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Gather at the Center A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013


Gather at the Center A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Index of Sheets

Index of Sheets

The Clients and Their Goals

1

Historical Context

2

Existing Conditions

3

Slopes and Drainage

4

Soil Suitability for Building, Farmland, Septic

5

Property Setbacks and Buffers

6

Utilities

7

Arrival Experience

8

Important Views

9

Vegetation

10

Access and Circulation

11

Summary of Analyses

12

Land Use Recommendations

13

Conceptual Alternatives

14

Program Criteria

15

Alternative 1: Old Farm, New Center

16-18

Alternative 2: The Hamlet

19-21

Alternative 3: Gather on the Green

22-24

Plant Palettes

25-27

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Land Use at Woolman Hill

Throughout its history, Woolman Hill has had farms and homes on

this 110 acre property in Deerfield, Massachusetts. The land previously hosted a local peace center for more than thirty years, a homesteading family for forty years, and an alternative school for ten years. For the first time in its recent history, Woolman Hill is being used exclusively as a retreat center, hosting workshops, events, and a worship space with weekly Quaker worship. This shift is leading the board to reconsider Woolman Hill’s relationship with the land.

Project Focus Area

In Deerfield, Massachusetts, Woolman Hill owns 110 acres of land, 92.5 of which are in forest. The remaining 17.5 acres are in open fields, where most of the buildings are and where most activities take place. The project focuses on the 17.5 acres of open field and the buildings and roads within this area.

Goals of the Landscape Master Plan ❶❶ Make it easier to find your way around the Core Area, make the site more useable for staff and guests, and create a “sense of place.” Objectives include: * Siting additional ground-floor guest sleeping quarters, providing for 10-12 people in double rooms. * Siting a bath house, with separate restroom facilities for men and women, with two toilets and one shower each. * Improving access and circulation. –– Guiding people toward their destinations, either with landscape features or signs. –– Creating a readily perceivable sense of place upon first arrival. –– Creating accessible destinations for personal and group reflection. * Suggesting whether underutilized buildings should be moved elsewhere or repurposed where they stand. ❷❷ Assess potential sustainable uses of the open, unforested land, such as * Sustainable agriculture. * Renewable energy production. * Habitat for native wildlife.

(Photo Courtesy Woolman Hill.)

Woolman Hill offers simple facilities for meetings, workshops, retreats, weddings, and camps. These facilities are surrounded by peaceful, open fields and forest.

Creating Opportunities for People to Connect

Woolman Hill, Inc., is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

meaningful group and personal retreats, workshops on spirituality and peace, reunions, and weddings. Its mission states that:

“Woolman Hill is a Quaker retreat center, open to all, on a beautiful New England ridge-top. We create opportunities for people to connect with that of God in themselves, in others, and in the natural world. Woolman Hill provides simple, comfortable facilities for individual retreats and group gatherings. We offer programs which nurture spiritual growth and foster the values and practice of peace-making, simplicity, integrity, social responsibility, and stewardship of the earth.” Woolman Hill serves the Quaker community of Friends including the Religious Society of Friends’ New England Yearly Meeting, but the center is open to all religious and non-religious affiliations. Woolman Hill is governed by a board of directors. Staff include an executive director, a conference center coordinator, and a maintenance manager. The board appointed an ad hoc committee, composed of Newell Pledger-Shinn, Nancy Hazard, and David Ahlfield, to coordinate the production of this landscape master plan. All of these people helped guide this plan.

Woolman Hill Retreat Center values:

• The land as a source of spiritual nourishment. • Solutions that are sustainable (i.e., phased in, durable, low-maintenance, lowcost, and require minimal fossil fuels). • Beauty, simplicity, and plainness in design and material choices. • Stewardship of ecological systems and all life on Earth. • Flexibility for future shifts in land use. • Pleasurable guest experiences.

Desired program elements: • • • • • •

Guest House: 1,800 square feet, universally accessible. Bath House: 600 square feet. Pavilion: for 150 guests. Parking: 50 Permanent spaces, 50 overflow spaces. Conference Center: Improved access for guests and service vehicles. Arrival Experience: Main entry visible, parking visible, clear signs, landscape directs guests. • Homes for staff with appropriate privacy.

Quakers are a diverse religious group spread around the globe. Their beliefs are

nearly as diverse as the people who hold them. The principles that unite the Religious Society of Friends, as Quakers are formally known, are:

Simplicity Peace Integrity Community Equality Stewardship So that the landscape will reflect core Quaker beliefs, these principles are used to guide this master plan.

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The Clients and Their Goals

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Agriculture on the Hill Aligns with Goals The Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center site has a long history of

farming. In 1672 a portion of the property was sold by Mashaliske, a Pocumtuck Indian, to John Pynchon, an English settler. Over the next 263 years, the property changed hands, but remained in farming. Throughout its time as a farm, buildings were placed on the property in ways that served the efficient functioning of the farm, including two farmhouses and a Barn complex. In 1955 the Spruyt family donated Trap Rock Farm, as the property was then known, to the Friends, who created the Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center. Until 2012, farming and gardens were integral components of the site. In 2012, for the first time in recent history, the open fields were not used for farming, and were left as open grasslands. Today, however, Woolman Hill is interested in returning agriculture to the site, while also providing wildlife habitat.

Horse Field Sugar Maples

Store Cider Shed W.C.

Farmhouse

Smithy

Bill’s House Grape Arbor

Kennels

Goat Field

Several buildings still exist from the property’s early farming years. These buildings contribute to the rural agricultural feel of the property. Some historical buildings have been repurposed, new buildings were built in the last 60 years, and a large barn complex burned to the ground in 1971, just after it had been renovated into a dormitory and meeting space. However, these remnant farm buildings and additions have also contributed to a feeling of disorganization on the Retreat Center site.

Wagon Shed

Barn Ox Corral Goat Dairy

Horse Corral Pump

Goat Pen

House

Poultry

Ox Cart & Farmers Crop Field

Sheep Shed Billy & Ram Pen

Sheep

Pasture W.C.

Geertje’s House

N.T.S.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Trap Rock Farm, looking east from Pocumtuck Ridge, 1920s. Because the trees were small, and the forest edge was farther from the hill top than today, people on the farm in 1920 had a more expansive view than today’s visitors. (Photo Courtesy Woolman Hill)

Building layout of Trap Rock Farm in 1939, showing the extensive Barn complex. Existing layout in gray for reference.

Today’s Barn is inconveniently sited on the southern edge of an open area. In contrast with the old barn complex, it is difficult to access.

Implications Farming could improve experience but additional buildings could further confuse guests. • A farmer would need housing and a Barn. If not sited carefully, more buildings could add to disorganization of existing buildings. • The old farm atmosphere that the existing buildings bring to the site would be matched by active agriculture. • Agriculture and farm work present opportunities for guests to reflect on work,nature, and where their food comes from. • Meals at Woolman Hill could be primarily composed of fresh, organic produce and meats raised on site, reducing their carbon footprint, and aligning with Woolman Hill and Quaker values. • Farming at Woolman Hill meets goals of sustainability, stewardship, and nourishment.

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Historical Context

This historical Barn complex (also shown on the plan above) had just been renovated into a dormitory and meeting space when it burned to the ground in 1971. (Photo Courtesy Woolman Hill)

Design Direction

Farming on the Hill would honor past uses of the site and address future concerns, such as food security and climate change. • Include areas for agriculture. • Provide options for a farmer to have housing on site. • Agricultural fields should be available for guests to interact with, but distant from parts of the property that are used for outdoor events, such as weddings.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Existing Conditions Inspire But Confuse From its long—mostly agricultural—history, Woolman Hill has

inherited a scattered array of buildings, resulting in confusing and inefficient relationships among the buildings. Nevertheless, the site offers visitors a unique experience, with expansive views, historic buildings, and a pervading “ruralness.”

1 2

1

A power line easement lies less than 100 ft. north of the property line.

2

Nelson House was the home of Juanita Nelson, who moved out in 2012. Today the house stands empty.

3

Sunrise Cabin can host two guests, usually on personal retreat. Formerly student housing.

4

Keets Road connects Routes 5 and 10 to rural residences and ends at Woolman Hill’s driveway entrance.

5

Brown House is home to two staff couples. Built as a residence, it then served as the headquarters for Traprock Peace Center until 2007.

6

This 30-year-old Fruition Project orchard provides fruit, nuts, and flowers.

7 8 9

3 4 5

6

7

Two gravel parking lots in the north of the Core Area.

9

The Tractor Shed stores tools and equipment. Just to its south, two polemounted photovoltaic panels capture energy.

8 11 12 13

10 The Conference Center, formerly a

home, is the functional locus of the Hill. Here folks meet, eat, bathe, and sleep. Outdoor weddings use the southern lawn and receptions use the northern lawn.

11

The Office is the workplace of the executive director. Formerly a farm store.

14

15

Core Area

16 17

12 The Blacksmith Shed stores tools and

equipment. Formerly a blacksmith shop and cider house.

19

18

21

13 The Red House hosts five guests.

20

22

Formerly staff housing.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

10

14 The Meeting House is the spiritual

locus of the Hill. Meetings for worship, spiritual workshops, and indoor weddings happen here.

15 The foundation of the old Barn, which burned in 1971. A labyrinth is painted on the slab and it is surrounded by staghorn sumac.

vernal pool provides critical 16 Ahabitat to frogs, salamanders, and invertebrates.

17 The Yurt offers seclusion for meditation and good acoustics for singing, but is not suitable for housing.

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Existing Conditions

Woodshop Cabin accommodates 18 The five guests. Formerly student housing.

19 Saltbox Cabin houses four guests. Formerly student housing.

shed houses tools and equipment for 20 Aresidents of the Green House.

21 The Green House is home to a staff family. Has always been used for housing.

22 The Barn houses tools, equipment, and lumber shared between Woolman Hill and the Green House.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Slopes and Wet Areas Enhance Experience, Limit Building Sites Slopes Observations: Slopes from 0 to >25% give Woolman Hill varied topography. Nelson House

• Pocumtuck Ridge runs along western boundary with slopes >15%. • The Core Area is flatter, with 95% of slopes <10%. • The area around the Nelson House and the hill to the east of the Core Area, with the Sunrise and Woodshop Cabins, have slopes >10%.

Sunrise Cabin

s Keet Road

Implications: Slopes <10% provide affordable building sites. • There are buildable slopes within and near the Core Area. This potentially provides suitable slopes on which to build a guest or bath house.

• A southeastern-facing slope is desirable for siting passive solar buildings and solar hot water or photo voltaic panels. • Steeper slopes to the north, east, and west of the Core Area are more difficult to access, making them less desirable sites for new buildings.

Pocumtuck Ridge

• With slopes of <10% and 3 feet of elevation change along the driveway, the Core Area is walkable for most guests with limited mobility.

To perennial stream

Drainage

Observations:

Water flows towards a vernal pool and streams. Core Area

• Water flows from the Core Area west into a vernal pool, and east down the hill to a perennial stream (see Sheet 8). • Water moves across Keets Road west into streams and the vernal pool.

Woodshop Cabin

Implications: Water draining from the site may carry contaminants that harm wildlife or water quality. • Water flowing from impervious surfaces, such as roads, parking lots, and rooftops, may carry contaminants that are harmful to wildlife and their habitats.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

• Water flowing from farm or work structures that store equipment, tools, and supplies may carry contaminants that are harmful to waterways.

Design Direction

Slopes and drainage conditions suitable for buildings may be found in and around the Core Area. The driveway that runs through the Core Area has a slope of <5%, making it walkable for guests with limited mobility.

• New buildings should be sited on slopes < 10% grade and out of wet areas and their buffers. Wetland buffers are shown on Sheet 6. • Slopes > 15% should remain vegetated to reduce erosion. • To protect waterways, hazardous materials used on site should be carefully used, and properly stored and disposed of.

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Slopes and Drainage

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Some Soils Are Suitable for Buildings, Agriculture, and Septic Systems Soil Suitable for Farming and Buildings without Basements Observations

Soils most suitable for farming and buildings without basements run through the center of property.

Nelson House

• The most suitable soils run in a band north to south, through the center of the property, including the Core Area. • The moderate and least suitable soils run in bands north to south to the east and west of the most suitable soils. • Moderately suitable soils are in patches to the east and west of the Nelson House and southwest of the most suitable soils.

Core Area

Implications

The most suitable soils for farming are also most suitable for buildings without basements.

Saltbox Cabin

• The most suitable land for buildings without basements is in the Core Area. This indicates that the existing buildings were built on the most suitable soils. • Soils within the Core Area and most of the open field area are suitable for new buildings. However, the same areas are also suitable for farmland.

The Barn Most suitable soils for farming and buildings without basements Moderately suitable soils for farming and buildings without basements Least suitable soils for farming and buildings without basements

• Because the same soils are suitable for farmland and buildings without basements, buildings— including those in the Core Area— could be integrated with agriculture.

Soil Suitable for Buildings with Basements and Septic Leach Fields Observations

Soils most suitable for buildings with basements and septic leach fields lie on the central southern part of the property. Nelson House

• The most suitable soils form a ‘V’ shape around the Core Area. • The moderately suitable soils run north to south but stop just south of the Barn. An island of moderate soils are southeast of the Core Area. • The least suitable soils run north to south in wide bands east and west of the Core Area.

Core Area

Implications

Septic leach fields and buildings with basements may have to be placed outside of the Core Area. Saltbox Cabin

• Buildings with basements may need to be placed west of the driveway, south of the Barn, or east of the Saltbox Cabin.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

• Septic leach fields may need to be placed outside of the Core Area, which means that new buildings placed in the Core Area will need to have effluent piped a considerable distance. • Since most suitable soils are outside the Core Area, additional infrastructure, such as driveways, may be needed to access development in these new areas.

Least suitable soils for buildings with basements and septic leach fields

Buildings, farmland, and septic leach fields should be carefully placed to minimize environmental impact and cost. • Buildings should be carefully sited to create the least impact on potential farmland and to allow for flexibility in future land use, which is desired by the clients. • Buildings placed near or on farmland create an opportunity to integrate

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Most suitable soils for buildings with basements and septic leach fields Moderately suitable soils for buildings with basements and septic leach fields

Design Direction

Soil Suitability for Building, Farming, Septic

The Barn

agriculture into the retreat experience, but careful placement may be needed to ensure that sufficient farmland is still available. • Septic leach fields may be placed on moderately suitable soils if the proposed leach field site passes a percolation test. • If buildings with basements are sited inside the Core Area, they can only be sited on the west side of the driveway or in the most suitable area southwest of the Core Area.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Property Boundaries Need Definition; Wet Areas Require Delineation Setbacks and Buffers Observations

Wet areas and streams are special features at Woolman Hill but property boundaries are unclear. • Two observed wet areas run north to south as bands across the property. One is on the west side and includes a vernal pool. The second runs along the east side of the property and includes a perennial stream and a former pond. A 100-foot buffer zone from each of these wet areas is shown in accordance with the Massachusetts Wetland Protection Act. • The Meeting House, Tractor Shed, Woodshop Cabin, and Woodshop Outhouse are within the wetland buffer. • The Office, Blacksmith’s Shed, Red Cabin, and Meeting House are within the 35-foot Deerfield property frontage setback.

Main driveway intersection

Former pond

Tractor Shed Blacksmith Shed

Implications

Buffers preserve wet areas, and limit building areas.

Meeting House

• Deerfield zoning bylaws state that new buildings may not be sited within 35 feet of the front property line. This property line runs along the driveway to the Meeting House. Siting a new building along the driveway within the 35-foot setback would require a variance. Currently, the town of Deerfield maintains the road up to the main intersection of the driveway. There is confusion about where exact property boundaries lie for the entire property.

Woodshop Cabin Woodshop Outhouse

• All buildings in wetland buffers were built before the Massachusetts Wetland Protection Act and are therefore grandfathered in, except the Meeting House which was moved to the site in 2001. • Having buildings within the buffer zone displaces flood storage. Some buildings, such as the Tractor Shed, contain tools and equipment that could leak gas or other harmful contaminants into the wet areas.

0

250

Feet 500

35ft. Pro

• The wet areas have not been professionally delineated, which would clarify where exact buffers and wetland boundaries are.

Design Direction

Wetland delineation would clarify the location of wetlands and a legal survey would define property boundaries. • Move the Tractor Shed out of the buffer zone to reduce environmental impact on wet areas. • Woolman Hill should consider hiring a surveyor to clarify property boundaries and work with the Town of Deerfield to negotiate the property line on Keets Road.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

• Obtaining wetland delineations will provide accurate buffer lines and will protect wetlands from being developed.

Wet areas at Woolman Hill are special places. By having these areas professionally delineated, Woolman Hill could more readily meet legal requirements with future development and move toward understanding and preserving the property’s rich biodiversity.

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Property Setbacks and Buffers

• Increase the diversity of plant species that prefer wetlands in these zones and manage these areas to reduce the occurrence of opportunist species.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Utilities Infrastructure Presents Constraints and Opportunities Observations Septic Systems • Near the Conference Center to the east is its aging (1979) septic leach field. The collection tank holds 1,250 gallons, and the system has a 630-gallons-per-day (gpd) capacity (for 30 people). Its condition is described as “questionable” and “sluggish.” • Newer leach fields for the Meeting House (2001) and the Brown House (2009) are in the forest. The Meeting House leach field is 620 feet to its southeast. The same leach field receives effluent from the Brown House 1,100 feet away to the northwest. • The Meeting House septic collection tank is 1,500 gallons with a system capacity of 577 gpd. The Brown House septic system capacity is 469.5 gpd. • The septic system for the Red House is to its southwest. The tank is approximately 1,000 gallons, but its system capacity is unknown. • The client is unsure of the location or nature of the septic system for the Green House. It is not shown on this plan. • The cabins in the forest have outhouses and no running water. There is an outhouse immediately to the west of the Blacksmith Shop.

Locations are approximate. DigSafe should be called before digging.

Electricity • All of the buildings are tied to the overhead power lines, which run northsouth, to the west of the Core Area. There are two photovoltaic panels to the south of the Tractor Shed which produces 5kwh on a sunny day. • The southern part of the power line passes into the forest over the vernal pool. • The high-voltage power lines that abut the northern property boundary (not shown) and the smaller power lines shown on the plan emit electromagnetic frequency (EMF) fields. • The cabins in the forest and the Barn have electricity, but locations of their service wires are unknown. • The Nelson House is wired for electricity, but has never been hooked into the power grid.

Electromagnetic Frequency from High Voltage Power lines

Underground water tank for fire emergency Underground Water Tank

Water • One well serves the property, located 15 feet south of the Conference Center. It is about 100-feet deep. • The Conference Center, Meeting House, and Brown, Green, and Red Houses have running water from underground pipes. • For fire emergencies, there is an underground water tank north of the Conference Center.

Solar panels

Propane and Heating Oil • The Conference Center, Brown House, and Green House have underground propane and heating oil tanks. Their locations are unknown.

Implications

Well

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Septic Systems • The new Bath House and Guest House will both need new septic systems. • Adding more people to the Conference Center septic system (designed for 30 people) would require upgrading the system, which may already be in need of repair. • Piping septic effluent from the Meeting House and Brown House out to the leach field in the forest was expensive and complicated. The client would appreciate keeping septic installations as simple as possible. • An engineer would be needed to determine if it is possible to send effluent Legend from the Bath House and/or Guest House into an existing system. • The Red House leach field and the two outhouses by the Blacksmith Shed and the Woodshop Cabin are within the wetland buffer. • Information should be obtained about the Green House septic system. Electricity • New buildings can be tied into the existing power grid. • The power company requires that trees beneath power lines be less than 30 feet tall at maturity. Trees 30-50 feet tall at maturity should be at least 30 feet away from power lines. Trees more than 50 feet tall at maturity should be at least 50 feet away from power lines. • The southern part of the power line that passes into the forested vernal pool area is vulnerable to falling trees. • Staff do not wish to live within a 1/4-mile of the high voltage power lines. • The unknown locations of underground power lines into the cabins could be problematic if excavation work is done. • The Nelson House currently has no electricity. While some people may find this rustic and charming, others consider it an inconvenient barrier to long-term habitation. • Digging near underground power lines can be dangerous. Locate exact locations of these lines before any future excavating or digging. Water • Determine if the well has sufficient capacity to support more guests. • Cabins with no running water are not attractive to some people. The client hopes to temper this inconvenience by building a new Bath House for use by cabin guests. Propane and Heating Oil • Since their locations are unknown, digging near underground gas and oil pipes can be dangerous. Call the gas and oil companies to find locations.

Client’s Desired Buffer from high voltage power line (1/4 mile)

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Red House Leach Field

Overhead Electricity

Leach Fields for Meeting & Brown Houses

Underground Electric Underground Septic Underground Water Propane & Heating Oil EMF Radiation

Green House Leach Field Unknown

Solar Hot Water Panel Solar Panel Outhouse EMF 1/4 mile Buffer

Design Direction • • • • • • • •

Utilities

Conference Center Leach Field

Proposed buildings cannot be sited above underground utilities. However, siting buildings near existing utilities would help reduce costs because the new buildings could be tied into the existing utility lines. As is, the Conference Center’s septic system cannot handle effluent from more people. Pipe the new buildings’ septic effluent into Meeting House or Brown House systems if possible. Because they are in wetland buffers, discontinue the use of the Red House septic system and the outhouses by the Blacksmith Shed and the Woodshop Cabin. Keep trees near overhead power lines short. Move staff housing into the southern part of the open area if they are concerned about EMF radiation from the high voltage power lines. Electrify the Nelson House. Determine locations of all underground utilities before beginning any excavation.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Arrival Experience Confuses Guests 1

2

Gateway

Left: Until this point on the drive to Woolman Hill, Keets Road has been a tunnel in a forest. At the edge of the power line easement, just before entering the property, the road passes through a gateway of trees into a bright and open place.

Above: When you first enter the property, the gateway opens onto a meadow on the east side of Keets Road. No sign indicates that you have entered the Woolman Hill property, but you feel as though you’ve crossed a threshold.

3 1 2

The western forest edge opens and meadows line both sides of Keets Road. Treetops are seen above the hill

3

4

to the east. This expansive view is a favorite for staff.

Brown House

Conference Center

4 5

Small, Unreadable Sign

6

Here the landscape becomes confusing as a gravel driveway curves off to the right. A small sign with the word “Parking” in faded, peeling paint

is easily overlooked. Brown House, the Tractor Shed, and the Conference Center are barely visible. To this point no sign has indicated arrival at

5

Woolman Hill. Unsure of where they are, most drivers keep going straight.

Conference Center

5 Large sign Here a large sign and the Conference Center are now visible. The pavement

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

6 6

ends ahead. A sliver of mountain is visible to the southeast.

Many Buildings... No Visible Front Door

View of Conference Center Blocked by Shrubs

Confusing, Outdated Sign. “Keep Straight for Conference Center? OK.” The sign indicates that you’ve arrived at Woolman Hill. It indicates that the Conference Center is straight ahead and the Traprock Peace Center is to the left.

The driver can see that parking is available to the left and right, but the sign suggests to keep driving to get to the Conference Center. No sign indicates that this parking

Observations and Implications First impression: confusion.

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block half the view of the Conference Center.

Design Direction

• Guests continue driving straight when they should be turning to park. They have to turn around either on the grass or in the private driveway of the Green House. • Once they do park, guests do not know where to go after they exit their vehicles. The main entrance to the Conference Center is on the south side of the building, not visible until 180 feet beyond the arrival intersection in the last photo above.

Arrival Experience

is for the Conference Center. Five buildings are visible, but there are no front doors in sight to show guests where to walk after they have parked, and evergreen shrubs

A clear arrival experience should direct guests effortlessly. • Place vegetation, walls, and lighting along paths to guide visitors. • Create a new main entrance on the north or west side of the Conference Center and ensure that this entrance is clearly visible at the arrival intersection before guests turn to park. • Clarify that Brown and Green House driveways are private by narrowing the driveway, changing the surface material, screening the view of the houses, and/ or placing bollards to emphasize the public-to-private threshold. • Update and place signs to direct and inform visitors.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Expansive Views Keep the Guests Coming Back 1

East Brown House

South

West

Conference Center

The best view on the property is at the top of the meadow hill near the Brown House, but there is no path leading to it. When it was first built and the young forest trees were much shorter, the Brown House had an even more spectacular view.

The sive hill curleading

2

view to the east is most impreswhen standing on top of the small near the Brown House, which is rently an open field with no trails to it.

Brown House

1 Being able to see the attractive meadow north of the Conference Center is important to guests and staff on the Conference Center lawn and patio. The Brown House has relatively little visual privacy, though it sits 580 feet from the Conference Center.

2

3

3 4 In addition to the view in the second photo, the field east of the Conference Center provides a backdrop for wedding receptions. During the winter months, you can glimpse a sliver of mountains through the leafless trees. This mountain view is almost entirely obscured when the trees leaf out. In the early years of Woolman Hill, the trees were much shorter and the mountains were on full display.

Vantage Points Most Attractive Area Moderately Attractive Area Least Attractive Area

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

4

Mountains

Conference Center

Universally Accessible Parking Spaces

Staff and guests often spend time taking in this view, sitting on the porch of the Meeting House, gazing east to the open fields and forest edge. With leaves on the trees, neither the Conference Center nor the Green House is clearly visible. Cars parked in the universally accessible parking spaces (shown here) can disrupt this bucolic view. This photo also shows how limited

the view of the distant mountains is when leaves are on the trees. The view of the Green House is obscured by two mature Norway spruce trees, giving the home some privacy. However, the home is 250 feet away from the Meeting House. Noise from the house can be heard in the Core Area, and vice versa.

Design Direction

Implications

Good views are important to maintain.

• Part of Woolman Hill’s mission is to “create opportunities for people to connect with God” and to “nurture spiritual growth.” When there are beautiful views, people are more likely to slow down. In these slow moments, people’s thoughts can turn inward. The views help fulfill the client’s mission. • Both the long-range views and the close-up views are attractive. • Carefully sited new buildings and land use can enhance these views.

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Important Views

Green House

Carefully site buildings to enhance views. • • • • •

Frame views with plants and buildings. Create or enhance outdoor viewing destinations, such as porches and patios. Design for both close-up and long-range views. Protect or improve views from windows. Clear-cutting of trees along the forest edge may help improve the view of the mountains to the east.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Diverse Vegetation Offers Food and Wildlife Habitat Observations Wet Areas • A continuous, narrow strip of wet-loving plants growing in wet soils separates the Core Area from the forest of the Pocumtuck Ridge. • A second, elongated area in the southeast field is wet and contains wet-loving plants.

o ts R Kee

Areas with Opportunist Plants • Patches and long bands of opportunist (often called “invasive”) plants are found along the eastern, northern, and western forest edges. • There are other patches of opportunist plants in the wet areas to the west of the Core Area and in the forest to the northeast of the Yurt.

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Orchards and Vegetable Gardens • Patches of edible plants dot the property. Two areas (the Fruition Project Orchard and the strip of nut trees along Keets Road) are larger and more mature than the others. • These edible plants nourish wildlife as well as humans. Open Fields / Meadows • The largest area of vegetation within the forest clearing is 17.5 acres of open fields and meadows that surround the various uses of the Core Area, and which sit within this otherwise-forested 110acre property. Zooming out, this open patch sits in a 5,700-acre forest along the Pocumtuck Ridge.

Fruition Project

Implications Wet Areas • The wet areas could be wetlands, which are legally protected by the state and federal laws. • People have to cross the sensitive and muddy area to access the Yurt and the Pocumtuck Ridge. • Development cannot expand westward without encountering wet soils and requiring permitting. • The wet areas support plant and animal diversity, but limit agricultural productivity.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Areas With Opportunist Plants • The opportunist plants are taking advantage of resources, such as sunlight at the abrupt forestfield transition and nutrients at the site of the Barn fire. • Opportunist plants are competing with native wetland plants, reducing biodiversity in the wet areas, fields, and forest edge. Orchards and Vegetable Gardens • These edible plants require considerable maintenance in order to produce appreciable amounts of food for humans.

Yurt

Areas with Opportunist Plants Orchards and Vegetable Gardens Open Fields / Meadows Mowed Lawn

Forest

Mowed Lawn • Lawns offer little habitat value, but are aesthetically pleasing for some and practical surfaces for outdoor events.

10/27

Core Area

Wet Areas

Open Fields / Meadows • The fields at Woolman Hill are a critical resource. Regionally, open fields and meadows are an increasingly rare habitat. Many native species, such as Eastern meadowlarks , bobolinks, and various other ground-nesting birds, rely upon these meadow habitats. • With 17.5 acres in open field, there is room for both agriculture and meadow habitat, serving the needs of humans and wildlife.

Vegetation

Conference Center

Pocumtuck Ridge

Mowed Lawn • Approximately 1.6 acres of mowed grass lawn surround the Core Area and the Brown and Green Houses.

Design Direction • Devote wet areas to wildlife habitat, rather than attempting to use them for agriculture or development, for which they are not well suited. • Allowing livestock in wet areas in order to target opportunist plants may reduce plant vigor and reduce occurrence of opportunist species. • Use integrated principles of permaculture and sustainable agriculture to increase food production while decreasing the need for maintenance over time. • Meadows (mowed annually or biannually) are attractive and regionally rare habitat and should be retained. • The current acreage of mowed lawn seems appropriate for the uses to which it is put. To reduce maintenance, in some areas ‘low-mow’ and native species could replace the existing grass.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Circulation is Confusing and Maintenance Access is Inconvenient Vehicle Access Parking Exit

d Roa

6 ing (4 Park flow Over

ts Kee

es) spac

• Most vehicles use Keets Road. Some use the two private driveways to Brown and Green Houses. • There is also off-road vehicle travel to the Tractor Shed and Conference Center kitchen. • Most first-time guests enter the main parking lot in its southeastern corner and exit to the north. • Because circulation is unclear (see Sheet 8), guests often mistakenly drive to staff homes and need to turn around in private driveways or on grass (not shown here). • Sometimes staff need to drive off-site from Brown and Green Houses during wedding events, which can be disruptive. • Most of the parking spaces are located to the north of the Core Area, approximately 160 feet from the Conference Center main entrance. • Universally accessible parking is available between the Conference Center and the Meeting House, but at 18 feet wide it is not quite wide enough for two accessible spaces. • 22 permanent parking spaces are available, with 46 overflow spaces in the grass along Keets Road. • Out of respect for their aging clientele, the Retreat Center has requested universally accessible parking spaces within 100 feet of the Conference Center, the Meeting House, and the new Guest House.

Priva sharetde Drive to Br by gue sts inoSwn House unrise C ab i n

Observations

Main Parking (16 spaces)

Parking (6 spaces)

Parking Entrance

Implications

Tractor Shed Office Blacksmith Shed Red House

Conference Center Main Entrance

Handica Parking p

• Tractor access to the Tractor Shed and the Barn (not shown) and catering vehicle access to the Conference Center kitchen are inconvenient and require driving on grass. • Confused guests mistakenly drive to the Green and Brown Houses and violate the privacy of these homes. • There are currently 22 permanent parking spaces available for small and modestly sized events, but large events such as weddings require overflow parking. This will be insufficient as the Retreat Center Parking expands its capacity and they have requested an Social Gathering Areas additional 20 parking spaces. Vehicular Movement

Pedestrian Access

Meeting House

Staff Pedestrian Movement

• Much foot traffic occurs along Keets Road in the Core Area. Pedestrians and vehicles share this main path. • One maintenance shed, the Tractor Shed, lies on the periphery of the Core Area, while another, the Blacksmith Shop, is in the middle of the Core Area. The Barn is in the far south of the site. The three are separated by a quartermile walk. • Guests staying in Sunrise Cabin walk on the private driveway and through the Brown House’s front yard to access the cabin.

Implications

Priv to G ate Dri reen ve Hou se

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Observations

Guest Pedestrian Movement

11/27

100

Feet

bs Ferry Rd)

Design Direction

• Vehicular and pedestrian use may conflict along Keets Road in times of heightened activity. • Maintenance work may be disruptive to events going on in the Core Area. • Staff can spend considerable time walking from shed to shed, seeking the right tools. • Sunrise Cabin guests walking to their cabin inadvertently violate the privacy of Brown House residents whose front yard they must cross.

Access and Circulation

0 25 50 Path to Saltbo x Cabin (Cob

• • • • •

Use vegetation, walls, views, lights, and signs to clarify public and private zones. Narrow Keets Road in the Core Area to indicate that it is a pedestrian zone. Cluster maintenance sheds together and locate them near the work to be done. Site a new Barn near farming activities with good vehicular access. Encourage staff to park along the northern section of Keets Road on big event days so that they can drive away without disrupting events. Staff should have bicycles and/or electric golf carts to move more quickly. • Site universally accessible parking spaces within 100 feet of major buildings. • Expand parking areas and provide vehicle access to the Conference Center using reinforced turf. • Route a new path for Sunrise Cabin guests that avoids the Brown House yard.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Layering Analyses Reveals Relationships, Constraints, and Opportunities Observations • 6.5 buildable acres run north and south through and around the Core Area. These areas are buildable based on soil suitability (for both buildings without basements and farmland), slope, buffers and setbacks, and existing leach fields. • The Core Area is buildable except for the property setback off of Keets Road. • There are three pockets within the fields that receive more than six hours of sun year-round. However, only two of them are on buildable areas because one is on a steep slope with a septic leach field. • Areas around staff housing needing privacy lie to the far north and south within the open area. • Underground water and septic lines run north to south within the buildable area. • There is a cluster of good vantage points in the Core Area. • There is a good vantage point, full sun area, and buildable area just south of the Brown House. • Soils suitable for buildings with basements and septic leach fields are only found southeast of the open area, in the forest. In particular, there is an area along Cobbs Ferry Road that may be suitable for a building with a basement, although it is in the forest.

Implications • The Guest House will be 1,800 square feet, the Bath House will be 600 square feet. There is sufficient buildable area for both of these buildings within the 1.2 buildable acres in the Core Area. • The areas that receive more than six hours of sunlight year-round and are buildable are the best locations for siting a passive solar building. • Currently residents of both private areas have to drive through the Core Area in order to leave the property. There are also arriving guests who drive up to the two staff homes when confused about where to go. • With water and septic lines running underground through the buildable area, new service may be possible by tapping into existing utility lines.

Buildable Area Overhead Electric Wires Underground Electric Wires

Core Area

Stream Underground Water Pipes Observed Wet Area Underground Water Tank for Fire Emergency Septic Tank & Leach Chambers Outhouse

Co

bb

sF

err

yR oa

d

Underground Septic Pipe

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

• Areas with good views could be good locations to create places for personal and group contemplation, or for outdoor events. • None of the Core Area or any part of the open area is suitable for buildings with basements. Soils for such structures are found only in forested areas.

Soil Suitable for Buildings with Basements and Septic Leach Fields Areas that receive more than 6 hours of sun year-round Private Staff Areas Important Vantage Points

Design Direction • To provide easy access for guests, new buildings could be sited either in the sunny area just north of the Core Area (an area with nearby underground water and septic lines) or in the Core Area. • The driveway may need to be re-routed to allow staff to enter and leave the property without driving through the Core Area. • For the Guest House to be built with a basement within the Core Area, a percolation test and other site-specific soil tests will be needed in order to understand if the area is suitable to do so.

12/27

Summary of Analyses

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


A Retreat Center on a Farm Recommendations for Best Use of Land

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Wildlife, livestock, crops, and people share the open area.

Power Line Easement

• Sustainable Vegetable Farm: Devote the sunny northern field’s prime and historical farming soils to growing food crops using sustainable methods that actively and naturally feed the soil, control undesirable opportunistic plants, and provide income (money or barter) either for a farmer or for Woolman Hill, or both. • Reforestation: Steward the regrowth of forest in three areas. At the northernmost forest edge, plant evergreen trees. As they grow, the evergreens will thicken the thin strip of trees buffering the property from the utility easement. The shade should help slow the invasion of troublesome plants such as poison ivy and Asian bittersweet. The vegetation also slows winter winds from the northwest. Reforest the wet areas along the western forest edge. A new forest canopy should shade out the opportunist plants in this heavily disturbed area. Plant native wetland trees and shrubs. • Coppice/Pollard Forestry: Focus initial timber harvests on the eastern forest edge. This will yield firewood and lumber and will open up the eastern view of the mountains. Clear-cut large patches to allow full sun to reach the stumps, and many of the deciduous trees, such as maples, oaks, and birches, will resprout. The mature root systems will continue to stabilize the steep slopes while resprouting. Cutting the trees at six feet off the ground (pollarding) will allow goats to browse understory opportunistic plants while preventing them from eating new tree shoots. • Edible Forest Gardens: Enrich the plantings of the existing Fruition Project and nut trees along the driveway to include understory species that will feed people and wildlife, and also nourish each other, suppress weeds, reduce the need for mowing, and attract beneficial insects. New edible forest gardens south of the Conference Center and west of the Brown House will provide more fruits and vegetables for guests and staff to enjoy, increase the biodiversity of the fields, and provide nooks for group and personal contemplation. Placing the edible forest garden close to the Core Area makes it accessible to guests and it can complement the Reforest existing view without blocking it. the wet • Wet Meadows: Most of the wet fields should remain and be areas managed as undisturbed wet meadows. This should reduce disturbance to habitat and erosion, and allow plants to filter any contaminants from the water running through it. In years that are dry enough, graze the meadows with sheep or cattle. If broadleaf opportunistic plants intrude, allow goats to browse. Unless it is a dry period during mowing season, avoid bringing a tractor into this habitat. Restricting such access to after August 1 should help protect ground-nesting birds. Even if this wet area is delineated as a legal wetland mowing may continue because it has been mowed continuously in the past. • Upland Meadows as Rotational Pasture: Keeping native grasses and forbs (wildflowers) in the open fields will allow Sustainable Vegetable Farming them to continue to support wildlife. For management these areas should be Reforest: Native Trees & Shrubs rotationally grazed with sheep or cattle, then browsed with goats. Chickens Coppice/Pollard Forestry should follow the ungulates to spread manure and eat fly larvae. By rotating Edible Forest Gardens pasture animals through the meadows, Wet Meadows the animals receive important fodder, while reducing Woolman Hill’s mowing Upland Meadows and Pasture demand and thus, its carbon footprint. All farm animals should be moved regularly and can be contained with mobile electric fencing.

Recommendations to Manage Opportunistic Plants Use the natural skills of animals rather than harmful herbicides.

• Do not expect complete eradication—only reduction. • Consider what resource the opportunists are taking advantage of, and then provide competition using a desirable species. For instance, where opportunists are taking advantage of full sun, plant and care for native trees to gradually shade out the opportunists. • Rotate goats around the forest edges to keep opportunistic plants under control. Or plant the forest edge with desirable small trees and shrubs to make the forest transition more gradually into the meadows. This fills the niche that the opportunists are currently filling. • Japanese knotweed, which spreads primarily by its aggressive root system, may be controlled by goats browsing the foliage, then pigs uprooting the rhizomes, followed by a farmer removing and destroying the rhizomes.

13/27

Land Use Recommendations

Plant with evergreen trees

Existing Home Garden

Fruition Project

Reforest the wet areas

• Multiflora rose may be controlled with heavy browsing by goats or repeated mowing three to six times per growing season. However, this aggressive plant offers important nutrition and habitat value for wildlife and therefore should be replaced with plants, such as wild raspberries, which offer similar ecosystem services. • Garlic mustard seeds remain viable in the soil for ten years. Prescribed fire may help if carefully timed in the spring soon after garlic mustard emerges, but before desirable plants emerge. Repeated mowing or goat browsing may help to prevent flowering. Seeds keep ripening even after the stem is severed from the root, so the whole stem must be removed or destroyed. • Because pigs uproot opportunistic plants and disturb the soil, they may stir up dormant seeds and perpetuate the problem. This is especially true for aggressive plants that spread by seeds, such as multiflora rose.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Three Conceptual Alternatives for the Core Area * The three alternatives presented on the following sheets explore options to address the goals identified for Woolman Hill, while also integrating the information and design directives developed through site analysis. Thus, these alternatives attempt to meet the goals stated by the clients and integrate the ecological needs of the site (see Sheet 16 for Programmatic Criteria). For each alternative an overall land use plan (see Sheet 13) is presented for Woolman Hill’s large, central open area. The three alternatives, on the following pages, provide more detailed designs for the Core Area.

Goals of the Landscape Master Plan ❶❶ Make it easier to find your way around the Core Area, make the area more useable for staff and guests, and create a “sense of place.” Objectives include: * Siting additional ground-floor guest sleeping quarters.

Alternative 1: Old Farm, New Center

Siting a bath house. * Improving access and circulation. –– Guiding people toward their destinations, either with landscape features or signs. –– Creating a readily perceivable sense of place upon first arrival. –– Creating accessible destinations for personal and group reflection. –– Reminding people of the property’s historical, geographical, ecological, geological, and spiritual context. * Suggesting whether underutilized buildings should be moved elsewhere or repurposed where they stand. ❷❷ Assess potential sustainable uses of the open, unforested land, such as * Sustainable agriculture. * Renewable energy production. * Habitat for native wildlife.

Alternative 2: The Hamlet

Alternative 3: Gather on the Green

Bath P P

Parking

Conference Center

Parking

Parking

The Quiet Green

The Active Green

Guest House

The Quiet Green

Meeting House The Worship Zone

P

Explores returning the current Conference Center to housing, its original purpose, and sites a new Conference Center just north of the existing farmhouse.

Conference Center

Bath

House

P

P

The Active Green

Meeting House

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Conference Center House

P

Pavilion

Meeting House

The Quiet Green

The Worship Zone P

P

This alternative uses small village design as inspiration to keep the Meeting House, Conference Center, Pavilion, and Guest House close to each other.

Gather on the Green draws from college campus common areas to create a common green framed by the Guest House, Conference Center, and Pavilion.

All three design alternatives share:

For each of the three alternatives, the following sheets include:

• New entrances into the Conference Center building are visible upon arrival and improve legibility. • Parking capacity is doubled to accommodate larger events. • Service vehicle access is provided to the Conference Center. • Wet fields are managed as wet meadows. • Farming and other food production are integral to the overall operation. • Because the Tractor Shed is difficult to access and it currently houses hazardous materials within the wetland buffer it is removed and replaced with a new Barn elsewhere. • Photovoltaic and solar hot water arrays help reduce dependence on oil. • Most buildings remain in place and unaltered because of their historic value.

A. Overall design of the 17.5 acre open area, including buildings, roads, land management, and suggestions for placing signs and lighting.

14/27

Conceptual Alternatives

Pavilion

Office

Guest House

House

The Worship Zone

The Active Green

Office

Office Shed

Guest House The Green

B. Core Area Design that gives a more detailed layout for this important area for each alternative.

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu

C. On the Ground: Illustrates how each alternative addresses the arrival experience and changes the landscape around the Conference Center.


Program Features and Criteria for Evaluating Alternatives

Component

Criteria

Component

Guest House

Criteria

New Barn

Features 1800 square feet

Features 1400 square feet

sleeps 10 to 12 people

houses livestock and stores tools

up to 2 people per bedroom

historically appropriate architecture

1 story

Criteria vehicular access

full bathroom(s) with flush toilets

farmer lives within 300 feet of the barn

Criteria universally accessible

farming activities are adjacent or nearby

solar panels on roof with good solar gain

Driveway

drive-up unloading area

Features 10 to 18 feet wide

tie into existing utility lines

Criteria as possible, use existing driveway

Bath House

efficient & direct driving access to homes and core area Features 600 square feet

private driveways clear to guests

separate facilities for men and women

public drives clear to guests

four toilets, maybe composting

slope 2 to 5%, never exceeds 15% grade

two showers with graywater system

rarely used drives are permeable

Criteria does not block important views

Parking

solar hot water panels with good solar gain

Criteria standard parking spaces measuring 9 x 18 feet

outside core area

min. 45 spaces permanent

privacy from core area

min. 50 overflow spaces with permeable surface

at least 100 feet from private cabins

out of sight of the Conference Center

Staff Homes

clearly visible on arrival

Features 2000-3000 square feet

5 to 7 universally accessible parking spots (12 x 18 feet)

Criteria houses 2 to 6 people, including children

shed for luggage carts adjacent to lot, along path to guest housing

auditory privacy from core area

Drive-up Unloading Area

visual privacy from core area

Features approximately 10 x 25 feet

passive solar gain

Criteria within 30 feet of the Guest House and Conference Center

do not block important views

convenient turn-around to return vehicles to parking lot

minimum 1/4 mile from high voltage power lines

The Eastward Views

driveway does not pass through outdoor event areas

Criteria distant mountains visible over the forest edge

Pavilion

enhance views from Conference Center and Meeting House Features 2400 square feet

Meadows

open timber frame with roof

Features attractive with varying colors and textures

capacity for 150 people dancing and dining

provides forage and habitat for livestock and wildlife

Criteria good solar gain for rooftop photovoltaic solar panels frames an important view

Criteria wet fields remain undisturbed Vegetable Farming

universally accessible

Features provides vegetables for events and sale at local markets

access by catering vehicle

financially supports at least one farmer

does not block important views

food supply services support Woolman Hill program

has a beautiful view

Criteria naturally enriches soil

edges and frames the outdoor event space

integrates animals into crop production rotation

Conference Center

located on prime agricultural soils in full sun

Features private and double bedrooms available

Opportunist Plant Control

universally accessible bedrooms & bath

Criteria minimize use of herbicides, especially in wet areas

dining room also serves for big meetings

mimimize human labor

commercial kitchen

Edible Forest Gardens

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

full baths with flush toilets

Features provides food for events and sale at local markets

small meeting areas

Criteria attracts beneficial animals

Criteria access by catering vehicle

naturally enriches soil

if newly constructed, does not block important views

beautiful colors and textures

has a beautiful view

desired plants shade out weeds

Secondary Conference Center

nooks within garden invite lingerers

Features 2000 square feet separate spaces for a second, independent group

located on prime or historical agricultural soil Forest Edge

Criteria same as Conference Center above

Features plant heights transition gradually from meadow to forest native plants shade out opportunist plants Criteria maintains or improves view of distant mountains

15/27

Program Criteria

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Alternative 1: Old Farm, New Center: Buildings, Roads, and Land Use This alternative design offers Woolman Hill the ability to host two simultaneous events. It does this by building a new Conference Center and by converting the Brown House into a new, smaller retreat center. The current Conference Center undergoes a deep energy retrofit and an addition on the northwest corner provides a clear entry and additional sleeping quarters. The new Keets Conference Center and Spruyt Lodge (the existing Conference Center) overlook a wildflower meadow that also serves as pasture for the active farm. Staff housing has moved south of the Core Area, near the Green House, giving staff privacy from events and each other, while also increasing the sense of a staff community through shared lawn and gardens. Guests can enjoy interacting with an active organic farm, watch the sunrise over the wildflower meadow from the Keets Conference Center porch, take a shower knowing that the water will be recycled and used to water an edible forest garden, and reflect on nature’s beauty while admiring the restored and protected wet meadows.

1

The Nelson House is converted into guest housing for an additional 5 guests.

2

A new entrance sign informs guests that they have arrived at Woolman Hill and that parking is ahead.

3

4

5

6

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

7

2

Barn

A second, smaller sign before the main intersection indicates that the main parking is to the right.

9

The new Keets Conference Center overlooks the wildflower meadow to the east. Here guests meet and dine together. Five new street lamps illuminate the main pathways and areas of activity at night, including the main pathway from the main parking area to the Lodge entrance, a light at the new Retreat Center, and a light guiding guests from the Loop to the main entrance.

5

Bath House

7

8

Office Blacksmith Shop Red House

Keets Conference Center

9

10

11

Meeting House

Brown House is renovated into a small retreat center with kitchen, bathroom, meeting, and sleeping facilities. This allows for a second, small retreat to occur while a large gathering is happening in the Core Area.

A zero-emission Bath House is surrounded by the edible forest garden. It provides graywater to water the plants, and humanure for fertilizer.

Sunrise Cabin

6

A new parking area for Brown House and Nelson House also provides access for a new Barn which serves the surrounding cultivated fields. Paths take guests from the parking lot to the Nelson and Brown Houses.

The original driveway that connected Brown House to Keets Road is removed and converted into a trail lined with edible plants that connects the Bath House, Sunrise Cabin, and Brown House to the Core Area.

Brown House

4

3

A new driveway connects Keets Road to Brown House, passing through cultivated fields. The gravel drive also provides an access road to cultivated fields.

8

10

Nelson House

1

12

Spruyt Lodge

Core Area Saltbox Cabin

13 11

12 13

14

Spruyt Lodge has been renovated to be energy efficient, has a new main entry on the northwest corner of the building, and overlooks the wildflower meadow.

Green House

N.T.S.

14

The Loop allows guests to conveniently drop off their belongings at the door and smoothly turn around to park. Additional parking spaces by the Green House accommodate an increased need for staff parking since all staff housing is in the south. A trail guides staff from the parking area to the new and existing housing accommodations. The forest edge shifts south to accommodate two small, connected homes south of the Green House. These passive solar homes accommodate the resident farmer and other Woolman Hill staff.

New Building Renovated Building Proposed Trail Proposed Sign Proposed Light Sustainable Vegetable Farming Reforest: Native Trees & Shrubs Coppice/Pollard Forestry Edible Forest Gardens Wet Meadows Upland Meadows and Pasture

16/27

Design Alternative 1: Buildings, Roads, Land Use

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Alternative 1: Old Farm, New Center: Core Area Design For a number of reasons, the current Conference

Bath House

Center is not well suited for the many functions it is required to host. Returned in this alternative to the function for which it was originally designed, it now serves only as guest housing. A new Conference Center includes a guest dining hall and meeting space.

A

2 1

2

A new Bath House on the edge of the orchard has composting toilets and solar hot water, and sends graywater to nourish the fruit trees.

Rain Gardens

4

The existing parking lot remains, but its runoff flows into rain gardens to the west, which filter pollutants.

3

A small universally accessible parking area and an enclosed dumpster are accessible to service vehicles.

4

The main entrance into the Spruyt Lodge and the main parking are clearly visible because the main entrance has been moved to the northwest side of the building with vegetation framing the door.

5

The new passive solar Keets Conference Center building has accessible dining, cooking, porches, and meeting spaces.

6 7

A wide tree-lined sidewalk guides guests from the main parking lot to the main entrance into Spruyt Lodge.

8

Spruyt Lodge houses 35-40 guests. A deepenergy retrofit, addition, and renovation improve the lodge’s structure and comfort.

9

The Office, Blacksmith Shed, and Red House remain. This complex frames a small quiet green.

10

Guests may be dropped off in a loop by the Lodge. Guests may drop off luggage at an unloading area by the Lodge and then turn around in a convenient loop.

11

Universally accessible parking adjacent to the Meeting House’s accessible ramp is convenient for worshipers with limited mobility.

3

6

Spruyt Lodge

7

8

Office

9

Blacksmith Shop

10

Red House

A’ Meeting House

11

See cross-section A-A’ on Sheet 18.

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

0

Inspiration for a retreat center from Hardwick Post and Beam, Hardwick, Massachusetts.

17/27

Keets Conference Center

5

25

50

100

Feet

Positive Aspects

Negative Aspects

• Returns the old Conference Center building to its originally designed function: housing. • The new Conference Center serves the functions for which the old one was not suited. • Requires no disturbance of wetland buffers or zoning variance. • Does not block the view from the Meeting House porch. • The graywater and composting toilet systems in the new Bath House offer a sustainable option for guests, while conventional restrooms are also available. • The Bath House sits on the northern edge of the Core Area. Guests staying in the private cabins outside of the Core Area can access it without intruding upon events in the Core, but it is also available to people in the Core.

• Significant expense to build a new building and complete a major renovation of another. • A Pavilion is not included in this alternative; renting a large tent regularly would continue. • Developing the driving loop would require removing an old apple tree. • Adding people to the Lodge would require repairing and enlarging its septic system.

Design Alternative 1: Core Area

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Alternative 1: Old Farm, New Center: On the Ground View of Conference Center Looking East Drivers can see Spruyt Lodge entry as they approach, giving a clear indication of where to go after they park.

Keets Conference Center

Main Entrance Spruyt Lodge

N.T.S. A’

A Evergreen trees protect buildings from winter winds and obstruct view of Keets Conference Center parking from driveway.

Driveway to Keets Conference Center parking

Arrival Experience

Universally accessible parking with sidewalks

Passive solar Keets Conference Center is equipped with photovoltaic and solar hot water panels.

Open lawn for outdoor events, with view to east.

Keets Conference Center is partially hidden from view by evergreen trees.

Spruyt Lodge has been retrofitted to be energy efficient. An addition creates a new main entry that can be seen from the driveway as guests approach.

Open lawn.

A driving loop allows guests to pull up to the Lodge to load and unload.

Main entry Stone walls frame walkway to Conference Center entry

Spruyt Lodge

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

At the arrival intersection, guests can clearly see the Conference Center before they turn right into the parking area. This, along with signs along Keets Road (see sheet 15), stone walls along the main walkway, and a new entry on the west side of the Conference Center lead guests towards their destination.

18/27

Design Alternative 1: On the Ground

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu

ing

To guest park


Alternative 2: The Hamlet: Buildings, Roads, and Land Use 1 The Hamlet alternative mimics a small village center with the Conference Center, Guest House, Pavilion, and Meeting House all in close proximity to each other. There is a farm center on the northern edge of the property where the farmer can live close to the land. The Barn is close by, making it convenient for the farmer to access livestock and equipment. There is expanded parking and an addition to the Conference Center, making the entrance convenient for guests who are staying in the new Guest House. The new Bath House sits away from the Core Area so that guests on private retreats can remain removed from larger gatherings. By focusing most activities along the driveway, guests have short distances to travel between buildings. With the southern edible forest garden so close to the Pavilion, guests may find themselves wandering through the garden snacking on a diversity of fruits and stopping to reflect.

1

A new entrance sign informs guests that they have arrived and that parking is ahead.

2

A small driveway addition with overflow parking for 10 guest vehicles provides access to the Nelson House and the Barn which serves the nearby cultivated fields.

3

4

5

6

2

Nelson House

Barn

3 Sunrise Cabin Brown House

5

4

The Nelson House is converted into a home for the Woolman Hill farmer, which is near the farm fields for easy access.

6 7

The main parking area is expanded to 50 spaces (increasing the overall guest parking by 30 spaces using reinforced turf) to accommodate larger events.

Guest House

Conference Center

Office

9

A trail going through the edible forest garden takes guests to the Sunrise Cabin.

8 Meeting House

Pavilion Co

A second, smaller sign before the main intersection indicates that main parking is to the right.

bb

sF

Core Area

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

7

yR oa

d

Saltbox Cabin

Lights illuminate the driveway, accessible parking, and main pathways between the Guest House and Conference Center.

8

The Guest House is across the driveway from the Conference Center, making it easy for guests to walk between buildings year-round.

9

The Conference Center is expanded on the northwest to create a new main entrance closer to the main parking and across the drive from the Guest House door. The surrounding area overlooks the wildflower meadow, a colorful backdrop for outdoor events.

10

10

err

The Pavilion looks over the wildflower meadow to the east, with the edible forest garden further in the south. Guests will feel surrounded by colorful vegetation and wildlife when looking out during events.

11 Bath House

Green House

N.T.S. New Building Renovated Building

11

The Bath House sits south of Cobbs Ferry Road near Saltbox Cabin and is outside of the Core Area so guests staying in the private cabins can use these facilities without interacting with any larger events. Cobbs Ferry Road cuts through the edible forest garden for a tasty walk on the way to a bath.

Proposed Trail Proposed Sign Proposed Light Sustainable Vegetable Farming Reforest: Native Trees & Shrubs Coppice/Pollard Forestry Edible Forest Gardens Wet Meadows Upland Meadows and Pasture

19/27

Design Alternative 2: Buildings, Roads, Land Use

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Alternative 2: The Hamlet: Core Area Design The Core Area has the look and feel of a small hamlet, with Keets Road as its village street. Guests can readily read the landscape and understand where to go. An allée of large trees draws guests into the Core Area from the main parking. Four main buildings form the corners of a square, the center of which is a common area.

1

A doubled parking lot contains 44 spaces. If the new half of the lot is reinforced turf while the existing half remains gravel, runoff should not increase.

2

Large trees shade the parking lot from afternoon sun.

3

A dumpster enclosure and a farm shed are attractive outbuildings. Even so, they are screened from view upon arrival. A service road of reinforced turf provides access to the Conference Center kitchen.

4

At the arrival intersection, the main entrance into the Conference Center is visible through limbed-up trees. The main parking is also clearly visible. Once they have parked their cars, an allée of trees directs guests towards the main entry.

5 6

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

B

2 5

6 7 Guest House

8

The new main entrance into the Conference Center passes through a skylit hallway and into the dining hall. The addition has a green roof.

Accessible parking adjacent to the Conference Center doorway is also convenient for people in the Guest House who have limited mobility. Entrances to all main buildings are wheelchair accessible.

11

A playground to the north of the Meeting House offers creative ways to explore while remaining in view of chaperones nearby.

12

A quiet contemplative garden wraps around the back of the Meeting House. Accessible parking is adjacent to the wheelchair ramp but tucked out of the view from the porch.

Inspiration for a symmetrical village street from Colonial Williamsburg in Virginia (Google Earth).

20/27

Conference Center

10

11

12

The Guest House across the road from the Conference Center replaces the Blacksmith Shed and Red House and guests can walk back and forth easily. A variety of porches offer diverse outdoor spaces.

10

8

9

A grove of nut trees offers a welcome retreat, sunny in the middle, with shade and dappled light around the edges. A path out of this glade allows guests to wander into the nearby expansive meadows. An allée of trees along Keets Road opens up in time for guests to turn onto a path leading to the Conference Center’s main entry.

3

4

A shed for luggage carts makes it easier for guests to carry their luggage and reduces the need for guests to drive into the Core Area.

7

9

1

Meeting House

13 B’

Pavilion

See cross-section B-B’ on Sheet 21.

13

0

25

50

100

Feet

A timber-frame Pavilion, with solar panels on the roof, offers outdoor event space.

Positive Aspects

Negative Aspects

• The symmetrical building layout creates defined outdoor spaces. • The Pavilion, which is directly east of the Meeting House porch, changes the view from the Meeting House porch, but does not block the best part of the view to the southeast. • The nut grove screens the view of the parking lot from people in the Core Area. • The Bath House is outside the Core Area (shown on sheet 21). Located within the forest on Cobbs Ferry Road, guests in the private cabins can access it without intruding upon main events in the Core.

• In order to site the Guest House, the Blacksmith Shop and Red House must be removed. • A playground can be a significant liability. • The dumpster is 150-200 feet from the Core buildings.

Design Alternative 2: Core Area

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Alternative 2: The Hamlet: On the Ground Eastward View of Conference Center

As they approach, motorists can see the Conference Center through trees.

Conference Center

Pavilion

Light on Wooden post N.T.S.

B Tall shrubs

Driveway

Bur oaks line the driveway, directing guests to the Conference Center and framing the view to the east.

The Conference Center with a green roof addition on northwest wing and a new main entry on the west side of building.

Accessible parking is close to the Conference Center, Guest House, and Meeting House.

Open lawn for events.

Post and beam Pavilion overlooks wildflower meadow and distant mountains.

The Arrival Experience Main entry

Shed stores carts for carrying luggage

Conference Center

t To gues

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

In this alternative, trees frame the view of the Conference Center. An allée of trees creates a more formal walking entry for guests as they walk to the main entrance to the Conference Center on the west side of the building. A shed on the edge of the parking lot stores carts for carrying luggage from vehicles to sleeping quarters.

21/27

Design Alternative 2: On the Ground

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu

parking

B’


Alternative 3: Gather on the Green: Buildings, Roads, and Land Use 1

With the Guest House, Pavilion, and Conference Center located

close together, guests can enjoy retreats and other events in a central location. The buildings frame the view to the east of a wildflower meadow and create a cozy grass gathering space between the buildings. The Bath House is centrally located between the four retreat cabins, but away from the main event area, making the Bath House equally accessible to cabin guests. Moving the driveway north of the Guest House allows staff living in the Brown House to enter and exit without disturbing events.

1

A new entrance sign informs guests that they have arrived at Woolman Hill and that parking is ahead.

2

An reinforced turf road provides access to the Nelson House, which is now rented.

3

The Barn is located on the east side of the Brown House driveway for tractor and vehicle access and is close to the farm.

4 5

6 7

8

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

9

10

11

Nelson House

2

Sunrise Cabin Brown House

3 Barn

4

A trail going through the edible forest garden takes guests to the Sunrise Cabin.

6

5

The main parking area is expanded to 50 spaces, increasing the overall guest parking by 30 spaces to accommodate larger events. The wet meadow to the west infiltrates water coming from the driveway and parking lot.

7 8 Bath House Red House

A second, smaller sign before the main intersection indicates that main parking is to the right.

9

Office

Pavilion

10 Conference Center Meeting House

The new guest house accommodates up to 12 guests with the Conference Center and Pavilion close by. Covered porches overlook the wildflower meadow and edible forest garden to the north.

11

Core Area

A path directs guests to the main entrance of the Conference Center and can be driven on by caterers making deliveries. Eight lights shine on main pathways and universally accessible parking areas by the Conference Center and Meeting House.

Saltbox Cabin

Green House

The Pavilion looks over the wildflower meadow to the east. Guests will feel surrounded by colorful vegetation and wildlife when looking out during events. For larger events, an additional tent can be set up in the lawn and festivities can spill into that area.

N.T.S. New Building Renovated Building

The Blacksmith Shop is converted and expanded into a Bath House that is near the Core Area and centrally located for guests staying in the private cabins.

Proposed Trail Proposed Sign Proposed Light

A trail starts across the driveway from the Meeting House and winds through an edible forest garden to a small gathering area for group or personal reflection. From here there are views to the east of the wildflower meadow.

Sustainable Vegetable Farming Reforest: Native Trees & Shrubs Coppice/Pollard Forestry Edible Forest Gardens Wet Meadows Upland Meadows and Pasture

22/27

Design Alternative 3: Buildings, Roads, Land Use

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Alternative 3: Gather on the Green: Core Area Design Gather on the Green arranges the Conference Center, Pavilion, and new Guest House around a common green, similar to many college campuses green spaces. The spaces between these buildings creates a comfortable outdoor area for group discussions, and an overflow area for events in the Pavilion. A path sweeps from the parking lot to the main entry on the Conference Center, now on the north side. Edible trees and shrubs surround the Meeting House, creating a quiet outdoor worship space.

1 2

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

3

C

1 2 3

Doubled gravel parking lot has 44 spaces.

Guest House

At a new driveway intersection, the Conference Center’s main entrance is clearly visible ahead, while the Guest House is screened with evergreens. Accessible parking and an enclosed dumpster lie to the east behind the Guest House, making them easy to get to from the Guest House.

4 5

A new Guest House has a porch offering a sheltered eastward view, and a southern arbor for summer shade and winter light.

4

At the main arrival intersection, the main entrance into the Conference Center and the main parking are clearly visible.

5

A wide path sweeps from the main parking lot to the main entrance of the Conference Center. It is a pedestrian path that is drivable for service vehicle access.

6

Perched on the edge of the sloping meadow, a Pavilion offers sheltered outdoor event space.

7

Guests can get a clear view as they arrive of the new main entry on the north side of the Conference Center.

8

The Bath House replaces the Blacksmith Shed on a small quiet green near the Office and Red House.

9

A path encircles the Bath House green. At the center, a saucer magnolia offers a shady place to read on the grass.

10

Southwest of the Conference Center, accessible parking is available near the south entrance to the building.

11

An outdoor ring is a gathering space for worship just outside the Meeting House. Accessible parking adjacent to the Meeting House’s accessible ramp is convenient for worshipers with limited mobility.

7

Conference Center

8 Bath House

9 10

11

C’

Meeting House

12

See cross-section C-C’ on Sheet 24.

0

12 A path across the driveway from the Meeting

25

50

100

Feet

House through an edible forest garden leads to a smaller outdoor gathering space among fruiting shrubs.

Positive Aspects

Negative Aspects

• Of the three alternatives, a main entrance into the north side of the Conference Center is the most visible option from the driveway. • Requires no zoning variance or disturbance of wetland buffers. • Does not site new buildings in the view from the Meeting House porch. • The Bath House is located in the Core Area. • The concentrated development focuses site disturbance into a smaller area.

• With its main entrance on the north side, the Conference Center entry may become icy. But the gabled roofline should reduce the accumulation of ice. • The Conference Center’s accessible parking may require removing an iconic apple tree.

Inspiration for a green framed by buildings from The Heart at Earlham College (Google Earth).

23/27

Pavilion

6

Design Alternative 3: Core Area

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Alternative 3: Gather on the Green: On the Ground View of Conference Center Looking East Vehicles can see Conference Center under the tree canopy. Vehicles can see Conference Center under tree over story Light as they approach.

Guest House

Conference Center

Pavilion

on Wooden post N.T.S.

Evergreen trees protect buildings from winter wind and obstruct view of Guest House parking from driveway.

Driveway to Guest House parking

Accessible parking with sidewalks

Open lawn for Passive solar Guest House is equipped with photovoltaic and event overflow with view to east. solar hot water panels.

The Arrival Experience Guest House is partially hidden and blends into landscape with surrounding vegetation

Pavilion is centrally located between the Guest House and Conference Center and frames the view to the east.

Open lawn for events.

Sidewalk and landing are reinforced for catering vehicles to pull up to north entrance.

Conference Center has new main entrance on north wing that can be seen from driveway.

Main entry A path guides guests to the Conference Center from the parking lot

Conference Center

Pavilion

st To gue

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

With the main entry to the Conference Center on the north side, guests can see where they will go once they park. While the new Guest House can be seen from this intersection, vegetation blends the building into the landscape and helps to direct attention to the Conference Center. A pathway from the parking lot guides guests to the Conference Center once they have parked.

24/27

Accessible parking is close to Conference Center.

Design Alternative 3: On the Ground

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu

g

parkin


Plants for Edible Forest Gardens and Wildflower Meadows Edible Forest Garden Common

Scientific

Functions and Features

Trees Asian Pear

Pyrus bretschneideris

edible fruit, disease resistant

Downy Serviceberry

Amelanchier arborea

edible fruit, white flowers

Pawpaw

Asimina triloba Shenandoah

large edible fruit, for part shade

Goumi

Eleagnus multiflora

edible berries, nitrogen fixer

Jostaberry

Ribes x hybrid

edible berries like gooseberries, thornless

New Jersey Tea

Ceanothus americanus

nitrogen fixer, insectary (June), leaves for tea

Blue False Indigo

Baptisia australis

nitrogen fixer

Anise Hyssop

Agastache foeniculum

insectary, edible leaves

Turkish Rocket

Bunias orientalis

edible leaves like arugula

Good King Henry

Chenopodium bonus-henricus

edible leaves and shoots like spinach

Green and Gold

Chrysogonum viginianum

insectary (April-June)

Daylily

Hemerocallis fulva

edible buds, flowers, tubers

Russian Comfrey

Symphytum x uplandicum

dynamic accumulator (K,P,Ca,Mg, Fe, Si)

Yarrow

Achillea millifolium

insectary (June-Sept), dynamic accumulator (K, P)

Asparagus

Asperagus officinalis

edible shoots

Strawberry

Fragaria x ananassa

edible fruit

Jerusalem Artichoke

Helianthus tuberosus

insectary (April-June), edible tuber

Rhubarb

Rheum x cultorum

edible leaf stalks

German Chamomile

Chamaemelum nobile

dynamic accumulator (K, P, Ca)

Virginia Sweetspire

Itea virginiana

sweet smelling flowers

Bearberry

Arctostaphyloss spp.

edible berries

Lingonberry

Vaccinium vitis-idaea

edible berries, medicinal, groundcover

Lemon Balm

Melissa officinalis

leaf tea

Mountain Mint

Pycnanthemum spp

leaf tea

Archangel

Angelica archangelica

edible stalk -sweet

Columbine

Aquilegia canadensis

edible flower

Butterfly Weed

Asclepias tuberosa

insectary

New England Aster

Aster novae-angliae

flower

Tickseed

Coreopsis verticillata

flower

Foxglove

Digitalis x mertonensis

flower

Echinacea

Echinacea purpurea

medinical root

Daffodil

Narcissus

bulb, insectary

Tulip

Tulipa

bulb, insectary

Shrubs

Perennials

Sustainable Vegetable Farming Reforest: Native trees & shrubs Coppice/Pollard Forestry Edible Forest Gardens Wet Meadows Upland Meadows and Pasture

Key to Abbreviations Sun S Sun Sh Shade P Part sun, part shade

Wet D Dry M Moist W Wet

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Wildflowers to Blend into Meadows Common

Scientific

Sun Wet Color

Common

Cosmos

Cosmos parviflorus

-

-

wht,pnk,prp

New England Aster Symphyotrichum novae-

P

M

prp, pnk

Hairy Wildrye

Elymus villosus

-

-

hairy

Showy Goldenrod

Solidago speciosa

P

M

yellow

Blanket Flower

Gaillardia aristata

S

D

red,yellow

Virginia Wild Rye

Elymus virginicus

P

M

yellow

yellow

Common Milkweed Asclepias syriaca

S

M

purple

Lance-leaved Coreopsis Coreopsis lanceolata S-Sh D

Scientific

Sun Wet Color

Sticky Catchfly

Silene caroliniana

P

D-M pink

Large Blazing Star Liatris scariosa

S

M

purple

Pale Coneflower

Echinacea pallida

S

D-M pink, purple

Marsh Blazing Star Liatris spicata

S

M

purple

Prairie Blazing Star

Liatris pycnostachya S

D-M purple, pink

Orange Coneflower Rudbeckia fulgida

S

M

yellow

Bigleaf Lupine

Lupinus polyphyllus

S-P D-M blu,prp,pnk

Brown Eyed Susan Rudbeckia triloba

S-P M

yellow

Bottlebrush Grass

Elymus hystrix

S-P D-M green

Canada Wildrye

Elymus canadensis

S-P M

yel,grn

Butterfly Milkweed

Asclepias tuberosa

S-P D-M orange

Plains Coreopsis

Coreopsis tinctoria

S-P M

yel, red

Wild Bergamot

Monarda fistulosa

S-P D-M prp,pnk,wht

Sweet Coneflower Rudbeckia subtomentosa

P

Black Eyed Susan

Rudbeckia hirta

S-Sh D-M yellow

Pink Milkweed

S-P M-W pnk,prp

Indiangrass

Sorghastrum nutans

S-Sh D-M yellow

Cutleaf Coneflower Rudbeckia lacinata

25/27

Plant Palettes

Asclepias incarnata

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu

M-W yellow

S-Sh M-W yellow


Plants for Upland and Wet Meadows Upland Meadow Plants Common Scientific

Size Sun Wet Extra Color

Fall color Wildlife

Fowl Bluegrass

Poa palustris

-

Partridge Pea

P

-

yellow

tan

butterflies, pollinators

Chamaecrista fasciculata 2-4’

S

-

yellow

-

butterflies, bumble bees, native bees

Fly-away Bentgrass

Agrostis scabra

S

D

purple

tan

birds, butterflies: branded skippers, satyrs

Little Bluestem

Schizachyrium scoparium 18-24” S-P D

blue stem

red,wht

birds, butterflies, native bees, grazers, small mammals

Autumn Bentgrass

Agrostis perennans

1-3’

P

D-M green

tan

-

Purpletop

Tridens Flavus

2.5-7’ P

D-M purple

brown

butterflies: common wood nymph, grazers

Jerusalem Artichoke Helianthus tuberosus

6-10’ S

D-M yel,red,pnk

Indiangrass

3-8’

Sorghastrum nutans

3.5’

S-Sh D-M bluegreen

deer, birds, gold finches, native bees org,prp

butterflies, native bees

Pennsylvania Sedge Carex pensylvanica

6-12” S-Sh D-M green

gold

-

Switchgrass

Panicum virgatum

3-6’

S-P D-M prp,red

yellow

ground-feeding songbirds, grazers, butterflies

White Penstemon

Penstemon digitalis

2-5’

S-P D-W white

-

hummingbirds, bumblebees

Eastern Gamagrass

Tripsacum dactyloides

2-3’

P

M

red-brown

-

deer, birds, butterflies: bunchgrass kipper

Virginia Wildrye

Elymus virginicus

2-4’

P

M

yellow bloom

tan

birds, small mammals, butterflies

Bitter Panicgrass

Panicum amarum

3-6’

S

M

green

-

birds, butterflies

Purple Lovegrass

Eragrostis spectabilis

8-18” S

M

purple bloom

purple

deer, birds, butterflies: bunchgrass skipper

Big Bluestem

Andropogon gerardii

4-8’

S-P M

blue stem

red,tan

songbirds, sparrows, sedge wren, western meadowlarks, butterflies: common wood nymph

Canadian Wildrye

Elymus canadensis

2-4’

S-P M

green

-

birds, small mammals, butterflies: zabulon skipper

Wet Meadows Common

Scientific

Size Sun Wet Extra Color

Switchgrass

Panicum virgatum

3-6’ S-P D-M prp,red stigmas yellow

ground-feeding songbirds, grazers, butterflies

Big Bluestem

Andropogon gerardii

4-8’ S-P M

blue stem

red-tan

Fringed Bromegrass

Bromus ciliatus

1-5’ S-Sh M

green

yellow

songbirds, sparrows, sedge wren, western meadowlarks, butterflies -

D-M yellow bloom

tan

birds, deer, butterflies, native bees

W

pale blue

gold

-

green

-

birds

yellow bloom

tan

birds, small mammals, butterflies

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Broomsedge Bluestem Andropogon virginicus

2-5’ P

Fall color Wildlife

Eastern Bluestar

Amsonia tabernaemontana 1-3’ P

Fox Sedge

Carex vulpinoidea

1-3’ S

Virginia Wildrye

Elymus virginicus

2-4’ P

M

Blunt Broom Sedge

Carex scoparia

1-3’ P

M, W green

-

-

Shallow Sedge

Carex lurida

1-3’ P

W

green

-

birds

Common Sneezeweed Helenium autumnale

2-5’ S

M

yellow flower

-

butterflies, native bees

Soft Rush

Juncus effusus

-

M-W green

-

birds, muskrats

Blue Vervain

Verbena hastata

2-5’ S-Sh M-W blue flower

-

bumble bees, butterflies: common buckeye

Nodding Bur Marigold Bidens cernua

1-3’ P

M

yellow flower

-

ducks

Longhair Sedge

Carex comosa

1-3’ P

-

green

-

-

Hop Sedge

Carex lupulina

-

-

green

-

-

Boneset

Eupatorium perfoliatum

3-6’ S-Sh M-W white flower

-

birds, butterflies, native bees

Giant Sunflower

Helianthus giganteus

3-10’ S

M-W yellow flower

-

birds, native bees

Allegheny

Mimulus ringens

-

W

-

butterflies: common buckeye, Baltimore checkerspots

Swamp Milkweed

Asclepias incarnata

2-4’ S-P M-W pink flower

-

hummingbirds, butterflies: monarch, queen

Purplestem Aster

Symphyotrichum puniceum -

M-W purple flower

-

native bees

Path Rush

Juncus tenuis

1-2’ P

-

green

-

-

Cottongrass Bulrush

Scirpus cyperinus

3-6’ S

W

tufted green

-

Rufous Bulrush

Scirpus pendulus

-

W

reddish bloom

-

waterfowl, muskrats, geese, groundnesting birds, butterflies: dion skipper -

Golden Alexanders

Zizia aurea

1-3’ S-P M

yellow flower

-

26/27

Plant Palettes

S

P

S S

S

purple flower

butterflies: black swallowtail; native bees; beneficial predatory insects

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu


Plants for Forest Edges Trees for Forest Common

Scientific

Size

Sun Wet Flwr color

Fall color

Fruit color Wildlife

Silky Dogwood

Cornus amomum

6-10’

P-Sh M-W wht

red

white

birds

Flowering Dogwood

Cornus florida

15-30’

P-Sh D-M wht

red

red

birds, mammals, deer

Serviceberry

Amelanchier canadensis

6-20’

S-Sh M-W white

red-orange

purple

birds, native bees

Sassafras

Sassafras albidium

30-60’ S-Sh M

yellow

red

-

Paw Paw

Asimina triloba

15-20’ S-Sh W

deep purple yellow

birds, butterflies: spicebush swallowtail, promethea silkmoth, pale swallowtail mammals, birds, butterflies: zebra swallowtail, pawpaw sphinx

Gray/White Birch

Betula populifolia

20-40’ S

Paper Birch

Betula papyrifera

50-75’

Honey, Black Locust

Robinia pseudoacacia

30-50’ S

Gray, Speckled Alder

Alnus incana

20-35’ S-Sh M-W prp-red

minor yellow -

songbirds, waterbirds, mammals

Hazel Alder

Alnus serrulata

15-20’ S-Sh M-W prp, grn

yellow, red

-

birds

Redbud

Cercis canadensis

15-30’

P-Sh M

-

butterflies: Henry’s elfin

Winterberry Holly

Ilex verticillata

6-10’

S-Sh D-W white

red

birds, insects, butterflies: Henry’s elfin

W-D green

S-Sh M

yellow

D-M wht

green

yellow

-

songbirds, ground birds, mammals, butterflies: eastern tiger swallowtail

yellow

-

songbirds, ground birds, mammals, butterflies: luna moth, eastern tiger swallowtail

yellow

-

honeybees, hummingbirds, birds, native bees

pink, purple yellow yellow

Trees for Forest Edge

Not for construction. This drawing is part of a student project and is not based on a legal survey

Common

Size

Sun Wet Flwr color

Fall color Other color

Wildlife

Dwarf Bush Honeysuckle Diervilla lonicera

2-3’

S-Sh D

yel to red -

bumble bees

Highbush Blueberry

Vaccineum corymbosum

6-12’ S-P D-M white

red

blue berry

most birds, most mammals, butterflies: brown elfin

Winterberry

Ilex verticillata

6-10’ S-Sh D-M white

gold,red

red berry

birds, butterflies

Lowbush Blueberry

Vaccineum angustifolium

6”-2’ S-P D-W white

red

blue berry

most birds, most mammals, butterflies: brown elfin

Red Chokeberry

Aronia arbutifolia

6-10’ S-P D-W white

red

red berry

bluebirds, birds

Black Huckleberry

Gaylussacia baccata

1-2’

red

blu-blk berry birds, butterflies, mammals

Sweet Shrub

Calycanthus floridus

6-12’ P

M

deep red

yellow

-

American Spikenard

Aralia racemosa

3-6’

S

M

white

-

red-prp berry -

Dwarf Fothergilla

Fothergilla gardenii

2-3’

S-P M

white

org,red

-

-

False Indigo

Amorpha fruticosa

6-20’ S-P M

-

bees, insects, butterflies: California & southern dogfaces, silver-spotted skipper, gray hairstreak, hoary edge skipper

Buttonbush

Cephalanthus occidentalis

3-6’

P-Sh M-W wht

reddish fruit

butterflies, water birds

Groundnut*

Apios americana

Vine

Sh

-

bees, butterflies

Elderberry

Sambucus racemosa

6-12’ S-Sh M-W white

-

dark berry

hummingbirds, butterflies, native bees

Red-osier Dogwood

Cornus sericea

6-12’ S-Sh M-W white

red,prp

white berry

mammals, deer, water birds, butterflies: spring azure

Witchhazel

Hamamelis virginiana

20-30’ S-Sh M-W yellow

yellow

-

birds, deer, beaver, small mammals

Sheep Laurel

Kalmia angustifolia

3’x6’

P

purple, red

green

-

birds, butterflies

Summersweet Clethra

Clethra alnifolia

4-8’

S-P W

white

yellow

-

bees, butterflies, hummingbirds, birds, mammals

Black Chokeberry

Aronia melanocarpa

1.5-6’ S-P

white

red

black berry

bluebirds, birds

27/27

Scientific

Plant Palettes

yellow

S-Sh D-W wht,pnk

purple, blue yellow

M-W purple, blue -

W

-

-

A Landscape Master Plan for

Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center Deerfield, Massachusetts

Anna K. M. Best • Beth Schermerhorn The Conway School • Spring 2013 • www.csld.edu

Landscape Master Plan for Woolman Hill Quaker Retreat Center  
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