And now it was his intention to propose his illustrious and dear . relative to be the Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge; for which high office he was in every respect· so eminently qualified. lIe therefore proposed his Royal Highness.the Duke of Sussex to be Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge. of Ancient Freemasons of England for the year. ensuing. This was seconded by the R. W. the Hon. Washington Shirley; and being put to the vote, was unanimously carried in the affirmative, with masonic honours. ' His Royal Highness was placed on the Throne by the Duke of Kent and the Count Lagardje, and solemnly obligated.. The Grand Installation was fixed for St. George's Day. Proclamation was then Inade, that. the most Worshipful Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, Earl of Inverness, Baron Arklow, Knight 'Oompanion of the l\Iost Noble Order of the Garter, was elected and enthroned Grand l\1aster of the United Grand Lodge of Ancient Freemason,s of England. And)lis Royal lIighness received the hOlnagc of the Fraternity.. H. R. H. the Grand ]rIaster then nominated the Grand Officers for the year ensuing; and, as· it will be interesting to all our masonic readers to know who were the first offie'era uncler the U nioll, 'va shall here insert their names: Brother the Ray. Samuel I-Iemming, D.D., Senior Grand Warden. Isaac Lindo, Esq. . . .. ... JuniorG·rand Warden. John Dent., Esq.. . Grand r:rreasilrer. William 1fIeyrick,. Esq.. Grand Registrar. William Henry White, ~ Grand Secretaries. Edwards Ifarper.. · .. ... S Rev. Edvv.ar.d Barry, D.D,. ~ Grand Chaplains. Rev. LUCl3.S Coghlan, D.D. 5

Rev. Henry Isaao Knapp h Jo n Soarie, Esq. • Sir George Nay ler Captain Jonathan Parker... Sitlnuel 'Vesley, Esq. .

Benjamin Aldhouse. William V. Salmon.

.

• ..

Deputy Grand Chaplain. Grand· .Superintendent ••.. .· of the

G:n~ ~~.~~~:.

Ceremonies.. Grand Sworcl Bearer. Grand Orgauist. Grand tTsher.. Grand ,!'yler.

It was then solemnly pl'o(~laiInGa, that the two Grand Lodges were incorporated. and· oOllsoliduted into 0116, und the Grand 1t'Iusterdeelared it to be open in due fOrl11. according to ancient usago. The Grand Lodge wa~rthen called to refreshrnent; and the cup of Brotherly Love 'was delivered by the JuuiQrGro.nd WardHu to the Past Deputy Grand l\Iaster, whopresellted tho same to the (frand Master; he drank to the Brethrcn- H Ponce, good will, nIul brotherly love, all over tho world; "-and he passed it. During its going round the vocal band perforrned a song and glee.


OF MASONRY.

307

The Grand Lodge was re-called to labour; when, as the first act of the United Fraternity, his Royal Highness the Duke of. Kent, after an elegant introduction, moved-" That an humble Address be pre... seuted to his Royalllighness the Prince Regent, respectfully to acquaint him with the happy event of the Re-unionof the two Grand Lodges of Ancien.t Freemasons of England-an event whichoannot fail to afford lively satisfaction to their illustrious Patron, who presided for so many years over one of the Fraternities, and under whose auspices Frecluasonry has risen to its present flourishing condition. '.l"hat the unchangeable principles of the Institution are well known to his Royal Highness, and the great henefits and end of this Re-union are to promote the influ~nce and operation of these principles, by more extensively inculcating loyalty and affection. to their Sovereign-obedience to the laws and magistrates of their countryand the practice' of all the religious and moral duties of.. 1ife-objects which must ever be dear to his Royal Highness in the Governrllent of his Majesty's United Kingdom.. That they humbly hope&1la pray for the continuance of the sanction of his Royal Highness's ~a.ternal patronage; and that they beg leave to express their fervent gtatitude for the nlany blessings whfch, in con1monwith all their fellow-subjects, they dOl"ive frolll his benignant s'way. rrhat tho Great Architect of the Universe D1UY long secure theso blessings to thelll ancl to their country, hy the, proservation of his Royal Iiighness, their illustrious Patron 1" rrhis rnotion \vas seconded by tho IIollourable "\Vashington Shirley, and !>tlsseÂŁ1 UtlUniUlously, and with lnasonio honours. This was folIo\ved by a motion,-" That the grateful thanks of this United Lodge be given to the Most Worshipful their Royal Highnessesthe Duke of l{ent and Duke of Sussex, for the gracious condescension with which they yielded to the prayer of the united Fraternities to take upon thernselves the persoualconductof the negotiation for a Re-union, which is this day, through their zeal, conciliation, and fraternal eXluu.ple, so happily completed.. To state to them that the reIlloval of all tho slight differences which have so long kep~ tho hrothf~rhood asunder, '\vill bcp the nleans of establishing in tho lletropo1is of the British Empire 011e splendid edifice of Ancient Freexno.sonry, to which tho ,vholo lnasonic 'Vorld Dlay confidelltly look for the maintenance and preservation of the pure ;prinoiples of the Craft, a.s handed down to them from time immemooal 1IDder the protection of the illustriou.s. branobes of the Royal Bouse of :8runswick; ana Inay their Royal Highnesses have the he&rlfelt satisfaotion of long l)t~holdiIlg the benencnnt effects of their work, in the extension and praotico of the virtues .of Ioyal.ty, morality, brotherly love, and heilevol<.~nc(~, whioh it lUle been ever the great object of :rvfnsonry to inonlcat()1 Hnd of its laws to enforce." l.'his was also unnnhl10usly approve(l; tl.u<l w:as f()llowed by a motion of thnllks to tho six: Com.. Inissiolu~r8 uppoillted by tht) t,vo }'raterniti(~s to ussist the illustrious PrblC(~S hI the atticl Df\gotiatioll-for the zeal, coneiliation, and ability, with which they aisohilrged their important trust therein. '1'he following Resolutions were also scyorally put, and carried ill thE~ aHirmatiyc unaIlilnously. 'l'ha.t lJooks be opened by the Grand Seoretaries for tIle regular entry and record of the proceedings of thi~ United Gran(l Lodge;


808

ILLUSTRATIONS

ana that there be inserted therein, in the first ins~ance,an.account of

all the Resolutions ana Proceedings of both Grand Lodges withre.. spect to the :negotiation for the Union, and of the conferences oftne Commissioners thereon; together with a oopyO! tlle Articles of Union, lUld the confirmation thereof; also copies of the letters ,vritton by their Royal I-lighnesses the two Grand Masters, and Grand Secretaries, addressed to the Most Worahipfnl theG路ranc1 Masters and Grand Secretaries of Scotland and Ireland, announcing the same, . together with the Resolutions of the Grand Lod~s.in r(~ply. That the proceedings of this day be conlmunlcated to the Grand Lodges of' Scotland and Irelalld~ and to express to them that this United Grnnd Lodge feels, with tile most sensible sa.tisfaction, the fraternal interest which they take in the important event of this day. To assure them that it is the anxious desire of this Grand Lodge to maintain the most constant, cordial, and intimate conlulunion 1.vith the sister Grand Lodges of the United Kingdonl; to which end they are persnaded that nothing is so essential o.s the preservation of one pure and unsullied systenl, founded on the simple ana ancient traditions of the Craft. Several other Resolutions were also passed relu,tive to the internal management of the Fraternity; itfter '\vhich the United Grand Lodge wasolos&d in ample form, and with solemn prayer.


OF .:M:4S0NRY.

Plan 0/ Free1J'~asons' Hall, on t!lte oCCasiO'lb 0/ the Grand Assembly oj- Masons, for '4he ."rfJrl;1on 0/ the Tu'o G1"and Lodges 0/ England, Dec. 27, 1813. Vocal Band.

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310

ILLUSTRATIONS

·SECT. ' XVII.

History of Masonryj'rom 1813 to 1820. }IASONRY is, .in itself, of so l-etiring and unobtrusive a nature, that, except in the case of processions, &c., it rarely comes in contact V\-"ith the public. We have, llowever, to record, that in January, 1815, it canle ullder the cognizance of the law, in au. action tried in the Palace Court, Westluinster, wherein Thomas. Smith ,vas plainti~ and Willialll Finch defendant. The plaintiff was a cOPller-plate printer; and the action ,vas brought to recover 4l. 28., beiug the anlount · . of worl\. done for the defendant. A plea ,vas set up by Finch, ~tating, that tIle plaintiff was illdebted to him 16l. 19s.6d. fbrmaking.him, 8 Mason, and. giving llinl

in,st ,r. uo.t.•.ions i.n.·..•. t.h.'.e.' .."van ' '.0., s . a.',.e g".'.,r.e.e.S .•. • l.·.n bi.•~ I~depe.udent Lodge, at hisOWXlhoQsenearWest81inster~bridg&. It .'u.

watprovedby the evidence of the Rev. l)r. IIenl1ning, Past BeniorGrand vVarden, as well as of 1fr. '",\Thite alld Mr. Harper, Joint St~cretaries to the Grand I..Jodge, that the defendant "vas not ttuthorized to 111ake l\IasoI1s; on the contrary, tbat bis "\vhole systenl "\}\I·as all inlI)osition 011 the parties who \vere so deceived by him; and that nO'lnall had a right to Inake ~Iasons for I)rivate elnolument. The trial occupied a considerableJ)ortioll of time; and, after an excel1~nt cba!ge frolp.the jug~, stating, that from the whole eVIdence It appeared that FInch's conduct was altogetherunjustifi:able;' that he could neither lnake 'Masons 110r procure them admission to any Lodge, and that he \vas totally disavo\vec1 by the Fraternity, tIle jury, without hesitation, gave a, verdict agajnst Finch, to the full al1:10unt of the printer's den1und. In the year 1816, Freel'nasonry v~ras revived in Russial' under theprotectioIl of his Inlperial1\fnjesty the ElnI)eror; and the Grand Lodge of Astrea, at St. Petersburgh, forwl1rded a communicatioll to the Q'ran<1 I.Jodge of England, invitingthat august body to llold a regular correspondence

with it; and also &hciprocal admis.'tsio.n of 1..•··.Jret.hr.en· o.f the two countries who should bear proper certificates or dip 10111as. 'rhe. letter \vas ordered to be record(~d in th(~ proceedings of tbeGralld Lodge, and his Royalllighness


311

OF M.A.~ONRY.

the M. W. Grand Master was ~olicitea路 iQ:reply to the conlmunication, and to expr~ss th.e.gre~p satisfaction the Grand Lodge felt at the revival of Fr路ee~asonryin Russia, and the cheerfulness wit11 which it embraced tIle proposals of the Grand Lodge of Astrea. On the 24tll of Septenlber, 1819, a Grand Masonic Ii'estival took place at Batll; being tIle DEDICATION of tIle BATH l\tfASONIC I-IALL, Wit}l . all the splendid cerell10nials Wllich cllaracterize the public processions of our ancient and honourable Fraternity.", His Royal Highness the Duke of Su'ss~x.,.(i-randl\Iaster of the Order, having graciously signified' his intention of honouring the ceremony with his. augu~tpresence, the ll1eeting assunled the higller title of' an 4ssenlbly of the SUPREME Gl::'AND LODGE OF ENGLA.ND, instead of that of a p,'to'v'incial G1"and Lodge. The11rocessiol1 moved from the Guildball, to the nurnber of between 800 and 900 Brethren, decorated with tlleif different orders, en.1bleIl1S, ensigns, and ornUlnents, l11any of theln of the most elegant and costly descriptiol1. TIle Royal Gral1~ Maste:joinedthe prQ~sai tY~~k~:~,~se,

and vvalked .' unoov_reti:,> .....i!i~lle M&sa~, ',., ',." . . "!"~~pttt:'nmg

nl0st graciously the salat:ations of .t~ei~meDseth,rongs, consisting of llearly the whole populatio;n of the city and surroullding country; \vho, delighted with theillteresting appearance of the sacl~ec1 Craft, gave way for thenl to pass unobstructed, and. other\vise cOndtlcted thenlselves in tIle 1110St orderly and adnlirable Inanner. In the procession, the apI)earallCe of a venerable Brother; '\vitll foul" of Ids sons, forlned t1 l)rincipal feature in Olle of tIle Lodges,

and w8spointedout as a truly interesting sight. TheOe'Fem~y WCl$ 'htm()ured.witk tJ1,'~~~6"ceof Ilia Royailligllnes.s AITGUSTtrSFREDERICK

DUKE Olt' SUSSEX, 1{.G. and M.W.. G路.l\:L of ENGLAND.

Ilia Grace tho

The lIon. Sir CHAn.LI~S Sir WK. C.

DUKE

of

LEINSTEn., IRELAND.

K.P. and

~I.W.G.M.

WASIHNGTON SHIRLEY, I~.'V.P. G.M:. W ARWICltSIHR:m.

\VAUWICKBAMl)FYLDE, DEVONSl1IItE.

13 art.,

DE CRESPIGNY, 13n.rt., M.P. IIAMPSIIIREl.

and

of

lor';

B.W~P.G.M.

for

1~.W.P.G.1t1:.

for


ILLUSTRATIONS W1LLIA~r'WILLIAl\rS,Esq., l\I.P.. and . DORSETSIIIRE..

R.v\r.p.. G.1ti. for

1V. fl. GOLD,,\VYER, Esq., R.W.P.. G.J\f.. for BRISTOL.. And many(,)f the l\I.. "\V.. Officers of the GRAND LODGE of ENGIJAND, with the OF}"ICERS of the several PROVINCIAl.! GRAND LODGES of GLOUCESTERSIIIRE, DEVONSHIRE, BRISTOL, SOMERSET, DORSET,

HANTS, and WARWICKSHIRE.

The following 'WCJ"e tl~e Lodges that attendecl : Granel Lodge of England. Sonlerset Provincial Grand Lodge. Doyon ditto Gloucester ditto Bristol ditto Dorset ditto Rants ditto W nr,vick ditto BATH Royal CUlnberlandLodge. Royal York "Lodge of Perfect Friendship. Lodgo of V""lrtue.. - - Royal SUSS(~X Lodge. BltISTOL l\foira.. Beaufort. J erusalexn. Jlo:rlll Lodge of York Uniou. Iic,yal Sussex Lodgo of lIospita.Iit0''". 1farinel路s.


813

OF MASONRY.

Members

of the p'ro'V,incial Grand .Lodge of the vzz.

COW1t~y

'.

of Somerset,

Provincial Grand Tyler. Provincial Grand Organist.. Provincial Grand Sword-Bearer.. Provincial Grand Superintendent of Works. Provincial Gtand Director of Ceremonies. Provincial Grand Deacons. Provincial Grand Secretary. Provincial Grand Registrar, bearing the Seal of the Provincial Grand Lodge. Provincial Gr.and Treasurer. Provincial Grand Chaplain.. Provincial J unioJ;' Grand Warden. Provincial Senior Grand Warden.. A BAND OF l\fUSIC. A Steward. 5.路 Banner of the Uni,ted Grand Lodge ~.A Stewara. l of England. 5 Officers of the Grqncl Lodge of England. 'rheGrand Usher 1vith his staff. rr'\Vo G-ranc1 Ste,vards..

Granel Organist. Grant! Superintendent of "V'orks. Grand Director of Cor(~U'l:ollies.

Grand.. DeMOns" The Grand Saoret,arybearing the B()Q}t otConstitutions. The Grand Registrar, bearing the Great Seal.. rrhoGrana rrreasurer. ~PheGraIld Chaplain. Provincial Grana l\Iastors, each precedccl by his Banner.. DC1pUty Provincial lu Grand ~Itlster for Somerset. 'rhe pillar of tIle Junior Gritnd Warden.. rrho Junior G路rulld \'Varaen.. 'rhe pillar of the S(~nior Grana "rardcn. 115 'rhe Senior Grand "rar<1en. rrhe Right 'Yorshipful the Deputy Grnuc1l\Iastcr. r~i8itor.. Ilia G race tho Duke of A Stc'\vard. .i'\~ Grand Master .A. Steward~. Ire eC13(led by his Ban. 1!l, ~w A Ste'\vard.. The Banner 'Of FI.. R. H. tHe A Steward. of Sussex, Grltnd Master. Grand Sword-Bearer.

f

1

1

l

[H4Vice tho 1>.. G"

~L,

U5

of

absent, through indisposition.. ] tho part of IJodges atttnHlulg tIllS rncotlng,lt Inny he useful f()r the to know, that the ~I" 1,V. Grana l\Iastor has giYt:ll dil.i t~ll flltureproces8iolls, whether of t.ho U nitedGra.nd l>roviueiuJ OI1C, the Wardens of the subordi~" Lodges permitted toeany their columns.. IIlconse9.uone~

at~ ir~egularity on


314 Two Stewards.

ILLUSTltATIONS

~

T wo Stewards. ~~

The Most Worshipful Gratld Master, his Royal Highness

The DUKE

O~'

~

Two Stewards.

SUSSEX.

Two Grand Stewards. The Standard of H. R. H. the Grand Patron. Grand Stewards. G:rand Tyler.

5(. T1VO, Stewar,ds.

When. the head of the process"joll arrived at th~ Hall, the Brethl'en divided to the right and left, for tIle Most Worshipful Grand Master, his Officers, tIle Provincial Grand ~iasters, &c., to pass up the centre, preceded by their banners. None but Masters, Past J\ilasters, Wardens, and the several Provincial Grand Lodges, were present at the DEDICATION, "\vhich cerenl0ny was performed by the Royal Grand l\tfaster with most itnpressive effect; in the course of vvhich were introduced occasional strains of instrulnental music, al1:a the duet' of "l!cre shall Sqft Char'ity," by Brothers Harrington and Rolle. The Inen1bers then returned in (Iue order to the Guildhall, where they me.t their other Brethren, and inl111ediately afterwards the Royal Grand ltfaster entered the large roon1, wllere the Lodge had been opened. 11i8 Royal I-lighness tllen addressed the Brethren in an oration replete '\vith the 1110st affectionate sentirnents, and, in tIle true spirit of 1rfasonry, identifying 11ilnself with those by Wll0Dl -lle was surrounded. He expressed the very ,great satisfaction he enjoyed at the kind Inanner in which he had been received, and said he lind journeyed from town actuated by tl1CSf11nefrat,ernal feelings. IIis Royal Highness proceeded to enlarge upon sevel"al points connected \vith the~acred Order, which it \vould be improper to publish. He felt the highest gratification ill observing that the spii'"it and principles of :l\Iasonry '\vere daily Q,xtending thelnselves. It was un Institution, the rules· of ,vhich, if duly followed, could not filiI to rnake its Brethren valuable members of society.. Sorne years ago, when all other secret societies '\vere looI{ed tlllorl by the legislature of the country vvith a jealous eye, the government····· hadexpressecl itself satisfied of the honest intentiol1s· of the· Inenlbersof tIllS Institution: a protectional1d approbation for which tIle Craft were in a. great measure indebted to the exertions of their patron,


OF MASONRY.

315

his Royal. Highness the Prince Regent, and their most Noble Brother the Marquis of IIastings, now GovernorGeneral of India. His Royal Highness concluded his address amidst the most enthusiastic marks of approbation fronl the assembled Brethren; indeed, the fraternal spirit \vhicll breathed througl1out the "\vhole of Ilis Royal I-ligllness'ls sl)eech excited feelings in· the auditors which it would be ilnpossible for us adequately to describe.. TIle officers of the several Provincial Grand Lodges ,vere then illdividt;lally presented to his Royal fligllness, and .\veredelighted with the condescending and fraternal manner i.n which they \vere received; after whiQh the Lodge was closed in due form, and the Breth~en adjourned. About six o'clock the Brethren, amounting to bet\veen four and five llundred in number, sat down to it n10st elegallt dinner, at tho Kingston RaoIne. IIis Royal I-lighness the Duke of Sussex presided, Su!)!)orted on his left by his Grace tIle Duke of Leinstel·, tl1e ttlble at '~l'llic}l he sat being elevated above the others. The several Provincial Grand Officers had the.. privilege of being

adolitted to the table of the:M. W. G.Master.

At inter-

vals, durillg dinner, his Royal Highness, in the ·most condescending manner, invited the Brotllers at eacll table separately·, to take a cup of good ·fellowship vvith bim. On tIle removal of the cloth, his Royal IIigllIless gave a vari~ty of l11asonic. and otl'ler toasts, introducing each in the llallpiest \vay; the first being :--" 1'}te Kin,(r., God bless h,im;" !tfter wIliell the national ant]leln,Go~ save the I{ing, ,,,"'as sung, tIle ,vllole of tIle COlllpany standillg and • joinill~ 111 chorU8with heart and voice. . ~etwe~~;~w~.~:h. toast the partyw~.re .1nuch delight~d .with .some "most beautif\ll gleess.tmg by the p.rofessioDM Brethren present witll infinite taste and science. ' About tell o'clock tIle Duke of Sussex took his leave of tIle company, anlid peals of applause, tIle heart of eaoh Brother I)resent overflowing with zeal, gratit , and affection, elicited by theremarka.ble ·al'l1enitY9f Inanners and the attention 11C had sho'\vn t06¥;eryMasorl present. TIle Duke of Leinster then took,tbe chair for a short time, "\vhen the llealth of his Royal Highness was again drunk with the utmost entllusbSm. The fraternal band did not break up till a late hour¥


ILLUSTRATIONS

The next day (his Royal Highness having first received the Sheriffs of Bristol, deputed, we believe, to invite his Royal Highness to tllat city) tIle Royal Duke arrived at the Guildhall, where he was received by the l\Iayor, and the greater part· of the Body Corporate, ill their civic robes. Being ushered into the Ballqueting ROOU1, G. If. Tugwell, Esq., (the Mayor) addressed tIle Royal Visitor in ne~~~,)the following· words : " I b~~'the honour to present to your Royal IIighness the FREEwhich has been unanimously voted to your Royal Highness, by the Mayor,Aldermell, and Common Council, in Common Hall assembled; and ,vhioh we humbly beg your Royal Highness will be graciously pleased to accept, as a proof. of our most profolll1d respect for your Royal person, and of our nrlll attachment to your illustrious house." DOM OJ'fTBEANCIENT AND LOYAL CITY OF BATH,

The Fre,edom· 'vas delivered to his Royal Highness in a gold box, of exquisite workmanship, on the inside of which the Batll A.1'UlS were admirably· engraved-the outsic1ewas beautifully chased in 'coloured gold; the border displaying the rQse, thistle, 811d shamrock. His Royal Highness tllel1 addressed tIle Corr)oration ill a manner at once eloquent, affable, and dignified; tIle substance of whicll is enlbodied ill tIle following brief

sketch:"Mr. M.A YOR, ALDERMEN, andGENTLE.MEN oj the COMMONCOU.ZVCIL : '~J3elieve me, that I truly appreciate the honour yotlc'onfer on me us enrolling my name among the· Freemen of this allcieut and · cit. .. I feel it peculiarly .8O,M the. names ,of several of my l.I'i,on tlle. saine list ; and as ]; hliv"~""".'S,,,h.Qa,of the d;attenQ()D. p~id in ···this·.City to1\lembers .0£ tho Royal f.ywho hav6occasionaJlyvisitedit.. I regard this murk of esteem as an additional link in that chain of affection Wllich I RIll prouc1 to see exists between his l\Iajesty's subjects an<1 ourafBictcd l\;Ionareh; as every tribute of rogard to any individual :6ranc,h of the Royal Family must be considered as a loyal testinlOny of veneration to the best of men,now labouring unat~r afflictions which "re aU poignantly deplore. . I have lately visited several pa.rts of this kingdom, and aln highlygratifiecl in observing inel"easing attachm,el1t t<> the existing governmen.t. . It will be l"ecollected that our grooious Monarch, iu his first speech after he ascended the thl"One, said :-' Born and educ.ab:~d ~. this country, I glory in the DalIl6 of· Briton ;'-and with the like proud feelings, I boast of belonging to a :people· so :6X'Illly devoted t<> the enviable Constitution or t.llisUIlited Kingdom." '

The Mayor tllCll presented the Men1bers ofthe.·Corporation . individually to his Royal IIighness; to each of


317'

OF MASONRY.

whom he spoke with the ·utmost politeness, attention, and affability. His Royal Highness accepted the invitation of the Corporation to dinner at the Hall on the following day.

The next nlasonic ceremony, of any particulardistinction,· took place in Scotland. It was the laying of tIle foundation-stolle of a monunlent to the memory of Burns, the Ayrshire poet, at Alloway Kirk, in Ayrshire, on tIle 25th of January, 1820; being the anniversary of his natal day. TIle several neighbouring Lodges assembled, agreeably to intimation, on the Race-grouIld, about 11 o'olock, in sel'larate detacllnlents, bearing their variolls insignia, and acco1l1panie<.1 witll bands of music. After lla,ing been arruugec1 ill due order, viz.::\fothcr I\:il1\rinni.ng 11G l\1:u,ybole... ... ..... Kilmarnook St~ John's NewmIDs ... G.Jasgow Patrick Kilwinning 1\lonkton Navigation... ... Ayr Kilwinning ... ... Newton Ayr St.. James's I\:.ilrnnrnock St. Andrew's ...

10 24

46 64

41

... 123

124 125 126

Stewarton rrbistle

Tarbolton St. David's 'rarbolton St.. J axnes's Irvine St. Andrew's ... Ayr Royal Aroll StQvenston rl'histle and lwse May-bole Royal Arob Muirk.irk·Sa.. T.~'s RiccartonSt.Clemeat'8 Ayr and Renfrew St.Panl's AyrNewton S*" Andrew's ... Fenwick Moira

Old CutnnoekSt. ]~arnabas' Mauchline St. ~lungo's ... Kilmarnock St.. Janles's 116

A oomnlunioation from

Iny

131

133 147 163 I

-

... ... ... -

OOQ

201 203 209 221 230 240 279

friend In.mesDobie. E· .. ,ofBeitb,

in Scotland, •contains the following rernnrkson the 0 . ld progress of Freemasonry in that part of the islau{t "Itisgenera.ly ac1lnitted

that Musonry was first established ntKilwintling, where ·a stu.tely monastery was founded A. D.. 1140. I find in the notes to a. poem pul)lishedat Pans in 1820, Antitled, (. La }fa.~.onnerie,' thnt It J aeqtleS,


318

ILLUSTRATIONS

they wall{.ed in procession to the site of the l\rIonl.nnent; and there, having forn1ed themselves into .an extensive circle, the lTIOSt Worshipful Depute Grand Master, Alexander Boswell, of Auchinleck, Esq.,llroceeded to lay the foundation-stone, and also deposited a plate, bearing the following inscription : · BY THE FAVOR OF ALMIGHTY GOD,

On tl1~.Twenty-fifth day of January, A.D. M.DCCCXX. '/j Of the .LEra of Masonry 5820, .Atld in ·the Sixtieth Year of the Reign of our beloved Sovereign George the Third, His Royal ~ighness George Prince of· Wales being Regent of the United Kingdom, And a munificent Subscriber to the Edifice, The Foundation Stone of this Monument, Erected by public Subscription ill honour of the Genius of ROBEI~T BURNS, TIlE A.YRSHIRE POET,

was laid

By Alexander 130swell, Esq., of Auchinleck, M.P. Worshipful Depute Gritnd Master of the Most A.noient Mother Lodge I{ilwinning, (Attended by all the ~Insoll Lodges III .A.Yl"shire) According to the ancient usages of l\Insonry, TnOl\!AS IIAMILTON, junior, Edinburgh, Architect, JOHN CONNEL, junior, Builder and Contractor.

Lord Stewart, re~ut dans sa loge a Kilwill ell Ecosse, en 1286, les 'comtes de Gloc.estor et Ulster, l'un Ang1ois, l' autre Ir1a.n<1ois.' This was the year in which Alexander III. died; aud, if thenuthority be correct, it shows that tho Stewart fronily were distinguished in Scotl.at.td before they came to tho· Crown. James I. patronized Kilwinnh:t:g;~, a.nd presided os Grand. Maater until he :P bile chosen by the brethren, and approved of by him.. To this oifioer an annual salary was paid by all the Lodges in the kingdom, and he lUl<l de~u­ ties in the different counties. Xn the reign of J t\Ines II. tho office was made hel"editary in the noble family of St. Clair of l~osslyn, where it continued until 1736, when \Villiam St. Clair of Rosslyn, Esq., resign.ed in favour of tho Brethren, and ,vith tho vic'\v of instituting the Grand Lodge of Scotland. The l\lother Lodge of Kilwinning, long after the institution of the Granel Lodge, continued to act independently.,. and to grant charters to other Lodges as formerly.. This gave rise to disput.es, which it was desiro.ble for the credit of the 1'raternity to avoid ; and at longth, in 1807, Mother Kilwinuing agreed to hold of the Grand Lodge, thereby renouncing all ri¥ht to grunt charters in fl~ture.Kilwinning,vas placed at the hettd of tIle Roll of the. Grand Lodge under thedenomintttion of 'l\Iother l{ilwinning,' and its Master tor tho· time being was doclared the I>rovillcialGrand Master over the Ayrshire district.. Other minor regulations ,vero adopted, and these put an elld to aU disputes abou.t masollic prece... denoy. "-EDITOR..


OF MASONRY.

319

After which, the most Worshipful Depute Grand Master exhibited the corll and the wine, &c., in true Inasonic style, and delivered the following address:BRETHREN :-~Iay corn, ,vine, and oil abound; may all .that is useful and ornamental bo cultivated amongst us; and may aU t1l.at can invigorate the body or elevate the soul shed their blest influeBoe on our native land. 'V"e have· at length assembled to pay a grateful, although a tardy, tribute to the genius of l~obert Bums, our Ayrshire Poet, and. the Bfird of Coila. There surely lives not the man so dull, so flinty, or phlegmatic, who could witness this. event without emotion•.. But to those whose heart-strings have thrilled responsive to bh.~. . ahoras of the Poet's lYloe-whose bosoms have swelled, like his, wit:1l1ove and friendship, with tenderness and sympathy, have glowed w:ith patriot-

ism, or panted for glory-this hour must he an hour of exultation!" Wh~ether we consider the time; the place, or the circumstances, there is enough to interest in each; but these combined, and at once in operation on our feelings ana our fancies-his muse, alas! is mute, who coulcl alone have dared to paint the proud breathings of such an assembly at such a 1l10ll1ent. "Then '\ve cOllsider the thl1€, ",VEl cannot forget that this allY is the anniversary of.. that 'which ga.,"o OUf J'oet to tho light of Heaven.. Bleak is the prospect around us; tht} ,vood, tho ha,vthol"ll, and "the birkon..shs.lov, U are leafless; not a thrush has yet essay~a to clear the furrowed brow of winter; bntibis w,e know sballpass awa.y, give plaoa, and he succeeded by. the buds of spring and the blossoms of' <summer. Chill and (~heerless was our Poet's natal day; but soon tho wild flowers of lloesysprung as it were beneath his boyish tread; they opened as he a.dvanced, expanded as he mntured, until he revelled in all the richness of luxuriance. Povel'ty and disappointment bung frowning around him, and haunted his path; but, soothed and chnrlned by the fitful visit& of his native muse, tUld croWIled, as in a 'vision, with the holy ,vi"eath, he,vautoned ill a fairy land, the bright creation of his own vivid and enwrapt imagination.. IIismusings have heen our delight.. . ~lell of the loftiest talents, and of taste the lnost refined, have praised them ;-Inen. of strong and sterling, but. untutored intellect, have admired thorn :-the poet of the heart is, the po~of

nlankind.. . . . ' When we oonsiderthe plaoe, ,let us remember th:at these very 1vhich ,va now lo"ok upon awakened in his youthful breast that animating spark which burst upon the worltl ill a blaze of inspiration.. In

yonder cottage he firstdrewbr.eath: in that depository of tho 10\"(l"ly dead sleeps the once humble, now inlmortal, Inoc1el of tho cotttlge life-there rosts his pious father-and there it ,,"'as his fond and unxio\ls \vish that his dust should hftYO been lllingleCi \vith the beloved anel kinar(~(l a.shes.. Below us flows. tht' 1)00n, tho elassio Doon, but Inndo olttssio by his harlnony; there, gliding through the woods, and laving his banks and hraes, he rolls his ck~a.ritlld "far-fetch'd waters n to th(~ ocean. J3cfofO us sutud the ruins of Kirk Anoway, shroudec1 in all tile mystic itnag(,ry with whi(~h it is enveloped by his magic spells-Kirk Alloway! .to name it is enough_ '" If then, the time nnd place are so congenial with our fond impres


320

ILLlTSTRATIONS

8ions~ the circnnlstUl1Ces which have €uabled us to ca.rry into. effect this cOlllInen1oration of our Bard, lllust give delight to every enthusi... astic Inind. III every region \vhere our Itluguage is heard., the song of Burns gives raptnrf~-nnc1 £'r0111 every l'egioll, and fronl clinles the most r~lno!l~, tho 'footive offerings, if poured in to aiel our ulldertu.ldng, and the edIfice w'1nch we ht1Ve 110\V begun, shall stanc1 it proud and lasting testiruouy of the 'world's admiration. Not on the banks of Doon alone, or herluit Ayl"', or the rOl1uUltio Lugar, cello repeats the songs of Burns; but aUlid the 'wild forests of COlul11bia, and scorching plains of Indostan-on the banks of the l\lississippi, the St. Lawrence, and the Ganges, his heart-touching rnelody floats upon the breeze. rrhis Inonument rises like the piled cairn over our ,varriors of oldeach mun casts a stone; ana in honour of him, the son of a cotter, and hirnself a ploughlnal1, our l?rince, ,vith the true feelings of true greatness, rind rl10re illustrious by this act of generosity, pays here his tribute at the shrine of genius. l\Iay the ,,,"ork pl'osper ~ ancl when happily cOlnpletec1, then nlay it tell to futllre generations that the age which could produce n Burns, was rich also in those ,,,,ho could appreciate his talents, und 'who, ,,,,hila they f(~lt and o,vneu tho p()\ve,r of his . muse, have honoured his lltUnc.

This speecl1) wlliellwas delivered ,,'it}l· rnuch en.ergy and feeling, \vas received \vitIl enthllsiastic u}ll)lause. The I{ev. JI. l)aul, of BrouU'hton, then concluded the cerenlony \vith a suitable ~~Prayer; ,vhell the \'t\71101e nlasonic body, joined by nn irnrnense cro\vd of sI)eetators, gave three hearty'!" eheers, and tile 1)1~OcessioIi returned iri order to the to\VIl of .A.yr. After lodging the 1\Iost 'Vofsl1i11ful Grulld l\:Iaster ill due fornl, the,several Lodges proceeded to tlleir r€sl)ective,I4odge R001!lS, w llere they. spent t:he eve~ling in the greatestharlnony. 'l'he decorations of some of the Lodges ,vere V€l'Y splendid; and tIle bands of 111usic which aecoI11panied thenl had a very irlll)osing efIect, and, not\vithstanding the l.ll1fll,vourahleI1ess of the day, b1 0ught forth an inllIlense cro",,"c1 of spectators. About St3Ven o'clock, del)1.1tatiol1S a11i~led at the Cj-rand L?dge; \vhen lllany l)utriotic toasts '\vere given, together wIt.II :nany songs and speeches, lligll1y uI)I)roIlriate .to the occaSIon. '1i1\Ir. J30s\vell, in drinking as ft toast, "~rhe 1\drnirers 13ul:ns," took ?cc~tsio:n to.llotice SOIne l)arti(;~llnrs l~~~lntive to the suhscrIptIons whleh had beenohtalla~d f·or the monurnerlt; tll1d, ~UllOUg those gentlelllcn 'who had particularly interested thelllselves III the business, lIe JllCntioned in terrns of lligh l'espect, Sir Jan1es Shaw, Bart., 4


o~

8!1

MASONRY.

and William Fairlie, Esqe, of London. Resaid, that tllfOUgh the exertions of tIles e.gen tIe men large SUIns had been relnitted, in furtherance of the undertaking, from tIle East Indies, froIn Anlerica, arld froin the l\tletropolis, \vhere a lligher entlll.lsias111 in favour of Burns and his \vritings seen1ed to l)revail than ill llis native country. This, ho\vever, "vas not to be \vondered at; because the glo\ving descriptions vvhich 11e gives of scenes and feelings so congellial toScotchlnen, must 11ave an effect proportionate to the distance to which th'ey are renloved from their native land. SEOT. XVIII.

History oje.ltfasonry j}路om 1820 to 1823. A new. era of l\Iasonry 110\V opens to our view. By the accession of his l\Iost (Jracious l\Iajesty I{ing George IV. to the throIle of his ancestors, \ve fLre furnished witll a decisive \ive~~1)()11 to counteract the f()ul ilrlI)lltations of Barruel, Robison, and others, tllut our Society is tllccradIe wllere ins'ubordillatioIl and treason are Iltlrturedand brought to IXlltturity.. Nor .did the Grand Lodge omit tllis opI)ortunity of declaring tl1cir attachlnellt to the l)e.rsoll, and adherence to the la~~s and institutions, of tllcir revered rnonarch. At a quarterly Con1nlunication, llolden the 8tll of l\Iarch, 1820, the G-rand l\Iaster, in the clluir,called the attention of the q路rand Lodge to tIle heavy" al.ld 111eluneholY'loss vilhicll tIle natioll had sustained .by tIle death of the late venerable sovereign !\:ing G~eorge IiI., and also of his l{.. oyal IIighness the~Dl1ke KeIlt, undsublllitted, tht~t, beibre other business\va,s transnct(;~d, it ~"ould be I)roI)er to lIlove add~路esses afcolldolenee to be presented to his present lIajesty on these Illelancholy events; \Vlliclt \VaSUIlafliulously agreed to, and the follo\vinO' addresses \~~/ere presentt;.~l in thel~all1eal1d on the beh~f of the Fraternity, by his Royal Highness tlle Duke of Sussex, (j~.1\I.,. on the lOtIl of l\Iay:-

any

ADDI~ESS

f.ro

of

~I.A.J]~srI'Y ]{ING路 G'EOI~GE IV.,iO:N IllS AOCESSICfN.. '1'0 tht; 1\:1:\0'8 !\Iost Excellent l\IAJESTY.

IllS

~IOS'rGRACl()US SOV:EaU;;IGN:

We, your MajPsty's lllost <1utifJ,~l. an<1 fu.itbfuIsubjects, the Gr!'nd l)cputy Grand l\luster, Officers, ana Brethren of the UUlted

~laster,


322

ILLUSTRATIONS

Grand. Lodge of Fl'ee and Accepted Masons of England, with all humility and respect, approach your royal presence. 'Ve request, Sire, your gracious permission to condole :vith your l\Iajesty on the death of our late lnost excellent SovereIgn, your revered and venerable father. We beg leave also, at the f?aIDe time, to offer our Inost cordial congratulations on your Majest:):r's accession to the Throne of this United

Kingdom.

.

While the signal events which have characterized, and the splendid triumphs which have accompanied, a reign of unexampled length, extended by the wisdom and energies of your ~Iajesty when holding the reins of Government, during a Regency of many years, will beconlmemorated by the pen of the historian, it is our more pleasing duty to contemplate and dwell on the peaceful virtues and the moral qualities '\vhich adomed his late ~Iajesty, and endeared him to his people. As Masons, interested in the progress of useful knowledge, and the dissemination of intellectual truth, we heheld "''ith delight the encouragement which his It1te l\:t:ajesty afforded to science, the patronage which he besto\ved on the liberal arts, and the facility he gn.vo to the diffusion of learning, by supporting the cause of eu.rly aud goneral education. 1'0 your Majesty we do not look ill vain for the exercise of similar virtues, for the continuance of suc1? blessings to the whole community. In the native benevolence of your Mtlojesty's minc1 "we pluce our fullest confid~nce, whilst we indulgo the fondest hopes. 'I'he sceptre of this kingc10rQ is 110lV \\'"ielde<l by the han<1 of a f:!'REgMASON: the honour, Sire, ,vhich is thus conf(~~rrHa on the Cra.ft, must be duly felt o.n(l nppreciated by every individual brother. For... tunately for the best interests of ~Iasollry, tho Buprclne B:uthority over our Order 'was vested in your 1'vIt~esty at an early period; and, frorn a thorough kllowlec1g~) of .the principles of our frnternity,' your :M.·ajt~sty .w. as gr.aciously .pleased, in presenting the dutiful Address of oureoffiluunity to your. Royal :b'atheriu the yt,ar 1793, to deolttre tha.t u the~";reemas()IlS of Ellglu.ud yielded to no .subjects of th(~ reabn, in the love of their .oountry, .alld in loyal atta.olune~t to the .. sacred person of the .Sovereign of these Rea.lms.". .' These sentiments are nowfnrtheroonfinned' by the exertion of your Royal irifluellce ill procuring for the brethren that facility and tra.nquillity of assenlbling, of '\vhieh they otherwiso would hu.vo been dCl)rived by Acts of Parlialneut, prohibiting, in general, all se(~ret meetings.. . . In the confidence of entert£dning the same scnthnpnts ()f <luty and aff'eetion for your hlnjesty's sa.cred perSOIl, w() hUlnbly E~ntr(~{tt your Majesty will continue to us your fostering care and prott1ctiotl as Patron of our community; w·hid.l title, Sire t you '\vore gl'nci()usly pleased to acoept froln th(~ fraternity at large, ,vhilst !)ro8iding as Regent over the destinies of this country. It'remains for us now to invoke, "vith fervent pru.yr-r, the Great Architect and ltuler of the U niYcrse, that the blo8sillgs of' lIou-ven may desoend upon your Roya.l person; that your Majesty's grH.<.~i()us intentions· to . prornot(,~ the welfu.r<) of your .suhj()cts, and to "support the honour of your Cl"O'VIl, may be brought toa succo8sfulissue; and that your Majesty's thrl)u·o may bo p0l"lnauolltly fh:ett upon the


323

OF ·MASONRY.

same sure and solid foundation upon which it now stands---the united affections of a free· and loyal people. , Given in Grand Lodge, at ~"'IreemaSOllS' Hall, this 8th day of March, 1820. AUGUSTUS FREDERICK, G.M. DUNDAS,

WILI~IAM II. 'VHITE, {

Enw.

5

HARPER,

D.G.M.

G.S.

His JV[ajesty, was most graciously pleased to receive this and the following address with the 'utmost conlplacency, .and to confirlu to the Society the continuance of his ro)"al patronage, which Inust forever silellQe the voice of calunlny, and satisfy the world that the opinions of those who would impute .treasonable designs· to our '. Institution, are notlling but the crude offspring of jealous doubt and dark conjecture. The royal arms, and title ·of his Majesty, as Patron,were then engraven at the ~lead of the Grand Lodge certificate, as a public testilnony of tIle e~alted sanction under which Masonry llUd now the honour of being placed. .A.DDRESS

'ro

IllS l\IA.JES'l'Y ON rrIIE DE1\.TH OF IllS DUKE OF KENT.

l~OYALHIGIINESSTIlE

To the KING'S Most Exaellent MA.JESTY. MOST GRACIOUS SOVEREIGN,

We, the· Grand ?vlaster, Deputy Gra.nd Master, Offioers, and llrethren of tho U llitQd Grand Lodge of Free and Aocepted l\fasons of Englllnd in Grand J-Iodge assemglod, most sensibly participating in 'every subject of grief to your JrInjesty and your august family, tbl1S IXlost dutifully crttve leave to offer our heartfelt, oondolence o'n the demise. of your l\Ittjesty's illustrious brother, his Royal Highness the Duke of Kent, a I)ast Grand l\'Iaster of our ancient and venerable Order.. Our devoted attachrnent to your ~rnjesty's august person did not pennit us to blend our sorrows, on tbis melancholy event, with the deola.ration ofotLr aJiiotion .oooa.sion:ed bytbe;~of o.r late Sovereign of bIe.ad memory;·· but,· although:·· cerem,<>uial forma· may have s011arn,ood these expressions, our augmented feelings of grief on this twofold cu.lamity were Wlited. In ull hUlniUty, therefore, we fervently pray the Great Architect of th(, Universe to take your Majesty, and every melnl)(~r of the Illu.st.rious I:Iouse of Brunswick, wlder his rnost especial favour an<1 llrot()ctiou; thatllc will d(~ign to bless them with unintelTUpted hea1t1~ lUld long lifo, to their o,\vn felieit.y andoornfort, and to the uever..cea.&:)ing prosperity of this U.llited !{,ingdom.• Given in Grand Lodge, at :t'roelnltSOtlS' Hall, this 8th .day of March, 1820. 1:'\uHus'rus FltE.DERICX, G.M. DUNDAS,

\V.·.·.I.I,l.LIAK.··... H.·.".

WHITE,

EDW. lLu.u>ER,

~ G' S·

5. ·

.*

D.G.. M.


·

ILLUSTRA~IONS

To commemorate the auspicious circumstances which placed the patronage of l\fasonryunder the sUllerintendenc,e'ofthe sovereign of these reallns, l1is ~oyal Highness the Grand Master· was pleased to present to the Graq,d Lodge a superb carved and giltcbair,the back and seat of which are covered wit}l very rich blue velvet, to be used as a chair for the Deputy Grand Master; and also four smaller chairs to correspond, as seats for Brethren of distinction. This splendid present was received "vitll gratitude,and it ,vas unanimously "Resolved, that tl1e Grand Lodge, highly honoured at all times by the zeal an'd, attention which ·his Royal High11ess tlle Duke of Sussex, the J\f. W. GrandMaster, nlal1ifests for the best interests and comfort of tIle Craft, ca,unot refrain, 011 tIlis particular occasion, fronl expressing to· his Royal Higllness its ·grateful acl{I1owledgn1ellts for this additional msrk of Ilia liberality and paternal kindness." About this tilne, SODle incipient sYlnpt0111S of an in'elination to disturb tIle harll10nyand tranquillity whic]111~td characterized tIle prooeedings of Masonry since tIle union, aP11eared in the Ilfoceedings of certain lodges ill'the nortll of England.. 'I'he lodge No. 31, llolden at Livel'I)ooI, having violated an essential Tegulatioll of l\fasolll"y,117 and being found conttUUaciOllS by tIle Provincial Grand Master,wasregularly sllspended. r:I'he dispute hadcolumenccdso early as 1818 ; and. in Decell1bt~r of tllat:year, a ·Colllluunicatioll was Jnade to the. Grand Lodge, by the

Provincial Grand Secretary forLane~shire,suggesting that some Iregulatioll was necessary :t:elative to thenumber of Brethrep. requisit.e .toconatitute a. legal Lodge.",. withcolnpetentpowers to perform the rite of initiation, and transact other genel-O,l business.. To this al)~)lication ,the Board for General Purl)oses l"eplied, that "l'ho subject is one which has UIlc1el"gonea great deal of disCllssion andCOltsideration, eSl,ecially OIl tIle late revisioI10f the laws.:8ut it is a Inatterof sonluc}l delicacy and difficulty, tb,atitwas thought advisable not to d,epart 1ronl

111 rrhis rule is us fonows: ." No brother slHtllpresun~e to pl"int or 'p . . ublish, or causo to be printed or publishcc1, the proceedings of any lJO igo, norauypart thcroof,or tho IHlnlCS of the persons present at such Lodge, withol1tthoc1iroction oftht) Grana Ma.st(u", or tho ProvineiDI Grand }\[aster, under paillOf being expelled from tho Order."

(Conet." Of:r.fCInbtlrs," Art- 6.)


OF MASONRY.

th&t silen0e> Qn the subjeot, which had been&bserved in all the Books of Constitution." - In the latter'end of 1819, a memorial W~ addressed to the M. W. Grand Master, from the Provincial Grand Lodge of Lancashire, 011 a subject which, at a subsequ~Jlt meeting of that body, was considered improper,arldthe Grand Master was requested to allow it to be withdrawn. His Royal Highness, therefore, did not deem it necessary to intimate to the Grand Lodge, or to the Board of General Purposes, that such a document had been transmitted to him. Although this withdrawal was perfectly voluntary on the part of the Provincial· Grand Lodge, yet the Brethren of No. 31, having taken an, erroneoUs view of the circumstances, elevated it into an occasion of· dissatisfaction and complaint, and instituted an accusation against the Board of General Purposes, in which they cited this asa "case where the Board had detained a cOIlllnunication frorn the Provincial Grand Lodge for the COUIlty of Lancastcl-, which consists of sixty-two Lodges on record; consequently, if the BO~JJrd for General Purposes acted thus, without the authority of the Grand Lodge"ve ;consider their conduct highly reprehensible; and if, on the other hand, the Grand Lodge gave them power- to act in this manner, then we oonsider it a aangerous innovation upon the landmarks of' our Order," &c., &c.,&c. Thus they argued upon false grounds, for the Board had no knowledge of the document which had been restored to the P. G. Lodge at its own request. ];'1"0111 tbis tinle until tIle beginning of the year 1821, it should a pear tllat the breach was \videned, for in the month of . .'chthe P.G.1tlasterdig~~~hea&,~.r0elto the Board1 o,oDWnia! Ghar,••. pr.~eII1'" ,JI)y.. Brother H.

Lucas again8tBrothers 'l'bomas Page ••d M. A. Gage, of the Lodge. No. 31 ; ,and a. copy of. the order for the suspension of that Lodge. As that. officer llad not investigated tIle cllarges hinlself, the papers '\tvere returned, and the Board deolined interfering with them in their preisent shape. It migllt hie rationally conceived that the members of Lodge No. 31, on receiving theordlGrof .suspension, would haveelldeavoured to reduce the points ill dispute into as narrow aeompass as existingeircumstances would allow, :fur the purpose of eliciting anamieable and satis-


326

ILLUSTRATIONS

factory terminatiou, that tIle science of l\fasonry might be brought into disl"epute by the effects of division and. disunion anlongst its I)rofessors. This they unfortunately failed to do. They omitted to seize the critical moment; and having passed tIle Rubicon, all hope of future arrangenlent was at all end. They did not even appeal to tIle .Grand Lodge against tIle order of suspension, although it was dellOUl1ced as arbitrary' and unjust; but. held their accustol11ed 111eetings, and transacted masonic business as usual: tliey nlaterially aggravated tlleir case by the circulation aillongst the lodges of intemperate manifestos, full of harsh and indecorous language; and, in their zeal for tIle production of authorities ill justification of their own conduct, and the crimination of tIle constituted a'lltllorities, they entirely overlooked that one grand ellal"ge, which, like a (~roV\rll of l)uregold, decorates and adorns tIle glorious sUllerstructure of Freeulasonry, "The rulers and governors, supreme and subordinate, ar(~ . to be obeyed in their路 respective stations, by all the. Brethren, according to the old路charges and regulations, '\vith all h111l1ilit}r, reverence, love, and alacrity." To terrninate these unhappy disputes successfully, the 1'. (}. Master sUInn10ncd the erring 13rethrell before hiln, -"rithout effect; and his precept was 111et by the follow"ing Resolution,which was ugreed to by the 111eIllbers of Lodge No. ;31, on the 9th of July, 1821:"'Resolved unaniznously, that we will not enter. into any negotiation.,. nor appear before any committee or masonic tribunal whatever,路. until theP.G. Master has furnished us "vith a copy of the charge exhibited against our Lodge, and 'Vvith the naU1es of our accusers, nor until lIe has cOlnnla.nded Richard JUlnes Greeshanl to restore the property \vhicll he relDoved from our Lodge, under the pretenoe Of.C0111111ittiIlg it to the care of the P. G. 110t

Master for safety." ... 1'IH~ P. G.. l\Iaster, under a suspicion that SOlne lateIlt prejudice rnight exist in-the llHnds of these BrHthren against hill)self~ deputed his uu.thority to the l\Iaster of another Lodge in, Liverpool (No_ 38), directing hiln to conV'{~ne a lllceting of all thel'tfasters, !)ust l\;lnsters, and Waroens, of every I.Jodge in that place, to in,vt~stigate the conduct of the accused Bretbren; for tIle d,efection


OF MASONRY.

327

had exten,ded to other Lodges, whose members appeared determined to advocate the cause of No. 31. In the 1l1onth of August this conlmittee l,llet, and the charges were regularly brougl1t forward; but after tvvo or tllree days of fi'uitless discussioI1, the 111eeting dissolved without having acco1l1plished any satisfactory result; and the Brethren of No. 31 published a detailed aCCOllllt of these proceedings, under date of September 19, 1821, highly impregnated vvith the angry feelings which then prevailed in their Ininds; and this documellt' was pronounced by the .Grand Lodge, at the succeeding quarterly Communi-, cation, to be "a direct violation of the laws of the Craft, p. 84, Art.. 6, Book of Constitutions,and forming a sufficient ground to COIltillue the suspension of the Lodge No. 31." In Novelnber, 1821, another attempt was made for the adjustn1ellt of this unhap11y dispute. The Deputy P. G. Master "vent over to Liverf)ool, aIld, l1aving foru1ed a n1eeting con11,0sed of the chair1l1an of the late cOlunlittee, and six other brothers, issued an especial SUn11l1011S to the Master of No.3l, to alJl)ear })ersonally before hinl \vith the warrant papers and evideIlce~ of tIle Lodge. . No attentiOll\VaS .l)aid to this sumnlons, except by referring the D. P. G . l\Iaster once nlore to the Resolution of the 9th of ~July; thus violating a fundamental la\v of Masonry;118 and the fornler sus!)ension ,vas again confirnled. The Lodge no\v, ''lith the advice and concurrence of its abettors, published that fatal nlallifesto which was decisive of its fnte)19 118 H The Master and ,,\VardcIls of every Lodge shall attend the Grand Master or his deputy, (Jr tho I}rovincialGrand Maatier or his deputy, or any boardorcoxnmittee authorized by the Grand Lodge; and produce the warrant, minutes,â&#x20AC;˘. and books of tile Lodge, when summoned to do so, under. pain of¡ sus.:1:,ension, and being reporte.d to the next Grand Lodge." (COllst. Art. 11,Of Masters and \Vardens of Lodges.) " l1Y This pa.per attracted the attention of the Granc1 1\f astt:r, ill his private capacity as ~1aster of the IJodge of Antiquity, and he addressed the following letter to the P . G.. Master : -

Freemasons' lIall, London, 15tk Dec. 1821. R.. W. BROTHER, We hn,vo received the Ct)mrnau<1s of the l\f.W. Grand l\Iaster, the Duke of Sussex, to acquaintyou, that his l~oyal Highness has received, &S M~tster of' the Lodge of Antiquity, No.2,. the Copy ofa printed o1.roular, dated u)Iasonio COIUlnittee Room, Castle Inn, North Liver-


328

ILLUSTRATIONS

r.rhe priulitive iutention of th,ese Brethren l11igllt spring

fronl a right principle; for their Illotive, 3sthey thenlselves profess, \vas l.ljea]olls concernjOr the 1na.'intenance oj"the ancient la'ws and lu;al5掳es qf" the Order; hut how proper soever tIlis feeliug rrlight be, they failed altogetller in the details; and their subsequent conduct violated alnlost every law th~Lt \Y<lS applicable to tl1eir case. Their disobedience could not be palliated by the plea of necessity or expediency: and tIle language \;vhich they 111ade use of in their COIll111Unicatiol1s to the Bretllren and the Grand Loc1ga,vvras neither ll1asonic nor l"espectful. Instead of a caln~ and teluperate recapitulation of the points they desired to illusttate, they dealt largel}T in aUlplification; pool,2tH.h Nov0ruber, 1821," and \vhich paper purports to CODle from Brothers rriHHnas Pagp, 'V. 1'1. of No. aI, lVr. A. ({age, P. 1\.1. of saIno, and thirl'y-two other I)rethrpn, OffiC(ll"S or I)ast ()flicers of various Lodgos ill your Provinee; and to givt~ the proceedings or senthn{~nts of tl,"rl1ooting held (JU the said路 20th Novclnher. Al1nex{~cl to tho said letter is tlH;' copy of an .l\ddrHss trallslnittl~!c1 to the l\L W. (Jrnntl Muster by tho l:>rovincinJ (jrlLt:HI I.Aodgo, on 27th Septernber, 1810; aud, nl:-it), eopy ()f :'1, letter sent by the. I.Jodge, N<). aI, tC) the :R. \V. Pro\;innial (J.rand l\rast(~r, und.er dnte ()f aOth .A.ugust last. 'rhe Grand Mn.sttl,l" vio\\"l':-i tho pul.llieation ()f thesornattcrs 8.S H.lllost ofl*ensivo procoedillg, and in direet violutitHl (yf tl)O La.1V;3 of the Craft" lIe, thereflJre, direet:o:; that .you ,vill n,secrhl,ill\vhether tho individuals \vhose n~unes appear tr) that paper did aetun.lly subscribe the ol"igillnl froll1 -which it is eopiec1, and also gave thc\ir sn.netioll tn its publication. Ancl, furth(~r, tlult you \vill suspend frolu their privileges nsl\i!asons, suohBrethrel1 as shun bo proved to have so ucted, lUl<l lna.ke a report to his H,nynJ Ilighness ,\~hat )"()U U1H.y do, that ho ulay t.ako the rnea.... surm~; req nisite in the sH.id afH'Lir. In rnuJdng this comnlwucn.tion,the:.\1.. W . Grand Master cOIlunands us furrhor to r(~nla.rk upon the contents of tho paper, dated 2Gth NovClnlH~r last, that, as to the observations nlacle by the .Provin(~ial Gra.ndLcH]gt~ upon the llunlber of l\felnbers necessary to 1"(iluain togother, to (路nable thorn to continue their I.todge in existene(~, Ull answ'ol" was sent to the I)rovineial (j'ral1c1 Secr(~tn.ry, on 5tl.l Jalluary, 181~), by (n-cler of th(~ 130nrd of ({onero..l I)urpose8, stating, that the subjeet was one of great delicacy; and, therefore, it lw,d l){~(~n felt a.dvi8a.hlt:~, in tht) nt:nv l~\)ok of Constitution, tl) Pl"(~S(>l路VO tho :;tune 8neneE~ in regn.rtl th01"'(lto as had been observ(~cl in all the forrner editiou~; and snell opinion has eV'(~rb(~(~n helt~ by tb(~ G'lttud I.J(,)dge. rrhat tlw A.~ddress of the 27th Septernher, 181B,uxls In; the

lJ!. Hi': (}nznd .-:}fast.r:r s(;~alcd, h(l1~intg; bct.:n tranBlltiUcd fo'"him', and np/. the 130ard; that, ~tr)on pert18l~.l,hi8 Itoyn.1 lIighn088 found It: to . . 'r,.:latl,lw to the (}rdt~r the RO?Jal Areh.. whit~h could nol,luuli~r anl) (~irClUn$tance ..'1, bt: discuS~N:d 'in, '"the Grand lLud ill', ther(~fol"(~, ll('f\,('t" connnullicat~d th(~receipt of it, nor H,Uy of it::; CfHltentg,(~ithor to tho Grand Lodge or to


OF M . t\SONRY.

made use of irritathlg and exaggerated statements of facts; and even bordered upon menaces, with the intenti011 of illtitnidatiIlg the Grand Lodge by the dread of an0tller schisn1. 'rhey labo"nred under the grievolls error of SUl)posing that Boards and snperior oflicers, although lawfully constituted, possessed 110 autll0rity; and that as all 1\fasters, Past l\iasters, and vVardens, are ex-officio Inelll bers of the Grand Lqc1ge, so tIle acts of a COlnpetent nU111ber of suell l11ell1bers, wheresoever assembled, are equally valid and binding; forgetting, that as no private Lodge call be legally held '\vithout its l\tIaster, or Ilis legitilnate substitute, so 110 Grand Lodge can possibly the Board of General Purposes; consequently the Board was wholly ignorant of such address liaying been s~nt; and, as it was s¥bsequently 'withdrawn as i1np1-opc;r, the Grund l\Iaster had hoped t.he matter had been set at rest.. That the Boar'cl (!( 'Gtencral P'ltrposes .l?ossesses no lJo'wers bu.t such as luu~e been delegated to by the Unilt:d Grancl Lodge, and to 'lohich bod'lt an, appeal is all ctuws. 'I hat the "Board is not channel oj'" com:~nu. nicat;on 'with the G'rand Lodge; on the eontrary, nIl petitions, appeals, &c., for that Body, n<1drossed to the Grand Sccretn.ry, ttnd tranSIllitted at least seVe11 days lJrior to any QUllrterly Comm:unication, so that the BRule, n1ay be read at tho Cieneral Connnittec, ,vhieh lllcets on the '\Vedn€sday pre... vious to tho Granel Lodg(?', Illust, as u. Inatt.er of COU17se, go to tIle Grand I;odge, provided the language be proper; ana every member of the G·ran<1 ]~()dg(~ is at liberty to bring any subject under <1isoussion there, provided he Ilotict:~ at the said General Conlmittee of his int(~ntion so to do. If the Inceting of the Provincial G'ranc1 Lodge, held at Preston, in 1820, or any of the procoedings there adopted, w"cre irregular, the Members,\,"ho held such an. opinion Inight hn, Vp preferred their complaint in the J)~oper <lunrter; but \yhieh they have n€~ver dono. His Royal Highness directs, that this letter muy becommunica.ted to th(~ I)rovin{~iaI (j-rand Lodg(\ ou l\1:on<la.y next, {or the information of the 13rethrl~n who may be then assembled, not as an answer to the printed uUudec1' to, because au!. (if such 1,alJer, and t.he on 2C3th N01Jelnber last, are both so illegal, that no anS'lt."er cou.ld giN1n to theln; but because the Grll.nd :l\Iaster is desirous that tho 13rethrell ,vho hnyt1 seen thcpu,per luay,nt least, be in}iYrm"ccl oj the fallacious g1"ounds OIl 'whicb It, is fru.l11cc1, although suehpaper, bohig illegal, c.,{)uld forlu 110 part of the proceedings of l:L Lodge, or be r(~cognized by thenl..

'Va }u}.ve the

hOllOlll' to he, l~i.ght WorshipfulIJrotlH~r,

Your Inost obedient servants uud faithftl1 Brothers, "VILLIAM If. VVIIITE, EDW. lI.All.PER,

23

{G S

5""


330

ILLUSTRATIONS

be constituted, 110\V ntllnerous soever its members may be, except the Grand l\1aster, or a Deputy regularly appointed by hilTISelf, ~rere actually present. They even pursued this, principle so far as to convene a general meeting of ~Iasolls in the county palatine of Lancaster, without the concurrence of the P. G. Master, Of' his Deputy; and, in their eagerness to confirm their own acts by the countenance of such an authol"ity, they totally lost sight of the plairl construction of that siluple law, by virtue of vvhich the decree ofsllspension had been issued and confirnled, that "if any Brother be BUIll· maned toa.ttend the Grand }\!aster or his Deputy, or the P. G. :Th:Iaster or his D~puty, or any board or conl111ittee authorized by the Grand }laster, and do not c0111ply, or give sufficient reason for his Ilon-ttttendance, the SU111nlOnS is to be repeated, Ullcl if he still persists in his COlltuIllacy, he .shall be suspended froul all nUlsollic rigllts, and tIle proceeding 110tified to the G'rund Lodge. l20

The P. '. G. 'lVlaster, £l1ding all attempts to settle the question ineffectual, transrnitted the dOCU111ents to the Board of General I)urposes ;und that body·, llO\V that the subject vvas brought regularly before thern, In"oceeded \vithout delay to the perforrnance of their du ty; and, ill the exarnination of the charges, they al)pear to have been actuated by a desire to discharge that duty fuithfidly and ilnpartial1y. On the 5th of Deceulber, 18~1, they made their Report to tlleG-rand Lodge, which vvas read and approved;.. and it .,vas then ordered, that" the Lodge No.· 31 be furtllerSUspel1ded froin the exercise of its lnasonic privileges until tIle next Quarterly (~on1n1unica­ tion, reserving to the Grand Master the power to l"estorc it previously, if he should see sufficient cause so to do." The Lodge took no notice of this order, but continued occasiOllttlly to 111eet; aIH.1- it V\l'HS therefore resol ved by the Grand Lodge, on the 6th 1Vlarch, 1822, "that. the l\Iaster and Wardens of No. 31 besumrnoned to 8ho'\1 cause, at the llext Quar~,erly ConllllUIlication, vvhy the Lodge should not l)e erased frorn tIle list of Lodges, and its vvarrant be ,vithdra\v"n, fcn" disobedience of the order of the Grand Lodge; and ~hat, in the Il'1Can tirne, it be suspended frolll its fUllctions, allowing the lllenlbcl"s only 1SO

Const. "Of l\Icnlbers, and their Dut.y.." .Art. 14.


OF MASONRY.

331

to assemble in Lodge for the purpose of considering their defence." It was also resolved unanimously, that" the thirty-fol1r Brethren, whose nalnes appeared to a print.ed paper, dated~fasonicCommittee Room, Castle Inn, North Liverpool, Nov. 26, 1821, circulated to luany Lodges, be suspended from their 111aSOllic l)rivileges until the next Quarterly Conlnlunication, reserving to the Grand 1Iaster the IJo\ver previously to reinstate the whole, or such of thenl as he lnaysee cause to restore." Copies of these resolutions were sellt to the.Lodge, and to the tllirtyfour Brethren respectively. ,TIle Lodge N 0.31. DOW transmitted a paper, bearing date the 1st of April, in '\I"\711ich the Inembers denied to the Grand Lodge the right and pov~ter of passing the above resol~tioIlS, and relnonstrated, in very unbeconling and oflensive language, against its l)l"oceedings on tlleir case. 'l'his ",'"as followed UI) by another paI)er of sirl1ilar telldenev in June, \vherein it \vas avowpd "that tl1e Lodge No. aI, not\vithstanding tlle prohibition of the 5th of l)Hc.elnber hLSt, lInd COIltinued to llold its u1asonic Ineetings in the usual . manner; that, inconSC(iuellCe of a resolution pass(~d in the Lodge) it was impossible for the nlen1bers to IHty any attention to tIle cOlllmands of the Gra-ud L()dg(~; and that, under existing circumstances, it was their detel"rninatioIl not to do so/' Such a flagrant instanee of contulnacy, and violation of disciilline, could not be ov(~rlooked; and, therefore, on Inotions duly lnade at tIle Quarterly (Jornnlunication ill June, 1822, it \\"as l"esolved lllHllliulously, "rrhat the Lodge No. 31, at Liverpool, be erased frorn the list of Lodges, and its \l\;iarrant forfeited; that notice of such erasure .be translnitted to everjrLodge upon the registry of.,the . Gz:and . Lodge;and that no 13rother, bein~ at present a. member of the said r;odge No.~31,he receIved, even as a visitor, in aU)T otller I.Jodge; that these resolutions be comolunicated to the Grand L.odges of Sooth:tnd ~llld Ireland, and to aJ I IJoclges h~ COll1U1Union "rith the Grand Lodge of ~~ngland; that the several 13rothers \vho signed thE~ llapers I)ubHsbed ullder the date of the 26th of Nov., 18'21, and the 1st of l\pril, 1822, be 8UJnnlOned to sho\\" cu,use, at the next Quarterly (Jonlrnunieation, \vhy they sh&uld !lot be. expelled the E'raterIlity; and that, ill: the nlean time, they be suspended from tlleir nlasomc privileges; and


ILLUSTRATIONS

that notice of 5l.1.ch suspension, with the names of the individuals so suspended, be transmitted to all the Lodges, in order that those Brethren may not be received, even as visitors, in any Lodge, under the penalty attached to the Lodges admittiug irregula,r l\fasons.121 It' is to be regretted that expelled and suspended Brothers, at this extreme period of the business, should ]lave still indulged in the spirit of ~itterness, Wllich was calculated to exclude the sympathy and cOlnmiseration of Brethl"en uninterested in the dispute. They issued another appeal to the Lqdges, in which they cOlldemn the. Bretllren who had been reinstated on petition, in no measured language; and declare that "they wish it to be perfectly understood that they s]"all not lJetitio'll, to be Teinstated; nor sball they be satisfied with reinstatement, unless a full and impartial inquiry be luade into the abuses and innovations of which·they have cOlnplairlcd." Petitions for readmission continued still to be received and attended to· by the Grand Lodge, for the door of forgiveness was not finally cloaeduntil the Inonth of 1\Iarch, 1823, when, at the QuarterlyC01111UUl1ication, held on the 5tll of that month, the G'ralld Lodge declared "that every possible ·opportllnity bad been . afforded for tIle offending Brethrell to reconsider al1d nlake atonelnent for· their past misconduct; but, instead of lll"ofiting by the indulgence tlluS granted, they this day transmitted a statement. re:plete witll additional insult to th.e Grand Lodge and other Inasonic authorities; whereupon, on a m0ti&1l dulymMeands,econd.d, it was resolved unanimously, that the· said Brethren. •• forever expelled from Masollry ;"andthus twenty-six individuals, \vho remained refractory, were finally and for ever excluded from any participation III the business of the Craft. The agitation· which these 0"V"ents produced did not It'll The expelled and suspended Brethren were sixty-eight in number, and were members of the following Lodges :-Twelve belon~ed to No. 31, three of whom bad been reinstated by petition to the Grand Master; four belonoged to No. 591 who had all been restored by petition; nine to 74; &even to No. 140, two of whom had been restored; one to No. 182; ftveto No,,348~ four of whom ha.d been readxnitted; one to No. 378; one to number 380) and he had been restored; five to No.. 442, four of whom had been reillstated;seven to No" 466, four of whom were restored; twelve to No. 486J three of whom had been

restored ; and four to No. 655, who ha.d all Deen restored.


333

OF lVIASONRY.

easily subside. The leaven continued to w<?rk; and those WllO refused to submit to the .authoritative Inandate of tIle Grand Lodge, or to conciliate by arespeetful submission, resolved' once 1110re to have recourse to the old systenl of nlenace; and, in Septelllber, 1823, tIle Sea Captains' Lodge at Live11)ool, No. 140, having transll1itted to tIle Granel Lodge, at its last ll1eeting, a paper dated 29th l\Iay, 1823, and signed by Jol1n Tholnpson, W. 1\1., Peter Bainbridge, S. W., TI10ll1RS Read, J. '\V., and Tholl1US Berry, Sec., in whicll paper it was deeJared to be the fixed resolutioI1 of the said Lodge to sel)arate itself froll1 .the Gralld Lodge, .unless the warrant of the late Lodge No. 31, at Liverpool, should be. reinstated, alld the privileges of the twenty-six individuals, Wll0 had beell expelled fronl the Craft, were. restored; and it apllearing tIl at three of the individ.uals ,vho had signed the said paper w~re innongst tllOS~. \V110 [lad heen so expelled, and the fourth \vas Ilot regIstered as a Inernber of the IJodge, it had been ordered, that the Lodge, No. 140, should besuIIlulolled to 8110\V cause, at this 111eeting, wh:r its warrant should. no~be declare~ f~rfeitefl,and the Lodge erased, for contll1Ulng 01" ad!nlttlllgas members, individuals \vhollad been expelled froln Masonry, and for translnitting or sanetioning the said paper. And, as no COlIlIl1l1Uieation could be held with the eXI>elled 111crnhers, it ,vas intilnated to the Lodge tllut its only adrnissible representatives \vould be the regular Past Maf~ters and Past 'Vardcns. And it was ordered, that Thornns I~cad, \vho signed the ahove 11aper as Junior "'Varden, \vithout being registered as [L InelIlber of the

Y he Lodge, ShOUld b.e.'. sp,. nll,n.Oll€.~d, .•.,.•. . to.. 81.1.0,.. '.forh,nog ·..~.,•.. . . . .o.a. l..~.I.se . ."".'h.laffixed should not be. expelled ftom Miasonry, his signature to tbep&per i;n· questi"nl." T'.,e llarties thus sunllnonec1 not having"!i&ppeared to answer to the (;Onl.... plaint, it ","as ordered H that tIle ',\\l'arrant of the Sea Cu.ptaills'Lodgeat IJiverpool, No. 140,be, and tlH,~ S:l.nle is) lu~~reby dechtred forfeited, fot violating the Iu\ys of the Craft, and for conturnu,cy, nncI that the Lodge be nccorcl.. ing'iy ~~l"(tse(l frolll the list of I.;odges ~ and that . said '!'!ionu1s I~ead, so signing Jlirnself as ~J. of the I..lodge, No. l~~O, altlkough notregister(~d us a thereof~ be 11cneeforth. disqualified froln acting as a 1fasou, or frolll beiJlgreeognized or received as such in allY Lodge

"r.


334

ILLUSTRATIONS

whatever." This prompt example was completely em... cacious, and from hence we hear no more of opposition or intemperate ,resistance to the decrees of the Grand Lodge.

SECT. XIX.

History oj Freemasonry from 1823 to 1829. IN the year 1823, the installation of his Royal Highness the Duke of York, as J\:faster of the Prince of Wales's Lodge, was performed; and was attended by SOlne路 circumstances which may be interesting to the Craft. The warrant of constitution had been granted to this Lodge in the year 1787, by Ilia ROJ"I'al Iligness the late Duke of Cumberland, at the instance of his present ~Iajesty, then Prince of Wales. In this warrant, Sir Salnuel路llulse,. tIle Honourable Colonel StanhOI)e, and the late Lord Lake, were nOlninated as the Master and 'Vardens; b~tlt in the year 1792, their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of York and Clarence were appointed to the latter ofiices,\vhich they continued to 110ld till his l\Iajesty's accessi9n in 1820. The following lVlemorial was shortly afterwards presented to l1is 1\1aJesty, who ,was graciously l)leased to accede to the. prayer of it, in tern1S as fl~tttering to tIle Lodge as they were characteristic of thatacconlplished urbanity so. peculiarly possessed by the revered sovereign of these路 realms:' your Majesty's most dutiful. and loyal subjects, the Acting "ru,rdells, and Brethren of the Prince of ''''nIes's Lodge. l1umbly entrea.t permission to approach your l\faJesty with the expres~ sicn of our affectionate att3.cluucllt to your Majesty's person.. Un.. willing to brea.k in upon your l\Iajesty's privacyduI"ingthe first period of YOllr happy accession to tho throne of these realnls, we have hitherto refrained from presenting this our hUlnble Petition.. For many years past it has been the highest honour of which our Lodge can boast, and,at the sanlC titllc, its greatest pride, to recognize your Ml\jesty as its patron ~nd protector, ill tl~e character of l\faster of the WE)

~faster)

Lodge~

III m~lking this our earnest solicitation, that the saIne high patron... age may be continued to us, we trust l\tO are not acting inconlpatibly with our respectful duty路 toa beloved Sovereign, or presutning too much upon th:.tt condescending benignity which has hitherto been so graciously manifested towards us. We further humbly 11ctition, that the l.Jodgo may be permitted to


38B

Oli' MASONRY.

II r(HtNJ.:SS, 'Ve, the undersigned, thcltcting IvIastel", ,rvardons, and路 Brethren

~IA Y IT !)I,If.:ASl': YOUR. !{OYAL

of the Prince of "~,ta.les's Lodge, hnving, for many ycars~ been honoured with the n~une of your RoyaJ IIighness as Senior 1Varden, together with that of his Royal lIighncss the I)uke of Clarence, tl.S ~Jl1nior 1Varden of the Lodge, hy 'the especial appointment of his present AlnJ{\sty \vhen Prince of Vvn.les, Inost respectfully heg leave to rCI)l'c" sent, that the I.;odge has, upon a recent I\Ienloria.l presented to the King, received the proud distinction of his ~r~jesty's grnci{)us llel"Inission to act under the royal pn,tronage; it being, bO?tever, incompatible \vith the dignity of the throne, that the Lodge should continue to recognize his Majesty as its Ka.st,er, withgre&tll'omUity weorave perlnission to tender this office to your Roy&! Highness's acceptance.. Should Vi'C be fortuna.te enough to ol>tain your Royal IIighness's assent to this our respectful solicitation, we shall, indeed, feel ourselves most路 highly honoured; and "vo (~a.n only a.dd, that it will be an additional sthnulns to. our exertions, in pronloting thc\v'clfare, rt~spe(:ta'" bility" and prosperity of a Lodge, v,"hich is alrcf\.dy deeply of the h18tr{,~ it has ~lcquircd by having th(,~ir beloy(~d Sov(.~reign its imnlediate !)t\tron.. 'Vith every sentinlent of r拢~8pect and dutiful :.l.tta.chmont, we 'have the honour to subscribe ourselves, l

' . Your l~oyal IIighness's Most devotl~d and obedient humble (Signed, &c.)

Servant~


ILLUSTRATIONS

His Royal Highness, with the greatest kindl)eSS and acceded to the recluest of the Brethren; and, the pTeIinlillary 111ensures being cOlllpleted,. the installation of the l\Iaster Elect took place on Saturday, March 22, 1823, nt the 1"'hatel1ed lfotlse rravern, St. Ja111es's Street. I-lis Royalllighness the D~uke of Sussex perfornled the ceremony, and conducted tile 1(\'1101e l)roceedings Wit}l the greatest InaSOIlic c1ignit~y. "711e11 the new Master 11ad been installed, and had l"€ceived the cllstolnary salutations, he 31J11ointed and invested ·his Deputy l\Iaster, Wardens, and other officers; after '~Thich the warrant, the book of constitutions, the Bible, squal"e, and compasses, the bye-la,\!\rs, and the ,vorking tools, ,vere pl"esented by different Brethren, acco111punied by appropriate addresses.. The forll1cr 'vere presented by Sir Frederick Fowke,P. S. Ci-. 'V. tIle Deputy 1\faster, \vith the following address:~ol1descensiol1,

I have peculiar plensure in presenting to :your Itoyal IIighllcss a docunlent of equal interest to you, Sir, and to ourselves.. It is the Warrant of Oonstitution of the Prince or 'Vales's ~Jodge, Wllich was granted by your ROY~l.l Jlighness's uncle, the late l)uke of Cumberland, as Grand l\Iuster, at the instnnce of hi;;; present l\I~tjesty, then Prince of "Vales. The iustrunlent, Sir, is l1O\:V rendered doubly valuable to us, from tho proud accession '\vc have this day ncquired in the person of Jtour I~oyal Iii~hnessn.s l\:faster of the IJodge, 'w'ho received Jour appointment as Senior VVnrdensooll 11fter the first forlllatioll of the Lodge. May we, Sir, long continue to act under the sanction of this wa.rra.nt, which so closely COllllects the Lodge ,\Tith your Ito)"u1 liighness's family; and which,,"rhile it elicits ouraffectiollatc attachn1ent to its illustrious members, '\\~ill ever be n. gratifying 0').el1l811to ofthat duty and . alle~htnoewb.iah, asm·ellal1d MasoIls, we. . to our Sovereign and immediate pa.tron. I have also. to present your Royal lIighne~s the Book of Constitutions,which conta.ins the general Law's of Masonry, and the Orders an(ll~egulations estu.blished 11y the trnited Grand Lodge of England, for the guidance. and· orderlygovernmellt of the Society. rl'o these Orders and Regulations it is our duty, as good and faithfnll\fasons, to SUbluit, in the perfect c()uftdencc, tlUlt, as they have been friuued with great deliberation and '\~tisdom, so "'0 Inay be ·satisfted that the interests of the· Fraternity '\vill be best c011sulted by astrict and wiUingadherence to the salutary provisions vvhieh they contain.

All the Ilecessary f01"l118 in the Loc1ge being n(Y\~v concluded, the ne\vly instal1ecll\faster, accoll1paniH(lby his Royal Brother, retired into t1 private r001Il, and tllcrest of the Brethren tlcljollrnc<l to the drt'L'vving-rooIn. '''hen dinner was anllounced, they ,vere nlurshalled by the


OF MASONRY..

337

Director of Ceremonies, alld went ill procession to路 the Banqueting-rooln, ","here they took their seats according to a previous arrangenlcnt, that路 they 111igl1t receive their Royal1Iighnesses ill due fOrn1. . rI'he two Princes entered the rOOlnat sevell o'clock, . ::unic1st "the cheers and congratulations of the asselnbly; and the ne,vly installed lVlaster took the chair, stlIlported on the right by the Duke of Sussex al).d Sir JOhll Doyle, and on the left by Lord Dundas and Sir 1芦'. Fo\vlte, Bart. About ninety distinguished Brethren, iu'Cluding up\vards of forty Gl-and Officers, sat down .to tbis anilnating hanquet,exhibiting a ITlagl1ificent displc:ty of masonic talent, character, 'and respectability" Several addresses vvere delivered after dilll1erby his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex, Sir John Doyle, and other individuals; and nothing could exceed the perfect "satisfhction alld .pleasure \vhich \vere visible on every eountt~nallce; heightened by l)eholding the Jloynl lJrothers ,.. in the badge of inuocen.ee, and benld of friendshil>'" by eaellother'sside, and Jar to 80cinlitv of t:tllaronnd rl'hey Boon . eleven o'clock, \vhich WEts signal for to break up, as the Brethren 'Vvere lln\villing, frolna respectful feeling to~vards the Illustrious 13rothers, to I)rotract their eonviviality beyolHl the hour at wIdell tIle Royal Chairluan had quitted his author of the p an11)111et 122 above partioulnrs lutve been. "... :".,.I~."v.'J account of this festival \vitll the -" jgnor~tnt of objects uceustolned to 1 of like :"":vj, ....

"In

opinion an institution or lualevolence with its

l~.l"l:::a'l..\'t路'(~ct:\nt:

und

1~;'Z

Printed and published by 13rother Thiselton, Goodgc-street.


338

ILLUS TRATIONS

The enterprising traveller, Belzo11i, to vvllose researclles .. science is so lIluell indebted, prosecuted his antiquarian inquiries \vith suell independent perseverallce, that, neglecting his ovvn elTIoluUlent, h.e consigned the results of his labours and discoveries to the sole benefIt of this country.12.1

In stature he was gigantic ; and to this

accidental perfectio'n he himself modestly' attributes SOUle llortion of his . sucCess anlongst a people little better than savages. It 'is well kllown that he lost his life in lIe gives the following sumlnary of his labours in the year 1820: My nn.tive pla.ce is the city or路Padua; I am of a ROlnan fanli1y, which had resided there for many years. ~rhe state and troubles of Italy in 1800, ,\~hich are too well kno\vn to require uny conlment from me, con1pelled n1e to leave it, and since thut tHne I have visited different parts of Europe, and suffered lXw.ny vicissitudes. ':fhe greater part of nlY younger days I pussed in ROlne, the former abode of Iny ancestors, \vhere I \vas preparing myself to beeolne a 1110nk; but the sudden entry of the French arrny into that city altered tIle course of rny edllc~ttion, n.nd, being destined to tr~l.vcl, I havo been a \",nnderer ever since. IVly family occasionally supplied me \l\'ith rerhittnnces; hut; as they \vere not rich, I did not choose to be aburthen路 to theIll, and contrived to liv(~ 011 nlY 'Q\\"n industry, and the little kno\vledge I had acquir'cd in va.dous l>r:.tnehes. I turned Illy ehiet' attention to hydraulics, a science that I hnd lctLrned ut Ilo1ne, 'which I found rnuch to 111y advantage~ and which ,\\":18 ultirnntely th("~ very cause of Iny going to Egypt. 1.'01' I had good infol'rnation that an hydraulic Inachine would be or' great service in that couutry, to irrigate the fields, 'which 1vant ,vnter only to ulake therri produce at any t.hne of the year. But I anl ~ll1ticipating. In 1808 I arivecl in England; soon fl.rter \vhich I married; and after residing in it nine J:cars, I forlncd a r~solution of going to the south of Europe.. Takingl\frs. Belzoni ,\yith me, I visited Portugal, Spain, al1dMalta~ frot'll 'which latter place ""0 olnhark.ed for Egypt~where we remained frorn 1815 to 1819. .Here I had tlle good fortune to be the disooverer of many remains of antiquity of thu,t primiti-vc nati,on. I succeeded in opening one of the t\VO :UU110US pyramids of Ghizeh, ~tS 'well as sevcl"ul. of the tOlnbs of the kings of '!'hebes. Atnong the la/t.ter, t.hat \\'hieh has. been pronounced b..v one of. the Inost distinguished schohtrs of the nge to be the tOluh (,I' Psarnmnthis, is nt this 1l10lnent the principal, the 路lnost perfect n.nd splendid I110nUnlcnt in tl111tcountry. ~rhe celebrated bust of' young Me-muon, \tvhich. I brought from Thebes, is now in .the 13ritish Museum; and the altl.baster sarcophagns, found ill路 the tOlub of the kings, is on its ,vay to Engl:111d. '~Ne~n' the second catnract of the Nile, I opened tIle ternplc of Ybsanlbul; then made a journey tC) tIle coast of the Red Se~t1 to the city of Beeenice, and a,fterwards an excursion in the w-restern l~~ll()ah~ or Oasis. I 110W' etnbarket( for ]~urope; and, after fin .absenea of' " twenty years~ returned to rnynativc country, and to the bosom of my fatuiIy, frOIn ""hence I proceeded to EnglaIld."-DiscO'Veries in 123

_(I;

Egypt.

J>liface.


339

01:" lVLA.SONRY.

Africa, in the year 1826, in 'W""hich quarter of the glol)e lIe was initiated into 11asonry,124 and which was the scene of all his active achieven1ents: and so little ,vas 11e blessed vvitl1 the benefits of fortune, that, on receiving the unlUllpp)r tidings of his loss, his \vic1oVl found ,herself \vholly destitute of slll)port. She had heard of Masonic benevolenee, and Inade her appeal to the Grand Lod!?:e, '\vhere the. sin1})le tale of real distress is never l)ref(jr~ed in vain. 'rIle 1\:1. VV. Gt-and lVlaster brought to the notice of tlHlt august body the distresses of t'he vvido'v.. lIe stated that Brother I3elzoni, vvho had receIltly lost his life during his travels in Africa, \-vas initiated at.C:airo, in the Lodge of the Pyrarnids, and during his residence at CtU11bridge had becolne a nleu1ber of the Lodge of the School of l>}ato, No.. 549, in that place; and, us I10tiee had been given in the General COU1Illitteeof un intention. to subrrl1t- the nJatter to the G'rand IJodg-e, Ids Itoval IIi~hness llioved, nnd it \vas resolved {..t:HU1,lrinlolls}y, "~tfhat the lJnited ClrarHl I,./odge of l~'reenHlsons of l~:Il­ glurl{I" deor)}y syrnpnthizing v,~ith 1\1r8.. 13elzoni, on tLe irrepnrable loss \vhiehshE;" !IS "Tell ns tIle lovers scienceaud literature, hus . by theprematultC deatll of tIle late Brother 13elzoni, do contributt~ the SUlll of 50l. out of the ~'nnd of l:3enevolence, in aid of tJle l)ublie snbscrilltion in her behalf:" , HH rrhe 11o\,reVer, is aci tizen (If the w'orld ; ~lnd, inV\·hatc,·er clilne nlisf<l,rtune Inay oV(H'takc hhn, should he 111cet· '\vith his relier is certain.. In this pnrti('111ar l\Insonry is respected e \'('11 pirates, \\"ho nre :l. terror' to every ot1H:~r order of Incn; nnd I tha.t it is in Hl.'y power to record a trhnnphant. al~d ,\yell... nutht\llnCaHCl illustration of the fnet. At a Ineetin!! ()t' the Leith and Lodgeon'fhursda.y (~vening, 5th, 1820, Q, 'WIS cnpt~lin of a ship 8 that., sailing im sens he ,,"as hoa;Jc..'. nUIrtb,ers ,,"ere so overpo\r(~rinr'1" as render all . unayailing. 'The captain and sc,~ernI of 0 ere\1/{ wer(~ tr(:at(~d ""'ith rudcin(~S8, and 'were about to be plac(ld ~n irons. vd:l.ile the plund(~r of the ship 'Nent 011. In this sit.untion.\\'l;(!l sllpphctltion and (~ntreat..Y were disregarded, the cllpt~lin~ ns n resort, tnn,de the 111)·stic sign, '~'which none l)ut CraftsnH'll c\'('r l'llt-W." l'he cornnUllHleI" of the l)iraticnl (~re\'ll inl1nedintely retUl'll(',,(! the and J:!ave' orders to stop ru·oce(~ding8. lIe grasped his lH'i'.\·l'V· ... dla(~(:f'V('ll'(.'(f llrother by the hnnd ,,,ith nll the fiunili:u'i ty ()f an old aequaillt~lHn.'), and sw'ore he should sustain no injury. !\hannl nets of kindrws8 t ht:'l pnssefl betw'e(~n thetn; every nrticlt~ that hnd IH,\en seized 'was I't st()1'{ld to it5 pl:H~e, and the t\,·o shillS IHlrtcd cornpany with three he~nty

t;)

l

chcers.-Slirling Journal.


340

1

ILLUSTRATIONS

The flourishing state of Masonry, in a provincial town, is a subject not unwortlly of notice in a general l1isto:ry of the Craft. In the :year 1827, the 111elnbers of the H"umber Lodge, No. 73, ill Kingston-upon-Hull, finding tllat the room occupied by thenl, at the Turk's Head, was Inuch too small and incommodious to accolnUlodate their increasing numbers, entered into a subscription for the purpose of erecting a masonic Hall, in addition to the two already existing in that opulent sea-port. The requisite sum being speedily raised, a deputation of the officers and brethren waited on R. Mackenzie Beverley, .Esq., G. S. ,and D. P. G. 1\1. for the North and East Ridings of the county of York, to request his assistance in laying the foundation-stone of the intended building; to which he imlnediately assented, anc1l1alned the 7th of May for the performance of that SOlenll1ity. .On the day proposed, a large body of the menlbers of the HUlnber Lodge, atteIlded by a llUlnerous company of visitors froln other LO,d"ge.s in the town and n, ei,g.h"bourhood, asse~llbled at the appoInted hour. The Lodge'vvas opened In ,due form at the Neptune Iun, by the D.P.G.~f., aIld tIle 1J1"eparatory cerenl0nies ,vere !)erfOrnled.l25 'I'he D.I>.GJ.\I. inquired of the building lVlaster, if his Lodge "vas la\vful, and being ,answered in tile affirnlative, lle proceeded to a lllore accurate investigation. D.P.G.l\I. "I hereby, in the presence of all these worshipful Masters, Wardens, and Deacons, and in the presence of all these Master Masons, worthy and diligellt workmen o~ ou:! secret Craft, do ask of you and ',of j-rour comp;any,if YQU kU!QW yOQrself,at.'this" time, to have done any thing'contrary to" the laws ,of l\fasonry, \'lhich has not been told to the Provincial Authorities, and \vhereby you should be suspended from your work ?" vV.1VI. "Weare good 1Iasons at this very time." D.P.G.M. "IIave you, amongst yourconl1lany, any brother guilty of brawlings, strife, and disobedience ill open lodge?" vV.lVI. "We have none, Right Worshipful Master." D.P.G.l\f. "H~veyou any brother who, in open lodge, .

1~ Having had the honour to nssist at this imposlng oeremony, I am able to describe it 11lillutely.-EDrroI{..


OF MASONRY.

341

is guilty of drunkenness, common swearing, or profane words?" W.~f. "We have none, Right Worshipful Master." D.P.G.M. "Have yOl1 authority to do this day's work ?" W.lYI. "'Ve hav"e, Rig:ttt "\Vorsllipful, alld, \~'!'itl1 your pe11nission, will here read it." The authority was then read, after which tlle D.p.G.~r. resUlned, "l\Iasters, Wardens, Deadons, and all\yorking l\Ia.sons, all is rigllt and as it s}lould be; and I.give :rou all joy of this day's work. It has begun in· zeal-let it end in charity; and let lIS giYe due praise to the J\Iaster and Brothers of the Humber Lodge, for wishing' to raise a telnl)le to :i\tlasonry. May tlleblessing of lleaven be "vitIl us all; aIld may the new Lodge increase in virtue, harbour th~ !)oor Brethren, and console the rich! Arnen andAll1en.. " TIle .l\.rk of the covenant ,vas llO\V introduced ana furnished, atld tIle veil \VftS consecr~lted \:(lith the usut~l cerelnollias; after wlliahthe procession ,was formedt() tIle site' of the intended building" ifl Osborne.-street, in the following order : * Two Tylers witll drawn Swords. I~ana of l\Iusic. 1vIn'S3ons llot beillgxnembers of allY. I..louge, t\voand t:wo" Visiting n161nbers of neighbouring Lodgms, t,vo arid two.. '1'he Foundn.tioll-stone, carried by four l\Insons. Deacons 5 l~a.nner of the II ufnber I~odge. ~ l)cnCOllS with Staves. ! :a\Ielnbnrs of tho lIt~lnber I..Iodgo. 5 with Stu.ves. rr'VQ Stewards 'wIth ,\:V"r~.lnt18.

A

RoyalArohKUo,~,m

'l'heCom, Wme,OU1

",,,-_.' '""",,,,",".-

ChaplaJ.n of

Pu.st

J,;'U.i.l.ii:)l.it:iJi.llI..

The Bible, Square, una Compasses, on a crhu80n velvet (nl~hi()tl, borne by a Master Masoll. TIle Ark, with its c.overing, borne by four Ma&tor l\;f'n,s()llS. S(~cretaryana rl'reasltr~~r with tll(~ir ~J(nvf~ls . Sonior and J u~li()r \Vu.rdens 'with their IJillnrs• •StEnvar, .. d ... S Master oftha ¥umber Lodgc._ .~. . ..S.teward wIth l1 wand.. l Marshttl w.lth a 13aton. 5 WIth a \V£l.lld. r1'ho G1obes, borne by two ~ltt8tor Ma.sona. Banner of tbe D.P.G.l\;{.. .Aoting Provillcittl Gran<1 SW'ord Bearer, 1>rovinoittl Grand Sec1'e.ta.ry.. Provmciul Grand Arohitect, ·w'itha. plan of the building.


342

ILLUSTRATIONS

T,vo l\farshals "rith Batons. T\vo ~ Brother l~. lVL BEYI~RLEY, ,Esq., D.P.G.~'I., ~ Two in his robes, t~l1c1er a canopy of silk, borne ., Sword Sword Bearors. by SiX l\fnster lVlusons. . . 13earers. Brother REV. G. OLIVER, p·.G.C. f()r Lincolnshire, in his robes, attended by four ~rnster l\lasons with 'wands. Banner of the Apollo Lodge, Grin:sby. Two TrIers "with Swords.

On arriving at tIle ground, the Bretllren fornlec1 themselves into a square abOtlt the foundation, although they "Virere S0111fnvhat inconl111oded by the inl111enSe concourse of people \yho ba.d asseulbled to \vitness the ceren10ny. 'l'he ca.nopy of the D.P.. G.l\f.. "vas I)luced to tIle east of the foundation-stone, and before the cerenlo11ies conlnlenced, he addressed the spectators as fo110\v8 : "l\IOIl, wornen, and childrt~n, here t:tSSBlnbled to.. day, to behold tl1is cereIllony, kno'w all of you that 'vo are ltnvful l\Iasons, true to the ItUV8 of our count.ry~ and professing to fear God, '\vho is the G'reat Architect of" aU things, to confer hen(!ifits on our . I~rethrell) and to pra.ctise univf~rsnl benevolell(~e to all Dutnkinu. "Vn IHtv(:~ tll110ngst us, concealed frorn the oyes of all mell, secrets \\rllieh nHt.~y Bot be revealed, and which no rnan has discovered. J3ut these secrets are la'v'vfullllld hOllournlJle, and are placed in the cnst()c1y of ~Iusolls, 1,,110 a101H' hu.v() tho keeping of theln to the end of tirne.. UHh~ss our Craft 'were good aud our c,alling honourahle, ,yo should not havo existed for so llHll:iy e;entnries; l1oi· should \\"'C hayo had so 11lfU1Y illustrious Brothers in our Order, e'V'cr really to sanction our proee6dings, and contribute to our prosperity. 'ro-clay'we are asselnblf~d in the faeoof you all to huild a house f()r 1\lo.8Q111"Y, '\vhich ' ' ,1'e prtlY God lna)r prosper,. if it scenl goo<1 unto I1:im; that it lnayb(:corllt, a house for great and worthy nl(~ll topract.isehenencelltaetions, and to prOulote liarmony and brotherly love till the world itElelf shall elld."

The plan \vas tllen l1roduced by the architect, \)r}licl1 'l\1as harlded round to the Brethren, after IJeing insI>ectec1

hy the D.P.. G·.l\I., 'vvho anointed th,e tools of l\lnsonry '\vith oil, and delivered then1 to the ~Iaster of' the huild-

ilOlg J..Jodge,' \v~ho transferred thenl to the architeet. \~Vhen thefounda.tion-stone ,vas lo\verec1 into its bed, the I).~P. G·.~I. struck it three tillles vvitll the gavel, and tIle fol1o\ving I)rayer of Benedictioll ,vas . recited by tIle I)rovincial (irand ChaplaiIl fOl".the county of I . incoln:-

"~Iay the .A.hnighty Archite(~t of the Ullivors(~, ,vho Ilns disposed all thiugs in order according to the exc(~llency of his "Till, ""ho lllUc10 tho hea,vells ftn'" his Illajesty, tho sun. and stars for his gl(n·y and OUt cOlnfort, and the earth as It placo for the exercise of our ohec1i(~nce to his laws, look do\v'n upon, us l\tInstor l\Insons, llowcnden.vouring to


343

OF MASONRY.

build a h~use according to the rules of charity, in the bond of love. this house, of "which ,YO ha\7"e placed the first stone in the earth, be a habitation for vvorthy men to meet together to do good; may thei.r socret t1sscrnblies he .convened in la,,,,, proceed in honour, and enc1 in charity; 111ay all l\Iasolls that enter under the shadow of its roof, rerneulber that the sec?-et r1" the Lord is with theJ!L that fear Jzi,n. :rrrIay the 'York d01;lc here prosper: Inay the ,,,"orknlcn be ccnnforted; ~nay no strife,.. brawling, or unseemly 'yords 1)0 heard ,vithin its ,valls; lUa.r the lllaster love the Brethren, ana ~he Brethren honour una obey the Inaster; Ina)" our going out an<1 our cOIning in be blessed f01' OYOrn101'O; luay our baskets .be filled "\vitl~ plenteousness, and the voice of joy anc1 thanksgiving abound; may there be no nlourning :"101' sorro\v of heart, and luay the ,Ya)"i'aring l\Iasoll find comfort in his journey- to his henne when he passe-th by the gates ~f this house. o Lord, prosper thou our ,vork, yea, prosper thou our hundy work, ~nd teaeh us at 0.11 times, and in all places, to build up in the beauty ()f holiness that tCll1ple of" our souls 'which thou hast giYon us to adorn ,vith all good 'works, till \va arrive at that glorious 111ansiol1 in the skies, 'where all things are perfect, and there is no rnore la.bour, but peace and happiness for ever and (:~ver. .iirnen." ~Iay

The D.P.Cr.l\I. then anointed tIle foundation-stone \vith oil, and stre\ved U1)011 it SOlne grains of '\vheat and salt, and drops of \vine, rel)eatiIlg the one hundred and thirliYthird 路Psah.n; after whicll the !)focession returned in the Sall1B order to the Neptune Inn, "rhere about one llundrec1 I~rethreIl sat dovvnto an excellent dinner, and tlle evening \vas sI)ent \7V'ith the greatest IHLrnl011)r and brotherly lov'c. rrlte building 'vas C01I1l)leted in the ensuing Sel)terllber, \vhen Br6ther ll. l\lackenzie Beverley路, the Grand Superintendent of" the l>l"oyjnce, issued his .8l1Inl110nSeS f()l" t1 Cirand Provineirtl i\reh-Chapter, to be held at the l1e\v Innsonie IIall , at \Vl1iell tirrle the Lodge \vasdedi.. . cated vvith the usual ccreulollies. i\.fter the cleat}l of fl . It.. II.. the Duke of York, the Prinee of \Va.les's Lodge continued to receive a lnorc than ordinary Bleed of h0110ur and distinetion.. l~ . II. tlleI)uk路e of SUSS(~X, G.l\I., cOllvened an I..,lo(l!re ol1,}j'rida,v, the 2Qd of ]'ebruarv, ft.)!" the puri)~)se of seeuring to that I;odgea eoiltilluuncc of tIle royal patronage, \vhiell it had Ititherto e10oyed.. tI'hc (}rand l .. oclge, 11urnerously attel1c1ed, oJ)cned. in a111plc fornl at the 'l'hatehed 1101180 rI'averu. The f()llovving distinguished lJl"ctllrCll ,vere I)resent : CH::t'I"\,Cl,t'.,n

11. It. II.. J)rinco .A.ugl1stn.s :F'rederick, I)uke of Sussex, ~1 .

路'V..

(}rnlHl

l\Inster, on

tl:H~

r.rhrone.


344

ILLUSTRATIONS

His Grace the Duke of 'Leillster, G·ranc11YIaster of Ireland. T1H3 I{ight IIonourable Lord Dundas, D.G.J\;I. Gen. Sir John 1)oylo, 13art., G.C.B.,D.P.. G.l\I. Richard })erc,iyul, Esq., S.. G.vy. vVillhull \V.. Prescott, Esq.,I>.S.G.vV. as J . G.""V. The l~ight lIon.. Lord Yarborough,P.G.~I.. Isle of'Vight. Charles rl'enuysoll, Esq.. , )Jl.P.. , P.G.l\.f. Lincohlshire. C. I{. }{. rryllte, Esq., ~[.P., 1~.G.1\1. SOlllorsetshire. Rev. S. S. Colrna.u, l:>astP.G.1\L Norfolk, and G.O. Sir vVilliall1 I{,awiins, P .S.. G.vV.

Sir E'rec1eriek l?owke, Bart."I).S.G.vV. I~ev.

Barnard Hanbury, G. Chtlplain. Rev.. Lucius Coghlan, D.D.. , !)ast G. Chaplain. "\Villitull 1\Ieyrick, Esq., Ct.. Itegistrar.. 'VYiUialn Fl. ''''''hite, ( . i S Eclwarc1s IIarper,S G.. · '\Vith the l'est of the Grund Offieers, the Grana Stc·war<.1s for the year, and the l\Iasters, I)ast l\Iasters, anclvVn.rdens of the Grand Ste'\vards' and luallY otlu)r Lodges..

The Grand l\Iaster ol)served, tlutt feeling it to he of the first irnportance . to obtain the sanction and protention of the menlbers of the Royal :B~[tnlily to the I>roceedings of the Craft, and being anxiolls that the l)rince of "Tales's Lodge, No. '1:$);3, \vhieh l1ad f()r so rnany years I)(lst beell honoured hy the presidency of the rtoyur Ifarnily-first, ill the person of his present l\:I(~esty \vhen Princ(~ of Wales, and ufter\vards by his late I{oy~tl lIighness the Duke of York-sl1ould still eontinlle to havt~ ~1 royal l)ersonage at its head,-for this I)u1"l)ose, he bad solicIted his illustriolls l"elative, the Duke of Clarence, the l.tor(l fligh Admiral,. a. Past· De}lU ty G'rand Ma,ster of th:e ··Crnft, to tak~ ,tbeecnnmand of that Lodge, . he. had I10\V tIle satisfaction to announce to ·the Grand Lodge that his solicitati?Il lULd ll1et the desired result, his I~oy'al l:Iighness havIng been graciously pleased to accede to the request. . lfeeling tllut tllis irnportant oecurrence anc1 ll1anHestation of regard to\vards the fraternity by II. It.II. the. Dl1ke of Clarence should be Hlet by the Uraft \,ritll every c1elIlonstratioIl of respect, gratitude, and duty; and considering· also, that the l\Iuster's Jewel of the l)rince of W ttles's I.-.odge hacl,under very IH~culia.r circulllst,t\l1ces, been reeeived l:>y hinl, the l\I. ·\V. ()raud lV[aster, in(~ral1(1 Lodge, his I~oyal IIighness deelned it e:&pedient th.at he should . deliver it to the care of his royal brother ill the luost effective and urnl)le fbrUl possible; he had, there-


OF MASONRY.

346

fore, C0l1Vel1ed tllis nleeting, that the ceremony of investiture might be perfofzned in .aGrand Lodge. IIis Royal I-lighness the Duke of Clarence having arrived, \vas conducted into the Lodge, and according to ancient custorn, VVtlS installed by the 1\f. \iV. Grand Master as l\Inster of tIle l):rince of "\'\Tales's Lodge, and was proclainled and saluted \vitl1 the usualllonours. In conducting tlle affairs of suell an uIl\vielc1y' l)ody. as Masonry has no\v beeoll1e, it is evident tllut considerable expenses lllust be Ileriodically incurred, besides the vast sums anl1llully voted fronl the Ij'und' of Benevolence for the relief of distressed Brethren, or their widows and orphan children; and these expenses can be provided for by no otller nlcans so equitably as the periodical contrihutions of th.e nlen1bers. It 11:18 accordingly beell agreed, \vitIl the general consent of the Craft, that tIle fee for "registering a l\:1ason \vithin the L0l1dol1 district, be one guinea; fbr a 1\Iason . lIHtde in. a eOlllltr:y', foreign, or I11ilital"y lodge, ten shi llings and sixIH.\IlCe; for [t l~rotller joining n, Lodge in the I . . ondon district, he lutving been initiated in ~tnother Lodge, five shillings ;~tlld for a Brother so joining acountl"y, foreign, or Dlilitary Lodge, two shillings und sixpence.. Every rneIllber of eucl110dge ill the 1..1011<1011 clistrict, to l)ay to\vards the fllnd for nlasOllie benevolence, one sllilling l)cr qUH.l'ter, or four s11illings I)er annUlll; and every lllCUlber of eacll country, foreign, or military Lodge, sixpence llel" <!uarter, or two sllillingsper a1111urn." 12G These l)aynlents, so trifling to eacll individual Lodge, are expected to .be punetually und regularly discharged, and a nOn-COIJ1I>liunce \vitll the ordinance subjects;路 the OfftHldingLodge, very justly, to cellsare~ aDd~ ill extreme cases, to (~raSllre. The Grand Lodge, however, is geIlerally indulgent in this I)articular; hut i~ after repeated adlnonitiollS, its ClelnCl1c:y be abused, it ,:vil1not filiI to I)ut its powers into execution, al1d rigorously enforce tIle !)enalty. r.I:'hese obst}rvntions have been elicited by a very extensive example, which was made at a QuarterlY' ComrflUllication of the 5th ~farcl1, 1828; byr V.rl1icll fifty-nine Lodges, having :nE~glected, for~.1 considerable sI)ace of til11e, to make any retlll"nS or COlllulunieatiollS to the 1:2'6.

24

Const. "Of Contributions."


346

ILL USTRATIONS

Gra,nd Lodge, ~Lltl1ough rel)eatedly called 011 for that purpose, ,vere erased frOlll the books, and their vvarrants declared forfeited. . IItlving tlHlS brougl1t dovvn the IIistory of J\Iasonry to the ye~n路 1828, tlle Editor talies leave of his Bretllren by reC0111111enc1illg to tllenl, as the most efficient llleans of ensuring thepernlanency and extending the influence of the Craft, tIle cultivation of tha,t beautiful code of nlorals Wllich runs like a rich veill througl1 the entire systelTI of Free'lnaSOl1l"Y; ~1ssurecl that nothing cantenc1 so effectually to crovvn tIle sciel1ce "vitI1 tl.le verdunt '~~Teath of public approbation, as the virtllolls life and. guileless denleanour of its assiduo'us })rofessors.


OF MASONRY.

347

MASONIC POETRY: A COLLECTION OF

ODES, A.NTHEMS, AND SONGS .

"---_....... ----

.

..........

,,

ODE 1. BY J\{R.. CUNNINCUIAh{..

IIAIIJ to tlH~ Craft! at ,,'h08(~ seronecomnul.nd 'rho gentlo . .iTts in gl:ul obedience stand:

lIaB, Raer(ld~!a8011l:'V!of source divin(~, tJn~rring sov'relgn (;f" tIl' ullerriIlg liIH): \Vl}()se l>]Ulllh of" truth, ,Yith nt:.ver-f'llilillg s路w'n)"'.. 1\Inkes the j()in'd parts of synunetry ohey: \\Those IIHlt.,de str(}ke bids fen C(tnfllsioll ccnSCl, Al1d to th(;fini~h'd ()rt]prs g-iV(lS a : Who eHlh~ vast f~l"()U)' tho ,vonll> of eartb, A,ud gives imperial '1.'0' works of Art Sho rogulatos the Inol"~tls, squares the Correets vdth (~nre tho sullies of tho soul, , _~nd points tho title ()f pttssions\'\'hero to 1'011: (In virtue':;:; tnblflt Inarks hPf rnornl l'ulo, And f()r1HS IHlr an universnl seho()l; 'Vh(lre.Natul路o'~ hnvs unf()ltled ~tnna, .i\nd S()])se and join'd, go hand hlhnI1<l. () InaV' h(!r 1'n108 instruetiv(~ 8pr(~tl,d, 'rill rrrtith nr(let htlr long"lH~gl(~et(~dl 'rill throngll (l(wflittul night sho rtty, A1Hl lwa.ni" full glt)rious in tho blaze ! I'rilllflPU l)y virtuous uluxirns loam to In()Ve~ 'I:HI all tho po()plet1 'world l.lor laws npprove, And Adcun's ruce are bound iIlllrotll(~rs' 10Yo.


3~8

ILLUS,TRATIONS

ODE II. Written by a Membe'r of the Alfred Lodge at Oxford, set to J.vEusic by Dr. FISHER, and perfor'lned at the dedication of Freemasons' Hall.

STROPlfE. AIR.

solemn sounds on holy Sinai rung, When heavenly lyres, by angel :fingers strung, Accorded to th' immortal lay That hymn'd creation's natal day!

WHAT

RECITATIVE, acco1npani,ed. 'Twas then the' shouting sons of morn

Bless'd the great Omnific word;

.Abash'd, hoarse jarring atoms heard, Forgot their pealing strife,

Ana softly cro'wded into life,' When order, law, and harulollY were born. CHORUS.

The mighty lVlaster's pencil warm. Trac'(lout the shado,vy form, And bade each fair proportion grace Smiling N ature'smodest' face. AIR..

Heaven's rarest gifts were seen to join To deck a finish'd forln divine,

A.na fill the Sovereign Artist's plan; Th' .Almighty's image stampt the glowing frame, And seal'a. him with the noblest rtame, Archetype of beauty, J\Ian. ANTISTI~OPHE.

SEMI-CHO:RUS AND CHORUS"

~:~~f~1j~~r:~:~~e:~: Again with quicK instinctive. fire

Each harmonious lip inspire: Again bid every vocal, throat Dissolv'e in tender votive strain. AIR ..

Now, while yonder white-rob'd train]2'1 Before the mystic shrine lowly adoril.tion join,

.' In

Now sweep the living lyre, alldswell

~he

melting note..

RECIT.ATIVE.

Yet, ere the holy rites hegiu The conscious shrine withil1., Bid your magio song impart. 1ST

The Brethren in their white aprons.


OF MASONRY• .AIR..

How, within the wasted hearl, Shook by passion's ruthless power, Virtue trhnm'd her faded flower To op'ning bu<1s of fairest fruit: How froln lllajestic NtLture's glowing face She caught each lluirnating grace, And plalltccl there th' lll1Itlo1:tal root.

EPODE. RECITArrryE, accompanied. Daughter of gods, fair 'VIrtue, if to thee,. . And thy l>right sister, Universal Love, Soul of all good,e'or flowed the· soothing harmony Of pious gratulation ~-fronl above, To us, thy· duteous Yota:ries, inlpart l>resence diviue.AII~.

-'-The S(U1S ()f antiqno art, III high, 111ysterhJus Jubi1e~~, With !lm'an loud, and .solonIn rite, Thy holy . htvi'be, And court thy listt~Ilingear, To drink tho cadenoe clear rfhat swells tho cllornl sylnpbolly. <:UOI?us.

To thee, by foot profane tll1t1"ocl, 'l'heir votive hallcls llave rear'd the 11igh abode.

AIR. And lips of truth shan sweetly tell What heavenly de(:ds hefit 'l'h(~ soul by wisdoln's 10880n slnit, What praIse hl? <~laims ~vh() nohly spurns Gay vn.nitieH of lifo, allatins(~l joys, ~'or whieh unpul"ged fllUCy burns. CHOIUJS ..

What pn.in he 81nl118, ,\~ho <.lares be wise, What glory wins, "rho dares excel.


360

ILLUSTRATIONS

ODE III. Pe1formecl at every lVleet'ing of the Grand Chapter of lL\.RODIl\r. TVritten by B1"other N OORTHOUCK" lSet to JJtIusic by Ocnnpanion Wl~BBE. Sung by Companions

'"VEI~BE, GOR~,

ancZ

PAGE.

OPENING.

is路 Heaven's first la'w;" through boundless space Unnurnber'dorbs roll round their destin'd race; On earth, as strict arrangp.ments still appear, Suiting the various seasons of the year, Beneficence divine presents to ,1:C\V . Its plenteous gifts to man, in order true; But chief a mind, these blessing~ to hnprove, By arts, by 8cience, by fraternal love. "ORDER

DIVISION.

When Ulcn exalt their vio,vs to I:Ieaven's high w'iil, vVith st(~ady ailrl their <1uty to fulfil. rrhe 111ind (~xpands, its strength appoars, Growing 'with their gr(Hving yettrs, Mounting tho apex of ltfasonlc skill, Be this the earn(~st purpos'o of our livr-s ; Success nrust ero,,'n the rnan 'who nobly strives! CON'CLUSION.

I..4oud let us ra.ise our sW'elling strains, And lIarodirn proelnhn, Of E1XCP lIenee tho ntlll1C\ ; Good-'w'ill to all, love toench other, rrhe due of every skilful I~rother Who ,vorthily our ancient .10ro nlaintuin~ .. Indulgence in pleasure By prudf'nce 'VA measure;

And cheerfully. parting.. eXOn&llge aD.路adieu, 'rill wo meet with fresh a.rdour our tasks to rcnc'\v.

ODE I''r. Performct.l at Coach-7Juzkert>' I-Jall. l,Vritten by Set to lJ.fusic by MR. RElvIy.

~IR"

IU~CI'l'AfrIVE.

first the golden I)10ru路 aloft, With maiden breezes 'whisp'ring soft, Sprung fro~ thOtHlst with rosy wing, '}'o kiss thehettV'llly first-horn spring; Jehovah then, frotl1 hnll()'\v'd ('urth, Gn.vo~rnsonry imrnortal llirtll. WHEN

"rwas thOll, tho nEnv cl"Qntion rung Ana thus the host of Jlcav(~n sung:

Ilno,vN.


361

OF 1\!IASONRY.

AIR. source of love, Great Artist of this goodly frame! rfhe en,rth and sea, the sky ahove, ~rl1()u f01'rn' ~t to thy inllHortal faIne.

Hail, linn, 011aiI,

illOU

SB:;\U-CHORUS.

rro thpe, ()ur sirp, r,I'110 ch('l'uh ehrdr rrhe nil' lllove \vith sel'a,phic sound;

Ye l)r(~pzt~S s,vec1 t rrh(~ cadenee In(~et, And \vaft it o'er tho hallow'c1 ground. AIR.

Ten thousand orhial b(~auties hrigl~t, ':Vhich long confus'din ehaos lay, Thoubrought'8t tllenl forth to give delight, And Ino.kc the face of I-Ieaven guy. SI;~MI-CHORUS,,'

rro thoe,

(Hlr' ~ir(,"

&e.

n路gCrr.ATIY1;~.

,rrwa:-; thus tlH TlpllyellB in conC'('rt i

'Vlril(~ ~nturf~ .... ,.~ '.I'l~.t:o:.II" forth

frfnn

toudor

l"lU1g,

~rn'ung'\ infant gr(JE~ll,

c:hIU):,,\

soene: "I"C)

()f

IHlrost Inould

he,

.

ma.n,

gnvo hirn an Innnortal 8oul, And hid hiul live und rulo the whole; 'Vhile angcI~, Trolo their goltlen shrine, Sung with strains divh.w: rrh(~n

Aln.

IInppy, llapr~Y lllortals, l'isf\, rru:-,t(1 with U~ inul'Hn~tnl joys, IUfHHning on yon Ruerecl ti"eQIl hy thp

Far rrhero l\Ia~on8' hnl.PY (~ho.ic" above, l\fasol18 (l"ery hlcf.::o:.ing prove, ]'riend~hip" lUlrnlony, and 10,,"0. In~Cl'TA'l'IVl'~.

A'P-

hntnund gave our

divino hirth,

li'ri('lHl~hip f.\11ull (till" IU1nrts oIltwiDe, And harnlfHlize the earth: llohold thn virgin hithl"r flhl~, 1'0 crown us with her blissful joys.

So


352

ILLUSTRATIONS

AIR.

Blooming as fair Eden's bo'wer, Friendship, goc1dess heavenly bright, Dropping in tt bahlly sho'wer, Breathing concord and delight; Each l\lason feels the sacred fire Glo1v "\vith ardour ill his hea.rt; The flaln'() inspires him with desire, To relieve each other's smart. FULL CHORUS

Fronl Reaven since such blessings flow, Let every ]\!Iasoll ,vhilc belo'v .Our noble science here improve: 'T'will raise his soul to realms above, And make his lodge-l~ lodge of love.

ODE V. BY

J.\ru.

THOMAS DERMODY.

THOU fairest type of Excellenco divine, ,\Vhose social links the race of man combine, Whos() t'tWftll mantlntes oowardVioe oontrol, And breathe tllrough N atl1re one enlighten'<l. soul; Froln thy mild sway benignant virtues rise, Pour on the heart, t.Ul<l enullato tho skies; I~r().nl. thy., .Saf,.lt'8. voice Stl.1,.)lhn. e Il.lstr.u.c. tic,)n. spr.in g s,7., "rhilo I\.l1owledge ,yo;ves 11cr nUlny-colour'd ,vings, Ana star-ey'd 'J.iruth, and Conscience, lloly zest, Ellthrou'<1 true feeling in the glowing br(Hl.st, Then deign the labour of thy Sons to gttic1e, O'er each full line in nervous sense preside, Adorn each verse, each manly thought inflÂŁune, And what we gain frolnGenius give to Fame!

ODE. VI. BY MR. WILLIU

WJ,~~:~I~.

to Inelodious notes the golden lyre! Spread ,,'ide, to all aJ:cuneI, the ardent fltllne, Till each rapt bOSOlll catch the sacred firo, And join the glorious theme! ,rris -l\lusonry, Al"t suhliulHly free, Where Maj(~sty has bo\v'd, !lIld own'da Brother's nanle! STRIKE

rrfle

rrhrough ample dOlnes wi<1c let the chorus roll, Responsive to the ardour of the soul, Hail! inspi+ing1YlasoIlry! rl'o thy shrine do ulyriads bOlla; Yet more glorious. sllil1t tll0U be, Till o'er the '\vorld thy power extend, Still to the sons ()f Earth thy light dis!'enso, And all shall o,;vn thy saored influence.


OF MASONRY.

Thongh Genius 1h..., jrot fai!lthis rays appear, Till t.hy Inysteritias lore the soul· refine; \ 'Tis thou to noblest heights his tl?oughts'lnnst rear, And lllake th(,m d()ubly shine. 0, }\Iasonry ! rrhou ..t\rt suhlirnply free. ,rris thou exnlt'8t the n;lln, f~ncl mnk'st~ hitn half divine. Y c l{asons, ftLVOur'c{ luen, your Yoic(:~s raise! You speak ~tol1r glory while :rou sing its praise.

lIail! .inspiring Masonry, &c..

Blest be the 1nan, and blest he is, who bears ,,\Vith virtuous pridH a l'tIason's sacred name;

And llU1Y each Brother, 'who the blessing shares, Enrich tht, list of Falne..

Blest l\iasonry ! rrhouArt sublhnely ·frce ! lIcftv'n hias thy hn ppy sons, and they thy worth proclaim ,"Vith Joua assent! their ch(~erful voices raise, rrh~-ir grea.t, irnrnortnl ~fasonry to praise, lIail! inspiring IVInsollTY, &c.

'1"'lH3 ttnver 8ky-poin ting, and the uOlne sublilnc, I~ais'a the Inystie rules tllHl f()rrning po'wer, Slw,Il "\vithstalttl th(1 iron to()th r.f tilUf>, y €~t fan is sure: ti010

allall finn enduro..

Still slulH its l..:on:4 tlaeir grateful yoices rai:-i(~, ,A.utI HOUIHI their (Jron.t (irant11\InstPl"s praiso.. shrino, 0, :\la:4011ry! adrniring lUltiflilS bond; III futuro tirne~, thy f:fH1S shall seo faule froB'1 . , t(J extenc1.. \'"01'141:-:; lUlkuffwrl thy heav'n-horn dispnnso .,:\.n<1 <nvn ~aerpd inHnellce.

ana quiv'rlng truths ITrania. ~; l~·_", ,f' .... visitant, to tbee \\r 0 o\ve <1opths oflVfa8rnlry ; "F'nir(\:st virgin \Varhling tl) golden l'yr(~, \Vplenlno; hf:'ro thy art prc~vai1! lInil! divhu::I[,Trania, huil!

WAKE Hie lute ....

11"("1"(' in !;'!rien<1ship's 8uore<1 ~I'lu~ a()wny,,\'V"ing'd und """''''~'''''''''''""",, JVlirth invit(~8, and sochtl sOllg,

.l)ifliJn(He~)a

m.ysteries nlnong; .

....

' v .........


304

ILLUSTRATIONS

Crown the bowl and fill the glass, To every virtue, every grace, To "the Brotherhood resound Health, and let it thrice go round. We restore the times of old, Tho blooming glorious age of gold; As the new creo.tion free, 'Blest with gay Euphrosyne ; We with godlike Science talk, And with fair Astrroa walk ; Innocence adorns the day Brighter than the smiles of May. Pour the rosy wine again, Wake a brisker, louder strain; Rapid Zephyrs, as, ye fly, Waft our voices to the sky; While we celebrate the Nine, And the wonders of the .Trine, While the angels sing above, As we bel<?w, of peace and love.

ODE VIII. Foran Exaltation of Royal ..Arch Masons. ,

By Brother

DUNCKEltLEY.

['rune, R'lde, Britannia.] ALMIGHTY

Sire! . our heavenly King,

Before 'whose . sacred llalne ,ve bend,

Aocept the praises which we sing, And to our humble prnyerattoncl! All hail, great Arabiteet divine! rrhis universal frame is thinQ.

Tbou,wbodidst Persia's king oommand A proclam&tion toexttm4i, That Israel's sons might quit his land, Their holy ternl,!e to attt1nd;

That sacred place,w hore tllree ill one Conlpris'c1 thy comprehensive name; Aud wher(~ the bright meridian sun Was soon thy glory to. proclaitn.

'fhy watchful C.1je,n. It3ngth of time, 1'he won<1'r()us circle did att~nd ; The glory nna the po\ver be thine, Which shall froln age to age desoe.nd..

On thy omnipotenee we rest, Secure of tilJ protection here; And hope hereufter to he ble~t, When ,ve have left this 'world of care..


355

OF MASONRY.

Grant us, great God! thy powerful aid To guide us through this vale of tears; }1'or where thy g'oodnes8 is di~play'd, l"">ea.co soothes the nlintl, and Pleasure cheers. Inspire us ,vith thy gra.ce divine, rrby sacred hn," our guide shall be : To every good nUl' hearts incline, From every evil keep us free. All hail! &c..

ODE IX.

By the SAME. For $olemnCeremonie8. [Tune, God serve the K'ing.] universal Lord! By heaven andeu.1"th aoor路 a : All huH! grou.t God! Before thy narne \ve bBUd,

HAlL!

'1"0 us thy gra{~c oxte,nd, And to our pra)'orsatteud, .l~.l1 hail! great God! ODl~

Set to A-Iusic

ARNOLD.

[rrune, .?tfy fond She.}1herr.l.. ] ASSI'S'l' lno, yefair turH~ful Nine,

EuphrosYllo, grant In(~ thy a.iu; While the honours I sing of the rrrine, l)reside o'er xnv ntUnb(H"S, blithe maid. Cease, Clutnour ilUd }"'action, oh cease! }t'ly hcnee, all yo cynical train: Disturb not the l...iodg()"s s,\r{~et pea.ce,. \Vhere silence iUl<.l sccreey reign"

the world out was hrongIl't. frnedoln, .&lld zeal, cornlna.nds ,ve obey; No (JO\VtU1 our secrets can st~~al, No ba.bbler our Inyst'ries betrlty. 'Vithf(~rvency, O~r lVInstor's

Here vVisdorn her st.nntlaru <1isplttys, lIero nobly tho seiencos

shin('~

;

IIera the t(:~tllple)s vu,steohunn we And finish a 'tvnrk that"~ divine.. 11lurn'd frOIl} tho I~ast with pnre light,

lI(~ro (U"ts do. their bles:;iug'iJ be~;t;()w; And, allperfoct" unf()ld to the sight,

What Ilone but

tt,

l\!ason onn know.


3ÂŁi6."

ILLUSTRATIONS

on earth any praise can bo found, Any virtue unnam'd in my song,. Any grace' in the universe round, ~fay these to a lVIason belong! 1\tfayeach Brother his passions subdue, Proclaim -Charity, Concord, and Love; Ana be hail'd by the thrice happy few Who preside in the Grand Lodge above. If

ODE XI. Written for (and performed at)- the Union of the two Grand Lodges, by VVALLER RODWELL WRIGHT, Esq.; and l'ccited by Brother POPE, of the Theatre Royal, Drury-lane. STROPHE

I.

OlI for a hUlld, whose magic power, l\iight '\vake the lyre -of other days rro lofty anc1 irnmortallays, Sueh as, in bold Inajestic swell, Burst franl the 'l.'heban's classic shell. Where throughOlympitt's consecrated shade, Alpheus rolls his turbid oourse, rl'hat~inger'd oft those shades among " And hsten'd to tIle rnighty song; Or those lllClodious strains, 'Vhose gentle but resistloss force BoootitL'S very l'{)cks obcy'd What titne arnidst her wi1<.l and desert plains, The sacred <lOD10 and high COl battled tow'r In self-compaote'd order ros(), And taught the wond'ripg Sons of Greece, Unfelt borore, the happiness that"flows Frolu social union, harmony, .and pell.CC~ ANTISTROPHln f.

Or rather,forthat hbljr~.csta.sy, vVhich bade-the l~oyal I~ard of JOS80'S line Attune his harp's illspir'd lninstrolsy '1'0 songs of ~eraphiJn and thelnes divine; }'or 'while, in this auspioious hourt Our hands and hearts we thus unite, And seek in closer f{llds to bind 'rho COlnl)Rct of f'ratenlalloYo, The vo,\v \vhicll Al1geIsmightapprove, Of peace and clu1rity to aU nlankind; vVhile"t6;ught hy l~aith, before the throne Of heaven's Jligh Architect we bend, ' 'Vith hope -that rt3sts on IIiul- alone, 'Vhile stars like these th(;)ir radiance blend, rrheir gonial influenco doign, to pour On this our highandsolelXln rite; Like SiCH1'S Itt1lIow'd strain the song sha.11 rise 'I'hnt wafts our grateful tribute to the skies.


OF MASONRY. EpODE

I.

Vain is the hope-no Master's hand To-day explores the breathing lyre; No gifted bard, whose Heaven.,.impartedfire Subdues the yielding soul to his command; But simple are the votive lays, That breathe our gratitude and praise To that creative Po,v'r, Whose wisdom sketohed the vast design Of Nature's univerRal plan: Whose mighty fiat o'er the realms of night, Shed the first glories of eternal light ; Whose spirit, hov'ring·on the vast profound, Laid the foundation sure, and wide, . By Truth's unerring' geometrio line, Above, below, on every side, Life, harmony, and heauty breath'd aronnd; The orbs of Heav'n their circling c~urse began; And angels hail'c1 Creation's nat.a.rhour. S'l'ltOPlIE II. One last tmd greatest work rcrnttin'd.

Hush'd was the straiIl; in silent awe rfhe host ()fJi_1TlI!.i;tWJi~ ~~nderisavr 'rhe cold and senselesslttl• • • •liq, Unform'd, alnidst its native clay, Now kindling with a spark divine, rrrue to tbe laws of that rnysterious spell, Which binds in onoconcordant chain rrhe earth, the air, the ambient Inain, Its latent powers unfoltlEach limb ill due proportion swell, III beauteous· symmetry combine To frarne a structure of itnmortal mould. But wheniIl this fair forxin its l\Iaker deign'tl To breathe an intplleetual soul; Then first lio h· mn Which th. iitoU, GlorY11dGo ... itt eat'n,wldpeaoe to man. ANTISTROPHE II. Ana shall the heir of immortality, Alone regarc11esR of this high behest,

Quench the celestial glow of charity Which h(,av'nly love hath kindled in his breast 1 })orvertingrenson's holy light,. .. Deny the l)(),v(~r by ,vhich 'twas gI.ven 1 Or u.rrogantly deem it just, r:I'o close with wilc1 fanatic hate Ftlir. Mercy's everlasting gate, Ageinst his erring brother of the dust 1

367


358

ILLUSTRA.TIONS

Far, far from such unhallow'd strife, In man a kindred soul we view; To all ,vho share the ills of life Our pity and relief are due: Nor ask \va ,vhat ~'eligious rite Conveys his orisons to Heaven, Enough for us if comfort we impart, Or soothe the anguis,h of a breaking heart. EpODE

II.

Lo, where our silent eUlblems breathe Their sacred influence o'er the soul, In' mystic order rang'd: while round the whole A starry zone the¡ sister virtues wreathe. Yo, ')Tho by conlpass, square, and line, Those hidden truths ca.n 'well divine, To all besides unknown. In each sylnbolic fotID pourtru.y'dl,"e, ,vho 'with firm unda.unted mind, . Have pierc'd tile vaulteel cavern's awful gloom And mark'd the holy secrets of the tOlnb; . Still let our actions to the world proolaim, The secret lessons of our art, By \vhatsoevcr Inystic rite cOllvey'd, The rules of uloral life irnpart;Nourish bright (}harity's mthereal flanlc; And breathing love and peace to alllna.nkind, Like incense rise at IIeav811's etemal throne. ST1l.0PHE III.--IltREGULAR.

Fair Queen. of science, nurse of eV'rl art That Cl"CrWllS the happiness olsoclallife, Whose .dictatos from~he~~~,~~~i~gstrife Of warring passions, pUbtif1â&#x20AC;˘. II." tleaft.:In ev'ry clime, through ev'ry age, The Prince, the I>oet, und the ~a.go IIrtvc knelt before thy hal1()\v'd shrine; Anc1nations O\V11'cl thy origin divine.Great IIERI\IES, founder of the Memphicrite And MITHRAS erst through Persia's reahn rever'd; And he, who to ELEUSIS bore The treasures of thy mystic lore, But chiefly those by holy truths inspired; The chosen servant of the livingGo<l 'Vho Sinai's holy precinct trod, And he with love of sacred '~lisdomfir'd, The l\Iighty Prince, whose pious hand, To the eternal fount of truth and light That holy telnplerear'd, The pride and wonder of Judea's Innd-


OF MASONRY.

His great and comprehensive mind A nobler edifice design'd, That thne and envy should defyFounded on truth's eternal base, Vast as tho ample bounds of space, And sacred to fraternal unity. ANTISTROPBE III.-IRREGULAR.

Long were the task, ana路 arduous, to l-ecount What streams deriving from the snored source Of Sion's pure and unpolluted fount, Through ev'ry clime. have roll'd their devious oottrseFrom where路 Phcenicia greets the eastern tide, To fair Crotono.'s western tow'rs; Or where, amidst Athenian bow'rs, TIissus bids his wa.ters glide In gentle course to meet tIl' lEgean main ; Or how, in later times, 'midst <lire alarms, '\Vhen fierco contending nations rush'd to arms, And delug'd Palestine's ellso.nguin'<.l pln.in, Tho vanquish'd victor cast aside his sword, Yielding his stubborn pride to thy cOffilnand, ,,\Vith hUIl1ble soul the God of Peace ador'd, And turn'd repentant to his native land. Yas; fro.m that memorable hour,

'rho W esternWorldhaaowtl'dthy pow'r, Ancl though Ambition's frantic strife

vVill som()thnes blast tho joys of .life, TI1Y influence bade hor feud路n.l discords ceaset And ~l,ught her sons the nobler arts of Peace. Before tho brightness of thine orit~nt ray, The Shac1cs of Prejudice and Error fled, A.nd languid Scienco raised her drooping head, To greet the fervid blaze of thy ad1;tancing day. EpODE 11I.-InREGtTLAl?. Alas! that (~'er a cloud should rise, To dim the ..

Or.UttJe The souls by kindred vows allied; But see! while thus our rites we blend, The ~ingl(~a sacrifice ascend, And, borne to heayell in one uuite<.1 flame, Chase every ling'ring shadow fronl tho skies. And as the sea-'vorn mariner, When darkness shrouds each gl1iaing star, 'Vith transport greets the p()lnr orb of light, Piercing tho lnurky veil 8i night; Or those hvin stnrs, whose rniltler heams assuage Tho tel'np(~st in its wildest rage, Ana pours his tributary strain To the In-opHiol1S rulers of the main; Such joy is ours: be sueh the lay Thatcclehru.te$ this happy day.

359


ILLUSTRATIONS

Join then, yo 8011S of Art, in triurnph join! To hail the ruling star of 131"unswick'ti, royallille. And ye fraternal stars 'whose g~~lltle 8Wf~Y Our sever'd pc)\vers luLve gloried to ()b(~y, EDWARD'! ·AuGus'rus! IInil! illu$trious nuules! Whose princely souls confess a nearer tic 'rhan birth and kindred blood alone supply, A.ccept the tributeeaoh S'l jus tly ,clailns : While thus our fanner pledge.., w'e reue\v Of grateful ]l()nlage and affection true . .A.ndtbough toonoalone be given To hear the ensign of 'supl'ernocOlnmuud, 'And rule our free united bund ; In all our orisons to Heav'n, Your blended nalnes shall still he found, To both the votive goblet shall be cro'wn'd; And both, whil8 life and Inelnury' relnain, Hold ill our grateful hearts your undivided reign.

ANNIVERSA.ItYOIlE. Cornposedfor the Arl1'zu,allJ/[eetinf!;oj' the (}las.!!r)1,o Ayrshire Friendly ,Society, 25th Jlln.1,1~2!j: rrlIY sorrows,AvR, are like, tno(le\vs of flight, In pearly drops, o'er Nntllre'~eh(lek descending., To bid her VE~rnal beauty l}(~arn rnorehright, --' 'rhe tear and sInilo in l(~vely union hlnndillg; For like tlu; !lynul of grntituc10 aBe{~nding With incense eV(i,l' pleasing to thl~ skios, Thine anc1 thy darling poet's farne ('~xteudiIlg, Thou hear'st tho voice' of· grn..tulatioll. rise. And 10! on this a.uspicioliR holid~.LY, The Sons of L'igltt ia bright Hrray.. With.mal1y tt 1nystic 8treal1~er flying, To minstrelsy witli lXloasur'd stApS advance, And seem, at ti~:~.~~t0:V?ft'Ve tne.· fe~~xejdance, At times to shalt~· 'tie J3:'9~· '. ...• . ..;,'>\i rro feet uuhnI1o\v'd R"ltcoess aellyiug; The ,vhile t.hey place, I>}" phnnnlet, l'lll(~, a.:lHl square, The corner stono pre-destined tohenr The pl'ccious lY10IlUnlentai pile, Of Ayrthe glory, and thcboastQf Kyle\> Though frail the fa.brie which yOtlraise The poet's memory to prolong, , , Compared with that 'whieh speaks his praise, '1'he energy divino of s()ng: Yat still our gt'$liitnue isaUt:~, rrhricc-Iov'd, thrioe· b.oIlnut~1d frien<1:-;, to you. Who bid th(~ heaiuteou8 strlH:tnrH ri:ic; And as our foncll'ogre,ts w(~r~~ one When Coila, -wept her f&vouritf~ sou, So in your joys \ve 8ymlHtthize, When the 'wholo 'world of thste tl.nd f('lpling turDS Its gaze, with raptnre ever 11ew, on l~uH.Ns.


361

OF MASONRY.

ANTHEM I. "LET there be light!"-the Almighty spoke, Refulgent strealns fronl chaos broke fro illU111G the I'ising earth! ,,\;V ell pleas'd the Great 'Jehovah stood'1"110 l)o\vcr SUpr0I:l1C pronounced. it good, And gave t~e planets· birth t Inchora,l numbers Masons join, 'ro bless and praise this light divine. Parent of light! accept our praise! Who shedd'st on us thy brightest rays, The light that fills-his Inind. By choice selected, 10! we stand, By friendship join'd.,. a social band! rrhat love-that aid Inank.intl ! In choral numbers, &0. '1'ho ,viaow's tear-the orphau's cry, All wants-our rendy lUUlds supply, As far as .)ower :is given! rrh.ria ,.~. •·~ef f~~~I These 8.1'"6 jj 'Ofiaiitj r l~eveal'a to us from heaven! In choralllUlnbers, &0.

ANTHEM II.

By

f]j;}NRY DAGGE,

Esq.., sung at tke Founding of Freemasons' Hall.

rrune, I~'ule, ToR All pt· .... ,gt

.

lltit.annia . l

ue,e

r

Whoc1eign'd the hu Iri an soul to raise By Inystic~secrets sprung froDl heavenc CHORUS..

Sauna alou<l the great Jehovah's praise; rfo bitn tl::c dome, the temple rnis(~.

26


ILLUSTRATIONS

.

Tkejbllowing

ANTHEMS, G-LEES,

.

o/C., wel路e perfo'rmed at the

Union..' ANTI-IEM, COlnposed by ;Brother VV~SLEY.

(The vocal parts in this, and the following Pieces, 'Written by the R. W. Brother Perry, were sustained by Brothers Kelly, Bellamy, Taylor,Phillips, Pyne, Digllum, Leete, Evans, Clark, &0., &0.) BEHOLD!

how good

0.

thing it is,

And ho'w beCOl1'ling well,

For Brethren ~uch as lVlasons are, In unity to dwell. Oh! 'tis like ointu1ent on the head, Or c1e1v on Sion hill 1 For then the Lord of IIostshath said, Peace sllull be with you still.

SONG, C07npQSeit by. BrotherKELLY .. MOUNTAINS l'nay fun, and rocks decay路, An~

isle on isle be s,vept avvayBut l\Iasonry's prilneval truth, Un broke by force, ullchnl1ged by time, Shall bloorn in renovated youth, And energy sublirne.

GLEE, Composed by Brother KELLY. Lo! see from lieaven: the. peaceful dove,. With olive-branoh d,~aoend ! .AUGUSTUS shall with EDW:A.ftDjoin, All ri vah-y to end; And taught by their fi-aternul1ove, Our arll1S, Qur hearts shnll intertwine, The lUlion to approve.

CfIORUS, Oo'mposed by Brother I{ELLY. Royal AUGUSTUS FREDERICK, hail! For now, beneath the BnuNsmcK line, Our systetu shall prevail : O'er all the earth, 'with truths divine, Shall IVlusonry extend its sway, Till thne itoelf shall pass away, In wlity to ,shine.


OF MASONRY.

GLEE, C01nposecl by Brotfier

KELLY.

well-kno'\vn sign we mark, and fly 'I'11e \vound to heal-to still the sighAnd wilJe the teurfl'orn SOrr(HV'S eye. E'or our's the aiIil is, our's the art rro nleliorate the hUll1Un heart; Of wild desires to stem the flood, And act as if of kindred blood. THE

SONG, C01nj")osea by

Brother

KELLY.

I hear the 'Varden call"'lV1a80n8, to your sports away; "Join the hUllquet in the hall; "'Give your hearts a holiday!" When nroun<l the festive bowl, HARK!

1,Ve delight in song and glee; Gay and 0PPll is the soul \Vhen it feels secure ana free.

Joyous as the jest goes rrau~tnor ;gibe None, by saor(!d. '"f"1\,Ji\i1i~Jlft1~.ilf: Mil1IlI1ftl!!i12' IJr(lt<~ again of 'Vhen ,vc toast the fair \VO prize, Not a tongue shall sln,nder tell; l\lasoDs' hertrts, by honour's tit~S, Guuril the sex they love so ,veIl. And though \ve fill our glrl..,,;ses high, :B"e(~ling still shall 'varUl th(1 breast; lJle have not left the poor Inan drySo tho ch:erfnl enp is blest.

GLEE. Composed b~Brother for three J"()iccs. IN Masons' honrts let 50y nb<)UIHl ! I..let the frat<~rnal hHalth go round! ]'ill up tho bowl, then !-fill it high! }t"'ill aU the goblets tbere !-for 'why When l\lns()11s Ineet, should they be dry 1 Why, 8011S of eant1our, tell Inn ,vhy 1 ()ur work is donf~. ",V' e'vo fed tho poor; '''Ve'vo (lhased th() \'101ÂŁ fro111 SOl'row's d6or, t]Hlll !-f.ill it hi. gh! :Pill all tlH~ goble.ts thero !-for why Should ev'ry Inortnldrink but I 1

1.i'ill up tho. ho,\y1,

Why, sons of 11lortnls, tell me why 7

363


ILLUSTRATIONS

SONG I. [Tun:e, .Attic Fire.] thy trumpet, Fame!

ARISE, and blow

Freemasonry aloud proclaim TO'reiun1s and worlds unknown: Tell them, 'twas this great David's son, The wise, 'them~tchless 'Sololnon, Priz'a far above his throne. The solemn ten1ples! cloud-capt towers, Th' aspiring domes, are 'works of ours; By us those piles 'were rais'd: Then bid mankind. with songs advance, And through th' ethereal vast e.xpanse Let Masonry be prais'd! We help the poor in time of need, The naked clothe, the' hungry feed, 'Tis our fOUlld~ttion-stone; We build upon the noblest' pla,n, ~ Chorus For friendship ri,vets Inan to man, • 3 times. And makes us all as one.

Still louder, Fame! thy trumpet blow 1 Let all the distant regions kno'v FreelnaSOl1ry is this ~ Almighty 'wisdolll gave it birth, And Heaven has fix'd it here on earth, A type of future bliss! "

SONG II. [Tune, Rule, Britannia.] ER:E}God tbe universe began,

In 'on:e .ru~e ',chaos,ma:tter lay,

Anawi~t!··~~ler.·ove~,!. Nor knew of light on~ glirlirnarlng ray;

While in darkness o'er the whole Confusion reign'd without contl'oJ.

Then God arose, his thunders hurl'd, And bade.the ,elements arise; In air he hung'the' pendent world, .And o'er it spread the azure skies; S~sin circles caus'd to run, And m~e centre fix'd tho sun.

Then matt;he, call'd forth out of dust, And form"~him with a living soul ; AU things comm\tted to his trust, And made him ruler of, the whole: But, ungrateful'ttnFo,'I!eavell t The rebel was from Eden driven..


OF

·l\~LA.SO!f1tYJ

From thence prQceededall our woes, Nor could Inallkind one comfort cheer ; Dutil :B"reemasonry arose, And forln'd another Eden here: ''l'is only on l\lnsonic ground Pleasure 'with innocence is found., 1Tis here the pur8st fountains flow, IIere 'nought corrupt can enter in : Ifere trees @f knol'fledgo stately grow, Whose fruit we tasie"exelnpt from sin; In friendship s,veet we still aooWld, While guardian· angels hover round..

SONG III. By J. of. SrrANFIE!JD, Sunderland. A l\IAsTER-MAsoN'8 SONG. ['rune, To An,a(;re01~ in

I~eaven.l

No'!' tho fictions of Greece, nor tho droanls of old Rome, Shall with visions Ini~leud., or with Ineteors consume; No l>egu,sus' ,vings IllY short soarings rnisguide, Nor raptures (lptuin Inn on lIelieon'8 All elouds nO\V ; frU1H th(l br·nrns tho dUjTrrruth rises in allu ,vakcous the la,...~... 'rho ' . l{ WitI1 Inspired vvith the thernp, the divinity flies, And, thron'd on a rninh()'\v, Iud'oro her tll"iStl !)ast, present, and future, withl4plendid flrray, In Masonic 8ueeo8sion,. their treasuros display; She vio\ovs lnurdnr'd lnerit by ruflhtll.. hand fall, And the grave givE) its dett<l'" t1i)~ at fc:~nowship'H cull! While tho CrHf~, their their iun.,)e()uco pI"ova ; And the of and love!

With i'h...:!li.!Mi:abiil IteIigiou's And 'fronl <ltU'kness ·.,n'l~t.lrll·Jt.n~ ,\\rld1l1 the Join t'ho song

'rhat tho futuro

tho present bostows, au"o:.;.;e; Hugl·l:4 ('eho'dtbe sound, AHd tho b••rn the notes to t IIp around; rrhe ldud l)l"OehulHiti()u (Hlr song ~hun ; ,rrWtl...~-u that. ~lnsonry lrmg rnny its lu.strn tnaintaiu: " A,nd till rl'hno b(~ no U10r'(.', our fraternity u. r.rhat tho W<:~ niln at, urerri<:)Ildt:Jhip !" In A.s

l\'hllt


366

ILLUSTRATIONS

SONG IV. Written and composed for the Masonic )JIeeting, by a Lady of Bath. and sung by Brother A. LOADER, at the Banquet at Kingston

Rooms.

ALL hail! ye det1r loY'd social band, The boast, tho glory of our land! Whose Inystic meetings ever prove The feast of Charity and Love. . Though far apart, ,vhere'er yo tread, Alike by one great motive led, In heavenly union still yo n1ove, 'rhe friends of Charity and Love. What though. without the tempest raves, The loyal heart each danger braves; Within these ,valls no murnlUl'S sound, Here, Love and Peace are ever found; Here, brother's hand to hrother's joined, Bespeaks tho union of the. luind : '!'he-Il fill the sparkling goblet high; For Church and E.ing, ,vo live or die; fro thee, illustrious Prince, we raise A lasting nH)llUnl(:~nt of pl"ttise In hearts f'rorn "vhich thy hOl1ou1"d name rrho \VUrlnes.t gratitude Inay clainl; Hearts 'which, in brother's love c10so bound, rro thee will e'er be; faithful found; And still, a,:j now', united sing Long live our Prince !-God save our lung!

SONG V. Cornposed by 1\1:1'. BOSWELL. thought! but had I~urns ever witness'd a meeting Of souls so congenial, and warln'd 'with such fire, The wild flow of fallay in ecstacy greeting, Ah! what might hav'e been the bold notes of his lyre?

VAIN

As rays by reflection nre doubled, und doubled, IIis bOSOB1 had s,vell'd to your dheering reply; Soft symptlthy soothing the heart th~l.t ,vas troubledA smile for his lnirth-for his sorrow a sigh. Admir'd, but unaided, 'l~o'w t1ark was his story; His struggles ""0 kllOW~ and his efforts lve prize; From murky noglect, as the tlaulO bursts to ~l()ry, lIe rose, self-(;lUbalxn'd., und detraction denesâ&#x20AC;˘

.A ploughman llâ&#x201A;Ź 'was :-wo111d that sruiles of false favotlr lInd l}(lVer dpeov(?d hira frf>tn honw and his team; .And taught nll~tis"lH)pe und liis Wi8ho~ to waver, And, snatching reality, left hiul~a.dr(~arn.


OF MASONRY.

367

To rank and路 to title, due deference owing, We how, as befitting society's plan; But judgment a,vaken'd, and sympnthyglowing, We pass all distinctions, and rcstu pOll-Man. And frOln tho poor hind, ~vho, his day's task complete<1, With industry's prid(~ to his hovel returns, To hill}, who in royalt.y's splendour is seated, If soul independent- be found, 't,vas in BURNS. His birth-right, his muse! like the lal'k in t.he mqrriing, How blithely he caroll'd in praise of the fair; With nature cnraptur'u, and artifice scorning, How sweet 'were his notes on the banks of the Ayr! And near to that spot where his kindred dust Blumbers, And mark'd by the bard 011 the tablets of fame, And nea.r tho thatch'd shed where he first lisp'd in numbers, We'll raise a proud tribute to honour his name. SONG VI. ['rune, Rural Felici(lf.] YE dun sttlpicl rnorto]s, give. o'er your conjectures, SiBee !i'reolna:sons' secrets ye nE~路er ca.n obtain; The Bible and COIl) passes are our directors, And :-;huJI bo as !()llg us the w()rld doth rEnno-in. Here Friendship i.nviting, her(~ Ii'reedorn delighting, Our mOlnentsia .iUllQceptmirth,weemp,loy. CHORUS.

Come, see.. l\fasolls' felicHy, Working and singing '\vith"hen,rts fun of joy.. No other soeiety thflt you can In(~ntion, Which has been, is UO\V, or hereafter shall be, How(\ver conunendable be its intention, Can eyer eornpnre with divine l\In,sonl"y.. No envy., no quarrels, CUll her(~ blast our hturcls, No paSSif)ll Otlr plca.surn can eY(~r annoy. Gho. Corne, see, &c. To a.id

ODe

Our rites The I.Jodge to support, '\vc like No Bal)el conft1~i()n our ca.n fptard. y c nlorta.1~, corn(~ hitlH)r, assnrnhlc tng0tlH.lr, And taste of thosoplea::;ures which' novor can cloy.. Cho. COlne, seo, &e. We aro to tho 'l\{ast<~r. for ov(~roh(~di(lnt" WhPIH.\,"er he onUs.. tlO tho r.io(lg(~ wr~ repnir; Expcrionco lHu:; ta.ught ns that 'tis HH)stexped.ient '1'0 livo 'within e()rnprt~s and net (H} the square.. Let rnntual a~rpmnent bo It"rpenlasnn~' C(-1rI1(\ut, Until the wholo ulriverse tirno shun de8troy. Cho. COlne, see, &0.


368

IL:LUSTR.A.TIONS

SONG· VII. [Tune, Ye Lads of true spi'rit, pay. Cou/rtsh'iJJ' to .Olaret.]

IN times of olddate,'\vhen(as stories relate) Good mell to the gods hac1. admis.sion, . "'\:Vhen those who ,vero griev'd,migllt1with ease be'reliev'd By offeripg. au; humblepetitioll ; . ' Some few~ho!r~mkin.'a in theirlnorals unstain'd, Submissively Inade applica.tion To build a retreat, if the gods should think meet, To shield them fronl \vick9d invasion. Delighted to find there were yet in mankind Some laudable sentiments. planted, Without hesitation they gtlVe approhation, And. instant their wishes ,vero granted. Then for artists they sought,. ana fam'd architects brought, Who the various employrnents 'wore skill'd in ; Each handled his tools, and by scie~cc ana rules 'rhey straight\vay proceeded to building. Fair Wisdom. b~gall first to sketqhout th,eplan By 'whioh they were all to li·~ guided; Each order she nlac1e was exactly ohey'a, 1Vhcn the portion of ",york she c1ivid(~c1. The groat corner-stone 'was by Charity done, 13ut Strength vvas the principal builder; '\Vhen fOl".mortar they eried, 't'\vns by Friendship supply'd, A.na Beauty was carver aucl gilder. Having long persevcr'd, a grand tenlplo they rear'd, A refuge from folly ana scandal, Where all ,vho resideal"e in Virtue employ'd, Nor fear the attaoks of a· Yand&!. . · But if in t\);~ir~they ..;"~~~~..~ In the attempt, 'twO'Q.1"· .. 1;;~"I;·\'~ea.; rrlle door is so higl1, 'twoula be Jllac1ness to try, And the walls t:tre all strongly eC111cntcd. The gods all agreed 'hvt1.s an exoellent deed, And, to show tho affection they bore 'em., A trE~asure they g~t.v·e,. 1vhich the tenants still have, Secured in tho sanctum, sClnciorunt. Thus blessed from aboyo with a. token o.i. Ipve, Each brother with Joy .should receive it: Saf~ lock'd in hishell#rt, it shoul<1llcver depart, Till cul1'd for by Heavon that gavo it.


OF MASONRY.

SONG- VIII.: Written by the

and tntendecl to hal,e been S1I9tg at the Grand Feast, May 11, 1796. rrune, lIearts of Oale. ] .A SYSTE1\{IllOrO pure ne'er 'was Inoc1ell'd by man, Than that which ,ve boast as tho路路 }i"r~)ernnsol1s' plan; It unites all the ,Yorld by the strongest of tie~, And adds to men's bliss, while it rnukes the1h more wise. From the prince to the boor, Bo he rich, be he poor, A l\iason is a brother, ,A.l1d each ,vill help" the other; So grateful the tie, is of :F'reenlasonry. EDITOR,

That hence flow the purest enjoYlnents of life, That banish'd fi-oUl hence are dh;sonsion ood strife, That tho lessons are good vvhich ,ve practise and teach, i\.1'o truths that our f<H3S vainly strivo to impeaoh. }'roln the prince, &c.

'rhe

of Inonarchs, the beeorno, und heen l\nd still \.vith royal sUJlction <}In" .l\.pprov'd the"' and wlrnil'\l ~'rom the &e.

Ha.vo

und hest, tho test; n,ro

pursu'd,

tho good.

. As tho ,veto btO t{~c1ious tho to rocord tho b'1.-ertt nIu} tho good that 9ur annals afford; In ,vox-d, h:~.t us voueh f~)r this truth t() nutnkind, un 1no1'O pu1'o than tlle true Mason's mind. !t"l'Oln princo, <.\.:c.

SONC{- Il\:l'

\Vhilc 8c)(,,'inl }()lH1 IH~r aid, To srnooth tho ,vrin kled brow elf Ca.re"


370

ILLUSTRATIONS

See where she comes, with power to bless With open hand and tender heart, Which wounded feels at Inau's distress, . And bleeds at every human smart. Envy may every ill devise, And falsehood be thy deadliest foe, Thou.. ~'riendshi p, still shalt towering rise, And sink thill:e .s,dver'Saries low: Thy well...builtpile shallloIlg eudure, 1'hrough rolling years pre8erve its primor Upon a rock it stands secure, And braves the rude assaults of tim•• ~

Ye happyfewt·who here, extend, In perfect lines from east to west, With ff\1'Vent. zeal the Lodge defend, And .lock its Becrets in each breast: Since ye are rnet upon the square, Bid love and friendship jointly reigb Be pertee H,nd harmony your care, Nor break the adaln~ultille chain. Behold the planets, how they lllove, Yet ke~p due ord'erastbeyrun ; Then inlitate the stars above, And shine resplendent as the sun: That future Mn..~. ()us .. when t.hE~y meet, Mtty all our glorious d(~eds rebearse~ And say, their fathers 'were ~() great, 'l'hat tllCy adorned the unIVerse.

SONG X. [Tune, .Arno's Vale.] WHEN.

mY diviIle.A.ltlu~a':$0ht\rms

No more

$ha11kiQ~e~aiamls,

And the keen lightning of her eye l~asses unfelt, unheeded by; When l\Ioral Beauty's hetLvenly form Shull c(~aso the frozen SllO,\>V 'to warm; When U1Ulln€rS thus corrupt we see, Farcw(}ll the· Bweets of Mu.sonry.! Whon Science slutH withdrow her light, And. Error spread it Gothic night; When Pit,Y's RtL(~red source is dry~ No pG~~rly drop to tnelt tho f\ye; 'Vll(~n rrruth 8hn.1l hide IH'r blushing head, And futnish'd Virtue beg·her brea.d; When In:1nUOl8 thus corrupt \:vo see, }'ar(;,wcll tho sweets of ::\lu,8onry!


371

OF MASONRY.

But while the, fah' tra.nsport otlrsig-l1t, And ~1oral,13ea'uty'8 charms delight; While Science lifts her torch OIl high, And Pity t;ho\vs the melting eye; 'Vhilo 'l'ruth maintain8 de~potic power, And Virtuo charnls without a dower; Whil(), nlanners thus unsntiu'd we see, All hail, the sweets of ~lasonry !

THE DEPUTY GRAND

MASTER'S

SONG.

ON, on, my dear' Brethren, pursue your great lecture, Refine on the precepts of old nrchite(~turc; High honour to l\iasons the Craft daily brin~, Who are brothers of Princes, and fellows of Kings. We drove the rude Vandals and Goths off the stage, Reviving the art of Augustus' ftun'd age; And Vespnsian destroy'd the vast tpInple in vain, Since so rnany now ri8e 'where our principles reign. The noblo flvo oruers, cOlnpos'd ,vit.h such art,

Will amaze the fix'dcyo, and. engage the whole heart,; Proportion's ~!~"W'~o~c, GIves our work, like .eOdf'a souL

8".' .

.

Then Mast<:r and I~rethl"en, preserve your great name, This Lodge so rnaj~stio will, purchase you fame; Rever'd it shall stand till 0.11 nature expire, And its glories ne'r fade till the world id on fire.

See, see, behohl

h~re,

what rewards all our toil,

Invigorates g()uius, ancl"' bids nature SIllilt~: To our noble Grand Master let bumpers he crown'd, rro alllVlasolls u. bumper, so let it go round.

Again my

Our anei,at

And aU the con~!'i!tion 'tnong Mesons snft. ',. be, Who better call work, or who bettere.gree.

SONG XII. A

FELLOW-CRAF'l"S' SONG.

[Tune, Rule, Britmlnid)

lInsonry.. thou Craft divino! Glory of earth, {rorn heavtn rov 1(1; Which doth with jewel~ pre(~iouse,

IIA.IIJ'

~"rorn

nn but ~1:nK()llS' (~y(~S

I'd:

rfhy praises due, ,vho ClUI rehearse, In nervous prose, or flowillg verse 1


ILLUSTRATIONS

All craftsl110n true distinguish'd are, Our code all other la1'\r s excels: And what's in knowledge choice tUld raro, Within our breasts securely dwells..

':rho silent breast, the faithful heart, Preserve tho secrets of the art.

~-'roln scorching heat and piercing cold, Fr0111 beasts, whose roar the forest rends;

FrOIn the assaults of warrior's bold, The l\Iason's art Dlankind defends. Be to this art due honour paid, . :ProIll 'Wllich nlankind receives such aid.

Ensigns of state that feed our pride, Distinctions troublesome and vain, By 1\1a8011s true are lold asideArt's free-born SOl1S such toys disdain; Ennobled by the name they hear, Distinguish'd by the badge they wear.

S,Yee.t fello'\"V~ship, from envy free, }i'rienclly converse of brothorhood; rrhe Lodge's lusting CClnent be, Which has for ages firnllystood. A Lodge thus built, for e,gespast Has lasted, and shall ever la.st. Then let lJS celebrate tho praiso Of aU lvho have enrieh:'d the art; Let grn.titu.do our voices raise, And each true brother hoar a part. Let cheerful strains their fame resound, And living Masons' ht1alths go round.

SONG XIII. [Tune, In. Infancy, &0.] LET Mnsonry rrdm pole to PfJle ITer sacred la.wsexpand, }-'ar as the mighty waters roll, fro 'wash

renl()t(~st lund;

That Virtuo has not left mankind, IIer socit:LIl\rft\xiIns prove! );'0)'" stamp'<l upon tIle Mason's mind Are unity und love. Ascending to ller native sky,

Let'Masonry increase; A glorious piUarrais'd on high,

Iutegrityits base. Peace adds molive boughs, cntwin'd, An erllhlcluatic dove, As stal11p'dupc)l1: the Mason's mind .Axe unity und love.


01'

MASDND~.

SONG XIV. [Tune,. In Infancy, &0.] Masonry! .thou sacred art, Of origin divine! Kind partner of each social heart, And fav'rite of the Nine! By thee we're taught our acts to square, To measure life's short span; And each infirmity to bear That's incident to man. Cho. By thee, &0. Though Envy's tongue should blaSt thy fame, And ignorance may sneer, Yet still thy ancient, hpnour'd name Is to each brother dear: Then strike the blow, to charge prepare In this we all agree, "May freedo