Victory Over Cancer! Part 1: Making the Unthinkable Possible

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Matthias Rath, M.D. and Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Ph.D.

Victory Over Cancer! Part 1:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Dr. Rath Health Foundation



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Victory Over Cancer! – Part 1 – Making the Unthinkable Possible


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Victory Over Cancer! Part 1 – Making the Unthinkable Possible First Edition Š 2012 by Dr. Matthias Rath and Dr. Aleksandra Niedzwiecki. ISBN 978-90-76332-76-5 Distribution: Dr. Rath Education Services B.V. Postbus 656 NL-6400 AR Heerlen Tel.: Fax:

0031-457-111 223 0031-457-111 119

E-Mail

info@rath-eduserv.com books@rath-eduserv.com Internet: www.drrathbooks.com

All rights reserved. Distributed by Dr. Rath Health Foundation, Santa Clara, CA 95050 Individual pages or small portions of this book may be used for private and non-profit educational purposes only.

Disclaimer:: This book is not intended as a substitute for the medical advice of a physician. The reader should regularly consult a physician in matters relating to his or her health and particularly in respect to any symptoms that may require diagnosis or medical attention. The author and publisher disclaim responsibility for any adverse effects resulting directly or indirectly from the information contained in this book.

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Victory Over Cancer! – Part 1 – Making the Unthinkable Possible

Dr. Matthias Rath Dr. Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

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“We will live to see a time when we no longer have to look over our shoulder like a criminal when we say: two and two makes four.” Bertolt Brecht, “Life of Galilee“

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Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Chapter I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

Chapter II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 The Medical Breakthrough Towards the Natural Control of Cancer

Chapter III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Scientific Facts That Make this Breakthrough Irreversible

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Important documentation

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Dr. Matthias Rath

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Making the Unthinkable Possible

Dr. Aleksandra Niedzwiecki


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Introduction

Introduction Only once in the history of mankind is the discovery being made that will lead to the natural control of cancer. This book documents this discovery. A breakthrough of this nature leads the pioneering scientists on a path from the discovery of the underlying cellular mechanisms to the confirmation of new therapeutic approaches at the level of basic research and ultimately to the clinical proof in patients suffering from cancer. This book is the report of the pioneering scientists. One author, Dr. Matthias Rath, was privileged to contribute the discovery of new natural ways to control cancer. Dr. Aleksandra Niedzwiecki coordinated the scientific proof of this medical breakthrough. ‘Victory Over Cancer’ is not an achievement that is given to us, the people, voluntarily. Mankind has to earn the right to live in a world without fear of cancer. The battle for that fundamental right to become reality is being fought once.

This time is now. Significantly, for mankind to achieve ‘Victory Over Cancer’ it was not necessary to invent new, hi-tech approaches to control this disease. The decisive breakthrough towards the effective prevention, control and ultimately the elimination of cancer is based on our new understanding of the critical role of micronutrients.

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

The fact that the essential role of micronutrients in controlling cancer thus far has not been understood – let alone applied towards the control of the cancer epidemic – is no coincidence. It has been deliberately neglected and withheld in the interest of the pharmaceutical investment business. Diseases in general have been exploited by the pharmaceutical business interests as markets for their patented drugs. In cancer an additional, particularly appalling, aspect deserves consideration. The diagnosis ‘cancer’ has been kept as a ‘death verdict’ in the perception of people. That was not a coincidence. This fear of death made millions of cancer patients accept literally any procedure – as questionable as it may be – including highly toxic chemotherapy. This report will end this fallacy and, thereby, help to liberate mankind from the fateful dependency upon the pharmaceutical ‘business with disease’. The victory over cancer ranks among the great advances in medicine. One hundred and fifty years ago Louis Pasteur discovered that microorganisms are the cause of infectious diseases and thereby paved the way for the control of many epidemics that had haunted mankind for millennia. It was more than a quarter century later that his theories were finally accepted. As the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer already noted: “Every truth passes through three stages before it is recognised. In the first it is ridiculed, in the second it is opposed, in the third it is regarded as self-evident.”

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Introduction

As the authors of this book, our gratitude goes first and foremost to the team of researchers at our Institute – in particular to the head of our cancer research group, Dr. Waheed Roomi (second from left).

The key discoveries towards ‘Victory over Cancer‘ were made already two decades ago. Our efforts at that time to convince large pharmaceutical companies to commit to the elimination of cancer were futile. In retrospect, this was no surprise: This discovery threatened their multi-billion dollar market with chemotherapy drugs. However, we did not give up, but it took us about one decade to start our own research institute in California and to launch a comprehensive cancer research project in 1999. By the end of 2001 we had obtained the first research confirmation that key steps of the cancer disease can be controlled naturally. We decided to share this life-saving information with the world. On March 8, 2002, we announced this medical breakthrough on a full page in USA Today – the world’s largest newspaper.

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

The significance of this breakthrough for human health can perhaps best be judged from the fierce reactions by the status quo. Over the past ten years the pharmaceutical lobby filed more than 100 legal attacks against this breakthrough, to no avail. The publication of this book now documents that we are right. This book will empower millions of people to take actions toward ending the devastating dependency upon the economic interests who have been putting profits over life for an entire century. This book will break mankind’s psychological dependency on the ‘investment business with the cancer epidemic’. It will inspire similar breakthroughs in the fight against other diseases and contribute to a new, independent, global health care in the interest of billions of people living today and of future generations.

Santa Clara, California, Autumn 2011 Matthias Rath and Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

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Introduction

Above: A copy of our announcement about the breakthrough in the natural control of cancer in USA Today, on March 8, 2002. By presenting this information directly to the public we wanted to make sure the whole world learned about it. 13


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Do Stars Shine in Red?

‘Science as Art’’ is an idea by August Kowalczyk. ‘Do Stars Shine in Red’ is a microscopic picture of cervical cancer cells undergoing natural death (suicide). The picture was taken at the Dr. Rath Research Institute. Visit the entire art gallery at www.dr-rath-humanities-foundation.org/exhibition/index.html.


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I.

Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

I. Facts No O


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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Fact #1: Cancer Is the Third Largest Cause of Death in The Industrialised World • At the beginning of the 21st Century, the cancer epidemic remains one of the largest killers on our planet. • According to the World Health Organization, 7.5 million people worldwide die each year from cancer. This number is only slightly behind the number of deaths from infectious diseases. • In the US, Canada and Europe, the numbers are even more staggering – 5.6 million people die here from cancer each year. This means that every third man and woman in the communities across North America and Europe dies from this disease.

Most importantly, every number in these statistics means a human life lost.

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

The Sobering Cancer Death Statistics of the World Health Organization (WHO)

Infections

Cardiovascular Disease

Other Diseases Cancer

A. Worldwide 7.5 million people die each year from the ongoing cancer epidemic

Infections Cardiovascular Disease

Other Diseases

Cancer

B. In North America and Europe, 5.6 million people die each year from the ongoing cancer epidemic

Reference: WHO Mortality Statistics for 2008

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

The Dimension of the Cancer Epidemic At the beginning of the 21st Century, cancer remains one of the largest epidemics of mankind. It is almost impossible to demonstrate the entire magnitude of this epidemic. What we can do to visualise its dimension is to take the number of cancer patients who die each year – and compare it to the population of the world’s largest cities. Every year the cancer epidemic takes the lives of 7.5 million patients worldwide. In comparison, here are the current population numbers for some of the world’s largest metropoles: Tokyo 8.9 million, Mexico City 8.9 million, New York City 8.4 million, Lagos (Nigeria) 8 million, London 7.8 million, Lima (Peru) 7.6 million, Hong Kong 7 million, Bangkok (Thailand) 7 million, Cairo (Egypt) 6.8 million and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 6.3 million. Imagine you are living in one of these giant cities. You have to drive for hours to get from one end of the city to the other. And all those people living in every street of this city disappear each year as the result of this unconquered epidemic. Over the past half century more than 300 million people have died from cancer – this translates to the eradication of the entire population of the United States of America. Besides the unimaginable cost of human life there is a strangulating economic burden associated with this disease for every patient, community and country. The global costs for oncology drugs in 2010 alone was 56 billion US dollars. The economic impact of the cancer epidemic – excluding all medical costs – was even more staggering: With 895 billion US dollars, cancer had by far the greatest economic toll among all diseases. We will provide more details in part 2 of this book, chapter IV.

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

Visualising the Dimension: New York

Tokyo

London

Rio de Janeiro

USA Population above 300 million

Every year the cancer epidemic takes the lives of cancer patients in numbers corresponding to the inhabitants of some of the world’s largest cities. Over the past half century – during the age of ‘chemotherapy’ – the number of patients killed from the cancer epidemic equals the entire population of the United States of America.

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

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Translating the Global Scope of the Cancer Epidemic to Your Home Town Number of worldwide cancer deaths each year

Compared to cities in the UK

• Wakefield + Cardiff + Coventry + 21 other cities of this size

• Liverpool + Manchester + Bristol + 15 other cities of this size

• Bradford + Edinburgh + 14 other cities of this size

• Leeds + 9 other cities of this size

• London

2.5 M

• Birmingham + 7 other cities of this size

5M

• Glasgow + Sheffield + 12 other cities of this size

7.5 M

On the previous pages we compared the scope of the global cancer epidemic to large cities. But cancer happens where you live – in every community in the country. On this page, we therefore compare the number of people dying each year from cancer globally to the population of major UK cities – possibly includ-

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• Stoke-on-Trent + Wolverhampton + 29 other cities of this size

• Brighton + Hull + Plymouth + 28 other cities of this size

• Belfast + Newcastle upon Tyne + 26 other cities of this size

• Nottingham + Leicester + Sunderland + 24 other cities of this size

Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

Imagine how many lives can be saved if an effective cure for cancer is found!

ing your hometown. In the above graph every column totals to the approximate number of people who die each year from cancer. We created this chart not only to emphasise the dimension of this disease but – above all – to underscore the urgency to find a solution to it!

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Fact # 2: The Cancer Epidemic Is Still Expanding – Despite All Media Hype About Medical ‘Breakthroughs’ What does this mean? • If a disease still increases, it means that the mechanisms for its control have not yet been discovered or they are not being applied in the medical practice. • Conventional approaches like chemotherapy and radiation – that have been used on cancer patients for over half a century – have obviously failed to curb the cancer epidemic. • Thus, chemotherapy and radiation can no longer be considered a credible answer to the cancer epidemic. • Therefore, there is an urgent need for new, effective approaches to control the cancer epidemic!

6 September, 2008

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

Increase in Cancer Deaths (Mortality) From 1970 to 2000 in Different Age Groups Cancer Patient Age 70 - 79

Cancer Patient Age 60 - 69

Cancer Patient Age 50 - 59

1970

2000

Statistics for USA; data for developed countries are comparable. Source: Journal of the American Medical Association, 2005.

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Fact # 3: The Therapeutic Goal of Chemotherapy And Radiation Is to Kill Cancer Cells by Intoxicating the Entire Body Radiation and chemotherapy – which have been used by conventional medicine for more than half a century to fight cancer, have one common ‘therapeutic’ effect: they kill cancer cells and billions of healthy cells alike. These highly toxic procedures indiscriminately damage all cells in the body of patients and have, therefore, been compared to a ‘shotgun’ approach. To make things worse, chemotherapy affects particularly those healthy cells in our body that are multiplying rapidly, such as the white blood cells of the immune system. Thus, when the body of a cancer patient has the greatest need for effective defence, the immune cells are being systematically destroyed by highly toxic procedures. Even a lay person can understand that if medicine has to resort to ‘shotgun’ approaches, this means only one thing: the causes and pathways of the disease are not properly understood so that effective therapies could not be developed that specifically target abnormal cells, e.g., cancer cells. Any ‘shotgun’ approach to a disease reflects the desperation on the part of medicine itself. To deceive the patients and provide false hope, conventional medicine uses the terms chemo-’therapy’ and radio-’therapy’ – when actually no effective ‘therapy’ is available. The past half century of conventional cancer therapy can only be described as a failure.

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

Deadlocks of Conventional Cancer Therapies

Radiation

Chemotherapy

Cancer Cell

Healthy Cell

Both radiation and chemotherapy kill cancer cells and – at the same time – healthy cells in the body of cancer patients.

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Fact # 4: Chemotherapy Is Extremely Toxic A whole array of highly toxic chemicals are being applied to millions of cancer patients around the world with the alleged promise to cure cancer, hence the term ‘Chemo-Therapy’. Among these substances are some of the most toxic chemicals known to man. The first chemotherapy drug was directly derived from ‘mustard gas’, a chemical warfare agent used in World War I as a weapon! Derivatives of this deadly gas are still being used today in cancer patients as mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and ifosfamide. Besides these derivatives of mustard gas, there are several other groups of highly toxic chemicals applied to cancer patients. The common denominator of all these chemicals is that they damage the molecules of inheritance (DNA) in the cell core and interrupt other essential biological processes in every cell of the body. The toxicity of chemotherapy is also reflected in the ‘safety precautions’ for cancer patients published by the ‘American Cancer Society’. Even health professionals are being reminded about the health risks they are exposed to while handling chemotherapy drugs. These risks include damage to their DNA, birth defects, development of new cancers and organ damage. Thus, health professionals have to “wear special gloves, goggles, and gowns when preparing and giving chemotherapy” (www.cancer.org). These chemicals are toxic and dangerous to others even after they are excreted through the skin, urine, stool, even tears, semen and vaginal fluid. The people at particular risk include family members, caregivers and literally anyone touching a chemotherapy patient.

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

The Horrific Toxicity of Chemotherapy

Mustard gas molecule. About one third of the soldiers exposed to it in WWI died.

Health professionals handling chemotherapy must wear extremely thick gloves to protect themselves from toxic damage (left). The picture on the right shows damage caused by chemotherapy substance spilled on an unprotected hand.

Entire companies flourish on the sales of protective gear and waste disposal devices for the chemotherapy business.

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Damaging Side Effects of Chemotherapy Most other infusion drugs are being applied to the patient via the arm veins. However, this application mode is not possible for most chemotherapy drugs because the chemicals would instantly ‘burn’ the blood vessel walls, leading to severe tissue damage and inflammation. To apply these substances to the cancer patient, nevertheless, a special infusion device has to be used, the ‘Hickman Catheter.’ This special catheter is inserted directly into the superior vena cava, one of the largest veins of the body, that is located close to the right heart atrium. Because of the large diameter of this vein (about 1 inch), the highly concentrated chemical substance does not get into direct contact with the blood vessel wall and is being diluted with the blood stream directly into the right heart ventricle. With these toxic substances circulating in the body for many hours, even days, with the destruction of cells being the desired therapeutic target of these chemicals, it is no wonder that ‘chemotherapy’ causes severe side effects in the patients, including: • Destruction of the bone marrow, the site of blood cell formation, resulting in - Impaired immune system - Increased rate of infections - Anemia - Excessive bleeding

- Vision and hearing impairment - Damage to the entire digestive system, ulcers in mouth, vomiting, diarrhea - Infertility - Weight loss, anorexia - Hair loss

• Organ damage - Heart damage, shortness of breath, edema, arrhythmia - Lung damage, breathing problems, fever - Liver damage and failure - Kidney damage and failure - Damage to brain, memory loss, decreased mental function, depression

• Triggering the growth of new cancers anywhere in the body

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• Death


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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

Introducing the ‘Hickman’-Catheter

Hickman Catheter: Most chemotherapy drugs are so toxic that they need this special device to be delivered into the patient’s body.

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Why Cancer Patients Voluntarily Subject Themselves to Such Toxic Procedures While reading the previous pages, you, our readers, may have asked yourself the question: how is it possible that anyone would voluntarily allow such toxic chemicals to be injected or infused into the body? Even more, how can it be that mankind as a whole could allow the intoxication of the human body to become the universal standard ‘therapy’ for cancer for more than half a century. The answer to this question is sobering: A patient who associates the diagnosis ‘cancer’ with the worst outcome – death – is instantly put into a psychological state of fear and despair. This, in turn, renders this patient susceptible to accept any ‘therapy’ – even if that treatment itself is potentially deadly – as long as the threat of certain death is being delayed for only a short time. What makes things worse is the fact that for many types of cancer it is already established that chemotherapy does not prolong the life of cancer patients at all. This includes prostate cancer, skin cancer (melanoma), bladder cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer and others. Patients with these types of cancer who received chemotherapy have the same limited life expectancy as those who don’t.*

* www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15630849

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

The Psychological War With the Cancer Epidemic 1. The fear of death from cancer is a precondition for the acceptance of potentially deadly treatments like chemotherapy. 2. As long as cancer remains essentially a ‘death sentence’ the investment business with toxic chemotherapies will continue. 3. Any medical breakthrough that will turn cancer into a manageable disease will, inevitably, remove the ‘death sentence’ associated with this disease – and thereby destroy the fatal dependency of millions of patients on toxic chemotherapy. 4. Considering the fact that cancer has remained a ‘death sentence’ for more than half a century, there exists an objective and immediate need for new scientific directions that will also end the ‘psychological war’ with the cancer epidemic.

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

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Fact # 5: Toxic Chemotherapy Drugs Boost Multi-Billion Dollar Sales of Other Drugs The toxicity of chemotherapy agents damages not only a few organs in our body, but all organs and cell systems. For most patients, every cycle of chemotherapy is associated not only with severe pain, but with a multitude of new health problems. Some of these ‘side effect diseases’ continue for their entire lives – e.g., irreversible organ damage. To cope with these side effects of chemotherapy, a series of drugs are being prescribed in order to alleviate the symptoms of these ‘side-effect diseases.’ The most frequent categories of prescription drugs applied to cancer patients during and after chemotherapy include: • Different types of antibiotics prescribed against frequent infections resulting from the damaged immune system. • Painkillers, including morphine, to alleviate the unbearable pain often associated with the chemical intoxication of the human body. • Steroids and all other inflammatory drugs to alleviate systematic inflammation of joints and other organs from toxic chemotherapy. • Antidepressants and other psychiatric drugs prescribed to help patients cope with the traumatic physical and psychological consequences of chemotherapy. Moreover, countless medical procedures are being performed on cancer patients in an attempt to repair the severe damage caused by chemotherapy drugs. Among them are transplants of bone marrow, liver, kidneys and other organs.

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

New Cancer Drug Markets for a Multitude of ‘Side Effect Diseases’

{

• Painkillers • Steroids/Cortisone

The Toxicity of Chemotherapy Creates the Need for Even More Drugs

• Other Anti-Inflammatory Drugs • Antibiotics • Blood Transfusions • Antidepressants • Many Other Drugs

The toxicity of chemotherapy triggers a myriad of ‘side effect diseases’ which are treated with a multitude of prescription drugs and intensive medical procedures. Right: Over the past decades, several handbooks were published for patients and nurses about managing the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Fact # 6: Many Pharmaceutical Prescription Drugs Can Cause Cancer We have just learned that the toxic side effects of chemotherapy require even more prescription drugs to alleviate the so-called ‘side effect diseases’. What you should also know is that almost half of all the substances listed by the US government as ‘carcinogenic’ – i.e., cancer causing – are pharmaceutical drugs prescribed for various diseases. The reason for this is that pharmaceutical drugs are synthetic – i.e., artificial – compounds, not natural substances. Thus, the human body cannot recognise them and they cannot easily be neutralised and eliminated. Most of these drugs cause damage to the DNA of cells, thereby inducing the cancer process. The reason why most prescription drugs are not natural compounds but synthetic in nature is their patentability. The pharmaceutical business is based on profiting from the huge patent fees of newly synthesised chemical compounds. Thus, the ongoing cancer epidemic is also the result of this business principle. We will talk more about that in chapter V. The fact that many prescription drugs can cause cancer is widely known and is documented in many clinical studies and even government reports. On the facing page is a list of some of the prescription drug classes that are known to pose the highest risk for developing cancer. Other powerful carcinogenic substances include hormones such as estrogen, present in anti-contraceptive pills and prescribed to millions of menopausal women as ‘hormone replacement therapy.’

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

Many Widely Used Prescription Drugs Can Cause Cancer US Government Report: A multitude of widely used prescription drugs account for more than 40% of all chemical substances that can cause cancer in humans. Different classes of prescription drugs can cause new cancers to a varying degree:

• 87% of anti-cancer drugs can cause new cancers • 50% of all antibiotics can cause cancer • 60% of drugs prescribed against depression and mental disorders are potentially carcinogenic • Almost all immunosuppressants facilitate the development of cancer • Many other drugs are listed as cancerogenic, including anti-ulcer drugs, anti-allergy drugs and others

Sources: • National Institutes of Health, 9th Report on Carcinogens, 2001 • National Institutes of Health, NIH 12th Report on Carcinogens, 2011 • US Department of Health and Human Services, 7th Annual Report on Carcinogens, 1995

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

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Fact # 7: The Indiscriminate Killing of Cells as Failed ‘Therapy’ for Cancer Will Be Replaced by the Modern Approach of ‘Cellular Regulation’ The 20th Century will go into history as a deadlock in the ‘war against cancer’. Despite countless media reports about alleged breakthroughs of cancer ‘cures’, the Cancer epidemic is still spreading on a global level. The prevailing therapeutic approaches to this disease by conventional medicine – chemotherapy and radiation – were based on the indiscriminate damaging and killing of billions of body cells in the hope to eliminate cancer. The statistics prove that this approach of ‘intoxication’ was a failure. For many types of cancer, chemotherapy and radiation therapy had no advantage at all, for other types the effects were minimal, short-term – and they were achieved at the expense of suffering and a dramatic decline in the quality of life for the patient. Thus, there exists an objective need for a completely new direction in cancer therapy. This new approach has to be based on a new understanding about the natural regulation of cancer cells. The keys to the effective control of cancer are natural therapeutics that can interfere with and regulate the malfunction of the biological software of cancer cells – without affecting healthy cells. Once that is accomplished, cancer can largely be eliminated as a cause of death and disability among humans.

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

Biological Regulation Instead of Chemical and Radioactive Intoxication

Toxic Chemicals

Radioactive Agents

Natural Regulation of • Inhibition of Tumour Growth • Inhibition of Metastasis • Encapsulation of Tumour • Selective Elimination of Cancer Cells

Key to Victory Over Cancer: Regulation Instead of Intoxication

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

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“Doctor, how long?”

At the beginning of the 21st Century, the same bizarre ritual continues in doctors’ offices and hospitals around the world: Patients are being diagnosed with ‘cancer’. Their wrenching hands express their minds that switch between helplessness and desperation. In parallel, a second ghostly ritual takes place.

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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

The hand of a doctor pats the patient’s leg in a mixture of consolation, reassurance and offering hope. Of course, there is no basis for any of these delusive messages communicated by the doctor’s hand – cancer is still largely what it was a century ago: a death verdict. It’s time for change!

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Victory Over Cancer – Part One:

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Making the Unthinkable Possible


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Chapter I − Facts No One Can Ignore Any Longer

In the next chapters we will take you on a remarkable health journey. You will realise that the biological tools to achieve ‘Victory Over Cancer’ are available right now!

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Purple Coast

‘Science as Art’ is an idea by August Kowalczyk. ‘Purple Coast’ is a microscopic picture of kidney tissue with the collagen stained pink. The picture was taken at the Dr. Rath Research Institute. Visit the entire art gallery at www.dr-rath-humanities-foundation.org/exhibition/index.html


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II.

The Medical Breakthrough Towards the Natural Control of Cancer

I. Facts No O


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Victory Over Cancer

Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Chapter Introduction by Dr. Rath The discoveries reported in the following chapter were made more than two decades ago. The facing page shows a page from my manuscript published under the title of “Plasmin-Induced Proteolysis” in early 1992. It described for the first time that the key mechanism of cancer spread, collagen-digestion, can be blocked by natural substances. Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling supported the far-reaching conclusions of this publication: The implementation of these discoveries into medicine will lead to the natural control of cancer! Immediately after this publication, ‘collagen-digestion’ took a centre stage at many scientific conferences. Moreover, it triggered a race among drug companies to find synthetic blockers of this mechanism – which they could patent. Ten years later, on May 12, 2002, the San Francisco Chronicle published a report of this dramatic race with the title, ‘Misdiagnosis’. Without referring to the original work, they described the race of drug companies to find, what the newspaper called, the ‘holy grail of medicine’ – the solution to the cancer epidemic. The race failed – or so they say. It is easy for drug companies to abandon a race if, at the end of it, they would lose hundreds of billions of dollars. For decades, the cancer epidemic had been one of the pharmaceutical industry's most lucrative markets. Thus, the end of the cancer epidemic would have been a debilitating disaster. So abandoning the search for the ‘holy grail of medicine’ at that time was an easy decision for the pharmaceutical investment ‘business with disease’. But the ‘Genie’ was out of the bottle. In an effort to ‘solve’ this problem, the drug lobbyists decided to spend the next decade fighting the pioneers of this breakthrough (see also chapter IV). But their efforts were in vain. This book offers the ‘holy grail of medicine’ to all mankind.

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Plasmin-Induced Proteolysis and the Role of Apoprotein(a), Lysine, and Synthetic Lysine Analogs Matthias Rath and Linus Pauling Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 1992, 7, 17-22

For full text, see Appendix

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What you will learn in this chapter • Cancer is no longer a mysterious disease. Its key mechanisms of development and control can be understood by everyone, without any special medical education. • Cancer can be caused by many factors, but there is one common pathway via which all types of cancer cells spread: the digestion of connective tissue around the cancer cell. • Overcoming the confinement by the surrounding connective tissue (e.g., collagen) is a pre-condition for cancer cells to grow, metastasise and to develop into a life-threatening disease. • The mechanism by which cancer cells break this barrier is by producing uncontrolled amounts of enzymes, or biocatalysts. These small proteins function as ‘biological scissors’ paving the way for cancer cells to move through the body. • All cancer cells, irrespective of the organ where they originate, use the same collagen-digesting enzymes. • The more of these ‘biological scissors’ a cancer cell produces, the more aggressive and malignant it is, the faster it spreads and, generally, the shorter is the life expectancy of the patient. • These ‘biological scissor’ enzymes are not confined to cancer cells. Already under normal (physiological) conditions cells use these enzymes to migrate through the body, including white blood cells (leucocytes), while defending our body against infections, and egg cells during the process of ovulation in the female menstrual cycle.

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• Thus, cancer cells mimic and abuse natural mechanisms, already used by our body under normal conditions. But, as opposed to normal conditions, where the production of collagen-digesting enzymes is tightly controlled, cancer cells produce these biological scissors out of control and forever. • This biological deception, the mimicking of normal biological mechanisms by cancer cells, is the reason why cancer cells are easily evading the defence system of our body – and why cancer is such an aggressive disease. • Most importantly, we will learn that there are certain natural dietary molecules – micronutrients – which are able to block the biological scissor enzymes. Taken in optimum amounts these micronutrients are able to inhibit uncontrolled connective tissue digestion and the spread of cancer cells.

The information provided in this book is so basic and easy to understand that it will soon be part of biology classes in schools around the world.

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Let’s have a first look at a cancer cell Normally, the cells of our body are embedded in a network of collagen and other connective tissue molecules which keep them in place. For cancer cells to grow into a tumour and to spread throughout the body, they need to overcome this connective tissue confinement. In order to do so, every cancer cell produces ‘biological scissors,’ enzymes (or biocatalysts) that are able to digest the connective tissue surrounding the cancer cells. Cancer cells do not produce these destructive enzymes just for a short period of time, but as long as they live. Since cancer cells are by their very nature immortal, a growing cancer could be described as a disease that gradually digests the body from within. The facing page shows the picture of a real cancer cell taken with an electron microscope, which magnifies this cell to 6500 times of its normal size. This type of cell is called a carcinoma cell, which means that it derives from epithelial cells, the type of cell that lines both the inner (i.e., lung, bowel) and outer (skin) surfaces of the body. Under this high magnification we can clearly identify some of the characteristic features of all cancer cells: a) The huge, unusually shaped cell core (nucleus) reflecting a high multiplication rate of the cancer cells and b) the uneven, complex cell surface structure, reflecting a high activity of secretion of substances produced by cancer cells. One of the most important molecules secreted by cancer cells in huge amounts are the collagen digesting ‘scissor’ enzymes. They are graphically added to this picture in the form of red ‘pacman’like structures.

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‘Biological Scissors’ Enzymes Are Produced By All Cancer Cells

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Collagen-Digesting Enzymes Function as Biological Scissors

Plasminogen Activator (Urokinase)

The purpose of this biological cascade is to digest the connective tissue of our body

Biological ‘chain reaction’ for

Of course, these ‘pacman’ structures in real life are biological molecules, proteins, that have the unique ability to chop up collagen fibers and other connective tissue molecules. The above picture shows that there is not just one type of ‘pacman’, but several

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Plasminogen

Metalloproteinases (MMPs)

connective tissue digestion

Connective Tissue (Collagen) Digestion

of them, such as Plasminogen/Plasmin and Metalloproteinases (coloured three-dimensional structures). To enhance their destructive effect, they can activate each other in the form of a biological ‘chain reaction’.

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How Cells Move Through the Body If we want to understand how diseases spread, we must look at the way healthy cells move through the body. This is easy to explain in the case of red blood cells; they are just carried along in the blood stream. However, it is more difficult to imagine how cells from other organs can move through our body and overcome the barriers formed by the connective tissue. In order to move through the connective tissue, a cell has to be capable of temporarily dissolving the surrounding tissue – the collagen and elastic fibers – so it can make its way through. Cellular migration through dense tissue requires that these cells secrete enzymes – ‘biological scissors’ – that can dissolve the surrounding collagen. This is why these protein molecules are known as connective tissue dissolving enzymes, or in short: collagen-digesting enzymes. For easy understanding, we will continue to symbolise collagendigesting enzymes as red circles or as a ‘pacman’ throughout the book. On the facing page you see the production of collagen-digesting enzymes inside a cell (picture A). These enzymes are then secreted into the environment of this cell where they ‘attack’ and digest the surrounding collagen fibers. This process allows this cell to create ‘loop holes’ within the dense network of connective tissue and pass through it (picture B). On the following pages we will provide you with some examples of how this interesting biological mechanism is being used in our body under normal (physiological) conditions.

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Cells Move Through the Tissue and Organs of Our Body Cell nucleus initiates the production of collagen digesting enzymes

A Production of these enzymes inside the cell and secretion to the outside

Enzymes attack collagen and other connective tissue

B

The enzymes temporarily digest the connective tissue surrounding the cell, thereby paving the way for it to migrate through the body

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Collagen Digestion During Ovulation The process of ovulation in the female body is one of the most fascinating functions in which the body uses a collagen-dissolving mechanism. Monthly hormonal changes in the female cycle stimulate certain cell types (granulocytes) surrounding the ripening egg cell (follicle) inside the ovary. Under hormonal influence (e.g., estrogen) these cells start producing large amounts of fluid rich in these collagen-dissolving enzymes. In the middle of the female cycle, the surrounding of the mature egg cell is so rich in collagen-dissolving enzymes that the collagen tissue of the ovarian wall loosens and forms a hole. This opening is just big enough for allowing the egg cell to move from the ovary through the small connecting channel (fallopian tube) into the womb (uterus). It is clear that this mechanism needs to be precisely timed and to be confined to this specific location. This mechanism must let only one egg per menstrual cycle pass through and start its journey to the womb. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary that collagen-dissolving enzymes remain in a timely and physiological balance with the mechanism that blocks these enzymes and initiates selfhealing of the tissue. Immediately after the egg cell has left the ovary, the activity of collagen-dissolving enzymes is stopped by the body’s own enzymatic blocks. This shifts the balance toward collagen-producing mechanisms, which dominate over the collagen-dissolving process. Using this mechanism the tissue of the ovary wall can quickly heal and close itself. Four weeks later, the whole process repeats.

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The Cellular Mechanism of Ovulation

Womb (Uterus)

Fallopian Tube

Ovary

View inside the ovary:

View inside the wall of the ovary:

Ovulation: Mature egg passes through the ovary wall and begins its passage to the womb

Triggered by hormones, a temporary peak in the production of collagendigesting enzymes ‘opens’ the ovary tissue for a few seconds – just enough time for the mature egg to leave the ovary and start its journey to the womb.

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A Closer Look at This Mechanism We are aware that the comprehensive health information of this book may be a challenge. However, in order to understand the origin of diseases and how we can prevent them it is absolutely necessary to learn to ‘think’ at the level of cells. For health professionals this may be easier because they are already familiar with processes occurring at the microscopic level. For lay persons this may be more difficult. Since we want the information of this book to reach every person on this planet we will make a particular effort to illustrate and visualise this cellular level to our readers in an easy-to-understand manner. Throughout this book we will take you on a fantastic journey through the human body. On the facing pages we start this journey by looking at microscopic pictures of the fascinating process of ovulation.

Picture A catches the moment when the mature egg cell leaves the ovary through a small hole biologically created in the wall of this organ. The collagen digesting enzymes (red pacmen) are added to illustrate this biological process. Picture B shows an egg cell (centre) under a highly magnifying microscope. The small bumps surrounding this large cell are the cells (granulocytes) specialised in producing the large amounts of collagen digesting enzymes needed for ovulation.

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Collagen Dissolving During Ovulation

Uterus

Ovary

A

B

Follicle Cell

Granulocytes

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Collagen Digestion During Infections Another mechanism where collagen digestion playes a role is infection. The body’s basic protection against invaders (microbes) is secured by the white blood cells. Several subgroups of white blood cells perform specific functions in the immune system, a sort of ‘police cell’. Especially important are the macrophages, which can ‘eat’ and digest invaders. Immature forms of these cells, called monocytes, can reach every part of the body through the blood stream. If an infection takes place in the lungs, the body releases ‘alarm substances’ that attract monocytes to the site of infection. In case of a lung infection, the white blood cells, arriving with the blood stream, traverse the blood vessel wall of the small lung capillaries and move into the lung tissue with the help of collagen-dissolving enzymes. To reach the site of infection in the lung, (e.g., by bacteria or viruses), the white blood cells must be able to migrate through the lung tissue. In order to do so, they use the same collagen-dissolving mechanism, loosening the dense surrounding connective tissue and moving through the tissue much like an expedition that cuts its way through the jungle with the help of machetes. Just as we have seen in ovulation, the connective tissue will close again right after the cells have passed through, using the enzymeneutralising and tissue-repairing mechanisms. This repair is assured by the optimal availability of ‘pac men’ −neutralising factors and of production of new collagen molecules.

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How White Blood Cells Migrate Through Our Body For example: Lung Infection

White blood cells (“police cells”) leave a small lung blood vessel and move toward the area of infection with the help of collagen-digesting enzymes.

Bacteria

After the white blood cells have passed through, the collagen-digestion stops and the tissue repairs itself.

White blood cells use the mechanism of collagen digestion already under normal (physiological) conditions in a controlled and precisely timed process.

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Take a Microscopic View of How a White Blood Cell Migrates

A

b) The white blood cell leaves the blood stream and – with the help of collagendigesting enzymes – it ‘squeezes’ its way inside the blood vessel wall.

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a) A white blood cell from the blood stream (white area) attaches to the cell lining (endothelial cell) of the blood vessel wall.

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C

d) The white blood cell has started its migration through the connective tissue and is completely surrounded by it.

c) The white blood cell now has entirely left the blood stream, the blood vessel wall has closed behind it.

D

Copyright Dr. A. Loesch, printed with permission

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Collagen Digestion in Tissue Remodelling Another process where collagen-digesting enzymes are used under normal conditions are all forms of tissue remodelling processes. One such example is the preparation of the female breast for lactation, (i.e., breastfeeding). At the end of pregnancy, and in preparation for breastfeeding for the newborn, hormonal signals ‘tell’ the cells of the breast to ‘switch on’ the production of collagen digesting enzymes. Just like a ‘demolition team’ in real life their job is to tear down the existing architecture of breast tissue in order to allow the reconstruction of the ‘lactating breast’ – and its adaptation for milk production. On the facing page you can see under the microscope the dramatic architectural changes the female breast tissue undergoes from normal stage to lactating phase. In picture A you can see the tissue architecture of a non-lactating breast, characterised by the dense structure of connective tissue surrounding a largely closed milk duct in the center of the picture. In sharp contrast, picture B shows the cellular (histological) structure of a lactating breast, characterised by loosened connective tissue, the presence of prominent gland cells required for the production of milk (small white circles) as well as the widely open milk duct (centre of the picture). Imagine the amount of collagen digesting enzymes required for initiating this process and the fascinating architectural blueprint to rebuild the breast tissue for each of these stages. Other processes of tissue remodelling involving collagen-digestion include wound healing as well as body and organ growth.

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Collagen Digestion in the Breast

A. Milk Duct (Closed) in Normal Breast Tissue

B. Milk Duct (Open) During Lactation

A. Microscopic picture of a milk duct which is closed in non-lactating women. B. For lactation the breast tissue is restructured. The open milk ducts allow the flow of milk.

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Unravelling the Secrets of Cancer

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Unsolved Question No. 1: Why is Cancer Such an Aggressive Disease? Despite the elucidation of some selected aspects, the fundamental nature of cancer has remained a mystery. Moreover, as long as the most basic questions in connection with cancer remain unanswered, there can be no effective cure. This book provides answers to the most basic questions: 1. Why is cancer a particularly aggressive disease. 2. Why some organs in our body are more affected by cancer than others. The facing page summarises the answer to the first question in graphical form. If a disease mechanism is being used already under normal, healthy conditions, the body simply has not developed any effective defences to counteract these disease mechanisms. Since white blood cells, ovary cells and many other body cells already use the mechanism of producing collagen digesting enzymes under normal (physiological) conditions (A), cancer can spread in an uncontrolled fashion and uninterfered with by the body’s defences (B). The trick is simple: Cancer cells hijack the very same mechanism that healthy cells use – but in an uncontrolled manner. For the first time, we can now explain the aggressive nature of cancer. This new understanding points at the significance of specific disease mechanisms and, thereby, will lead towards an effective, natural control of cancer.

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Cancer Cells Abuse Natural Mechanisms of Our Body

A Health (Physiological Conditions)

White Blood Cell (Leukocyte)

Tightly Controlled Connective Tissue Digestion

Egg Cell (Ovary Cell)

B Disease, e.g., Cancer (Pathological Conditions)

Uncontrolled Connective Tissue Digestion

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Unsolved Question No. 2: Why are Some Forms of Cancer More Frequent Than Others? The second question that has remained unanswered by cancer researchers and specialists (oncologists) until today is ‘Why are some forms of cancer more frequent than others?’ Our research has provided the answer to this key question too. Cancer develops particularly often in organs that use collagen digestion already under normal or physiological conditions. The first group of organs affected are reproductive organs. In particular female reproductive organs undergo dramatic and repeated functional (hormonal) and structural changes during their lifetime. Earlier in this chapter we already discussed the profound changes in the female body during ovulation and lactation. In a similar way, the womb (uterus) and the cervix undergo tissue restructuring in connection with the monthly cycle and pregnancy that all require a high activity of collagen digesting enzymes. Not surprisingly, these organs are the most susceptible to connective tissue digestion going out of control – and, therefore, most prone to cancer. For the very same reasons, the reproductive organs of men, the prostate and testes, are also frequent sites of cancer development. Another factor is of particular significance: Both female and male reproductive hormones are known to stimulate the production of collagen digestion enzymes in reproductive organs. Elevated levels of these hormones – either by increased production in the body or from hormonal drugs (contraception, hormone replacement) increase the risk for reproductive cancers.

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Cancer in Reproductive Organs Collagen Digestive Enzymes Used Under Normal Conditions

Breast

Lactation

Ovary

Ovulation

Uterus

Pregnancy

Cervix

Conception

Testes

Sperm Production

Prostate

Sperm Fluid Production

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Why Some Forms of Cancer Are More Frequent Than Others: Bone Cancer Another organ that often develops cancer is our skeletal system. Noteworthy is the fact that bone cancer occurs particularly frequently in children and adolescents. This phenomenon, too, can now be explained. The bones are among those organs that undergo the most dramatic architectural changes during the growth phase from childhood to adult age. Bone growth requires a high activity of collagen digestive enzymes. The extension of bone length is not a uniform process that occurs evenly across the entire length of a bone. It is concentrated at distinct areas towards the end of a bone – near the joint. Not surprisingly, it is in this area, called the epiphysis, where most forms of primary bone cancers originate.

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Bone Cancer in Children

Joint

Area of Bone Growth (Epyphysis)

X-ray of bone cancer. Note the cancer development in the bone ‘growth area’ near the joint.

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Why Some Forms of Cancer Are More Frequent Than Others: Leukemia Earlier in this chapter we described the white blood cells' (leucocytes) unique ability to migrate through body tissue with the help of collagen digestion enzymes. Imagine if this process goes awry in some white blood cells. Then it would destroy the connective tissue without stopping. Precisely that happens in cancer of white blood cells, also known as leukemia. The innate ability of white blood cells to produce large quantities of collagen digesting enzymes render these leukocytes particularly prone to cancer. Now we also understand why leukemia is one of the most frequent forms of cancer.

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Blood Cancer (Leukemia)

Leukemia cell under a highly magnifying electron microscope. The continuous secretion of collagen-digesting enzymes is illustrated by red ‘pacmen’.

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A Closer Look at Leukemia Once cancer cells produce the biological ‘scissor’ enzymes they no longer know any barriers and can invade and slowly ‘digest’ the structure of any organ of the body. This is also true for leukemia cells. One of the phenomena associated with this form of blood cancer is the fact that leukemia patients do not primarily die from an overproduction of leukocytes and from these cells clogging the blood circulation. In many cases leukemia patients die from the failure of various organs, in particular the ‘filter organs’ - the liver and spleen. Millions of white blood cells invade these organs from the blood stream. But they don’t just pass through like healthy white blood cells would do. These cancerous white blood cells produce immense amounts of collagen digesting enzymes, literally digesting these organs from within. The picture on the facing page shows a microscopic cross section through the liver of a patient with ‘lymphatic leukemia’. Each of the small purple dots in the picture is a white blood cell (in this case lymphocyte) that has invaded the liver tissue (pink areas). Considering the massive number of these purple dots and how many collagen digesting enzymes each of them produces, it is easy to imagine the amount of connective tissue destruction and organ damage done by this type of cancer. Leukemia is a good example of how the understanding of cellular mechanisms – the production of collagen digesting enzymes by white blood cells – guides us towards effective therapies.

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Leukemia Under the Microscope

Microscopic picture of lymphatic leukemia. Cancerous white blood cells (lymphocytes) invaded the liver. The massive amounts of collagen digesting enzymes they produce destroy the organ, eventually leading to organ failure.

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Collagen Dissolving in Cancer The collagen digesting mechanism we just learned about is being abused by all forms of cancers irrespective of their origin. The illustration on the facing pages shows an example of this process: The development of liver cancer. The liver is the body’s central metabolic organ, among others, it is responsible for neutralising and removing toxins from the body. Toxins such as pesticides, preservatives as well as many synthetic pharmaceutal drugs are the most common causes of liver cancer. Liver cells that are exposed to these poisonous substances can be permanently damaged or destroyed. The most frequent form of damage leads to a permanently false ‘programming’ of the cell’s genetic material (DNA). Such a malignant alteration of the cell’s software marks the beginning of the cancer process by activating a cascade of biological steps that eventually lead to full-blown cancer. Some of these steps are essential for the growth and spread of cancer: 1. Uncontrolled cell multiplication. The software of a cancer cell is altered in such a way that it renders this cell ‘immortal’ and causes it to multiply indefinitely. 2. Mass production of collagen-dissolving enzymes. The software of a cancer cell is altered in such a way that it renders this cell ‘immortal’ and causes it to multiply indefinitely. The more collagen digesting enzymes a cancer cell produces, the more aggressive the cancer, the faster the cancer spreads through the body, and the shorter the life expectancy of the patient if the mechanism is not stopped.

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How Tumours Develop

Liver Tumour

Liver cells: • Healthy cells (brown) • Cancer cells (green)

In cancer cells, the software in the cell core is reprogrammed turning cancer cells immortal. Cancer cells continuously • multiply and • produce collagen-digesting enzymes

Here individual cancer cells from a liver tumour use collagen-digesting enzymes to break their way through the surrounding connective tissue tissue and spread.

The production of collagen-digesting enzymes is a precondition for any type of cancer to grow and spread – irrespective of the organ it originates from.

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How Cancer Cells Spread And Invade Other Organs (Metastasis) The collagen-dissolving mechanism also plays a major role when cancer cells migrate to form secondary tumour in other organs or parts of the body. This secondary tumour is called metastasis. The illustration on the facing page shows the process of a liver tumour metastasising to the lungs. Every tumour is surrounded by a network of small blood vessels (capillaries). With the help of collagen-dissolving enzymes, individual cancer cells can ‘puncture’ the wall of these capillaries and enter the blood stream. Once inside the blood vessel, cancer cells are being swept away with the blood flow, just like red or white blood cells, and reach other organs. The lung is a particularly frequent organ for the formation of metastasis because the blood circulation in the lung branches out into billions of tiny capillaries that facilitate optimum blood oxygenation. The diameter of these lung capillaries is even smaller than a hair which allows for an easy adherence of cancer cells to the wall of these blood vessels. Since these cancer cells are still producing large amounts of collagen digesting enzymes, they now are able to leave the blood stream again and penetrate the lung tissue. There the cancer cells continue to multiply and develop into a secondary tumour, a metastasis. The more collagen-dissolving enzymes a specific type of cancer cell can produce, the more easily it develops metastases.

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How Cancer Cells Metastasise

Liver Tumour (Primary Tumour)

Cancer cells enter the blood stream with the help of collagen-digesting enzymes

Liver Blood Vessel

Through the blood stream cancer cells can reach other organs

Cancer cells leave the blood stream using collagen-digesting enzymes to form metastatic tumours (here in the lung)

Metastasis (Secondary Tumour)

All types of cancer – irrespective of the organ where the primary tumour is located – use collagen-digesting enzymes to reach other organs in the body in order to metastasise.

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Our Journey Through the Body Continues ... The process of metastasis is no longer a mystery. The picture on the facing page shows an actual cancer cell under a highly magnifying microscope. The body of this migrating cancer cell expands in the direction of its movement in the tissue. It can form little ‘arm’-like structures that drag the cancer cell along the surface, in this case, of a blood vessel. The collagen digesting enzymes are added to illustrate the process by which any obstruction on the path of this cancer cell is being overcome.

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Our Journey Through the Body Continues ... Cancer metastasis is a unique process where the cancer cells of one organ nestle in a remote organ and begin to multiply there. This unique mechanism leads to phenomena like the one shown on the facing page: A cluster of breast cancer cells is caught inside the portal vein of the liver. Once these cells invade the liver tissue, a ‘breast tumour’ will start growing inside another organ, in this case the liver.

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Microscopic picture of breast cancer cells (brown cell cluster in the centre) that have metastasised to the liver (blue areas). The cluster of breast cancer cells is shown within a liver blood vessel (portal vein).

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Now That We Understand the Key Mechanism of How All Cancer Cells Spread, We Need to Find a Way to Block This Destructive Process – Naturally!

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Lysine as a Natural Enzyme Block In previous chapters we have learned about the role of collagen digestion in facilitating the spread of diseases through the body. The uncontrolled activation of this collagen-dissolving mechanism leads to the development of aggressive diseases such as cancer. Every therapeutic approach that will halt uncontrolled connective tissue digestion or even slow it down will therefore be a momentous success in the field of medicine. Because of its universal importance in fighting all types of cancer, this therapeutic goal has been designated the ‘holy grail of medicine’. Interestingly, Nature itself provides us with two large groups of molecules that can block the collagen dissolving mechanism. The first group is the body’s intrinsic enzymatic block that can stop the action of collagen-digesting enzymes in a few moments. The second group is the enzyme-blocking substances that come from our diet or as dietary supplements. The most important micronutrient is the natural amino acid L-lysine. When a sufficient amount of lysine is supplied as a dietary supplement, it can block the anchor sites by which collagen dissolving enzymes bind to connective tissue molecules. Lysine thus prevents these enzymes from uncontrollably dissolving connective tissue. The facing page illustrates that lysine can inhibit the collagen digesting enzymes, the uncontrolled degradation of collagen and, thereby, impede the spread of cancer.

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Lysine Is the Most Effective Natural Way to Block Collagen-Dissolving Enzymes Lysine, a natural blocker of collagen-digesting enzymes, must be supplied from the diet.

Lysine occupies the ‘anchor sites’ by which the collagen-digesting enzymes would normally bind to the connective tisue molecules in order to digest them. Once lysine occupies these ‘anchor sites’, there is less binding of collagen-digesting enzymes to the collagen fibers and less tissue degradation.

The essential amino acid lysine can inhibit the uncontrolled digestion of connective tissue by cancer cells, thereby inhibiting cancer cell spread and metastasis.

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The Remarkable Value of Lysine All metabolic functions in the human body are controlled by biological language. Some twenty known amino acids compose all the proteins in our bodies. These building blocks of life function like the letters of the alphabet. Our bodies use various combinations of amino acids to create innumerable biological words (peptides) and sentences (proteins). Separate amino acids (letters) also have important individual metabolic functions, and lysine is a prime example. The cells of the body can produce most amino acids themselves. These amino acids are called ‘non-essential’. However, there are nine known amino acids that our body cannot produce, so they have to be supplied through the diet. These amino acids are called ‘essential’. Lysine plays a similarly important role within the group of essential amino acids as does vitamin C within the vitamin group. The daily requirement for lysine surpasses that of all other amino acids. Among its many functions, lysine is also the basic building block of the amino acid carnitine, which is important for energy metabolism in every cell. The fact that the human body can store a large amount of this amino acid proves its importance for our health. About 25 percent of collagen, the most abundant and important structural molecule of bones, skin, blood vessel walls, and all other organs, consists of two amino acids: lysine and proline. Thus, taking large quantities of lysine will not cause adverse effects since our body is familiar with this molecule and will simply excrete any amount not needed.

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The Natural Amino Acid Lysine Nitrogen atoms

Oxygen atoms

Hydrogen atoms

1 nm = 1 Millionth of a Millimeter (10,000 times smaller than a cell)

How much lysine can our bodies handle? • A human body weighing about 155 lbs. contains about 22 lbs. of proteins. • 50% of this protein mass is present as the connective tissue proteins, collagen and elastin. • The amino acid lysine forms about 12 percent of the collagen and elastin mass, or about 1.3 lbs. • Therefore, a human body weighing 155 lbs. contains approximately 1.3 lbs. of lysine. Since our bodies are accustomed to such large amounts of lysine, taking 0.4 ounces (11.3g) of lysine daily as a dietary supplement, e.g., by cancer patients, should not be considered excessive.

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The Role of Lysine in Balancing Collagen-Digestion and Repair We have just learned that activity of the collagen digesting enzymes can be blocked in two ways: with the body’s own inhibiting molecules (enzymatic proteins) and with natural inhibitors supplied in the diet, such as lysine. The body’s internal inhibitors form the first line of defence that assures the balance between the degradation and new formation of collagen and connective tissue. In the illustration on the facing page, the enzyme ‘blockers’ produced by the body are represented by blue triangles. Lysine molecules, shown in green, have the same goal. They form the second line of defence, ready to step in when the body’s own systems are insufficient. The dietary ‘blockers’ cannot overshoot their goal, even when taken in high amounts. A second important fact shown in the facing illustration is the balance between the collagen-dissolving mechanism (red) and its blocking mechanisms (blue and green) during health and disease. For instance, when fighting infections, white blood cells migrate through the body creating a momentary imbalance in favor of collagen degradation – just long enough to allow the leucocytes to pass through towards the site of infection. Once this cell has passed, the healthy body restores the balance within moments. In cancer this balance is permanently shifted towards collagen degradation, and the internal ‘blockers’ are not sufficient to stop connective tissue destruction. In this situation, high nutritional intake of lysine and other dietary ‘blockers’ is the most effective way to restore the balance of connective tissue degradation and repair.

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Sustained Imbalance of Collagen-Digesting Enzymes Triggers Disease Collagen Dissolving Enzyme

Block (produced by the body) Block from the diet (Lysine)

Health: Balance or

Temporary Imbalance

Immediately Restored

Disease:

Long term imbalance Prevention and Correction: Supply of high dose of lysine and other natural dietary blockers

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Vitamin C and Lysine: Key Molecules for Health The stability of our connective tissue – and therefore our body’s strength – is determined by two main factors: first, an optimum production of collagen and other connective tissue stability molecules, and second, the prevention of uncontrolled tissue degradation. Besides lysine, vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is another essential micronutrient for our body. The role of these two micronutrients in providing connective tissue stability and, therfore, in helping to control cancer and other diseases can be summarised as follows: 1. Lysine inhibits the destruction of connective tissue by preventing enzymatic digestion of collagen molecules. At the same time this amino acid is an essential building block of collagen in the body. 2. Vitamin C stimulates the production of collagen and other connective tissue molecules and is essential for their optimal structure. As we know from the sailor’s disease scurvy, deficiency of vitamin C weakens the connective tissue of our body. Vice versa, an optimal supply of vitamin C assures optimal production of collagen and elastin fibers and contributes to strong connective tissue. What makes things worse is that the human body neither produces lysine nor vitamin C, and our modern diet does not contain sufficient amounts of them. As a result, almost every person suffers from long-term insufficiency of these essential micronutrients. This knowledge now allows us to formulate effective strategies towards the control of cancer. Optimum production of connective tissue promotes the encapsulation, the biological confinement, of tumours.

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Encapsulation of Tumours by Natural Means Lysine Molecule

Lysine blocks collagen-digesting enzymes and uncontrolled destruction of connective tissue

Vitamin C Molecule

Vitamin C stimulates the production of new collagen molecules and strengthens connective tissue

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Healthy Collagen — Key to Disease Prevention and Control Optimal production of collagen molecules is critical for healthy connective tissue and it forms the basis for effective control of cancer and other diseases. The picture on the facing page illustrates the important steps of collagen production inside a cell and describes the essential role of certain micronutrients in this process. Optimal production and structure of collagen critically depends on three micronutrients: • Vitamin C controls collagen production at the level of the cell nucleus. In addition, newly formed collagen strands, which wind around each other like a twisted rope, need this vitamin to attain the optimum stability of collagen. Towards this end, vitamin C catalyses the formation of chemical ‘bridges’ between separate collagen fibers, which stabilise the entire structure. • Lysine is an important building block of the amino acid chain that forms the collagen protein molecule. Since our body cannot produce its own lysine, every single lysine molecule must be supplied from the diet or from dietary supplements. • Proline is an amino acid and also an important building block of collagen. In contrast to lysine, proline can be produced by our body, but only in limited amounts. If a person suffers from a chronic disease – associated with long-term enzymatic degradation of collagen – the body’s capacity to produce proline can be exhausted. This often leads to relative proline deficiency with the known consequences of tissue weakness, which, in turn, facilitates disease progression.

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Amino Acids Proline and Lysine Are Building Blocks of Collagen Vitamin C

Proline

Lysine

Controls production of collagen in the nucleus

Component of collagen, often insufficiently produced in the body

Component of collagen, exclusively supplied from the diet

Collagen molecule

Vitamin C Forms OH (Hydroxyl Groups) needed for linking collagen strands stabilising collagen

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Tumour Encapsulation: The Proof Now we owe our readers a first scientific proof. We choose to document the decisive role of vitamin C for the encapsulation – the connective tissue ‘confinement’ – of tumours. It is a remarkable fact that, unlike humans, most animals can produce their own vitamin C. Even more surprising is the fact that cancers are rare in the animal world - whereas they kill every fourth man and woman. We wanted to study the intriguing question of whether it is possible that one factor alone, the presence of vitamin C in optimum amounts, can decide about the inhibition of tumour development. To answer this question we developed a mouse model that was unable to produce vitamin C in its body. By this genetic variation we mimicked exactly the ‘genetic defect’ that affects all humans today. For the subsequent experiment we divided the animals unable to produce their on vitamin C into two groups. Then the animals of both groups were challenged with skin cancer (melanoma) cells. Subsequently, we placed one group of these animals on a diet containing optimum amounts of vitamin C, while the other group received a diet deficient in this essential nutrient. The facing page shows the dramatic results documented for the first time in this experiment. The animals with dietary vitamin C deficiency developed large tumours, which were growing diffusely into the neighboring tissue (picture A). In contrast, the animals supplemented with vitamin C developed fewer and smaller tumours. Most remarkably, optimum vitamin C in the diet led to the formation of connective tissue confinement (encapsulations) of the tumours in this group (picture B). This experiment shows that the presence or absence of vitamin C is a decisive factor stimulating the body’s defence against cancer tumours.

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Scientific Proof: The Natural Encapsulation of Tumours is Possible

A

A. Cancerous tumour developed in a mouse, unable to produce its own vitamin C and kept on a vitamin C deficient diet. Note the diffuse border of the tumour (arrow) with cancer cells easily invading the surronding tissue.

B

B. With vitamin C supplementation, the mice in the same experiment formed a strong barrier of connective tissue arround the tumour, confining it to its original location. It is evident from this picture that encapsulated tumours are unlikely to invade the surrounding tissue and to metastasise.

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Victory Over Breast Cancer My name is Baerbel Saliger. At age 48 I was diagnosed with breast cancer, a moment that changed my life. I underwent surgery and had my left breast removed. The subsequent 14 cycles of agressive chemotherapy made my beautiful hair fall out. For my partner I was no longer the woman he had loved. When he left me for good, my last spark of hope left with him. I did not want to live any longer.

My 18-year-old daughter and my parents took great care of me, but also relatives and friends called me and encouraged me. One year after undergoing chemotherapy, I was diagnosed with ‘osteoporosis in the final stage’, which put me down even further. I was desperate but I did not give up. I could no longer walk and my hands were merely able to turn pages, but I could at least read. The cortisol I received made my body look puffy like a bowl of rising yeast dough, and a wheelchair had to substitute for my inability to walk. It was at this point that I received information about micronutrients in the fight against cancer. I said to myself: “It can’t get any way worse - from now on there is only one way, upwards.”

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Meet Baerbel Saliger Three months after I began to supplement my diet with micronutrients, the pain in my body subsided. I explained to my doctor that I no longer wanted to take the cortisol. She objected. Against her advice I decided to discontinue the cortisol. Four weeks later my blood tests showed good results. My doctor explained to me, that this was the result of the cortisol treatment. I smiled by myself but did not say anything. Half a year after starting to supplement my diet with micronutrients I was able to walk again - and also to laugh again. I was convinced that pretty soon I would also be able to love again. When I sent the bills for the micronutrients to my insurance company, they denied the coverage - despite the fact that they had helped me. When I look back today, the cancer diagnosis happened 12 years ago and the supplementation of my diet with micronutrients started exactly ten years ago. In January, my daughter gave me a big bouquet of flowers and told me how happy she is that I am alive. If I look into the mirror today, the memories of the past sometimes come back, but only for a short time. Today a happy woman is smiling at me from the mirror. Dancing has become my favorite hobby again – and in a few months I will become a grandmother. I couldn’t be happier.

Halle, August 2011, Baerbel Saliger

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What Did We Do to Spread This Message When you read the testimonial of Mrs. Saliger on the previous pages you may have asked yourself some of the following questions: Have such cases occurred only in other parts of the world? Why are not more cancer patients worldwide taking advantage of this knowledge? Why aren’t the media talking about it? What did you, as the pioneering researchers, do to spread this information? These questions are all legitimate. We will provide detailed answers in Part 2 of this book. Here, we would like address only some immediate aspects. Currently, we have information about several thousands of cancer patients, many of whom shared their records with us. Many of them are still alive after 10 years and longer of continuous micronutrients supplementation. Throughout this book we will share some of these reports with you. In 2001, we obtained the first confirmation about this breakthrough in the fight against cancer at our research Institute. Subsequently, we did everything to inform the world about it. One of the first steps was the publication of this medical breakthrough in the world’s largest newspaper, USA Today, on March 8, 2002 (see chapter introduction). In the following years we gave a multitude of lectures in the United States and many European countries. We went to universities with a focus on oncology and invited the medical profession there to join in an international research effort to save millions of lives. In parallel, our research Institute became a leading independent research institution in science-based natural health. We are not aware of any other research institution that has published more scientific data about the natural control of cancer and documented it online (www.drrathresearch.org). Our message about the ‘Victory over Cancer’ through natural, non-patentable means was welcomed by the general public and open minded health professionals everywhere. However, for pharmaceutical-oriented medicine and for the ‘business with

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Increase in the Number of Annual Research Publications In the Field of ‘Vitamins and Canccer’ 5000

3000

1000

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

Source: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

chemotherapy’ our findings posed a fundamental threat. Not surprisingly, it was met from that side with indifference and even resistance. Over the years, however, this resistance was decisively weakened by the large amount of research data published by our institute – and by an ‘explosion’ of research studies worldwide that followed our initial public announcement in USA Today in 2002 (see graph). The next chapter will provide you with an overview of our compelling research that cracked the half-century old fortress of the pharmaceutical monopoly with chemotherapy and radiation in cancer.

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Your Personal Summary of This Chapter When writing this chapter we had important goals in mind about the changes this information would make in the understanding of cancer by our readers. On this page we give you the possibility to check the most important of these goals.

Do you know now that:

Cancer cells mimic natural mechanisms used by our body under normal conditions? This biological ‘deception’ is the reason why cancer can evade the defence system of our body? Every type of cancer cells uses aggressive enzymes that are able to destroy the surrounding connective tissue in order to spread and invade other organs? By understanding the cellular mechanisms of invasion, we can identify key mechanisms and develop specific targets for the effective and natural control of this disease? The amino acid lysine and vitamin C are the first two natural substances essential for stabilising the connective tissue around tumours – a key mechanism for the ultimate control of the cancer epidemic?

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Yes

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If you think that what you just learned is important for your fellow students, take this book with you to school or college and introduce it to them and to your teachers

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The Goal of This Book: Ending the Age of Fear!

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Martian Storm

‘Science as Art’ is an idea by August Kowalczyk. ‘Martian Storm’ is a microscopic picture of a melanoma tumour taken at the Dr. Rath Research Institute. Visit the entire art gallery at www.dr-rath-humanities-foundation.org/exhibition/index.html.


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III.

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I. Facts No O


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Chapter Introduction by Dr. Niedzwiecki Cancer is one of the most challenging projects for a scientist – it has been marked by many decades of unfulfilled hopes and dead end ideas. However, the cancer research based on the new concept by Dr. Rath has been one of the most rewarding projects in my scientific life. Before joining Dr. Rath, I worked on unravelling many biological aspects that make our body so unique. Among them I studied how the nuclear ‘software’ of the cell is built, how cells multiply and what happens when they become old. I was fortunate to research many of these aspects in famous research institutions in the US and Canada, and cooperated with two Nobel Laureates. However, my most remarkable scientific journey began when I met Dr. Rath and we started working together more than two decades ago. It was clear to me from the beginning that he had a special way of looking at the same things everyone did, but seeing what no one could see. His ideas were challenging but at the same time simple in explaining complex processes.

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In 1999 when we started our own research Institute and Dr. Rath invited me to direct it, I asked some of my former colleagues to join us. Thanks to the first pioneers of our cancer research, Dr. Shrirang Netke and later, Dr. Waheed Roomi, we could advance research in this area very fast. Already in 2001 we knew that the direction outlined in Dr. Rath’s concept was right. Our first challenge was to identify the most effective group of natural substances in curbing the invasion of cancer cells in the body. Until today we have published more than 60 publications on this topic, participated in and given presentations at many scientific conferences in the US and other countries, written book chapters and cooperated with other scientific groups on cancer and other projects. We are proud that many students who participated in the research projects at our laboratories could see for themselves the powerful effects of micronutrients in various aspects of cancer. Many of these young people continue their studies at medical schools, including the Medical Schools of Yale and other acclaimed universities. They form a new generation of doctors who will take an unbiased look at science-based natural approaches in helping their patients. As a research team, we are propelled by great ideas and a desire to make the results of our work benefit all humanity.

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What You Will Learn in This Chapter In this chapter, we will share with you many more exciting facts about the breathtaking possibility to finally achieve victory over cancer. We will learn that: • Besides the mechanism of cancer cell invasion, there are other key cellular processes that determine the course of the cancer disease; • In addition to vitamin C and lysine, there are certain other important micronutrients that are able to block these disease mechanisms naturally; • All these micronutrients work together in synergy, i.e., as a team, thereby mutually increasing their effectiveness in controlling cancer. Most importantly, on the following pages we will take you through the huge amount of scientific proof about the possibility to control cancer naturally.

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Knowledge of these facts opens the door to a world without cancer for future generations.

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The Science of Cancer Made Easy This chapter is about science – the science of disease and the science of life. You may say: I am not a scientist, why bother reading this chapter and making efforts to understand its contents. We have to tell you that this understanding by you, your family – even your children – and millions of people is a precondition for the control of cancer. This understanding of the basis for the natural control of cancer is important for every person in order to make informed decisions about their own health. This is critical not only in case you are affected by this disease – but also if you want to prevent it in the first place. Moreover, this new understanding will protect you from falling prey to the economic interests that thrive on the continuation of the cancer epidemic as a global market for their patented chemotherapy drugs. It was clear to us already two decades ago that the discovery we shared with you in the previous chapter, if confirmed, would mean victory over the cancer epidemic – and thereby a significant advance for all of mankind. On the following pages, we will now share with you a few examples of the comprehensive rigorous scientific testing conducted at our research institute over the past decade. With each of the experiments described here, you will find a reference to the original scientific publication with additional online links at the end of this chapter.

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Three Steps of Scientific Confirmation

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Key Mechanisms of Cancer Disease Cancer cells use various mechanisms to grow, spread and ultimately overpower the body: 1. Cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The most critical mechanism is the ability of cancer cells to digest the connective tissue surrounding them and thereby pave the way for invasive growth and metastasis to other organs. 2. Cancer cell multiplication and tumour growth. A characteristic feature of cancer cells is a change in the biological ‘software’ in the cell core (nucleus) that renders them immortal. This explains why cancer cells multiply indefinitely – thereby gradually increasing tumour size and ultimately overwhelming the body. 3. Formation of new blood vessels that feed the tumour (Angiogenesis). If the tumour surpasses a certain size, normally 1/20 of an inch, the tumour cells can no longer be nourished from within. Therefore, growing tumours induce the formation of new blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients for further growth. This formation of new blood vessels is called ‘angiogenesis’. The blocking of angiogenesis has become an important target of international anti-cancer research. 4. Inducing the natural death of cancer cells (Apoptosis). We already know cancer cells never die. The immortality of cancer cells is due to a genetic ‘switch’ in the cell core. Correcting this abnormality and reversing this ‘switch’ induces natural cell death. This is a precondition for stopping the continuous multiplication of cancer cells and ultimately leading to the shrinkage and disappearance of tumours. Effectively blocking even one of these mechanisms can be sufficient to control cancer.

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Key Cellular Targets for the Effective Control of Cancer

2

4 3

1

1. Cancer cell invasion and metastasis 2. Cancer cell multiplication / tumour growth 3. Growth of new tumour blood vessels (Angiogenesis) 4. Triggering death of cancer cells (Apoptosis)

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Key Micronutrients for the Natural Control of Cancer In the previous chapter we already learned about the key role of vitamin C and lysine in blocking the spread of cancer cells. Our research over the past decade has shown that other specific micronutrients can enhance the effectiveness of these two natural compounds in controlling cancer. This ‘team’ of micronutrients can be subdivided according to specific mechanisms of cancer control. For example: • Support of connective tissue production and maintaining its integrity and stability: vitamin C, lysine, proline, copper, manganese. • Inhibitors of connective tissue digestion: lysine, proline, vitamin C, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), green tea, selenium. • Inhibitors of new blood vessel formation (Angiogenesis): green tea, NAC. • Inducers of cancer cell death (Apoptosis): vitamin C, green tea, NAC, selenium, arginine, proline.

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Micronutrient ‘Team’ Tested in Cancer

Vitamins • Vitamin C

Amino Acids • L-Lysine • L-Proline • L-Arginine • N-Acetyl L-Cysteine (NAC)

Polyphenols • Green Tea Extracts (EGCG) • Quercetin*

Minerals • Selenium • Copper • Manganese

* Quercetin is proven to be an essential part of nutrient synergy. It has therefore been included in all our current experiments.

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Increased Biological Effectiveness by a ‘Team Effort’ of Micronutrients (Nutrient Synergy) Over the past decades, anti-cancer research has been conducted involving individual micronutrients (e.g., vitamin C, which was applied in high doses), in approaches referred to as so-called 'megadoses'. Our research over more than a decade has created a modern understanding about how to maximise the biological effectiveness of micronutrients. The key principle is ‘Synergy’. This principle is so important that we have to highlight some of its characteristics: 1. Synergy is a principle of life. Many biological components work together within cells to achieve a desired biological result. 2. Synergy means that the effectiveness of this group of biological components working together is greater than the sum of its individual parts. 3. Applied to the anti-cancer properties of micronutrients, this ‘Synergy’ principle means that high amounts of an individual vitamin are less effective than the combination of moderate amounts of selected micronutrients. This principle is illustrated on the facing page and we will revisit it throughout this chapter.

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The Principle of Synergy

Vitamin C

+

Polyphenols

Synergy Benefit

Synergy is more than the sum of its individual components.

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How We Proved that Micronutrient Synergy Prevents Destruction of Connective Tissue – A Necessary Step to Halt the Spread of Cancer

Biological Scissor

Cancer Cell

Plasminogen Activator (Urokinase) FIRST PROOF Effect of micronutrients in blocking the secretion of ‘Plasminogen Activator produced by cancer cells.

We already know that the aggressiveness (malignancy) of any type of cancer depends on the amount of ‘biological scissors’ produced by this type of cancer. Thus, any successful approach to block cancer has to aim at inhibiting the excessive, uncontrolled production of these collagen-digesting enzymes (see Chapter II).

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Biological Scissor

Biological Scissor

Metalloproteinases (MMPs)

Connective Tissue (Collagen) Digestion

SECOND PROOF Effect of micronutrients in blocking the secretion of Metalloproteinases (MMPs) produced by cancer cells.

For further information about this illustration, please revisit Chapter II.

We tested the effect of micronutrient synergy on the two most important types of enzymes used by cancer cells. Our goal was to prove that micronutrient synergy can inhibit both of them. The first key enzyme is called ‘Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA)’, the second is the group of ‘Metalloproteinases’ (MMP2 and MMP9). The following pages show the results.

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Scientific Proof: Blocking the Secretion of Plasminogen Activator (Urokinase) Produced by Human Cancer Cells In this experiment, we tested whether our micronutrient team is able to inhibit the secretion of the ‘biological scissor’ enzyme Urokinase, produced by human prostate cancer cells. For this purpose, six test sets containing equal numbers of prostate cancer cells were used. The first set did not contain additional micronutrients and served as the control. The other five sets of cells were placed (incubated) with increasing amounts of micronutrients. The next day we measured the amounts of Urokinase collagendigesting enzymes that were secreted by each set of cells exposed to different levels of micronutrients. We found that the higher the concentration of micronutrients, the lower the production of the ‘biological scissor’ Urokinase by prostate cancer cells. In the meantime we could confirm this effect of micronutrients in many other types of human cancer. This means that – by inhibiting the secretion of Urokinase – micronutrients are able to reduce the ability of many types of cancer cells to grow, spread and metastasise to other organs. Other scientists have confirmed these research results in the meantime. They demonstrated that cancer metastasis can be inhibited in mice lacking the enzyme urokinase, thereby underscoring the significance of this enzyme in cancer.

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Secretion of the ‘Biological Scissor’ Plasminogen Activator Urokinase

Micronutrients Inhibit the Secretion of ‘Biological Scissors’ by Cancer Cells

Control

50

100

250

500

1000

Micronutrient Concentration (micrograms/mililiter)

The higher the micronutrient concentration, the less cancer cell enzymes can digest the surrounding collagen.

Read the complete study results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/121

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Scientific Proof: Blocking the Secretion of Collagen Digesting Enzymes (MMPs) Produced by Human Cancer Cells As we already know, the second key group of collagen digesting enzymes produced by cancer cells is called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) – two of them, MMP-2 and MMP-9, are most critical in cancer. We wanted to prove that the defined team of micronutrients is also able to inhibit the production and secretion of the ‘biological scissors’ MMP-2 and MMP-9 by cancer cells. For this purpose, five test sets containing equal numbers of cells were used, this time from human bladder cancer. The first set did not contain additional micronutrients and served as the control. The other four sets of cells were placed (incubated) in the presence of increasing amounts of micronutrients. On the following day, we measured the amounts of MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymes that were secreted by each set of cells, which had been exposed to different levels of micronutrients. The results are shown on the facing page. As in the previous experiment with Urokinase, we found that micronutrients can also inhibit the secretion of MMP ‘scissor’ enzymes. It is important to note that in this case, micronutrients in moderate and higher concentrations were able to completely stop the secretion of both MMP enzymes by these cancer cells. In the meantime we could confirm this effect of micronutrients in more than 40 types of human cancer.

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Micronutrients Inhibit the Secretion of ‘Biological Scissors’ (MMPs) by Human Cancer Cells

Amount of MMP Enzymes Secreted

MMP-2 MMP-9

Control

10

50

100

500

Micronutrient Concentration (micrograms/milliliter)

The higher the micronutrient concentration, the less cancer cell enzymes can destroy the surrounding collagen.

Read the complete study results online at • http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/123 • http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/124

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Testing the Ability of Micronutrients to Inhibit the Invasion of Cancer Cells The next question was whether the micronutrient team would not only block these ‘scissor’ enzymes but actually prevent the cancer cells from cutting through the connective tissue to invade other organs. To study this decisive question without ambiguity, we set up a testing system that mimics the situation in the human body with respect to its components (shown on the facing page): • The test vials were filled with a liquid solution mimicking human body fluid. • The top and bottom portion of the vial were separated by a membrane of connective tissue called Matrigel. • The top portions of the vials contained equal numbers of human cancer cells. The only difference between vial A and vial B was the presence of micronutrients, which were added only to vial B. From earlier experiments, we knew that the cancer cells are easily able to cut through the separating connective tissue membrane and can be found – and counted – on the other side of the membrane. Generally, the more aggressive the cancer type is, the more cancer cells are found on the other side of the membrane. In an extensive series of experiments, we could show that the team of micronutrients was able to block all tested types of cancer from breaking through the connective tissue. The following pages will show some of these research results in more detail.

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Testing the Invasion of Cancer Cells

STOP

A

B

Micronutrients prevent cancer cells from migrating through connective tissue.

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Inhibit the Invasion of Human Cancer Cells Fibrosarcoma is a frequent form of cancer of the connective tissue. This cancer develops when the software of human fibroblast cells is modified to become carcinogenic. We tested the inhibitory effect of micronutrients on the invasion of these fibrosarcoma cells in the test system described on the previous pages. The four images in the upper half of the facing page show microscopic pictures of fibrosarcoma cells (dark brown structures) that had cut through the connective tissue membrane. • Picture A, designated ‘Control’, was taken in the absence of the micronutrients. Most of fibrosarcoma cells had cut their way through the membrane. • The pictures designated B, C and D from the same test system show decreasing numbers of migrating cancer cells when exposed to increasing amounts of micronutrients. You can clearly see that at the highest concentration of micronutrients (picture D), no cancer cells were detected because they were blocked in their attempt to break through the connective tissue. The small dark spots in the pictures are not cells, but membrane background. The lower portion of the page shows the quantitative results of these experiments: The higher the columns, the greater the effect of micronutrients in inhibiting the invasion by cancer cells. At the highest concentration of micronutrients, no cancer cells could cut through the connective tissue any more (column D).

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Micronutrients Inhibit the Invasion of Connective Tissue Cancer (Fibrosarcoma) A. Control

B. 10 mcg/ml

Inhibition of Cancer Invasion (%)

C. 100 mcg/ml

D. 1000 mcg/ml

100% Blockage of Cancer Cells Invasion

A

B

C

D

All Cells Invade

10 100 Control 1000 Micronutrient Concentrations (micrograms / mililiter)

Micronutrients are inhibitors of cancer cell invasion.

Read the complete study results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/127

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Inhibit the Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells We were particularly interested to study the effectiveness of micronutrients in controlling the most frequent forms of cancer. The most frequent form of malignancies in women is breast cancer. These cancers are categorised in two main groups. Since the invasive potential of one type of breast cancer is dependent on the hormone estrogen, these cells are categorised as ‘estrogen dependent’. The second type of breast cancer grows independently of this hormone and is called ‘estrogen independent’. We studied whether our team of micronutrients is able to halt the invasiveness of both types of human breast cancer cells. To answer this question, we used the same experimental setting as described on the previous pages. With breast cancer, we could also observe that the invasive potential of this type of cancer decreases with increasing amounts of micronutrients. At the highest concentration of micronutrients, no breast cancer cells were able to cross the connective tissue barrier anymore. The same encouraging results were obtained for both ‘estrogen dependent’ and ‘estrogen independent’ types of breast cancer, as shown in the two graphs on the facing page. The microscopic picture at the bottom of this page shows a specific type of breast cancer, called Adenocarcinoma, which derives from the glandular cells that line the milk ducts in the breast. This is one of the most frequent forms of malignancy in women.

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Inhibition of Cancer Invasion (%)

Inhibition of Cancer Invasion (%)

Micronutrients Inhibit the Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells Estrogen Independent Breast Cancer 100% Blockage of Cancer Cells Invasion

Control

10

50

100

Micronutrient Concentration

Estrogen Dependent Breast Cancer 100% Blockage of Cancer Cells Invasion

Control

10

50

100

Micronutrient Concentration Read the complete study results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/129

Microscopy Picture of Human Breast Cancer (Adenocarcinoma)

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Inhibit the Invasion of Prostate Cancer Cells One of the most frequent forms of cancer in men is prostate cancer. Similar to breast cancer in women, prostate cancer, too, can be hormone dependent. In this case its growth can be regulated by male hormones called androgens, which include testosterone. We studied whether our team of micronutrients is able to halt the invasiveness of both types of human prostate cancer cells. As in the previous experiments, we used the experimental design described before to answer this question. Similar to fibrosarcoma and breast cancer, we observed that the invasion of prostate cancer cells decreases with increasing amounts of micronutrients. Again, at the highest concentration of micronutrients, no prostate cancer cells were able to cross the connective tissue barrier any more. The same encouraging results were obtained for both hormone dependent and independent types of prostate cancer. The graphs on the facing page summarise these results. The microscopic picture at the bottom of this page shows an adenocarcinoma of the human prostate. We already know that this form of cancer derives from glandular cells that produce hormones. This highly magnified picture is taken with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and shows the ducts of the prostate completely covered with carcinoma cells (blue/grey structures).

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Micronutrients Inhibit the Invasion of Prostate Cancer Cells Inhibition of Cancer Invasion (%)

Hormone Independent Prostate Cancer 100% Blockage of Cancer Cells Invasion

Control

10 50 100 Micronutrient Concentrations

1000

Inhibition of Cancer Invasion (%)

Hormone Dependent Prostate Cancer 100% Blockage of Cancer Cells Invasion

Control

10

50

100

1000

Micronutrient Concentrations Read the complete study results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/131

Microscopy Picture of a Human Prostate Cancer (Adenocarcinoma)

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Micronutrients Inhibit the Invasion of More Than 40 Human Types of Cancer When you read through the previous pages, you may have felt like we did as researchers when we conducted these experiments: Can the solution to the cancer epidemic be so simple and universal? To answer this question we studied the effectiveness of the micronutrient team on the invasion of all available human cancer types. Altogether, we tested the effect of micronutrient synergy on more than 40 different types of human cancer. Among the cancer cell types tested are some of the most frequent forms of cancer that affect the lives of millions of people, including cancer of the lung, colon, pancreas, brain, blood, skin, ovaries, and many others (see facing page). While studying this large number of human cancer types we established that micronutrient synergy was able to completely block the invasiveness of all human cancer cell lines tested. The only difference was the amount of micronutrients needed to achieve this goal. Some chemotherapy proponents may argue that the solution to cancer cannot be that simple. But it can – and we know why: All cancer cells use the same mechanism to invade the surrounding tissue and metastasise. Since micronutrients are capable of blocking this universal cellular mechanism, they can inhibit the invasion of any type of cancer cells irrespective of their origin. Of course, this does not mean that cancers at any stage can be halted by micronutrients. This is particularly true for patients with advanced stages of cancer, as well as in cases where the immune system – and thereby the body’s capability to fight cancer – had been destroyed by chemotherapy.

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Blocking Cancer Invasion Naturally – Examples of Human Cancer Types Complete Block at Low Nutrient Concentration • Breast Cancer • Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Complete Block at Moderate Nutrient Concentration • Lung Cancer • Colon Cancer • Cervical Cancer • Skin Cancer (Melanoma) • Bone Cancer (Osteosarcoma) • Testicular Cancer • Blood Cancer (Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma) • Pancreatic Cancer Complete Block at High Nutrient Concentration • Liver Cancer • Bladder Cancer • Kidney Cancer • Ovarian Cancer • Prostate Cancer • Brain Cancer (Glioblastoma) • Blood Cancer (Leukemia, PML)

Micronutrients are capable of inhibiting the invasiveness of all types of cancer cells we tested.

Read the complete studies results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/133

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Inhibit Cancer Metastasis in Living Organisms (I) After confirming the benefits of micronutrients in blocking the invasion of cancer cells in a laboratory setting (in vitro), we wanted to establish the scientific proof also at the next level – in a living organism (in vivo). After careful evaluation and approval by an animal care committee, we conducted these important experiments in mice. These experiments were justified considering the fact that more than 4 million people will continue to die from cancer each year – if no cure is found. In order to spare animal life, we immediately addressed the most challenging question in cancer, which is the prevention of metastasis. After all, 9 out of 10 patients die of metastasising cancer, not of a tumour confined to one organ. We tested the ability of micronutrients to inhibit the metastasis of cancers in the following way: A group of mice was injected with an equal number of skin cancer (melanoma) cells. Thereafter, the mice were divided into three groups: a) a control group without micronutrient supplementation, b) a group receiving micronutrient supplements in the diet and c) a group receiving micronutrients directly into the blood stream (intravenously). When the lungs were later analysed for the numbers of metastases, we found that micronutrient supplementation in the diet reduced the number of metastases in the lungs by more than 60%. In the group that had received the micronutrients directly into the blood, the results were even better: The metastases were reduced by more than 80% compared to the control group without micronutrient supplementation.

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Micronutrients Inhibit Metastasis of Melanoma Cells to the Lung

Number of Lung Metastases

Metastases in Lung (black spots)

50

10

No Micronutrients Supplementation

In Diet

Intravenous

Micronutrient Supplementation

Read the complete studies results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/135

Micronutrients can reduce cancer metastasis in vivo.

When Animal Experiments Are Justified Our position on this important topic is clear. Life in general needs to be protected and animal experiments have to be avoided whenever possible. They should be considered only in those cases when the results of these experiments directly affect human life and if there are no alternatives available. In the case of cancer, where millions of lives each year are at stake, we are convinced that the experiments documented here will help greatly reduce human suffering and death.

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Inhibit Cancer Metastasis in Living Organisms (II) In the previous experiments we showed that micronutrient supplementation can prevent cancer cells – injected directly into the bloodstream – from metastasising into the lungs. This was an important step; however, it does not exactly reflect the development of the cancer disease in people. Normally, a cancer starts with a ‘primary tumour’ in one organ. From there, the cancer cells metastasise to other organs in the patient’s body. Thus, it is important to know whether micronutrients can reduce the spread of cancer from the primary organ to another organ. To establish this important fact, we injected melanoma cells directly into the spleen of mice. Then one group of animals was placed on a normal diet, without additional micronutrients (control). The other group received daily supplementation of micronutrients in their diet. Subsequently, the organs were analysed for the growth of the primary tumour in the spleen (picture A) and the presence of metastases in the liver, a primary organ of metastasis for melanoma cancer (picture B). Our findings in these studies were as equally significant as the results from the previous experiments. We established that animals which received micronutrient supplementation had significantly less growth of the primary tumour. The metastases from the primary organ (spleen) to the liver were reduced almost by half. Additional studies will establish whether increased amounts of micronutrients in the diet can further reduce or even completely block metastasis to secondary organs.

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Micronutrients Inhibit Cancer Metastasis from Organ to Organ

A Primary Tumour in Spleen

No added micronutrients

With added micronutrients

The tumour (black areas) has massively enlarged the entire organ.

The tumour is significantly reduced. No organ enlargement.

B

Metastases in the Liver

No added micronutrients

With added micronutrients

The enlarged liver contains numerous metastases (black areas).

The number of metastases in the liver is greatly reduced. No organ enlargement.

Micronutrients can reduce cancer metastasis from one organ to another. Read the complete studies results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/137

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As the authors of this book we undertook great efforts to present this complex but life-saving medical and scientific knowledge in a way that can be understood by everyone. From the response of our readers we know that we accomplished that to a large degree.

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We are, of course, also aware of the effort you and every new reader of this book have to undertake to work through this exciting, but new, information. Great that you made it to this point! Now it’s time for a little break.

To relax your mind for a moment, before you go on, we would like to share with you the view we enjoyed during the time of writing this book.

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Micronutrients in Blocking Tumour Growth Up to now we presented the results of our research in connection with invasion and metastasis, the most important mechanisms of cancer disease. In the course of our decade-long research we, of course, also wanted to know whether micronutrients are able to affect – or even block – other important mechanisms of cancer development. Thus, another important mechanism we looked at was tumour growth, i.e., the uncontrolled multiplication of cells making up a tumour. Growth of normal cells is strictly regulated. Some cells in our body grow and reproduce frequently, i.e., blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes), the cells lining our intestines and skin cells. Most cells multiply less frequently and a few cell types reproduce rarely, like bone cells or nerve cells. In contrast, cancer cells have lost the ability to regulate their own growth and they constantly multiply. Moreover, by definition, cancer cells have become immortal and never die. Both mechanisms together have deleterious consequences for the organ where cancer develops. Sooner or later the tumour is taking over major parts or the entire organ. The microscopic picture at the bottom of the facing page shows a dividing cancer cell from an aggressive bone cancer (Ewing Sarcoma). The two cell cores (nuclei), shown here as blue structures, have already completely separated. The remaining cell bodies will follow soon.

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Cancer Cells Constantly Divide to Form a Tumour Picture of multiplicating tumour cell (schematic)

2

Dividing Bone Cancer Cell (Ewing Sarcoma) – Electron Microscopy Picture –

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Block Tumour Growth To test the effect of micronutrients on the multiplication of tumour cells, we set up the following experiment: We injected equal numbers of bone cancer cells (osteosarcoma) into two groups of mice. One group did not receive any dietary micronutrient supplementation after the cancer cells were applied, the other group did receive a micronutrient supplemented diet. As documented on the facing page, the results were amazing. Picture A shows a huge tumour that had developed in an animal that did not receive micronutrient supplementation. In contrast, picture B shows a tumour from an animal receiving high amounts of micronutrients in the diet. The difference is clearly visible. These results were confirmed when the tumours were analysed under the microscope. The bottom part of the facing page shows tissue cross sections of the tumours under high magnification. The individual tumour cells in both pictures are visible. However, the picture on the left side – without micronutrient supplementation – shows many more dividing cells (brown colour) than the picture on the right side – with micronutrient supplementation.

The growth of all types of human tumours investigated by us could be inhibited by micronutrients to a varying degree: Breast Cancer Pancreatic Cancer Colon Cancer Fibrosarcoma Melanoma

144

78% 64% 63% 59% 57%

Osteosarcoma Prostate Cancer Lung Cancer Synovial Cancer Liver Cancer

53% 47% 44% 44% 36%


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Micronutrients Block Tumour Growth Bone Cancer (Osteosarcoma) Growing in Mice

B

A

Without Micronutrient Supplementation

With Micronutrient Supplementation

Microscopy pictures of the tumours from A and B. The brown colour indicates cancer cells that are multiplying at this moment. Note the high number of cancer cell divisions in A – without dietary micronutrients.

Micronutrients are able to inhibit the multiplication of cancer cells. Read the complete studies results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/143

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Micronutrients and the Formation of New Blood Vessels in Tumours (Angiogenesis) Another key mechanism of cancer development is the formation of new blood vessels that feed the tumour. Every tumour needs a continuous supply of nutrients in order to grow and expand. Tumours as small as 1 mm (1/25th of an inch) in size cannot grow without generating new blood vessels to provide their own blood supply. To induce the formation of these new blood vessels, called angiogenesis, cancer cells produce various signal molecules that are being sent out to the nearby blood vessels in order for these vessels or capillaries to sprout. Under the effect of these signal molecules the endothelial cells, i.e., the cells that form the lining of blood vessels, separate from the ‘mother vessel’ and migrate towards the tumour. The pictures on the adjacent page illustrate this important process. On the upper picture, the new blood vessel that has formed from the original one – and is now supplying blood to the tumour – is circled. In the bottom picture a microscopic image is shown that illustrates the formation of a whole branching system of blood vessels reaching deep inside a tumour (black area). The unique form of these structures, which resemble the roots of plants, is clearly visible. The growth of new blood vessels through a tissue requires the restructuring of this entire area. Any restructuring in the human body, in turn, requires the breaking down of collagen and other connective tissue molecules with the help of collagen-digesting enzymes. Based on a detailed understanding of these mechanisms, we were confident that micronutrients would also be able to block angiogenesis, as another key mechanism of cancer.

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Formation of New Blood Vessels That Feed the Tumour Picture of tumour blood vessel formation (schematic)

3

Picture of tumour blood vessel formation under the microscope

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Inhibit the Formation of New Blood Vessels in Tumours To test the effectiveness of micronutrients in inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels during cancer growth, we used the same experimental model as described in the previous 4 pages. As mentioned before, the two groups of animals received equal numbers of bone cancer (osteosarcoma) cells. From the previous experiment we already know that animals receiving micronutrient supplementation had significantly smaller tumours. In this set of experiments we were particularly interested in whether the micronutrient supplementation would also be able to decrease the formation of new tumour blood vessels. By looking at the tumour from the outside (facing page A) the network of blood vessels can be clearly seen in the tumour formed in mice deprived of micronutrient supplementation. The microscopic pictures (to the right of the facing page) confirmed this observation. The cross-section view of the tumours of animals not receiving micronutrient supplementation show that the tumour had developed a large number of new blood vessels (red structures). In contrast, the microscopic cross-section of the tumours of animals that received high amounts of micronutrients in the diet showed little or no formation of new blood vessels. Moreover, we also determined an important reason why micronutrients had this dramatic effect: Many signal factors produced by tumour cells to stimulate blood vessel growth were significantly decreased in animals receiving a micronutrient supplemented diet. These factors include the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and others.

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Inhibit Angiogenesis

A No Micronutrients in Diet

B With Micronutrients in Diet

Micronutrients help to decrease tumour growth also by inhibiting the formation of new blood vessels that feed tumours.

Read the complete studies results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/147

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Inhibit Angiogenesis in a Human Model Considering the fact that the inhibition of angiogenesis is a central mechanism for controlling cancer, many drug companies are currently spending hundreds of millions of dollars to find new, synthetic inhibitors of angiogenesis which they can then patent and market as anti-cancer drugs. The global market of angiogenesis inhibitors is estimated to reach tens of billions of dollars. Considering that fact, our research results based on micronutrients – which are after all natural substances – are of utmost significance for millions of patients and for the health care systems worldwide. In light of this fact, we undertook a further step to verify the role of micronutrients in controlling this important therapeutic mechanism. We chose a system that would eliminate all potential variables when studying the effects of micronutrients on the formation of blood vessels. We used blood vessel lining cells (endothelial cells) derived from human umbilical cords. These cells were cultured and exposed to increasing amounts of micronutrients. As shown in the pictures on the facing page, the endothelial cells without micronutrients produced a dense network of capillary ‘pipes’ (Picture A) which are seen as dark lines. With increasing amounts of micronutrients, the human endothelial cells produced less of these capillary structures (B to D). At the highest micronutrient concentration (D), the formation of capillaries was completely blocked. This study is irrefutable scientific proof that micronutrients are powerful anti-angiogenic agents that can be immediately applied to help control cancer.

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Micronutrients Inhibit the Formation of Blood Vessels by Human Endothelial Cells This is a model of a small blood vessel (capillary). Its formation can be studied in a model using human cells. The dark tubes below correspond to such capillaries.

A. Control

C. 500 mcg/ml

B. 50 mcg/ml

D. 1000 mcg/ml

The pictures B to D show human blood vessel lining cells (endothelial cells) exposed to increasing amounts of micronutrients. At the highest micronutrient concentration (D) no blood vessel structures are formed.

Micronutrients can inhibit the formation of capillary blood vessel structures by human endothelial cells, a relevant mechanism for inhibiting tumour growth. Read the complete studies results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/149

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Micronutrients and the Induction of Natural Death of Cancer Cells (Apoptosis) A hallmark of every cancer is immortality, which means its ability to live forever. This malfunction of a normal cell cycle originates from an error in the software program, the DNA, in the core (nucleus) of cancer cells. To turn this ‘biological switch’ back and cause the natural death of cancer cells is a pre-condition to reverse and eliminate cancers. This mechanism that causes the natural suicide of cancer cells is called ‘apoptosis’ and is defined as the natural death of cells. It derives from the Greek word for ‘dropping off’, e.g., like falling leaves. As opposed to apoptosis the premature – unnatural – death of cells and living tissue is called ‘necrosis’, deriving from the Greek word ‘making dead’, i.e., killing. It is caused by injury from factors outside the cell or tissue such as highly toxic chemotherapy agents, high-energy radiation and other harmful agents. In the human body each day, between 50 and 70 billion normal cells die through apoptosis. Cancer cells are the exception. We tested whether micronutrients can induce this natural death in cancer cells and thereby reverse their immortality. We studied this process in great detail, identifying genetic and cellular mechanisms involved. The bottom of the facing page shows a cancer cell that is undergoing natural death from apoptosis. Characteristic are the rough surface (‘buds’) which contain fragments of the cell breakdown. On the following pages we show examples of our research with micronutrients inducing apoptosis in cancer.

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Natural Death of Cancer Cells Schematic picture of cancer cells that had turned mortal again and had subsequently died

4

Cancer cell committing ‘suicide’ by apoptosis (microscopic picture)

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Scientific Proof: Micronutrients Can Induce the Natural Death of Cancer Cells An important step in studying the process of apoptosis of cancer cells is to visualise the cellular steps involved for evaluation under the microscope. Towards this end, certain markers within the cell or the cell core (nucleus) were defined that allowed us to distinguish those cells undergoing apoptosis from other living cells. The facing page shows a single melanoma cancer cell undergoing apoptosis, a process that was induced by exposing these melanoma cells to micronutrients. Details of this experiment are described on the following pages. In the facing picture, the cell nucleus is outlined by a white circle. The red colour inside this circle marks the active process of core breakdown. The darker reddish spots within this red area (under magnifying glass) represent DNA and related core components packed in small, dense bundles. Apoptosis starts with the activation of special enzymes – inside the cell – which cause gradual disintegration of all cellular components, including the nucleus. At a later stage, the cell develops buds on the surface (see previous page). Finally, the cell shrinks and becomes fragmented into small units that are then disposed of by white blood cells (phagocytes), which specialise in biological ‘waste removal’.

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Micronutrients Can Induce Apoptosis of a Melanoma Cancer Cell

Skin cancer cell (melanoma) in the process of commiting suicide (apoptosis).

Micronutrients can induce cellular processes that lead to the natural death of cancer cells.

Read the complete studies results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/153

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Scientific Proof: The Effectiveness of Micronutrients in Inducing Apoptosis On this page we document the results of the investigation of whether micronutrients are able to reverse already existing tumours or make them completely disappear. This is an important question in light of the fact that conventional medicine has been largely unable to accomplish this goal. Chemotherapy, by intoxicating cells, may lead to an intermediate remission of cancers, generally followed by its re-occurrence due to the fact that chemotherapy drugs not only attack cancer cells but also all healthy cells, including the cells of the immune system required to fight cancer. In this series of experiments, we exposed skin cancer (melanoma) cells to increasing concentrations of micronutrients. As markers of these cells we used the same system described on the previous pages: green represents cells that are alive, yellow identifies cells at the stage of early apoptosis (beginning cancer cell suicide) and red means late apoptosis, when the cancer cells are essentially dead. We evaluated the cancer cells exposed to the different concentrations of micronutrients under the microscope (upper half of the facing page) and quantified the percentages of respective cell colours (bottom half of the page). The results show that the higher the concentration of micronutrients, the more cancer cells undergo natural death. At the highest concentration (group C), all cancer cells were found in an advanced stage of apoptosis – i.e., they were dying. Thus, micronutrients are a safe way to not only halt the further development of cancer but also to reverse already existing tumours.

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Micronutrients Trigger Natural Death of Human Melanoma Cells B. 500 mcg/ml

A. Control

C. 1000 mcg/ml

Micronutrients Induce Apoptosis in Melanoma Cells

100% of Cells Die Naturally

Alive Cells Dying Cells (Early Apoptosis)

Percentage of Cells in Group

Dead Cells (Late Apoptosis)

A. Control

B. 500

C. 1000

Micronutrient Concentrations (mcg/ml)

The higher the micronutrient concentration, the more cancer cells are committing suicide. Read the complete studies results online at www.drrathresearch.org

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Victory Over Lung Cancer My name is Werner Pilniok. In September 1999, during a routine x-ray exam, I was diagnosed with a rapidly growing lung tumour. According to the doctor, a pulmonologist, the size of this lung tumour was 1.5 x 1cm [0.6 x 0.4 inches]. I had to undergo a series of additional tests after which the doctors recommended surgery and the removal of the entire section of the lung where the tumour had been located. Because I was also suffering from heart disease any operation would have been a great risk for me, so I started to look for alternatives. I read about research conducted by Dr. Rath, who was studying the role of micronutrients in fighting cancer naturally. I decided to cancel the scheduled surgery and give micronutrients a chance. From October 1999 onwards I was supplementing my diet with high amounts of micronutrients. On April 3, 2000, a control CT-Test was undertaken. The result: the tumour that had been diagnosed half a year earlier was gone – the doctor could not believe it! He told me to wait until another X-ray machine became available because he apparently thought that this X-ray machine was broken. The repeated control scan showed the same result: no more tumour. This was more than a decade ago. In 2011 I celebrated my 80th birthday in good health. Thanks to the micronutrients I take, I hope to live many more years. Werner Pilniok

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Meet Werner Pilniok

A-1

A-2

B

A-1: September 1999, CT scan of Mr. Pilniok’s lungs show the presence of a tumour in the highlighted area. A-2: Magnification of the highlighted area of picture A-1. B: April 2000, control CT scan of Mr. Pilniok’s lungs. This picture shows the same area as in A-2. The tumour can no longer be detected.

The fact that no tumour could be detected anymore means that it had disappeared by natural means – without surgery, radiation or chemotherapy.

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Have you realised ... that by working through this book chapter you have entered the world of modern medicine and health? This new world of health is characterised by ‘knowledge for all’ – and by taking responsibility for your own health. Before you take on the next pages of this book, we invite you to take a glimpse at our Research Institute in California where everyone is committed to make ‘health for all’ a reality.

Dr. Rath Research Institute

View of One of Our Laboratories

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Dr. Niedzwiecki, Directing Research at Our Institute For Over a Decade

Dr. Waheed Roomi, Head of Our Cancer Research, Evaluating a Cancer Experiment

Key Researchers Discussing Scientific Projects at a Laboratory Bench

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Increased Effectiveness by a ‘Team Effort’ of Micronutrients (Nutrient Synergy) Some of our readers, including health professionals, may be surprised about the comprehensive benefits of micronutrients in blocking cancer and even reversing important cellular mechanisms that have gone awry. The scientific reason behind these amazing results is straightforward: we mimicked nature! By not relying on individual micronutrients but taking advantage of the positive and mutually reinforcing interaction of individual micronutrients, we were able to unleash the full potential of Nature in activating the self-healing ability of the body. Over past decades, many researchers have looked at the possibility to control cancer with micronutrients. Unfortunately, most of them used individual vitamins and other natural compounds trying to accomplish this goal. One of the reasons for this narrow approach was the regulatory climate. Regulatory agencies around the world were prohibiting the registration of combinations of micronutrients for preventive and therapeutic purposes. This was the result of false conclusions. The regulatory bodies were simply imposing the experiences from pharmaceutical drug interactions to biological substances. Obviously, the serious and often deadly interactions of pharmaceutical drugs are a major health concern. Not so, of course, for biological substances that work together in billions of biochemical interactions in our body every second. At our Research Institute we have pioneered the new direction of micronutrient synergy. On the next pages we will document the superiority of micronutrient synergy compared to individual components.

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Micronutrient Synergy – the Basis of Modern Health Care

Vitamins

Minerals

Phytobiologicals

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Scientific Proof: Nutrient Synergy Has Advantages over Individual Micronutrients in Inhibiting the Invasive Potential of Cancer To study the advantage of a combination of micronutrients and individual natural compounds in the fight against cancer, we decided on the following set of scientific experiments: Human cancer cells from connective tissue producing cells (fibrosarcoma) were exposed to two different environments: 1. Cell culture solution supplemented with Green Tea Extracts (GTE), rich in bio-active compounds called polyphenols. This compound is represented in the adjacent graphs in green colour. 2. Cell culture solution supplemented with the same GTE solution as in 1) but – in addition – a composition of micronutrients containing certain vitamins, minerals and amino acids. For details of this composition we refer you to the pages on nutrient synergy (NS) at the beginning of this chapter. On the facing page it is represented in red colour. The results of these experiments showed that increasing amounts of green tea extract as well as the nutrient combination were able to gradually inhibit the production of collagen-digesting enzymes by cancer cells. It is noteworthy, however, that the green tea extract – when combined with other micronutrients – was much more effective in inhibiting the invasive potential of cancer cells than if used alone. These results were not limited to fibrosarcoma cells. We documented the same advantage of nutrients in human liver cancer cells, brain cancer cells (Glioblastoma) and other cancer types.

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Advantage of Nutrient Synergy in Inhibiting the Invasive Potential of Cancer Cells (Fibrosarcoma) Inhibitory Effect of Green Tea Extract Alone and in Combination with Other Micronutrients on the Secretion of Collagen-Digesting Enzymes (MMP-9) by Human Cancer Cells 1 2

Note the Differences Between the Green and Red Columns

1

2 1 A. Control

B. 50

C. 100

D. 500

Micronutrient Concentrations (mcg/ml)

Tested Compositions: 1. Green Tea Extract (GTE) 2. Nutrient Synergy (NS)

2. Nutrient Synergy (NS) Composition: Amino Acids Minerals Vitamins

1. Green Tea Extract (GTE) rich in polyphenols

Green Tea Extract * for details see beginning of this chapter

A synergy of micronutrients, mimicking the situation in biological systems, is more effective in inhibiting cancer than individual components alone. Read the complete studies results online at http://www.drrathresearch.org/pub/voc/163

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Scientific Proof: Nutrient Synergy Has Advantages Over Individual Micronutrients in Inhibiting Breast Cancer Growth After we had confirmed the increased effectiveness of micronutrient synergy over individual micronutrients using cancer cells, we wanted to answer the important question of whether this finding also applies to a living system. Our assumption was that this should be the case – after all, the biochemical functions of the body are not dependent on one single micronutrient alone, but rather than on the availability and ‘orchestrated’ interaction of many micronutrients. We designed a study where we induced breast cancer in three groups of animals (in this case rats) and allowed the tumours to develop for a period of 18 weeks. With this study design, we wanted to mimic the situation in patients in whom cancer had already developed. Before receiving any micronutrient supplementation, the sizes of the tumours in the three groups were measured. The results are represented as ‘Start’ on the graph of the facing page. While Group A continued without micronutrient supplementation and served as a control, the diet of group B was supplemented with green tea extract and the diet of group C with green tea extract plus additional micronutrients (nutrient synergy, see previous page). The results of this in vivo study are shown on the facing page. Dietary supplementation was shown to dramatically reduce the size of the breast tumours. It was noteworthy, however, that animals receiving the micronutrient synergy diet had the greatest benefit: between 40 and 60 days of the study duration, the tumour growth was essentially brought to a complete standstill.

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Nutrient Synergy is More Effective Than Green Tea Alone in Inhibiting Growth of Breast Tumours Inhibitory Effect of Green Tea Extract Alone and in Combination with Other Micronutrients on the Growth of Breast Tumours in vivo

Average Size of Tumours (in cc)

4.0

A. Control Diet B. Green Tea Diet C. Nutrient Synergy Diet

Start

40 60

Study Duration in Days

In living conditions too, the synergy of micronutrients is more effective in inhibiting tumour growth than individual micronutrient components alone.

Read the complete studies results online at www.drrathresearch.org

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Research You Can Trust! When you hear media reports about ‘breakthroughs’ in the fight against cancer, be careful. Pharmaceutical companies are experts in creating media hype to increase the sales of their patented drugs and boost share value of their business. Our research institute is independent from the influence of the pharmaceutical investment business and from any other private financial interests. For more than a decade now, our research has been exclusively financed by people whom we have helped with the results of our scientific research and the health knowledge we shared. Moreover, our Research Institute and the entire group of Dr. Rath companies are 100% owned by non-profit foundations. Thus, there is no profit motive involved in our presenting you with this information. The only interest we represent is your health. What a better way to earn your trust. Over the years, our Institute has become one of the world’s leading research institutions in natural health. The research results have been published in leading scientific journals and presented at international scientific conferences. All results are also presented on our Institute’s website:

w w w. d r r a t h re s e a rc h . o r g

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www.wha-www.org/en/library/index.html

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What is Your Summary of This Chapter When writing this chapter, we had important goals in mind about the changes this information would make in the understanding of cancer by our readers. On this page you can check whether these goals were accomplished.

Do you know now that: All types of cancer use the same mechanism to spread through the body? Micronutrients can control all key mechanisms of cancer? Micronutrients working in teams (synergy) are more effective than acting alone? Micronutrients represent an option to fight cancer effectively and safely, without side effects? Micronutrients work through regulation of cell function – as opposed to chemotherapy that works by intoxication of cells? Based on this modern understanding of cancer origin and control, this disease can become largely unknown in our generation?

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Yes

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Compelling Perspectives for Global Health Care From the scientific evidence provided in this chapter there are immediate consequences for patients, health professionals and political decision makers, in fact, for every reader. With the following postulates we would like to inspire a public discussion – which is long overdue – that will lead to victory over cancer. 1. With the scientific basis for the natural control of cancer presented in this book, victory over cancer is dependent on one factor only: How fast will this information spread worldwide? 2. The implementation of the knowledge presented in this book will help to eliminate cancer as yet another disease that has been haunting mankind in epidemic proportions. 3. The economic savings from using this book as the basis for new public health strategies will save billions in health care costs and reduce the fateful dependency of patients and politicians alike from the strangulating grip of the multi-billion dollar pharmaceutical investment business thriving on the cancer epidemic.

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Do you realise ... that by reading this book, you are obtaining information that is currently not being taught at medical schools anywhere in the world? On the facing page you see just three of the world’s leading medical institutions: Harvard Medical School, Sloan Kettering Center, and Stanford University. To this day, generations of future doctors are being trained there without the basic understanding that the aggressiveness of cancer disease derives from the abuse of natural mechanisms in the body – such as ovulation and leukocyte migration – by cancer cells. Generations of future doctors at medical schools around the world don’t learn that this abuse of normal cellular mechanisms is the reason why cancer can so easily escape the body’s defences – and why cancer is such an aggressive disease. With the publication of this book, this life-saving information is made available to health professionals. More importantly, the straightforwardness of the message of this book will allow millions of people without any specific training in medicine to understand that the victory over cancer is now in their hands.

Imagine!

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Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA

Sloan Kettering Center, New York

Stanford University Palo Alto

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Acknowledgements Our thanks go to our entire research team who confirmed this medical breakthrough with ingenuity and perseverance. First and foremost we owe our appreciation to Dr. Waheed Romi, the head of our cancer research department who conducted and supervised these important experiments for more than a decade. We also thank Dr. Shrirang Netke, Dr. Vadim Ivanov, Dr. Raxit Jariwalla, Nusrath Roomi and Tatiana Kalinovsky for promoting this breakthrough research. Our thanks go to Lisa Smith for assistance in the layout of this book as well as Cathy Flowers and John Journey for reading corrections. We are grateful to Betsy Long, Earle Hall, Christian Kammler and Thomas Wenn, and Paul Anthony Taylor for organisational support. We also wish to express our gratitude to all members of our international legal team that has worked for more than a decade to protect this breakthrough against the legal attacks of the status quo lobby. We thank Werner Pilniok, Baerbel Saliger and all other patients who had the courage to publicly tell their life story. We pay special reference to those patients, young and old, who failed in their efforts to fight the disease and who may have had a chance had they not lost so much time in the deadlocks of conventional medicine. We are especially grateful to August Kowalczyk, Jerzy Ulatowski and other survivors of the Auschwitz concentration camp. They remain a lasting inspiration to us and our work. We are united with them in the commitment: ‘Never again!’

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Particular thanks go to the thousands of members of our international Health Alliance who have supported our research for more than a decade. Without you this breakthrough would not have been possible. We thank our families for their support and patience. We also thank Andy and Jamie Kerr for an inspirational environment when we wrote this book. Finally, our thanks go to all those who have remained an invaluable source of motivation to us through their scepticism and opposition.

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The following scientific publication from 1992 laid the conceptual foundation for our research in cancer. It was written by Dr. Rath and supported by Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling. Plasmin-Induced Proteolysis and the Role of Apoprotein(a), Lysine, and Synthetic Lysine Analogs M. Rath, L. Pauling Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 1992, 7: 17-23 Summary Most human diseases, independent of their individual genetic or exogenous origin, proliferate via similar pathomechanisms. One of these universal pathways is propagated by oxygen free radicals. Here we present another universal pathomechanism: the degradation of the connective tissue by the protease plasmin. This mechanism had been described for some diseases but its universal character has still been insufficiently understood. We propose now that the proliferation of cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and also inflammatory and many other diseases depends to a varying degree on this pathomechanism. Activated macrophages, but also cancer cells, virally transformed cells, and other pathogenic cells secrete considerable amounts of plasminogen activators, which lead to an activation of plasminogen to the protease plasmin which activates procollagenase to collagenase. The resulting degradation of the extracellular matrix is a precondition for the proliferation and the clinical manifestation of any disease. Most acute and chronic diseases make use of this pathomechanism. This pathomechanism is the exacerbation of a mechanism used under physiological conditions by a variety of cellular systems of the human body. The exacerbation under pathological conditions is the result of a chronic imbalance between activators and inhibitors of this pathway. Apoprotein(a), apo(a), by virtue of its homology to plasminogen is proposed to be a competitive endogenous inhibitor of plasmin induced proteolysis and tissue degradation. The essential amino acid L-lysine functions as an exogenous inhibitor of this pathway. Therapeutic administration of L-lysine and synthetic lysine analogs, such as tranexamic acid, should lead to an effective control of plasmin- induced tissue degradation. Comprehensive clinical confirmation of this work will particularly improve the therapeutic options for advanced forms of CVD, cancer, and inflammatory and infectious diseases, including AIDS.

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Introduction In recent years the international research community became fascinated by a unique protein in the human body: apoprotein(a) [apo(a)]. In the three decades since its discovery apo(a) has been primarily discussed in relation to its deleterious effects on human health, in particular on cardiovascular disease (CVD). We did not accept that apo(a) should have only disadvantageous properties. According to the laws of evolution apo(a) must have beneficial properties that by far outreach its disadvantages. Consequently, we discovered that under physiological conditions apo(a) functions as an adhesive protein, mediating organ differentiation and growth. Under pathophysiological conditions apo(a) primarily substitutes for ascorbate deficiency and increases tissue stability by compensating for impaired collagen metabolism, and by promoting tissue repair (1). Moreover, we proposed that apo(a) functions as an inhibitor of important pathomechanisms involved in the proliferation of many diseases. These pathomechanisms are favored during ascorbate deficiency. One of these universal pathomechanisms is the damaging effect of oxygen free radicals, which is attenuated by the antioxidative function of apo(a) as a proteinthiol (2). Apo(a) also led us to determine the universal importance of another pathomechanism: the enzymatic degradation of the connective tissue by the protease plasmin. We recently proposed that apo(a), by virtue of its homology to plasminogen, functions as a competitive inhibitor of plasmin- induced proteolysis (3). In this publication we describe the universal character of this mechanism and the role of apo(a) in more detail. Plasmin-induced proteolysis had been described as a pathomechanism for some diseases, e.g. cancer and certain viral diseases (4,5). In cardiovascular disease, however, this mechanism has received little, if any, attention. The insufficient understanding of the universal character of this pathomechanism is further underlined by the absence of a broad therapeutic use of L-lysine and its synthetic analogs, which are exogenous inhibitors of this pathway. The lack of this knowledge continues to have detrimental consequences for human health and it prevents millions of patients from receiving optimum treatment. It is the aim of this publication to close this gap and to provide the rationale for a broad introduction of lysine and its synthetic analogs into clinical therapy.

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Plasmin-Induced Proteolysis Under Physiological Conditions Plasmin-induced proteolysis is a physiological mechanism that occurs ubiquitously in the human body. The main cellular defense systems, monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophiles, use this mechanism for their migration through the body compartments. They secrete plasminogen activators, which then activate plasminogen to plasmin. This mechanism makes efficient use of high blood and tissue concentrations of the proenzyme, plasminogen, which represents a huge reservoir of potential proteolytic activity. The activated protease plasmin then converts procollagenases into collagenases (6), and quite possibly also activates other enzymes, leading to a local degradation of the connective tissue. This local degradation of the connective tissue paves the way for the migration of macrophages through the body. The proteolytic effect of plasmin is also involved in increasing vascular permeability (7). This effect facilitates the infiltration of monocytes and other blood cells from the circulation to the tissue sites of increased requirement. Physiological conditions in which plasmin-induced proteolysis occurs include different forms of tissue formation and reorganization such as neurogenesis, vascularization, and, quite probably, growth. Of particular importance is plasmin-induced proteolysis during the remodulation of female reproductive organs. Under hormonal stimulation mammary and uterine cells secrete plasminogen activator and thereby initiate the morphologic changes of the organ during pregnancy and lactation (4). A particularly striking example for the effectiveness of this mechanism is ovulation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle cell stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulate the secretion of plasminogen activators from granulosa cells (8). The subsequent degradation of the ovarian connective tissue is a precondition for ovulation (Figure 1a). Similarly trophoblast cells use plasmin-induced proteolysis to invade the wall of the uterus during embryo implantation in early pregnancy. In all these conditions enzyme production is transient and is precisely regulated by hormones and other control mechanisms.

Plasmin-Induced Proteolysis Under Physiological Conditions Plasmin-induced tissue degradation contributes to the proliferation of most diseases. Of particular interest is the fact that similar mechanisms are induced by attacking pathogens as they are used by the defending host cells, e.g. macrophages. In many pathological conditions macrophages

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become 'activated'. This activation reflects a particular state of alert that is characterized by an abundant release of secretory products. These products include oxygen metabolites, collagenases, elastases, and a significantly increased secretion of plasminogen activators. It is immediately obvious that this mechanism needs to be precisely controlled. Therefore macrophages also secrete inhibitory products including plasmin inhibitors and a2-macroglobulin which are able to inactivate plasmin and many other proteases. Any imbalance in this control system leads to an exacerbation of this mechanism and to continued tissue degradation. Chronic activation of macrophages and an exertion of the control mechanisms eventually lead to a sustained degradation of the connective tissue and to an accelerated proliferation of the disease. It is, therefore, not unreasonable for us to propose that plasmin-induced tissue degradation contributes, to a varying degree, to the proliferation of all diseases. This mechanism is, however, not limited to macrophages and other defense cells of the human body. In the following sections we shall discuss this pathomechanism for the most important diseases in more detail.

Cancer Malignant transformation of many cells of the human body leads to an uncontrolled secretion of plasminogen activators. In this situation the secretion of plasminogen activators is not a temporary event, but is rather a characteristic feature of malignant cells. The magnitude of increase in plasminogen- activator production, between 10 and 100 fold, renders this enzyme unique among the biochemical changes associated with oncogenic transformation. Moreover, plasminogen-activator secretion occurs independently of the induction mechanism and can be found as the result of oncogenic viruses or chemical carcinogens. Most importantly, the amount of plasminogen activators secreted was, in general, associated with the degree of malignancy (4,5). Immunohistological studies showed that the concentration of plasminogen activators in the vicinity of a tumor is highest at the sites of its invasive growth (9). Because of the prominent role of plasmin-induced proteolysis in female reproductive organs under physiological conditions it is no surprise that the exacerbation of this mechanism is particularly frequent in malignancies of the female reproductive organs. Cancer cells of the breast, the uterus, the ovaries, and other organs continuously secrete increased amounts of plasminogen activators, destroy the surrounding extracellular

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matrix, and thereby pave the way for infiltrative growth. These mechanisms are also involved in the proliferation of prostatic cancer, one of the most frequent forms of cancer in males. Plasmin-induced proteolysis is also critical for the metastatic spread of cancer. As discussed above, plasmin induces increased permeability of the blood vessels and thereby facilitates the systemic dissemination of tumor cells. This pathomechanism is, of course, not limited to reproductive organs. Plasmin-induced tissue degradation has been reported for tumors of the ovaries, endometrium, cervix, breast, colon, lung, skin (melanoma, and many others (4), suggesting that most cancers make use of this mechanism for their proliferation.

Infectious and inflammatory diseases. As for transformed cells in malignancies, virally transformed cells were also found to secrete plasminogen activators (4,5). These cells activate plasminogen in their vicinity, e.g., the lung tissue, and thereby facilitate the local spread of the infection. Simultaneously, plasmin increases the permeability of the local blood vessels and thereby promotes the systemic spread of the infection. It is not unreasonable for us to propose that other pathogens may also make use of this mechanism during the process of infection. Plasminogen activators play an important role during inflammation in general. Production of plasminogen activators by macrophages and granulocytes is closely correlated to different modulators of inflammation. Secretion of the enzyme is stimulated by asbestos, lymphokines, and interferon and is inhibited by antiinflammatory agents such as glucocorticoids. Plasmininduced proteolysis has been described for patients with a variety of inflammatory diseases, including chronic rheumatoid arthritis, allergic vasculitis, chronic inflamatory bowel disease, chronic sinusitis, demyelinating disease, and many others (4). Plasmin-induced tissue degradation is therefore likely to be an important pathomechanism in chronic inflammatory diseases.

Cardiovascular disease. Activated macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Blood monocytes enter the vascular wall, where they

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become macrophages. Their activation inside the vascular wall is enhanced by oxidatively modified lipoproteins and other challenging mechanisms (3,10). Once they are activated a similar cascade of events occurs, as in any other disease: increased secretion of plasminogen activators, activation of procollagenases by the protease plasmin, and degradation of the connective tissue in the vascular wall. Simultaneously, plasmin increases the permeability of the vascular wall, leading to a further increase in the infiltration of plasma constituents. The perpetuation of these pathomechanisms leads to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This mechanism is particularly effective when the vascular wall is already destabilized by a deficiency in ascorbate. As described recently in detail (3), this instability is primarily unmasked at sites of altered hemodynamic conditions, such as the branching regions of the coronary arteries. It is therefore no surprise that increased amounts of plasminogen activators were detected in these branching regions of human arteries. Moreover, atherosclerotic lesions in general were found to contain significantly higher amounts of plasminogen activators than grossly normal arterial wall (11). It is a remarkable fact that these early observations have not been followed up systematically. This negligence suggests that the universal character of uncontrolled plasmin-induced proteolysis for disease proliferation has not yet been fully understood. It is the aim of this paper to close this gap.

Apoprotein(a) - An Inhibitor of Plasmin-Induced Proteolysis In identifying the universal importance of plasmin-induced proteolysis for most diseases we were once again guided by apo(a) and its increased demand as reflected by the elevated plasma concentrations in many pathological conditions. As discussed above, apo(a) exerts a multitude of functions under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here we focus on the role of apo(a) as an endogenous competitive inhibitor of plasmin-induced proteolysis and tissue degradation. Apo(a) is a glycoprotein with a unique structure. It is essentially composed of a repetitive sequence of the kringle structures highly homologous to the kringle IV of the plasminogen molecule. The gene for apo(a) is located in the direct vicinity of the plasminogen gene on chromosome 6. It has been proposed that the apo(a) molecule derives from the plasminogen molecule or that the two genes share a common ancestral gene (12). As of today no explanation has been offered as to why among all five kringles of plasminogen it is almost exclusively kringle IV that was chosen by nature to compose the apo(a) molecule.We do not accept this selective advan-

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tage of kringle IV as a coincidence. We propose that at least one of the reasons for the repetition of kringle IV in apo(a) is closely related to the structure/function of kringle IV in the plasminogen molecule. It is not unreasonable for us to propose that apo(a), by virtue of its multiple kringle IV structures, is a competitive inhibitor of plasmin-induced proteolysis. Apo(a) could be involved in the control of this pathway without interfering with critical functions of plasminogen mediated by other kringles of the plasminogen molecule. Consequently, the more kringle IV repeats one apo(a) molecule contains, the more effective this apo(a) isoform would be as an inhibitor. This concept could not only explain the selective advantage of kringle IV versus the other kringle structures, but it could also explain the great variation in genetically determined plasma Lp(a) concentrations, which largely reflect the inverse relation between the number of intramolecular kringle IV repeats and the synthesis rate of apo(a) molecules. Supportive evidence for a role of apo(a) in the control of plasmin- induced proteolysis is also provided by a number of observations. Apo(a) has been shown to attenuate tissue-plasminogen-activator-induced fibrinolysis and competitively interfere with plasminogen- and plasmin- induced pathways (review in 14). Moreover, immunohistological studies in various diseases showed a preferential deposition of apo(a) at the site of increased demand for a control of plasmininduced proteolysis. In several hundred vascular specimens representing various degrees of cardiovascular disease apo(a) was found primarily to be located in the subendothelium, quite possibly counteracting the increased endothelial permeability. In advanced atherosclerotic lesions apo(a) was preferentially found around the lesion core, particularly at the edges of the lesion (15), the main sites of chronic repair processes. In a comprehensive morphological study in different forms of cancer apo(a) was found to be deposited in the vicinity of the cancer process (Dr. A. Niendorf, personal communication). Both studies were conducted with the same monoclonal antibodies not cross-reacting with plasminogen. A preliminary report is also available for the deposition of apo(a) in the microvasculature of inflammatory processes (16). We predict that apo(a) will also be found to play an important role in the containment of infectious diseases, including AIDS. The role of apo(a) as a competitive inhibitor of plasmininduced proteolysis is not limited to pathological conditions. An increased demand of apo(a) was also observed during the period of uterus transformation in early pregnancy (17).

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In summary, apo(a) is suggested to be an important element in the endogenous control system of plasmin-induced proteolysis. Apo(a) may back-up antiplasmin and other endogenous inhibitors of this pathway particularly during chronic activation of this mechanism. Beside endogenous inhibitors of plasmin-induced tissue degradation there are also exogenous inhibitors. The universal importance of the pathomechanism described here immediately suggests the great value of these exogenous inhibitors in the therapy of many diseases. The Therapeutic Use of Lysine and Synthetic Lysine Analogs Lysine, an essential amino acid, is the most important naturally- occurring inhibitor of this pathway. As opposed to the competitive inhibition by apo(a), lysine inhibits plasmin-induced proteolysis in a direct way. Lysine attenuates an overshooting activation of plasmin, at least in part, by occupying the lysine binding sites in the plasminogen molecule. Since lysine is an essential amino acid, its availability is not regulated endogenously. Insufficient dietary lysine intake invariably leads to a deficiency of this amino acid and thereby weakens the natural defense against this pathomechanism. Moreover, chronic activation of plasminogen by cancer cells, virally transformed cells, or macrophages leads to an additional relative lysine deficiency and thereby to an acceleration of the underlying disease. The therapeutic value of lysine has been documented for a variety of diseases, including viral diseases (18), and recently in combination with ascorbate for cardiovascular disease (19). Synthetic lysine analogs such as epsilon-aminocaproic acid, paraaminomethylbenzoic acid and trans-aminocyclohexanoic acid (tranexamic acid) are potent inhibitors of plasmin-induced proteolysis. These substances, in particular tranexamic acid, have been successfully used in the treatment of a variety of pathological conditions, such as angiohematoma, colitis ulcerosa, and others. Most remarkable results were reported from the treatment of patients with late-stage cancer of the breast (20) and the ovaries (21) and also for cancer of other origins (22). We have recently suggested the therapeutic use of synthetic lysine analogs for the reduction of atherosclerotic plaques (3). On the basis of the work presented here, comprehensive clinical studies should be initiated to establish the critical role of lysine in the prevention and treatment of various diseases without delay. A daily intake of 5 grams

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of lysine and more (19,23) has been described to be without side effects. On the basis of the encouraging therapeutic results with tranexamic acid, particularly in inhibiting and reducing late-stage cancer, these substances should now be extensively tested for a broad introduction into clinical therapy, particularly for advanced forms of cancer, CVD, and AIDS. A possible explanation of why this has not happened long ago may be the argument that these substances may induce coagulative complications. They are, however, protease inhibitors and inhibit not only fibrinolysis but also coagulation (24). Moreover, tranexamic acid has been given for more than 10 years without clinical complications (25). We have proposed that the risk of any hemostatic complication will be further reduced by a combination of these compounds with ascorbate and other vitamins with anticoagulative properties (3). This medical consideration is, however, not the only factor why these compounds are not used much more frequently and why thousands of patients are still deprived of optimum therapy. There is also an economic factor. Patent protection is a guiding principle of any pharmaceutical company in developing or marketing a drug. Lysine, like many other nutrients, is not patentable and the patents for the clinically approved synthetic lysine analogs, including tranexamic acid, have expired. The negligence of these substances may be explainable from the economic point of view; from the perspective of human health there is no justification for this delay.

Conclusion Here we have described plasmin-induced proteolysis as a universal pathomechanism propagating cancer, and cardiovascular, inflammatory, and many other diseases. Plasmin-induced tissue degradation under pathological conditions is an exacerbation of a physiological mechanism. Apo(a) is suggested to function as a competitive endogenous inhibitor of this pathway. On the basis of the selective advantage of apo(a) in the evolution of man it comes as no surprise that apo(a) should lead us on the way to recognize the universal importance of this pathomechanisms. Further clinical confirmation of the therapeutic value of lysine and its synthetic analogs may provide new options for an effective therapy for millions of people. We predict that the use of lysine and synthetic lysine analogs, particularly in combination with ascorbate, will lead to a breakthrough in the control of many forms of cancer and infectious diseases, including AIDS, as well as many other diseases.

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Acknowledgements We thank Dr. Alexandra Niedzwiecki for helpful discussions, Rosemary Babcock for library services, Jolanta Walechiewicz for graphical assistance, Martha Best and Dorothy Munro for secretarial help.

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References 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

11.

12.

13. 14. 15.

16.

Rath M, Pauling L. Apoprotein(a) is an adhesive protein. J. Orthomolecular Med.1991;6:139-143. Rath M, Pauling L. Hypothesis: Lipoprotein(a) is a surrogate for ascorbate. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 1990; 87:6204-6207. Rath M, Pauling L. Solution of the puzzle of human cardiovascular disease: Its primary cause is ascorbate deficiency, leading to the deposition of lipoprotein(a) and fibrinogen/fibrin in the vascular wall. J. Orthomolecular Med.1991;6:125-134. Danø K, Andreasen PA, Grøndahl-Hansen J, Kristensen P, Nielsen LS and Skriver L: Plasminogen activators, tissue degradation, and cancer. Advances in Cancer Research 1985; Vol 44, Academic Press. Reich E: Activation of plasminogen: a general mechanism for producing localized extracellular proteolysis. Molecular Basis of Biological Degradative Processes. Berlin RD, Herrmann H, Lepow TH, Tanzov T (eds), 1978, Academic Press Inc.,New York. Werb Z, Mainardi CL, Vater CA, and Harris Jr ED: Endogenous activation of latent collagenase by rheumatoid synovial cells. N.Engl.J.Med.1977 #18; 296: Ratnoff OD. Increased vascular permeability induced by human plasmin. In: Vascular Permeability and Plasmin. 1965. Strickland S & Beers WH. Studies on the role of plasminogen activator in ovulation. J.Biol.Chem.1976; 251:5694-5702. Skriver L, Larsson L-I, Kielberg V, Nielsen LS, Andresen PB, Kristensen P, & Danø K. Immunocytochemical localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in Lewis lung carcinoma. J.Cell Biol. 1984; 99:752-757. Steinberg D, Parthasarathy S, Carew TE, & Witztum JL. Beyond cholesterol. Modifications of low-density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenicity. N. Engl. J. Med. 1989; 320:915-924. Smokovitis A: A new hypothesis: possible mechanisms in the involvement of the increased plasminogen activator activity in branching regions of the aorta in the initiation of atherosclerosis. Thromb-Haemost. 1980; 43(2):141-148. McLean JW, Tomlinson JE, Kuang W-J, Eaton DL, Chen EY, Fless GM, Scanu AM, and Lawn RM. cDNA sequence of human apolipoprotein(a) is homologous to plasminogen. Nature 1987;330:132-137. Trexler M, Vali Z. & Patthy L. Structure of the w-aminocarboxylic acid-binding sites of human plasminogen. J.Biol.Chem. 1982; 257:7401-7406. Edelberg JM, Pizzo SV: Lipoprotein(a): The link between impaired fibrinolysis and atherosclerosis. Fibrinolysis 1991;5:135-143. Niendorf A, Rath M, Wolf K, Peters S, Arps H, Beisiegel U and Dietel M: Morphological detection and quantification of lipoprotein(a) deposition in atheromatous lesions of human aorta and coronary arteries. Virchow's Archiv A Pathol. Anat. 1990;417:105-111. Etingin OR, Hajjar DP, Hajjar KA, Harpel PC & Nachman RL. Lipoprotein(a) regulates plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in endothelial cells. J.Biol.Chem.1991; 266:2459-2465.

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17. Zechner R, Desoye G, Schweditsch MO, Pfeiffer KP & Kostner GM. Fluctuations of plasma lipoprotein-a concentrations during pregnancy and post partum. Metabolism 1986; 35:333-336. 18. Griffith RS, Walsh DE, Myrmel KH, Thompson RW, Behforooz A. Success of Llysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Dermatologica 1987; 130:183-190. 19. Pauling L. Case report: Lysine/ascorbate-related amelioration of angina pectoris. J. Orthomolecular Med.1991;6:144-146. 20. Astedt B, Mattsson W, TropĹ˝ C. Treatment of advanced breast cancer with chemotherapeutics and inhibition of coagulation and fibrinolysis. Acta Med. Scand. 1977;201:491-493. 21. Astedt B, Glifberg I, Mattsson W, TropĂŠ C. Arrest of growth of ovarian tumor by tranexamic acid. JAMA 1977; 238:154. 22. Markus G. The role of hemostasis and fibrinolysis in the metastatic spread of cancer. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis 1984: 10;61-70. 23. Rose WC, Johnson JE & Haines W. The amino acid requirement of man. J Biol Chem 1950;182:541-556. 24. Aoki N, Naito K, & Yoshida N. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by protease inhibitors. Possible involvement of proteases in platelet aggregation. Blood 1978; 52:1-12. 25. Munch EP & Weeke B. Non-hereditary angioedema treated with tranexamic acid. Allergy 1985; 40: 92-97.

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This picture shows a copy of the figures taken from the original publication in 1992.

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PUBLICATIONS OF OUR WORK PROSTATE CANCER In Vivo Antitumor Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline and Green Tea Extract on Human Prostate PC-3 Xenografts in Nude Mice: Evaluation of Tumor Growth and Immunohistochemistry. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. In Vivo , 2005, 19(1), 179-184. Antitumor Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline, Arginine and Epigallocatechin Gallate in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines PC-3, NCaP, and DU145. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology, 2004, 115:1-6

TESTICULAR CANCER Inhibitory Effects of a Nutrient Mixture on Human Testicular Cancer cell Line NT 2/DT Matrigel Invasion and MMP Activity. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Medical Oncology 2007 24(2): 183-188

BREAST CANCER In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumorigenic Activity of a Mixture of Lysine, Proline, Ascorbic Acid and Green Tea Extract on Human Breast Cancer Lines MDA MB-231 and MCF-7. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Medical Oncology 2005, 22(2) 129-38 Modulation of N-Methyl –N-Nitrosourea-Induced Mammary Tumors in SpragueDawley Rats by Combination of Lysine, Proline, Arginine, Ascorbic Acid and Green Tea Extract. M.W. Roomi, N.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Breast Cancer Research, 2005, 7:R291-R295 A combination of green tea extract, specific nutrient mixture and quercetin: An effective intervention treatment for the regression of N-Methyl –N-Nitrosourea (MNU)-Induced mammary tumors in Wistar rats. Anup Kale, Sonia Gawande, Swati Kotwal, Shrirang Netke, M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Oncology Letters, 2010, 1:313-317

CERVICAL CANCER Suppression of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Lines Hela and oTc2 4510 MMP Expression and Matrigel Invasion by a Mixture of Lysine, Proline, Ascorbic Acid, and Green Tea Extract. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M.Rath International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 2006; 16:1241-1247

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OVARIAN CANCER In vitro modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human cervical and ovarian cancer cell lines by cytokines, inducers and inhibitors. M.W. Roomi, J.C. Monterrey, T. Kalinovsky, M. Rath, A. Niedzwiecki. Oncology Reports 2010; 23(3):605-614 Inhibition of MMP-2 Secretion and Invasion by Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Line SKOV-3 with lysine, proline, arginine, ascorbic acid, and Green Tea Extract. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research 2006; 32(2): 148-154

COLON CANCER In Vivo Antitumor Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline and Green Tea Extract on Human Colon Cancer Cell HCT 116 Xenografts in Nude Mice: Evaluation of Tumor Growth and Immunohistochemistry. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Oncology Reports, 2005, 12 (3), 421-425 Synergistic Effect of Combination of Lysine, Proline, Arginine, Ascorbic Acid and Epigallocatechin Gallate on Colon Cancer Cell Line HCT 116. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association, 2004, 7 (2): 40-43

BONE CANCER Naturally Produced Extracellular Matrix Inhibits Growth Rate and Invasiveness of Human Osteosarcoma Cancer Cells. V. Ivanov, S. Ivanova, M.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Medical Oncology 2007; 24(2): 209-217 Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline and Green Tea Extract on Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line MNNG-HOS Xenografts in Nude Mice: Evaluation of Tumor Growth and Immunohistochemistry. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Medical Oncology 2006; 23(3 ): 411-417 Antitumor Effect of Nutrient Synergy on Human Osteosarcoma Cells U2OS, MNNGHOS, and Ewing’s Sarcoma SK-ES.1. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Oncology Reports, 2005, 13(2), 253-257 In Vivo and In Vitro Antitumor Effect of Nutrient Synergy on Human Osteosarcoma Cell Line MNNG-HOS. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Annals of Cancer Research and Therapy, 2004, 12: 137-148

PANCREATIC CANCER Antitumor Effect of a Combination of Lysine, Proline, Arginine, Ascorbic Acid, and Green Tea Extract on Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line MIA PaCa-2. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath International Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer 2005, 35 (2), 97-102

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FIBROSARCOMA In Vivo and in Vitro Antitumor Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline, Arginine, and Green Tea Extract on Human Fibrosarcoma Cells HT-1080. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Medical Oncology 2006; 23(1): 105-112 Synergistic Antitumor Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline, and Epigallocatechin Gallate on Human Fibrosarcoma Cells HT-1080. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Annals of Cancer Research and Therapy, 2004 12:148-157

KIDNEY AND BLADDER CANCERS Pleiotropic effects of a micronutrient mixture on critical parameters of bladder cancer. M.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. In Bladder Cancer: Etymology, Diagnosis and Treatments, edited by William Nilsson, Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2010. Antitumor Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline, Arginine, and Green Tea Extract on Bladder Cancer Cell Line T-24. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. International Journal of Urology 2006; 13: 415-419 Modulation of Human Renal Cell Carcinoma 786-0 MMP-2 and MMP-9 Activity by Inhibitors and Inducers in Vitro. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Medical Oncology 2006; 23(2): 245-250 Anticancer Effect of Lysine, Proline, Arginine, Ascorbic Acid and Green Tea Extract on Human Renal Adenocarcinoma Line 786-0. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki and M. Rath. Oncology Reports 2006; 16(5):943-7

SKIN CANCER Inhibition of 7, 12-Dimethylbenzathracene-Induced Skin tumors by a Nutrient Mixture. M.W. Roomi, N.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, V. Ivanov, M. Rath, A. Niedzwiecki. Medical Oncology 2008; 25(3): 330-340 Suppression of growth and hepatic metastasis of murine B16FO melanoma cells by a novel nutrient mixture. M.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, N.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, M. Rath, A. Niedzwiecki. Oncology Reports 2008; 20:809-817 In Vitro and In Vivo Antitumor Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline, And Green Tea Extract On Human Melanoma Cell Line A2058. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. In Vivo 2006;20(1): 25-32

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LUNG CANCER Chemopreventive effect of a novel nutrient mixture on lung tumorigenesis induced by urethane in male A/J mice. M.W. Roomi, N.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Tumori 2009; 95: 508-513 Modulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by cytokines, mitogens, and inhibitors in lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines. M.W. Roomi, J.C. Monterrey, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Oncology Reports 2009; 22: 1283-1291 Inhibition of Malignant Mesothelioma Cell Matrix Metalloproteinase Production and Invasion by a Novel Nutrient mixture. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki and M. Rath. Experimental Lung Research 2006; 32:69-79 In Vivo and in Vitro Anti-tumor Effect of a Unique Nutrient Mixture on Lung Cancer Cell Line A-549. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki and M. Rath. Experimental Lung Research 2006; 32:441-453 Inhibition of Pulmonary Metastasis of Melanoma B16FO Cells in C57BL/6 Mice by a Nutrient Mixture Consisting of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline, Arginine, and Green Tea Extract. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Experimental Lung Research 2006; 32(10):517-30

BLOOD CANCERS Antineoplastic effect of nutrient mixture on Raji and Jurkat T cells: the two highly aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cell lines. M.W. Roomi, BA Bhanap, N.W. Roomi, A. Niedzwiecki and M. Rath. Experimental Oncology 2009; 31(3): 149-155 Epigallocatechin -3-Gallate induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HTLV-1 positive and negative leukemia cells. S. Harakeh, K. Abu-El-Ardat, M. Diab-Assaf, A. Niedzwiecki, M. El-Sabban, M. Rath. Medical Oncology 2008; 25: 30-39 Ascorbic acid induces apoptosis in Adult T-cell Leukemia. S. Harakeh, M. DiabAssaf, J. Khalife, K. Abu-El-Ardat, E. Baydoun, A. Niedzwiecki, M. El-Sabban, M. Rath. Anticancer Research 2007; 27: 289-298 Mechanistic aspects of apoptosis induction by L-Lysine in both HTLV-1 positive and negative cell lines. S. Harakeh, M. Diab-Assaf, K. Abu-El-Ardat, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Chem. Biol. Interactions 2006; 164: 102-114 Apoptosis Induction by Epican Forte in HTLV-1 Positive and Negative Malignant TCells. S. Harakeh, M. Diab-Assaf, A. Niedzwiecki, J. Khalife, K. Abu-El-Ardat, M. Rath. Leukemia Research –2006; 30: 869-881

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OTHER CANCERS Comparative effects of EGCG, green tea and a nutrient mixture on the patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in cancer cell lines. M.W. Roomi, J.C. Monterrey, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Oncology Reports – 2010; 24:747-757 Inhibition of invasion and MMPs by a nutrient mixture in human cancer cell lines: a correlation study. M.W. Roomi, J.C. Monterrey, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Experimental Oncology- 2010; 32:243-248 In vivo and in vitro effect of a nutrient mixture on human hepatocarcinoma cell line SK-Hep-1. M.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Experimental Oncology –2010;32:84-91 Patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in human cancer cell lines. M.W. Roomi, J.C. Monterrey, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Oncology Reports – 2009; 21:1323-1333 Marked inhibition of growth and invasive parameters of head and neck squamous carcinoma FADU by a nutrient mixture. M.W. Roomi, N.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2009; 8(2):168-176 Inhibition of Glioma Cell Line A-172 MMP Activity and Cell Invasion in Vitro by a Nutrient Mixture. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki and M. Rath. Medical Oncology 2007; 24(2): 231-238 Inhibitory of Cell Invasion and MMP Production by a Nutrient Mixture in Malignant Liposarcoma Cell Line SW-872. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Medical Oncology 2007; 24(4):394-401 In Vitro Anticarcinogenic Effect of a Nutrient Mixture on Human Rhadomyosarcoma Cells. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath Gene Therapy and Molecular Biology 2007; 11(B):133-144 In Vivo and in Vitro Anti-tumor Effect of a Nutrient Mixture Containing Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline, and Green Tea Extract on Human Synovial Sarcoma Cancer Cells. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki and M. Rath. JAMA 2006; 9(2): 30-34 A Specific Combination of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline and Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Proliferation and Extracellular Matrix Invasion of Various Human Cancer Cell Lines. S.P. Netke, M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Research Communications in Pharmacology and Toxicology, Emerging Drugs, 2003; Vol. II, IV37-IV50.

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Appendix − Important Documentation

METASTASIS Micronutrient synergy – a new tool in effective control of metastasis and other key mechanisms of cancer. A. Niedzwiecki, M.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, M. Rath. Cancer Metastasis Review 2010; 29; 529-542 Suppression of growth and hepatic metastasis of murine B16FO melanoma cells by a novel nutrient mixture. M.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, N.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, M. Rath, A. Niedzwiecki. Oncology Reports 2008; 20:809-817 A nutrient mixture suppresses hepatic metastasis in athymic nude mice injected with murine B16FO melanoma cells. M.W. Roomi, N.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, J.C. Monterrery, M. Rath, and A. Niedzwiecki. BioFactors 2008; 33; 85-97 Inhibition of Pulmonary Metastasis of Melanoma B16FO Cells in C57BL/6 Mice by a Nutrient Mixture Consisting of Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline, Arginine, and Green Tea Extract. M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Experimental Lung Research 2006; 32(10):517-30

ANGIOGENESE Distinct patterns of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 expression in normal human cell lines. M.W. Roomi, J.C. Monterrery, T. Kalinovsky, M. Rath, and A. Niedzwiecki. Oncology Reports – 2009; 21: 821-826 Patterns of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in human cancer cell lines. M.W. Roomi, J.C. Monterrery, T. Kalinovsky, M. Rath, and A. Niedzwiecki. Oncology Reports – 2009; 21:1323-1333 Antiangiogenic properties of a nutrient mixture in a model of hemangioma. M.W. Roomi, T. Kalinovsky, M. Rath, and A. Niedzwiecki. Experimental Oncology – Accepted 10/26/09 A novel nutrient mixture containing ascorbic acid, lysine, proline and green tea extract inhibits critical parameters in angiogenesis . M.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath in Anti-Angiogenic. Functional and Medicinal Foods, edited by Losso JN, Shahidi F, Bagchi D, CRC Press, Taylor& Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, New York, 2007, pages 561-580. Inhibitory Effect of a Mixture Containing Ascorbic Acid, Lysine, Proline, and Green Tea Extract on Critical Parameters in Angiogenesis. M.W. Roomi, N.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Oncology Reports 2005, 14(4), 807-815. Antiangiogenic Effects of a Nutrient Mixture on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. M.W. Roomi, N.W. Roomi, V. Ivanov, T. Kalinovsky, A. Niedzwiecki, M. Rath. Oncology Reports 2005;14(6):1399-404

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Victory Over Cancer

Part One:

Making the Unthinkable Possible

Further References De Prithwish et al., Breast cancer incidence and hormone replacement therapy in Canada. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 2010; 102: 1-7 Jemal A. et al., Global cancer statistics, CA Cancer J Clin. 2011; 61: 69-90. Jemal A et al., Trends in the Leading Causes of Death in the United States, 1970-2002. JAMA 2005, 294: 1255-1259 Hirsh J, An Anniversary for Cancer Chemotherapy. JAMA 2006; 296; 1518-1520. Phang J.M. et al., The metabolism of proline, a stress substance, modulates carcinogenic pathways. Amino Acids, 2008; 35; 681-690 Duffy M.J., The urokinase plasminogen activator system: role in malignancy. Curr. Pharm. Des., 2004; 10; 39-49 Henriet P et al., Contact with fibrillar collagen inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by up-regulating p27 KIP1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2000; 97; 10026-10031. K. Almholt et al., Reduced metastasis of transgenic mammary cancer in urokinase deficient mice. Int. J. Cancer 2005; 113: 525-532 Ruhul Amin A.R.M. et al., Perspectives for Cancer Prevention with Natural Co pounds. J. Clin. Oncol. 2009; 27: 2712-2725 Oak Min-Ho et al., Antiangiogenic properties of natural polyphenols from red wine and green tea. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2005; 16, 1-8 Morgan G et al., The Contribution of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy to 5-year Survival in Adult Malignancies. Clin. Oncol. 2004; 16: 549-560.

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Since the dawn of history, mankind has been haunted by a disease that has remained largely incurable – cancer. For almost a century, this disease has been the target of an investment business, the pharmaceutical industry that has turned this epidemic into a multi-billion dollar business. The outcome was predictable: Today, at the beginning of the 21st Century, cancer is Matthias Rath, M.D. spreading globally; for most types of cancer the annual death rate still increases, and the skyrocketing costs are financially ruining millions of cancer patients and strangulating the economies of entire nations. This book marks the end of this tragedy. The natural health approaches presented in this book have been shown to block all key mechanisms that make cancer a deadly disease.

Aleksandra Niedzwiecki, Ph.D.

With the publication of this book the ‘Age of intoxication’ by chemotherapy and radiation is being replaced by the ‘Age of cellular regulation’. This book does not claim that we have already reached the goal of victory over cancer, but paves the way to turn cancer into a manageable disease.

ISBN 978-90-76332-76-5

€ 12,90

All profits from the sales of this book support the DR. RATH HEALTH FOUNDATION, a non-profit organization dedicated to natural health research and education. www.dr-rath-health-foundation.org.


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