Page 1



belt was blaek, to which was attached a cross..hilted sword. The caps varied in forlu and decoration in difl'erent encalupments. Bllt in 186~ the Grt1ud ]~nCall1pment of the United States directed the dress to consist of a blttck frock coat and pantaloons, with white scarf and sword belt, and white gauntlets. The apron, very injudiciously, as I think, was discarded.

L. LABOUR. From the time of opening to that of closing, a lodge is said to be at labour. This is but one of the numerous instances in which the terms of operative masonry are symbolically applied to speculative; for, as our operativ~ ancestors, when congregated in lodge, were engaged in the building of nlaterialedifices, so Free and .A.ccepted l\lasons are supposed to be enlplo,yed in the erection of a superst4ructure of virtue and In orality, upon the foundation of the masonic principles which they were taught at their admission into the order. Extending the allusion, the lodge is said " tc be called from labour to refreshluent," whenever, in the course of the Ineeting, it adjourns fora definite period, or takes a recess of a. few minutes. During this time, the Junior Warden presides over the craft.


See Jacob's Ladder.


In ancient times, it was the custom to mark

路 the boundaries of lands by means of stone pillars, the removal of which, by malicious persons, would be the occasion of much con... fusion, men having no other guide than these pillars by which to distingui~h the limits of their property. To remove them; therefore, was considered a heinous crime. "Thou shalt not," says the Jewish law, "remove thy neighbour's landmark, which they of 28*



old time have set in thine inheritance."* Ht.nce those peculiar marks of distinction by which we are separated froln the profanE world, and by WhlCh we are enabled to designate our inheritance as the "sons of light," are called the landmarks of the order. The unive'rsal langllJage and the 'u'ivi-versal lawst of masonry are landmarks, but not so are the local ceremonies, laws, and usages, which varJ in different countries. To atten1pt to alter or remove these sacred landmarks, by which we examine and prove a bro.. ther's claims to share in our privileges, is one of the most heinous offences that a 1\fason can commit. There are, however, certain forn18 and regulations, which, al¡ though not constituting landmarks, are nevertheless so protected by the venerable claim of antiquity, that they should be guarded by every good Mason with religious care from alteration. It is not in the power of any body of men to make innovations in


LANGUAGE, UNIVERSAL. Freemasons boast, with truth, that they possess an universal language, whieh men of all Ian.. guages can understand. "An universal language," says 1\1r. Locke,! "has been much desired by the learned of Inanyages. It is a thing rather to be wished than hoped for. But it seems the Masons pretend to have such a thing among them." We who possess that language, can estimate its value, for we know that its eloquent tones have often won sympathy froIn the most unfeeling, and converted the indifferent stranger into the faithful hrot.her. I~APICIDA.

A Freemason.

See Latomm.

• Deuteronomy xix. 14-

t It has been supposed, by some authorities, that all laws which were in existence in 1717, at the re-organization of the Grand Lodge in the south of Eng Ju.nd, are to be considered as landmarks.

t That is, if Leland's Manuscript be authentic.



LATIN LODGE. III the year 1784, Brown, the celebrated physician, organized the Itornan MJagle lodge at Edinburgh,,, the whole work of which was conducted in the Latin language. LA.TOMUS. A Latin ternl derived from the Greek )" a stone-cutter. It is used in the sense of a FreeIllasons in l\lolart's Latin Register, quoted in the notes to Preston, note 17. ...\ purer Latin word is lapicl~da, which .A.ins\vorth defines "a stone-cutter, a Freemason.. "* Architecto is used hy some writers. LA'VB OF MASONRY. The laws of masonry are of two kinds, local and universaL The local Jaws are those enacted by Grand and subordinate lodges for¡ the government of their members. These, of course, may be altered or annulled at the pleasure of the bodies who originally framed thenl. The universal" laws are those banded down b,y universal consent from times immemorial, and which govern the fraternity throughout the world. These are irrevocable, for they constitute a part of t,he ancient la,ndmarks. We will give an exalnple of each kind. The rule regulating the alllount of the fee to be paid on the admission of candidates is a local law, and varies in every country. But the law which de... elares that no WOIllan can be admitted, is universal, and controls every lodge on the fi\ce of the globe.

LEBANON OR LIBANUS. A mountain, or rather a range of rnountains in Syria, extending from beyond Sidon to Tyre, and forming the northern boundary of Palestine. Lebanon is celebrated for the oedars which it produces, many of which are frolH 50 to 80 feet in height, and oover with their branches a space of ground, the diameter of which is still greater. Hiram, King of • The" Acta. Latomorum," a modern French work, states that the word Is,... tirnus w&! first applied by the Jesuits to designate a Freemason. The use of Lt in 1429, by Molart, proves that this is not so. Ra.gon has very truly said cha.t the sta.teracntsof the" Acta La.tomorum" require verifica.tion bef()re tihe1 ~~n.

be reoei'ged -.s




ryre, in whose dominions l\Iount Lebanon was situa.ted, furnished these trees for the building of the temple of Solomon. I.JI~CTURE. l~ach degree of masonry contains a course of instruction, in which the ceremonies, traditions, and moral in.. struction appertaining to the degree, are set forth. This arrangement is called a lecture. Each lecture, for the sake of can.. venience, and for the purpose of conforming to certain divisions in the ceremonies, is divided into sections, the number of which have varied at different periods, although the substance remains the same. According to Preston, the lecture of the first degree contains six sections; that of the second, four; and that of the third, twelve. But according to the arrangment adopted in this country, there are three sections in the first degree, two in the second, and three in the third. In the Entered Apprentice's degree, the first section describes the proper mode of initiation, and supplies the means of qualifying us for our privileges, and of testing the claims of others. The sucond section rationally accounts for all the ceremonies peculiar to this degree. The third section explains the nature and prin.. ciples of our institution, and instructs us in the form and can.. struction of the lodge, furnishing, in conclusion, some important lessons on the various virtues which should distinguish a Freemason. In the Fellow oraft's degree, the first section recapitulates the ceremonies of passing a candidate. The second section gives an account of the ancient division of our institution into operative and speculative Mason,S, and, by striking elnblems, directs the candidate to an attentive study of the liberal arts and soiences. In the :Master's degree, the first section illustrates the ancient and proper ruode of raising a candidate to this sublime degree. In the second section, the historical traditions of the order are introduced, and an important instance of masonic virtue is exenl.. plified In the third section, our emblems are explained, aud tjhe copstrqctiop Solornon's Teol:ple described.


LEO There does not seem to have been any established system of lectures, such as no,v exist, previous to the revival of masonry in the beginning of the eighteenth century. In 1720, Desaguliera and Anderson, the c(Hupilers of the Book of Constitutions, arranged the lectures for the first tilne in a cntecheticnl forIn, froul the old Charges and other tnasollic documents t.hat were then extant. Of- this systeul, Dr. ()liver inforllls us that a the first lecture extended to the greatest lengt b, but the replies were cirCUlllscribed within :.l very lUllTo,\vconlpass. The second \vas shorter, and the third, eal1ed 'the ?t1.aster's Part,' contained only seven questions, besides the explanationt\ <uld esanlinations.",* The inlperfection of these le.cturcs loudly called for a revision of theIn, which was accordingI:y accolnplished in 1732 by brother l\Iartin Clare, a nUlD of talent, and afterwards a Deputy Grand l\Iaster. Clare's anlendluents, however, alnount.ed to little more than the addition of a few moral and scriptural t].ch:nonitions, and the insertion of a shl1ple allusion to the hUluan senses, and to the theologieal ladder. SubElequently, 'l'holuas DUIlcl\:crley, who was considered as the most intelligent l\iason of the day, extended and inlproved the lectures, and am ong other tlhi ngs first g~tva to the theological ladder its three most iDlportant rounds. The lectures thus continued until 1763, when IIuwhinsl/lt gave them an inlproved forul, which was still further ex.tended in 1772, by Preston, who remained for a long time the standard. But at the union of the two Grand J..lodges of Engla,nd, in 1813, Dr.. Hemming established that system which is now generally practised in the English lodges. The lectures of Preston were early introduced into this country, having been)' however, much 1110dified by T. S. ebb, wbnso ~ystem has been the basis of all those taught since his day in the lodges of the United States. No changes of any importance have bt:.,en made in the lectures, in t\is country, since t.heir fini introduction..


• Symbol of Glory, Loot.. L, p. It.



These constit,ute the silnple text of ll1tlSODJ'j', while the CJ. tended illustrt"ttioJ;ls whieh are given to them by an intelligent l\laster or Lecturer, and which he can only derive from a careful etudy of scripture, of history, of the lllunuscript lectures of the philosophical degrees, and lastly, of the published works of learned lIltlSonic writers, const,itute the comlnentary, without which the simnle text ,vould be comparatively barren ard uninstructive. These connncntaries are the philosophy of masonry, and without an adequate knowledge of them no brother can be entitled to claim our technical title of "a bright l\Iason." In relation to this subject, the following extract from the Free... mason's Quarterly Review, publis~ed at London, deserves preservation.* " Our masonic society has to this路 day retained many in terest.. ing synlbols in its ,instructions, "Then properly explained by a scientific Lecturer, and not garbled by ignorant pretenders, who, by dint lllerely of a good lIlculory nnd some assurance, intrude themselves on a wcll-inforlucd nsseulbly of brethren, by giving a

lecture not coruposcd by theIllselves, but taught them verba.,tim " LEC'rUl~]~R.. A brother of skill and intellIgence, eAtrusted with the task of instructing the lodges in the proper xnode of work,. in the ceremonies, ustlges, legends, history, and science of the order. When the appointment emanates, as it always should, from a Grand Lodge, he is called a Grand Lecturer.

LEGEND. A legend Inay properly be defined a traditional t.ale.t All countries and all religions have their legends.. In the ancient mysteries there ,,'as always a legend on which much SYIll holical instruction was based. These legends of the mys.. teries, although they varied as to tre subject of the history in .. Vol. ii. p. 274.


The word is doriyod from the Latin l(,~tlcnda, "tbings to be read," beeause it was formerly the custom to read portions of some of the religious legend8, whi(.~h ~lhountl in tho ROlDan Churctl to peo!)!o a.t JUorning pra.yer.



eaoh, yet all agree in this, that they were funereal in their character-that they c0l111nemorated the death by violence, and the subsequent resurrection, of SOI110 favourite hero or hero-gad-an:l that beginning with latnclltation they ended in joy. "In like luanner Preemasonry has its legends and allegorical references, luauy of t.henl fiJunded in fact, and capable of uuquestionable proof, while others are based on Jewish traditi,)us, and only invested with probability, while they equally inculcate and enforce the most solemn and important truths."* Of these legends, the one which may, by way of excellence, be called ,=, The Legend," and which luore pa.rticularly is connected withthe l\'laster's degree, it Jnuy be supposed was substituted by our ancient brethren, ". ben the,:y united theulselyes at the Temple with the DiollysianB, for the pagan and apocryphal legend cf Bacchus, celebrated by that societ:y. t


All elnblenl

of~ equalit~.

In the sight of God,

who alone is great, all men are equal, subject to the same infirmities, hastening to the saIne goal, and pl'eparing to be judged by the s:llue iIllll1utable law. In this sense only do l\IasoDs speak,." of' the equality which should reign in the lodge; but as "peace.. able subjects to the civil powers," they deny the existence of that revolution~lry equality, 'which, levelling all distinctions of ranks, would tend to beget confusion, in;.ubordination, and anar·

elly in the state. 'fhe level is one of the working tools of a Fellow Craft, admonishing him, by its peculiar uses, of that vast level of time on which all men arc travelling, to its lituit in eternity. 'The le-rel is also the jc\vel worn by the Senior "\Varden, as the distinctive badge of his office, reulincling hhu tha,t w'hile he pre: sides over the labours of the lodge, as the Junior "Tarden docs over its refreshluents, it is his duty to see that every brother

_._------_ __._------_._---_ _--...


• Oliver's Landmu/rks, '~t01. r. 399. t 83e the account of the union of the Dionysiana with the femp;&,~, in the artiole "Antiquity of Masonry,U in this work.



a.t th,



meets upon the level, and t.hat the principle of equality is ,reserved during the work, ,vithout which, harmony, the chief support of our institution, could not be preserved. IJE\VIS,


The words lewis and louve..

teau, which, in their origi 11tl1 meanings, import two very different things, have in nlasonry au equivalent signification-the forIner being used in IDngland, ar:.d the latter in Jj'rance, to designate the son of a mason. The English word lClDt路S is a term belonging to operative masonry, and signifies an iron cramp, which is inserted in a cayity prepared for the purpose in any large stone, so as to give attaeh. ment to a pulley and hook, whereby the stone may be conveniently raised to any height, and deposited in its proper position. In this country, the lewis has not been adopted as a synlbol of Freemasonry, but in the I~nglish ritual it is TI)und aIllOl1g the emblenls placed upon the ~rraciDg Board of the Entered Apprentice, and is used in that degree as a sym bol of strength, because by its assistance the operc;ttive nutsOIl is enabled to lift the heaviest

stones ,vith a cOIllparatively trifling exertion of physical power. lUxtending the syulbolic allusion still further, the son of a l\Iason is in ]~ngland called a. le'w'is, because it is his duty to support the sinking powers and aid the fhiling strength of his fatber, or, as Oliver has expressed it, "to bear the burden and heat of the day, that his pn,rents nU1Y rest in their old age; thus rendering the evening of their lives peacefhl and happy." By the constitutions of ]~nglHnd, a lewis, or son of a l\Iason, may be initiated at the age of eighteen, while it is required of th~y shall lutve arrived at the nHlturer 'l.'he Book of Constitutions had prescribed

all other candidates that age of twenty-oue.

that no lodge should tnake "ally Ulan under the age of twenty-. one years, 1iJlle.~.\) b.y {l, di.pensat拢on fro III tl1C Grand lVIaster 01 hi~ deputy.H ~rhe Orand Lodge of England, in its modern re~ gulation8, has a,'niled itself of the license allowei by



pensing power, to confer the right of an earlier initiation on the sons of ~Iasons. The word louvetea'1t, signifies, in French, a young wolf. The application of the term to the son of a )Iason, is derived from a peculiarity in some of the initiations into the ancient mysteries. In the mysteries of Isis, which were practised in Egypt, the

candidate was made to wear the mask of a wolf's head. lIeneE.. ~L wolf and a candid~1te in these myst.eries were often used as synonymous terms. l\iacrobins, in his Saturnalia, says, in reference to this custom, tliat the ancients perceived a relationship between the SUD, the great syulbol in these mysteries, and a wolf; which the candidat.e represented at his initiation. For, he remarks, as the flocks of sheep and cattle :fly and disperse at the路 sight of the wolf, so the flocks of stars disappear at the approach of the sun's light. The learned reader will also recollect that in the Greek language lul~os signifies both the sun and a wolf.. Hence, as the candidate in the Iaaie mysteries was called a wolf, the son of a Freemason in the French lodges is called a young wolf or a louvetea/l". The louvetenu in France, like the lewis in England, is invested with peculiar privileges. He also is permitted to unite himself with the order at the early age of eighteen years. The baptistn of a louveteau is sOlnetinlcs perfornlcd by the lodge, of which his fa.ther is a 1l1CDlber, with impressive ceremonies. T4e infant, soon after birth, is taken. to the lodge room, where he receives a mas )nic name, differing from that which he bears in the world; he is formally adopted by the lodge as one of its children, and should he becoule un orphan, requiring assisutnce, he is supported and educated by the frat.ernity, and finally established in life. In this country these rights of a lewis or a louveteau are not recognised, and the ,"ery nanies were, until lately, soarcely known,

except toa few masonic scholars. LIBANUS..

The T.latin name of Lebanon, which see. 24




The libation was a very ancient ceremony, and the Greeks and R,Oluans constituted an essential part of every sacrifice. The nlaterial of the libation differed according to the different deities in honour of whom they were made, hut vline was the nlost usuaL Libations are still used in some of the higher degrees of masonry_


lIBERTINE. The man 'who lives without the restraint of conscience, licentiously violating the moral law, and paying no regard to the precepts of religion, is unworthy to become a mem.. ber of that institution which be asts that its principles are intended to make aU its members !Jood rnen and tr~te; and hence Qur Old Charges lay down a rule that" a l\Iason is obliged, by hiB tenure, to obey the Inoral law; and· if he rightly understands the art, he will never be a stupid atheist nor an irreligious liber tine." The word" libertine" in this passage is used in its primitive ~ignification of a freethinlter or disbeliever in the truths of religion. LIGIIT. I..Iight w"as the object, and its attainment the end, of all the ancient IIlysteries. In the Grecian system of initiation, the hierophant declared that all Inankind, except the initiated, were in darkness. In the Persian rites, the IJili~ble L'i1Jl~t8 were displayed before the aspirant at the moment of illulnination, and he 'was instructed by tIle Archilnagus, that, at the end of tho world, the bad should be pluuged with Ahriman into a stat.e of perpetual darkness, while the good should ascend with Yazduu: ' upon a ladder, to ~t state of eternal light.* The Persians conse~ erated fire, as (~oDtaining the principle of !~ght, and the Druids worshipl ed the Sun as its eternal source.. Freemasons, too, travel in search· of spiritual light, which can be found only in the Enst, from wher.ce it springs, and having attained its possession, they are thenceforth called" t.he sons of light." But the light of masonry is pure, asenul.oating from • Oliver, Signs a.nd Symhols. p. t 07.



the source of all purity and perfection; and J\Iasons, renlember ing that they are brought out of darkness into light, are admen ished to let the light which is in them so shine before all men, that their good works Duty be seen, and the great fountai n of that light be glorified. See Darkness.

LILY. The white lily is one of the field-flowers of Judea.. and is repeatedly alluded to ill the Scriptures, as an cnlblem of purity. It occupied a conspicuous place among the ornaments of the temple furniture. The brim of the molton sea was wrought with flowers of lilies, the chapiters on the tops of the pillars at the porch, and the tops of the pillars thenlselves, were adorned with the same plant. Sir Robert I'Cer Porter, describing a piece of sculpture which he found at Persepolis, says, " . A..lmost everyone in this procession holds in his hand a figure like the lotos. This flower was full of Ineaning aIllong the ancients, and occurs all over the EURt. Egypt" Persia, Palestine, and India, present 1) ~Yery where oyer their architecture, in the hands and on the heads of their sculptured figureR, whether in statue or in bas relief. 'Ve ~tlso find it in the sacred vestlllent$ and architecture of the tabernacle and tenlple of the Israelites, and see it mentioned by our SaYiour, as an inulge of peculin,f beauty and glory, when cOlnparing tlhe works of nature with the deoorations of art. It is also represented in all pictures of the salutation of Gabriel to the Virgin lVlt.try jalld, in fact, has been held in nlys" tcrious veneration by people of all nations and tirnes. ' It is thC,) symbol of divinity, of purity, and abundance, and of q. love Illost complete in perfection,charity, and benediction; as in Holy Scripture, that mirror of puritj'", Susanna is defined Susa, which signified the lily flower, the chief city of the Persians, bearing that name for excellency.. Hence, the lily's three leaves in the arms of France,. meanet.h l')icty, Justice, u,nd Charity.' So far, the general impression of a peculiar regard to f lis beautiful and fragrant Ho" er; but the early Petsians attached to it t), peculia]




The line is a cord, to the end of which a piece of lead so that it may hang perpendicularly. The line is one of the working tools of a Past l\iaster. Operative luasons make U~e of the line to prove that their work is duly perpen.. dicular, but by it the Past l\iaster is taught the criterion of moral rectitude, to avoid dissimulation in conversation and ac· tion, and to direct his steps to the path which leads to a glorious LINE.





See Parallel linu.

See Phallus.


See Judah.

LODGE. The room in which a reguJarly constituted bodS of Freemasons assemble, for the purposes connected with the institution, is call-ed a lodge. * The terln is also used to designate the collection of l\Iasons thus assenlbled; just as we use the word "church" to signify the building in which a congregation of worshippers assembles, as well as the congregation itself. Our English brethren, in their lectures, define a lodge to be "an assembly of Masons, just, perfect, and regular, who are nH~t together to expatiate on the mysteries of the order; just, because it contains the volume of the sacred law, unfolded; perfect, fron) its numbers, every order of Ina-sonry being virtually present by its representativ'es, to ratify and contiI'n} its proceedings; and f'egular, from its Warrant of Constitution, which implies the sanction of the Grand l\iaster for the countrywhe~e the Ivdge is held.." A lodge of Freemasons must


legally constituted; that is, it

• Ragon (Coure Philosophique )~ays that the word lodge is derivoll fron. the Sa.nscrit loga, which signifies the world. Thi15 is illustrated by ourarti;l« on the }"to'fm of the Lodge..



.llust be in possession of a Charter or Warrant of COIJstitution, eIlHtnating from the G-rand Lodge in whose jurisdiction it is situated. This warrant nlust also be in full force, for if it has been revoked or recalled by the Grand I..lodge from which it eluanatcd, the lodge ceases to be legally constituted, and all its proceedings are void. .A, body of l\iaSQliS asse!llbled to transact Dlasonic business, without tIle nuthority of a warrant of consti.. tution, or under a warrant whose authority has been revoked, is styled a U Clandestine Lodge," and its nlenlbers are called "Clandestine l\fasons." In thus meeting, they are guilty of a high masoniJ misdemeanor, and become, by the very act itself, expelled from路 the order. This restriction in respect to the constitution of a lodge did not always exist. Formerl,y any number of brethren* Dlight assemble at any place for the perfornulDce of work, and when so assembled, were authorized to receive into tlhe order, brothers a.nd fellows, and to practice the rites of masonry.. The ancient charges were tIle only standard for the regula tiOIl of tIleir conduct. The l\'Iaster of the lodge \vas electeclln~o tenl1Jore, and his authority terluinated with the dissolution of the meeting oyer which he had presided, unless the lodge wns" perrnanently csta blished at any particular place. ~ro the general assembly of the craft, held once or t\\1ice a year: all the brethren indiscrhuinately were UlnelHtble, and to thnt power alone. But on the forlllation of Grand Lodges, this inherent right of asseulbling was volunta.. rily surrendered by the brethren and the lodges, and vested in the Grand Lodge. And from this thne warrants of constitution date their existence. t In addition to tllis charter or ,varr~tnt of constitution, ever.y well regulated lodge is nlso furnished with a Bible, square, and compasses, whicll by their synlbolic signification enlighten th~ .OUf unwritten Inws sa,)' thu,t three must rule a lodge, five may hold a lodge, lIut only sayan can mnkc n lodgl' IH~rfel~t. t The first wn.rrnnt grantNl lJy the Grand Lodge of England" after ita orpnization in 1717, is dated 1718.




mind of the l\lason and guide hinl in t.he path of his duty. A lodge has also a peculiar fOfIll, support, and covering, and is s~. . plied with furniture, ornaments, lights and jewels, all of which afford means of syln bolie instruction, and are explained in the third section of the first lecture. Officet路s.-...~ lodge of Ancient York Masons is composeq of t he following officers. A Worshipful l\laster, a Senior and a ,Junior 'Varden, 'Treasurer, Secretary, Senior and Junior Deacon, and a Tiler. The latter is not necessarily a member of the lodge. To these, some lodges add two Stewards, and sometimes a Chaplain. The Senior Deacon is always appointed by the Master, and the Junior by the Senior Warden. The Stewards are generally appointed by the Junior Warden. The Tiler is sometimes elected by the lodge, and sometimes appointed by the Master. The rest of the officers are always elected annually. The officers in a lodge of the French rite are more numerous, some corresponding, and others bearing no analogy to those in a York lodge. They are as follows: Le Venerable or W orshipfull\Iaster, Pre=llier and Second Surveillants or Senior and Junior Wardens, Orator, Treasurer, Secretary, I-lospitaler or collector of alrr~s, the Expert, cOlnbining the duties of the Senior Deacon and an exarnining cOlnlnittee, l\laster of Oe1'el11onie8, Architecte, who attends to the decoration of the lodge, and superintends the financial <lepartment, Archiviste or J.Jibrarittl1, I{eeper of the Seal, l\lclstor of the Banquets or Steward, and Guardian of the Temple or Tiler. In lodges of the Scotch rite, there are, in addition to these, two Deacons, a Standard Bearer, and a Sword Bearer.. In the rite of l\lisrainl, the Wardens are called l\ssessori, and the Deacons, Acolytes.

S;;rnbol拢c SignificattO'n of the Lodge.-Symbolicallya l\'Iason's lodge is a representation of the world. Its clouded canopy is an eIllblem of those mansions of unutterable bliss, where the G'r~nd ~Iaster of the IT niverse forever reigns; whose all-seeing eye De.. holds, with uDceasing cOIllplacency, the efforts of his creatures ~<:



do his will. To that abode of the blessed tla l'Iason it taught to aspire, while the T?ath is indicated by the theological ladder, whoso principal rOUl1db are faith, hope, and charity. The Sun, the eter.. nal fountain of light, the unwearied ruler of' the day, shines in the lodge, ~1 bright exponent of his Creator's power, while the ~loon, the glorious orb of night, repeats the lesson of divine munificence. 11ere, too, are we taught, that the vast universe over which this Otunipotence presides, was no work of chance, but that its foundations are laid in wisdom, supported by strength, and adorned 'with beauty. And as the presence of the Almighty illuminates with refulgent splendour the most distant recesses of the universe, so is the lodge enlightened by the presence of hiSl revealed will. And hence the Bible, as it is of all lights the most pure, is to the l\fason the most indispensable. And, finally, as this world, vast in its extent and complicated in its motions, is governed and regulated with unceasing concord and httrmony, so is the lodge controlled and directed by the saIne spirits of peacp" which, enulnuting in brotherly love, relief, and truth, find their full fruition in universal charity.. The lodge, technically speaking, in reference to the ceremony of consecration, is a piece of furniture rnade in ilnitation a'f the Ark of the Covenant, which was constructed by 13azaleel, accord.. ing to the form prescribed byG"od himself, and which, after the erection of the Temple, was kept in the floly of lIolies. As it contained the table of the laws, the lodge contains the Book of Constitutions and the warrant of constitution by the Grand Lodge. Such is the general usage in i\.lnerica, but, in l~nglund the "tracing boards" are technically caned" the loJge." [n London the t~rnl " lodge board" is used, which at a consecration is covered with a white cloth, and on it the vessels of corn wine and oHare placed. LODGli] ROO:\f. The l\iasons 011 the continent of Europe have a prescribed form or ritual of building, aeeording to whose qirectious it is absolutely necessary thatcvery bull for maRolliQ



purposes shall be erected. No such regulation exists amoD6 the fraternity of this country or Great Britain. Still the usages of the craft., and the object8 of convenience in the udministration of Jur rites, require that certain general rules should be followed in the construction of a lodge 1'00111. These rules relate to its position, its fOfIll, and its decorations. A. lodge room should always, if possible, be situated due east and west. This position is not absolutely necessary, and yet it is so far so as to demand that some sacrifices should be made, if possible} to obtain so desirable a position. It should also be isolated, where it is practicable, from all surrounding buildings, and sho'uld always be placed in an upper story. No lodge should ever be held on the ground floor. ~rhe form of a lodge room should be that of a parallelogralU or oblong square, at least one-third larger from east to west than it is froln north to south. The ceiling should be lofty, to gi va dignity to the appearance of the hall, as well as for the purposes of health, by compensating, in SOIue degree, for the inconvenience of closed windows, which necessarily will deteriora.te the quality of the air in a very short time in a low room. The approaches to the lodge room, from without should be angular, for, as Oli,"er says, "A straight entrance is unmasonic, and cannot be tolerated."* There should be two entrances to the room, which should be situated in the west, and on each side of the Senior Warden's station. The one on his right hand is for the introduction of visitors and melnbers, and leading from the Tiler's room, is called the Tiler's, or the outer door; the other, on his left, leading from the prepa,ration room, is known as the "ianer door," and sometinles caned the "northwest door." The situation of these two doors, as well as the rooms with which they are connected, and which are essentially necessary in a well.constructed lodge room, may be seen from the diagram in the following page, which also exhibits the seats of the officers and the arrangement of the altar and lights. .....


• Book of the

Lod~e, p.



Platform for Past Masters.

Platform for Put :Masters•

Senior Deaeon. • Treasurer.

• •


• -p.I'8.M.EY.Js.

·u"p.Iv.M. .lo!unr



~ d



~A ~ ~




~ = 1It •


Preparation Room.


mer. Room..






The whole of the eae:t end of the ~odge should be elevated

from the iloor by a platform ruuning across the rOOll, and as路 cended by three steps. The windows should be either in the roof of t.he building, or at least very high from the floor. Th~ Helvetian ritual prescribes that the lower part of the window should be seven and a half feet f1'0111 the surface of the floor. By tllese nleans our mysteries are adequately secured from the profanation of "prying eyes." The decorations of a lodge should be altogether masonic. The following directions on this su!tiect are given in the Helvetian ritual of building: "A good lodge may be known by its ornaments. In most lodges, all sorts of decorations are heaped together, without the slightest attention to propriety. There should be no picture, statue or emblem of heathen deitios, nor any bust or picture of heathen philosophers. The proper images or emblems are to be taken froul the Bible, which alone contains the authentic records of ancient nlasonry.. The decorations should be masonic emblems, intersecting triangles, the triple tau, square and com passes, death's head, &0.; these, if properly managed, can be made highly ornamentaL" The floor of the lodge should be covered with a carpet or oil cloth, made of a Mosaic pattern; and the ceiling, if painted, should represent the "clouded canopy." The curtains, cushions, &0., of a symbolic lodge, should be of light or sky blue, and those of a chapter room scarlet.

LOGIC. The art of reasoning, and one of the seven liberal arts and sciences, whose uses are inculcated in the second degree rhe power of right reasoning, which distinguishes the man of sane lnind from. the madman and the idiot, is deemed essential tc the Mason, that he IDfty comprebend both his rights and his du.. ties. And hence the unfortunate beings just named, who ara withcut this necessary mental quality, are denied adm.ission illto

the Q+dCf.




An old word, signifying, most probably, a disre-

putable person. Webster defines lown, which see:IDS to be the same word, without the old Saxoll termina,t,ion en, "a low fellow/' The word is found in the "Ancient Charges at the constituting of a Lodge," belonging to the Lodge of Antiquity, London. " Twelvethly, Tha.t a l\laster or Fellow nlake not a mould stone, square, nor rule, to no lo~oen, nor let no lo'wen worke within their lodge, nor without to mould stone."

LUSTRATION. A purification by water. This was an indispensable pre-requisite to initiation into all the ancient mysteries. The lustration in Freemasonry is mental. No aspirant can be admitted to participate in our sacred rites until he is thoroughly cleansed from all pollution of guilt. In some of the higher degrees of the Ancient and Accepted rite a lustration or ablution is practised. LUX. Light. Freemasonry anciently received, among other names, that of "I.;u.x," because it is to be regarded as the doctrine of Truth, and in this sense Iuney be said to be coeval with creation, as an elnanatrion from tlleDivine Intelligence. Among the Rosicrucians, light was the knowledge of the philosopher's stone, and Moshehn says that in chen] ieal Ian&ruage the cross was an emblem of light, because it contains within its figure the forms of the three letters, of which L VX or light is composed


LUX E TENEBRIS. Light out oj A masonic motto, expressive of the dbject of masonry, and of what the tru~

Maaon supposes himself to have attained.



M. ~IA.A.CHA. In the 10th degree of the Scotch Rite we are informed that certain traitors fled to " l\1aacha king of Cheth," by WhOlll they were delivered up to I(ing Solomon on his sending for them. In 1 I(ings ii. 39, we find it recorded that two of the serYants of Shiu1ei fled from Jerusalem to "Achish, son of ~laacha king of Gath." I am inclined to believe from this pas.. sage, that the carelessness of the early copyists of the ritual led to the double error of putting Oheth for Gat7b and of supposing ~ that l\tlaacha was its kjng instead of its king's father. The manuscripts of the Scotch or Ancient and Accepted rite, too often copied by unlettrned persons, show many such corruptions of Hebrew names, which modern researches must eventually correct.

MAO. A Hebrew word which is said to signify" is smitten,'1 from the verb iT':',j nacha to smite. This is not however a pure deri vation.. It may be the word pO '(nalc, "rottenness," and in

its appropriate place would then signify" t}iJere 'tS rotteness," or "he is rotten." MAR.

The Hebrew interrogative pronoun ;'0 signi(ying



Four Hebrew words

which the prophet Isaiah was ordered to write upon a tablet, and which were afterwards to be the name of his SOD. They signify, "make haste to the prey, fall upon the spoil," and were prognostic of the sudden ~ttack of the Assyrians. They may be said, in their masonic use, to be symbolic of the readiness action which should distinguish a warrior.

'lAKE." To make



is a very ancient term., used

l\IAL-l\IAR" ~n the oldest charges extant, as synonymous with the verb " initiate." ~lALI. ]~T.

One of the worldng tools of a Mark l\Iaster,

laving the SUDle erublclllatic Illcfuling as the common gavel in the 11~ntered ApprentiL'c's degree. It teaches us to correct the irregularities of tClupcr, and, like enlightened reason, to c~J.rb the aspirations of unbridled alubitioll, to depress the maligni'\1 of envy, and to DJodQrnte the ebullition of anger. It relieves the mind from all the excrescences of vice, and fits it, as u ,veIl wrought stone, for that exalted station in the great teulple of nature, to which, as anelnnnation ot the Deity, it is entitled. The Iuallet or setting luaul is also an cll1blcm of the third degree, and is said to have been the ilnplen}(~nt by ,,"hich the

stones were set up at the tClllple. founded with the comwon gavel.

It is often inlpl'Operly con-

l\I.A.. NU./.\1". Belonging to the 11and, frotn the I..atin rnan'1lS, a hand. l\Iasons :,tre, in a pet~uliar llU1UIlCl', rCIllinded by the hand, of t11e necessity of a prudent :uHI careful observance of all their pledges and duties, nud hence this organ suggests certain sJmbolic instructions ill relation to the virtue of pru... dence. ~!ARI{.

It is a plate of gold or silver, worn by l\Iark The form is generally that of tL I\.Inrk l\I~lster'.s keystone, within the cireular inscription there being engraved a doyice, selected by the o'\vnOl\ 'rhis on being adopted by a l\Inrk l\laster, is recorded in the 1300k of )Iarks, and it is not lawful for hhncver after,\"ardF; to exclulugo it ibr any other.. It is a peculiar pledge of friendship, and its prcscntnition hy a. destitute brother to another :\Iark :\Iastcr, clainls frolu the Intter certaIn offices of friendship and hospitality, whicb urc or solelun oblibration alllong the brethren of this degree. ~lasters.

Marks or pledges of this kind were of frc<.{ucnt i5

us~ amQU~


MAR the ancients, under the nUlne of tesse1 a hOtspitalis and "ar· rhabc,.;' The nature of the tesr~era hosp£tal£t~, or, as the Greeks called it, (fuj.J.{301ov, cannot be better described than in the words of the Scboliast on the l\Iedia of Euripides, Ve 613, where Jason promises l\ledea, on her parting from him, to send her the s~ym.. boIs of hospitality which should procure her a kind reception in foreign countries. It was the custom,says the Scholiast, when a guest had been entertained, to break a die in two parts, one of which parts was retained by the guest, so that if, at any future period he required assistance, on exhibiting the brokp!l pieces of the die to each other, the friendship was renewed. Plautus, in one of his comedies, gives us an exemplification of the manner in which these tesser1£, or pledges of friendship were used at Rome, whence it appears that the privileges of this friendship were exten~ded to the descendants of the contracting parties. Poonulus is introduced, inquiring for Agorastocles, with whose family he had forme)ely exchanged the tessera. "Ag. Antidiularchus' adopted SOD, If you do seek, I am the very man.. J::>an. II ow I do I hear aright? Ag. I am the son Of old Antidamus. e

Pm'fl,. If so, I pray you Compare with me the hospitable die. I've brought this with me. ..AgIO Prithee, let me see it. It is, indeed, the very counterpart Of mine at home. Pan. All hail, my welcome guest, Your father was my guest, Antidamus. Your father was my honoured guest, and thea This hospitablo die with me he parted."* • Ag. Siqnidcm Antidimal'ehi qut£:"'is adopta.titiUIQ. Ego sum ipsus quem tu qureris. Pam. Bem! '1uirl (\.~'l ~\\,I],tQ?



These tesserre, thus used, like the l\.Iark l\Iaster's IDni i\", f2r the purposes of perpetuating friendship and rendering its unio.: rnore sacred, were constructed in the following Inan ner: they tl'IJk a small piece of bone, ivory or stone, generally of a square or cubical form, and dividing it into equal parts, each \vrote his O\Vtl nalue, or SOUle other inscription) upon one of the pieces; tbe} then lllude a mutual exchange, and, lest f] lling into other handt it should give occasion to inlposture, the pledge was preserved with the greatest secrecy, and no one knew the name inscol :bcd upon it except the possessor. The prjmitive Christians seenl to ha, ve adopted a similar prac~ tice, and the tessera was carried by theln in their travels, as a means of introduction to their fellow Christians. A favourite in.. scription with them were the letters 11. r. A. II., being the initials of nartjp, r,o~, Arwy I/'"J€u/La, or Father, Son, find ITaly Ghost. The use of these tesserro, in the place of written certificates, continued, says Dr. lIarris, until the 11th century, at which time they are mentioned by Burchardus, .A.rchbisbop of 'VorIna, in a visitation charge. * The arrhabo was a siluilar lrcepsake, fOflned by breaking apiece of money in two. The etymology of this word shows dis.. tinctly that the ROllUU1S borrowed the custOlll of these pledges from the ancient Israelites. Iror it is derived from the Hebrew arabon, a p~edge. '\Vith this detail 01 Jhe CtlStOIlIS of the ancients before us, we can easily explain the w'cll-kno\vn passage in Revelation, ii. 17 "To him that overcolneth will I give a white stone, and in it a


-"---.." " -

.Ag. Antidamoo me gnatum osse. Pa-n. Si ita ost, tesseram Conferre si vis hospitalern, eccam, attuli• .Ag. Agedum hue ostende; est per probe; nam ha.beo domlllD. Pan. 0 mi hospes, salve UlultUUl; nam mihi tuus pa.ter,

Pater tnus ergo hO.SpC8, Antidauul,s fuit: B~c

mit bospitalia tossera cum ·110 fuit: Pel! )Ull.

t: Harrt.,


Diss. on the Teo. Hospit., 25



V. J

it. c. 2, 'Hr. H.




.o~w nU1l1e written, whieh no Inall knoweth suving he that fOneivcth it.'-' ~rhatis, to borrow tbe int\:rpretation or flarris, 拢4 rro hilU that overccnneth \vil1 give a pledge of lily affection, which shall constitute hill} my friend, and entitle him to privi~

leges and honours, of which none else can know the value or the cxtent.* ~11\.RI(


According to ll1asonic tradition, the


l\len were the Wardens, as the l\Iark I\fnsters lvern the i\!:~;:.:t~:::. of the Fellow Craft lodges,t at the building of the Te~~r:.;. They distributed the n1urks to the workrnen, and luade the first inspection of the work, 路which ,,~as afterwards to be approved by the overseers. .A.8 a degree, the l'Iark l\Ian is not recogni.sC'd in America, and I anl not H\'vare that it is worked as such in England, although Carlyle gives us its ritua1. Oliver, at least, mentions it only incidentally in his chronological catalogue.

MARI{ l\11\..STElt. !'he 4th degree in the ,Arncrican rite. 'Ve are t()ld in 1Ioly "\Vrit, tlHtt SolOlHon f'['Jployod 113,600cruftsn.len in the construetioll of the Tetnple. ~ro control this vast Il1ultitude of' vrorkluen, to inspeet their work \vith accuracy, and to pny their "tvngcs 'Witll punctuality and correctness, so that hartnony Il1ightcontinuc to ulnorlg all, lHllst have required a judieious S;fstCIH of gov(~rrnnenl-, in which every avenue to iUlpositiol1 ,,"as guarded with unceasing vigilnnee, Bnd the very best Incans adnpted of rew'nrtling the industriou:;;, and of discovering and punishing the idle. \\Tith such a s'ystelll a10ne was it possible to construct an edifiec of the size of Solomonjs Ttnnplc in butl little more than seven years, wldle tlle Temple, of Diana, at Ephestls, in every respect inferior to it, oe路 ... Harris, Diss. on the Only those ,vorldnlc; Fellow Crafts on 1\fount . all supposition, though a


'Of the Mark degree.


Tess. Hospit., vii in the qUllrri(ls were; r suppose, thus govt\rned. 'fhe I.Jebanon \vere differently nrrnngod. This is, howtJver, difforent theory would be incongruot4s with the history



eu.picd the tllnazing period of two hundred and tVlent,:y years in building. ~rhis sy.steill of governluent., ~Iark lVla.sters assert, is preserved ill their degree. and its historical ceremonies consist principally in a recapitulation of the manner in which this work was conducted, exeulplifying, by the relation of an event which is said to have occurred, the necessity of circulnspection on the one part, and. of honest industry on the other. The degree also inculcates the virtue of ch:trity, and draws still closer the bonds of mutual friendship, which unite us into one COlllluon brother.. hood of love. In this country, the l\Iark l\laster's is the first degree given in a Royal Arch Chapter. Its officers are a Right \Vorshipful l\Iaster, Senior and Junior "rarclens, Secret.ary, Treasurer, Senior and Junior Deacons, ~Iaster, Senior and Junior Over.. seers. The degree cannot be conferred when less than six are present, who, in that case, lnust be the first and lust three officers above nUllled. The working tools are the l\Iallet and indenting Chisel, (which see.) In England, the l\It1rk degree, at Olle time not recognized, is now pr:1ctised under u distinctorg~'Lnizut.ion. The Gnl,nd IJodge of l\Iark l\Iaster l\Ias()I1sofJ~nglancl anti "Tales was founded in the year 1856. In,thedegree is conferred under the authority ofthe Grand Chapter. ~la,rk l\Ia.,.;;ters'Lodges ill .t\.meric~l 'were f()ftl1crly some-timeR organized independently of chapters, deriving their wa,r路 r~ults directly froln a ()rand Cha.pter. But such lodges have lat:fl1y been forbidden by the revised eonstitution of the GeneraJ Grttnd Chapter of the United States, and no longer exist in th< States which acknowledge the supremacy of that body. l\'IARK OF 1~II1TI CRA.1?T. l\Iasonic tradition informs us that, at the building of King Soloulon's temple, every l\lason was provided 'with a peeuliar 1na1'k, \vhich he placed upon i'is work, t') distinguish it fronl that of his fellows. By tfle aid of these n lrks the overseers were enabled, without difficulty, t~ ..u*



traoe any piece of def'Wtive work to the faulty workman, and

every chance of imposition, among so large an assemblage of craftsmen as were engaged at the Temple, was thus effectually prevented. History confirnls the truth of this tradition, because it clparly shows that a similar usage has always existed among operatI\'e Masons. These marks have been found at Spire, Worms, Strusburg, Rheims, Basle, and other places; and M. Didron, who re.. ported a series of observations, * on the subject of these 1\fasons' marks, to the Co-mite Ht¡sto'}'=iq'ue des AI/,ts et lJlonurnens, of Paris, believes that he can discover in them references to distinct schools or lodges of Masons. He divides them into two classes: those of the overseers and those of the men who worked the stones.' The marks of the first class consist of monogrammatic characters; those of the second, are of the nature of symbols, such as shoes, trowels, nlallets, &0. .A. correspondent of the Freemason's Quarterly Review states that similar marks are to be found on the stones which compose the walls of the fortress of Allahabad, which was erected in 1542, in the East Indies. "'l'he walls," says this writer, " are conlrosed of large oblong blocks of red granite, and are almost every \9'here covered by masonic eU1blerlls, which evince some.. thing more than mere ornament. They are not confined to one particular spot, but are scattered over the walls of the fortres~, in many places as high as thirty or forty feet from the ground. It is quite certain that thousands of stones on the walls, bearing thnse nlasonic sylnbols, were carved, marked, and numbered in the quarry, previous to the erection of the building." In the ancient buildings of England and France, these marks are to be found in great abundance. In a cOlnmunication, on this subject, to the London Society of Antiquaries, Mr. Godwin states, "that, in his opinion, these marks, if collected and com• Quoted by Godwin, in the ArchroologicnJ. Transactions, and by Oliver, II his Historical Landmarks.



pared, might assist in connecting the various bands of operatl'\ 'CS,

who, under the pl'otection of the church-ulystically unitcllspread thernselves over Europe during the ~Iiddle .A.ges, and arc l\Ir. Godwin describes these nUtl'ks, as varying in length from two to seven inches, and as formed by a single line, slightly indented, ~onsi8ting chiefly of crOS8e8 1 known masonic symbols, emblcrl:ls of the Trinity and of eternity; the double triangle, tro,vel, square, &c. The same writer observes that, in [t conversation, in September, 1844, with a ~Iason at! work on the Canterbury Cathedral, he ,( found that many l\fasons (all who were Freelnasons) had the,jr mystic marks handed dO~Tn froIn generation to generation; this man had his mark from his father, and he received it from his grandfather¡"t

known as Freenulsons."*

~lARSHAL.. An officer common to several masonic bodies, whose duty is to regulate processions and other public soleUl'" nities ~IARTINISl\I. A rite or lnodifieation of nlasonry, instItuted at Lyons, in France, towards the end of the last century, by the l\Iarquis de St. l\fa.rt,in. St. l\.Iartin was a disciple of PaschaJis, the rite established by WhOD1, in 1754, he attempted to reform.! The degrees in l\Iartin's rite were ten, divided into two classes or tetnples. The first temple conlprised the degrees of . .A.pprcnticc, l?ellow Oraft, ~Iaster, Ancient l\Iaster, lDlect, Grand Architect, • The Travelling Freemasons, who are described in this work under that title. t I refer tho Inasonic sttHlent, who desires still further to investiga.te this intereating subjoot, to the 15th Lecture of Bro. Oliver's Historical Lttndmarks; .. work to which I hn..\"o been deeply indebted in the course of Iny masonic studies. Godwin bn.s 2llso written learnedly on this topic, in yarious articles in the Archooologi(~nl Transuctions, tho Builder" at) d other One of his articles I have caused to be fe-published in the Southern and Westarn :Masonic Miscellany, vol. ii. No. 12. t See the word Pasc1Jali~..



and Master of the Secret. The degrees of the second telnple were Prince of Jerusalem, Knight of Palestine, and Knight Kadosh. l\Iartinism extended from J.Jyons into the principal cities of France, Germany, and even Russia.*


The etymo19gy of the words

lnason and masonry have afforde i 11lasonic writers an ample op-

portunity of exhibiting their research and ingenuity. Some have deri"ved t.hem froul the Persian l\:lagi, or disciples of Zoroaster; while Hutchinson offers the conjecture, that theJ are corrupted from the Greek J.lfufJT1jpwv, a mystery, and 11fut1rr;~, one initiated into the ancient nlysteries. lIe seeU1S, too, to think that jJ.[ason may probably corne from lUaw 2001,1, I seel,; 1vhat is safe, and 'l'lUl... sonr!J from ]Jf€t1oupav€w, I a1n £n the ?nidst of heaven, or from the Hebrew Greek J.f!lI.':oupwO, one of the constell~tions of the zodiac. A writer the European l\fagazine, for February, 1792, who signs hiInselfGcorge Drake, attributing to nlusonry a Druidical origin, derives l\lason from what he calls rnay's on, or the men of l\'Iay, on being'nLen as in the li'rench on flit, and fJnay's on arc, therefore, the Druids, whose principal celebrations were in the month of l\Iay. I~astly, we nU1Y add, as a curious eoincidence, at. lc~1st, that the IIobro\v VDO, 1nassang or ?nasan, signifies a stone quarry- All these suggestions, hovvever, seern to lne to be Dlore fanciful than true; it is luore probable that the ,,"ord nlust be tttken in its ordinary signification of a worker in 'stone, and thus it indicates the origin of the order from as 1ciety of pructicalartificers.


MASONRY. l\Iasonry' is of two 'kinds, operative and speculative. Operative masonry is engaged in the coD:5tr"l.lction of material edifices, by Ineans of stone and marble; speculative rnasonry is occupied in the erection of a spiritunl teulplc, by nlean.: of symbolic instruction. ,]~he latter, which is also called Free· masonry, adopts and sylubolizes, for its sacred purpose, the im. • Clavel, lUst. Pitt., p. 110.



picments and Dlaterials which are used in the forlner. Hence operative masonry is an art, and speculative, a science j and while the objects of the one are profane and temporal, those of the other are sacred and eternal. l\[l\SON'S Dl\.lJGIr:r]~~I{I. 'l:lds is an androgynous degree> invented in the 'Vestern States, ar,.d given to l\'IuJster :rtlasons, their wives, and unmarried sister~ and daughters. I t refers to circulllstances recorded in the xi. and xii. chapters of the Gospel of St. John. M_~STER



AD VITAlVI. .A.nother name for the degree of of all symbolic lodges, which see.


See Grand ilfaster.

l\'IASTER IN ISRAEL.. See Intendant of tILe Buz7ding. l'IASTER l\Il\.SON. The third degree in all the differeni rites.. In this, 'which is the perfection of- syrllbolic or ancient craft masonry, the purest of truths are un veiled alllid the rnost awful cerelnonies. None but he VdlO has visited the 1101y of holies, and travelled the1'o(ul (~f lJ(lril, can have any conception of the l11ysterics unt()lded in this degree. Its SOlOlllll observanees diffuse a sacred a'we, uud inculcate u, lesslJtl of religious tlruthand it is not until the neophyte has rCitelled this SUllHllit, of our ritual, that he eru) exclrdlll \yith j()yful aeeents,in the langnago of the sage of old, cc l}url'l~a, l!J'YureA~a," I IH1V(~ f.:>Ulhl at last the long-sought. treasure. In the languagef)f the h~nrned nud zenlou& IlutchinsoIl, sC)lnewhat in its 1.4 tl1C l\:Iason represents a nUHl under the doetrine of Raved fronl thf路 grave of iniquity, and raise!l to the Htith r.f ~ah~atinn. It testifies our faith in the resurre(~tiotl of the ~uHI., ","hile it; inculctl.tes a practical lesson of prudence and un~hriHkiIlg fidelity, it inspire~



the most cheering hope of that final reward which belongs alonE: to the "j ust tunda perfect." This was the last and highest of the three degrees in ex.istence at the construction of the 'first temple~ and it is, therefore, called " th3 perfection of ancient craft masonry." ll"rom the sublinlity of the truths developed in it, and from the solemn nature of the cereluonies, it has received the appellation of the "sublime d~ gree." From this degree alone can the officers of a lodge be ~hosen; and, though Fellow Crafts are permitted to speak, the privilege of votiuq is cOldined to Master Masons. ~[A.STEI{ OF A LODGE. The presiding officer, in a blue or symbolic lodp-e, is called "the 'Vorshipful Master." In the French lodges, he is styled "~e Venerable," when the lodge is opened in the first or second degree, and "Le ires l'enerable," when in the third. The power of a lVlaster in his lodge is absolute. fIe is the supreme arbiter of all questions of order, so far as the 'rJleeting is concerned., nor can any appeal be made from his decision to that of the lodge. He is amenable for his conduct to the Gral1d Lodge alone, and to that body must every comphtint ~1.gaillst him be Illude. :For no misdemeanor, howeTer great, can he be tried by his lodge, for, as no one has a right to preside there in his presence except hitnself~ it would be absurd to suppose that he could sit as the judge in his own case. This is the decision that has been made on the subject oy every Grand Lodge in the United States which has entert~Lined the question, and it Inay be 'lOW considered as a settled law of masonry. He is elected annually, but must have pre'viously presided as a Warden, except iu the case of a ne'wly constituted lodee, or where every Past Master and WarJen, as well as the present l\'Iaster, have refused to serve, or have died, resigned, or been expelled.. lIe is, with his Wardens, the representative of his lodge in the Grand Lodge, and is there bound to speak, act, or vote, as the lodge shall, by resolution, direct him. The right of instruction forms a tyd.rt of our ancient regulations.. He is to be treated with the utulost fee



verence a.nd respect while in the chair, ,lnd his cOlulnand.; IU:.rst be implicitly obeyed. ~~hc ancient charges on this subject arc ex~ plicit, " 1"-ou are not to hol~l private cOlnluittees, or separate conversation, "'ithout leave froul the ~laster, nor to talk of any thing impertinent or unseelnly, nor interrupt the n.laster,; * . . * * * to pay due re'V'orence to your l\1:lster, \Vardens and Fellows, ULd rut tl':0.rn to worship." -.t1ncif.nlt (}harrgcs, § vi. 1. The jewels and furniture of the lodge are placed under the care (It' the l\laster, he being responsible to the lodge £)1' their safe custody. It is his dut.y to see tha.t the landn1arks of the order be not infringed, that the regulations of the Grand Lodge and the by-laws of his own lodge he strictly enforced, that :111 his officers faithfully pcrf(Jrlll their duties, and that no ineligible candidate be admitted. fIe ha.s the right of congregating his lodge whenever he thinks proper, and of closing it at any time that in his judgment Inny seem best. 1\Tith respect to the relnoval of the lodge, the ~Iaster possesses peculiar privileges according to the regulations of the G'rnnd I.Jodgc of :Englund, ndopted in 1735. I>y tll(~se no tll()tion ftn" removal of the lodge carl be Illude during the absence of' tho l\1n.ster. l~l1t t.his is a ulcrcly looal regulation, and docs not appear, gener~llly, to have been adopted by the fraternit.y in ",:\.merica. IJastly, the ~.raster has particularly the charge of the warrant of constitution, antI is empowered to seIt~ct his Beni.)r Dcaeon fl'OlU among the lVlaster ~I~lsons of the lodge. The jewel of the l'Iastcr is a square; beeause, us the square is empl-oyed by operative l\Iasons to fit and adjust the F-tones of a building, so that t\11 the parts ~l).al1 properly agree, so the :l\.Iaster of the lodge is adnlonished~ 1)y the syulbolic llleuning of the square upon his breui3t to pre:;er,\Te tllut Inoral deportrnent ~nnong r,

the members, which should ever characterize good :i\Iasons, so that no ill.. fceling or angry disc.ussions may arise to iTnpair the

h:J.TUlony of the meeting. I cannot better close this art1icle than with the follovting ex.. tract from ~e writin~s of Dr. OliverI in re1a.tion to the qualifi


cations of a l\laster of D lodge. " I urn decidedly of opinion that luuch general knowledge is neces::;ary to expand the Inind, and fan1iliarize it with 111USOllic discussions and illustrations, before a . brother can he pronounced e01l1petent to undertake the arduous duty of governing a lodge. l\. nInster of the work ought to have nothing to learn. lIe s110uld be fully qualified, not only to instl'uct the younger brethren, but to resolve the doubts of those who are lllore advanced in nUlsonic knowledge; to reconcile apparent eontradictions; to settle chronologies, and to elucidate obscure facts or lllJTstic legends, as 'well as to uns\ver the objeetions and to render pointless the ridicule of our uninitiated ad... ' versaries."* l\IASTER OF 0 ...1-\. \T.i\.LR.Y. An officer in a Council of Knights of the Red· Cross, whose duties are, in some respects, similar to those of a Junior Deacon in a symbolic lodge. l\f.A.STFJI=t OF CI~ILBJl\~lONIES. An officer found in many of the lodges of England, and in all of those of the Continent flis duties are principally those of a conductor of the candidate The office is not recognised in the Yark ritual as practised in this country, though I think it is to be fouud in some of the lodges of New York, and perhaps occasionally elsewhere. ~IASTER


The Secretary of a Coun6l:

of Knights of the Red Cross.

lVI.A.. STER OF FINANCES. K.nights of the Red Cross.

The Treasurer of a Council of

l\I.A.STER OF INFANTRY. An officer in a Council of «nights of the Red Cross, whose duties are, in some respects ~imilar to those of a Senior Deacon in a symbolic Iodge~

• Hilt. of Initiationt Pref., p. ~


l\1.A.STER O:B' THE PALACE. An officer in a Council ,f I(nights of the Red Cross, whose duties are peculiar to the degree. :UI]~Dlrr]~路RRA.N}1JJ\.N


PASS. A side degree, sometime:; in this country on ROJal Arch l\Iasons. It has no

!Hcture or legend l\11~ETIN(jSOli' 1\ LO])G:bl The Dleetings of lodgos are regulnr, and extra or clnergent. Itcgular meetings are l1elcl under the provision of the by-laws, but extra nleetings are ealled by the order of the '~Yorshipful l\luster. It is one of the aneicnt laws, that no ex.tra nleeting can alter, an:"nd, or '3xpunge the proceedings of a regular lllceting. The meetings of lodges arc termed " COllllllunications," and this word should always be used in the nlinutes, sumlnonses, and other masonic documents.


I{ing of Salelu, and a Priest of the l\lost all that, we know is to be founrl in the passage;:; of Scripture rORd at the c()nfurring of the degree of IIigh l>riesthood. SOlue theologians supposed him to have heec Shell1, the son of Noah.. I-ligh God, of



The ancient ncme of t!le island of Malta.

~IE1\IPIIIS, Rlrrl~ OF. A. ~Iasonic rite, established at {'uris, in 1889, by fT. .t\.. l\Iarconis and E. N.. ~fouttet.. It afterwards extend{~d to ]3ru~se]s :lnd l\Iarseilles. It was conlposcd of ainetJ-one degrees, and is sa:i ~o have been a modificaticn of the rit.e of l\Iisrialn. Its' exist{~nce has been ephcl路H.;~ra'" f r it is IlttW extinct, or practised without legal authori~l.

l\lENATZCIIIl\-I. The overseers at the building of the femple, amounting to 3300. See 1 Kings v. 15, and 2 Chron





Tho middle chamber is thus de..

scribed in the 1st book of Kings. "And against the wall of the house he built chambers round about, against the walls of the house round about, both of the temple and of the oracle: and he made chambers roune. about: the netherDlost chamber was five cubits broad, and the middle was six ~;.·cit,: broad, and th0 third was seven cubits bl'oad: for without ·n the wall of the house he made narrowed tests round about; that the beam~ should not be fastened in the walls of the house. The docr for the m,iddle charnber was in the right side of the house: and they went up with wind,tng stairs into the middle chamber, and out of the middle into the t.hird." -1 Kings, vi. 5, 6, 8. r:rhcse chambers, after the temple was completed, served for the accommodation of the priests when upon duty; in them they deposited their vestments and the sacred vessels.. But the knowledge of the purpose to which the middle chamber was appropriated, while the temple was in the course of construction, is only preserved in masonic tradition. MINUTES. The minutes of the proceedings of the lodge should always be read just before closing, that any alterations or amendments may be propoaed by the brethren; and again immediately after opening at the next communication, that they may beconfirnled. But the minutes of a regular communication are not to be read at a succeeding extra one, because, as the proceedings of a regular communication cannot be discussed at an extra, it would be unnecessary to read them; for, if incorrect: they could not be amended until the next regular communi· '33tion. ~IISRAIM, RITE OF.

This rite was composed, in 1~05J*

• Oliver says it was founded in 1782, but I think be confounds the Egyp.. masonry, of Cagliostro, with the rite of Misriam. Clavel is mY' authority for the date. ~ian



oy several l\'Iasons who hud been refused adll1isSl011 into the Supreme Council of the Scotch rite, \vhich bad been organized during that year, at l\Iilan. In 1814, it was established in France, and, in the following year, the lodge of " ..4.rc-(!ll-ciel" was constituted at Paris. Unsuccessful attenlpts were made to extend this rite, during the succeeding years, to J3clgiulu, Swe~ den, and Switzerland; and, in 1820, it \va~ carried over to Ireland, where it is said still to exist, but in a languishing conJition. l~t present but three lodges at Paris acknowledge this rite, whose "Pztissance J..Sl'1)l'e~ne," or centre of governUlcnt, is placed in that city. The Grand Orient of ~'rance has never recognised this rite as a part of masonry. The rite of l\Iisriaul, Of, as it is sometimes called, the rite of Egypt, consists of 90 degrees, divided into 4 series and 17 classes. Some of these degrees are entirely original, but many of them are borrowed from the Scotch rite. For the gratification of the curious inspector, the following list of these degrees is subjoined. The titles are translated as literally as possible from the French.



1st (Jlass: 1, Apprentice; 2, Fello,v Craft; 3, l\Iaster. 2(l Olass: .1:, Secret l\tIaster; 5, })erfect l\Iaster; 6, lVIaster through 011riosity; 7, ~laster in Israel; 8, l~llglish l\laster. 3d 9, Elect of Nine,; 10, Elect of the 'Unknown; 11, Elect of "oC"ifteen; 12, Perfect Elect; 13, Illustrious ~Jlect. 4/11; GYlas8 : ~.4, Scotch Trinitarian; 15, Scoteh li'cllow Craft; 16, Scotch Master; 17, Scotch panisiere; 18, l\laster of the Scottish rite; 19, Elect of three; Scotch l\Iaster of the sacred vault of Jflnlcs \"'I. t 21, Scotch Master of St. Andrew. 5th (,"'las8: 22, _~rchi足 teet; 23, Grand Architect ;24, Architecture; 25, A.pprontice Perfect Architect; 26, Feliow Craft I erfect A.rchitect; 27, ~laster Perfect Architect; 28, Perfect Architect; 29, Sublime 8~otch Master; 30, Sublime Scotch ~raster of Heroden.. 6th 26



Class . . 31, lloyal ...J\.rch; 32, Grand .A.xe; 33, Sublime Knight of Election, Chief of the 1st Series.



7th (Jlass: 34, Knight of the Sublime Election; 85, Prus.. sian Knight; 36, I(night of the TClnple; 37, I(night of the Eagle; 38, l<night of the Black Eagle; 39, Knight of the Red IUagle; 40, "\Vhite l(night of the East ; 41, Knight of the :B~ast. 8th 42, Oomlnander of the East; 43, Grand Comma,nder of the East; 44, Archi teet of the Sovereign Cornmanders of the Temple; 45, Prince of Jerusalem. 9th G'tlass : 46, Sovereign Prince Rose Croix of Kilwinning and flerodenj 47) I(llight. of the West; 48, Sublime Philosophy; 49, Chaos the first, dis.. ereet; 50, Chaos the second, wise j 51, Knight of the Sun. lOt.1\ Class: 52, Supreme Commander of the Stars; 53, SublinlB Philosopher; 54, First degree of the Key of l\fasonry, :\Iinor; 55, Second degree, "\Vasher; 56, Third degree, Bellows-blowe~'; 57, Fourth degree, Caster; 58, Freemason Adept; 59, Sovereign Elect; 60, Sovereign of Soyereigns ;61, l\'Iaster of Lodges.; 62, l\1ost High and l\iost l)o\verflul; 63, I\:night of Palesti:lt ;64; Knightof the 'Vhite Eagle; 65, Grnnd Elect I'Cnight I(---H; 66, Grand Inquiring Cornmander, Chief of the 2d Series.



11th Olass: 67, Benevolent Knight; 68, Knight of the Rainbow; 69, I~night of B. or IIhanuka, called Jlynaroth; 70, l\Iost. wise Israelitish prince; 12th Class: 71, Sovereign Prince Talmudhn; 72, Sovereign Prince Zadkim; 73, Grand Haram. 13th (}lass: 74, Sovereign Grand Prince IIaram; 75, S~"1e.. reign Prince IIassidim. 14tIl, Class: 76, Sovereign Gr'J.nd Prince Hasidim; 77 ,G-ralld Inspector Intendant, 11.egulator..Gcne.. ra..lof the Order, Ohief of the 3d Series.

IV.. 15~


and 16th Olasses: 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 8b, 86, whose nalnes arc concealed from all but the possesaors.. ~'. ,~'~ (!l\1;ss: '6'l, Sovereigrl Grund Princes, cOllstituted Grand

~'~6r ,.,e5



~Iasters, and legitiIllate representatives of the order for the First Series j 88, Ditto for the Second Series; 89, Ditto for the Third Serics; 90, ~\bsolute Sovereign Grand l\lastcl"; Supreme J?oweI {Jf the and Chief of 4t.h Series. The chiefs of this rite elainl the privilege, ,vhich, of course, has never been conceded to thent, of llirecting and controlling all

the other rites of J?reeuHiSIJnr.,Y, as their COllllllon source.


an eXaU1Hlu,tion of u part of its ritual, ~Hld the perusal of S(lllle of its offieiul publication~, I an] inclined to believe the assertion of its friends, ,vho clainl for it an enlinently philosophicaJ cha.. racter. 1'he organization of the rite 110\yeVCr, too cOlnplicatcll ~lIld diffuse to have e\"EH' been cOllv'cnient. l\IanJ of its degrees were founded upon, or borro'\v'cd fi-om, the Egyptian rites, and its ritual is said to be a very close imitation of the ancient system of initiation. The legend. of the third degree in this rite is abolished. H.A.B is said to linve returned to his faulily, a.fter the c"olnpletioo of the ~relnple, and to have passed the reul:liuder of his du,Ys in peace and opulence. 'rhe 8ulJstituted the rite of l\lisl'aiul fbr that aduritted all the ()t her, is CtLl'l~icd back to the days of IdlJnecll, "dIose son J"ubal, under the Il~Ul1e of Hnrio..Juhal-Ahi, is reported to have been slain bythreo traitors, IIagava, Hakina, UI1d IIareuuht.*

l\fITIIltAS, 1\IYS'j11DltIFJSOli'. The Illysteries of 1'flithras were in Persia,. 'rhey wer(~ iustitutcdZeraduHht, or Zoroastet an l~astcrn sage:'Vho5'~Cri:t the learned are una,bIe tagl'(,~, SOUle it in the reign of Dariu:'i taspes, and oth{~rse()ntendiug tha to he li r'e(i (1~ .Htries before the reign of tha~ mon~tr(~h. Zoroaster reforul(~,,; t~lP doctritH1~ of tho ~lagi) and established n ,vhi(~h ,vus tIIC: reli.. ~ion of the :l.nd (}th(~r .. See a singnlar w()rk, publi8ht~d in lS;~;), nt l'nri:<l, IJy ~rn.rc of the chiefs of the ritel undor tho uno uf H })t1 t Ol'tilt. 路芦.flu.," pp.. 25 anJ 118.


Ih~uatr路id ..:, 芦Ilh~




neighbouring nations. According to the Zend l~~Yesta, the sa¡ cred book in which these doctrines are contained, the Supreme Being, whose name signifies "Tirne without bounds," created Light in the beginning; out of this light proceeded Ormuzd, or ~,he principle of light, who, by his omnific word, created the world. He produced also the superior genii, Anlshaspands, 'who l3urround his throne, as the messengers of his will, and the inf:e.. .::ior genii, Izeds, who are the guai'dian angels of the world, and whose chief is lVlithras. The Supreme Being also created .A.hriAllan, the principle of darkness, and the Dilles, or evil genii ander him. These are incessan tIy at war with orl1lUZd, endeavouring to CfH::"Upt the virtue and destroy the happiness of the human race. But their efforts,. the Zend Avesta declares, are YJain; for, assisted by the Izeds, the triumph of the good prin. ciple has been resolved in the secret decrees of the Supreme

Being. Mithras resided in the sun, and hence that luminary was war..

dhipped as the abode of the God of Light. lIe was represented as a young man covered wi tha Phrygian ttirban, and clothed in a rna'1tle and tunic. He presses with his knee upon a bull, one of whose horns he holds in his right hand, while with the right he plunges a dagger into his neck. This was an evident a.llusion to the power of the sun when he is ill the zodiacal sign of T~turus. In Persia, the mysteries of Mithras were celebrated at the winter solstice; in Rome, where they were introduced in the time of Pompey, at the vernal equinox. They were divided into seven degrees, and t,he initiation con.. ~.3Ged ot the most rigorous trials, sometimes even terminating in :h~ death of the aspirant. No one, says Gregory Nazianzen, could be initiated into the mysterie~ of ~lithras, unle:?':! he b.~a. passed through all the trials, and proyed himself passior-less and pure.* The" aspirant at first underwent the purifications by • Orat. Oont. Jtl.lia.n. Appropriately does bfl esll t!leae triaJa ~tln~8hme1t!8.





water, by fire, and by fasting; after '\vhicL he \VUS introduced into a cavern representing the world, on whose walls and roof were inscribed the celestial signs. t Ilere he sublnitted to a 81)e';:ief of baptisrn, aud received a mark on his forehead. lIe waR lire.. sented with a crown on the point of a swnrd, which he 'wns to refuse, declaring at t.he snU1C tirnc, "31ithras alone is Ill}' erown." lIe was prepared, nnointinghim with oil, crowning him with olive, and clothing hilll in enl:hallted arUlour, for the seven stages of initiation through \rhich he 'W'LLS abuut to paba. These CODlmenced in the following luanner: In the first ctlyern he heard the how ling of w路ild beasts, and ,\nlS enyeloped in total darkness, except when the cave \vas illulninated by the fitful~ glare of terrific flashes of lightulng. lIe was hurried to the spot whence the sounds prot:... ~dcd, and vra5 suddenly thrust by his silent guide through a door into a den uf \",Btl beasts, ,vh'3re he was attacked by the initiated ill the, of lions, ti~ers, llyenas, and other ravenous beasts. IIurried tJlrough this ment, in the second caVOl'n he was again shrouded in dal'kneS3, and for tL tilUC in fearful silenco, until it ,vus brokon tnvful peals of thunder, whose rcverberntion~ shook th.e very walls of the cavern, and cou}~l not fhiI to the aspirunt with terror. IIo ,,"as eCHHlucted f()ur othor caverns, in which the luethods of exciting astol1ishIllent and tear were uiousl.y varied. lIe was to swinl over 11 raging flood; wns subjected to a rigorous fhst; tAO nll tlH~ horr()rs:>t" n drecll'Y desert; and finally, if we Iuay tru~t the autlHtrity of Ni.. cretas, after being scvcrel'y beaten 'with rods, 'vus buried for llHUlY da:ys up to the neck in snow. In the seventh C:l-rCl'll or S:tcel1ulll~ the darkness was chunged to light, and th(~ (~:tndidate was introduced into the presence of the .t\.rehirnagus, or chief priest) seated on ~1 splendid throne, and surrounded tIle assistan t dis.. pensers of the IIlJsteries. Ilere the obligution of sccreCJ W:lS

1 AzC'.)rding to Tertullinn, his entranco 'was (Jppm~Nl by It tlrtH\'n awor(l, frtm whi~h, in the obstinacy of his perseverance" ht\ nfH,n rucQh'(Hl !.nor(~ than OUl;\



tMIministered, and he 'was lIulde acquainted witl: thE sacred words, among which the Tetractys or ineffable name .Jf God was tA~ principal. He received also the appropriate inve~titurc,* and ~/as instructed in the secret doctrines of the rites of l\lithras, of which the history of the creation, already recited, formed a part. ~~e mysteries of 1"lithrns passed from Persia into Europe, and w'ere introduced into ROll1e in the tiU1C of Pompey. Here they :t-tourished with various success, until the year 378, when the}' were prescribed by a decree of the Senate, and the sacred cave, in which they had been celebrated, was destroyed by the Preto..

!jan prefect. MITRE. One of the vestments of the High Priest of a Royal Arch Chapter. See High Prl~e8t 01 the Jews.

MODERN l\IASONS. The terms, Ancient and J.l.lodern ..Llfa,.. sons, are no longer known to the craft as distinctive appellation~ of any classes of the fraternity; but the tiIne has not long past when the lllusonic world was convulsed by the controvcl"sieo of the two bodies who assutned these titles. As an important part of the history of our order, it is therefore necessary that I should briefly relate the origin of the 'words, Modern and .A.'lu.:ient . .1fct· sons·t In the COlnmencement of the eighteenth century, the universal nalne by which the whole lllystic fanlily was known, was that of .. This investiture consisted of tho Kara, or conicnl cn,p, a.nd lHlndY8 or iOOHC tunic of Mithras, on which was depicted· the celestial constella.tions, the zunc~ or belt, containing a representation of the figures of the zodin,e, the pastoral staff or crozier, alluding to the influence of the sun in the In-hours of ng1'icul. tare, and the golden serpent, which was pla.ced in his bosom as an emblem of his having been regenerated and mu,de a disciple of Mithras, beca.use the ser· pent, by casting its ski.n anntutUy, was considerod in these mysteries as t symbol of regeneration.-See J,!a1£rice'8 Indian Antiquities, vol. Y., ch. 4. The subject has already been alluded to in the article on Gra1l(l ,Loclg(!•. and it is, therefore, una,voidable, thn,t I should here be guilty of repetition fOJ the purposes of facility of reference, and to preserve the continuity of tht





.At that period there were in Grand I..lodgcs, the Grand Lodge of 'England, seated at London, and governing the southern part of the kingclonl, and the Grand Lodge of all J1Jngland, placed at York, andext.ending its jurisdiction over the northern counties. These bodies at first ~ nlaintained a intercourse, 'w'hich was, however, at length interrupted by the offieious interference of the Grand Lodge l路t London, in granting warrants to lodges under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge at Yorl\:. A.t this t,inle, in 1738, under the tC

Free and Accepted 1\1..\8 on 8. "



Grand l\Iastership of the l\Iarquis of Uu,rnarvon, SOIne of toe

brethren, becoming dissatisfied with certain proceedings of the G路rand Lodge of England, seceded frOJrl that body, and assumed, without authority, the title of York l\lasons. In the next year, Lord Rayrllond being G'ralld l\:Iaster, the sece~sions continuing, the Grand Lodge of England uttenlpted to check the evil by passing votes of censure on the 1l10St refractory, and by enacting laws to discourage these irregular associations. In consequence of these Dlcasures, the seccders iltlIllCdiately declared theIllselves independent, and tlssurncd the appellfttion of ..t1nch:nt l\Iasons. They propagated an opinion, that the ancient tenets and usag~~ of Dlasonry were preserved by theIn, and thtLt the reguh~r lodges, being conlposed of Jf()dCl~n :rtiasons, had adopted new plans, und were not to be cODsidered us acting under the old establislllllcnt. * They, therefore, organized a G'rand Lodge, the authority for which they professed to derive frolll the anciellt body at York; oalled theluselves ".A.ncientYnrk rt.fasons j" and constituted seTeral subordinate lodges. The brethren who still adhered to the Grand Lodge of :F.Jngland, continued to style thclnsel?'C! "Free and .A.ceepted itlnsons," but were stiguul.tized by their opponents with the n2une of J.Jfod(~rn~f{, the Ulostopprobrious epithet that can CH npplied to :1 tuasonic body. The dissensions between these bodies were dissCDlinated int.o foreign countries, where each body constituted lodges, and were continued ilz



England until the :lear 1813, when they 'W'ere happLy uniteo during the Grand 1\Iastership of the Duke of Sussex. Before that period, in some countries, and shortly after it in others, the union had elsewhere takeli place,* and the two terms of Ancient and Modern l\iasons now exist only in the records of the past v"Vith respect to the real differences between these two bodiet. they appear to hav'c existed rather in nalue, than in fact. Der' rnott, an Ancient l\Jason, with an illiberal desire of injuring the reputation of his opponents, asserts that "a very material diffe.. rence exists between the Ancient and ~Ioc1ern lV!asons;" but Dalcho, who was also an Ancient York, but acquainted with both systems, declares that" the difference in point of importance, was no greater than it would be to dispute, whether the glove should be placed first upon the r1~ght hand, or on the left." The question, however, is definitely settled by the report of the COlnmittees of Conference of the two Grand Lodges of Ancient York, and Free and Accepted l\1asons, of South Carolina, who DIet for the purpose of Inutually examining the work, preparatory to the confirlnation of the articles of the Union, which took place between these· bodies in 1817.. On that occasion the joint committe~s reported, "That fronl the reciprocal examinations by the severnl committees alreadJ hld in G-rand Lodge, it doth appear that there exists no difference in the mode of entering, pass" ing and raising, instructing, obligating, and clothing brothers, in t·he respective Grand Lodges." MONITOR.. Those manuals, published for the convenience of lodges, and containing the cllarges, "general regulations, em.. blems, and account of the public cerenlonies of the order, are called Monitors. The instruction in these works is said to be Monito'rial, to distinguish it from esoteric instruction, which is not permitted to be written, and can be obtained only in the p~ cincts of the lodge.. • They were united in Massachusetts as earlya.s 1792, and in South CaN 3na in 181'1.



See Secret Monritor.

l\-IOON. If the moon is found in our lodges bestowing her light upon the brethren, and instructing the Thlastcr to imitate, in his governrnent, the precision and regularity with which Shf presides over the night, we shall find her also holding u conspicuous place in the worship of the first seceders froll1 the true spirit of Fl'eClnasonry. In Egypt, Osiris was the sun, and Isis the moon; in Syria, Adonis was the sun, and l\shtoroth the Inoon; the Greeks adored her as I>iantl, and Hecate; in the lll.ysteries of Ceres, while the hierophant or chief priest represented the Creator, and the torch bearer the sun, the lto elJi b0l1Z.0S, or officer nearest the altar, represented the moon. In short, ll100n-\vol'ship was as widely disseminated as sun-worship. l\lasons retain her image in their rites, because the lodge is a representation of the universe, where as the sun rules over the day, the moon preside~ over the night; as the one regulates the year, so does t.he other the months, and as the forIller is the king of the starry hosts of beaven, so is the latter their queen; but both deriving their heat, and light, and power fronl llilll, who, as a. third and the greatest light, the master of heaven and ettrth, controls them both.

rtl0PSES. In 1738 Pope Clernent XII. liud issued a, 13ulI, condetnning and forbidding the practiee ot the rites of lrr(~e. . masonry. Severnl brethren in the Catholic States of Gerlunny, unwilling to renounce the order, and 'yet fearful of offending the p,cclesiastical authority, fornlcd. in 1740, under the n~uue (}f .Yopses, what was pretended to be !t new aSRocintion, deyoted to the papal hierarchy, but which ,vas in truth nothing else than Freemasonry under a less offensive npp(~llntion. It vtas l)ntronized by the most illustl'io\'s persons of Gernuuly, and Juanj Princes of the Empire were its Grund l\Iasters. ~rhe title is derived from the Germull word nu')s, signifying a young l11;lStiff, and was indicative of the 11lutua路 bdelitjr and attachnlcnt of



the brethren, these virtues being cbaracteristic of that noble animal. In 1776, the l\fopses became un androgynous order, and ad· mitted feluales to all the offices, except. that of G'rand l\Iasttr, w hieb was held for lift,. There was, however, a Gr~lnd l\iistress, and the male and female heads of the order al tornatoly Hssurn t~d, for six months each, the supreme authority.


No one who rew'.,;

our ancient charges can f'hil to sec that lfreemusonry is H, stri<:uJ D10ral institution, and t]Ul.t the principles which it inculcates inevitably tend to make the brother, who obeys their dictates, a In()~'e'Virtuous nlan. '·\Tha.t this morality is, has been so well defined in a late address before one of our Grand Lodges, that nothing I could say would add strength to the sentiment, or beauty to the language. "The moralit:y- of lnasonry requires us to deal justly with others; not to defraud, ~heat, or ·wrong thenl of their just dues and rights. But it goes farther j regarding all as the children of one great fllther, it regards Ulan us bound hy piety, lf11(lsonic Iuornlity, and fi·aterllal bonds, to luinister to the 'VUllts of the destitute ftIJd afflicted; and tha.t we llHty be enabled to fu1.fil this high behest of hUluanity, it strictly enjoins industry and frugnlitJ,. that so our hands may ever be fined with the IlH:ans of t: xercising that charity to which our hearts should eyer di~· pose us."* ~IORIAH, MOUNT. A hill on the north-east ~ide of fJeru· salem, once sep.arated from the llill of .A.era, by a valley, which was filled up by the Asnloneans,and the t,Vt"O hills converted into one. In the tillle of David, it. stood npart· frotIl the cittJ and waR under cultivation, for here was the threshing floor of Ornan the .. Address bef)re the Grand Lo4ge of Kentuek.J, by Rev. 1\1. M. G. 0.1844.


1\1OS ,Jebusite, which David bought fOJ' the purpose of erecting on it an altar to God, Here nlso .A.brahaln is supposed to have been directed to offer up his son Isuae. On l\lount l\Ioriah,Solomon afterwards erected the T'OIllplc:,when it was included 'witJlin the walls ')f the city, l\fount Gihon, the IIill of Gureb, and e~pe路路 cially nIount Calvary, are to tne 'lVesf10ard o,l ilJol,tnt .Llforiah. IHount l\Ioriah is represented bJ the ground floor of the lodg{;} . and on it the three grand offerings of lnasonry were made. S,ot: Gro'un(l Floor of t7u~ Lodye.

l\10SAIC P 1.\ V:Bjl\Il~Nrr. l\Iosaic work consists of innumer路 able little stones, of different eolours, closely united together, so as to imitate a painting. The floor of the tabernacle, and the pa\'ement of Sololllon's teulple, are said to have been thus constructed. The l\Iosaic pavement, in ilnitation of this pavement of the tCluple, is an ornaruent. ()f the lodge, and is il1ustrated in the Entered .A.pprentice's degree. It is surrounded by a l'iehly inlaid or tesscllatell border, cOIIllnonly called the ,ill'" dentf}d tessel, and has in its centre a lJla:::iu!I stllr, The varietJ Qf colours in the paVOlncllt, is a fit clnblel11 of" human life, a Lllingled scene of virtue and vice, of happiness and misery; to.. day" our feet tread ill proRllerity, to路Ulorro,v we totter 011 tho uneverl pafhs of weakness, telnptatiou, and adversity;" the tessellated border, rieh in the ndOl'l1Ulcnts of figure and colour, reprcs':luts the luany hlessings v.rhich surround us, and of which not eycn the Inost low'l.y are entirely destitute; while the blaz"ug star, like that bright. rnetcor \yhich of old directed the steps of the 'Wlse men of the I~ast, still points to that eternal source fl"Q::1 WhiCJJ. each blessing flows




style given to a Royal .Arch

Chapter, and tn its presiding offieer, the High Priest. .~ The term Jfmwl~c i~ ~npP(IFed to havn bN~n dorived from the fact that Moscs thuBconstructed the fluor of tht.' taJH\rnacle. :MoRaio or tesselated pnvementl were vary comtnon among tht an,~icnts. 1



~10ST EXCELLENT l\IASTER. The 6th degree in the American rite. Its history refers to the dedication of the Tenlple by King Solomon, who is represented by its presiding officer, under the title of ~Iost Excellent. Its officers are the same as those in a synl bolic lodge. ~10ST \VORSHIPFUL. The style given to a Grand Iiodge: "nd to its presiding officer, the Grand Master. ~IUSIC. One of the seven liberal arts and sciences, whose beauties are inculcated in tbe Fellow Craft's degree. Music is recommended to the attention of IV[asons, because as the" con.. cord of sweet sounds" elevates the generous sentiments of the soul, so should the concord of good feeling reign among the brethren, that by the union of friendship and brotherly love, the boisterous passions nlay be lulled, and harmony exist throughout the craft.

l\IUSTARD SEED, ORDER OF. Ordre de la gra路ine de fJYeneue. This association, whose members also called themselves " The fraternity of l\Ioravian Brothers of the order of Religious Freernasons," was one of the first innovations introduced into German Freen1asonry. It was instituted in the yenr 1789. Its tnysteries were founded on that passage in the 4th chapter of St. l\Iark's gospel, in which Christ conlpares the kingdom of h.~a.v(~n to a mustard seed. ~rhe brethren wore a ring, on which was inf:c'l'ibed, " No one of us lives for himself." The jewel of the order was a cross of gold, surmounted by a Mustard plant, with the words, ""That was it before ? Nothing/' This wassus芦 pended froln a green ribbon.

MYSTAGOGUE. The one who presided at the Ancient l\lysteries, and explained the sacred things to the candidate. He was al~o called the hiero:phant.



}fYSTER1ES. This is the name given to tll0se religi,:,us assemblies of' the ancients, whose ceremonies were conducted La sec...·p~) who:-;c doctrines were known only to those who had obtai:1eo. tbe right of knowledge by a previous initiation, and whose menlbere -r:lcre in possession of signs and tokens by which they were ~~r.abled to recoguise each other.* For the origin of theso mysteries we Ulust look to the Gymnosophists of India, fNnl:' whom they passed through l~gp.Yt into G-reece and Roule, nud from WhOlll like\vise they were extended, in a nlore inuucdiatc line, to the northern part of Europe and to Britain. The lnost important of these Iuysteries "vcre those of l\lithras, celebrated in Persia; of Osiris and Isis, celebratea in Egypt; - of EleuRis, instituted in Greece; and the Scandinayian and Druidical rites" which were confined to the Gothic and Celtic tribes. In all t~ese various llJ)"steries, we find a singular unity of design clearl.r indicating t"t COUlmon origin, and a purity of doctrine asevidcntl~r proving that this COlunlon origin was not to be sought for in the popular theology of the Pngun ·world. The ceremonies of in!tia... tiOD were all funereal in their character. 1'hey ccleLrated tho death and the resurrection of SOUle cherished beit'.g, either the object of esteeul as a hero, or of devotion as a god. Subordina. tion of degrees was insti tuted, tind the candidute was subjected to probations varying ill their character and severity; the rites were practised in the darkness of night, and often :l.nlid the gloom of iInpenetrable forests or subterranean caverns; and the full fruition of kno,vledgc, for which so much labour was endured, and so Dluch danger iucurred, was not attained until the aspirant, well tried and thoroughl.y purified, had reached the place of ",visdom and of light. These Inysteries undoubtedly owed their origin to the desire • Warburton's definition of Ule l\Iysteries is as follows: "Each of the pngnn gods had (besidos the Intblb: and optm) a 8t'C.ret terw8hip pltid unto him; tc tfhich none were admitted bllt those who ha.d been selected by preparatory cere.. monies, ea.lled INITIATION. This secret tcofship was 'erllled the MYS'rE~ aXES/I-Divine Legation) Yo~. 1, B. ii. i 4, p. 189.



on the part of the priests of establishing an esoteric philosophy; in which should be taught the sublime truths which they had derived, (though they theIllselV'es at length forgot the source,) from the instruction of God himself through the ancient patriarchs. By this confineruent of these doctrines to a systeDl of ~ocret kno,vledge, guarded by the IllOSt rigid rites, could they only expect to preserve thelll froIll the superstitions, innovations, and corruptions of the \varld as it then existed. "The distin.. guished few," Rays Oliyer, "who retained their fidelity, uncon.. taminated by the contagion of evil example, would soon be able to estimate the superior benefits of an isolated institution, whieh afforded the advantage of a select society, and kept at an unap.. proachable distance the profane Feoffer, whose presence nlight pollute their pure devotions and social converse, by contu1l1clious lan~tlrge or unholy Inirth."* And doubtless t.he prevention of this intrusion, and the preservation of these subliule truths, 'was the original object of the institution of the ceremonies of initiation, and the ac101)tion of other means by which the initiated could be recognised, and the uninitiated exclud3(:L SU(lh was the opin:on of ,,~rarburton, who sa.ys that "the nlysteries 'were at first the retreats of sense an d virtue, till time corrupted them in most of the gods/'t The A.bbe Robin, in a le~Lrned workt on this subject, places the origin of the initiations at that renlote period when crhnes first began to appear u pOP. earth. The ii ~ious, he relnarks, ,vere urged by the ton'or of guilt to 5eek among the virtuous fer in tercessorB with the deity.. The latter, retiring into solitude to avoid t~le contagion of growing corruption, devoted themsel,.,cs to a life of conterrjp~ation and the cultivation of several of the useful sciences.. The periodical return of the seasons, the re701ution of the stars, tne productions of the earth, and the various phenolllena of nature, studied with attention, rendered them useful guides¡ tc • History of Initiation, i'.. 2. t Spence's Anecdotes, p. 309. l Recherches sur les Initiations Anciellnes ~t Moder~es. Paris. 1~80*



men.. both in their pursuits of industry and in their social duties. These recluse students invented certain signs to recall to the re.. IDem brance of the people the times of their festivals and of their rural labours, and hence the origin of the symbols and hieroglyphics that were in use ulnong the priests of all nations. Having no,\-' becorue guides and leuders of the people, these sages, in order to select, as assoeiates of their learned labours and sacred functions J!:,ly such as had sufficient lllcrit and capacity, appointed strict (~ourses of trial and examination, and this, our author thinkt;, luust have been the source of the initiations of antiquity. The l\r:lgi,~ Brah!l1 ins, Gymnosophists, Druids, and priests of Egypt, liv(:(i thus in sequestered habitations and subterranean caves, and obtained great reputation by their discoveries in astronomy, chemistry and mechanics, by their purity of morals, and by their knowledge of the science of legislation. It \vas in these schools, says 1lI. 1{.ooin1 that the first sages and legislators of antiquity ,vera formed, and in them he sllpposes the doctrines taught to have been the unity of God and the ilnnlor~dity of the soul; and it \vas from these mysteries., and theil- sylnbols and hieroglyphics, that the exuberant TItDey of the (}rcel{s drew lunch of their luythology.* The candidates for initiation ,,'ere not only expected to be of a clear and unblemished character, and free frorH crime, but their future conduct was required to be characterized by the salUS' purity and innocence. ~l'lH~Y 'w*~re, therefore, obliged, by solclun engagcluents, to comlueuce a. new life of piety and virtue, upon which tJley entered b.r a severe course of ponance. t The lnysteries were held in the highest respect, by both the government and the pcopl(~.. It ,\VttS believed that he who was initiated would not only cnjoj" an increased shurecf virtue and ha.ppiness in this world, bat 'would beeutitled to celestial honours in the next. '" Thrice happ:y they," says Sophocles, "who de.. I give these ingenious speculations of the Abbe Robin, although I dissent from much of his doctrine, because they add another item to the history of the thoori(.~8 on this intere~tiXlg subjeet. t '~arbu.:rton, Divi:p.e Legntu.>n, B. ii., Sect.. ..


MYS scended to the shades belo,v after having beheld thcs( rit~; for lhey alone have life in Hades, while all others suffer there every kind of evil." And Isocrates declares that" those who have b~en .:nitiated in the mysteries, entertain better hopes, both as to th¡~ end of life and the whole of futurity." The anoient historians relate many circunlstances in illustrab,\n of the sanctity in which the mysteries were held. Livy tell t"4S the following story: Two Acarnanian youths who had not b~1f~. initiated, accidentally entered the telnple of Ceres, during th~ da;r~ of the mysteries. They were soon deteoted by their absurd tl'J.8". tions, and being carried to the managers of the temple, though it was evident that they had come there by nlistake, they were put to death for so horrible a crime. * Plutarch records the fact that .A.icibiades was ililQicted for sacr:.. lege, because he imitiated the nlysteries of Eleusis and exhibited them to his companions in the same dress in which the hierophant showed the sacred things, and called kimself the hierophant, one of his companions the torch bearer, and the other the herald.t Lobeck, one of the most learned writers on this subject" has 001.. lected several exanlples of the rel".lctance with which the ancients approached a lllystical subject, and the manner in which they shrunk frol11 divulging any explanation or fable which had been related to thern at the nlJsteries.t :(10 d~vulge them was considered a sacrilegious crime, the pre..



for which was innnedia.te death. I would no~,

says Horace, dwell beneath the same roof, nor trust myself in the same irail bark, with the man who ha::~ betrayed the secret,t: of thQ El-eusinian rites.§ • Liv. Hist. xxi. 14.. t Pluto Alcibiad. 22. ; Lubeck'!'; Agl&.ophamus, \"01. i. app. 131, 151; vol. ii. Ji. 128". g Veta'oo, qui Cereris sacrum Vulgarit arcante, sub iisdem. Sit trabibus, fragilemque mecum Solvat phaseluxn.



On the subject of their rela:ion to the rites of Freemasonry~ to which they bear in many respects so remarkable a resemblance, that some connection seems necessarily implied, there are t.wr: principal theories. The one, is that embraced and taught ly Dr Oliver, namely, that they are but deviations from that commor .source, both of them and of Freemasonry, the patriarchal moi~ of worship established by God hiulself. 'Vith this pure SYSt3:I of truth, he supposes the science of Freemasonry to ha':e boon coeval and identified. But the truths thus revealed by diviult,'Y came at length to he doubted or rejected through the irnperfecti~!i of human reason, and though the visible symbols were retain~ in the mysteries of the Pagan world, their true interpretat~'():l was lost.* That the instruction communicated in the mysteries QfPaganism were an impure derivation from the sublime truths of the patriarchal theology, I have no hesitation in believing.. But that they were an emanat.ion froIll ]:I"reenlasonry, as we now understand the terms, I am not yet prepared to adtnit, notwithstanding the deep veneration in which I hold the learning of Dr. Oliver. I prefer, therefore, the second theory, which, leaving the origin of the mysteries to be sought in the patriarchaJ doctrines, where Oliver has placed it, finds the connection hetween them ~tnd Freemasonry commencing at the building of I{ing Sololnon"s Temple.. Over the construction of tllis building, IIiraul, the Architect of Tyre, presided. At Tyro the mysteries ot" Bacchus bad been intro... duoed by the Dionysian Artificers, and into their fraternity IIiram, in all probability, had, asI have alretl.dy suggested, beon adluitted.t Freemasonry, whose tenets had ahvaJS existed in purity among the immediate descendants of the patriarchs, added now to its doctrines the guard of secrecy, which, as Dr" Oliver himself remarks, was necessary to preserve them from perversion or pollution. t This, thtaD, it seems to me, is t.he true connection between the -Signs and Symbols,p. 21tt.. fSce .Antiquity of.Ma8onry, a.ud Hira,fl~ tn<: Builder, to. this wodr. of lniUatiollJ po, t


l\;IYS mysteries and spe~lllative Freeluason1"Y. They batt. enlanated frOlll one COnllllJD source, but tho fo1"lne1' soon losinf nluch of f,heir original purity, were cOlupelled, in order to preser,e the little that was left, to l.ave recourse to the invention of ceremonies and lllodes of recognition, and a socret doctrine, by means of which all but a select and worthy few ,vera excluded. These eercmonies, and espccHll1y trlis SJlllbolic or secret nlode of COIllluunicating in struction, Be adn:irable in thelDselves, were afterwards adopted by the Freeluasons, 'who had retained the ancient tenets in their original purity, but they cliYested thenl of their lleathen allusions, and adapted them to the divine systelll which they had preserved "unimpaired. A third theory has been advanced by the Abbe Robin, in, vrhich he connects Freemasonry indirectly with the mJsteries, through the intervention of the Crusaders. In the ,vork already cited, he attempts to deduce froln the ancient initiations, the or¡ del'S of Chivalry, whose branches, he says, produced the institu.. tion of Freelnasonry. 13ut this tlheory is utterly untenable and inconsistent "\vith the facts of history, since I?reemasonry pre.. ceded, instead of following, the institution of Chivalry, as I have elsewhere shown, and could not, therefore, have been indebted to this systeln for its primal organization. These mysteries, so irnportant from their connection witt Freemasonry, deserve a still further examination of their origin and design. Faber, who sought an Arkite origin for every thing, sa~s that " the initiations into the mysteries scientifically represented the mythic descent int.o I-Iades and the return from thence to the light of day, by which was meant the entrance into the ark and the subsequent liberation from its dark enclosure. They all equally related to the allegorical disappearance, or death, or dp", scent of the great father, at their COlllmencerr ent; and +'0 his in.. vention, or revival, or return from Hades,at their conclusion. ,'.. • Origin of Pagan Idolatry, voL


b. iv., ah. v., p 384.



" They ,""ere," says "rarburton," scbool of IlloraIity and re路 Hgion, in whicl1 the vani ty of und the unity of the First Cause were reycaled to the initiatt~d."t This opinion of the lenrrwd of (:1 hnlcester is not gratuitous; it is su pported by the eoncurrent of the ancient writer~. "1\.11 the ,t S~~Y8 I)lutarch, "refer to a future life and to t:ht~ sta,te of the soul after death. In another place, addressing his 'wife, he sayR, "we have been instructed in the reHgic'lus rites of D:onysus, that the soul is and that there is a future state of existence."搂 Cieerc) tells us, that. in the mysteries ()f Ceres at I~leusi&, the initiated 'were taught to live happily and to die in the hope of a blessed fl1turit~y.1l l\..nd, finally, l)lato In.. farIns us, that the h.Ylnns ofl\Iusa~us, whieh were sung in the lnysteries, celebrated the rewards and of the virtuous in another life, and the putlisll1uents which u",vaitocl the These sentinlents, so different frolll the debased pol.Ythcislll which prevailed anlong the are the lUost eertaiu evi.. deuce that. the nlJ'st(~ries arose fronl. a purer source than tbat:i which gayc birth to the r()ligion of the That 1. urer source was the COllllllon origiual of th~'an of Freeluasoury. I conclude ,vith a notice of their ultilnate fate 1'hcy (:Gut~.. !1ucc1 to flourish until long after the Christian, erft liut at Length, degenerated. In ~:he fourth Christianity had begun to trhlll1ph. ~rhe I?agans, desirous of Inaking COllYCrts, thre\v open the hitherto inaeeessible portal~ of their lllysterious lites. The strict scrutiny of tlle eal1didate's past life, and the demand for proof.., of irreproachable ,vera no longer declllcd indispensable. TIH~ yih~ and the yjeious 'VCl~e indiscrh.ui.. nately, and eyen Wi./.Jl avidity, adlllitt.ed to participate in privi., leges whieh were n:tee granted only to the nohlt~ and the virtuous The Eun at P:lgul:irrl1 was setting,} and its rites had become COD~ t Dh1ne LegIslation.


? .Pluto. Consol. nO. uxorem.

D Cio. de Legibus..

Plute de Oraculis.

,. Plato In Pbmtlone.

MYS ~emptible und corrupt. Their character ,vas entirely cbangeu. "lnd the initiations were indiscrituinately sold by peddling priests, who wandered through the country, to every applicant \vha was willing to pay a trifling fee for that which had once been r/'fused to the entreaties of a monarch. .A.t length these abOl11i lations attracted the attention of the elnperors, and Constantine and Gratian forbade their celebration at night, excepting, however; from these edicts, the initiations at lDleusis. 13utfinally Theodosias, by a general edict of proscription, ordt-red the whole of the Pagan Inysteries to be abolished, in the four hundred and thirty-eighth year of the Christian era, and eighteen hundred years after their first establishment in Greece. *

l"IYSTES. The l\Iystes was one who had been initiated only into the lesser lnysteries, and who was therefore permitted to pro.. ceed no farther t.han the vestibule or porch of the Teulple. 'Vhen admitted into the greater mysteries, and allowed to enter the adytum, or sanctuary, he was crUed an e:pfJ})t. 1\. relnale ini. tiate was (~alled a rnlJstis. ~IYSTIC TIE. That sacred and inviolable bond which unites men of the 1110St. discordant opinions into one band of brothers, which gives but one language to men of all nations, and one altar to Ulen of all religions, is properly, from the In:ys~ teriolls influence it exerts, denOlninated the mystic tie, and FreeJn1;,80nS, because they alone are under its influence, or enjoy its l-{;ll.~fi.ts, are called "Brethren of the D1YStic tie."

• It was not, howeYcr, says Clil.vd, until the era of the restorntion, that the entirely ceased. During the Middle Ages, the m:rsterios of Diana~ 1J :ld(~r the no,mc of the aO~rr8e8 0/ Diana, an; those of Pan un ler the naIll, ~lf S£bb«t8, were practised in the country.. "~YBtories




'Ve repeatedly



the Old Testament \vith referenecs to the Ben / Ilanab/on, OJ' sons of the prophets.* 1'hese were the disciples of the l)l'or,het~, or wise men of Israel, who undel'v~'ent tt C()Ul'se of esoteric in !3truction in the secret instituti(Hl~ of the Nabiim or prophets: just as the disciples of t.ho l\lagi did in Persia, or of Pythagoras in Greece. ()f these institutions, Oliyer says, that "though little is known of their internal cconolny, t,heir rites and cere .. monies being strictly concealed, there call be no doubt that the)· were in many respects similar to our masonic lodges, and in SOUle of their features they bore a resemblance to the collegiate insti..

tutions of our own country."t NAHAl~D.t\., ]?It..ti'I~]£ItNI'rY



Jewish I-tabbins

tell us, that the tribes which were carried into captivity on the

destruction of the first hHuple, founded a f'raternit!y



on the river ]jJuphratps, for the proserva,tion of traditional know.. ledge, and 'which they trtlnSluitted. to a few' initiates, and that on

the restoration of the . Jews by (Jsrus, Zerubbabel, with Joshua and :E1sdras, (~al'ried all this 8eer(~t inst:lletion to Jerusalem, and cst~llblished H, siIllilar fraternity in city. Oliver S11YS that ~uring the captivity, the . J ews practised l?reeUltlSOnry in regular lodges, until the titne of their deliverance, and they ha,d for this purpose three Colleges or (trand Lodges, which were situated at Sora, Pompeditha, and Nuhard~t.

N.A.l\IE OF G"OD.. In addition to w'bat has been eaid t=pon this subject in the artiole JelLovalL, we may obs..;rve, that an allu.. • I rafe&' the reader for this expression to tho Second Dt:ns: of ii., verses 3, 5, 7, 12, 15. t Historical Landxna,rks, ii., p. :~7'1. N oto.





sion to th9 'unutterable name of God, is to b€ found in


trines and cerenlonies of other nations, as well as the ,J C\\"'8. It is said to have been used as tho pass-"\ivord in the ]~gyptian Inysteries. In the rites of it was besto'wed upon the aspirant, under the tl'iliteral fOl'lll * at the completion of bi~ initiation, and then only by hispering it in his car. 1'1u~ CaDalists reckoned seventy-t~'ro rUlInes of G'od, the knov~Tledgc of wbich imparted to the possessor lllugical po,vel's. Tho l)l'uid~ in:floked the Ollll1ipotent and a.ll-prc3erving power, under tlh~ symbol I. 0, '\V'.. The l\Iohaunuedulls have a science called ISH; Allah, or the seience of the l1U1Ue of God. "TheS pretend/' BBuyS Niebuhr, "that a-oJ is the lock of this science, and 1\10hammed the key; that consequen tl)" none but l\lohamluedans can attain it; that it discovers what passes in different countries; that it familiarizes the possessors ,vith the genii who are at t.he cOllimand of' the initiated, and who instruct theul; that it places the winds and the seasons at their di8posaI, and heals the bites of serpents, the larne, the uHlirned, and the blind.'" Besides the l.'etragrallllnaton, or inconullunicable nalne, there .arc other expressive hut less holy IltUnes of j)eity. l\lairnonides) for instance, mentions a. tw(~lve lettered and a fort.y-two lettered


namc·t R.osenberg

the following twelve Cabalistic nunles:


--_._----- -------------_._----~ Sir Willia,ID,Jc:lt:;s, spoaking of this Hiud.oo name of "G·od, says: "It forms a mystical word which never escapes the lips of the pious lIindoo.. 'riley med~t.a.te on it in .3ilence."-IJi.'1$(!)'fatiou/1)'f.:lati'l,l(! to As{ct, vol. i., p. :3:1. The :Brahmins ml1k(~ a great secret of it, and the H Institutes of l\lenu" are conti~ Dually referring to its peenH:1f as an ofllm:fi(~ word. "All rites orda.irled in the Veda.," sa.ys this book, U oblations to fire nnd solemn sacritiees pas!" away, but that which pusses !lot away is the syl1ahh~ AtTM, thence en.Bed ai8hu:ra, since it is a. symbol of (Jo(l, the Lord of crettted Lcings/'--!W'l'tt:t. of Jfewu, p. 28. Urquhart (Pillars of Hercules, \·01. ii., p. 67) mentions ont) llame (If Ood &mong the Hebrews, which I have met with nowhere else.. viz., EL GIBA.Lc


'he master builder.



Jehovah, I1JlohiIl1, EI, Gibbor, l~~loah, Sabaoth, Tsebaoth, Shn.ddai, Adonai, ~lakoIll, Agla. Lanci, whose rese~,rches on this suhject have been surpassed by no other scholar, and equalled by few, extends his li~t of divine names to twenty-six, which, with their signification, are as fol..

lows :* 1. At. The Aleph and Tau, that is, Alpha and Orc.ega.


figurative of the ,:retragramlnaton. 2. IILol".} Tho eternal, absolute principle of creation and S. Hohi. destruction, the male and female principle, the author and regulator of time and motion. 4. Jal1,. The Lord and Remunerator. 5. Ok. The severe and punisher.


6. Jao. The author of life. 7. Azazel. The author of death. 8. Jao-Sabaoth. God of the co-ordinations of loves and ha· treds. Lord of the solstices and the equinoxes.. 9. Ehie. The Being; the Ens. 10.. El. The first cause. The principle or beginning of sL things.

11. Elo-hi. The good principle. 12. Elo-lw. The evil principle. 13. El-racc'um. The succouring principle. 14. Eka'nn'U''ll1t. The abhorring principle. 15. Ell. ~rhe most luminous..

16. It.

The omnipotent. Ellohim. The omnipotent and beneficent. Elokim. The most beneficent.. L7,,;, The Sovereign, the Excelsus. Adon.The Lord, the dominator. 21. Biui. 'l'he illuminator, the Illosteffulgent.. 22• .Adonai. The most firru, the strongest. 23. Elion. The most high.

17 IS 19.. 20.

• I am indebted to my friend, Mr. Gliddon, for this intAtreating list.



24. Shaddai. The most victorIous. 25. Yeshurun. The most generous. 26. Nail. The most sublime. The ineffable degrees of masonry record a great variety of the names of God; making the whole system, like the Mohammedan路 Ism Allah, a science of the name of God. In fact, the name of God must be taken in Freemasonry as symbolical of truth, and then the search for it will be nothing else but the search after truth, the true end and aim of the masonio science. The subor.. dinate names are the subordinate modifications of trutQ, but the ineffable tetr2{;:t;Jmmaton will be the sublimity and perfectIon ofDi... vine Truth, to \Vh~ch all good lVlasolls and all good men are seeking to apprc~h;.; ~hether it be by the aid of the theological ladder, or pas~:.T.i; te::ough the pillars of Strength and EstablishmeIlt, or wande::';"'1:5 i:: the mazes of darkness, beset on all sides by dan... gers, or tr:;:"elling weary and worn over rough and rugged roads, whatevdr ~~ the direction of our journey or how accomplished, light and t..r oth, the Urim and Thummin, are the ultimate objects of cu~rl~.:!,~h as路 Freemasons. NEBUC!{A.DNEZZAR. A king of Babylon, who in the ale.. venth year of !,he reign of Zedekiah, King of Judah, having, after It siege of about twelve months, taken Jerusalem, commanded Nebuzarr..路.:"ln, one of his generals, to set fire to and utterly consume the temple, io reduce the city to desolation, and to carr., the citizens capti?e to Babylon. See the entire history unde! ilhe title of ROJ/al Arch. NEBUZARADAN. One of the generals of the King of Babylon, who by his order entered Jurusalem with a Chaldean army, and after having taken away every thing that was valuable, burned. the nity and temple, and carried all the inhabitants} except a f.ew hLlJo.bandmen, as captives to Babylon. ~EOPH~TE.

(From the Greek



a new plant.)



tn the primitive church it signified one who had tec-en tly abandoned Judaism or Paganislu, and embraced Christianity; w'hen'1~ it was afterwards applied to the young disciple of any art or science. Freemasons thus sometimes designate the uninstructed candidate.

NE VARIETUR. " Lest it should be changed." ThesE words refer to the masonic usage of requiring a brother: when l:.a receives a certificate from a lodge, to affix his name, in his own hand..writing, in the mu,rgin, as a precautionary measure, in enabling distant brethren to recognise the true and original owner of the certificate, and to detect any impostor who may surreptitiously have obtained one.

NINE. If the number three is sacred among 1\lasons, the num.. ber nine, or three times three, is scarcely less so.. The Pythagoreans, remarking that this nUluber ha,s the power of always re.. producing itself by lnultiplication, * considered it as an enlblcIr. of matter which, though continually changing its form, is ne7er annihilated. It was also consecrated to the spheres, because th~ circumference of a sphere is 360 degrees, and 3 and 6 and 0 are equal to 9. In Freemasonry, 9 derives its value froul its being the product of 3 multiplied into itself, and consequently in "masonic language the number 9 is always denoted b;r the expression 3 times 3. I\:r a similar reaSOD, 27, which is 3 titnes 9, and 81, which i:t 9 times 9, are esteemed as sacred numbors in the higher degrees~

-------------------_ .. _----. • Thus 2 9-18, and 1 and 8-9. 3 9-2'7, and 2 and '1-9. 4 9-36, and 3 and 6-9.. 5 9-45, anel 4 and 5-9. 6 9-54.7 tlud 5 u.nd 4-9. '1 9-63~ and 6 and 3-9. S 9-72, au(i 7 and. 2-9. 9 9-81,¡ uncI 8 H.nd l-~.

NOA NOACHIDiE, OR NO.t\.CHITES. The descendants of Noat.: A term applied to ]'reenlasons. Noah having alone preserVCG the true name and worship of Gael, ~llllicl ,1 race of hnpiolls iuolaters,. Freemasons claim to be his descendants, because they ~[ill preserve that pure religion which distinguished this second fat-her of the hUlnan race from the rest of the world. l\.nd even 'when his descendants began again, in the plains of Shinar, to forget . the Almighty, and to wander from the path of purity, tho prin~ ciples of Noab were still perpetuated by that portion of his race whom the Freemasons of the present day regard as their early predecessors. Hence, Frecluasons call themselves Noachidre, or the sons of Noah. This respect for Noah, as the father and founder of the masonic system of theology, was not confined to the pure Freemasons, but extended, even unconsciously, to the seceders from its spirit, those wholn Oliver calls the spurious Freenulsons of antiquity. .In all their mysteries, they cOIDrnelllorated, even after they had lost the true history, the descent of Noah into the ark, and bIs subsequent-exodus. The entrance into initiation was sylubolic of his entrance into the vessel of his salvation; his detention in the ark was represented by the dt1rkness and the pastos, coffin, or couch in which the aspirant was placed, and the exit of Noah, after the forty days of deluge, was seen in the manifestation of the eandidate, when, being fully tried and proved, he was adluitted tJO full light, amid the rejoicings of the surrounding initiates, who received him in the sacellum or holy place.. NOACHITE, OR PRUSSIAN KNIGl-IT. _Voach'ite OU Ohevalier Prussien. The 21st degree of the Ancient Scotch rite, called by its possessors not a degree, but "the very Ancient Orde! of N qachite5." In this degree the Knights celebra,to the destruction of the ~.1ower of Babel, and for this purpose they meet on the !lIght of the fulllnoon of each Dlonth.. No other light is permit.. tied in the lodge than what proceeds from that satellite. The rtiC1o~J~ of the ordff furnish us with the following histcr-y The



"Noachites, at this day called l)russian Knights, are the descendants of Peleg, Chief~ .A.l'chitcct of the To\ver of l3abeL Thus they tra,ce the origin of their order to a more a.ncient date than the descendants of Hiraul) for the Tower of Babel was built man] ages before the Tenlple of Solornon. And forIllerly it was not necessary that candidates for this degree should be flirUlllites OJ ]~lue l\lasons. But u different regulation \vas afterwards adopted, and to receive the degree of Noaehite, it is now necessarj that the c~andidate shall have perforlned the duties of fL \vorthy office in a regularly constituted lodge of Blue l\rasons. The order of Noachites was established. in Prussia in 1755, and inducted into France

by the Count St. Gelaire in 1757. NO.A.H, PRECEPTS OF. The precepts of the patriarch Noah, which were preserved us the constitutions of our ancient orethren, are seven in nurnber, and are as follows:

1. Renounce all idols. 2. \V orship the only true God. 3. COIDluit no lnurder. 4. ;J3e not defiled by incest. 5. Do !1t)t steal. 6. Be just. 7. Ea.t no flesh with blood in it. The "proselytes of the gate," as the ,JeW8 termed those who lived among theln without undergoing circunlcision, or observing ~he cereluonial law, were bound to obey the seven preCl~pts of Noah.


The nOlnination of


prcYiou& to, un

election, is contrary to true 111~tSoaic usage. ()fficcrs should elected in the luanner prescribed under the artieleEb'ct /ort.



NOIlTJI. The north is luaRonically called a place dark ness. I doubt whether I nUl at liberty to explain the reason Hut I Inaymake this general (~xplanatioIl. 'rhe sun in his pro ~:!

NUl! gress through the ecliptic, never reaches fal'ther than 23' 28' north of the equator. A wall being erected on any part of the earth farther north than that, will, therefore, receive the rays of the sun only on its south side, while the north will be entirely in 3hadow at the hour of meridian. NU~IBERS.

The mystical meaning and divine virtue of

nUlnbel's formed an important part of the philosophy of Pythagoras, and fronl him have been transluitted to the masonic s)'steul of syulbolism. Pythagoras doubtless brought his doctrines on this subject from Eg)7pt, in which country he long resided, and with whose wisdom he was richly embued. In numbers Pytha.. goras saw the principle of all things; he believed that the creation of the world was produced by their harmonious combination, and that they existed before the world. According to the doctrine of this sage, numbers are of two kinds, intellectual and scientific. Illtellectua.l nunlbor has always existed in the divine mind j it is the basis of universal order, and the link which binds all things. Scientific number is the generative cause of multiplicity, which proceeds from and is the result of unity. Scientific nUlllbel's are equal or odd. J1]qual numbers are said to be female, and odd ones, ilUl1C; because even DUIn bel's admit of division or generation, \vhich od,j ones do not. Odd nunlbers, however, are the moat perfect. To each number Pythagoras ascribed a peculiar character and

quaJity ()NE,-the nlonad,-represented the central fire, or God, witho't1.t beginning and without end, the 1)o1~'nt 'Wl~thin the c'trcle. 1t also denoted love, concord, piety, and friendship, beeuuse it is indivisible. It was the sYIubol of identity, equality, existence,

s ad universal preservation and harmony. T\vo was unlucky, and as one denoted light and the good r>rinairle or God, two denoted darkness and the evil priIl~iple.


Hence it was thtLt the I{oruans dedicated the secontl month of the year to !>!uto, the god of hell, and the second day of that lJ~ol1th to the manes of the dead. THREE referred to harnlony, friendship, peac€, concord) and telurerance, and was so highly esteemed among the PythagQc' l'eafiS that they called this Dum bel" " perfect harmony. FJrR WU8 a divine nuulber j it referred to Deity, and among the ancients many nations gave to God a n~LIlle of four letters, as the lIebrews the .Llssyrians ...> \DAD, the Egyptians ..:'\..l\fUjl, the Persians SYRE, the Greeks 8EOZ, and the Latins I)l~lJS. This, which was the TetragrammatoD of the IIebrews, the Pythagoreans called Tetractys, and used it as a most solemn


oath.* FIVE denoted light, nature, marriage; the latter, because it was made up of the female two and the male three, whence it. is sometimes called H, he1.uaphrodite nurnber. The triple triangle, which 'was a figure of Rve lines uniting into fiy·e points, wus among the I)ythagoreans an elubknu of health. SIX was also an elU bIenl of health, and it was also the synlboI of justice, because it was the first perfect numhor, that is, one whose aliquot parts being added toget.her Inake itself, for th.e ali. quot parts of six, which are three, two and one, are equal to six. S.EVEN was highly esteemed, and called a venera.hIe nUlllber beeausc it referred to the creation of the world. I~IGHT

was esteelned u.s the first cube, (2 X 2 X 2) and sig-

nified friendship, prudence, counsel, and justice.

It designated

the prinlitive law of nature, which supposes aU men to be equal. NJNF; wns called 7:'e).e,()~, or pel:(Ccl, jin£shed, because nine Inonths is the period required for the perfection of a human [\Ping in the wcnnb bef(Jre birth.. ~rEN was denominated heaYen, because it was the perfection and consummation of all things, and was constituted by the union of ONE, the monad or active principle, Two, the duad or



passiye principle, THREE, the triad or world proceeding froD their union, and FOUR, the saered tetractys, thus 1 2 3 4 = 10. FIenee ~ren contained all th\~ relations, numerical and

+ + +

harulollic. The I)ythagoreans extended still .farther their speculations on the first three nurnbers, the lllonad, the duad, and the triad. The lllOlHld was lUllIe, because its action produces no change in itself, but only out of itself. It represented the creative prin..



The duad, for a contrary reason, was fenlale, being ever chang. ing by addition, substraction, or multiplication. It represents matter capable of form. The union of the monad and duad produces the triad, which signifies the world fOfIlled by the creative principle out of matter. This world P:ythngoras represented by the right angled triangle, because the square of the longest side is equal to the squares of the t,vo other sides, and the world as it is fOfmed is equal to the formative cause and Iuatter clothed with form. Thus :

M()~~-Creative Principle. SYI.!.~~r~;.i,: n:.~~.) lry, \;:.. ree, five, and seven, are mystic num. as i~ ni!lC :.. 1-f~oJal Arch l\.fasonry. In the ineffable deis7t~eS, nil'!e) 'wi ;Jh :~Jd prodt..cts, such as and eighty..



:ine aro sacred. For further oCS8Ivations on Eome of these numbers, see il this work, the words, live, Ni'll.e, ~eve'n" Three and Tetract!ls-



o. OJlEDlj1JNC]~. SUblnission to the constituted authorities, hoth in the state and in the craft, is a quality inculcated upon all l\Iasol1s. "lith respect to the state, a IVlason is charged to be "a peaceable subjeet to the civil powers, wherever he reside~ or works, and never to he concerned in plots or conspiracic;;,. against the peace and welfare of the nation, nor to behave b jIll self undutifully to inferior lllagistrates."* And with respect to the craft, he is directe~l ~'to pay due reverence to his l\Iaster, 'Vardens, and Fellows, and to put them to worship."t ~-\nd another part of the saIne regulations directs, that the rulers and governors, supreme Hud subordinate, of the ancient lodge, are to be obeyed in their respective stations, by all the brethren, with all htllnility, reverence, love, and aJacrity."t l)liver, COll1Inenting on tJleclnblematic allusion of the l\lastcr to the SUIl and 1'100n, says: "lIenee we find thnt the l\Iastcl"':; authority in the lodge, is despotic as the sun in the firlnanl(~nt. which was placed there by the Creator, never to devia,te fronl its accustolnedcourse till the declaration is promulgated that time shull be no more."§ This spirit of obedience runs through the whole system, and constitutes one of the greatest snfeguards of our institution. 'l'he 1\13so11 is obedient to the l\Iaster; the l\laster and the lodge to the Grand I~odge; and tb is, in its turn, to the old landmarks and a.ncient regulations of the order. Thus is a due degree of subordination l{cpt up and the institution preserved in its pristin2



A parallelogram or four sided figure

• Old Chargee, Sect. 1. i Signs and Symbol,• p. 205.

t Ibm.,SQct.· ,.

t Ibm., Sect. 4.



all of' whose angles are equal, but two of whose sides are longel than the others. This is the symbolic form of a masonic lodge, and it finds it~ prototype in many of the structures of our ancient brethren. The ark of Noall, the can1p of the Israelites, the ark of the Covenant, the Tabernacle, and lastly, the Temple of Solomon, were all oblong squn,res. See Grround Floor of the Lodge.

OBSERVANOE, RITE OF STRICT. The rite of Strict Observance was a modification of masonry, based on the order of Knights Templar, and introduced into Germany in 1754 by its founder, the Baron Runde. It was divided into the following seven degrees: 1. Apprentice; 2. Fellow Craft; 3. l\Iaster; 4. Scotch l\faster; 5. Novice; 6. Templar; 7. Professed Knight. According to the system of the founder of this rite, upon the death of J acques l\Iol~LY, the Grand Master of the Templars, Pierre d' Aumont, the Provincial Grand Master of Auvergne, with two commanders and five knights, retired for purposes of safety into Scotland, which place they reached disguised as operative l'Iasons, and there finding the Grand Commander, George Har. ris., and several I{nights, they determined to continue the order Aumont was nominated Grand l\'Iaster, at a chapter held on St. John's day, 1313. To avoid persecution, the Knights became FreenuLsons. In 1361, the Grand Master of the Temple removed his seat to Old Aberdeen, and from that time the order, under the veil of masonry, spread rapidly through France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, and elsewhere. These events constituted the principal subject of nlany ofthe degrees of the rite of Strict Observance. The others were connected with alchemy, magie, and other super~1itious practices. The great doctrine contended for, by the follow.. e"~ of the rite, was, "that every true Mason is a Knight Templar."* OBSERVANCE, CLERKS OF RELAXED. 'O~vel, ll.


The Clerks



!"J! 'Relaxed Observance were a schisnl fran: the order of Strict Observance, described above. They elainled a pre-eluinence OVCI Dot only the latter rite, but over all nlftSOnry. The rite was divi,lcf.l into ten degrees, ealled A.pprentice, Fellow-Craft, ~laster. .African Brother, Knight of S't..l~.ndrew, Knight of the Eagle, Scuf;ch l\'Iaster, Sovereign l\Iagus, I'>rovincial l\laster of the Jted Cr. 38, and Knight of I..Iight. This last degree was divided into five sections, comprehending I(night Novice of the third year, Knight of the fifth year, Knight of the seventh year, I{nigbt IJevite, and I{night Priest. To be initiated into the mysteries of the Clerks, it was necessary to be a Roman Catholic, and to have taken all the military degrees of the rite of Strict Observance. Alchemy was one of the obj ects of their secret instruc-



See Grownd FkJor

01 the Lodge. OFFICERS.

See Installation, Jewels, Lodge.

OIL. The Hebrews anoil1ted their kings, prophets, and high priests, with oil mingled with the richest spices. They also anointed themselves with oil on all festive occasions, whence路 the expression in Psalms xlv. 7, "God hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness." See Corn. ON. An ancient Egyptian word signifying the Sun, which was at one time worshipped by the Egyptians as the Suprenlc Deity. The city of On, in IJower Egypt, which containej a texnple dedicated to the worship of this divinity is called, in the septuagint, tc Heliopolis," or the city of the Sun, and by Jere-. wiah (xliii. 13,) "Beth..shemesh," which has the same significatiOIl. In Genesis (xli. 45-50.) we are informed that Pharaoh

'* Claval. p. 181.



tIose! h for his \vife .A.. ~enath, "the daughter of Potipbera~ plicst of On." On Illay therefbre be considered as the equiva. Jef.t f()r Jehovah among the I~gyptiaDs, as Ja.1L was among the Syrians and Bel among the Chaldees. The modern masonic cor, ruption of this word into " ]~un" is sheer nonsense. g\VS;

OPENING OF TJI]~ LODGE. The ceremony of opening the lodge is solenln and ilnpressive. Every brother is reminded by it of' his duties and obligations. The necessary precautions are employed to avoid the intrusion of the profane, and every member being compelled to assunle a share of the necessary forms., is thus admonished, that luasonry is a whole) of which each Mason fornlS a part. The manner of opening in each degree slightly varies. In the English system, whieh seenlS, according to the "Trestle Board" published under the sanction of the late Baltinlore l\Iasonic Con.. vention, to have been adopted by that body, the lodge is opened in the first degree" in the naUle of God and Universal Benevolence ;" in the second, "on the square, in the name of the Great Geometrician of the Universe ;" and in the third, "on the centre, intht: name of the l\'Iost IIigh.. "* OPERATIVE l\;IASONltY.

See Ma.son'1l"

ORATOR.. An officer in a lodge of the French rite, whose principal duty is to give instruction to the newly initiated.. The duties of the office are those of a Lecturer..

OltDJ1JR. An order is defined by Johnson, to be, among Qtherthings, "a regular government, a society of dignified per.. sons, distinguished by nlarks of honour, and a religious frater.. nity." In all of these senses, nUlsonry lnay be stJled an ordm\ Its government is of the most regular and systematic; • Stle Moore and Carnegy's 'Xrestle Bonrd, 04. iii-



men the most eUlinent for dignity and reputation, have been its members, and if it does notl constitute a religion in itself, it is at least religion's hand-luaid. The word \\~as first used by the ecclesiastical writers of the tenth centul·y to signi(y a eertain fOflll or rule of monastic dis-Jipline, and was in that sense applied to the different sects of

monks. ORDERS OF ARCIIIT}1~CTUJtE. A system of the severa: Iuelubers, ornaments, and pre,portions of columns and pilasters, is called an order. There are five orders of columns, three of which are (}reek, the Doric, Ionic" Hnd Corinthian; and two Italian, the Tuscan and Conl posite. See these respective titles.

ORDO .L-1.B CHilO. O/,,(lt?'r out of G/taos. A. motto of the 3Sd degree, and having the same allusion as lux e tenebrris, 'which see. ORIENT. The East. The place wllere ft lodge is situated is called its Orient. The seat of the Grand I.4odge is called the Grand Orient.* ]~ut on the eontinent of Europe, some of the supreme Dlasonic bodies ure called Grand Orients. In these instances, Grand Orient is equivalent to Grand Lodge. ORIENTAL CliAIR OF SOI."Ol\lON.

w... IVI.·. in a sym bolie lodge, and

The seat of the

called beca' the l\iast.el' is supposed synlbolically to fill the place over the craft once O~Cli' pied ·by King Solomon. 80

Ol~NAl\fENTS OF A LODGE. These are the Mosaic pavement, the indented tessel, and the blazing star. See M08a-u:. Pavement.

• The term is thus used, because in masonry the East is the scat of light agd of authority. It is the station of the 'Yorsbipful l\I~lSter.





ORNAN 'THE I'J]~]31JSlrr]~. lIe ,,'as an inhabitant of ,Jerusalem, at the time that city was ealled J ebus, from tho son of Canaan, whose descendants peopled it. fIe was the owner of the threshing floor, situated 011 l\Iount l\Ioriah, in the saIne spot on which the temple was afterwards built. This threshing floor David bought to erect on it, an altar to God. (2 Chron. xxi. 18-25) On the same spot Solomon afterwards built the temple

ORPI-IIC l\IYSTERIJiJS. These Grecian rites were only a r:todification of the mysteries of Bacehus or Dionysus, and were dillS called, because it ,vas said that Orpheus first introduced the worship of Bacchus into G-reece from Egypt. They differed, howGyer, from the other pagan rites, in not being confined to the priesthood, but in being practised by a fraternity who did not possess the sacerdotal functions. The initiated commemorated in their cercluonies, which were perfornled at night, the nlurder of Baccbus by the Titans, and his final restoration to the goverUluent of t.he universe, under the name of Phanes. Dernosthencs, while reproaching Eschines for having engaged with his mother in these Inysteries, gi yes us SODle notion of their nature.

In the day, the initiates were crowned wit!h fennel and poplar, and carried serpents in their hands, or twined theul around their heads, cloying with a loud voice, enos, sabos, and danced to the sound of the mystic words, hyes, aUes, attes, hlJes. At night the mystes was bathed in the lustral water, and having been rubbed over with clay and bran, he was clothed in the skin of a fawn, and having risen from the bath, he exclaimed, tt I have departed from evil and have found t,be good."* The Orphic initiation, because it was not sacerdotal in its ena.. ..acter, was Dot so celebrated anlong the. ancients, as the of her mysteries~ It, nevertheless, existed until the first ages of the Ohristian era, and fell, with the remaining rites of paganism, a .. l)em.osth.. oontr~ Cteaiph. Orat. pp.




victim to the rapid and trlunlphant progress of the new ligion. OSIRIS.

For the legend of Osiris, see Egyptian



OVEltSEER. The title of three officers in a l\fark Lodge, who are distinguishc(J as the l\laster, Senior and Junior Overseer. The jev,rel of their oflice is a sq uaro. In l\lark lodges attached t'l. ehapters, the duties of these officers are performed by the three Gra.nd l\lasters of the veils..

P. l)j\.RALLEL IJINES. In every wen-regula.ted lOdge, there is found a point 'within a circle, ,vhich circle is eUlhordered by two perpendicular p:..tral1el lines. These Hues are representatives of St. John the Baptist, and St. ,John the Evangelist, the two great patrons of Ill:lSOnry, to \vh(nn our lodges are dedic<:tted,s.nd whr) are said to hayo been" pcrfc(.,t parallels in Christianity, n8 well :18 l\la.sonry.. " In those English lodges which have adopted the "Union S.Ystern" established hy tIle Grand l~odge of England in 1815, and where the dedication is "to God aud his ser.. vice," the lines parallel represent ~Ioses and Solomon.



!>ASCfli\.J.JIS, l\IAlt'rINEZ. 1'he founder of a new rite or modification of masonry, called by hirn, the. rite of Elccte(l Ooheng or Prl(.~sts. It W'us diyided into t\VO classes, in the firRt of which was represeuted t.he fall of IlHHl frolXl virtue and happiness, and ill the second, his finnl restoration. It consisted of nine degrees!



namely: 1, Apprentice; 2, Fellow-Craft; 3, l\faster; 4, Grana Elect; 5, Apprentice Cohen; 6, Fellow Craft Cohen; 7, l\IaE:lter Cohen; 8, Grand Architect; 9, Knight Commander. I)aschalis firs~ introduced this rite into some of the lodges of l\I arseilIes., Toulouse, and Bordeaux, and afterwards, in 1767, he extended

it to Paris, where, for a bhort time, it was rather popular, rank. ing some of the Parisian literateurs among its disciples. It has now ceased to exist. PASSED. A candidate, on receIvIng the second degree, is said to be "passed as a Fellow-Craft." It alludes to his having passed through the porch to the middle chamber of the temple, the place in which Fellow-Crafts received their wages. PAST MASTER.

An honorary degree conferred on the In t,his degree, the necessary instructions are conferred respecting the various ceremonies of the order, such as installations, processions, the laying of corner stones, etc.. The cerelnol1ies of the degree, 'VhCll properly conferred, inculcate a lesson of diffidence in assunling the responsibilities of an office without a due preparation for the performance of its duties. "\Vllen. a brother who has never before presided, has been thected the J\olaster of a lodge, an eUlergent lodge of .Past ~lasters is convened, and all but Past l\Iasters retiring, the degree is conferred upon the newly elected officer; often the installing officer alone confers the degree. But the degree is also conferred in Royal Arch Chapters where it succeeds the lVIark ~Iaster' s degree. The conferring of this degree, which has no historical connection with the rest (d' iIle degrees, in a chapter, arises fi'om the following circumstance Originally, when chapters of Royal Arch l\lasonry were under the government of lodges, in which the degree was then alwu.YA conferred, it was a part of the regulations that no one could reo ceive the Royal Arch degree, unless he had previously presided

W,,-. l\iaster, at his installation into office.

PAS in the lodge as l\Jaster.


V{hen the chapters became independ

eut, the regulation could not be abulished, for that would have been an innovation; the difficulty has, therefore, been obviated, by rllaking every candidate for the degree of Royal Arch, '1\ Past Dlaster before his exaltation. lfor several years past the question bas been agitated in some of the Grand Lodges of the United States, whether this degref is within the jurisdiction of SYIll bolie or of Royal Arch masonry The explanation of its introduction into chapters, just given, manifestly demonstrates that the jurisdiction over it路 by chapters is altogether an assumed one. The Past l\Iaster of a ch8:pter is only a (luas'i Past l\Iaster; the true and legitimate Past~Iaster 18 the one who has presided over a 8ym bolie lodge. Past ~Iasters are adrnitted to membership in many Gra.nd Lodges, and by some the inherent right has been claimed to sit in those bodies. But the lllost eminent rnasouic authorities have made a contrary decision, and the general, and, indeed, almost universal opinion now is, that Past l\Iasters obtain their seats in Grand I.Jodges by courtesy, and in consequence of local regula. tions, and not by inherent right. The jewel of a Past l\Iaster in the United States is a pair of compasses extended to sixty degrl AS on the fourth !)art of s circle, with a sun in the centre.. In England it was formerly the square on a quadrant, hut is at present the square with the forty"seventh problem of Euclid engraved on a silver plate sus..

pended within it.




a couch.)

The pastos was a chest

\lr close cell, in the pagan Inysteries, (tunong the Druids, an ex.. cavated stone,) in which the tlspirant was for SOIne time placed, to commemorate the mystical deat.h of the god. 'l'his constituted the symbolic death, which was COllllllon to all the mysteries. In the Arkite rites, the P~lstos rt~present,ed the ark in whioh Noah was confined. \Va lllay refer it to the coffin among masonic em




PECTORAL. Belonging to the breast, from the LatIn pectus, the The heart has always been considered the Reat of fortitude and courage, and hence by this word is 'sug. gested to the l\iason certain symbolic instructions in relation to the virtue of fortitude.

PEDAL. Belonging to the feet, from the Latin pes, a foot. rhe just nlan is he who, firully planting his feet on the principles of right, is ns inlffiovable n,s a rock, and can be thrust from his upright position neither by the allurements of flattery, nor the frowns of arbitrary power. And hence by this word is suggested to the l\-lason certain symbolic instructions in relation to the virtue of justice. PEDESTAL. The pedestal is the lowest part or base of 8, column on which the shaft is placed. In a lodge, there are sup.. posed to be three columns, the column of Wisdom in the east, the column of Strength in the west, and the column of Beauty in the south. These columns are not generally erected in the lodge, but their pedestals always are, and at each pedestal sits one of the three superior officers of the lodge. Hence we often hear such expressions as these, advanc'ing totllJe pedt~stal, or stand'ing before t}Le pedestal, to signify advancing to or standing before the seat of the Worshipful Master..


PELICA.N. The pelican is one of the symbols of the Rose Croix degree, and is intended as an allusion to the Redeemer, who shed his blood for the good of man. Ragon says that in the hieroglyphic monuxuents the eaglo W8 ~ the symbol of a wiseman, and the pelican of a benevolent ODt ) and therefore he thinks that the eable and pelican of the Rose • The custom in some lodges of placing tables or desks before the threo principal officers, is, of course, incorrect. They should, for the reason above &ssigned, be representations of the pedestals of column, and ehould be paint.ed to ft\present marble or stone.



Croix. are intended to symbolize perfect wisdom and perfeei charity.* PENALTY. 1'he ceremony of entering into a ccvenani among tte ancient Hebrews, is alluded to in Jeremiah XXXIV. 18 It was usual for the parties covenanting, to cut a beast in twain, and pass between the parts thereof. Jeremiah also relates the penalties to be inflicted upon the people for a breach of their covenant. An English writer, Brother Goodacre, (quoted by Dr. Oliver,) thus fully explains the whole ceremony of ulaking the covenant. The allusion will not escape the attentive l\iason.. " After an animal had been selected, his throat was cut across with one single blow, so as to divide the windpipe, arteries, and veins, without touching any bone. The next ceremony was tc tear the brea:st open and pluck out the heart, and if there wert: the least imperfection, the body would be considered unclean. The animal was then divided into two parts, and placed north and south, that the parties to the covenant might pass between them from east to west; and the carcass was then left as a pre)

to voracious animals." PENNY. The penny a day referred to in the Mark degree as the wages of a workman, was the Roman denarius, equal to about seven pence three farthings sterling, or twelve cents and a half federal currency.

PENTALPHA.. A geometrical figure representing an endleSti triangle with five points, thus :

• Cours des Initiauons, p. 3%0.



It was used by the Pythngorcans as an enlblem of l1calth (Sec Five.) The Pentalpha. of Pythagoras, as it is called, is in rtfaBonry the outline or origin of the five-pointed star, and tho 8yulbol of fellowship and fraternity. By some writers it hU.H improperly been confounded with the Shield of l)avid or Solo" raon~s Seal.

l'ERFECTION. Grand ecossais de la voflte sacr~e du J'芦(XlUel VL The 14th degree in the Ancient Scotch rite, the 20th iIi the rite of l\Iisraim. In the Scotch rite, as practised in tll i~ country, the degree receives the name we have given it, as well 8~ that of "Grand Elect, Perfect and Subliu1e ~Iason," but in }1'rance it is called " Grand Scotch lVlason of the sacred vault of J ames VI." This is one of the evidences of the influence exerted by the Pretender and his adherent., Ranls3,y,over the organization of this rite. This degree is called by its possessors the ultimate degree of ancient. Inasonry, and it is indeed the last. of the ineffable degrees that refer to the first temple. Its officers are a l\Iost Perfect l\'Iaster, representing Soloulon, two Grand 'V'ardens, a Grand Treasurer, and Grand Secrett1ry. The following history is connected with this degree. 'Vhen the telnple was finished, the ~lasons who had been enlployed in constructing it, acquired iInmortal honour. 'rheir order becalue more uniformly established and regulated than it had been before. Their caution and reserve in adulitting new nleulbers, produced respect, and merit alone was required of the candidate. With these principles instilled into their' luinds, many of the Grand Elect left the Temple after its dedication, and dispersing themselves among the neighbouring nations, in~ structed all who applied an.i were found worthy in the sublima degrees of ancient craft TIlaSonry. The temple was completed in the year of the world, 3000. Thus far, the wise King of Israel had behaved worthy of hiluself, and gained universal adluiration; but in process of t.jIlle~ when lle ,had advanced in years, his understanding became impa.ired; he grew deaf to the voice of the路 Lord, and was strangeiy



irregular in his conduct. }>ruud of having erected an edifiGe to his and intoxicated \vith his great power, he plunged into all Ulan ner (~f lieentio usness nnd debauchery, and profhned the telnple, by o1fering to the idc)] l\Ioloch, that incense which should have been offered only to the living God. ~rhe Grand Elect and Perfect l\lasons saw this, and were soreI) ~l'ieved, afi'aid that his apostacy would end in SOUle dreadful· con· ,equences, and bring upon thCIU those enclnies whom Solomon had vain-gloriously and wantonly defied. ~rhe people, copying the vices and follies of their king, becalne proud and idolatrous) and neglected the worship of the true God, for that of idols. As an adequate punishlucnt for this defection; God inspired the heart of Nebuchadnezzar} l{ing of Babylon, to take ven~ geance on the kingdou1 of 1::;n101. 'l'his prince sent an arrll.Y with Nebuzaradan, Captain of the Guards, \vho entered Judah with fire and sword, took and sacked the city of Jerusalem, razed its walls, and destroyed the teillple. The people \vere CU.l· ried captive to 13nbylon, and the conquerors took with them al! the vessels of silver lLnd gold. This happened four hundl cd and seventy years, six nlonths and tOll days aftor its dedicatic"J. '\Vhen, in after titlleS, the princes of' ChristendoUl entered . t.\·~ a league to free the II<.tly I..aud froul the oppressiol'l of the :1'£. leIs, the good and virtuous l\lasoIls, anxiotls for the succes~ of 0-; pious an undertaking, voluntarily cdfered their serviceo to t~: r.onfederates, on eoncliti()n that they should be permitted a c1:li~f of their own election, which w'as granted; they accordingly rrJ, lied under their standard and d(~ptlrted. The valour and fortitude of these elected knights was such, that they were adlnired bJ, autl took the lead of, all the of Jerus:l1ern; who, believing that their Iuysteries inspired thelL to

with courage uncI fidelity ill the


of virtue and religion, be.

came desirous of being initiated. Upon being found worthy, their desires wer; conI plied with, and thus, the royal art, meet... ing the approbnti)!l of great and good men., becanlO popular and honourable, was diffused through tbeir various dODlinions, and



has continued to spread through a succession of ages to the pre路 sent day" The sym bolio order of this degree is red, emblematic of fer路 vour, constancy, and assiduity. The jewel of the degree is a pair of compasses extended on an arc of 90 degrees, surmounted by a crown, and with a sun in

the centre. The apron is white with red flames, bordered with blue, and having the jewel paint.ed on the flap.

PERFECTION, RITE OF" In 1754, the Chevalier de Bonneville established a chapter of the high degrees, which he called the chapter of Clermont, in honour of Louis of Bourbon,

Prince of Clermont, at that time Grand nfaster of the fraternity in France. The system of masonry he there practised received the name of the rite of Perfection, or rite of Heredom. It con.. sists of twenty-five degrees, most of which are t.he same as those of the .A.ncient Scotch rite" The degrees are as follows :-1, Apprentice,; 2, Fellow Craft; 3, Master; 4, Secret lVlaster; 5, Perfect ~Iaster; 6, Intimate Secretary; 7, Intendant of the J3uildings; 8, Provost and Judge; 9, Elect of nine; 10, Elect of fifteen; 11, Illustrious elect, Chief of the twelve tribes; 12, Grand l\'Iaster Architect; 13, Royal Arch; 14, Grand, J1Jlect, ..c\ ncient, Perfect ~It"tster; 15, Knight of the Sword; 16, Prince of Jerusalem; 17, Knight of the East and West; 18, llose Croix Knight; 19, Grand Pontiff; 20, Grand Patriarch; 21, G'rand l\Iaster of the Key of l'rfasonry; 22, Prince of Lihanus; 23, Sovereign Prince Adept,Chief of the Grand Consistory; 24, TIlustrious Knight, Commander of the Black and White Eagle; 25, Most Illustrious Sovereign Prince of l\Iasonry, Grand Knight, Sublime Commander of the Royal Secret.. 'fhe distinguishing principle of this rite is, that Freemasonry *as derived from 'remplarism, and that consequently every Free. DtaSOn was a I(night Telnplar. It is still practised, or was a few years since, in a single lodge in Paris.



PERF]j}CT l\IASTER. )Jfa,itre Peafatt. The fifth degree in the .A.1.cient Scotch rite. The cererllonies of this degree were originally established as H grateful tribute of respect to a worthy departed brother. .The officers of the lodge. are ti, Right \Vor.. shipfull\faster, who represents the Noble .A.donirarn, the inspector of the works at l\lount I~ibanus, and a '-Varden, 'who is caJled Inspector. The conductor represents Zerbal, the Captain of the Guards. The SYlllbolic colour of the degree is green, to l'cHuind the Perfect l\Iaster that, being dead in vice, he must hope to re.. \rive in virtue. His jewel is a COll1paSS extended 60 degrees', to teach hinl that he should act within llleasure, aI.ld ever pay due regard to ju~tice and equity. The apron is \vhite, with a green flap, and in the middle of the apron must be embroidered or painted, within three circles, a square stone, in the centre of which the letter J is inscribed.

PERFE9T UNION, LODGE OF. A lodge at l\.ennes in FIance, which, in the last century, orca,ted a new modificati.on of mgsoary, under the name of the rite of the EI~~ct of Truth. It co~sistcd of fourteen degrees, divided into three classes, taken ":'j~' slight, altern.tions f1"Ol11 the rite of perfection. The degrees v.e:eas follows: :... C路l(,1.S.~.-l, Entered .A.pprentice; 2, Fellow-Craft; 3, ~aster; 4, })erfect l\;lastcr. II. Olass.-5, Elect of nine; 6, Elect of fifteen j 7, ~Iaster Elect; 8, l\:1inor ArC~litect; H, Second Architect; 10, Grand Architect; 11, Knight ()f the FJast; 12, Rose Croix..

III. C'lass.-13, Knight .A.dept; 14, Elect of Truth. This rite, at one time, had several lodges in various pal ~ of France.

PERPENDICUL.t\R. In a geolnetrical sense, that which is upright and erect, lenning neither one '\\"'ay nor another.. In a figurative and s~ymbolic sense, it conveys the signification of Jus..

tlcel j;"oJ,titudc,


and Tetll:pcrance.

J usticc t

tlu~t lc~'Qs



to no side but that of Truth; Fortitude, that yields to no ad" Prudence, that ever pursl1e~ the straight path of integrity; and Temperance, that swerves not for appetite no! passion. See Plumb.

verse attack


PERSECU1'IONS. I enter o路n the history the persecu. tions to which our order has been subjected, with a reluctance that I have not felt in the other portions of this work.. The 1'e.. cord of the follies and the crimes of his race, furnish no plensauli theme to the historian.. But truth summons me to the task, odious though it be, of showing that masonry, virtuous as 3.1'e its principles, charitable as are its objects, and instructive as are its ceremonies, has, nevertheless, been repeatedly exposed to the blinded rage of political hostility, or of religious bigotry. One of the first persecutions to which masonry, in its present organization, was subjected, occurred in the year 1735, in flo1.. land. On the 16th of October, of that year, a crowd of igno.. rant fanatics whose zeal had been enkindled by the denunciations of some of the clergy, broke into a house in AUlsterdanl, where a lodge was accustomed to be held, and destroyed all the furni.. ture and ornaments of the lodge. The States General, yielding to the popular excitement, or rather desirous of giving no Geca路 sian for its action, prohibited the future nleetings of the lodges One, however, continuing, regardless of the edict, to meet at a private house, the IDeulbers were arrested and brought before the Court of J Here, in the presencE of the whole city, the Masters anel ardens defended themselves with great dexterity; -and while acknowledging their inability to prove the innocence of their institution by a, public exposure their secret doctrines~ they freely offered to receive and initiate any person in the confidence of the magistrates, and who could then give them inf()r mation upon which they might depend, relative to the true designs of the institution. The proposal was acceded to, and the town cl~rk was chosen. IIe was imulediately initiated, and hi$ ~port so pleased his superiors, that all the magistrates an'd prInt





.:'Itpal persons of the city became members and zealous patrons of the order.

In France, the fear of the authorities that the Freemasons concealed, within the recesses of their lodges, designs hostile to the government, gave occasion to an attempt, in 1737, on the part of the police, to prohibit the Dleeting of the lodges. But this unfavourable disposition did not long continue, and the last instance of the interference of the governnlent with the proceedings of the masonic body, was in .June 1745, when the members of a lodge, meeting at the Ilotel de Soissons, were dispersed, their furniture and jewels seized, and the landlord amerced in a penalty of three thousand IiYres. The persecutions in Geruluny were owing to a singular cause. The malice of a few females had been excited by their disappointed curiosity. .A portion of this disposition ~ey succeeded in communicating to the Elupress, l\Iari:.t Theresa, who issued un order for apprehending nJI the l\lasons in Vienna, when asserllbl(~d in their lodges.. The luenSllre 'was, however, frustrated by tho good sense of the ]~nlperor, Joseph 1., who wns himself a l\Iason, and exerted his po'wer ill protecting his brethren. The persecutions of the chur(~h in Italy, and otlherCatholic countries, have been the Illost extensive and most permanent. On the 28th of April, 17 i)~, Pope Clenlent XII. issued the fatDous bull against}1'reeuHlsouS, whose authority is still in existence. In this bull, the l~Olntnl l>ontiff satys, " We have learned, and public runlor does not pcrrnit us to doubt the truth of tho report, that a certain society has been fOfIl1ed, under the nalllt1 nf I~lreelnnsons, into "rhich persons of nIl religions and all sects are indiscriminately adnlitted, nnd whose Inerubers have established certain laws which bind thclusclvcs to each other, and which, ill ptlrticula.r, cOIllpel tll(~ir 111en1 bers, under the severest penalti2s, by virtue of an oath taken on the 1Ioly Scriptures, to preserve an inviolable secrecy in relation to every thing that passes in tbeir nlcetings." 'rIle bull goes 011 to dechn路e, that these socie.. ties havcbecollle suspected by the faithful, and that they art



hrirtful to the tHLnquillity of the state and to the safety of the soul; and after making URe of the DOW, thread-bare argument, that if the actions of Freemasons were irreproachable, they wou~d not so carefully conceal them from the light, it proceeds to er..j oin all bishops, superiors, and ordinaries, to punish the Free.. m~sons ,: with the penalties which they deserve, as people greatly 8l.l3pected of heresy, having recourse, if necessary, to the seculal' ar'll."* What this delivery to the secular arm means, we are at no loss to 3.iscover, from the interpretation given to the bull by Cardinal FL'rao, in his edict of publication. in the beginning of the followine; year; namely, "that no person shall dare to assemble at any lodge of the said society, nor be present at any of their meetings, under pain of death, and confiscation of goods, the said penalt.y to be without hope of pardon . "t The bull of Clement met in France with no congenial spirits to obey it... On the contrary, it was the !ubject of universal condemnation as arbitrary and unjust, and the parliament of Paris positively refused to enrol it. But in other Catholic countries it was better respected. In Tuscany the persecutions were unremitting. .A. man named Crudeli, was arrested at Floren~e, thrown into the dungeons of the inquisition, subjected to torture~ and finally sentenced to a long imprisonment on the charge of having furnished an asylum toa masonic lodge.. The Grand Lodge of England, upon learning the circumstances, obtained hie enlargement and sent him pecuniary assistance.. Francis de

• ..As late as 1802, in Austria, and the Ecclesiaat.~cal States, all public fun .... ti.marie& were compelled, before their installation, to declare upon oath that they were not members of the order of Freemasons. 1 Clavel gives the original of this most merciful interpretation. I quote it, lest the severity of the penalty sbould throw a doubt upon the currectness of my transla.tion, which my Italia,n readers may easily verify.. "Che nessuno a:rd-:'8¡~a. di radunarsi e congregarsi e di aggregarsi, in luogo alcuno, 80ttO Ie ndet te societa, di trovarsi presente & tali radunanze, sotta pena della fll~ , oQnti~ca.t4~ol1e d~ bt)~~, da inoO;rrefsi irre~lsibihpf)~te .. aeJJ.D Ipe~di



Lorraine, who had been initiated at the Hague, in 1731, soon after ascended the grand ducal throne, and one of the :first acts of his reign was to liberate all the l\IasoDs who had been incarcerated by the inquisition, and still further to evince his respect for the order, be personally assisted in the constitution of several lodges at .Florence, and in other cities of his dominions. The other sovereigns of Italy were, however, more obedient to the behests of the holy father, and persecutions continued t(l r~ge throughout the peninsula. Nevertheless, rnasonry continued to flourish, and in 1751, thirteen years after the emission of the bull of prohibition, lodges were openly in existence in Tuscany, at Naples, and even in the "eternal city" it.self. The priesthood, whose vigihlnce had abated under the influence of time, became once more alarmed, and an edict was issued in 1751, by Benedict XIV., who then occupied the papal chair, renewing and enforcing the bull which had been fulminated by Clement. This, of course, renewed the spirit of persecution In Spain, one Tournon, a :F'renchnutn, was convicted of practising the rites of masonry, and after a tedious confinenlcnt in the dungeons of the inquisition, he w'as finally banished from the kingdom . In Portugal, at IJisbon, John Coustos, a natiYe of Switzerland, was still more severely treated. IIe was subjected to the torture, and suffered so much that he was unable to move his limbs for three months. C(111~qtoS, with two cOlllpanions of his reputed crime, was sentenced to the galleys, but was finally released by the interposition of the English ambassador. The work of eonstos, in which he recounts the CirCUIl1stances of his imprisonment and trial, is now before me, and the details of the tortures tq which he was 8ubjected, in th ~ hope of ex.torting the secrets of masonry from him, inspire the: most tender pity for his suffer. iugs, and the most unqualified admiration of bis fort,itudo and 11delity. But the persecutions of the order were not confined to路 Ca.tholiccountries. In 1745, the Council of Berne, \'l ~witzerlantl



'~Et-..Ied a d~'3ree prohibiting under the severest penalties, the ~ e;cIPblages of Freemasons. In 1757,.in Scotland, the Synod or

Sterling adopted a resolution debarring all adhering Freemasons from the ordinances of religio!1. ...t\.nd, as if to prove that fanati. cism is everywhere the same, in 1748 the Dblan at Constanti. nople caused a masonic lodge to be deulolished, its jewels and furniture seized, and its Inell1bers arrested. They were dis.. charged upon the interposition of the English minister, but the government prohibited the introduction of the order into Turkey. Our own country has not been free frOIll the blighting influence of this demon of fh,naticism. But the excit,ing scenes of anti-masonry are too recent to be treated by the historian with coolness or impartiality. The political party to which this spirit of persecution gave birth, was the most abject in its principles, and the most unsuccessful in its efforts, of any that our times have seen. It has passed away; the clouds of anti-masonry have been, ' we trust, forever dispersed, and the bright sun ot' masonry, once more emerging from its temporary eclipse, IS beginning to bless our land with the invigorating heat and light of its meridian rays.


in France about the year 1819.

A rite attempted to be It consisted of seven

degrees, as follows :-1, Listening l\l)prentice; 2, Fellow-Craft Adept, Esquire of Benevolence; 3, ~Iaster, Knight of the ~un; 4, Architect of all rites, Knight of the philO)sophy of the heart; 5, Knight of eclecticism and of truth; 6, l\'Iaste.r Go~ Shepherd; 7, Venerable Grand Elect. This rite never contained many mem.. bers, and is now abolished. PETITION. "Then a new lodge is about to be formed, application to the Grand Lodge, within whose jurisdiction it is situated, must be made in the form of petition. The petition lllust be signed by at least seven Master :rrIasons, and the masonic and moral character of the petitioners certified by one or more Wt路l1 known brethren. Petitions to a Grand Ohapter for the forluatioll



of Chapters of Ro)'~J Arch require the signature of nine companions; and for Connnanderies of Templars and the appendant orders, the application to the Grand Comillandcry must be nlude by nine knights. PI-Il\.I.JLUS. (Greek CP(J.).;.o~.) The phallus was the wooden Image of the rJu:/lnb1·M1n 'which being affixed to a pole, . formed ~t part of Illost of the pagan and \vas wu,nsu,1 u· ped as the cnlblcul oof the nude geuerative principle. 'T'he ph:tllie worship was first established in ]~gypt. rrhe origin of its insti~ tution ,vas this. ,A.fter the llrurder of ()siris, and the luutilation i)f the body by TJphoD, Isis ,vas enahled to recoycr all the of his body except the privities. To this part, therefore, in COIllmemoration of its loss, she paid particular honour. Th(~ phaJlus, its representation, was Inacle of w'ood, and carried during the sncred festivals in the 11lysteries or Osiris, as tl1C ernblcul of fecundity. It was held by the people in the veneration, and the sight or mention of it, in the Blinds of the ~lneicnts no irllpure or lascivious 1{r01H it ,vas introduced into G"recce, and its exhibition foru1ed (1, of the Inysteries. In the Indian luysteries, it was caJlcd the Zin!llen/;, and was always f()llnd in the lllost holy place of the teruple. It was adopted by the idclhttrtHIS ,vho took it, the bloahites 'when in the wilderness of Sin, under the ntnne of 13nuJ.. peor.* In short, the ,.reneratioll of the under different u~unes, ,vas common to aU the nations of antiq ui ty. 'Ve shall again occasion to refer to j t, in the article on the Point within a Circle, with which Inasonic olnblell1 tho phallus has been identified by Dr. Oliyer in un elaborate in his ,-c Signs and Sj"mbols." The lll:lSonic explanation; it will hereafter be perceived, bears no longer any allusion to solar orb, or great principle of fecundit~y, except in it~ forlu8, a figure still • Cumberla.nd says Baal..pehor in the Chnldltio signifies the iJ,,!uivalent totbe Beman deity Priapud.


QI\,k ..'d

PlII retained oy astronomers as the representation of the sun. Po'int with in a Oircle.


PHILALETHES, RITE OF THE. The rite of the Philale. thes or Searchers after Truth, was invented in the lodge of Anlis Reunis at Pa,!'is, in 1775, by Savalette de Langes, I\:eeper of the Royal Trc-~sury. It was compounded of the masonic reveries of.. Swedenburg and Paschulis, and was distributed into twelve clas&l?s or chambers of instruction. The nanles of these classes or degrec~ were as follows :-1, Apprentice; 2, Fellow oraft ; 3, l'faster j -1, F~lect; 5, Scotchl\'Iaster; 6, Knight of the East; 7, Rose Oroix; ~, Knight the Telnple; 9, Unknown Philosopher; 10, Sublinle Philosopher; 11, Initiate; 12, Philalethes or Searcher after ,Truth. The first six degrees were called Petty, and the last six: High l\Iasonry. The rite existed only during the life of de Langes; at his death in 1788, it ceased to exist, and the lodge 01 Amis Reunis was dissolved.




All the degrees above tbe

Rose Croix obtain this appella,tion. They are so called because they are partIcularly directed to the philosophical explanation c~ the system of masonry, which, in the inferior degrees, receives a. moral signification They are not to be confounded with the philosophical orders which arose on the continent of Europe about the close of the eighteenth century, and whose tendency, in many instances, was towards natural religion or deism. Bal'ruel find Robinson, however, have confounded theIn, and on this error ha,路~ based many, if not all, of their false charges against Freeluasonry.


The degree of Knights of the

Sun is sometimes thus styled.

PHILOSOPHIC SCOTCH RITE.-R1~teeco88a17s philo8oIn the Jear I7iO, one Pernetti founded a rite of Free.. TJ1asonry, whicb he (1:1 neel the" fTcrmctj(' ritr," but ,,"'hich was




rather an alchemical thun a Inasonic soeiety, for its object was, by symbolic lessons, to instruct its disciples in the art of tranSllluting luetals, and preparing the of life.

Oue of l)ernetti's rnost

ingenious disciples \vas tt physieiul1 of ntllUed I~oileau.. lIt? luodified the systcln of the IIcl'luetic rite, gave it H luore purelJ masonic character and esta,blished its practi('C in one of the Iod~\\~ of Paris, under the lHunc of the ".Philo.~ophicScotch Itite." 'The two rites were subsequently united, and the <}ra.lld J..Jodg'c \Vtt~ established in 1776, at Paris. It CtJllsists of twelve degrees, as follows: 1, 2, 3, Knight of the l~laekEagle, or lloseCroix, di.. vided into three parts; 4, lCnight of the ])hoonix; 5, I{night of

the Sun; 6, I{night of' Iris; 7, :Freelnason; 8, l(night of the Argonauts; 9, Knight of the Golden _Fleece; 10, Grand In~p<~c. . tor, Perfect Initiate; 11, Q-rand Inspector, Grand Scotch :JIason; 12, Sublime l\Iaster of the J.Junlinous Ring. ':rbe three degrl~es of ancient Craft l\Iasonr.yarc ncecssary pre-requisites, though they ~o not forln a part of the rite. It is still practised in France, but to a very limited extent. 'VVe lllay forll1 SOUle notion of the lllasonic doctrine taught in this rite, from the naIlle of dle degree \vhich is at its sumlnit. The" LUllliuous lUng" is a degree. In 1780 un . t. \.cadelny of the Subli 1110 1'\1 asters of the LUlllinous Ring was established in Frn,nec, in'whie!l the doctrine was taught that Freeillasonry. VtraS originally foundc~d by Psthagoras, and in vr'hich the most hnportant portioll of the lectures eonsisted of an expla.. nation of the peculin.r doetrines of the sage of Sanlos. We may, tb.erefore, presume that the stune doctrines were taught in the rite 'C.nder examination..


One of t:.te working tools of 8. Royal Arch For its embleulatic significoL\tioD see Slt 0 vel.

PILGRIl\I'S SI:IEI.. L. 1'he shell was an Ancient symbol of the Syrian Goddess Astarte, who \"\'as tho saUle as the Venu~ Pelagia, or Venus rising froln the sea, of the western Ulyt hology


The escalop or scallop shell (the Pecten of I...inlloous) is found in great abundance OlJ the shores of the l\Iediterranean, and was worn in the titHe the Crusades by pilgrims to the Land, as a 1\, clllorial of the pilgriluage they were then pOrfOrIll iug or had already accoll1plished. Thus Shakspear'J lllUkcs

()phelia sing: ,&

And how should I thy true love know, From any other one? O! by his scollop shell and staff, And by his sandal shoon."

Hence the scollop shell, staff and sandals, form a :-art of the costume of a candidate in the ceremonies ef the Templar's degree.. PILLAR. In t.he earliest times it was customary to perpetuate renlur]rable events, or exhibit gTutihlde for providential favours, by the erection of pillars, which by the idolatrous races were dedicated to their spurious gods. Thus Sanconiatho tells us that IIypsourianos and Ousous, who lived before the flood, dedicated t\VO pillars to the elCluents, fire and air. Anlong the lUgyptians the pillars 'were, in general, in the fornl of obelisks;; frolH 50 to 100 feet high, and exeeedingly slender in proportion. lJpan their four sides, hieroglyphics w'ere often engraved. Ac.':\~rding to IIerodotus, they were first r:lised in honour of the sun, nnd their pointed forln was intended to represent his rayff l\Inny of these 1l10nU111ents still reluain. In the antediluvian ages, the posterity of Seth erected pinal's; (t for," says the J e\vish historian, "that their inventions lllight not be lost before they were suificiently known, upon A.datu's prediction, that the world was to be destroyed at one titne by the force of fire, and at another tilne by the violence of 'water, they luade two pillars, the one of briek, the other of stone; they in路 scribed their discoveries on thelu both, that in case the pillar of brio}\' should be destroyed by tho flood, the pinal' of stone rni!!:ht and exhibit those discoveries to Inankind, and also inform



them that there was another pillar of brick erected by them."* t.Tacob crentcd a pillar at Bethel, to COmmCI110rate his remarkable vision of the ladder, and after,vul'dsallother one at &aleed 3.5 a Dlemorial of his alliance with I.~n.ban. Joshua erected one at Gilgal to perpetuate the relnclubrance of his miraculous crossillg . of the Jordan. Samuel set up a pillar between l\lizpch and Shen, on account of a defeat of the I)hiIistines, and Absa10rn erected another in honour of himself. PILLARS OF THE POROl!. The pillars most remarkable in Scripture history, were the two erected by Sololnon ~~ the porch of the Temple, and which Josephus thus describes; "Moreover, this Hiraln made two hollo\v pillars, wbose outsides were of brass, and the thickness of the brass was four fingers breadth, and the height of the pillars was eighteen cubits,. (27 feet,) and the circuruference twelve cubits, (18 feet;) but there was cast with each of their chapiters, lily work, that stood upon the pillar, and it was elevated five cubits, (7 ~ feet,) round about which there was net ,vork interwoven with Bluall pa,lms made of .rass, and cover(~d the lily work. To this also were hung two hundred pOlllegranates, in two rows. The one of these pillarE he set at the entrance of the porch on the right hand, (or sout}lJ,) and called it Jachin, and the other at the left hand, (or north,) and called it Boaz." It llUS been supposed that SOlOIDOIl, in erecting these pillars, had reference to the pillar of cloud and the pillar of fire which went before the Israelites in the wilderness, and that the right hand or south pillar represented the pillar of cloud, and the left hand or north pillar represented that of fire. Solomon did not 6imply erect them as ornaments to the teulple, but as memorinls of God's repeated promises of support to his people Israel


• Joseph. Antiq. lib. 1. (". ii. Josephus says this pillar in his time was still remaining in the land of a rind; but Wh iston supposes the pillar thus referred w, to have been erected by Sesostris, King of Egypt.

PIL For the pillar 1'~' (Jachin,) derived from the words it' (Jah,) "Jehovah," and i'~' (iachin) " will establish," signifies that "God will establish his house of Israel;" while the pillar lJi:1 (Boaz) compounded of :l (b,) "in" and \17 (oaz,) "strength," signifies, that '4 in strength shall it be established." And thus were the Jews, in passing through the porch to the temple, daily reminded of the abundant promises of God, and inspired with confidence in his protection and gratitude for his many acts of kindness to his chosen people. The constrr'uction of these p'illatrs.-There is no part of the ar.. chitecture of the ancient temple which is so difficult to be under.. stood in its details, as the Scriptural account of these memorable pillars. Freemasons, in general, intimately as their symbolical ;ignification is connected with some of the most beautiful portions of their ritual, appear to have but a confused notion of their construction and of the true disposition of the varioll8 parts of which they are composed. With a view to relieve th~ subject from some of the difficulties which surround it, I, some time since, published an essay 011 these pillars in JYIoore's Magazine; and as that essay contained all the results of a rather laborious investigation, I shall transfer so much of it as is appropri.. ate to' the presentarticle. The situation of these pillars, according to Lightfoot, was w'ithirl, the porch, at its very en trance and on each side of the gate. They were therefore seen, one on the right, and the other on the left, as soon as the visitor stepped within the porch.t .A,nd this, it will be remembered, in confirmation, is the very !pot in which Ezekiel places the pillars that he saw in his vision of the Temple. "The length of the porch was twenty cubits,


• See his treatise entitled U a Prospect of the Temple." If this position be the correct one, and Lightfoot supports the hypothesis by strong arguments, then Oliver, as well as most of our lecturers, is wrong in the statement that th& pillars were placed before the porch of the. temple, and must have been f"!lssed before entering it. See Oliver's LandmarkJ, voL I", p.. 451.




and the brea Ith eleven c-u..bits; and he brought me by the ~tHPE whereby they went up to it, and there were pillars by the posts, one on this side, and another on that side." These pillars, \ve are told, were of brass, as well as the chapi. "ers that surIllounted then), and were cast hollow. Th'e thickness of the brass of each pillar was "four fingers, or no hanu~~ breadth," which is equal to three inches. According to the ac~ counts in 1 I{ings viii. 15, and in ,Jererlliah lii. 21, the circuluference of each pillar was twelve cubits. Now, according to the J"ewish computation, the cubit used in the measurement of the temple buildings was six hands' breadth, or eighteen inches. According to the tables of Bishop Cumberland, the cubit was rather more, he making it about twent.y-two inches; but I adhere to the measure laid down by the Jewish writers, as probably more correct, and ,certainly more sin1ple for calculation. The circumference of each pillar, reduced by this scale to English measure, would be eighteen feet, and its diameter about six. The reader of the Scriptural accounts of these pillars will be not a little puzzled with the apparol1 t, discrepancies that are found in the estimates of their height tiS giyen in the ]~ooks of !{ings dud Chronicles. In the forrner book, it is said tha.t their height was eighteen cubits, and in the latter it was thirty-five. t But the discrepancy is easily reconciled by supposing, which, indeed, must have been the case, that in the Book of I{ings the pillars


are spoken of separately, and that, in Chroni~les, their aggregate height is calculated; and the reason why, in this latter book, their uuit"ed height is placed at thirtJ-five cubits instead of thirty-six, which would be the double of eighteen, is because they are there measured as they appeared with the chapiter~ upon them. Now halfaeubit of each pillar was concealed in, what Lightfoot calls" the hole of the chapiter," that is, half a • Ezekiel, xi. 49. t Whiston observes that the latter height would be oontrary to aU the rulea If architeoture...

PIL 4\ubits's depth of the lower edge of the chnpitel covered the toI~ the pillar, making each pillar, apparently, only seventeen and a half cubits high, or the two thirty-fi'\te cubits, as laid down in the Book of Chronicles. This is a mueh better method of reconciling the discrepancy hJ.n that adopted by Calcott,* who supposes that the pedestals !)f the pillars were seventeen cubits high-a violation of every rule of architectural proportion with which we would be reluctant to charge the memory of so "cunning a workman" as Hiram the Builder. The account in Jereuliah agrees with that in the ·Book of Kings. The height, therefore, of each of these pillars was, in English measure, twent.y-seven feet. The chapiter or pomel was five cubits, or seven and a half feet 1110re; but as half a cubit, or nine i nehes, was COD1IDon to both pillar and chapiter, the whole height from the ground to the top of the ~~hapiter was twenty-two cubits and a half, or thirty-three feet and nine inches. Each of these pillars was surmounted by a chapiter, which was five cubits or seven and a half feet in height. The shape and construction of this chapiter requires SOUle consideration. The Hebrew word which is used in this place is J."r1i;:), (h~ote­ fret.) Its root is to be found in the word '~l~, (leeter,) which signified" a crown," and is so used in Esther vi. 8., to designate the royal diadern of the King of Persia. The Cha.1daic version expressly calls the cha-piter " a crown," but Rabbi Solomon,


in his commintary, uses the word S'Ol~, (pornel,) signifying "a globe or spherical body," and Rabbi Gershom describes it us '~like two crowns joined together.'" Lightfoot saJs, a it was a huge, great oval, five cubits high, and did not only sit upon tLe head of the pillars, but also flowered or spread theIn, being

larger about, a great deal, than the pillars tbemselves." 'l'he Jewish commentatoI3 say that the two lower cubits of its surface

• Calcott's Masonry, p. 151.



'were entirely plain, blit that the three upper "vera richly ornaTo this ornalnental \ve uenv arrive. In the first J30t)k (If eh. vii. verses 17, 20, 22, the ornanlcnts of the ehi.lrliters are thus deserihcrl: " .And nets of eheekel'-'\vork and \vl.'t1nths e)f elHdn\vork, for the chapit(~rs \vhieh \VerB 111)(H1 thn ()f the pillars; seven f<Jr tIle one chapiter, and seven for the other chapiter. "And he made the pillars, and two r(HVS round about upon the one net-work, to cover the (.,hapiters that were upon the top, with pomegranates; and so did he for the other chapiter. " And the chapiters that 'V'ere upon the tops of the pillars wero of lily work in the porch, four cubits. "And the chapiters upon the t,vo pillars had pomegranate~ also above, over against the bell,Y, which \vns by the net work; and the pomegranates were two hundreds in rows, round about upon the other chapiter. "And upon the top of the pillars was lily work; so was the work of the pillars finished." Let us endeavour to render this dcseriptlion, whicll appeun. soulewha.t confused and unintelligible, plainer and more cCllupre..

hensible. ~rhe " nets of," is the first ornaluent ulentionmL The words thus trutlslated are in the original i1e"l路~ O'~.:le~ i1~:ltt路.1 w'hich IJightfoot prefers rendering ,', thickets of brunch work;" and he thinks that the t.rue Inc-auing of the passage


that" the chapiters 'were curil)usl~y ,,~rought. with braneh "rork. Beven goodly branches st,anding up frau} the bell)' of the oval. and their boughs and leaves curiously Rnd lovcIily interul ingled and interwoven one with anot.her." lIe derives his reason fen this version, from the fhct thttt the satne word, ;1~:J t=-, is traug lated, "thickef' in the passnge in (}enesis (xxii. \vlH-.rc the ranl is described as being "ehugbt in OJ thiekct by his 110rns.路1I) and in various other passages 1h~ wcn',j is to b(~ siIuilarly trans lated. But, on the other bhUd, we find i t us(~d in th(~ Ik)ok of Job, where it evidently s"~llifi<)3 a net Illude of Illeshes: "For ~



he if:: cust in to a net b:r his cwn feet and he walketh upon ~ tJ ob xvii. 8. In 2 Kings i. 2, the saIne word is used, where our translatol's have rendered it a latt拢cej "Ahaziah fell down through a lattice in his upper chamber." I am, ther~fore, not inclined to adopt the elllcndation of Lightfoot, but rather eoincide with the received version as well as the masonic t.radi路 tion th<lt this ornament was a siInple net-work or fabric consisting uf reticulated lines.. ''::'he ,~ wreaths of chain work" that are next spoken of, arB less difficult to be understood. The word here translated "wreath." ' ~nare/"


is 0"',), and is to be found in Deutervnomy xxii. 12, wl1ere it rlistinctly means fr-infJes: "Thou shalt nlake thee fringes upon the four quarters of thy vesture." J!1ringes, it should also be translated here. " The fringes of chain work," I suppose, were, therefore, attached to, and hung down from, the net~work spoken of above, and were probably in this case, as when used upon t.he garnlents of the Jewish h.igh priest, intended as a "nlemorial of the law." The "lily work," i$ the lust ornanlent that denlands our attention. And here the description of IJightfoot is so clear and eviden tly correct, that I shall not hesitate to quote it at length " .A.t the head of the pillar, even at the setting on of the chapi tel', there was a curious and a large border or circle of lily work, which stood out four cubits under the chapiter, and then turned .jown, every lily or long tongue of brass, with a neat bending, And so seemed as a flowered crown to the head :Jf the pillar, and 3S a curious garland whereon the chapiter bad its seat." Th13re is a very conl mon error arnong l\:Iasons, which has oeelJ fostered by the plates in our "~Ionitors," that there were on the pillars, chapiters, and that these chapiters were again SUrllll)Unted by globes. The truth, however, is that the chapiters themselves were" the pomels or globes" to which our iecturc, il1 the .li\~l.U\V Craft's degree, alludes. fllns 1~ eV1J~llL fl't.J1u what has alrea9-V ~n saId In th.') fir~t purt 0.. th(:j !'1路CCeJ..tLl6 . . .~ril'u.t.".... .. ".. ~


maps of th,. ctl[路th and the charts of the celestial cun~tel;atiou~ which nrc sOlnetilllcs' said to have been engraved upon th(~se globes, Inust be referred to the pillars where, according to Oliyer, a masonic tradition places thein-un ancient euston1, inl:::ttancc::J .Ji' \vhich we find in profane history. This is, ho\vever, by ne means of any irnportance, as t.he symbolic allusion isperfeetly well preserved in the shapes of the chapiters, without. the necessity of any such geographical or astron 0111 ical engraving upou thenl }1'or heing globular, or nearly so, they Ina,Y be justly said to have represented the celestial and terrestrial spheres. The true description, th~n, of these memorable pillars, is si IU .. ply this. IUlillediately within the porch of the temple, ~lnd on each side of the door, were placed two hollow brazen pillars. The height of each ,vas twenty-seven feet, the diatlleter about six feet, and the thickness of the brass three inches. .A_boye the pillar, and coyering its upper part. to the depth of nine inches, was an oval body or chapiter, seven feet Hnd a half in height. Springing out froIll the pillar, at the junction of the chapiter with it, ,va~ u. row of lily petals, which, first spreading Rround the chapiter, after,vards gently curved downwards T,ow'ards the pillar, soruething like the .l\.canthus leaves on the capital of a Corinthian coltunn. ..A.bout two-fifths of the distanee fro III the bOttOlll of the chapiter, or j tlst below its Inost bulging part, a tissue of net-work ,vas ctlTyed, which extended over its wholo upper surface. To the bottonl of this net-work was suspended a series of fringes, and on these again were carved two rows cf pornegranates, one hundred being inench row. l'his description, it seeIns to llle, is the only one that can be t6c1')DCiled with the 'Tarious passages in the Books of I(ings, Chronicles and Jeremiah, which relate to these pillars, and the only :)ue that can giyc the masonic student a correct conception of the architecture of these iUlportant symbols PLATONIC AC..A.DEl\'IY. .~ society instituted at ~"'lorence. in 1480. The hall in which its uleetings wer~ held stin~xistj,



~nd is suid to be ornanlented with masonic 81nblems. Clavei supposes it to have been ~t society founded by sonlO of the hono.. rary nlembers and patrons of the fraternity of l?reemusons who \ existed in the l\Iicldle l\..ges, and w'ho, baving a,bandoned the rna.. terial design of the institution, confined themselves to its mystic character. If his suggestion be correct, this is one of the earliest instances of the separa,tion of speculative from operat.ive


PLENTY. The ear of corn is the masonic synlbol of plenty, and was derived, as nearly all the masonic symbols have been," from the ancient system of symbolism. According to l\Iontfau.. can, ears of corn always accorupanied the images of t~e goddess Plenty in the ancient gems and medals, of which he gives several examples. The Hebrew word Skibboletl1J signifies an ear of corn. PLUIVIB. All instrument made use of, by operative masons, for the purpose of erecting perpendicular lines, and which, in speculative masonry, constitutes one of the working tools of the Fello\v-Craft.. As the building which is not erected on a perpendicular line" but leans either one way or the other, becomes inse.. cure, and lnust eventually fall, by the force of gravity, to the ground, so he, whose life is not supported by an upright course of conduct, but whose principles are swused by the uncertain dictates of interest or passion, cannot long sustain a worthy reputation, and Inust soon sink be.neath the est.imation of every good and virtuous citizen. But the just, the upright, the unwavering man, who bends not beneath the attacks of adversity, nor yields to the ten1ptations of prosper!ty, but still pursues the "even tenor of his way," will stand erect aUlid the fiercest teIllpests of fortune, and, like a tall column, lift his head above the frowns of envy and the slanders of Inalignity. To the man thus just and u.pright, the sacred Scriptures attribute as necessary parts of his ~haracter, kindness and liberality.. temperance and nloderation



truth and wisdom; alld the heathen poet, Horace, pays; in ODO it his most admired odes, an eloquent tribute to his stern immutabilit.y. The man in conscious virtue bold, '''''''ho dares his se(~ret purpose bold, Unslmkeu henrs the crowd's tumultuous cries And the impetuous tyrant's n.ngry brow defies. Let the loud winds that rule the seas, 'rheir wihl tempestuous horrors rn.ise; Let Jove's dr'oad ~Lt'l.U vvith thunders rond the spheres,J Beneath the crush of \vorltls undaunted he a.ppears••


The plumb is also the 'jewel of the JuniorvVarden, and it seems here SYUl bolically to instruct us, as the authorit'J this officer is exercised only in tiIlle of refreshment, when the brethren. having ceaRed to labour" are no longer within the sacred precincts of the lodge rOOli, that then nlore particularly, when the eyes of" a censorious world are upon hiIn, should the l\Iasol1 wulk up.. lightly and eschew evil.t





or t.riple tric

-----------• J usturn at tomlemll pr()positi virum Non civium nrdtlf pravu, jubontium, Non vul tUM insttUl t~s .tyrtlnni Mento qU~l.tit solido, neque Auster DI1X inquicti turbidus Adrhe : Nee fulminantiH magna. Jovis manus. 8i frnctus illahatur Ol'bis Imp1tviduUl ferient ruim;e..

[Bor.. lib.. iii.. od. 3.

t It is worthy of notice that,

in xnost languages, the word which is used in a direct sen$O to indicn.te straightness of course or perpendicularity of position, is also (~mployed in a figurative sense to express uprightn~ss of conduct. 8ueh tho Latin H reelum," which signifies at the same time a. right nile al;J '!tol1e8ty orintegrUy; the Greek 'ap96) which moans fltl'a7"gltt, 8tatUUuy UP}';:I'~ t, a.nd ulso equitable, iw~t, true,. H.nd tho Hebrew t8edek, which in a ph.Y:::ka, S(~nse denotos t-i:llttn(;~8'1, HtJ-alyhtJU'8H" and in a mornI,wlla.t f'8 l'i!]Jlt (Old ]1I"It. ()ur own word RIG,IIl', pn.rtu.kep f t,his pe<'ulinrit,y, 'right being not u:l'Ollg,&1 "lien as not croolud.


POI an~l(~,

was al110ng the Pythagoreans the cUl".>lem of health, be· it constituted a figure of five lines and five points; among .l~Iasons, in the form of a five-point.ed star, it has been adopted as the symbol of the most sacred principles of their ,profession. See Fi~ie Points of Fello'wship, and Star.



See Tu;clve Grand Point&.

!>OINT WITHIN A CIRCLE. This emblem is to be found in every well regulated lodge, and is explained as representingthe po-int, the individual brother, and the c~·rcle, the boundary line of his duty. But that this was not always its symbolic sig.: nification, we may collect from the true history of its connection with the phallus of the ancient mysteries. The phallus, as I have already shown, under the word, was among the Egsptians the symbol of fecundity, expressed by the male generative principle. It was communicated from the rites of Osiris to the reli.. gious festivals of Greece Anl0ng the Asiatics the same emblem, under the name of lingam,was, in cOlluection with the female principle, worshipped as the symbols of the Great Father and l'Iother, or producing causes of the human race, after their de.. struction by the deluge. On this subject, Captain Wilford re.. marks" that it was believed in India, that, at the general deluge, every thing was involved in the common destruction, exoept the male and female principles, or organs of generation, which were destined to produce a new race, and to re-people the earth when the waters bad subsided from its surface. The female principl~ sym bolized by the luoon, assumed the form of a lunette or cres~ent; while the luale principle, symbolized by the SUD, assuming tIle form of the lingam, placed himself erect in the centre of tho 1linette, like the mast of a ship. The two principles, in this united form, floated on the surface of the waters during the 'f'criod of their prevalence on the earth jand thus became the progenitors of a new race of men."* Here, then, was the first • Asiat. Researches, cit. apud Oliver, Signs a.nd Symbols, 180.

POI outHne of the point wi thin t1 cil'c1e, representing the principle of fecundity, and 'doubt.less the S.Y1nbo_, connected ,vith a different history, that, narnely, of Osiris, was transluittcd by the Indian philosophers to Egypt, and to the other nations, ,vho derived, ns we have else\vhere sho'wn, all their rites frotll the East. As an evidence of this, \ve find the salue syulbol in the Druidical and Scandinavian rites. The t.clnples of the Druids wer~ circular, with a single stone erected in the centre. 1\. Druidica" monument in Preulbrokeshire, calledY Crollllech, is described us consisting of several rude stones pitched on end in a circular order, and in the lnidst of the circle a vast stone placed on several pinal's. Near Keswick, in Cumberland, says Oliver, is ::lnother specimen of this Druidical syrnbol. On a hill stands a circle of forty stones placed perpendicularly, of about five feet and a half in height, and one stone in the centre of greater altitude.* Among the Scandinavians, the hall of Odin contained twelve seats, disposed in the fornl of a circle for the principal gods, with an elevated seat in the centre for Odin.. Scandina.vian mo~ Duments of this form are still to be found in Scauia, Zealand, and Jutland. or But it is useless to multiply exalnp les of the prevu.1ence of this symbol ttnlong the ancients. And now let us apply this knowledge to the masonic symbol. We have seen that the pllallus, and the point within a circle, oome from the same source, and Inust have been identical in sig. nification. 13ut the phallus was the syulbol of fecundity, or the male generathre principle, which by the ancients wa.s supposed tQl be the SUD, (they looking to the creature and not to the Creator,) because by the sun's heat and Ugh t, the earth is luade prolific, and its produ(~tions are brought to maturity. The point within the circle was then originally the symbol of the sun, and as the lingam of India. stood in the centre of the lunette, so it standp within the centre of the Universe, typified by the circle impreg.. • Sians and Symbols, 174.


Mallet's Northern Antiquitiea.



nating and vivifying with Its heat. And thus the astronomers have been led to adopt the same figure (~), as their symbol of that luminary.* The. present sig:l.ification .of the point, within the circle, among Masons, is doubtless coulparatively modern, and has superseded the original meaning of this symbol. POMEGRANATE. The pomegranate, as an emblem, was known to and highly esteemed by the nations of antiquity. In the description of the pillars \vhich stood at the porch of the ternpole, (see 1 Kings vii. 15,) it is said that the artificer" made two chapiters of molten brass to set upon the tops of the pillars." N'Ow the Hebrew word caphtortrlL, which has been translated "chapiters," and for which in Amos ix. 1, the word "lintel" has been incorrectly substituted, (though the marginal reading corrects the error,) signifies an artifictal la-rge pomegranate, or globe. It was custonutry to place such ornaments upon the tops or heads of columns, and in other situa,tions. The skirt of Aaron's robe was ordered to be decorated with golden bells and pome.. granates, and they were among the ornanlents fixed upon the golden candelabra. There seems, therefore, to have been attached to this fruit some mystic signification, to whieh it is indebted for the veneration thus paid to it. If so, this mystic meaning should be traced into 'spurious Freemasonry; for there, .after all, if there be any antiquity in our order, we shall find the parallel of all its rites and ceremonies. 1. The Syrians at Damascus worshipped an idol which they


• Fellowes,giving an ancient astronomical signification to this symbol, says .that the point was Deity, the circle the path of the sun, andthe two parallels the solstices, beyond which the sun cannot pass. t Vid. Cumberla¡nd Origines Gent. Antiq. tract. II ii. p. 54. The original m~aning is not preserved in the Septuagint, which hasarpa.,plJJTTJP, nor in the Vulgate which uses" sphrerulu.," both meaning sim:u1y "a round ballo" But JO'~1>b~SI in h~s Antiq,uitie s" ha.s kept to the literalllebrc,v.



(JaIled Rimmon. This was the SU1l1e idol that was 'WOlb'ulJ)ped by Naa~an before his conversion, as recorded in the second cook ot I{ings. The learned haye not been able to agree as to the nature of this idol, whether he ,vas a representation of IIelios or the Sun, t.he god of the Pbenicinns" or of ,renus, or aeeording to Grotins, in his cOlnluentary on the passage in Kings, of Saturn~ or what, according to Statius, seerns lHoro probable, of Jupiter Cassius.

But it is sufficient £.)1' our present, purpose to knO'w that


is the IIebrew and Syriac fbr ],()JHeyr((nale. 2. Cumberland, the learned of J>eterborough, quotes ..t\chilles Statius, a converted pagan and Bishop of ..c\.lexandria, as saying that on :,Iount Cassius, C'\vhich I30churt places bet"w'ccn Canaan und Egypt,) there was a teulple \vherein J upiter'-:; iInuge held a pome~ranate in his hand, '\vhich Statius goes on to say, "had tL mystical Incaning."* Sanconiatllo think8 this tcrllplC' was built by the descendants ()f the Cabil'i. (!ulIlberland n.ttelupts to explain this nlystery thus: "..:\greeahly hereunto I gn.ess that the ponlegrunate in the haud (Jf Jupiter or ..J uno, (beeause when it is opened, it. discloses a urlluber ()f seeds) signified only, that those deities were, long-Ii v{~d, the parents of a greilt many children, and fanlilies that soon gl'e\v int.o nations \v"hich they planted iu large possessic)ns, \vhol.1 the world was nevlIy begun to be peopled, by givi ng thenl hnvs and other u.~eful inventions t,o Inake their Ii ves cOlllfbrtable:" 3. P~1usanias (Oorinthinca, p. 5f)) suys, he Stt'v not £(),r frorQ the ruins of l\'!ycenoo, an itn:tge of Juno holding in one hand a sceptre, 3nd in tho other a pomcgranttte; but he likewise declines '1Ssigt:ing ttny explanation of the elllblem, merely declaring that it wasa:r.:opPTj1'()1."ep()~ ).oroc;-" a forbidden luystery." 'l'hat is, one which was forbidden by the Cahiri to be divulged. 4. In the festival of the Thesrnoph()ria, observed in honour of the

goddess Ceres, it was held unhnvful for the celebrants (who were women to eat the pomegranat.e. Clemens l\.lexandrinus assigns • Cumberland Orig. Gent. Ant. p. 60..



f"S a rf.a.~~ t.hat it ,vas supposed that this fruit sprang froln the 1'lo0(l u1 路.Bacchus. The coincidences in the pagan Dlysteries with respect to this eln~lem] luight (1nl1 btl(\~RJ he (~xtended still further, but I have neither tinlA nor opportunhy to pursue the research. I tllll, however, c()nt(~nt, if by these fc\v ill ustrations I have added anothnr t() the IILany aiready existing proofs of the antiquity as well as the beauty, of our beloyed order.

POMEL. A round knob; a term applied t< the globes or balls on the top of the pillars which stood at the porch of Solo路 Inon's Temple.

PONTllfES. The Freres Pontifes were a religious and operative cOIDIDunity established at ...t\..vignon, in Ttaly, in 1178. They devoted thell1selves to the construction. of stone bridges. They existed in the Duchy of Lucca as late as 1690. Their presiding officer was st!yled 1'1agister or l\laster. John de l\iedicis was l\laster of the order in 1560. POT OF INCENSE. ~rhe" sweet smelling savour" of fra8tant herbs, has, 3.lllong all nations and modes of worship, been considered an acceptable offering, in sacrifice to the Deity, as an evidence of the desire of the worshipper to honour and pleaso the object of his adoration. l\lasonry, however, like Christianity, instructs us, that the most pleasing incense that can be ~:ffered t/o the great I A~I, is the incense of a grateful and pious heart. flenee, tIle pot of incense, with a view to remind us of this truth; bas been adopted as an emblelnin the third degree. POURSUIVA.l~T. In fOrtller times, a messenger who att<1:lded upon the king in the army; alnong Masons, an officer in tome Grand L~dges, whose principp.} duty is to anuounee the

na.mes of visitors.



PRl\'YER. .l\ll the cerernonies of our en-dar prefaced :lnd terminated with prayer, because lUtlSOnry is fL religious institutiou, and because we thereby show our dependence OD, and our f~tith and trust in God. PRECEI)ENCY 011' I.JOI)Glt]S. The prceedency of lodges l ..i always derived frolu the date of their \\if' arrants:>f Constitutiou


the oldest lodge ranking as No.1.


PREI.Jl\.T~j. The to ll"th officer in ~ Comn1andery of Knight Templnrs in this country. Ilis dutic3 are ilnportant, and well known to nIl knights. lIe is on the right of the Generalissimo in the ]j~a:路t. IIi~ jewel is u triple triangle, as the emblem of .Jehovah, and h 1:' title is " l\lostExcellent."


See llif/It, l>rtest.

PRIl\.rlrrI'TI~ ItI'rl~



A rite established

at Narbonne, in Ii"ranec, in 1780. l\Iost of its degrees were taken fl'OtH the other rites. 'I'he rite was philosophieaJ, and assumed, as its ollject, the refonuation of intellectual Ulan and his restora.. ~ion to his prilnitive rank Ulld privileges. I)RI~!!ITIVI~ SO()l'CII ItITm. llrtf'~ ~co.~sa{8 J:)"rl~rn27tif. A rite founded on the rite of I)el"tt:~etinn, and est:tblished ~lt Nalnur, in BelgitHu, by (1 brother l\Iarehot, an advoeate at Nivelles. It never extended far beyond the walls of the city in which it ~Nas organized It is still practi.~ed in and its prillcipal seat iB at Nalnur, in the lodge of. "13onne "A.ruitie." It consists of thirty-three degrees, as folI.}'\vs: 1, _\pl)rentiee; 2, Ti'elhnv..Craft; 3, ~Iastcr; 4, Perfect l\Iastl.t"; 6, Irish l\Iaster; H, l~leet of Nine; 7, Elect of the tJnku()wn; 8, J~~leet of Fifteen; 9, Illustrious 1"Iaster; 10, I\n'fe(~t ]~ileet; 11, l\Iillor i\r{:hitect; 12, Grand Architect; 13, Sublime .A.rchite<;t; 14,l\Llster in I>erft!ct Archi路 tecture; 15, ltoyal Arch; 16, I)russian knight; 17, I{night. of



the East; 18, Prince of J er11salel11, 19, l\laster of .£\.11 Lodges j Knight of the "\Vest; 21, I\:.night of Palestine; 22, Sovereign l'rince of Rose Oroix; Sublilue Scotch ~Iason; Knigb of the Sun; 25, Grand Scotch 1\1asoo of St. Andrew; 26, lVlaste~ of the Secret; ,27, l{ll i~' h t of the 131ack Eagle; 28, I(night of K--H; 29, Grand ]~lcct of Truth; 30, Novice of the Inte·


rior; 31, I(night of the Interior; 32, })refect of the Interior j 33 J Comlnander of the Interior.

PRINCE OF JERUS.A.LE l\f. Prince de Jerusalern. The 16th degree in the Ancient Scotch rite. The legend of this degree is founded on certain incidents which took place during the re-building of the seeond temple, when the Jews were so much incollnnoded by the attacks of the Samaritans and other neighbouring nations, that an embassy was sent to King I)arius to implore his fav9ur and protection, which was accordingly obtained. The llleetings of this degree are called councils. The offic~rs of a oouncil of Princes of J erusalclll are, a l\iost Equitable, representing Zerubbabel, a Senior and Junior l\iost Enlighten(~d, a Grand Treasurer, and Grand Secretary. In the Scotch rite, councils of this degree are invested with important privileges. They are styled " Chiefs in Freeluasonry," and huyc the control of all the subordinate degrees as fur a::~ tho 15th, or I{nights of the :FJast, and all charters for the consti. tution of lodges, chapters, or councils of any of these degrees. must Cluunute fr0111 a councIl of these princes. Yello'w is the emblelnatic colour of the ,degree, al~d the jewel is a gold nlcdaL on which are inscribed a balance, :1 two-edged sword, five stars, and the letters D and Z. rrhe apron is white, lined and bordered with yello,v, with a :yellow fla.p, on which is inscribed a balance with the St1nle letters that are on the jeweL


• 'rho first Grand Council of Princes of Jorusalem, in the United Sta.tes, formed at Charleston, S. C., by three Inspectors, on the 20th Februar, 1188.




PltlNCE ()F






Royal Axe.

PRINCI~ OF l\IEltCY. Prtence (it/; Jlferc·'i. The 26th degree of the .A.ncient Scotch rite, sOluetirnes called" Scotch Tri, nitarian." 'l'his is a philosophical degree, 'whose ceremonies ar~; very impressive. Its meeting is styled a chapter; the chinf· prince, whose title is " l\lost :mxcellent," represents l\Ioses. Tt€ Senior Warden represents.t\aron, the fJunior, Eleazar, at,d the candidate, Joshua. The je\vel is a gold equilateral triangle, within which is a heart of gold, inscribed ,vith the Hebrew letter 11, one of the symbols of the tetragrulIllnaton. It is suspended from a tri-coloured ribbon of green 1 'white and red. The apron is red, bordered with white fringe, and with a blue flap. On the flap is painted the jewel. It is a Christian degree, and speaks, in the course of its con· struction, of the triple covenant ,vhich the Eternal made first with .A.braham by circulllcision; next, ,vith the Israelites in the wilderness, by the intertnediation of l\Ioses; and htstly, with all mankind, by the death and sufferings of J OStIS Christ. It is in allusion to these three acts of Inercy, that the degree derives its two n~unes of Scotch Trinihtrin.n nnd Prince of l\JIercy, and nOl,. as llagon supposes, fronl ttny referen.ce te the Fathers of l\[ercy ~ a religious society forlllerly engaged in the ransoming of Christian captives at Algiers.

PRINCE OF ROSE CROIX. Soz/;v€ra?7n Pr,ince Roil. Oro'ix. The degree of Rose Croix is one of the most imp9rtuJ:. t and generally diffused of the higher degrees of masonry. It ie to be found in. several of the principal rites, and e'V'en in those in which it does not exist by nnm(~, its place is, for the most part, supplied by sorne other whose sYlubolic aUusions do not differ materially fronl it. Thus, although it is not known in the York rite, an excellent substitute for it is found in the Rosal ...~rch, while it constitutes the 18th degree of the Ancient and Ac~{>ted, or Scotch rite, the 7th and last of the Ii'rencb rite, and the i7tlJ



~lisraim. Among l~urc ,?ean l\Iasons, where all are practised, the degree of Rose Croix is consequently woll known; and even in this country, althuugh its possession is circumscribed to those brethren who have made some advanc&. ment in the Scotch rite, it is so often spoken of; that its name, at least, is fauliliar to almost every l\iason of any intelligence, and much curiosity is often expressed in relation to its history and character.. ' The degree is known by vari~us names; sometimes its posses.. sors are (jaIled "Sovereign Princes of Rose Croix;" sometimel' " Princes of Rose Croix de Heroden;" and sometimes "Knights of the Eagle and Pelican." In relation to its origin, masonic writ~rs have made many conflicting statements j some giving it a much higher antiquity than others, but all agreeing in suppos.. ing it to be one of the earliest, if not the very earliest, of the higher degrees. The name has, undoubtedly, been the cause of much of this confusion in relation to its history, and the masonic degree of "Rose Croix" 路has, perhaps, often been confounded with the cabalistical and .alchemical sect of (( Rosicrucians," or "Brothers of the Rosy Cross," among whose adepts the names of such men as Roger Bacon, Paracelsus, and Elias Ashmole, the celebrated antiquary, are to be found.. Notwith... standing the invidious attenlpts of Baruel1, and other foes of rna... ~onry, to confound the two orders, there is a great distinction between them. Even their names, although somewhat similar in BOund, are totally different in signification.. The Rosicrucians, who were alchemists, did not derive their name, like the Rose Croix Masons, from the emblenls of the rose and cross, for they had nothing to do with the rose, but from the Latin 'rOB" signify.. ing dew, which was supposed to be of all natural bodies the most powerful solvent of gold, and crux, the cross, a chemical hiero-

'Jf the rite vf ~tese rIteS

glyphic of light-



Knights 'relllplar in l>alestinc, in the 'year 1188, and ne adds Prince ~Jdw~tra, the SOIl of Henry III., of Engla.nd, ,vas admitted into the order by Raymond Lulle, in 1196. 'Vesterode names Ormesius, an Egyptian priest, who had been converted to ah-ristianity, as its founder. Others have at,tributed the origin of this degree to a learned and pious monk, John Valentine Andrere, .i\..bbot of .A.delberg, who died in 1564, and among whose writings are to be f ;uuJ ~hat

several treatises which relate to this subject. * Ragon sa:r'S of Andrere, that, profoundly grieYed at seeing the principles of the Christian religion forgotten in vain disputes, and science made subservient to the pride of man, instead of contributing to his 'happiness, he passed his days in devising what he supposed to be the most appropria.te means of restoring each to its legitimate moral and benevolent tendency. It lllUy be that with this view the enliJ?ently Christian degree of Rose Croix was inyentcd by him. But notwithstanding the authority of Ragon, susta.ined as it is by that of Nicolai in his 'work on the "Oriules iIllputed to the Templars," we are inclined to suspect that the labours ~tnd the writings of the .A.bbot, of .A.delberg referred ruther to the l{.osi.. cruci~tn

alchemists, than to the Itose Croix nlasons. Other authors have supposed that they could find the origin of the l:tose Croix, Of at leust of itsembleIlls, ill a. book pubIis]lCd in 1601, by JacQbus Typotus, the historiographer to Ithodolph the Second. The book of TJPotns, on ,vhich rests any claiuls which nlay be nlade to his paternity of the Rose Croix. degree, is ~ntitled "SJj1nbola.d'ivz:na et lLu1}zanc't 1)ontijicu71l, 'i'n?JJeraforurn, reg'!nn," and it is in that part of it which is devoted to the (~symbol of the hol,Y cross," that the allusions are found which &eem to indicate the author's knowledge of this degree. Ragon, however, who appears to ht~ve seen the work, utterly refutes the idea of any connection between the emblelus of Typotus a04A those of the Rose Croix. • Two especia.lly, one entitled "Jlld'i(~Q1''Um de j \ud the other " ""VOC68 ckemiqu.etl de l~Qzel1- Or",t-."


it. {'.


Clavel, with his usual boldneo;~ uf assertion, which is too often Independent of facts, declares that the degree was invented l)y the Jesuits for the purpose of coun termining the insidious attacks of the free-thinkers upon the ROlDan Catholic religion, but tha.t the philosophers parried the attempt by seizing upon the degree and giving to all its syrnbols an astronoIl1ical signification. Clavel's opinion is probably derived from one of those s'\veeping charges of Professor Robison, in \vhich that systeulatic enemy of our institution declares; that about the beginning of the eighteenth century, the Jesuits interfered considerably with masonry, te insinuating themselves into the lodges, and contributi ng to increase that religious mysticism that is to be observed in all the ceremonies of the order."* But there is no better evidence than these mere vague assertions, of the connection of the Jesuits with the Rose Croix degree. Oliver says that the earliest notice that he finds of this degree, i~ in a publication of 1613, entitled "La Reformation universeHe du monde entier avec la fama fraternitatis de l' Ordre respectabltJ de la Rose Croix." But he adds, that "it was known mucb sooner, although not probably as a degree in masonry; for it existed as a cabalistic science from the earliest times in Egypt, Greece, and l~ome, as well as ~ullong the Jews and 1\1001'8 in times lllore reccnt."t Oliver, however, undoubtedly, in the latter part ef ~¡hi8 paragraph, confounds the masonic Rose Croix with the alchenlical l~osicrucians, and the former is singularly inconsistent with the details that he gives in another part of his writings respecting an order to which we are now about to allude, and 'Nhich it sec:m~ probable to us had as much as any other, to do with the institution of the degree in question. There is a tradition among the l\'lasons of Scotland, that aft .. ~lC dissolution of the Templars, many 0' the knights repaired te-

--- -----------• Proofs of a Conspiracy, p. 21.. t Oliver's Landmarks. vol. ii.. p.. 81, n. 35.



Bcotland, and placed theulse!,'es uUller tee protection of Robert Bruce; and that, after the battle of J3annockburn, which took place on St. "John the 13aptist's day, in the year 1314, this monarch instituted the llclyal Order of IIcl'odorn and Kliight of tho Rosy Cross, and' established tht: chief seat of the order at Kilwinning. li'rolll that order, it seenlS t() us by no lueans illlprobable that the pre~ent degree of Rose Croix de Heroden IHay have taken its origin. In two re8pects~ at least, there seems to be a very close connection bet\veen the t,YO systenls: they bot11 claim the kingdoIIl of Scotland :lnd the .:\.bbey of I{ilwinning as .having been at one tinlc their chief seat. of gover lUll en f., and they both seeUl to have been instituted to gi,~e a Christian explanation to Aneien t Craft l\lason ry. There is, besides, a similari ty in the names of the degrees of "I{ose Croix de Ileroden," and "Herodom and l~osy Cross," amounting nhno8t to an identit.,y, which appears to indicate a very inthllate relation of one to the other. The subject, however, is in H, state of inextricable confusion; and I confess that, after all IllY researeheR, I am sti!). unahle distinctly to point to the period ,vhen, arid to the place where, the present degree of' llosc Croix received its orgunization us a 111D.&onic grade. . No Inatter, IHl\vever, "where precisely ,it reeeived its origin, nor who has the honour of htlVing becn its inventor, it is at least certain that the degree of :Rose Croix is to be plaeed alnong the most ancient of the higher degrees of llulsonry; and that this antiquity, in conneetion "'ith the hnportancc of its design and the solelunit)' of its ritual, has given to it a. universality in the masonic world, inferior ouly to tllC degrees of i\ncient (Irati Masonry. It is to be found, as I have already said, in nearly ali the rites, under snrnc n:nne and in SOUIC Illoditleation, und in many of them it is pla.ccd at the sUllnuit of the ritual. In the Ancient and ,A(~eepted Seotch rite, whence nearly JJJ the Rose Croixl\Ia~ons of this countr,)' have dcriycd the deg-:"ce. it is placed as the eigh t"(~n til on the list.. Some i iea of the iln路


PRI porlance of the degree may be ohtained from a brief detail of th~ preparatory ceremonies which are necessary to be performed by all candidates who make application for it. The cerenlonies and history of a chapter of Rose Croix, are of such a nature as to reD leI' it impossible to give any account at thelU here The presiding officer is called "Ever l\lost Perfe~t ardens are style.d "1"lost I~xcellent Sovereign," and the two and Perfect Brothers." The annual feast of the order is on Shrove Tuesday, and must be celebrated by every member.


There are five other obligatory days of meeting, viz. Ascension

day; St. John the Baptist's day, Pentecost; St. John the Evan.. gelist's day; Tuesday after Easter; and All Saints' day. The degree is conferred in a body called a " Chapter of the Sovereign Princes of Rose Croix," which derives its authority immediately from the Supreme Council of the Thirty-third, andwhich confers with it, only one other and inferior degree, that of " Knights of the East and "rest." The aspirant for the degree of "Rose Croix, who must, of course, have received all the preparatory degrees, applies at the door of the chapter with a petition foro adnlission; and if his prayer be granted, the tilne Rnd place of his reception are made known to hiIn, when he re.. ~ires

to return on the appointed day.

On his second application, befbre adolis3ion, he is called upon to malte the following engagell1ents: 1, That he will never reveal the place where he was received, nor the nanles of those "tho were present at his reception; 2, rfhat be will conf()rUl to all tIlt路 .ordinances of the chupter, and ke(;~p ~imself uniforlnly clothed as far as he is ,able; 3, That he will a.cknow ledge his 111aster at all times and in all places, and never confer this degree without permission from proper authorit.y, as well us answer for the proDity and respectability of those wholn he nU1Y thereafter propose; 4, 1;hat he will beext.retnely cautious ill granting the degree, sc that it may not be unnecessari1y Inultiplied. There are two kinds of aprons 'fhe first, or mourning apron, ie white bordered with black; on the nap are a skull and cross-



"Ones between three red roses; 011 the apron is a globe surrounded oy a serpent, and above the letter .J. The second apron, used on festive occasiuns, is red, lined and bordered "\\"ith the salue; on. it (1 triple triangle of gold, with three Hquares 路within three eirelt'" and t1, pJ in the ~entre.; above these the C(HnpaSSeH extended, OD~ ~oint. resting on the triangle, the other on the cIrcles. This ~::; the apron of the Scotch rite. The first apron in the :Frer~ell rite is black with a red cross.. The second is \\-hite, bordered with red, and inscribed "with the je\vel of the degree. ~rhe eollar is red, with. the engle of the.} degree erubroidcred on it. The jewel of the ]1080 Croix is a golden ccnnpass, extended on nn arc to the sixteenth part of a circle or twenty-two and a half degrees. The head of the COIn pass is surIllounted by H, triple crown, consisting of three series of points, arranged by three, five, and seven. Between the le~s of the cOlllpnss is a cross resting on tho arc of the circle; its centre is occupied by a full blown rose, whose stem twines around the lower lilUb of the cross; at tho foot of the cross., on the salue side on "'hich the rose is exhibited, is the figure of a pelican 路wounding its breast to feed its young, ,vhich nre in a uest surroundiIlg it, 'while on the other side of the je\vel is the figure of an eagle with w'inge displayed. On the ar<.~ of the circle, the 1>.". \'r.... of the degree is engraved in the cipher of the order. In this jewel are iu(路luded the most ilnportant syrnbols of the degree. ~rhe cross, the rose, the pelican, and tbe eagle, are nll inlportant syrnbols, the explanation of which will go far to a cODlprehension of what is the true design of the Rose Croix order Of th~se elnblems the is perh~l:ps the least important, and its application the lllost difficult to explain. The 8yrnbo1, howe\"cr, is of great antiquity. In Egypt,Greece, and J)ersia, this bird was sacred to the sun. linlong the pagans it \vas au ~nlblelll oftTupiter, and with the Druids it was a, sYlubol of their !Uprell1e God. I n the Scriptures a distinguished reference is nl lUany i08tances made to the eagle; especially do we find lye(...,f;CI


representing J ehoval1t1S saying, ill allusl. n to the belief thltt thIs bird assists its feeble young in their flight, by bearing theln upc n its own pinions,-" Y e bave seen what I did to the Egyptians, fJ.ud how I bore you on eagles' wings and brought you unte Ill),' self."* lIenee the eagie in the ltose Croix is very appositelJ selected as a SYUl bol of Ohrist in his divine character, bearing the children of his adoption on his wings, teaching theul with unequalled love and tenderness to poise th.r ir unfledged wings and soar froul the dull corruptions of earth to a higher and holier sphere. And for this reason the eagle in the jewel is very signi~ ficantly represented as having the "rings displayed as if in the very act of flight.. The same allusion to Christ, but still nlore significantly, is found in the pelican feeding its young, which occupies the other aide of the jewel. l\.S this bird was formerly supposed to wound its own breast that it might with its blood feed its young, so has it been adopted as an elubleUl of the Saviour who shed his l)lood for the salvation of the hUlnan race. The pelican, therefore, on the jewel of the l=tose Croix, is a fitting sYlubol of Christ in his mediatorial character. Ragout says that in the hieroglyphic: UlonUlllents the eagle vtas the synlbol of a wise ulan, and the pelican of a benevolent one; and, therefore, he thinks that the engle and pelican of the Rose Croix are intended to synlbolize perfect wisdoUl and perfect charity. But thisexplanatioll applying these attributes to Christ, is not at all inconsistent with the one we have advanced.. It is scarcely necessary to speak of the cross as a Christian emblem. l\..lthough it is an ancient symbol of eternal lifo, ar.d is to be found in use even anlong the Egyptians with that signi.. fication, long before the da~Y's of 1\108e8, yet since the crucifixion it has been peculiarly adopted as an emblem of Him who suffered on it. In this restricted sense, then, and not in that lllore gene~ ral one of immortality, in which it is used in other parts of ma•


xUa 4..


COllrs des Init;i& tiQDa.



e,oary, is the cross adopted as one of tie embl~ms of the Rose :roix degree. The rose, in ancient mythology, was consecrated to I-Iarpo.. ~ntes, the god of silence; uud in the mysteries the hierophant wore a crown of roses. lIenee th is flower was considered a~ t.he enl bIenl of silence and secrecy; and when any thing was intended t,) be kept secret, it was said to be delivered sub rosa, or "under the rose." R,agon, in explaining the jewel of the Rose Croix, says that as the cross was in ~jgypt an en1blem of immortality, and the ros~ of secrecy, the rose followed by the cross was the simplest mode of writing" the secret of inunortality." But he subsea quentIy gives a different explanation, nalnely, that, as the rose was the emblem of the female principle, and the cross or triple phallus of the male, the two together, lilce the Indian lingnlu, symbolized univers'al generation. 13ut Ragon, who has adopted the theory of the astrollOluicul origin of FreeuHlsonry, like all theorists, often carries his speculatiollson this subject to an extreme point.. A shnpler allusion will better suit thecharaeter of the degree, and be 1noro ill acc()rdauce ,vith what we have already said of its othersynlbols. The rose is, in llUtny places of Scripture, applied as a figura.. tive appellation of Christ. 'IILis is fanliliar to all readers; thus in the Book of Canticles 11t1 is called "the rose of Sharon." 1'he cross, of course, alludes, as \ve have already shown, to his death; the rose OD the cross, i~ therefore an en1 bIenl of the death of the Saviour for the sins of lutlnkind. Eron. this brief review of the

SYID boIs of the Rose Croix, i i will be evident that it is, in the strictest sense, a Christian degree.. * This Inust, of course, nUlrk it as ODe of comparatively

.. The documents of this degree always cornUlence with these words: l'In wr name of the Holy and Undivided 1'rinity," and end with the salutation. I 10 the peaceful union of the sacrod numbers.''' 'rhe members place R. ". 1 41.. end of their :qa~oJ.



modern origin, because all the ancient degrees are of uoiver~al application as to religion. The Rose Croix is, Indeed, uu attempt to christianize Freemasonry; to apply the rites, and r;ymbols, and traditions of Ancient Craft. l\Iasonry to the last and greatest dispensation; to add to the first teDlple of Solomon and the soeond of Zerubbabel, a third, that to which .Christ alluded when he said, " Destroy this temple, and in three days will 1 raise it up." The great discovery which was made in the R.oyal Arch, ceases to be of value in this degree; for it, another is substituted of more christian application; the "\"\Tisdom, Strength~ and Beauty, which supported the ancient temple, are replaced by' the Christiu,D pillars of Faith, Hope; and Charity; the great :ights, of course, remain, because they are of the very essence of maRonry; but the three lesser give way to the thirty-three, which allude to the years of the l\:lessiah's sojourning on earth Every thing, in short, about the degree, is Cbri.atian. Viewed, then, in this light, as a lUl)JJrn invention, and as forming no part of Ancient Freemasonry, we cannot fail to admire it as an ingenious and beautiful adaptation of a universal systeul to a more contract~J principle-and as a pardonable, if not indeed a praiseworthy attempt to路 apply the sublime princi. ples of our all-tolerant order to the illustration of that last and 1Il0st perfect dispensation under which we are now living.


See Sublime

Prince of the RO!Jal Secret.



l"he 24th degree of the Ancient Scotch rite. This degree is in t~nded to illustrate thea directions given for the building of the tabernacle, the particulars of which are recorded in the twenty5.~th chapter of Exodus. The lodge is called a IIierarchy, and is officers are a Most Powerful Chief Prince, representing Moses, -.nd three '\Vardens, whose style is Powerful, and who respectivel,

PRr !'e'Dresent ..\.aron, Bezaleel, he son of Uri, and Aholiab, Ahisamach. * The jewel is the letter A, in gold, suspended from a ~ oo.d crimson ribbon.. The a.pron is white, lined with scarlet ana bordered with green. The flap is sky blue.. On the apron is depicted a representation of the tabernacle..

PRINCIP.A.L OFFICERS. The 'Vorsbipful l\laster and the two "\Vardens are styled the three principal officers of the

lodge. PRINCIPALS. The officers of a Royal Arch Chapter, known in America as the High Priest, King, and Scribe, ar6 in English Chapters called First, Second, and Third Principals. PRINCIPAL SOJOURNJ.1JR. An officer in a Royal A.rch Ohapter, whose duties ttre siulila,r to those of a Senior Deacon in a synlbolic lodge. The Hebrew word iJ, geT', which we translate a sojourner signifies a luan Ihring out of his own country, and is used in this sense throughout the Old TestaDlent. Tht~ children of Israel were, therefore, during the captivity, sojourners in Babylon, suu the p~rson who is represented by this offi{~er, performed, as the tDcltients of the degree relat.e, an iluportHnt part in the restora.. ~ion of the Israelites to J erusalem. ~Ie was the spokesman and leader of a party of three soj ourners, and is, therefore, emphati8&11y called the chiet~ or principa. sojourner.

PRIORY. The body of Knights Templar which, in this eountry, is called aCo111mandcry, in Scotland, under the re.. rised statues of the order, is styled a Priory. The presiding officer of a Priory is called a Prior; he is, tllerefore, equivalent to our Grand Commander. The organization of the Templars in • Levit. xxv. 23 j 1 Cb~on . .J.1.t.\~ ~5; PI. ~X1:x. 11





Scotland, is very different from that which exists in A.m~ricb. For a brief account of it, see A':Jcotla,nd, Kni'glits Teln})la r of r

PROCESSIONS. Processions, in masonry, are entirely un, der the charge of the Grand ]~odge. No subor4inate lodge has a right to appear in public, on any occasion, without the consent and approbation of the Grand ]~odge, or of its representative, the Grand l\laster. * 1'he obj oct of this salutary regulation is, that the reputation of the order shall not suffer by the ill-timed or inj ud.:cious appearance of the brethren, when any small nun-:.bel" of them, inspired by a love of display or other unworthy or unwise motives, lnight choose to exhibit themselves, and the jewels and orn~ments of the order, to the public gaze. For, on such an occasion, not the lodge alone, but the whole fraternity suffers j for the world is unable to make the distinction, and they often heedlessly and unjustly condemn the craft, in general, for the errors or transgressions of an individual brother, or of a single lodge. To avoid, therefore., any occasion of giving scandal, the Grand Lodge, which is COlllposed of ex.perienced Past l\'f asters, has wisely reserved to itself the right of appointing the time when, the place "There, and the manner in which, public displays of the order may take place. When, however, this consent has been obtained, if a single lodge walks in procession, the l\laster occupies the place of precedence, and may have the. Bible, Square and Compasses, carried on a blue velvet cushion, borne before him.. If two or more lodges are present, the lYlaster of the oldest lodge presides. If a past or present Grand l\laster, or Deputy Grand Master, or the Grand Wardens, join the procession of asubordillate lodge, proper attention is to be paid to them. Their place in the pro~ession is immediately after the l\rlaster of the lodge. A Grand • 'l'hie rule is, however, dispensed with, in the case of masonic funerals, in pbl.ces distant from the seat of the Grand Lodge, or ree~ 'lence of the Grand ~liE>r.

PRO Warden lllust be supplied with hvo DE-aeons. When a Grani. ~laster or l)eputy (fraud )'I:u~ter is present, the Book of Consti. tutions Blust be borne bef~)l'e hLru. But unless the G-!'antl or Deputy G-rand l\Iaster is the B(lOk of Constitutions C:.l.n never be carried in u. of a 'file brethren in a ThIUStHlic procession ahvays w'alk t.wo an路] two. They should be dressed in proper masonic \'idJ.ich is a suit, of black, with shoes -and ,vhitc stockings, \rhite and 1vhitc leather aprons. Silk or satin apron~ consri tn te tH. part of a l\:Iasou's dress. 'l'!le apron IllUSt be of lanlb's skill.

PROFICIENCY. One of the requisite qualifications for ad.. V3.I1CeUlent to a higher degree is, suitable proficiency in the preceding. Unfortunately, this qualification is not always sufficiently irJsistcd on. Forluerly there ,,,,as a regulation, requiring that the candidate who desired to be or should be cx:nniued in open lodge ou his proficiency in the ~ehis :;alutary regulation is even no,r (ldhl~red to, '\",ho look rather to the quality th:1U to the of their ;nnt路'\oI'r路~ ~ncl \vho think that a, lodge had bette:!" eonsist. of n. f(~,v skilful, than llHlUY ignorant, IneUl bers. Sorne Q-rand I.Jodg(~s, vi'ewi ng the necessity of due proficielley in its proper light, ba\"c strength.. ened the n,ncient regulation eXl1ress rules. TIle }YJ.,vlciency (~l (~tJic(J1"s is also un ilnportant requisite. No brother should nccept office in :1 lodge, lUIle8s fully qunlified to perfornl its duties. i\n ignorant l\Iaster~ and unsldlful "T ardens: reflect discredit not only on their o\,,;n lodge, but. by their incapa:ity to explain the peculiar tenets of .the order, on the whole frt,~ ternity. In Februar)", 184..! , the Grand J~odge of Ireland adopted, on this suhjcet, res()lntions thnt no brother should be considered eligible :fhr or adrnissible to the office (jf ,Junior or Senior Deacon" until lly striet cxanlinntion in open lodge, be shall have proved llilnself able to adUlinister tIle IllJSt6~es of initiation to a candidate in the first degree; nor for the office of Junior or Senior 'Varuen, until, u. like exnIuinatir 0 J 1.路I ..


PRO he has, proved that he is able to pass a candidate to the second degree; nor for the office of nlaster, until he has proven his abi.. lity to enter, pass and raise, a candidate through the three de.. g.:-ees•

.l i regulation of this kind ought to be adopted by Hvery Oland Lodge in the universe.

PROVINCIAl.. GR,l\.ND 1)f.ASTER. An officer unaer the Grand Lodge of England, the appointment of WhOU1 45 investec in the Gl'and l\Iaster. Ii:e presides over a province as its Grand 1\Iaster, and is elllpowered to constitute lodges within its juris.. diction. He is, however, enjoined to correspond with the Grand Lodge, and to tra,nsmit, at least yearly, an account of his proceedings. The office was first established in 1726, "when the increase of the craftsnlen, and their travelling into distant parts, and concerning themselves in lodges, required an immediate bead, to whom the'y might apply in all cases where it was not possible to wait the decision of the Grand Lodge."* PItO,TOST AND ,J1JDGE. ]>revot et ,luge. The 7th de.. gree of the A.ncient Scotch rite. The history of the degree re.. Iates, that it was founded by Solonion !{. of I. for the purpose of strengthening his ll1eUI1S of preserving order nIDong the vast nuulber of cra,ftslllcn engaged in tIle construction of the teillple. 'rito, Prince IIaroditn, .A.c1onirarn, and Abda his father, were first created Provosts and ,Judges, who ,vere afterwards dirccteJ t~y Solomon to initiate his favourite and intilnate secretary, ,Jon... bert, and to give hiln the keys of all the huildl'ng. The 1\Iastcr of a Lodge of Pro'v'osts and Judges represents Tit(), Prince lIarodim, the first Grand "rarden and Inspector of the t.hreo hundred architects. The number of lights is six, and thn sym.. h:1lic colour is red. The jewel is a. golden key, having the letter A within a tri· • Alld~~raou. Cmu·t.

r. 340.


angle, engraved on the ward. 'rho collar is red. The apron is white, lined with red, and is furnished ,vith a pocket. PROXY The representatiye of a lodge in the a'rand Lodge. Every lodge is entitled to be represented by itsI\Ia:-::tcH and Wardens. 13ut 'when a. lodge is too far distallt frotH th, soat of the Gra.nd Lodge for those officers conveniently t.O it may depute one or nlore.Past under the scrtl of t hf lodge and the signature of the "lors hipful l\Iast e1' and Secretary, to represent it in the Grand .A.. proxy has all the p(l~"'cr that the lVlaster and Wardens ,vould ha\"e, if present. lIe Ina,)' vote to the best of his judglucnt D.)l" the interest of the lodge, and the honour of the craft, unless instructed by the lodge, in which case he is bound to obey the expressed will of the lodge which he represents. It is not necessary that a proxy should be a member of the lodge which hus appointed hiD\.. On the con.. trary, he generally is not. PRUDEN OIU. One of the .four cardinal virtues, the practice of which is inculcated u.pou the Entered .l\..pprenticc.. Pruu:....l'c:;, which, in all IIleD, is a virtue highly to be (mullnended, as ~~~tch颅 iug thern to live agreeably to the dietrates of reason, and prcscroq.. ing to thelll by its cautious the realities of temporrtl ,velfare, and the hopes of eternal happiness, is to the ~Iason absolutely neeessary, that being goycrl1cd hJ' it, he may carefulll

1,void the least occasion, by sign or \V'ord, of COlIllIlUllicttting to the. profane thosu ill1portant secrets w'hich should be cRrefully locked up only in the repository ,:if fhithful breasts.. Hence i.! this virtue, in the lecture of the first degree, intimately connected with, and pointedly referred to, a must iUlportant part of our C~ rerr. )nies of initiation.

PTJItP,LE. The colour of one of the veils in the tabernacle, and the emblolnatic colour of the three int( rlnediate degrees bet路ween the l\lttster l\iason and the Itoyal Arch Pnrple, in I~oynJ

PYT .Lrch l\Iasonry, is the en1 blem of union, because it is prod\,1(~ed by the cOlllbination of ,vhieh is the characteristic colQur of the SYlllbolic degl'ees, and whieh is that of the Royal ,A.reb degree. It reminds the wearer" therefore, t.o cultivate' betweet= these different menlbers of the Illasonic family, a spirit of Unil)D and harmony.

PYTHAGOR1\'S. IVlas.ons, looking to the purit.y of the prin.. ciples inculcated in the school of this Grecian sage, to the character of the cereillonies with which he clothed and concealed his doctrines, and to the great respect which he paid to the gei~ ence of geometry, llave delighted to hail hinl as an "anelent brother;" and there is no doubt that his 111ysteries, ilnproYcd by his long experience, chastened by his own virtuous character, and enlarged by his extensive researches into the systerlls of other countries, "were the rllost perfect approxilnation to the original science of.Freelnasoury which could be accoillplished by a heathen philosopller, bereft of the aid of revelation."* I)ythagol'as was born t],t, Saulos, about five hundred and sixtJight Jears befiJre the Christian era. flaYing at an early age ..listinguished hinlself in the ()lYlnpic ganlcs, and obtained the prize for 'wrestling, he began his t.ravels in pursuit of knowled ge ; teth'ing Into the Ea}3t, he yisited Chaldca and ~Jgypt, the se:.~s of learning and philosophy, and gaining tho confidence of th(J priests, .be obtained froln thorn a knowledge of their lllJ'steries tlnd their SYIllbolic writings. lIe is said to have lJeen in:3'tructt:·d

in the sacred things of the Hebn::ws the prophot Upon his return to Europe, h-: t:(:ttled at the town of Cro~orr. L) U\ l\iagna Grecia, ,vhere he cEitablished the school vlhi0h aftcl'" w~rds r~Ild.ared hitu so illustriotl~ as a, teacher of philosophy. .I.;.oI':;'O'., ........: ... J..

• Oliver, Init. 123. t Some sa.y by Daniel. IIe.:r.ot the ·,·~.)WI3 at Babylon, where he visited durilll the captivity, and Oliver sass, "WfLS initiated into the Jewish system of Pr~e· masonry." Lr:ttldmarks, yol. ii. p. 412.

PYT fiis instruetlt,a, like that of all the t1D.cient philosophers) wa..~ l)f two kinds, exoteric or puhlic, and esoteric or private. To the fonner, all persons, ludiscrill1inately, 'were adluitted, but Done but pupils" selecte.i by hilllself for their virtue and capacity, were permi tted to enj oy the benefits of the latter. ,. To be received as a novice in the sehool of Pythagoras, was no easy task. The most rigid exarnination was made int,o the character of the candidate. If he was accepted, he deposited his property in the comnlon fund of the society, and cOlnlnenced his probation, which was of an exceedingly severe description. The novitiate lasted five years, during which period the aspirant was enjoined to be abstinent in food, and to preserve an uninterrupted silence. If he succeeded in obeying these instructions, he was perulitted to a.spire to the degrees, which were three in number, the ACOUSulatici, the Matheluatici, and the Pythagoreans, in the last of which he was clothed in a white garment and fully instructed in the secret doctrine. Pj-rthagoras was, perhaps, the Inost virtuous, and taught the purest doctrines of all the hE~nthen philosophers. The school which he established was distinguished for the piety as well as the attainments of his disciples. They were aninlated only by a reverence for the deity, and a love for their fellow-beings. r:rheir respect for the Divine Being was such" that they never pronounced his nalIle in their oaths, * and their brotherly iove was such, that they were accustomed to adopt the noble sentiment "my friend is D1Y other self:' 't Silence nndsecrecy were the first lessons taught by Pythagoras to his disciples. The five years novitiate of the candidate W~ passed in total silence, during whioh he learned to repress hiB curiosity; and to employ his thoughts on God. When admitted to the fellowship of' the society, an oath of secrecy was propOillnded to him on the sacred tetraetys. • Jambliebus, Vit"l Pytbag•.e. .sa.

t Porph.. Vit.. Pythag. aa~



Implicit obedience was another lesson prescribed to the Py.. thagoreans. Au-ro~ â‚Źqrr;, "he, t~e master; has said it," was con.. sidered as the most sufficient of reasons in all questions of propriety.. The institutiollS of PythagcraE rescID.bled the masonic in other respects beside~ its principles. iIis assemblies were arranged due east and west, ~ecuuse, he said, that motion began in t'he east and llroceeded to the west. lIe had adopted a system of signs, whereby ris disciples, dispersed though various countries, made themselves known to each other at first sight, and became as familiar at the first inter'f~"iew, as if they had been acquainted from their birth. And so closely, says Jamblichus, were their interests unite~. that many of them passed over seas and risked their fortune to r?-~Jatablish that of one of their brethren who had fallen into di~i.~ess. .J smblichus relates the following incident, which is in evidence ¡both of their brotherly love and of their means of mutual recognition. A Pythagorean travelling in a distant country, fell sick and died at a public inn. Previous, however, to his death, being unable to compensate the landlord for the kindness and!1ttention with which he h<ld been treated, he directed a tablet, on which he had traced some enigmatical characters, to be exposed on the public road. Some time after, another disciple of Pythagoras passed that way, perceived the tablet, c. nd being informed by its enigmatical characters that a brother had been there sick and in distress, and that he had been treated with kindness, he stopped and reimbursed the inn..keeper for his trouble and expense. * The symbols adopted by Pythagoras in his secret instruction,. were principally derived from geometry. A notice of a few of them may be interesting. The right angle was an emblem of morality and justice. The eq1tilateral triangle, was a symbol of God, the essenee of Light and Truth The sq'ua'l'e, like the tetractys, referred to the • Jamblichus" ut 4UpnI.



Divine mind.. The c'ube was the sJlnbol of the mind of mall, after it had been purified by piet'J and acts of devotion, and thus prepared for tuingling with the celestial gods. The po'int ~()alLin a ci1"cle~ and the dodecahedron or figure of twelve sides, were synlbols of the universe. The triple tria~l!Jle was an embleln of health, and the letter Y a representation of the course of hUlnar: life, in which there are two diverging paths, the one of virtue} leading to happiness, and the other of vice, conducting to misery. Among the doctrine!) peculiar to the 80hool of Pythagoras, was that of the ID.e.tempzychosis, or the translnigration of souls, which he derived during his travels from the Brahmins of India He forbade the eating of flesh, and the offering of animals ic. sacrifice. He taught that the universe wa.s created out of the passive principle of matter, by the Divine Being, who was its mover and source, and out of whose substance the souls of men were formed. He believed in the universal influence of numbers, which he supposed to be the controlling principle of all things. He perceived in the hUlnan mind: Ilot only propensities to vice and passion, but the better seeds of virtue. l"hese he sought to cultivate and cherish by labour, study, and abstinence of lif~. In short, he appears to have extracted froD>. the various sects of heathen philosophy, all that was good, and to have rejected all that W,H3 bad, forming thereby an eclectic system which approached nearer to light and truth, than any that had ever, befote his day, emanated from the unassisted wisdom of man.

Q. QUAI.JIFICATIONS OF CANDIDATES.. The pre-requi8ite qualification of candidates for adrnission into the mysteries of Freernasonry,are of three kinds-lnental, moral, and phYSl ~l.



The mental qualificatidhs are, that the car didate shall be a man of sane mind; that is, neither a fool, an idiot, nClr a -mad.. man j but one responsible for his actions, and competE'nt to un.. derstand the obligations, to comprehend the instructions, and to perform the duties of a lVlason. The mental quaJifications refer to the securl:tl/ of the order. The llloral qualifications are, that he shall be' no ,( irreligious libertine," but an obeyer of the moral law. Tha~ is, he must be virtuous in his conduct and reputable iL. his Gbara~t0r, lest the dignity and honour of the institution suffet' 'by the admission of unworthy persons. Neither must he be an athe!st:, but C1!l hum.. ble believer in the wisdom,~ power, and gOOdJJ.f.?ES of Go<1, tL belief which constitutes the religious creed of Free!.C.asonry; and which is essentially necessary to a l'iIason as a check upon vjue and a stimulus to virtue. Another in1portant moral qualifieation is, that the candidate must come of his " own free vfill wlH.l accord." lVlasonry does not delight in proselytism. Though our portals are open to all who are worthy, yet we are unwilling that any should unite with us, except they be persuaded to tile act by their uninfluenced convictions of the beauty and utility of our institution. The moral qualifications refer to the respc<.;tabilitjj of the order. The' physical qualifications are, that the candidate shall be twenty-one years old or more, free born and no bond~lQan, of able body, and" of limbs whole as a luau ought to be.. " This is one of the oldest regulations of our ancient craft. It .rises from the originally operative nature of OUf institution 'Vhatever object,ions SOUle ultra liberal brethren D1ay nlake to the uncharitable nature of a law which excludes a virtuous man from our fello'\Vship, because he has been unfortunate enough to lose a leg or an arm,we have no right to discuss the question. The regulation constitutes one of the many peculiarities that distinguish our society f~om all others; its existenc'3 continues ta oonnect the present speculative with the former. opera,tive cha.racter of the institution; it is an important part of our history;



and is, in short, by univers,tl consent, one of the landmarks of the order. It can never, therefore, be changed. The physical qualifieations refer to the 1dÂŁ1/iy of the C'rder. The ll10st ancient charges in \yhich these regulations are to be found, are those ,vhir:h \vere collected fron1 the old records, and ordered to be printed b:{ the Grand J..Ioc1ge of England, 172~ and the mn,nuscript

in the possession of the ]~odge of

.A.ntiquity, London.

1.\.8 they are brief, but irnportant, I lllay be excused for inserting theul here. " A l\iason is obliged, by his tt~nure, to obey the Ill0ral law; and if he rightly understands the art, he will never be a stupid atheist nor an irreligious libertine."* " No master should take an nppren tice, unless he has suf.ii.. cient employment for hiln, and unless he be a perfect youth, having no maim or defect in his body, that luay render hiul in.. capable of learning the art, of serving his l1laster's lord, and of being made a brother} nne! then a :Fcll()w-Craft in due time, even after he has served such a tc~rln of years as the eustolu of the country directs: and that he should be descended of honest parents; that so, 'when otherw'isc qualified, he Inay arrive to the honour of being the \Varden, uud then the l'luster of the lodge, the Grand ,\rarden, and, :tt length, the Clrand l\lu.stcr of all the lodges, according to his luerit."t "rrhirdly, that he that be luade, be able in all degrees; that is, free born, of good kindred, true, and 110 bon dSllltlll, and that he have his right lirnbs asH, luan ought to have."t In the Constitution, Pllblished un(ler the sanetion of the Grand. Lodge of l\Iarylnud, by l~rother Saullle} Cole, the plly:-;ical disJ,bilities are set forth still Tnore Ininut(~ly, ,vith an a8signuu:~nt of what is probably the true reaSllll l'tn- their existence. 1'IH\, say, " no person is capal)lc of beeoluing a ulclnber, unless he it!


Old Charges, Sect.

l.-SN~ Andl~'non,


t Ibm. Sect. 4.

t MS.. in

Lodge of Autiq.


Pretlton, 273.




free born, of l~atUl'e ahd discreet age; of gOOG report; of su.:S lJiellt natural endOWlllcnts, and the senses of a Ui((;n; wit.h an es tate, office, trade, occupation, or SOUle visible way of acquiri ng an honest livelihood, and of working in his craft, as becomes th~ rnelubers of this most ancient and honoul'aple fraternity, wb~ uught not only to earn what is sufficient for thenlselves and farui· ies, but likewise something to spare for works of charity, and 8upporting the true dignity of the royal craft. Every person desiring adulission, Dlust also be 1.tprr£ght ,in body, not deforrned or d£s11ternbered at the time of making; but of hale and entire li1ltbs, as a man ought to be."* In an able report made by Bro. W. S. Rockwell, Deputy ti-rand Master, to the Grand Lodge of Georgia, he traces the exidtence of the law prohibiting the initiation of maimed candi~ oates, to that early period of EgJptittn history, in which a per80llal defect would exclude from the priestbood-a law which is aguin to be found in the l'Iosaic ritual, from which the masonic 11lsLitution is more iUlmediately derived. Looking to the symboli~ character of speculative nlasonry as referring to the mate· f13J liemple for its architype, he explains the present existence cf the law in the following language, with the sentiments of whicl~




"It was eminently proper that a teulple erected for the worshiJ.' ot the GOD OF TRUTH, the unchangeable I AM, should be con.. struct€d of white stones, perfect stones, the universally recog" nised symbols of this, his great and constant attribute. The ~ytllbo1ic relation of each nlcmoer of his order to its nlysti:: terl1ple forbids the idea that its constituent portions, i:s li,,Ting stones, should be less perfect, or less a type of their great ori.. ginal, than the inanimate material which formed the earthly dwelling place of the God of their adoration."


SeeCole;l Freemas. Lib. p. 69.

1'his is a document which

Constitutions" Ch.. I, Sect. 4.

Q"CE has be0ll so often printed in various masonic publications as tc have become fUlniliar to the fraternity. Its full title is, "Oer.. tayne questions \vith answeres to the same, concernynge the IDSS" tery of 11laconrye; 'wryttene by the hande of I(yngE IIenry the Sixthe of the narno, and fay thfullye copied by 1110, J ohan Ley ;nnde .A.ntiquarius, by the connnaunde of Ilis Highnesse." It first !l ppeared in the Gentlenutn's l\Iagazine for t753, where it purports to be a reprint of the paIllphlet published five years beftlro, at Frankfort.* It is there sta.ted to have been copied by one I"J (Ibn Collins, from a 1\18. in the Bodleian library, and to lHlye been enclosed in a letter from the celebrated John Locke, the author of the Essay on Human -Understanding, to 'l'holuas, ,Earl of I>eulbroke, and bearing date l\iay 6th, 1696. Preston after'\vard incorporated these questions into his work, and appDnded to thern a section of reulurks on the nHlnuscript, as \vell



the annotations of :LVII'. Locke.

This work has alwuJs been

reoeived as genuine uIIlOllg the craft, and in tlH.1 life of IJchtnd itf: authent.icity is positi'lcly asserted. 13ut this has IHtoly been ~~>~nied by 1\11'. IIalli\vell, in u. sInaJl work entitJed, t, ~rhe .F~arly lIist<>ry of' It'rectlHlsonry in }~ngland;' publishod at I..Iondon, in I810. The dOCUlllcnt purporting to conle fro In. the l~odleian Iir:.-ary, is so well kno\vn to 111ostl\1a.sons, that I should have passed it over without notice in this ,york, were it not t.hat I d.~enled it ncce:?!~:ar.r to bring the doubts of 1\11'. IIalliwell before 'Dlj rcadt~!'s, lIHlny of WhOIll may have no opportu~ity of seeing the ("':igirlt11 work in which the subject is discussed. The yiews or Yr. IT~~.lliwell \vill, perhaps, be best conveyed in the word.') of tl.e,er hirllscl£ :c:t is ts:ngular/' says l\:Ir IIalliwell, "that the circumstances attending its publication should have led no one to suspect itd • The title of the paper, as found in the Gcntlern~tn's Mng:u~ine for 17£;;';.1 page 411, is as follows: "Copy of It small pamphlet consisting of 12 pag4:~sf in Svo., printod in Germany in 1'748, entitled: 'Ein Brief von dem beriichmoon herm heron Joha.nn Locke betreffend die Frey.Maurreren. So aufeineq

f! Jhr;lj b';T~ch aines

ver$trQ:rbne~ lirudera~st






J,uthenticHy. I was at the rHlin~ of 11lul\ing a scareh in ths Bodleian library last SUlllluer, if] the hopes of finding the origi. nal, but without success. In fact, there ean be but little dou1:t.

that this


and well-known dOCUlnent is a forgery!

" In the first place, ,vhy should such a dOCUlllent have been printed abroad? '~Vas it likely', that it should have found its ~~a'Y to Frankfort, nearly. half· a century afterwards, and been rublished without any explanation of the source whence it was t "ht'1ined ? Again, the orthography is most grotesque, and too gro58 ever to }lave been penned either by Henry the Sixth, or :f.;eland, cr both cou1bined. For instance, we have I)etcr Gowere, ., ~ Grecian, explained in a note by the fabricator-for who else ~)"r·.l(l have solved it ?-to be Pythagorus! AS:l V\"hole, it is but ?. clumsy attclupt at deception, and is quite a parallel to the re.. ;ent~lJ discovered one of the first Engl{'~he Jlercur7;e."* Such are the objections of I'lr. Jlalliwell to the authenticity .. f this celebrated antiquarian document. Let each estimate vheir value for hinlself. Fortunately, the dignity of masonry is not 'It ~ll connected 'with the dispute. The questions throw but little light upon the history of the order, and its antiquity de.. pends not on theul alone for proof. QIJ.~JSTIONS T() OANDIIJATES. Every candidate, before being adulitted to participate in our mysteries, is bound to answer certain questipDs, respecting the motives that have influenced his a.pplication. These questions are generally proposed in the following form: "I)o you seriously declare upon your honour, t,hat, unbiassed by friends against your own inclination, and uninfluenced by . mercenary Inotives, you freely and voluntarily offer yourself aa a osndidate for the nlysteries of Freelnasonry ? "Do. you seriously declare upon your honour, that you are solely prompted to solicit the privileges of masonry, by a favour

• Ha.lliwell, l~ist. ot F'reemasonry, p. 40~


able opinion conceived of the institution, a desire of knowledge, and a sincere wish of being serviceable to your fellow creatures? "Do you sincerely declare upon your honour, that you v,'il: cheerfu:ly conforU1 to all the ancient established usages and cu~·, toms of the fraternity?" These questions should be propounded to tIle candidate by the Senior Deacon, in the preparation room, before initiation, and in the presence of the stewards or preparers

R. RJ.:\BBONI. This word may he translated as signifying" a most excellent nlftster or teacher." f.Tahn tells U~, (in his ]~ibli­ cal Archt-eology, § 106,) that, the rJ ews, in imitation of the Greeks, had their seven \ViRe UH~n who were called R.abboni, GauHtliel, the pre(o,eptor of- St.. Paul, was one of these. l i hey styled theluselves the children of wisdolU, which is an eX!1ression very nearly to the a-reek <fl;"O(1'otptU The word occurs once as applied to Christ, in the New Testament, (John xx. 16.. ) ",Jesus said unto her, l\Iary. She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni, which is to say,


master.'" RAISED. rrhis term is used to designate the reception of a candidate into the third degree of nlaBOnry.. It conveys an allu.. sion to a particular part of the cererllonies., as well as to the fhe1 of his being f31f..'vat(~d or rarised to that degree, which is univer sally acknowledged to be the summ11 of ancient craft UlasonrJ,

RAl\ISAY,* The name of tIle Che\"alier Ramsay is r.onf;picuous ~



in the masonic history of the last century. He was born at .\.yr; in Scotland, in 1686, and died at, in France, in 17:13. He was a Ulan of extensive erudition and the fri qud of the great and good Fenelon. One of the most faithful followers of the Pretender, he sought to identify the progress of Fraema.. 8G'Jry with the house Stuart. For this purpose ~e endeavoured to obviate the objections of the French nobility t) the me~hanical origin of the institution, at which their pride revolte~:if by asserting that it al'ose in the Holy Land, during the Cr:r.sadcs1 as an order of chivalry. His theory was, that the first Freema. sons were a society of knights, whose business it was to rebuild the churches which had been destroyed by tbe Saracens; t 1at the Saracens, with the view of preventing the execution of this pious design, sent emisst:路ries among them, who, disg:.lise~ as Christians, 'becarrle confounded with the builders and paralyzed their efforts; that the knights having discovered the existence of these spies, became in future more careful, and instituted signs and words for the purpose of detection; and that as many of their workmen were newly converted Christians, they adopted symbolic ceremonies with the view of instructing their proselyte-s more readily in their new religion. Finally, the Saracens becoming more powerful, the Knights l\lasons were compelled to abandon their original occupation; but being invited by a king of England to remove into his dominions, they had accepted the in.. vitation, and there devoted themselves to the cultivation and encouragement of architectur~, sculpture, painting and music. Ra!D.sayattempted to support his system by the fact of the building of the College of Templars in London, which was actuaU, ~onstructed in the twelfth century by the fraternity of masons ~'ho had been in the holy wars. * In. 1728, Ramsay attempted to lay the foundation of a olasonic reform, according to this system. He, therefore, proposed to the (j'rand Lodge of England to substitute, in the place of the three


.. Brobison, Proofs of ~ COJ;lSfWoY, P. 3&



degrees of Apprentice, Fellow-Craft, and l\Iaster, tl..ree others of his own invention, those of Scotch :i\Iason, Novice and Knight of the Temple, which he pretended \vcre the only true and ancient ones, and had their adillinistra.tive centre, fi"om time imlnemorial, in the Lodge of Saint .A.lldrew, at ]~dinburgh. flis views were at once rejected by the Grand I.;odgc of England, which has always been the guardian of the purity of .A.ncient Oraft l\lasonry. Bot he carried them to Paris, where they ulet with amazing success) and gave rise to those highaf degrees which have since been known by the name of the Ancient Scotch rite. See a further account, of Ramsay under the title hzmova't'ions..


RECEIVED. After the completion and dedication of the Temple, those brethren who consented to remain and keep that magnificent structure in repair, were, according to masonic tradition, as a reward for their attaclunent, received and acknowledged as l\iost Excellent l\lasters. lIenee, the terms are used to express the reception of a candidate into the 6th or l\lost Excellent Master's degree of the Ancient York rite. RECOl\lMENDATION. 1'he letter of every applicant for initiation must be recommended by at least one well..known brother~ who should be, if possible,a mClnber of the lodge, and vouched for by another.. See VO'ucl'bL7lg. RECORDER.

An officer in a Commandery of Knights

--------------------_._-----• Clavel, p. 165. I find the following paragraph in the Gentlema:n's Mags... tine for the year 1738. "There was lately burnt at Rome, with great solomnity, by order of the Itquisition, a. pieee in French, written by the Cheva.lier Ramsay, (auth.:.l' c.f lhe Travels of Cyrus,) entitled 'An Apologotica.l and Historical Rela.tion of tha Seerets of Freemasonry, print.ed a.t Dublin by Pa.trie Odinoko/ This Wl',.! ,ublisbed at Paris in answer to a pretended catechism priuted tlt.ere by ('11\1(\1' ;,f the Lielltena,tJ,t de poliOf.n



Templar, and a Council of Royal and Select Masters equivalent t~ a Secretary in a blue lodge.



See K:niglLt 01 the Red


llED CROS~ ()F ROl'lg AND CONST.A.NTINE. .A degree founded on the circUlllstances of the vision if the cr~~3S which appeared to the IDnlperor Constantine. It formed origin.. ~tlly a part of the Rosaic Itite, ana is now practised in England, frelane., Scotland, and SOUle of the English colonies, as a distinct. order: the meetings being called" conclaves," and the presiding officer of the whole order, " Grand Sovereign."

REFLEOTION, CHA~IBER OF. Oab'inet des Reflex'ions. In French lodges the preparation room in which the candidate temains, until he is introduced. It is thus called, because the ~loomy, and the moral inscriptions on the walls, are cal eulated to produce, in his bosom, reflecti.ons of the most serious nature. A similiar apartment is used in the ~eremcnies of the degree of Knight Templar. REFOR~IED RITE. This rite was established in 1782, by 3 convention of J\lasons, who asseulbled at Wilhelmsbad, under the presidency of Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, who was elected its Grand Master. The melnbers of this rite assumed the title of r' Order of Charitable Knights of the Holy City." It was a reformation of the rite of Strict Observance, which had been esta路 blished in 1754, and differed from it, principally, in rejecting all connection with the Knights Templar, of w'hom, the members of the rite of Strict Observance had declared that Freemasons were the successors. The rite of Martinism was merged in this rite, whose system the lodges of Martinists universally adopted; and thus constituted, it spread with astonishing rapidity over France,

Switzerlanfl, and Italy, bui met


i:p.considerable success




Germany, where the Templar system appears to have been, for long titne, the fn.vourite_ The RcfJrll10d rite consisted of fhre degrees: 1, .-"...lL._~L'''''''.· ........ Fellow-Craft; ~;~, l\laster 4, Seotch 5, Clutrltnble Df the Holy City. The last w'as suhdivHled into three tiollS, n:nncly : Novice, I)rofessed l~rother, and ICnight, ,\~hieh a~:t..lally

gives seven degrees in all.

It is still practised ill 13'rance one nnd in S,vitzerla nd by five. Its suprcrne body is si tuated at Zurich, in the countrj,l under the title of tl!c "J)irectory of S\vitzerland." c.

RI~b(.. R~f]jD



The rite described in

the preceding article was introdueed into Poland in by brother G·~a)To, of Lausanne, the Iuinistcl' of King and who was nisI) the I)rovii'cial Grand l\laster of this rite in the French part of Switzerland. llut, in introducing it into ]-'0" land, lv) subjected it to several Dlodifica ,:ons, and called it the

ReforIucd flelvctic rite. Orient of Poland.

~rhe SjtstC!.~ "va~

a.dopted by the Grand

REFItl~SIf~iENT. When a. lod5 c is temporarily adjourned, the adjournment is performed in :I, nlanner pcc .l1iar to l\Iasons, and the lodgo is then said to be "canoe] frolll l:ll)ol~r to refreshment." During refrcslnnent, the eoluulD (Jf tIle should also be and that of th~ S.·. be up, to indieate that, the Junior \\"ardtn, r ~)t the Senior, now superintends the craft,. C/all£ng j"ron, kbowr to ·rlfreshment, differs frorll closing, in this, that in the fiJI''' ;lier IHode the lodge is still open, nor when the labour is reSUU1(ld" is there anycerelnony of opening. Neitl1cr does the re..aSStHU.. bUng of the brethren require any other sumnlOIlS or notificaticm than the sinlple command of the .J... 'V.-. Rigl! twelve or noon was the hour at the temple when our nn· cient brethren were regularly eaBed froln labour to rcrrcsllmen t. rhe tradition is that they worked t\vel'V'c hours a day, and six dn:y1 u


in the week.




REINST.A.. TE~IENrc. 'Vhen a i\Iason, who had. been eXf.l:llCJ,1 or suspended by a is reinstated by the lodge, \vhich hau ,)r suspended hilll, he i~ at once restored to all his hla... sonie fights and privileges, j nst as if no such sentence had ever been p:1ssed upon hiru. J3ut no lodge has the power of reinstating, except tho one \\rhicll inflicted the original punisluuent. This rule, however, does not apply to the Grand Lodge, \vhich, as tho supreme masonic tribunal, nU1Y re-instate any expelled or sus.. cnded l\Iason ,vithin its jurisdiction, whenever the circumstanceq of the case ulay scoru. to warrant such an exerciQe of prerogative. i;;i ...' l.j..H;';,l1\::u..

RI~I'JECTION. Freeluasonry insists on the principlt路 of una.. nilllity that the lH1TI110ny of the lodge nluy be preserved, and therefore it is a. nni\~ersal rule that one black 'ball should reject a candidate for initiation.* If a candidate be rejected, he C"an apply in no other lodge for adrnission. If admitted at all, in lllust be in the lodge wbpr(~ he first applied. But the time for a nev? application has never tJceu 3pecified, so thnt it is held that D rojected candidate lIU.1Y apply fora reconsideration of his case at any tilue. The unfavourable report of the committee to whom the. letter 'was referred, or the withdrawal of the letter by the candi路

date or his friends, is considered equivalent to a rejection ItEI.JIE~'. Of the philanthropic tendency of masonry; abundant evidence is afforded in every country in which a lodge exists. Its charities are extended to the poor an~d destitute, to tlle wido,v and the orphan" with a liberal hand; and its numerous institutions for ilnproving the physical and moral condition of the lnnnn,n race, prove that "Brotherly Love, Relief, and Truth," ~lre not the Dlere idle and unmeaning language of a boastful [}lotto, but the true and guiding principles of our association. [n our o\vn land, several of the Grand 140dges have established

*' An

of the Grand Lodges irl thl~ Unitod States require unanimity in the thi,.~ Old Con~-ltitutions permitted as many as three bla.ok b3Jls, L lodge uc:;ired it.

ballot. Lhl~




college~ and schools for the education cd" the children of l\Iasons ::;ome of these have been but latuly ()t'ganizcd, yet :t1'8 tb( y :lH in

a prosperous condition.

In :Eul'upe,\\'hcre tho ord(~r lws been

longer in operation, the lueans of bestowing aid upon destitute arc still III ore perfeet "':\Ulollg these, the U ItoyalFreemztSODS' 8ello01 for Felnale Children," in J.JO nrJ 'In , is \~'ortll'y of an corumendation. It was instituted in 17~t)~ and fhe IH'cscuf building erected, at an expense flf lJl0r(~ than 拢,3UOU, in tLJ" year 17H8 The object of the charity is to路 nUliutain, clothe, and educate an unliulited nurnher of fi:::Juale children and orpbunR of reduced :F'reeluasons. It ~no,\' exten(L~ its bounty to sixty-five children, who are received into the school between the ages of eight and e1e\"eo, and are wholly supported until they attain their

fifteenth year. The ",A.syhun for worthy and decayed. l~'reeUlnSOl1S," in the s[une eity, is another institution reflecting high honour on the society \vhich gave it birth. It 'was founded in 1835, and its praiseworthy objeets are sufficiently designated by its title . In GerlnaDy, \ve find "1\. lI()spital" f()}' the ,vives of indigent Freeulasons, established at Sehleswig; an all11shouse and orphan-house at Prague ,; a public school at J3erlin; an institute for the blind at .Anist<卤rdaul; and a. Inultitude of librtu'ies, schools and Lospitals" scattered tJll'ouglH)ut the (terluun cities. Tn Sw'eden there is nn orphan-htJuse, established in 17f)3, at Stoekhohn, l::y the private eontribntions ()f the S,,"'ed.ish lodges Ir(~lund ttl:? also an orphan-house. I~ut (H1C of' the 1l'10st philantr.. l'~. pi: in~"'i:,utions of our order, is the "Society for 11atrouizing ~OOI路 c}uldrdn, " estahlished at, :Lsorls~ in l~'rnllce. Its object i~ t.~ dirnir.lsh ';~l(~ prilnary causes of pnuperisnL l~()r Hlis purpose, i'~ C)IlllnenCel' ,vith the child at birth; it selects for hiln a patron frcr:,~ ,t;~ :r:elubers, whos(: fluty it: is to advise vdth and assist the r~},::~r..t~ ;''': t::,c gOYCrnnlcnt and education of the child. lIe trat ~ chill] i8 well fed, eornfortahly elothed, and properly edu tate.:... V. hen. ready for trudp, he directs hitn in its seit1ctiou. and bin .is hhn 1ll'3 an apprentice. .A.utI wlH"n th(~ period of ap pr~nticP'fhi? h.c~1expircd, he fUfnisheshinl 'with hi~ "Hltf;t in nfc




Of the private relief afforded in indivi .1ual cases, where 'm.e Bole clahn to sJulpathy n1' assistance was the possession uf tIle name of brother, it is unnecessary here to speak. r.l'he annals'of masonry al~e crow'ded wi tIl such instances of masonic relief. may be said tube the column of wisdom, whose raya penetrate and enlighten the innlost recesses of our lodgt~; BRO路 i'HERLY LOVE, the COlUlllll of strength, ,vhich binds us as uno fa.lUily) in the indissoluble bond of fraternal affection; and llE路. LIEF, the column of beauty, whose ornaments, more precious than the lilies and poulegranates that adorned the pillars of the pOl~h, are the widow's tear of joy, and the Orl)han's prayer 01 gratitude. ~r[tUTII,

RELIGION. Freemasonry does not profess to interfere with the religious opinions of its members. It asks only for n, declaration of that siu1ple and universal faith, in which Inen of all nations and ull sects agree,,--the belief in a God and in his superintending providence. Beyond this, it, does not venture, but leaves the ulinds of its e1isciples, on other and sectarian points, perfectly untralnnlclled. ~rhis is the only religious qualification required of a candidate, but this is nlost strictly delnanded. The religion, then, of nlasonry, is pure theisru, on which its dif. ferent I11enlbers engraft their own peculiar opinions; but they are not perluitted to introduce thorn into the lodge, or to connect their truth or falsehood 'with the truth of Illasonry. On this sulJject, the present Constitution of the Grand IJodge of ]~nglrtnd, holds the following language: c': A. ~lason is obliged, by his tenure, to obey the nloral law, ana if he rightly understand the art, he 'will never bea stupid atheist nor an irreligious libertine. lIe, of all men, should best understand that God seedl not as Ulan seeth; for man looketh at the outward appearance, but G-od looketh to the heart.. A ~la颅 son is, therefore, particularly bound, never to act against the dic.. tates of his conscience. IJHt a nian's .religiQn" . Q,I.Jllode"...Q.t,~w:nr" Ih~r,pe

what it may, he is not excluded . frQll1t'4~_9.!~~.~% provided

he believe in the glorious .A.rchitect of h~rLven and, earth, and practise the sacred duties of morality. l\lasons:lnite with th~ virtuous of every persuasion, in the finn and pleasing bC:ld af fraternal Jove; they are taught to view the errors of La:nk~Ld with compassion, and to strivc, by the purit,Y of their OW:i ~..l" duct, to denlonstrate the superior excellence of the fa~t~. t~ . may possess. Thus nUlsonry is the centre of union betwe.~lu good men and true, and the happy l11eans of conciliating friendship amongst those who nlust otherwise have remained at a perpetual distance." This tolerant principle is, however, unfortunately nc~ practisod in all masonic lodges. The three Grand LodgeiJ at Bcr" i~, in Prussia,* and the Grand Lodges of Hanover and Haml.<ttrg, refuse Dot only to initiate Jews, but even to admit as visitors their Israelitish brethren, who have been made in other couLt-ies. The Grand Lodges of this count.ry have taken this subject into consideration, and several of thenl have already passed resolutions, condemning the proceedings of the Prussian and German l\Iasons, which tnt1Y possibly have some effect in restoring them to the purity and libernlity of 111usonie tolerance. The G"rand Lodge of Gerlnany, at Ir~lnlburg, which works only in the three degrees of .l\ncient Oraft l\Iasonry, and derives its Constitutions from the Grand Lodge of England, is happily afltuated by a more enlightened spirit. RE~IOVAL.. No lodge can remove from its usual place of . meeting, without the consent of the Grand Lodge thereto. For· merly no proposition could be lllade, nor vote taken on. the ques· tion of removal, unless the Worshipful JlIaster w:.s present.

But this regulation a·ppears now to have become


obsol~te .

A lodge cannot, at an extra communication, re-

• The Grand Lodge of the Three Globes, the Royal York Grand Lodge of frie"'ldshipJ and theGra.nd Lodge of Prussia...



peal, annul, or alter a resolution, that has been ad; pted at vious regular one.



REPRESENTATIVE SYSTEM. The representative system originated in this country with the Grand Lodge of New..York. Its organization is as follows: It is proposed, that each Gran 1 Lodge in the lTnited States, or, if it can be sufficiently extende.d, in the world, shall appoint tt worthy and intelligent ~1a.'!on, to Ie.. side near and represent it in every other Grand Lodge. These representatives are required to attend regularly the meetings of the Grand Lodges to which they are accredited, to communicate to their constituents an abstract of the proceedings, and such other masonic matter of interest, such as expulsions, rejections, establishment of clandestine lodges, &c., as may occur in the respective jurisdictions in which they reside. Their costume is that of the Grand Lodge which they represent, and they are also entitled to bear a banner with its colours This systeln has not met with universal a.pprobation, and has, as yet, but partially succeeded.. Its friends argue, iD its favour, the closer union which will thereby be cemented between the various masonic bodies thus represented, and the greater facility of communication.* But on the other side, its opposers have offered weighty objections against its adoption. Besides the heavy expense which would necessarily attend the universal adoption of the sY.-lte:n IIhere is one, which certainly clahns the attentive consiClcra'Go~ of every brother. One of the most intelligent of these obj: ('tON is Brother Moore, tl:e editor of the Freemason's Monthly l\Iaga. zine, published. at Boston, in whose words, rather than in "W.y own, I desire to present the character of this objection to the 1

reader. • The arduous duty of an extensive correspondence, wh' ch had formerl, been confided to Ob.'O officer, the Grand Secretary, being now divided betwee:o




"Another objection that presents itself to our mind is, that the proceedings 0,£' thp Grand Lodges would go forth in an unof ficial form, and be liable to lead to error and confusion. It is hardly to be presumed that the representatives would all take the same view of every subj ect that might COlue under discussi.o:c., or that they would understand it alike, in all its bea,rings. T1.~ J would undoubtedly faithfully represent the matter to their Oi)_f~, stituents, as they should respectively understand it But tllP.tlf understanding it would probably, in many cases, clash with tj. ~ annual report of the official officer. i'heir representations wo.\:.:. ~ not, therefcre, furnish safe grounds of action. The G-raL d Lodges would still be constrained to wait for the official rt;port. Again, there is danger that the representatives might not alw'17s be able to discriminate between what it would be proper to caj~U· municate, and what is strictly of a local character. There ia n~t probably a Grand Lodge in the country which has not before i't, at every communication, some subject which it would prefer to keep within the liIni ts of its own jurisdiction. And it is one of the errors of human nature, that there should be an ambitious ~ire on the part of the representatives tocolllIDunicate every thing which, in their judgment, might tend to raise them in the estimation, or contribute to the interest, of their constitue.nts. They Inight not always discriminate wisely.* These objections are certainly important, nnd seem to have de terred l:>Ome of the Grand Lodges from appointing representati7"ea. Whether the system will ever become universal is exceedingly problemati~aI. The enthusiasm on the subject, which existed in some parts of the country, when it was first proposed, ~ppoor8 now considerably to have abated..

RESIGNATION. No brother shoulo. be allowed to resign, unless he be at the time in good standing. Some lodges, ~how.. ever, from a mistaken feeling of kindness, have permitted , • MOOle's

Ma~zine, vol. i .. J)..




member to resign, rather than r('~urt to the penalt,y of suspenslon or expulsion. This is ulanifestly wrong. If a lVlason be too bnd <I-.{) belong to a particular lodge, he is too bad to belong to the ll"der in general. Besides, the acceptation of a letter of resigna . t~v~ in a kind 'of taeit ackno\vledgeulcnt that the character elf toll(: rt ·signing nleID bel' is free frolll reproach. Hence, otber lodges are thus deceived into the admission of one who should originaI1 y ~:.lve I'cen cured or cut off* by the lodge from which he had

reRigned. 'fhe resignation of '1 m ~::nber dissolves all connection between hi'11self and his fOr:LLer lodge, but it does not at all affect his relations with tIle order, or his obligatory duties as fl 1\Iason See on this subject, the article Dernit.


A resurrection from t.he grave and a imUlortali iy ,vere the great lessons which it was the de.. Fign of the ancient mysteries to inculcate. In like manner by a ~y!nbl)Jie ceremony of great impressiveness, the satne sublirne :r\lths arc made to constitute the end and object of Frecluusonry j n the third degree, or as it has been called by I-Iutchinson, "the .l1 Llbter'a Order."

RETtJltNSOF LODGJ1JS. Every subordinate lodge nlust lnake an annual return, at some period specified in the local reo gulations, to the Grand Lodge frOlll which it derives its "Tarrant,_ of the number and names of its luenlbers, and of the initintion&: rejections, suspensions, and expulsions which have taken placE" during the year. By this means, each Grand I.Jodge is Iuade acquainted with the state of its subordinates, and the progress of the order within its jurisdiction. ItHETORIC.

The art of embellishing language with thE

• Qumsanarl potorunt, quacunquo ra.tione sanabo; quoo resecanda erunt, llO:» patiar ad perniciem ciyitntis manare.-Oiaero in. OataUn.

RIG ornaments of construction, so as to enable the speaker to per~uade or 3.fiect his hearers. It supposes and requires a proper acquaintance with the rest, of t.he liberal arts. F'or the first step towards udol"ning a diseourse, is for the speaker to heconle thoroughly acquainted \vith its suhjeet" and henee, the n,ncient rule that the orator should be acquainted ,rith all the arts and sciences. Ita importance as a branch of liberal edueation is recommended t..( ~he lViason in the ]'ellow-Craft's degree. RIGHT ANGL:E.

.A. right angle is the rneeting of two lines

In an angle of ninety de~'r8es, or the fburth part of a circle. Each of its line~ is perpendicular to the other, and" as the perpendicular line is a SJlllbol of uprightousness of conduct., the right angle has been adopted by ~Iasons as an enlblcu1 of viltue. Such was also its signification U!llong the PythugoreuDs. The right allgle is represented in the lodges by the square, as the hol'izontal is

by the level, :lud the perpendicula.r by the phlUl b.


BJGllrI' ItA.NT). right hand has in all ages been deellled an in1portallt syuJbol to represent the virtue of fidelity. ,A.mong the aneients, the righ t hUlld and fidelit..y to an obligati()n, vrere altnost deeulcd synonyrnous terlUS. r:rhus, nrnong the Roruaus, the expression "fallere destrulu," to betra~1J the J'lfjht luvul, also signified to l;{ohltc jait}" und "jungerc clextras," to Jotn right ha llds, meant to give a 1nutu(11)led!Je. AIllong the IIebrew8 t'C~, i(lntl~l:, th~ right hand, was derived frolH r~~, a nU:lIt, tf JC

faithful. The practice of the aneicn ts was conforuHlble to these peeu-

harities of idiol.ll. l.\.luong the . Je,vs, to give t~e rightl har:..d) was considered as a Inark of friend~hip and fidelity.. ~rhus St, Paul ~rtJS, "when ..J atucs, Cephas, and ..John, \vho scorned to 1,3 pil1:;.,r~) 1- :;i ..H:d"ved tIle grace thaJ.'W'as given unto Inc, they gave to me and l:a.rnabas the <rtf/ht .lland oj" j~.'llouls1di), that we should go lUlto ,,:,It) h~athen and the)' unto the cirCllmcision.. "GaL ii. 6 85



The same expression, also, occurs in ~Iaecabees. We meet, indeed, continually in the Scriptures with allusions to the right hand, as an clnblem of truth and fidelity. Thus in 1)f;ah1l3 (cxliv.) it is said, "their right hand is a right hand of falsehood," -that is to say, they lift up their fIght hand to swear to what is not true. This lifting up of the right hand was, in fact,· the universal mode adopte<l anlong both Jews and Pagans in taking an oath. The clistonl is certainly as old as the days of Abraham, who said to tIle King of SOdOlll, "I have lifted up Iny hand unta the Lord, the most high God, the possessor of heaven and earth, that I will not t.ake any thing that is thine/' Sometimes among the Gentile nations, the right hand, in taking an oath, was laid upon the horns of the altar, and sometimes upon tne hand of the person administering the obligation. But in aU cases it was deemed necessary to the validitJ ana solemnity of tJhe attestation, that the right hand should be enl ployed. Since the introduction of Christianity, the use of the right hanJ in contracting an oath, has been continued, but instead of extending it to heaven, or seizing with it a horn of the altar, it is now directed to be placed upon the Holy Scriptures, which is the universal mode at this day in all Christian countries. The antiquity of this usage 111ay be learned fron} the flict, 'that in the ~ode of the I~nlperor Theodosius, adopted about the year 4~8, iht\ placing of the right ha.nd on the Gospels is alluded to, and in the code of Justinian, whose date is the year 529, fl·e c~;rs .. mony is distinctly laid down as a necessary part of the ivrm3,l~':J of the oath. This constant use of the right hand in the most p.a~r~J ~ttteet~ ti":ns a:"1d solemn compacts, was either the cause or t~ 5 <}C~. ffc.ence of its being deemed an emblem of fidelity. Dr. p()~t;("\:-:' ttinks it 'tVas the cause, and be supposes that the right hand W\I:


• The 'Word.::. of Justinian nrc, "tactissacroaaDctisEv8ngeliia'--~" Gospels bei::lg touched.-Lib. ii. tlt. 53. lox.. 1.


Archceologia Hroocn., 'P. 22\1.




naturally used instead of the left, because it was more bcr¡o-a.r.. able, us being the instrument by which superiors give comlllunds to those below them. Be this as it may, it is well known that the ellstonl existed universally, and that there are abundant al::;... sions, in the most ancient writers, to the junction of right hu:}da

in making 0cmpa.ct,s.


The ltomans had a goddess whose name was Fl~des, or :Fidelitj~,

whose telllple was first con~ecrated by Numa. Her synlbol ~V3.S two right hands joined, or sOluetimes two feluale figures holding each other by the right band~" whence in all agreements among the Greeks lod Romans, it was usual for the parties to take each other by the right hand, in token of their intention to adhere to the com pact. The joining of the right bands was esteemed among the I\..\rsians and Parthians, as conveying a Dl0st inviolable obliga.tion 'Of fide1ity~ Hence, when King .A.rtubanus desired to hold a conference with his revolted subject, ~>\.sineus, who W~1S in arltlS again:;t hinl, he despatched a messenger to hiln with the request, wr.o said to Asineus, "the king hath sent Ine to give you his right hand and security,"-that is, a promise of safety in going an,i coming- And when Asineus sent his brother .A.sileus to the preposed conference, the king met him and gave hin) his right hand; upon which Josephus remarks: "This is of the greatest fo'r(c therd with all these barbarians, and affords a firnl security to chose who hold intercourse with them; for Done of them will deceive, when once they have given you their right hands, Dor will anJ' one doubt of their fidelity, when that is once given, even thougl. they were before suspected of inj ustice."t It is thus apparent that the use of. the right hand, as a token


• By a. strange error for so learned man, Oliver mistakes the nnlne of thil! goddess, and cnlls her Faith. H The spurious FreemnsOIlry," he remarks, "had a. goddess called Faith." No such thing. F1.-des, OT, as Horb.Ce calls her, "in corrupts. Fides," incorruptible Fidelity, is very differer.. \ from t.he theoltlgi virtue of faith. r J08taph. Ant. Jud. lib. xvUL cap. i:L



of sincerity and a pledge of fidelity, is as ancient as it ::5 univf3rsal, a fact which will account for the iUlpottant station which it Q,3i3t\:pies among the sj"ulbols of Freemasonry.





;he Rebrewt,

as well as the Greeks and l~olIlans, the right l.;itJ.,~ was ~f)lteid-e.:e~ superior to the left; and as the right V{'1," the ~)J:c of .good., '(1 ',1Ul,IS tJle left of bad Olnen. De~l'ter, or right, signified also propiti..}l~} and .~ln·£ster, or left, unlucky. In the Scriptures, we find fr<:.. 1uent allusions to this superiority of the right.. Jacob, for in.. stance, called his youngest and favourita ~hild, Ben.ja-'Jnin, the zon of his right hand, al~d Bathsheba, as the ;:ing's mother, WM ;;laced at the right hand of Solomon.



The Academy of Subli:lle



the Luminous Ring, was a pseudo-masonic society fbundc-l i:1 Fra,nce, in 1780. Its ritual was divided into three degree~. Th~ first two w'ere occupied witll the history of Freemasonry, ~1Md. the last with the peculiar dogmas of the institution which were essen.tially Pythagorean. RITE. A DlodifictLtion of masonry, in which the three ancient degrees and their essentials being preserved, there arc varieties i::J. the ceremonies, and nurnber and naInes of the additional degrees. A masonic rite is, therefore, in accordance with the gene.. rsl~ignification of the word, the method, order, and rules; "':".eci"7t.·d in the performance and government of tho masonic syste:n. }.. .nc,·j·Jt~y, there was but one rite, that of the "Ancient, Free, and 1 'n~o ........,ed ~Iasons," consisting only of the three primary degrees . ~",~tered Apprentice, Fellow-Craft,and l\Iaster l\fason, hence .~1.ilel the degrees of Ancient Craft ~la~onry. But on the ContineL.~ of Europe, and especially in France and Germauy, the ingenuity of eor.le, and the vanity of other~, have added to these iU.



of hi~h deirees, and of ceremo~ies u~ltnowu



to the original character of the institution.

Some of these rites ived only Vv"'ith their authors, and died when their paternttl en.. ergy in fostering thenl (~eased to exert himself. Others have had n lllore pernlunent ex.istcnce, and still continue, nominally, to divide the masonic faulily. I S~lY, only nominally, for the fact that theY:.:tre JLll, no nuttter what be their unessential differ.. enco, based upon the three aneient degr~es, er~ables a brother of anJ rite to visit the synlbotic lodges of all the other rites.. A ~l~sterl\Iasonjs, in all and all countries, acknowledged at such, and entitled to all the privileges which that sublime degree conf~rs.

The following are the names of the rites of Freemasonry now practised in Europe and . A.merica. The first three are the most ~mportant., oldest, and most extensive; and the first, or I'"ork rite, upproache~ nearest in its construction to ...t\.ncient Craft 1'1 asonry. The degrees conferred by each of these rites, aUfl the places ",.here they exist, vrill be found under the respecti'v'c titlc~ In this work. 1. York rite. 2. French, or rnodern rite.. S Ancient and ..:\.c(~epted Scotch rite. 4.. Alllerican ri te.. 5. Philosophic Scot,cll rite. 6. Priulitive Scotch rite. 7. Ancient Iteforlued rite 8 Fessler's ri teo 9 Rite of the Grund IJodge of the Three Globes at Berlit 10.. liite of' l)erfection.. 11. Rite .of l\lisriuDl.. 12. Ititc or order the Temple. 13. Swedish rite.. 14.. l'tcfbrmed rite. 15. Schroeder's rite.. 16. Riteoi'Swedenborl?




of Zinqendorr

RIT-ROM .ttITUAL. The ritual of Freemasonry comprises the forms of opening and closing a lodge, of initiating candidates, and of conducting the other peculiar ceremonies of the order. Th{\ ritu~r~ifters in various places, and is not always the same in the. s~~e ~ite. Thus the lodges of England and .f\.merica practise the same rite, the York, so far as the three symbolic degrees, s.nd yet the rituals of the two countries vary considerably. An intimate acquaintance with the ritual c01'2stitutes what is techni路 cally called a "bright mason." ROI~L. The roll, or record of members' names, is borne by Secretaries in public processions of the order. At the funeral of a brother, his name, during a portion of the funeral ceremonies, should be inscribed in the roll of the lodge to which he belonged. The rolls, or insignia of office, carried by SecretRrIes in a funeral procession, are thrown into the grave.

ROMAN COLLEGES OF ARTIFICERS. Co2legiUi r:.~tffi颅 N uma collected the various arts and trades which, durirlg


his reign, existed at Rome, into separate companies or societies, having their respective halls, courts, and religious e:x er0isetr. The principal of these collegia artljic'lLm, was the college ")f <:l,!'. chitects, whose members he brought out of Attica, for the P"}"iw.. pose of organization From this time, says Clavel, is to be dated the establishment of the mysteries of Bacchus at RODle. The eighth of the twelve tables contained laws applicable to the Ron{an colleges.. These associations, which were caUeti !(). dalitates, or frate'rnitates, had the right of making contracts, and of enacting laws for their own government, and a few of the most distinguished, (among which were the college of architects,) were exempted from taxation. The Roman colleges were, in their character, both civil and religious institutions. Their asselublies were held with closed doers, and the profane were carefully excluded. Their mace-rim,



were situated in the neighbourhood of those templ8*i



whose divinities they particularly worshipped, and v 3e priests employed them as artificers, in making the necessary repairs. In their assemblies they deliberated on the works entrusted to their construction, and initiated candidates into their society by mysterious ceremonies, and by symbolic instruction, derived from the working tools of their art. The brothers were divided inte the usual classes of Apprentices, Craftslnen, and Masters. ~rhey contracted an obligation to render each other mutual assistanc& when necessary, and were enabled to recognise each other by se cret signs. Their presidents, who were elected for five years, were called 1J'Iagistri, or l\iasters. Besides these, there were seniores or elders, treasurers, secretaries, and other necessary

officers. These colleges became, in time, the depositories of all the foreign methods of initiation, which were afterwards introduced Into Rome. And it was through them that the most learned masonic writers have supposed that the Hebrew mysteries were tranSDlitted, from the Jewish artists who visited Rome in great numbers during the reign of Augustus, to the travelling 'Freemasons, by whom all the religious eclifices of the Middle Ages were constructed. The colleges of artificers, and especially those which professed architecture; spread from Rome throughout the provinces and

principal cities of the empire. They existed in vigorous activity until the fall of the Roman Empire, and continued to decline during the ages which SUCCI "eded the invasions of the barbarians, until they are supposed to bavo revived in the architectuml associations known as the "Travelling Freemasons of the Middls Ages," an account of which will he found in another part of thil

work.* • T have gladly availed myself of the industry of Clavel, who has collaoi'M :; \ dry of import&nCf that has 'been written on the subject of thes~ a8~09i ~~





RoeAIC RITE. A rite instituted in Gcrlnany by M. Rusa a I.Jutheran clergylllan, under the patronage of the 13aron de Prinzen. It wa~ at first exceedingly popular, but vnta superseded by t.he Strict Observance rite of Baron Ifunde. ROSE. Itor an explanation of the Rose, as a masonic symbol, sec the article l~rince of Ilose G'Yroix.


SeePf"ince of Rose Oroix.


This was

order of Adoptiye or l\.ndrogynous ~Iasonry, invented' in France towards the close of the eighteenth century. lVI. de Chaumont, the masonic secretary of the Due de Chartres, was its author. The principal seat of the order was at Paris. The hall of meeting was called the Teulplc of Lovc. It was ornamented with garlands of flowers, and hung round with escutcheons on which \vere painted various devices and clublelus of gallantry. There were tw'o presiding ofliecrs, a lllale and feulale, 'W were styled the Hierophant and tho 11:gh Priestess. The fornler initiated luen, and the latter wonlen. In the initiations the Hiero.. phant was assist.ed by a conductor or deacon, called Sentiment, and the High Priestess by a cOllduetress or deaconess, called I>iscretion. The lllCIIl bers receiyed the title of I<:nights and YYlllphs. The Knights wore a Cl'own of ll1Jrtle, the Nymphs a ., .own of Roses. 'rhe Ilierophan t and lligh Priestess wore, in ...Jdition, a rose-coloured scarf~ on \\~bi(jh were embroidered tW() ioves within a wreath of nl)TJ:tlc During the time of initiatioIl? ~be hall was lit with a single dull taper, but afterwards it Wa! ~finiantly illuullnated by numerous wax. candles. \V'hen a candidate was to be initiated, he or she was taken in charge, according to the sex, by the conductor or conductress, divested of all weapons, jewels, or nloney, hoodwinked, loaded



with chains, and in this condition conducted to the door of thE' Temple of Lovo, where adlllissiou was demanded by two knocks




Brother Sentiment then introdueed the candidate by order the I-lierophant or and he or she was asked hig or her nalue, country, condition of life, ancI, lastly, Wllut he or sht3 was seek ing. 'To this the answ"cr \yas, "IIappiness." .Th(~ next question proposed \Y"as, "'Vhat is your age ?" The candidate, if a Ina-Ie, rcplil~(l, "rfhe age to love;" if' a fenlalc, H The age to please a ud to be loved." The ealJdidates 'were thl~n concerning their private opinions and conduct in relation to luattel'S of gallantry. 'l~li.e chains \vere then taken f'rcl1u and they w'ere invested wi j h garlands of flo\vers wllieh \,ere called "the chains of love." In this condition they \yere lnade to traverse the apartnient frOJu Ol!C extremity to another,and then back in a contrary direction, o"{(~r a path inscribed with love-knots. The following Qhligatic)n \yas then adn1inistered : ,~ I prornise and swear by the l\laster of the Universe never to r-eveal the seercts of the order of the Rose, ~tnd should I fnil in this lny YOW, rna.)' the I shall receive add nothing to IllY pleasures, and ini:itcad of the of Ilttppil1cSS may I fiud nothing but the thorns of n 1~he candidut,cs 'were then conducted to the groves in the neighbourhood of the TClnple of J.Jovc, 'w'here the knights received a erown of lnyrtle, und thQ nyulphs a sirnple rose. During this tilne a soft .lnelodious 1na1'ch ,vus played by tl1C orchestra. .A,fter this the cnndidates wore cC)lHluctt~d to the aHar of mystery, placed at the foot of tIle throne, and there incense was offered np to ,reUllS and her son. If it 'w"af! a knight VdlO had been initiated, lle n(nv exchanged his cro,,~rl of Iuyrt1e for the rose of the l:l~t initiated nYlnph, and if a Il)'111ph, she exchanged her rose for the lllyrtle crc>'wn of Brother Sen ti.. mont. The IIierophant nOVl read a copy of verses in honour of the Gad of l\Iystery, nnd the was at length tal{cn frolll the eyes of the candidate. I)elicious lllusic uncl brilliant Ugh.t. now added to the charuls of thiscnchanting scene, in the m.:,h:~


of which the cOllllnunicatcd to the candidate fbfl modes of rec'Jgnition peculiar to tl~e order. * ROSICRUCIANS.

Of the secret society of the RoslcrucirtDS

or Brothers of the Rosy Cross, Bailey giv'es the fallowIng ac.

: "Their chief was a Gerlllun 'gentlelllan, educated In a Inonas.. tory, 1\-rhere, having lea.rned the languages, he travelled to the IIoly Land, anna 1378, and being at Daluascus and falling Si0kr he had heard the cODYersation of SOlue Arabs, and other Orientai philosophers, by whom he is supposed to have been initiated into this mysterious art. ...J\.t his return int~ Germany he formed a .eociety, and communicated to them the secrets he had brought with him out of the J1Jast, and died in 1484. , "They were a sect or cabal of hernlctical philosophers j w110 bound themselves together b'y a solemn secret, which they swore inviolably to observe; and obligedthclllselves, at their adluission into the order, to a strict observa.nce of certain established rules. "They pretended t.o kno\v nIl sciences,ancl especially uledi.. ;jine, of which they published theulseI ves the restorers.; they a.lso pretended to be ulustersof ahllud:lDce of iroportant secrets, and among others, that of tIle philosopher's stone; all \vhich they affirmed they had received by tiradition fronl the . A.ncient Egyp. tians, Chaldcans, the l\Iagi and G'ylnnosop hists. "They pretended to protract the period of hUlnan life by means of certain nostrunls, and oven to restore youth. They pretended to know all things; they are also caned the Invisible Brothers, because they have 111ade no appearance, but have kept themselves 1~ncog. for sc\·eral years.. "t The society of the ltosicrucin.ns or Brothers of the Rosy Cross, tbusengaged in the .wild studies of alchemy,. protracted their ~ount

• I


given the n,hoYe details in conlpliance with a. promise made in the g:ratiti~at.iotl of the curious.

!fticle on U Afldrogynous Masonry," and for the T am indebted for them to. tho in4ustry of Olavel" Bailey. Diet.




existence until the middle of' the eighteenth century, when they at length ceased to Il1eet, in eonsequence of the death of llrun, their chief. Their association \V:1S 'wen organized, being divided lik..~ the society of ,Jesuits into each its particular chief, with a general chief at the h(~aJ of all. Their system of initiation was divided into nine degrees, as follows: 1, Zelator; 2, Thericus; 3, l)racticus; 4'JPhilosophus; 5, .i.\.dertus J uni')r ; 6, Adeptus l\iajor; 7, .A.. deptus l~xenlptus; 8, l\Iagister; 9) l\iagus.. Out of this society was fornled, in 1777, an association calling itself "The Brothers of the Golden }{,osy Cross," whose system was divided only into three degrees. ~rhis society was' very nu.. merous in Germany, and even extended into other countries, es.. pecially into Sweden. .A. second schi~ll) from the Jtosicrucians was the society of the "Initiated Brothers of .A.sia," which was c:gnnized in 1780, and whose pursuits, like those of the parent i~Ntitu.tion, were alcheJuy and the natural scienees. In 1785, it '::;A.."".i~ted the attention of the poliee, and two years later, received • &tal blow, in the revelathH) of all its secrets by one ltolling, a ~:rcsah6rous member of the H8SCtciation. i~e Rosicrucians, as this brief history indicates, had no con.. af:-Qtion whatever "with the UU18ftu'ie fraternity. Notwithstanding ad:) faot, Barruel, * the rnost Illalignant of our revilers, with a o~.a..t"8oteristic spirit of mi8repreSel1ta~on, attempted to identify ..h-; t NO institutions. ~'his is an error, int.o 'which others might ~.r: '..-rittingly fall froIll confounding t heln with the Princes of Rose Cr')O:, a i,,;.s:Jonic degree, sOlue,vhnt siulilar ill nanle, but entirely ~iE"rent in character. rro correet this error 'where it may havo ~~'l:.t:,~(\:nmitted, is the object of this article, which otherwise would DJt have been entitled to a place in a masonic lexicon.t • Menloirs of Jacol>inism. The Roslcruchms do not derive their name, like Rose Croix Masons, frem the Rose and Cross, for they have nothing to do vdth tho rose, but from th-9 Latin r08, dew, and ert.t.x', the cross, as n hieroglyphic of light, which MosbcUD ~"p~-u.ns as follows: 11 Of all n'ttural botlii;.4 tlc'\V '\Vas esteemf..'d the most pow·




R()YAl-4 . L\.R,OII. l\Iol'e properl)' called the H~ly 1;;. .A.reh. It is the scycnth in the York rite, as practised it. this country, and by SOUle styled the SUlll1Uit of ancient luasonry, Denllot SHY:: of it, "this I fil'lnly believe to be tho root, he,trt and nUtlTO\V vr IH'.l.onry.!' .A.nd I-Iutchinson, of it, USdS tl"c reuulrkable language: H 1\.8 l\Ioses ,vas COIn· luanded to r~n his ~.~oes froIU (rff hi.:; feet, on l\Iount. be· cause tbc ;tv~~nd "hereon he trod ,vas sanctified by the presenet of the Dh'!:'.1:t;,r, so the l\lason who would prepare hinlself for this c!~;1.~.t,',(3 stage of llltlSOllry, should advance in tte nn.kcd padH; of trath~ b,; ,liYGsted of every degree o( arrogance, and approaell with of innocence, humilit,Y and virtue, to challenge the ensign::: c·f an vrder, whose institutions arise on the most solemn and sa :~rell principles of religion." This brings to light IDRUy essentials of the craft ,,-rh.ich ,vere 101"' tlJ8 spnee of 470 years buried in darkness, and at the Bame t:rne irnpre,-;ses on tho luind of the possessor the belief in a SUpJ;elne 13ciug and the reverence dne to his holy n~nne. 'This i~ the proper place to introduee a brief account of the Telnple 1'1'0111 its dec1ieaticHl by N ehuchaduezzar, and its re·erec.. tion seventy years afterwards by ZerubbabeL l\.ftCl· the death of SolonHlIl, ten of the t,vclvc tribes revolted frOIH hi.s son R,ehobOtun. ~rhe tribes of "Judah and I~enjalnin, hovn~ver, continued f~lithful to the house of "David, and 'wer<?, ruled by tIle descendants of 8010111011, until, in the eleventh yenr of the reign of Zedekiah, the city "ras taken after a siege of eighteen nlonths) by Nebuchadnczzar, I<.ing of Babylon, who dt~­ stroyed the city, set fire to the Telllple, and carried away 11lOSt. (Jf t·he inhabitants as captives to 13abylcll, 416 years after the Tenl" ple had been dedicated to ,Jcb.ovah, by I{ing Solomon. erful solvent of gold; :lIld the cross, in cbCIuical Inngun,ge, is equivalent to Ugbt7 bem~use the figtU't~ of a eru,3S + exhibits nit t.he sarne time three letters, of which tho words L\'"X, Qr light, is comp()und(~d. Hence ~L Rosicrucian phi.. lQsopher is one who, by the assistanec of the dew, seeks for light, or the phi

., osoph€.Js stono.




1'he tribes J uduh and l~eujanlin rerllained in captivity years at 13ab)'loll, until Cyrus, in the first year of his reign, cOllllniserating the calarnity of the Jews, issued an edict, permitting thelll to return to J"erusulem and rebuild the house of the .Lord. This they did under the care of Zerubbabel, l)rince of Judah, and Joshua-, the IIigh I>riest who superintended the.' work, while .Higg~i, the Scribe, instigated bis count.rymen, bJ his eloquence, to zeal and diligence in the pious labour. Until the year 1797, us no grand chapters were in existenee, a competent number of cOlllpaniol1s, possessed of sufficient 3hilities, proceeded, under the sanction of a l\laster's \~arran t, to ;';-('t1.. fer the degree of the Itoyal .t\..rch wit.h the preparatory degrees. But in that year, a convention of delegates froln the several chapters in Pennsylvania met, and after mature deliberation, re.. Rolved to organize a Grand Chapter, which ,vas accordingI}" done. Since that period, the jurisdiction of Royal l\..rch Masonry has neon separated fr0111 that of the SYUl bolie degrees. ~rhe officers in a chapter of this degl't~e., are a l\Iost .f:<~xceH.路~~ ~ IIigh Priest, ICing, Scribe, Captain of the }:fost, l:)rinciral C"l jourIler, Itoyal .A.l'chCnptain, three Grand l'iasters of the \7 ails, Secretary, 'freasul'er, and Sentinel. The true origin of theltoyal .A.reh is an important question, that has lately engaged the attention of nutsonic writers. Some have asserted that it '\\"'us brought by the TCluplars from the Holy I..Iand; others say tllat it ,vas established as a p:l.rt of Te;..nplar masonry in the sixteenth century, and others again as~crt tLat it was unknown before the year 1780. Dr. Oliycr, in a work of profound research on this subjcet, sU,ys that "there exists suffi" cient evidence to disproyo all their conjectures, u.nd t.o fix tr"e era of its introduction to a period which is ooe,"al \v1th the nleUlorableschism amongst the English ~fasons about the middle of th~ ~eventy

last century."* -Some aocount of th~ schism wb.i<!h took p1ace during the 1M ~ ;entur, amongst the Free and Acceptod l\Ill,sons in England, showing origin of the Royal Arcb degree, &e., 'P. 4. ~

ROY It seems to me, as the result of a careful examinatio· Jf the evidence adduced, that before the year 1740, the essential element of the Royal Arch constituted a part of the third degree.: and that about that year it was se,ered from that degree and transfen·ed t~ another, by the schismatic body calling itself '.' the Grand Lodge of England according to the old Constitutions." The Royal Arch in England is at present practised a a fourt\. degree, and the possession of the Past l\'Iastership is not, as In this country, considered as a necessary qualification for exaltation. Any worthy Master ~lason is now considered as eligible for the. honours of the Royal Arch. The Royal Arch, in that country t is not considered as "essentially a degree, but the perfection of the third."* The time and circumstances of the degree a.8 con· ferred in England coincide with the ritual in this country if. the lI!ost important particulars. There is, however, an anom.a.l] iI.. ~he introduction of Ezra and Nehemiah as the companion: cf the three principal officers. The Royal Arch, as conferred in Ireland, differs vet;; materi .. ally from the degree in England and America. The 1!)~t£lt1. consists of three degrees; the Ex.cellent, Super Excel1cn.. 1!ld Royal Arch, and the Past l\{aster's degree is indiapensable SJ5 a. qualification for exaltation. The Excellent and Super Exce::-'ent degrees refer to events connected with the legation of Moses. The events commemorated in the Royal Arch of Ireland refer to 2 Chronicles, chap. xxxiv., and expressly to the 14th verse of that chapter. "And when they brought out the money tltat was brought into the house of the Lord, Hilkiah, the priest) found a book of the law of the Lord given by Moses." Tlte date of their degree is, therefore, 624 -B.C., or ninety yean earlier than ours. In Scotland the era of the legend of the Royal Arch it the aame as in ~Jngland and America, but the organization of the &ystem is very different. The Mark and Past Master, which are • Freemason's Quart. Rev. 1843, p. 4.",",



eal1eJ "Chair ~Iaster degrees," 11re indispensable qualifications, and candidates having had these dogrees conferred recei V'C two others, Excellent and Super Excellent, as preparatory to the .1~rch. Chapters in Scotland also confer on l~oyal .t\.rch IHasons tl.e degrees of Royal l\.rk l'Iariner and Red Cross I(night, the hItter degree receiving from¡ them the name of "B~tbylonish Pass." The Scotch l\Iasons contend that the Royal Arch, "lith its subsidiary degrees, constitutes a part of Templar ~Iasonry.* Badge of the llo!Jal ArC}L. The badge of a Royal Arch l\Iason is the apron and sash. In America the apron is a white lambskin, bordered with scarlet edging. The sash is of scarlet silk or velvet, on which are inscribed the words " Holiness to the Lord." The colour is emblematic of fervency and zeal; the words are those which were worn in front of the IIigh Priest's mitre. In England the apron and sash are of purple radiated with crimson, the forlner implying awe and reverence, and the



latter, justice tempered with Inercy. The triple tau is delineated on the apron. Je'welof tlte ROlJal A'i"clt. In this country we have lost sight of the jewel, though I hope to see it yet restored. The English Royal Arch jewel is a double triangle within a circle of gold. In the centre of the two triangles, !t sun with diyerging rays, and underneath, or suspeD~ed to this, the triple tau.~'he intersecting triangles denote the elements of fire and water, t.he circle, infinity and eternity,and the sun is an emblem of Deity. So irnportant is the triple tau considered that it is called" the emblem of all emblems, and the Grand Embleln of Royal Arch Masonry."


See Knight of the Ninth Arch..


The sixth officer in a chapter

• General Regulations for the government of the order of Royal Arch Ma.. Bons in Scotland.. Edinburg, 1845. t Finch says the oolours arc purple, red and hlue, the blue implying truth lind constancy. This agrees better with tbecolours of our Royal.A.rch.



of the RoyalA....".;h degree, \vhose dati~~s and station are, in S).!.':= respects, siUlilar to those of a Junior Deacon in a symlolic lodge

ROY.A.L .A.RCH OIr ENOCII. This is luore usually known n.e the degree of Knights of the Ninth i\.rcb, which see. ROY1\.L AR'f. ~lasonry is called a Ro.yal Art, not only bncause it received its present fOfm from the royal hands of Sol'). mon, I(ing of Israel, and Hiram, King of Tyre.~ and has since enrolled among its members the proudesL and most powerful potentates of the earth, but more especially, because of the dignity and majesty of the principles which it inculcates and which ele vate it above all other arts, as a king is elevated above his auo jects.

ROY.A.L l\I.A.. STER. A degree by no nleans of ancient ori.. gin, intimately connected with the degree of Select I\Iaster, an,; with it, as explanatory of the ROJal .A..rch degree, somctiuH' given in chapters preparatory to that degree, * and sOlnetinH~, conferred on l=toyal Arch l\.Iasons by a distinct and indeper.. c!(:nt body, called '~A. Council of l\oyal and Select ~Iasters. " 'fL(路::.. gend of the degree is bi"ief, but interesting. I{TJLE. An instrument with which straight lines arc drawn, and, therefore, used in the Past l\laster's degree as tin elublerll) adlnonishing the ~Ia.ster punctually to observe his duty, to press f(Jrward in the path of virtue, and neither inclining to the right nor the left, in all his actions to have eternity in vie\,.路 'The twenty-four inch guage is often used in giving the instruction as a substitute for this working tool. But they are entirely differ.,. Suoh is the case in the Chapters of R. A. Mn.sons in Virginia; but th. Grand Council of R. and S. Masters in AlabaIU9" tnkenexception to thil eourse and declared all R. and S. Masters, tb us made, clandestine, and Ineli路 gible to a.dmission into their Councila.

SAB-SAl ent; the twenty-four inch gauge is one of the workine tool;::; of an Entered .l\.pprenticc, and requires to have the t-wcnty-fO".lf inches Dlarked upon its f;urface; the rule is one of the \vorldng tools of a Past l\Iaster, and is 'w'ithout the t,vcnt.y-four divisi('ll;~. 'The rule is appropriated to the I>ust or })resent l\Iaster, b?r,:lu~~.; oy it.;; assistance, he is enabled to lay dO"\Vll on the trest18 b:~ll(. the designs for the craft to work by..

s. SABBATH. God having created the world in six days, rested on the seventh and proclainlcd it holy. It is the typo of that time of rcfreslllllent which he only should expect who has well and faithfully fulfilled the days of his labour. lIenee, with the virtuous l\lason, the Su.bbnth day has ever been esteeuled as an occasion on which he rnight conteulplate the works of creation and humbly adore the great Creatof.





Grand Eeoss(l,i.'{ de SaJnt .Andre. 'rho 2Hth degree of the .A.. ncient and .A.coepted Scotch rite, and IHHy be eonsidcred as preparatory to the Kadosh. It is founded on tho legend which '~'(~ have recorded in tho sket(~h of the (~hcva1ierHarnsny. given in this work. It is the first of the three degreoH whirh he uIHler.. took to substitute in the place (If" the aneient ~Y1U be.lie degrees This degree is SOlllctiuICS eaIled "'Patriareh of the (iruRades," in allusion to its supposed origin during tlH)~(~ 'W:lrs, \111d SOlnetitnes "G'rand l\laster of I.light/' on aC(:rnult of the lnasonicinstruc路 ~ions

it contains. The officers arc a ~lastcr and two \Vnrdens. ~rhc lodge is hung with rcd, and Bluut inHtt'\l ,vi t h (~ightyw(H1C ligh ts di!posed Dy nin38.

SAl The jewel. proper is the square and cOlnpasses with a poignard in the centre, within a triple triangle, the whole surrounded by a sun. There is another jewel, 'which is a cross of St. Andrew, having a Y within a triangle, surrounded by a circle in the centre of the cross, and one of these letters B. J. It'I. N. on each of ite cKtrem ities.

SAINT JOHN OF JERUS.A.LEM. The primitive, or mo.. ther lodge, was held at tJ erusalem, and dedicated to St. John, and hence was called "The lodge of the holy St. John of J ern.. salem." Of this first lodge all other lodges are but branches, and they therefore receive the same general name, accompanied by another local and distinctive one. In all masonic documents the words ran fornlerly as follows: "From the lodge of the hol)T St. J obn of Jerusalem, under the distinctive appellation of Solo.. man's lodge, No, I." or whatever luight be the local name. In this style foreign dOClllnents still run; and it is but a few years since it has been at all disused in this country.* Hence we say that every Mason hails from such a lodge, that is to say, from a just and legally constitp~ed lodge. t SAINT JOl-IN'S l\lASONI{.Y.. A term used like" Ancient Craft l\iasonry," to designate the three primitive degrees. They are so styled by the Grand Lodge of Scotland. "The Grnnd Lodge of Scotland practises no degrees of masonry but those of .A.pprentice, Fellow-Craft, and Master Mason, denominated St J'ohn's Masonry."'!

.. I would certainly recommend the renewal of this masonic style, espeeiaU, in diplomas. t In the degree of Grand Master of all Symbolic Lodges, the reason assigned is, "because in the time of the Crusades the Perfect Masons communicated a knowledge of their Inysteries to the Knight13 of St. John of Jerusalem, where.. npon it was determined to celebrate their festival annually on St.. John's day. as thu'y were both under th csn.Ine law." t Constitutions of the Gra,nd Lodge of Scotland, c. i, art. 4.

427 S.A.I~rr "J()IIN rrIII~ l\.IJi\IONliJR. The saint to WhOUl COIDDlanderics of I(nights ~rcrnplars are dedicated.. lIe was the son of the King of Cyprus, and "las born in that island in the sixth century. lIe was elected Patrin.rch of Alexandria, and hns been canonized by both the Greek and Ito In an churches, his fe;,tival 3,mong the former occurring on the 11th of Novernber,. and a1J~ong the latter on tbe23d of January" 13azot, who published a ~Ianual of Freelnasonry, in 1811, at I>a,ris, thinks that it is this saint, and not St. J obn the }Jvangelist, or St. J路ohn the B~,ptist, who is meant as the true patron of our order. "II e quitted his country and the hope of a throne," says this author, "to go to Jerusalem, that he might generously aid and assist the knights and pilgrims. He founded a hospital and organized a fraternity to attend upon sick and wounded Christian~, and to bestow pecuniary aid upon the pilgrims who visited the lIo1J Sepulchre. St.,.1obn, who 'was ,,"ortlty to becolne the patron of a society, whose only object is charity, exposed his life n thou.. sand tiItles in tIltJ cause of virtue. Neither war, nor pcsti It'l)(''; nor the fury of the infidels, could deter !litn frOlll pursuits of h nevoleuce. 13ut death, at length, urrested hiln in the Inidst, of hl,3 labours. Yet he left the exttluple of his virtues to the brethren who have Il1ade it their duty to endeavour to ilnitate theIn. Renne canonized hitn under the naI'nc of St.fJohn the Ahnoncr, or St. John of Jerusalem; and the ~Iusons, whose tcnnples, o'Ver thro'Vll by the barbarians, he bad caused to be rehuilt, selected him. with one accord as their ratron."* I

S..~. L.'lTS JOHN. St. John the llnptist., whose festival 拢1.118 on the 24th ofJ'une, and St. ,John the Evangelist, whose festiva,. occurs on the 27th of December, have been selected by Christian Masons as the patrons of their order; and to thenl, under .the &ppellation of the "IIoly Saints John," all Christian lodge~



should be dedicated. Sec, for the author's theory on the subject of this dedication, the article ]Jcd(cotion in this work. SA~I.A.RIT1\.N, G001). 'rho Good Samaritan is a side de groe given to l~oyal A.reh l\Iasons and their wives. Of aU the side degrees it is decidedly the Inost beautiful and in: pressive. It is founded on the tenth chapter of St. Luke, 80-35 verses. .A. Good Sanlaritan is bound, "'Then duly summoned, to nurse a ~oInpanion in sickness.


That part of the temple, being two-thirds'

of its length, 'which was in front of the Holy of Holies, and be.. tween it and the porch. See Temple. S.A.NCTU~I S.A.NOTORUl\I. Hoill of Holies. The inner.. most part of the tenlple, into whicll, after its dedication, none entered but the IIigh I?riest.. It was twenty cubits square, and was separated fro III the sa.nctuary by a door of cedar and four curtnins of blue, purple, searlet, and fine linen. It contained the ark of the covenant, with its lnercy seat and overshadowing cherubim.. See TC'luple.

S.A.SH.. The old regulation on the subject of wearing sashes in a procession, is in the followhlg words: "None but officers, who lllust always be )Inster l\IasoIls, are permitted to wear sashes; and this decoration is only for particular officers." In this coun.. try the wearing of tl1e sash appears, very properly, to be confined t{) the '~V . 路. ~Iaster, as a distinctive l)adge of hi~ office. The sash is worn by aU the companions of the Royal Arch iegree, and is of a sen,rIot colour, with the words, " Holiness to the Lord," inseribed upon it. ~rhe.;;;e were the words placed upon the mitre of the lIigh Priest of the Jews. The sash, or scar~ seelDS to have been derived from the Zennar, or sacred cord, placed upon the candidate in the initiation into the mysteries of India, and whioh every BrabmiD w~s compcll(~d

seA to wear. This cord was woven ,vitll great solclnnity, and oeing put upon the left shoulder passed over to the right side, and hung down as low as the fingers could reach.



The rites of


practised in Scandinavia, ,vere introduced there from Scythia, by Siggc, a CYIllrinn warrior, who afterv;,rards assulned the IHuue of Jdin, with WhOlU we are all frnniliar as the G"othic representative of l\Iercury or .I-Ierlnes. 'fhis origin of these rites accounts for theit' general reselllblance in legend and cerclllonies to the lUa.~tern u1ysteries. In theul was celebrated the death of Balder, who was

killed by Loke, who fatalIy\rounded hiln with a branch of lllistleBalder was the sun, Loke the principle of winter, to which season the luistletoe belongs. The ceremonies of initiation re.. toe.

presented the wailings of the gods for the death of Balder, the

search for his body, in which the candidate Wl18 made to engage., and its final discovery, and his restoration to life and vigour. Tl:c ceremonies ,vere acconlpanied l)y all the paraphernalia of di~null noises and hideous sights, w"hich "Ta8 ealc~ula,ted to inspire the aspirant 'with terror and confusicHl, and \Vt~ro termina.ted by tho adUlinistradon to the initiate of a. solelun oath, in vv-hich he swore to pay due sublnission to the (:hief olncprs.;f state, to praetise dG~ v:--"";on to the gods, and to prot.(i'etl aucl (lef~)nd his initiated com.. p,niol1s, at the hazard of his life frt;tn all their eneulicE!, and if ,.blin to avenge their death. 'fto :~lgr.:nd of the death of I~alder, whieh w'e can scarcely doubt W·13 the subject of init1httion, is thus rehLted. Balder was invul .. t t·1.'~.t~le; for ()din nnd ]j'riga, (the Gothic ,,..enus,) had exa~t'~ld, i::l h:£ fhvour, an oath of sufcty frotH every thing in nature e"'iC' lit tho rcistl(~toe, '\vhose proluise of iUllnunity, ill contempt of i 1":1 ig::.ob!e qualities, they had neglected to obtain. I.Joke, the In-in. ciple of evil, had dis(~overcd this exception, and on t1 day ,,·ht·u Ralde~, was -,portively offering hirDsclf as a D.lurk to the skin alld dexterity of the gods, Loke presented IInder; who ,,"RS blind, witb a br&.ll~,b. of mistletoe) with ~~hich he ficr0ed tho bodS of ]3aiuer.



who instantly fell dead. IIis body was then placed in a boat, and set afloat on the. waters, while all the gods mourned for his decease.* The reader who is faluiliar with the other mysteries of paganism, will readily detect in this legend, an obvious relation to the murder of Adonis by the boar, of Osiris by Typhon,and of Bacchus by the Titans. The ceremonies of initiation were very similar to those which ha ve already been described in this work, as appertaining to the other rites. The candidate having been previously prepared by the necessary purifications, was conducted into the sacred cavern of initiation, his feet being naked, and led by a winding descent amid the howling Qf dogs, and appearance of phantoms, to the tomb of the prophetess Volva. Here, having been properly instructed, he inquires of her respecting the fate of Balder. The prophetess now foretells the circumstances which have already been related in the legend above cited. The candidate presses ::>nward, and soon hears the bewailings for the death of Balder. He is now confined in the Pastost until a term of penance is com... pleted, when he is directed to search for the body of Balder, and to use his utmost endeavours to raise hiIn from death to life. He now descends through nine subterranean passages, where sights and sounds of the most terrific character conspire to excite his imagination. He finally enters the sacellum, or holy place, and finds Balder enthroned in a distinguished seat. The aspirant was now received, as in the mysteries of Egypt, with acclamations of joy ~nd welcome, and the Scalds, or sacred bards, like the priests of lsi3, chanted hymns descriptive of the generation of the gods and \.b.e creation of the world. The initiation was then terminated by ilie administration of the oath of fidelity already described.!


SCARLET. The emblematic colour of the Royal Arch degree. is significant of the zeal and ardour .which should inspire the • OUver, Hilt.. Initiat. p. 266. Oliver, 'Hilt. of ~i~~J


t See the &rtiole OvillA, l~ ~



poSSLssors of that august sUlnrnit of our ritua1~ It was also the colour of one the vails in the sacred tabernacle. The IIebrcw words carnt£l, sltani, and tolahht, are indifferently rendered by our translators, as crimson, or scarlet. The words appear to have been synonymous among the Jews, and to have signified a bright red colour. The colour was ll:uch ·worn by great men.

SCHROEDER'S RITE. 'fhis is a rite consisting of the de... grees of l\.ncient Craft l\ItlSonry anda few higher ones which are devoted to the study of other l\Iasonic systems. It was invented by Frederick Lewis Schroeder who established it at Hamburg in 1801. The Hamburg l\Iasons were induced to reject the high degrees of Scottish l\[asonry.. und to adopt his simpler rite. Through the representations of Clavel, who too harshly calls him the Cag.. liostro of Germany, I was led, in previous editions of this work, ~() express an opinion of: Schroeder, which subsequent investiga,. r~ ~J.8 hS,7B. :.ed me greatly to modify.



See Arts LiberaZ.

SOOTCH l\I.A.SON. .ECOSSft£S. The 5th degree of the French rite. In this degree is related the manner in which the sacred word was preserved through tho skill and wisdom of our ancient brethren. The AUlcri3an'L~greo of " Select l\faster" loppears to he little more than a nlodification of this in teresting .d.t'gree. See Ecossais. _~ trl1dition contained in this degree may be interesting t<>' t.h~~ !tJastcr :rtIason. We there learn that HAB engravc,d the W ..... upon a triangle of pure Illetal, and fearing that it might ~ l·:ti\., . . he always bore it about his person, suspended froln his neck, with the engraved side next to his breast. In a time of great p,eril to hiwi:Jctf, it into an old dry well, which was in the sO'ath· ~st CQrner of the temple, * where it was afterwards found by three )If

The Ineffnble degrees of the Ancient Scotch rite

'41e templot whioh is more





fa the no'!'th lid. or



M~ters. They were passing near the well at the h\1ur of meri. dian, and were attracted by its brilliant appearance ; whereupon, one of them descending by the assistance of his comrades, obtained it, and路 carried it to I<'illg Solomon. What was his disposition of it iE known to the Royal Arch l\lason.


Thir ritt,

which was organized in its present form in France, early in the eighteenth century, derives its title frolll the claim made by those who established it in that country, that it was originally instituted in Scotland, a claim whose validity is 'now generally disputed. It is, next to the York rite, perhaps the most extensively diffused. throughout the masonic world. Supreule Councils, or lodges of this rite, exist in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Belgium, the United States, and many other countries. The administra.. dve power of the rite is deposited in Supreme Councils of Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, one of which Oouncils only can exist in a nation, except tn the United States of America, where there are two, one at Charleston, in South-Carolina, for the South, and one at Boston, for the North. The Scotch rite, or as it is now more usually designated, th9 Ancient and A.coepted rite, consists of thirty-three degrees, divided as follows: 1. Entered Apprentice. 2. :b'ellow.. Craft. 8. l\Iaster 1tlason. These degrees are conferred in a symbolio lodge, and difter only in a few points from the same degrees as conferred. in a lOd~ . of the York rite.


4. Seeret Master. 5. Perfeot ~IaBter. 6. Intimate Secretary.

7.路 Pro.ost and路 Judge.



8. Intendant of the Buildings.. 9. Elected I(nights of Nine.. 10. Illustrious Elect of ll'ifteen" 11. Subliule I(nights Elected. 12. Grand l\laster l\.rchiteet.. 13. Knight of the Ninth .Arch. 14. Grand l~lect, .Perfeet and Sublime Mason. The se degrees are conferred in a called a of PdJf fection, the presiding officer of which must be ill possession of th(,t 16th degree. 15. Knight of the East. 16. Prince of Jerusalem. These two degrees are conferred in a body called a Council of Princes of Jerusalem. 17. Knight of the East and West.. 18. Sovereign Prince of Rose Croix. These two degrees are conferred in a body called 8, Chapter of Princes of Rose Croix. 19. Grand Pontiff.

20. Grand l\laster of all Syxnbolic lo(lges. 21. Noachite, or Prussian {(night. 22. Knight of the lloyal .A.xe, or l?rince of LibaDus. 23. Chief of t,he Tabernacle. 24. Prince of the Tabernacle. 25. Knight of tho Brazen Serpent. 26. Prince of ~Icrcy, or Scotch Trinitarian. 27. Sovereign Commander of the Temple. 28. Knight of the Sun. 29 Grand Scotch Knight of St. Andrew. 80. Grand Elect Knight Kadosh. 31. Grand JtJnquiringCommander. 32. Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret. These degrees, from the 19th inclusive, are conferred in a bo<ly designated as a Consistory of I)rinccs of the ItoJal Secret, P,l~t



they confer the 30th, 31st, and 32d, only as the proxie~ of thtl Supreme Councils. 33. Sovereign Grand Inspector G~nerals. This degree is given in a body called the Supreme Council, ,,1.ich 3s the administrative head of the rite. F'~'fl' furtl!er details, see the article Supreme aounc~1.


See Prince of Mercy.

SCRIBE. The Scribe is the third officer in a Royal Arch Ch'apter, and is the representative of Haggai. The Sophar, or Scribe, in the earlier Scriptures: was a kind of military secretary, but in the latter he was a learned man, and doctor of the laws, who expounded them to the people. Thus A~....xerxes calls Ezra the priest, "a Scribe of the law of the God of heaven." Horne* says that the Scribe was the I{ing's Secretary of State, who re¡ gistered all acts and decrees. It is in this sense that Haggai IS called the SC'ribe in Royal Arch M~sonry. SCYTHE. This is one of the melancholy emblems in the lVlaster's .degree, reminding us of the rapid flight of time, and that death, with inexorable htl.ste, will visit alike the prince's palace and the peasant's hut. SEA.L. No masonic document is vaHJ1 beyond the jurisdiction in which the lodge from which it emanates, resides, unless it nave appended to it the seal of the Grand Lodge. Foreign G -t'lnd Lodges never recognise the transactions of subordinate 10 iges out of their jurisdiction, unless the good standing of the said lodges is guaranteed by the seal of their Grand Lodge, and ~e signatures of the proper officers.. SEAL OF SOLOMO~L This ia a double triangle, and it • IntroduotiOiltl


Scripture.s.1 iii.. 93.

SEC )180

sOlnet.itncs ealle,l the" Shield of'David." For its form, see t,he

article Trtangle, double. Itichardson, in his Persian tLnd ,,\.rabic Dictiouary, says, that the nnl1ir SolJ:n~U'n, or Seal of SOlOl1l0n, was two triangles interlaced.r.rhe Orientalists attributed llluny virtues to this seal, and the 'TuhllUdists say that it was inscribed on the

founda,tion stone of the 'l'enlple. SI~CRECY. The objection which has been urged against Freemasonry on the ground of its seeret character, is scarcely worthy of serious refutation. It has hec,.l1ue threadbare, and always has been the objection only of en vious and illiberal minds. Indeed, its force is inlulcc1iat.cly destroyed, \vhen we reflect that to no worthy luau neell ()ur lllJsteries be, for one 1110Ulent, covered with the veil of conc路ealmont; for to all the deserving are our portals open. 13ut the traditions and' esoteric doctrines of our order are too valuable and too sacred to be perrnitted to become the topic of' con versation for every idler \vilo may desire to oc-

cupy his 11lonlents of leisure ill spceulatiollS upon subjects which require uluch previous study and preparation to qualify the critic for n, ripe and equitable judgnlont. lIenee are they preserved, like the rich jewel in its casket, in the secret recesses of our lodge, to be brought forth only when the cercruonies 'with ,,~hich their exhibition is acec)Inpanicd, haye inspired that solemnity of feeling with which alone they should })e approached. SECRI~TARY. An officer who records the proceedings and conduets the correspondence of the lodge. 'l'he office of Grand Secretary, in the Grand J~odge, '~las created in the yenr 1722, under the Grand )lasterskip of the ~Duke of\V hartoo, the duti 'a.i! having been previously pert;Jrrned by the G"rund '\Vardells. *

SECRET !11\.S'fER. '!'he fourth dcgrep of the A.ncient Scotch rite, and the first of what are called the "IDeff~tble (.r .. See Anderaon'tJ COUStJ,tutlons p.




Sublime degrees." In it is explained the D1Jstic lllenning ot those things which are contained in the Sanctull1 SanctoI'um. Tho Master represents Eulomon coming to tht3 tern pIe to elect seven experts to replace the loss of an illustrious character. He is styled ~iost Powerful. There is one Warden who l'epr~5€nts the noble Adoniruln, who had the inspection of the workUlen on Mount Libanus, and who 'was the first Secret l\faster. ~rhe lodge is clothed with black, and enligl.tened by eighty-one lights, ar· ra1lgecl by 'lltn€ tirn~es nlne. The jewel of this degree is an ivory key, on which is engrayed the letter. Z, suspended from a white ribbon edge-a with black. The apron is white, edged with black j the flap blue, and an All-Seeing EJeengraved thereon. The white is embleluatlc of candour and innocence, the black of grief.

SECRET ~iONITOR. A side degree very extensively known in the United States, and which is. intended to strengthen the bonds of fraternal affection which should exist aUlollg all l\Iasons. During its cercul0nies, which are yery siInple, the beautiful and affecting history of the friendship bet,veen David and Jonathan, which is contained in the twentieth chapter of the first book of Samuel, is recited. SEElJ.~G.

Oue of the five hUlllan senses, wllose irnportance

is treated of in the Fellow-Craft's degree. By sight, things at a iliJ!ance are, as it were, brought lle~tr, and the obstacles of space over-30me So in J?reemasonry, by a judieious use of this sense, in modes which none but l\iasons cOluprehond, men distant from each other iD language, in religi6n and ill politics, are brought ';!lear, and the itnpedirllcnts of birth and prejudice are overthrown. 13ut, in the natural \varId, sight cannot be exercised without the ne~~es8ary assistance of light, for in dHr]{neSs we are unable to aee. So in the l\Iason, the peculiar advantages ofmason-ic sight lequire, for their enjoynH~nt., the bl~ssing ~f rnasonic t-:'ght Illu..

SEL ulinated by its divine r~t.Ys, the ~hlSl n sees 'where othe1"sartt blind; and that which to th(~ profilnt~ is but the darkness of igno.. rance, is to the initiated filled 'with the light of knowledge anti

understanding. SELECT l\IASTER. The saIne observations that have been made in relation to the degree of Itoyall\laster, are applicable to this, as they are both inthnately connected. It records tb~ traditions connected with the coneeahnent of ilnportant mysteries at the building of the first ternple, and furnishes an important link in the great chain of history which connects the incidents of Ancient Craft l\Iasonry with those that constitute the essence of the Royal Arch. In the United States, the Royal Arch is considered as the seventh degree, those of ~lark Past and ~Iost Excellent Mast>er being interposed between it and the third.. In one or two of the States, however, the Royal uud Select ~Iasters have been inserted after the Past and before the l\Iost Excellent, ~tnd wit,hin a few years an attenlpt bas been lllade to lllake thu~ innovation general. This has arisen fronl a recent controversy on the subject of jurisdiction.. The Royal ~\nd Select degrees belonged originally to the SupreIIle Councils of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, and were conferred under their authority, and by their deputies.. This authority and j urisdi.ction these Oouucils no longer claim; and, for tnany years past, through their negligence, the Councils of l{oyal and Select l\Iasters, in Ulost of the States, have been plaQed under the control of independent jurisdictions called Grand Councils. Like all usurped authorit,y, however, this olaim of the State Grand Councils does not seem to have ever been universally adlnitted, or to have been very firmly est.ablished.. Repeated attenlpts huvebeen Illude to take the degrees out of the hands of the Councils, UIHi to place them in the chapters, there to be ~nferred as preparatory to the Royal Arch.. The General Grand Chapter, in the trien.niul session of 1847, adopted a resolution, granting this perullssioD to all chapters in States where 짜i*



no Grand Councils exist.. 13ut, seeing the lll:lnifest injustice and inex pediency of such a tueasurc, at the following session of 185u, it refused to take any action on t,he subject of these degrees. In 1853 it disclaiIned uJI control over theln: and forbade the chap. ters under its jurisdiction to confer them. There is no doubt in my own nlind that the true jurisdiction of these degrees was vested in the Supreme Councils of the Ancient and Accepted Rite, and that they should be conferred ruther as illustrations of, than as preparatory to, the Royal Arch. The Royal Arch degree itself COD tains the most essential parts of the legends of these degrees, and can be understood without them, although they furnish many additional particulars which it would be interesting to the masonic student to know.


See Wardens.

SENSES. The five human senses are Seeing, Hearing, Feel. ing, Smelling, and Tasting; of which the first three are, for certain well known reasons, held in great estimation among Masons. Their nature and uses fOfIll a part of the instruction of the degree of Fellow-Craft. See thern under their respective titles.

SENTINEL. An officer in a Royal Arch Chapter, in a Council of I{nights of the Red Cross, and in a ComDlandery of Knights Templar, whose duties are similar to those of a Tiler in , sJ'cbolic lodge. SERPENT. The serpent obtained a prominent place among the symbols of the Spurious Freemasonry of the earliest ages.

Among the Egyptians, it was the .syxnbol of Divine Wisdom, \Yhen extended at Iength,and the serpent with his tail in his mouth was an emblem of eternity. The winged globe and ser路 pent symbolized their triune iieity.. In the ritual of Zoroaster, the serpent was a symbol of the universe. In China, the ring between two serpents was the symbcl of the world governed by



the power and wisdom of the Oreator. The saIne device with, it is presulned, the saIne signification, is several titnes repeated on the Isiac table, which shows the universality of the symbol. In fact, serpent worship was Olle of the earliest deviations from the true syatem, and in almost all the ancient rites we find same al. lusion to this reptile. At the orgies of Bacchus, the serpents were carried in the hands, or crowned the heads of the Bacchanalians, while frequent cries of "Eva, Eva," were frantically uttered. One of the ceremonies in the rites of Jupiter Sabasius was to let a serpent slip down the back of the person to be initi. ated. According to Plutarch, the women of ~Iount Hremus, in Thrace, practised similar rltes~ According to Bryant, the wor.. ship of the serpent began in Chaldea, and thence passed into Egypt, where the serpent-god was called Can.. oph, Can-eph, and C'neph. The Ethiopians introduced it into Greece. And so long did the serpent worship continue, that it is mentioned by Tertullian, and othel" fathers, as one of the early heresies of the Church, and practised by a sect called Ophites. Oliver says, that in Christian IIlasonry the serpent is an emblem of the fall and subsequent redelnption of nlan. I do not, however, myself, deem it as a pure masonic symbol. When used, I suppose it to be with its ancient signification of Divine Wisdom and Eternity; accordingly as it is exhibited in a lengthened form, or convoluted with its tail in its mouth



The number seven, among all nations, has been a sacred number,u.nd in every system of· antiquity we find a frequent reference to it. The Pythagoreans called it a eon~id~rM. as

• The Greek of Ba.cchus is DionysuR. a.n account of whose mysteries is to be found in this volume. 'Vnford (Essay on Egypt, in the Asiatio Re... •ea.rche.s) supposes this d~ity to have been identica.l with the Hindoa god, Deva.. Nahusha, popularly called Deo..Naush. No"" Faber (florm Mosaicm) derives Dionysus from this Deo.. Nausb, and Naush fram the Hebrew word rl1MJ, or, a 8erpant, making Dionysus, or Deo-NaaEh, equiva.len~ therefore, to the god Naash, or the serpent-god.



venerable number, bec~Luse it refurred to the creation, and be. cause it was made up of the two perfect figures, the triangle ana the square. l\.mong the IIebrews, the etymology 'Jf the woru sh)ws its sacred iUlport; for, from the word V:lfU (shebang,) ii~nen, is derived the verb .v:l~ (shabang,) to s'wear, ber·.ause oaths were confirmed either by seyen witnesses, or by seven vic· tims offered in sacrifiue, as we read in the covenan t of AbralHull and Abimelcch.* (Gen. 21-28.) Hence, there is a frequent recurrence to this number in the Scriptural history. The SaL· bath was the seventh day; Noah received seven days' notice of the COlllnlencement of the deluge, and was cOIllluanded to select clean beasts and fowls by sevens; se·ven persons accornpanied him into the ark; the ark rested on ~lount Ararat in the seventh month; the intervals between despatching the dove, were, each time, seven, days; the walls of Jericho were encompassed seven days, by seven priests, bearing seven rams' horns; Sololnon was Beven years building the temple, which was dedicated in the set'enth month, and the festival lasted .seven days; the candlestick in the tabernacle consisted of seven branches, and finally, the tower of Babel was said to have heen elevated seven stories before the dispersion. Among the heathens, this number was equally sacred.t A few instances of their reference to it, tnay be interesting. There were seven ancient planets, seven Pleiades, and seoen lIya.des; '~"lJen altars burnt continually before the god ~lithras; the . A.rabians had seven holy temples; the I-lindoos supposed the world to be enclosed within the compass of seven peninsulas; the G'oths -The radical meaning of



8'1.lffi(·"~e1wy or jlllne'y8,

fl.od the number

levan was thus denominated, because it was on the seventh day that God com· pleted his work of creation; and "hence'" says Parkhurst, "seven was both among believers and b~u.thens the number of sufficiency or completic n."Le:ric. N: 7'. in 'Doc. £7rra. t Cicero, in his Dream of Scipio, cans it the bin,ding k110t of all thi1f!18: it qui numerus rerum omnium fere nodus cst." 80m.. Scrip. 5. And Plato, i:c his Timams, taught that the soul of the world, U anima mundana," was gen& ratetl out of the number seven.



nad seven deities, viz.: the SUll, the l\Ioon, Tuisco, "'\Voden, rrhor, I?riga, and Seatur, from whose n:.uues are derived our days l)f the week; in the ]>ersian ulysteries were seven spacious caverns, through whieh the aspirant had to pass; in the Gothic nlysteries, the candidate runt ,vi th seven obstructions, which were called the "road of the seven stages; an.d finally, sacrifices were nlways considered us lnost efficacious when the victims were seven in number.* .. An anonymous writer adds the


to tho list above cited, of the

consecrations of the number seven: "In six days e~1rth's creation was perfected-the seventh was consecrated ro rest. If be avenged sev..:nfohl, Lamcch se\路enty and sevenfold. Abraham pleaded seven times for Sodom ; he gave seven ewe lambs to Abi楼1eleeh for a well of water. J acoh served seven years for Rachel, and also another seven years. Joseph mourned seven days for Jacob. Laban pursued after Jacob seven days' journey. The se,,"en years of plenty, and the seven 'years of famine, were foretold in Pharaoh's dream by the seven fat and leu,n beasts, and the seven c:tr8 of bIn,ste(l corn. The children of Israel were to Ctl.t unleavened bread. SCYen days. The young of animals were to with the dam seven da.ys, nud at the close of tho seventh to be taken ttwa:y. By the old law, man was eOluI.llttnded to forgi vo his otronding brothQr seven times, but the meekness of the Saviour extended hi~ forbearnnce to seventy times seven. On the seventh lllonth H, holy ubser\'ntn~(~ was eOlllmaIHled to the chiluren of Isrnel, ,t/ho fasted seven dars, n,1111 renwined seven days in tents_ E\?ery seventh year was directed to be n :'lCrtl' ()f rest for ull things, and at the end of s(!\'en times seven years cmumenced the jubilee; they were to obsL'rve n. ft)ust seven days, after they ha.d ga.thoreu. in tlwir corn and wine; seven days they were to kOt1P a solelun fC11St, as they ha.d been ble:::sed in tho work of their hands. Every seventh ye~w the land lay fallow. Every seventh year there 路Wll.::! a. genor11.1 release from nIl debts, and bondsmen were set free. Every seventh year the law was directed to he reud to the r-eople. If thL'Y w,re Obedient, their enemies should Hee ht~roro thern seven ways; if (lisooedkntJ their enomies should dUl~C them seven ways. lInnon,h, the mother of Samuel, in be'r thanks sn:ys, that the 1m,rretl hath brought forth seven, as sonn: Jewish ,;,:riters sny tlHLt his nlLme nnswers to the v~l.lue of the letters: in the Hebrew word, which signif.r Sl\""t.m. Sen~;tl of So,ul's S()I1S were hanged to stay a famine. Jesse ha,d seven son8, the .youngest of whom<ascended the throne of Israel. The number of animals in sundry of their ohlations, were lilnited to seven. Seven days were n.ppointed fur an atonement on the alta.r, and lhe priest's Ion was app{)intt.~d to wear his father's gn,rment seven days." Were it necessary, the list might he ::-till furt.her enlarged.



In Freemasonry, seven is an essential and importat t number, and throughout the whole system the septenary influence extends itself in a thousand different ways. . SHEKEL. A weight among the Hebrews, of which there wer'a two kinds, the' king's shekel, and that of the sanctuary; tre latter being double the value of the former. The common or king's shekel, which is the one alluded to, in the l\'Iark degree, was worth about half a dollar. Thr.. shekel was not a coin, but a definite weight of gold or silver, which, being weighed out, passed as current money fLmong the Hebrews. The half shekel has been adopted as the value of a mark, because it was the amount paid by each Israelite after he arrived at manhood, to.. wards the support of the Temple, and was hence, oalled tribute


SHEKINAH. The Divine presence manifested by a visible cloud resting over the mercy seat in the holy of holies. It first appeared over the ark when Moses consecrated the Tabernacle; and was afterwards, upon the consecration of the ~eelnple by Solomon, translated thither, where it remained until the destruction of that building. SHIBBOLETH. The word nS':JttJ, in Hebrew, has two significations; 1, An ear of corn; and 2, A stream of water. This is the word which the Gileadites, by the order of J eptha, required the Ephraimites to pronounce. As the latter were desirous of crossing the river Jordan, and as the word signifies a stream of water, it is probable that this meaning suggested it as an appro路 priate test word on that occasion. The proper sound of the first letter of this word is slt, a harsh breathing which is exceedingq, difficult to be pronounced by persons whose vocal organs have not been路 accustom.ed to it. Such was the case with the Ephraimitea, who substituted for the aspiration the hissing sound of s.Their organs of voice wer~ incapable of the aspiration and, therefore, as



the record has it, they" could not frame to pronounce it right." The learned Burder remarks that in Arabia the difference of pro· nunciation among persons of various districts is nluch greater than in most other places, anel such as easily accounts for the circumstance mentioned in the passage of Judges. * H utchil1son, speak.. ing of this word, rather fancifully derives it froIn the Greek ae[:w, I revere, and ;",OOt;, a stone, and therefore, he says "S,.BoA..lOOlJ'J Sibbolithon, Oolo Lapiden~, implies that they (the ~iasons) re.. tain and keep inviolate their obligations, as the Juramentum per Jovem Lap'idem, the most obligrttory oath held among the



SHOE. Among the Ancient Israelites, the shoe was made use of in several significant ways. To put off the shoes, imported reverence, and was done in the presence of God, or on enterin g the dwelling of a superior. To 1..lnloose one's shoe and give it to another, was the way of confirming a contract. Thus we read in the book of Ruth, that Boaz having proposed to the nearest kins.. men of Ruth, to exercise his legal righ t, by redeeming the land of Naomi which was offered for sale, and nutrrying her daughter.. in-law, the kInsman being unable to do so, resigned his right of purchase to Boaz; and the narrative goes on to say, " Now this was the manner in former time in Israel concerning redeeming and concerning changing, for to confirIn all things; a man plucked off his shoe, and gave it to his neighbour: and this was a testimony in IsraeL Therefore the kinsman said unto Boaz, Buy it for thee. So he drew off his shoe." Ruth iv. 7, 8. .A.s to the ancient enstonl of t<.tldng off the sboes as a mark of leverence, the reader is referred to the article Discalceation..

7'flOYEL. .

One of the working tools of a Royal Arch }!ason


Oriental Customs, vol.. ii. numb. '82•

."".".~kWou.Spiritof Masonry, p. 118.



The working tools of this degree are the Crow, Pickaxe and Shovel, which may be thus explained. The crow is an iIllplement used to raise heavy stones, the pickaxe tq loosen the soil and prepare it for digging, and the shovel to remove rubbish. But the lloyal Arch lViusOIl is speculatively taught to use t helll for a luore glorious and exalted purpose. By them he is admonished to raise his thoughts above the corrupting influence of wordly-mindedness, loosening from his heart the hold of evil habits, and removing the rubbish of passions and prejudices that he may be fitted, when he thus escapes from the capti.. vity of sin, for the search and the reception of Eternal Truth and Wisdom. SIDE DEGREES. These are degrees, which have generally been the invention of Grand Lectures, but which have no con.. nection with the ritual of masonry, and whose legality is not acknowledged bS Grand Lodges. SOlne of them are very interesting, with an evident moral tendency, while others again, are trifling, and with no definite nor 'v'irtuous object in view. The worst of . them, however, can only be considered, in the language of Preston, as "innocent and inoffensive amusements." SIGNATURE. A 1\lason receiving from a lodge a certificate, is required to affix in the margin his signature in his usual hand.. writing, as a means of identifying the true owner from a false pretender, in case the certificate should be lost, and thus come into the possession of anyone not legally entitled to it. See Ne Vart~etur.

SIGNET. A private seal set in a ring. The ancient Orientalists engraved names and sentences on their seals, a custom which the modern l\Iohanlmedans continue to follow. ]}Iany of these signet rings have, within a few years past, been dug up in Egypt, having the letters of a name cut in cameo on one side, and Ii figure of the sacred beetle on the other A signet was often


given by the owner to another person, and served in sueL a case as


pass, iuyesting the receiver with all the anthority possessed

by the giver. Signets were originally engraved altogether upon stone,


according to Pliny, Inetal ones did not come into use until the Hrne of Claudius Cresar. The signet of Zerubbabel was, therefore, rnost probably of stone. The signet of Solomon is said to havG 1<1en an interlaced, double triangle within a circle, and having the name of God engraved thereon.


See East.




Grand Architect's six periods" is an expression used by l\Iasons to designate the six days of the Creation. Our masonic btl(tks dilate upon them as a proper InGanS of stilnulating the l\Iason to industrious labour during the week, that he may be enabled to re:-:t upon the Sabbath, to conteulplate the, glorious works of Creation and adore their great Creator.. SllIELLING. One of the five human senses, and as the recipient of the numerous fragrant odours that arise from the flowers of the field and other objects of nature and art, a source of enjoyment to man.. SOr.lOMO~. King of Israel nnd First Grand Master of Frcclnasonry. His history is full of interest to the fraternityfIe was the .son of David nnd l~athsheba, and was born in the year of tl.e world 2871. Of hi In it had been prophecied to his f~tller, "Behold a son shan be born to thee, who shall be a man. of rest; and I will give hinl rest frODl all his enemies round about; for his name shall be Sololllon, and I will give peace and quietness unto Israel in bis day. He shall build a house fol'

.•, name, he shall be my son, and I will be hisfatber; and I 88

SOL will establish the throne of his kin~dom over Israe.L 1 ehron. xx.ii. 9, 10. Solomon had scarcely commenced his reign, when he began to prepare for the fulfilment of his father's last solemn injunctions to build a tenlple to the l\lost High. With this view he applied for help to the most powerful of his allies, I-liram, King of Tyre, a prince of a liberal disposition, who, far froID envying Solomon's wealth and fame, cordially assisted him, and supplied him, not only with the proper materials, but also w~th labourers, and above all with an architect of surpassing skill in every kind of cunning workmanship. Solomon now appointed a tribute to be laid on all the people, of 30,000 labourers, whom he divided into three classes of 10,000 in each. Each of these classes worked one month in cutting timber on l\Iount Lebanon, and then rested two. Over these he placed Adoniram as Junior Grand Warden. There were also 80,000 masons, and 70,000 labourers or men of burden, the remains of the old Canaanites, who are not reckoned among the masons, and 3300 overseers, with 300 rulers, making in aN 183,600 persons engaged upon the Temple, of whom 113,600 were masons. The Temple was begun on Monday, the 2d day of the month Zif, corresponding to the 21st of April, in the year of the world 2992, and 1012 years before the Christian era,and was completed in a little more than seven years, on the 8th day of the month Bul, or the 23d of October, in the year of the world 2999, during weich period no sound of axe, hammer, or other motallic tool was heard, every thing having been cut and framed in the quarries or on Mount Lebanon and brought properly prepared to Jerusalem, where they were fitted up by means of wooden mauls. " The Old Constitutions aver," (I \tere quote from Anderson,) (t that some short time before the consecration of the Temple, King Hiram came from Tyre, to take a view of that mighty edi... 40er and to inspect the different parts thereof, in which he was ~Al1)lDied. by King Solomon and the Deputy Grand Master,


Hiram Abif; and after his view thereof declared the Temple to be the utmost stretch of human art. Solomon here again renewed the league with IIiram, and made him a present of the Sacred Scriptures transhtted into the Syriac tongue, which, it is said, is still extant tlIllong the l\:Iaronites and other Eastern Ohris tians, under the nanle of the old Syraic version." Solomon D<.:xt employed the craft in the construction of other 'Works, such as his two palacer at Jerusalem, and his house of the forest of Lebanon, besides several cities, the most magnificent of which was fadmor or Palmyra. But although Solomon had now become the most renowned of all the princes of his time, exceeding in riches and wisdom all who had gone before him, he, at length, forsook the law of his fathers, and began to worship the false gods of his atrange wives.

During his idolatry, he built temples to Chemosh, Moloch,and Ashtaroth.. But repenting of his grievou~ sin, about three yearl'J :before his death, he exclaitned, " Vanity of Vanities, all is Van.. ity I" He died at the age of fifty-eight, in t.he year of the world 3029, and before Christ 975. Solomon is supposed to preside, or rather the Master is his representative, ill Lodges of Fellow-Crafts, Master l\1:asons, Mark, Past and Most Excellent l\Iasters, and in Councils of Select Masters, and also in several of the Ineffable degrees. See more on this subject under the title Temple.. Orflanizat'lonat the. SORROW LODGES. It is the custom among Masons on the continent of Europe to hold special lodges at stated periods, for the purpose of comIDenlorating the virtues and deploring the loss of their departed rnombers :lnd other distinguished worthies of the fraternity who have died.

Sorrow lodges.

These are called Funeral ox

In Germany they are held annually; in France at longer intervals. A French lodg t in New York, "ÂŁ'Union Francaise," holds them decennially. Sorrow lodges have also, Dut not lately, been held by a Frenohlodge in Charleston, S. C., (( La Cande~/1The CUf~O~}:Jas 'b~~~ ~\lrs'qe~ by two lWieB in



New York, "Pythagoras, No. 86," and "St. John's, No.6,'" and they are also now frequen tly held by bodies of the A.ncient Scottish rite. The custorll is a good one, that is, eminently consistent with the principles of Freenlasonry, and which I should rejoice to see universally adopted by American lodges. On these occasions the lodge is clothed in the habiliments of mourning and decorated with the emblems of death, solemn music is played, funeral dirges are chanted, and eulogies on the life, character and masonic virtues of the dead are delivered..

SOUTH. When the sun is at his meridian height, his invigorating rays are darted from the south. "'Then he rises in the east, we are called to labour; when he sets in the west, our daily toil is over; but when he reaches the south, the hour is high twelve, and we are sumluoned to refreshment. SOVEREIGN




verain Oommande~lr du Teml)Ze. The 27th degree of the Ancient Scotch rite. The presiding officer is styled "l'rIost Illus.. trious and l\'lost Valiant," the Wardens 31'e called a J\lost Sover.. eign Conlmanders," and the I{llights "Sovereign Commanders." The place of meeting is called a " Oourt." ~rhe apron is flesh.. coloured, lined and edged wid1 blael;;:, with a ~reutonic cross en.. circled by a wreath of laurel and a key beneath, all inscribed in black upon the flap. ,The scarf is red bordered with black, hanging from the right shoulder to t.he left hip, and suspending t1 Teutonic cross in enamelled gold. The jewel is a triangle of gold, on which is engraved the ineffable name in Hebrew. It i! suspended fronl a white collar bound with red and embroidered with four Teutonic crosses. Vassal, Ragon, and Clavel are all wrong in connecting this degree with the Knights Templar, with which order its own ritual declares that it is not to be confounded. It is without a lecture Vassal expresses the following opinion of this degree: f' ~he



does :qgt<leserve to be classed in tl:,e Scotch

sov nte as a degree, since it, contains neither symbols nor allegories that connect it 'with initiation. deserves still less to 'be ranked among the philosophic that it hus been intercalated only to supply un and as a memorial of an order once justly celebrated."* SOVJ~ll.EIG·N GI~ANlJ




a.nd last degree of the A.neient and .A.coopted Scotch rite. Its Inelnbers constitute a Supreluc Council, which is the chief tribunal of lnasonry in that rito. r:rhis degree was instituted 1TI the year 1786, under the following circumstanees. By the con .. stitutions of the Scotch rite, which. were ratified on tIle 25th of October, 17G2, the I{ing of Prussia was proclaiIued as its chief~ with the title of Sovereign Grttnd Inspector General and Grand Commander. The higher councils and chapters could not bpened without his presence, or that of t1 substitute appointed him. All the transactions of Consistory of 82d then the highest, required his . or that of his suhstituto, and vnrious other Inasonic w'ere attached to his ofiice. No provision had, howo\~er, been LlIUJle in the constitutions fur his successor; and, as it \vas absolutely nece8S~1r'y that SOUle arrangel11cnt should be 11lt1de by which the Bupreluc po\ver should not beconlc extinct on his deatlh, the king established the 38d degree, out of the possessors of which the Suprellle Council is fOl"lUed, a body possessing all the luasonic rights aud prE~rogatives forluerly ex.. 3rcised by the ICing of l>rtlssia. See F:fUjn·tml.e (}ou?u.~ll. The order or ba.dge of the is a \vhite four inches broad, edged with gold fringe, and froill the righ t shoulder tlO the left hip.. .c\t the hottonl is a red and \vhit.e rOSt~J and on the pttrt that crosses the hrcnst IllUSt be a triangle of gold surrounded by a sun, and \vithin the triangle the figures 33. On each side of thi:; eIllblem, at the distance of two inches, must be i drawn dagger. • Vassal, Cours MnQonique, p.. 501.




The jewel is a black-double headed eagle of Prussia, with gol. den beaks and crowned with an illlperial crown of gold, holding a naked sw n'd in bis claws. There is no apron worn in this degree. The motto of the order is Deus 'lneumq'1Jc Jus, "God aL.d m,

right." SO,,\TEREIGN l\LA.STER. The presiding officer in a Ct'lD' eil of Knights of the Red Cross. He represents Darius, Kin~ of Persia.

SPECULATIVE lYI.A..SONRY. Freemasonry is called spo.. culative masonry, to distinguish it from operative Iuasonry, which is engaged in the construction of edifices of stone. Speculative ma.. soury is a science, 'which, borrowing fronl the operative art its working tools and ilnplernents, sanctifies them, by symbolic in.. struction, to the holiest of purposes-the veneration of God, and the purificution of the souL The operative ma.son constructs his edifice of material substances; the speculative n13son is taught to erect a spiritual building" the residence of hiln who dwelleth pure, and spotless, and fit only with the good. The opcratiyc mason works according to the' designs laid down for !litn on the trestle boarel by the arehitect.;, Ule speculative is guided by tho great trestle board, on which is. ~nscribed the revealed will of God, the Supreule Architect of' ~eaven and earth; the operative nUlson tries each stone and part of the building by tl:路3, square, level and plumb; the speculative路 maS3n examines every action of his life by the square of morality,. seeing that no presumption nor vain glory has ca.used birn to frauacend the level of his allotted destiny, and 110 vicious pr~ pensity has led hinl to s~erve from the plulnb line of rectitude. A.nd lastly, as it is the business of the operative mason, when his ~ork

is done, to prove every thing "true and trusty," so is it the

obj cct of the speculative mason, by a uniform tenor of virtuous con路

puct: to receive, when



oflifp ha~ fflSif.4 1 t,he i:pap-


pI eciable reward, from his Celestial Grand l\Iaster, of "Well aone, thou good and faithful servant.. " SPHINX. A fabulous lllonster, to which the ancients give the face of woman and the body of a lion. I t is found in great abundance on Egyptian monUlllents, and Plutarch says that. il wa.s always placed l)efore the tClllplcs of the I~gyptia.l1s to illdicatt. that their religion \vas enigrnatieal. l\.S a SYill bol of mystery it has been adopted as a masonic enlblem. l

SPURIOUS FREEl\IASONltY. Dr. Oliver, one of the most learned and philosophic l\Iasous of this or perhaps any other time, contends that" the science which we now den0111inate Speculative ~Iasonry was coeval, at least, with the creation of our globe, and that the far-famed ll1Jsteries of idolatry were a subsequent institution, founded on siuliliar principles, ,vitI1 the design of conveying unity and perlnanence to the false worship, which it otherwise could never llave acquired." This schislll fronl the pure and original source has becu designated by the n:l1nc of the SpuriC)us FreelIlasonryof PaganiSll1, to distinguish it fl"fHU t he purer system, which this tlloory SllPPOS(,S to have descended in a direct and uninterrupted line to the I~"reenulsons of the present daoYIn a later work, Dr. Oliver st:iH furthQ1" explains his idea of the spurious Freclllasollry. 'rhe legends and truths which were transll1ittl~d pure through the raee of Seth, were altered and corrupted by that of Cain, and Inueh eonfusion arose in consequence of the frequent intercOIllTHllnications of these t\VO races aefore the Deluge, though the truth would still 'be understood by the faith.> ful.Of these was Noah, who, out of a11 tlhese deviutions of the antediluvians, was enabled to distinguish truth froI11 fnJsehood, and to transllrit the forulcr in a (Hreet line, nccording to Rosenberg, through Sbern, .A.braluun, Isanc, ..Jacoh, J.,levi, Kelhoth, Amram, Moses, Joshua, the Elders, the Prophets und the wisenlen to So.. lomon. lIenee I?rcemasons are snnletimes called Noachidoo, the

descendants and


of Noah

But had been faillilial" with the corruptivn~ tf the deviations from truth which system of Oain and with the bad crept into the system of Seth, and after the deluge he propagated the worst features of both systems aIllong his descendants, aut of which he or his iUllllcdiatc posterity forlllcd the in:stitution kno\yn, by way of distinction, as the Spurious FreCll1aSonry.* Such is the theory advanced on this subject which is now vcr:) generally admitted by ulasonic writers. The doctrine is, however: imperfect, unless we advance one step further. The spurious Freemasonry had descended through the Gymno sophists of India to Egypt, and thence into Greece, and perhaps by a different route to Scandinavia and the northern nations of Europe. Among all these it appeared in the form of initiations and mysteries whose legends bore just so llluch of the remains of truth as to evince their divine origin, and 'yet so much uf falsehood as to demonstrate their hUlllan corruption. There was, in after thnes, a conul1unication between one branch of this spurious l?reernasonry and tIle true systelll. This took place at the Teu1ple of Sololnon, between the ~Jewish l\iasons and

t,he Dionyshln Artificers, ,vhen true ~"'reHnltlSonry borro\ved its presentl organization frorH the greater practical wisdorn of the I)ionysian, without, hOWeVC1\ surrendering any of its truth. And the bonc1 of this union bet wr~(:n t.he t,vo bodies which had so long divided t11e world, was IIiralll .A.bif, Wl10 was hh:nself a meDl ber of both systeuls-of the true systeul by birth, as the son of Jewish parents-and of the spurious by profession and residence, as an artificer .Jf Tyre. SQUARE. The square is an angle of ninety degrees 01" the part of a circle. It is one of the worldug to( Is of a . .Fellow Craft, and the distinctive jewel of the l\Iaster of a lodge. The square is an important illlplement to operative masons, for j



Oliver's Histor. La路ndmark8, L 80.

BTA by it they are enabled to correct the errors of the eye, and to ad路 just with precision the edges, sides, and angles of their work The nicest joints are thus construct.ed, and stones are fitted with accuracy, to fill their destined positions. Not less useful is this Instrument to speculative Inasons, as a significant emblem of mo.. . ralit,y. As, by the application of the square, the stone is tried and proved, so, by the application of the principles of morality, ea~h action of human life is judged, and approved or condemned, as it coincides with, or deviates froIn, those eternal and immutable principles. And as the stone, that on inspection with the square does not prove "true and trusty," is rej ected or its defects amended, so each action that is not consistent with the dictates and rules of morality is carefully avoided by him WllO wishes to erect a mental structure of virtue, that shall afford him honour in life and repose in death. And hence, as it is the duty of the l\faster of the lodge to preserve among its Inembers a strict attention to moral deportment, and to Inark and inst:~ntly correct the slightest deviation from the rules of propriety and good conduct, the square is appropriately conferred upon biul as the distinctive jewel of hig

office. lVlusons are said to part on the square, because having met together, their conduct should be such that, when they part, no unkind expression or unfriendly action shall have deranged that nice adjustDlent ~f the feelings, which alone unites them in a band of brothers; an adjustInent which can only be preservt~d by a constant application of the square of morality.

STANDARD BJiJARER. An officer in a Commandery of Knights Templar, whose duty is sufficiently explained by hiP title. A similar officer exists in & Council of Knights of th~

Rrq Cross.. STAR..

The star with five points, which is foud the


emblems of the l\'taster's degree, is an allusion to the five point. of Fellowship, or summary of a l\lason's duty to his brother. * The blazing star in the centre of the lVlosaic pavement, is an emblem of that Divine Being, whose beneficence has chequered the dark field of human life with brighter spots of happiness. Those brethren who delight to trace our astronomical symbols to the cradle of that· science, Egypt, and to the Egyptian priests, its earliest cultivators, find in the seven stars depicted on the Master's carpet, a representation of the Pleiades, and in the blazing star an allusion to the dog-star, which the Egyptians called Anubis or the ba'rker, because its rising warned them of the inundation of the Nile, which alway~ quickly followed its appearance, and thus admonished them to retire from the lower grounds, just as the barking of a dog admonishes his master of approaching danger. • It is dangerous to differ in opinion, on a masonic subjec~ from Brother Moore, the Editor of the Magazine published at Boston (a. work, my numerOU8 obligations to which, I may as well ta"ke this opportunity of acknowledging); but in his opinion of the five-pointed star, I cannot, unfortuna,tely, agree witll him. In his Magazine, (vol. iv. no. 5,) he remarks, that "it bas noexplanation in the degree, and is not a masonic emblem as genuine masonry is prac. tised in this country." The star of five points, so far as my opportunities rtach, has been adopted in all our lodges, and if no explanation of it is given it our lectures, its manifest allusion is well understood. It is, therefore, as much a masonic emblem,as t.he equilateral triangle, which has the same universal· acceptation among the fraternity, without receiving any notice in ()ur loctures. While on the subjec~ of the star with five points, I cannot refrain from reeording an interesting historical document, for which, by the bye, I am in!'" debted to the work in which this emblem is denounced as unmasonic. At & ee16bration of the Festival of St. John the Baptist, in 1844, at Portland, Maine, R.·. W.·. Brother TenIon, a member of the Grand Lodge of Texas, in reply t4 8, toaHt complimentary to the Masons of that republic, observed, "Texas is emphatically a masonic country; all our Presidents and Vice-PI'&.idents,and four-fifths of our State officers, were and are Masons: our national emblem, the 'Lone Star,-wa8 chosen from among the emblem8 8elected ~ Fruma8onry, to illu8trate tll,e moral ",irtues--it i8 a flue-pointed ,tar, tina al-ludell to tnejive points o/lellowiAip."-See Moore'. FfWM(UfJft'. Mag. HI. ii", ,. 80~.


In the English ritual, and formerly in t)ur (wn, the star h~ .u.d to be commemorative of that star which app(\ared to guide the wise men of the East to the place of our Saviour's birth. In the bpurious Freemasonry of the Egyptians, the blazing star was the symbol of flarus the son of Isis-the sun-the pri mordial principle of existence. 4

ST..\ TISTICS OF MASONRY. The universality of lIla路 ronry is not more honourable to the ordeI, than it is advanta.geous to the brethren. From East to lV'est, and from North to South, over the whole habitable globe, are our lodges dissenliWherever the wandering steps of civilized men have left their foot-prints, there have ()ur temples been established. The lessons of masonic love have penetrated into the wilderness: of the West, and the red man of our soil has shared with his more enlightened brother the Inysteries of our science: while' the arid sands of the African tlesert have more than once路 been the scene of a masonic greeting. The l\Iason, indigent and des.. titute~ may find in every clime a brother, and in every land a


home The evidence of these assertions will be found in the following taole of the countries in which Frceluasonry is openly and avowedty practised, by the permission of the public authorities. Such places as . -. \..ustria, where, owing tothe suspicious intolerance of the governlllent, the lodges are obliged to be holden in private, are not mentioned. Italy and Hungary should be added.




Anhalir-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau,

Mecklen burg.Schwenn,


N0r way,

Belgium, BrunsWl\Ut,

.t>ortugal, Posen, Duchy <i. Prussia,




AT.! England,


France, Frankfort-oa..Maine, Guernsey, Isle of

Saxe.. Coburg, Saxe-Gotha, Sax.e-Hilberghausee, Saxe-Meningen,

Hamburg, Hanover,

Saxe.. Weimer,

Hesse.. Darmstadt,


Holland, Holstein Oldenburg, Ionian Islands, Ireland, Jersey, Isle of

Scotland, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,


Lubeck, Luxemburg,


II. Ceylon,

Persia, Pondicherry, Turkey,





New South Wales,

Sumatra. Sandwich Islands.


IV. Algeria,


Guinea, Mauritius,

Bourbon, Isle of

l\fozambique, Senegambia,

Canary Islands,

Cape of Good Goa.



St. Helena.





Barbadoes, Bermuda'1

New Brunswick. Nova Scotia,

STE Brazil,





Rio de Ia Plata, St. Bartholomew'St St.. Christopher's, St. Croix, St. Eustatia,


Cura90a, Dutch Guiana, English Guiana, French Guiana, Grenada,

St. Martin, St. Thomas,

Guadeloupe, Hayti,

St. Vincent,


Trinidad, U ni ted States, Venezuela.


Officers in a symbolic lodge, whose appoin.t


meL-'" is generally vested in the Junior Warden.



are, to assist in the collection of dues and subscriptions; to provide- the necessary refreshtnents, and make a regular report to the Treasurer; and generally to aid the Deacons and other officers in the performance of their duties. The jewel of the office is a ~ornucopia.

S'l EWARDS' LODGE. The Stewards' or G'rand Stewards; lodge., which still exists in some jurisdictions under peculiar local r(~gul'biiions,as

a Standing Committee on Grievances, Charity,

t'tc., was originally instituted on the 24th of fJ une, 1735.' In that year, says Anderson, upon an address from those that had been Stewards, the Grand Lodge,' in considera.tion of their past services and future usefulness, ordainnd that they should be constituted a lodge of l\'1asters, to be called the Stewards' lodge; to be registered as such in the (1 rand IJodge book and printed lists, with the times and place of their Ineetings, and that they should have the privilege of sending twelve representatives to the Grand Lodge, namely, a l\1~Lster, two ".,.ardens, and nine marCJ 89



STONE OF FOUN1}i\rrION. l\lasonry ~o11tain8 a legend of a eubical stone, on 'v hieh was inscribed the sacred name within a路 mystieal diagram. 'I'his stone is known as the "stant of foundation." :For its history, see Oubical Slone. STI{]1JNGTH. One of the three principal supports of HI:\ It is repreRented by the Doric coluuln and the S.路. 'V.' hccause the Doric is the strongest and most massy of the Ordel"S, and because it is the duty of the S."" W:"., by an attentive superintendence of the craft, to aid the 1\1.... in the performance -of his duties, and to strengthen and support his authority. .: IIiram, King of Tyre, is also considered as the representative of :the colulnn of strength which supported the temple. ~onry.


STJI~LIl\lE. In York lnasonry, this is the epithet applied ito ,the l\:Inster's degree. It alludes to the sublime nature of the ;doctrines taught in that degree, which are the resurrection of ::the body and the inunortahty of the soul.

SUBLIl\lEGRAND LODGE. Sometimes called the IneflIuble Lodge, or I.ilodge of Perfection. It is, in the Ancient :8totch rite, the lodge which confers the degrees frOIIl the fourth ~to the fourteenth inclusive. It lnust derive its "Tarrant of C~on .. \5titution from a Grand Council of the Princes of Jerusaleln;, or froID a higher council, or Soyereign Grand Inspector General. SUI3I.JIl\IE !{NIGIIT ELliJCTED. ~Sublinte Ohc'vaZ,ier tIM. 1rhe 11th degree in the Ancient Scotch rite, sometill1CS cailt3i ~'Twelve Illustrious Knights," After vengeance bad been taken upon the traitors already mentioned in the decrees of Elected Knights of Nine and Illustrious ]~lected of :Pifteen, Solomon, to reward those who bad exhi bited their zeal and fidelity in inflict..路 ing the required punislullent, as well as to make room for the exaltation of others to the degree of Illustrious Elected of Fif.. teen, appointed twel YO of these latter, chosen by ballot to consti.. tute a new degree, on which he bestowed the name of Sublime

Kn路;ghts j路:leehl,(l, arHJ gave thon! the C0l11l11Und OVtn' the twelve tribes of Israel. ~ehe Sublirne I{nights rendered an account each day to SoloIllon of the work that was done in the tern pIe by their respective tribes, and received their pay. The lodgo is called a Grand Chapter. 8010n100 presides, with the title of Thrice Puissant, and instead of \Vardens, there are a Graud In..路 8pector and a l'Iaster of Ceremonies. The rOOiD is hung witll black, sprinkled with ,vhite and red tears. The apron is white, lined and bordered with black, with black strings; on the flap, a flaming heart. The sash is black, with a flauling heart on the breast, suspended frOln the right shoulder to the left hip. The jewel is a s,vord of justice. This is the last of the three Elus which are found in the An.. cient Scoteh rite. In the French rite they have been condensed Into one, and Iuake the fourth degree of that ritual, but not, as, Ragon admits, with the happiest effect.



verain Prince ell/; Roga.l J,Secret. 'l'he 32d degree, and until the year '1786, 'when the 33d was instituted by Frederick, I{ing of Prussia, the sUlnnlit of the .l\.ncient, Scotch rite. The rnembers nrestyled the Guardians of the r:rreasure of the Temple. Its nleetings are called Consistories. The 32d degree can only he eonferred by authority of the Suprenle Council of the 33d. This degree 11lrnishes a history peculiar to itself, of the origin of masonry, and an expln.nation of the sYlnbolic meaning of the

preceding degrees. Ita. officers are numerous. The pri~ipnl ones are a Thrioe Illustrious Grund Commander, two Thrice Illustrious Lieutenant Grand 路Columanders, a l'\Iinister of State, Grand Chancellor, 9 rand Treasurer, and Grand Secretary. The hangings of a Consistory are black, strewed with tears ".:be jewel is a Teutonio cross. The a:pron is wllitet bordered



with black, and on it is inseribed the tracing-board )f tlle degree On the flap of the apron is a JtHtble-huaded eagle.

SUBSTITUTE ';VOItD. The true English translation of this most iUlportant word has been most Dliserably distorted and corrupted by illiterate lecturers. A moderate acquaintan(;c with the Ilebrew language would have shown its correct llleaning: and tlHlt when first used it was but a natural expression of horror and astonishn1ent uttered by I(ing Solomon. Its signification ma\" be discovered by a reference to the separate syllables of which it. is COlllposed, and which are to be found 'in their alpha-' betical order in the present work. The intelligent mason by putting them together in their proper order will obtain the wholE sentence. On such a subject I cannot, of course, be nlore ex.. plicit. It may, however, be observed, in conclusion, that there can be no doubt that the word originally consisted of four sJllables, by which an equal, alternate division was made, and that in its present form it has been subjected to much corruption, the fourth or last syllable being now altogether omitted in pronuD",' ciation.

8UCCOTH. A town of Judea, 34 miles north-east of Jerusalem, near which Hiram. . A.bif cast the sacred vessels of the Temple. See Olay Grounds. SUN AND MOON. The sun and the mOOD, with the Master of the lodge, R,re depicted in the lodge by the three lesser lights, whose presence are to instruct the last that he should exercise the same regularity and precision in the stlperintendence of his l:>dge, as the two others exhibit in their governlnent of the day i.:.d night. In' all the Pagan initiations, we find traces of these f!ymbola which, as路 in masonry, were represented by the three superior ufficers of the mysteries. In Greece, the Hierophant, -or revealer of sacred things, the Daduchus or torch..bearer a:p.d

lIo e:pi bQ-



:nOR, or altar-server, were the representatives of the Creator, the sun and moon, while the eeryx or herald, as a Deacon, represented l\lercur~y, who was the messenger of the gods. In the luysteries of India, the chief officers were placed in the east, the west., and the south, respectively to represent Brahlua, or the rising; Vishnu, or the setting; tind Siva, or the meridian suu. In the Druidical rites, the .A.reh-druid, seated in the east, was -assisted by two other officers, the one in the west representing the moon, and the other in the south, representing the meridian :sun. The SUD and the moon are preserved in our lodges, as enlblclllS of the wisdom, and power, and good,ness of God, who made the oneto rule the day, and the other to govern the night; but the heathens, in departing frolll the true light, which masonry has preserved, confounded the creature with the Creator, and gave that adoration to the instrulnents which should only have been paid to the First Great Cause. lIenee the origin of sun-worship, which was one of the first deviations froln pure and pa triarcbal religion, and the evidence of which i3 to be found in the (~1trliest mysteries of Osiris in Egypt, of Adonis in Phenicin, and. of ~Iithras in Persia.



SUPEI~ ]~XC1~TI.,IJl~Nrr ~tA.STER. A degree which is SODlethnes conferred in Councils of Select l\Iasters. It is founded on cirCUlnstances that occurred at, the destruction¡ of the Temple by Nebuchadnezzar, King of l~abylon Its presiding officer is called "l\Iost l~xcellent I(illg," ~Ll1d represents Zedekiah, the last King of Judah. The historictl.l incidents of this degree, but less in detail, are to be found in the first part of the Royal Arch. I have the ritual of another degree of Super Excellent, "given m Ireland, preparatory to the R:oyal Arch. :But it is, or seenl.

• Oliver, Signs and Symbols, p. a9~


SUP to be, a modification of the Most Excellent Mastel of the Amer. ican rite, and the Perfect l\Iaster of the Ancient Scotch rite. SUPPOFcTS OF THE LODGE. The institution of masonry, venerable for its antiquity, and its virtuous character, is said to be supported by lVisdom, Strengt7L, and Beauty; for the wIsdom :Df its eminent founders was engaged in its first design; the strength of its路 organization has enabled it to survive the fall cf elnpires, and the changes of languages, religions, and mannerR which have taken place since its formation; and the beauty of holiness is exhibited in the purity and virtue that it inculcates, and in the morality of life which it demands of all its children. Our lodges, thus supported, will :find in these columns an0ther analogy to their great pr.ototype, the Temple of Jerusalem. Fat that mighty fabric was designed by the 'LO'isdom of Solomon" King of Israel, who found strength to carryon the great undertaking in the assistance and friendship of Hiram, King of Tyre; and beauty to adorn the structure in the architectural skill and taste of Hiram, the widow's son.

SUPREME COUNCIL OF GRAND 'INSPECTORS GEN. ERAL. The supreme masonic authority of the Ancient Scotch rite. It was e.stablished in 1786, by Frederick II., Iring of Prussia, for the purpose of exercising, after his death, the mao sonic prerogativeswhich he personally possessed as the acknow ledged head of the rite. Not more than one Supreme Council can exist in each nation,* which was originally COIn posed of nine members, called Sovereign Grand Inspectors G-eneral, five of whom, at least, were to profess the Christian .religion. This rule is now abolished, and the number of members has been increased. Its officers areas ~ol1ows, all of whom are elected for life : A M'ust Puissant Grand Commander, who is the representative of Frederick II., I<'ing of Prussia. (-,_



SUP A Most Dlustrious Lieutenant Grand Commander, repre5entin~

fA)uia of Bourbon. An Illustrious Treasurer General of the IIoly Empire. An Illustrious Secretary General of the IIoly Empire. A.n Illustrious Grand l\laster of Cerenlonies. An Illustrious Captain of the Guards. The following account of the institution of the Supreme Coun.. eil I have condensed fronl Dalcbo, and other authorities. In 1761, the lodges and couneils of the superior degrees, being extended throughout the continent of Europe, Frederick II., King of Prussia, as Grund Commander of the order of Prince of the Royal Secret, was acknowledged as the head of the Scotch rite. The Duke of Sudermania was his deputy in Sweden, and Louis of Bourbon in France. On the 25th of October, 1762, the Grand Masonic Constitu tions were finally ratified in Berlin, and proclaimed for the government of all masonic bodies working in the Scotch rite over the two hemispheres.. In the same year, they were transmitted to Stephen Morin, who had been appointed in l\ugust, 1761, Inspector General for the New World, by the Grand Consistory of Princes of the Royal Secret, convened at Paris, under the presidency of Chaillon de Joinville, Substitute General of the order. When Morin arrived in the West Indies, he, agreeably to his patent, appointed a Deputy Inspector General. This honour was conferred on M. Hayes, with the power of appointing others w'tere necessary. Hayes appointed Isaac Da Co~ta, Deputy Inspector General for the State of South Carolina, who, in 1783, established a Sublime Grand Lodge of Perfection in Charleston. After Da Costa's death, Joseph Myers was appointed to succeed him by Hayes, who also appointed Solomon Bush, Deputy Inspector General for Pennsylvania, and Barend M. Spitzer for Georgia;




• ar.tions, :po 88.



whict appointulents were confiroled by a Council of Inspeatol\ that convened in Philadelphia on the 15th of June, 1 '781. On the 1st of ~fay, 1786, the G-rand Constitutions of th(' Supreme Council of the 33d degree were ratified by the I{ing of Prussia, by which the Il1asonic prerogatives of Inspectors were deposited in a couDcil consisting of nine brethren in each nation On the 20th of li'ebruary, 1788, a Grand Council ot Prince! of Jerusalem was opened in Charleston, by lVlyers, Spitzer, and .A.... Forst, Deputy Inspector General for Virginia. In 1795, Col. J oho lVlitchell was appointed by Spitzer a Deputy Inspector General, in the place of ~lyers, who had removed, but he was restricted from acting until after l\'Iyers' death, which took place in the following year. . On the 31st of 1."Iay, 1801, the Supreme Council of the 83d degree was opened in Charleston with the grand honours of masonry, by John Mitchell and Frederick Dalcho, Sovereign Grand Inspectors General, and in the course of the succeeding two years, the whole Dumber of Inspectors General was cou1pleted. On the 5th day of August, 1813, a similar Supreme Council was, in accordan(~e with the Secret Constitutions, duly and lawfully established and constituted at the city of New York,* by Emanuel De La J\lotta, as the representative, and under the sane.. tion and ~uthority of the council at Charleston.. The masonio jurisdiction of the New York council is distributed over the northern, north-western, and north¡eastern parts of the United States. And this, with the council at Charleston, are the only recognised councils which exist, orean ex'ist, according to the Secret Constitutions in the United States. l'his was the origin of the Scotch rite in the United States of which there now exist two Supreme Conners ; one at Charles ton, S. C., and the other in the city of Boston both bodies being lD active operation. • The seat or this COQ.Dcil hJJ.S lat$l, been r~moved to BORon.



SUSPENSION. A masonic punishnlent by which a party is temporarily deprived of his rights aind privileges as a mason. Suspension may be definite or indefinite in tho period of its duration. J.\.. Inason \\-"ho hasbecll indefinately suspended can be re.. stored only by a vote of the body which susI)ended him. One who has been suspended BJr u definite period is restored by the termination of that period, without any special action of the !odge.

SWEDENBORG, RITE OF. We have seen in the artiele "Illuminati of Avign~n," that the religious dogmas of Swedcnborg were brought, in the middle of the eighteenth century, (tIle E1'eat season of rite-nlaking,) to the aid of Inasonry for the purpose of manufacturing a new l'ite. In 1783, the J\Iarquis de Thome modified the system which has been adopted in the lodge of A vignon, to suit his peculiar vie,,'l's, and thus instituted what is properly know'n as the rite of S\vedenborg. It consists of six' grades, namely: 1, l\.pprentice; 2, Fellow..Craft; 3, l\laster Theosophite; 4, Illuluinated Theosophite; 5, Blue Brother ;6, Red Brother. It is still practised in some lodges in the north of Europe..

SWEDISI-I Rlrr]~. Sweden at first adopted the rite of Strict Observance, but this was afterwards modified by Oount Zin nendorf, and the rite DC>W practised by the G'rttnd Lodge of Sweden consists of twelvf degrees, the fifth of which gives its The degrees, which have very slightly altered since the time of Zinnendorf, are as

possessor ci\"'il rank in the killgdoIll. h~~en


路 1, Apprentice; 2, Fellow-Craft; 3, Master; 4" Apprentice

and Ii'ellow.. Craft of St. Andrew; 5, r.laster (Jf St. Andrew; 6, Knight of the East; 7, Knigllt of tlle West; 8, I{night of the South, or Fa,路ourite 13rother of St. J01Ul; 9, Favourite Brother of St. Andrew j 10, l\.Iember of the Chapter; 11, Dignitary of the Chapter; 12, Reigning Grand l\Inster. The last three de.. ~rae8 cOllstitqte the " Illuminated Chapter," and flO one can be

admitted a (}nLnd ])ignitary unless he can show foul' quarters



S'VORD l)l~J\.RER. An offieer in tl council of Knights of the Reel Cross, and in a CODlnUtnc1ery of I(nights TClnplar, who~p 8tatlon is in the ,vest, 011 tbe right of the Standard 13earer, and "When the knights are in line, (nl the right of the second division. IIis duty is, to receive nIl orders and signals fronl the Gl'i.n(~ COlnmander, and see thenl proluptly obeyed.. He is, also~ to assist in the protection of the banners of his 0rder. His jewel is a triangle and cross swords. The Grand Sword 13earer is also an officer of a Grand Lodge, whose duty it is to carry the Sword of State in public proces.. sions. In some Grand Lodges he receives the title of Grand Pursuivant.

S\\70RD POINTING TO THE NAKED HEART. A symbol of that Divine justice which Inust, sooner or later, overtake all WI10 sinned; for, though Ulan looketh t-o the out.. ward appearance, God looketh to the heart alone, which, conceal.. ing its inl1l0st passions frolu the world, is naked and open to his ALL-SEEING EYE.

It is an emblem of the l\iaster's degree.

SyMBOl... A sensible image used to express an occult but analogical signification. Almost all the instruction given in rna.. sonry is by symbols. Such was also the case in the ancient Dlysteries. "~rhe first learning in the world," says Stukely, t, consisted chiefly in syulbols. The wisdom of the Ohaldean~, l'benicians, Egyptians, ..Jews, of Zoroaster, Sanchoniathon, Phe.. recydes, Byrus, Pytbagoras,路 Socrates, Plato, of all the ancients that is come to our hand, is symbolical. It was the ,mode, says Serranus, on Plato's Symposium, of the ancient philosophers to represent truth by certain syrnbols and hidden images." SYlnbols were first adopted by the Egyptian priests for the purpose (,)f secrecy; they concealing, by their use, those :pro-


found speculations "which constituted the apporeta, of their mysteries, and which they w'Cl"e unwilling to divulge to the unprepared and uninitiated vulgar. :Froul the l~gyptians, Pythagoras received a kno'wlodge of this SJlllbolical Inodo of instruetion, and eomnlunicated it to the sect of philosophy which he aftcrwarli~~ lllstit.uted . to Porphyr}", there ,vas this distinction between t.~·· kierogllJ)hlc and s/jJnbo![c Inethod of ,vriting anlong the ]~gyp", tians: that the forl11er expressed the meaning by an ilnitativLii of the thing represented, as \vhen the picture of smoke ascend.. ing upwards denoted fire; and the latter allegorizing the subject by an enigu1t1, as when a hawk was used to signify the sun, or a fly to express the quality of iIlJpudcnee.* The f()flner of these methods was open to a11 \vhc chose to le;lrn it; the latter was reserved by the priest~ Hlr the purpose of mystic instruction, and was, as I have already suid, conllliunicttted only to the ini.. tiated. The sylnbols, says 'Varburtou, were of two kinds, t1'opleal and ell./l911~at1.~cal. ~ehe tropical, \vhich were the Iuore natural, l\'ere rnade by cluplo,ying the tnoro unusual properties of thingR to express subjects. 'rhus, a ea.t signified the Inoon, because the pupil of her eye 'was observed to be dilated. at the full and con.. tracted at the decrease (d't,hatsatel1ite.:r. 'fhe tropical were constituted by the Inystical nsseulblagc of two 01" lllore things whose cornbined propertieR expressed a part.icular· quality. Thus, a


beetle, 'with a round ball in its e1:l'\Vs, denoted the



this insect makes a ball of dung, 'which he rons in a circular <:lirection, and with his fuce looking towards the sun. § But the priests, in adopting the sJ'll1bol, as a depository of • nJv (YPfJI_p.6.Tt.AJV i.tpDyA:CX/Jl'X,U)v) Y,tJl1l0)..O,,/Ollp.h,lCJ.w 'tara ~1p.rl(1tv, reJJI Oi (a1JJARo) '''O»J) -JAM'YOPtJfo£CVWV xaia Ttvii~ aLvcyp.Ol1s,,·-Dc Vit.. J)ytllag.· .xi. 15. Divine Legation, vol. iii. '141. i Such is Plutarch's account of t.his SYXll boi; hut I am not aware that I.llodens soologists support tbis theory of hruar intlucIH:O. ;.V'importe, tht) Egyptians he Ueved it, and that is all that the argument requires..



Claro. AJexnnd.



their secret doctrines, 'were not contented with the use of it tc designate only 8ubstanees; their mystic instruction was of toe elaborate a nature, to be satisfied with so circumscribed an alphabet; they next, therefore, had recourse to sensible objects, as a means of expressing }n( and Inoral qualities; thus, destruc.. tion was expressed by the luouse, impurity by the goat, aversi<.n by the wolf, knowledge by the ant; and the reason of the signification, as well as the thing signified, f01'lned a part of their app0'/'cla, or secrets. This is the highest and most intellectual Incthod of applying symbols, and it is the method adopted in Freemasonry, which, in its use of symbolic instruction, is an exact counterpart of the ancient mysteries.


The first three degrees of F:ree..

masonry, the Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and l\Iaster !vlason, are called in the York rite, symbolic degrees, because they abound in symbolic instruction, not to be found in the remaining degrees, which are principally historical in their character.

SYMBOLIC J.JODG路E. .A. lodge in which the symbolit) de路 grees are conferred; that is, a lodge of Entered Apprentices, Fellow Crafts, or l\laster路 l\Iasons.

T. TA.BERNACLE. The tabernacle was the pl~ce of worship, representing a temple, vlhich God commanded Moses to construct in the wilderness for the religious service of the Jews, and in 't\"hich the ark of the covenant and sacred vessels were kept until Bo~olnon renloved thern into the tctnple. The tabernacle was so Jontrived as to he taken to pieces and put toget,her again at plea... ~ure, The tabernacle waR in shape 路11, parallelo~ram fronting



the East, tl1il'ty cubits or forty-five feet in length, and~en cubi~ :>r fifteen feet in height and breadth. The inside ~as divided by It richly eZllbroiderecl vail of fine linen into two parts, the holy plaee and the holy of holies, in the latter of which was placed the ark of the covenant. Besides this vail of fin~ linen which separate!!l the lllost holy place, the tabernacle wa,s furnished with other vails of divers colors: namely, of blue and purple, and searle. nnd fine twined linen, fronl which are derived the emblematic JOlours of the several degrees of tnasonry. The room in which ~ Chapter of Royal .A.reh l\tlasons meets, is called the tabernacle, and is a representation of that temporary tabernacle which was erected by Zerubbabel near the ruins of old temple while the Jews, under his direction, were constructing the new one.



See CJh'ief




See Prince



T AL1\'IUD. As many of the traditions of masonry are to be found in the Tahnud, some acquaintance with the character of that work is essential to the masonic student. The Talmud, which is a I-Iebrew word, signifying doctrine, is a collection of treatises written by the rabbins and wise men Ind embodying the civil and canonical law of the Jews. Moses .is believed to have received two kinds of law on Mount Sinai, the


• Acoording to Josephus (Ardiq. Jlld. lib. iii. c. 7.) the tabernaclo sym'bolof the universe. The 12 loaves placed on the tn.bIe were emblematic of the 12 months of the year; the 70 brn.nches of thecandlestieks represe:ctt!d the ''10 dec(Jt~i or di~isionsof the plnnets; and the 7 lamps, the '1 planets. The Tails of the tabernacle composed of four different colours, wereernblematie of the four elements; the tine linen, made of flax, the produce of" theoarth, repre.ented the earth; the purple rt;proscnted the sea, because it was stained by the .blood of' a marine shell-fish, the IUurex; the blue represenled the air.. it bein,r ··.heoolour of the sky; and the scarlet represented fire.



one uJritten and the other oral. ThL:. written law :~ to be foun(\ the Pentateuch. 'rhe oral la,v was first corr..municated by ~Ioses to .A.aron, then by them to the seventy elders, and finally by these to thep'eople, and thus transmitted, by memory, from generation to generation. This oral law was never committed to writing until about the beginning of the 3rd century, * when R,abbi Tohuda the Holy, finding that there was a possibility of its being lost from the decrease of students of the law, collected the t,l'aditionary laws into one book, which is caned the" Mishna," a word signifying repet'it£on, because it is, as it were, a repetition of the written law. The !vlishna was at once received with great veneration, and many wise men among the Jews devoted themselves to its study. Towards the end of the 4th century, Rabbi Joohanan, the president of a school at Tiberias in Palestine collected their several opinions on the l\Iishna, into one book of commentaries which he called the "Gemara," a word signifying completion, because the the Gemara completes the work. The ~Iishna and the Gemara united constitute the Talmud. The Jews in Chaldea, not being satisfied. with the interpretations in the work of Rabbi J ochanan, composed others, which were collected together by Rabbi Asche into another Gemara. The work of R. Jochanall has since been known as the" Jerusalem Talmud" and that of R. Asche as the "Babylonian 'l'alm~d," from the places in which they were respectively compiled. in both works, the lYHshna or Law is the same; it is only the Gemara or commentary that is different. The Jewish scholars place so high a value on· the Tahnud, as to compare the Bible to water, the l\Iishna to wine, and the Gomara to spiced wine; or the first to salt, the second to pepper, and the third to spices. This work, although it' contains 111uny pucUl


• Morin, how.ver, in his "Exereitationes Biblicm," 8.Seigns the 6th century uthe date of the composition. 'l'here is much contro\1"er"y on this snbject among scholars. I have, in this article, giyen the dn~A8 :tgreedapoDibytht I!'eater number. ·

'l..\ S-rrAT


rilities, is, however, extreluely serviceable as all elaborate compen. dium of Jewish CUStOll1S, and has therefore been nluch used in the criticism of the Old and New Testalncnts. It furnishes aJso ulany curious illustrations of the masonic systenl; nnd several of the traditions and legends, especially of the higher degrees, are eitheJ Ilund in or corroborated by the Talmud. The treatise entitled ,; JVliddoth," for instance, gives us the best description extant of the Temple of Solomon.

TASSELS. The Traeing-board of the Entered Apprentice's properly constructed, has. a border or skirting around it, and at each corner a tassel attached to a cord or cable tow. These refer to the four perfeet po'ints and to the four cardinal virtues, and are called the guttural, pectoral, manual, and pedal tassels. They are also said in the Eng:Msh ritual to refer to the tour rivers of Paradise. d~gree, when

TASTING. One of .the fiye human senses, of but little importance in masonr)", except as one of the sources of our enjoyment and protection, by enabling us to distinguish food which is plea.sant and wholesome, froln that' which is disagreeable and unhealthy. lIenee, for this as well as for every blessing of life, are we taught to be thankful to IIiIn who is the "author of every good and perfect gift."

TATNAI AND SIIETHAR-BOZNAI. The nanlCS of two Persian governors who opposed the attempts of the Jews to rebuild the temple. When, by the command of Artaxerxes, Zerub.. babel and his followers had discontlinued the rebuilding of the ~elnple, which they had cOIDmenced by permisiiion ofeyrus, hi&: predecessor, they remained quiet until the reign of Darius, who succeeded Artaxerxes. They then recommenced the .work, but Tatnai, the Persian governor on the Jewish side of the Euphrates, accompained by Shcthar-Bozna.i and his companions, not being aware of the. previous edict of Cyrus perInitting the Jews to.



rebuIld) proceeded to JerusaJ elll , antI deuHthded by what right they were rebuilding the teulple; and when the J e\vs inf'lnued them that they were working under the authority of a forillcr deCl'(',; of Cyrus, the Persian governors wrote to Darius, giving an account of these cirCUlllstances, and inquiring if such a tlecree ,vas in exi~tence, and if it was the king's pleasure that it should still be O'\~eyed. Darius, influenced by his friendship for Zerullbahel, who visited hiln on the occasion of this interference, gave orden· not only that the .J ews should not be nlolested, but that the J sbould receive every assistance from the Persian officers in their pious undertaking of rebuilding the house of the Lord.

TAU CROSS. The Tau Cross or Cross of St. Antony,* is a cross in the form of a Greek T. It was among tIle ancient,s a hieroglyphic of eternal li'fe. It was the form of the Nilometer,. or measure of the Nile, used to ascertain the height of the inun·· . dation, upon· which the prosperity of the country and the life of the inhabitants depended, and Wtts, in consequence, used among the E~'yptinns as an amulet, capable of averting eviL fIence it ,,~as a favourite SYlllbol of the l~gyptians, and under the fbrm of the "Crux ansata" was to' be seen in all their tenlples, very often held in the bands of their deities or suspended fronl their necks. •Jablonskit says it is the Egyptian representation (If the Phallus~ eonsidered by SOlne as the symbol of the deity, and by others as that of eternal life. I{ircher thinks t.hat the Crux ans3Ja wa~ a monogram denoting Mercury or Phtha, who was the conduetor I)f'the souls of the dead; and Dr. Clarke! says that the tau 01'088 was a monogram of Thoth, "the symbolical or mystical name of bidden wisdom among the ancient Egyptians; the BEDS of t.he Greeks." In the initiation in HindoRtun the tau cross, under the name of "tiluk," was marked upon the body of tb e -candidate, as a sign that he was set apart for the sacred mysteries. Tht.;

"* So called because it is said to have been the cross on which that saint itlff~red


martyrdom. Panth. 2Egypt. i. 282.

t I'ravels, voL v. p. 3lL



same roark was fruuiliar to the ancient lIebrews, for, in the viaioo Df l~zekiel, it is thus alluded to: "Go through the midst of the eity, and ~et a u13J'k, (in the original 'li, ta'u,) upon the foreheads of the men that sigh, and tlhat cry, for aU the aborninations that ~e done in the lllidst t.hereof."* This mark was to distinguish them as persons to be saved on' account of their sorrow for sin) fr(HU those who, as idolators, were t.o be slain, and its form waE that of the Hebrew letter tau, which, in the ancient Phenician alphabet, and on the coins of the IVlaccabees, has the shape of a

cross. Among the Druids it was the CusJ,oln to consecrate a tree by cutting the form of a tau aJross upon its bark. In ancient times it was set as a nlark on those who had been acquitted by their judges, and hy nlilitary cOlllmanders on such of their soldiers as had escaped unhurt fron') battle, and hence it was considered as an enlbleln of life.t Finally, obser\Te that the tau is the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, as the Aleph is the first, and that the tau aSSUlnes in the Ancient Phenician and Sarnaritan alphabets the forrn of a cross, and we see another consecration of this Syl11bol in the expression, " I aUl the i\lpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end," which) spoken in the Hebrew language, would be, " I aUl the l\.lpph and the 'rau."t \Ve are not, therefore, to be surprised that the Tau Cross haa been adopted as Que of the syrnbols of I?reenlasonry, and that in the fornl of the Triple Tau it constitutes the most sacred emblem of the Royal Arch, symbolizing the fact that the possessors of that degree are consecrated Hind separated, or set apa~t, as t,ht recipients of a suhliulO but hidden wisdom. See Triple Tau,. TEl\'IP}iJRANC:B~.

()ne of tlle four cardinal virtues, the

• Ezekiel, ix. 4. The Septuagint has TO uY/p£1.0V, the marl, which Lowth sug.. .rests should, rea.d rail (fr]P.£IOV, the mm·k tal'. tOliver, Landma.rks, ii. p. 621. t My esteelDcd. friend. OC'(Jrgo R. Gliddon, Esq., the celebra.ted Egyptian ,t\.rohtBologifllt, fir~t. (~nllcd my tlttentioll to this illustration, which he e.s:tended .-till further, but on a 8ubjcet irrelevant to the proscnt occasion. ,*U*



practice of which lS inculcated in the first degree. The mason who properly appreciates the secrets, which he has sololunly promised never to reveal, \"ill not, by yielding to the unrestrnined call of appetite, permit reason and judgluent to lose their seats,; and subject hinlself, by the indulgence in habits of success, to discover that which should be concealed, and thus merit and l'e.. eeive the scorn and detestation of his brethren. .Lind lest any brother should forget the danger to which he is exposed in t.he unguarded hours of dissipation, the' virtue of Telupcrance is wisely impressed upon his meulory, by its reference to the most solemn portion of the initiatory ceremony. See Kni9hts Templar.


TE~IPLARS OF SCOTLAND. By the" Statutes of the Grand Priory of the I'Cnights of the Temple," * of Edinburgh, Scotland, the I{nights 1'emplars have an organization very dif~ ferent fronl that existing in any part of the world where this ancient and honourable order is to be found. SODle account of it may, therefore, r~ot be uninteresting. "The religious and military order of the rrenlple," in Scotlund, consists of- two classes: 1. Novice and Esquire; 2. lCnight TClllplar. ~rhe I(nightsconsist of four grades: 1. l{uights cre.. ated by l>riories; 2. I\.uights, elected from the COlllpuuions, on ememorial to the Grand ~raster and Council, supported by the ~reconlll1endationof the l)riories to which they belong; 3. I(nights ·Conlulallders; 4. I(nights Grand Crosses, to be nominated LJ' ,.the Grand l\Iaster. _.·__"""""__._"__e__·..





*According to the organiZtltion of the

order in Scotland, it is not a prerequisite qUn,llfiCt1tion towards becollling a Knight Templa,r, that the candidate should possess the prepn.l'l1tory :Masonic degrees. The Knight Templar of Scotll1Ild is not, therefore, necessu.rily n, :Ma..son. .I give this regulation, on the authority of nrothcr C. \V. l\Ioore. (Mag. vol. iv·. p. 138.) Note. Since this was wl'itten. the regulation has been rescinded, a.nd,8os in tho Statutes of April 13th, lS4~~, the Scotch Templar is DOW (1871) required ",to have previously received the ROj'a! Aroh degree.



The ~upreme legislative authority of the order is., the Chapter General, 'which consists of the Grand Officers, the Knights Grand: Crosses, the I(nights (Jolnnu1,nders, and the Prior of each Priory. O)le Chuptcris held arll1unlly, at which titlle the G-rand ~Iaster, if present, acts as l>rcsident. .At this Dleeting, which is on t,he 11th of l\Iarch, the l1randOfficcl's are elected. ])uring the intervals of the llleetings of the Chapter General, tIle affairs of the order, with the exception of altering tl1e Statutes, is entnlsted to the Grand Council, which consists of the Grand Officers elected by the Chapter, the Grand Priors of lj'orcign I"angues, and the I(nigh.ts Grand Crosses. The (i-rand Officers, with the exce-ption of the Past Grand l\lasters, who remain so for lire, the Grand 1\Inst.or, \vho is elected triennially, and the Grand Aides-de-Calup, who are appointed by him and removed at his pleasure, are elected annually. The;y are as follows: Grand l\:laster, Past Grand ~lasters, Grand Seneschal, Preceptor and Grand Prior of Scotland, Grnlld Oonstable and lYla.reschal, Grand Admiral,

Grand. .A.ltnoner or flospitaller, Grand (Jhancellor, G'rand Treasurer, Grand Secretary and Registrar, })rimate or Grand Prelate, Grand Provost or Governor-General, Grand Standard-Bearer or Beaucennifer, Srand Bearer of the VexilIum Belli, Grand Chamberlain, Grand Steward, Two Grand Aides-de-Camp. ' A Grand Priory may be instituted by the Grand Ooncla.l'et 101


~olonr or langue,

to be pIa-ceq.



the authority



of a Grand Prior who is elected for life, un. ess sup£;rseded b, the Grand Conclave. .A. Priory, which is equivalent to our Commandery consists of the following officers: Prior, Sub-Prior, Mareschal or Mastflf of Ceremonies, }!ospitaller or Almoner, Chancellor, Treasurer, Secretary, Chaplain and Instructor, Beaucennifer, or Bearer of the Beauseant, Bearer of the Red Cross Banner, or Vexillum Belli, Chamberlain, Two Aides-de-Camp, Band, Guards, etc. The Grand Conclave may unite two or more Priories into a Commandery, to be governed by a Provincial Commander, who is elected by the Grand Conclave. The costume of the I{nights, with the exception of a few slight variations to designate difference of rank, is the same as that described as the ancient costume in page 270, of this work. TEMPLE OF SOLOl\JION The Temple of the Lord,* at Jerusalem, was cOIDlnenced by Solomon, King of Israel, in the year of the world 2992, and behlg finished in seycn years and six months, was dedicated to the service of the Most IIigh, in the year 3000. It stood on ~Iount l\loriah, one of the eminences of the ridge, called in Scripture l\lount Zion, and was originally the property of Ornan the Jebusite, who used it as a threshing.. • It is called in Soripture, llekal adonai,u the pl1ace of Jehovah," to' intimate that its splendour and magnificence were not intended to reflect "honour on those who constructed it, but only to prepare it as, a fit dwelling for Him, "l:ll' h the "~ing of ldngs and L,ord of lor~s/'

TEl\{ floor, and from wnom it was purchased bj I{ing David, for the purpose of erecting au altar~* It retained its original splendour only thirty-four years, when Shishak, I'Cing of Egypt, took a'way its richest treasures;t it ·was afterwards, in the eleventh yea,r of the reign of Zedekiah, plundered and burnt by the Chaldeans, under Nebuchadnezzar.t After the ca.ptivity, the temple was rebuilt by Zerubbabel, with greater extent, but inferior glory. The temple was originally built on a very hard rock, encom.. passed with frightful precipices. The foundations were laid very deep, with immense labour and expense. It was surrounded \vith a wall of great height, exceeding in the lowest part fOUi~ hundred and fifty feet, constructed entirely of white marble. The temple itself, which consisted of the porch, the sanctuary, and the holy of holies, was but a, small part of the edifice on ~Iount l\loriah. It was surrounded with spacious courts, and the whole structure occupied at least half a mile in circumference. Upon passing through the outer wall, you came to the first court, called the court of the G-entiles, beeausethe Gentiles were admitted into it, but \vere prohibit.ed from passing farther. It was surrounded by ~L range of porticos or cloisters, ~l.bove which were galleries or apartluent.s,supported by pillars of white marble.. Passing through the court of the Gelltiles you entered the court of the children of Israel, which was separated by a low stone wall, and an ascent of fifte(~n steps, into two divisions, the outer one being occupied by the women, and the inner .by the mon. Here thetJe,~rs were in the habit of resorting daily fhr the purposes of pr~tJBr. \Vithin the court of the Israelites, and separated from it by a wall one cubit in height, was the court of the priests. In the centre of this court was the altar of burnt offerings, to whieh the people brought their oblations and sacrifices, but none hut the priests were permitted to en ter it. From this court, twelve steps ascended to the temple, strictI} • See 2 Sam. xxiv. 23) 24; 1 ehron. xxi. 25.


SQe Oa:ptivitr·

t 2 Ohron. %it 9•

TEM so called, which, as I have already said, was divIded into thret parts, the porch, the sanctuary, and the holy of holies. The PORCH of the tenlple was :Iwenty cubits in length, and tht5 same in breadth. At its entrance was a gate made entirely of Corinthian brass, the most precious metal known to the ancients. Beside this gate there were tIle two pillars Jachin and Boaz, which had been constructed by the architect wllom the I(ing of T'yre had sent to Solomon, and which are thus described by Josephus ~ " ~IoreoYer this Hiram made two hollow pillars, whose outsid€s were of brass, and the thicl\:ness of the brass was four fingers' breadth, and the height of the pillars ,vas eighteen cubits, and their circumference twelve cubits; but there was cast with each of their cbapiters, lily work that stood upon the pillar, and it was elevated five cubits, round about which there was net-work, interwoven with small palms made of brass, and covering the lily work. To this also, were hung two hundred pomegranates

in two rows."* From the porch you entered the SANCTUA1l.Y by a portal, which, instead of folding doors, was furnished with a magnificent vail of many colours, which mystically represented the universe. The breadth of the san~tuary was t,ventycubits, and its length forty, or just twice that of the porch and holy of holies. It oc.. cupied, therefore, one half of the body of the temple. In the sanctuary were placed the various utensils necessary for the daily worsqip of the temple, such as the altar of incense, on which incense was daily burnt by the officiating priest; the ten golden c~ndlesticks; and the ten tables on which the offerings were laid rrevious tc the sacrifice. The nOLY OF HOLIES, or innermost chamber, was separated fran) the sanctuary by doors of olive, richly soulptured and inlaid with gold, and covered with vails of blue, purple, scarlet, and the finest linen. The size of the holy of holies was the same· as th».t of the porch, namely, twenty oubits square. It oontained





the ark of the covenant, which had been transferred into it from the Tabernacle, with its overshado\ying cherubim and its mercyffeat. Into the most sacred place, the IIigh Priest alone coul.d enter, and that only 01?-ce a year, on the day of atonement. The telllple, thus constructed, must been one of the most magnificent structures of the ancient world. For its erection, David had collected luore than four thousand lllillioIlS of dollars, * and one hundred and eight.y-four thousand six hundred men were engaged in bUIloing it for nlore than seven years; and after its cOlllpletion it ,vas dedicated by 8010111on, with solemn prayer, and seven days of feasting; ~uring which, a peace-offer.. ing of twenty thousand oxen and' six tilnes that number of sheep, was made, to consume which the holy fire came down . from heaven. Thirty-three years after its conlpletion this beautiful edifice wa~ despoiled, in the reign of J erObOall1, by Shishak, King of Egypt, and finally burnt to the ground by N'ebuchudnezzar, King of Rabylcn, and the inhabitants of ~Jerusalenl carried as captives to that city in the year 588, B. C., during the reign of Zedekiah.

TEMPLE, CLASSIFICi\.~rION OF TIlE 'VORK~IEN AT TIlE. In 2 Chronicles, chap. ii. verses 17 and 18, we read as follows: "And Solomon numbered all the strangers that were in the land of Israel, after the nUl110ering wherewith Dayid his father had numbered them; and they were found an hundred and fifty thousand and three thousand and six hundred.. "And he set threescore and ten thousand of them to be bearers of. burdens, and fourscore thousand to be hewers in the mountain, and three thousand and six hundred overseers tc set tho people" The same numerical dt).tt11ils are given in the 2d verse of the same chapter. Again, in 11{,, chap. v., verses 13 and 14, it ia said • One nUDdrod and eight thousand talents of t;dQ,

teen thousand talenta of



one millioq

~: And King SoIolU,ln raised a levy out of all Israel; and PsV'Y was thirty thousand men.

"And he sent then1 to Lebanon, ten thouQ'l.nd a lllonth by oourses: a nlonth they were in J~ebanon, and two months at home: and .A.donirtuu vv"as over the levy." The, succeeding verses luake the same enumeration of workUlen as that, contained in Chronicles quoted above, with the exception that by omitting the three hundred Harodim, or rulers over all, the number of overseers is stated in the book of Kings to be only three thousand three hundred. 'Vith these authorities, and the assistance of masonic traditions;, Anderson constructs the following table of the craftsmen at the

temple. Harodim, Princes, Rulers, or Provosts, Menatzch'inl, Overseers or l\Iaster Masons, Ghiblim, Stone squarers,} Ischotzeb, IIewel's, all Fellow Crafts, Bena~7, Builders,

All the Freemasonseluployed in the work of the}

800 8,300 80,000


Temple, exclusive of the two Grand Wardens, Besides the Ish Sabbal, or men of burden, the remains of the old Canaanites, amounting to 70,000, who are not numbered fi.mong masons. In relation to the classification of these workmen, Anderson says, " Solomon partitioned the Fellow-Crafts into certain lodges, with a Master and Wardens in each; that they might receive eommands in a regular lnanner, nlight take care of their tools and jewels, might be regularly paid every week, and be duly f'8d ,~nd clothed; and the Fellow-Crafts took care of their suo~essjon by educating Entered Apprentices."*

Josephus makes a different estimate. He includes the 3,300 in the 80,000 Fellow-Crafts, and makes the number of


masons, exchlsive of the 70,000 bearers of burdens, only 110,0,)0.. A. worK published in 1764, entitled the "Mnsonio Pocket • OoustitutiOllS. p. 22. eel. 17&f.


TEl'tI Book," gives a still different classification. ing to this work, was us follows: Harodim,

The nuulber,


l\tlenatzchim, ...

Ghiblim, Adoniram,

3,300 83,000 30,000

Total, ... 116,000 l\Ia,sonas which, with the 70,000 Ish Sabbal or lalx lrers, will make I grand total of 186,600 worl011 en. According to the authorits of W e~b, thQre ,vere three Grand l\-fasters, 3,300 Overseers, Fellow-Crafts" and J~!l" tered Apprentices. This account rnakes no allusion to the ~300 Harodim, nor to the levy of 80,000. It is, therefore, Inanifestly incorrect. Indeed, I doubt whether we have any certain author-.. ity for the cornplete classification of the 'workmen, as Dei ther the Bible nor Josephus gives auS account of the nUlnber of employed. 0 liver, * ho\vever, has colleeted frotH tho nlttsonic traditions un account of the classifi(m,tions of the w'orlnncn, which I shall insert, with 11. fu\v additional facts, taken fi'om authorities inlny possession. According to these traditions, the f(]llowing was the classification of the l\laso118 who wrought in the quarries of Tyre 6 Supcr-Exeellent l\Insons, 48 Excelleu t: l\Iasons, 8 Grand Architects, 16 Architect~, 2,876 l\faster l\Iasons,

700 Mark ~Ia,stera, 1,400 l\iarkmen, 58,900 Fellow..Crafts. 58,454 Total. etta the whole subjeot trea.ted at length in the 10th ,9ric~d




These were arranged as follcHvs: 1'he Supcr-,}~~xcellent 1'Iasl)T)~ were divided into two Graud IJodges, with three brethren it: each to superintend the work. The Excellent l\lasons were di路 vided into six lodges, of nine each, including one of the Super.. Excellent l\Iasons, "1ho acted as lVlaster. The eight Q路rand A.rehitects constituted one lodge, and the sixteen .L.~rchitects another. The Grand Architects were the ~Iasters, and the .A.rchitects the Wardens of the lodges of l\Iaster l\iasons, which were eigh t in number, and consisted, with the officers, of three hundred each The l\Iark l\lasters ~ere divided into fourteen lodges of fift.Y in each, and the Thlarkulen into fourteen lodges, also of one hundred in each. The lVlark l\lasters were the ~Iasters, and the l\Iarkmen the Wardens of the lodges of Fellow-Crafts, which were seven hundred in number, and with these officers consisted of eighty in each. The classification in the forest of Lebanon, was as follows: 3 Super-Excellent Masons, 24 Excellent lVlasons,

4 8 1,188 300 600

Grand Architects, Architects, l\faster IVIasons, ~Iark l\Iasons, D:larkmen, 23,100 ]'eII ow..Crafts, 10,000 FJntered Apprentices.

35,227 Total. These were arranged as follows: The three Super-Excellent Ma... sons formed one lodge. The Excellent l\iasons were divided into three lodges of nine each, including one of the Super-Excellent I\:Ia.. fJons as ~Iaster. The four Grand i\.rchitectscollstituted one lodge, and the eight Architects another, the former acting as .l\Iasters and ~ht- latter as Wardclls of the lodges of l\1aste~ M~pusJ which



were four in number, and consisted "\\rith these officers of three hundred in each. The l\oIark l\lasters were divided into six lodges of fifty in each, and the l\larkmen into six lodges of one hundred in each. These t,vo classes presided, the for.lller ttH l\lasters and the latter as 'Vardens in the lodges of 11'ello~ Crafts, which were three hundred in nUln bel", and were ')oInposeo Q f eighty each, including the~t3 officers. After three years had been occupied in "hewing, bquaring~ and numbel'ing," the stones, und "feUing and preparing" thE timbers, these tvvo bodies of l\lasons uni ted for the purpose of properly arranging the Inaterials, so that no rnetallic tool might be required in putting them up, anf]' they were then carried up to Jerusalem. Here the whole body was congregated under the superintending care of H.A.B, nnd to thern ,vere added four hundred and twenty lodges of Tyrian and Sidonian Fellow-Crafts, having eighty in each, and the twenty thousand Entered Appren.. tices of the levy froIll Israel, \vho had been therefore at rest, and who were added to the lodges of' Entered .A.pprentices, making three hundred in each, so that the whole nUlllbcr ell.. gaged at Jerusalem amounted to two hundred tUld SC\Tenteel:.

thousand two ..huudred and eighty-oue, who were arranged ali follows: Nine lodges of Excellent 1Ha80n5, nine in each, are 81 Twelve lodges of l\Iaster l\lasons, three hundred in each, are 8,600 One thousand lodges of li'ellow-Crafts, eighty in each, are 80,000 Four hundred and twenty lodges of Tyrian FellowCrafts, eighty in each, are 33,600 One hundred lodges of Entered Apprentices, three hundred in each, are 30,000

Seventy thousand Ish Sabbal, or la.bourers, are ..

Total •


.. 21.7,281

TEM SUCh is the by our English brethren; the Alneric:ln ritual shu plified the arrangeDlent. According to the now' generally taught, the worklnen at the building of the tern pIe were classecl as follows:

'Three Grand l\lasters. 'Three hundred IInrodim, or chief superintendents, who may be called Past ]/lasters. * Three thousand tllree hundred rtlaster ~lasoDs, divided into lodges of three each. Eighty thousand Fellow-Crafts, who were also divided into lodges of five each. Seventy thousand Entered Apprentices, divIded into lodges of



According to this account, there must have beenOne thousand one hundred lodges of l\Iaster 1"Iasoos. Sixteen thousand lodges of Fellow-Craf~¡~. Ten thousand lodges of En tercd. l1pprcntices. No aC~ouDt is here taken of tho levy of thirty thousand, who SU1)j)osed not to have been ~Iasons, nor of the builders of



the English rituul places at, thirty.. three thousand

six hundred, and lllost of whon1 were, as, I supp~se, nleulbers of the Dionysiac fraternity. ()n the whole, the A1l1Crican system 5eC1l1S too defeetive to Dleet all the denulnds of the student, an objection to which the English is not so obnoxious. I should be rejoiced, therefore, to see this latter system, with some modifica.. ti :lns, generally adopted by our Grand Lecturers.

TEl\IPLE OF ZERUBJ3ABEL. Cyrus, I\:ing of Pemia, having liberated the ,Jews, seventy years from the conlmencement of their captivity, in the reign of JehoiakiIn, and fifty.. two years after the destruction of the Temple, forty-two thousand

• They oannot according to our ritual, be Most Excellent Masters, 'becauso, aocording to the legend of tbn,t dCireo, it was not established until the TempI. "as completed..


Wfiree hundred and sixty of the liberated captives, by pernlission of the king, returned to Jerusalem under the guidance of Joshua the High Priest, Zerubbabcl tho l)rince or Governor, and Haggai the Scribe, and two )"'ears after, that is, 535 years B. C., they laid the foundations of the second tenlple. They were, however, u.uch disturbed in their labours by the Salual,j tans" w hose offer to unite with them in the building t.hey had rejected. .A.rtaxerXCl! known in profane history as Oambyses, having succeeded Cyrus on the throne of Persia, he forbade the Jews to proceed with tbe work, and the Temple renlained in an unfinished state until the death of Artaxerxes and the succession of Darius to the throne. As in early life there had been"' a great inthnacy between this sovereign and Zerubbabel, the latter proceeded to Babylon, aDd obtained permission frolXl the rllonarch to resume the labour. Zerubbabel returned to J erusaJem, and notwithstanding some further delays consequent upon theennlity of the neighbouring nations, the second Telllple, or as it Inu-y be c~tlled by way of dis.. tinction from the first, the Teol pIe of Zerubbabel, was completed

in the sixth year of the reign of Darius, 515 J'ears B.C., and just twenty years after its commencelnent.. It was then dedi.. cated with all the solemnities that accompanied the dedication of the first. This second 'remple did not equal the first in the glory and splendour of its decorations~the ark of the covenant was lost, although, by the precautions of our ancient Grand Masters, an exact copy of it had been preserved amid the ruin and desolation nf Jerusalem. Both the Shekinah, the glory of God, and the Bathko!, or oracle, were departed fore\"'er. * Still, there is much to interest the people in this second house of the Lord. The masonio stone of foundation, which had been safely deposited by the wisdom of the first Masons, was found and made the chief • The lews sa.y that there were five things wanting in the second temple, which had been in the first, nnmely: the Ark, the Urim and Tbummin, the In from. heaven, the divine presence, or cloud of glory, and the spirit of pr.o

,bec," a.nd power of mira,clo~



corner-stone, and all the lnoly vessels were returned by order of the King of Persia; the Tyrians again furnished timbers from the forest of Lebanon, and at length the cope-stone, on which seven eyes had been engraved by the express command of aod) was celebrated with sacrifices and rejoicings.

TEMPLE, ORDER OF THE. A masonic institution in Jfrance, whose members claiul to be the lineal descendants of the Knights Templar. It appears, however, that this claim is unfounded, and that the society is only a masonic rite, in which something that they call a continuation of the order of the Templars, is engrafted on degrees borrowed from the Ancient Scotch rite. Originally the order of the Temple consisted of the 'following six degrees: 1, Apprentice ; 2, FelIowMCraft; 3, Master; 4, :Th'laster of the East.; 5, lVlaster of the Black Eagle of St. John; 6, Perfect l\laster of the Pelican. But in 1808, to disguise this evident masonic origin, the degrees received the following names: 1, Initiate, (this is the degree of the Entered Apprentice;) 2, Initiate of the Interior, (this is the degree of Fellow-Craft;) 3, Adept, (this is the ~Iaster;) 4, Adept of the East, (the Illustrious Electe.d of l<'ifteen of the Scotch rite;) 5, Grand Adept of the Black Eag:e of St. John, (the Elected Knights of Nine;) these constitute the House of Initiation; 6, Postulant of the order, (Perfect Adept of the Pelican;) this is called the House of Postu lance, and is nothing but the Rose Croix of the Scotch tite; 7, Esquire; 8, Knight or Levite of the Interior Guard. rhese last degrees are called the Covenant, and are the same as the Scotch degree of the Knight of K-H.* TESSELATED BORDER. The skirting which surrounds the mosaic pavenlent. A late masonic writer suggests that the proper term is "tasselled border ;" the word tasselled alluding, he thinks, to the four tassels that are placed at the corners of the • Olavel Hist. Pittoresq., Pf. 86, 214-219.



tracing-board The suggestion is ingenious, but not correct Tesselated Ineans inlaid with various kinds of colours, or variegated with flo\vers, &c., and the word alludes to the variegated ornaments of the border. See 1JfosaicPavernent.

TRTRACTYS. ( Gree!t,TeTpax:ru;, four. The tetractys wa~ a sacred symbol of the Pythagoreans, which W:l:r; expressed by ten j ods disposed in the forui of a triangle, each side containing four as in the annexed figure. This they explained as fol.. lows:The one point represented the l\tIonad, or active principle. The two points, the Duad, or passive principle. The three, the Triad, or world arising from their union. The four, the Quarternary, or the liberal sciences. On this figure, the oath was propounded to the aspirant in the esoteric school of Pythagoras. J amblichus gives this oath in his life of PJthagoras :

,, , , , ,

, , ,

Of) p.a aptrtp'¥1 ;'&11£77, TrapacXrVTa T£Tp4ICT1JJI nayall tlStvaou


pt;W/la' T'tXOtHTaJl.

By that i)ure qUl1drilit'ral name on high, N~1ture's eternal fountain n,nd supply, The parent of all souls th~1t living be,By it, with faithful oa,tb, I swear to thee.

The tetractys was undoubtedly borrowed by Pythagoras from the tetragrammaton of the Jews,* when he visited Babylon, and was instructed by Ezekiel in the Jewish mysteries. TETRAGRA~IMATON. (Gree!c.) The word of four letters. The inconlmunicable name of God in Hebrew, :1,;", which, as consisting of four letters, was thus called. See Jehovah.

• Cudworth (Intellectual system, p. 376) thinks there is no doubt of this, and tJ:a most learned writers have genernlly a,greful with him in the opinion.


T.·. G'. A.-.O.·. T.·, D.·. TILe Grand A:rchitect oJI'(he Uni verse. A very common abbreviation of the name of God, used by masonic writers. THEOLOG IOAL VIRTUES. These are Faith, Hope, and Charity, which, as forming the principal rounds of the masonic ladder, constitute a part of the instruction of the Entered Ap prentice. Of these, Faith may be explained to be the first round, because faith in God is the first requisite qualification of a can· didate for masonry; Hope is the second, because hope in imulor· tality, is a necessary consequence of faith in a divine being; and Charity is the third, because the mind that is elevated by such a faith, and the heart that is warmed by such a hope, cannot fail to be stimulated by that universal love of the human race, which is but another name for Charity. Again. Charity is the highest round, because Charity is the greatest of these virtues. Our faith may be lost in sight; "fhith is the evidence of things not seen;" he that believes only on tho evidence of his senses, believes from demonstration, and not fronl faith, and faith in him is dead. Hope ends in fruition; we hope only for that which we desire, but do not possess; and the attain.. ment of the object is the ternlination of our hope. But Charity


extends beyond the grave, through the boundless realms eter.. ni ty; for there, even there, the luercyof . God, the richest of a11 chariti~~,throwsaveil over' our transgressioDs,andextcnds tQ tie repentant sinner the boon of that forgiv,eness which divine justice must have denied.

THIRTY-THIRD DEGREE. See Supreme OO'UncU. THREE. One of the sacred numbers of Freemasonry. :rhree was considered among all the Pagan nations as the chief of the mystical Dumbers,because, as Aristotle remarks, it COlltains within itself a beginning, a middle, and an end. Hence we find it designating some of thp attributes of almost all the



gods. The thunder..bolt of Jove was three-forked; the seeptrQ of Neptune was a trident; Cerberus, the dog of Pluto, was three.. headed; there were three Fates and three Furies; the sun had three names, Apollo, So:, and Libel"; and the moon three also, Diana, Luna, and Hecate. In all incantations, three was a favourite number, and hence, the poet says, nUfJnero DeusirJlly;:/ri qaudet. A triple cord was used, each cord of three difl'erell t colours, white, red, and black, and a small image of the subj ect of the charm was carried thrice around the altar, as we see in Virgil's eighth ecologue: "Terns. tibi hrec primum triplici diversa colore Licia eircumdo, terque hooc altaria circum Effigiem duco."

The Druids paid no less respect to this sacred nUIDber. Throughout their wholesysten1, a reference is constantly made to its influence; and so far did their veneration for it extend, that even their sacred poetry was COUl posed in triads. In all the mysteries, froin EgJpt to Scaudinavia, we find a sacred regard. for the number three. In the rites of l\'lithras, the Enlp.Yrean was said to be supported by three intelligences, Or.. muzd, I\Iithra, and l'tlithras. In the rites of IIindostan, there was the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. It was, in short, a general character of the Inysteries to have three principal offi.. eel'S and three grades of initiation. In Freemasonry, the number three is the Illost important and universal in its application of all the Inystic nUll1bers.Thus W~ find it pervading the whole ritual. There are three degrees of Ancient Craft Masonry-three principal officers of a lodgethree supporta-three orntlluents-three groater and threp. lesser lights-three. moyuble and three innnovabic jewelsthree principal tenets-three rounds of ,Jacob's htdder-tbree working tools ofa Fellow-CraJt-t.hree ptoineipal orders of architecture-three important hUlnan senses-three ancient Grand Mas-

ters-three recreant F.路.. C.路. ;-and indee(l so runny instances 0;



the consecratiun of the number that it would exceed the dmita of this volume to record them.

TIIREE GLOBES, RITE OF THE GRAND LODGE OF rhe lodge of "Three Globes" was established at Berlin in 17;46, and in 1765 was constituted as a Grand Lodge. It, for a loeg time, practised only the three primitive degrees of Ancient Craft ~lasonry; but afterwards adopted seven others, borrowed from :b'rance. The three ancient degrees are under the control of the Grand Lodge, but the seven higher ones are governed by an In tel'nal Suprenle Orien t, whose melnbers are, however, elected by ,the Grand Lodge. The rite of the Grand Lodge of the Three Globes is practised by one hundred and seventy-seven lodges in Germany. THREE STEPS. The three steps on the Master's carpet are emblematic of the three stages of human life-youth, manhood, and old age, and allude to the three degrees which are respectively representations of these three stages'. THRESHING-:PLOOR. The threshing-floor of Araunah, or Ornan the Jebusite, was OIl lYlount Moriah. It was purchased by Da.vid for a place of sacrifice, for six hundred shekels of gold, and on it the temple was afterwards built. See Ornan lIte Jebu.. ,'tte THUM~fIN.

See Urtm and Thummim.

'TILER. An officer in a symbolic lodge, whose duty it ie to guard the lodge against the intrusion of the profane. As in opera~ive masonry, the tiler, when the edifice is erected, finishes lnd covers it with the roof, so in speculative Masonry, when the lodge is duly organized, trhe Tiler closes the door and covers the sacred precincts from all intrusion. The Tiler is not necessaril, , member of the lodge, but should always be a worthy 1\f~son



and skilful in the craft lIe generally receiyes a nlGJerate com.. 路lensation for his .services.

TITO. Tito Prince flarodim was one of the especial favourites of King Solomon. He presided over the lodge of Intendants 0f the Building, and was one of the twelve Illustrious I{nights who were set over the twelve tribes, that of Napthali being placed under his care. TOKEN This 'Word, in Hebrew, n'N, oth, is freq 1lently used in Scripture to signify a sign or memorial of something past, some covenant made or proln ise given Thus God says to Noah, of the rainbow "it shall be for a tolcen of a covenant between me and the earth ;" and to Abraham, he says of circun1cision, " it shall be a tol~en of the covenant betwixt me and you." In masonry, the grip of recognition is called a token, because it is an outward sign of the covenant of friendship and fellowship entered into between the Il1embers of the fraternity, and is to be considered as a Inelnorial of that covenant which was nlade, when it was first received by the candidate, between hilll and the orde~ into which he was then initiated.

TRACING-BOARD. A painting representing the emblems peculiar to a degree, arranged for the convenience of the lecturer. Each degree of symbolic masonry has its tracing-board, which are distinguished as tracing-boards the first, second, and third. It is, therefore, the "same as the flooring or carpet. TRADITIONS. The legends or traditions of Freemasonry oonstitute a very considerable and iUlportant part of its ritual. In many instances these traditions have been corrupted bJ aURchronisms and other errors, which have naturally crept into t,holn during a long series of oral transnlission. No one, therefbre,can for a moment contend that all th.e legends and tradi. tio~

of the order are, to the ver11ettef,






Ghat can be claimed for them is, that in sonle there is a great deal of truthful narrative, more or less overlaid with fictioll; in others, siulply a mere substratUtll of history; and in others, noJhing lllore than an idea, to which the legend or lllyth is indebted for its existence, and of which it is, as a symbol, the exponent The intelligent l\1ason will always, however, be able, after a little cc,nsideration, to separate the substratum of truth from the superstructur~~ of fiction which has been imposed upon it. And thon, what is presented as a tradition will often be found to be a mere myth or allegory, whose SYlllbolic teaching is of great beauty and importance It is a part of the science of Freema.. sonry to elaborate out of these traditions the truth, synl bolic or historical, which they are intended to convey, and to distinguish a tradition founded in fhct from one which is based upon a. myth, so as to assign to the annals and the poetry of the order their

respective portions.

TR.A.NSIENT BRETHREN. Transient brethren, when they visit a lodge, are to be cordially welcomed and properly clothed. , But on no occasion are they admitted until, after the proper pre.. cautions, they have proved themselves to be (( true and trusty." See ViS1~t, R/g]~t of TRANSIENT CANDIDATE. A transient candidate is ODe not living in the place where he applies for admission. If well recommended by two or more members of the lodge, a ballot may take place on the same night that he applies; whereas, in the case of a permanent residen t, th~ letter must be referred tc a committee, and .lie over for at least a month. TRAVELLING路 FREEMASONS.

There is no portion of

our a,nnals so worthy of invest.igation as that which is embraced by t~e middle ages of Christendom, when the whole of Europe was perambulated by our brethren in associations of travelling artjB~Ds1 unq~r the name 9f "楼ree aud ~coe~~4 M~us," fo~

TRA the purpose of erecting religious edifices. There is not a conn.. try of Europe which does not at this day contain honourable evidences of the skill and industry of our masonic ancestors. I therefore propose, in the present article, to give a brief sketch of the origin, the progress and the character of these travelling architects. Clavel, in his " Histoire Pittoresque de la Franc-Ma90nnerie," has traced tIle organization of these associations to the "collegia artificum," or colleges of artisans, which were instituted at Rome by NUlna, in the year B. C. 714, and whose members werr originally Greeks, imported by this lawgiver for the purpose of embellishing the city over which he reigned. These associations existed in Rome in the time of the emperors. They were endowed with certain privileges peculiar to theulselves, such as a government by their own statutes, the power of u1aking contracts as a corporation, and an iuimunity frOID taxation. ~rheir lueetings were held in private, like the esoteric schools of the philosophers. Their presiding officers were called "lnagistri." r:fhey were diYided into three classes, corresponding with the three degrees of Freenlasonry, and theJ adlllitted into their ranks, as honorary merubers, persons wIlt' were not, by profession, operative masons. Finally, tl1ey used tl SYUl balie language drawn from the iIl1plements of masonry, and tbeJ were in possession of a secret mode of recognition In tilne, the" collegia artificUIU" became the repository of all the rites which were brought to Roule from countries, and thus ~¡e IDay suppose the Hebrew mysteries, or Temple l\in,... sonry, to have been introduced into that country. This sl1pposi tion Inay derive SOUle support froln the fact; that in the time Julius Cresar the Jews were first permitted to open their syna.gogues and worship the God of their fathers, without restraint, at Rome,-a toleration for whioh they were probably indebted to their fraternization with the members of the colleges of artificerfo; ;



• 800 ~tnfl~ Oollege"


in thi. work.



and in the reign of Augustus, many of the Roman knights em.braced Judaism, and publicly observed the Sabbath. These "sodalitates," or fraternities, began upon the invasion of the barbarians to decline in num}JcfS, in respectability, and lD power. But on the conversion of the whole empire, they or oth e.:s of a similar character began again to flourish. The priest.s c:: the Christian church becalne their patrons, and under tbeir guidance they devoted themselves to the building of churches and monasteries. In the tenth century, they were cstatlished as a free guild or corporation in Lombardy. The most celebrated of these .corporations in Italy was that of Como, and the name of "l\Iugistri Comacini," or l\Iasters of Como, became at length, ~ysMuratori, the generic name for all these associations of

architects.. From Lombardy, which they soon filled with religious edifices, they passed beyond the Alps, into aU the countries where Chris.. tianity, but recently established, required the erection of churches. The popes encouraged their designs, and more than one bull was despatched, conferring on them privileges of the mostexten.. sive character. A monopoly was granted to them for the erec.. tion of all religious edifices; they were declared independent of the sovereigns in whose dominions they might be temporarily re.. siding, and subject only to their own private laws; they were permitted to regulate the amount of their wages; were exempted from all kinds of taxation; and no Mason, not belonging to their drs8ociation, was permitted to compete with or oppose them in the pursuit of employment. And in one of the papal decrees on the subject of these artisans, the supreme pontiff declares that these re,gulations have been made "after the example of Hiram, King of Tyre, when he sent artisans to King Solomon foi' thÂŁ: purpose of building the Temple of Jerusalem." After filling the continent with cathedrals, parochial churches, and monasteries, and increasing their own numbers by accessions of new melnbers from all the countries in which they had been

labouring, they p8.$sed ove:r

:mngl~n~~ ~:Qdthefe



their peculiar style of bu.ilding. Thence they tra'lclled to Scot. land, and there have rendered their existence ever luemorablc bJ establishing, in the parish of Kilwinning, where they were erect路 ing an abbey, the germ of Scottish !rreemusonry, which has '""egu.. larly descended through the Grand I.Jodge of Scotland to tho present day. The government of thes~ fraternities, wherever they nlight btl for the time located, was very regular and uniforln, "YbeIJ about to commence the erection of a religious edifice, they fir8~ built huts, or, as they were terlncd, lodges in the vicinity, in which they resided for the sa}re of economy as well as conveni.. ence. It is from these that the present name of pur places of meeting is derived. Over every ten nlen was placed a warden, who paid them wages, and took care that there should be no needless expenditure of materials, and no careless loss of implements. Over the whole, a suneyor or master, called in their old documents, "magister," presided, and directed the general labour. The Abbe Granetidier, in a letter at the end of the Marquis Luchet's ~'Er;sat su'r les lll'Um拢nes," has quoted frOIn the ancient register of the Masons at Strasburg, the regulations of the asso.. ciation which built the splendid cathedral of that city. I have not been successful in nlY efforts to obtain a sight of the original work, but the elaborate treatise of Clavel furnishes us with the most prominent details of all that Grandidier has preserved. The Cathedral of Strasburg was COIIlnlenced in the year 1277, under the direction of Hervin de Steinbach. The Masons who) under his directions, were engaged in the construction of thia noblest specimen of the Gothic style of architecture, were dividecj into the separate ranks of Masters, Craftsmen, and Apprentices, l'he place where they assembled was called a "hutte," a Gorman word equivalent to our English term, lodge. They employed the implements of masonry as emblems, and wore them as insignia. They hadeertain signs and words of recogniti.on, and re路

ceivcd their :o..ew members with pecu.uar alld

secre~ cere~o_



admitting into their ranks rnany eluinent persons who were not operative 1\lasons by pl'ofession.* The fraternity of Strasburg becanlc celebrated throughout Gerluany; tlleir superiority ,vas acknowledged by the kindred associations, and they in time received the appellation of the " haupt hutte," or G-rand Lodge, and exercised supremacy ave:: the ll-utten of Suabia, llesse, Bavaria, Franconia, Saxony, Thu-

ringia, and the (~OUD tries bordering on the river l\loselle. ThQ 1\lasters of Blese several lodges asselubled at Ratisbon in 1459, • The correspondent of the Boston Atlas gave, in 1847, the following det~1ils of the Cathedral at Cologne, another labour of the Trn,velling Freemasons of tb e Middle Ages: "There stood the huge mass, a proud monument to Gerhard, Master of the Cologne Lodge of Freemasons. and resisting,. as it does, the attacks of nature and the la,bour of man, a s,ymbol of th~1t mystic brotherhood which, to use the words of Lafayette, 'owes a double lustre to those who have cherished, and to those who bave persectlted it/





. . . .

"During the interval between 1248 and 1323, there were not only fifty Masters, nnd three times H,S many Fellow-Crn.ft, duily employed, but a large number of Entered Apprentices,. from all parts of Christendom, who hild come to study both the operat.iV'e and speeula,tive branches of the art, and carried home with them the principles which directed the erection of almost every Gothic monument of the age; others, which prepared the way for the light of the Reformation: 'They dreamt not of & perishable home, Who could thus build.'

After the s€'~ession of the Freemasons from the church, the works were sus.. pended, leaving only the choir, with its side aisles, completed. Saxatile creep.. era eovered the other foundations! and after remaining untouched, eKcept by the iron hand or Time, for nenrly fiye centuries, it could but remind one of • broken promise to God.' In 1829, the attention of the King of Prussia wa. lirect$d to it, and the wJrk recommenced with such skill, that an associatioB wns !'ormed in 1842 for the purpose of continuing it vigorously. - • • .. The original plnlns, which ,vere trtken fr9m the lodge by the French in 1794, have been recovered, and nre st.rictly aclhered to by the architect, M. Zmerner, who has even adopted the ancient ~Lnd accepted division of the workmen. The first class receives 57 cents per diem, the second, 4Scents, and the third. 41 cents, those in the tWQ latter receivIng promotion wlJen tlleir industr,v ~nd It



~erit i~"



ind on the 25th of .A.pril contracted an act of union, declaring the chief of the Strasburg Cathedral the only and perpetual O'rand l"Iaster of the General Fraternity of Freemasons of Germany. Similar institutions existed in France and in Switzerland. In the latter country the Grand I.Jodge was established (riginally at Berne, about the middle of the fifteenth century, during the construction of the cathedral at that place, but in 1502 it wa:s transferred to Zurich. The details of the proceedings of the travelling Freemasorj S in England are nlore fanliliar, as well as more interesting, to U~ They entered that kingdo111 at an early period. We have; already seen that their organization iTl Italy, as a free guild, t.O()1\: plnce early in the tenth century j ,and we know, from undoubted documents, that Prince Ed,vin nsselnblecl the English l\Iusons at York in 926, when the first English Grand J..Iodge was consti tuted.. It is frOln this general nsselnbly of our ancestors at. York, that all the existing constitutions of our English and American lodges derive their authority. Franl tl1ut period the fraterllity, with various intertuissions, continued to pursue their labours, and constructed Iunny edifices ,vhich still renlain as monuments of tllcir skill as worknlcn, and their taste as architects. Kings, in mnny inshtnces, becaule their patrons, and their labours were superintended by powerful noblemen and elninent prelates, who, for this purpose, were admitted as members of the fraternity. l\Iany of the old charges, for the better ge vernnlent of their lodges, have been preserved, and are still to be found in our books of Const.itutions, every line of which indi. eates that they were originally drawn up for associations strictly and exclusively operative in their character. In glancing over the history of this singular oody of architeets, we are struck with several important peculiarities. In the first place, they were strictly ecclesiastical in their con. stitution. The Pope, the supreulePontiff of the Ohurcb, was their patron and protector. They were supported nnd encour~lged




by bishops and abbots, and hence their chief elllployment appear. to have been in the const.ruction of religious edifices. Like thai I ancestors, who 'were engaged in the erection of the magnificent Temple of fJ erusaleln, they devoted theruselves to labour for the (C IIouse of the Lord." ~lasonry was then, as it had been be .I~ore, and has ever been since, intiulatcly connected with religion, 'rhey were originally all operatives. But the artisans of that period were not educated Inen, and they were compelled to seek among the clergy, the only 1non of learning, for tbose whose wlsdon1 lllight contrive, and whose cultivated ta.ste might adorn, the plans which they by t.heir practical skill were to carry into (~ffect. Hence the germ of that spec~lative masonry, which once dividing. the character of the fraternity with the operative, now completely occupies it, to the entire exclusion of the latter. But, lastly, frol11 the cirCUlllstance of their union and concert, arose a uniformity of design in all the public buildings of that period-u unif(n'Illity so renlurkable as to find its explanation only in t.he fact, that their construction was C0ll11uitted through.. out the ,vhole of Europe, if not al"rays to the saIne individuals, at least to mOIll bel's of the sanle association. The renlarks of l\lr. I-lope on this subject, in his" flistory of Architecture," (p. 289,) are well worthy of perusal. "'The architects of all the sacred edifices of the Latin church, wherever such arose,-north, south, east, or west,-thus deriyed their science from the same central school; obeyed in their designs the same hierarchy; were (lirected in their constructions by the same principles of propriety and taste j kept up with each other, in the most distant parts to tt hich they nlight be sent, the most constant correspondence;

!inc1 rendered every minute improvement, the property of the whole body and a new conquest of the art. The result of this unanimity was, that at each successive period of the mon~tic dynasty, on whatever point a new church or new monastery might be erected, it resembled all those raised at the same period in every other place, howe,"'er distant from it, as if both had been built in tIle same plaee bjT the same artist. For instance, we



tInd, at particular epochs, churches as ftlf distant fronl each ot II er as the north of Scotla,nrl and the south of Italy, to be luinutcly

qirnilar in all the essential charattel'istics." In conclusion, we nU1Y reuulrk, '\vith some pride as their descendants, that the ~rorlcl is indebted to this association for the

introduction of the G-othie, or, as it, has latdJ heen denClInirHttCt( the pointed style of architecture. This style-so different fi'oUt the Greek or Itolllan orders-,,~hose pointed arches and nlinutc tracery distinguish the soleulu teu1ples of the olden time, and whose ruins arrest the attention uud claiIn the adlnirntion of the spectator, has been universally acknowledged to be the invention of the travelling Freemasons of the l\Iiddle . ;. \ges.


"T AB.l~.A.~TS-

These are 'VV'arrants of Con-

stitution granted to ]nr1gcs, enlpowel'ing the melllbers to reruoye their lodge at pleasure, and to open it and transact lodge busi-

ness in any part of the world in ","'hich they may be stationed. Such Warrants are grunted generally to lodges in the army.


1779, the l\Iassachusetts Grand I.lodge grunted a warrttut to G-en. l)a.tterson and others, to hold a tra veIl ing lodge in the Alnerican army, to be called "'Vashington I.lodge." In 1756, R. lV. Iiichard G-ridley was authorized "to congregate all Free and _A,ecepted l\.Iasons, in the expeditirHl against Crown Point, and forln thell1 into one or Ulore lodges." In 17B8, St. John's G-rand Lodge, at Boston, granted a travelling ,varrant to a lodge to bE holden in His l\lajosty's 28 th reghnent, then stationed at I... ouis-

burg. *

Lodges of this character a,re still very common in the

13ritish arIny.t In the London Review, 1834, two interesting anecdotes are recorded of lodge No. 227, attached to the 46th reginH~nt of the

• Moore's Mngn.zine, vol. i, p. 15. t During the late war between the United States and l\Iexic-<>, trnve:1ing warrants were granted to some of the regiments of volunteers in the Aluericall arm.y.

TRE-TRI Britiah lLl'Iny, und working under a travelling ,varrant from tht Grand I~odge of Ireland. During the Revolution, "the masonic chest of the 46th, by the chance of war, fell into the hands of the ...~ nlericans: the captors reported the CirCUll1stance to Gen. 'VfLRhington, who enlbra('cd the ol)portunity of testifying his admiration of 11lasonry in the most marked and gratifying Iuanner,l by directing that a guard of honour, under the cominaud uf ~ di~tinguished officer, should take charge of the chest, 'with ulan.)' 'articles of value belonging to the 46th, and returned tnem to the reginlent. In 1805, the chest was captured again in Dominica, by the French, who carried it on boa.rd their fleet without knowing its contents: Three years afterward, the chest, at the re- . quest of the officers who had comtnanded the expedition, was returned by the French government with several complimentary presents." TREASURER. The fourth officer of a symbolic lodge, whose duty it is to receive a111110ney from the hands of the Secretary, or otherwise, and pay it out. again by the order of the "TorshipfhllVIaster, and with the consent of the lodge. He is a responsible officer, and is generally required to give security for the faithful performance of his duties. TRESTLE..BOARD.

A trestle-board, from the French tres1\1 asonical1y, it means the board on which the master worknulD laJ~ his designs to direct the craft in their labours. In speculative Freeluasonry, it is symbolical of the books of nature and revehl" tion, in which the Suprelne .A.rchitect of the Universe has de路 V'eloped his will, for the guidance and direction of his creatures, in the great labour of their lives, the erection of a temple 01 holiness in the heart. feau, is a board placed on a ,vooden fralIle of three legs.

TRIANGLE, DOUBLE. The double triangle is described by some writers as identieal with the pentalpha of Pythagoras1

TRI 01 pentangle of Solomon. ~entalpha

1'his, however, is not the case"



has fiye lines and five angles, and

the double triangle has six: lines ilnd six 1.'he forIner, was anlong the Pythagoreans, an emblem of health, ~Lnd among j)Iasons i,t is the outline or origin 0 f the fi vepointed star, the emblem of fellowship; the latter is the Seal of SololDon, or Shield of David. In Christian churches it is a symbol of the twofold nature of Christ.


TRIANGLE, EQUILA.T:BJRf\..L. This, as the most perfect of路 figures, was adopted by all the ancient nations as a symbol of' the Deity. It still retains that allusion as an emblem of Freemasonry. Among t.he I-Iebre~Ys, a jod in the centre of an equilateral triangle, "taB one of the emblenls of Jehovah. In the system of Pythagoras, the obligation was administered to the candidate on the Tetraetys, 'which was expressed by ten jods arrayed in the forul of a triuIlg]e, which, with thein, was t.Jle symbol of Deity, as etn bracing in hiulself the three stages of time, past, present., and futul'e; he was, he is, and he shall be Among the I-Iebrews, a jod in the centre of a triangle vtas one of the rnodes of expressing the incommunicable nalue of J ehoYah, a.nd was suppofJed, by SOUle authors, to refer to the triune God. This allusion to Deity it still preserves in the masonic ritual.

TRIA.NGLE, TRIPLE. This is another of the numeroue forn:s in which the triangle is arranged, and ..iKe R11 the others, it is used as a syrnbol of Deity, though perhaps it is here Inade to ...__---楼---.., assume a still more sacred character from its triple form. As such, it has been (1,dopted as the most appropriate jewel of the Illustrious I)relate in a ComIllandery of I{nights Templars.



TRIPLE 'rAU. The Tau Cross, or Cross of St. Anthony, h. a cross in the forDl of a Greek T. The triple tau is a figure form.ed by three of these crosses meeting in a point, and therefore resembling a letter T resting on the traverse beam of an II. emblem is not adopted in American Freemasonry, but place<! in the centre of a triangle and circle-both emblems of the ])Plty; it constitutes the jewel of the Royal Arch as practis<;.d in }Jngland, where it is so highly esteemed as to be called the ,t emblem of all enlblems," and "the grand emblem of Royal Arch ~lasonry." The original signification of this emblem has been variouRly explained. Some suppose it to include the initials of the Temple of Jerusalem, T. H., Templum Hiero8olJjmm; others, that is a sYlnbol of the mystical union of the Father and Son, H signifying Jehovah, and T, or the cross, the Son. A writer in 1rloore's l\-lagazine ingeniously supposes it to be a representation of three T squares,- and that it alludes to' the three je'W"els of the three ancient Grand Masters. It has also been said that it is the monogram of Hiram of Tyre, and others &BSert that it is only a modification of the lIebrew letter shin, tV, which was one of the JewiBh abbrevhttions of the sacred n.ame. Oliver thinks, from its connection with the circle and triangle in the Royal Arch jewel, that it was intended to typify the sacred naUle as the author of eternal life. The English' Royal Arch lectures say that "by its intersection it forms a given number of angles that lllay be taken in five several combinations; and, reduced, their aDl oun t in righ t angles will be foun d equal to the five Platonic bodies which represent the four elements and the sphere of the 拢Jniverse." Amid so many speculations, I need not hesitate to offer one of nlY own. I have already stated under the article TauOross, that the Prophet Ezekiel路 speaks of the tau or tau cross as the mark distinguishing those who were to be saved,oa account of their sorrow for their sins, from those who, as idolaters, were to be slain. It was a mark or sign of fuvourable distinction, and with this allusion we may, therefore; suppose the ttiple tau to be used in the Royal Arch degre~ as a nJark designating



and !eparating those who know a.nd worship the true name of God, from those who are ignorant of that august mystery.


An implement of operative masonry, which ha!

been adapted by speculative Masons as thti peculiar working tool

of the Master's degree. By this implement, and its use in ope路 rative tnasonry to spread the cement which binds all the parts of the building into one common mass, we are taught to spread the cement of affection and kindness, which unites all the members of the masonic fanlily, wheresoever dispersed over the globe, into one companionship of Brotherly Love, Relief; and Truth. This implement is also very appropriately devoted to the Master's degree, because, as :rriaster Masons only, do we constitute the recognised members of the great brotherhood of masonry. The Entered Apprentice and Fellow--Craft are not considered as members of the masonic family. Again is this implement considered the appropriate working tool of a lVlast~r ~Iason, because, in operative masonry, while the Apprentice is engaged in preparing the rude Inaterials, which require only the guage and gavel to give thelu their proper shape, the Fellow-Craft places them in their proper position by means of the plumb, level, and square ; but the Master l\Iason alone, having examined their correctness, and proved them true and trust,], secures them permanently in their place by spreading, with the trowel, the cement that irrevocably binds them together. The trowel has also been adopted as the jewel of the Select Master. But its uses in this degree are not symbolical. They simply connected with the historical legend of the degree

TROWE.L AND SWORD.. In the degree of Knights of the East we are told that at the building of the second temple, Zerubbabel ordered the workmen to carry a sword in one hand and a. trowel in the o1her, so that while they worked with one hand they might be enabled to defend theolselves with the other from the attacks of their envious neighbors, the Samaritans. '1'0

TR.O-TUn commemorate the valour of these w'orthy craftsmen, the sworu and trowel en saltire been pla.ce upon the English Royal J~reh Tracing-board. In the American ritual this expressive symbol of valour and piety has been omitted. 1'RO\VEL, COlVIPANY OF THE. A society composed of learned and eminent persons, instituted at Florence in 1512 Its enlblerus were the. trowel, the gavel and the square, and its patron was St. Andrew. Clavel thinks the institution was derived from the society of Travelling Freemasons, and was organized by persons of quality, who had been admitted as honorary merubers of that operative association.

TRUE MASONS, ORDER OF THE. A branch of the IT '3rrnetic rite of Pernetti, under the name of the order of True J\:Iasons, was established at Montpelier, in 1778, by Boileau, who subsequently introduced the Philosophic Scotch rite. It consisted of six degrees. 1, the' True Mason; 2, the True l\la.. son in the right way; 3, Knight of the. Golden Key; 4, I{night of the Itainbow; 5, I{night of the Argonauts ;6, Knight of Golden lneece. TRUTH. Truth is one of the three principal tenets of our order, Brotherly Love and Relief being the other two. To be " true and trusty" is one of the first lessons in which the aspirant is instructed. All other things are morta.l and transitory, but truth alone is immutable and eternal; it is the attribute of 11 im in whom there is no variableness nor shadow of changing. TUBAL CAIN The son of Lamech; the first who wrought iron and brass. He was the inventor of edge-tools, and in~ traduced many arts into society which tended towards its improve.. mentand civilization. Tubal Cain is the ulcan of the pagans, and is thought to have been closely connected with Ancient li'ree~as()nry. Fabel says that "all the most remarkable ancieu1



buildings of" Greece, 1-1Jgypt uUlI .:\.sia l\Iinor, were ascribed to Cabirean or Cyclopean l\lasons," the descendants of Vulcan,Dhu Balcan, the god Btl1can, or Tubal Cain. Oliver says "in after thues Tubal Cain, under the name of Vulcan and his Cyclops, figurr:.d as workers in metals and inventors of the mysteries; and hence it is probable that he was the hieroIJhant. of a sitnilar institu.. tiOll in his day, copied frOtH the previous systeul of Seth, and ap, plied to the improvelnent \)f schclnes more adapted to the physical pursuits of the race to which h.e belonged."* For these reasons Tubal Cain has been consecrated, atnong masons of the present day, as an ancient brother. His introduction of the arts of civilization having gh1en the first value to property, Tubal Cain has been considered atnong masons asa symbol of ¡worldl!! possessftons.

TUBe.A.NORDER. One of the five orders of architecture, and of coulparatively modern date, having been invented by the Italians. It so much resembles the Doric, that it has been considered by Ulost writers as merely a variety of that order. Its want of antiquitS causes it to be held in but little esteem alllong "Freemasons..





TWELVE GRAND POINTS OF ~IASONRY The old English lectures contain the following passage: "There arc in Freemasonry twelve original point.s, which form the basis of the system, and compl"ehend the whole ceremony of initiation. \Vithout the existence of these poi n ts, no man ever was or can be legally and essentially recciv'ed into the order. Every person who it made a mason Inust go through nIl these twelve forms and ceremonies, not only in the first degree, but in every subsequent one." • Oliver, Landmarks, ii. p. 213.



Important as our ancient brethren deClllecl the explanatior. or t11ese points) the Grand Lodge of England thought proper, in 1813, to strike them from its ritual, and as they never were introduced into this country, a synopsis of them nl~Y not be uninteresting or unacceptable. These tweIve points refer the twelve parts of the ceremony of initiation to the twelve tribes of Israel, in the following manner: 1. To Reuben was referred the openi'ng of thf': lodge, because he was the first-born of his father. 2" 'ro Simeon was referred the preparation of the candidate, because he prepared the instruments of destruction for the slaughter of the Shechelnites. 3. To Levi was referred the report, because he gave a sig.. nalGr report to his brothers when they assailed the men of Sheehan. 4. To Judah was referred the entrance, of the oandidate, be.. cause tJ-ais tribe first entered the pronlised land. S. To Zebulun was referred the pra}Jer, because the prayer and blessing of ~is father was conferred on him in preference to bis br(~her, Issachar.

. 6. To Issachar was referred the Cir-c'tlmambulatiol1, because, as an indolent and thriftless tribe, they required a leader to advance \bell] to an equal elevation with the other tribes. 7. To Dan was referred the ceremony of advancing to the altar, as a contrast with the advance of that tribe to idolatry. 8 To G1<1 was referred the obligativn, because of the vow of Jephtha, a member of that tribe. 9. To Asher was referred the time when the candidate was intrusted, because Asher, by the fertile soil of its district, was represented by fatness and royal dainties, which were compared to the riches of masonic wisdom which the candidate thenreceived. 10. To Naphthali was referred the investment, when the can路 didate, having received his. apron, was declared fre,e, because the


tribe of Naphthali had a peculiar freedom attached to them in oonformi ty with the blessing pronounced by 1\lose8.. 11. To Joseph was referred the north-east corner, because, M ~liis reminds us of the Illost superficial part of maSODr~r, so tho two half tribes of Ephraim and l\lanasseh, of which the tribe of Joseph was coruposed, were accounted lnore superficial than the rest, inasmuch us they were only the grandsons of the patriarch ;acob. 12. To Benjanlin ,vas referred the closing of the lodge, because he was the last son of Jacob.. These points, as I have already observed, are now obsolete, I: ut they afford instruction, and will be found worthy of attention.

TWENTY-FOUR INCH GU.l.-'\.GE. An instrument made use of in operative nlftSOnry, for . the purpose of measuring and laying out work, and whioh, in speculative masonry, constitutes one of the working tools of t,he Entered Apprentice. The twenty-four inches which are marked upon its surface, are em.. blematical of the twenty-rour hours of the day, which, being di. vided into three parts, instruct the mason to give e1gh t hours to labour, eight hours to the service of God and a worthy, distressed brother, and eight to refreslunent and sleep. Willialn of l\;I~thllS.' bury tells us, that this Inethod of d.ividing the day is the saUle that was adopted by King i\.lfred. Why tbe twenty.. four inch guage has been adopted as th(~ working tool of an .E1ntered A P'"' prentice, may be seen by a reference to the word Implements. TYLER.

An obsolete spelling.

See 'l!iler.

TYRE. A city of Phenicia, on the coast of the l\lediterranean sea, ninty...t,hrcc miles north of Jerusalem. It is distingUished in masonic history for the part taken by Hirnm, its king, in supply... ing workulen andwaterials for the building of the Tenlple. Thi~ Qla~nificent place, once the :richest ~d ll.Jost powerful of the citie,



of the coast, has long since been demolished, and on a }t,rt vI its ruins the insignificant village of Sur has been founded by the Metoualies.

u. UNANIMITY. Unanimity in the choice of candidates is con.. sidered so essential to the welfttre of the fraternity, that the old regulations of the Grand Lodge of England, have expressly pro.. vided for its preservation in the following words: "But no man can be entered a brother in any particular lodge, or admitted a member thereof, without the unanimous consent of all the members of the lodge then present, when the candida.te is proposed, and when their consent is formally asked by the 1'las.. ter. They are t.o give their consent it their own prudent way, either virtually or in form, but w'ith unanimity. Nor is this in¡ herent privilege subject to a dispensation; because the memb~r of a particular lodge are the best judges of it; and because, if a turbulent member should be imposed upon them, it might spoil 'heir harnlony, or hinder the freedom of their communication, or even break and disperse the lodges, which ought to be avoided by all true and faithful."* See Ballot.

UNFAVOUltABLE REPORT. The unfavourable reporl of a committee on the application of a candidate is equivalent to a rejection, and precludes the necessity of a ballot. For the r&30n, lee Elect'ion.



Regulation$, anno 1'T67


A.rch'fteet 01 the lJiz,iverse.-This is the caption to all balustres or documents· emanating from a Sov"ereign Inspector or Supreme Council of the S3d degree of the l\..ncient Scotch rite.

UPRIGHT POSTURE. To man alone, of all the inhabitants of the earth, has his Creator given an upright and erect posture, to elevate his mind by the continual sight of the heavenl, host, and by the noble thoughts tha.t his natural attitude inspires, to draw him from the grovelling cares of earth, to a contempla :ion of the divine sources from whence he sprang. In the hu man race this erect stature is the foundation of their dominion and superiority 01ler all the rest of the animal world.



Thus while the mute creation downward bend Their sight, and to their earthly mother tend, Man looks aloft, and with eternal eyes Beholds his own hereditary skies."t

The man who has planted his feet upon the immutable

.)f morality, and whose body is erect in the proud consciousness of virtue, is, indeed, worthy of the dominion which has been given hiIn over the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air And the mason, remexubcl'ing th11t "God hath made man up" right,"t should constantly endeavour to preserve that upright posture of his body and his Dlind. UR11\1 AND THUl\I~IIlVl. Two Hebrew words, C'i'~ and Auritn and Thulllulim, signifying, as they have been

o ~f..)t·l,

translated in the S0ptuagint, "I"",igbt and Truth."§

They were

.acred lots worn in tIle breast-plate of the IIigh Priest, and to bt' ooDsulted by him alone for the purpose of obtaining a revelation T. lett. 21, p. 420. tPronaque cum spectent anitnalia Cfetera. terram Os bomini sublime dedit: cooluIDque tuarl

• Turner, Sac. His. World.

Jussit, et erectoe ad sidera tollere vurtue. Ovid. Met. B. L 8L

f or;);~l$" KIK .a-...

l 'Ecclesiastes, vii.. 2i. 4:8*

URN the will of God in nlat.ters of gloeat moment. What the) re, authorf.l on J ew!sh antiquities have not been al:,1e to agree Some suppose, t.b.~t th~ augury consisted in a more splendid ap pearance of oertain letter.3 of the names of the tribes i.n~cribed upon the r;tones of the breast-plate; others, that it was received ~J ~ oice from two small images which were placed beyond the foIls tf the breast-plate. A variety of other conjectures have beâ‚Ź'll har.arded, but as Godwyn observes, "he spoke best., who iugeni. ously confessed that he knew not what Urim and Thummim was."'* But the researches of Egyptian Archreologists have thrown much I:2'ht upon .this intricate subject, and relieved it of many of its difficulties. It is now known that the Egyptian. judges wore breast-plates having inscribed on them two figures, the ono of the Sun Ra, in a double sense, that of physical and intellec.. tual light, and the other, that of the goddess Thrne in her two. fold capacity of truth and justice. Now in Hebrew the double capacity of any thing is ex.pressed by the plural form of the noun. But the Egyptian Ra, the sun 01' light, is in Hebrew Aur and Thrne, truth is TJtme. A'llr; in the plural, is Aurim. Tltme, in the plural, is Th'ln'i¡rn Now it seems to me, and I have the high authority of the Egyptian archreologists with me, that the Aurim and Thummilll of the Hebrew breast-plate were borrowed from the breast-pla~B of the Egyptian judges. 1\10ses, we know, was versea 1n all the learn.. ing of the Egyptians, and these very breast-plates had already been consecrated in the eyes of the Jews by their seeing them worn as tokens of official dignity by the ministers of justice, who were also High Priests in that Egypt which had forme,IJ teen the land of their task-masters. URN. the urn has been adopted as a memorial of death; because formerly it was the custom, instead of burying corpSE'P, "~ burn them upon a. funeral pyre, and daposit the ashes in at



l1rD.. This custom was sometimes adopted by the Jews, as, in the case of Saul, whose body was burnt by the men of Jabeshf

though their usual method was that of inhumation.

v. VEILS. The veils of the tabernacle were of four colours, blue, purple, scarlet, and white or fine linen These colours have been adopted as the symbolic colours of masonry. White is the emblem of innocence, and is found in the gloves and apron; blue is the emblem of universal friendship, and is appro... priated to the symbolic degrees; scarlet is the emblem of zeal and fervency, and is appropriated to the Royal Arch; purple, which is the union of blue and scarlet, is thence the emblem of unity and concord, and ha.s been adopted as the colour of the in.. t.ermediate degrees between the symbolic and the Royal Arch. The Jews, according to Josephus, gave to these veils an astronomical signification, and supposed them to represent the four elements. Fine white linen was a sylnbol of the earth, because it was made out of flax, a production of the earth: the blue, as the colour of the sky, was a sYlubol of the air; the purple, of the sea, because it derived its colour from the murex, a shell-fish that inhabits the sea; and the scarlet was the natural symbol of


Three officers of a Royal

Arch Ohapter, who, being armed with. a sword, and bearing a banner of the appropriate colour, are stationed at the blue, purple, and scarlet veils. The white veil is guarded by theRoya1

Arch Captain. ........-_~~------

-----------......... .......,



VE.RGliJR. An officer in a Council of Knights of the Sepulchre, corresponding to the Senior Deacon in a symbolic

lodge. VISI~rATION. The 路official visit of the Grand l\la,~ter and his officers to a subordinate lodge, for the purpose of inspecting its books and lllode of work, is called a visitation. On this oc.. casion, the lodge should be opened in the l\laster's degree; the Grand Officers should be received with all the honours of rna.. sonry, and the seats of the officers of the lodge should be surrendered to the corresponding Grand Officers. This last is done ' as an acknowledgment of the authority from which the lodge derives its Warrant of Constitution. The Grand Master and the Deputy Grand Master are entitled, in aU their visits to fiubordinate lodges, to certain \privileges, which are thus laid down in the English Constitutions: "The Grand J\laster has' full authority to preside in any lodge, and to order any of his Grand Officers to attend him; his Deputy is to be placed on his right hand, and the l'Iaster of the lodge on his left hand. His "-'T ardens are also to act as Wardens of that particular lodge during his presence." P. 30. "The Dg.puty Grand l\Iaster has full authority, unless the Gr~nd l\Iaster, or Pro-G-rand l\laster, be present, to preside in every lodge which he may visit, with the Master of the lodge on his right hand. The Grand Wardena, if present, are to actae

'Vardens." P. 33. But this power of presiding, in an informal visit, does not seem tc have been extended to the Grand Wardens; though, of course, if the visit be official, and the Grand and Deputy Grand 1\iasters be absent, the Senior Grand Warden will preside as De.. puty Grand l\1aster, and the ~laster of the lodge will, in that case, sit on the right.

VISIT, RIGHT OF. Every mason who is a wor~ng bra{her, that is ~Q s~y, who is a subscrib~n"membe:r of ~ lOQie, Jl.a8



it right to visit any other lodge as often raa it .tnay suit his conve.. .lienee or his pleasure. * This right is guaranteed to every mason by the most ancient ~egulations. In the" Ancient Charges at the Constitution of a lJOdge," contained in a 1\18. of the I.;Aoc1ge of Antiquity in I,Olldon, it is dire.3ted, "That! every mason receive and cherish strange fellowes when the:y COlne over the countr'ie, and sett thOUl on worke, if they will worke, as the lllanner is; that iR to say, if the tuason have any Illould stone in his place, he shall give hitn a mould stone, and Rett hiln on worke; and if he have none, the mason shall refresh him with 1110ney unto the next lodge." This regulation is explicit. It not only infers the right of visit, but it declares that the ~trange brother shall be welCOlued. It Iefers, however, only to the case of "strange fellowes," 'WhOlll we now denOlninate transient brethren. But in the case of brethren who reside in the place where the lodge is situated, to which they denland adruittance, otllcr and subsequent regulations have been created. In this case it SeGInS to be necessary that the visiting brother shall be a meruber of SOUle other lodge.. This doctrine is expressed in the follo'wing sections of the Coustitution of the Grand I..lodge of England: ".1\.. brother, who is not a subscribing 111enlber to SOllIe lodge, shall not bE~ permitted to visit anyone lodge in the town or plnce where he resides, more than once during his secession from tbe en'aft." P. 89. A non-subscribing brother is pertuitted to visit each lodge once, because it is supposed that this visit is lnude for the purpose of enabling him to Riuke n. selection of the one in which he may prefer working. But afterwards he is excluded, in order to discountenance those b~ctbren who wish to continue members of the order, and to partake of its benefits, without contributing to

its support. • I shull not enter upon the question that has been mooted by Brother Moore, [Freemason"s Mag. vol. iii. 225,] whether this is an inherent right. I~ will be Juftlei~llt, as seen abQve~ that the right is secured by the o~~e8t repl" ~~




Another regulation on this subject is, no visitor can b! admitted into a lodge, unless he is person:Jlly vouehed for by a brother present, or has subluitted to a due examination. A fourth regulation, and one that has lately given occasion 4.i) considerable discussion, is, that a strange brother shall furni~ h the lodge he desires to visit with a certificate of his good st::1:ld. ing in the order. The regulation requh~ing certificates has been said by some to be an innovation. That it is not so, but, on the contrary, was in force at an early period, will appea-r fronl the following extract, from the" Regulations Iuade in General Assembly, Dec. 27, 1663," under the Grand Mastership of the Earl of St. Albans: "3. That no person hereafter who shall be accepted a Freemason, shall be admitted into any lodge· or assem.. bly, until he has brought a certificate of the time and place of his acc'cptation, from the lodge that accepted him, unto the JYlaster of that limit or division where such a lodge is kept." This regulation has since been reiterated on several occasions; by the Grand Lodge of England in 1772, and at subsequent periods by several of the Grand ~odges of this and other countries. The right of visit is, therefore, regulated by t"J?e following principles: Transient brethren may visit lodges, provided they prove themselves qualified by a voucher or by examination, and by the possession of a certificate; and resident brethren after the first visit, only while they are· contributing members to the order..

VOTING. Voting in lodges viva voce is an innovation. The ancient method was by holding up one of the hands. Ie the regulations of the Grand Lodge of England, revised in 1767, it is said, "The opinions or votes of the members are always t() be signified by each holding up one of his hands) whioh uplifteel hunds the Grand Wardens are to count, unless the number of hands be so unequal as' to rend€r the counting useless. Nor should any other kh:ul of divisi~n be ever admitted QJl sucb



VOUCIIING. To vouch is to bear witness; vouching for a :>rother is, therefore. bearing witness that he is a true and trusty mason. And no one can, of course, give this testimony of a stranger's character, unless he has personally satisfied himself of nis qualifications. A candidate's letter must be signed by two brethren, one of whom vouches for his possessing the necessary qualifica.tions, moral, mental, and physical, and is, hence, called the voucher; and the other, upon this vouching, recommends him to the lodge; and no candidate, unless thus properly vouched for, can be suffered to enter upon the ceremonies of initiation.

w. WAGES. There are various masonic traditions respecting the wages pl1id to the workmen at the building of the tenlple. The whole is stated to have been equal to six hu:qdred and seventy-two millions of dollars, but the aut.horities differ as to the proportion in which it was distributed.. Of course, the higher the degree, the higher nlust have been the amount of wages. A J\Iaster must have received more than a FelIow..Oraft. There was an old tradition arnong the English masons, that the men were paid in their lodges by she~els-a silver coin of about the value of fifty cent.s-and that the amount was regulated by the square of the number of the degree that the work.. man had attained. Thus, the ~Jntered Apprentice received one shekel per day; the Fellow.. Craft, who had advanced to the st,cond degree, received the square of 2, or 2 X 2=4 shekels; and the l\Iarkman, or third degree, received the square of 3, or 3 X 3=9 skekels; whilst the ninth degree, or Super-Excellent 'Ma.son, received the square of 9, or 9X9=81 shekels.



According to this tradition, the pay.. roll would b0 as followsAn Entered Apprentice received 1 shekel or

.A. Fellow-Craft,



.A. l\lark l\lan, .A. l\lark l\Iaster,

" "

9" 16"



A J\Iaster


$00 50 ctg 2 50 4 50 8 0(, L250

An Architect,



An Excellent Mason," A Super-Excellent Mason,

49" 64" 81 "

24 50 82 00 40 50

" A Grand Architect,"

:But this calculation seems to have been only a fanciful specu· lation of some of our ancient bret.hren. The traditions preserved among us relate only to the pay of the Fellow-Crafts, and carry with thenl a much greater air of probability. A'3cording to these, such of the Fellow..Crafts as worked in the quarries, and had been nlade the possessors of a ruark, received thfir wages in specie, at the rate of a half shekel a daJ, and were paid. on the sixth day of the week, at the office of the Senior Granel vVarden of their lodge. But all the other Fellow-Crafts recE~i",ed theirs in the middle chalnber, and were paid in corn, wine, and oil, according to the stipulation of I\:ing Solcnnon with I-liram, I{ing of Tyre : "And, behold, I will give to thy servants, the hewers that cut timber, twenty thousand measures of beaten wheat, and twenty thousand measures of ba,rley, twenty thou.. saud measures of wine, and twenty thou8<1.nd baths of oil. "

2 ehron. ii. 10.

V\T.A..RDENS_ Two officers in a symbolic lodge, whose dut,y it in to assist the Worshipful Master in the governm~dL of the ·craft. The :first of these officers is called the Senior, and the second the lunioT, Warden. A\{en~'{)r Warden. The duti€s of a Senior Warden are highlj'



Ull!JOrtant He is, under the ~laster, to superintend the craft during labour, and, in his absence, to preside over the lodge 'Vith the 'V'ol'shipfull\Iaster and the Junior \'Varden, he represents the lodge ill the Grand I..lodge. The Senior urden has the privilege of appointing the Junior Deacon; and to him, when the Master is otherwise engaged, are all repol-ts to be nlade by that officer. IIis jewel is a level-an emblerl1 of the equality And harmony which should exist among l\Iasons in the .Odgi while at work. Before the Senior 'Varden is placed, anq ht carries in all processions, a co!ullln, which is a representation of the right-hand pillar that stood at the porch of King Solomon's Temple. In case of the death, removal from the State, or expulsion of the !faster, the Senior Warden presides over t,he lodge for the remainder of his term of office. During the teulporary absence the l\Iaster, the Senior \Varden will, SOllletimes, through courtesy, resign the chair to a forlner Past l\laster; yet, in this case, the latter officer derives his authority fronl the Warden, and cannot act until this officer has congregated the lodge. The same thing is applicable to the Junior 'Varden, in case of the absence both of the l\Iaster and the Senior "rarden. ~rhis rule arises from the fact that the '\Varrant of Constitution is granted to the .lVIaster, Wardens, and their successors in office, and not to the melubers of the lodge. A iodge, therefore, cannot be legally congregated without thepresenee of at least one of these oflicers, or a Past



Junior Warden. The Junior Warden presides over the craft during refreshment,and in the absence of the 'Vorshipful 1\1as路 terand Senior 'Varden, he perfOfIDS the duties of presiding officer. The jewel of the Junior vVarden is a ph:.mb, embl&matic of the reetitude of conduct which should dist.inguish the brethren, when, durIng the hours of refreshment, they are beyond the precincts of the lodge. His sea.t is in the S.路 , and ho represents the Pillar of 13euuty. .lIe has placed before him, and carries in procession, a colurnn, which is the l'~presentative




the left..hand pillar which stood at the porch of Solomon'. Tenlple.* One other regulation in relation to these officers, requires to be luentioned. When the lodge, by death or otherwise, is deprived of the services of any of the other officers, an election rna] be immediately held, under the dispensation of the Grand l\Iaster! 4;,0 supply the vacancy. But no election cain be had to supply the place ad inte'rtm, of either the lVlaster or Wardens, while one of the three remains. If two of them, as, for example, the l\Iaster and Senior Warden, have died or been deposed, the Junior War, den must occupy the chair during the remainder of the term, and appoints his Wardens pro te-mpo?-e at each communica.tion, until the regular constitutional night of election. It is only in the case where the whole three have died, or otherwise left the lodge, that a dispensation can be gran ted for an election to supply their place. Because, by the regulation granting to them only the Warrant of Constitution, without, at least, one of them to preside, and to assume the authority delegated by the Warrant of Constitution, the lodge is virtually extinct. The situatio~ of the three superior officers in the lodge differs sOInew}utt in the different rites. In the French rite, they are placed in the east, in a triangular form; in the Scotch rite, the 'Vardens are in the west; in the York rite their respective situations are we:! known. The Senior and Junior Wardens are also officers in a Commandery of Knights Templars, whose duties are, in some respects) slmila,r to those of the Senior Deacon in a symbolic lodge..


The Grand Wardens, who are the

• The two columns which, in the York rite, are small,and placed upo:a the pedestals of the two Wardens, are much better represented in the French rite. There, two large pillars of bronze, ornamented with net-work, lily-work, and pomegranates, are placed on each side of the entrance of the lodge, ill the west1 and at tb air bases are placed two triangular tables,,&t which the Warden•

. ra sea.ted.



ft,ssistants of the Grand l\'Iaster in the government of the Grand ]~odge, must be Past J.\ilasters of skill and good report. In the absence of the Grand and Deputy Grand Master, tho Senior Grand Warden takes the chair, and in his absence, the Junior.. And, in case of the death of the Grand Master, the same order of procedence is to be observed, until a new Grand Master is elected. In visitations, W' 11 the Grand Master and his Deputy are absent, the Senior or Junior Grand Warden may preside, but in this case he acts only as a Deputy, and must be received with the honours due to his rank, the Master of the lodge sitting on his right hand. When a Grand Warden attends in the procession of a private lodge, he takes place immediately after the Master of the lodge~ and two Deacons, with black rods, are to attend him, but the Book of Constitutions is not borne before him: this can only be carried in a procession where the Grand Master or his Deputy is present..


An officer in a Commandery of Knights Tem路

plars, whose duties are similar in general to those of the Junior Deacon of a 8ymbolie lodge. WARRANT OF CONSTITUTION. No assemblage of Ma. sons can be legally congregated for work, as a lodge, except under the authority of a Warrant of Constitution, granted by some Grand Lodge. This regulation has been in existence ever since the pre.. sent organization of Grand Lodges, though formerly, a sufficient number of brethren meeting together within a certain district, with the consent of the civil authorities of the place, were empow~red to make Masons, and to practice the rites of Freemasonry ; and this privileg~ was inherent in th4tID as individuals: it was, however, on the organization of the order in its present form, resigned into the hands of the Grand Lodges. The Warran~ of Constitution is granted to the Master anti

WE L-W:mS Wardens, and to their successors in office; it continueR in force only during the pleasure of the GJ:and Lodge, and may, therefore, at any time be revoked, and the lodge dissolved by a vote of that body. This will, however, never be done, unless the lodge has riolated the ancient landmarks, or failed to pay due respect and abedience to the Grand Lodge. When a Warrant of Constitution is revoked, or recalled, the jewels, furniture, and funds of the lodge revert to the Grand Lodge. Lastly, as ft lodge holds its communications only under the authority of this Warrant of Constitution, no lodge can be opened, or proceed to business, unless it be present. If it be mislaid or destroyed, it must be recovered, or another obtained; and until that is done, the communications of the lodge must be suspended; and if the Warrant of Constitution be taken out of the room, during the- session of the lodge, the authority of the Master instantly ce.9.Se~.

It is called a " Warrant of Constitution," because it is the intrument which authorizes or warrants the persons therein named to open and constitute a lodge.

It is the duty of every lodge to welcome and every worthy and well-qualified brother who visits it. rfhat is, to receive him with the honours due to his rank, and to furnish him, if necessary, with the proper investiture. And a particular officer, the Senior Deacon, is directed to see that this duty is performed. WELCOM~.


'VEST. In the early ages of the world, the wisdom of men was concentrated in the easternmost parts of the earth,; and the nations路 which had disseminated themselves along the shores of the Mediterranean, to the west of the plains of Shinar, were obliged to return towards the East in search of the knowledge of their forefathers. The W e~t was then a place of darkness, and he whc sought light was obliged to leave it and travel to th.e E'ast. IIi



!lStronomy, there is the same peculiarity in relaRollte '. he course of light_ The earth revolves upon its axis from west to east But the sun rises in the latter point, and while the eastern hemi.. 8phere is enjoying the light of day, the western parts of the globe are enveloped in darkness; until, by the diurnal revolution of the earth, they are btought towards the East, and placed wi thin the influence of the enlightening rays of the solar orb. Masons Jo not forget these facts in history and science; and they know t.hat he who, being in the darkness of the West, would seek truE; light, must travel to the East WIIITE.One of the emblematic colours of masonry, which is preserved in the apron and gloves, with which the initiate is invested. It is a symbol of innocence and purity. The white in.. vestiture, a,s may be seen throughout this work, was a part of the

ceremonies of all the anci'ent mysteries.


One of the most illustrious personhges

in masonic history is so called, because he is descrj':Jed in Scripture as having heen "the son of a widow of the tl'ibe of Napthali."

WINDING STAIRS These constitute an important part of the esoteric instruction of masonry. We are told in 1 Kings vi. 8, that "they went up with winJing stairs into the middle chamber." Masonic tradition teUB that there were fifteen steps, di~ vided into unequal courses. The English Masons fotlnerly said that there were twenty-seven, divided into one, three, five, Be'

ven, and eleven, but

they have now abandoned the eleven of the The one they refer tv the

last course, and leave but sixteen. unity of God. WISDOM.

One of the three principal supports of m880U ..

ry. It is represented by the Ionic colulun, and the W.-. M.路.. ; N.cause, the Ionio column wisely combines the strength withollt ,:&4*



the massiveness of the Doric; with the grace, without the berance of ornalncnt of the Corinthian; and because it is the --autyof the W.路. 1\1.... to superintend, instruct, and enlighten the craft by his superior wisdom. Solomon, King of Israel, is also MDsidered as the column of wisdom that supported the temple. WOl'rIAN.

The objection so often made by the fair sex, that.

lihey are most ungallantly refused an entrance into our order, and a knowledge of our secrets, is best answered by a reference to the originally operative character of our institution. That 'woman is not admitted to a p3trticipation in our rites and cere... D:onies, is most true. But it is not because we deem her unworthy or 'tlnfaithful, or deny her the mind to understand, or the heart to appreciate our principles; but simply because, in the very or.. gauiz.ation of masonry, man alone can fulfil the duties it inculcates, or perforrn the labours it enjoins. Free and speculative maEoury is but an application of, the art of operative masonry- to moral and intellectual purposes. Our ancestors worked at the construction of the Temple of Jerusalem; while we are engaged in the erection of a m.ore immortal edifice-the temple of the mind. They employed their implements for merely mechanical purposes; we use t,hem symbolically, with more exalted designs. Thus, in all our emblems, our language, and our rites, there ~s a. beautiful exemplification and application of the rules of ope.. 路ati\Te .lnasonr:y, as it was exercised at the building of the temple. A.nd as King 8010monemployed in the construction of that edi路 fice, only hale and hearty men, and cunning workmen, so lur lodges, ill imitation of that great exemplar, demand as the iu.. dispensable requisite to adlnission, that the candidate shall be fret.. born, of lawful age, and in the possession of all his limbs and melubers, that he may be capable of performing such work as the l\Iastcr ~hall assign to him. lIenee, it must be apparent that the admission of women into our order would be attended with a singular anomaly. As they worked n Jt at the temple, nAither can they work with us. But

wor:-XER we love and cherish tholl1 not the less. One of the holiest of our mystic rites inculcates a reverence for the widow, and pity for the widow's son. The wife, the mether, the sister, and the daughter of the l\lason, exercise a peculiar claim upon each 1"la8On's heart and affections. And while we know that woman's smile, like the mild beams of an April SUD, reflects a brighter splendour on t.he light of prosperity, and warms with grateful glow the chilliness of adversity, we regret, not the less deeply, because unavailingly, that no ray of that sun can illume the recesses of our lodge, and call our weary workmen from their labours to refreshment.


See Labour.


See ImplementsJ.

WORSHIPFUL. The title given to a symbolic lodge, and to its presiding officer, the Master. Past Masters, after leaving the chair, still retain the title of Worshipful. In the French rite, the lodge is called" Respectable," and the ~Iaster "Ie enetable." See Master of a Lodge, for the duties of this officer


x. XEROPHAGISTS.. Pope Clement XII. having issued a Bull forbidding the practice of Freemasonry, the Masons of Italy, who continued to meet, for the purpose of avoiding the penalties

of the Bull, called themselves Xerophagists. The word means literally dry livers, persons who do not drink, and they adopted the title, because they introduced something like the principle of total ~~st~n~p.9~ from in'ttoxioating drin~s into the institution.


Y. YEA,R OF LIG HT Anno Lucis. The date used by symbolic l\Iasons, as being the era of the creation, when LI\.lHT was oalled into existence by the fiat of the Almighty, and when the true principles which distinguish our order first received their birth. Masons do not now adopt this era, because they any longer believe that Freemasonry, as it now appears, is to be dated from the creation; but simply, because the great moral and religious system, which masonry has preserved amid ages of' darkness,. is coeval with the hour when the Supreme Will called light and life into existence YORK. A city in the north of England, memorable for being the place where Freemasonry was officially re-esta.blished in that kingdom, and the first Grand Lodge formed in 926, by Prince Edwin, the brotller of King Athelstane, from whom he purchased a free charter for that purpose.. * YORK RITE. The Ancient York rite is that oldest of all the rites of l\Iasonry which is pra.ctised by the Grand Lodge of England, and derives its name fronl the city of York where the first General .l\.ssenlbly or Grand Lodge was held, in the year 926, and where the rite is said to have been established. Ii. consists, as defined by the Union Grand Lodge of England in 1813, of the three degrees of Entered Apprentice, Fellow..Craft, and J\I:'ster }Iason, including the Holy Royal Arch. l.'he rit,#:', practised in the United States is very improperly called Ghe York rite, from which it differs by the superposition of several degrees. See . .4merl:eu,n Rite.. The Yark rite is the mother of all the other rites, which are but developments of its simple system. '/Ill"


. -".-. . -"..-...



z. The last. King of Judah, before the captivit, the Temple was destroyed by Nebu. cnadnczzar. 'rhe eyes of Zedekiah were put out, and being loaded with chains of brass, he was carried a captive to Babylon, where he afterwards died. ZEDEKIAH.

or Babylon, in whose reign

ZENITH. That point of the heavens situated immediately over the head of the spectator, and which the sun reaches at meridian. The Supreme Councils of the B3d degree of the An.. cient Scotch rite, do not date their documents as other }I3Bon~ do, from the Orient, but from the Zenith. ZEREDATHA. A town of Judea, 路35 miles north of Jemin the clay ground near which, Hiram Abif cast the sacred vessels of the Temple. 8ee (}lay G'r()u,nds. ~a.lem,

ZERUBBABEL. The grandson, though called by Ezra, the 80n, of Salathiel, who was the son of Jeconiah, King of Judah lIe was, therefore, of the royal race of David. He was born at f~bylon, as the Hebrew signification of his name imports, and returned to I'J erusalem in the beginninq Qf the reign of Cyrus, with the sacred vessels of the rremple, which Cyrus had ~om路 lnitted to his care, as the chief of tl--."'路 Jews who were in captivity at 13abylon. He laid the foundatioL.8 of the second Temple, and restored the worship of the I.Jord nnu the usual sacrifices. He is represented by the second officer in the Royal Arch degree. The incidents of Zerubbabel's life are also referred to in several other degrees, such as Knight of the Red Cross, Knight of the East, and Prince of Jerusalem. ZINNENDORF, RITE OF. Count Zinnendorf, chief physi.. of the Em~e~or Charles VI.~ invented a new rite1 which waH




a Inodification of the Illnminisrn of .A.vignon, adding to the mysteries of Swedenborg, of which this latter rite ,vas principally composed, severa] things taken frorn the Scotch, Gerrnan, and Swedish degrees, as well as frol11 rrelllplar :l\fasonry. I-!is systeul consisted of seven degrees, divided. into three sections, as fol. lows:L Blue, or St. Jol~n'8 Masonry.-l, Entered Apprentice; 2, Fellow.Craft; 3, ~Iaster Mason. II. lied 111asonry.-4, Scotch Apprentice and Fellow-Craft; 5, Scotch J\1astcr. III. Oapitular Masonry.-6, Favourite of St. John; 7, Elected Brother. Zi nnendorf died in the year 1800, having attempted, without success, to introduce his system into England.