Zealousness Second Edition - Winter 2016

Page 1




INTRODUCTION 03 Letter From the Editor: DeAndre Nixon 04 Zealousness Team!




07 The Value of Field Trips 11 Featured Story: Verdel Jones 14 Parental Involvement in Child Education


17 Deciding Your Future as a Student 19 Students Teach their Peers 21 Stickability


Why do rainbows have infinite colors?



56 Why does your skin swell up?

40 61 Fun activities for our youngest


24 Can Computers Replace Teachers? 27 Tools for Knowledge 32 Effects of the Internet on Education 38 When is internet a Necessity? 34 Technology and the Classroom

EDUCATION AROUND THE WORLD 43 Peekaboo Into Japanese Education



50 Educational Disparities of our African-American and Hispanic Youth 56 Food for Thought 58 Department of Education on Repaying Student Loads



Founder and President of iN Education, Inc. and Editor in Chief of Zealousness Magazine.

Technology, in many ways helps shape the education system for the better! However, every card has two sides and so does technology and its impact on education. In this issue you will read various articles on the topic of technology and it changes classroom environment, studying habits and the world around us. It may be a shocking to know technology is still not accessible to everyone in America! And even high number of schools still does not have access to technology tools in the classroom setting. Whether you have access or not, utilization of the technology is the key. Social media has become a part of our everyday routine, as have online games but what do we learn from those? It is important to embrace the learning and education aspect of being online and usage of gadgets. With America being No. 25 on the educational world rankings (depending on the source), we need to look at the reasons why is it so. Rankings are rankings, but what do they really mean? There is a difference between individualism and collectivism in today’s society. There is a variety of other factors that affects the overall results. As part of the Education Around the World – Series we will take a brief overview on education in Japan (ranked within Top 10 world countries as far as education goes). We hope you will enjoy our second issue!





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THE ART OF EDUCATING OUR YOUNG The Value of Field Trips 07 Featured Story: Verdel Jones 11 Parental Involvement in Child Education 14


The Value of Field Trips By Ameera Khawaja



f we can remember crowding into school

better understanding of, what they perceived

buses to make the trek to magical places

during their tour at the museum. To conduct

like museums, theaters, zoos, and historical

their study, the museum administered individual

sites, then we should consider ourselves lucky. surveys at the end of the students’ tours. Students For years, children have had the opportunity

from various schools were asked to answer Agree

for such educational adventures. Public schools

or Disagree statements, and were also directed to

in the U.S. are known for utilizing field trips in

write a short essay on something that appealed

their curriculum, as field trips serve as valuable

to them during their tour. The survey’s results

educational tools that enhance learning. The

showed that students demonstrated a stronger

intent of these trips is not only to complement ability to think critically about art, became more curriculum, but also to provide students with

observant as they were able to describe what

economically useful life skills, and to mold them

they saw in detail, and held a greater tolerance

into individuals who appreciate history, art and

for art. Additionally, teachers and educational

science, among other subjects.

administrators noted the museum’s impact on

Research has proven that field trips indeed make a positive impact on students. Studies show

their students by virtue of exposure to a diversity of people, places, and ideas.

that field trips contribute to the psychological

Another survey conducted by the Crystal Bridges

development of students, who have shown to

Museum of American Art asked students from

possess stronger critical thinking skills, higher 123 different schools, ranging from Kindergarten tolerance, improved historical empathy, and an

through Grade 12, if they would recommend

overall greater appreciation for art and culture. visiting the museum to their friends, and 74% One such study was conducted by the Crystal

of them said yes. The majority vote implies that

Bridges Museum of American Art in Northwest the students were interested in and enjoyed the Arkansas. Their study revealed that students

excursion. The high rate of recollection of factual

experienced more appreciation for, and had a

information from the students showed that the


Rosie the Riveter, J. Howard Miller (1943)

according to a survey administered by the American Association of School Administrators, more than half of American schools eliminated planned field trips from their school programs altogether. One reason for these findings is due to limited resources. It is certain that not all families can afford these cultural outings; less advantaged students are less likely to experience them unless their school provides it for them. Another reason why field trips are becoming a less common in U.S. schools is the belief that field trips are an unnecessary expense. The American Association of School Administrators

tours made an impression. Students were shown

and University of Arkansas studies both revealed

popular works of art, but were not forced to hear

that educational institutions consider field trips

details of artwork they were not interested in.

unnecessary thrills because they are not as

This method resulted in the students retaining

important as preparing students for exams and

a great deal of information from their tour. For

standardized tests.

instance, after viewing the popular painting, Rosie

While financial difficulties can pose a problem,

the Riveter by Norman Rockwell, students were

researchers believe educators should not cut

able to recall the meaning behind the painting.

back on field trips. As the head of the Department

The results of the survey suggest art could be

of Education Reform at the University of

an important tool for effectively enhancing

Arkansas, Professor Jay Green states, “We don’t

traditional academics.

just want our children to acquire work skills from

While field trip surveys report evident

their education; we also want them to develop

increases in student learning, not all schools

into civilized people who appreciate human

are using field trips as a beneficial means. Case-

accomplishments.” With the growing amount of

in-point: A review conducted by the University

research supporting field trips, it can be argued

of Arkansas documented a 30% decline in

that schools who rob their students of these

student attendance at museums. Moreover,

experiences are actually robbing them of higher » 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 9

learning. There has to be a solution to the financial dilemma because the belief that field trips are invaluable is simply invalid. To remedy monetary hindrances, educational institutions could plan field trip excursions within their budgets, or they could sponsor fundraisers to help support trip expenses. In any case, some type of resolution must be made because children undoubtedly benefit from field trips, and it would be deprivation if schools choose to withhold these cultivating experiences from them. ♥

References Greene, Jay P., Kisida, Brian, and Bowen, Daniel H. “The Educational Value of Field Trips.” Education Next, Winter 2014. Accessed October 30, 2015. http://educationnext.org/the-educational-value-of-field-trips/ Greene, Jay P. “Methodological Appendix for the Crystal Bridges Experimental Study.” Education Next, Winter 2014. Accessed October 30, 2015. http://educationnext.org/ methodological-appendix-for-the-crystal-bridges-experimental-study/ National Center for Policy Analysis. “The Educational Value of Field Trips.” Last modified September 30, 2013. http://www. ncpa.org/sub/dpd/index.php?Article_ID =23649#sthash.xacoDjGF.dpuf Ryan, Julia. “Study: Students Really Do Learn Stuff on Field Trips.” The Atlantic, September 16, 2013. Accessed October 30, 2015. http://www.theatlantic.com/education /archive/2013/09/study-students-really-do-learn-stuff-on-field-trips/279720/ Koebler, Jason. “Teachers: Don’t Overlook Value of Field Trips.” U.S. News, December 12, 2011. Accessed October 30, 2015. http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/high-school-notes/2011/12/12/teachers-dont-overlook-value-of-field-trips


When you learn, teach. When you get, give. By. Shweta Roy


uthor Maya Angelou once said,

“When you learn, teach. When you get, give.” This is Verdel Jones’

favorite quote; It is how she sees herself. She has always believed in distributing information that can be helpful to someone else.

Verdel Jones 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 11

Ms. Jones is a district level administrator of a local school district, but as a little girl, she wanted to grow up to be a lawyer. She never dreamt of being a teacher – until she was inspired by her own teachers. She always felt school was the best place for learning, not just academically, but socially, as she learned how to get along with all types of individuals. Her grandfather, a social studies teacher himself, was also a big influence in her life. He taught her to appreciate learning, to always question things, and to explore the world around her.

Ms. Jones graduated from college where she majored in business administration with a

concentration in marketing. However, it wasn’t until after earning her business degree that she realized she wanted to work with children. In her search for better employment opportunities, she began reflecting on her school years, and recognized how much she truly loved school. She decided to pursue a degree in teaching, and later became a high school business teacher, a school counselor, and eventually, a district level administrator. Ms. Jones takes pride in having been educated in the United States and says, “The best thing about the educational system in the United States is that we have to educate every child – no matter what. I pride myself in having been educated in our system.”

While being a district level administrator does not give Ms. Jones the opportunity to teach

anymore, she is still a teacher at heart. She loves to work with her staff, helping them to develop the best curriculum and programs for the children. Her focus is on improving how children learn. As she puts it, “We are getting further away from teaching students to discover the answers for themselves, and moving too far into assessments as being the focus of education. America is known for its innovation and creativity. Unfortunately, our education system is moving away from nurturing this type of learning.”

The multi-talented educator is also looking forward to the release of her first book about the

college application process from a personal and professional prospective. As an educator, college 12 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016

graduate, and proud mother of two college students, Ms. Jones is very familiar with the concerns that come when applying for college. She believes, “As a parent, we are agents for our children. We find the opportunities and get them ready, and then they have to perform.” Ms. Jones also aspires to grow her business, Deliteach, which provides speaking engagements and resources to individuals seeking information on all things educational.

In addition to her educational roles, Ms. Jones also produces and hosts her own TV show,

AAU Conversations with Verdel Jones, and her own radio show, AAU Conversations with Deli. She always had a fascination with communication, and these opportunities are perfect venues for her to talk and meet fascinating people. Her radio host career has given her the pleasure of interviewing experts in various fields. She is often surprised and amazed by their knowledge and she admires how they can enlighten her audience.

Ms. Jones has been involved in iN Education, Inc. and is very excited to be a part of the

association. She has had a wonderful experience with DeAndré and Sona Nixon, and is quite impressed with all of their hard work. She wholeheartedly believes that the WOW Education Rewards program is going to be a huge success in changing lives throughout the country! ♥


Parental Involvement


Children’s Education by Shweta Roy


f a gardener plants a seed, they know that it requires their care to help it grow. The gardener needs to water the plant regularly, and be attentive to how much sunlight it requires. Similar to the gardener nurturing a plant, parents need to nurture their children to help them grow. A parent’s influence can have long lasting effects on their children’s lives. This is why it is essential for parents to be involved in their children’s education. Parental involvement in education is a touchy subject. Some parents are wary to get involved, fearing that their involvement may be detrimental to their children, such as causing the child to rebel, feel badly about their performance, become less ambitious, or lose interest. However, research has proven that parental involvement actually creates a positive impact upon children. For example, a study conducted by the National Educational Association found that parental involvement not only helps children to excel academically, but also improves their attendance and class performance. While some parents are apprehensive about getting involved, others prefer to leave the 14 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016

educational responsibility to the institutions. Even though schools do have an educational obligation and have a lot to offer, children also need guidance and encouragement at home. No teacher, no matter how educated or effective he or she might be, can fill the role of a parent. Parents are their children’s first teachers, after all. That is why parents have a responsibility to their children to instill in them good learning habits early on and to continually guide them in the right direction. The earlier a parent participates in their child’s learning, the more effective their impact will be on their child’s development. According to the National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families, children start to develop the ability to learn within the first three years of life. It is during this time that children should establish patterns for life-long learning. As children grow, parents should engage them in creative and playful activities, read them storybooks, and motivate them to draw, read, and write. These activities will help children develop their creative, reading, writing, and communication skills, so by the time they reach school age, they are not only prepared for institutionalized learning, but they have a healthy level of self-confidence to learn new things. Schools can encourage parents to be active in their children’s education, but parents need to take the initiative. Parents can get involved in a number of ways. One familiar way is by attending parent-teacher conferences. Meeting with teachers helps parents to learn about their

child’s academic performance, their behavior in the classroom, and if they have any learning difficulties or preferences. Parents can collaborate with teachers to establish a plan or discover different approaches to help their children prosper. Another way parents can become involved in their children’s education is by helping their children with their homework. Homework creates a bridge between parents and children, allowing for open communication between them. Parents can also impact their children’s education by promoting reading. Parents who read more books, visit libraries, or buy books are more likely to teach their children to develop same habits. Just as it takes time for a seed to grow into full bloom, parents need to take the time to nurture their children to help them blossom into thriving, independent adults. Their involvement in their children’s education can make a positive impact on their children’s future, not only professionally, but personally. Parents must not fear getting involved, nor should they shirk their responsibility. They must take up their watering cans and be observant of the growth process. ♥

References Zero to Three - Brain Development Accessed November 10, 2015. http://www.zerotothree.org/child-development/brain-development/?referrer=https://www.google.com/ Kohut, Andrew, What Will Become of America’s Kids? PewResearchCenter. Accessed November 10, 2015. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/05/12/what-will-become-of-americas-kids/




Deciding Your


by Joselyn Harris


It is never to early to start


hinking about your future as a student can be both exciting and scary, but remember, your future is in your hands and there is no such thing as starting too late or too early. According to Chooseyourfuture.org, the first thing you should do in your path to a successful career is making a list of things you enjoy. Look through the list and see what professions you can associate with that. For example, if you enjoy writing consider being a copywriter or a magazine editor. Once you do this try and research and learn about the pathway you would have to take. For example, to become a Editor in Chief in a Magazine you need to start as a writer o copywriter, and work your way up from there. In your research its good to look for colleges that would be a good match for you, for example, if they have a student newspaper that you can work on. Start looking in to colleges, even if you are in middle school, it will give you a better idea of how you are going to plan your career path, and it will be nice to have some peace and enjoy your final years of high school. When choosing a college always aim for the best colleges in your area of interest. For example, if you were to go into the performing arts, one of the best colleges is Julliard. Try and work hard towards your application, but always keep second and third options open, because you never now how things are going to work out: maybe you don’t like the city, their available spots are full, or you decide it doesn’t suit you. Whatever it might be you want to have different options open. 18 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016

While people tend to think that if you don’t have money you won’t go to college it’s not exactly true. Nowadays you can find different schemes of financial support and scholarships that can support you financially in pursuing your dream job. Keep in mind that colleges will take into consideration your grades, skills, and extracurricular activities. So make sure you keep up with all of them, and don’t forget about your grades. If you have a hard time focusing get a couple tricks in action like listening music that will boost your concentration, or making short pauses to boost your spirit and stay positive. There are many ways in which you can start working towards your future while still in high school or middle school, like volunteering, participating in summer programs, shadowing people you look up to, and AP classes and clubs. Find some projects in your community that go hand in hand with what you want to do and try them out, you will not only build a stronger career for your future but you will also help your community. Finally, talk to your teachers, guidance counselor, and family members about your plans; they might offer great advice and tips in what you should and shouldn’t do. Don’t be afraid to ask for help, and for opportunities. It is never to early to start, be bold and be passionate, because whatever you decide to be you have to be the best at it! ♥

Students teaching their peers Increases student participation By. Joselyn Harris


ccording to futurity.com, if a student can teach the lesson they were taught, they understand it better. Research has demonstrated that engaging students in the learning process increases their attention and focus, motivates them to practice critical thinking skills, and promotes meaningful learning experiences. • Teachers should tell the students topics that they would learn the next day and provide ideas about what students can do or read to prepare those topics. Teachers should also provide time after the lesson for peer discussion amongst students about what they learned. • Teachers should arrange the classroom to accommodate the kind of participation needed for the lesson and encourage active learning. Teachers should make

their students feel like this is a place they can freely speak. • Increasing the participation grade would encourage more student participation. If the student is giving a lecture, time should be set aside during each lecture to ask and answer questions, to ask their peers to solve a problem, or to discuss an issue. When such opportunities for discussion or questioning are provided to the students, they will listen more actively to the lecture. • Teachers shouldn’t rely on the same volunteers. Teachers should move to a part of the room where quiet students are sitting; smile, make eye contact and encourage them to speak up. • Teachers should create a classroom environment where students feel comfortable thinking out loud and admitting when they don’t know something. One of the best ways for teachers to make this an anxiety-free classroom is to do what they expect from the students. » 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 19

Engaging students in the learning process

increases their attention and focus.❞

• Creating a system where students can ask questions or volunteer prior knowledge would be quintessential to the classroom. An epitome would be having kids hold green cards if they know the answer, red cards if they don’t know the answer, and blue cards if they want to volunteer something. Creating this system would help children who are uncomfortable feel more involved in the lesson. An effect of this student participation would be not having perfunctory homework done. If students understand the lesson better, chances are they will do their homework better. Some things to avoid are the type of knowit-all students, who believe they are smarter than others and bring their peers down. Behavior of such kind should be shut down


instantly, and the teacher should tell the student that such behavior will not be tolerated. Active student participation does not happen naturally in school, it must be carefully planned and encouraged. Setting aside time throughout the school year to assess student participation in the course and to develop strategies for improvement is a great method. For example, giving a midterm student evaluation to help students with this process of assessing whether they are on track or not. Any method increasing student participation and involving them more thoroughly would be great to help the educational standards! ♥

Stickability W

by Carolyn Omar Iduh and Laura Neves

hat, pray-tell, is “stickability,” you might ask? Well, according to the Merriam Webster dictionary, stickability is simply the “ability to endure or persevere.” To me, stickability is much more. Yes, it’s the power of perseverance, especially in the midst of adverse circumstances, but it’s also one of the greatest keys to success. If you want to succeed in life, whether it be as a student, teacher, parent, or in any role really, you must learn to have this “staying power.” You see, it’s true what they say: quitters never win, and there will be many things in life that test your determination, but you’ll only achieve your dreams if you hold fast and never give up.

be right for others. You may come to feel like everyone has an opinion about you, but don’t get discouraged by what someone else thinks. You’re unique and your journey is unique. What’s right for you might be wrong for your best friend, your classmate, or your sibling. Don’t let anyone tell you who you are and what you can do. Only you can define yourself and decide what you want out of life. Only you can decide to be a winner!

As a student, you may become challenged by your studies. Something, maybe a math problem, perhaps, could be hard to grasp, and it might seem like you will never get it. STOP! Don’t be dismayed and never say “never.” Don’t Having the strength to endure is essential in our quit, because you have the power to stick with day-to-day lives, but we also need strength in it! our hearts to stand the test of time. There will be times in life where people will let you down, You have the power to overcome. Try and try try to bring you down, and speak negatively again until you understand the problem – try about you. Certain circumstances in life will until you “win.” And don’t be ashamed to ask seem unfair or undeserving to you. It’s during for help. Think of things in a positive way: The these trying times that you must decide not question isn’t, “Did I fall?” or, “How many times only to persevere, but to use the strength in did I fall?” Rather, “Am I still on the ground?” In your heart - to ignore the naysayers, forgive other words, it doesn’t matter how many times the backstabbers, accept what’s beyond your you try to accomplish something, as long as you control and keep going. end up accomplishing it. If you happen to fall, like we all do at times, just shake up the dust, The truth is, we’re all on different journeys in rise to your feet, chin up and square up! Pick life, and what’s right for some people might not up that math book and tell yourself, “I can do » 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 21

this. I am intelligent. I will succeed.” Make the choice to keep with it, whatever it is, because you have that staying power. Remind yourself again and again, “I’VE GOT STICKABILITYAND I CAN DO THIS!’’ Even teachers are tested for their stickability. Their jobs can be demanding, frustrating, and overwhelming. Their students might give them a hard time by being disobedient, obnoxious, or disruptive. With this type of stress, teachers may feel defeated. When facing these challenges, they must keep in mind that they have been given the opportunity to make a difference in a child’s life. Whenever it the going gets tough, they must keep going and remind themselves again and again, “I’VE GOT STICKABILITY POWER, AND I CAN DO THIS!” What about parents? Do you think Mom or Dad ever have problems with stickability? Of course they do! Everyone does! Life is full of challenges, and even the Super Moms and Dads out there can have trouble being the heroes they are! They know that being a parent is a special gift. They know it’s one of the best “jobs” a person can have, but they also know it’s one of the hardest responsibilities a person can have, and with great responsibility comes great pressure. When you can’t find your left sneaker and you’re running late for school, when you get grounded because you talked back to Mom,


when you’re upset because you lost your first soccer game… your parents are stressing over these things. They need to get you to school on time, find the right words to console you when you’re not happy, show tough love when you do the wrong thing, and make tough decisions on what’s in your best interest. With all the things they do for you, you can see how things can get overwhelming! Still, Mom and Dad face these challenges head-on. How? Simple. They remind themselves, again and again, “I’VE GOT STICKABILITY POWER, AND I CAN DO THIS.’’ So you see, whoever you are and whatever you do, you can always choose to be the best you can be. You can choose to be a winner and never give up! You can do it by telling yourself, “I’VE GOT STICKABILTY POWER, AND I CAN!” Now decide. Are you going to stick with it? ♥

References Merriam-Webster.com, s.v. “Stickability,” Accessed November 4, 2015, http://www.merriam-webster.com/ dictionary/stickability



Personalized Learning:

Can computers replace teachers? By. Ameera Khawaja


ducator Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel, who laid the foundation for modern education, was the first to recognize that children have unique needs and capabilities. He believed that children should learn in the form of play, as children have an innate desire to learn. He created the concept of kindergarten; he once stated, “Play is the highest expression of human development in childhood, for it allows the free expression of what is in a child’s soul.” If a child were to be taught self-reliance and learn in a comfortable environment, chances are they would learn more and it would develop initiative in a student.

to meet these goals is through the help of technology. The educators or the students can modify the learning environment. As technology continues to merge into schools, personalized learning becomes more popular among educators, parents and policy makers. The theory of adding play is still used, but through difference sources. That is where computers, and other technology come into play. The Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation states “ . . .to afford each student a more personalized learning experience, meaning increased student control over the time, path, and/or pace of his learning.”

One of the many problems people face is getting the best education. The 21st century brought a lot Students utilizing technology as part of of different theories and practices in educational personalized learning may use programs institutions, making it harder to decide what downloaded on computers and tablets. The idea is best for a child. Personalized learning refers to the diverse variety of tailored programs offered in schools. Personalized learning takes into consideration the child’s personal interests and what he wishes to learn. Most importantly, the course of study takes place according to a student’s ‘unique needs’. The theories, practices and curriculum are designed in order to meet different learning needs and goals. One way


Students can gain knowledge through technology.

that most schools face is that the students outnumber the teachers, and some students never get the assistance they might need.

is that school should not just be a classroom with the teacher as the main source of information, but that students can gain knowledge through technology. Students can seek varied resources to help them meet their goals set by teachers, which include online information and books that the school provides to them. One of the goals of personalized learning is to make sure there is feedback between the teacher and students. That makes it easier for the teacher to know what they should focus on Students may use electronic devices, but that does not necessarily make them productive users. The teachers need to give the students the structure, support and feedback that is required if they are to learn. Opponents of personalized learning are in favor of a more traditional classroom, in which the teacher leads discussions and facilitates activities. Their argument, in part, is that personalized learning fails when children avoid difficult subjects that force them to stretch their minds. When children are left unchallenged to go deeper in their base of knowledge, while their peers continue to learn, those that only pursue subjects that come easily to them will fall behind.

For a student to choose what she wants to learn and at what pace she you wants is not necessarily good. Most children will choose a slower pace that eventually leads to large knowledge deficits among some students. “A slow pace will lead to large knowledge deficits among some students compared to the knowledge assets of their faster-moving peers, which will cause the first group to slow down further, until eventually they ‘switch off’ from school,” states Founder of Deans for Impact, Benjamin Riley. Mr. Riley uses cognitive science to explain why having a student decide what to learn and when is a bad idea. He states that “ . . . our minds are not built to think. In fact, our brains are largely oriented to avoid thinking. As a result, we will naturally gravitate away from learning activities that we find hard and unpleasant.” Which is why teachers should remain as the primary source for imparting knowledge. Some parents and educators are concerned about children having most of the control to the technology and programs; they feel this can be counterproductive. There’s a chance the students won’t regulate their learning, »

There should be common expectations as to what students know and retain. It should be the teacher’s duty to identify and develop a strategy to support them. The problem 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 25

eventually leaving them struggling to keep up. A challenge that supporters of personalized learning face is how to ensure that children will have control of their own subject matter and pace while simultaneously continuing to challenge themselves rather than only focusing on subjects they like.

with goal setting, eedback on progress, peer tutoring, and other such assistance, but technology can’t replace the teacher’s area of expertise.

Using technology a majority of the time in school takes away the skills and lessons only teachers can give a student. The role that teachers fill It is the teachers’ responsibility to find ways to is to create a balance between personalized impart knowledge according to every student’s learning and group learning, and to challenge abilities. It is required if effective learning is to students to continually learn, even making take place. Technology can be a component of thinking critically fun. ♥ the support available. It can help the students

References Riley, Benjamin, and Alex Hernandez. “Should Personalization Be the Future of Learning? - EducationNext.” RSS. July 3, 2007. Accessed January 14, 2016. http://educationnext.org/personalization-future-learning/. Hidden curriculum (2014, August 26). In S. Abbott (Ed.), The glossary of education reform. Retrieved from http://edglossary. org/hidden-curriculum Basye, Dale. “Personalized vs. Differentiated vs. Individualized Learning.” ISTE. August 5, 2014. Accessed January 29, 2016. https://www.iste.org/explore/articledetail?articleid=124.


TOOLS FOR KNOWLEDGE “When the only tool you have is a hammer, all problems begin to resemble nails”. How might this apply to ways of knowing, as tools, in the pursuit of knowledge?” By. Kanika Kakhar



hen you use only one way of knowing, a ‘hammer’, you tend to manipulate the knowledge obtained so as to ensure that it fits into your self-created schema and ‘resembles nails’ that can be hammered using the only tool that you have. The knowledge issue that arises here is - To what extent is more than one way of knowing necessary for obtaining knowledge? When multiple ways of knowing are used, the margin for error and bias can be reduced, provided that knowledge gained by the different ways of knowing is coherent. In relation to this knowledge issue, I will be exploring natural sciences, art and human sciences. In natural sciences, the scientific methodology promotes the formulation of a hypothesis before testing and observing results. The use of deductive reasoning to predict a logical outcome based on the hypothesis leads to manipulation of data and confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is the process of selective thinking wherein information in agreement with one’s beliefs is accepted, while contrary information is discarded, as it is human tendency to deny change and accept affirmatives. For example, I felt the need to manipulate my empirical data in a chemistry titration experiment to match it with the logically calculated volume required for neutralization. 28 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016

Instead of investigating further why the indicator’s change in colour occurred at a different volume, I ignored my sensory perception and used only reason to interpret change in colour at a point where volume used gave me a logical result. Had I used other tools in the pursuit of knowledge, such as sensory perception, I could have accounted for anomalies and practical restraints during the experiment.

Using language as the only way of knowing in the natural sciences often clouds one’s reason and sense perception

Thus, we see how use of a single way of knowing limits the knowledge obtained. Here I am assuming that the hypothesis and prediction are known to the experimenter before the experiment is conducted. Similarly, using language as the only way of knowing in the natural sciences often clouds one’s reason and sense perception. Simply reading the word ‘organic’ or

‘wholesome’ on food packages makes us believe that we are eating healthy. By not reading the ingredients list and analyzing the actual health benefits of such foods, we neglect our sense perception and reasoning. Moreover, most of the newspaper and magazine articles starting with the phrase “Research shows” or “Scientists believe”, force language as a tool to overpower our reasoning and sense perception. However, in some cases using multiple ways of knowing leads to confusion and inconvenience in deductive reasoning. In the natural sciences, empiricism is not always in agreement with logical theories, such as in the case of Heisenberg’s Principle of Uncertainty. Here, the velocity and position of the quanta changes when observed, thereby bringing sense perception and reasoning in conflict. Thus, using various ways of knowing only leads to contradictions and discrepancies, making study further more complicated. Moreover, simply using numerous ways of knowing may not help in overcoming conformation bias. In 1990, the same evidence for the risk of AIDS in heterosexuals was hyped-up by some, while others claimed it to be

This risk was accentuated by the gay community to prevent discrimination and by moral conservatives to promote monogamous sex. But revolutionists demeaned this risk to endorse the sexual revolution. Thus, we see how the same evidence is manipulated logically to suit one’s emotional interests. Hence, engaging emotions along with reasoning in the pursuit of scientific knowledge leads to conformation bias. However, it can be concluded that such discrepancies and biases occur only when knowledge that is gained using a contrasting tool, such as emotion, is in conflict with knowledge gained using reason. Nevertheless, by selecting a suitable combination of ways of knowing, an open-minded and skeptical approach can be adopted. After all, had we not employed multiple ways of knowing in science, we would have still believed the earth

is flat and would not have discovered light and sound waves beyond the range of human perception. I believe that art is an area of knowledge that employs multiple elements so as to please aesthetically and emotionally. Hence one needs to employ more than just one way of knowing to appreciate all the aspects of art. For example, in the poem ‘A Mouse’s Tale’, one needs to employ language to appreciate the literary techniques used, sense perception to appreciate the visual structure and aural imagery, emotion to engage with the poem personally and reasoning to deduce the meaning of the poem. Using only one way of knowing will limit our complete appreciation of the poem. Similarly, the New Judging System for ice-dancing in the Winter Olympics involves multiple ways of knowing. The participants are given a score based on the difficulty of the

attempted move, along with “grades of execution”. Seven of the nine judges’ scores are chosen randomly, out of which the two extremes are eliminated and the average of the remaining five is considered. Thus, while emotion and sense perception are used to score the participants, reasoning based on mathematics is used to reduce prejudice. However, this argument is based on the assumption that the work of art being judged needs to be compared with other works of art, and hence requires a tool to reduce bias. On the contrary, art holds different meanings for different people. While one person may appreciate the painting of Mona Lisa for its aesthetic appearance alone, another may appreciate it for the scientific ‘sfumato’ technique used. Moreover, multiple ways of knowing may strip art off its meaning. Tracey Emin’s artwork, My Bed, »

Using more than one way of knowing is necessary for gaining knowledge to a large extent.


consists of her bed in a shabby state. While it may evoke emotions of identification for some and disgust for others, it may not appeal using reason or sense perception at all. In fact, reason and sense perception may lead us to question this work as a piece of art entirely.

only after self-fulfillment. Similarly, a homeless person may not feel as motivated to fulfill his physiological and safety needs, as to protect his family. Thus, reason alone cannot help in gaining knowledge about human psychology; Emotion and sense perception need to be involved as well. Additionally, when one uses emotion as the only way of knowing, to trust an authority, one tends to ignore one’s own sense perception. This was evident in a Dutch study about the effect of people’s expectations on their television viewing experience. People who had been led to expect high definition reported a much better viewing experience as compared to people expecting standard quality, although both parties viewed the same quality television. This shows how their emotions of trust in a superior authority made them alter sensory perception of what they viewed, thereby falsifying the knowledge gained.

Maslow’s Hierachy of Needs, represented as a pyramid

However, it is possible that the knowledge gained by using different ways of knowing aligns completely. As a result, one can be deceived by misleading information, despite using multiple ways of knowing. For example, L’Oreal advertisements use weasel words such as “helps plump out the appearance of wrinkles” and “reduces deep crow’s feet”, along with the emotion evoking caption “Because you’re worth it” and visual imagery of beautiful happy women with flawless skin and unnaturally shiny hair. As a result, language, emotion and sense perception force one into believing all the claims about the product.

It can be concluded that art, in contrast to natural sciences, does not necessarily require the use of multiple ways of knowing for gaining knowledge. Instead, the choice of ways of knowing depends on personal preference since art has different meanings for every person. However, when sophisticated analysis or comparison between two works of art is needed, multiple ways of knowing can be employed so as to provide holistic appreciation and reduce the margin of bias and subjectivity. Unlike the natural sciences, in the human sciences there are no universal laws that can be used to categorize cases objectively, as human nature is very subjective. For example, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs can be used to describe, in order of importance, the needs that people are motivated to fulfill. From business organizations’ perspectives, this hierarchy can be used to motivate most employees. However, in my perspective, this may not apply to everyone. I would want to fulfill ‘self-actualization’ before ‘self-esteem’ as I believe that self-worth comes 30 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016

Consequently, numerous ways of knowing that provide parallel knowledge may not always be beneficial in the human sciences. Instead, the right combination of ways of knowing should be selected, such that each way of knowing opens new doors of knowledge instead of merely bolstering obtained knowledge. Since human sciences involve a lot of subjectivity, it becomes necessary to use more than one way of knowing, so as to gain knowledge that is balanced and flexible enough to include exceptions.

Therefore, having analyzed the impact of using various combinations of ways of knowing as tools in the pursuit of knowledge, it can be concluded that using more than one way of knowing is necessary for gaining knowledge to a large extent, thereby making decisions balanced and comparisons unbiased. However, the number and combination of ways of knowing should be wisely chosen, such that it aligns with the area of knowledge and aids the gaining of knowledge without negating or over-shadowing knowledge obtained using other tools. ♥

References Carroll, Lewis. The Mouse’s Tale. Digital image n.d. Web. 24 Feb 2014 <https://docs.google.com/drawings/d/1F9NT3xhDYUIPZmgFHmCGceeZYiei50aRMyoDg8w8d6I/edit?hl=en>. Carroll, Robert T. “confirmation bias - The Skeptic’s Dictionary - Skepdic.com.” Skepdic.com, 2014. Web. 20 Feb 2014. <http://skepdic.com/confirmbias.html>. Cessna, Abby. “Flat Earth Theory.” Universe Today, 2009. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http://www.universetoday.com/48753/ flat-earth-theory/>. Cited in Gilovich, Thomas. How we know what isn’t so. New York, NY [u.a.]: Free Press [u.a.], 1993. 102-103. Print. Cited in Simonite, Tom. “Think yourself a better picture - tech - 07 October 2009 - New Scientist.” Newscientist.com, 2009. Web. 20 Feb 2014. <http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17930-think-yourself-abetter-picture.html#.Up-aa8QW2Sq>. Clark, Josh. “HowStuffWorks “Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle”.” HowStuffWorks, 2007. Web. 20 Feb 2014. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/science-questions/quantum-suicide2.htm>. Emin, Tracey. My Bed. Digital image n.d. Web. 24 Feb 2014 <http://www.saatchigallery.com/artists/artpages/tracey_ emin_my_bed.htm>. L’Oréal Paris. Collagen Re-Plumper, 2008-2009. Digital image n.d. Web. 24 Feb 2014 <https://www.myfdb.com/campaigns/8073-l-oreal-paris-collagen-re-plumper-2008-2009>. L’Oréal Paris. Revitalift, 2006-2011. Digital image n.d. Web. 24 Feb 2014 <https://www.myfdb.com/campaigns/8096-l-oreal-paris-revitalift-2006-2011/image/122937>. L’Oréal Paris. Casting Creme Gloss. Digital image n.d. Web. 24 Feb 2014 <http://lh3.ggpht.com/-jUohYf8vwDY/ Tsvy-16MApI/AAAAAAAACvI/1kE7mXn6SUE/s1600-h/CherylColeLOrealCastingCremeGlossCom.jpg>. L’Oréal Professionnel USA. Absolut Repair Cellular. Digital image n.d. Web. 24 Feb 2014 <http://us.lorealprofessionnel. com/products/absolut-repair-cellular>. Lorenzi, Rossella. “Mona Lisa’s Smile Hides Da Vinci’s Technique : DNews.” DNews, 2010. Web. 24 Feb 2014. <http:// news.discovery.com/history/hidden-behind-the-mona-lisas-enigmatic-smile-are-dozens-and-dozens-of-layers-of-ultrathin-glaze-according-to-french-researc.htm>. Mcleod, Saul. “Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.” Simply Psychology, 2007. Web. 20 Feb 2014. <http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html>. Unknown. “How to Understand the Olympic Figure Skating Scoring System.” Howcast, 2008. Web. 20 Feb 2014. <http:// www.howcast.com/videos/317576-How-to-Understand-the-Olympic-Figure-Skating-Scoring-System>.


Effects of the Internet on Education By. Ara Cano

In this day and age, it’s not uncommon to open a webpage, type in a question, and receive multiple answers with the click of a “search” button. Undeniably, the age of the internet has given us fast and seemingly infinite resources that help make life much easier. Nevertheless, with the good comes the bad, and the same is true for students and the Internet.



he Internet has become a commonplace educational tool for today’s youth. Researching has never been easier. Students can look up information from the tip of their fingers. By simply typing in certain keywords, a wide variety of information appears at their disposal, ranging from scholarly papers to academic videos. A student could finish his homework in no time if he knows what kind of information he needs. But, there is a downside to this easily accessible research method: It teaches students to expect that everything else can come to them just as fast, be it class curriculum or answers to an exam. This causes youths to become lazy thinkers, who rely on the Internet to provide them the answers that they need. Studying no longer seems to be an option for them, especially if they can look up cheat sheets on the Web. However, there is another benefit of the Internet. It provides many means of communication. Students can easily contact their teachers through email with questions or problems they may encounter. Connecting with classmates and forming study groups can happen in an instant with the ease of instant messaging. Teachers can provide students with online workspaces to compliment their lectures, not only making class materials available, but also themselves. Monitoring these workspaces allows teachers to observe their students’ progress, and also gives them an easier way to contact their students. While the Internet provides students with these types of educational advantages, it also begets a big disadvantage for students by negatively impacting their level of concentration. The Internet encourages youths to multitask. Even as a student does their work, they will simultaneously do something else that interests them, causing them take longer to finish their work. For example, while accessing their online workspaces, students can open a new tab for a different webpage that can distract them from their studies. This kind of multitasking makes students lose focus, causing them to complete their homework half-heartedly, as their attention is centered on something more “fun.” The Internet is filled with many informational websites that encourage good education. However, it’s also filled with countless distractions. The best way to keep our youth from suffering from the Internet’s negative influence is to encourage our educators and parents to monitor their Internet usage. One of the reasons why students spend too much time on the computer is because parents aren’t strict enough in limiting their children’s time and activities on the Internet. But, we must also encourage the youth to be strict with themselves. We should help them to understand how detrimental the Internet can be to their academic success. With this sort of guidance and motivation, students can decipher when it’s appropriate to use the Internet for fun and when it should be used strictly for academic purposes. ♥ References: “Internet Generation ‘Expects Instant Results,’” Daily Mail, last modified March 8, 2010,http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/ article-1256262/Internet-generation-expects-instant-results.html Kessler, Sarah. “8 Ways Technology is Improving Education,” last modified November 22, 2010, http://mashable. com/2010/11/22/technol”ogy-in-education/#EJGuwdw77qqu “Negative Effects of Technology on Education,” Technology and Education, http://gauravhardikar.com/tech_education/negative.html “Why Use Internet in the Classroom,” National Teacher Training Institute, accessed December 10, 2015, http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/ntti/resources/internet1.html


“In today’s fast-paced world, technology has become an indispensable part of our way of life.”

Technology in the Classroom By Kanika Gakhar


hether it is the television we turn on for entertainment, our cell phones we turn to for communication, or the internet we use for information, technology has managed to creep into every segment of our lives. While this ubiquitous, or ever-present, factor is worldchanging and highly convenient, it is also corrupting and tainting. The classroom, on the other hand, is a sacred place where the knowledgeable meet with the pursuers of education, and engage in a meaningful exchange of ideas and information. Where, then, does the classroom meet technology and does their fusion prove to be a boon or bane? There was a time when the chirping of birds and rustling of leaves created a zone of utmost concentration for outdoor classrooms. Surrounded by the greenery, students and teachers enjoyed a peaceful learning experience. While connecting with the most integral element of human life, nature, both students and teachers tapped into their innate senses to attain a state of collective conscientiousness. This satisfied both parties, as the sanctity of the classroom was sealed by the connection to nature. However, times have 34 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016

changed and we have come a long way. We now favor utilizing technology in our educational systems over nature. Having studied in classrooms devoid of technology for the first half of my education, and having transitioned to technologypowered classrooms during the second half, I can confidently say that technology does redefine education and lifts boundaries in the pursuit of knowledge. Nevertheless, it does come at a price; a price that makes us question technology’s involvement in the classroom. Technology, being a fundamental part of the new generation, caters to the need for instant gratification of today’s youth. Disguised in the outfit of entertainment and social media, education is conveyed via fun videos, presentations, and posters. Moreover, access to the internet opens a world of opportunities for students and teachers to expand their database. Technology in the form of programming-based software allows students to access simulations and graphical representations of data, which creates a new dimension of helping students visualize data analysis. Online student forums and internet-based assignments simplify »


Technology provides young people with an easy alternative to solving problems that would otherwise stimulate them to learn fundamental problem-solving skills



the grading process and help students stay connected and organized. The possibilities are endless when you replace a blackboard with a projector and tedious paperwork with paperless mechanisms. So where does that mindboggling negotiable “price” step in that was mentioned earlier?

analysis and imagination. This extends to social sciences and art as well. When we find ourselves awestruck by the relatable messages conveyed in memes and GIFs on social media platforms, we simply click that like button and wade in the satisfaction of having “expressed” ourselves. These forms of technology force us to choose a lazier, much less creative option of expressing Technology does gratify today’s youth, and ourselves. Instead of voicing our personal it comes at a cost. Today’s opinions in our own creative technological advances cause ways, we choose to share preyoung people to develop short existing opinions with a click attention spans, and limit their of a mouse. While this helps a internal visualization abilities few creative minds to spread These forms of and analytical skills. By catering awareness and inspire globally, technology force us to to their instantaneous needs, it forces the majority to reside in choose a lazier, much technology provides young borrowed satisfaction. From an less creative option of people with an easy alternative educational standpoint, these expressing ourselves. to solving problems that would kinds of self-expressions also otherwise stimulate them to snips the process of exchanging learn fundamental probleminformation, and manipulates solving skills. Thus, technology young minds into believing they maintains its customer base are learning much more than by constantly drilling into and thriving off of they actually are. Quickly Googling the answer the “void” in human minds. It throws us into a to a question versus actively exploring for the whirlpool of quickly changing images and fast- same answer could result in a similar solution, paced information, so much so that anything but with vastly different outcomes. While some as banal as long text or lectures bore us. By of us may choose to negotiate this “price” at presenting visualized and simplified forms which classroom technology comes, most of of information on a silver platter, technology us may happily accept it without a bargain, and stealthily steals from us that flame of creative that is what creates the cause for concern.


There are a number of ways teachers can incorporate technology into their curriculum.

We could all stand by and watch future generations pick the shortcut to education; but how long before that bypass translates to teleportation? Would you be able to watch your children extinguish their creativity, attention span, and mental inquisitiveness while surrendering to technology’s monopolistic, or controlling, selling price? Technology is one of the most essential parts of today’s world, and forbidding it from entering the world of education is ridiculous. Nevertheless, this is definitely a case where “everything in moderation” applies. Technology in a controlled and modest fashion can create world-changing classrooms where students and teachers can maintain the sanctity of their exchanges. While students are encouraged to watch “pre-lectures” and “instructional videos,” they should also be required to find unique ways of presenting the same information in order to develop greater learning abilities. There are a number of ways teachers can incorporate technology into their curriculum while still maintaining the integrity of skill-based learning. Teachers can assign students to sketch diagrams and estimates before verifying their analyses with online simulations or graphical software tools. Additionally, calculator-based exams can be complemented with non-calculator exams. Teachers can also swap online videos of scientific or social experiments with handson experiments. Teachers could also require students to use a hard-copy library resource in their research papers instead of internet searches. And, for extra credit, students can create their own social media posts based a designated subject.

rather we can opt to pay the price with awareness and active contribution. In fact, we can literally use this as a selling point to students. By granting technological benefits in exchange for unique educational input, we can soon reignite extinguished creativity and zealousness among our young minds. This new atmosphere of zealous education can further help re-establish our youth’s attention span. Once students start using technology to not only sit at the receiving end of education, but also to feed the source in their own extraordinary way, then they will learn to acknowledge the importance and intermingling of information. They can develop a deeper understanding of bookish knowledge, lecture materials, and conventional forms of education while mastering new technological means at the same time. This combination will ultimately force them to cultivate a flexible attention span that helps them grasp different forms of information and strengthen their learning capabilities. Therefore, we should take action to create a brighter future by reforming the price at which classroom technology comes.

Do you believe that technology is a necessary evil in the classroom? How do you think we can While technology is perpetually expanding, why work towards ensuring a zealous educational not productively contribute towards its growth? atmosphere for our future generations? Please We do not have to necessarily pay the price of do let us know, write to us! ♥ technology passively with money and sloth; 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 37

When is Internet a necessity? By. Shweta Roy



hen is the Internet a necessity? Some of you might playfully think, “When I need to update my Facebook status, of course!” But no, it is not necessary to “like” that Instagram photo or “retweet” that post. In all seriousness, the Internet is a necessity in today’s education. In this 21st century, the Internet has truly become indispensible. Yet, sadly, not everyone is granted this “luxury.” Unless we find a way to provide free Internet access in both schools and households, some students will be left behind. With Internet use becoming more ubiquitous than previous generations; it is essential that everyone has this opportunity, especially students. Classroom learning today is not like it was 20, or even 10, years ago. Our ever-evolving technology has shaped the way today’s students learn, and the Internet is one such mechanism. The Internet has helped students to master course content quickly, solve academic problems, and participate in various educative competitions online. However the problem with internet-based learning arises when students have no access to it. Without Internet at home, students are at a grave disadvantage in completing homework or conducting supplementary research on their own. The World Wide Web gives us instant access to endless information, and for students, this makes the Internet a highly convenient resource for homework. Online journals, blogs, and e-books allow students to gather information on certain topics. Plus, different websites not only provide them with various choices, but also the flexibility to learn more. Some may argue that a library serves the same purpose, but in this day and age, search engines like Google and websites like Wikipedia are not only convenient; they will always offer much more information than is required. Schools that do not offer Internet use also limit their students’ scholastic potential. More than half of the schools in the United States do not have wireless connections. According to a 2014 survey conducted by Pearson Education, only 47% of elementary school students have access to the Internet at school. Their study also found that “only one in six students attend a school that provides every student with a laptop or tablet.” For students from low-income households, school computer labs can make all the difference in their academic success. Otherwise, these children must rely on publicly available resources to complete or compliment their homework, such as public libraries, coffee shops, or restaurants that provide fee Wi-Fi, like McDonald’s – all options which might not always be readily available. These places often come with time constraints – libraries on their computers so as to allow more people a turn, and restaurants according to the food or beverage in front of you. Moreover, many low-income families cannot afford computers for their children to bring to such places. » 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 39

The fact is, today’s education basically requires the use of the Internet. The Pearson Mobile Device Survey 2014 found that “35% of students said they need Internet access 2-5 times a week in order to do their schoolwork, while 40% said they need access everyday.” While some schools try to remedy the Internet problem by ceasing to incorporate internet-based assignments, they are actually doing their students a disservice. The Internet is a commonplace, yet crucial tool in the modern world, after all. Therefore, the only solution seems to be for schools to afford children access to their computers and internet for educational purposes. Indeed, President Obama sees it this way. He plans to mandate that 99% of U.S. schools will provide wireless network connection to students within the next 5 years. While this is certainly a step in the right direction, a key element remains missing; the mechanisms as which we use the Internet: computers! If Obama incorporates computers in his goal, this change could huge difference. While underprivileged students still may not be able benefit from the use of the Internet at home, they will be able to use their school’s computer lab to their advantage. ♥

References: Granata, Kassondra. “Students Lack Internet Resources in School, Survey Finds,” last accessed December 14, 2015, http:// www.educationworld.com/a_news/students-lack-internet-resources-school-survey-finds-1258618114 Kasperkevic, Jana. “Connection Failed: Internet Still A Luxury For Many Americans,” last modified January 26, 2014, http:// www.theguardian.com/money/us-money-blog/2014/jan/26/internet-luxury-low-income-americans





ne of the most intriguing parts about my trip to Japan was when I visited a few elementary schools in Tokyo. Because my cousins attend school there, I was given the opportunity to observe their classes and interact with their teachers and fellow classmates. I was delighted to learn first-hand about the Japanese’s educational system and customs. I discovered that educational practices in Japan are quite different from those that I have been accustomed to. Japan’s standard school system is comprised of: elementary school (6 years), middle school (3 years), high school (3 years) and college/university (4 years). Children begin their elementary education at the age of 6 or 7-years-old. Education in Japan is compulsory only for the first 9 years however, 98% of students go on to high school. An ordinary day at a Japanese school begins at 8:30 a.m. Upon arrival,

students will usually arrive first at an area full of small lockers where they replace their street shoes with school slippers. These slippers are generally color coded: pink for girls and blue for boys. The students then assemble in their homeroom classrooms for the day’s studies. Japanese schools have limited autonomy in their curriculum development, as course selection and textbooks are determined by the Japanese Ministry of Education. Also notable is that not all Japanese schools offer students a cafeteria, although most do, and children must bring their own lunches from home. Student behavior is also an important aspect in Japanese schools. Behavior is regulated by school policy, even while the child is on his or her way to school. The reason for these implementations is to preserve the school’s reputation. Some schools endorse policies that prohibit activities like chewing gum in public, consuming snacks and reading books while walking. Some even require students to stand while traveling by bus or train so as to demonstrate “consideration” by leaving seats open to other passengers. In practice, however, students tend to become more relaxed as they move farther away from school. In terms of school dress codes,


Commonly called “Fuji-san”, Japan’s Mount Fuji is an active volcano located about 62 miles southwest of Tokyo. It is considered one of Japan’s 3 sacred mountains, and its iconic profile is the subject of numerous works of art.


Peekaboo Into Japanese Education by Priyanka Verma



At the end of the academic day, all students participate in something called O-Soji, or the cleaning of the school.â?ž

most public elementary schools in Japan do not mandate uniforms, but they all require students to wear some form of identification, such as a school cap or badge, which link students to their corresponding schools. Moreover, other schools oblige students to purchase identical athletic apparel for gym class, which is often worn during regular classes as well. At the end of the academic day, all students participate in something called O-Soji, or the cleaning of the school. During O-Soji, students might sweep classrooms and hallways, empty trash cans, clean restrooms, clean chalkboards and erasers or pick up trash from school grounds. After O-Soji, school is dismissed. Most students will then disperse to different parts of the school for club meetings


and activities. In Japan, scholastic clubs are held every day after school, and club meetings continue to convene during school vacations. In most Japanese schools, clubs are divided into two categories: sports clubs (baseball, soccer, judo, kendo, track, tennis, swimming, softball, volleyball, rugby) and culture clubs (English, broadcasting, calligraphy, science, mathematics, and yearbook). New students are generally encouraged to join a club shortly after the school year begins in April. Scholastic clubs are a primary source for peer group socialization in Japan. Most collegebound students withdraw from club activities during their senior year in order to devote more time in preparing for university entrance examinations. For the seniors that do remain

involved, these clubs help foster their relationships with junior students. In fact, seniors, or Senpai have a responsibility to teach, initiate and take care of the juniors, or Kohai. For example, Kohai students in the tennis club might spend one year retrieving tennis balls while the Senpai students practice. The underclassmen may only use the tennis courts after the upperclassmen have finished playing. This upper/lower class dynamic can be seen throughout Japanese society in business, politics and social interactions. I also noticed another interesting distinction about Japanese education: Morality plays a fundamental role in its curriculum. Moral education is actually a separate area of instruction. Attitudes, habits and behaviors which are consistent with the Japanese value system are infused throughout the course. While textbooks are not utilized to teach moral education, many

teachers use educational television programs that are expressly developed for the subject. Examples of some of the topics covered in the moral education curriculum are: Harmony with nature and its appreciation; Need for rational and scientific attitudes toward human life; Importance of order; Respect for public property; Endurance; Hard work; Freedom; Justice; and Fairness. Additionally, I learned about the Japanese process of and details about continuing education. Admittance into college is based on entrance exam scores. Students who apply to national universities must take two entrance exams: a nationally administered uniform achievement test, and a standard entrance exam administered by the particular college or university. Private colleges and universities set their own tuition rates, whereas the Japanese government dictates tuition for the public institutions. Âť

As of 2010, more than 2.8 million Japanese students were enrolled in 778 universities. At the top of the higher education structure, these institutions provide a four-year training leading to a bachelor’s degree, and some offer six-year programs leading to a professional degree.


To get an idea of cost, the following is a fairly recent approximation of tuition fees charged per student:


6 years of public schooling


3 years of public schooling





2,000,000 yen 16,310 USD

8,240,000 yen 67,199USD

1,420,000 yen 11,580 USD

3,810,000 yen 31,071USD









2,160,000 yen 17,615 USD

3,230,000 yen 26,342 USD

4,290,000 yen 34,987 USD

6,310,000 yen 51,461 USD

Visiting the Japanese schools encouraged me to conduct more research on their education system. In doing so, I discovered that there are many more facets! If this write-up piqued your interest, I encourage you to conduct your own research – more on Japanese education and on other cultures! ♥

References Rohlen, Thomas P. Japan’s High Schools. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983. ED 237 343 Tsukada, Mamoru. “Institutionalized Supplementary Education in Japan: The Yobiko and Ronin Student Adaptations.” Comparative Education. 24, no. 3 (1988): 285-303. EJ 386 063 “The Cost of Educating a Child in Japan.” Education in Japan Community Blog. November 18, 2008. Accessed October 21, 2015.


Some Words in Japanese














Why do have infinite colors?

by Aparajita De

When you think of a rainbow, what colors come to mind? Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet? These are the common colors that make up a rainbow. Yet, there are many other colors we will never get to see. Why? Well, the colors we see in a rainbow depend on what kind of light we can perceive. Here’s how they work! Rainbows form when raindrops and sunlight combine at just the right angle. The raindrops act like a prism. As the droplets fall, they refract, or break the sunlight and divide it into those familiar seven colors we usually see. But what about the colors we don’t see? Rainbows actually have infinite colors. How? Well, in reality, the “colors” we see in a rainbow are really different wavelengths of light. Our human eyes can only see light within a certain range of wavelength (only the spectrum of colors ranging from red to violet). We can’t see other forms of light, like ultraviolet light, infrared

* Inspired by Quora.com


illsutration by Daniela Fernandes-Smith

light, or radio waves. So, rainbows contain colors that are invisible to us! ♥



Educational Disparities of our African-American and Hispanic Youth By. Earline Marshall

My mom and dad raised four children to be good citizens in our communities. Dad stressed the importance of education; he only went to the 8th grade when he quit school to get a job. Back in the 1940’s and 1950’s situations for people of color were different. My mom and grandmother cleaned houses – it was one of the few jobs they could get. My mother wanted to be a nurse but there was no money for school. She was the oldest daughter of a farmer who had eight other children. After graduating from high school she went to work.



nce my dad was old enough he went into the army, learned a trade and was able to provide for his children working as a truck driver. He taught us that education was something no one could take from you and with it you could do anything. My parents and grandparents lived in a world of segregation. Racism factored into everything they did -- where they ate, how they got to work, where they worked, where they went to the bathroom, and where they could get a drink of water. Children went to all black schools, and if you could afford to go, they went to all black colleges. I can’t imagine what my parents went through living in that environment. Many things have changed for the better. Jobs are open to mostly everyone eligible to apply, we can sit anywhere we want on public transportation or in restaurants and bathrooms and water fountains are freely used by everyone. Education is one area that remains a problem when it comes to equality. Education Today for African-Americans Inequality can be seen now by the lack of diversity in management and in boardrooms, slow or no promotional opportunities or the lack of loans for black-owned businesses. An analysis of 90 publicly traded companies showed that out of 93 chief executive positions, four were held by women and eight by people of color and out of 677 board positions across those companies, only 76 were held by women and 67 held by people of color (Overly, 2011). Education is also an area of inequality and some statistics are striking. Only 54 percent of AfricanAmericans graduate from high school compared to 75 percent of white children and on average, a 12th grade African-American student reads at the level of an 8th grade white student (Thompson, 2011). This translates into more minorities living in poverty with low-income jobs and poor housing. Parents with a limited education have a harder time making ends meet and don’t have the education or time (because most work two or more jobs) to help their children with homework and other school participation activities. Parents who cannot read don’t read to their children. Barriers to Closing the Education Gap So the crisis of inequality is a systemic problem and it is growing as the gap widens between the haves and the have nots. It is exceptionally critical for people of color as statistics suggest that if African-American men had the same education as white men they could earn an additional $170 billion a year (Allen, 2015). Also, nearly half of white males in their late twenties have a college degree compared to only 28 percent of black men at the same age (Allen, 2015). Therefore, it can be suggested that as the educational gap widens so does the economic and employment gaps. These are all connected so it is understandable that we must first look address the educational gap. There are many barriers facing people of color that could cause them not to be fully successful with their education. Some of the most critical barriers include poverty, little or no early childhood education and early interactions with the court system. Poverty The crippling impact of poverty is physically and mentally debilitating. Living in a constant existence of lack can cause many problems for parents and children. In the United States, a country with so much, it is humbling to know how many people have so little. All races are affected by its vicious cycle, according to the 2013 census data 18.9 million whites were poor – this was 8 million more than poor black people and 5 million more than poor Hispanics which means that the majority of people benefiting from food stamps and Medicaid are white (Godsil, 2013). » 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 51

That being said the experience of poverty between whites and blacks are very different. Most African-Americans and Hispanics living in poverty face a “double burden” a term noted by sociologist Emily Badger, who describes the “double burden” for African-Americans and Hispanics as living in whole communities that are almost totally depressed and where almost everyone is poor (Badger 2015). This has a direct impact on their neighborhoods, their schools, and local businesses. They are isolated and concentrated in one area where all around them is poverty. Concentrated poverty causes whole neighborhoods to be left behind when considering economic development, education advances in schools and better housing and infrastructure (Badger, 2015). Whole communities in poverty have little tax revenue and political capital to better their neighborhoods. Businesses don’t want to come into areas that show no signs of growth. This means no job opportunities and a continuous cycle of unending poverty and lack. This is how Badger explains why 20 percent of all children under age 18 live in poverty but the number of black children is highest at 38 percent, Hispanic children at 30 percent compared to only 11 percent of white children (Badger, 2015). No Early Childhood Education Along with the poverty, the barrier of no daycare or affordable early childhood education programs hits poor and low-income families hard. Most families living in poverty are a singleparent household and there is no money for early childhood education. The problem is when these children attend kindergarten they are already far behind their peers in educational development. They start school at a considerable disadvantage and fall further behind in reading skills which makes it harder to catch up to their peers in later grades and increases the chances of them becoming frustrated and eventually dropping out. Equality in education for all children is critical to break the cycle of poverty and put children on a path to achieve their educational goals.

Equality in education for all children is critical to break the cycle of poverty


Early Engagement in Criminal Justice System When young people drop out of high school they are more likely to end up in the judicial court system. It would be more cost-effective to develop programs to keep children in school (Allen, 2015). As an example, California spends more than $62,000 on a single inmate per year; this is approximately seven times more than it spends on educating a single student in grades K-12; which is about $9,200 per student per year (Hanson and Stipek, 2014). Unfair policies also cause more incarceration for people of color as both blacks and whites are similar in their use of marijuana but blacks are almost four times as likely as whites to be arrested for marijuana possession (Allen, 2015). There is also substantial differences in jail time for whites possessing cocaine compared to blacks possessing crack as crack cocaine carries the same sentence as the possession of a quantity of cocaine 100 times larger (Kurtzleben, 2010). There is a minimum mandatory five year sentence for a first-time offense for over five grams of crack, compared to the same sentence for 500 grams of powder cocaine; a much larger quantity. The same applies for larger amounts of the drugs as there is a minimum sentence of 10 year sentence for only 50 grams of crack compared to the same sentence for possessing 5 kilograms of cocaine (Kurtzleben, 2010). Shocking, are the statistics regarding the increase of black and Hispanics in the prison system: in 1984 white people were the majority in State and Federal prisons but by 2011 the more than 1.5 million prisoners were minorities, including 930,000 black prisoners (Kurtzleben, 2010). As we all know, once you have a prison record it is even harder to get a job. Many companies are not willing to take a chance on a person with a prison record. Therefore, most people who come out of prison end up back in prison. Most people with a prison record are not able to vote in elections so they have very little political capital to engage with politicians and make lastly reforms. Âť


Change is Possible We are facing huge challenges but we must remain positive and know that we can make a difference. Segregation and Jim Crow Laws ended because we fought for it. It was a slow and steady process but we achieved the goal. Now we must fight for the education and economic success of our young black and Hispanic children. There are several things we can do to make a difference. Increase Economic Development in Poor Communities Poor people should not be isolated in communities that are deserts to development. Every community should include a mixture of housing for the upper class, middle class and those who need affordable housing. This will ensure that schools are better because there will be a tax base that can provide the necessary equipment, books and teachers they need. There should be grocery stores and small businesses and communities that can be sustainable and grow. Reboot Educational System Our education system is broken. It no longer works for everyone. Public education needs to start before kindergarten. Children are learning more at ages 3 and 4 and a person’s lack of income should not be a reason a child is behind his or her peers when they start public school. It is extremely hard to catch up and some never catch up to their grade level in reading and math. The school curriculum needs to ensure that diversity is included. Children need to be engaged in learning to build self-esteem so they can see themselves reaching their dreams and goals. Courtney Hansen, an inner city school teacher blogged that, “The thing that most haunts me is the broad disparity of achievement between the highest achievers and the lowest achievers. Teaching children in these communities is so challenging to teachers because it requires you to make extraordinary efforts to find that pivotal one thing that causes that child to change directions and follow you instead of the path of least resistance. The system itself being broken, doesn’t take ownership in solving this problem…” (Hanson, 2015). 54 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016

We must take ownership and demand that the educational system work for everyone. Our children need to be able to see that they can make it out of poverty. Removing the barriers that deter them from obtaining an education and realizing economic success is a challenge we must win. We must face these challenges and with steady progress, we can change the future of our children so no child is left behind and all children reach their full potential. Our parents and grandparents made it with limited choices, now we must stand on their shoulders and rise as high as we can dream. ♼

References Allen, F. (July 20, 2015). Closing Education Gap Would Boost U.S. Economy: White House, The Washington Informer. Website. Retrieved from http://washingtoninformer.com/news/2015/jul/20/closing-education-gap-would-boost-economy-wh-says/ Badger, E. (Aug. 12, 2015). Black Poverty Differs from White Poverty, The Washington Post. Website. Retrieved from https:// www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/08/12/black-poverty-differs-from-white-poverty/ Godsil, R. (Dec. 2, 2013). Hey, Media: White People Are Poor, Too, The Root. Website Retrieved from http://www.theroot.com/ articles/culture/2013/12/most_poor_people_in_america_are_white.html Hansen, C. (Oct. 22, 2015). The Intellectual Care and Development of Black Children, LinkedIn Blog. Website. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/intellectual-care-development-black-children-tearing-hansen?trk=hp-feed-articletitle-commentHanson, K. and Stipek, D. (May 16, 2014). Schools vs. Prisons: Education’s the Way to Cut Prison Population, The San Jose Mercury News. Website. Retrieved from http://www.mercurynews.com/opinion/ci_25771303/schools-v-prisons-educations-way-cutprison-population Kurtzleben, D. (Aug. 3, 2010). Data Show Racial Disparity in Crack Sentencing, U.S. News and World Report. Website. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2010/08/03/data-show-racial-disparity-in-crack-sentencing Overly, S. (Feb. 28, 2011). Diversity Lags in Executive Suites and Boardrooms, The Washington Post Business Section Website. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/02/25/AR2011022506129.htmlThompson, T. (Sep. 13, 2011). Fact Sheet: Outcomes for Young Black Men, Tavis Smiley Reports: Too Important to Fail. PBS Website. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/tavissmiley/tsr/too-importantto-fail/fact-sheet-outcomes-for-young-black-men/


Why does your skin swell up? By Aparajita De

If you get a cut, your skin reacts by swelling up. Why? Swelling prevents germs from entering your body. Damaged skin cells release certain chemicals into your bloodstream that attract germ-eating white blood cells. The swelling happens when blood vessels expand beneath your wound, and causes you to bleed. This is why your skin feels painful and hot as your cut is healing. ♼

Source: Sharecare.net 56 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016

Did you kno For minor cut w? might use a s s, doct ors of glue t o cl o pecial kind instead of sste your cut itches.

Food for Thought: Childhood Obesity. By. Ameera Khawaja


hildhood obesity has become a growing concern for policymakers and the generalpublic alike, and schools are partly to blame. Schools share a responsibility with parents to provide children with healthy food choices. Yet, processed foods that are high in fat, sugar, and salt have become school lunch staples, as school administrators believe it is cheaper than fresh produce or whole grains. In fact, a 2009 study published by the American Dietetic Association found that 94% of the school lunches in the United States fail to meet the U.S Agriculture Departments regulatory standards. Moreover, only one in five schools meet the total fat standard, with chicken fingers and french fries as the number one meal served in schools, with only one in five schools meeting the total fat standard. As Co-Chair of the Student Nutrition and Physical Activity Committee for the San Francisco public school district Dana Woldow puts it, students can “buy soda, potato chips, snack cakes, corn dogs, french fries, apple turnovers, ice cream — you know, carnival food.”

Pictures of obese children have caught the public’s attention, especially educators and respective authorities. In recent years, the Obama Administration has launched several high-profile initiatives to improve this health issue. One such initiative was a program launched by First Lady Michelle Obama called, “Chefs Move to Schools.” The program calls upon chefs to adopt a school and work with teachers and nutrition professionals to help educate children on the importance of healthy eating and nutrition. However, although the government has been restricting high-calorie food in schools, the enforcement has been a challenge. According to Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack, “A lot of these programs the USDA sponsors are based on the idea that every school cafeteria has a kitchen.” Furthermore, many school experts say the federal meal program, National School Lunch Program, has been markedly underfunded. Childhood obesity does not only present appearance concerns, but also other physical problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular problems, and even Alzheimer’s disease. After a study investigated the effects of dietary fats and processed foods on the development of Alzheimer disease, it was found that 131 persons developed the disease out of a sample of 815. » 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 57

The results showed that intake of saturated fat and trans-unsaturated fat were positively associated with the increase risk of Alzheimer. Though the damaging effects of unhealthy food on the brain occur throughout life, the problem mostly starts during childhood. What’s more, obese children can also experience social consequences like depression and low self-esteem due to their condition. All of the consequences associated with childhood obesity can negatively impact their academic performance. This is why it is crucial for schools to start being a part of the solution to childhood obesity instead of the problem. Our exploration of this topic will continue in our next issue, where we will talk about what role schools, governments, and parents play in childhood obesity, as well as, its culprits, consequences, and remedies. ♥ References 1. Ray, Amanda. “Unhealthy School Lunches Not Making the Grade,” Art Institutes, accessed December 15, 2015, https:// www.artinstitutes.edu/blog/unhealthy-school-lunches-notmaking-the-grade 2. Christensen, Jen. “Schools Struggle to Feed Kids Healthy Food.” CNN. September 29, 2010. Accessed December 17, 2015. http://www.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/09/29/school.food. investigation/. 3. Yang Su, Eleanor. “School Lunches Missing the Mark for Nutrition Standards.” California Watch. July 25, 2012. Accessed December 17, 2015. http://californiawatch.org/k-12/schoollunches-missing-mark-nutrition-standards-16906. 4. “National School Breakfast and Lunch Program: 70th Anniversary.” State of Obesity. Accessed December 17, 2015. http://stateofobesity.org/policy/schools-and-healthy-weight/ national-school-breakfast-and-lunch-programs-and-relatedschool-nutrition-initiatives. 5. MC, Moris, Evans DA, Bienias JL, Tangney CC, Bennett DA, Aggarwal N, Schneider J, and Wilson RS. “Result Filters.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. August 6, 2003. Accessed December 17, 2015. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/12580703. 6. “NUTRITION 101.” NY Coalition for Healthy School Food. October 15, 2012. Accessed December 17, 2015. http://www. healthyschoolfood.org/nutrition101.htm.


Department of Education Launches Informational Campaign on Repaying By. Earline Marshall Student Loans


truggling with student loan debt? Many of us are – from recent college graduates to people who have been out of school for years. Student loans have become a factor in many of our budgets and they are a noted reason why young adults are living at home longer, delaying

marriage and having children. It is also why a lot of baby boomers are working past retirement age; they are helping their children pay back student loans. If you have loans with the Department of Education, you are in luck because they have just launched the 2015 Student Loan Repayment Campaign. The campaign is designed to educate borrowers about the affordable repayment options available and provide the tools and resources needed to make informed decisions on repayment. According to an article in US News and World Report, the average student loan debt a graduate from a public college faces is between $33,950 and $48,850, and for non-profit colleges it is between $41,750 and $71,350. With the federal government and many states continuing to cut their education budgets, student loans will continue to rise as colleges and universities continue to increase tuition. Whether you are 25 or 45 this is a lot of debt to add to a budget before you include necessities such as rent, food, utilities, and living costs. For those just graduating, this debt must seem overwhelming, especially with most entrylevel positions (degree with no experience) starting below

Educating ourselves in the repayment process is the first step to making student loan debt manageable. The goal is to pay it off quickly so your earnings can work toward obtaining the things in life that you want, such as a home, family, and retirement.



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$40k annually.

Depending on the amount of debt, it may take some of us 20 years to pay off our student loans unless we have a plan and the information we need to find a payment option that fits our budget and timeline. The Department of Education Student Loan Repayment Campaign provides information on topics such as, how to make a payment, what repayment plans are available, what to do if you are having trouble repaying the loans and who is eligible for loan forgiveness, cancellation, or discharge. Student loans do not have to be a hardship; check out this information at StudentAid.gov to manage your student loan debt successfully. Also, keep up with the latest information by signing up to get Home Room (the official Blog of the U.S. Department of Education). ♼







A-MA ZE-ING! Help Naomi get through the maze in time for her first day of school!

* Check out the solution in page 68.


UNSCRAMBLE THE SCRAMBLE WITH THIS WORD SCRAMBLE Have some fun finding the words in the scramble below. Words may be forwards, backwards, vertical, horizontal and diagonal.



SCHOOL STUDY TABLET TEACHER TECHNOLOGY * Check out the solution in page 68.



Blossom’s Sweet Tooth Bites “After a long week helping her school buddy, Blossom is ready for the weekend! Blossom has a sweet tooth. After earning A’s on their math assignments she and her school buddy Xander, are allowed to make cookies together today! Blossom really likes vanilla wafers, Xander is a big fan of chocolate. With their common like for bananas they come up with a spectacular treat to create and enjoy!”

Ingredients • • • • • •

30 Vanilla Wafers Jar of Hershey’s fudge 1-2 bananas Toothpicks Serving tray Wax paper or non-stick foil

Directions • Peel banana and slice approximately 1/4 inch thick • Place wafers and sliced 1/4 inch bananas on each plate. • Take 2 wafers and place a banana slice in-between (flat sides of cookie touching banana) creating a sandwich cookie. • Put toothpick through sandwich to hold in place • Dip cookies in (melted if needed) smooth chocolate sauce • Place on tray with wax paper or non stick foil • Continue until all cookies are coated in chocolate and placed on tray • Let chill in fridge for at least 30minutes or even overnight Enjoy!

This recipe requires a few simple ingredients and the hardest part is allowing the chocolate cookies to chill for 30minutes after preparing. It is definitely worth the wait and something that your young child can help create; it was inspired by the founders of iN Education,Inc.



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1. Print out the cards. 2. Cut them out in individual squares. 3. Place them face-down and scramble them 4. Match the pairs!







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