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INSIDE the ISSUE 4

Letter from the Editor: DeAndre Nixon

5

Zealousness Team

8

How to choose and evaluate a college?

10

Mistakes to avoid when choosing a college.

13

Career Technical Education Overview

16

Textbook vs. in-field knowledge

18

Should you choose a college degree or certificate?

20

Understanding college enrollment trends can help you to create a winning college search strategy.

24

Pre-college preparation - what high school students should know before going to college.

28

Five important assesment tools to career pathfinder.

34

Education Around the World - France

40

ECTE: Beginnings and beyond

42

CTE: Most popular career clusters for 2018

46

Why is the sea salty?

50

College scholarship snapshot

52

Scholaraship methods

54

Word Search

55

Sudoku puzzle

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LETTER

from the

EDITOR

DeAndre Nixon

Founder/President of iN Education, Inc. and Editor in Chief of Zealousness Magazine. Dear Readers, Society emphasizes the importance of higher education throughout one’s life making it a lifelong journey. The trends are that many people are pursuing their higher education well into their fifties or sixties. Our individual value is based on our knowledge, and in some cases, amount of degrees we have behind our name. There are many ways going about pursuing your education goals. There are also many options, resources, opportunities, and strategies to consider in reaching your ultimate goal. Whether you would choose Career Technical Education, College or University, be sure to outline your strategy before choosing one way or the other. Explore the many financial options to offset your direct cost, i.e. grant, scholarship, Federal Financial Aid or benefits that your employer may provide. We are glad to present you with some of the resources. Go ahead and dive into the read and explore “How to choose and evaluate your college?”, learn about the “CTE: Beginnings and Beyond” or “Understanding college enrollment trends can help you to create a winning college search strategy”. Get introduced to “Five important assessment tools to career pathfinder.” Throughout this issue we will introduce to you only a fraction of options with the hope it will jumpstart your higher education quest. Open up your mind and keep on learning every day! Consider this issue as your guide to your pursuit of higher education. We hope you will enjoy this issue as much as we enjoyed putting it together for you!

YOUR CHANCE TO BE ON THE MAGAZINE Which career path are you considering and why?

Send us a short 3-4 line paragraph or maybe a drawing expressing your thoughts! All submitted responses will be posted on the website and the top two will be featured on our next issue! 4 | ZEALOUSNESS WINTER 2018 / 2019


ZEALOUSNESS TEAM EDITOR IN CHIEF

ADMINISTRATOR

DeAndre Nixon

Sona Nixon

EDITORS Sabrina Campanella Stephen Coolbrook Christina Hayley Helene Huynh Jessica Y Sinha Priyanka

EDITORIAL DESIGN

WRITERS Acshah Zachariah Anjali Calista Anna C. Erica Murphey Aswini Kanneganti Nidhi Memon Nupur Srivastava, PhD Kristy Taylor Richard Wu Sita Singh Shweta Roy

Sona Nixon

PRODUCTION ARTISTS Anjali Calista Hai Van Van

Zealousness is an iN Education, Inc. e-magazine. Copyright 2014-2018, All Rights Reserved.

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ZEALOUSNESS

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How to choose and evaluate a college?

How to choose and evaluate

a college?

by Anjali Calista

W

e are always told that choosing the right college is one of the most important decisions in our lives, and it’s true! Where you attend college will have a lasting impact on your personal and professional life.

Yet the real question is, what type of education do you want? Maybe you don’t know yet. So take a step back and ask yourself some basic questions: what are the things that really interest you? What are you naturally good at? Are you inclined towards liberal arts subjects or more technical fields, such as math, science, and engineering? What subjects do you absolutely hate? These will narrow down options and give you a somewhat clear understanding.

When you have decided your area of interest then it’s time to decide on a university. Many students select a college based on limited criteria, and while this won’t preclude anyone from academic success, such an important decision should probably undergo a higher level of scrutiny. So, you need to decide what matters most to you i.e. location, types of majors and degrees, cost, etc., and then start choosing from there. Choosing and evaluating a college is much like shopping. You have a certain budget and you want to buy the best thing from the options available, so keeping in mind the college factors that are important to you is crucial. Listed below are some other aspects to consider.

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How to choose and evaluate a college? a. Accreditation

f. Graduation Rate

These universities are recognized by official local, state, and national agencies for providing a high-quality education (US Department of Education). Accreditation is important to applicants who seek financial aid and intend to study further.

A school’s graduation rate provides the likelihood of student success at school.

Don’t jump at the first big-name college you can find. If it does not offer your preferred area of study or desired degree level, it’s not right for you. c. Location Decide whether you intend to live at home or want to explore new places. d. Cost How much tuition you can afford? Public universities usually cost substantially less than private. e. Financial Aid Opportunities Financial aid can either be a federal or state grant (money you do not have to pay back) or a federal student loan (money you must pay back). Individual colleges and universities may also award institutional grants and scholarships.

Colleges that provide hands-on training within the curriculum through simulated lab work, a practicum, or an internship help insure that students better equipped for the real-world job market. h. Campus Facilities Campus facilities can make a big difference when it comes to enhancing your experience. Whether it’s a state-of-theart laboratory, an expansive computing center, or a gym worthy of an Olympic athlete! i. Job Placement Rates Knowing the job placement rate can help set your mind at ease about entering the job j. Market upon graduation. While deciding where to apply to college is often a stressful experience, knowing what things to consider can give you the confidence to apply wisely and end up at the school that best meets your needs. Start your college search today!

https://www.maxpixel.net/Cap-School-Graduation-Cap-Education-Graduation-3430710

b. Types of Majors and Degrees

g. Internships and Hands-on Opportunities

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Mistakes to avoid when choosing a college

Mistakes to avoid when choosing a college by Acsah Zachariah

A

has increased to 41% in recent years. That being said, many students find it difficult to complete their studies in the enrolled colleges leading to higher dropout rates every year. Some of the main reasons include the time commitment, the cost of attendance, and several different unexpected emergencies.

https://www.flickr.com/photos/78425154@N00/4207828716

re you thinking about attending a college? Well, earning a college degree seems to be a life achievement when you consider the future. According to the averages calculated by U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), individuals with higher education (professional or doctorate degree) earn around 64% more per week than those with a high school diploma. This might be a reason why the overall college enrollment rate

Choosing a right college that fits your needs academically, socially and financially may often feel like a daunting task. To help you with the process, here are few mistakes you need to avoid along the way. •

Following prestige

Many students tend to choose their college solely for its reputation, however, it is better to look for the values than just the name. Highlyranked colleges in the country can provide better opportunities but one must understand that lesser-known institutions may also provide the same opportunities. Prestigious colleges 10 | ZEALOUSNESS WINTER 2018 / 2019

are not for everyone, some need smaller classes for better learning. •

Being a follower

Most people tend to choose a college located near their home or where their friends are


Mistakes to avoid when choosing a college

“college is a place where you discover yourself and your passions” interested. It may be comfortable to attend a college where you can live the same life as you did before with friends and family, however, it doesn’t mean that you will be satisfied with that college. Instead of focusing on short term fulfillment one should focus on the long term academics. College is a place where you grow as a person and discover your passions. Hence, you need to set your feelings aside and evaluate the campus, quality of academics and finance aids to get the best out of college experience. •

Not visiting

Nowadays, institutions spent more money to reach prospective students via advertising. Hence, it is not recommended to rely solely on college website or adverts. You may schedule an appointment for a college tour and ensure to ask all the queries to the tour guide. It is advisable to collect the contact details of the tour guide for future enquiries. As you visit the campuses, the advice from current college students can also be kept close to hand which in turn can help you take the right decision. •

Focusing on a single aspect

Everyone has different priorities about their college such as major, location, social life, extracurricular activities etc. Unfortunately, some students tend to focus only on their first priority and ignore all others in their list. Before you embark your college list, you need to figure out all the facilities that you want in a college and make sure you find an institution that meets

all your requirements. For example, if you are now interested in a particular major, there are chances that it can change in the future. Thus it is critical to find a college that provides major in all disciplines you enjoy. Priorities can change sometimes; ensure that all the priorities are met while choosing a college. •

Ruling out expensive colleges

Fees is an essential consideration when it comes to selecting a college. Many students believe on the price listed on the college website and simply exclude that college from their list. However, it is not the best idea to rule out a college just because your budget does not meet the required sticker amount. It is better to be realistic but not until you explore all available financial aids, which can even make a private institution cheaper than the public ones. Only a small fraction of students pay the sticker price for their studies. The National Center for Education Statistics estimates that over 80% of full-time, first-time, degree-seeking undergraduates receive financial aid in the form of grants, scholarships, work-study programs, or loans. •

Being hasty

Searching for a college will be very time consuming and tedious process when done properly. Rushing through the application process in the last minute may lead to major mistakes such as missing deadlines or incomplete applications. Incomplete or

incorrect applications can oftentimes delay the acceptance and reject the financial aids. Take your time and start the research as early as possible to find the college that is a great fit for you. Remember, college is a place where you discover yourself and your passions. Hence, it is critical to find a college that is accurate for your needs. Therefore, when choosing a college, try to avoid the common mistakes we talked about in this article. References: 1. “Unemployment rates and earnings by educational attainment.” Accessed October 10, 2018. https://www.bls.gov/emp/ chart-unemployment-earnings-education.htm. 2. “The Condition of Education 2018 - National Center for Education ....” Accessed October 10, 2018. https://nces.ed.gov/ pubs2018/2018144.pdf. 3. “Full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students ....” Accessed October 11, 2018. https://nces. ed.gov/programs/digest/d15/tables/dt15_331.20.asp. WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 11


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Career Technical Education Overview

Career Technical Education Overview

By Anna C.

C

areer Technical Education (CTE), formerly known as “vocational education”, is an educational program geared towards high school students and college students who want to develop the necessary expertise for specific careers. The program prepares students in both technical and academic skills, knowledge, and training. Students may participate in taking required and specialized courses, internships, student-to-mentor connections, and hands-on projects.

More on the different CTE programs available?

Statistics have proven that CTE is an overall success among students who have graduated from the program. According to Career Tech: • 93 percent of high school students graduate from the CTE concentration • 75+ percent of high school students earn at least 1 CTE credit • 75 percent of CTE high school graduates enroll in college CTE focuses on 16 primary career clusters - • 84 percent of CTE enrollees continued including Finance, Business Management their education after the program was and Administration, Marketing, Health Scicompleted or obtained employment withence, Human Services, Information Techin six months of completing the program nology, Law, Logistics, and Government and Public Administration. WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 13


Career Technical Education Overview • High school students enrolled in CTE have a significantly lower dropout rate than non-CTE high school students • College students who graduate with a career-focused degree rather than an academic-focused degree are more likely to have a job in the future because they have some work experience in that field • College students who graduate with a CTE degree earn on average $4,000-$19,000 more a year than non-CTE students. The desire for CTE programs has continued to grow nationwide as states have continued to build CTE centers and shift their primary focus from college preparation to career readiness. The increased demand makes sense, due to the proven impact of CTE enrolment on future employability. Indeed, in a recent survey of business leaders, half noted that school education system alone does not adequately prepare students for the workforce. States are taking action. Kansas recently adopted a law that pays schools $1,000 for every student who graduates from high

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school that has earned an industry-recognized credential. Additionally, Oregon has passed a law that requires an apprenticeship list to be shared with students and parents, on behalf of the state’s Education Department and Labor Bureau. Idaho is now granting dual credit for high school students who pass career-technical courses, as well as academic courses. For more information, go to https://careertech.org to learn more about CTE. References: 1. https://careertech.org/ 2. https://www.skillsusa.org/about/why-career-technical-education/ 3. https://info.nhanow.com/blog/celebrating-cte-month 4. https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/ctes/tables/index.asp?LEVEL=SECONDARY 5. https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2017/10/04/growing-numbers-of-states-embrace-career-education.html


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Career Technical Education Overview

TEXTBOOK

VS

IN-FIELD KNOWLEDGE An opinion piece

By Richard Wu

T

has a PhD in molecular biology and immunology in addition to many other achievements. Her experience is vast, and she is able to use that in everyday teaching. Whether it is her ability to explain concepts using the most intuitive and concise terms, or her ability to give helpful tips straight out of personal experience, her familiarity with the field helps with teaching greatly. In her class, I feel immersed in the material. If I don’t understand something or get an unsatisfactory grade on one of her assignments, she tells me exactly where I need to improve and how, whether it be to fully flesh out my explanation of a question, the omittance of an unnecessary detail, or a better answer. Besides my experience of in-field teachers, I believe being one has benefits for them, too. Because of First, let’s define these terms. Instructors who their familiarity of the subject, they can easily work in their field are teachers who have expe- answer questions, speak about their lesson in rience teaching whatever they teach, and have comfort, and spend time creating interactive asa personal connection to what they teach be- signments in lieu of studying the textbook. cause they have worked in Biology, or History, or English. Textbook teachers are those who I imagine there are some drawbacks, too. If one don’t work in a certain subject that they teach, is an avid speaker and gets too wrapped up and derive their knowledge of it from the course in the subject, then students may have a hard material, namely, textbooks. time following. However, I believe many teachers work around this, and it is only the new ones In-field teachers have a lot of experience with who might have a little trouble with it. Not all inthe subject. That is the thing that one should see field teachers decided to be teachers from the right away. For example, my AP biology teacher get-go. Some switched from their field late in eachers are the most crucial part of a student’s education. As a student myself, I cannot successfully learn a whole year of AP World History without the guidance of a teacher. I’m sure anyone could if they tried, but without a person to explain difficult concepts and help them overcome times when they are stuck, it would be nearly impossible. That said, there are different types of teachers, and some have advantages over others. One can group them into two types (of course, there are other ways): instructors who work in their field and those who rely on their textbook. Both have their own distinct advantages and disadvantages. I’ll be leading you through those.

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Career Technical Education Overview

" Textbook teachers are those that don’t work in a certain subject that they teach, and derive their knowledge of it from the course material, namely, textbooks."

quickly because they aren’t too familiar with one study. In addition, in courses that require less critical thinking and more memorization, their ability to deliver exactly what the textbook says (and thus what is required for students to know) accurately is invaluable. Textbook teachers may fall short when it comes to more thought-demanding subjects, which are especially more frequent in later stages of school. If the textbook is outdated, or contains biased or incorrect information, then students taught by those teachers can be misled. This Textbook teachers may sound inexperienced, may be seen in areas of regretful history, where but the opposite is true. While not having worked history textbooks may be changed to make extensively in the subject that they teach, they events seem less significant, or paint a comhave more experience in teaching. A textbook pletely different picture than reality. teacher who has been at it ten years will always have more experience with students than an However, I believe that most teachers seem to in-field teacher who has two years of teaching strike a balance between the two: using personunder their belt and eight years of work. There al insight in combination with hard knowledge is also a certain degree of flexibility for textbook from the book. That way, each shortcoming of teachers that in-field teachers do not have-their the two types is made up for. Each type of is ability to adapt to whatever subject they teach. equally good, but their abilities are suited for In-field teachers may feel uncomfortable teach- different respects. It is up to them to decide ing subjects out of their discipline of choice, but which area of teaching is best for them. textbook teachers can adapt to their subjects their career and may not have much experience in the teaching regard. In classes that are inherently heavily textbook-based and draw test and assignment material straight from the book, in-field teachers may find themselves conflicted when the material is incorrect, subjectively ‘unnecessary’, but nonetheless required to pass the course. In addition, when their experience conflicts the material, they may have a hard time trying to relearn the course to accommodate their task.

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Should You Choose a College Degree or Certificate?

Should You Choose a College Degree or Certificate?

P

by Erica Murphey eople are choosing different career paths in the 21st century. Some young ones choose to be electricians or beauticians rather than doctors or lawyers and vice versa. How can you decide what is right for you, though? There are a few things you need to considert.

Understand the difference. The main difference is between certificates and degrees is the length of time they take to be earned. Certificate programs usually take less than two years to finish. Jobs requiring them tend to be very specialized. For instance, people can easily become Cosmetologists at many community colleges. This particular profession’s “…licensing requirements vary by state, but “a student will need a high school diploma or equivalent, a cosmetology certificate, and “…hands-on experience.” (chron.com) You will learn how to cut and style hair, tend to nails, accounting, and bookkeeping. Degrees are earned at many levels and some take more time than others. An Associate’s 18 | ZEALOUSNESS WINTER 2018 / 2019

©Van Hai Van https://www.behance.net/vhvan

takes two years, a Bachelor’s takes four years, a Master’s takes six, and a Doctorate averages eight to thirteen years (gradschoolhub. com). Those such as a Bachelor of Arts differ from certificates because they “…require the student to take general education courses… such as English, Math, Science, Philosophy, and History.”(study.com) For instance, someone who aspires to be a journalist needs a Bachelor of Arts (with a focus in


Should You Choose a College Degree or Certificate? Mass Communications) as opposed to an Associate of Arts. They are likely to not only make more money at an entry level position but they will have more educational experience. What is the salary range? The average salary will vary depending on the major. According to Bureau of Labor Statistics any four year degrees weekly pay was $973 for men and $796 for women as of October 19, 2018. Some of the most popular majors which require a four year degree have been in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. For instance, a Bachelor’s in Computer Science major field paid $84,580 yearly in May 2017. Moreover, one of the best paying jobs include an award from a technical school were Aircraft and Avionics Mechanics and Technicians. They make an average of $ 61,260 per year. Cost According to study.com, certificate “…programs at public two-year colleges cost $6,880 per year on average, compared to $18,820 at four-

year public colleges.” The National Center for Education Statistics notes the average price of any four-year degree in 2016 cost $22,432. Consider applying for a scholarship, a federal pell grant, or a loan if you are worried about paying for a degree. Grants and loans will cover things such as tuition, textbooks, and room and board. The difference between the two is that you will have to repay a loan (with interest). Scholarships are awarded to students for many reasons from many organizations. Some come from nonprofit organizations, churches, or ordinary people. Regardless of the source you will not be expected to repay a scholarship. A good place for students to start looking for all of these is FAFSA.gov. Personal payoff Do not kid yourself and try to become a lawyer when you would be satisfied as a dental hygienist. There is a stigma about Associate’s Degrees and/or vocational training. Do not let other people tell you what your goals should be just because you want to take an unconventional path.

There are several things to consider before choosing a job, but at the end of the day the most important thing is to mix practicality with your dreams. Consider how much time you can devote to school, your educational budget, and how much money you want to make in the future. You will never regret it if you do your homework. Sources: 1. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, The Economics Daily, Median weekly earnings were $796 for women, $973 for men, in third quarter 2018 on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2018/ median-weekly-earnings-were-796-for-women-973-for-men-in-third-quarter-2018.htm (visited October 22, 2018). 2. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Aircraft and Avionics Equipment Mechanics and Technicians, on the Internet at https://www.bls.gov/ooh/installation-maintenanceand-repair/aircraft-and-avionics-equipment-mechanics-and-technicians.htm (visited October 17, 2018). 3. https://study.com/articles/What_is_the_Difference_Between_a_Certificate_Diploma_and_Degree.html (Accessed October 22, 2018) 4. “What Is The Average Time to Obtain a Ph.D.?” Grad School Hub. Accessed September 03, 2018. https:// www.gradschoolhub.com/faqs/what-is-the-average-time-to-obtain-a-ph-d/. 5. Dowd, Mary. “What Kind of Education Is Required to Be a Cosmetologist?” Chron.com. October 01, 2018. Accessed November 22, 2018. https://work.chron.com/kind-education-required-cosmetologist-10688.html. 6. “The NCES Fast Facts Tool Provides Quick Answers to Many Education Questions (National Center for Education Statistics).” National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, a Part of the U.S. Department of Education. Accessed November 27, 2018. https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=76. WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 19


Understanding College Enrollment Trends

Understanding College Enrollment Trends Can Help You to Create a Winning College Search Strategy By Kristy Taylor

A

fter high school, attending a college for many graduates is the most logical next step, while others may decide to take a year off or go directly into the workforce. If you are one of the approximately 3.6 million students projected to graduate high school in 2019, you have a variety of higher education institutions to choose from.3 There are over 4,000 public and private 2-year and 4-year institutions in the U.S. that offer technical training certificates, associates, bachelors, and graduate degree programs.2 Selecting a college to attend can be a daunting task, but having an organized strategy will help you to make the best choice.

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Why You Should Understand College Enrollment Trends One strategy for selecting the best option, is to understand current enrollment trends and job market demands. Your college of choice may be in-demand because of the types of programs that it offers. In fact, if you have already determined your major, graduating from a top-tier program may give you the competitive edge over other job seekers. Your first hurdle, however, is to be selected by your institution of choice. Keep in mind that you may be competing with thousands of other applicants. A second factor that may affect your decision is the financial


Understanding College Enrollment Trends burden associated with pursuing your degree program. For some students, attending a 2-year institution and then transferring to a university is the best cost-saving option. Additionally, it may also be convenient for individuals who would like to remain local prior to leaving for a larger institution. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, approximately 19.9 million students enrolled in colleges and universities across the U.S. in 2018.3 This number grew by over 4 million from the fall of 2000, and overall enrollment is expected to increase between 20182027 to 20.5 million students.3 The expected growth in enrollment however, is not always consistent with actual enrollment trends. Of the 16.9 million students who enrolled in college in fall 2016, 9.1 million where White, 3.2 million were Hispanic, 2.2 million were Black, 1.1 million were Asian/Pacific Islander, and 129,000 were American Indian/Alaskan Native.4 There was a 134% increase in enrollment from 1.4 million to 3.2 million from 2000-2016 for Hispanic students.4 Additionally, between 2000-2010 enrollment for Black students increased by 73% from 1.5 million to and peaked at 2.7 million. There was also an increase of approximately 29% among Asian/Alaskan Natives & Asian/Pacific Islander and 21% for Whites.4 Most college students are between the ages of 18-24, attend 4-year public institutions, and are enrolled fulltime.1,3,5

service and streamline the enrollment and acceptance process. To attract a diverse student body, some institutions are using creative marketing strategies to recruit and retain students.1 You may be able to take advantage of these incentives in the form or a scholarship or waived application fees. Understanding enrollment trends nationwide, regionally, and at institutions where you plan to apply will provide you with a competitive advantage. You not only understand who is applying to these institutions and what incentives are being offered to students, you are now empowered to make a more informed decision.

Creating Your Winning College Search Strategy

Crafting a winning college search strategy ahead of time will help you to make the best decision about your future. Taking time to research enrollment trends at institutions that you plan to attend will not only provide you with a competitive advantage, but it will help you to narrow down your search. There may be a reason that students are flocking to one institution over another. Consider whether applying to a less popular school that provides the same quality of education will increase your chances of getting into a program with your major as well as receiving a scholarship. Several factors such as cost, location, major, accreditation, enrollment trends, and quality of life that may also impact On the surface, an increase in higher education your decision. Additional strategies for selectenrollment looks promising, but many institu- ing an institution of higher learning include: tions are still recovering from the sudden drop in enrollment that occurred between 2011- • Recognize the factors that are most import2013 due to a market correction.3 The National ant to you when selecting a college (i.e. conStudent Clearinghouse Research Center reportvenience, cost, major, job connections, locaed that in the Spring of 2018, overall enrollment tion, professors, etc.) decreased by 1.3% compared to the Spring of 2017.5 Many students cite that cost, financial • Research the colleges that you are interestaid, communication with staff, a lack of resourced in applying to as well as others that you es, the availability of information, and difficulty may not have considered at first. enrollment affect their decision to attend certain institutions.1 Colleges are aware of this and • Create a list of the top institutions that you are seeking opportunities to improve customer are interested in attending. WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 21


Understanding College Enrollment Trends financial aid package and access to the top pro• Visit the campus and/or connect with advi- fessors from around the world. Designing and sors, current students, educators, and de- implementing a comprehensive search strategy partmental personnel who can answer any will help you to make the best choice. questions that you may have. • Apply early, and if you are not accepted to References: your top choice, do not be detoured and continue to remain open minded about your 1. College Board. (2018). Trends in College Pricing. Retrieved from: https://trends.collegeboard.org/coloptions. You may decide to pursue an alterlege-pricing. native route, if available, or to continue to 2. National Center for Education Statistics. (2018). Diapply directly to other institutions. • Compare financial aid packages and scholarship opportunities that will help to cover your expenses. With the growing costs associated with attending college, it is important to keep this in mind Changes in enrollment patterns mean that colleges are using creative approaches to recruit and retain students like you. By researching and applying early, you may be able to land a spot at the college of your dreams with a generous

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gest of Education. Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/ programs/digest/d17/tables/dt17_105.50.asp?current=yes. 3. National Center for Education Statistics. (2018). Fast Facts: Enrollment. Retrieved from: https://nces. ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cha.asp. 4. National Center for Education Statistics. (2018). The Condition of Education: Undergraduate Enrollment. Retrieved from: https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cha.asp. 5. National Student Clearinghouse Research Center. (2018). Current Term Enrollment. Retrieved from: https://nscresearchcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/


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Pre-college preparation: What high school s

Pre-college preparation: What high school stu

F

reshman, sophomore, junior, or senior year-no matter which phase of high school you are in, there are certain things you can and should be doing to make your college search easier.

Having a plan for college and keeping up with preparation while in high school can help you achieve your goals. College may seem like a long way away when you are in high school, especially as a freshman or sophomore, but high school goes by faster than you realize. It’s never too early to consider all your options for colleges and careers. If you want to be prepared, it’s helpful to lay out a plan for each year of your high school career so that by the time you are a senior you are ready and confident about what’s ahead. The classes you take and activities you do in high school play a role in shaping you as both a member of the community and as a college applicant. Here are a list of things you can do during each year of high school. Please remember this is not a fixed list, but is a template for what you may plan for or expect going ahead.

1.

FRESHMAN YEAR-

Get involved-Colleges want to see students who are not only strong academically but who are passionate about extracurricular interests and give back to society. There is no point in joining a load of activities you don’t really care about without being able to give 100%. Investing your time and energy only in clubs and activities that you really care about can be an enriching experience and will be less likely to wear you out. The quality of your involvement is more important thanquantity.

by Sita Singh Take your school work seriously-Most colleges look at potential students’ grades from freshman to senior year, so if you have been more than a little behind on your grades this is the time to make some changes. You need to be self-disciplined as you go through each year of high school— and even more so in college. Getting your focus right from Freshman year is really good preparation both for any standardized college admission tests you might take and for your future collegecarreer. b.

Develop good time management skillsOnce in college, you will beresponsible for all the decisions you make regarding scheduling your studies, matching up the deadline dates for assignments, as well as organizing time for whatever else is important to you. In remembering this, you can make the most of your freshman year by practicing your time management skills. c.

Take advanced courses if you can-If your school gives you an option to take an advanced level course/class think of taking advantage of it as it will look good on a transcript and may be a good experience for you.. d.

a.

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2.

SOPHOMORE YEARL-

Get a job-Getting a job on the weekends or during summer break is a very good experience as it teaches you responsibility, time management skills, and it may even give transferable skills. Of course getting paid is also a bonus. Just remember to keep your schedule in mind and to avoid overworkingyourself. a.


students should know before going to college

udents should know before going to college Take the PSATs-This is an excellent practice for the SATs, and high scoreson the PSAT might just put you on for National Merit Scholarships. b.

Start thinking about your future-It is always better and helpful to start thinking about your goals, skill-sets, and what will make you happy as early as you can. c.

Don’t pressure or stress yourself out. These days a lot of career counselors and coaches are there to help you, and though it helps to have an ideal career in mind it’s not a requirement going into college. .

3.

JUNIOR YEAR-

Attend college fairs-Attending fairs is a very good opportunity for networking as you get to talk to representatives from different types of schools, understand their programs, and become familiar with the study material. This will help you in understanding different schools and is a chance ask as many questions as you would like. a.

Take standardized tests (ACT/SAT)-In order to get into college, there is a lot of emphasis on SAT and ACT scores. Though some colleges have made these tests optional, taking them is still a good idea since most colleges base admissions of of them as well as grades and extracurricular activities. It is recommended to take these tests sooner rather than later, so that you will have plenty of time should you choose to retakeit. b.

Take AP (Advanced Placement) courses -If your high school allows students to take advanced placement classes, consider utilizing this opportunity. Some college c.

admission people really appreciate it when students take challenging classes. This will show that you are serious about your education and career and that you have invested time and effort in your studies. This will also help boost your GPA, which is nice! Finally if you score is high enough, you may be able to get college credit. Of course, it is only recommended to take AP classes in subjects you are confident in. An ‘A’ in a regular course still looks better than a ‘D’ in an AP course. Start researching colleges-With the Internet as your constant guide you can start researching colleges before you choose where to apply. This will give you a lot of time to plan out your finances and get your priorities right. There is no harm in being well prepared.. d.

Visit the colleges you like best-The feeling of stepping onto campus cannot be replaced by any numbers of virtual tours or pictures. Personally going to a college will help you better understand the environment and taking a tour will allow you to see the campus from a student’s perspective. e.

Sign up for dual enrollment classesThese days some 4-year schools and community colleges offer dual enrollment classes. This means that some classes you take in high school can also give you college credits. If you are able to participate,it is a great way to earn credits and save money before college starts. f.

4.

SENIOR YEAR-

Shortlist your list of potential collegesOnce you have decided on the list ofthe potential colleges, narrow it down to a few a.

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Pre-college preparation: What high school studen research about the university and prepare yourself as much as possible before sitting down for one. a.

Fill out the applications-Read the instructions carefully before you start filling out the applications. Double-check all spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Make sure you have the necessary letters of recommendation/reference, admission essays, and any other materials you need. You cannot afford to miss the application date deadline. Once your applications are sent, the hardest part begins—waiting for those acceptance letters! Most colleges and universities send their responses approximately four to six weeks later. Don’t take it too personally if you don’t make it into your first choice; you will do your best wherever you go!

For Personal Care

Come up with a Plan B-As you get deeper into your college search and application process, you may have thought about a specific school/major/job/location. In case things don’t go according to plan, stay open-minded and consider other options as well.

For Practical Life-management

b.

c.

Make your final college decision. All four years of high school have led to this moment. You’ve worked hard, and this is the result. Take as much time as is needed settling on your decision, including making sure that you understand your financial aid letters when you get them with your acceptance package. Most universities will also make you confirm whether or not you will be attending, so be sure to follow the instructions written in the acceptance letter. d.

You should know how to: •

Decide if/what/when to take clothes to thecleaners •

Cook basic meals, such as boiled or fried eggs, spaghetti, hamburgers, or any of yourfavorite foods •

Organize and safely keep personal and academic records (medical, insurance, academic,etc.) •

Keep track of all Internet accounts, including slogins and passwords •

Managing Bank accountdetails.

Responsibly use a credit card, especially in regards to paying bills so that you don’t build up debt (It’s useful to get a credit card and begin using it before you leave for college rather than sign up for one on campus. Using a credit card and paying it off immediately is a great way to build credit while in college.) •

Live on a fixedbudget

Research, purchase, goods andproducts •

and/or

return

Make a doctor’s appointments, and have the names of a recommended dentist and/or doctor if you need to go offcampus •

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Brew a cup (or pot) of coffee ortea

You should know how to:

There are so many aspects you have to consider when the time comes to go to college. All the above points handle the technical/ academic part of the situation, but there are some other personal things to consider that may help with your life as a college student.

Wash, dry, and ironclothes

Determine when, how often and the


nts should know before going to college For Professional Life You should know how to: •

Address anenvelope.

Put together and use aresume

Write a coverletter

For Transportation How to: Use public transportation, including buses, trains, trolleys, and metros (depending on where you live). Use a shuttle to get to and from an airport, train, or busstation •

Find, hire, and use a taxi (and tip appropriately) •

If you have a car, get it serviced and/or repaired without being taken advantage of •

Put gas in a car, change a tire, and understand when a car needs oil, water, or air intires •

Arrange a bus, train and/or reservations to and from college •

air

It is also useful to get yourself familiarized with the college and environment around your school before you actually arrive. Use Google to find out all about the surrounding areas, what resources are nearby, including airports and local transportation, what special features you might be able to take advantage of, including entertainment, sports, historical sites, etc. In the summer, also be sure to read anything your college sends you about the campus environment, activities, orientation and the surrounding community.

References1. “30 Practical Things Students Need to Know How to Do Before Heading Off to College” huffingtonpost.com.https://www.huffingtonpost. com/marjorie-hansen-shaevitz/30-practicalthings-students-need-to-know_b_3376199.html 2. “10 Things You Should Know Before Going Off To College” Essence.com.https://www.essence. com/holidays/back-school/10-things-you-shouldknow-before-going-college/#32910 3. “College Prep for Each Year of High School: What to Do All 4 Years” collegexpress.com.https:// www.collegexpress.com/articles-and-advice/ admission/articles/find-college/college-prep-eachyear-high-school-what-do-all-4-years/ 4. “13 Things to Know Before Applying to College” scholarshippoints.com.https://www. scholarshippoints.com/campuslife/13-things-toknow-before-applying-to-college/

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Five Important Assessment Tools To Career...

FIVE IMPORTANT

ASSESSMENT TOOLS TO CAREER PATHFINDER

By Nupur Srivastava, PhD

At one of my friends’ house today I met her

daughter who studies in high school and is overwhelmed. She is thinking to choose either the right career path or higher education. At one point in our career we all get stuck and are forced to think about different options to choose for higher education. We mostly think about degree courses, certification or Career Technical Education. This dilemma can be solved by taking a personality career test or quiz which can guide toward our goals.

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WHAT ARE THESE PERSONALITY TESTS AND WHY DO WE TAKE THEM? Personality tests can be a good way to assess which career choices might be ideal for you. They provide you with a tool to help you to make a well-informed choice. A research study led by Lawrence K. Jones, Ph.D., summarized that one should choose a college major based on his or her personality and interests (1). Major studies done over the past ten years showed that with a good match, there will be positive outcomes. •Earn higher grades,


Five Important Assessment Tools To Career... •Stick with your choice of major through grad- MAPP TEST uation, • Recommended career testing tool for man•Graduate on time, and agers, school or career counselors, and •Be more satisfied and successful in your career those in career transition of choice. • The acronym stands for Motivational, Appraisal or Personal Potential Most of the career quizzes/tests listed below • quick and user-friendly are available online and are free, but a few re- • takes only 22 minutes and provides you immediate results quire payment. • valid and reliable with over 8 million customers MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI) • the test results can be translated in 6 lanASSESSMENT guages • Classic psychological assessment test • Created by Isabel Briggs Myers who was a psychological theorist who researched personality theory with her mother, Katharine Cook Briggs. • Target population are users with broad career interests, specific professional paths and potential college majors • It is recommended in the career counselling offices • Considers four functions: sensation, intuition, feeling and thinking Price: $49.95 or free version.

• • • • • • • • • • KEIRSEY TEMPERAMENT SORTER (KTS-II)

• The most widely used personality instrument that help an individual transform their understanding of who they are, why they do, what they do, and how to build effective relationships • The individual need to register on their website and answer 70 personality questions that helps individuals discover their personality type • Assessment is time consuming • Has been translated into 18 different languages, and MYPLAN.COM has been used by over 40 million people there are • Contains updated information about colfour basic temperament groups referred to as Artileges, careers and majors sans, Guardians, Rationals and Idealists • Provides an interest inventory, skills profile, • Refer to their website for the pricing values assessment, and a Career Match tool to help find your dream job MYIDP (INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT • Largest online platform for educational and/ PLAN) or career planning discussion board • A free, web-based career-planning tool • Price: $19.95 and free version • Helps explore career possibilities and set goals to follow the career path that fits you best • Increasingly used with science professionals, particularly with doctoral students and postdocs, and its use is now required for WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 29


Five Important Assessment Tools To Career... NIH-funded pre- and postdoctoral training create your account at http://myidp.sciencecareers.org There are many career aptitude tests. Can you share in comments “Which is the best Career Assessment Tool for you?� References 1. https://www.montclair.edu/media/montclairedu/ careerservices/pdfs/personality_college_major_match_research.pdf 2. https://www.careeraddict.com/the-12-best-career-aptitude-tests 3. https://www.myersbriggs.org/home.htm?bhcp=1 4. https://legacy.keirsey.com/aboutkts2.aspx 5. https://keirsey.com/assessments/pricing/ 6. http://myidp.sciencecareers.org/Home/About

Credit: Hal Mayforth 30 | ZEALOUSNESS WINTER 2018 / 2019


Five Important Assessment Tools To Career...

Personality tests can be a good way to assess which career choices might be ideal for you. They provide you with a tool to help you to make a well-informed choice.

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EDUCATION

AROUND THE

WORLD WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 33


Education Around the World: France

Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité" "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" Capital & largest city: Paris Official language: French Government: Unitary semi‑presidential republic Legislature: Parliament Total Area: 640,679 km2 (247,368 sq mi)[3] (42nd) Population: 67,348,000[5] (21st) (est. October 2018) Currency: Euro (€)

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Education Around the World: France

Education Around the World

- France By Shweta Roy

T

he Education System is France is highly developed and organized with an adult literacy rate of 99% on a stable scale from 2008-2014. Education is a serious matter in France and industries in which the country excels include teaching languages, art, History, Medicine and law. Economic Courses are very common for both Local and International students because the country has more sophisticated course in Economics than any other European countries. Law degrees are completely left for the locals because the country has completely different legal systems. Science courses are very challenging and time –consuming but once the Entire course ends the degree is all worth it.

The Education system doesn’t vary much from the other countries. The Subdivisions in their Education System are: i) Ecole Maternelle - 2-6yr olds ii) Ecole Elementaires - 6-11yr olds iii) Colleges - 11-15yr olds iv) Lycees - 15-18yr oilds Most children start school at around # years although Ecole Maternelle or Nursery School is not compulsory. Primary School mainly focuses on introduction to community, learning how to become students, recognize scriptures and develop Oral Language. When students move on WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 35


Education Around the World: France

to Elementary school, they are taught to write some basics in French, Mathematics, Science According to a survey done from July to October and Arts. The grades in school are named as CP, 2017, France (64%) is known as the second most attractive country for International students afCE1, CE2, CM1 and CM2. ter Canada (69%). The rest of the countries that Few Interesting facts about Education in follow France are Germany (51%), the US (48%) and the UK (45%). France: 1. French curriculum is quite similar to British Schools but English lessons tend to be Three groups of Students took in the survey. There were students who were planning to a little too easy. 2. Primary schools remain closed on come study to France (2,528), those who are Wednesdays while secondary schools work a actually studying in France (4,876) and those who studied before (6,841). Among the last 5day week. 3. Grades in France are done out of 20. group who have already studied in France, 90% 12 is considered good marks while 10 is Pass of them declare themselves satisfied with the marks degree and 88% declares themselves satisfies 4. French schools start from 8am to 4pm with the quality of Education. In all, the international students are very content with the educaand schools offer very few extracurricular. 5. Lunch breaks in France lasts from 2 tion system in France. hours and it consists of multiple course meals. All kinds of junk food are banned from Vend- Employment rate in France averaged from ing machines and students are not allowed to 64.25% from 2003 to 2018. France ranks 32nd bring lunch from home. position in employment among all the coun6. French Universities are comparatively tries in the world. cheaper than American Universities. 36 | ZEALOUSNESS WINTER 2018 / 2019


Education Around the World: France Constructed from 1887–1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was initially criticized by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world. [3] The Eiffel Tower is the most-visited paid monument in the world; 6.91 million people ascended it in 2015.

References: 1. http://www.studying-in-france.org/types-of-courses-where-the-french-really-excel/?fbclid=IwAR1CYCgv-k67_GgYPhgSm_BcNy7TQ0-Off-Ul26N_K4rVPTEC6WM1eSVSYY 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_France?fbclid=IwAR3dkPX5R_n3gnoAftwzzsELUk5LvF5FTJ_cXhUsGa0WEWqXNOY7Sr-TsXY#School_year 3. h t t p : / / w w w . e x p a t f o c u s . c o m / 1 0 - u s e ful-facts-about-schooling-in-france?fbclid=IwAR3vbBElP_ixj4Nu_TKmoCJnvR7Pip1O67J7ICEddOCJMAE2ahpsx3yt_iM 4. https://frenchly.us/10-things-you-didnt-know-aboutfrench-schools/?fbclid=IwAR0PPotck_a_twl89IBRbUsh97OK3or5Evlau2EBO_c4F7VyqmQq86WtL18 5. h t t p : / / w w w . e x p a t f o c u s . c o m / 1 0 - u s e ful-facts-about-schooling-in-france?fbclid=IwAR3QvRksPW-gWvOZSsbIc9-TffMTHL_Ioc1E5eIGX0bwvjEaoGQNYkDH5ZE 6. http://www.studying-in-france.org/france-the-second-most-attractive-destination-for-international-students-survey-finds/?fbclid=IwAR1_rE0owa7LfJXD7Zbq4TLuDb7iP2HxTBPLkER5qsGg5yNPV40q2pRrFEs 7. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France 8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eiffel_Tower WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 37


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FEATURED

STORIES

WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 39


CTE: Beginnings and Beyond

CTE:

By Aswini Kanneganti

BEGINNINGS AND BEYOND

T

he manual training school in St. Louis and the trade school in New York started around 1880s and that is where it all began. This need for direct entry into workforce prompted the Vocational Education (VE) Legislative Act in 1917. Over the next 100 years, amendments were made to not only include various occupations but also extend the program to include women and adults. However, VE was always considered beneath college degree and it was not until 2006 that it changed from a job-seeking focus to skill-based career education on par with a college degree. The shift from college vs career to college and career led to the 2006 reauthorization of VE to “Career and Technical Education”, CTE. Transforming the instructional practices by offering an integrated academic and occupational curriculum is the primary focus of CTE. Core implementation targets developing *interdisciplinary analytical thinking skills pertaining to real world applications with outcome-based assessment*. Research conducted over the years confirmed the impact of career academics on increasing student motivation, bridging skill-gap, persistence in school and success after school. With education, requirements for employment expected to reach 65% by 2020, CTE aims at effectively converge education and employment.

• 78% of CTE graduates enroll in post-secondary education full-time • The United States has *1,200 career and technology centers* in 41 states • The Perkins Act is the main source of funding for CTE programs nationwide • Between 2012 and 2022, there will be 50,557,900 job openings for CTE graduates • Technical and applied science graduates earn $2,000 to $11,000 more per year than those with a bachelor’s degree • The most popular CTE subject areas for high school students are:

Association for career & technical education BUSINESS (33%) (ACTE) and Applied Education Systems (AES) COMMUNICATIONS / DESIGN (30%) curated fact sheets and infographics provide COMPUTER & INFORMATION SCIENCES (21%) a wealth of information on CTE. Some general facts, Times are changing and we must evolve to accommodate shifting socio-economic demands • Current CTE programs target 16 career clus- as well. Interest and funding for CTE is increasters and over 79+ pathways (Table 1). ing exponentially. CTE certification not only • 7.4 million secondary students and 4 million provides a steeper career growth for individupost-secondary students are interested in als but also benefits the overall US economy. CTE nationwide Taxpayers also reap benefits for every dollar • 93% of CTE students graduate high school, invested in the technical education. which is 10% higher than average What can CTE be? Incorporation of transforma40 | ZEALOUSNESS WINTER 2018 / 2019


CTE: Beginnings and Beyonds

tive educational approaches beyond conventional practices such as using digital platforms to streamline the execution and provide more student-centered efforts, expanding the CTE outlook, improving educator trainings and targeting the emerging employment trends and economies. Success continues!

References: [1] Stern, D., Dayton, C., & Raby, M. (2010). Career Academies: A Proven Strategy to Prepare High School Students for College and Careers. In C. Career Academy Support Network, University of California, Berkeley (Ed.). Berkeley, CA: CASN. [2] https://www.acteonline.org/ [3] https://www.aeseducation.com/

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CTE: Most Popular Career Clusters For 2018

CTE:

MOST POPULAR CAREER CLUSTERS By Aswini Kanneganti FOR 2018 C

areer and technical education offers courses that correspond to 16 career clusters, which can take students on over 79+ career pathways. A joint report formed by National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) titled “Career Clusters: Forecasting Demand For High School Through College Jobs 2008- 2018� presents a projected job demand and skill requirements. The career clusters that are most in demand and are fastest growing typically cater to individuals with postsecondary education. The overall top three most popular career clusters that are expected to grow and remain on the top for a number of jobs are: 1. Business, Management and Administration 2. Marketing, Sales, and Service 3. Hospitality and Tourism Identifying the popular career clusters with high demand based on level of education and skills may provide the information for individuals when selecting specific CTE education.

HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA OR LESS The number of jobs available for individuals with only high-school degree or less is on a decline. The need for education for all jobs is expected to increase from 59% to 63% by 2018. Individuals with no high school diploma are usually employed in jobs that do not meet the minimum earnings threshold. Overall, career clusters 42 | ZEALOUSNESS WINTER 2018 / 2019

with best opportunities are in male-dominated fields. Although the growth rate is less than 10% between 2008 and 2018, 60% of all new and replacement jobs will be concentrated in these four career clusters: 1. Hospitality and Tourism (27%) 2. Transportation, Distribution and Logistics (13%) 3. Architecture and Construction (11%) 4. Manufacturing (9%).

POSTSECONDARY WITH COLLEGE/NO DEGREE OR AN ASSOCIATE DEGREE With growing job complexities, there is a great need for specific education and training for a particular career beyond high-school CTE. 64% of all new and replacement jobs for workers with postsecondary middle skill set will be focused on 6 career clusters. 1. Manufacturing (8%) 2. Marketing, Sales, and Service (9%) 3. Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics (9%) 4. Health Science (10%) 5. Business, Management, and Administration (13%) 6. Hospitality and Tourism (16%) Women need postsecondary education to earn wages similar to men with high school degrees. Women specifically with middle skills CTE have better opportunities in the following industries1. Business Management, and Administration (59%female) 2. Marketing, Sales, and Service (49% female) 3. Health Science (45% female) 4. Hospitality and Tourism (45% female)


CTE: Most Popular Career Clusters For 2018 BACHELOR’S DEGREE OR HIGHER A bachelor’s degree or higher typically have access to high-paying jobs. While individuals with a bachelor’s degree or better have opportunities across all career clusters, 72% of all jobs available usually concentrate in nine clusters with 6 out of 9 clusters having growth rates above national average. 1. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM 2. Finance 3. Government and Public Administration 4. Information Technology 5. Marketing, Sales, and Service 6. Hospitality and Tourism 7. Health Science 8. Business, Management, and Administration 9. Education and Training

Career and technical education offers courses that correspond to 16 career clusters, which can take students on over 79+ career pathways. A bachelor’s degree or higher typically have access to high-paying jobs.

Education and Training and Health Science are two occupational clusters where women dominate men. References: [1] Carnevale, A. P., Smith, N., Stone, J. R. III, Kotamraju, P., Steuernagel, B., & Green, K. (2011, November). Career clusters: Forecasting demand for high school through college jobs, 2008-2018. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce.

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WHY? SERIES

WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 45


Why is the sea salty?

by Erica Murphey

46 | ZEALOUSNESS WINTER 2018 / 2019


Why is the sea salty?

Y

ou might have tasted the salt in the ocean’s water if you have ever been to the beach. Why does it have that flavor, though? The main reason is rain and rivers carry minerals there. When it rains rocks and minerals on land are eroded and washed into the ocean. Much of this turns into sodium chloride. (Sodium chloride, or sea salt, is almost identical to the kind you season food with.) Over time the sodium chloride is collected into the water and gives it that distinct taste. Another source of sea salt is sediment from Earth’s rivers. When rivers flow into the sea the minerals on the bottom go

there. The National Ocean Service says scientists estimate our planet’s rivers carry four billion tons of salt into the ocean each year! Rivers do not taste this way because their water comes from rain. *Salinity is unequal and constantly changing in the ocean. For instance, there is hardly any in icy water and currents might make it flow to different parts of the world over time. The next time you taste that flavor in the sea remember that land and water go hand in hand. Without the land’s minerals it would never taste salty. *the amount of salt in a solution

References: 1. NOAA. Why is the ocean salty, but rivers flowing into it are not? National Ocean Service Website, https:// oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/riversnotsalty.html, 06/25/18 2. “Future - Why Is the Sea so Salty?” BBC News. April 11, 2014. Accessed September 11, 2018. http://www.bbc. com/future/story/20140411-why-is-the-sea-so-salty. 3. “What Makes the Ocean Salty and How Much Salt Is in the Ocean?” Scripps Institution of Oceanography. January 01, 2011. Accessed September 11, 2018. https://scripps.ucsd.edu/news/what-makes-ocean-saltyand-how-much-salt-ocean.

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YOUTH

SECTION

WINTER 2018 / 2019 ZEALOUSNESS | 49


College schooling snapshot

COLLEGE SCHOOLING SNAPSHOT By Shweta Roy

C

olleges and Universities are places of higher education that provide you with the opportunity to educate yourself further in the field of your choice. The idea of continuing education after high school might be a scary thought with the tuition fees and the strenuous coursework, but the benefits overweigh all of it.

HISTORY

5.27 million in private colleges 2. According to Forbes ranking, the first five best colleges in the United States are: a) Harvard (Massachusetts) b) Yale (Connecticut) c) Stanford (California) d) Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, Massachusetts) e) Princeton University ( New Jersey) 3

According to statistics, in 1949-1950, 470K students achieved higher education, which has inThe first institutions of higher education start- creased to about 3.89 million in 2015-2016. The ed shortly after the European settlers began to projected number of people to earn higher dearrive in the United States of America. Earlier, grees in the year 2027-2028 is 3.99 million 4. these were known as the Colonial colleges. Harvard College in Massachusetts is known as the first Colonial College and was established in the Of the 2.9 million students of ages 16-24 who year 1636. graduated from high school between January There used to be a time when colleges were and October 2017, 1.9 million were enrolled free of cost, but few a colleges charged tuition in college in October. Statistics also reveal that as far back as the 1800s. the percentage of students who enrolled in Colleges were invented by religious denomina- 2017(66.7%) has decreased slightly since 2016 tions to train ministers, and most of the colleges (69.7%). Also, women (71.7%) are more likely back then would be modeled after Oxford and to be enrolled in colleges after high school than Cambridge as well as after Scottish universities men (61.1%). 1. Among the high school graduates who enrolled in 2017, 9 out of 10 were full time students. Recent graduates not enrolled in college in 2017 are more likely to be in the labor force. The unFrom 1965 to 2016, total college enrollment in- employment rates for recent high school graducreased by roughly 240 percent. In 2016, about ates not enrolled in colleges are 16.8% 5. 5.3 million students were enrolled in private colleges and 14.6 million in public colleges. Sta- The main reason why high school students pretistics say that in 2027, 15.19 million students fer to start working is because of high tuition are predicted to enroll in public colleges and fees. Students might fight the dilemma to enroll

STATISTICS

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College schooling snapshot

From 1965 to 2016, total college enrollment increased by roughly 240 percent.

in college when they can work and earn more. At the same time, working gives a student independence and more experience. Both enrolling in college and getting a job have their benefits. It’s up to you to decide what suits you and your needs the best. References: 1. History Of Higher Education in the United States https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_higher_education_in_the_United_States 2. U.S. College Enrollment Statistics 1965-2027 https://www.statista.com/statistics/183995/us-college-enrollment-and-projections-in-public-and-private-institutions/

3. Forbes Ranking Of the Best U.s. Colleges in 2018 | Ranking https://www.statista.com/statistics/220568/forbes-ranking-of-the-best-us-colleges/ 4. Higher Education - Number Of Degrees 1950-2028 | Timeline https://www.statista.com/statistics/185153/degrees-inhigher-education-earned-in-the-united-states/ 5. College Enrollment and Work Activity Of Recent High School and College Graduates Summary https://www.bls.gov/news.release/hsgec.nr0.htm?fbclid=IwAR0WMCuDuHi7CyzDnNF-tkl__-2o8ouRa8IDCMqtYbAyhRErGrZ0jsnFdiU

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Scholarship methods

SCHOLARSHIP About METHODS $19 billion

in financial aid A

re you a high-school graduate? If yes, then there is a higher chance that you might be thinking about the massive college fees. You might be wondering what to do next or how to approach what you already know. Fortunately, we are here to give you a path to vanish your worries. One of the great ways to manage the growing cost of college fees is scholarship. You can get the loan cut down to half or not pay anything at all in the case of a full scholarship.

By Ashwini Ramakrishnan

FASTWEB: This is one of the top leading scholarship search provider. Students from 13 years of age can join Fastweb for free. When you register and fill out your online form, your data will be matched to the suitable scholarship data. Scholarships are arranged in the order of application deadline so it will be easy for you to check which award deadline ends first. They help you by providing articles on how to win the scholarships written by past scholarship winners. Scholarships are thoroughly examined here so you don’t have to worry about sharing your personal data with other organizations. Apart from scholarships they also provide information on jobs and internships as well.

There are many ways to avail a scholarship. It may take a lot of research to find the best scholarship that suits you. To help you with this task we have compiled some of the best scholarship websites and tools. Scholarships are not only for top academic people, you can avail scholarships with respect to Academic achievement, Community service, Athletic achievement, Unique habits/traits such as natural redheads or a talent for duck calling, Personal background, and Financial need and family workplace/military affiliation. Choosing the most suitable one for you depends on your personal preference of how you want the search tool to operate. Explore and find the best one for you! 52 | ZEALOUSNESS WINTER 2018 / 2019

COLLEGEBOARD.ORG: You have the freedom to enter as much or as little information about you and you will find the scholarship based on the provided data. One of the main advantages is that you don’t have to sign up to search for the scholarships but you have to sign-up when you apply for the scholarship. SCHOLARSHIPS.COM: You can search for 3.7 million college scholarships and grants. About $19 billion in financial aid to help you pay for college. One of the options that you guys might enjoy here is that you


Scholarship methods

Scholarships are not only for top academic people, you can avail scholarships with respect to Academic achievement, Community service, Athletic achievement, Unique habits/traits such as natural redheads or a talent for duck calling, Personal background, and Financial need and family workplace/military affiliation. can mark your most wanted scholarship as your favorites and can remove them at any time. One of the disadvantages for this site is that you cannot search by keyword or scholarship type. CAPPEX: This organization gives more importance to athletes. It has a program called “Be Recruited” which matches athletes to appropriate schools to earn scholarships for sports. Students who are more interested in searching for colleges and less about scholarships can go for Cappex. Note: Dedicate an email address particularly for search tool so you can avoid getting too many spams in your personal mail. Plan and spend less time searching for different types of scholarships based on sports, minorities, community service etc. if you hold a crown in your academics or extracurricular. You can avail full-ride scholarships which covers tuition, housing and other costs as well. Get to know all the details and start your scholarship search as soon as possible from your high school. This will give you enough time to prepare yourself for the required qualification/ eligibility.

OTHER FREE RESOURCES: The Department of Education recommends using the following free resources to find more information about scholarships and other financial aid opportunities: 1. The financial aid office at a college or career school 2. A high school or TRIO counselor 3. The U.S. Department of Labor’s FREE scholarship search tool 4. Federal agencies 5. Your state grant agency 6. Your library’s reference section 7. Foundations, religious or community organizations, local businesses, or civic groups 8. Organizations (including professional associations) related to your field of interest 9. Ethnicity-based organizations 10. Your guide, college counselor, your employer or your parent’s employers You don’t always have to own a crown in smartness with respect to scholarships, you just have to do the required work! References: 1. 2. 3. 4.

www.fastweb.com/scholarships Collegeboard.org Scholarships.com Cappex.com

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