Protein Producers Fall 2021

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PROTEIN producers

TM

2021 Volume 9 Issue 3

EDITORIAL TEAM: Brandi Bain, Andrea Dietel, Darcy Howard, Lisa Taylor

SPONSORS Thank you to all sponsors for supporting PAC & Protein Producers.

Animal Health International Arm & Hammer Automated Dairy Specialists Bimeda, Inc. Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health Daniels Manufacturing Co. DOCTalk Elanco Animal Health Lallemand Animal Nutrition Merck Animal Health Micro Technologies MS Biotec Neogen Newport Laboratories Norbrook Zinpro Corporation Zoetis

FRONT COVER PHOTO CREDIT Thank you to Chelsea Deering for the photo from Iliff, Colorado.

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Iliff, Colorado

Photo Credit: Chelsea Deering

We want to showcase unique photographs from our readers here! Please submit your photographs to protein.producers@ pacdvms.com.

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WELCOME Welcome to the fall edition of Protein Producers! As one of the newer members, I am appreciative of this opportunity to welcome you on behalf of PAC. This fall, hopefully we are seeing a shift back to normal after the pandemic, albeit a “new” normal. Fall in our area of the world can find livestock producers overwhelmed by a tremendous workload which can be confounded by weather. Producers are weaning spring calves while also welcoming the newborn fall calves. The spring cows are being pregnancy checked and the fall cows and calves are being prebreeding/branding processed. Harvesting corn and beans as well as chopping silage is being done when conditions are right, with livestock work scheduled around the harvest. Producers need to be intentional and stay on task to achieve their production goals. This is not unique to our area; livestock producers all over the world face these challenges. The list may be different, but the workload is the same. I have the utmost respect for the people in our industry, and I believe our lifestyle as well as faith and family have helped us in coping with the pandemic. While writing this, I recall a verse from the Bible which was read in church this morning: Philippians 4:13 “I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me.” Our faith and knowing God will carry us through. In knowing the day-to-day workings and fast pace of the livestock industry, we at PAC feel a responsibility to the people to provide help through education, guidance, and training. We strive to keep our clients current and informed in livestock production as well as personnel management. This fall 2021 issue is a newly expanded version, offering more great, informative articles. This collection of articles should pique the interest of our reading audience while providing tools to succeed in the industry. To mention a few of the articles included in this issue: Dr. Randall Spare informs us about body condition scoring at pregnancy check and how we utilize this information. In today’s cow-calf world, we find ourselves pregnancy checking earlier in gestation which provides us with several management opportunities. Dr. Nels Lindberg writes about retention of great employees. I am certain this topic will hit home with many in the industry, especially in today’s world. As always, this issue includes a parable from Dr. Doug Ford and Dr. Greg Quakenbush, which you do not want to pass up. As a side note, if you have the opportunity to attend a presentation by any of these talented veterinarians, I would highly recommend it. In closing, we see the words “sustainable” and “stewardship” used frequently in articles within our industry. Being a PAC member involved in livestock production, I can say we do not take these words lightly. We strive to make sure our production practices are sustainable, at the same time ensuring we are good stewards to the land. The protein produced through sustainable livestock production while being good stewards to the land provides for our future generations. Dr. Raymond Stegeman Osage Veterinary Clinic Production Animal Consultation St. Thomas, Missouri 6

welcome



contents FALL 2021 6 Welcome Dr. Raymond Stegeman

44-45 PAC Member Highlights: Clint Hilt, DVM Katie Rein, DVM

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10

Parable: Attention Walmart Shoppers

75 Risa entre dientes desde Oz

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24

The Pot Roast: Stew Meat Tortilla Soup

❙ COW-CALF

78 Newest PAC Members Chuckles from Down Under

10 What Do You Need to Provide When Grazing Corn Residue?

14 Hay Storage for the Winter

THANK YOU We want to thank the industry partners, publications and associations who have pro vided content to Protein Producers. Also, a big thank you to our readers for supporting us, offering content and helping us improve each issue. We could not do any of this without all of you!

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Disclaimer: The views, opinions, and information expressed in this magazine are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect Production Animal Consultation's policy or position.

Measuring Body Condition Mitigates Risk in a Cowherd

Keeping Weaning Simple

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❙ INDUSTRY

28 Veterinary Generic Drugs for Food Animals

34 A Proactive Solution to Disruptive Changes

28

❙ LEADERSHIP

38 Focus on Retaining the Great People We Currently Have

❙ FEEDLOT

46 Five Points of Animal Health Evaluation: Lameness

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50 Find Your Most Profitable Days on Feed

56 Get Them Started Right

❙ EN ESPAÑOL

64

50

– vaca-becerro

Manteniendo el Destete Simple

68

– corrales de engorda

Cinco Puntos de la Evaluación de Salud Animal: Cojera

72 68

– parábola

Atención Compradores de Walmart fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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WHAT DO YOU NEED TO PROVIDE WHEN GRAZING CORN RESIDUE? By Dr. Mary Drewnoski, University of Nebraska-Lincoln


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ne of the most beautiful sights in Nebraska is that of a cow grazing corn residue in the fall and winter. Cattle will select for the most nutritional components in the field: the grain, the husk, and the leaf. Typically in today’s fields, there is not much grain available, but even when just grazing husk and some leaf, a pregnant cow can often maintain body condition without any supplemental protein or energy. Our data and experience suggest that as long as the stocking rate matches the amount of available husk and leaf, a dry cow does not need any protein or energy supplementation.

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University of Nebraska has evaluated dry (but pregnant) cow supplementation strategies and found that there were no differences in pregnancy rates or performance of the offspring (including future breeding ability of the heifers) of cows receiving either 2.2 lb per day of dry distillers grains or no supplementation. The stocking rate is the key. We recommend that stocking rate of a corn field be tied to corn yield, with 1 cow month for every 100 bushels of corn produced. For example, if you had an 80-acre field that averaged 150 bushels/acre, the field would have 120 cow months of grazing in it. That results in the cows cleaning up almost all the husk and some of the leaf. That said, in wet years, they may need to be removed earlier due to increased trampling losses. It is best to keep an eye on the field and when it becomes hard to find husk, it is time to move. Regardless of conditions, cows do need supplemental minerals and vitamin A to meet their needs (Table 1).

Table 1 Suggested minimums for 4 oz mineral for dry pregnant cows grazing corn residue Phosphorus,%

5

Calcium,%

5

Magnesium,%

3

Copper, ppm

2000

Zinc, ppm

3000

Selenium, ppm

26

Vitamin A, IU/lb

1,400,000

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The scenario changes for the summer/fall calving cow that is lactating while she is grazing corn residue. It is clear that the energy demands of lactation necessitate supplementation. However, the amount of supplement that is needed may vary. Summer calving cows that are in good body condition going into winter can lose body condition without having detrimental effects on their subsequent performance. In a study conducted in both eastern and western Nebraska, lactating cows (June and July calving; 1185 pounds) were provided 5.3 lb dry matter of distillers grains in bunks alongside their calves. Cows lost 0.7 units of body condition from November to April, but reproductive performance did not suffer. These cows started in good body condition (5.5) in November. Additionally, they gained condition prior to breeding such that they were BCS of 5.1. Thus, the extra body condition that many summer calving cows gain during summer grazing on pasture or being fed in a drylot can be used as a source of supplemental energy. However, summer calving cows going into the winter at lower BCS would need to be supplemented at greater rates to maintain BCS. If calving in August or later, and cows are being bred when grazing corn residue, it is important to meet their energy and protein needs during the breeding season. A cow in peak lactation, which happens around breeding, would require 7 lbs of distillers dry matter to maintain condition (i.e., meet her energy and protein needs). If supplementing distillers to lactating cows grazing corn residue, a free choice 4 oz mineral that had no phosphorus, high calcium (20%), high magnesium (10 to 13%), as well as copper, zinc, selenium, and vitamin A in similar amounts as suggested for dry cow mineral (Table 1) would meet her micronutrient needs. Weather can have a huge impact on the energy requirements of cattle. Cold temperatures increase energy requirements, especially when coupled with a wet hair coat or high winds. A cow in good BCS that has a heavy winter coat and is dry does not have to use energy to stay warm if wind chill is above 19 degrees F. When wind chill is below 19 degrees F and/or the cow has a wet hair coat, she will have to use energy to stay warm. Providing wind protection can decrease energy needs by removing wind as a factor, but with extremely cold temperatures or wet hair coats, additional energy supplementation maybe needed to maintain condition.


Having a good body condition score (5.5 BCS) is a risk management strategy, as they can often lose some condition without resulting in production losses. Good body condition also provides insulation and thus decreases the temperature at which they must start using energy to stay warm. Producers should monitor their cows closely to make sure cows maintain an acceptable level of condition for their stage of production. Typically, we target having spring cows in a BCS of 5.0 going into the spring breeding season whereas a BCS of 4.0 at spring weaning is acceptable for fall cows. Winter supplementation strategies for weaned calves differ because the growing calf has a high protein requirement. Additionally, much of the protein that is needed must bypass rumen degradation to supply amino acids to the small intestine. To illustrate this point, we compared supplementation of corn and distillers grains to calves grazing corn residue. The energy content of distillers is 108% TDN and is much greater than corn at 82% TDN. When fed at equal energy consumption (i.e., providing more corn than distillers), the distillers grains-fed steers gained a pound per day more than the steers supplemented with corn. Adding protein to the corn in the form of urea only made up 20% of the difference in gain between the corn and distillers grains supplemented groups. Based on data from several trials, a reasonable estimate of the amount of distillers that is needed to produce a targeted rate of gain is shown in Table 2. This

assumes proper stocking rates of 1 calf month per 50 bushels of corn produced. However, again weather can have a large impact on performance, with wet weather appearing to have the greatest negative impact. In forage-based systems, we observe similar performance with dry, modified, and wet distillers as long as the same amount of dry matter is fed. It is important to note that the estimates are based off of calves being fed in a bunk. Feeding on the ground will increase waste and thus increase the amount needed. In trials, evaluating the waste with ground feeding, waste of 5% was measured for modified distillers, 20% for wet distillers and as much as 40% for dry distillers when compared to bunk feeding. There are many supplementation options available in addition to distillers grains. Many of them provide added convenience in handling, delivery and/or potential waste. However, distillers is often the lowest cost source of both energy and protein in Nebraska (even when transported to locations far from the source). When considering using a feed because of its added convenience or reduced waste, it is still a good idea to price the feedstuffs on a cost per lb of nutrient needed (e.g., lb of TDN or lb of protein); that way you can figure out if these factors are worth the extra cost. Note: with growing cattle, the need for bypass protein results in there being few options that can result in similar performance at a lower cost than distillers even at high prices.

Table 2

Typical rate of distillers supplementation to achieve various rates of gain for a 600 lb growing steer ADG lbs/d

lbs of DM

lbs DDGS

lbs MDGS

1.08

1.8

2.0

3.6

1.23

2.4

2.7

4.8

1.37

3.0

3.3

6.0

1.49

3.6

4.0

7.2

1.61

4.2

4.7

8.4

1.71

4.8

5.3

9.6

1.88

6.0

6.7

12.0

1.95

6.6

7.3

13.2

Dr. Mary Drewnoski is a Beef Systems Specialist with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Prior to joining UNL in 2014, she spent time learning and working in cattle systems in many locations across the U.S. including: Kentucky, North Carolina, Iowa, and Idaho. She is a beef cattle nutritionist with expertise in forage production systems and is a part of an interdisciplinary team evaluating Economical Systems for Integrated Crop and Livestock Production in Nebraska.

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HAY STORAGE FOR THE WINTER By David C. Bruene, Iowa State University Beef Farms Manager


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ith the summer days behind us, hopefully hay yards are full, and producers across the country are starting to take inventory of what their winter hay needs may be. Now is a good time to evaluate hay storage. In the upper Midwest, particularly the state of Iowa, the majority of our winter hay needs are put up in the form of a 5’x6’ large round bales. While baling technology has evolved quite a bit from the days of the first large round bale using twine, they still present the same age-old problems of how to maximize usable feed in the package while minimizing storage losses due to elements.

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With any bale shape, the key to a good-storing bale is a well-shaped and dense one. With round bales, this means bales shaped flat and squared off at the edges. The density of the round bale is a very important part to maximize the amount of hay per bale and to minimize bale squat when put up in storage to minimize surface area contacting the ground. The secure binding product applied to the bale will also have a role in storage loss as well. Twine tends to be higher in storage loss during a wet climate while net wrap products show the least amount of spoilage. In a perfect world, buildings would be cheap and we all could have all hay stored under roof on a nice, dry, gravel floor to minimize loss. However, being a producer myself, I know this is not always the case and you may have the ability to store only the high-quality hay under roof. I have used several methods of minimizing bale storage loss when having to store bales outside. When possible, always store bales on a high elevated area to allow water to drain away from them. In wetter climates,

I would advise against stacking bales on top of each other outside, exposing them to the elements, or stacking the bales on end, being in full contact with the ground on the bottom and rain/snow elements on the top. The moisture will soak directly into the bale causing spoilage. Some producers set bales on tires or power poles to minimize ground contact and bottom bale spoilage. This method is fairy effective; however sometimes the labor to line up all the tires, move them, and dispose of them can become far more costly than one may realize. When possible, I always prefer to store bales in a line with the bale ends butted tight together to minimize end areas exposed to the elements. When bales are poorly shaped, there can be some spoilage at ends due to water infiltration or pooling at areas where bale shape is poor and not aligning well. Others that do not utilize net wrap have been successful stacking bales in a pyramid shape and covering bales with a commercially available hay tarp. If you are

When the bales are stored outside, push the ends of the bales tightly together in rows of consistent bale count by cutting and elevate the bales off of the ground if possible.

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thinking of using a hay tarp, I would encourage you to find one with a sturdy tie down system that spans underneath the bottom bales and has thick rope-to-fabric attachment points to minimize risk of wind damage. Tarped stacks in areas of high humidity have had issues with moisture forming under tarp and rotting bales from underneath. There needs to be airflow from the ends of the stack and under the tarp to allow airflow around bales and eliminate this problem. With some of the basics outlined, the approach I take to hay storage is all bales are put up with caution to ensure all bales are put up dry (under 20% moisture) and have good bale density and shape to help shed water. I recommend net wrap is applied covering the bale all the way to each edge. Bales need to be moved quickly after being made to the final storage place to minimize areas of ground contact. When moving bales that have sat in the field for a while or are needing to be moved to another storage area, be cognizant of self-unloading trailers. It is best to prevent bales from rolling and causing multiple areas on a bale to have ground contact points. The highest quality feed is stored under a roof on a dry floor that is free of moisture problems. The hay stored in this manner is usually fed by either unrolling or putting in a bale ring. When the bales are stored outside, push the ends of the bales tightly together in rows of consistent bale count by cutting and elevate the bales off of the ground if possible. I prefer to store hay by putting them in uniform rows of equal bale count by cutting to simplify keeping track of feed inventory. Elevating bales off of the ground will also mitigate the risk of the bottom of a bale freezing to the ground after a thaw and refreeze in the winter. The lower quality hay used for feedlot hay or planned to be processed by a grinder should be stored close to the site of grinding and used up as quickly as possible. However, it still should be stored with ends butted tightly together in rows with 10-12 inch spacing between rows on an elevated pad to allow water to drain away from bales. When lining up hay in rows, remember to leave room for bales that may squat during storage and to minimize tire damage from running into the sides of bales before taking to feed. I encourage trying to be diligent with the amount of hay stored outside on the ground whenever possible and make sure it is fed and used before starting to replenish the hay yard again. Hay that may be carried over, kept for long term storage, or used as a drought backup plan for next 18 cow-calf

summer has the most “investment” in storage costs to ensure losses are kept to a minimum and quality is preserved as much as possible. In wetter climates, a storage method that is becoming more popular is wet baling and wrapping hay to make silage bales. As convenient of an option as this is, take into consideration cost effectiveness, baling conditions, and storage. Just like plastic wrapping dry hay, wet-wrapped hay with a tear or hole in plastic wrap is prone to spoilage from both water and air. Tube-style wrappers, individual bale wrappers, and plastic surface wrappers are all effective tools for putting up wet-wrapped silage bales when done correctly. Surface plastic wraps can be applied over twine and net wrap to dry hay to decrease storage losses on high quality hay; however, access to wrappers, costs, and time may be a limiting factor for some producers. With all these different methods of hay storage we have discussed this fall, think about what modifications can be implemented in your operation to cut costly storage losses down before winter or to prepare for next season. Sometimes it is as simple as leaving bales stored in a line and only pulling out the bales you need for the week. This allows them to be picked up with a bale bed easier versus having both ends of every bale exposed all season long in storage. With a good portion of hay in a large round bale in the outer third or so of a bale, every little bit adds up to literally tons of hay savings over a season quickly. David C. Bruene is the Iowa State University Beef Farms Manager. He grew up on a diversified row crop, cow/calf, and cattle feeding operation in Gladbrook, Iowa. He has managed the Iowa State University Beef Teaching Farm and hay making operations since 2013. This operation consists of two purebred spring herds, Angus and Simmental, and a commercial fall herd with heavy adaptation of rotational grazing and alternative winter cow feed strategies for teaching, research, and demonstration. He and his wife Molly own and operate a small Angus cow/calf operation south of Boone, Iowa, with emphasis on profitable grazing, winter cow feeding strategies, and low stress stock dog handling practices.



KEEPING WEANING SIMPLE By Dr. Austin Traphagan, Solomon Valley Veterinary Hospital, Production Animal Consultation


N

o two operations have the exact same method for weaning calves. Whether it is facility, labor, or land constraints, every producer has limitations that make their situation unique. The end goal of weaning calves is to successfully remove the calf from physical contact with the dam and remove milk from the calf’s diet. If done appropriately and timely, the calves are better prepared for the long term or finishing process and the cows are relieved of a nutritional burden, which will improve their future reproductive efficiency and ability to raise the next round of calves.

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Low-stress weaning techniques such as two-stage weaning or fenceline weaning can provide improved calf health when compared to weaning the calf from the cow and moving the two groups to separate locations directly. Both provide a more gradual approach that makes the process easier on the calves. Why is the pre-weaning/weaning process so important? How a producer weans their calves can be beneficial or hurtful regardless of their plans for ownership once the weaning dust has settled. For those producers that plan on selling directly to backgrounders or feedlots, practicing proper pre-weaning/weaning techniques can help continuously produce healthy and high-performing calves worth premium prices. For producers who plan on keeping calves through some of or entirely through the feeding process, they can enjoy a number of benefits such as reduced disease in their calves, reduced time and cost for treatments, higher weight gains, and overall quieter weaning pens. By putting in the extra time and resources to decrease the stresses felt by your calf crop, the more profitable it will be in the long run.

weaning, you can help decrease the sickness that the group of calves experiences. Additionally, bringing the calves through a second time and preconditioning with a second round of vaccinations not only further jump starts the immune system and decreases the amount of sickness experienced by the group at home but makes them a more desirable set of calves going forward. Optimally, giving preconditioning vaccinations 45 days prior to weaning would be ideal. Administering at least two weeks prior to weaning is necessary to allow for some immune stimulation to occur, making the vaccinations beneficial. By accomplishing all of these tasks long before the weaning process begins, you effectively cut down the stress felt by the calf from two events, losing contact with the mother and transitioning to feed.

Simple ways to help your calves

Weaning

The techniques and methods used to accomplish weaning should be planned to prepare calves for one of the most stressful events of their life. Fortunately, weaning does not have to be an overly complicated process. No single method or step is the magic answer to issues experienced while weaning but all have potential to decrease or limit those issues felt by your calf crop. By thinking ahead and using some of these tools, a producer can help to limit the potential for sickness in their calves, economic losses during the weaning process, and in some situations, calf mortality.

When the time comes to separate the calves, lowstress cattle handling will always be beneficial. Moving cattle quietly and calmly through well-designed facilities can help to keep calves healthy. The more you practice this technique and handle the cattle, the less stress they will experience each time you bring them into the corrals. As much as low-stress handling is preached in the industry, the same can be said for weaning techniques. Low-stress weaning techniques such as twostage weaning or fenceline weaning can provide improved calf health when compared to weaning the calf from the cow and moving the two groups to separate locations directly. Both provide a more gradual approach that makes the process easier on the calves. In the two-step method, the calves are initially ran through the chute and an anti-suckling device/paddle is placed in the nose of the calves. The device prevents the calf’s ability to suck the mother. The calf is then placed back with the mother and the paddle is left in

Pre-weaning Weaning typically takes place around 7-10 months of age. Ideally a producer’s weaning plan involves practices that start prior to actual weaning, starting with health and vaccine management. By getting other stressful events such as castration, dehorning, branding, and a first round of vaccinations accomplished long before 22 cow-calf


place for 5-7 days. Over this time, the calf is weaned from milk in the diet and starts to eat more forages. At the end of this time period, the paddle is removed before the nose gets damaged and calves are removed from the cows. The downside to this method is that calves require multiple trips though the chute, but by removing the milk from the diet with continued maternal contact, calves are less stressed when trying to transition over to forages full time. Fenceline weaning on the other hand is an option that does not require extra trips through the chute. However, it does require extra space. The idea of fenceline weaning is to separate the dams and calves in adjacent pastures where they can maintain visual and muzzle-to-muzzle contact through the fence. Contact is maintained for at least 3-4 days. In an ideal setting, the calves would remain in the same pasture and the cows would be moved out. By keeping calves in the same environment, they already have some idea where the feed and water can be found. It is always more beneficial to move the older animals when possible as they can deal with that stress more easily than the calves. Research conducted over varying methods using low-stress practices shows that calves weaned using these techniques have a treatment rate of only 5-10%, instead of the 25-30% which can be seen in abruptly weaned calves.

Post Weaning Once calves are introduced into their new environment, making sure water sources are available and easy to find is key. Calves will find water by sight, smell, and sound so anything that can be done to increase their ability to ‘stumble’ into some water is a positive. This can include anything from fenceline water tanks, as calves will be walking the fences, to adding additional lower-sided stock tanks in the pens that may resemble what the calves are used to in the pasture. Letting tanks run over or pulling the plugs out of automatic waterers are also great ways to help calves find water. Aside from water, a proper starter ration is the second most important aspect of weaning. Getting the calves to eat is the first step; then gradual changes in feed are made after establishing intake. Plenty of hay should be kept in the bunks and it should be fluffed regularly. Being able to see the hay will help calves in finding it and having some hanging over the side to the ground is beneficial. Once calves are bunk broke and clean up the hay they are given, they can be transitioned to hotter feeds or total mixed rations (TMRs). Calves should be eating

around 1.5% of their body weight within the first week and a half on feed. If calves have been creep fed in the past, bunk breaking may occur faster. The use of ionophores that act as coccidiostats, such as rumensin, is also a tool that can be utilized when the calves start to clean up feed from the bunks. Stressed, freshly weaned calves that are put into confinement situations are much higher risk to break with coccidiosis. By feeding this additive to calves, you can help to keep a smooth transition over to feed and decrease potential for treating individual calves that start to show clinical signs. Last, acclimating calves by quietly moving them around the pen or pasture when they reach their destination is an additional way to help facilitate feed and water intake. Doing this repeatedly for the first few days in the new setting will help them to locate feed and water faster as well as provide them opportunities to interact with their caregivers. This contact will pay further dividends later on as it prepares the calves for experiences with the pen riders and doctoring crews. Weaning calves is an important part of the production process. Whether or not you are there to see how it affects the calves down the road, it will continually reflect their overall performance. Luckily, it really does not have to be a complicated process. Preparing the calves ahead of time, providing a little support when separating, and providing proper nutrition for freshly weaned calves are simple steps to troubleshoot most weaning problems long before they happen.

Dr. Austin Traphagan graduated with his DVM from Kansas State University in 2020. He is a Colorado native who grew up on the northeastern plains of the state in Yuma, Colorado. He grew up splitting much of his time between his father’s mixed veterinary practice and the rest of his family’s cow-calf operations and small feed yard. After attending the University of Wyoming, he made his way to Manhattan and Kansas State. Since graduating, he has been practicing at the bustling Solomon Valley Veterinary Hospital in Beloit, Kansas.

This article has been translated to Spanish on page 64. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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MEASURING BODY CONDITION MITIGATES RISK IN A COWHERD

By Dr. Randall Spare, Ashland Veterinary Center, Production Animal Consultation


Body Condition Score is an effective, inexpensive tool used to guide a nutrition program.

B

ody Condition Score (BCS) in beef cows is an indicator of the amount of flesh the cow is carrying. This scoring procedure quantifies the amount of fat reserves in a cow. Just as a balance sheet is used to evaluate the financial soundness of a business, body condition scoring allows for a systematic approach to assess the nutritional status of a cow and cowherd. Often this is done at strategic stages of the gestational cycle of the cow, such as during pregnancy diagnosis and also prior to calving. It is an effective, inexpensive tool used to guide a nutrition program. With the cost of forage, supplement, and mineral being as much 65 to 75 percent of the annual cow cost, we can make disciplined and specific choices to feed to the correct endpoint. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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BCS has several practical implications that correlate to a ranch’s profitability. We know that reproductive rate is the primary indicator of profitability. Also, knowing that reproduction is a lowly heritable trait forces us to understand that environment and nutrition are keys to ensuring a targeted reproductive rate. The body condition score of the cow at calving is positively correlated to pregnancy rate and the length of postpartum anestrous (the time period from calving until the cow returns to estrus). Increased BCS also has a positive effect on the health and vigor of calves at birth. Body condition is assessed at critical stages, such as pregnancy diagnosis, 60-90 days pre-calving, calving, and the start of breeding. When assessed at these critical production stages, adjustments can be made to mitigate risks of poor fertility or less than robust calf health. Nutritional supplementation can be planned with a BCS herd assessment. Many tools and computer models are available today that assist in determining the exact nutrient needs of production phases along with cow size, age, breed, body condition score, milk production, environment, temperature, and moisture. Along with the cow’s needs, the available forage can be analyzed for protein, energy,

26 cow-calf

mineral content, and digestibility. Then a cow’s exact nutrient needs can be formulated for improving BCS.

Starting out The beef cow body condition scale is 1 to 9, with 1 being very thin (to the point the cow cannot rise) and 9 being obese. Included at the end of this article are several resources on the body condition score being described. Since BCS scoring is somewhat subjective, it is important to realize that two people may not score an animal exactly the same. However, it is most important that each person scoring the cows do it consistently. As with any other skill, it takes practice. One will soon find themselves driving down the road visualizing body condition scoring in an effort to improve their BCS skills.

Adjustments In a cow that weighs 1,200 pounds, one BCS is equal to approximately 90-100 pounds of body weight.To increase weight by one body condition score in a 1,200 pound cow, a target of 100 pounds of weight gain is necessary in a specified time period. This increase of weight does not include the weight of fetus or placenta.


Weight gain should be measured by the actual body weight of the cow. Another objective of body condition scoring is the increase of body reserves necessary to withstand the cold weather or inclement conditions of winter. An adequately conditioned cow will have increased fat cover, allowing her actual maintenance levels to be lower in cold, wet, and windy weather. Many remember this past February, when the polar vortex held temperatures abnormally low for nearly 14 days. It was virtually impossible for a cow to eat enough protein, energy, and forage to maintain body weight. Therefore, it was important to have spring calving cows in optimum body condition prior to calving.

Practical examples to use this information A BCS 5 should be the target for a mature cow at the time of calving to maintain an efficient return to estrus and conceive early in the breeding season. Most spring calving herds target March 1 as a calving date. Assuming the average body condition score of 4 is recorded at the November 15 pregnancy check, the cow must gain 100 pounds in 105 days to improve to a BCS 5 prior to calving. The supplement and forage program must target one pound per day of daily gain to reach the goal of BCS 5. Producers using BCS can systematically implement a system to take control of the feeding program by intentionally measuring the body condition of the cows at the time of palpation. Another example is in first-calf heifers. A target BCS of 6 at the time of calving is critical. First-calf heifers are still growing and need more time to return to estrus in comparison to a mature cow. Therefore, first-calf heifers need more fat reserves to transition into early breeders in the mature cowherd. Another challenge of first-calf heifers is the decreased quality and quantity of colostrum because of age. Any time the BCS is less than 6, colostral output will be decreased.

Nutritionally managing – taking control There are four strategic stages to evaluate body condition score: • • • •

Weaning 60-day pre-calving When calving starts Beginning of breeding season

Moving into mid-fall and preparing for the middle of gestation, often, there may tendencies to think all we

need to do is “coast.” Calves are weaned and the cows are moved to winter pasture or a crop residue. Let’s reconsider an intentional nutritional plan for the next 34 months, until 45-60 days pre-calving. Benchmarking the condition of the cows at each stage will provide opportunity to evaluate the forage and supplements for the next 30-90 days as well as the next six months. Being proactive allows us to procure the needed resources and be less reactive to adverse weather events. Fat mitigates risk. Simply put, fat creates the nutritional margin during critical periods of severe weather, or when the cow has increased nutritional needs of uterine involution, lactational needs, and estrus. Remember that progressive cow-calf producers are always looking for tools to mitigate risk. Having a cow in the targeted, optimum body condition at calving will decrease the risk of infertility and poor calf health.

Resources __________________

https://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_circulars/CR575/ https://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/ec281.pdf http://extension.msstate.edu/publications/publications/bodycondition-scoring-beef-cattle http://www.beefresearch.ca/research/body-conditionscoring.cfm https://extension.psu.edu/body-condition-score-as-anutritional-management-tool

Randall Spare, a graduate of Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine in 1986, is President and Co-Owner of Ashland Veterinary Center. AVC is a mixed animal practice with six veterinarians serving clients in several states. Through dedication and desire to help clients succeed, Ashland Veterinary Center works to exceed expectations. Dr. Spare focuses on bovine care, especially cow-calf production. Besides the practice of veterinary medicine, his passion is to recruit and mentor young people to the field of veterinary medicine. Randall and his wife, Michelle, are parents to five children, and now have nine grandchildren. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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VETERINARY GENERIC DRUGS FOR FOOD ANIMALS

The requirements for approval of a generic drug by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA CVM) are often the subject of confusion and misinformation. For purposes of clarity and brevity, this article focuses on the requirements for approving a generic injectable product for use in food animals, intended as a general overview of the generic drug approval process.


By Michael D. Apley, DVM, PhD, DACVCP, Frick Professor of Clinical Sciences, Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine

Summary •

Original pioneer products must successfully complete 7 technical sections for approval by the FDA CVM.

Generic products for food animals must complete 6 technical sections, 4 of which are the same as for the original pioneer product.

The generic product must demonstrate bioequivalence to the pioneer product. Bioequivalence studies bridge the generic product to the pioneer product, which was proven to be safe and effective.

The bioequivalence technical section may be satisfied by a biowaiver for some generic dosage forms with the same formulation as the pioneer product.

·• The FDA CVM Human Food Safety team reviews the human food safety technical section for the generic drug application and determines if additional information is needed. •

Some myths considered in this article, all of which are untrue, include... o Generic injectable drugs may have as little as 80% of the active substance concentration as the pioneer product. o Generic drugs have wider manufacturing tolerances than pioneer products. o Compounded products are generics, right?

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Introduction The requirements for approval of a generic drug by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA CVM) are often the subject of confusion and misinformation. For purposes of clarity and brevity, this article focuses on the requirements for approving a generic injectable product for use in food animals, intended as a general overview of the generic drug approval process. As in any complicated process, there are many “ifs, ands, and buts” which may affect any particular approval.

Pioneer (NADA) Drug Approvals It is first necessary to understand the approval requirements for the original drug product, often referred to as the “pioneer” version of the drug. While we usually say a drug is approved by the FDA, the FDA CVM actually approves the New Animal Drug Application (NADA), made up of 7 required technical sections. The science and practices associated with terms such as good manufacturing practices (GMPs), good clinical practices (GCPs), and good laboratory practices (GLPs) are integral to successful completion of the sections. The FDA CVM then prepares a Freedom of Information (FOI) summary in cooperation with the sponsor; this is a public document which summarizes the studies and conclusions for each of the technical sections. The technical sections for a pioneer NADA are as follows, as listed in FDA Guidance for Industry (GFI) #132, dated May 2018. Quoted text are excerpts taken directly from GFI #132. 30 industry

1. Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) a. “This section contains complete information regarding the manufacture of the new animal drug active ingredient and the new animal drug product. It includes information on personnel, facilities, components and composition, manufacturing procedures, analytical specifications and methods, control procedures, stability, containers and closures, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) compliance, and many other aspects of the chemistry and manufacturing processes (21 CFR 514.1(b)(4) and (5)).” 2. Effectiveness a. “This section contains full reports of all studies that show whether or not the new animal drug is effective for its intended use (21 CFR 514.1(b)(8)(i)). This section includes studies conducted by or on behalf of the sponsor or available to the sponsor by right of reference… This section includes any additional pertinent information that is known about the effectiveness of the drug at the time the technical section is submitted.” 3. Target Animal Safety a. “This section contains full reports of all studies required by FDA to demonstrate whether or not the new animal drug is safe to the target species (21 CFR 514.1(b)(8)(i))… This section also contains any studies or references relevant to the safety of humans that administer


or may come into direct contact with the new animal drug (user safety)...” 4. Human Food Safety a. “This section is submitted only for applications for new animal drugs intended for use in species that are used for human food (foodproducing animals). This section includes a description of practicable methods for determining the quantity, if any, of the new animal drug in or on food, and any substance formed in or on food because of its use, and the proposed tolerance or withdrawal period or other use restrictions to ensure that the proposed use of the drug will be safe (21 CFR 514.1(b)(7)). This section should also contain any data relating to residue toxicology (including the impact of residues of antimicrobials on human intestinal microflora), residue chemistry, and, if the new animal drug is an antimicrobial, microbial food safety…” 5. Environmental Impact a. “This section (21 CFR 514.1(b)(14)) contains either an environmental assessment (EA) under 21 CFR 25.40, or a request for categorical exclusion under 21 CFR 25.30…” 6. Labeling 7. All other information To describe the process as complex and resourceintensive is an understatement.

Generic (ANADA) Drug Approvals Once the pioneer drug is off patent, or in some cases after expiration of an additional marketing exclusivity period, the FDA is granted authority by the Generic Animal Drug and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1988 to approve Abbreviated New Animal Drug Applications (ANADAs) for generic copies of the pioneer drug. Approval of the ANADA requires the acceptance of 6 technical sections by the FDA CVM. A public FOI document is also prepared. 1. Labeling a. This must be similar to the Pioneer drug (also referred to as the Reference Listed New Animal Drug, or RLNAD). 2. Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls a. The section has the same requirements as for the pioneer product or any approved drug.

3. Human food safety a. “In the instances where human food safety information is required, the division responsible for the evaluation of this information will advise the sponsor as to the requirements that must be met.” Human food safety information is required for all drugs intended for use in food animals. 4. Environmental Impact a. This section is the same as for the RLNAD. 5. Bioequivalence a. “This section contains full reports of all studies that show the generic new animal drug is bioequivalent to the reference listed new animal drug or all information submitted in support of a waiver from the requirement to demonstrate in-vivo bioequivalence.” 6. Patent and Marketing Exclusivity a. “This section includes the appropriate patent certification or statement (see 21 CFR 314.94(a)(12)). It also contains an appropriate statement with regard to the current marketing exclusivity status of the reference listed new animal drug.” Notice that the technical sections for effectiveness and target animal safety are not required for generic ANADA applications. Bioequivalence studies bridge the generic product to the pioneer product, which was proven to be safe and effective. Technical sections unique to the generic drug approval procedure are Bioequivalence and Patent and Marketing Exclusivity. All generic products must demonstrate bioequivalence. For products where this is accomplished through approval of a biowaiver such as an injectable solution, bioequivalence may be demonstrated by a comparison of the generic formulation to the pioneer on the basis of relevant physiochemical properties. If there are any changes in the generic product which affect bioavailability, the biowaiver will be denied. When a biowaiver is not granted, then a bioequivalence study is required. We will use a pharmacokinetic (blood concentration) study as an example, but in some cases alternatives to this type of bioequivalence study may be used, such as a pharmacologic end-point study or clinical end-point study. For a typical pharmacokinetic bioequivalence study, both the pioneer and proposed generic drug are given to each of multiple animals in a “cross-over” study design fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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where each animal in the study receives both products with a “wash out” period observed between the two drugs. When the plasma concentration data are analyzed, the focus is on two parameters; these are the maximum achieved plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration curve as plotted on a chart (AUC). The Cmax gives an indication of the rate (speed) of absorption of each product and the AUC gives an indication of the extent (how much) of drug absorption over the observed time period. This next part about the analysis of these values is very important because it is a source of one of the myths about generic products. A 90% statistical confidence interval is constructed around the average Cmax and AUC values for the proposed generic product. This means that given the variability observed in the study, there is a 90% probability that the true average of the value lies with this range. The outer limits of this confidence interval must generally fall within -20% and +20% of the average value for the pioneer product (+ 25% if the

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values are log transformed). Let’s use the example below to clarify this approach. In our example, the pioneer product maximum concentration in the plasma (Cmax) average across all study animals was 100. Calculating the +/- 20% range around the pioneer Cmax results in a range of 80-120.


In this same example, the average for the proposed generic product is 97, with a 90% confidence interval for the true average of ± 14 (83 to 111). This product would meet bioequivalence standards for Cmax; the outer bounds of the 90% confidence interval fall within ± 20% of the pioneer product average. The same process would be repeated for Area Under the Concentration curve (AUC). The standards must be met for both Cmax and AUC in order for a proposed generic product to demonstrate bioequivalence.

Generic Myths A generic product can have as little as 80% of the concentration of the pioneer product. First, the ±20% range is about statistical analysis of plasma concentration values, not drug concentration in the product. Secondly, to meet the requirements within the variability encountered in a study, the values for the generic drug must be quite close to the pioneer product values so that the outer boundaries of the 90% confidence interval fall within the prescribed range around the pioneer product average (generally +/- 20%). Generic products have wider manufacturing tolerances than pioneer products. The FDA applies the same CMC requirements to generic and pioneer drugs. Compounded and generic products are essentially the same thing. You now understand the FDA CVM approval process for generic products. Compounded products do not have a similar approval process and are not reviewed by FDA prior to marketing. Any assurances as to the quality of compounded products are provided by the compounder and their processes. This includes information like compounded product strength and expiration.

Conclusion This article scratches the surface of the generic drug approval process. More can be learned about the process from the resources listed below. You can access multiple information sources, including the FOI, for products approved by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine at Animal Drugs @ FDA.

Thank you to Dr. Ian Hendricks of the FDA/CVM Division of Generic Animal Drugs for his presentation “FDA/CVM Demonstrating Bioequivalence” which was valuable in preparing this article.

For Additional Information: __________________

FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine Guidance for Industry #35. Bioequivalence Guidance. (2006) FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine Guidance for Industry #132. Administrative Applications and the Phased Review Process. (2018) FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine Draft Guidance for Industry #171. Demonstrating Bioequivalence for Soluble Powder Oral Dosage Form Products for Type A Medicated Articles Manufactured from Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Considered to be Soluble in Aqueous Media. (2019)

Dr. Apley is a veterinarian with a PhD in physiology (pharmacology). He is a Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology. His practice background includes general practice in central Kansas and a feedlot consulting/contract research practice based in Colorado. Dr. Apley was on the College of Veterinary Medicine faculty at Iowa State University for 9 years through 2005. He is currently a professor in the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences at Kansas State University. Dr. Apley works with veterinarians and producers throughout the United States concerning the use of drugs in food animals and also in the area of beef cattle health with an emphasis on feedlots. Dr. Apley teaches in the beef production medicine, large animal medicine, clinical pharmacology and pharmacology courses. His research interests include infectious disease, antibiotic efficacy and resistance, antibiotic stewardship, drug residues, and applications of drugs in food animals. In 2016, he and collaborators started a 5-year study funded by the FDA which focuses on quantifying antibiotic use in feedlots and dairies. Dr. Apley is a past president of the Academy of Veterinary Consultants, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology, and the American Association of Bovine Practitioners. In 2015, Dr. Apley was appointed as a voting member of the Presidential Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria. In 2019 he was reappointed to another 3-year term. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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A PROACTIVE SOLUTION TO DISRUPTIVE CHANGES

By Callahan Grund, U.S. CattleTrace


For too long, the U.S. cattle industry has clung to normal, instead of using the disrupters we have faced to tackle challenges to our livelihoods in new and innovative ways.

W

e are finally approaching the sense of normal that our world felt before 2020. Months of wearing masks and avoiding public gatherings have passed, and now that our communities and industries have started to convene, there is no doubt that many of us have just lived through the greatest disruption of our times. With shortages of toilet paper, an extreme price jump in beef prices and the loss of a labor workforce, we have seen unprecedented changes in the flow of our day-to-day lives.

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To put it simply, we are more globally connected than ever before. What was once an issue or opportunity in a country thousands of miles away can now be at our doorsteps in a matter of days. If there is anything that the progression of the COVID-19 crisis has taught us, it is that our dependence on the “normal” we all are comfortable in can be drastically altered in a mere moment. Disruption constantly comes to mind for me when we discuss the pandemic in our human population. It is also the word that comes to mind we start discussions on the impact that a foreign animal disease (FAD) could have on not only our nation’s herd, but more importantly, our food supply. That normality we have yearned for the past year will now come to be something entirely different. For too long, the U.S. cattle industry has clung to normal, instead of using the disrupters we have faced to tackle challenges to our livelihoods in new and innovative ways. The romantic nature of the western culture that we live in and the cattle industry that we love has sometimes enthralled us to long for the past rather than innovate and improve for the future. As of 2019, of the top 10 beef exporting countries in the world, the United States of America and India are the only countries that do not have a robust national disease traceability system. With India’s primary export being water buffalo, this leaves the U.S. as the lone high-quality beef exporting nation without an end-to-end, robust disease traceability system. In comparison to the technology industry, any time a progression is made, we take extreme measures to ensure the security and safety of this new technology. The U.S. currently produces the highest quality, best tasting beef product in the world. If a foreign animal disease were to hit our nation’s cattle industry, the disruption would be devastating to “the way we have always done things”. Disruption can occur at anytime and anywhere in our lives. The potential risk that a foreign animal disease could have on our industry may cost an exponential amount and have long lasting effects, similar to what we are seeing now in our new “normal”. We at U.S. CattleTrace are producers, just like many of you. Our mission is to create and build a voluntary contact tracing system for the beef industry that can be utilized during a disease outbreak. We aim to work with producers just like yourselves to proactively build out a system that works and integrates with the “way things have always been done” in the beef industry, while still crafting a functional contact tracing tool for animal health officials in the time of a disease outbreak. For more information on how to join U.S. CattleTrace, contact us at 785-4568472 or visit uscattletrace.org. Callahan Grund serves as the executive director for U.S. CattleTrace. Grund previously worked in policy engagement, business development and animal disease traceability preparedness at the Kansas Department of Agriculture. Grund has also served as the Director of Producer Relations with Farm Strategy, LLC, an agricultural start-up business in the grains sector. Originally from Sharon Springs, Kansas, Grund grew up on a registered Gelbvieh, Balancer and Angus seedstock cow-calf operation and is still highly involved today. He and his wife, Emily, also run a small cattle herd of their own near Wamego, Kansas. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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FOCUS ON RETAINING THE GREAT PEOPLE WE CURRENTLY HAVE Dr. Nels Lindberg, Production Animal Consultation


R

egardless of the industry, maintaining enough team members to work is a challenge. We have all seen extreme situations, such as restaurants that can’t even open their doors to conduct business and create commerce. This is a day many of us never thought we would see.

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All humans are given three things: talent (what you do well), passion (what you love), and mission (something you want to accomplish, give to the world, and be a part of). As leaders, it must be our goal to help our people do what they are good at with passion as part of a noble mission that gets results. As we find it more and more difficult to get people to apply or even “come in the door”, we need to shift our thoughts on taking care of the valuable team members we currently have. We must work very hard at keeping those that are currently under our care and leadership. We have current rockstars that will leave us if we do not take care of them because all businesses are hungry for help and willing to step up to the plate to attract talent. One of the greatest intangible costs to a feedyard is employee turnover. We never can truly measure the tangible cost from an accounting basis, but in any industry, it is widely known that the greatest cost to any company is turnover. We as leaders must be intentional about retaining the incredible folks we have on our teams. Your ability to be a great leader is predicted by your ability to put the right people on the field. Time and money cost you “wins.” Bill Belichick was 36-44 as the head coach of Cleveland Browns. He was 5-11 his first year at New England, and in 2001, he was winless until Tom Brady became the starting quarterback. With Brady as starting quarterback, Belichick’s teams are 136-39; without, they are 51-65. Talent matters. No one is irreplaceable, but talent retention matters, as this analogy demonstrates. If a rockstar feed crew leader leaves because they do not feel valued, we have not led them appropriately or we have not been very open in our all-around communication with them about their career, family, and success in life. It will cost the yard some “wins” in the feed column and maybe in the health column. Great yards pick up the pieces and move on after a key person leaves – that is just what they do – but it may sting for a bit. We want to retain our talent because, like Tom Brady, they are tough to replace. All humans are given three things: talent (what you do well), passion (what you love), and mission (something 40 leadership

you want to accomplish, give to the world, and be a part of). As leaders, it must be our goal to help our people do what they are good at with passion as part of a noble mission that gets results. As we work to retain talent, our leadership team must work very hard to communicate to their team members what they do well, have heart-to-heart conversations with their team members about what they love, and routinely communicate the noble mission, purpose, and reason driving what we do every day. The following are five key steps to retain your talented caregivers, feed crew, and maintenance team members. 1. Develop your people intentionally. Most people have a desire to be better, and it is up to their leaders to lead caringly enough to fire up that passion within them. Here are several action items for you and your teams: • Have a self-improvement reading plan for your people (it could be on personal finances, parenting, leadership growth, family, etc.). • Provide continual feedback on their work or their growth as a person. They are looking to you for approval of what they are doing or working on. • Have them attend conferences that grow them personally and professionally. Many leaders number one downfall is they think they already know it all on personal growth and leadership; otherwise, they would not be in those positions. The fact is, we all have continued, humbled learning and growing to do. As leaders we are either preparing or repairing. Let’s prepare, and let’s also invest in our valued team’s growth beyond the technical aspectof the job in a truly caring way that helps our people succeed at life! Be intentional about investing in their growth!


2. Recognize them intentionally. As Gen Xers and Boomers, we can be terrible at recognizing any kind of win, big or small. Our parents and leaders may have never recognized us individually for our wins at work or at home. They just expected us to keep making progress. But our people today want and crave recognition. Our hesitancy to pat them on the back for fear they have too much confidence or to routinely tell them “Good job!” for fear they may ask for a raise often factors into their decision to take steps towards leaving us. Get better at noticing people doing things right and recognizing them in front of the whole crew. The human soul thrives off a pat on the back in front of peers. 3. Reward them. Many men and women would rather be publicly recognized and rewarded than get a raise. Now, we do seem to live in a time of pay inflation, and maybe that is not all bad for our hard-working team members, but, beyond pay, how can we reward them for their long hours of

hard work? Is it through periodic “Benjis”? Or is it through periodic beef days where you hand out several hundred frozen ribeyes? Or maybe lunch for the whole yard quarterly or monthly? Or maybe a custom-made piece of tack or an extra paid day off? Something even more simple that costs nothing is the reward of a handwritten letter or note of appreciation. When was the last time you did this? I promise, if you start hand-writing notes to your team members, the person receiving it may not say anything, but loyalty to you and your leadership will soar through the roof! Take action on this now! 4. Promote them. Some team members want an opportunity to grow and others do not, but it is our obligation to give them an opportunity to grow. Contrary to belief, this does not mean they take your job. It means we as leaders simply help our people grow professionally, personally, and for their family. (Do I sound like a broken record?) Most all people have a desire to grow and get

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better at life and at work under the right leadership. If we as leaders believe our people do not have a desire to do that, then we should likely take a look in the mirror. Now, there are also opportunities to discuss growth to higher levels within an organization with our people. As you see that potential in their daily behavior and as you grow them as a person, talk them through the expectations it takes to get promoted.

income and impact! We as leaders can provide that by taking action on the items listed above. There is not an exact “grand plan” or “how to” book when it comes to attracting and retaining our people. It all starts with all these little action items that add up to the “grand plan” for people to have a desire to be under your leadership and stay under your leadership.

5. Keep them in their sweet spot. Many of our people fail in our yards because we elevate them into positions at which they are not capable of succeeding. We must evaluate our people for their ability to succeed at the next level instead of evaluating them based on their success at their current level. Some have what it takes at the next level and some have what it takes at the next level under our mentorship and leadership growth plan while others not only do not have the ability to succeed at the next level but also do not want to be pushed to that higher level. We must help our people understand their sweet spot and help keep them in that sweet spot for them and their success. 85% of the global workforce is not engaged and that is directly due to leadership. It is our job to engage our people to retain them. We as leaders are the lid on our talent. If we as leaders want to win, we must help grow our talent to win. Grow them as people across all aspects of life so that they can win at life. People want two things:

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Dr. Nels Lindberg is a people coach, team coach, business coach, and keynote speaker, all virtually or in person. If you have any interest in these opportunities, please reach out to his office at 620-792-1265 and visit with his right-hand lady, Jill.



PAC MEMBER HIGHLIGHTS•••••••••

CLINT HILT, DVM

Hilt Veterinary Service Inc. Dutton, Montana

“My grandfather was a cowboy who always seemed to know what to do with cattle and horses. I was inspired by him to learn more and become a veterinarian.” Dr. Clint Hilt has been practicing veterinary medicine for the past 32 years. He started Hilt Veterinary Service in 1994 and built the practice together with his wife. The practice is located in north-central Montana, extending from Alpine Meadows to the Breaks. When asked to share one of the core values of his practice, Dr. Hilt responded, “We strive to be current, in both practices and procedures, and thorough for our clients.” Dr. Hilt appreciates the challenges of dayto-day practice and being involved with loyal clients that are striving to stay current with their ranch’s production. Dr. Hilt’s advice for those wanting to work in rural veterinary medicine is, “You have to be dedicated, and you can’t be scared to work. Be dedicated to the profession and to your clients.” As a mentor, Dr. Hilt makes every effort to be as available as possible to those he mentors, as his mentors have been for him.

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PAC MEMBER HIGHLIGHTS•••••••••

KATIE REIN, DVM

Crazy Mountain Veterinary Service Harlowton & White Sulphur Springs, Montana

“To empower ranchers to produce healthy, profitable beef; build rewarding relationships and offer quality veterinary medicine to the rural community” is the mission of Crazy Mountain Veterinary Service, PLLC. Dr. Katie Rein started the practice in 2007 with a pickup and vet box. Today, the practice includes two clinics located in Harlowton and White Sulphur Springs, Montana, and a satellite clinic in Wilsall, Montana. Dr. Rein and her all-female team, except for her husband who is the director of operations, cover over 6,000 square miles (larger than the state of Connecticut) servicing their clients. Their practice area includes several mountain ranges, one of which is the Crazy Mountains, where Dr. Rein’s family has raised cattle since 1893. Currently, a forest fire on the west edge of the ranch is blazing and will be active until it finally snows. When asked what a typical day looks like, Dr. Rein responded “Driving to a ranch to do herd work. The work depends on the season – ultrasounding from July until December, Bangs vaccinating from November to February, and semen testing from February to June. Better cell phone coverage has made my days much shorter. I used to spend a lot of time in the evening returning phone calls, but now I can do them when I am driving to and from appointments.” In addition to their mission, Crazy Mountain Veterinary Service has core values of excellence, reliability, collaboration, and relationship. These core values are lived out on a daily basis as they interact with the producers that Dr. Rein regards as “the best thing about the beef industry”.

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FIVE POINTS OF ANIMAL HEALTH EVALUATION: LAMENESS

By Jose Valles, MS, Production Animal Consultation


Some of the most common causes of lameness in feedyard settings include foot rot, digital dermatitis, toe and sole abscesses, and laminitis.

A

s we visit feedyards to work with animal health teams in the areas of processing, pen riding, and hospitals, we are always looking for areas of opportunity to improve effectiveness, efficacy, and efficiency. When working with cattle in processing facilities or while accomplishing our daily pen riding routine, I like to implement a five-point animal health evaluation. This evaluation not only consists of detecting cattle that may need medical attention but also helps promote animal health in the lameness, digestive, respiratory, neurological, and mental categories. In this article, we will address the most commonly seen causes of lameness.

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When we enter a pen of cattle, it is important to get all cattle up and ask them to move a reasonable distance or time that will allow us to make a careful lameness evaluation. Considerations to include in a lameness evaluation in the pen include watching for proper coordination and equal strides on both sides, identifying locomotion score, identifying affected limb(s), determining if it is upper or lower limb lameness, and always taking note of clinical signs presented by the animal in its home pen. This information will help the doctor with case definition, diagnosis, and treatment. Some of the most common causes of lameness in feedyard settings include foot rot, digital dermatitis, toe and sole abscesses, and laminitis. Foot rot is characterized as an acute infectious disease that affects the interdigital space of the hoof when injured. Injury or dermal interruption of the interdigital space can be caused by physical activity on rough surfaces and prolonged muddy and wet conditions. Once the interruption of the skin is present, Fusobacterium necrophorum is then the causative bacteria to produce the infection that can initially affect the connective tissue and can extend to the tendons and joints if detection

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and treatment are not conducted in a timely fashion. Affected animals present pain, lameness, and swelling in the interdigital space up to the fetlock joint of the affected foot in most cases. Digital dermatitis, commonly known as hairy heel warts, is a chronic infectious disease that affects the skin of the plantar interdigital ridge of the hoof. Digital dermatitis is more prevalent in hardy surfaces with high moisture conditions that cause weakening of the skin of the plantar interdigital ridge of the foot. Several species of the Treponema bacteria family are known to be associated with digital dermatitis. Symptoms associated include swelling, lameness, pain, and ulceration of the digital skin of the infected limb. In some cases, early stages of digital dermatitis do not present lameness. Another common cause of lameness in feedlot cattle is toe and sole abscesses. Toe and sole abscesses are most commonly seen in young incoming cattle. As cattle transition from the ranch, a background operation, or a sale barn, the risk of toe and sole abscesses can increase. The main cause of toe and sole abscesses is the physical movement of the cattle through uneven, hard, and rough surfaces that can produce trauma and abrasions to the


hooves. Trauma to the toes and soles result in bruising and become hematomas which develop into abscesses. Abrasive surfaces can cause damage to the part of the hoof called the white line which is what connects the hoof wall and the sole. When the white line is damaged, a disconnect between the hoof wall and the sole can occur through which debris can enter and cause infection and later result in an abscess. Laminitis, also known as founder, is a condition commonly seen in feedlot cattle that causes lameness. Laminitis is a disorder that affects the hooves of cattle. Research has linked laminitis to metabolic insults caused by highly concentrated feed. Factors that contribute to the cause of laminitis can include inconsistency of feed delivery and drastic changes in feed ingredients or feed amounts. Acidosis is the main cause of laminitis. These metabolic insults result in the separation between the hoof wall and the underlying tissue and bone of the toes. Clinical signs presented by laminitic cattle include abnormal growth of the claws and pain in affected feet. Laminitis affects the hind limbs, the front limbs, or all four limbs at the same time. Currently there are no injectable products that can help treat laminitis. Mitigation strategies such as trimming of the toes of the affected feet can help reduce the animal’s pain when walking. When evaluating cattle for lameness, it is important to implement a locomotion scoring system to measure severity at that particular moment or over a period of time. It is also important to be aware of any previous events that involved increased physical activity such as transition from other operations, transportation, or processing. All animals that present some form of lameness deserve to be pulled and evaluated chute side to identify the cause and determine the appropriate

treatment or mitigation strategy to be implemented. Keep in mind that the timing of our pulls will significantly impact our treatment success rates.

Resources __________________

Arrazuria R, Knight CG, Lahiri P, Cobo ER, Barkema HW, De Buck J. Treponema spp. Isolated from Bovine Digital Dermatitis Display Different Pathogenicity in a Murine Abscess Model. Microorganisms. 2020;8(10): 1507. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600977/ Biggs R, Whitworth B, Gilliam J, Jones M, Lalman D. Foot Rot in Cattle. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service AFS-3355. 2016. https://extension.okstate.edu/ fact-sheets/foot-rot-in-cattle.html Dewell G, Shearer JK. Foot Rot in Beef Cattle. Iowa State University Extension PM 1728. 2009. https://store.extension.iastate.edu/Product/Foot-Rotin-Beef-Cattle-PDF Dopfer D. Digital Dermatitis. The dynamics of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle and the manageable state of disease. https://www.zinpro.com/wp-content/ uploads/2020/12/DynamicsofDD_DopferPaper.pdf Greenough PR. Laminitis in Cattle. Merck Veterinary Manual. 2015. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/musculoskeletalsystem/lameness-in-cattle/laminitis-in-cattle Plummer PJ, Krull A. Clinical Perspectives of Digital Dermatitis in Dairy and Beef Cattle. Vet Clin Food Anim. 2017;33: 165-181. https://vetmed.iastate.edu/sites/default/files/Plummer, %20Krull%20-%20Clinical%20Perspectives%20of% 20Digital%20Dermatitis%20in%20Dairy%20and% 20Beef%20Cattle.pdf Tarpoff AJ. Toe abscesses in feedlot cattle. Kansas State University Research and Extension Beef Tips. 2017. https://enewsletters.k-state.edu/beeftips/2017/07/05/ toe-abscesses-in-feedlot-cattle/

This article has been translated to Spanish on page 68. Jose Valles graduated with his Master of Biomedical Sciences from Kansas State University in 2013. He was born in the state of Durango in Mexico. He spent his childhood in both Durango and in southwest Kansas. In Mexico, his family has been dedicated to a cow-calf operation and the farming of dry beans, corn, and oats. After high school, Jose decided to further his education at the university level and has since lived in the U.S. He attended Seward County Community College in Liberal, Kansas, and during that time worked at the Liberal Animal Hospital. Jose transferred to Kansas State University through the Developing Scholars Program and Bridges to the Future Program. While attending Kansas State University, Jose worked at the Beef Cattle Institute from 2007 to 2013. After graduating from Kansas State University in 2013, Jose joined the PAC team, then later that year married his girlfriend Areli, and moved to Kearney, Nebraska. Jose enjoys spending time with his beautiful wife Areli and his sons Matteo and Antonio who are 4 and 5 years old. He also enjoys riding a good horse, horse races, and grilling steaks. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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FIND YOUR MOST PROFITABLE DAYS ON FEED By Lee-Anne Walter, Ph.D., Cattle Technical Services, Merck Animal Health


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kyrocketing feed prices. Increased cattle on feed. Limited packer capacity. Delayed cattle pick-ups. Widespread drought. These unfortunate realities cause heartburn for cattle producers. Difficult market conditions cause feedyard managers to evaluate the appropriate days on feed (DOF), while optimizing feed efficiency to maximize return.

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Figure 1

Steer Carcass Weight (lb)

Steer Hot Carcass Weights – 2003 to 2020. Data Obtained from Five Area Weekly Weighted Direct Slaughter, Dressed Delivered, Steer Carcass Weights.

Year

Could feeding heavier cattle be an option? With aggressive corn prices, producers may consider reducing DOF by placing heavier cattle. Taking advantage of the lower cost of gain in stocker or backgrounder situations can potentially reduce overall cost of gain. However, in times of drought, there are fewer stocker opportunities and cow-calf producers often wean earlier, making it tough to source heavier feeder cattle. Forming strong relationships with backgrounders can offer more cost-effective feeding avenues during times of high feed costs. Calves that were weaned at a lighterthan-normal weight due to drought conditions have the opportunity to build frame and muscle and improve health outcomes prior to being placed on full feed.

Carcass performance trends While it may appear optimal to decrease DOF, feeders need to ensure that they are targeting DOF from a carcass performance standpoint. Over the past two decades, steer hot carcass weights (HCW) have increased nearly 100 pounds – from an average of 821 pounds for steers marketed in 2003 to an average of 916 pounds in 2019 (Figure 1).1 Looking at close-out weights, the Kansas State Focus on Feedlots survey reports monthly average outweights ranging from 1,222 to 1,293 pounds for steers marketed 52 feedlot

in April and September 2003, respectively. The 2019 monthly closeouts from the Kansas State Feedlot Performance Reports show 150 pounds heavier steer closeouts ranging from 1,344 pounds in March 2019 to 1,464 pounds in December 2019.2 Coincidentally, during the same 20-year period, cost of gain increased, tied to rising corn price and volatility. The value of fed cattle, price of feeder cattle, the availability of growth promoting technologies, cattle in weights and the proportion of cattle sold on a grid have all changed. The value of pounds sold alongside cost of gain helps determine a break-even and appropriate marketing time.

Economics of extended days on feed Targeting appropriate days with increased ration costs requires knowledge of historical closeouts and application of credible serial slaughter research. For 15 years, researchers at Merck Animal Health have studied serial slaughter and how different days on feed affect gain and carcass composition. As cattle grow and mature in the feedyard, composition of gain changes. Fat gain increases and protein gain decreases proportionally for each pound of weight gained. Since fat is more energetically dense than protein (primarily water), total pounds of live and hot carcass weight gain slow down as the animal matures.



It is worth noting that live gain decreases at a faster rate than carcass gain due in part to non-carcass tissues (viscera and offal) decelerating in growth earlier in the feeding period than carcass tissues.3 Thus, carcass transfer (the proportion of live weight gain that is gained on the carcass) and the value of carcass gain are important variables to determine the ideal DOF. Increased DOF improves quality grade but also increases risk of carcass discounts due to excess weight and/or increased yield grade. Additional DOF offers a different value structure for grid sellers versus live sellers due to carcass transfer and composition of gain.4 Recently, researchers completed an extensive serial slaughter trial in crossbred beef steers with the first harvest weight targeted for 600 pounds and the last harvest end point targeting close to 1,800 pounds.5 Live gain from the first harvest to the second, 42 days later, was 4.9 pounds per day and consistently decreased across DOF to less than half of the original period ADG during days 336 to 377. However, carcass weight gain averaged 3.25 pounds per day during the first

54 feedlot

42-day period and remained close to two pounds per day in implanted steers during the last 42-day period (days 336 to 377). At a carcass value of $1.90, the value of the carcass gain for a steer gaining 1.8 pounds of carcass weight at the end of the feeding period is $3.42. The next question becomes: Are our daily costs lower than $3.42 at the end of the feeding period? For many feeders over the past two years, it has been an exhausting struggle to predict and secure cattle sales and pick-ups with packers. Optimal DOF becomes three to four to six weeks longer than planned. Using serial slaughter data together with historical closeouts could help to derive an estimated carcass gain number and thus better predict future break-evens.

Implants and the feeding period Implants are critical tools to improve cattle feed efficiency. These products have tremendous return on investment by shifting the growth curve of cattle, resulting in improved efficiency through heavier, leaner


and larger framed animals.6 Implants offer significant value for feedlot cattle, helping achieve higher average daily gains and 10% to 15% greater feed efficiency. Implants with extended activity during the final finishing period help add carcass weight while maintaining carcass quality. In one field study4, researchers compared performance of heifers fed to either 151, 165, 179 or 193 days on feed. Increasing DOF increased HCW but decreased average daily gain and gain:feed ratio as fat deposition increased. While increasing DOF increased HCW and profit potential, there was added risk of yield grade discounts. The study also observed that implanting heifers with an extended-release implant resulted in similar final BW and HCW versus a more aggressive implant strategy. Researchers concluded that implant strategies substantially increase HCW and revenue and serve as important conduits of feed efficiency across all DOF.

Sorting for greater revenue Finally, sorting is another strategy to maximize market value with grid-based systems. Feedyards traditionally market cattle in batches, with entire pens entering and exiting the facility at the same time. This approach optimizes yard efficiency and maintains lot integrity but tends to ignore the genetic variability of cattle on feed. Even if animals start out at the same weight, invariably cattle grow at different rates. Often this results in an inconsistent pen and the potential for significant outliers. As DOF increases, the length of time for pen mates to grow at different rates also increases. Serial slaughter research typically does not report within pen deviation or variation around the average of carcass weight. However, carcass quality grade and yield grade distributions are often reported. As a rough rule, percentage of yield grade four and five carcasses double every 21 days.7 Therefore, there are advantages to sorting using frame measurements and visual appraisal to manage yield grade discounts in addition to weight.

Conclusion Using serial slaughter data helps feedyards make informed decisions on appropriate number of DOF to match their cattle and marketing opportunities. Consult with your nutritionist to develop a feeding and implant program to meet your profitability goals.

Resources __________________

1. U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service. https://mpr.datamart.ams.usda.gov/menu.do?path=Specie s\Cattle\Daily%20Cattle\(LM_CT100)%205%20Area%20Dail y%20Weighted%20Average%20Direct%20Slaughter%20Cattle%20-%20Negotiated. Retrieved June 8, 2021. 2. Kansas State University Focus on Feedlots. https://www.asi.k-state.edu/about/newsletters/focus-onfeedlots/monthly-reports.html. Retrieved June 8, 2021. 3. Carstens, GE, Johnson, DE, Ellenberger, MA, Tatum, KD. Physical and chemical components of the empty body during compensatory growth in beef steers. J Anim Sci. 1991;69:3251-3264. 4. Ohnoutka CA, Bondurant RG, Boyd BM, Hilscher FH, Nuttelman BL, Crawford GI, Streeter MN, Luebbe MK, MacDonald JC, Smith ZK, Johnson BJ and Erickson GE. Evaluation of coated steroidal combination implants on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of beef heifers fed for constant of varying days on feed. Applied Anim Sci. 2021;37: 41-51. 5. Kirkpatrick, T. 2020. The effect of growth promoting implants and feeding duration on live performance and behavioral characteristics, biometric measurements, empty body composition and energy retention of serially harvested beef steers. Final Study Report. Study number MS-Revalor-XS-1-18. Merck Animal Health. 6. Guiroy PJ, Tedeschi, LO, Fox, DG, Hutcheson, JP. The effects of implant strategy on body weight of beef cattle. J Anim Sci. 2002;80:1791-1800. 7. Rathmann, RJ, Bernhard, BC, Swingle, RS, Lawrence, TE, Nicols, WT, Yates, DA, Hutcheson, JP, Streeter, MN, Brooks, JC, Miller, MF, Johnson, BJ. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and days on the finishing diet on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics and tenderness in beef heifers. J Anim Sci. 2012;90:3301-3311.

Lee-Anne Walter, Ph.D., is a technical consultant in the cattle group of Merck Animal Health. She works with producers across the Plains region to help ensure profitable operations. Dr. Walter earned a Master of Science in ruminant nutrition from the University of Saskatchewan in 2009 and a Ph.D. in agriculture from West Texas A&M University in 2015. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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GET THEM STARTED RIGHT By Kyle Vander Pol, Ph.D., Midwest PMS


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isk is something we all deal with every day, and it likely impacts almost every decision we make. From “What is the risk if I choose to eat that spicy food?” all the way to “What is the risk of driving on an icy road to visit a client?”, experience is supposed to constantly train our brains to quickly evaluate risks and allow us to decide good or bad, yes or no, etc. While experience is supposed to train our brain, when it comes to the procurement of high-risk calves, that is not always the case.

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Triple U Ranch, Washta, Iowa

To me, high-risk groups of cattle are defined by one or multiple circumstances such as weaned status, the number of purchase groups that are comingled, distance traveled, location (state/country, etc.), weight, weather, specific sale barn, backgrounded, and/or grass. Some may say it takes multiple circumstances to designate a group of cattle as high risk; however, in my opinion, there is one circumstance that automatically designates a group as high risk and that is weaned status. Un-weaned calves are always high risk. If you add other circumstances on top of that, they become “ultra high risk.” Here is why. Imagine a 5-7 month old calf that has always had the protection of his mother, received excellent quality, nutrient-dense milk from his mother, grazed green grass, drank fresh water, and maybe ate a little creep feed. He really has had no stress that he remembers other than maybe fighting a few flies and perhaps the castration experience four months back. Until now, that animal has never really had a bad day. Then one morning, you separate him from his mother, load him on a truck and haul him to a sale barn or a feedlot. In terms of the sale barn experience, he probably touches concrete for the first time, he gets sorted from his sisters and likely his little brothers, he might get some access to dry hay, and he might have some access to water but he has to drink out of an apparatus he has never seen before. Then he is moved down concrete 58 feedlot

alleys and through the sale ring before returning to a holding pen for anywhere from 2-24 hours. Then he is loaded back on a truck and hauled to a feedlot that could be 12 hours or more away. When we think about it, that calf went from an all-you-can-eat-and-drink buffet and a La-Z-Boy recliner to standing on aluminum and concrete with minimal (if any) feed and water and all sorts of pathogen exposure. Basically, it is the worst 48-72 hours of his life. I know we all understand the concept of bawling or un-weaned calves, but I wanted to describe the experience because when we receive those calves at the feedlot, I feel that what the calves just went through often gets overlooked. We recognize that weaned is always better and there are ways to improve the weaning and sale barn experience. But un-weaned cattle are usually cheaper, so there is opportunity as long as you can manage them. In my opinion, too many folks that are up for the un-weaned calf experience psych themselves up and think, “All I need to do is ride these cattle twice a day and pull the sick ones on time.” Of course, that helps, but there is so much more to it. In my opinion, the first thing all cattle, especially calves, need to see when they arrive at the feedlot is clean, fresh water and they must have plenty of access to it. Hydration is the first step in getting all the systems in the body back to a steady state. Access to clean, fresh water is probably the easiest thing you can do but is often overlooked. Next, I like to have the folks acclimate the calves to people and the pen. Remember, you are working with a calf that you could almost walk up to when it was at its mother’s side that now has a flight zone similar to that of a white-tailed deer. You are the new protector and provider; they need to get used to the people taking care of them and the new place they are at. This takes multiple experiences in the pen with the cattle the first few days, not just a few quick drive-bys in the pickup. Often times, calves arrive in the middle of the night before anybody is available to acclimate the calves to people and the pen as well as before there is adequate light to do so. In these situations, as well as during business hours, the receiving pen needs to have a comfortable place for the calves to rest after they have received their water. Of course, they are bawling and may be walking the fence, but if they want to rest, there has to be a comfortable place to lay that has been bedded up. Bedding is a must for un-weaned calves. It is amazing how fast calves will go to bedding whether it is hot or


dry, cool or wet, or even cool and dry. Remember the calves were in a comfortable environment when they left their mothers and they have basically been awake for 23 days. We need to promote rest by getting them as comfortable as we can. The last thing we need to do to get un-weaned calves started right is get them ruminating. The gut is the gateway to many things good and bad. It is responsible for uptake of wonderful nutrients for growth and health, but if it is disrupted, it can also be a vector for introducing pathogens to specific systems throughout the body. Proper rumination and cud chewing in a naïve animal will promote all systems in the body to function properly as well as increase the efficacy of a vaccine’s ability to help build immunity and an antibiotic’s ability to fight off disease. Feed ingredients with larger particle sizes or a significant roughage value are a must to get cattle ruminating. I like to remind feeders that roughage needs to be rough. The roughage source also needs to be something calves will eat. The material used for bedding can definitely be a low-quality fiber source and the calves will eat some of it, but the material we provide them to get them ruminating needs to be dry, have a high roughage value, and be average to above-average quality. Enough room for every calf to get to the bunk and eat comfortably without having to fight too hard is also a must. After calves are ruminating, I like to have the feeders I work with follow specific intake protocols that bring the cattle up slowly to help keep the calves ruminating and build their intake. When feeders keep the calves interested in the bunk and the feed in the bunk consistent, there is less of a chance any disease pressure would be related to what is happening in the gut. Any sign of anorexia within the first 30 days for an un-weaned calf should be an immediate cause for further evaluation. If un-weaned calves leave any kind of feed within the first 30 days, something is wrong. Either they are sick, there is bad weather, or the feed caller is pushing them too hard, which in turn, can make them sick. I get asked quite often about specific minerals, vitamins, direct fed microbials, and other products to help with high-risk calf nutrition. My answer is yes, some of those are important and some have good research to back up claims, but you have to be able to get it in the animal for it to work and more is not better. A calf’s body will only utilize the specific amount of any mineral or vitamin it needs; any excess gets excreted in urine or feces. Yes, mineral and vitamin deprived situations will affect the immune system’s ability to react to pathogens.

However, getting a calf’s mineral status repleted will only happen with consistent intake of a balanced ration. It is similar to when you arrive at a hotel and it is 85 degrees in the room. If you want the temperature to get to 70 degrees, setting the thermostat to 60 will not get it there any faster. It is limited by what the air conditioner can do, just like the mineral and vitamin status is limited by what the gut can do. In conclusion, there are many wonderful nutrition protocols and animal health protocols but the most important things to execute when receiving un-weaned and high-risk calves are proper hydration; acclimation to pen, people, and bunk; rest, rest, rest; and rumination. If any of these items are compromised, it will not work and you may need to consider using a backgrounder or buying lower risk cattle. Receiving un-weaned and highrisk calves is not for everyone, but there are some feeders that are very good at it, and I am lucky because I get the pleasure to work with a few of them. Kyle Vander Pol, Ph.D., is a Consulting Nutritionist with Midwest PMS, LLC and works with clients in Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Texas.

Triple U Ranch, Washta, Iowa


ATTENTION WALMART SHOPPERS By Dr. Doug Ford, Production Animal Consultation, & Dr. Greg Quakenbush, Geissler Corp.

Jimi and Teagan


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e have all experienced that adrenaline rush when the yellow caution light turns at a busy intersection. The big question on everyone’s mind is, “Can I beat the light, or do I squeal the tires to an awkward stop?” On this particular day, my awesome vet tech Jimi and I chose plan B. As it turns out, this decision put us first in line, parked next to a homeless man and his crossbred pit bull sidekick in the median. His clothes were soiled and ragged. He was unkept, unshaven with a large cardboard sign that read “anything will help,” written in black magic marker. As we sat uncomfortably, anxious for the light to turn green, I could see his big brown eyes staring pitifully at me out of the corner of my left eye. It seemed like that light would never change. Finally, with a sigh of relief, the light turned green, and we drove off into the sunset. There was no conversation between Jimi and I, but we both were a little taken aback and embarrassed by the way we handled the situation. Several weeks passed with no more thought given to our experience.

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As it turns out once a month on Friday night, Jimi and her nine-yearold son Teagan load up to go grocery shopping at the local Walmart. She says the experience is less crowded and traumatic after 10:00 pm. The aisles were mostly deserted, and her cart was filled to the brim. She turned down the beverage aisle and off in the distance could make out the silhouette of a man. As they drew closer, you guessed it, our homeless man was approaching at 12:00. Jimi edged her cart to the shoulder of the bottled water section to yield the right of way as she strategically looked away. Keep in mind Teagan grew up at a sale barn, is very social, and does not know a stranger. As the man proceeded to pass, Teagan looked up with a big smile, extended his hand, and said, “Hi, my name is Teagan!” The man extended his hand and in a 5-pack-aday, hoarse Marlboro voice said, “Hi, Teagan. I’m Frank.” They exchanged small talk and went their separate ways. As fate would have it, they passed each other in every aisle for the next 30 minutes, and each time Teagan boldly exclaimed, “Look, Mom, there’s Frank!” Relieved to reach the only open checkout station, Jimi began the task of unloading groceries and wondering as all moms do, “Did I really need to buy all this stuff? Where did this candy bar come from?” She looked up only to find Frank in line behind her. Teagan could not resist another opportunity to visit with his newfound friend as Frank knelt down on one knee to engage Teagan at his level. They shared a few more words and parted ways. As awkward as the situation seemed, Frank turned out to be a great guy. End of story! Several weeks later, two days after a bad Colorado hailstorm, our home driveway alarm went off about 7:00 pm. This was one of the first nights I had been home before 9:00 pm, and I was looking forward to a rare laidback night with my beautiful wife Jan and an episode of Gunsmoke. As I looked out into the driveway, an old beat-up '68 white Ford pickup adorned with multiple signs rounded the corner. I recall thinking who could this be and how fast could I give them the brush off? I reluctantly stepped out the front door to view a roughlooking tattooed man with a long ponytail and an Indiana Jones expedition hat. His pickup signs read, “Roofer for hire, hail damage repairs at bargain prices, unconditional money back guarantee.” Annoyed, I

approached fully prepared to send him packing. He handed me a business card and said in a pleasant, sincere voice, “My, what a beautiful place.” What could I say? He shared that he worked full time as a night watchman trying desperately to get his roofing and solar panel business off the ground. In that moment, I was a little ashamed that I had not been more engaging. What he said next cut me to the quick. He said, “Thank you, sir, for being so kind.” Deep down I was anything but cordial and kind when I stepped out of the house with my Clint Eastwood “get off my lawn” attitude. Twice in one month I had been put in a similar situation. What I call a spiritual bullet point moment, where that little voice is speaking directly to me! Unfortunately, both times I failed the test. I later asked myself, “What if those two gentlemen were an angel or Jesus in disguise?” No one should ever have to thank you for being kind. All too often we judge people on their appearance or their position in life without knowing the rest of the story. Maybe if we consistently looked at people through the eyes of a child, looking for the good and not the obvious, we would all be a little better off. Lord, I promise to be more aware and to do better!

Maybe if we consistently looked at people through the eyes of a child, looking for the good and not the obvious, we would all be a little better off.

62 parable

Digging Deeper The classical Biblical story regarding dealing with strangers is found in a parable told by Jesus in Luke 10:25-37. It comes out of a conversation Jesus is having with a lawyer who is trying to trap or challenge Him. The conversation boils down to the point where the attorney correctly answers a Jewish legal question posed by Jesus with the answer (abbreviated) “...to love your neighbor as yourself.” Jesus commends the legal expert for providing the right answer and encourages him to live out the commandment he just quoted. The counselor however, still looking to one up Jesus, responds with a final trick question... “and who is my neighbor?” Jesus’ response to this question, “Who is my neighbor?”, leads to the well-known parable of the Good Samaritan. The parable entails a man who is beaten by robbers and essentially left to die. Several prominent Jewish citizens come across the man, but only a Samaritan (who were despised by the Jews) had compassion on the victim and took action to care and provide


for him. In the end, the answer to the question “Who is my neighbor?” is answered in two parts: (1) our neighbor is whomever crosses our path, and (2) from the perspective of the injured man, his neighbor was the one who had compassion and showed him mercy. It is interesting to discover that providing kindness to strangers was considered a virtue and held in high esteem in the ancient Middle Eastern, Jewish, and GreekRoman cultures. The Greek word used in the original New Testament writings to describe this action was philoxenia. Philoxenia (from philos meaning love and xenos meaning stranger) literally means a lover of strangers. We best know this term by its English translation... hospitality. The following is a sample of two Bible verses that highlight the unique and important concept of caring for strangers: Hebrews 13:2 (ESV) Do not neglect to show hospitality to strangers, for thereby some have entertained angels unawares. Matthew 25:35-36 (ESV) 35 For I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, 36 I was naked and you clothed me, I was sick and you visited me, I was in prison and you came to me. Hebrews 13:2 indicates that our kind and hospitable treatment of strangers is one spiritual directive that we are likely to “neglect”. Why? And what is the deal about unknowingly having entertained angels in the process? Is it possible that Frank was an angel and the one who warmly reached out to him was Teagan, a nine-year-old boy? Maybe Frank was an angel, and the purpose of the entire encounter was to serve as an example for our PAC parable and bring this topic to our attention. While the unknown hosting and care for angels did happen to Abraham (Genesis 18:2-8) and to Lot (Genesis 19:1-3) and might happen to you, this should not be our primary motivation. The greater lesson is that with strangers we literally do not know their story or their situation. It may well be that in our involvement with them, we are the ones who will ultimately be blessed and benefited by the encounter, angel or not. Matthew 25:35-36 must be the gold standard regarding hospitality for strangers. Food, drink, kindness, clothing, prison visitation... all for a stranger? No wonder this kind of care or hospitality was considered a virtue in times past.

Final Thoughts Proverbs 19:17 (ESV) Whoever is generous to the poor lends to the Lord, and he will repay him for his deed. Proverbs 11:25 (NIV) A generous person will prosper; whoever refreshes others will be refreshed. Matthew 5:42 (ESV) Give to the one who begs from you, and do not refuse the one who would borrow from you. 1 Peter 4:9 (ESV) Show hospitality to one another without grumbling. In offering true hospitality (philoxenia), we are a conduit of God’s grace and mercy to others, not based on their merit or worth. As those who have dedicated their lives to being excellent “caregivers” of livestock, here is a nudge to throw a larger loop and include “caregiver to others” as part of our legacy.

Dr. Doug & Dr. Q Doug Ford DVM is the owner of Beaver Creek Veterinary Clinic in Brush, Colorado. Doug earned his DVM degree from Colorado State University. Brush, Colorado has been his home since graduating from Colorado State. Dr. Doug’s practice has been remarkably diverse over 40 years of veterinary medicine. Dogs, cats, cow/calf, feedlot, two sale barns, and spaying thousands of heifers for grass. The last 20 years of practice has been 50% large western dairies and 50% beef cattle (spaying, cow/calf, and feedlots). In 2005, Doug was given the privilege to become one of the six founding members of PAC. Doug and his wife Jan ranch in their “spare” time. They are also heavily involved in a wetland’s development project on the South Platte River near Snyder, Colorado. Doug’s dad used to say, “Get your grades up. Do you want to grow up to be a ditch digger?” Doug had no idea how much fun it is to play in the dirt with dozers and track hoes. He feels truly blessed and believes that the best days are yet to come. Greg Quakenbush DVM is a 1978 graduate of Colorado State University and spent 16 years in large animal practice in Porterville, California. For 19 years, Dr. Q worked for Zoetis (Pfizer) and was Director of the US Cattle Technical Services team. Since 2013, Dr. Q has worked with the Geissler Corporation assisting in the development of new veterinary diagnostic technologies. Dr. Q enjoys Bible study, shooting sports, fly-fishing, and being a part-time farmer growing citrus and nuts in the central valley of California.

This article has been translated to Spanish on page 72. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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MANTENIENDO EL DESTETE SIMPLE Escrito por Dr. Austin Traphagan, Solomon Valley Veterinary Hospital, Production Animal Consultation Traducido por Jose Valles, Production Animal Consultation


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o hay dos operaciones que tengan exactamente el mismo método para el destete de terneros. Ya sea por limitaciones de instalaciones, mano de obra o terreno, cada productor tiene limitaciones que hacen que su situación sea única. El objetivo final del destete de terneros es remover exitosamente al ternero del contacto físico con la madre y eliminar la leche de la dieta del ternero. Si se realiza de manera adecuada y oportuna, los terneros estarán mejor preparados para el largo plazo o el proceso de finalización y las vacas serán relevadas de una carga nutricional, lo cual mejorara su futura eficiencia reproductiva y su capacidad para criar la próxima ronda de terneros. Por qué es tan importante el proceso de pre-destete/destete? La forma en que un productor desteta a sus terneros puede ser beneficiosa o perjudicial independientemente de sus planes de propiedad una vez que las actividades del destete y sus efectos hayan concluido. Para aquellos productores que planean vender directamente a centros de acopio o corrales de engorda, la practica de técnicas adecuadas para el pre-destete/destete pueden ayudar a producir continuamente terneros sanos y de alto rendimiento con valor de precios superiores. Para aquellos productores que planean mantener los terneros durante parte o todo el proceso de alimentación, pueden disfrutar de una serie de beneficios como la reducción de enfermedad en sus terneros, la reducción del tiempo y costo de tratamientos, mayores ganancias de peso y corrales de destete más silenciosos en general. Invertir mas tiempo y recursos para disminuir el estrés sentido por su cosecha de terneros, será más rentable a largo plazo.

Formas sencillas de ayudar a sus terneros Las técnicas y métodos utilizados para lograr el destete deben planearse para preparar a los terneros para uno de los eventos más estresantes de su vida. Afortunadamente, el destete no tiene que ser un proceso demasiado complicado. Ningún método o paso es la respuesta mágica para los problemas experimentados durante el destete, pero todos tienen el potencial de disminuir o limitar los problemas sentidos por su cosecha de terneros. Al pensar por adelantado y utilizar algunas de estas herramientas, un productor puede ayudar a limitar el potencial de enfermedad en sus terneros, las pérdidas económicas durante el proceso de destete, y en algunas situaciones, la mortalidad de los terneros.

Pre-destete El destete normalmente se lleva acabo alrededor de

los 7 a 10 meses de edad. Idealmente, el plan de destete de un productor implica prácticas que comienzan antes del destete real, comenzando con la gestión de la salud y vacunas. Al realizar otros eventos estresantes como la castración, el descorné, el marcado y la primera ronda de vacunaciones mucho antes del destete, puede ayudar a disminuir la enfermedad que experimenta el grupo de terneros. Además, traer a los terneros y pasarlos una segunda vez y pre-acondicionarlos con una segunda ronda de vacunas no solo activa el sistema inmune y disminuye la cantidad de enfermedad experimentada por el grupo en casa, sino que los convierte en un grupo de terneros más deseable en el futuro. De manera óptima, lo ideal sería administrar las vacunas de pre-acondicionamiento 45 días antes del destete. Es necesario administrarlas por lo menos dos semanas antes del destete para permitir que se produzca cierta estimulación inmune, lo que haría que las vacunas sean benéficas. Al llevar a cabo todas estas tareas mucho antes de que comience el proceso de destete, efectivamente reduce el estrés que el ternero siente a causa de dos eventos, al perder contacto con la madre y la transición al alimento.

Destete Cuando llegue el momento de separar a los terneros, el manejo de bajo estrés del ganado siempre será beneficioso. Mover el ganado de manera silenciosa y tranquila a través de instalaciones bien diseñadas puede ayudar a mantener sanos a los terneros. Cuanto más practique esta técnica y maneje el ganado, menos estrés experimentará cada vez que lo lleve a los corrales. Por mucho que se predique en la industria el manejo de bajo estrés, lo mismo se puede decir de las técnicas de destete. Las técnicas de destete de bajo estrés, como el destete de dos etapas o el destete mediante la división de una cerca, pueden proveer una mejor salud del ternero en comparación con el destete del ternero de la fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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Las técnicas de destete de bajo estrés, como el destete de dos etapas o el destete mediante la división de una cerca, pueden proveer una mejor salud del ternero en comparación con el destete del ternero de la vaca y mover los dos grupos a lugares separados directamente. Ambos proporcionan un acercamiento más gradual que hace el proceso mas fácil para los terneros. vaca y mover los dos grupos a lugares separados directamente. Ambos proporcionan un acercamiento más gradual que hace el proceso mas fácil para los terneros. En el método de dos etapas, los terneros se pasan inicialmente por la prensa y se coloca un dispositivo de anti-succión en la nariz de los terneros. El dispositivo evita que el ternero pueda succionar a la madre. El ternero luego se vuelve a colocar con la madre y el dispositivo se deja puesto durante 5 a 7 días. Durante este tiempo, el ternero se desteta de la leche en la dieta y comienza a comer más forrajes. Al final de este periodo de tiempo, el dispositivo se remueve antes de que dañe la nariz y los terneros se retiran de las vacas. La desventaja de este método es que los terneros requieren de múltiples viajes a través de la prensa, pero al eliminar la leche de la dieta con un contacto materno continuo, los terneros están menos estresados cuando se intenta la transición a los forrajes a tiempo completo. El destete mediante la división de una cerca, por otro lado, es una opción que no requiere de viajes adicionales a través de la prensa. Sin embargo, si requiere espacio adicional. La idea del destete mediante la división de una cerca es separar las madres y los terneros en pastizales adyacentes donde puedan mantener el contacto visual y de hocico a través de la cerca. El contacto se mantiene por lo menos de 3 a 4 días. En un marco ideal, los terneros permanecerían en el mismo pastizal y las vacas se retirarían de allí. Al mantener a los terneros en el mismo entorno, ya tienen una idea de donde pueden encontrar el alimento y el agua. Siempre es más benéfico trasladar a los animales más viejos cuando sea posible, ya que pueden lidiar con ese estrés más fácilmente que los terneros. Las investigaciones realizadas sobre diversos métodos que utilizan practicas de bajo estrés muestran que los terneros destetados con estas técnicas tienen una tasa de tratamiento de solo 5 al 10%, en lugar de un 66 vaca-becerro

25 al 30% que se puede ver en los terneros destetados abruptamente.

Post-Destete Una vez que los terneros se introducen a su nuevo entorno, es importante asegurarse que las fuentes de agua estén disponibles y fáciles de encontrar. Los terneros encontrarán el agua a través de la vista, el olfato, y el sonido, por lo que cualquier cosa que se pueda hacer para aumentar su capacidad de “toparse” con un poco de agua es positivo. Esto puede incluir cualquier cosa desde tanques de agua situados en la línea de la cerca, ya que los terneros caminarán a lo largo de las cercas, hasta agregar tanques ganaderos adicionales en los corrales que puedan parecerse a lo que los terneros están acostumbrados en los pastizales. Dejar que los tanques se desborden o quitar los tapones de los bebederos automáticos también son excelentes formas de ayudar a los terneros a encontrar agua. Aparte del agua, una ración inicial adecuada es el segundo aspecto más importante del destete. Hacer que los terneros coman es el primer paso; luego cambios graduales en la alimentación se realizan después de establecer el consumo. Se debe mantener bastante heno en los comederos y se debe esponjar regularmente. Poder ver el heno ayudará a los terneros a encontrarlo y tener un poco colgando por un lado hasta el suelo es benéfico. Una vez que los terneros se acostumbran a los comederos y consumen todo el heno que se les proporciona, pueden pasarse a alimentos más calientes o raciones mixtas totales (TMR, por sus siglas en ingles). Los terneros deben estar comiendo alrededor del 1.5% de su peso corporal dentro de la primera semana y media en alimentación. Si los terneros han sido alimentados con creep feeders en el pasado, el acostumbrarse a los comederos puede ocurrir más rápido. El uso de ionóforos que actúan como coccidiostáticos, como la rumensina, también es una herramienta que se puede


utilizar cuando los terneros comienzan a limpiar el alimento de los comederos. Los terneros estresados y recién destetados que son puestos en situaciones de confinamiento tienen un riesgo mucho mayor de tener un brote de coccidiosis. Al alimentar este aditivo a los terneros, puede ayudara a mantener una transición suave al alimento y disminuir el potencial de tratamiento de terneros individuales que comienzan a presentar signos clínicos. Por último, aclimatar a los terneros moviéndolos silenciosamente alrededor del corral o del pastizal cuando llegan a su destino es una forma adicional de ayudar a facilitar el consumo de agua y alimento. Hacer esto repetidamente durante los primeros días en el nuevo entorno les ayudará a ubicar el alimento y el agua más rápidamente, así como también les brindará oportunidades para interactuar con sus cuidadores. Este contacto pagará más dividendos más adelante, ya que prepara a los terneros para las experiencias con los vaqueros y los equipos de doctores. El destete de los terneros es una parte importante del proceso de producción. Ya sea que esté o no esté allí para ver cómo afecta a los terneros en el futuro, reflejará continuamente su desempeño general. Por suerte,

realmente no tiene por qué ser un proceso complicado. Preparar a los terneros con anticipación, proveer un poco de apoyo al separarlos, y proveer una nutrición adecuada a los terneros recién destetados son pasos simples para resolver la mayoría de los problemas del destete mucho antes de que sucedan. El Dr. Austin Traphagan se graduó con su Doctorado en Medicina Veterinaria (DVM, por sus siglas en ingles) de la Universidad Estatal de Kansas en 2020. Es un nativo de Colorado que creció en las llanuras del noreste del estado en Yuma, Colorado. Creció dividiendo gran parte de su tiempo entre la práctica veterinaria mixta de su padre y el resto en las operaciones de vaca-becerro de su familia y una pequeña operación de corrales de engorda. Después de asistir a la Universidad de Wyoming, se dirigió a Manhattan y a la Universidad Estatal de Kansas. Desde que se graduó, ha estado ejerciendo en el bullicioso Hospital Veterinario Solomon Valley en Beloit, Kansas.

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CINCO PUNTOS DE LA EVALUACIÓN DE SALUD ANIMAL: COJERA Escrito por Jose Valles, MS, Production Animal Consultation Traducido por Jose Valles, Production Animal Consultation


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uando visitamos las operaciones de corrales de engorda para trabajar con los equipos de salud animal en las áreas de procesamiento, vaqueros y hospitales, siempre buscamos áreas de oportunidad para mejorar la efectividad, la eficacia y la eficiencia. Cuando trabajo con ganado en las instalaciones de procesamiento o mientras realizo nuestra rutina diaria de revisión de corrales, me gusta implementar una evaluación de salud animal de cinco puntos. Esta evaluación no solo consiste en detectar ganado que pueda necesitar atención medica, sino que también ayuda a promover la salud animal en las categorías de cojera, digestiva, respiratoria, neurológica y mental. En este artículo, abordaremos las causas más comunes de cojera. Cuando ingresamos a un corral de ganado, es importante levantar todo el ganado y pedirles que se muevan una distancia o tiempo razonable que nos permita hacer una cuidadosa evaluación de cojera. Las consideraciones para incluir en una evaluación de cojera en el corral incluyen la observación de una coordinación adecuada y zancadas iguales en ambos lados, identificar la puntuación de locomoción, identificar la extremidad o extremidades afectadas, determinar si se trata de una cojera en la parte superior o inferior de la extremidad y siempre tomar nota de los signos clínicos presentados por el animal en su corral de casa. Esta información le ayudara al doctor con la definición de caso, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento. Algunas de las causas más comunes de cojera en los corrales de engorda incluyen el gabarro, la dermatitis digital, los abscesos de dedos y suela y la laminitis. El gabarro se caracteriza por ser una enfermedad infecciosa aguda que afecta el espacio interdigital de la pezuña cuando se lesiona. Las lesiones o la interrupción dermal del espacio interdigital pueden ser causadas por la actividad física en superficies rugosas y condiciones prolongadas lodosas y húmedas. Una vez que está presente la interrupción de la piel, Fusobacterium necrophorum es entonces la bacteria causante de producir la infección que inicialmente puede afectar el tejido conectivo y puede extenderse a los tendones y articulaciones si la detección y el tratamiento no se llevan a cabo de manera oportuna. Los animales afectados presentan dolor, cojera e inflamación en el espacio interdigital hasta la articulación del menudillo de la pata afectada en la mayoría de los casos. La dermatitis digital, comúnmente conocida como verruga peluda, es una enfermedad infecciosa crónica

que afecta la cresta interdigital de la piel plantar de la pezuña. La dermatitis digital es más frecuente en superficies robustas con condiciones de alta humedad que causan el debilitamiento de la piel de la cresta interdigital plantar de la pata. Se sabe que varias especies de la familia de bacterias Treponema están asociadas con la dermatitis digital. Los síntomas asociados incluyen inflamación, cojera, dolor y ulceración de la piel digital de la extremidad afectada. En algunos casos, las primeras etapas de la dermatitis digital no presentan cojera. Otra causa común de cojera en ganado de corrales de engorda son los abscesos de dedos y suela. Los abscesos de dedos y suela son mas comúnmente vistos en ganado joven recién llegado. A medida que el ganado se transfiere del rancho, un centro de acopio o un centro de subasta, el riesgo de abscesos de dedos y suela puede aumentar. La principal causa de los abscesos de dedos y suela es el movimiento físico del ganado a través de superficies irregulares, duras y rugosas que pueden producir traumatismo y abrasiones en las pezuñas. Los traumatismos en los dedos y suelas producen moretones y se convierten en hematomas que después se convierten en abscesos. Las superficies abrasivas pueden causar daño a la parte de la pezuña llamada la línea blanca que es lo que conecta la pared de la pezuña con la suela. Cuando la línea blanca es dañada, puede producirse una desconexión entre la pared de la pezuña y la suela, por la cual puede entrar suciedad y causar infección y después resultar en un absceso. La laminitis, también conocida como “founder”, es una condición comúnmente vista en el ganado de corrales de engorda que causa cojera. La laminitis es un trastorno que afecta las pezuñas del ganado. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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Investigaciones han relacionado la laminitis con agresiones metabólicas causados por alimentos altamente concentrados. Los factores que contribuyen a la causa de la laminitis pueden incluir inconsistencia en la entrega de alimento y cambios drásticos en los ingredientes o cantidades de alimento. La acidosis es la principal causa de laminitis. Estas agresiones metabólicas provocan la separación entre la pared de la pezuña y el tejido y hueso subyacente de los dedos. Los signos clínicos que presenta el ganado laminítico incluyen un crecimiento anormal de los dedos y dolor en las pezuñas afectadas. La laminitis afecta las extremidades posteriores, las extremidades anteriores o las cuatro extremidades al mismo tiempo. Actualmente no existen tratamientos inyectables que puedan ayudar a tratar la laminitis. Se pueden implementar estrategias de mitigación, como el recorte de dedos de las pezuñas afectadas, para ayudar a reducir el dolor del animal al caminar. Al evaluar ganado por cojera, es importante implementar un sistema de puntuación de locomoción para medir la gravedad en ese momento en particular o durante un período de tiempo. También es importante estar al tanto de cualquier evento previo que haya implicado un aumento de actividad física, como la transición de otras operaciones, la transportación o el procesamiento. Todos los animales que presenten algún tipo de cojera merecen ser llevados al hospital y evaluados en la prensa para identificar la causa y determinar el tratamiento adecuado o la estrategia de mitigación a implementar. Es importante tener en cuenta que el tiempo de la detección del ganado impacta significativamente nuestras tasas de éxito de tratamiento.

Recursos ________________

Arrazuria R, Knight CG, Lahiri P, Cobo ER, Barkema HW, De Buck J. Treponema spp. Isolated from Bovine Digital Dermatitis Display Different Pathogenicity in a Murine Abscess Model. Microorganisms. 2020;8(10): 1507. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600977/ Biggs R, Whitworth B, Gilliam J, Jones M, Lalman D. Foot Rot in Cattle. Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service AFS-3355. 2016. https://extension.okstate.edu/ fact-sheets/foot-rot-in-cattle.html Dewell G, Shearer JK. Foot Rot in Beef Cattle. Iowa State University Extension PM 1728. 2009. https://store.extension.iastate.edu/Product/Foot-Rotin-Beef-Cattle-PDF Dopfer D. Digital Dermatitis. The dynamics of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle and the manageable state of disease. https://www.zinpro.com/wp-content/ uploads/2020/12/DynamicsofDD_DopferPaper.pdf Greenough PR. Laminitis in Cattle. Merck Veterinary Manual. 2015. https://www.merckvetmanual.com/musculoskeletalsystem/lameness-in-cattle/laminitis-in-cattle Plummer PJ, Krull A. Clinical Perspectives of Digital Dermatitis in Dairy and Beef Cattle. Vet Clin Food Anim. 2017;33: 165-181. https://vetmed.iastate.edu/sites/default/files/Plummer, %20Krull%20-%20Clinical%20Perspectives%20of% 20Digital%20Dermatitis%20in%20Dairy%20and% 20Beef%20Cattle.pdf Tarpoff AJ. Toe abscesses in feedlot cattle. Kansas State University Research and Extension Beef Tips. 2017. https://enewsletters.k-state.edu/beeftips/2017/07/05/ toe-abscesses-in-feedlot-cattle/

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José Valles se graduó con su Maestría en Ciencias Biomédicas de la Universidad Estatal de Kansas en 2013. Nació en el estado de Durango en México. Pasó su infancia tanto en Durango como en el suroeste de Kansas. En México, su familia se ha dedicado a una operación de vacabecerro y al cultivo de frijol, maíz y avena. Después de la secundaria, Jose decidió continuar su educación a nivel universitario y desde entonces ha vivido en los EE. UU. Asistió al Colegio Comunitario del Condado de Seward en Liberal, Kansas y durante ese tiempo trabajo en el Liberal Animal Hospital. José se transfirió a la Universidad Estatal de Kansas a través del programa Developing Scholars y el programa Bridges to the Future. Mientras asistía a la Universidad Estatal de Kansas, José trabajó en el Instituto de Ganado de Carne del 2007 al 2013. Después de graduarse de la Universidad Estatal de Kansas en el 2013, José se unió al equipo de PAC, luego ese mismo año se casó con su novia Areli y se mudaron a Kearney, Nebraska. José disfruta pasar tiempo con su hermosa esposa Areli y sus hijos Matteo y Antonio, que tienen 4 y 5 años. También disfruta montar un buen caballo, las carreras de caballos y cocinar bisteces a la parrilla.

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Jimi y Teagan

ATENCIÓN COMPRADORES DE WALMART Escrito por Dr. Doug Ford, Production Animal Consultation, y Dr. Greg Quakenbush, Geissler Corp.

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Traducido por Jose Valles, Production Animal Consultation

odos hemos experimentado ese torrente de adrenalina cuando la luz amarilla de precaución se prende en una intersección muy transitada. La gran pregunta en la mente de todos es, “¿Puedo ganarle a la luz, o hago rechinar los neumáticos para detenerme incómodamente?” En este día en particular, mi increíble técnico veterinario Jimi y yo elegimos el plan B. Resulta que esta decisión nos puso en primer lugar, estacionados junto a un vagabundo y su compañero pit bull mestizo en la mediana de la calle. Su ropa estaba sucia y andrajosa. Estaba descuidado, sin afeitar con un gran letrero de cartón que decía “cualquier cosa ayudará,” escrito con un marcador negro. Mientras estábamos sentados incómodamente, ansiosos por que la luz se pusiera en verde, podía ver por el rabillo de mi ojo izquierdo sus grandes ojos marrones mirándome lastimosamente. Parecía que esa luz nunca cambiaría. Finalmente, con un suspiro de alivio, la luz del semáforo se puso en verde y seguimos manejando hacia la puesta del sol. No hubo conversación entre Jimi y yo, pero los dos estábamos un poco desconcertados y avergonzados por la forma en que manejamos la situación. Pasaron varias semanas sin pensar más en nuestra experiencia.


Resulta que una vez al mes en viernes por la noche, Jimi y su hijo Teagan de nueve años se alistan para ir de compras al Walmart local. Ella dice que la experiencia es menos saturada y traumática después de las 10:00 p.m. La mayoría de los pasillos estaban desiertos y su carrito estaba lleno hasta el borde. Giró por el pasillo de las bebidas y a la distancia pudo distinguir la silueta de un hombre. A medida que se acercaban, lo adivinaste, nuestro vagabundo se acercaba en dirección de las 12:00. Jimi acerco su carrito a la orilla de la sección de agua embotellada para ceder el paso mientras apartaba estratégicamente su mirada. Tengan en mente que Teagan creció en un establo de subasta, es muy sociable, y no conoce a un extraño. A medida que el hombre precedió a pasar, Teagan miró hacia arriba con una gran sonrisa, extendió su mano y dijo, “¡Hola, mi nombre es Teagan!” El hombre extendió su mano y con una voz ronca de 5 cajetillas de Marlboro al día, dijo, “Hola, Teagan. Soy Frank.” Intercambiaron una pequeña platica y cada uno siguió su camino. Por cosas del destino, se cruzaron en cada pasillo durante los siguientes 30 minutos, y cada vez Teagan exclamaba audazmente, “¡Mira mamá, ahí está Frank!” Aliviada de llegar a la única estación de cajero abierta, Jimi comenzó la tarea de descargar los comestibles y como todas las mamás, se preguntó, “¿En realidad necesitaba comprar todas estas cosas?” ¿De donde salió esta barra de chocolate?” Ella miró hacia arriba solo para encontrar a Frank en la fila detrás de ella. Teagan no pudo resistir otra oportunidad para platicar con su nuevo amigo a medida que Frank se hinco sobre una rodilla para interactuar con Teagan a su nivel. Compartieron algunas cuantas palabras más y siguieron sus caminos. Por incómoda que pareciera la situación, Frank resultó ser un gran tipo. ¡Fin de la historia! Varias semanas después, dos días después de una fuerte tormenta de granizo en Colorado, la alarma de la entrada de nuestra casa sonó alrededor de las 7:00 p.m. Esta fue una de las primeras noches que llegue a casa antes de las 9:00 p.m., y estaba esperando pasaruna noche relajada con mi hermosa esposa Jan y un episodio de Gunsmoke. Mientras miraba hacia el camino de entrada, una vieja camioneta Ford 68 blanca adornada con múltiples letreros doblo en la esquina. ¿Recuerdo haber pensado quién podría ser y qué tan rápido podría darle la despedida? De manera renuente, salí por la puerta principal para ver a un hombre tatuado de aspecto rudo con una larga cola de caballo y un sombrero de expedición de Indiana Jones. Los letreros de su

camioneta decían, “Techador para alquilar, reparaciones de daños por granizo a precios de descuento, garantía incondicional de devolución de dinero.” Molesto, me acerqué completamente preparado para mandarlo a freír espárragos. Me entregó una tarjeta de presentación y dijo con una voz agradable y sincera, “Dios mío, qué hermoso lugar.” ¿Que podría decir? Compartió que trabajaba tiempo completo como vigilante nocturno tratando desesperadamente de despegar su negocio de techos y paneles solares. En ese momento, estaba un poco avergonzado de no haber sido más participativo. Lo que dijo después me cortó rápido. Él dijo, “Gracias señor por ser tan amable.” En el fondo, fui todo menos cordial y amable cuando salí de la casa con mi actitud de Clint Eastwood de “salte de mi jardín”. Dos veces en un mes fui puesto en una situación similar. ¡Lo que yo llamo un momento espiritual con punto de enumeración, donde esa vocecita me habla directamente! Desafortunadamente, ambas veces fallé la prueba. ¿Mas tarde me pregunté, “Que tal si esos dos caballeros eran un ángel o Jesús disfrazado?” Nadie debería tener que agradecerte por ser amable. Con demasiada frecuencia juzgamos a las personas por su apariencia o su posición en la vida sin conocer el resto de la historia. Tal vez si miráramos constantemente a las personas a través de los ojos de un niño, buscando lo bueno y no lo obvio, todos estaríamos un poco mejor. ¡Señor, prometo ser más consciente y hacerlo mejor!

Cavando más profundo La clásica historia bíblica sobre el trato con desconocidos se encuentra en una parábola contada por Jesús en Lucas 10:25-37. Surge de una conversación que Jesús estaba teniendo con un abogado que estaba intentando atraparlo o desafiarlo. La conversación se reduce al punto en que el abogado responde correctamente a una pregunta legal judía planteada por Jesús con la respuesta (abreviada) “... amar a tu vecino como a ti mismo.” Jesús elogia al experto por dar la respuesta correcta y lo alienta a vivir el mandamiento que acaba de citar. Sin embargo, el consejero, todavía buscando superar a Jesús, responde con una pregunta capciosa final... “¿y quien es mi vecino?” La respuesta de Jesús a esta pregunta, “¿Quien es mi vecino?”, conduce a la conocida parábola del buen samaritano. La parábola implica a un hombre que es golpeado por ladrones y esencialmente dejado morir. Varios ciudadanos judíos prominentes se encuentran con el hombre, pero solo un samaritano (que eran fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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despreciados por los judíos) tuvo compasión de la víctima y tomó medidas para cuidarlo y mantenerlo. Al final, la respuesta a la pregunta “¿Quien es mi vecino?” se responde en dos partes: (1) nuestro vecino es quien se cruza en nuestro camino, y (2) desde la perspectiva del hombre herido, su vecino fue el que le tuvo compasión y le mostro misericordia. Es interesante descubrir que brindar bondad a los desconocidos se considera una virtud y se tiene en alta estima en las antiguas culturas del Medio Oriente, judías y Greco-Romanas. La palabra griega utilizada en las escrituras originales del Nuevo Testamento para describir esta acción era filoxenia. Filoxenia (de philos significando amar y xenos significando desconocido) significa literalmente un amante de los desconocidos. Conocemos mejor este término por su traducción al ingles... hospitalidad. La siguiente es una muestra de dos versículos de la Biblia que resaltan el concepto único e importante de cuidar a los desconocidos: Hebreos 13:2 (NTV) No se olviden de brindar hospitalidad a los desconocidos, porque algunos que lo han hecho, ¡han hospedado ángeles sin darse cuenta! Mateo 25:35-36 (NTV) 35 Pues tuve hambre, y me alimentaron. Tuve sed, y me dieron de beber. Fui un desconocido y me invitaron a su hogar. 36 Estuve desnudo, y me dieron ropa. Estuve enfermo, y me cuidaron. Estuve en prisión, y me visitaron. Hebreos 13:2 indica que nuestro trato amable y hospitalario con los desconocidos es una directiva espiritual que es probable que “descuidemos”. ¿Por qué? ¿Y que hay sobre, sin saberlo, haber entretenido ángeles en el proceso? ¿Es posible que Frank haya sido un ángel y quien se acerco cálidamente a él fue Teagan, un niño de nueve años? Tal vez Frank era un ángel, y el propósito de todo el encuentro fue servir de ejemplo para nuestra parábola de PAC y llamar nuestra atención sobre este tema. Mientras que el hospedaje desconocido y cuidado de los ángeles le sucedió a Abraham (Genesis 18:2-8) y a Lot (Genesis 19:1-3) y podría sucederle a usted, esta no debería ser nuestra principal motivación. La mayor lección es que con los desconocidos, literalmente, no conocemos su historia o su situación. Bien puede ser que, en nuestra participación con ellos, somos nosotros los que finalmente seremos bendecidos y beneficiados por el encuentro, sea un ángel o no. Mateo 25:35-36 debe ser el estándar de oro con respecto a la hospitalidad para los desconocidos. Comida, bebida, amabilidad, ropa, visitas a la prisión... 74 parábola

¿todo para un desconocido? No es de extrañar que este tipo de cuidado u hospitalidad eran considerados como una virtud en tiempos pasados.

Reflexiones Finales Proverbios 19:17 (NTV) Si ayudas al pobre, le prestas al Señor, ¡y él te lo pagara! Proverbios 11:25 (NTV) El generoso prosperará, y el que reanima a otros será reanimado. Mateo 5:42 (NTV) Dales a los que te pidan, y no des la espalda a quienes te pidan prestado. 1 Pedro 4:9 (NVI) Practiquen la hospitalidad entre ustedes sin quejarse. Al ofrecer verdadera hospitalidad (filoxenia), somos un conducto de la gracia y la misericordia de Dios hacia los demás, no basado en su merito o valor. Como aquellos que han dedicado sus vidas a ser excelentes “cuidadores” de la ganadería, aquí un pequeño empujón e incluir al “cuidador de otros” como parte de nuestro legado.

Dr. Doug & Dr. Q Doug Ford, Doctor de Medicina Veterinaria (DVM, por sus siglas en ingles) es el dueño de Beaver Creek Veterinary Clinic en Brush, Colorado. Doug obtuvo su titulo de DVM de la Universidad Estatal de Colorado. Brush, Colorado ha sido su casa desde que se graduó de la Universidad Estatal de Colorado. La práctica del Dr. Doug ha sido notablemente diversa durante más de 40 años de medicina veterinaria. Perros, gatos, vaca/becerro, corrales de engorda, dos establos de subasta y la castración de vaquillas para pastoreo. Los últimos 20 años de practica han sido 50% en grandes lecherías y 50% en ganado de carne (castración, vaca/becerro, y corrales de engorda). En 2005, a Doug se le dio el privilegio de convertirse en uno de los seis miembros fundadores de PAC. Doug y su esposa Jan se dedican al rancho en su tiempo “libre”. También están muy involucrados en el proyecto de desarrollo de un humedal en el río South Platte cerca de Snyder, Colorado. El padre de Doug solía decir, “Sube tus calificaciones. ¿Quieres crecer para ser un cavador de zanjas?” Doug no tenía idea de lo divertido que es jugar en la tierra con las topadoras y excavadoras. Se siente realmente bendecido y cree que los mejores días están por llegar. Greg Quakenbush, Doctor de Medicina Veterinaria (DVM, por sus siglas en ingles) se graduó en 1978 de la Universidad Estatal de Colorado y paso 16 años en la práctica de grandes especies en Porterville, California. Durante 19 años, el Dr. Q trabajó para Zoetis (Pfizer) y fue director del equipo de Servicios Técnicos de Ganado de EE. UU. Desde el 2013, el Dr. Q ha trabajado con Geissler Corporation ayudando en el desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías de diagnóstico veterinario. El Dr. Q disfruta el estudio de la Biblia, los deportes de tiro, la pesca con mosca, y ser agricultor de tiempo parcial cultivando cítricos y nueces en el valle central de California.

Este artículo está disponible en Inglés en la página 60.


RISA ENTRE DIENTES DESDE OZ Un conductor de autobús turístico está conduciendo por una carretera un autobús lleno de personas mayores cuando una anciana lo palmea en el hombro. Ella le ofrece un puñado de cacahuates que él acepta y come con gratitud. Después de unos quince minutos, vuelve a tocarle el hombro y le da otro puñado de cacahuates. Ella repite este gesto varias veces más. Cuándo ella está a punto de entregarle otro puñado, él le pregunta “¿Por qué no se comen los cacahuates ustedes mismos?” “No podemos masticarlos porque no tenemos dientes,” le respondió ella. El conductor desconcertado le pregunto, “¿Por qué los compran entonces?” A lo cual la anciana le respondió, “Solamente nos gusta su cobertura de chocolate.” Cortesía de Alan from Arcare & Bell Vet Services

Traducido por Jose Valles, Production Animal Consultation

fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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Ingredients

• 1/2 tsp. kosher salt • 1/4 tsp. chili powder

• 1 lb. stew meat • 1 tbsp. grill seasoning

• 1/4 tsp. ground cumin • 1/2 c. pinto beans cooked

• 1/2 onion diced • 3 cloves garlic minced

Toppings

• 1 can hominy • 1 red bell pepper diced • 6 c. beef broth

• sliced avocado

• 1 14.5 oz. can diced tomatoes • 1/4-1/2 c. green chili • 2 tbsp. tomato paste

• sour cream • grated cheddar cheese • cilantro • 6 corn tortillas, cut into strips

Discovering recipes from agriculture’s finest


Thank you to Arturo and Wrenn Pacheco for sharing your recipe and pictures. Arturo and Wrenn are custom grazers located in the Flint Hills of Kansas. Their grazing operation consists of grazing double stock steers and custom heifer development for their clients. Arturo has his Ph.D. in ruminant nutrition and owns and operates his own nutrition consulting business, Pacheco Cattle Services. The couple also has a ranch-to-table beef business, Pacheco Beef. Wrenn manages all of the day-to-day operations of the eCommerce website as well as the storefront located in Alma, Kansas. Together they have two little cowboys, Leo and Ross. You can find more of their recipes at cookingwiththecowboy.com.

STEW MEAT TORTILLA SOUP Instructions 1.

Season the stew meat with the grill seasoning. Coat the bottom of a heavy pot with olive oil. Sear the seasoned meat in batches until it is browned on all sides. Remove and set aside.

2. Add the onion and bell pepper. Cook, stirring until softened, 2 to 3 minutes. Next, add the tomato paste and garlic. Cook for 1-2 minutes. 3. Add the broth and stir in the hominy, diced tomatoes, green chili, salt, chili powder, and cumin. Bring it to a boil and then add the beans. 4. Return the stew meat to the pot, cover, and simmer for at least 30 minutes. 5. While the soup is simmering, cut your corn tortillas in strips to fry up to top the soup. In a large skillet, heat the oil. When the oil is hot, working in batches, add the tortilla strips and fry until golden and crisp, turning them once or twice. Remove the tortilla strips and drain them on a paper towel-lined plate. Be sure to season the strips with salt while they are still hot. 6. Top your soup with a dollop of sour cream, a slice of avocado, a little grated cheese, a few cilantro leaves, and your tortilla strips.

If you have a recipe that you would like to feature in The Pot Roast section of Protein Producers, email us at protein.producers@pacdvms.com. fall 2021 | pacdvms.com

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NEWEST PAC MEMBERS....

Charlotte Asay Parents: Dr. Matthew and Charlene Asay Wyoming

Cooper Favignano Hall Parents: Drs. Cameron and Jamie Hall Missouri

CHUCKLES FROM DOWN UNDER.... A tour bus driver is driving down a highway with a bus full of seniors when he is tapped on his shoulder by a little old lady. She offers him a handful of peanuts which he gratefully munches up. After about fifteen minutes, she taps him on his shoulder again and gives him another handful of peanuts. She repeats this gesture several more times. When she is about to hand him another batch, he asks “Why don’t you eat the peanuts yourselves?” “We can’t chew them because we have no teeth,” she replied. The puzzled driver asks, “Why do you buy them then?” The old lady replied, “We just love the chocolate around them.” Courtesy of Alan from Arcare & Bell Vet Services

Three women were talking about the declining attendance numbers at their respective churches. One commented: “We are lucky to get 20 for church.” A second woman said: “We are lucky to get 10.” The third lady said: “In my church the attendance is so low that when the minister says, ‘Dearly Beloved’, I blush.” Courtesy Bell Vet Services 78



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