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MAGAZINE

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MAG AZINE ENGLISH EDITION

Lake Constance

Churches, Monasteries and the Council of Constance D/A EUR 5 CH CHF 6

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Introduction | Bodensee Magazine Special

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Photo: Markus Leser

Imprint ISBN 978-3-944741-55-0 Bodensee Magazine Special English Edition “Lake Constance – Churches, Monasteries and the Council of Constance” is a publication by Labhard Medien GmbH Max-Stromeyer-Straße 116 D-78467 Constance Phone: +49 (0) 7531 9071-0 verlag@labhard.de www.labhard.de Managing Director Steven Rückert srueckert@labhard.de

Authors Unless otherwise stated, the text was provided by the respective project partners. Layout Brigitte Otto büro 46 Project Management Stephan Bickmann sbickmann@labhard.de Editorial Office Johanna Lambach jlambach@labhard.de Holger Braumann hbraumann@labhard.de

Cartography map solutions © GmbH, Karlsruhe Printed by Druckerei Raisch GmbH + Co. KG Auchtertstraße 14 D-72770 Reutlingen Cover photo Birnau pilgrimage church Achim Mende, Überlingen Photos Unless otherwise stated, the photos were provided by the respective project partners.

Translation Claire Gordon-Kühl Distribution Victoria Resch vresch@labhard.de

We would like to thank all project partners. Pages by Interreg project partners are funded by the European Regional Development Fund.

© Labhard Medien, 2018


Editorial

Content

The entire Lake Constance region, across all of its national borders, is distinguished by a vast number of churches and monasteries. These were traditionally centres of power, not only because of their wealth, but above all their spiritual values. Thanks to the knowledge they amassed in their libraries and their diverse, outstanding architecture, the Lake Constance region became the starting point for a cultural and political develop­ment of truly historic and ultimately European significance. Monks, nuns, their monasteries and convents have shaped the Lake Constance region since the early Middle Ages. Their economy and way of life not only created a unique cultural landscape, but were also a driving force of social innovation.

Introduction ........................................................ 2

The tourist offices of the Lake Constance region have launched an Interreg project in close cooperation with the Catholic dioceses and the Protestant regional churches of Baden-Württemberg. "Churches, Monasteries and the Council of Constance" is funded by the EU. The aim of this project is to make the region's cultural and architectural heritage accessible to a broader public. There are many reasons for visiting the churches, monasteries and chapels around Lake Constance. Follow in the footsteps of these monks, nuns and pilgrims and enjoy a very special experience!

Thurgau.............................................................22

The Labhard Medien team Stephan Bickmann

Routes to Churches and Monasteries...................... 44

Monasteries, churches and the Council of Constance

St.Gallen............................................................. 4 Abbey District of St.Gallen – A UNESCO World Cultural Heritage

REGIO Konstanz-Bodensee-Hegau........................... Western Lake Constance ...............................................10 Reichenau – An island with a unique history...........................12 Praying on your feet....................................................14 Constance...........................................................16

City of churches, monasteries and the Council of Constance

Kartause (Charterhouse) Ittingen / Schaudepot St. Katharinental

Upper-Swabian Baroque Route ............................ 28 BAROQUE heaven

Salem................................................................ 34 Salem Cistercian Monastery

Rest and Relaxation for the Soul ........................... 38 Monasteries and other hospitable retreats

Exploring Baroque heaven/ The major monastic orders


Photo: Achim Mende

Lake Constance

Monasteries, churches and the Council of Constance

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onks, nuns, their monasteries and convents have shaped the Lake Constance region for centuries. Their exemplary economy and way of life created the foundation for this unique cultural landscape. Their abbots were advisers to kings and emperors, educated their children and influenced European culture. Abbot Walahfrid Strabo of Reichenau Monastery wrote Europe’s first gardening manual. For centuries, the monks collected, translated and copied past knowledge. The monasteries were important centres of education, and the students who attended them grew up to become leading scientists and theologians. The monastic libraries collected and harboured significant and precious works of world literature that are still in existence today. The monastic schools taught poetry, music, manuscript illumination and mural painting as well as goldsmithing. Manuscripts created in the scriptoriums of St.Gallen and Reichenau Abbey, together with the surviving testimonies of monastic architecture, are recognised as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The monks left behind a unique architectural legacy. The Plan of St.Gall is of particular significance. Designed by the monks of Reichenau Monastery in 819, it is considered the oldest architectural drawing in Europe and was the blueprint for the construction of the medieval monastery complex in St.Gallen. Today, scientists, artisans and volunteers are attempting to recreate a similar monastery using medieval methods in Campus Galli in Messkirch. The manuscript by Roman architect Vitruvius found in St.Gallen influenced the architecture of an entire epoch – the Renaissance.

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Bodensee Magazine Special | Introduction

Baroque buildings throughout the Lake Constance region are a particular architectural treasure. Outstanding master builders worked together with painters and plasterers to create heaven on earth, as it were. Thanks to the exceptional monasteries, churches and palaces they built, Upper Swabia is today known as “Baroque heaven”. The Upper-Swabian Baroque Route is one of the oldest cultural routes not only in the Lake Constance region, but in all of Germany. A journey along it offers glimpses of its many highlights at every bend: monasteries, abbeys and churches, magnificent castles and aristocratic residences, beautiful Baroque landscapes as well as the sound of Baroque organs, culinary delicacies from Baroque feasts, beer – the most popular beverage – and the unique Upper Swabian lifestyle. The oldest monasteries in the region date back to the 8th century. In subsequent centuries, numerous monasteries were established with the aim of worshipping God in isolation and humility. The Cistercians, a reformed Benedictine order, founded the Imperial Abbey of Salem in the 12th century. More than almost any other historic complex, the abbey in Salem, just a short distance from Lake Constance, has been preserved in its original state: The Gothic church with its exceptional alabaster fittings in the early Classicist style, the magnificent state rooms adorned with Baroque stucco, the farm buildings and gardens take visitors on a journey back through centuries of monastic culture.


Photo: Abbey library St.Gallen

Photo: Achim Mende

Honey-licking putto, Joseph Anton Feuchtmayer; Birnau pilgrimage church (left) Salem Cistercian Monastery (centre) Terrestrial and celestial globe, Abbey Library of St.Gallen (right)

The Lake Constance region has frequently been a source of inspiration for the whole of Europe. From 1414 to 1418, the Council of Constance – the largest congress of western Christianity – was held in the town’s churches and monasteries, making it the focal point of Europe. The participants at this convention succeeded in overcoming the schism that divided Christians in Europe and electing a new pope. On 11 Novem­ber 1417, the only papal council north of the Alps took place here. The town of Constance continues to cultivate this legacy to this day with guided tours, congresses and lectures on the topic. Representatives of the churches and tourist organizations are working together to preserve this cultural heritage and make it tangible and visible. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Photo: Haus St. Elisabeth

Above the Thur valley in Switzerland, Ittingen Charterhouse (Kartause Ittingen), another former monastery, stands at the foot of a vineyard. The historic complex still exudes the spirit of bygone days: The elaborately designed refectory, the monks’ bare cells and the richly adorned church appear as if the monks were still living and praying here. The former charterhouse is now home to a foundation that endeavours to preserve the monastic values of culture, spirituality, education, welfare, hospitality and self-sufficiency. The buildings accommodate a farm, hotel and a restaurant that uses produce grown on the farm, a conference centre, two museums as well as a residential home and workshop for people with disabilities. Guests are welcome to stay in the hotel and follow in the footsteps of the monks.

Group of pilgrims, Hegne Convent

Introduction | Bodensee Magazine Special

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Photo: St.Gallen-Bodensee Tourism


Abbey District of St.Gallen

A UNESCO World Cultural Heritage

St.Gallen Abbey was a focal point of western science, a centre of culture and a site of major interest. Many of the works produced here, including manuscripts and deeds, survived the abolition of the abbey in 1805 and remain in existence to this day. The former abbey church and the magnificent abbey library are some of the finest examples of Rococo in Europe. The Abbey District of St.Gallen has been recognized as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage since 1983.


A unique cultural heritage The abbey square with its exceptional architectural ensemble comprising the former abbey church – now the cathedral – and the abbey library have lost none of their appeal, even 200 years after the dissolution of the abbey. The abbey church is one of the last great Baroque edifices in the Lake Constance region. The magnificent Baroque library hall is among the finest in the German-speaking world. The Abbey Library of St. Gallen houses a unique collection of manuscripts, many of which were written in the scriptorium of the abbey and have survived the course of history. St.Gallen continues to cultivate this bibliophilic legacy as a modern city of books.

CATHEDRAL OF ST. GALLUS AND OTHMAR (FORMER ABBEY CHURCH) The abbey church was completed in 1767. Johann Kaspar Bagnato, a renowned master builder, was significantly involved in its planning, while the building work was supervised by Johann Michael Beer. The church, which was commissioned by abbots Cölestin Gugger of Staudach and Beda Angehrn, became a cathedral (episcopal church) following the dissolution of the abbey in 1824. The impressive facade with its twin spires rising up at the eastern, narrow end of the church is a landmark of the diocese, city and canton of St.Gallen. Inside, the church is a three-nave construction with columns and a central dome (rotunda). Exquisite stucco, frescoed vaults, altars and the choir stalls are among the outstanding features of the interior. The harmonious balance of different art forms was the work of Christian Wentzinger, a sculptor and painter. The stucco by Johann Georg and Matthias Gigl separates the lighter-coloured stone walls from the ceiling frescoes in a darker tone. Josef Wannenmacher, who painted the ceiling frescoes, created his greatest work of art in St.Gallen. The choir stalls in the chancel are three-dimensional masterpieces crafted under the leadership of sculptor Josef Anton Feuchtmayer. ABBEY COURTYARD The courtyard of St.Gallen Abbey is the only example in Switzerland of Baroque imperial architecture based on the principles of alignment and monumentality and combined with a great church built in the same style. However, the complex was never completed as the monastery was dissolved before the architects' ambitious aspirations could be fulfilled. The western wing of the courtyard stretching eastwards from the southern spire of the cathedral was the “Alte Pfalz” (Old Palace). At the eastern end of the courtyard is the “Neue Pfalz” (New Palace) built in 1767-1769 by master builder Johann Ferdinand Beer for Abbot Beda Angehrn. This was the abbot’s residence up to 1803, and now houses government offices of the Canton of St.Gallen.

Eremus et Abbas The history of the monastery dates back to Gallus, an itinerant monk who came to the Steinach Valley in 612 as a hermit (eremus) and preacher. He soon gathered scholars around him who formed a religious community after his death (on 16 October in around 640). Othmar, a priest, founded a monastery on the site of Gallus’s tomb that later followed the Rule of St. Benedict. Othmar, the provost (abbas) of this monastery, built the first abbey and provided alms for the poor from the surrounding countryside. Gallus and Othmar together embody the principles of Benedictine life: prayer and (manual and social) work.

Cathedral of St. Gallus and Othmar

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Bodensee Magazine Special | St.Gallen


Abbey library hall (top left) The ornately decorated, elegantly dimensioned Abbey Library of St.Gallen (built between 1758 and 1767 under Prince-Abbot Cölestin Gugger of Staudach) is considered the most beautiful non-religious Baroque hall in Switzerland and one of the most perfectly designed library buildings in the world. Vaulted cellar (bottom left)

THE ABBEY LIBRARY (BAROQUE HALL) AND ITS TREASURES The Baroque library hall is considered one of the most beautiful around Lake Constance. The wood furnishings, the harmonious arrangement of the book spines and the vaulted ceiling with stucco and frescoes give the hall a unique allure; contrasts, colours and forms are combined in the overall design, and the individual elements are perfectly aligned. The paintings in the library take as their central theme the first four ecumenical councils. At these church assemblies, early Christians grappled with the issues of truth and orthodoxy – questions the monks of St.Gallen were also concerned with in the Age of Enlightenment. Twenty cherubs in the niches above the pilasters (half-columns) embody the different sciences, arts and crafts.

St.Gallen-Bodensee Tourism Bankgasse 9 CH-9001 St.Gallen Phone: +41 (0) 71 227 37 37 info@st.gallen-bodensee.ch www.st.gallen-bodensee.ch Stiftsbibliothek St.Gallen (Abbey Library of St.Gallen) Klosterhof 6D CH-9000 St.Gallen Phone: +41 (0) 71 227 34 16 stibi@stibi.ch www.stiftsbibliothek.ch

The library houses the scientific, literary and above all liturgical manuscripts of the former abbey covering the period from around 400 to 1805. The Abbey Library of St.Gallen is the oldest library in Switzerland and one of the largest and earliest monastery libraries in the world. Its exceptionally valuable collection of books representing the most significant body of manuscripts from the Middle Ages in Switzerland documents the development of European culture in general and the cultural achievements of St.Gallen Abbey in particular from the 8th century to 1805. At the heart of this collection are some 2,000 documents, many of which were written in the abbey’s scriptorium. It also contains 108 pre-Carolingian manuscripts of foreign origin from around 400, including an important collection of Irish manuscripts. In addition, the Baroque hall holds some 1,000 incunabula (works printed before 1500) and several hundred early prints (created after 1500). VAULTED CELLAR The vaulted cellar, formerly known as the “lapidarium” from the Latin “lapis” (“stone”), houses an important collection of architectural sculptures from the Carolingian, Ottonian, Gothic and early Baroque eras. Most objects were rediscovered in the course of archaeological excavations in the former abbey church (1964/1965). At the end of November 2018 the vaulted cellar will be reopened with a new exhibition on the history of St.Gallen Abbey.

Example of a valuable illumination Luitherus, a monk at St.Gallen Abbey, hands over (dedicates) his finished book to St. Gallus. Manuscript and illumination from around 1135 from the collections of the Abbey Library of St.Gallen. The Abbey Library of St.Gallen is the oldest library in Switzerland and one of the largest and earliest monastery libraries in the world.

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Photo: Achim Mende


Western Lake Constance Numerous churches, monasteries and chapels are dotted around the cultural and natural landscape at the western end of Lake Constance. They include three preserved churches belonging to the former monastery on Reichenau Island on the Untersee (Lower Lake). Reichenau was included in the list of World Heritage Sites and declared an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO in 2000.


Reichenau – An island with a unique history Reichenau is the largest island on Lake Constance. The best panoramic views of the island with its three preserved churches can be enjoyed from Hochwart, the highest point at 45 metres above the level of the lake. Today, these Romanesque churches are a visible expression of the glorious past of Reichenau Monastery. Their architecture and the unique murals in St. George’s church stand out as masterpieces of European art history. PIRMIN, FOUNDER OF THE MONASTERY In 724, Pirmin, an itinerant bishop, established a monastery on the previously uninhabited island of Reichenau. According to legend, the marshy terrain was home to wild animals, toads and poisonous snakes. However, as soon as Pirmin set foot on the ground, the vile animals fled the island and hurled themselves into the water. After that, together with companions, Pirmin began to transform the island into a habitable place.

had for a time been arch-chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire and warden of the sixyear-old Bavarian king Louis the Child. The monastery’s achievements in the areas of science, poetry, art and architecture were equally impressive. Walahfrid Strabo was a preeminent representative of Latin literature. He penned two famous works: “Visio Wettini” in which he describes the visions of the afterlife of his fellow brother Wetti in hexameters; and “Hortulus” which provides an insight into medieval herbal medicine.

THE MONASTERY In the days of the Carolingians and Ottonians, Reichenau Monastery was among the most significant spiritual and cultural centres in the Holy Roman Empire. For centuries, its abbots had acted as advisers to kings and emperors, and as diplomats and envoys. Abbot Hatto III

The monastery school was famous for its outstanding achievements with regard to book illumination. Particularly the magnificent illuminations of manuscripts created for emperors Otto II, Otto III and Henry II received worldwide acclaim. The few richly decorated codices that have been preserved

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are guarded as inestimable treasures in the respective libraries. The ten most famous have been included in the UNESCO Memory of the World register since 2003. ST. GEORGE St. George’s church was built to hold a relic that had been given to the monastery as a gift. Abbot Hatto III had been presented with the head of St. George by Pope Formosus in 896 in Rome. Hatto had the precious relic brought to Reichenau Island, where it was placed in the crypt of the newly built church. Large sections of the basilica have remained unchanged since the 9th century. Eight large murals in the nave, each measuring more than four metres wide and two metres high, illustrate the wonders performed by Jesus. The scenes showing miracles, people being cured and raised from the dead were intend-


Photo: Achim Mende

struction of the Gothic choir on the eastern side of the cathedral was completed in 1555. In the early 17th century, Prince-Bishop Jakob Fugger ordered a new monastery to be built and the “old abbey” destroyed. Only the western wing has been partly preserved.

St. Peter and Paul

ed to demonstrate Christ’s power over the forces of nature, disease, life and death. The murals were painted in the second half of the 10th century and are among the earliest of their kind north of the Alps. The murals are closely linked to the illuminations created by the monks in the scriptorium of Reichenau Monastery, which flourished in around 1000. Numerous details in the execution of the paintings and the portrayal of individual motifs are common to both the book illuminations and the murals. From 1981 to 1990 the murals were thoroughly examined and carefully restored using state-of-the-art scientific techniques.

The eastern transept and the intersecting arches date back to the triple-nave basilica inaugurated in 816. This original construction commissioned by Abbot Heito remained unchanged for many years, while the western part of the abbey church was converted several times. The westwork gained its present-day appearance under Abbot Berno in 1048. The exposed rafters date back to the 13th century. After a period of decline, regular monastic life was reinstated in the 15th century. The con-

ST. PETER AND PAUL The church of St. Peter and Paul was founded by Egino of Verona and consecrated in 799. Excavations have revealed that it covered a larger floor area than the abbey church built around 800. Remnants of murals and intricate sculptures indicate that its decor would have been suitable for a bishop. The present-day basilica with three naves was built in the 11th century. The paintings in the apsis dating back to 1104–1105 depict Christ in Majesty accompanied by portraits of the four Evangelists, St. Peter and St. Paul as well as the twelve disciples. How­ ever, only ten of these can be seen because of a window that was added in the 15th century. The church was comprehensively redesigned in the Rococo style in around 1750. Tourist-Information Reichenau (Reichenau Tourist Information Office) Pirminstraße 145 D-78479 Reichenau Phone: +49 (0) 7534 9207-0 info@reichenau-tourismus.de www.reichenau-tourismus.de MUSEUM REICHENAU Ergat 1+3 D-78479 Reichenau Phone: +49 (0) 7534 9993 21 info@museumreichenau.de www.museumreichenau.de

ST. MARY AND MARK IN THE FORMER MONASTERY DISTRICT The church of St. Mary and Mark was the first church to be built on the island. The abbey church was formerly part of the monastery district. The original wooden construction built by Pirmin, who established the monastery, was replaced in the 8th century with a stone building measuring around 40 metres in length. To the north, it was connected to a cloister and monks’ dwellings on two floors. These buildings were soon extended, and by the mid-9th century the island monastery had as many as 134 monks. Whereas traces of the monastery complex can now only be found underground, it is possible to detect the different stages of development inside the abbey church today.

St. George’s church (left) St. Mary and Mark (right)

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Praying on your feet

Pilgrimage trails in western Lake Constance

Going on a pilgrimage means walking, and walking is a good way to get thinking. If you are moving, you are on the way to reaching your goal – or to finding yourself. More and more people are following pilgrimage trails to find meaning and spirituality, or simply to clear their mind. Ever since the European Council in Strasbourg designated the Way of St. James pilgrimage trail as the first major European Cultural Route in 1987, the old tradition of being on the road has become increasingly popular. The Lake Constance region has been a meeting place and a hub for pilgrims for centuries.

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wo main pilgrimage trails cross the region. One branch of the Way of St. James leads from Württemberg to Beuron Monastery in the Danube Valley, from where it continues the via beuronensis past Messkirch and Überlingen or through the Hegau region to the go on one. The Way of St. James through Upper Swabia crosses from Ulm. In Buchhorn (present-day Friedrichshafen) and in Meersburg, pilgrims can take the ferry to Constance. The Schwabenweg path, as the Way of St. James is called at this point, begins on the south side of Constance’s cathedral. From here, it is 2340 kilometres to Santiago de Compostella. However, very few people who join the pilgrimage trail here intend to walk to the “end of the world”. The region of Lake Constance itself is an ancient place of pilgrimage. A pilgrimage starts as soon as you step out of your front door. Other than a picnic stowed away in your rucksack, you don’t need much to go on one. The Way of St. James takes pilgrims through beautiful countryside with sweeping views, past countless chapels along the side of the path – havens of peace and tranquillity where tired pilgrims can take a break and refresh their spirit. Many people walk alone, but a pilgrimage is really a sociable experience.

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On arriving at Wald Convent founded in 1212, pilgrims coming from Beuron monastery in the Danube Valley must decide whether to follow the path to Constance (p Hegau Way of St. James) or to venture across the lake by ferry at Überlingen (p Linzgau Way of St. James). Both routes are well signposted with the St. James scallop. The pilgrimage trail does not always follow the paths used in the Middle Ages, as many of these historic routes have become country lanes or main roads. Pilgrims today prefer quiet hiking trails through nature with views reaching far into the surrounding countryside, where they can find peace and relaxation. The Way of St. James has become an attractive, scenic hiking route. The pilgrimage trail is lined with numerous chapels, shrines and village churches. Finding the figure of the apostle Saint James in the churches and chapels along the route can become a game of hide and seek. He can be recognised by his pilgrim’s staff, his pouch with a scallop sown on it and his cloak that reaches to his knees. That is how simple citizens dressed in those days; only the aristocracy and the holy apostles were allowed to wear floor-long robes. Not all altars and chapels dedicated to St. James have been preserved. The bell from the former St. James’ Chapel in Risstorf, where the route branches off to Freiburg, Schaffhausen and Constance, can today be found in the Museum of Local History in Stockach. In 1072, Count Eberhard of Nellenburg made a pilgrimage from Stockach to Santiago with his wife, Ita. The count’s grave in the church of All Saints Abbey in Schaffhausen is now a (tourist) destination for pilgrims.

"Maria auf Schrotzburg" chapel, Öhningen-Schienen (top left) Epitaph of a pilgrim, Cathedral of Constance (bottom left) St. Stephen's Church, Constance (right)

Frauenberg Chapel high above Bodman on Lake Constance has been a place of pilgrimage since 1307, when the son and heir to the House of Bodman was miraculously saved from a fire. The path takes pilgrims from here along the Bodanrücken ridge with extensive views over the lake as far as the Swiss canton of Thurgau, and continues past Lake Mindelsee to Allensbach. It is worth making a detour to the monastic island of Reichenau and to Hegne Convent, where Blessed Sister Ulrike lived and worked. Numerous pilgrims come to the shrine of this saint who died in 1913, and trust in her intercession. Pilgrims can find a meal and a bed for the night in Hotel St. Elisabeth that belongs to the convent. These “feeder” routes to the Way of St. James coming from the north and crossing or skirting the lake merge in Constance, from where the Schwabenweg path continues to Fischingen Abbey and Einsiedeln Monastery. After crossing the Bodanrück ridge, if you wish to avoid the hustle and bustle of the former diocese, you can head for Radolfzell, also a place of pilgrimage, from where the route takes you through the peaceful, tranquil countryside via Schiener Berg to Stein am Rhein. Information and flyer on the Way of St. James: REGIO Konstanz-Bodensee-Hegau e.V. Im Kohlgarten 2 D-78343 Gaienhofen info@bodenseewest.eu www.bodenseewest.eu Büro der Beuroner Jakobspilger- Gemeinschaft (Office of the Community of Pilgrims of St. James in Beuron) Benediktusweg 1 D-88631 Beuron www.via-beuronensis.de

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Constance

City of churches, monasteries and the Council of Constance


Photo: Achim Mende


Photos: Dagmar Schwelle


Constance’s churches and monasteries

Visible and hidden gems

The former diocese of Constance existed for more than 1200 years. Established in around 600 A.D., it was the largest diocese in Germany in the Middle Ages and stretched from Stuttgart as far as the St. Gotthard pass and from Freiburg as far as Kempten. The Council of Constance from 1414 to 1418 constituted a highlight in this long history. During this time, three popes simultaneously claimed their right to the Chair of St. Peter. Secular and religious leaders came together at the Council of Constance with the aim of reestablishing the unity of the the church. This event transformed the town into a theological, political and cultural hub. The diocese was finally dissolved in 1821 when its borders were redrawn in the wake of political changes in the post-Napoleonic era. At its zenith, Constance had around a dozen monasteries as well as several churches of various sizes. Even today, it is possible to discover real gems, even in less well-known or easy-to-miss corners of the city.

CATHEDRAL OF OUR DEAR LADY The former bishop’s church is the largest church in Constance. It is made almost exclusively of sandstone from a quarry near the town of Rorschach, which is now part of Switzerland. The building is essentially a Romanesque columned basilica that was consecrated in 1089. During the Council of Constance, the cathedral was at the centre of events: This is where participants at the Council conferred in so-called “sessiones generales” and made important decisions. It is also where Jan Hus was sentenced to death as a heretic and Martin V was eventually crowned the new pope. The cathedral is open to the public every day between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. WESTWORK VIEWING PLATFORM Constance from above: Anyone who has the time and the physical endurance should climb the 193 steps to the platform at the top of the tower, some 52 metres above the ground. The views from here looking down on the town, the lake and the Swiss canton of Thurgau are breathtaking. It is surprising how many roof terraces there are in the old part of town! The tower can be ascended between mid-March and mid-October from 10 a.m. to 5.30 p.m. on week days and from 12.30 to 6 p.m. on Sundays and public holidays. LOWER ST. MARGARET CHAPEL This chapel next to the southern transept of the cathedral is now open to the public. Don’t be afraid to push open the door! The chapel was built in the 1420s as a burial chapel for Bishop Otto III of Hachberg. It contains the elaborate tomb featuring the recumbent figure of Bishop Otto framed by outstanding murals, showing a Marian apparition above a kind of balcony balustrade. Don’t miss it, but also make sure you do not disturb anyone who is praying! CRYPT The oldest part of the cathedral is the so-called “Winkelgangkrypta”, a set of underground passages dating back to the end of the 9th century. The crypt was enlarged when the cathedral acquired the relics of the late Roman martyr Pelagius in the early 10th century and Bishop Conrad of Constance was canonized in 1123. You can walk to the end of the crypt and peek down the long passageway that was originally accessible from the southern side aisle to allow more people to enter the crypt.

Hohes Haus with St. Stephen's Church behind it (top left) The present-day Council Building, a former warehouse at the harbour where the papal election was held in 1417 (bottom left)

ST. SYLVESTER CHAPEL This beautiful chapel that is almost completely covered with murals is situated in the cloister behind a door with a pointed arch. The paintings show the Passion of Christ beginning with Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem and ending with the outpouring of the Holy Spirit (Whitsun). They date back to 1472, but had to be restored after only one hundred years. Recent research has unearthed more about the origins of the paintings: They were commissioned by the rich Humpis family from Ravensburg. Again, don't be put off by closed doors and take a look inside.

ST. MAURICE ROTUNDA The foundations of the St. Maurice Rotunda date back to the 10th century. It can also be accessed via the cloister. Many parts of the church were newly built and renovated in the centuries following its construction and the original floor level was raised by around 1.65 metres in around 1300. The chapel houses a cenotaph that holds a shrine representing the coffin of Jesus Christ. The chapel is reminiscent of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, which Bishop Conrad visited several times. Take note of the statue of the Apostle St. James on top of the tomb: He is holding several staffs and pilgrims’ bags ready for pilgrims who set of from here to Einsiedeln or even Santiago de Compostela.

HOLY TRINITY CHURCH The former monastery church of the Hermits of Augustine largely dates back to the 13th and 14th centuries and was renovated in the Baroque style in the 18th century. The remarkable murals in the nave were painted during the time of the Council of Constance and show not only religious saints, but also King Sigismund (the first figure in the north-west of the church), the self-proclaimed patron of the Council of Constance, who stayed in the monastery from 1417 onwards and commissioned three painters from Constance to do the artwork. One hundred and thirty years after its construction, the church was extended in 1399, and the ground level raised by around 1.6 metres for structural reasons. If you turn right after entering the church, you can see the original foundation below you. Holy Trinity Church is located in Sigismundstrasse 17 and is open every day from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.

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Photos: Dagmar Schwelle

Photo: Kerstin Bittner

Photo: Achim Mende


Imperia, a statue by artist Peter Lenk, turns on its pedestal in front of the Council Building at the entrance to Constance harbour and has become one of the town's most significant landmarks. Honoré de Balzac elevated the Roman courtesan to the status of a literary figure at the Council of Constance, making her the clandestine ruler of the Council – or as Balzac put it: “she hath stripped many a mitre and spoiled many a crozier.” She holds two naked men in her hands, one wearing a crown and the other a tiara. They are said to represent Sigismund and Martin V. But according to artist Peter Lenk, they are two jesters who have wrongly made a claim to power. (top left)

MONASTERIES IN CONSTANCE Of the approximately one dozen monasteries that existed in Constance at the time, only “Zoffingen” Dominican convent in the Niederburg district remains today. Most convents were secularised in the late 18th or 19th century, including the former Dominican monastery on the island at the gateway to the town. The Dominicans established an extensive monastery complex here as early as 1236. During the time of the Council of Constance, the monastery on the island was used as a prison for Jan Hus, a reformer from Prague. After the last monks left the island in 1785, the entire complex was acquired by the Macaire family from Geneva and used as a textile printing and dyeing factory. One famous son of this family was Count Ferdinand Zeppelin, who built the eponymous airships. He was born on the island in 1838. In 1874 the building was converted into a hotel that still exists today. The newly founded University of Konstanz also held its first lectures here in 1966. After the former monastery had been converted into a hotel, the historical painter Carl Häberlin painted the cloister with murals depicting significant events on the island, starting with the prehistoric pile dwellings and ending with the opening of the hotel. Eberhard von Zeppelin, who owned the hotel and commissioned the paintings, decided what scenes Häberlin should paint. But in some scenes, he was taken in by “fake news”. For example, St. Pelagius was not murdered on the island in Constance, but in Istria, if he was murdered at all. There are other fictitious events, but the scenes from the Council of Constance are all truthful. By the way, do not hestitate to enter the hotel. If there is no event going on in the cloister, you can walk around and take in the medieval architecture and the historic illustrations from the 19th century. THE COUNCIL OF CONSTANCE The Council of Constance was one of the most important occurrences in the region’s history. To commemorate this highly significant me­dieval congress, a colourful collage of events took place between 2014 and 2018, organized by various institutions. But even after the anniversary, the history of the Council can still be experienced in Constance. The election of Martin V, the only valid papal election north of the Alps to this day, marked the end of the schism of the church and was the major achievement of the Council of Constance. This more or less harmonious gathering of thousands of religious and secular leaders from all over Europe over a period of four years set a precedent in the largest town on Lake Constance. Even 600 years later, traces from the days of the Council can be discovered on a walk through the beautiful historic town, whether you explore the wonders of the Council of Constance on your own, with the help of a digital or analogue map or the wide range of literature on the Council, or accompanied by a competent tour guide. In the Hus-Haus museum you can learn all about Jan Hus, while the Rosgartenmuseum offers one very special attraction: The Constance edition of the Richtental Chronical. Just a few steps further on is Holy Trinity Church, where you can meet the man who brought the Council to Constance: King Sigismund commissioned local artists to paint his image on the walls of the church. More information about the Council of Constance, its history and the people who played a role in it, as well as literature and events can be found at www.konstanzer-konzil.de

Guided tours The largest town on Lake Constance prides itself on its vibrant blend of culture, history and nature. The lake that has inspired artists and writers for centuries, the historic town centre, romantic Niederburg – the oldest part of town – with its narrow alleys, galleries and boutiques, as well as the wonderful Alpine panorama attract countless visitors and new residents every year. Guests and locals can embark on a fascinating journey back in time on one of the many guided tours through town that take place all year round and offer a wealth of information on local history and culture. One highlight of any tour is the Council of Constance, the major event that took place 600 years ago between 1414 and 1418 and has left its mark in various places around town. The Council Building, the figure of “Imperia” at the harbour, the Hus Stone and other attractions recall this international medieval sensation. Guided tours on various topics provide more information on the town's history, fascinating anecdotes, real insider tips and all you need to know about Constance ... For dates, prices and more information: www.konstanz-tourismus.de/erleben-entdecken/ kulturgeschichte/stadtfuehrungen.html Marketing und Tourismus Konstanz GmbH (Marketing and Tourist Office) Bahnhofplatz 43 / Bahnhof D-78462 Constance Tel. +49 (0) 7531 1330-30 kontakt@konstanz-info.com www.constance-lake-constance.com www.konstanzer-konzil.de

Interior of Constance Cathedral with the crossing and the choirstalls in the background (far left) View of the cathedral from Seestrasse with the former Dominican monastery in front (centre right) Plaque on the "Hus Haus" that now houses a museum (bottom right)

Constance | Bodensee Magazine Special 21


Photo: Kartause Ittingen


Kartause Ittingen

A Significant Cultural Monument

Kartause Ittingen, a former Carthusian monastery and present-day cultural and conference centre, combines the monastic values of culture, spirituality, education, welfare, hospitality and self-sufficiency in a unique way.

Thurgau | Bodensee Magazine Special 23


Photo: Ittinger Museum

Photos: Helmut Scham

The monks' cells with gardens in front (left) Inside the Rococo church in Ittingen Museum (right) The Baroque gardens of Kartause Ittingen (bottom)

HOW THE CARTHUSIAN MONKS LIVED AT KARTAUSE ITTINGEN “Our supreme quest and goal is to find God in solitude and silence”, is written in chapter 12 of the Carthusian statutes. Silence, tranquillity and concentration on the search for God are central pillars of the Carthusian faith. A life of solitude in a monk’s cell is essential to finding this peace and being completely free and “empty” for God. In addition, the monks take a strict vow of silence and more or less break all contact with the outside world. The highly regulated sequence of work, study, contemplation, prayer and meditation is seen as continuous worship of God. Visitors to Kartause Ittingen can gain a vivid impression of the strict, contemplative way of life of the Carthusian monks. Ittingen Museum presents the ornate refectory, the monks’ bare cells and the richly adorned church as if the monks were still living and praying here. Wandering through the cloisters, work rooms and gardens, visitors can gain an insight into a world that would normally be closed to them due to the strict monastic rules of the Carthusian Order. The lives of the monks and the buildings they lived in have been made accessible to the public using modern communication means. Visitors can leaf through manuscripts penned here hundreds of years ago on monitors in the monks’ rooms, while an audio guide provides additional information on events that took place here, making a visit to this historic site a memorable experience. PAST AND PRESENT In 1848 the Great Council of Thurgau decided to dissolve the mona­ steries and declare their assets state property. The monks were forced to leave Kartause Ittingen, bringing to an end seven hundred years of monastic life. The former charterhouse – the name given to Carthusian monasteries – was bought by private owners in 1867 and used as a country estate. In 1977 the complex was acquired by the Kartause Ittingen Foundation, which restored the buildings and, together with its partners, put them to new use.

24 Bodensee Magazine Special | Thurgau

The concept is based on the monastic values of culture, spirituality, education, social welfare, hospitality and self-sufficiency. As well as a large farm with its own vineyards and dairy, the former charterhouse offers supervised accommodation and activities for people with disabilities as well as a market garden with 60 sheltered workplaces. Visitors and seminar guests can enjoy high-quality produce grown on site in the restaurant housed in the stylishly refurbished old mill, the hotel with 68 rooms and the monastery shop. Kunstmuseum Thurgau and Ittingen Museum are located in the historic buildings and offer a wide range of events and exhibitions on local history and art. This is also where the Room of Tranquillity can be found, a place for guests to immerse themselves in the silence and peace of the former monastery. Kartause Ittingen also organises exclusive concerts and has made a name for itself among lovers of chamber music. tecum, a centre for spirituality, education and community building, offers a comprehensive adult education programme. Ittingen has become a lively venue for cultural events, seminars and encounters of all kinds.

INFORMATION Stiftung Kartause Ittingen Kartause Ittingen CH-8532 Warth Phone: +41 (0) 52 7484411 info@kartause.ch Ittinger Museum Kunstmuseum Thurgau Phone: +41 (0) 58 3451060 sekretariat.kunstmuseum@tg.ch www.kunstmuseum.ch Opening hours: May-September 11 am – 18 pm, daily October-April Mon-Fr 2 – 5 pm Sa/Sun 11 am – 5 pm


Schaudepot St. Katharinental

A Swiss rarity

The former abbey complex of St. Katharinental is an exceptional destination for a day out. It not only boasts a magnificent Baroque church, but is also home to a modern rehabilitation clinic with an outstanding restaurant as well as Switzerland’s only Schaudepot St. Katharinental containing the extensive folkloric collection of the History Museum Thurgau. Set in a former granary, this unique museum concept blends a classical exhibition with an open storehouse and has attracted visitors to the museum for over 20 years.

OBJECTS TELL STORIES More than 10,000 everyday objects from the 17th to the 20th century can be seen at Schaudepot St. Katharinental, a museum with an exceptional concept combining a traditional exhibition with an open repository. Visitors can immerse themselves in their grandparents' und great-grandparents' world on a guided tour and discover what it was like to live here in those days from a modern perspective. Why did horse owners hang engraved deer’s antlers on their waggons to ward off danger? Why is a fanning mill a sign of progressive farm management? And what does a pair of shears impressed on a roof tile mean? The most fascinating aspect of a tour of the Schaudepot with its historic treasures is the stories the objects tell, the people behind them, their mentality and values. It is possible to piece together the history of Eastern Switzerland from everyday artefacts. Many of the items reveal interesting details from the past that may seem bizarre today. For example, typical equipment on display from the Emmental region was found in local farmhouses, attesting to the domestic migration of people from Bern to Thurgau. Visitors learn that a “fleam” was not only used to let blood, but also served to draw blood from living cattle to dilute black pudding. It seems equally strange today to learn that the recipient of a newfangled office ballpoint pen in 1961 had to confirm this in person and was held liable if it got lost. The showroom also includes objects from the 21st century, such as a small packet of dark-coloured plasters for dark-skinned people – an indication of demographic change.

The five-storey construction built in the late Middle Ages gained its present appearance in the mid-18th century (top) Wine press from Niederneunforn on the site of the former monastery press on the ground floor. The interior with oak columns and lintels from 1680 has been preserved. Presses have been common in Thurgau since the 13th century. This exhibit dates back to the 17th or 18th century. It was given a new shaft in 1812 and was used to press grapes until 1950 (bottom)

Thurgau | Bodensee Magazine Special 25


Delve into the past Why were the farmers of Thurgau agricultural pioneers in the 19th century? What domestic skills did a woman need 200 years ago? What did a carpenter’s workshop look like in the pre-industrial age? Delve into the past on a tour of discovery through the exhibition on four floors dedi­cated to the topics of wine-growing, agriculture, transport, crafts, textile production and domestic work. Visitors can immerse themselves in the world of their ancestors on a guided tour of the museum and gain a lasting impression of how it was to live and work in Eastern Switzerland 100 years ago. Situated on the idyllic shores of the Rhine, a visit to Schaudepot St. Katharinental is a perfect day out for groups. Combine your stay with a visit to the Baroque convent church of St. Katharinental and treat yourself to culinary delights in the cafeteria on the banks of the river. For more information and reservations: Phone +41 (0) 58 345 73 80 www.historisches-museum.tg.ch

26 Bodensee Magazine Special | Thurgau


The idyllic monastery complex is an ideal place for celebrations and relaxation.

ARCHITECTURAL LEGACY The folkloric collection of the History Museum Thurgau has been housed in the former granary of St. Katharinental Convent since 1997. The permanent exhibition covering various topics is spread over four floors. Schaudepot St. Katharinental is part of a unique monastery complex with a magnificent church that is considered one of the most perfectly executed Baroque constructions in the region of Vorarlberg and Switzerland. At the time of its foundation in the 13th century, the monastery was a main centre of mysticism. St. Katharinental boasts a unique, intact architectural heritage in an idyllic setting. It is used as a romantic backdrop by many couples who come here to get married. A visit to the convent with its extensive grounds on the shores of the Rhine is also a perfect day out for groups. Cultural and historical exhibitions and larger events are held here from time to time, and concerts and guided tours also take place in the monastery church. Thurgau’s historic monuments department also maintains a small museum here on the history of the monastery. On request, the museum can put together a programme with a wide range of activities, including cultural and culinary gems, to guarantee inspiring moments in a wonderful region. Peter Bretscher Cornelia Tannheimer

SPECIAL TIP

St. Katharinental – a feast on a festive occasion The restaurant at St. Katharinental Convent provides the perfect ambience for celebrations, a snack or an aperitif at the end of a guided tour. The former convent has a wide choice of historic rooms, while the cafeteria directly on the shores of the Rhine is popular in summer. For reservations, aperitifs and/or menus for groups, please contact the restaurant at St. Katharinental on +41 (0) 52 723 76 00.

Thurgau | Bodensee Magazine Special 27


Photo: Achim Mende


BAROQUE

Heaven

Baroque in Upper Swabia is a unique phenomenon! In the course of some 150 years between the end of the Thirty Years War and the rise of Napoleon, between the Renaissance and Classicism, a world and an art form emerged in Upper Swabia that still shapes the region today and astounds visitors again and again. ALONG THE UPPER-SWABIAN BAROQUE ROUTE Visitors to the region between Wiblingen and St.Gallen (CH) can travel along the Upper-Swabian Baroque Route and explore six different theme worlds: They can admire BAROQUE, experience BAROQUE, relax with BAROQUE, listen to BAROQUE, enjoy BAROQUE and even shudder at BAROQUE. The many impressively preserved stately homes, monasteries and churches with magnificent interiors embellished with paintings and sculptures, stucco and craftsmanship are the most visible monuments from this period. But there is more: Musical and literary works were also created in the service of the Catholic faith that not only celebrated the Creation but also explained the meaning and order of the world and life to the people. Baroque in Upper Swabia is a work of art in its own right! But it is not merely a historic relic devoid of life – it lives on today, not only in the landscape and its formation, in the architecture, art and music, but above all in the positive outlook of the people who live here. Their love of life, their enjoyment of good food and drink, of music, celebrations and games are undoubtedly rooted in the Baroque period. For the people of Upper Swabia who have grown up with Baroque, it is “as much a part of our inner nature as pretzels and Fasnacht”, says Thomas Moritz Müller, an artist and journalist. Seen in this light, Baroque, especially in Upper Swabia, is not simply an academic art form that has lent its name to an epoch, but also a life philosophy that gives people a sense of identity and allows them to enjoy life. And it is contagious! You don’t necessarily have to be born in this share this attitude. A drive along the Upper-Swabian Baroque Route, a visit to one of the castles and monasteries or one of the fantastic churches in the towns and villages, an organ concert or a celebration, maybe combined with a good beer or a glass of wonderful wine from Lake Constance, is an ideal way to awaken your inner “Upper Swabian”. Upper-Swabian Baroque is above all an invitation – an invitation to enjoy art in its many forms and to relax and feel blessed by life!

Further Information about the UPPER-SWABIAN BAROQUE ROUTE: Oberschwaben Tourismus GmbH (Upper-Swabian Tourist Office) Neues Kloster 1 D-88427 Bad Schussenried Tel. +49 (0) 7583 92638-0 www.heavenly-baroque.com #wearebaroque

Ulf Hailer

Steinhausen pilgrimage church

Upper-Swabian Baroque Route | Bodensee Magazine Special 29


Photo: Frank MĂźller, Bibliothekssaal im Kloster Wiblingen


Discover art treasures

of all shapes and sizes

Magnificent residences and lavish churches are typical of the ostentatious architecture with opulent forms and bright colours that is associated with the BAROQUE era. Many churches, monasteries and castles in BAROQUE Heaven are immediately recognizable to visitors as being Baroque. Anyone who travels along the Upper-Swabian Baroque Route with their eyes open can also discover less obvious treasures.


Three destinations

in BAROQUE heaven

The monasteries and castles along the Upper-Swabian Baroque Route are testimonies to an exceptionally life-affirming world view. Visitors who travel along it can discover a wealth of Baroque gems.

Weingarten Basilica

WEINGARTEN Weingarten’s basilica is considered one of the most significant churches dating back to the High Baroque period. Thousands of visitors come every year to admire its ornate facade and its priceless treasures, such as the Holy Blood relic that is venerated every year in Europe’s largest horseback procession, or the famous Gabler organ with its mighty sound cosmos. Those looking for a more relaxing experience should plan a walk along the Stiller Bach. This artificial stream is Weingarten’s lifeline. Installed by the Benedictine monks, the canal system has been almost completely preserved and is unique evidence of early hydraulic engineering. Its value as a source of water and a haven of peace was recognised even in Baroque times. www.weingarten-online.de

Open-air museum in Kürnbach

BAD SCHUSSENRIED The small monastery town of Bad Schussenried is situated directly on the Upper-Swabian Baroque Route between the Danube and Lake Constance. The town boasts an astounding number of Baroque treasures. The Baroque library in the monastery is without doubt one of the most exquisite in southern Germany. As well as the adjoining museum with its permanent exhibition, a steady stream of inspiring temporary exhibitions and a varied cultural programme, the monastery has long become a significant centre of culture. Bad Schussenried also has a showcase brewery with Germany’s first Beer Stein Museum in the centre of town. The Upper Swabian Museum Village in Kürnbach presents artefacts from past eras. Steinhausen pilgrimage church, just a few minutes away, is justifiably known as the world’s most beautiful village church. www.bad-schussenried.de

Roggenburg Monastery

ROGGENBURG MONASTERY Founded in 1126, Roggenburg Monastery was filled with the spiritual life of the Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré until secularisation. A new community of monks moved into the historic monastery complex in 1982. In summer 2015, the monastery was completely renovated and now shines in new splendour, while the grounds, the meditation garden with an ivy maze and the herb garden are inviting places to linger. Roggenburg Abbey church, one of the most important Rococo buildings in Swabia and home to the “Grosse Roggenburgerin” organ, is also well worth a visit. “Be kind to your body so that your soul desires to live within it.” In keeping with these words by St. Teresa of Avila, Roggenburg Klostergasthof serves guests Swabian and monastic delicacies. www.kloster-roggenburg.de

Baroque library at Schussenried Monastery

Upper-Swabian Baroque Route | Bodensee Magazine Special 33


Salem Cistercian Monastery

Between opulence and asceticism

“Reverend Prelate of the Holy Roman Empire, Lord of the Royally Exempt, Consistorial and Immediate Free Imperial Abbey and Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Salem, Ruling Abbot of their Royal Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesties, Real Privy Counsellor” – so read the official title of Anselm II Schwab, 38th Abbot of Salem from 1746 to 1778.

t

he self-assured prelate of the Imperial Abbey of Salem could not have expressed his political ambitions more clearly. Caught up in a planning frenzy, the abbot demonstrated Salem’s position in the Holy Roman Empire with a series of ambitious building schemes that would shape the appearance of the abbey complex for centuries to come: He redesigned the minster with alabaster fittings in the Classicist style, built a crossing tower with 16 bells, installed a vast organ with more than 7,000 pipes, embellished the abbey’s apartments with the finest Rococo stucco, established and furnished the library, and, last but not least, relocated the Marian shrine and built the pilgrimage church of Birnau. He left only the Imperial Hall largely untouched in his planning and decorating efforts; the heart of the prelature where guests were received was considered too valuable to the monastery and to the abbot. Salem’s status as a free imperial abbey and consistory meant it was subordinate only to the emperor and the pope, a fact that must be evident to anyone visiting. On approaching the monas-

34 Bodensee Magazine Special | Salem

tery complex in the 18th century, the first thing guests would see were Anselm's ambitious new and converted builldings. They were symbols of his need for prestige: magnificent, tree-lined avenues leading to the monastery, the minster with its (still standing) 60-metre-high bell tower, fountains embellished with statues in the courtyards and gardens, exquisite furnishings not only inside the buildings, but even in the horse stables, as well as the grand monks’ church with its rich adornments. All this appears to contradict the monks’ ideal of a life of asceticism, humility and poverty – virtues that also formed the basis for the Cistercian Order’s specifications for the layout and interiors of its monasteries. But let’s go back to the beginning: How did the Cistercians find this place? How did the monastery evolve over the centuries, and how was such a stately complex with such a palatial appearance reconcilable with the monks’ vow of poverty?


The monks named the first monastery from the Middle Ages Salem after the biblical “place of peace”. Since 2009, it has been largely owned by the state of Baden-Württemberg. Thanks to the present-day boarding school, the wine-growing estate (and residence) of the Margraves of Baden, both church communities, Birnau basilica and countless visitors to the museums, exhibitions and events, Salem is still an extremely lively ensemble and has preserved its unique flair as a haven of peace. (left)

LIVING BY THEIR OWN LABOUR The Cistercian Order had emerged from the Benedictine Order in Burgundy as a reform movement in the 11th century with the aim of reverting to the core monastic values described in the Rule of St. Benedict of Nursia. Its members insisted that the Rule must be observed strictly and to the letter. Intended as open criticism of conditions in Benedictine monasteries at the time, the Cistercians demanded that monks should not live on secular donations or tithes, but “by their own labour”. Thanks to their exemplary lifestyle, the introduction of a constitutional charter (charta caritatis), efficient management, and above all the charismatic personality of St. Bernhard, Abbot of Clairvaux (1090–1153), the order was quickly accepted and spread rapidly throughout Europe. SALEMANSWILARE BECOMES SALEM In 1134, Sir Guntram von Adelsreute donated the hamlet of Salemans­ wilare to the emerging order. It is possible that Guntram, who supported the Staufer dynasty, hoped that the monastery’s foundation would consolidate the influence of the Staufers in the territories of the House of Welf. In any case, Salem continued to be closely associated with the House of Staufen. A community of twelve monks from Lützel Monastery in Alsace under Abbot Frowin (1137–1165) moved into the new monastery in 1137. They gave it the “holy” name of Salem (after the biblical “place of peace”), but the old name of Salmansweiler was still commonly used for the abbey well into the 19th century. In the first decades after its foundation, the monastery succeeded in expanding its property through further donations as well as by acquiring land. It now owned agricultural estates not only in the monastery’s immediate surroundings as far as Lake Constance, but also farther away in the Hegau region, the Black Forest, Upper Swabia and the Swabian Mountains. The monastery flourished under Abbot Eberhard I of Rohrdorf (1191–1240), who presided over it for almost fifty years. By the 13th century, the order had long eased the strict requirements of self-sufficiency and had adapted the living conditions in the monasteries, so that it was now permitted to acquire land. This further bolstered the economic growth of Salem Monastery. It was able to consolidate its land ownership, buy further plots and even acquire property in the towns. By around 1250 the monastery was managing 22 granges (large farms) and selling the products in the surrounding towns through its own establishments, so-called “Salmansweiler farms”. Besides farming and animal husbandry, wine-growing was a principal means of income. The monastery’s prosperity was further boosted by the salt trade, which had been a pillar of the monastery’s economy ever since Eberhard’s day in 1201, when the Archbishop of Salzburg had given the monks of Salem a salt pan or a dome near Hallein as a gift. Abbot Anselm II Schwab (top) A stove tile depicting a historic scene from the days of the monastery (bottom)

Salem | Bodensee Magazine Special 35


HIGHPOINT IN THE MIDDLE AGES Salem Monastery thrived in the Middle Ages Ages, as is evident in the Gothic minster inaugurated by Abbot Ulrich II of Seelfingen (1282–1311). Under Abbot Ulrich, the abbey not only experienced an economic and spiritual highpoint, it also grew to an unprecedented size: According to reports, 310 monks and lay brothers now managed the monastery’s estate. This resulted in the need for a new monks’ church built in the Gothic style – a sign that standards were now higher in every respect. Although Salem also suffered setbacks and difficult times, for example during the Peasant Wars and the Thirty Years War, the abbots continued to convert and construct lavish new buildings. They felt justified in this by the imperial immediacy of the monastery, which was repeatedly confirmed over the centuries, combined with the privileges granted by the Emperor and the Pope, and not least the foundation of an “Upper German Congregation” of the Cistercian Order (1619) headed by Salem. The monastery building and numerous farm facilities (such as the large wine cellar in the upper outbuilding that is still used today) were largely rebuilt under Abbot Thomas I Wunn (1614–1647). One cold evening in March 1697, a stove exploded causing a major fire, which was fuelled in particular by the magnificent stucco decorations and oil paintings, according to eyewitnesses. A few objects that were spared, such as the Altar of the Virgin Mary by Bernhard Strigel (1460–1528), attest to the high artistic quality of the decor. It was immediately decided to pull down the ruins and have the monastery entirely rebuilt. DESIRE FOR PRESTIGE IN THE BAROQUE ERA The abbots Emanuel Sulger (1680–1698) and Stephan I Jung (1698–1725) commissioned Franz Beer, a master builder from Vorarlberg, to construct an imposing abbey and monastery buildings in the Baroque style. This transformation encompassed the entire monastery complex as well as the countryside beyond it, as views from the 18th century of symmetrically planted courtyards and gardens, newly designed farm buildings and opulent stables impressively demonstrate. The desire for symbols of prestige had now taken firm hold of the Cistercian monastery. Subsequent abbots, such as Konstantin Miller (1725–1745), Stephan II Enroth (1745–1746), who initiated the reconstruction of Birnau pilgrimage church, and Anselm II Schwab (1746–1778), added further stately buildings. Although the abbots endeavoured to meet the high expectations and reflect the status of Salem as an imperial abbey in its external appearance, they in no way neglected the virtues of the Cistercian Order. They ensured that the monastery was efficiently run and introduced innovations, above all in the agricultural domain: for example, they planted a fruit tree and copse nursery, imported cuttings of “exotic” fruit varieties from abroad and installed a sophisticated irrigation and drainage system in Salem Valley. The monks also considered social welfare to be part of their remit and founded an orphans’ fund (1746), established Wespach poorhouse (1784) and constructed a public school (around 1790). However much importance the abbots and their contemporaries placed on the outer appearance of the monastery, inside it they insisted that the rule of the order should be observed. For example, Anselm reintroduced stricter rules in the monastery after they had been relaxed for many years. And despite the lavish hospitality offered to high-ranking guests, the abbots themselves adhered to strict fasting regulations. Thanks to these diverse measures, Salem flourished economically and culturally in the 18th century. Not only do we owe the present-day buildings with their artistic treasures to these abbots; their work has contributed to the prosperity of the entire region right up to the present day.

Salem Monastery and Palace (top left) Summer prelature at Salem Palace (bottom left) Middle section of the Altar of Our Lady (top right)

FROM A MONASTERY TO A PALACE Shortly before secularisation, Salem was redesigned in the Classicist style. But monastic life was soon to come to an end. On 4 December 1802, the Margraves of Baden took possession of Salem, and the monastery, which had continued its work initially, was finally dissolved on 23 November 1804. The monks renounced their monastic life and were integrated into the service of the Margraves, or were compen­sated with pensions and left Salem. After the dissolution of the monastery, every effort was made to put the buildings and rooms to appropriate use. As a result, the monastery complex has retained its character to a large extent. The monks’ opulently adorned summer refectory, which has hardly changed to this day, has been used since the 19th century as a prayer room by the Protestant parish. The abbey church has been the parish church of the Catholic community of Salem since 1808. The Margraves of Baden also continued the monastery’s agricultural traditions: They not only carried on farming, forestry work and wine and fruit growing, but modernised their methods and increased their yield. And they reintroduced a further monastic tradition – education and training: Prince Max of Baden established a commercial and housekeeping school in 1906 and an agricultural winter school in 1919. Last but not least, together with Kurt Hahn, he founded a boarding school for boys and girls in 1920 – the famous Schule Schloss Salem that has its classrooms in many parts of the complex today. Birgit Rückert Kloster und Schloss Salem (Salem Monastery and Palace) Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Baden-Württemberg Eingangspavillon Schloss Salem D-88682 Salem Phone +49 (0) 7553 916 53-36 schloss@salem.de www.salem.de

Salem | Bodensee Magazine Special 37


Rest and Relaxation for the Soul

Photo: Hotel St. Elisabeth

Monasteries and other hospitable retreats

Lake Constance is surrounded by monasteries that reflect the many different ways to seek God. Augustine, one of the four great Latin Fathers, described our ancient longing for God in his autobiographical observations from the 4th and 5th centuries: “Our hearts are restless until they rest in God." One particular form of seeking God is life in a monastery – a community managed and shaped by monastic rule and prayer times. This lifestyle stands in stark contrast to secular life and is intended to give monks the possibility of continuously turning to God. As the significance of religion in Europe has declined, monastic communities have also grown smaller. At the same time, people are increasingly searching for a meaning, orientation and spirituality in their lives. Monasteries can offer answers to Hegne Convent with Hotel St. Elisabeth this these probing questions. 38 Bodensee Magazine Special | Rest and Relaxation for the Soul


PROTESTANT SPIRITUALITY IN A MONASTIC AMBIENCE – ITTINGEN CHARTERHOUSE Ittingen in the Swiss canton of Thurgau also has a long monastic tradition: Initially a monastery of the canons regular of St. Augustine it was converted into a Carthusian charterhouse in 1461. The buildings, which are still actively used and open to visitors, date back to this period. In 1848 the monastery was dissolved and its assets declared state property. Today, the charterhouse is a foundation that has committed itself to preserving the monastic values of spirituality, culture, social welfare, self-sufficiency and hospitality. The premises include a farm, a seminar centre, an art museum, a hotel and restaurant as well as supervised accommodation and workshops for people with psychological and mental disorders. tecum, a centre for spirituality, education and community-building events that is part of the Evangelical Regional Church of the Canton of Thurgau, has been housed in the former monastery since 1982. It is dedicated to four religious tasks: Spirituality, adult education, promoting community life, and care for groups. Similar to the daily routine in a monastery, morning prayer takes place at 7 a.m. on Wednesdays and Fridays and there is a midday break in the summer months. Communities are formed only temporarily in weekend seminars, courses or worship services. However,

the pastor of Thurgau State Church has a vision for a spiritual fellow­ ship: “My dream is to find people who are prepared to move into the village to play a more active role and help to support spiritual life here – not in the binding sense of a religious order, but with certain rules adopted in the community and with a common spiritual path.” The services offered by tecum are above all based on the religious principles of the Carthusian Order of silence and prayer. Carthusian spirituality is still apparent in the monastery buildings today. “One has the feeling that a monk has just left the room; it draws you in”, says Thomas Bachofner, head of tecum, describing the atmosphere in the charterhouse. “We look back on a long tradition of prayer that goes back centuries. But we have to make sure that we keep it alive.” Contact: tecum – Centre for Spirituality Education and Community Building Fehrenhaus CH-8532 Warth www.vereintecum.ch

Hegne Convent with Hotel St. Elisabeth

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“YOUR CLOISTER IS THE WORLD” – FRANCISCAN NUNS OF REUTE The Franciscan nuns of Reute Convent in Upper Swabia live and work according to the words of St. Francis of Assisi: “The world is your cloister”. The nuns endeavour to follow St. Francis’s example and to give every person the God-given dignity they deserve through their work. Their daily life is shaped by pastoral care, caring for the elderly and infirm, helping refugees, hospice and educational work, crafts, housekeeping and administration. Reute Convent was dissolved in 1786, but Franciscan nuns returned in the mid-19th century and have lived and worked there ever since. Today, their community encompasses around 170 sisters, who meet at set times every day to pray together. Life in a convent often appears restrictive and “unfree” to the outside world. Sister Brigitta Harsch contradicts this preconception: “Here in the convent I feel free, because I can simply exist, with everything that makes me who I am. And the Gospel also makes me free. It gives

HEGNE CONVENT WITH HOTEL ST. ELISABETH Hotel St. Elisabeth is a modern conference centre and hotel affiliated to Hegne Convent on Gnadensee, a quiet section at the western end of Lake Constance. Its eight air-conditioned meeting rooms are suitable for smaller groups or conferences with up to 150 people. The hotel has 84 comfortable rooms for guests, while the kitchen team provides for their culinary well-being in the restaurant, which has now been extended with a terrace, cosy niches and a live cooking station. The convent’s educational office is housed in the hotel and offers hotel and day guests a wide range of spiritual services ranging from meditation to creative courses. Young people seeking a vocation can find support and a temporary home in Haus Franziskus. Haus Ulrika is open to pilgrims and passers-by as well as people in need who are looking for a sympathetic ear or mediation. Contact: Hotel St. Elisabeth Konradistr. 1, D-78476 Allensbach-Hegne, Phone: +49 (0) 7533 9366-2000 info@st-elisabeth-hegne.de www.st-elisabeth-hegne.de and www.kloster-hegne.de

40 Bodensee Magazine Special | Rest and Relaxation for the Soul

me orientation and keeps me grounded. It helps me to live my everyday life, to make decisions, to act and to react. But I must consciously choose this freedom every day, and strive for it time and time again.” Reute Convent offers a wide range of services. However, its main goal is to provide support and a home for people searching for God, their inner self and their own life path. That is why the Franciscan nuns also offer guests the possibility of staying in the convent for a while and taking part in their everyday lives. Contact: Kloster Reute (Reute Convent) Klostergasse 6 D-88339 Bad Waldsee www.kloster-reute.de


HAUS INSEL REICHENAU Haus Insel Reichenau exudes maritime charm and Mediterranean tranquillity. Guests can experience the way of life on Lake Constance first hand here. Set in a verdant landscape among vegetable gardens and vineyards, the conference centre and holiday accommodation on the southern shores of Reichenau Island boasts extensive grounds and its own natural beach. Belonging to the Archdiocese of Freiburg, it is a unique setting for family holidays and seminars. Its 48 cosy apartments are havens of relaxation and tranquillity, and there are plenty of things to do nearby for an exciting holiday with the whole family. Contact: Haus Insel Reichenau Markusstr. 15, D-78479 Reichenau Phone: +49 (0) 7534 9955-0 reichenau@familienferien-freiburg.de www.familienferien-freiburg.de

AN OPEN COMMUNITY – CELLA OF ST. BENEDICT ON REICHENAU ISLAND St. Peter and Paul is one of three preserved Romanesque churches on Reichenau Island and is situated in Niederzell at the far end of the Island. The community of the Cella of St. Benedict meets here every evening to pray in the calm, contemplative ambience of Egino Chapel on the south side of the church. To the sound of psalms being sung and a zither being played, visitors can leave the trials of everyday life far behind them, grow silent and seek God through prayer. “Worship in Egino Chapel is what the Cella of St. Benedict is all about,” says Father Stephan Vorwerk, one of the monks. “As a Benedictine community, we see our mission in the Liturgy of the Hours. Not just for ourselves, but together with people, as brothers and sisters – that is what distinguishes us from other communities.” Reichenau Island was home to a Benedictine monastery from the 8th century onwards that became a significant religious and cultural centre. After the monastery had been dissolved and the monks were forced to leave in 1803, there was no religious order on the island for more than 200 years. Father Stephan revived the former Benedictine site in 2001 together with a fellow brother. Their small monastic

community was joined in December 2017 by two Benedictine nuns from the Philippines. Together, they dedicate themselves to providing spiritual guidance in the parish. Father Stephan sees monasticism as seeking God in day-to-day work, in the daily routine in solitude and in prayer. But the small community of the Cella differs considerably from large Benedictine abbeys. “We are not Benedictines who live behind monastery walls. We live here on Reichenau Island with the people and their families as part of the community,” says Father Stephan. “Yet we have our cells, where we can withdraw to pray in silence. We are a church that cultivates hospitality and welcomes visitors; a community with a certain degree of openness and flexibility.” Contact: Cella St. Benedict Eginostraße 19 D-78479 Reichenau www.benediktiner-reichenau.de

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ST. JOSEF-HERSBERG, IMMENSTAAD Hersberg Castle is a traditional house with a unique atmosphere, nestled among gently rolling hills and vineyards in the unique Lake Constance landscape with wonderful views of the lake and the distant Alps. Run by the Pallottines Order, it is an ideal venue for educational events and seminars or simply to refresh the body and soul. There are plenty of things to see and do in and around the park-like gardens of Hersberg Castle with a rose garden and panoramic pavilion, the popular viewpoint on nearby Hochberg Mountain, the Apple Path and many other cycling and hiking routes around Immenstaad as well as a lido and indoor swimming pool. Contact: St. Josef-Hersberg Schloss Hersberg 1, D-88090 Immenstaad Phone: +49 (0) 7545 9350 info@hersberg.de www.hersberg.de

UNTERMARCHTAL CONVENT – MOTHER HOUSE OF THE SISTERS OF MERCY Guests at Untermarchtal Convent can gain new strength to cope with the challenges of everyday life. The calm atmosphere, modern St. Vincent’s church and the beautiful, extensive convent grounds are ideal for reflection, contemplation, silence and encounters, for relaxation as well as for conferences and concentrated work. Untermarchtal Convent is the headquarters of the Order of the Sisters of Mercy of St. Vincent de Paul. It is where the congregation of the Sisters of Mercy meets and is the spiritual centre of the community. Contact: Barmherzige Schwestern vom hl. Vinzenz von Paul (Sisters of Mercy of St. Vincent de Paul) Margarita-Linder-Str. 8, D-89617 Untermarchtal Phone: +49 (0) 7393 30-0 www.untermarchtal.de and www.bildungsforum-kloster-untermarchtal.de

WEINGARTEN CATHOLIC ACADEMY Brightly lit corridors, painted stucco ceilings and famous St. Martin’s basilica next door are distinguishing features of the Academy of the Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart in the southern wing of former Weingarten Benedictine monastery. The focus here is on “dialogue and hospitality” in an open, friendly and international atmosphere. Its Baroque architecture lends the conference centre a unique flair. Visitors can look forward to an incomparable ambience with state-of-the-art conference rooms and tastefully decorated guest rooms. Contemporary art exhibitions are also held here regularly. Contact: Katholische Akademie – Tagungshaus Weingarten (Weingarten Catholic Academy and Conference Centre) Kirchplatz 7, D-88250 Weingarten Phone: +49 (0) 751 5686-0 weingarten@akademie-rs.de www.akademie-rs.de/tagungshaeuser/weingarten

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MEERSBURG BIBLE GALLERY – A BIBLE MUSEUM FOR THE WHOLE FAMILY Stories from the Bible are brought to life in Abraham’s nomad tent and in a loam house from the days when Jesus lived. Visitors can learn about the high art of bookmaking in the Middle Ages in the scriptorium, or print letters on a reconstruction of Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press. They can search for traces of the Bible in everyday life, or learn fascinating and astonishing facts about the bible in the forum. The Room of Silence as well as the Bible and herb garden in the idyllic inner courtyard are great places to spend time.

Contact: Bibelgalerie Meersburg (Meersburg Bible Gallery) Kirchstraße 4, D-88709 Meersburg Phone: +49 (0) 7532 5300 info@bibelgalerie.de www.bibelgalerie.de

HEGAU HIGHWAY CHAPEL – ROADHOUSE FOR THE SOUL

The highway chapel is situated on the A 81 Stuttgart – Singen motorway at the Hegau-West service area. Address: Zur Engener Höhe 14, D-78234 Engen Coordinates: N 47° 51' 38", O 8° 47' 16" www.autobahnkapelle-hegau.de

Foto: Foto Wöhrstein

Set against the panoramic backdrop of the wonderful Hegau landscape with its volcanic peaks, the ecumeni­cal Emmaus chapel can be found directly on the A 81 highway. It welcomes all travellers who want to pause for a moment on their journey along the southbound motorway. The highway chapel is not affiliated to a parish, but a service is held here every Sunday morning at 11 a.m. that is open to everyone – travellers passing by as well as worshippers who make a point of stopping at this unique chapel.

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RO U T E S TO C H U R C H E S A N D M O N A S T E R I E S I N T H E L A K E CO N S TA N C E R E G I O N

Exploring “Baroque Heaven”

Monasteries and churches along the Upper-Swabian Baroque Route VERINGENSTADT

Heiligkreuztal

Gutenzell-Hürbel Gutenzell Monastery Church

BIBERACH

SIGMARINGEN

312

Donau 311

Siessen Franciscan Convent

MESSKIRCH

311

Pilgrimage church Steinhausen

BAD SAULGAU

7 St. Verena Monastery Church

Rot an der Rot

Steinhausen

Schussenried Abbey

Bad Schussenried

30

Buxheim Charterhouse Kreuzherren Monastery Memmingen

Habsthal Benedictine Convent

MEMMINGEN Aulendorf

Ostrach

Ottobeuren Abbey

465

Wald Abbey

313

OCHSENHAUSEN

Ochsenhausen Abbey

Bad Buchau 32

311

"Carolingian monastery town"

32

MENGEN

313

Leibertingen

Roggenburg Abbey

312

Rot

Inzighofen Monastery Church

Wiblingen Abbey

Riedlingen Heiligkreuztal Monastery

Stetten am kalten Markt

PFULLENDORF

BAD WALDSEE

Altshausen

BAD WURZACH

32

ch

Aa

Reute Convent

96

Rococo chapel at Maria Rosengarten Convent

r

30

Stockach

31

GERMANY

98

34

ÜBERLINGEN

Salem Cistercian Monastery

Goldbach Sylvester Chapel

RADOLFZELL

Franciscan monastery Überlingen

Deggenhausertal

Weissenau Abbey

Adelheiden Convent

Birnau Pilgrimage Church 31

MEERSBURG

Kißlegg

30

MARKDORF

33

32

n

UhldingenMühlhofen

Weingarten Basilica

RAVENSBURG

Salem Birnau

Schusse

33 Radolfzell Cathedral and Monastery

WEINGARTEN

31n

31

Sipplingen

33

Leutkirch

Wolfegg

Heiligenberg

Meckenbeuren

467

Over a period of 150 years between the end of the Thirty Years War and the rise of Napoleon, between the Renaissance and Classicism, a world and an art form emerged in Upper Swabia that still shapes the region today and astounds visitors again and again.

During the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Church took advantage of the arts to present itself as a champion of the true faith. The most visible monuments to this era are the impressively preserved stately homes, monasteries and churches in the region along with their magnificently decorated interiors filled with paintings, sculptures, stucco and artworks. But this new age was not only celebrated in architecture and the fine arts: Music and works of literature were also created in the service of the Catholic faith that explained the meaning and order of the world and life to the people.

The library at Schussenried Monastery

44 Bodensee Magazine Special | Routes to churches and monasteries

Ille

Isny im Allgäu


Significant libraries Salem Monastery and Palace, Schussenried Monastery, Wiblingen Monastery, Ochsenhausen Monastery Churches with significant organs Salem Cathedral, Weingarten Basilica, Steinhausen pilgrimage church, St. George’s Abbey in Ochsenhausen, monastery church of St. Verena in Rot an der Rot, basilica of St. Alexander and Theodor in Ottobeuren

INFORMATION

Holzhey organ in the monastery church of St. Verena in Rot an der Rot

Oberschwaben Tourismus GmbH (Upper Swabia Tourist Information Office) Neues Kloster 1, D-88427 Bad Schussenried Phone: +49 (0) 7583 92638-0 www.himmelreich-des-barock.de

The churches and their interiors are works of art in their own right with ostentatious stucco and whimsical paintings and sculptures, such as the numerous cherubs who populate the churches. The altars, on the other hand, featuring venerable figures of the saints and “heavenly bodies”, as the splendidly garbed relics and skeletons were called, are awe-inspiring. Music is the final element in this overall artwork. Baroque music in Upper Swabia was seen as the crowning glory of the Counter-Reformation. It was held in such high esteem that many a contemporary commented that music was more important in the monasteries of Upper Swabia than theology and pastoral care. It was therefore only logical that many churches were fitted out with the “queen of instruments” – the organ. As a result, masterpieces of European organ building can be found (and heard) in churches in Upper Swabia. Apart from the churches, libraries were the most beautiful spaces in the monasteries. Libraries were not simply places where the monks could work; the monasteries claimed their right to collect the knowledge of the world in them: “Omnes thesauri sapientiae” (All the treasures of wisdom) is the motto of Wiblingen library. A simple room was not enough for this – a hall was required. Libraries were considered places of knowledge and at the same time testified to their religious owners’ superior taste in art. The architecture, paintings and sculptural decorations were thematically linked, but not as an end in themselves: The artistic decor focused on the glorification of “divine wisdom” – fully in the spirit of the Counter-Reformation. The purpose of the iconography was to show that “true” enlightenment can only come from Christian faith.

Admire BAROQUE – Steinhausen pilgrimage church

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RO U T E S TO C H U R C H E S A N D M O N A S T E R I E S I N T H E L A K E CO N S TA N C E R E G I O N

Life and architecture

The Benedictine, Cistercian and Carthusian monastic orders 31

34

81

SINGEN

All Saints Abbey Schaffhausen

Radolfzell Cathedral and Monastery

34

Grünenberg Abbey

St. Katharinental Abbey

Monastic island of Reichenau UNESCO World Cultural Heritage

7 Ittingen Charterhouse

Birnau

31

30

31

Immenstaad

Abbey church of St. Ulrich and St. Afra, Kreuzlingen

FRIEDRICHSHAFEN

Münsterlingen B

St. Remigius church

Chapel of St. Leonhard, Landschlacht

1

FRAUENFELD

Meckenbeuren

Stetten Hagnau

CONSTANCE

Eriskirch

O

31

D 13

WEINFELDEN 7

MEERSBURG

Mainau Castle of the Teutonic Order Petershausen Abbey

KREUZLINGEN

33

MARKDORF

UhldingenMühlhofen

Hegne Convent

REICHENAU St. Genesius Pilgrimage Church SCHAFFHAUSEN St. George's Feldbach Abbey Abbey Schlatt Diessenhofen Öhningen 13 Wagenhausen Abbey Steckborn Monastery church Provost's Church Monastic Island of Werd of St.Michael Stein am Rhein Chapel of St. Nikolaus in Triboltingen St. Georgen 14 Klingenzell Abbey 16 Pilgrimage Church 4 Thur

Birnau Pilgrimage Church

Adelheiden Convent

33

GERMANY

Salem

Franciscan monastery Überlingen

RADOLFZELL

Deggenhausertal

en Schuss

15

Salem Cistercian Monastery

ÜBERLINGEN

Goldbach Sylvester Chapel

314

GOTTMADINGEN

31n

Sipplingen

33

Langenargen

E

N

Shared church

ROMANSHORN 16

S E

14

Amriswil

E Chapel of St.Gallus

Church of St. Pelagius

7

Bischofszell

Protestant Church

WINTERTHUR WIL

1

Königsfelden Monastery Wettingen Abbey

SWITZERLAND 1

FISCHINGEN

WALLISTELLEN

Fischingen Abbey

The Lake Constance region is home to monasteries of various orders that have invariably shaped the landscape and local architecture. Signs of these orders can still be found today. They reflect the different lifestyles and rules of the religious communities, but also pose questions. Monastic life was defined by poverty, humility and isolation from the outside world, and the monks’ lives were strictly regulated. Yet many aspects seem surprising: How is a vow of poverty reconcilable with magnificent architecture and valuable furnishings? This can still be seen in the architecture: sober monks’ cells on the one hand and opulent rooms, such as libraries or richly adorned churches, on the other. Three monastic orders – the Benedictine, Cistercian and Carthusian Orders – illustrate these apparent contradictions between asceticism and the desire for prestige. BENEDICTINE ORDER The “regula” of St. Benedict of Nursia (5th and 6th century) forms the starting point and the foundation for most western monastic communities and was obligatory for Franconian monasteries under Charlemagne (768-814). This set of rules was finally standardised by Benedict of Aniane in around 816 and became compulsory for all monasteries. The lives of Benedictine monks revolved around prayer,

spiritual work, social welfare as well as manual labour and physical activities. The oldest Benedictine monastery in the Lake Constance region is St.Gallen Abbey. Founded as a hermitage by St. Gallus in 612, the subsequent community of monks under Abbot Ottmar conformed to the Rule of St. Benedict after 749. Although no architectural

46 Bodensee Magazine Special | Routes to churches and monasteries

11

Arbon Horn

RORSCHACH 1 Mariaberg Benedictine Monastery

ST.GALLEN Abbey District of St.Gallen UNESCO World Cultural Heritage

remains from the early Middle Ages have been preserved, the extensive abbey precinct with its magnificent Baroque buildings still attests to the outstanding significance of St.Gallen Abbey. Visitors to Reichenau Island can also find evidence of the Benedictine’s architectural and cultural achievements at every turn: The three preserved Romanesque churches are clear indications of the great past of this monastic island. The architecture and unique, carefully restored murals are masterpieces of European art history. Reichenau Museum provides information about the history of the buildings and book illuminations as well as the scientific and literary work of significant Reichenau monks, such as Hermann the Lame and Walafried Strabo.


INFORMATION

30

467

Constance also had a community of Benedictine monks in Petershausen Monastery. The diocese boasted a large number of monasteries and abbeys modelled on the main churches of Rome. Bishop Gebhard II founded Peters­ hausen Monastery as part of this concept in 983. The Baroque monastery building now houses the State Archaeological Museum. The Benedictine order experienced a heyday in the 10th and 11th centuries that left visible traces in the Lake Constance region. The monastery complex of All Saints Abbey in Schaffhausen was particularly elaborate. Around the church that is still preserved today, a whole series of chapels was grouped representing an entire church family. The markedly simple architecture reflects the spirit of monastery reforms in the late 11th century (“Hirsau Reforms”). St. George's Abbey in Stein am Rhein dates back to the same period. The Romanesque monastery church and parts of the cloister from the early days of the abbey have been preserved. The endowment in 1056 of Weingarten Abbey, the family monastery of the Welf dynasty, also took place during this period of monastery reform. Although the vast Romanesque church was rebuilt in the 18th century, remains of the southern side wall still convey an impression of its original size. CISTERCIAN ORDER In Burgundy during the 11th century, a community of monks split off from the Benedictine Order with the aim of adhering more strictly to the Rule of St. Benedict. The “new monastery” founded in Citeaux marked the birth of the Cistercian Order, which was hugely successful and spread rapidly throughout Europe. The Cistercian Order had two significant outposts in the region around Lake Constance and the Upper Rhine: Salem Monastery founded in 1134 and its subsidiary Wettingen Monastery. Salem in particular achieved outstanding significance in the 13th and 14th centuries, as can be seen in the High Gothic cathedral. The wealth of the abbey and its considerable political independence as a free

SALEM

WARTH

Kloster und Schloss Salem (Salem Monastery and Palace) Staatliche Schlösser und Gärten Baden Württemberg, D-88682 Salem Phone: +49 (0) 7553 9165336 www.salem.de

Ittinger Museum, Kartause Ittingen (Ittingen Charterhouse), CH-8532 Warth Phone: +41 (0) 58 3451060 www.kunstmuseum.ch

CONSTANCE Portal Klosterkirche Petershausen (Petershausen Abbey) Petershauser Orgelkultur Verein der Freunde und Förderer der Gebhardsorgel (Friends and supporters of St. Gebhard organ) St.-Gebhard-Platz 12, D-78467 Konstanz www.petershauser-portal.de

KLOSTERINSEL REICHENAU (Monastic Island of Reichenau) Tourist Information Pirminstraße 145, D-78479 Reichenau Phone: +49 (0) 7534 92070 www.reichenau-tourismus.de

Imperial abbey and consistorial monastery are still reflected today in the stately monastery complex, which was completely renovated in the Baroque era. CARTHUSIAN ORDER While the monasteries of the Benedictine and Cistercian Orders are largely similar in terms of their architecture and the function of their buildings, the monasteries built by the Carthusians were quite different thanks to their unique monastic lifestyle. The strictly ascetic reform order founded in the 11th century attempted to combine the monastic lifestyle of a hermitage with life in the community. As a result, their monasteries, or charterhouses, not only had a church, a small cloister and communal rooms, but also a large cloister with cells or small houses

ST.GALLEN St.Gallen-Bodensee Tourismus (St.Gallen and Lake Constance Tourist Office) Bankgasse 9, CH-9000 St.Gallen Phone: +41 (0) 71 2273737 www.st.gallen-bodensee.ch

SCHAFFHAUSEN Museum zu Allerheiligen Schaffhausen (All Saints Abbey, Schaffhausen) Klosterstraße 16, CH-8200 Schaffhausen Phone: +41 (0) 52 6330777 www.allerheiligen.ch

STEIN AM RHEIN Museum Kloster Sankt Georgen (St. George's Abbey) Fischmarkt 3, CH-8260 Stein am Rhein Phone: +41 (0) 52 7412142 www.klostersanktgeorgen.ch

grouped around it, each with their own garden. This is where the Carthusian monks lived in complete isolation and which they only left on certain occasions, such as for choral prayers, weekly walks or important feasts. This special way of life is still evident at Ittingen Charterhouse today. The Carthusians took over the former Augustinian monastery of canons regular in 1461 and established a life here in contemplation and silence. The bare cells and cottages attest to the strict, harsh lives of the monks, and stand in stark contrast to the richly adorned communal rooms and the church. However, this is only an apparent contradiction, as the opulent furnishings only served to praise God, and were merely seen as an adequate means of lending the services the dignity they deserved.

Routes to churches and monasteries | Bodensee Magazine Special 47


ROTTWEIL

VERINGENSTADT

Wehingen

Heiligkreuztal Monastery

Stetten am kalten Markt Aldingen TROSSINGEN

Inzighofen Monastery Church

SPAICHINGEN

SIGMARINGEN

Donau

3

311

81

311

"Carolingian monastery town"

523

864

MENGEN

313

Leibertingen

14

TUTTLINGEN

Fr

MESSKIRCH

311

Habsthal Benedictine Convent

O Wald Abbey

313

311

33

PFULLENDORF

Aa ch

Engen

Stockach

31

81

98

Heiligenberg

314

31

34

Sipplingen

33

81

SINGEN

All Saints Abbey Schaffhausen

Radolfzell Cathedral and Monastery Grünenberg Abbey

St. Katharinental Abbey

SCHAFFHAUSEN Schlatt

Diessenhofen

St. George's Abbey

St. Genesius Pilgrimage Church

14

4

Feldbach Abbey

Öhningen 13 Abbey Steckborn Monastic Island of Werd Chapel of St. Nikolaus Stein am Rhein in Triboltingen Klingenzell 16 Pilgrimage Church

7 Ittingen Charterhouse

Thur

Birnau

Birnau Pilgrimage Church 31

Stetten Hagnau

CONSTANCE

31

Imme

Abbey church of St. Ulrich and St. Afra, Kreuzlingen

B

KREUZLINGEN

Münsterlingen

St. Remigius church

O

Chapel of St. Leonhard, Landschlacht

1

FRAUENFELD

MEERSBURG

Mainau Castle of the Teutonic Order

D 13

WEINFELDEN 7

MAR

UhldingenMühlhofen

Hegne Convent

REICHENAU

Degg

Salem

Adelheiden Convent

33

Monastic island of Reichenau UNESCO World Cultural Heritage

Wagenhausen Provost's Church

Monastery church of St.Michael

ÜBERLINGEN

Franciscan monastery Überlingen

RADOLFZELL

GOTTMADINGEN 34

Salem Cistercian Monastery

Goldbach Sylvester Chapel

314

15

31n

Shared church

R 16

14

Amriswil

Chapel of St.G Church of St. Pelagius

7

Bischofszell

Pr

WINTERTHUR WIL

1

Königsfelden Monastery Wettingen Abbey

WALLISTELLEN

SWITZERLAND 1

FISCHINGEN

Fischingen Abbey

ST.GALLEN


Wiblingen Abbey

Riedlingen

Roggenburg Abbey

312

Rot

l y

Heiligkreuztal

Gutenzell-Hürbel Gutenzell Monastery Church

BIBERACH 312

32

Bad Buchau Pilgrimage church Steinhausen

32

Siessen ranciscan Convent

BAD SAULGAU

OCHSENHAUSEN

Ochsenhausen Abbey St. Verena Monastery Church

Rot an der Rot

Steinhausen

Schussenried Abbey

7

30

Bad Schussenried

Buxheim Charterhouse Kreuzherren Monastery Memmingen

MEMMINGEN Aulendorf

Ostrach

Ottobeuren Abbey

465

BAD WALDSEE

Altshausen

BAD WURZACH

32

96

Rococo chapel at Maria Rosengarten Convent

Reute Convent

Ille

r

30

GERMANY

Leutkirch

Wolfegg WEINGARTEN

genhausertal

Weingarten Basilica

Weissenau Abbey

Kißlegg

RAVENSBURG 30

Schuss

33

32

en

RKDORF

467

Meckenbeuren

WANGEN

TETTNANG

30

32

Neukirch

enstaad

FRIEDRICHSHAFEN Eriskirch 31

Argen

96

Achberg Castle of the Teutonic Order

St. Lorenz Basilica Kempten

LINDENBERG

12

Langenargen

E N

S

LINDAU E

Gallus

11

rotestant Church

308

31

Kressbronn

ROMANSHORN

Isny im Allgäu

E

Arbon

Lindau Abbey

BREGENZ

Horn

Mehrerau Abbey

RORSCHACH 1 Mariaberg Benedictine Monastery

202

A14

Abbey District of St.Gallen UNESCO World Cultural Heritage

13

Parish church of St. Gallus

AUSTRIA 200

DORNBIRN

Upper-Swabian Baroque Route


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