Yuliia - Student Research and Creativity Forum - Hofstra University

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How have figures such as Julian Assange, Edward Snowden, Chelsea Manning, Katharine Gun, and others drawing inspiration from predecessors like Daniel Everette Hale and Reality Winner as part of the New Know edge Cyberc ass (NKC) shaped publ c attitudes towards pr vacy and government surveillance? What are the broader mp ications of these evolving perceptions for democracy and governmental transparency?


Th s research explored the effects of actions taken by Assange, Snowden, Gun, Hale, W nner, and Manning concerning wh st eblow ng. Their dissemination of sens t ve documents via p atforms such as Wikileaks has ignited a worldwide d scussion on pr vacy and government survei lance Th s research seeks to grasp the consequences of these d sc osures, how they have altered public views on governmental conduct, and strategies for preventing such leaks, particularly in the digita era.The study also looked into the responses of Government Cyberprotectors (GCP), who assert that leaks of national secur ty information can jeopardize various aspects of the U.S. nationa security program, including specific operations For instance, in 2010, the Taliban claimed to have accessed class f ed military dispatches from Afghanistan posted by WikiLeaks.

The GCP were selected as they ep tomize the various security admin strations post-September 11, 2001.


To ana yze the impact of whist eblowers such as Assange, Snowden, Gun, Hale, W nner, and Manning on public opinion regarding government surveillance and privacy

To explore the roles of the NKC and the GCP n the context of these leaks


Application of GCP's viewpoints on Routine Activity Theory (RAT)


"Leaks of classified information have done damage to inte ligence sources and methods "and caused harm to our nat on s secur ty."

CIA Director Hayden


Grasping RAT is essential for creating efficient whistleblower protection strategies

A balanced consideration of all RAT elements is vital between NKC and GCP.




Content Analysis from journal articles, books, interviews, websites, and official documents

Source Categories:

Primary Sources: Statements from NKC and GCP, covering interviews, official documents, and reports from the media.

Secondary Sources: Scholarly works on surveillance, intelligence, and governmental roles.

Each leader's stance can be assessed through deterrence theory, which posits that the deterrence of criminal behavior hinges on the balance between its costs and benefits. This balance entails potential rewards for whistleblowers vs. risks, i.e., retaliation and job loss. Hayden's position on measures to support whistleblowers is ambiguous, while Obama's support amplifies the benefits, and Pompeo's criticism heightens the costs. Future research should delve into whistleblowers' motivations and the factors influencing their decisions to aid policymakers in creating more effective leak prevention strategies while protecting whistleblowers' rights, including addressing leaks by political elites like the GCP for personal gain or political retribution.

"Our nation's defense depends in part on the fidelity of those entrusted with our nation's secrets." President Obama
that seeks to
"W kiLeaks is a host le'
ntelligence service
undermine democrat c governments." CIA Director Pompeo
“When you leak the NSA's secrets, you only harm abusive systems." Snowden, an ex-CIA subcontractor, leaked US surveillance details in 2013
“I was troubled by the uncertainty of whether we were targeting civilians. Witnessing children killed in airstrikes convinced me that the war prioritized weapons manufacturers' profits over preventing terrorism." Hale, ex-Air Force analyst, leaked classified documents. "I hoped that exposing the lengths taken to legitimize the Iraq invasion would make people realize it's wrong, causing the whole scheme to collapse." Gun, ex-GCHQ translator, leaked secret documents.
Manning, ex-Army
“Intelligence agencies keep things secret because they often violate the rule of law or of good behavior.” Assange founded WikiLeaks in 2006. Reality Winner says she leaked file on Russia elect on hacking because “public was being lied to.”
ex-NSA contractor leaked classified report.
Manning on bypassing official channels: "They're there, but they don't work."
intelligence analyst, leaked military

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