newwoman The female lifestyle magazine
Interview with Cristina Pachecho She tells us about the country she loves and why she loves it so much.
See you soon, Champion
Historic Women Their importance and trail through humanity.
Secrets of the most succesfull women And other things that nobody told you. June 2013, No. 1, Year 1
Modern Entrepreneur Women
Price: $60 Mexican Peso
Guadalupe Gómez Chairman of the Executive Comittee
Martiza Martínez Perera
Editor-In-Chief & Publishing Director
Ilecara Colorado Bustillos
Art Director & Marketing Chief
Angélica Lilí Merodio Zavala
Julieta García Corpos
On this issue
Interview With Cristina Pacheco Page: 4
Soraya Jiménez: See you soon, champion Page: 11
Historic Women Page: 14
OR WOMEN, THIS HAS BEEN the most remarkable century in history. If you doubt
Modern entrepreneur women Page: 56
it, consider for a moment our status at its
dawning. In a world still mired in Victorianism, we were decorative, disenfranchised and defined almost entirely by our relationship (be it daughter or wife) with a man. And that’s if we were lucky. Millions more of us labored under horrific conditions for sub-standard wages—sometimes at home, doing piecework; more of-ten in overcrowded textile milis and factories that put our health in peril. The average female Ufe expectancy? Fifty-one years. What a difference a century makes. Today, women’s Uves have been transformed beyond the wildest imaginings of someone who lived in 1900. We not
Secrets of the most succesfull women Page: 60
only vote and bear arms, we enjoy reproductive freedom and a large measure of economic equality. We work alongside men in businesses that we’ve helped build and that we (sometimes) even own. Thanks to this century’s spectacular advances in science and medicine, we can expect to live at least to the ripe oíd age of seventy-nine. And now, when we ally ourselves with the opposite sex, it is not out of financial necessity, but genuine desire and love. Ladies’ Home Journal’s 100 Most Important Women of the 20th Century captures this extraordinary transformation and celebrares the achievements of the women who helped bring it about. The women profiled here represent an astonishing range of personalities and endeavors. They are doctors and scientists; politicians and activists; educators and intellectuals; athletes and entrepreneurs; performers, artists, journalists and
Women from Tabasco Page: 62
authors. AJÍ have had an influence that is still being felt today and that will endure well into the next century.
It is where we have to live Interview with Cristina Pacheco 35 years ago aired It is where we have to live, a program that gives voice to thousands of mexicans, that touches your heart, share their life and their dreams, and has become an icon of national television. 4
e had the great pleasure to talk with Cristina Pacheco, host of the program, about her wonderful experience on the streets of the city, collecting thousands of stories of those people who It is where we have to live. ¿Which is the México where Cristina Pacheco has to live? This: Fascinanting, wonderful. I have eaten it, I have tried to memorized it. I have stopped it through all the mass media that exist like TV, radio, story tales, chronicles, journalism because it a world that fascinates me. I am not tired of doing this kind of review about things that happened in this México that It is where we have to live. Thirty five years, it´s said fast Not so fast. I was born in another way. ¿How started It is where we have to live.? ¿How do Cristina Pacheco get involved? I am not involved. The thing is that the architect Priani, who was my friend at the channel was looking for a woman to make interviews with architects. He rather interview architects and he was looking for a woman that interview the construction workers, the group chief, providers,etc. It seems interesting to me. They proposed and ask me about which name would I like to give to the program. It is where we have to live because it was about looking the house or the construction also because it reminded me something that my father told me when we came to live to this city. We were at the train station and he said something about:” It is where we have to live and will see how it get”. I never forgot it. Immediately we began but the architects were very busy people so they couldn´t come or they make appointments in some places and they never arrived. One day that nobody came, I told my partners let´s go the streets to see people and interview them.
In that moment the vision of program got wider? No, it doesn´t, it changed totally. At the beginning it was a program from architects to architects. It´s being changing through the years, there are other topics, there are other things. There are things now, that in those days when the program started doesn´t exist like for example, danger in some places. For good or for bad? Both. In some ways it´s terrible that we haven´t taken care of some treasures that we have. There are few public squares and it´s a mess and a horrible traffic. It´s intolerant. That´s dent the city, it harm it, because harm the possibility of coexisting. The cities are made for people to coexist. And for best? It stays. Has the vitality that I think none other city in the world has. Is vital, powerful, knows who it is. It’s ok for its age. Suits it. And it is still a space where the architecture blooms in an extraordinary way. The Mexican architects are wonderful. It has known how to keep protected. It has found itself and not only has protected some places but their life styles. And that’s marvelous. And it also allows the blooming of more styles and characters… Of course. It’s a city where a lot of people arrive all the time. That’s fantastic. To “know the Republic”, someone, standing right here, already met it, because there are people from the north to deep south bringing their language, habits and food. I remember some musicians that found in the street for day of the dead. They came from Oaxaca, playing a really sad song. They were lovely men, truly. But the music almost made me cry. I stopped and asked “mister, what’s this?”. “It´s music dead people, that’s why I am playing it. I brought it to cheer this city”. That man gave me a clear idea of what death is in Oaxaca. The style of music, the hat he wore, everything was picturing a specific place of Oaxaca. I regret I cannot travel, but I don’t miss almost anything of what I would find around the Republic because people travel till here.
out in the city, walking in the Do you travel a lot through streets keeping in touch with people experiences? people? That’s correct. Is like a daily “Aqui nos tocó vivir” show has trip. Someone can make a turn to move at the same speed as in the next corner, enter a house the life of the city does. Someand have the feeling of being times we have to “fly”. Somein a different country. Suddenly thing very nice is to hear elder everything is different. Once I people telling me “when I was found a short house, which was a child my mother let me one half a basement and the watch the show” or “it other half is the rest of was the only show my the house. But people mother allowed me live in the upper half, Everything has to watch”, or “when that is one meter been a marvelous my mother died…”. height. They have experience. Every week is different, it’s They all relate doto live bent all the new, and over all mestic life with the time; it has no winunexpected. show and that makes dows, however, the me feel so proud, it’s woman that lives there the best answer I can get, talked about joy. Wow! to know that we have a part Marvelous. in the domestic ceremony. They don’t see it as How do you select the interviewed person? Which interviews had meant Sometimes when I am walking I something special for you? find the people. Or while driving I Everyone. There is no one that see a door or a label I just stop o had not liked me. make a note of it and then I back. Or people that is just walking. Or Don’t you have a favorite one? could be places. For example, the Everyone change my life. But life in a rolling market has high imI’m impressed with the old peoportance, fundamental. So I look ple world, the ones that are poor for markets, because you can find and live alone. I could be obseseverything there. People buy, eat sive about this topic. Migration is and live from the things that felt also an issue that worries me a from trucks, and that’s an entire lot that’s why I have tried to work different world. Or the people that as near as possible with it. The load things. But it’s a whole and tochildren that lived in that small tal journalistic show. Is not a soap red room I have just told you opera or movie. Is a journalistic had a terrible situation because document about life in Mexico. their mother made little holes in the door so they can breathe. How do you have changed She sold used clothes while the during these 35 years of being
children waited for her inside this horrible place. Can you imagine how the life was for these kids? I can’t imagine how would be their future. I hope they can get out of this place as soon as possible. All this kind of situations affected me emotionally, I can’t forget them. I’m not indifferent; I don’t act like a journalist, I’m a journalist. I know that I must act more impersonal but simply I can’t do it.
How do you feel most of the time, happy or sad? I am happy and grateful with the people that share me their life experiences, but it depends what they tell me, I mean, if they tell something sad I feel sad, and viceversa. Is it truth that Mexican people laugh whatever the circumstance happen? No, that’s not real. The people that I interview say “I start working from six o’clock in the morning to ten o’clock at night. And when I arrive home I still have to collect water in a bucket or cook the meal for the next day or do the laundry.” Other man say “ when I finish this work I go to sell stuff or drive a car or another thing” They are really hard-working and brave people. They are not afraid of the work they have to do, they use their own arms to build their houses or to help each other in hard situations, for example in floods where they look for their personal stuff like books, documents, photos, eventhough, they know they have lost everything this kind of things become the most important to save. When I see them, or live the situation I understand their feelings. If it is hard for me to see it, to live it must be harder. Do you think Mexican people work harder every day to improve this kind of life? Of course I do! I have
seen the mother that says “We are going to buy my son a computer because he is going to study what we can´t do and he will be and live better than we are and live”. Every step they try is because they are looking for something better than they have. This is what I can see but I can’t generalize. A 70 years old woman carrying a sack of 70 kilos to sell palms downtown. I told her,,”Ma´m, that’s too heavy”. “No, it isn’t. The point is that you don’t know how to carry things”. But actually, it was heavy. I tried myself and it was too heavy. Although, she doesn’t daunt, drive back, nor give up. “This is my job and i’ll do it well”. There’s that sense of proud in people yet. What other experiences can you share of your greatest rememberings? -Everything has been a marvelous experience. Every week is different, it’s new, and over all unexpected. There’s nothing i can know how is going to come out. It’s like travelling to a completely unknown country. I don’t know what is coming, but I’m aware to do what is necessary. And (the interviewer) continues to surprise The day I don’t do it , I quit my job. It wouldn’t make any sense not doing it. As Kapuscinski said: the worst enemy of a journalist is the routine. Look, each Thursday in 35 years. There’s not a rou-
tine at all because the street is a swarm. It’s like a river. From one second to another everything changes. Is it possible there’s not a change from week to week? How does cristina pacheco see herself in touch with people? I’ve discovered my limitations. You do not know what others know. I do not know the trade of a blacksmith, but the man that allowed me to be with him taught me how to do the job.. I see how limited we are all. We have had a large detachment to Earth. And we forgot that the Earth is the mother of all of us, that it feeds us. One believes that vegetables come in cans that we see in the supermarket, but you have to go to the very supply center, must see that and you have to listen to those people and you have to learn from them.. Each person has shown me that my limitations are infinities. And I am very grateful that they have taught me. I belong to a farming family. When I see people from the countryside as well I recover my people, I recover my roots. It’s a source of great pride to belong to that group of people. I underwrite this. One of the fortunes that I have in life is being close to the field. What do you think the Unesco named the program “memory of the world”? Very good I think for many reasons. It’s the first time that this TV
program category is taken into account. It’s an appreciation in memory of people and to the channel 11 that I love so. Those women I interviewed the first day, the blacksmith, the carpenter, the man who repairs photographs, the woman who lives in the nursing home; all of them are there, their voices are there and will stay there forever. How wonderful for them and what a fortune for me. Does this “memory” encourage us to try helping? It’s not enough to understand and recognize us, as a beginning. This program is like an album page of a family consisting of 110 million people. I cannot interview them all but I assure you that most of these people have to do with what is in this program. I also want to stress one thing. There is a very valuable character: the city. The city is at its worst and the best; in tragedy and in celebration; in the union and despair; in search, in the arrangement and in decomposition. Unfortunately many of the places it had and disappeared they only stay in the program. They only stayed there. For example, in Santa Maria’s garden at the back there is a set of houses and there was Duarte’s Library, a very important library of an old man’s books. Everybody there were asked to give out their places, they said, in order to do something really good. The results: everybody had to move out and they even died of sadness for having left that place, among them, God forgive me, Polo Duarte. He was sad for not being there. But it was a bookshop where all the great painters, all great intellectuals had gone. They went there to exchange books, there used to be literary gatherings. And ¿do you know what did they did it for? A shopping centre that is the most horrible thing I have seen in my entire life. It was a misbegotten place. They killed the whole street. They killed the whole block. But it is in ‘It is where we have to live’. I feel lucky and thankful to Channel 11. Who knows which other channel could have had supported me, but nobody has done it with so much determination and giving me so much freedom as Channel 11 did. I have never had to give reasons for doing this program or the other. And I appreciate it. It is not possible to work without freedom.
We have seen programs at the traffic lights, in small restaurants, in parks... Where life is, just there. Even in graveyards. You do not know the things that are learnt in the graveyard. Other concepts of death, other concepts of the city, what architecture is. I never thought there was architecture there. Do we love our city? Many people love it. Sometimes it looks like public servants do not love it. And maybe they do not love it because they do not know it. And they do not know it because they do not walk around it and they do not walk around it because they are not interested. And so, how? But, do you love it? Deeply. I would love to hold it with my hands. I would like to squeeze it. I love its smell. I like a tremendous grayish light it has. But there is a very clear light when it is going to rain which is like crystal. It only happens in this city. The jacarandas, when they flourish, they are all wonderful. And the historical town centre, which of course it is not for selling the biggest torta or the biggest sope (traditional Mexican food) in the world, not at all. The Zocalo is the heart of the city, the memory of the city, the soul of the city. It is a unique square in the world. It is monumental. And, it is besides the buildings. For me, the Zocalo is sacred, as well as Santo Domingo square or La Merced cloister, which was for a long time a deposit for carrier men. The Central de Abastos (Supplies centre) and Tepito are the death of wonders. Do you feel happy when you visit those places? Yes. I feel very happy, very glad and very interested. And I have to say that I am also very grateful with all the people who are attentive and vigilant when we go there, in case anything happens. So, yes, I feel happy there. Many years of ‘It is where we have to live’? As long as possible. As long as I can walk, think and work, I will be there.
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See you soon,
Champion Soraya JimĂŠnez
hat wonderful night in Sidney, I knew you had such a heart, yeah,I had seen you how you´d got the gold medal in the Central America of Maracaibo ´98 and the silver medal in the Panamericans of Winnipeg´99. I already knew about your value and will,but that night of September 17th you did it without anyone to expect it.It seemed impossible, but you stood up to an entire nation on your shoulders, yeah, you endured to Mexico and thus took the women of our country to the most high of the Olimpo. Gold! Yeah, Soraya, a champion for ever.It was there in the bay of Sidney where I watched the power emanating from your spirit. That glorious moment that historic leap ,the apex and culmination the conclusion and joy, the victory and the rest. I would never forget your return to México Soraya, the crowds and the tributes , the interviews , the unforgettable deed but above all because that afternoon you decided to tell me your personal accounts at that Condesa Café. You let me have the privilege to write your story in a book that I now reopen today to remember every detail and moment, because word-toword I knew how much you had long suffered to accomplish your dream. They were my first Olympics , in fact were the first of all the weightlifters (women) in the world. Because it was a men´s discipline , but here “in Sidney the women had our debut “.
“You said”. “My Grandad passed away 6 months before the Olympics and I did not attend his funeral because he begged me not to go.” It was the last conversation via telephone I had with him. He was really sick, and I was training in Bulgary. In my mind her soft sobbing words made me fragile when I think on them but at the same time, give me an unusual power: “ my daughter don´t come, I am sick and I’ll recover I don’t want you to come,
you’d better dedicate and focus in what you are doing.” You also told me about those lonely afternoons in Bulgaria, far away from your family, months of immense effort and lack but forging yourself that invisible strength feeding fire inside your heart. That is why, Soraya, I feel that I must tell everyone about the day that impacted your life, your extraordinary effort in sports. That is your voice Soraya, those your words in the moment of
glory, the moment the Mexican sport will never forget: “ Enthusiastic I took my belt off and ran toward Georgi Koev. I ran to his arms and he received me with a vigorous hug. Without knowing that I had won gold medal. I celebrated what I finally had done the six weight liftings that was my goal and that this for sure can place me at the podium, but at this moment I didn’t know the exact place. It was then that I started to enjoy my success.
I heard my name and stepped up the podium before Shout of all the people. I saw many Mexican flags, through the lights. I was happy because of my victory, but I really felt with a great satisfaction that is impossible to explain when I saw the Mexican flag up in the air and the Mexican anthem was played. My heart beat and I got breathless. I wanted to cry, laugh, and shout at the same time. I was so excited I wanted to tell my country that the gold
medal belong to them, and that I have won it in the name of all the Mexican people. In silence, I remember my childhood. Those days when I used to hid to practice in secret, because my father didn’t like the sport. I thought about the hard it was to take the decision to tell him that this was what I wanted to do. I wanted to cry to see my father suffering because of me and with me and being happy in the same way. Life change since that moment I realize what I’ve done and the responsibilities I´ve gotten. Things will be different from now. Those year of training as an unknown went over. Now I was the first Mexican woman to win the Olympic gold. Now it was me Soraya Jimenez, and my name will remain in history for ever. You answered me excited after your triumph. Soraya, you have left us, before we wanted. But I am sure that now you are in that place where live the Olympic heroes the battle winner’s, those that never stop fighting. You left your name written in the sacred wall of the Olympic winners, and a treasure that we will remember forever. See you soon champion. Rest in peace; enjoy the wind that blows in the up of the sly. One day we’ll meet each other, and we will vibrate as we contemplate. Your strength, see your passion and will. To feet that golden sun inside your heart.
Women Their importance and trail through humanity.
JACQUELINE KENNEDY ONASSIS 1919-1952
N A COUNTRY WITHOUT ROYALTY, Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis became royal by popular acclamation. From the time she was named “Debutante of the Year” at her 1947 coming-out party in Newport, Rhode Island, beautiful, charming, inscrutable Jackie lived like a sovereign in the public eye. Yet despite being one of the most famous women on earth, she remained somehow aloof, a silent enigma marked by tragedy. ? Jacqueline Bouvier married the dashing junior senator from Massachusetts in 1953. Eight years later, when John Kennedy became President, his 31-year-old wife brought unparalleled panache to the role of First Lady. She directed a major restoration of the White House and sparked in the nation’s capital a new interest in culture. But it was her beauty and elegant, understated style that truly enthralled America. Women everywhere emulated her bouffant hairstyle and shaped suits with matching pillbox hats. Publicly at least (JFK’s chronic infidelity went unreported), they were a dream couple. But the dream ended on November 22, 1963, in Dallas. 5 Five years later, the young widow shocked Americans by marrying Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.
After his death in 1975, she won a $22 million settlement from his estate. Getting on with her life, Onassis threw her-self into raising her two children, Caroline and John, Jr. (both grew into remarkably well-adjusted and productive adults), and began work as a book editor in New York. And she settled into a
long, companionable relationship with financier Maurice Tempelsman. Her 1994 death became, like so much of her life, a quasi-public occasion, an opportunity for her subjects to revisit the familiar iconography: JackÂŹie and Jack on the beach; Jackie with the children at his funeral; Jackie snapped by pa-
parazzi in New Yorkâ€™s Central Park. An auction of items from her estate generated unprecedented sales. It was almost as if her adoring public believed that in death they could finally get close to the queen who remained so elusive and unknowable in life.
Eva perón 1919-1952
VA PERÓN’S ENTIRE political career, from marriage to grave, lasted only eight years. Yet more than perhaps any other woman of her time, she embodies the 20th-century notion of the cult of personality. Hers is a ragsto-riches tale of theatrical proportions (a fact highlighted by the popularity of the 1978 musical Evita). The illegitimate daughter of a ranch hand in remote Argentina, she fled to Buenos Aires, transformed herself into a glamorous radio actress, and met and eventually married ambitious politician Juan Perón, who was smitten by her beauty and magnetism. So were the Argentine people. When Perón was elected president in 1946, Eva became a self-appointed defender of the poor. She soon became South America’s most adored woman (by the masses) and its most resented (by the ruling classes). A formidable politician in her own right, she announced her intention to run for vice president in 1951- but the Army blocked her appointment. Perón’s story is also irresistibly tragic: Stricken with uterine cancer, she died at 33. Tens of thousands of people took to the streets of Buenos Aires to mourn her. Juan Perón, who had been reelected with her help (during campaign appearances she was sedated and propped against an invisible support), vowed to pay tribute with a towering monument. Hardly as saintly
as her admirers believed, Evita (as she was popularly known) routinely resorted to Machiavellian stratagems. Much of the money she funneled to her causes—number one of which was stuffing her Swiss bank accounts—had Perónist graft and extortion as its source. She delighted in using government as
an instrument of revenge, and public funds for clothing and jewels. Beyond dispute is her near-religious hold on Argentinians. After Perón was overthrown in 1955, the ruling junta seized Eva’s embalmed corpse (an object of pub¬lic veneration), removed it from public view, and shipped it to Italy, where it was
buried under a false name. It was found in 1971, and when Perón died three years later, having resumed the presidency, her body was displayed alongside his, then finally given a proper burial in a family crvpt. Legions of admirers still flock to it yearly, bearing flowers.
rosa parks 1913-2005
N DECEMBER 1, 1955, a 42-year-old seamstress from Montgomery, Alabama, started a revolution. Rosa Parks got on a city bus that day after work and took an empty seat in the “colored” section. A Montgomery ordinance required that blacks not only be barred from the front of the bus, but that they relinquish their seats in the middle to any white left standing. As the front of the bus filled up, the white driver ordered Parks to give up her seat to a white man. She stayed put. “I had been pushed as far as I could stand to be pushed,” she later wrote. The driver called the police; Parks was arrested on the spot. 5 Parks had long been active in the local NAACP, and after her arrest, the city’s African-American leaders quickly rallied around her, planning a bus boycott for December 5, the day of her tri-al. After she was found guilty, the oneday boycott stretched into 381 days. ? Thousands of demonstrators— virtually all of the city’s 48,000 blacks and some white sympathizers—endured firebombings, police harassment and trials for conspiracy. Inspired by the oratory of the boycott’s leader, a local clergyman named Martin Luther King, Jr., they convened in churches and transformed old hymns and spirituals into “freedom songs.” í The standoff ended only when the Supreme Court ruled all bus segregation illegal. One of the
most successful nonviolent protests in American history, the Montgomery Bus Boycott trans¬formed King into the spiritual leader of an entire movement and secured Parks’s status as, in the words of Ebony magazine, the “living black woman who has done the most to advance the cause of civil rights.”
golda meir 1898-1978
OLDA ME1R IS A MONUMENTAL political figure who carne to symbolize an entire nation. Israel’s fourth prime minister and the only woman to date to hold that office, Meir dedicated virtually her entire adult life to her country’s survival and advancement. Small wonder that she is known as “Mother Israel.” Born Golda Mabovitch in Kiev, Ukraine, Meir moved to the United States with her family in 1906. She married Morris Myerson, who shared her budding interest in the Zionist labor movement, in 1917, and four years later the couple emigrated to Palestine. In the years following World War II, as Palestine became a British mandate, Meir was a masterful fund-raiser for the Zionist cause. In May 1948, she was one of the signers of the Israeli Declaration of Independence. She held a variety of high posts in the new government of Israel’s first Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, eventually becoming foreign minister. When Ben-Gurion asked his t.il net to adopt Hebrew names, Myerson, whose marriage ended in 1941, chose the name Meir, which means “illuminate.” Meir became Prime Minister of a Labor Party government M 1969, filling in after the death of the incumbent Levi Eshkol She was elected in her own right later that year. Meir proved a skillful negotiator whose humor and nonthreatening person.il style concealed a tough
inner core. Meir met her downfall n 1973, when Egyptian and Syrian troops attacked Israel on Yon. Kippur, Judaism’s highest holy day. Israeli troops were caught unaware and managed to repel the attack only at the cost d heavy ca-
sualties. Battered by criticism for being unprepared Meir resigned a year later, saying, “I have had enough.” Yet she remains one of the country’s great leaders, a beloved mother among the founding fathers.
MARGARET THATCHER 1925-2013
ECOMING PRIME MINISTER of Great Britain 1979, Margaret Thatcher set three basic goals for her conservative government: to halt her country’s uninterrupted economic slide, curb the power of trade unions, and out the socialism that she believed was weakening what once been the world’s greatest power. Over the next years — the longest term of any 20th-century British lead-, including Winston Churchill— the “Thatcher Revolution” the way Britain did business. Putting to rest any that a woman could govern as forcefully as a man, the new Prime Minister pursued her goals with a single-minded intensity. She slashed taxes and dismantled the welfare state, privatizing hundreds of industries. She stood fast in her belief it Northern Ireland should remain part of the United Kingdom (surviving an assassination attempt in the bargain) and in her opposition to a borderless European Community a single currency. In 1982, she waged war against Argentina over the last vestiges of Empire in the Falkland Islands. Her supply-side economic policies were alternately lauded for helping create a profit-driven free-enterprise system, . and reviled for widening the economic gap between England´s haves and have-nots. Although she was ousted from power in 1990, Thatcherism remains a potent force in Great Britain. Even under a Labour government, the country 6 unlikely to deviate from the free-market course she steered.
Rigoberta Menchu 1959
Y SPEAKING OUT ON behalf of the indigenous peoples of Latin America, Rigoberta Menchú has brought hope to thousands who previously had none. f A Quiche Maya Indian who carne of age during Guatemala’s 33-year civil war, Menchú felt the dire effects of that country’s systematic racial discrimination. As a child, she saw two Brothers die and her father, a well-known peasants’ labor organizer, repeatedly arrested. Forced to flee in 1981, Menchú told her story in a 1983 autobiography, I, Rigoberta Menchú. But even as she was gaining the world’s ear, the situation in Guatemala grew worse. Pressed by growing insurgency, the military-controlled government annihilated several hundred Indian villages. Some 50,000 people died, pushing the total dead in one of the century’s longest wars toward 150,000. Thousands more became refugees. Branded an enemy of the state, Menchú traveled the world publicizing the plight of the oppressed Mayan population. In recognition, the Nobel committee awarded her the 1992 Peace Prize, hailing her as “a vivid symbol of peace and reconciliation across ethnic, cultural and social dividing lines.”
Indira Gandhi 1917-1984
NDIRA GANDHI WAS THE personification of modern India. For nearly two decades, this “idealist without illusion,” as she has been called, held the world’s largest, and most fractious, democracy together, attempting to steer it out of poverty. The Oxford-educated, fiercely patriotic daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, postcolonial India s founder and first prime minister, Gandhi (her married name; no relation to the Mahatma) cut her teeth on India’s independence movement. At age four, her first political act was to throw her favorite doll (an English import) into a bonfire as part of a boycott of European goods. She was elevated to the post of prime minister in 1966 by the power brokers of the Indian National Congress, the political party she headed, partly on the assumption that she was a “dumb doll” who would do as they said. Instead, they discovered a shrewd politician. During her first term, she led India to victory in a 1971 war against Pakistan, gave diplomatic recognition to Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan), and tried to eradicate poverty. Gandhi was reelected by a land-slide in 1972. Three years later, she was indicted for fraud and barred from office. She struck back by declaring a state of emergency, suspending the courts, muzzling newspapers, and eventual-ly having some 20,000 political opponents arrested. When she finally restored civil
liberties in 1977, she was immediately voted out of office, only to be reinstated in 1980. Gandhi, the electorate seemed to say, was destined to be their leader. But Gandhi herself fell victim to the violent sectarianism she despised. In June 1984, when Sikh extremists from the secessionist Punjab state occupied the sacred Golden Temple at Amritsar,
she sent in the army. Some 450 Sikhs were slaughtered. Their brutal retaliation came in October, when two Sikh members of Gandhi’s personal security detail gunned Gandhi down in her private garden. “I don’t mind if my life goes in the service of the nation,” she once said. “If I die, every drop of my blood will invigorate the nation.”
mother teresa 1910-1997
N AN AGE MORE NOTABLE for cynicism and greed than compassion and charity, the Roman Catholic nun known simply as Mother Teresa inspired millions with her absolute devotion to the world’s dispossessed. Up until her death in 1997, this diminutive woman ministered to the poorest of the poor, the sickest of the sick. Through it all, her single, unchanging mission was to bring dignity and relief to those whom society has discarded. To her legions of admirers, she was a living saint. Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu was born in Albania in 1910, the daughter of a prosperous construction contractor. At 17, the girl her brother Lazar remembered as “a real tomboy—plump, fun-loving, and mischievous” entered the Sisters of Loreto order. “Do you realize you are burying yourself?” her brother asked. “How could a girl like you become a nun?” 5 Assigned to St. Mary’s High School, in Calcutta, Sister Teresa, as she was now known (after Saint Therese, the patron saint of missionaries), spent nearly two decades teaching geography to mostly middle-class girls—a Job she carne to believe provided insufficient service both to God and to her fellow man. She had become increasingly distressed by the horrific living conditions that festered on Calcutta’s streets and was even more affected by a bloody riot between Hindus and Muslims that she witnessed in 1946, as
India was caught up in its drive toward independence. Heeding what she would later describe as “the call within a call,” Sister Teresa decided, as she put it, “to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them.” It was, she said, a command from God. In 1950, she founded the Order of the Missionaries of Charity, dedicated to the alleviation of human suffering. Her mission attracted several followers,
who adopted as their uniform the now-familiar blue-banded white cotton habit. Today, the order has thou-sands of members in some 90 countries and operates more than 500 homes and clinics. Possessed of a belief in the preciousness and dignity of human life that was as unshakable as her deep religious faith, Mother Teresa received countless honors, but always discounted her own importance. “I am
nothing,” she would say. “God is all.” In 1979 she was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. “The loneliest, the most wretched and the dying,” said the Nobel Committee, “have at her hands received compassion without condescension, based on reverence for man.” Mother Teresa responded with typical humility. “Personally, I am unworthy,” she said. “I accept in the name of the poor.”
Virginia woolf 1882-1941
HEN VIRGINIA WOOLF DIED IN 1941—depressed over the outbreak of World War II, she filled her pockets with stones and walked into the Ouse River near her home in Sussex, England—her novels, such as Mrs. Dalloway (1925) and To the Lighthouse (1927), were admired by intellectuals as daring literary experiments. Today, Woolf stands with James Joyce as one of the great modern innovators, a writer whose shimmering stream-of-consciousness style permanently redrew the boundaries of the novel. Moreover, her work helped create a new critical appreciation for a sensibility that was distinctively female. But if Woolf s writing has always been identified as feminine, it has only more recently been recognized as feminist. Her 1929 book-length essay, A Room of One’s Own, is now regarded as a landmark of feminist thought that paved the way for such later classics as Simone de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex. Nothing about Woolf s high Victorian upbringing suggested a future as an iconoclast. A bookish girl, she had the first of a series of mental breakdowns in 1895, when her mother died. When her father died nine years later, she suffered another.After recovering from mental collapse, Woolf moved with two brothers and her sisterVannesa, a painter, to the Bloomsbury section of London. There they became. the center
of the influential Edwardian intellectual community known as the Bloomsbury Group. Among the witty circle were art critic Clive Bell, Vanessa’s husband; economist John Maynard Keynes; publisher Leonard Woolf, whom Virginia married in 1912, and writer Vita Sackville West, Virginia’s lifelong friend and lover. In 1917, the Woolfs started their own publishing company, Hogarth Press. In addition to all of Virginia’s later writings, they
published the early poetry of T.S. Eliot and the first English edition of Freud’s work. Liberated from any constraints imposed by editors and publishers, and financially secure thanks to a family trust, Woolf was free to develop her unique style. She never underestimated the importance of material independence. For women, she wrote in her famous essay, the key to intellectual freedom is “five hundred pounds a year and a room of one’s own.”
Anne frank 1929-1945
NO ONE WILL BE INTERESTED in the unbosoming of a 13-year-old schoolgirl.” So wrote the German-Jewish teenager Anne Frank in one of the notebooks she would fill during the two years she and her family spent in hiding in Nazi-occupied Amsterdam. Any-
thing but uninteresting, Anne Frank’s diary stands as perhaps the single most poignant human document of history’s most inhu¬man event, the Holocaust. ? From June 12, 1942, her 13th birthday, until August 4, 1944, when the Franks were betrayed by a Dutch collaborator and sent
to the death camp at Auschwitz, Anne recorded her innermost thoughts and musings on life, puberty and family. Over every word—written with an honesty, fluency and freshness of insight that would be impressive in a mature writer and are astonishing in an adolescent—the Ge-
stapo threat hangs ominously. Yet a tender and touching optimism pervades the young writer’s pages. The fact that her ultimate fate was such a repudiation of her optimism makes reading her story at times almost unbearably painful. 5 Born in 1929, Annelies Marie Frank was the second daughter of Otto and Edith Frank, middle-class Jews from Frankfurt, Ger-many. When Anne was four, the Franks fled the Nazis to Amster¬dam. Seven years later, Ger-many invaded the Netherlands, and Otto, who ran a business selling pectin and spices to Dutch women, immediately made plans to hide his family in the attic annex of a warehouse he leased in Amsterdam’s narrow old quarter. (The entrance to their secret shelter is shown, top right.) í The Franks and four associates survived undetected with the help of some of Otto Frank’s employees until an informer, most likely a ware-
house clerk, tipped off the Nazis. Anne and the others were sent to Auschwitz. She and her sister ultimately died of typhus and starvation in Bergen-Belsen, another camp, in 1945. Of the eight, only Otto Frank survived. 5 After the war, Otto Frank returned to Amsterdam, where he received the diaries that had been courageously retrieved from the annex by Miep Gies, one of the family’s protectors. In 1953, the notebooks were released in the United States as The Diary of a Young Girl. Since translated into more than 30 languages— and expanded with additional entries (about her mother or Anne’s bud-ding sexuality) that her father originally deleted— Anne Frank’s adolescent “unbosomings” are an extraordinary testament to humankind’s dual capacities for bottomless inhumanity and irrepressible hope in the face of such brutality.
Marie Curie 1929-1945
URING HER LIFETIME, MADAME MARIE CURIE the world’s most famous woman scientist— and so she remains today. With her husband, Fierre Curie, and the French physicist Henri Becquerel, and later on her own, Curie pioneered the study of radioactivity (a word she coined). In 33, the Curies and Becquerel shared the Nobel Prize for physics for their work measuring the radiation of uranium and discovering two new radioactive elements, polonium and radium. It was the first time a woman had ever won a Nobel. 1911, Curie became the first and only woman to win a second Nobel prize. She earned, on her own, the award in chemistry for isolating pure radium. With regard to the chemical elements, the detection of radium is said to be second in importance only to the discovery of oxygen. Curie’s work was not only a leaping-off point for the modern field of nuclear medicine, but it helped lay the groundwork for the most important development in 20th-century science—the discovery of the structure of the atom. Curie demonstrated that wom-en could excel in male-dominated fields. A native of Russian-occupied Poland, Marie Sklodowska moved to Paris in 1891 study. She earned degrees in physics and mathematics, and married Pierre Curie, a professor of physics. Inspired by Becquerel, who had recently discovered
the radioactive properties of uranium, Curie made radiation the subject of her Ph. D. dissertation. Working in a makeshift lab in an outbuilding at Pierre’s school, the couple discovered polonium, named for Marie’s native Poland, and then radium. (Marie later said that: if they had had access to a modern laboratory, the work it took them four years to do could have been accomplished in one.) After Pierre’s death in 1906, Marie assumed his chair at the Sorbonne, becoming the first female professor in the university’s history. Both Curies paid a high physical price for their work with radiation—which included a
number of experiments in which they burned themselves with radioactive compounds to observe the effects. “Dust, the air of the room, and one’s clothes, all become radioactive,” Curie noted grimly. Ra¬diation sickness rendered Pierre an invalid before his death. Their daughter Irene, their son-in-law and numerous lab assistants all died or were severely disabled by various radiation-linked diseases. Marie lived into her sixties, but suffered generally poor health, as well as increasing blindness and deafness, for years before her death from leukemia.
Melanie Klein 1882-1960
ITH “PLAY THERAPY,” Austrian-born British psychoanalyst Melanie Klein created a means to analyze a group largely ignored by Freud—children too young to articulate their feelings. By observing her tiny patients (sometimes as young as one) playing with toys representing mother, father and siblings, Klein was able to surmise their unconscious fears and desires. Her methods remain fundamental to child psychology today. Klein first became intrigued by the idea of the unconscious after reading Freud’s 1901 study, On Dreams. She began analysis with Sandor Ferenczi, a disciple of Freud, but their sessions soon evolved into tutorials, with Ferenczi urging Klein to take up the analysis of children. As a theorist Klein eventually came to rival Freud, the master from whom she increasingly deviated. Orthodox Freudians still quibble with many of her ideas—she contended, for instance, that the developmental stages identified by Freud (oral, anal, phallic and gen¬ital) occur simultaneously in a child’s first year—but about her seminal role in child psychology there is no dispute.
coco chanel 1883-1971
Y FREEING HAUTE COUTURE from its fusty, 19th-century styles, Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel freed women themselves. Her innovations are now essential elements in the basic vocabulary of fashion: faux pearls, trench coats, simple knits, turtleneck sweaters, the “little black dress.” Her signature suit—a collarless cardigan jacket trimmed in braid and an elegantly straight skirt—is the single most-copied fashion design of all time. But Chanel was also a shrewd entrepreneur who grasped early on the value of spinning off her name. In 1921, she launched a fragrance and called it simply Chanel No. 5. That fragrance became the cornerstone of an empire that at its height in the late 1920s, employed some 3,500 people. Born into a French peasant family, Chanel ran off with a cavalry officer at 16; at 20, with the backing of a paramour, she was a milliner in Paris. In 1913, as the 30-year-old mistress of an English businessman, she opened a boutique in the trendy resort of Deauville. Almost at once, her elegant designs began to alter the way women of style looked and dressed.”Her first customers were princesses and duchesses,” Vogue editor Diana Vreeland said, “and she dressed them like secretaries and stenographers.” And, indeed, while her clients included the world’s wealthiest women, it was these “working girls”—
die millions of women who began moving into the work-place in the 1920s—whom Chanel claimed as her natural constituency. With her urging, these women cut their hair and discarded their corsets. ? Chanel closed her couture house during World War II, but remained in Paris, living with a Nazi officer. Reviled as a collaborator after die war, she fled to Switzerland. She returned
to Paris triumphantly in 1954 and ran her couture house until her death. ? Chanel was the best designer of her time because, she liked to say, she had “lived the life of the century.” For women today, however, Chanel’s most enduring contribution rests on a simple, yet radical, proposition: She proved it was possible to be comfortable and chic at the same time.
Estée Lauder 1908-2004
HE BUSINESS OF BEAUTY IS HARD WORK. Such is rhe lesson imparted by cosmetics magnate Estée Lauder. Born Josephine Esther Mentzer to immigrants from Eastern Europe, the future beauty empress made her professional start as a young housewife during the Depression, when she began selling an uncle’s home-brewed face creams in New York City beauty parlors. Lauder’s uncle, a professional chemist, never realized much profit from his skin-care inventions; meanwhile, his enterprising niece built her business into Estée Lauder Inc., founded in 1946 with her husband, Joe Lauder. Today the family-run business (which went public in 1995) sells perfume, makeup and skin treatments in some 70 countries to the tune of well beyond $3 billion a year. Hardly a woman alive today is unfamiliar with the company’s wares. Lauder prospered by recognizing the value of loyalty. When competitors marketed their products in pharmacies, she stuck with department stores. The strategy produced two tangible results: It helped create an aura of exclusivity, and it made Lauder essential to the department stores, where today the line accounts for nearly 40 percent of all cosmetics and perfume sales. Bur Lauder’s single greatest innovation may well be her practice of giving away free product samples with purchases—a custom that is now standard in the cosmetics industry
Oprah Winfrey 1954
HIL DONAHUE MAY HAVE pioneered the quasi-tabloid, participatory format of the modern daytime talk show—one part journalistic inquiry, two parts prurience—but Oprah Winfrey perfected it. She has turned an hour of midday chat into the ¡Ilusión of an intímate heart-to-heart with millions of viewers. ? What makes Oprah, as the warm and forthright star carne to be known by al-most everyone, different from other hosts is her willing-ness to bare her own soul and her uncanny ability to relate to the problems of her guests, and they to hers. Using the now-legendary events of her own troubled life—a child-hood of poverty in the racist South, rape by a cousin when she was nine, pregnancy as a teenager, and a chronic, operatic struggle with her weight—as a springboard, Winfrey turned her show into a nonthreatening forum for exploring both the ordinary problems of ordinary women (with weight, with commitment-phobic men, with recalcitrant husbands), as well as such once-taboo subjects as incest, domestic abuse and homosexuality. Possessing what Time magazine called “a direct pipeline to the narion’s osyche,” Winfrey changed what America talked about in public. ? Launched nationally in 1986, The Oprah Winfrey Show soon toppled Donahue, the reigning talk king. As her show took off, Winfrey sought new challenges. She started a film production company,
took up acting (her performance in Steven Spielberg’s The Color Purple earned her an Academy Award nomination), and opened a restaurant. Meanwhile, her effort to lose weight and keep it off became something approaching a national obsession. 1 At some point in the ever-upward trajectory of her career, Winfrey passed from being America’s favorite girlfriend to becoming a national tastemaker. The phenomenal power her personal convictions carry is truly
unparalleled. The books she likes shoot to the top of the best-seller lists. Musicians she in¬vites on her show watch their records climb the charts. Diets concocted by her personal cook influence the eating habits of millions. f Winfrey, whose $415 million empire makes her the wealthiest woman in show business, continues to live by the advice she once shared with Ladies’ Home Journal. “Follow your instincts,” she said. “That’s where true wisdom manifests itself.”
Frida Kahlo 1907-1954
URING HER LIFETIME, Mexican painter Frida Kahlo lived and worked largely in úie shadow of her husband, revolutionary muralist Diego Rivera, with whom she shared one of die century’s most famously tumultuous marriages. In the half-century since her death, Kahlo has become an international heroine whose reputation is starting to outstrip Rivera’s. Her burgeoning cult is at least partly due to the perception of Kahlo as the ultimate underdog—a bisexual, handicapped, left-wing, Latin feminist. Fortunately, her vivid, powerful paintings, most notably a series of self-portraits she executed in die 1930s and ‘40s, transcend those trend-driven labels. 5 Kahlo began painting at 18 to help pass the time as she recuperated from the central misfortune of her life—a bus accident in México City that left her in excruciating pain for the rest of her life. She met Rivera when the already legendary artist carne to her school to work on mu¬ráis. They married in 1929, and divorced in 1939, only to remarry a year later. 5 Kahlo’s highly symbolic, intensely personal work is often described as surrealist, but she distanced herself from those dream-obsessed artists, insisting, “I always paint my own reality.”
Marilyn Monroe 1926-1962
ARILYN MONROE WAS A VICTIM of the Hollywood maÂŹchine that transformed her from a naive, rather plain-looking brunette named Norma Jean Baker into the most enduring sex goddess of all time. ? Born in Los Angeles to a mother who was frequently institutionalized and a father she never knew, Monroe lived mostly in orphanages until she was 14, when she married for the first time. While working in an airplane factory near the end of World War II, she was discovered by an Army photographer, who got her started modeling for calendars and magazines (most notoriously, the first issue of Playboy, in which she appeared, as she later put it, with â€œnothing on
but the radio”), f Monroe signed a contraer with Twentieth Century Fox and appeared in a series of forgettable films befóte landing coveted roles in The Asphalt Jungle and All About Eve (both 1950). Fox launched a massive publicity campaign, and within three years, Monroe had become an icón of hilarious, dumb-blond sexuality—a part she played to perfection in such now-classic films as Some Like It Hot and The Seven Year Itch. Indeed, her overripe beauty and sheer star power are so dazzling, they threaten to obscure the
fact that she was a fine, intuitive actress. 5Success, however, only exacerbated Monroe’s insecurity. Her high-profile marriages to power-ful men—baseball great Joe DiMaggio and playwright Arthur Miller—ended in divorce, and her efforts to escape her studio-concocted image left her frustrated. 5 As her dependence on nar-cotics escalated, Monroe’s behavior became more erratic. In 1962, six weeks after being fired by Fox, she died, naked and alone, of a sleeping-pill overdose in her Los Angeles home. ? To-
day, Monroe is nearly as famous for being Marilyn Monroe—she ^) f the breathy delivery of “Happy Birthday, Mr. President” to JFK— as she is for her film career. And, in an age of conspiracy theories, she is never far from center stage, thanks to her alleged love affairs with both John Kennedy and his brother Robert, and to the sor-did circumstances of her death. Yet it is onscreen, watching her trade double entendres with Tony Curtis or coo “Diamonds Are a Girl’s Best Friend,” that we truly see what the fuss was about.
Isadora Duncan 1978-1927
ERFORMING BAREFOOT in a free-flowing translucent tunic, Isadora Duncan virtually invented modern interpretive dance, which she called “theI divine expression of the human spirit through the médium of the body’i movement.” In her life and art, Duncan was the epitome of die unfettere™ free spirit whose fierce artistry cannot be governed by rules and convenl tions. 5 Born in San Francisco, Duncan made her way to Europe in 188! with her mother, sister and brodier. In London, the family studied Greek art I at the British Museum. Soon, Duncan’s performances were infused witU Greek influences, including the tunic that revealed the movements of her baiJ limbs. After London, she was greeted with wild enthusiasm in Paris, Berla and Vienna. Yet she was never appreciated in her native country, which foundl her lewd. ? Duncan’s emancipation on stage was matched in her personal liíeJ An outspoken proponent of free love, she had myriad affairs and bore nwJ children (who died in a tragic 1913 accident) by two fathers. 5 Duncan’s life ended freakishly when her neck was snapped as a long scarf she was wearingj became entangled in the spoked rear wheel of a roadster she had just boarded.
Jane Fonda 1937
F ALL OF JANE FONDA’S many incarnations—each uniquely reflecting its era—it was her role as workout gurú that left the deepest imprint on the culture. Wiüijane Fondas Workout Book in 1981, Fonda brought the idea of fitness to the masses. The book’s step-by-step régimen formed the cornerstone of a mini-empire of fitness clubs, music cassettes and workout videos, f Fonda, the daughter of revered actor Henry Fonda, emerged as an international sexpot in 1968’s Barbarella, directed by her first husband, Roger Vadim. Then, in one of her periodic personal transformations, she became active in protesting the Vietnam War. She also left playboy Vadim for left-wing radical Tom Hayden and won critica! praise (and two Oscars) for such films as Klute (1971) and Corning Home (1978). 5 In 1991, two years after divorcing Hayden, Fonda tackled her most unlikely role yet: wife of billionaire media barón Ted Turner. Embracing the part with her usual gusto, Fonda professed greater happiness than at any time during her varied career.
TARTING OUT AS A DISCO SINGER of dubious talent, the performer Madonna became one of the world’s most celebrated en-tertainers. Within a decade of her first hit single, she had branched from records into videos, movies and books, and been named “Amer-ica’s Smartest Business Woman” by Forbes magazine. Therein lay Madonna’s lasting cultural significance: In an age of celebrity wor-ship, she was a one-woman entertainrnent tycoon whose inimitable product, shrewdly packaged and marketed, was herself. í Madonna Louise Ciccone arrived in New York City in 1978, with $37 in cash. Aided by the new médium of MTV and a keen appreciation of the power of sexual titillation, she created an updated versión of the oíd Mae West persona of unabashed, yet essentially good-natured, sexual predator. By 1997, more than 80 million Madonna albums had been sold worldwide. J What separated Madonna from countless flashes in the pan was her ability constantly to remake herself. From trashy mid-eighties “Material Girl,” as one song proclaimed, she became a wife (briefly—to screen actor Sean Penn), a gym-buffed dominatrix, a Marilyn Monroe bombshell, a Dietrichesque androgyne and, finally, with the 1996 birth of daughter Lourdes, a doting mom.
Katharine Hepburn 1907-2003
LEGANT, OUTSPOKEN, AND SELF-RELIANT, Katharine Hepburn was a thoroughly modern woman who brought an uncompromising, no-nonsense Yankee sensibility—and sense—to both her public and prívate roles. From the beginning of her career, when she stub-bornly resisted the conventions of glamour for the com¬fort of pants, Kate the Great did things her way or not at all. (That she was an exceptional beauty with impossibly high cheekbones and a thick mane of auburn hair did not hurt.) For that spirited individualism, as well as for a seven-decade screen career that earned her 12 Osear nomina-tions and a record four best-actress awards, Hepburn has been an inspiring role model for several generations of women. ? Hepburn broke into movies in the 1930s after a mostly undistinguished stage career. On screen, she played such able women as an aviatrix in Christopher Strong, Jo in Little Women, and an understudy who be-comes a star in Morning Glory, her first Oscar-winning role. But after teaming up with Cary Grant in 1938’s Bringing Up Baby, a commercial disappointment that is now considered a classic screwball comedy, Hollywood’s most unconventional star was designated box-office poi-son. She resuscitated her career by producing and starring in both the stage and screen versions of The Philadelphia Story, in which she played the imperious socialite Tracy
Lord. ? Hepburn’s collaborators include some of Holly¬wood’s most distinguished directors and leading men. But her greatest partnership was with Spencer Tracy, with whom she made nine movies—most memorably, the srnart and sexy Adam’s Rib (1949)— and shared a 26-year love affair.
Never married—Tracy, a Catholic, refused to divorce his wife—the couple remained insepa¬rable until Tracy’s death a few weeks after the completion of their last movie, 1967’s Guess Who’s Corning to Dinner. Hepburn won her second Osear for that film, which she declined ever to watch.
Nadia Comaneci 1961 48
HE IDEA OF PERFECTION in athletics was mostly theoretical—until Nadia Comaneci showed up at the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal. Performing on the uneven bars on the Games’ opening day, the solemn, darkeyed Romanian gymnast, who at age 14 stood four-ten and weighed 86 pounds, received a judges’ mark of 10.00—the first such score ever awarded in Olympic competición. By the time the prodigy finished her as-sault on the record books, she had won three gold medals and six addition-al “perfect lOs.” 5 In unseating the beloved Russian 1972 Olympic champ Olga Korbut, Comaneci set new standards of technical mastery, incorpo-rating moves that no gymnast had ever before attempted—dangerous, high-flying twists and somersaults. Enthralled by Comaneci’s unearthly contortions, preadolescent girls everywhere began flocking to gymnastics classes. ? At the 1980 Olympics, Comaneci, 5 inches taller and 20 pounds heavier, won two gold and two silver medals, and she was enjoying fully the perks of celebrity Romanian style. But after her former coach Bela Karolyi defected to the United States, Comaneci found her every move monitored by Romania’s secret pólice. ? In 1989—just days before dicta-tor Nicolae Ceausescu was toppled in a bloody revolt—Comaneci slipped out of Romania and escaped to the United States. Eventually, she fell in love with Bart Conner, a fellow gymnast and twotime American gold-medal winner. In 1996, she married Conner in Bucharest’s ancient Roma¬nian Orthodox Casin Monastery.
Amelia Earhart 1897-1937
OR AMELIA EARHART, IT WAS LOVE at first flight. F.rom the moment the Kansas native took her first ride in an air-plane in 1919, she was hooked. Within a year, she was taking flying lessons. f In 1928, when publisher George Putnam began iooking for “an American girl of the right image” to make a transatlantic flight over the same route followed in 1927 by Charles Lindbergh, Earhart, by then a social worker in Boston, was the chosen one. Although she was just a passenger, the flight brought her instant fame. (Earhart ended up marrying Putnam in the bargain.) f In 1932, Earhart was alone in the cockpit ••vhen she flew her own plañe across the Atlantic, becoming the first woman ever to do so, and setting a record for speed as well. Five years and a dazzling array of “firsts” later, the “Lady Lindy” of aviation’s golden age disappeared—lost and presumed dead in rite middle of an island-hopping attempt to circumnavigate the globe. 5 With her tousled short hair, afFinity for men’s tailored clothing, and no-nonsense manner, Earhart stands as one of the great androgynous heroines of the period between the two world wars. Her airborne feats dared millions of less liberated admirers to believe in a fundamental truth: Anything men could do, women could do, too—as well or better. She eagerly spread that gospel as she crisscrossed America in her plañe, giving lecturas and demonstrat-
ing her aviation skills to worshipful crowds. ? EarÂŹhart had the uncanny ability of making her dangerous work look easy. But her last journey. which at 29,000 miles was to have been the longest ever made, proved too ambirious. She and her navigator were on the final leg of the trip when, on July 2, 1937,
their twin-engine Lockheed Electra simply disappeared. 5 In Earhartâ€™s magnificent success and her equally spectacular failure over the Pacific lie the twin components of her legacy: a bold de-sire to lead women into exclusively male domains, coupled with a willingness to pay any price for the privilege.
Helen Keller 1880-1968
ELEN KELLER IS UNSURPASSED as a symbol of triumph over physical dísability. Inseparably entwined with her story is that of Anne Sullivan, the woman who gave Keller the tools to surmount her deafness and blindness (the result of a childhood bout with scarlet fever). Before Sullivan entered her life, when she was seven, Keller “had neither a will ñor an intellect,” as she later recalled. Sullivan broke through Keller’s isolation by teaching her headstrong charge not only that the water that gushed onto her hand had a ñame, as did everything she touched, but that her teacher could give it to her. ? Learning to speak by feeling the lip and tongue movements of her teachers and copying them, Keller mastered Braille in Greek, Latin, French and Germán, as well as English. (Until Keller, medicine had recordad only one blind deaf-mute child who had learned to communicate verbally.) ? In 1900, Keller enrolled at Radcliffe, relying on Sullivan to spell out every lecture in her hands. When she graduated, Sullivan stood beside her. ? Keller became an eloquent advócate for women’s suffrage, the rights of the handicapped, and other liberal causes. “Life,” she wrote in one of her many books, “is either a daring adventure, or nothing.” Hers was most certainly the former, pur-sued with courage, commitment and a total lack of self-pity.
María Montesori 1870-1952
ONTEMPORARY PRIMARY EDUCATION derives its form largely from the pioneering Italian educator María Montessori. It was Montessori who introduced to chil-dren’s classrooms such now commonplace accoutrements as child-size tables and chairs, lively colors, and develop-mental learning games. And it was she who first trained teachers to approach early education as a cooperative en-deavor in which the kindergarten-age child should be guided, but not lectured to or blamed. As her biographer Rita Kramer correctly observes, Montessori “belongs on any list of those whose existence shaped our century.” And, adds Kramer, “the fact that she was a woman, born in Italy thir-ty years before the end of the last century, makes that fact even more remarkable.” ? Italy’s first female doctor, Montessori developed an interest in children with learning disabilities, becoming convinced of the valué of manipula-tive materials and age-appropriate sensory stimulation in helping them learn. In 1907, she opened an experimental school in a Román slum to test her principies on inner-city preschoolers without handicaps. They made remarkable progress in reading and writing. f Explaining her system in the 1912 book The Montessori Method, Montessori de-nounced traditional schools where “children, like butter-flies mounted on pins, are fastened each to his place.” Essentially, the Mon-
tessori method takes advantage of a child’s natural desire to learn with minimal intervention from a teacher. Enormously influential, the book launched an International educational reform movement. 5 The Montessori movement has influenced early-childhood edu¬-
cation to such a degree that there is probably not a day-care center or kindergarten classroom in America that does not incorpórate at least some of Montessori’s techniques and progressive ideas into its curriculum.
Diana Princess of Wales 1961-1997
HEY CALLEO HER THE PEOPLE’S PRINCESS, not just for her remarkable compassion for AIDS patients, sick children and victims of land mines, but also because her fairy-tale life kept veering from the script in a way ordinary folks could relate to. The eating disorders, the adulterous husband, the overbearing in-laws, the embarrassing divorce: These things happened to regular people, not to princesses. ? Willowy, flaxen-haired Lady Diana Spencer married His Highness Charles Philip Arthur George, Prince of Wales, in July 1981. Thus was launched one of the more extraordi-nary romances of modern times. Not between Charles and Di— the remote 32-year-old future king and his girlish bride (and distant cousin) were an ill-matched pair from the start—but be¬tween Diana and an adoring public. Because she was beautiful, because she introduced some vivacity to Britain’s stuffy royal fami-ly, because she bore an “heir and a spare” to the throne of all Eng-land, because she hobnobbed with movie stars, because she grew to realize that her enormous celebrity provided a unique opportunity to do charitable work, Diana became the most photographed—and most idolized—woman on earth. f In Diana’s mass popularity, of
course, lay the roots of her untimely death: She was killed in a car crash in Paris as a drunken chauffeur tried to outrace paparazzi intent on snapping photos of her and her Egyptian playboy beau. 5 The entire world had watched Diana grow from coltish bride to el-
egant woman. Now it watched as she was too soon laid to rest. One of the century’s most scintillating figures in life, Diana in death be¬came something more—a. symbol of a fiawed life creatively lived for the short time it lasted.
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Mary Kay Ash
orn another success story for beauty products. Mary Kay Ash is created woman Mary Kay cosmetics, one business sales consultant through most famous and main rival planet of avon signature. Born in Texas, ash decided to start your own business when the company working in refused to give rise to be women only. To 5,000 dollars that had saved and help your child, Mary Kay signature that began an account today with more than 2 million of representatives of beauty.
Diane Von Furstenberg
ashion designer this industry is famous for promoting the system of mentors in their company and dreams shelter young talents in your company. Step to be ex wife the german prince of furstenberg egon, diane refused to live a life locked in high society to start your own company. Wrap style dress your stand for empowerment for women professionals worldwide has brought you become the president of the council of fashion designers of america, member of the board of vital voices and a major driving the female entrepreneurship.
arah bustani, fashion designer studied at the janette klein fashion design school and the fashion institute of technology in new york, started developing in making costumes for plays, tv shows and soap operas. In 1996 launched a fresh and stylish line of high quality material which is distributed in department stores such as el palacio de hierro and liverpool, achieving great success in the youth market. The parades of their collections cause great excitement for its spectacular assembly and production. Sarah bustani the brand is present in the most important fashion shows as intermoda in guadalajara, expofashion in mexico city, mexico fashion week, fashion week las vegas, los angeles fashion week, fashion week of the americas in miami, latino fashion week fashion week bogota colombia and costa rica. The lines are marketed under the name junior casual clothing, jeans, underwear, sun and ophthalmic lenses, bags and accessories, leather goods, all with great success in the market. Sarah bustani the brand continues to gather momentum with the opening of stores in the best shopping centers in mexico.
fghan this corporate dared to start a business in a country where the general opportunities for women are few. Sidiqi has faced death threats and the social repudiation women to help other people to start your business. After his father and brother to depart his family to join the taliban, sidiqi sewing start a business to feed his friars minor. Together with family members dangerous expeditions embarked on raw material for your seams. Your company is reference in the middle east fashion and angel network leads to help other entrepreneurs in your area.
his corporate of his way home 22 years in business 14 years when the site whateverlife.Com opened in which helped myspace pages design and taught basic design and programming. Loan through your mother, qualls did buy the domain name and have one of the first pages get million independent monthly visits. Bill today just over 70 thousand dollars a month.
The mode arrives below the prices Up to
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Secrets of the most
Jennifer Lopez J
ennifer Lopez was born in July 24, 1969 on New York, United Sates is an actress, singer, dancer, entrepreneur, producer and fashion designer Puerto Rican American. With its first 9 albums has sold more than 70 million albums. In the entertainment world often refer to her as well as J.Lo. It is the richest person of
Latin American descent in Hollywood, with a fortune of over $ 250 million, and is the most influential Latin artist in the United States, according to the list of “100 Most Influential Hispanics” by People magazine.In 2011 she was chosen by People magazine as the most beautiful woman in the world.
Shakira Mebarak S
hakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll known simply as Shakira, is a singer-songwriter, record producer, dancer, model, fashion designer, entrepreneur, television actress, philanthropist and ambassador of goodwill of UNICEF Colombia. She debuted in the Hispanic music market in 1996 with the album “Pies Descalzos” and international success came in 2001 with “Laundry service”. She has won two Grammy
Salma Hayek Awards and eight Grammy Awards Latino. The company Live Nation considers Shakira the most important artist of his generation for his clearly established global impact, and places with this contract within world most important artists.According to Forbes magazine, is one of the singers that wins more money. Is estimated that Shakira has sold more than 70 million musical productions worldwide, September 10 of which only 9.9 million albums were sold in the United States. In early 2013 she joined the panel judge on The Voice replaces Christina Aguilera, to join Usher, Blake Shelton and Maroon 5 frontman Adam Levine.
alma Hayek is a Mexican American film actress, director and producer. She began her career in Mexico starring in the soupopera “Teresa” and went on to star in the film El Callejón de los Milagros (Miracle Alley) for which she was nominated for an Ariel Award. In 1991 Hayek moved to Hollywood and came to prominence with roles in Hollywood movies such as Desperado (1995), Dogma (1999), and Wild Wild West (1999). Her breakthrough role was in the 2002 film Frida as Frida Kahlo which she received an Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Screen Actors Guild Award and Golden Globe Award nomination for Best
Actress. The movie received widespread attention and was a critical and commercial success. She won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing in a Children/Youth/ Family Special in 2004 for The Maldonado Miracle and received an Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series in 2007 after guest-starring in the ABC television series Ugly Betty. Hayek’s recent films include Grown Ups (2010) acting alongside Adam Sandler, and Puss in Boots (2011), which also features former collaborator Antonio Banderas, wherein she is the voice of the character ‘Kitty Softpaws’.
Tabasco Success from the southern tropic.
ecognized as one of the most important designers in the south-east and one of the national 10, internationally it has taken part in the fashion week, fair SIMM Madrid spring summer 007 and autumn I hibernate 2008. It possesses studies of maestrías recently in Madrid, Spain, designs his collection with his stamp that characterizes her as great designer of modes. I initiate 25 years ago in Comalcalco’s city, tabasco, with the opening of the Boutique Pasarelle de Tete and realizing the first designs in cocktail dresses, holiday, girlfriends and teenagers In 1981 I realize the first garment for an ambassador who was carrying in the night of the choice of the flower more beautiful of tabasco, from this date he has designed all the dresses for the ambassadors of the condition of tabasco. I take part for Lupita Jones’s invitation in the year 1996 designing dresses in the presentation of stage of coctel of our beauty tabasco.
aria teresa Cazola bravo, better known as Tere Cazola, teacher of secondary, mother of four children and with a great final touch to the confectionary, was combining this great interest with the labors of the home and the school. It began with the sales of brownies and pays in his school between relatives and friends and this way it traversed the voice of which already there was a person who was offering and guaranteeing a great quality in thin confectionary. For 25 years they have been present in the families making happy any occasion, birthday, lunches, familiar meetings, of work or up to small whims. Nowadays you possess branches in the whole peninsula and Villahermos
Leader Women Ladies to follow up.
ANGELES MASTRETTA M
exican journalist and author was born on October 9, 1949 in Puebla, where she lived until 1971. Ángeles studied journalism at the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences of the National Autonomous University of México and obtained a degree in communications. Performed after collaborations for various newspapers and magazines as “Excélsior”, “Unomásuno”, “La Jornada” and “Proceso”. through a column she wrote down the little of “Everyday Absurdity”. In 1974 Mastretta was awarded a grant from the Mexican Center Allowed Writers to participate in a literary workshop alongside writers like Juan Rulfo and Salvador Elizondo. By then published a collection of poetry that was titled “The paint bird” After several years as Director of Cultural of the ENP-Acatlán and the “Chopo University Museum” respectively, the Mexican writer participated with a television program and interviews and talks known as “the Pillow” Along its path’s, part of the editorial board of the journal “Links”, other publications where she obtained her literary column. “Rip my life” was her first novel, in addition to having been translated into Italian, English, German, French and Dutch, was recognized as “The Best Book in the award Year” Mazatlan with literature prize. Years later his second novel and fourth book “Lovesickness”, won the award “Rómulo Gallegos”. “Large-eyes Women”, “Free Port”, “The enlightened World”, “No Eternity As Mine” and “Sky Lions”, are other works of Ángeles Mastretta.
MARTHA CHAPA M
artha Chapa is one of the most outstanding women of México, especially for his brilliant career in Mexican art, which foregrounds. A sample of his talent and creativity are the 300 individual exhibitions and has participated in almost collective, which has done so much in México, North America, Europe and several countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean, where she has won many important awards. First studied art at the National School of Painting, Sculpture and Engraving “La Esmeralda”, January school under the National Institute of Fine Artes in México city were they lectured famous Mexican artists such as Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. Chapa had teachers as: Luis Sahagún Cortés, Juan Eugenio Mingorance, Carlos Navarro and Jorge Vázquez Quiñones. The plastic work plate, which began in the 1960s, including drawing, oil painting and sculpture and has focused on one main topic: The Apple, but there are other issues that have been the subject of interest in the form repetitive, as Popocatepetl, the Virgin of Guadalupe and México features some plants, such as cacti and magueys. His work has been exhibited in over 300 solo exhibitions and over 1800 collective in México, and internationally.
LYDIA CACHO A
uthor of several works of social impact, has been awarded several times for his journalistic work. Lydia Cacho is also renowned human rights activist and especially those of women and is part of the International Network of Journalist with a Gender Perspective. Founded in 200 in the company of others Comprehensive Care Center for women, CIAM Cancun, AC in Cancun, Quintana Roo. This is a specialized care center for women and children victims of domestic and sexual violence. Voice political columnist Caribbean, editorial editor of magazine The mouth is mine: notes of equity and gender, host of the TV show with the same name, a contributor of opinion on the news behind the news, specialist in violence and gender for the United Nations Agency for Women (UNIFEM), author of several essays on violence and HIV-AIDS with Laval University in Quebec and Harper & Row Publishers and â€œWindowâ€? magazine of the University of Guadalajara. Counselor Caribbean University, co-founder of the Network of Journalists of Mexico, Central America and Caribbean correspondent CIMAC new agency, co-founder of the National Network of shelters for women who experience violence in Cancun, Quinta Roo, certified by the National Training Center for Domestic Violence in Austin, Texas. Is author of The Demons of Eden in which denounces mafia pedophilia in Mexico and the consent of the political class involving several public figures.
GABY VARGAS G
abriela Vargas Guajardo (born January 29, 1953), better known as Gaby Vargas, is a lecturer, journalist, author and image consultant Mexican. He has lectured since 1988, over image, nonverbal communication, achievement and self-esteem, in Mexico, the U:S: an Hispano-American. Contributes to various media, as well as various programs and radio and television newscasts. He published his first book, the image of success, in 1998, and it quickly became a best seller, since then has written nine books, two of them coauthored. The success of his books, which have sold over two million copies, has meant that Gaby is considered the most widely read author in México, why was recognized “Woman of the year 2008. In addition to his professional activity, is also actively involved in altruistic work, partnerships and collaborations to his professional activity, is also actively involved with APAC Foundation, the foundation and the foundation Marillac Institute Enough of violence against women, among others. Although interested in everything related to makeup from their student days, May began working in this area until after the birth of her three children, first as a makeup artist and then, because of the success he had, began to give makeup classes. Later,in 1978, founded in Mexico City Facial Design Company, a kind of spa. This business was the first of its kind in the city and eventually had 5 branches. Subsequently established another company, Corporate Executive Image, a firm from which was dedicated to providing image consulting to all types of people. Among the company¨s clients now were counted Mexican presidents, Ernesto Zedillo and Vicente Fox Quesada. Tanks to the work carried out from Corporate Executive Image, Gaby Vargas is considered the first image consultant Mexico. In 1998, he published his first book, the image of success, which proved a sales success and became a best seller. Since then he has published nine books, including two co-authored with journalist and Yordi Rosado, all his books have been successful, with overall sales of more than 2 million, which has led to Gaby is considered the most widely read author in Mexico . In 1999, he decided to sell their businesses in order to devote more time to his family and research for his books and artículos.
MÓNICA PATIÑO I
s a Mexican cook and entrepreneur who has represented Mexico in various food festivals in countries like Germany, Spain, Portugal and England, and is considered one of the most prestigious cook level national and international levels. One of its restaurants, “Náos”, is considered one of the best in Mexico. After studying at the French school of gastronomy L´Ecole de Cuisine, Patiño opened its first restaurant in 1978. Since then he has been a consultant to business conventions cooking various TV shows. One of his books, in the kitchen Flavor Monica Patino won a Gourmand World Cookbook Award in the category of “Best Chef book woman” In 1999 he debuted as host of the television show Corner Flavors transmitted by Once TV Mexico, which addresses the preparation of Mexican dishes. From these emissions, collected their stories in the book cooking in the kitchen Flavors Mónica Patiño, published in 2003, the same as obtained a Gourmand World Cookbook Award in the category of “Best Chef Book Woman” in 2004. In August 2004, awarded her the award “Entrepreneur restaurateur of the year” by the company Supplying AC Tourism (ABASTUR). Participated in the drafting of a cooking encyclopedia entitled The Great Mexican Kitchen, which was published in 2008. He has also worked in the consultancy gastronomy exhibitions made by companies like Aeromexico and Microsoft. Has been host of the Television program Simple and Natural Utilísima Argentine channel, which features recipes and talk about their stories as cook. The CNN website Naos Expansion recognized, owned by Patiño, as one of the best restaurants, who chose her as one of the most successful cooks thirteen Federal District.